Sample records for l-lake sluice gate

  1. The limnology of L Lake: Results of the L-Lake monitoring program, 1986--1989

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Bowers, J.A.

    1991-12-15T23:59:59.000Z

    L Lake was constructed in 1985 on the upper regions of Steel Creek, SRS to mitigate the heated effluents from L Reactor. In addition to the NPDES permit specifications (Outfall L-007) for the L-Reactor outfall, DOE-SR executed an agreement with the South Carolina Department of Health and Environmental Control (SCDHEC), that thermal effluents from L-Reactor will not substantially alter ecosystem components in the approximate lower half of L Lake. This region should be inhabited by Balanced (Indigenous) Biological Communities (BBCs) in accordance with Section 316(a) of the Pollution Control (Clean Water) Act (Public Law 92-500). In response to this requirement the Environmental Sciences Section/Ecology Group initiated a comprehensive biomonitoring program which documented the development of BBCs in L Lake from January 1986 through December 1989. This report summarizes the principal results of the program with regards to BBC compliance issues and community succession in L Lake. The results are divided into six sections: water quality, macronutrients, and phytoplankton, aquatic macrophytes, zooplankton, benthic macroinvertebrates, fish, and community succession. One of the prime goals of the program was to detect potential reactor impacts on L Lake.

  2. Sharav Sluices Ltd | Open Energy Information

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

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  3. Steel Creek fish, L-Lake/Steel Creek Biological Monitoring Program, January 1986--December 1991

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Sayers, R.E. Jr.; Mealing, H.G. III [Normandeau Associates, Inc., New Ellenton, SC (United States)

    1992-04-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The Savannah River Site (SRS) encompasses 300 sq mi of the Atlantic Coastal plain in west-central South Carolina. The Savannah River forms the western boundary of the site. Five major tributaries of the Savannah River -- Upper Three Runs Creek, Four Mile Creek, Pen Branch, Steel Creek, and Lower Three Runs Creek -- drain the site. All but Upper Three Runs Creek receive, or in the past received, thermal effluents from nuclear production reactors. In 1985, L Lake, a 400-hectare cooling reservoir, was built on the upper reaches of Steel Creek to receive effluent from the restart of L-Reactor, and protect the lower reaches from thermal impacts. The lake has an average width of approximately 600 m and extends along the Steel Creek valley approximately 7000 m from the dam to the headwaters. Water level is maintained at a normal pool elevation of 58 m above mean sea level by overflow into a vertical intake tower that has multilevel discharge gates. The intake tower is connected to a horizontal conduit that passes through the dam and releases water into Steel Creek. The Steel Creek Biological Monitoring Program was designed to meet environmental regulatory requirements associated with the restart of L-Reactor and complements the Biological Monitoring Program for L Lake. This extensive program was implemented to address portions of Section 316(a) of the Clean Water Act. The Department of Energy (DOE) must demonstrate that the operation of L-Reactor will not significantly alter the established aquatic ecosystems.

  4. Advanced sluicing system test report for single shell tank waste retrieval integrated testing

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Berglin, E.J.

    1997-05-29T23:59:59.000Z

    This document describes the testing performed by ARD Environmental, Inc., and Los Alamos Technical Associates of the LATA/ARD Advanced Sluicing System, in support of ACTR Phase 1 activities. Testing was to measure the impact force and pressures of sluicing streams at three different distances, as measured by the Government supplied load cell. Simulated sluicing of large simulated salt cake and hard pan waste coupons was also performed. Due to operational difficulties experienced with the Government supplied load cell, no meaningful results with respect to sluice stream impact pressure distribution or stream coherence were obtained. Sluice testing using 3000 psi salt cake simulants measured waste retrieval rates of approximately 12 Ml/day (17.6 ft{sup 3}/hr). Rates as high as 314 m{sup 3}/day (463 ft{sup 3}/hr) were measured against the lower strength salt cake simulants.

  5. SAFETY EVALUATION OF THE SINGLE SHELL TANKS (SST) MODIFIED SLUICING WASTE RETRIEVAL SYSTEM

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    SMITH, R.D.

    2005-03-21T23:59:59.000Z

    The purpose of this safety evaluation is to determine if the potential risk associated with using the single-shell tank (SST) modified sluicing system for retrieval of the 100-series SSTs in the tank farms is adequately addressed and bounded by the current tank farms safety basis (documented safety analysis [DSA]) and to determine if additional controls may be required. This safety evaluation also supports the requirement to perform a generic safety basis amendment for the retrieval of any additional SSTs (other than 241-S-112, and 241-U-107) by modified sluicing from the U.S. Department of Energy, Office of River Protection (ORP) Safety Evaluation Report (SER) 03-TED-066, ''Safety Evaluation Report (SER) for Approval of Justification for Continued Operation (JCO) for Tank Farms Single-Shell Tank (SST) Retrieval/Closure Modified Sluicing''.

  6. Free-surface flow simulations for discharge-based operation of hydraulic structure gates

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Erdbrink, C D; Sloot, P M A

    2014-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    We combine non-hydrostatic flow simulations of the free surface with a discharge model based on elementary gate flow equations for decision support in operation of hydraulic structure gates. A water level-based gate control used in most of today's general practice does not take into account the fact that gate operation scenarios producing similar total discharged volumes and similar water levels may have different local flow characteristics. Accurate and timely prediction of local flow conditions around hydraulic gates is important for several aspects of structure management: ecology, scour, flow-induced gate vibrations and waterway navigation. The modelling approach is described and tested for a multi-gate sluice structure regulating discharge from a river to the sea. The number of opened gates is varied and the discharge is stabilized with automated control by varying gate openings. The free-surface model was validated for discharge showing a correlation coefficient of 0.994 compared to experimental data. A...

  7. Project management plan for project W-320, tank 241-C-106 sluicing

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Leliefeld, K.W.

    1996-02-02T23:59:59.000Z

    This Project Management Plan establishes the organization, plans, and systems for management of Project W-320 as defined in DOE Order 4700.1, Project Management System (DOE 1987). The sluicing is for retrieving high-heat waste from single shell tank 241-C-106.

  8. SAFETY EVALUATION OF THE SINGLE SHELL TANKS (SST) MODIFIED SLUICING WASTE RETRIEVAL SYSTEM

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    SMITH, R.D.

    2004-12-09T23:59:59.000Z

    The purpose of this safety evaluation is to determine if the potential risk associated with using the SST modified sluicing system with DST supernatant for retrieval of the 100-series SSTs in the tank farms is adequately addressed and bounded by the current tank farms safety basis documented safety analysis and to determine if additional controls may be required.

  9. SAFETY EVALUATION OF THE SINGLE SHELL TANKS (SST) MODIFIED SLUICING WASTE RETRIEVAL SYSTEM

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    SMITH, R.D.

    2003-09-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The purpose of this safety evaluation is to determine if the potential risk associated with using the single-shell tank modified sluicing system for retrieval of the 100-series Single-Shell Tanks (SSTs) in the tank farms is adequately addressed and bounded by the current tank farms safety basis documented safety analysis and to determine if additional controls may be required.

  10. SAFETY EVALUATION OF THE SINGLE SHELL TANKS (SST) MODIFIED SLUICING WASTE RETRIEVAL SYSTEM

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    SMITH, R.D.

    2005-02-18T23:59:59.000Z

    The purpose of this safety evaluation is to determine if the potential risk associated with using the single-shell tank modified sluicing system for retrieval of the 100-series SSTs in the tank farms is adequately addressed and bounded by the current tank farms safety basis documented safety analysis and to determine if additional controls may be required.

  11. SAFETY EVALUATION OF THE SINGLE SHELL TANKS (SST) MODIFIED SLUICING WASTE RETRIEVAL SYSTEM

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    SMITH, R.D.

    2003-10-09T23:59:59.000Z

    The purpose of this safety evaluation is to determine if the potential risk associated with using the single-shell tank modified sluicing system for retrieval of the 100-series SSTs in the tank farms is adequately addressed and hounded by the current tank farms safety basis documented safety analysis and to determine if additional controls may be required.

  12. Steel Creek fish: L-Lake/Steel Creek Biological Monitoring Program, January 1986--December 1987

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Paller, M.H.; Heuer, J.H.; Kissick, L.A.

    1988-03-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Fish samples were collected from Steel Creek during 1986 and 1987 following the impoundment of the headwaters of the stream to form L-Lake, a cooling reservoir for L-Reactor which began operating late in 1985. Electrofishing and ichthyoplankton sample stations were located throughout the creek. Fykenetting sample stations were located in the creek mouth and just above the Steel Creek swamp. Larval fish and fish eggs were collected with 0.5 m plankton nets. Multivariate analysis of the electrofishing data suggested that the fish assemblages in Steel Creek exhibited structural differences associated with proximity to L-Lake, and habitat gradients of current velocity, depth, and canopy cover. The Steel Creek corridor, a lotic reach beginning at the base of the L-Lake embankment was dominated by stream species and bluegill. The delta/swamp, formed where Steel Creek enters the Savannah River floodplain, was dominated by fishes characteristic of slow flowing waters and heavily vegetated habitats. The large channel draining the swamp supported many of the species found in the swamp plus riverine and anadromous forms.

  13. Chemical and chemically-related considerations associated with sluicing tank C-106 waste to tank AY-102

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Reynolds, D.A.

    1997-04-04T23:59:59.000Z

    New data on tank 241-C-106 were obtained from grab sampling and from compatibility testing of tank C-106 and tank AY-102 wastes. All chemistry-associated and other compatibility Information compiled in this report strongly suggests that the sluicing of the contents of tank C-106, in accord with appropriate controls, will pose no unacceptable risk to workers, public safety, or the environment. In addition, it is expected that the sluicing operation will successfully resolve the High-Heat Safety Issue for tank C-106.

  14. Using historical aerial photography and softcopy photogrammetry for waste unit mapping in L Lake.

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Christel, L.M.

    1997-10-01T23:59:59.000Z

    L Lake was developed as a cooling water reservoir for the L Reactor at the Savannah River Site. The construction of the lake, which began in the fall of 1984, altered the structure and function of Steel Creek. Completed in the fall of 1985, L Lake has a capacity of 31 million cubic meters and a normal pool of 58 meters. When L Reactor operations ceased in 1988, the water level in the lake still had to be maintained. Site managers are currently trying to determine the feasibility of draining or drawing down the lake in order to save tax dollars. In order to understand the full repercussions of such an undertaking, it was necessary to compile a comprehensive inventory of what the lake bottom looked like prior to filling. Aerial photographs, acquired nine days before the filling of the lake began, were scanned and used for softcopy photogrammetry processing. A one-meter digital elevation model was generated and a digital orthophoto mosaic was created as the base map for the project. Seven categories of features, including the large waste units used to contain the contaminated soil removed from the dam site, were screen digitized and used to generate accurate maps. Other map features include vegetation waste piles, where contaminated vegetation from the flood plain was contained, and ash piles, which are sites where vegetation debris was burned and then covered with clean soil. For all seven categories, the area of disturbance totaled just over 63 hectares. When the screen digitizing was completed, the elevation at the centroid of each disturbance was determined. When the information is used in the Savannah River Site Geographical Information System, it can be used to visualize the various L Lake draw-down scenarios suggested by site managers and hopefully, to support evaluations of the cost effectiveness for each proposed activity.

  15. Project management plan for Project W-320, Tank 241-C-106 sluicing. Revision 2

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Phillips, D.R.

    1994-07-01T23:59:59.000Z

    A major mission of the US Department of Energy (DOE) is the permanent disposal of Hanford Site defense wastes by utilizing safe, environmentally acceptable, and cost-effective disposal methods that meet applicable regulations. The Tank Waste Remediation System (TWRS) Program was established at the Hanford Site to manage and control activities specific to the remediation of safety watch list tanks, including high-heat-producing tanks, and for the ultimate characterization, retrieval, pretreatment, and disposal of the low- and high-level fractions of the tank waste. Project W-320, Tank 241-C-106 Sluicing, provides the methodology, equipment, utilities, and facilities necessary for retrieving the high-heat waste from single-shell tank (SST) 24-C-106. Project W-320 is a fiscal year (FY) 1993 expense-funded major project, and has a design life of 2 years. Retrieval of the waste in tank 241-C-106 will be accomplished through mobilization of the sludge into a pumpable slurry using past-practice sluicing. The waste is then transferred directly to a double-shell tank for interim storage, subsequent pretreatment, and eventual disposal. A detailed description of the management organization and responsibilities of all participants is presented in this document.

  16. Project W-320, 241-C-106 sluicing: Construction specification W-320-C6

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Bailey, J.W.

    1998-07-20T23:59:59.000Z

    This supporting document has been prepared to make the construction specifications for Project W-320 readily available. Project W-320, Waste Retrieval Sluicing System (WRSS), specification is for procurement, fabrication and installation of equipment at the C Tank Farm, including Operator Station and some equipment just outside the C Tank Farm fence, necessary to support the sluicing operation. Work consists of furnishing labor, equipment, and materials to provide the means to procure materials and equipment, fabricate items, excavate and place concrete, and install equipment, piping, wiring, and structures in accordance with the Contract Documents. Major work elements include: Excavation for process and fire protection piping, electrical conduit trenches, and foundations for small structures; Placement of concrete cover blocks, foundations, and equipment pads; Procurement and installation of double walled piping, electrical conduit, fire and raw water piping, chilled water piping, and electrical cable; Procurement and installation of above-ground ventilation system piping between the (HVAC) Process building and Tank C-106; Core drill existing concrete; Furnish and installation of electrical distribution equipment; Installation of the concrete foundation, and assembly installation of the two Seismic Shutdown Systems with Environmental Enclosures; Fabrication and installation of in-pit pipe jumpers, including related valves, instruments and wiring; and Installation of a vertical submersible pump, horizontal booster pump, and winch assembly into tank access riser pits.

  17. Comparison of Nozzle and Flow Straighteners for Tank Waste Sluicing Applications Letter Report

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Mullen, O Dennis; Jackson, David R.

    2000-09-29T23:59:59.000Z

    Nozzles and flow straighteners were compared to assess the relative quality of the water streams for sluicing waste from underground storage tankes. The criteria for comparison were 1) the impact force produced by the streams over a range of distance from the nozzle impinging on target plates, and 2) the coherence of the streams as manifest by the variation of force on targets of two different sizes. It was determined that 1) the standard Hanford flow straightener is measurable less effective than a commercial firefighting flow straightener at producing a coherent stream when used with the standard Hanford nozzle, and 2) a lighter and more compact firefighting deluge nozzle will deliver a stream of equal quality to that from the Hanford nozzle when either nozzle is used with the commercial flow straightener.

  18. Origins of volatile organic compounds emerging from tank 241-C-106 during sluicing

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    STAUFFER, L.A.

    1999-06-02T23:59:59.000Z

    Unexpectedly high concentrations of inorganic gases and volatile organic compounds (VOC) were released from the ventilation stack of tank 241-C-106 during sluicing operations on November 18, 1998. Workers experienced serious discomfort. They reported an obnoxious acrid odor and the 450 ppm VOC in ventilation stack 296-C-006 exceeded the level approved in the air discharge permit. Consequently, the operation was terminated. Subsequent analyses of samples collected opportunistically from the stack indicated many organic compounds including heptenes, heptanones, and normal paraffin hydrocarbons (NPH) and their remnants were present. Subsequently, a process test designed to avoid unnecessary worker exposure and enable collection of analytical samples from the stack, the breathing area, and the receiver tank was conducted on December 16, 1998. The samples obtained during that operation, in which the maximum VOC content of the stack was approximately 35 ppm, have been analyzed by teams at Pacific Northwest National Laboratory and Special Analytic Services (SAS). This report examines the results of these investigations. Future revisions of the report will examine the analytical results obtained for samples collected during sluicing operations in March. This report contains the available evidence about the source term for these emissions. Chapter 2 covers characterization work, including historical information about the layers of waste in the tank, the location of organic compounds in these layers, the total organic carbon (TOC) content and the speciation of organic compounds. Chapter 3 covers the data for the samples from the ventilation stack, which has the highest concentrations of organic compounds. Chapter 4 contains an interpretation of the information connecting the composition of the organic emissions with the composition of the original source term. Chapter 5 summarizes the characterization work, the sample data, and the interpretation of the results.

  19. Steel Creek primary producers: Periphyton and seston, L-Lake/Steel Creek Biological Monitoring Program, January 1986--December 1991

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Bowers, J.A. [Westinghouse Savannah River Co., Aiken, SC (United States); Toole, M.A.; van Duyn, Y. [Normandeau Associates Inc., New Ellenton, SC (United States)

    1992-02-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The Savannah River Site (SRS) encompasses 300 sq mi of the Atlantic Coastal Plain in west-central South Carolina. Five major tributaries of the Savannah River -- Upper Three Runs Creek, Four Mile Creek, Pen Branch, Steel Creek, and Lower Three Runs Creek -- drain the site. In 1985, L Lake, a 400-hectare cooling reservoir, was built on the upper reaches of Steel Creek to receive effluent from the restart of L-Reactor and to protect the lower reaches from thermal impacts. The Steel Creek Biological Monitoring Program was designed to assess various components of the system and identify and changes due to the operation of L-Reactor or discharge from L Lake. An intensive ecological assessment program prior to the construction of the lake provided baseline data with which to compare data accumulated after the lake was filled and began discharging into the creek. The Department of Energy must demonstrate that the operation of L-Reactor will not significantly alter the established aquatic ecosystems. This report summarizes the results of six years` data from Steel Creek under the L-Lake/Steel Creek Monitoring Program. L Lake is discussed separately from Steel Creek in Volumes NAI-SR-138 through NAI-SR-143.

  20. Quality control summary report for the RFI/RI assessment of the submerged sediment core samples taken at Par Pond, Pond C, and L-Lake

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Koch, J. II

    1996-12-01T23:59:59.000Z

    This report presents a summary of the sediment characterization performed under the direction of the Westinghouse Savannah River Company`s (WSRC) Environmental Protection Department/Environmental Monitoring Section (EPD/EMS) in support of Par Pond, Pond C, and L- Lake. This characterization will be a screening study and will enable the Environmental Sciences Section (ESS) to develop a defensible contaminants of concern list for more extensive characterization of the Par Pond, Pond C, and L-Lake.

  1. Tank vapor sampling and analysis data package for tank 241-C-106 waste retrieval sluicing system process test phase III

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    LOCKREM, L.L.

    1999-08-13T23:59:59.000Z

    This data package presents sampling data and analytical results from the March 28, 1999, vapor sampling of Hanford Site single-shell tank 241-C-106 during active sluicing. Samples were obtained from the 296-C-006 ventilation system stack and ambient air at several locations. Characterization Project Operations (CPO) was responsible for the collection of all SUMMATM canister samples. The Special Analytical Support (SAS) vapor team was responsible for the collection of all triple sorbent trap (TST), sorbent tube train (STT), polyurethane foam (PUF), and particulate filter samples collected at the 296-C-006 stack. The SAS vapor team used the non-electrical vapor sampling (NEVS) system to collect samples of the air, gases, and vapors from the 296-C-006 stack. The SAS vapor team collected and analyzed these samples for Lockheed Martin Hanford Corporation (LMHC) and Tank Waste Remediation System (TWRS) in accordance with the sampling and analytical requirements specified in the Waste Retrieval Sluicing System Vapor Sampling and Analysis Plan (SAP) for Evaluation of Organic Emissions, Process Test Phase III, HNF-4212, Rev. 0-A, (LMHC, 1999). All samples were stored in a secured Radioactive Materials Area (RMA) until the samples were radiologically released and received by SAS for analysis. The Waste Sampling and Characterization Facility (WSCF) performed the radiological analyses. The samples were received on April 5, 1999.

  2. Gate Access

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative1 First Use of Energy for All Purposes (Fuel and Nonfuel), 2002; Level: National5Sales for4,645 3,625 1,006 492 742EnergyOnItem NotEnergy,ARMFormsGasReleaseSpeechesHall ATours,Dioxide andNationalall petroleumGate

  3. Environmental assessment for the natural fluctuation of water level in Par Pond and reduced water flow in Steel Creek below L-Lake at the Savannah River Site

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    NONE

    1995-08-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The Savannah River Operations Office Strategic Plan directs Savannah River Site (SRS) to find ways to reduce operating costs, and to determine what site infrastructure must be maintained and what infrastructure is surplus. Because of the mission change, L-Lake, Par Pond, and the river water system are no longer needed to support current missions and therefore provide an opportunity for operating cost reduction. If SRS determines that L-Lake, Par Pond, and the river water system are no longer needed to support future missions and are considered surplus, appropriate NEPA documentation will be prepared. The purpose of the proposed action in this Environmental Assessment is to begin an examination of the need for the Site`s river water system by (1) developing data needed to evaluate the potential environmental impacts of further reducing or eliminating the flow demands from the Site`s river water system and; (2) evaluating the potential of reducing operating costs by allowing the water level in Par Pond to fluctuate naturally through reduced pumping. This action also includes reducing the current flow rates from L-Lake to Steel Creek to natural stream flows while maintaining full pool. The recently approved Par Pond CERCLA Interim Action Proposed Plan (IAPP) committed to evaluate in a NEPA document the environmental consequences of this proposed action. This document evaluated the remediation of human health and ecological risks associated with the three year drawdown of Par Pond. Should any of the parameters sampled in the reservoir and streams (e.g., water quality, biota, etc.) exceed established threshold levels during the implementation of the proposed action, water would again be pumped into the reservoir to minimize any impacts by bringing the water level back to an appropriate level about 58.2 m (195 ft).

  4. Gated strip proportional detector

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Morris, Christopher L. (Los Alamos, NM); Idzorek, George C. (Los Alamos, NM); Atencio, Leroy G. (Espanola, NM)

    1987-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    A gated strip proportional detector includes a gas tight chamber which encloses a solid ground plane, a wire anode plane, a wire gating plane, and a multiconductor cathode plane. The anode plane amplifies the amount of charge deposited in the chamber by a factor of up to 10.sup.6. The gating plane allows only charge within a narrow strip to reach the cathode. The cathode plane collects the charge allowed to pass through the gating plane on a set of conductors perpendicular to the open-gated region. By scanning the open-gated region across the chamber and reading out the charge collected on the cathode conductors after a suitable integration time for each location of the gate, a two-dimensional image of the intensity of the ionizing radiation incident on the detector can be made.

  5. Gated strip proportional detector

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Morris, C.L.; Idzorek, G.C.; Atencio, L.G.

    1985-02-19T23:59:59.000Z

    A gated strip proportional detector includes a gas tight chamber which encloses a solid ground plane, a wire anode plane, a wire gating plane, and a multiconductor cathode plane. The anode plane amplifies the amount of charge deposited in the chamber by a factor of up to 10/sup 6/. The gating plane allows only charge within a narrow strip to reach the cathode. The cathode plane collects the charge allowed to pass through the gating plane on a set of conductors perpendicular to the open-gated region. By scanning the open-gated region across the chamber and reading out the charge collected on the cathode conductors after a suitable integration time for each location of the gate, a two-dimensional image of the intensity of the ionizing radiation incident on the detector can be made.

  6. Range gated imaging experiments using gated intensifiers

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    McDonald, T.E. Jr.; Yates, G.J.; Cverna, F.H.; Gallegos, R.A.; Jaramillo, S.A.; Numkena, D.M.; Payton, J.; Pena-Abeyta, C.R.

    1999-03-01T23:59:59.000Z

    A variety of range gated imaging experiments using high-speed gated/shuttered proximity focused microchannel plate image intensifiers (MCPII) are reported. Range gated imaging experiments were conducted in water for detection of submerged mines in controlled turbidity tank test and in sea water for the Naval Coastal Sea Command/US Marine Corps. Field experiments have been conducted consisting of kilometer range imaging of resolution targets and military vehicles in atmosphere at Eglin Air Force Base for the US Air Force, and similar imaging experiments, but in smoke environment, at Redstone Arsenal for the US Army Aviation and Missile Command (AMCOM). Wavelength of the illuminating laser was 532 nm with pulse width ranging from 6 to 12 ns and comparable gate widths. These tests have shown depth resolution in the tens of centimeters range from time phasing reflected LADAR images with MCPII shutter opening.

  7. Adiabatically implementing quantum gates

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Sun, Jie; Lu, Songfeng, E-mail: lusongfeng@hotmail.com; Liu, Fang [School of Computer Science and Technology, Huazhong University of Science and Technology, Wuhan 430074 (China)

    2014-06-14T23:59:59.000Z

    We show that, through the approach of quantum adiabatic evolution, all of the usual quantum gates can be implemented efficiently, yielding running time of order O(1). This may be considered as a useful alternative to the standard quantum computing approach, which involves quantum gates transforming quantum states during the computing process.

  8. Optical XOR gate

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Vawter, G. Allen

    2013-11-12T23:59:59.000Z

    An optical XOR gate is formed as a photonic integrated circuit (PIC) from two sets of optical waveguide devices on a substrate, with each set of the optical waveguide devices including an electroabsorption modulator electrically connected in series with a waveguide photodetector. The optical XOR gate utilizes two digital optical inputs to generate an XOR function digital optical output. The optical XOR gate can be formed from III-V compound semiconductor layers which are epitaxially deposited on a III-V compound semiconductor substrate, and operates at a wavelength in the range of 0.8-2.0 .mu.m.

  9. Cellular Gate Technology

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Knight, Thomas F.

    1998-01-05T23:59:59.000Z

    We propose a biochemically plausible mechanism for constructing digital logic signals and gates of significant complexity within living cells. These mechanisms rely largely on co-opting existing biochemical machinery and ...

  10. Advanced insulated gate bipolar transistor gate drive

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Short, James Evans (Monongahela, PA); West, Shawn Michael (West Mifflin, PA); Fabean, Robert J. (Donora, PA)

    2009-08-04T23:59:59.000Z

    A gate drive for an insulated gate bipolar transistor (IGBT) includes a control and protection module coupled to a collector terminal of the IGBT, an optical communications module coupled to the control and protection module, a power supply module coupled to the control and protection module and an output power stage module with inputs coupled to the power supply module and the control and protection module, and outputs coupled to a gate terminal and an emitter terminal of the IGBT. The optical communications module is configured to send control signals to the control and protection module. The power supply module is configured to distribute inputted power to the control and protection module. The control and protection module outputs on/off, soft turn-off and/or soft turn-on signals to the output power stage module, which, in turn, supplies a current based on the signal(s) from the control and protection module for charging or discharging an input capacitance of the IGBT.

  11. Cardiac gated ventilation

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Hanson, C.W. III [Hospital of the Univ. of Pennsylvania, Philadelphia, PA (United States). Dept. Anesthesia; Hoffman, E.A. [Univ. of Iowa College of Medicine, Iowa City, IA (United States). Div. of Physiologic Imaging

    1995-12-31T23:59:59.000Z

    There are several theoretic advantages to synchronizing positive pressure breaths with the cardiac cycle, including the potential for improving distribution of pulmonary and myocardial blood flow and enhancing cardiac output. The authors evaluated the effects of synchronizing respiration to the cardiac cycle using a programmable ventilator and electron beam CT (EBCT) scanning. The hearts of anesthetized dogs were imaged during cardiac gated respiration with a 50 msec scan aperture. Multi slice, short axis, dynamic image data sets spanning the apex to base of the left ventricle were evaluated to determine the volume of the left ventricular chamber at end-diastole and end-systole during apnea, systolic and diastolic cardiac gating. The authors observed an increase in cardiac output of up to 30% with inspiration gated to the systolic phase of the cardiac cycle in a non-failing model of the heart.

  12. Penn State DOE GATE Program

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Anstrom, Joel

    2012-08-31T23:59:59.000Z

    The Graduate Automotive Technology Education (GATE) Program at The Pennsylvania State University (Penn State) was established in October 1998 pursuant to an award from the U.S. Department of Energy (U.S. DOE). The focus area of the Penn State GATE Program is advanced energy storage systems for electric and hybrid vehicles.

  13. A Sequence of Quantum Gates

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Yorick Hardy; Willi-Hans Steeb

    2012-02-10T23:59:59.000Z

    We study a sequence of quantum gates in finite-dimensional Hilbert spaces given by the normalized eigenvectors of the unitary operators. The corresponding sequence of the Hamilton operators is also given. From the Hamilton operators we construct another hierarchy of quantum gates via the Cayley transform.

  14. Ultrafast, high precision gated integrator

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Wang, X.

    1995-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    An ultrafast, high precision gated integrator has been developed by introducing new design approaches that overcome the problems associated with earlier gated integrator circuits. The very high speed is evidenced by the output settling time of less than 50 ns and 20 MHz input pulse rate. The very high precision is demonstrated by the total output offset error of less than 0.2mV and the output droop rate of less than 10{mu}V/{mu}s. This paper describes the theory of this new gated integrator circuit operation. The completed circuit test results are presented.

  15. Non-Hermitian quantum gates are more common than Hermitian quantum gates

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Anirban Pathak

    2013-09-16T23:59:59.000Z

    Most of the frequently used quantum gates (e.g., NOT, Hadamard, CNOT, SWAP, Toffoli, Fredkin and Pauli gates) are self-inverse (Hermitian). However, with a simple minded argument it is established that most of the allowed quantum gates are non-Hermitian (non-self-inverse). It is also shown that the % of non-Hermitian gates increases with the dimension. For example, 58.33% of the 2-qubit gates, 98.10% of the 3-qubit gates and 99.99% of the 4-qubit gates are non-Hermitian. As classical reversible gates are essentially permutation gates so the above statistics is strictly valid for classical reversible gates. Further, since Hermiticity is not of much interest in context of the classical reversible gate, hence the result implies that most of the allowed classical reversible gates are non-self-inverse.

  16. Radar Vehicle Detection Within Four Quadrant Gate Crossings

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Illinois at Urbana-Champaign, University of

    of the exit gate · Less delay between entry and exit gate descent · Extends the exit gate delay only) Methodology 4) Results 5) Conclusions 6) Acknowledgments Exit Gate Operating Modes (EGOM) Radar Vehicle

  17. Ferroelectric-gated terahertz plasmonics on graphene

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Jin, Dafei

    Inspired by recent advancement of ferroelectric-gated memories and transistors, we propose a design of ferroelectric-gated nanoplasmonic devices based on graphene sheets clamped in ferroelectric crystals. We show that the ...

  18. Attosecond Temporal Gating with Elliptically Polarized Light

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Dudovich, N.; Smirnova, O.; Ivanov, M. Yu.; Villeneuve, D. M.; Corkum, P. B. [Steacie Institute for Molecular Sciences, National Research Council of Canada, Ottawa, Ontario K1A 0R6 (Canada); Levesque, J. [Steacie Institute for Molecular Sciences, National Research Council of Canada, Ottawa, Ontario K1A 0R6 (Canada); INRS-EMT, 1650 boulevard Lionel-Boulet, CP 1020, Varennes, Quebec J3X 1S2 (Canada); Zeidler, D. [Steacie Institute for Molecular Sciences, National Research Council of Canada, Ottawa, Ontario K1A 0R6 (Canada); Carl Zeiss SMT AG, Oberkochen D-73447 (Germany); Comtois, D. [INRS-EMT, 1650 boulevard Lionel-Boulet, CP 1020, Varennes, Quebec J3X 1S2 (Canada)

    2006-12-22T23:59:59.000Z

    Temporal gating allows high accuracy time-resolved measurements of a broad range of ultrafast processes. By manipulating the interaction between an atom and an intense laser field, we extend gating into the nonlinear medium in which attosecond optical and electron pulses are generated. Our gate is an amplitude gate induced by ellipticity of the fundamental pulse. The gate modulates the spectrum of the high harmonic emission and we use the measured modulation to characterize the sub-laser-cycle dynamics of the recollision electron wave packet.

  19. Composite two-qubit quantum gates

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Svetoslav S. Ivanov; Nikolay V. Vitanov

    2015-03-30T23:59:59.000Z

    We design composite two-qubit gates, based on the Ising-type interaction. The gates are robust against systematic errors in the qubits' interaction strength and the gate's implementation time. We give composite sequences, which cancel the error up to 6th order, and give a method to achieve even higher accuracy. Our sequences can compensate either relative or absolute errors. For relative error compensation the number of the ingredient gates grows linearly with the desired accuracy, while for absolute compensation only two gates are required to achieve infinitely accurate gates. We also consider an ion-trap implementation of our composite gates, where our sequences achieve simultaneous cancellation of the error in both the pulse area and the detuning.

  20. Remote controlled-NOT gate of d-dimension

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Gui-Fang Dang; Heng Fan

    2008-01-23T23:59:59.000Z

    Single qubit rotation gate and the controlled-NOT (CNOT) gate constitute a complete set of gates for universal quantum computation. In general the CNOT gate are only for two nearby qubits. For two qubits which are remote from each other, we need a series of swap gates to transfer these two qubits to the nearest neighboring sites, and then after the CNOT gate we should transfer them to their original sites again. However, a series of swap gates are resource for quantum information processing. One economy way which does not consume so much resource is to implement CNOT gate remotely. The remote CNOT gate is to implement the CNOT gate for two remotely separated qubits with the help of one additional maximally entangled state. The original remote CNOT gate is for two qubits, here we will present the d-dimensional remote CNOT gate. The role of quantum teleportation is identified in the process of the remote CNOT gate.

  1. Nonvolatile memory disturbs due to gate and junction leakage currents

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Schroder, Dieter K.

    ) from traps within the gate oxides. Such low gate leakage currents can lead to sufficient charge; accepted 10 September 2002 Abstract We address disturbs due to gate oxide and junction leakage currents in floating gate nonvolatile memories (NVM). The junction leakage is important, because the gate oxide current

  2. 2006 29 1 New Capacitorless 1T DRAM Cells : Surrounding Gate and Double Gate MOSFET With

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Lee, Jong Duk

    storage node silicon body floating . , double gate back gate negative bias excess hole back induced drain leakage . hole body cell state "1" hole body-drain forward bias cell state "0 source/drain SiN lithography pillar fin pattern . gate channel implantation 0.1µm . SiN hard

  3. TIME DEPENDENT BREAKDOWN OF GATE OXIDE AND PREDICTION OF OXIDE GATE LIFETIME

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Mahmoodi, Hamid

    TIME DEPENDENT BREAKDOWN OF GATE OXIDE AND PREDICTION OF OXIDE GATE LIFETIME A thesis submitted Masters of Science In Engineering: Embedded System by Bin Wu San Francisco, California May, 2012 #12;CERTIFICATION OF APPROVAL I certify that I have read Time dependent Breakdown of Gate Oxide and Prediction

  4. Bielectron vortices in gated graphene

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    C. A. Downing; M. E. Portnoi

    2015-06-14T23:59:59.000Z

    We study the formation of bound two-particle states in gapless monolayer graphene in gated structures. We find that, even in the regime of massless Dirac fermions, coupling can occur at zero-energy for different or same charge quasiparticles. These bipartite states must have a non-zero internal angular momentum, meaning that they only exist as stationary vortices. We propose a new picture of the experimentally seen Fermi velocity renormalization as a manifestation of these pairs, suggest the possibility of a condensate of these novel quasiparticles.

  5. Gate Solar | Open Energy Information

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page onYou are now leaving Energy.gov You are now leaving Energy.gov You are being directedAnnual Siteof Energy 2,AUDIT REPORTEnergyFarms A SUK Place: Newport,Gate Solar Jump to:

  6. Cavity-QED-based quantum phase gate

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Zubairy, M. Suhail; Kim, M.; Scully, Marlan O.

    2003-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    We describe a quantum phase gate in which the two qubits are represented by the photons in the two modes of the cavity field. The gate is implemented by passing a three-level atom in a cascade configuration through the cavity. The upper levels...

  7. Gate-tunable exchange coupling between cobalt clusters on graphene...

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    Accepted Manuscript: Gate-tunable exchange coupling between cobalt clusters on graphene Citation Details Title: Gate-tunable exchange coupling between cobalt clusters on...

  8. University of Illinois at Urbana-Champaign's GATE Center for...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Urbana-Champaign's GATE Center for Advanced Automotive Bio-Fuel Combustion Engines University of Illinois at Urbana-Champaign's GATE Center for Advanced Automotive Bio-Fuel...

  9. Vehicle Technologies Office Merit Review 2014: GATE: Energy Efficient...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    GATE: Energy Efficient Vehicles for Sustainable Mobility Vehicle Technologies Office Merit Review 2014: GATE: Energy Efficient Vehicles for Sustainable Mobility Presentation given...

  10. GATE Center for Automotive Fuel Cell Systems at Virginia Tech

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    current density, requires an understanding of liquid water transport in gas diffusion media * Research by students that have completed GATE center coursework, used GATE labs,...

  11. Possible Dynamically Gated Conductance along Heme Wires in Bacterial...

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Possible Dynamically Gated Conductance along Heme Wires in Bacterial Multiheme Cytochromes. Possible Dynamically Gated Conductance along Heme Wires in Bacterial Multiheme...

  12. GATE Center of Excellence at UAB in Lightweight Materials for...

    Broader source: Energy.gov (indexed) [DOE]

    GATE Center of Excellence at UAB in Lightweight Materials for Automotive Applications GATE Center of Excellence at UAB in Lightweight Materials for Automotive Applications 2011 DOE...

  13. Vehicle Technologies Office Merit Review 2014: GATE Center of...

    Broader source: Energy.gov (indexed) [DOE]

    GATE Center of Excellence at UAB for Lightweight Materials and Manufacturing for Automotive, Truck and Mass Transit. ti026vaidya2014p.pdf More Documents & Publications GATE...

  14. Vehicle Technologies Office Merit Review 2015: Gate Driver Optimizatio...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Gate Driver Optimization for WBG Applications Vehicle Technologies Office Merit Review 2015: Gate Driver Optimization for WBG Applications Presentation given by Oak Ridge National...

  15. GATE Center of Excellence at UAB in Lightweight Materials for...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    & Publications GATE Center of Excellence at UAB in Lightweight Materials for Automotive Applications GATE Center of Excellence at UAB in Lightweight Materials for...

  16. PENN STATE DOE GRADUATE AUTOMOTIVE TECHNOLOGY EDUCATION (GATE...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    PENN STATE DOE GRADUATE AUTOMOTIVE TECHNOLOGY EDUCATION (GATE) PROGRAM FOR PENN STATE DOE GRADUATE AUTOMOTIVE TECHNOLOGY EDUCATION (GATE) PROGRAM FOR 2009 DOE Hydrogen Program and...

  17. Gating of Permanent Molds for ALuminum Casting

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    David Schwam; John F. Wallace; Tom Engle; Qingming Chang

    2004-03-30T23:59:59.000Z

    This report summarizes a two-year project, DE-FC07-01ID13983 that concerns the gating of aluminum castings in permanent molds. The main goal of the project is to improve the quality of aluminum castings produced in permanent molds. The approach taken was determine how the vertical type gating systems used for permanent mold castings can be designed to fill the mold cavity with a minimum of damage to the quality of the resulting casting. It is evident that somewhat different systems are preferred for different shapes and sizes of aluminum castings. The main problems caused by improper gating are entrained aluminum oxide films and entrapped gas. The project highlights the characteristic features of gating systems used in permanent mold aluminum foundries and recommends gating procedures designed to avoid common defects. The study also provides direct evidence on the filling pattern and heat flow behavior in permanent mold castings.

  18. Graduate Automotive Technology Education (GATE) Center

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Jeffrey Hodgson; David Irick

    2005-09-30T23:59:59.000Z

    The Graduate Automotive Technology Education (GATE) Center at the University of Tennessee, Knoxville has completed its sixth year of operation. During this period the Center has involved thirteen GATE Fellows and ten GATE Research Assistants in preparing them to contribute to advanced automotive technologies in the center's focus area: hybrid drive trains and control systems. Eighteen GATE students have graduated, and three have completed their course work requirements. Nine faculty members from three departments in the College of Engineering have been involved in the GATE Center. In addition to the impact that the Center has had on the students and faculty involved, the presence of the center has led to the acquisition of resources that probably would not have been obtained if the GATE Center had not existed. Significant industry interaction such as internships, equipment donations, and support for GATE students has been realized. The value of the total resources brought to the university (including related research contracts) exceeds $4,000,000. Problem areas are discussed in the hope that future activities may benefit from the operation of the current program.

  19. A p-cell approach to integer gate sizing

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Doddannagari, Uday

    2009-05-15T23:59:59.000Z

    uniformly spaced gate sizes would result in a large number of gate sizes and maintaining the huge volume of data for this number of gate sizes is difficult. This thesis aims to propose a practical approach to implement integer gate sizes. A parameterized...

  20. High level compilation for gate reconfigurable architectures

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Babb, Jonathan William

    2001-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    A continuing exponential increase in the number of programmable elements is turning management of gate-reconfigurable architectures as "glue logic" into an intractable problem; it is past time to raise this abstraction ...

  1. Sandia National Laboratories: i-GATE

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    partners, investors, and technical resources isn't generally an easy task for start-up companies. But for clients of the i-GATE (Innovation for Green Advanced Transportation...

  2. Gate potential control of nanofluidic devices

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Le Coguic, Arnaud

    2005-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The effect of an external gate potential control on the nanofluidic nanochannels was experimentally investigated in this work. Like in the field effect transistors (FET) in microelectronics, molecular transport in ...

  3. GaTe semiconductor for radiation detection

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Payne, Stephen A. (Castro Valley, CA); Burger, Arnold (Nashville, TN); Mandal, Krishna C. (Ashland, MA)

    2009-06-23T23:59:59.000Z

    GaTe semiconductor is used as a room-temperature radiation detector. GaTe has useful properties for radiation detectors: ideal bandgap, favorable mobilities, low melting point (no evaporation), non-hygroscopic nature, and availability of high-purity starting materials. The detector can be used, e.g., for detection of illicit nuclear weapons and radiological dispersed devices at ports of entry, in cities, and off shore and for determination of medical isotopes present in a patient.

  4. Remote quantum gates mediated by spin chains

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    R. Ronke; I. D'Amico; T. P. Spiller

    2010-03-09T23:59:59.000Z

    There has been much recent study on the application of spin chains to quantum state transfer and communication. Here we demonstrate that spin chains set up for perfect quantum state transfer can be utilised to generate remote quantum gates, between spin qubits injected at the ends of the chain. The natural evolution of the system across different excitation number sectors generates a maximally-entangling and universal gate between the injected qubits, independent of the length of the chain.

  5. Gate fidelity fluctuations and quantum process invariants

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Magesan, Easwar; Emerson, Joseph [Institute for Quantum Computing and Department of Applied Mathematics, University of Waterloo, Waterloo, Ontario N2L 3G1 (Canada); Blume-Kohout, Robin [Theoretical Division, Los Alamos National Laboratory, Los Alamos, New Mexico 87545 (United States)

    2011-07-15T23:59:59.000Z

    We characterize the quantum gate fidelity in a state-independent manner by giving an explicit expression for its variance. The method we provide can be extended to calculate all higher order moments of the gate fidelity. Using these results, we obtain a simple expression for the variance of a single-qubit system and deduce the asymptotic behavior for large-dimensional quantum systems. Applications of these results to quantum chaos and randomized benchmarking are discussed.

  6. Range gated strip proximity sensor

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    McEwan, T.E.

    1996-12-03T23:59:59.000Z

    A range gated strip proximity sensor uses one set of sensor electronics and a distributed antenna or strip which extends along the perimeter to be sensed. A micro-power RF transmitter is coupled to the first end of the strip and transmits a sequence of RF pulses on the strip to produce a sensor field along the strip. A receiver is coupled to the second end of the strip, and generates a field reference signal in response to the sequence of pulse on the line combined with received electromagnetic energy from reflections in the field. The sensor signals comprise pulses of radio frequency signals having a duration of less than 10 nanoseconds, and a pulse repetition rate on the order of 1 to 10 MegaHertz or less. The duration of the radio frequency pulses is adjusted to control the range of the sensor. An RF detector feeds a filter capacitor in response to received pulses on the strip line to produce a field reference signal representing the average amplitude of the received pulses. When a received pulse is mixed with a received echo, the mixing causes a fluctuation in the amplitude of the field reference signal, providing a range-limited Doppler type signature of a field disturbance. 6 figs.

  7. Range gated strip proximity sensor

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    McEwan, Thomas E. (Livermore, CA)

    1996-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    A range gated strip proximity sensor uses one set of sensor electronics and a distributed antenna or strip which extends along the perimeter to be sensed. A micro-power RF transmitter is coupled to the first end of the strip and transmits a sequence of RF pulses on the strip to produce a sensor field along the strip. A receiver is coupled to the second end of the strip, and generates a field reference signal in response to the sequence of pulse on the line combined with received electromagnetic energy from reflections in the field. The sensor signals comprise pulses of radio frequency signals having a duration of less than 10 nanoseconds, and a pulse repetition rate on the order of 1 to 10 MegaHertz or less. The duration of the radio frequency pulses is adjusted to control the range of the sensor. An RF detector feeds a filter capacitor in response to received pulses on the strip line to produce a field reference signal representing the average amplitude of the received pulses. When a received pulse is mixed with a received echo, the mixing causes a fluctuation in the amplitude of the field reference signal, providing a range-limited Doppler type signature of a field disturbance.

  8. Sliding-gate valve for use with abrasive materials

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Ayers, Jr., William J. (Morgantown, WV); Carter, Charles R. (Fairmont, WV); Griffith, Richard A. (Morgantown, WV); Loomis, Richard B. (Bruceton Mills, WV); Notestein, John E. (Morgantown, WV)

    1985-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The invention is a flow and pressure-sealing valve for use with abrasive solids. The valve embodies special features which provide for long, reliable operating lifetimes in solids-handling service. The valve includes upper and lower transversely slidable gates, contained in separate chambers. The upper gate provides a solids-flow control function, whereas the lower gate provides a pressure-sealing function. The lower gate is supported by means for (a) lifting that gate into sealing engagement with its seat when the gate is in its open and closed positions and (b) lowering the gate out of contact with its seat to permit abrasion-free transit of the gate between its open and closed positions. When closed, the upper gate isolates the lower gate from the solids. Because of this shielding action, the sealing surface of the lower gate is not exposed to solids during transit or when it is being lifted or lowered. The chamber containing the lower gate normally is pressurized slightly, and a sweep gas is directed inwardly across the lower-gate sealing surface during the vertical translation of the gate.

  9. Engineering integrated photonics for heralded quantum gates

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    T. Meany; D. N. Biggerstaff; M. A. Broome; A. Fedrizzi; M. Delanty; A. Gilchrist; G. D. Marshall; M. J. Steel; A. G. White; M. J. Withford

    2015-02-11T23:59:59.000Z

    Scaling up linear-optics quantum computing will require multi-photon gates which are compact, phase-stable, exhibit excellent quantum interference, and have success heralded by the detection of ancillary photons. We investigate implementation of the optimal known gate design which meets these requirements: the Knill controlled-Z gate, implemented in integrated laser-written waveguide arrays. We show that device performance is more sensitive to the small deviations in the coupler reflectivity, arising due to the tolerance values of the fabrication method, than phase variations in the circuit. The mode fidelity was also shown to be less sensitive to reflectivity and phase errors than process fidelity. Our best device achieves a fidelity of 0.931+/-0.001 with the ideal 4x4 unitary circuit and a process fidelity of 0.680+/-0.005 with the ideal computational-basis process.

  10. Electroluminescence in ion gel gated organic polymer semiconductor transistors

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Bhat, Shrivalli

    2011-07-12T23:59:59.000Z

    This thesis reports the light emission in ion gel gated, thin film organic semiconductor transistors and investigates the light emission mechanism behind these devices. We report that ion gel gated organic polymer semiconductor transistors emit...

  11. Compact modeling of quantum effects in double gate MOSFETs

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Wang, Wei

    2007-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    However, ultrathin gate oxide will lead to high gate leakagethe high enough oxide barrier confinement leads to zero waveoxide becomes significant. The random dopant fluctuation effects increase with shrinking device size and leads

  12. abnormal sensorimotor gating: Topics by E-print Network

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    double dots can be effectively tuned from weak to strong regime by both the in-plane plunger gates and back gate. All the relevant energy scales and parameters of the bilayer...

  13. Negative quantum capacitance in graphene nanoribbons with lateral gates

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Florian, Libisch

    Negative quantum capacitance in graphene nanoribbons with lateral gates R. Reiter1, , U. Derra2 , S numerical simulations of the capacitive coupling between graphene nanoribbons of various widths and gate electrodes in different configurations. We compare the influence of lateral metallic or graphene side gate

  14. Entangling power and local invariants of two-qubit gates

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    S Balakrishnan; R Sankaranarayanan

    2010-09-07T23:59:59.000Z

    We show a simple relation connecting entangling power and local invariants of two-qubit gates. From the relation, a general condition under which gates have same entangling power is arrived. The relation also helps in finding the lower bound of entangling power for perfect entanglers, from which the classification of gates as perfect and nonperfect entanglers is obtained in terms of local invariants.

  15. Entangling power and local invariants of two-qubit gates

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Balakrishnan, S

    2010-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    We show a simple relation connecting entangling power and local invariants of two-qubit gates. From the relation, a general condition under which gates have same entangling power is arrived. The relation also helps to find the lower bound of entangling power for perfect entangler, from which a new classification of gates in terms of local invariants is obtained.

  16. Clustering of cyclic-nucleotide-gated channels in olfactory cilia

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    French, Donald A.

    Clustering of cyclic-nucleotide-gated channels in olfactory cilia Richard J. Flannery* , Donald A channel clusters in olfactory cilia Key words: olfaction, receptor neuron, cyclic-nucleotide-gated channel of olfactory signal transduction, including a high density of cyclic-nucleotide-gated (CNG) channels. CNG

  17. Quantum Logic Gates using q-deformed Oscillators

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Debashis Gangopadhyay; Mahendra Nath Sinha Roy

    2006-07-14T23:59:59.000Z

    We show that the quantum logic gates, {\\it viz.} the single qubit Hadamard and Phase Shift gates, can also be realised using q-deformed angular momentum states constructed via the Jordan-Schwinger mechanism with two q-deformed oscillators. {\\it Keywords :} quantum logic gates ; q-deformed oscillators ; quantum computation {\\it PACS:} 03.67.Lx ; 02.20.Uw

  18. The gated community: residents' crime experience and perception of safety behind gates and fences in the urban area

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Kim, Suk Kyung

    2006-10-30T23:59:59.000Z

    ' perceptions of safety. Gated community residents reported a higher crime rate than nongated community residents. In addition to gates and fences that define apartment territory, such elements as patrol services, bright lighting, direct emergency buttons...

  19. Quantum gates via relativistic remote control

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Eduardo Martin-Martinez; Chris Sutherland

    2014-10-30T23:59:59.000Z

    We harness general relativistic effects to gain quantum control on a stationary qubit in an optical cavity by controlling the non-inertial motion of a different probe atom. Furthermore, we show that by considering relativistic trajectories of the probe, we enhance the efficiency of the quantum control. We explore the possible use of these relativistic techniques to build universal quantum gates.

  20. Retention and switching kinetics of protonated gate field effect transistors

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    DEVINE,R.A.B.; HERRERA,GILBERT V.

    2000-05-23T23:59:59.000Z

    The switching and memory retention time has been measured in 50 {micro}m gatelength pseudo-non-volatile memory MOSFETS containing, protonated 40 nm gate oxides. Times of the order of 3.3 seconds are observed for fields of 3 MV cm{sup {minus}1}. The retention time with protons placed either at the gate oxide/substrate or gate oxide/gate electrode interfaces is found to better than 96{percent} after 5,000 seconds. Measurement of the time dependence of the source-drain current during switching provides clear evidence for the presence of dispersive proton transport through the gate oxide.

  1. Retention and Switching Kinetics of Protonated Gate Field Effect Transistors

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    DEVINE,R.A.B.; HERRERA,GILBERT V.

    2000-06-27T23:59:59.000Z

    The switching and memory retention time has been measured in 50 {micro}m gatelength pseudo-non-volatile memory MOSFETs containing, protonated 40 nm gate oxides. Times of the order of 3.3 seconds are observed for fields of 3 MV cm{sup {minus}1}. The retention time with protons placed either at the gate oxide/substrate or gate oxide/gate electrode interfaces is found to better than 96% after 5,000 seconds. Measurement of the time dependence of the source-drain current during switching provides clear evidence for the presence of dispersive proton transport through the gate oxide.

  2. Characterizing the geometrical edges of nonlocal two-qubit gates

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    S. Balakrishnan; R. Sankaranarayanan

    2009-05-30T23:59:59.000Z

    Nonlocal two-qubit gates are geometrically represented by tetrahedron known as Weyl chamber within which perfect entanglers form a polyhedron. We identify that all edges of the Weyl chamber and polyhedron are formed by single parametric gates. Nonlocal attributes of these edges are characterized using entangling power and local invariants. In particular, SWAP (power)alpha family of gates constitutes one edge of the Weyl chamber with SWAP-1/2 being the only perfect entangler. Finally, optimal constructions of controlled-NOT using SWAP-1/2 gate and gates belong to three edges of the polyhedron are presented.

  3. Classification of transversal gates in qubit stabilizer codes

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Jonas T. Anderson; Tomas Jochym-O'Connor

    2014-09-29T23:59:59.000Z

    This work classifies the set of diagonal gates that can implement a single or two-qubit transversal logical gate for qubit stabilizer codes. We show that individual physical gates on the underlying qubits that compose the code are restricted to have entries of the form $e^{i \\pi c/2^k}$ along their diagonal, resulting in a similarly restricted class of logical gates that can be implemented in this manner. Moreover, we show that all diagonal logical gates that can be implemented transversally by individual physical diagonal gates must belong to the Clifford hierarchy. Furthermore, we can use this result to prove a conjecture about transversal gates made by Zeng et al. in 2007.

  4. Method for voltage-gated protein fractionation

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Hatch, Anson (Tracy, CA); Singh, Anup K. (Danville, CA)

    2012-04-24T23:59:59.000Z

    We report unique findings on the voltage dependence of protein exclusion from the pores of nanoporous polymer exclusion membranes. The pores are small enough that proteins are excluded from passage with low applied electric fields, but increasing the field enables proteins to pass through. The requisite field necessary for a change in exclusion is protein-specific with a correlation to protein size. The field-dependence of exclusion is important to consider for preconcentration applications. The ability to selectively gate proteins at exclusion membranes is also a promising means for manipulating and characterizing proteins. We show that field-gated exclusion can be used to selectively remove proteins from a mixture, or to selectively trap protein at one exclusion membrane in a series.

  5. A laser-programmable gate array

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Gullette, James Benjamin

    1985-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    was investigated. A novel approach to the personalization of digital NMOS semicustom devices using laser re- structuring techinques was developed to expand the capabilities of current devices. A laser-programmable device offers logic designers an alternative... are determined the metal mask is designed and the final product is produced by completing the metallizat, ion on the preprocessed chips. B. Trade-ops Gate arrays have many advantages over fully custom integrated circuits 11''. This semicustom approach...

  6. Measures of operator entanglement of two-qubit gates

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Balakrishnan, S

    2011-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Two different measures of operator entanglement of two-qubit gates, namely, Schmidt strength and linear entropy, are studied. While these measures are shown to have one-to-one relation between them for Schmidt number 2 class of gates, no such relation exists for Schmidt number 4 class, implying that the measures are inequivalent in general. Further, we establish a simple relation between linear entropy and local invariants of two-qubit gates. The implication of the relation is discussed.

  7. Classification of nonlocal two-qubit gates using Schmidt number

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    S Balakrishnan; Leona J Felicia; R Sankaranarayanan

    2010-03-31T23:59:59.000Z

    It is known from Schmidt decomposition that Schmidt number of nonlocal two-qubit quantum gates is 2 or 4. We identify conditions on geometrical points of a gate to have Schmidt number 2. A simple analysis reveals that Schmidt number 2 corresponds to controlled unitary gates with CNOT being the only perfect entangler. Further, it is shown that Schmidt strength and entangling power are maximum only for CNOT in the controlled unitary family.

  8. Classification of nonlocal two-qubit gates using Schmidt number

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Balakrishnan, S; Sankaranarayanan, R

    2009-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    It is known from Schmidt decomposition that Schmidt number of nonlocal two-qubit quantum gates is 2 or 4. We identify conditions on geometrical points of a gate to have Schmidt number 2. A simple analysis reveals that Schmidt number 2 corresponds to controlled unitary gates with CNOT being the only perfect entangler. Further, it is shown that Schmidt strength and entangling power are maximum only for CNOT in the controlled unitary family.

  9. Measures of operator entanglement of two-qubit gates

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    S. Balakrishnan; R. Sankaranarayanan

    2011-06-21T23:59:59.000Z

    Two different measures of operator entanglement of two-qubit gates, namely, Schmidt strength and linear entropy, are studied. While these measures are shown to have one-to-one relation between them for Schmidt number 2 class of gates, no such relation exists for Schmidt number 4 class, implying that the measures are inequivalent in general. Further, we establish a simple relation between linear entropy and local invariants of two-qubit gates. The implication of the relation is discussed.

  10. PIA - Savannah River Nuclear Solution (SRNS) MedGate Occupational...

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    (OHS) (Includes the Drug and Alcohol Testing System (Assistant)) PIA - Savannah River Nuclear Solution (SRNS) MedGate Occupational Health and Safety Medical System (OHS)...

  11. Quantifying Cradle-to-Farm Gate Life Cycle Impacts Associated...

    Energy Savers [EERE]

    Life Cycle Impacts Associated with Fertilizer used for Corn, Soybean, and Stover Production Quantifying Cradle-to-Farm Gate Life Cycle Impacts Associated with Fertilizer used...

  12. GATE Center of Excellence at UAB in Lightweight Materials for...

    Broader source: Energy.gov (indexed) [DOE]

    February 28, 2008 GATE Center of Excellence at UAB in Lightweight Materials for Automotive Applications Uday Vaidya (Principal Investigator) & J. Barry Andrews (Project Director)...

  13. An elementary optical gate for expanding entanglement web

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Toshiyuki Tashima; Sahin Kaya Ozdemir; Takashi Yamamoto; Masato Koashi; Nobuyuki Imoto

    2008-03-13T23:59:59.000Z

    We introduce an elementary optical gate for expanding polarization entangled W states, in which every pair of photons are entangled alike. The gate is composed of a pair of 50:50 beamsplitters and ancillary photons in the two-photon Fock state. By seeding one of the photons in an $n$-photon W state into this gate, we obtain an $(n+2)$-photon W state after post-selection. This gate gives a better efficiency and a simpler implementation than previous proposals for $\\rm W$-state preparation.

  14. Optical Determination of Gate--Tunable Bandgap in Bilayer Graphene

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Zhang, Yuanbo

    2010-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Tunable Bandgap in Bilayer Graphene Yuanbo Zhang* 1 , Tsung-gate-tunable bandgap in graphene bilayers with magnitude asbands. In two- dimensional graphene bilayers this bandgap

  15. Vehicle Technologies Office Merit Review 2014: GATE Center of...

    Broader source: Energy.gov (indexed) [DOE]

    GATE Center of Excellence at UAB for Lightweight Materials and Manufacturing for Automotive, Truck and Mass Transit. lm081vaidya2014o.pdf More Documents & Publications...

  16. GATE Center of Excellence at UAB for Lightweight Materials and...

    Broader source: Energy.gov (indexed) [DOE]

    at UAB for Lightweight Materials and Manufacturing for Automotive, Truck and Mass Transit GATE Center of Excellence at UAB for Lightweight Materials and Manufacturing for...

  17. Penn State DOE Graduate Automotive Technology Education (Gate...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    State DOE Graduate Automotive Technology Education (Gate) Program for In-Vehicle, High-Power Energy Storage Systems Penn State DOE Graduate Automotive Technology Education...

  18. Gate Fidelities, Quantum Broadcasting, and Assessing Experimental Realization

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Hyang-Tag Lim; Young-Sik Ra; Yong-Su Kim; Yoon-Ho Kim; Joonwoo Bae

    2011-06-29T23:59:59.000Z

    We relate gate fidelities of experimentally realized quantum operations to the broadcasting property of their ideal operations, and show that the more parties a given quantum operation can broadcast to, the higher gate fidelities of its experimental realization are in general. This is shown by establishing the correspondence between two operational quantities, quantum state shareability and quantum broadcasting. This suggests that, to assess an experimental realization using gate fidelities, the worst case of realization such as noisy operations should be taken into account and then compared to obtained gate fidelities. In addition, based on the correspondence, we also translate results in quantum state shareability to their counterparts in quantum operations.

  19. An overview of the gate and panel industry

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Fisher, C. West

    2000-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    OF CONTENTS I. Introduction II. Market Review lll Critical Factors IV. Gate and Panel Fvaluation A Table 1. Light Duty Gate B. Table 2. Medium Duty Gate C. Table 3. Heavy Duty Gate D. Table 4 Light Duty Panel B Table 5. Medium Duty Panel R Table 6... of their cost and convience. MARKET REVIEW There are a multitude of companies that manufacture portable handling facilities from the basic panel components to complete corral layouts. Just like with cattle breeds, there are a wide variety of manufactured...

  20. Gate-teleportation-based blind quantum computation

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Mear M. R. Koochakie

    2014-12-25T23:59:59.000Z

    Blind quantum computation (BQC) is a model in which a computation is performed on a server by a client such that the server is kept blind about the input, the algorithm, and the output of the computation. Here we layout a general framework for BQC which, unlike the previous BQC models, does not constructed on specific computational model. A main ingredient of our construction is gate teleportation. We demonstrate that our framework can be straightforwardly implemented on circuit-based models as well as measurement-based models of quantum computation. We illustrate our construction by showing that universal BQC is possible on correlation-space measurement-based quantum computation models.

  1. Gates, Oregon: Energy Resources | Open Energy Information

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page onYou are now leaving Energy.gov You are now leaving Energy.gov You are8COaBulkTransmissionSitingProcess.pdf Jump1946865°,Park, Texas: EnergyGarvin County,|GasconadeOhio: EnergyGates,

  2. An FPGA Architecture Supporting Dynamically Controlled Power Gating

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Wilton, Steve

    An FPGA Architecture Supporting Dynamically Controlled Power Gating Assem A. M. Bsoul 1 and Steven at reducing leakage power. However, previous techniques focus on statically- controlled power gating. In this paper, we propose a modification to the fabric of an FPGA that enables dynamically-controlled power

  3. DEFINITION OF MOTIONLESS PHASES FOR MONITORING GATED RECONSTRUCTION

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Boyer, Edmond

    of gating signals that are generated from an abdominal pressure variation signal. This method is considering at the beginning of steady phase of studied organs Objectives Study Protocol Abdominal pressure signal and Gating Average period of pressure variation µ0 = 770, 86 ms Standard deviation 10 = 72,25 ms : High value due

  4. University of Illinois at Urbana Champaigns GATE Center forAdvanced...

    Energy Savers [EERE]

    of Illinois at Urbana Champaigns GATE Center forAdvanced Automotive Bio-Fuel Combustion Engines University of Illinois at Urbana Champaigns GATE Center forAdvanced...

  5. University of Illinois at Urbana-Champaigns GATE Center for...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Urbana-Champaigns GATE Center for Advanced Automotive Bio-Fuel Combustion Engines University of Illinois at Urbana-Champaigns GATE Center for Advanced Automotive Bio-Fuel...

  6. US DOE Sponsored Graduate Automotive Technology Education (GATE) Program at Penn State Emphasizing

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Lee, Dongwon

    US DOE Sponsored Graduate Automotive Technology Education (GATE) Program at Penn State Emphasizing in the automotive industry and academia. Develop relationships between GATE students, faculty, employers

  7. Graphene terahertz modulators by ionic liquid gating

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Wu, Yang; Qiu, Xuepeng; Liu, Jingbo; Deorani, Praveen; Banerjee, Karan; Son, Jaesung; Chen, Yuanfu; Chia, Elbert E M; Yang, Hyunsoo

    2015-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Graphene based THz modulators are promising due to the conical band structure and high carrier mobility of graphene. Here, we tune the Fermi level of graphene via electrical gating with the help of ionic liquid to control the THz transmittance. It is found that, in the THz range, both the absorbance and reflectance of the device increase proportionately to the available density of states due to intraband transitions. Compact, stable, and repeatable THz transmittance modulation up to 93% (or 99%) for a single (or stacked) device has been demonstrated in a broad frequency range from 0.1 to 2.5 THz, with an applied voltage of only 3 V at room temperature.

  8. Decomposition of bipartite and multipartite unitary gates into the product of controlled unitary gates

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Lin Chen; Li Yu

    2015-03-18T23:59:59.000Z

    We show that any unitary operator on the $d_A\\times d_B$ system ($d_A\\ge 2$) can be decomposed into the product of at most $4d_A-5$ controlled unitary operators. The number can be reduced to $2d_A-1$ when $d_A$ is a power of two. We also prove that three controlled unitaries can implement a bipartite complex permutation operator, and discuss the connection to an analogous result on classical reversible circuits. We further show that any $n$-partite unitary on the space $\\mathbb{C}^{d_1}\\otimes...\\otimes\\mathbb{C}^{d_n}$ is the product of at most $[2\\prod^{n-1}_{j=1}(2d_j-2)-1]$ controlled unitary gates, each of which is controlled from $n-1$ systems. The number can be further reduced for $n=4$. We also decompose any bipartite unitary into the product of a simple type of bipartite gates and some local unitaries. We derive dimension-independent upper bounds for the CNOT-gate cost or entanglement cost of bipartite permutation unitaries (with the help of ancillas of fixed size) as functions of the Schmidt rank of the unitary. It is shown that such costs under a simple protocol are related to the log-rank conjecture in communication complexity theory via the link of nonnegative rank.

  9. Gated x-ray detector for the National Ignition Facility

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Oertel, John A.; Aragonez, Robert; Archuleta, Tom; Barnes, Cris; Casper, Larry; Fatherley, Valerie; Heinrichs, Todd; King, Robert; Landers, Doug; Lopez, Frank; Sanchez, Phillip; Sandoval, George; Schrank, Lou; Walsh, Peter; Bell, Perry; Brown, Matt; Costa, Robert; Holder, Joe; Montelongo, Sam; Pederson, Neal [Los Alamos National Laboratory, Los Alamos, New Mexico 87544 (United States); Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory, Livermore, California 94551-0808 (United States); VI Control Systems Ltd., Los Alamos, New Mexico 87544 (United States)

    2006-10-15T23:59:59.000Z

    Two new gated x-ray imaging cameras have recently been designed, constructed, and delivered to the National Ignition Facility in Livermore, CA. These gated x-Ray detectors are each designed to fit within an aluminum airbox with a large capacity cooling plane and are fitted with an array of environmental housekeeping sensors. These instruments are significantly different from earlier generations of gated x-ray images due, in part, to an innovative impedance matching scheme, advanced phosphor screens, pulsed phosphor circuits, precision assembly fixturing, unique system monitoring, and complete remote computer control. Preliminary characterization has shown repeatable uniformity between imaging strips, improved spatial resolution, and no detectable impedance reflections.

  10. Scanning Gate Spectroscopy and Its Application to Carbon Nanotube Defects

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Collins, Philip G

    2011-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    24) Sarid, D. Exploring Scanning Probe Microscopy withS. V. ; Gruverman, A. Scanning probe microscopy: electricalLETTER pubs.acs.org/NanoLett Scanning Gate Spectroscopy and

  11. Micro-mechanical logic for field produceable gate arrays

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Prakash, Manu

    2005-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    A paradigm of micro-mechanical gates for field produceable logic is explored. A desktop manufacturing system is sought after which is capable of printing functional logic devices in the field. A logic scheme which induces ...

  12. A comprehensive test method for reprogammable field programmable gate arrays

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Ashen, David Glen

    1996-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    In this thesis, a new test algorithm for reprogrammable field programmable gate arrays (FPGAs) is developed. The fault models consisting of stuck-at faults, bridge faults, programmable switch stuck-on, and stuck-off faults, are utilized. Both...

  13. Rapidly reconfigurable all-optical universal logic gate

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Goddard, Lynford L. (Hayward, CA); Bond, Tiziana C. (Livermore, CA); Kallman, Jeffrey S. (Pleasanton, CA)

    2010-09-07T23:59:59.000Z

    A new reconfigurable cascadable all-optical on-chip device is presented. The gate operates by combining the Vernier effect with a novel effect, the gain-index lever, to help shift the dominant lasing mode from a mode where the laser light is output at one facet to a mode where it is output at the other facet. Since the laser remains above threshold, the speed of the gate for logic operations as well as for reprogramming the function of the gate is primarily limited to the small signal optical modulation speed of the laser, which can be on the order of up to about tens of GHz. The gate can be rapidly and repeatedly reprogrammed to perform any of the basic digital logic operations by using an appropriate analog optical or electrical signal at the gate selection port. Other all-optical functionality includes wavelength conversion, signal duplication, threshold switching, analog to digital conversion, digital to analog conversion, signal routing, and environment sensing. Since each gate can perform different operations, the functionality of such a cascaded circuit grows exponentially.

  14. Ultrafast gating of proximity-focused microchannel-plate intensifiers

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Lundy, A.S.; Iverson, A.E.

    1982-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Proximity-focused, microchannel-plate (MCP) image intensifiers have been used at Los Alamos for many years to allow single frame film and video exposure times in the range of 2.5 to 10 ns. There is now a program to reduce gating times to < 1 ns. This paper reviews previous work and the problems in achieving good resolution with gating times of < 1 ns. The key problems involve applying fast electrical gating signals to the tube elements. We present computer modeling studies of the combined tube, tube connection, and pulser system and show that low photocathode surface resistivity must be obtained to permit fast gating between the photocathode and the MCP input. We discuss ways of making low-resistivity S20 photocathodes, using gallium arsenide photocathodes, and various means of gating the tubes. A variety of pulser designs are being experimentally evaluated including spark gaps, avalanche transistors, Krytron tubes with sharpening gaps, step recovery diodes, and photoconductive elements (PCEs). The results of these studies are presented. Because of the high capacitances involved in most gating schemes, the tube connection geometry must be of low-impedance design, and our solution is presented. Finally, ways of testing these high-speed camera systems are discussed.

  15. Filter design for hybrid spin gates

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Andreas Albrecht; Martin B. Plenio

    2015-04-14T23:59:59.000Z

    The impact of control sequences on the environmental coupling of a quantum system can be described in terms of a filter. Here we analyze how the coherent evolution of two interacting spins subject to periodic control pulses, at the example of a nitrogen vacancy center coupled to a nuclear spin, can be described in the filter framework in both the weak and the strong coupling limit. A universal functional dependence around the filter resonances then allows for tuning the coupling type and strength. Originally limited to small rotation angles, we show how the validity range of the filter description can be extended to the long time limit by time-sliced evolution sequences. Based on that insight, the construction of tunable, noise decoupled, conditional gates composed of alternating pulse sequences is proposed. In particular such an approach can lead to a significant improvement in fidelity as compared to a strictly periodic control sequence. Moreover we analyze the decoherence impact, the relation to the filter for classical noise known from dynamical decoupling sequences, and we outline how an alternating sequence can improve spin sensing protocols.

  16. Impulse radar with swept range gate

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    McEwan, Thomas E. (Livermore, CA)

    1998-09-08T23:59:59.000Z

    A radar range finder and hidden object locator is based on ultra-wide band radar with a high resolution swept range gate. The device generates an equivalent time amplitude scan with a typical range of 4 inches to 20 feet, and an analog range resolution as limited by a jitter of on the order of 0.01 inches. A differential sampling receiver is employed to effectively eliminate ringing and other aberrations induced in the receiver by the near proximity of the transmit antenna (10), so a background subtraction is not needed, simplifying the circuitry while improving performance. Techniques are used to reduce clutter in the receive signal, such as decoupling the receive (24) and transmit cavities (22) by placing a space between them, using conductive or radiative damping elements on the cavities, and using terminating plates on the sides of the openings. The antennas can be arranged in a side-by-side parallel spaced apart configuration or in a coplanar opposed configuration which significantly reduces main bang coupling.

  17. Impulse radar with swept range gate

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    McEwan, T.E.

    1998-09-08T23:59:59.000Z

    A radar range finder and hidden object locator is based on ultra-wide band radar with a high resolution swept range gate. The device generates an equivalent time amplitude scan with a typical range of 4 inches to 20 feet, and an analog range resolution as limited by a jitter of on the order of 0.01 inches. A differential sampling receiver is employed to effectively eliminate ringing and other aberrations induced in the receiver by the near proximity of the transmit antenna, so a background subtraction is not needed, simplifying the circuitry while improving performance. Techniques are used to reduce clutter in the receive signal, such as decoupling the receive and transmit cavities by placing a space between them, using conductive or radiative damping elements on the cavities, and using terminating plates on the sides of the openings. The antennas can be arranged in a side-by-side parallel spaced apart configuration or in a coplanar opposed configuration which significantly reduces main bang coupling. 25 figs.

  18. Under-gate defect formation in Ni-gate AlGaN/GaN high electron mobility transistors

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Florida, University of

    energy loss spectroscopy [23]. In contrast, HEMTs utilizing a Pt liner layer did not show the same gate electrical contact to the 2DEG. However, when stressing occurs in O2 or air, the O2 present reacts

  19. Ge MOS Characteristics with CVD HfO2 Gate Dielectrics and TaN Gate Electrode W. P. Bai*, N. Lu*, J. Liu*, A. Ramirez**, D. L. Kwong*, D. Wristers**, A. Ritenour#

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Ge MOS Characteristics with CVD HfO2 Gate Dielectrics and TaN Gate Electrode W. P. Bai*, N. Lu*, J, we report for the first time Ge MOS characteristics with ultra thin rapid thermal CVD HfO2 gate dielectrics and TaN gate electrode. Using the newly developed pre- gate cleaning and NH3-based Ge surface

  20. Identification of a reversible quantum gate: assessing the resources

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Giulio Chiribella; Giacomo Mauro D'Ariano; Martin Roetteler

    2014-09-12T23:59:59.000Z

    We assess the resources needed to identify a reversible quantum gate among a finite set of alternatives, including in our analysis both deterministic and probabilistic strategies. Among the probabilistic strategies we consider unambiguous gate discrimination, where errors are not tolerated but inconclusive outcomes are allowed, and we prove that parallel strategies are sufficient to unambiguously identify the unknown gate with minimum number of queries. This result is used to provide upper and lower bounds on the query complexity and on the minimum ancilla dimension. In addition, we introduce the notion of generalized t-designs, which includes unitary t-designs and group representations as special cases. For gates forming a generalized t-design we give an explicit expression for the maximum probability of correct gate identification and we prove that there is no gap between the performances of deterministic strategies an those of probabilistic strategies. Hence, evaluating of the query complexity of perfect deterministic discrimination is reduced to the easier problem of evaluating the query complexity of unambiguous discrimination. Finally, we consider discrimination strategies where the use of ancillas is forbidden, providing upper bounds on the number of additional queries needed to make up for the lack of entanglement with the ancillas.

  1. Characterizing the geometrical edges of nonlocal two-qubit gates

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Balakrishnan, S

    2009-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Nonlocal two-qubit gates are geometrically represented by tetrahedron known as Weyl chamber within which the perfect entanglers form a polyhedron. We study the entangling power and local invariants of all the edges of the Weyl chamber and polyhedron. It is found that SWAP -alpha- family of gates with constitute one edge of the Weyl chamber. Using circuit equivalence, it is shown that Controlled-NOT can be constructed from SWAP-1/2, the only perfect entangler in the above family. Further, the three edges of the polyhedron possessing the entangling power of 1/6 are also capable of constructing CNOT. It is observed that all the edges of the geometry are formed by single parametric two-qubit gates.

  2. Double Gated Single Molecular Transistor for Charge Detection

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    S. J. Ray; R. Chowdhury

    2014-11-09T23:59:59.000Z

    The electrostatic behaviour of an 1,3-Cyclobutadiene (C$_{4}$H$_{4}$) based Single Molecular Transistor (SMT) has been investigated using the first principle calculation based on Density functional Theory and non-equilibrium Green's function approach. While the molecule is placed on top of a dielectric layer (backed by a metallic gate) and weakly coupled between the Source/Drain electrodes, the charge stability diagram revealed the presence of individual charge states in the Coulomb Blockade regime. This gets affected significantly on addition of an another gate electrode placed on the top of the molecule. This modified double-gated geometry allows additional control of the total energy of the system that is sensitive to the individual charge states of the molecule which can be used as a charge sensing technique operational at room temperature.

  3. Controlled-NOT Gate Interferometer with a Thermal Source

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Vincenzo Tamma; Johannes Seiler

    2015-05-05T23:59:59.000Z

    We demonstrate a multiphoton interferometer able to reproduce, by using only a thermal source, the operation of a quantum logic gate known as controlled-NOT gate. We show how 100%-visibility correlations typical of any Bell state can be obtained by performing polarization correlation measurements in the fluctuation of the number of photons at the interferometer output. The physics of multiphoton interference at the heart of this proposal can be readily used, in general, for the implementation of arbitrary-dimension bosonic networks leading to arbitrary-order entanglement-like correlations.

  4. Isolated-attosecond-pulse generation with infrared double optical gating

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Lan Pengfei; Takahashi, Eiji J.; Midorikawa, Katsumi [Extreme Photonics Research Group, RIKEN Advanced Science Institute, 2-1 Hirosawa, Wako, Saitama 351-0198 (Japan)

    2011-06-15T23:59:59.000Z

    We propose and theoretically demonstrate an infrared two-color polarization gating scheme for generating an intense isolated attosecond pulse (IAP) in the multicycle regime. Our simulations show that an IAP can be produced using a multicycle two-color driving pulse with a duration up to 60 fs. Moreover, the carrier-envelope phase (CEP) of the driving laser is not required to be stabilized, although the IAP intensity changes with the CEP slip. Such a gating scheme significantly relaxes the requirements for driving lasers and opens the door to easily create intense IAPs with a high-power conventional multicycle laser pulse.

  5. Self-aligned submicron gate length gallium arsenide MESFET 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Huang, Hsien-Ching

    1987-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    38 21. Proximity cap annealing . 22. Temperature profile of post implant anneal 46 47 23. 24. 25. 26. 27. 28. 29. 30. "Pits" or holes in GaAs post implant anneal without sacrificial cap Silicon monoxide source (bafile box) used.... 16(b)). The bottom resist layer is then further etched in the oxygen plasma to produce undercutting for the desire gate structure. The amount of undercut is determined by the desired length of the gate and is the width of the remaining resist...

  6. Fabrication of a gated gallium arsenide heterostructure resonant tunneling diode

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Kinard, William Brian

    1989-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    , . ' 'CONTACT PAD' PLANAR I ZED POLYAM I DE RECTIFYI CONTACT N DBHS Pig. 2. f'utavvay vieiv of a gated gallium arsenide heterostructure resonant tunneling diode 1018 graded from 10 18 io" 10? (lightly doped) units=cm 8 ?graded from 10 to 18...FABRICATION OF A GATED GALLIL". tl ARSEXIDE HETEROSTRL CTL RF. RESONANT TF'XXELI'XG DIODE A Thesis bt ttrILLIAAI BRIA'. s KI'iARD Subnut ted to the Office of Graduate Studies of Texas AE;M Eniverstty tn partial fulfillment of the requirements...

  7. SAVE THIS | EMAIL THIS | Close Bill and Melinda Gates go back to school

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Knaust, Helmut

    Powered by SAVE THIS | EMAIL THIS | Close Bill and Melinda Gates go back to school Their crusade, is essential, Melinda Gates insisted, "if we're going to make any dent in poverty in America." The idea

  8. UC Davis Fuel Cell, Hydrogen, and Hybrid Vehicle (FCH2V) GATE...

    Energy Savers [EERE]

    UC Davis Fuel Cell, Hydrogen, and Hybrid Vehicle (FCH2V) GATE Center of Excellence UC Davis Fuel Cell, Hydrogen, and Hybrid Vehicle (FCH2V) GATE Center of Excellence Presentation...

  9. Gate-all-around silicon nanowire MOSFETs : top-down fabrication and transport enhancement techniques

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Hashemi, Pouya

    2010-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Scaling MOSFETs beyond 15 nm gate lengths is extremely challenging using a planar device architecture due to the stringent criteria required for the transistor switching. The top-down fabricated, gate-all-around architecture ...

  10. Penn State DOE GATE Center of Exellence for In-Vehicle, High...

    Energy Savers [EERE]

    Penn State DOE GATE Center of Exellence for In-Vehicle, High-Power Energy Storage Systems Penn State DOE GATE Center of Exellence for In-Vehicle, High-Power Energy Storage Systems...

  11. Case Studies on Variation Tolerant and Low Power Design Using Planar Asymmetric Double Gate Transistor

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Singh, Amrinder

    2011-10-21T23:59:59.000Z

    . ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ?? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? Front gate Source Back gate Drain n+n+ p- Body Fig. I.1. Planar double gate NFET DGFETs can be broadly classified into two categories: ? Symmetric: In symmetrical DGFET, the front and the back gate are identical, having same oxide thickness... nanometer regime. In short channel devices, Vth decreases with reduction in channel length. This phenomenon is also known as Vth roll-off. It can lead to significant increase in leakage power. Drain induced barrier lowering (DIBL) is another phenomenon...

  12. Electrical gating effects on the magnetic properties of (Ga,Mn)As diluted magnetic semiconductors

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Owen, Man Hon Samuel

    2010-11-16T23:59:59.000Z

    -effect transistor (FET) based on low-doped Ga0.975Mn0.025As was fabricated. It has an in-built n-GaAs back-gate, which, in addition to being a normal gate, enhances the gating effects, especially in the depletion of the epilayer, by decreasing the effective channel...

  13. A FOUR-QUADRANT FLOATING-GATE SYNAPSE Paul Hasler, Chris Diorio, and Bradley A. Minch

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Diorio, Chris

    and to the drain. We present experi- mental measurements from a oating-gate synapse that si- multaniously computes, typical of hebbian and backpropagation learning rules, between the input and drain voltages. Our four gate; the form of this rule depends on how various error signals are fed back to the oating gate. 1

  14. Tradeoffs between Gate Oxide Leakage and Delay for Dual ToxToxTox Circuits

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Sapatnekar, Sachin

    lead to gate oxide leakage current (Igate), are coming into play from the 90nm node onwards. AccordingTradeoffs between Gate Oxide Leakage and Delay for Dual ToxToxTox Circuits Anup Kumar Sultania Department of ECE University of Minnesota Minneapolis, MN 55455. sachin@ece.umn.edu ABSTRACT Gate oxide

  15. Worry Is Associated With Impaired Gating of Threat From Working Memory

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Larson, Christine L.

    Emotion Worry Is Associated With Impaired Gating of Threat From Working Memory Daniel M. Stout, C. L. (2014, August 25). Worry Is Associated With Impaired Gating of Threat From Working Memory Is Associated With Impaired Gating of Threat From Working Memory Daniel M. Stout University of Wisconsin

  16. Gate-First AlGaN/GaN HEMT Technology for High-Frequency Applications

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Piner, Edwin L.

    This letter describes a gate-first AlGaN/GaN high-electron mobility transistor (HEMT) with a W/high-k dielectric gate stack. In this new fabrication technology, the gate stack is deposited before the ohmic contacts, and ...

  17. Learning Methods for Lung Tumor Markerless Gating in Image-Guided Radiotherapy

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Dy, Jennifer G.

    Learning Methods for Lung Tumor Markerless Gating in Image-Guided Radiotherapy Ying Cui Dept. For gated lung cancer radiotherapy, it is difficult to generate ac- curate gating signals due to the large techniques, we apply them on five sequences of fluoroscopic images from five lung cancer patients against

  18. Optical gating of perylene bisimide fluorescence using dithienylcyclopentene photochromic switches

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Pärs, Martti; Köhler, Jürgen, E-mail: juergen.koehler@uni-bayreuth.de [Experimental Physics IV, University of Bayreuth, 95440 Bayreuth (Germany)] [Experimental Physics IV, University of Bayreuth, 95440 Bayreuth (Germany); Gräf, Katja; Bauer, Peter; Thelakkat, Mukundan [Applied Functional Polymers, University of Bayreuth, 95440 Bayreuth (Germany)] [Applied Functional Polymers, University of Bayreuth, 95440 Bayreuth (Germany)

    2013-11-25T23:59:59.000Z

    The emission of millions of fluorescence photons from a chromophore is controlled by the absorption of a few tens of photons in a photochromic molecule. The parameters that determine the efficiency of this process are investigated, providing insights for the development of an all-optical gate.

  19. Gating and regulation of connexin 43 (Cx43) hemichannels

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Newman, Eric A.

    Gating and regulation of connexin 43 (Cx43) hemichannels Jorge E. Contreras* , Juan C. Sa Connexin 43 (Cx43) nonjunctional or ``unapposed'' hemichannels can open under physiological or pathological conditions. We char- acterize hemichannels comprised of Cx43 or Cx43-EGFP (Cx43 with enhanced GFP fused

  20. Advanced Gate Drive for the SNS High Voltage Converter Modulator

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Nguyen, M.N.; Burkhart, C.; Kemp, M.A.; /SLAC; Anderson, D.E.; /Oak Ridge

    2009-05-07T23:59:59.000Z

    SLAC National Accelerator Laboratory is developing a next generation H-bridge switch plate [1], a critical component of the SNS High Voltage Converter Modulator [2]. As part of that effort, a new IGBT gate driver has been developed. The drivers are an integral part of the switch plate, which are essential to ensuring fault-tolerant, high-performance operation of the modulator. The redesigned driver improves upon the existing gate drive in several ways. The new gate driver has improved fault detection and suppression capabilities; suppression of shoot-through and over-voltage conditions, monitoring of dI/dt and Vce(sat) for fast over-current detection and suppression, and redundant power isolation are some of the added features. In addition, triggering insertion delay is reduced by a factor of four compared to the existing driver. This paper details the design and performance of the new IGBT gate driver. A simplified schematic and description of the construction are included. The operation of the fast over-current detection circuits, active IGBT over-voltage protection circuit, shoot-through prevention circuitry, and control power isolation breakdown detection circuit are discussed.

  1. Three-qubit phase gate based on cavity quantum electrodynamics

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Chang, Jun-Tao; Zubairy, M. Suhail

    2008-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    We describe a three-qubit quantum phase gate which is implemented by passing a four-level atom in a cascade configuration initially in its ground state through a three-mode optical cavity. The three qubits are represented by the photons in the three...

  2. Review Article Gate-Level Circuit Reliability Analysis: A Survey

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Chen, Chunhong

    electronic components (such as single electron devices) have demonstrated their nondeterministic characReview Article Gate-Level Circuit Reliability Analysis: A Survey Ran Xiao and Chunhong Chen. Circuit reliability has become a growing concern in today's nanoelectronics, which motivates strong

  3. ECG Gated Tomographic reconstruction for 3-D Rotational Coronary Angiography

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Paris-Sud XI, Université de

    imaging techniques to improve both the safety and the efficacy of coronary angiography interventions the ground for a platform dedicated to the planning and execution of percutaneous coronary inter- ventionsECG Gated Tomographic reconstruction for 3-D Rotational Coronary Angiography Yining HU, Lizhe XIE

  4. An overview of the gate and panel industry 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Fisher, C. West

    2000-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    acquiring raw materials, its pre-fabrication, welding, touch-up, and delivery of the product. My first major responsibility for Texas Gate and Panel was to expand its sales territory. It soon became obvious that a thorough knowledge of my competitors...

  5. Design, Simulation and Modeling of Insulated Gate Bipolar Transistor

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Gupta, Kaustubh

    2013-07-09T23:59:59.000Z

    The market for Insulated Gate Bipolar Transistor (IGBT) is growing and there is a need for techniques to improve the design, modeling and simulation of IGBT. In this thesis, we first developed a new method to optimize the layout and dimensions...

  6. Controlling Wild Mobile Robots Using Virtual Gates and Discrete Transitions

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    LaValle, Steven M.

    Controlling Wild Mobile Robots Using Virtual Gates and Discrete Transitions Leonardo Bobadilla purposely design them to execute wild motions, which means each will strike every open set infinitely often, "wildly behaving" robots that move more-or-less straight until a wall is contacted. They then pick

  7. TECH FORUM: [VERIFIED RTL TO GATES] Efficient RC power grid

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Najm, Farid N.

    TECH FORUM: [VERIFIED RTL TO GATES] Efficient RC power grid verification using node elimination proposes a novel approach to systematically reduce the power grid and accurately compute an upper bound on the voltage drops at power grid nodes that are retained. Furthermore, acriterion for the safety of nodes

  8. Compressed sensing quantum process tomography for superconducting quantum gates

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Andrey V. Rodionov; Andrzej Veitia; R. Barends; J. Kelly; Daniel Sank; J. Wenner; John M. Martinis; Robert L. Kosut; Alexander N. Korotkov

    2014-07-03T23:59:59.000Z

    We apply the method of compressed sensing (CS) quantum process tomography (QPT) to characterize quantum gates based on superconducting Xmon and phase qubits. Using experimental data for a two-qubit controlled-Z gate, we obtain an estimate for the process matrix $\\chi$ with reasonably high fidelity compared to full QPT, but using a significantly reduced set of initial states and measurement configurations. We show that the CS method still works when the amount of used data is so small that the standard QPT would have an underdetermined system of equations. We also apply the CS method to the analysis of the three-qubit Toffoli gate with numerically added noise, and similarly show that the method works well for a substantially reduced set of data. For the CS calculations we use two different bases in which the process matrix $\\chi$ is approximately sparse, and show that the resulting estimates of the process matrices match each ther with reasonably high fidelity. For both two-qubit and three-qubit gates, we characterize the quantum process by not only its process matrix and fidelity, but also by the corresponding standard deviation, defined via variation of the state fidelity for different initial states.

  9. A real-time respiration position based passive breath gating equipment for gated radiotherapy: A preclinical evaluation

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Hu Weigang; Xu Anjie; Li Guichao; Zhang Zhen; Housley, Dave; Ye Jinsong [Department of Radiation Oncology, Fudan University Shanghai Cancer Center and Department of Oncology, Shanghai Medical College, Fudan University, Shanghai 200032 (China); Department of Radiation Oncology, Swedish Cancer Institute, Seattle, Washington 98104 (United States)

    2012-03-15T23:59:59.000Z

    Purpose: To develop a passive gating system incorporating with the real-time position management (RPM) system for the gated radiotherapy. Methods: Passive breath gating (PBG) equipment, which consists of a breath-hold valve, a controller mechanism, a mouthpiece kit, and a supporting frame, was designed. A commercial real-time positioning management system was implemented to synchronize the target motion and radiation delivery on a linear accelerator with the patient's breathing cycle. The respiratory related target motion was investigated by using the RPM system for correlating the external markers with the internal target motion while using PBG for passively blocking patient's breathing. Six patients were enrolled in the preclinical feasibility and efficiency study of the PBG system. Results: PBG equipment was designed and fabricated. The PBG can be manually triggered or released to block or unblock patient's breathing. A clinical workflow was outlined to integrate the PBG with the RPM system. After implementing the RPM based PBG system, the breath-hold period can be prolonged to 15-25 s and the treatment delivery efficiency for each field can be improved by 200%-400%. The results from the six patients showed that the diaphragm motion caused by respiration was reduced to less than 3 mm and the position of the diaphragm was reproducible for difference gating periods. Conclusions: A RPM based PBG system was developed and implemented. With the new gating system, the patient's breath-hold time can be extended and a significant improvement in the treatment delivery efficiency can also be achieved.

  10. Experimental implementation of optimal linear-optical controlled-unitary gates

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Karel Lemr; Karol Bartkiewicz; Antonín ?ernoch; Miloslav Dušek; Jan Soubusta

    2014-10-16T23:59:59.000Z

    We show that it is possible to reduce the number of two-qubit gates needed for the construction of an arbitrary controlled-unitary transformation by up to two times using a tunable controlled-phase gate. On the platform of linear optics, where two-qubit gates can only be achieved probabilistically, our method significantly reduces the amount of components and increases success probability of a two-qubit gate. The experimental implementation of our technique presented in this paper for a controlled single-qubit unitary gate demonstrates that only one tunable controlled-phase gate is needed instead of two standard controlled-NOT gates. Thus, not only do we increase success probability by about one order of magnitude (with the same resources), but also avoid the need for conducting quantum non-demolition measurement otherwise required to join two probabilistic gates. Subsequently, we generalize our method to a higher order, showing that n-times controlled gates can be optimized by replacing blocks of controlled-NOT gates with tunable controlled-phase gates.

  11. Effectiveness of Using Supply Voltage as Back-Gate Bias in Ground Plane SOI Chris H. Kim1

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Kim, Chris H.

    -gate insulator thickness (2nm) for low drain-to-back- gate capacitance and effective tuning of Vt. The front gateEffectiveness of Using Supply Voltage as Back-Gate Bias in Ground Plane SOI MOSFET's Chris H. Kim1 designer has to ensure that this forward bias current through the psub-nwell and drain-body junctions (Fig

  12. Presented at the 2003 USSD Annual Lecture, Charleston, South Carolina. April 2003. SPILLWAY GATE RELIABILITY IN THE CONTEXT OF

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Bowles, David S.

    and operations are listed and illustrated through their application to the Thames Flood Barrier gates

  13. Single shell tank sluicing history and failure frequency

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    HERTZEL, J.S.

    1998-11-10T23:59:59.000Z

    This document assesses the potential for failure of the single-shell tanks (SSTs) that are presumably sound and helps to establish the retrieval priorities for these and the assumed leakers. Furthermore, this report examines probabilities of SST failure as a function of age and operational history, and provides a simple statistical summary of historical leak volumes, leak rates, and corrosion factor.

  14. Hazardous waste dislodging and conveyance: The confined sluicing method

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Summers, D.A.; Fossey, R.D.; Mann, M.D.; Blaine, J.G. [Univ. of Missouri, Rolla, MO (United States). High Pressure Waterjet Lab.; Rinker, M.W. [Pacific Northwest Lab., Richland, WA (United States)

    1994-09-01T23:59:59.000Z

    This report describes an investigation of a means for dislodging and conveying waste currently stored in underground storage tanks. A series of experiments have been carried out to evaluate the potential of a medium pressure, medium flow rate cutting system as a means of dislodging the waste. It has been found that waterjets at a pressure of 10,000 psi can effectively cut the material which has been chosen to simulate the hardened saltcake within the storage tanks. Based on a parameterization test it has thus been calculated that an inlet flow volume of approximately 30 gallons per minute will be sufficient to excavate 30 gallons per minute of waste from a tank. In order to transport the resulting slurry from the tank, a modified jet pump has been developed and has demonstrated its capability of conveying fluid and waste particles, up to one inch in diameter, to a height of more than 60 feet. Experiments were conducted to examine different configurations to achieve the production levels required for waste removal and to clean the walls of residual material. It was found more effective to clean the walls using an inclined angle of impact rather than a perpendicular angle of impact in order to provide a safeguard against driving the water through any cracks in the containment. It was demonstrated that excavation can take place with almost total immediate extraction of the water and debris from the cutting process. The results have qualitatively shown the potential of a medium pressure waterjet system for achieving the required results for underground storage tank waste retrieval.

  15. Part I:Part I: Degradation in 3.2 nm Gate Oxides:Degradation in 3.2 nm Gate Oxides: Effects on Inverter Performance and MOSFETEffects on Inverter Performance and MOSFET

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Anlage, Steven

    1 Part I:Part I: Degradation in 3.2 nm Gate Oxides:Degradation in 3.2 nm Gate Oxides: Effects--Thin GateThin Gate Oxide DegradationOxide Degradation #12;2 AcknowledgmentsAcknowledgments University), ECE Miles Wiscombe (UG), ECE #12;3 Part I:Part I: Degradation in 3.2 nm Gate Oxides:Degradation in 3

  16. Fast adiabatic qubit gates using only $?_z$ control

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    John M. Martinis; Michael R. Geller

    2014-07-17T23:59:59.000Z

    A controlled-phase gate was demonstrated in superconducting Xmon transmon qubits with fidelity reaching 99.4%, relying on the adiabatic interaction between the |11> and |02> states. Here we explain the theoretical concepts behind this protocol that achieves fast gate times with only $\\sigma_z$ control of the Hamiltonian, based on a theory of non-linear mapping of state errors to a power spectral density and use of optimal window functions. With a solution given in the Fourier basis, optimization is shown to be straightforward for practical cases of an arbitrary state change and finite bandwidth of control signals. We find that errors below $10^{-4}$ are readily achievable for realistic control waveforms.

  17. Improved phase gate reliability in systems with neutral Ising anyons

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    David J. Clarke; Kirill Shtengel

    2010-09-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Recent proposals using heterostructures of superconducting and either topologically insulating or semiconducting layers have been put forth as possible platforms for topological quantum computation. These systems are predicted to contain Ising anyons and share the feature of having only neutral edge excitations. In this note, we show that these proposals can be combined with the recently proposed "sack geometry" for implementation of a phase gate in order to conduct robust universal quantum computation. In addition, we propose a general method for adjusting edge tunneling rates in such systems, which is necessary for the control of interferometric devices. The error rate for the phase gate in neutral Ising systems is parametrically smaller than for a similar geometry in which the edge modes carry charge: it goes as $T^3$ rather than $T$ at low temperatures. At zero temperature, the phase variance becomes constant at long times rather than carrying a logarithmic divergence.

  18. Gate-Tunable Graphene Quantum Dot and Dirac Oscillator

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Abdelhadi Belouad; Ahmed Jellal; Youness Zahidi

    2015-05-29T23:59:59.000Z

    We obtain the solution of the Dirac equation in (2+1) dimensions in the presence of a constant magnetic field normal to the plane together with a two-dimensional Dirac-oscillator potential coupling. We study the energy spectrum of graphene quantum dot (QD) defined by electrostatic gates. We give discussions of our results based on different physical settings, whether the cyclotron frequency is similar or larger/smaller compared to the oscillator frequency. This defines an effective magnetic field that produces the effective quantized Landau levels. We study analytically such field in gate-tunable graphene QD and show that our structure allow us to control the valley degeneracy. Finally, we compare our results with already published work and also discuss the possible applications of such QD.

  19. Gate-Tunable Graphene Quantum Dot and Dirac Oscillator

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Belouad, Abdelhadi; Zahidi, Youness

    2015-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    We obtain the solution of the Dirac equation in (2+1) dimensions in the presence of a constant magnetic field normal to the plane together with a two-dimensional Dirac-oscillator potential coupling. We study the energy spectrum of graphene quantum dot (QD) defined by electrostatic gates. We give discussions of our results based on different physical settings, whether the cyclotron frequency is similar or larger/smaller compared to the oscillator frequency. This defines an effective magnetic field that produces the effective quantized Landau levels. We study analytically such field in gate-tunable graphene QD and show that our structure allow us to control the valley degeneracy. Finally, we compare our results with already published work and also discuss the possible applications of such QD.

  20. Reducing the quantum computing overhead with complex gate distillation

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Guillaume Duclos-Cianci; David Poulin

    2014-03-20T23:59:59.000Z

    In leading fault-tolerant quantum computing schemes, accurate transformation are obtained by a two-stage process. In a first stage, a discrete, universal set of fault-tolerant operations is obtained by error-correcting noisy transformations and distilling resource states. In a second stage, arbitrary transformations are synthesized to desired accuracy by combining elements of this set into a circuit. Here, we present a scheme which merges these two stages into a single one, directly distilling complex transformations. We find that our scheme can reduce the total overhead to realize certain gates by up to a few orders of magnitude. In contrast to other schemes, this efficient gate synthesis does not require computationally intensive compilation algorithms, and a straightforward generalization of our scheme circumvents compilation and synthesis altogether.

  1. Entangling characterization of (SWAP)1/m and Controlled unitary gates

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Balakrishnan, S

    2008-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    We study the entangling power and perfect entangler nature of (SWAP)1/m, for m>=1, and controlled unitary (CU) gates. It is shown that (SWAP)1/2 is the only perfect entangler in the family. On the other hand, a subset of CU which is locally equivalent to CNOT is identified. It is shown that the subset, which is a perfect entangler, must necessarily possess the maximum entangling power.

  2. Entangling characterization of (SWAP)1/m and Controlled unitary gates

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    S. Balakrishnan; R. Sankaranarayanan

    2009-01-05T23:59:59.000Z

    We study the entangling power and perfect entangler nature of (SWAP)1/m, for m>=1, and controlled unitary (CU) gates. It is shown that (SWAP)1/2 is the only perfect entangler in the family. On the other hand, a subset of CU which is locally equivalent to CNOT is identified. It is shown that the subset, which is a perfect entangler, must necessarily possess the maximum entangling power.

  3. Photon-photon gates in Bose-Einstein condensates

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Arnaud Rispe; Bing He; Christoph Simon

    2010-09-30T23:59:59.000Z

    It has recently been shown that light can be stored in Bose-Einstein condensates for over a second. Here we propose a method for realizing a controlled phase gate between two stored photons. The photons are both stored in the ground state of the effective trapping potential inside the condensate. The collision-induced interaction is enhanced by adiabatically increasing the trapping frequency and by using a Feshbach resonance. A controlled phase shift of $\\pi$ can be achieved in one second.

  4. Polar Express Cards Can Only Exit Onto 3rd Ave at the Main Entry/Exit Gate, Not on 2nd Ave gate.

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Wagner, Diane

    Polar Express Cards Can Only Exit Onto 3rd Ave at the Main Entry/Exit Gate, Not on 2nd Ave gate Parking with UAF Polar Express Cards: Basic Explanation: Use Your Polar Express Card for Entry and Exit. Problems? If card entry doesn't work, just pull a normal parking ticket and stop in at the booth or main

  5. Optical Determination of Gate--Tunable Bandgap in Bilayer Graphene

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Zhang, Yuanbo; Tang, Tsung-Ta; Girit, Caglar; Hao, Zhao; Martin, Michael C.; Zettl, Alex; Crommie, Michael F.; Shen, Y. Ron; Wang, Feng

    2009-08-11T23:59:59.000Z

    The electronic bandgap is an intrinsic property of semiconductors and insulators that largely determines their transport and optical properties. As such, it has a central role in modern device physics and technology and governs the operation of semiconductor devices such as p-n junctions, transistors, photodiodes and lasers. A tunable bandgap would be highly desirable because it would allow great flexibility in design and optimization of such devices, in particular if it could be tuned by applying a variable external electric field. However, in conventional materials, the bandgap is fixed by their crystalline structure, preventing such bandgap control. Here we demonstrate the realization of a widely tunable electronic bandgap in electrically gated bilayer graphene. Using a dual-gate bilayer graphene field-effect transistor (FET) and infrared microspectroscopy, we demonstrate a gate-controlled, continuously tunable bandgap of up to 250 meV. Our technique avoids uncontrolled chemical doping and provides direct evidence of a widely tunable bandgap -- spanning a spectral range from zero to mid-infrared -- that has eluded previous attempts. Combined with the remarkable electrical transport properties of such systems, this electrostatic bandgap control suggests novel nanoelectronic and nanophotonic device applications based on graphene.

  6. Gate dielectric degradation: Pre-existing vs. generated defects

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Veksler, Dmitry, E-mail: Dmitry.Veksler@sematech.org, E-mail: gennadi.bersuker@sematech.org; Bersuker, Gennadi, E-mail: Dmitry.Veksler@sematech.org, E-mail: gennadi.bersuker@sematech.org [SEMATECH Inc., 257 Fuller Rd., Albany, New York 12203 (United States)

    2014-01-21T23:59:59.000Z

    We consider the possibility that degradation of the electrical characteristics of high-k gate stacks under low voltage stresses of practical interest is caused primarily by activation of pre-existing defects rather than generation of new ones. In nFETs in inversion, in particular, defect activation is suggested to be associated with the capture of an injected electron: in this charged state, defects can participate in a fast exchange of charge carriers with the carrier reservoir (substrate or gate electrode) that constitutes the physical process underlying a variety of electrical measurements. The degradation caused by the activation of pre-existing defects, as opposed to that of new defect generation, is both reversible and exhibits a tendency to saturate through the duration of stress. By using the multi-phonon assisted charge transport description, it is demonstrated that the trap activation concept allows reproducing a variety of experimental results including stress time dependency of the threshold voltage, leakage current, charge pumping current, and low frequency noise. Continuous, long-term degradation described by the power law time dependency is shown to be determined by the activation of defects located in the interfacial SiO{sub 2} layer of the high-k gate stacks. The findings of this study can direct process optimization efforts towards reduction of as-grown precursors of the charge trapping defects as the major factor affecting reliability.

  7. GATE Center for Automotive Fuel Cell Systems at Virginia Tech

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Douglas Nelson

    2011-05-31T23:59:59.000Z

    The Virginia Tech GATE Center for Automotive Fuel Cell Systems (CAFCS) achieved the following objectives in support of the domestic automotive industry: â?¢ Expanded and updated fuel cell and vehicle technologies education programs; â?¢ Conducted industry directed research in three thrust areas â?? development and characterization of materials for PEM fuel cells; performance and durability modeling for PEM fuel cells; and fuel cell systems design and optimization, including hybrid and plug-in hybrid fuel cell vehicles; â?¢ Developed MS and Ph.D. engineers and scientists who are pursuing careers related to fuel cells and automotive applications; â?¢ Published research results that provide industry with new knowledge which contributes to the advancement of fuel cell and vehicle systems commercialization. With support from the Dept. of Energy, the CAFCS upgraded existing graduate course offerings; introduced a hands-on laboratory component that make use of Virginia Techâ??s comprehensive laboratory facilities, funded 15 GATE Fellowships over a five year period; and expanded our program of industry interaction to improve student awareness of challenges and opportunities in the automotive industry. GATE Center graduate students have a state-of-the-art research experience preparing them for a career to contribute to the advancement fuel cell and vehicle technologies.

  8. Use of dMLC for implementation of dynamic respiratory-gated radiation therapy

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Pepin, Eric W.; Wu, Huanmei [Purdue School of Engineering Technology, IUPUI, Indianapolis, Indiana 46202 (United States)] [Purdue School of Engineering Technology, IUPUI, Indianapolis, Indiana 46202 (United States); Shirato, Hiroki [Hokkaido University School of Medicine, Sapporo 060-8638 (Japan)] [Hokkaido University School of Medicine, Sapporo 060-8638 (Japan)

    2013-10-15T23:59:59.000Z

    Purpose: To simulate and evaluate the use of dynamic multileaf collimators (dMLC) in respiratory gating to compensate for baseline drift.Methods: Tumor motion tracking data from 30 lung tumors over 322 treatment fractions was analyzed with the finite state model. A dynamic respiratory gating window was established in real-time by determining the average positions during the previous two end-of-expiration breathing phases and centering the dMLC aperture on a weighted average of these positions. A simulated dMLC with physical motion constraints was used in dynamic gating treatment simulations. Fluence maps were created to provide a statistical description of radiation delivery for each fraction. Duty cycle was also calculated for each fraction.Results: The average duty cycle was 2.3% greater under dynamic gating conditions. Dynamic gating also showed higher fluences and less tumor obstruction. Additionally, dynamic gating required fewer beam toggles and each delivery period was longer on average than with static gating.Conclusions: The use of dynamic gating showed better performance than static gating and the physical constraints of a dMLC were shown to not be an impediment to dynamic gating.

  9. Operator-Schmidt decomposition and the geometrical edges of two-qubit gates

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    S. Balakrishnan; R. Sankaranarayanan

    2011-06-30T23:59:59.000Z

    Nonlocal two-qubit quantum gates are represented by canonical decomposition or equivalently by operator-Schmidt decomposition. The former decomposition results in geometrical representation such that all the two-qubit gates form tetrahedron within which perfect entanglers form a polyhedron. On the other hand, it is known from the later decomposition that Schmidt number of nonlocal gates can be either 2 or 4. In this work, some aspects of later decomposition are investigated. It is shown that two gates differing by local operations possess same set of Schmidt coefficients. Employing geometrical method, it is established that Schmidt number 2 corresponds to controlled unitary gates. Further, all the edges of tetrahedron and polyhedron are characterized using Schmidt strength, a measure of operator entanglement. It is found that one edge of the tetrahedron possesses the maximum Schmidt strength, implying that all the gates in the edge are maximally entangled.

  10. Operator-Schmidt decomposition and the geometrical edges of two-qubit gates

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Balakrishnan, S

    2010-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Nonlocal two-qubit quantum gates are represented by canonical decomposition or equivalently by operator-Schmidt decomposition. The former decomposition results in geometrical representation such that all the two-qubit gates form tetrahedron within which perfect entanglers form a polyhedron. On the other hand, it is known from the later decomposition that Schmidt number of nonlocal gates can be either 2 or 4. In this work, some aspects of later decomposition are investigated. It is shown that two gates differing by local operations possess same set of Schmidt coefficients. Employing geometrical method, it is established that Schmidt number 2 corresponds to controlled unitary gates. Further, all the edges of tetrahedron and polyhedron are characterized using Schmidt strength, a measure of operator entanglement. It is found that one edge of the tetrahedron possesses the maximum Schmidt strength, implying that all the gates in the edge are maximally entangled.

  11. Use of a hard mask for formation of gate and dielectric via nanofilament field emission devices

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Morse, Jeffrey D. (Martinez, CA); Contolini, Robert J. (Lake Oswego, OR)

    2001-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    A process for fabricating a nanofilament field emission device in which a via in a dielectric layer is self-aligned to gate metal via structure located on top of the dielectric layer. By the use of a hard mask layer located on top of the gate metal layer, inert to the etch chemistry for the gate metal layer, and in which a via is formed by the pattern from etched nuclear tracks in a trackable material, a via is formed by the hard mask will eliminate any erosion of the gate metal layer during the dielectric via etch. Also, the hard mask layer will protect the gate metal layer while the gate structure is etched back from the edge of the dielectric via, if such is desired. This method provides more tolerance for the electroplating of a nanofilament in the dielectric via and sharpening of the nanofilament.

  12. Error Compensation of Single-Qubit Gates in a Surface Electrode Ion Trap Using Composite Pulses

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Emily Mount; Chingiz Kabytayev; Stephen Crain; Robin Harper; So-Young Baek; Geert Vrijsen; Steven Flammia; Kenneth R. Brown; Peter Maunz; Jungsang Kim

    2015-04-06T23:59:59.000Z

    The trapped atomic ion qubits feature desirable properties for use in a quantum computer such as long coherence times (Langer et al., 2005), high qubit measurement fidelity (Noek et al., 2013), and universal logic gates (Home et al., 2009). The quality of quantum logic gate operations on trapped ion qubits has been limited by the stability of the control fields at the ion location used to implement the gate operations. For this reason, the logic gates utilizing microwave fields (Brown et al., 2011; Shappert et al., 2013; Harty et al., 2014) have shown gate fidelities several orders of magnitude better than those using laser fields (Knill et al., 2008; Benhelm et al., 2008; Ballance et al., 2014). Here, we demonstrate low-error single-qubit gates performed using stimulated Raman transitions on an ion qubit trapped in a microfabricated chip trap. Gate errors are measured using a randomized benchmarking protocol (Knill et al., 2008; Wallman et al., 2014; Magesan et al., 2012), where amplitude error in the control beam is compensated using various pulse sequence techniques (Wimperis, 1994; Low et al., 2014). Using B2 compensation (Wimperis, 1994), we demonstrate single qubit gates with an average error per randomized Clifford group gate of $3.6(3)\\times10^{-4}$. We also show that compact palindromic pulse compensation sequences (PD$n$) (Low et al., 2014) compensate for amplitude errors as designed.

  13. 2006-2010 GATE program at Ohio State University Center for Automotive...

    Energy Savers [EERE]

    Ohio State University Center for Automotive Research: Modeling, control and system integration of advanced automotive propulsion systems 2006-2010 GATE program at Ohio State...

  14. How to Successfully Implement a Knowledge Management System for the Mechanical Engineering Department at Gating Incorporated

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Mudd, John

    2009-05-15T23:59:59.000Z

    , utilizing some of the strategies, for the implementation of a Knowledge Management System for the Mechanical Engineering Department at Gating Incorporated....

  15. Bill Gates and Deputy Secretary Poneman Discuss the Energy Technology Landscape

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    Bill Gates and Deputy Secretary of Energy Daniel Poneman discuss the future of energy technology during the twenty-second Plenary Meeting of the Nuclear Suppliers Group.

  16. Sandia Energy - ECIS and i-GATE: Innovation Hub Connects Clean...

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    and James Bartridge (CEC) discuss electric vehicle technologies with Fraser Murison Smith (right) of i-GATE NEST client, ElectraDrive. The collaborative effort is...

  17. International Agriculture Fellowship: A Gates Foundation Grand Challenges Exploration in Endophytic Biological Control

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Ferrara, Katherine W.

    International Agriculture Fellowship: A Gates Foundation Grand Challenges Exploration in Endophytic Challenges Explorations Grant (see program overview) to develop crop seeds with endophytic fungal

  18. Fast Out of the Gate: How Developing Asian Countries can Prepare...

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    TOOL Name: Fast Out of the Gate: How Developing Asian Countries can Prepare to Access International Green Growth Financing AgencyCompany Organization: USAID ComplexityEase...

  19. Local implementations of non-local quantum gates in linear entangled channel

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Debashis Saha; Sanket Nandan; Prasanta K. Panigrahi

    2014-08-03T23:59:59.000Z

    In this paper, we demonstrate n-party controlled unitary gate implementations locally on arbitrary remote state through linear entangled channel where control parties share entanglement with the adjacent control parties and only one of them shares entanglement with the target party. In such a network, we describe the protocol of simultaneous implementation of controlled-Hermitian gate starting from three party scenario. We also explicate the implementation of three party controlled-Unitary gate, a generalized form of To?oli gate and subsequently generalize the protocol for n-party using minimal cost.

  20. University of Illinois at Urbana Champaigns GATE Center forAdvanced...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Engines Research Domains for GATE * Biofuels and Properties * Fuel Injection Control and Optimization * Electrospray Systems for Fuels * Fuel Injection, Ignition, Combustion and...

  1. Ocean Gate, New Jersey: Energy Resources | Open Energy Information

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page onYou are now leaving Energy.gov You are now leaving Energy.gov YouKizildere I Geothermal Pwer PlantMunhall,Missouri: EnergyExcellence SeedNunn,andOasys WaterCity, NewGate, New Jersey:

  2. Gate Hours & Services | Stanford Synchrotron Radiation Lightsource

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative1 First Use of Energy for All Purposes (Fuel and Nonfuel), 2002; Level: National5Sales for4,645U.S. DOE Office of Science (SC) Environmental AssessmentsGeoffrey Campbelllong version) The U.S.short version)Gate

  3. Dosimetric evaluation of the interplay effect in respiratory-gated RapidArc radiation therapy

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Riley, Craig [Department of Radiation Oncology, University of Pittsburgh School of Medicine, Pittsburgh, Pennsylvania 15213 (United States)] [Department of Radiation Oncology, University of Pittsburgh School of Medicine, Pittsburgh, Pennsylvania 15213 (United States); Yang, Yong, E-mail: yangy2@upmc.edu; Li, Tianfang; Zhang, Yongqian; Heron, Dwight E.; Huq, M. Saiful [Department of Radiation Oncology, University of Pittsburgh Cancer Institute, Pittsburgh, Pennsylvania 15232 (United States)] [Department of Radiation Oncology, University of Pittsburgh Cancer Institute, Pittsburgh, Pennsylvania 15232 (United States)

    2014-01-15T23:59:59.000Z

    Purpose: Volumetric modulated arc therapy (VMAT) with gating capability has had increasing adoption in many clinics in the United States. In this new technique, dose rate, gantry rotation speed, and the leaf motion speed of multileaf collimators (MLCs) are modulated dynamically during gated beam delivery to achieve highly conformal dose coverage of the target and normal tissue sparing. Compared with the traditional gated intensity-modulated radiation therapy technique, this complicated beam delivery technique may result in larger dose errors due to the intrafraction tumor motion. The purpose of this work is to evaluate the dosimetric influence of the interplay effect for the respiration-gated VMAT technique (RapidArc, Varian Medical Systems, Palo Alto, CA). Our work consisted of two parts: (1) Investigate the interplay effect for different target residual errors during gated RapidArc delivery using a one-dimensional moving phantom capable of producing stable sinusoidal movement; (2) Evaluate the dosimetric influence in ten clinical patients’ treatment plans using a moving phantom driven with a patient-specific respiratory curve. Methods: For the first part of this study, four plans were created with a spherical target for varying residual motion of 0.25, 0.5, 0.75, and 1.0 cm. Appropriate gating windows were applied for each. The dosimetric effect was evaluated using EDR2 film by comparing the gated delivery with static delivery. For the second part of the project, ten gated lung stereotactic body radiotherapy cases were selected and reoptimized to be delivered by the gated RapidArc technique. These plans were delivered to a phantom, and again the gated treatments were compared to static deliveries by the same methods. Results: For regular sinusoidal motion, the dose delivered to the target was not substantially affected by the gating windows when evaluated with the gamma statistics, suggesting the interplay effect has a small role in respiratory-gated RapidArc therapy. Varied results were seen when gated therapy was performed on the patient plans that could only be attributed to differences in patient respiratory patterns. Patients whose plans had the largest percentage of pixels failing the gamma statistics exhibited irregular breathing patterns including substantial interpatient variation in depth of respiration. Conclusions: The interplay effect has a limited impact on gated RapidArc therapy when evaluated with a linear phantom. Variations in patient breathing patterns, however, are of much greater clinical significance. Caution must be taken when evaluating patients’ respiratory efforts for gated arc therapy.

  4. SU-E-J-45: Design and Study of An In-House Respiratory Gating Phantom Platform for Gated Radiotherapy

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Senthilkumar, S [Madurai Medical College ' Govt. Rajaji Hospital, Madurai (India)

    2014-06-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Purpose: The main purpose of this work was to develop an in-house low cost respiratory motion phantom platform for testing the accuracy of the gated radiotherapy system and analyze the dosimetric difference during gated radiotherapy. Methods: An in-house respiratory motion platform(RMP) was designed and constructed for testing the targeting accuracy of respiratory tracking system. The RMP consist of acrylic Chest Wall Platform, 2 DC motors, 4 IR sensors, speed controller circuit, 2 LED and 2 moving rods inside the RMP. The velocity of the movement can be varied from 0 to 30 cycles per minute. The platform mounted to a base using precision linear bearings. The base and platform are made of clear, 15mm thick polycarbonate plastic and the linear ball bearings are oriented to restrict the platform to a movement of approximately 50mm up and down with very little friction. Results: The targeting accuracy of the respiratory tracking system was evaluated using phantom with and without respiratory movement with varied amplitude. We have found the 5% dose difference to the PTV during the movement in comparison with stable PTV. The RMP can perform sinusoidal motion in 1D with fixed peak to peak motion of 5 to 50mm and cycle interval from 2 to 6 seconds. The RMP was designed to be able to simulate the gross anatomical anterior posterior motion attributable to respiration-induced motion of the thoracic region. Conclusion: The unique RMP simulates breathing providing the means to create a comprehensive program for commissioning, training, quality assurance and dose verification of gated radiotherapy treatments. Create the anterior/posterior movement of a target over a 5 to 50 mm distance to replicate tumor movement. The targeting error of the respiratory tracking system is less than 1.0 mm which shows suitable for clinical treatment with highly performance.

  5. Workshop on gate valve pressure locking and thermal binding

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Brown, E.J.

    1995-07-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The purpose of the Workshop on Gate Valve Pressure Locking and Thermal Binding was to discuss pressure locking and thermal binding issues that could lead to inoperable gate valves in both boiling water and pressurized water reactors. The goal was to foster exchange of information to develop the technical bases to understand the phenomena, identify the components that are susceptible, discuss actual events, discuss the safety significance, and illustrate known corrective actions that can prevent or limit the occurrence of pressure locking or thermal binding. The presentations were structured to cover U.S. Nuclear Regulatory Commission staff evaluation of operating experience and planned regulatory activity; industry discussions of specific events, including foreign experience, and efforts to determine causes and alleviate the affects; and valve vendor experience and recommended corrective action. The discussions indicated that identifying valves susceptible to pressure locking and thermal binding was a complex process involving knowledge of components, systems, and plant operations. The corrective action options are varied and straightforward.

  6. Investigation of hole mobility in gate-all-around Si nanowire p-MOSFETs with high-k/metal-gate: Effects of hydrogen thermal annealing and nanowire shape

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Hashemi, Pouya

    A detailed study of hole mobility is presented for gate-all-around Si nanowire p-MOSFETs with conformal high-?/MG and various high-temperature hydrogen annealing processes. Hole mobility enhancement relative to planar SOI ...

  7. Design and characterization of a signal insulation coreless transformer integrated in a CMOS gate driver chip

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Paris-Sud XI, Université de

    Design and characterization of a signal insulation coreless transformer integrated in a CMOS gate the implementation of numerous distinct power transistor gate drivers, the control signal insulation is becoming more results will be shown in order to validate the functionality. I. INTRODUCTION An insulation system

  8. Classification : Original Article VOLTAGE-GATED SODIUM CHANNELS POTENTIATE THE INVASIVE

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Boyer, Edmond

    - gated sodium channels in non-small-cell lung cancer cell lines. Functional voltage-gated sodium channels cancerous cell lines H23, H460 and Calu-1 possess functional sodium channels while normal and weakly metastatic cell lines do not. While all the cell lines expressed mRNA for numerous sodium channel isoforms

  9. [ ]February 2014 The original 1957 Gates pile driving formula is an empirically derived dynamic formula

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Harms, Kyle E.

    [ ]February 2014 PROBLEM The original 1957 Gates pile driving formula is an empirically derived dynamic formula that is used to predict pile capacity in the field during pile installation.The original Gates formula tends to over-predict pile capacity for low driving resistances and under-predict pile

  10. Gated Si nanowires for large thermoelectric power factors Neophytos Neophytou1

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    1 Gated Si nanowires for large thermoelectric power factors Neophytos Neophytou1 and Hans Kosina2 1.Neophytou@warwick.ac.uk Abstract We investigate the effect of electrostatic gating on the thermoelectric power factor of p-type Si, coupled to linearized Boltzmann transport equation for the calculation of the thermoelectric coefficients

  11. Fiber-Optic Stethoscope: A Cardiac Monitoring and Gating System for Magnetic Resonance Microscopy

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Fiber-Optic Stethoscope: A Cardiac Monitoring and Gating System for Magnetic Resonance Microscopy monitoring and gating purposes. The fiber-optic stethoscope system offers a novel approach to measuring cardiac activity that, unlike the ECG, is immune to electromagnetic effects. The fiber-optic stethoscope

  12. An Array-Based Test Circuit for Fully Automated Gate Dielectric Breakdown Characterization

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Kim, Chris H.

    An Array-Based Test Circuit for Fully Automated Gate Dielectric Breakdown Characterization John for efficiently characterizing gate dielectric breakdown. Such a design is highly beneficial when studying this statistical process, where up to thousands of samples are needed to create an accurate time to breakdown

  13. Efficient polarization gating of high-order harmonic generation by polarization-shaped ultrashort pulses

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Silberberg, Yaron

    Polarization gating of high-order harmonic generation takes advantage of the significant reduction of har for generation of polarization gated pulses using wave-plate combinations is inefficient, and propose photon energy radiation from the harmonic spectrum. Need- less to say, the generation of near single

  14. Gating Currents from Kv7 Channels Carrying Neuronal Hyperexcitability Mutations in the Voltage-Sensing Domain

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Bezanilla, Francisco

    unable to provide a detailed assessment of the structural rearrangements underlying channel gating.2 channels both functionally and structurally, were used for these experiments. The data obtained showed activation of gating-pore currents at depolarized potentials. These results reveal that distinct molecular

  15. Coherent molecular transistor: Control through variation of the gate wave function

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Ernzerhof, Matthias, E-mail: Matthias.Ernzerhof@UMontreal.ca [Département de Chimie, Université de Montréal, C.P. 6128 Succursale A, Montréal, Quebec H3C 3J7 (Canada)] [Département de Chimie, Université de Montréal, C.P. 6128 Succursale A, Montréal, Quebec H3C 3J7 (Canada)

    2014-03-21T23:59:59.000Z

    In quantum interference transistors (QUITs), the current through the device is controlled by variation of the gate component of the wave function that interferes with the wave function component joining the source and the sink. Initially, mesoscopic QUITs have been studied and more recently, QUITs at the molecular scale have been proposed and implemented. Typically, in these devices the gate lead is subjected to externally adjustable physical parameters that permit interference control through modifications of the gate wave function. Here, we present an alternative model of a molecular QUIT in which the gate wave function is directly considered as a variable and the transistor operation is discussed in terms of this variable. This implies that we specify the gate current as well as the phase of the gate wave function component and calculate the resulting current through the source-sink channel. Thus, we extend on prior works that focus on the phase of the gate wave function component as a control parameter while having zero or certain discrete values of the current. We address a large class of systems, including finite graphene flakes, and obtain analytic solutions for how the gate wave function controls the transistor.

  16. Controlling the Performance of a Three-Terminal Molecular Transistor: Conformational versus Conventional Gating

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Pandey, Ravi

    University, Houghton, Michigan 49931, United States Shashi P. Karna* U.S. Army Research Laboratory, Weapons *S Supporting Information ABSTRACT: The effect of conformational changes in the gate arm of a three of the gate field. The current modulation is found to reach its maximum only under exclusive effect of voltage

  17. Graphene field-effect transistors based on boron nitride gate dielectrics Inanc Meric1

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Shepard, Kenneth

    Graphene field-effect transistors based on boron nitride gate dielectrics Inanc Meric1 , Cory Dean1, 10027 Tel: (212) 854-2529, Fax: (212) 932-9421, Email: shepard@ee.columbia.edu Abstract Graphene field of graphene, as the gate dielectric. The devices ex- hibit mobility values exceeding 10,000 cm2 /V

  18. Microfluidic logic gates and timers{ Michael W. Toepke, Vinay V. Abhyankar and David J. Beebe*

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Beebe, David J.

    Microfluidic logic gates and timers{ Michael W. Toepke, Vinay V. Abhyankar and David J. Beebe to create a number of microfluidic analogs to electronic circuit components. Three classes of components are demonstrated: (1) OR/AND, NOR/NAND, and XNOR digital microfluidic logic gates; (2) programmable, autonomous

  19. Probabilistic quantum gates between remote atoms through interference of optical frequency qubits

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Madsen, Martin John

    Probabilistic quantum gates between remote atoms through interference of optical frequency qubits L gates on remote trapped atom qubits through interference of optical frequency qubits. The method does be localized well under the Lamb-Dicke limit through laser cooling in a strong trap, the elimination

  20. High Performance Polycrystalline SiGe Thin Film Transistors Using Al2O3 Gate Insulator

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    1 High Performance Polycrystalline SiGe Thin Film Transistors Using Al2O3 Gate Insulator Zhonghe as the gate insulator for low temperature (SiGe thin film transistors (TFTs) has been between the Al2O3 and the SiGe channel layer is sufficiently passivated to make Al2O3 a better alternative

  1. Analytical approach to swift non-leaky entangling gates in superconducting qubits

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Sophia E. Economou; Edwin Barnes

    2014-11-03T23:59:59.000Z

    We develop schemes for designing pulses that implement fast and precise entangling quantum gates in superconducting qubit systems despite the presence of nearby harmful transitions. Our approach is based on purposely involving the nearest harmful transition in the quantum evolution instead of trying to avoid it. Using analytical tools, we design simple microwave control fields that implement maximally entangling gates with fidelities exceeding 99% in times as low as 40 ns. We demonstrate our approach in a two-qubit circuit QED system by designing the two most important quantum entangling gates: a conditional-NOT gate and a conditional-Z gate. Our results constitute an important step toward overcoming the problem of spectral crowding, one of the primary challenges in controlling multi-qubit systems.

  2. A proposal for the realization of universal quantum gates via superconducting qubits inside a cavity

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Obada, A.-S.F. [Faculty of Science, Al-Azhar University, Nasr City, Cairo (Egypt)] [Faculty of Science, Al-Azhar University, Nasr City, Cairo (Egypt); Hessian, H.A. [Faculty of Science, Assiut University, Assiut (Egypt)] [Faculty of Science, Assiut University, Assiut (Egypt); Mohamed, A.-B.A. [Faculty of Science, Assiut University, Assiut (Egypt) [Faculty of Science, Assiut University, Assiut (Egypt); Community College, Salman Bin Abdulaziz University, Al-Aflaj (Saudi Arabia); Homid, Ali H., E-mail: alihimad@yahoo.com [Faculty of Science, Al-Azhar University, Assiut (Egypt)

    2013-07-15T23:59:59.000Z

    A family of quantum logic gates is proposed via superconducting (SC) qubits coupled to a SC-cavity. The Hamiltonian for SC-charge qubits inside a single mode cavity is considered. Three- and two-qubit operations are generated by applying a classical magnetic field with the flux. Therefore, a number of quantum logic gates are realized. Numerical simulations and calculation of the fidelity are used to prove the success of these operations for these gates. -- Highlights: •A family of quantum logic gates is proposed via SC-qubits coupled to a cavity. •Three- and two-qubit operations are generated via a classical field with the flux. •Numerical simulations and calculation of the fidelity are used to prove the success of these operations for these gates.

  3. Experimental Estimation of Average Fidelity of a Clifford Gate on a 7-qubit Quantum Processor

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Dawei Lu; Hang Li; Denis-Alexandre Trottier; Jun Li; Aharon Brodutch; Anthony P. Krismanich; Ahmad Ghavami; Gary I. Dmitrienko; Guilu Long; Jonathan Baugh; Raymond Laflamme

    2014-11-28T23:59:59.000Z

    Quantum gates in experiment are inherently prone to errors that need to be characterized before they can be corrected. Full characterization via quantum process tomography is impractical and often unnecessary. For most practical purposes, it is enough to estimate more general quantities such as the average fidelity. Here we use a unitary 2-design and twirling protocol for efficiently estimating the average fidelity of Clifford gates, to certify a 7-qubit entangling gate in a nuclear magnetic resonance quantum processor. Compared with more than $10^8$ experiments required by full process tomography, we conducted 1656 experiments to satisfy a statistical confidence level of 99%. The average fidelity of this Clifford gate in experiment is 55.1%, and rises to 87.5% if the infidelity due to decoherence is removed. The entire protocol of certifying Clifford gates is efficient and scalable, and can easily be extended to any general quantum information processor with minor modifications.

  4. Investigation of the novel attributes of a single-halo double gate SOI MOSFET: 2D simulation study

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Kumar, M. Jagadesh

    of single halo to the double gate structure results in threshold voltage roll-up, reduced DIBL, high drain the drain voltage variations. This work illustrates the benefits of high performance DG-SH SOI MOS devices gate pþ poly and back gate nþ poly) are becoming popular since this type of structure provides

  5. A CAD tool for the power estimation of CMOS, BiCMOS and BiNMOS gates

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Islam, Kazi Inamul

    1995-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    This thesis describes a CAD tool for the power estimation of CMOS, BiCMOS and BiNMOS gates. Using analytical models for the transient behavior of the gates, accurate estimates of the power dissipated by each type of gate during a typical transition...

  6. Electrically-gated near-field radiative thermal transistor

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Yang, Yue

    2015-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    In this work, we propose a near-field radiative thermal transistor made of two graphene-covered silicon carbide (SiC) plates separated by a nanometer vacuum gap. Thick SiC plates serve as the thermal "source" and "drain", while graphene sheets function as the "gate" to modulate the near-field photon tunneling by tuning chemical potential with applied voltage biases symmetrically or asymmetrically. The radiative heat flux calculated from fluctuational electrodynamics significantly varies with graphene chemical potentials, which can tune the coupling between graphene plasmon across the vacuum gap. Thermal modulation, switching, and amplification, which are the key features required for a thermal transistor, are theoretically realized and analyzed. This work will pave the way to active thermal management, thermal circuits, and thermal computing.

  7. Gas-controlled dynamic vacuum insulation with gas gate

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Benson, David K. (Golden, CO); Potter, Thomas F. (Denver, CO)

    1994-06-07T23:59:59.000Z

    Disclosed is a dynamic vacuum insulation comprising sidewalls enclosing an evacuated chamber and gas control means for releasing hydrogen gas into a chamber to increase gas molecule conduction of heat across the chamber and retrieving hydrogen gas from the chamber. The gas control means includes a metal hydride that absorbs and retains hydrogen gas at cooler temperatures and releases hydrogen gas at hotter temperatures; a hydride heating means for selectively heating the metal hydride to temperatures high enough to release hydrogen gas from the metal hydride; and gate means positioned between the metal hydride and the chamber for selectively allowing hydrogen to flow or not to flow between said metal hydride and said chamber.

  8. Optimal Control for Generating Quantum Gates in Open Dissipative Systems

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    T. Schulte-Herbrueggen; A. Spoerl; N. Khaneja; S. J. Glaser

    2009-05-17T23:59:59.000Z

    Optimal control methods for implementing quantum modules with least amount of relaxative loss are devised to give best approximations to unitary gates under relaxation. The potential gain by optimal control using relaxation parameters against time-optimal control is explored and exemplified in numerical and in algebraic terms: it is the method of choice to govern quantum systems within subspaces of weak relaxation whenever the drift Hamiltonian would otherwise drive the system through fast decaying modes. In a standard model system generalising decoherence-free subspaces to more realistic scenarios, openGRAPE-derived controls realise a CNOT with fidelities beyond 95% instead of at most 15% for a standard Trotter expansion. As additional benefit it requires control fields orders of magnitude lower than the bang-bang decouplings in the latter.

  9. Gas-controlled dynamic vacuum insulation with gas gate

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Benson, D.K.; Potter, T.F.

    1994-06-07T23:59:59.000Z

    Disclosed is a dynamic vacuum insulation comprising sidewalls enclosing an evacuated chamber and gas control means for releasing hydrogen gas into a chamber to increase gas molecule conduction of heat across the chamber and retrieving hydrogen gas from the chamber. The gas control means includes a metal hydride that absorbs and retains hydrogen gas at cooler temperatures and releases hydrogen gas at hotter temperatures; a hydride heating means for selectively heating the metal hydride to temperatures high enough to release hydrogen gas from the metal hydride; and gate means positioned between the metal hydride and the chamber for selectively allowing hydrogen to flow or not to flow between said metal hydride and said chamber. 25 figs.

  10. After-gate attack on a quantum cryptosystem

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Carlos Wiechers; Lars Lydersen; Christoffer Wittmann; Dominique Elser; Johannes Skaar; Christoph Marquardt; Vadim Makarov; Gerd Leuchs

    2010-09-14T23:59:59.000Z

    We present a method to control the detection events in quantum key distribution systems that use gated single-photon detectors. We employ bright pulses as faked states, timed to arrive at the avalanche photodiodes outside the activation time. The attack can remain unnoticed, since the faked states do not increase the error rate per se. This allows for an intercept-resend attack, where an eavesdropper transfers her detection events to the legitimate receiver without causing any errors. As a side effect, afterpulses, originating from accumulated charge carriers in the detectors, increase the error rate. We have experimentally tested detectors of the system id3110 (Clavis2) from ID Quantique. We identify the parameter regime in which the attack is feasible despite the side effect. Furthermore, we outline how simple modifications in the implementation can make the device immune to this attack.

  11. Experimental implementation of the optimal linear-optical controlled phase gate

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Karel Lemr; Antonin Cernoch; Jan Soubusta; Konrad Kieling; Jens Eisert; Miloslav Dusek

    2010-07-27T23:59:59.000Z

    We report on the first experimental realization of optimal linear-optical controlled phase gates for arbitrary phases. The realized scheme is entirely flexible in that the phase shift can be tuned to any given value. All such controlled phase gates are optimal in the sense that they operate at the maximum possible success probabilities that are achievable within the framework of any postselected linear-optical implementation. The quantum gate is implemented using bulk optical elements and polarization encoding of qubit states. We have experimentally explored the remarkable observation that the optimum success probability is not monotone in the phase.

  12. Repeat-until-success cubic phase gate for universal continuous-variable quantum computation

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Kevin Marshall; Raphael Pooser; George Siopsis; Christian Weedbrook

    2014-12-01T23:59:59.000Z

    In order to achieve universal quantum computation using continuous variables, one needs to jump out of the set of Gaussian operations and have a non-Gaussian element, such as the cubic phase gate. However, such a gate is currently very difficult to implement in practice. Here we introduce an experimentally viable 'repeat-until-success' approach to generating the cubic phase gate, which is achieved using sequential photon subtractions and Gaussian operations. We find that our scheme offers benefits in terms of the expected time until success, although we require a primitive quantum memory.

  13. Gates controlled parallel-coupled double quantum dot on both single layer and bilayer graphene

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Lin-Jun Wang; Guo-Ping Guo; Da Wei; Gang Cao; Tao Tu; Ming Xiao; Guang-Can Guo; A. M. Chang

    2011-04-22T23:59:59.000Z

    Here we report the fabrication and quantum transport measurements of gates controlled parallel-coupled double quantum dot on both bilayer and single layer graphene. It is shown that the interdot coupling strength of the parallel double dots can be effectively tuned from weak to strong regime by both the in-plane plunger gates and back gate. All the relevant energy scales and parameters of the graphene parallel-coupled double dot can be extracted from the honeycomb charge stability diagrams revealed through the transport measurements.

  14. Integrated Quantum Controlled-NOT Gate Based on Dielectric-Loaded Surface Plasmon Polariton Waveguide

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    S. M. Wang; Q. Q. Cheng; Y. X. Gong; P. Xu; L. Li; T. Li; S. N. Zhu

    2014-08-09T23:59:59.000Z

    It has been proved that surface plasmon polariton (SPP) can well conserve and transmit the quantum nature of entangled photons. Therefore, further utilization and manipulation of such quantum nature of SPP in a plasmonic chip will be the next task for scientists in this field. In quantum logic circuits, the controlled-NOT (CNOT) gate is the key building block. Here, we implement the first plasmonic quantum CNOT gate with several-micrometer footprint by utilizing a single polarization-dependent beam-splitter (PDBS) fabricated on the dielectric-loaded SPP waveguide (DLSPPW). The quantum logic function of the CNOT gate is characterized by the truth table with an average fidelity of. Its entangling ability to transform a separable state into an entangled state is demonstrated with the visibilities of and for non-orthogonal bases. The DLSPPW based CNOT gate is considered to have good integratability and scalability, which will pave a new way for quantum information science.

  15. Organic Nanodielectrics for Low Voltage Carbon Nanotube Thin Film Transistors and Complementary Logic Gates

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Rogers, John A.

    illustrates the device layout which includes patterned metal source and drain electrodes, a random SWNT serving as substrate and back gate. The SAS nanodielectric multilayer was deposited via solution methods- lithographic patterning of source and drain electrodes

  16. The robustness of magic state distillation against errors in Clifford gates

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Jochym-O'Connor, Tomas; Helou, Bassam; Laflamme, Raymond

    2012-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Quantum error correction and fault-tolerance have provided the possibility for large scale quantum computations without a detrimental loss of quantum information. A very natural class of gates for fault-tolerant quantum computation is the Clifford gate set and as such their usefulness for universal quantum computation is of great interest. Clifford group gates augmented by magic state preparation give the possibility of simulating universal quantum computation. However, experimentally one cannot expect to perfectly prepare magic states. Nonetheless, it has been shown that by repeatedly applying operations from the Clifford group and measurements in the Pauli basis, the fidelity of noisy prepared magic states can be increased arbitrarily close to a pure magic state [1]. We investigate the robustness of magic state distillation to perturbations of the initial states to arbitrary locations in the Bloch sphere due to noise. Additionally, we consider a depolarizing noise model on the quantum gates in the decoding ...

  17. Electrolyte-gated graphene field-effect transistors : modeling and applications

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Mackin, Charles Edward

    2015-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    This work presents a model for electrolyte-gated graphene field-effect transistors (EGFETs) that incorporates the effects of the double layer capacitance and the quantum capacitance of graphene. The model is validated ...

  18. Hafnium-doped tantalum oxide high-k gate dielectric films for future CMOS technology 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Lu, Jiang

    2007-04-25T23:59:59.000Z

    A novel high-k gate dielectric material, i.e., hafnium-doped tantalum oxide (Hf-doped TaOx), has been studied for the application of the future generation metal-oxidesemiconductor field effect transistor (MOSFET). The ...

  19. Vehicle Technologies Office Merit Review 2014: DOE GATE Center of Excellence in Sustainable Vehicle Systems

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    Presentation given by Clemson University at 2014 DOE Hydrogen and Fuel Cells Program and Vehicle Technologies Office Annual Merit Review and Peer Evaluation Meeting about DOE GATE Center of...

  20. Vehicle Technologies Office Merit Review 2015: GATE: Energy Efficient Vehicles for Sustainable Mobility

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    Presentation given by The Ohio State University at 2015 DOE Hydrogen and Fuel Cells Program and Vehicle Technologies Office Annual Merit Review and Peer Evaluation Meeting about GATE: energy...

  1. pH sensing properties of graphene solution-gated field-effect transistors

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Mailly-Giacchetti, Benjamin

    2013-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The use of graphene grown by chemical vapor deposition to fabricate solution-gated field-effect transistors (SGFET) on different substrates is reported. SGFETs were fabricated using graphene transferred on poly(ethylene ...

  2. Vehicle Technologies Office Merit Review 2015: GATE Center of Excellence in Sustainable Vehicle Systems

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    Presentation given by Clemson University at 2015 DOE Hydrogen and Fuel Cells Program and Vehicle Technologies Office Annual Merit Review and Peer Evaluation Meeting about GATE center of excellence...

  3. All-Optical Switch and Transistor Gated by One Stored Photon

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Chen, Wenlan

    The realization of an all-optical transistor, in which one “gate” photon controls a “source” light beam, is a long-standing goal in optics. By stopping a light pulse in an atomic ensemble contained inside an optical ...

  4. A linear programming solution to the gate assignment problem at airport terminals

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Mangoubi, Rami

    1980-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    This research solves the flight-to-gate assignment problem at airports in such a way as to minimize, or at least reduce, walking distances for passengers inside terminals. Two solution methods are suggested. The first is ...

  5. Vehicle Technologies Office Merit Review 2015: GATE Center for Electric Drive Transportation

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    Presentation given by Regents University of Michigan at 2015 DOE Hydrogen and Fuel Cells Program and Vehicle Technologies Office Annual Merit Review and Peer Evaluation Meeting about GATE Center...

  6. Lessons learned in the design and erection of box girder bridges from the West Gate collapse

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Burton, Alia Christine

    2007-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The West Gate Bridge, intended to span the Yarra River in Australia, collapsed during its third year of construction in 1970. Investigation into the project revealed numerous issues in the bridge's design and construction. ...

  7. Energy-aware architectures, circuits and CAD for field programmable gate arrays

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Honoré, Francis

    2006-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Field Programmable Gate Arrays (FPGAs) are a class of hardware reconfigurable logic devices based on look-up tables (LUTs) and programmable interconnect that have found broad acceptance for a wide range of applications. ...

  8. The civic forum in ancient Israel : the form, function, and symbolism of city gates

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Frese, Daniel Allan

    2012-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    of City Gates by Daniel Allan Frese Doctor of Philosophy inC. Michael Hall, and Allan M. Williams. Oxford: Blackwell,in History by Daniel Allan Frese Committee in Charge:

  9. Penn State DOE GATE Center of Exellence for In-Vehicle, High...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    PENN STATE DOE GATE CENTER OF EXCELLENCE FOR IN-VEHICLE, HIGH-POWER ENERGY STORAGE SYSTEMS DOE Merit Review, February 28, 2008 Joel Anstrom, Director "This presentation does not...

  10. Vehicle Technologies Office Merit Review 2014: GATE: Energy Efficient Vehicles for Sustainable Mobility

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    Presentation given by Ohio State University at 2014 DOE Hydrogen and Fuel Cells Program and Vehicle Technologies Office Annual Merit Review and Peer Evaluation Meeting about GATE: energy efficient...

  11. Transient Turbulent Flow Simulation with Water Model Validation and Application to Slide Gate Dithering

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Thomas, Brian G.

    ) 244-6534 Email: bgthomas@illinois.edu Bruce Forman and Hongbin Yin ArcelorMittal Global R&D East) 399-3899 Email: bruce.forman@arcelormittal.com, Hongbin.Yin@arcelormittal.com ABSTRACT Slide gate

  12. X-ray lithographic alignment and overlay applied to double-gate MOSFET fabrication

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Meinhold, Mitchell W., 1972-

    2003-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Double-gate MOSFETs represent a significant solution to transistor scaling problems and promise a dramatic improvement in both performance and power consumption. In this work, a planar lithographic process is presented ...

  13. Scheme for a linear-optical controlled-phase gate with programmable phase shift

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Karel Lemr; Karol Bartkiewicz; Antonín ?ernoch

    2015-03-20T23:59:59.000Z

    We propose a linear-optical scheme for a controlled-phase gate with tunable phase shift set by a program qubit. Analysis of the scheme is provided with considerations for experimental feasibility. We also discuss options for increasing the success probability up to 1/12 which is close the the optimal success probability of a non-programmable tunable controlled-phase gate.

  14. Photon-photon gate via the interaction between two collective Rydberg excitations

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Mohammadsadegh Khazali; Khabat Heshami; Christoph Simon

    2014-07-28T23:59:59.000Z

    We propose a scheme for a deterministic controlled-phase gate between two photons based on the strong interaction between two stationary collective Rydberg excitations in an atomic ensemble. The distance-dependent character of the interaction causes both a momentum displacement of the collective excitations and unwanted entanglement between them. We show that these effects can be overcome by swapping the collective excitations in space and by optimizing the geometry, resulting in a photon-photon gate with high fidelity and efficiency.

  15. Surface mobility near threshold and other parameters of insulated gate field effect transistors

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Gnadinger, Alfred P.

    1970-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    SURFACE MOBILITY NEAR THRESHOLD AND OTHER PARAMETERS OF INSULATED GATE FIELD EFFECT TRANSISTORS BY Alfred P. Gnadinger Dipl. El. Ing. ETH Swiss Federal Institute of Technology, Zurich, 1965 M.S.E.E, University of Kansas, Lawrence, 1968... Committee: May, 1970 RD0107 4S0S0 TO MY WIFE AND OUR PARENTS i ABSTRACT The mobility of the mobile carriers in the inversion layer of an Insulated Gate Field Effect Transistor (IGFET) has been investigated with particular...

  16. Rooted-tree network for optimal non-local gate implementation

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Nilesh Vyas; Debashis Saha; Prasanta K. Panigrahi

    2015-06-28T23:59:59.000Z

    A general quantum network for implementing non-local control-unitary gates, between remote parties at minimal entanglement cost, is shown to be a rooted-tree structure. Starting from a five party scenario, we demonstrate the local implementation of simultaneous control-Hermitian and multiparty control-unitary gates in an arbitrary n-party network. Previously established networks are shown to be special cases of this general construct.

  17. Fault-tolerant logical gates in quantum error-correcting codes

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Fernando Pastawski; Beni Yoshida

    2014-08-07T23:59:59.000Z

    Recently, Bravyi and K\\"onig have shown that there is a tradeoff between fault-tolerantly implementable logical gates and geometric locality of stabilizer codes. They consider locality-preserving operations which are implemented by a constant depth geometrically local circuit and are thus fault-tolerant by construction. In particular, they shown that, for local stabilizer codes in D spatial dimensions, locality preserving gates are restricted to a set of unitary gates known as the D-th level of the Clifford hierarchy. In this paper, we elaborate this idea and provide several extensions and applications of their characterization in various directions. First, we present a new no-go theorem for self-correcting quantum memory. Namely, we prove that a three-dimensional stabilizer Hamiltonian with a locality-preserving implementation of a non-Clifford gate cannot have a macroscopic energy barrier. Second, we prove that the code distance of a D-dimensional local stabilizer code with non-trivial locality-preserving m-th level Clifford logical gate is upper bounded by $O(L^{D+1-m})$. For codes with non-Clifford gates (m>2), this improves the previous best bound by Bravyi and Terhal. Third we prove that a qubit loss threshold of codes with non-trivial transversal m-th level Clifford logical gate is upper bounded by 1/m. As such, no family of fault-tolerant codes with transversal gates in increasing level of the Clifford hierarchy may exist. This result applies to arbitrary stabilizer and subsystem codes, and is not restricted to geometrically-local codes. Fourth we extend the result of Bravyi and K\\"onig to subsystem codes. A technical difficulty is that, unlike stabilizer codes, the so-called union lemma does not apply to subsystem codes. This problem is avoided by assuming the presence of error threshold in a subsystem code, and the same conclusion as Bravyi-K\\"onig is recovered.

  18. GATE Center of Excellence at UAB in Lightweight Materials for Automotive Applications

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    None

    2011-07-31T23:59:59.000Z

    This report summarizes the accomplishments of the UAB GATE Center of Excellence in Lightweight Materials for Automotive Applications. The first Phase of the UAB DOE GATE center spanned the period 2005-2011. The UAB GATE goals coordinated with the overall goals of DOE's FreedomCAR and Vehicles Technologies initiative and DOE GATE program. The FCVT goals are: (1) Development and validation of advanced materials and manufacturing technologies to significantly reduce automotive vehicle body and chassis weight without compromising other attributes such as safety, performance, recyclability, and cost; (2) To provide a new generation of engineers and scientists with knowledge and skills in advanced automotive technologies. The UAB GATE focused on both the FCVT and GATE goals in the following manner: (1) Train and produce graduates in lightweight automotive materials technologies; (2) Structure the engineering curricula to produce specialists in the automotive area; (3) Leverage automotive related industry in the State of Alabama; (4) Expose minority students to advanced technologies early in their career; (5) Develop innovative virtual classroom capabilities tied to real manufacturing operations; and (6) Integrate synergistic, multi-departmental activities to produce new product and manufacturing technologies for more damage tolerant, cost-effective, and lighter automotive structures.

  19. Magic State Distillation and Gate Compilation in Quantum Algorithms for Quantum Chemistry

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Colin J. Trout; Kenneth R. Brown

    2015-01-29T23:59:59.000Z

    Quantum algorithms for quantum chemistry map the dynamics of electrons in a molecule to the dynamics of a coupled spin system. To reach chemical accuracy for interesting molecules, a large number of quantum gates must be applied which implies the need for quantum error correction and fault-tolerant quantum computation. Arbitrary fault-tolerant operations can be constructed from a small, universal set of fault-tolerant operations by gate compilation. Quantum chemistry algorithms are compiled by decomposing the dynamics of the coupled spin-system using a Trotter formula, synthesizing the decomposed dynamics using Clifford operations and single-qubit rotations, and finally approximating the single-qubit rotations by a sequence of fault-tolerant single-qubit gates. Certain fault-tolerant gates rely on the preparation of specific single-qubit states referred to as magic states. As a result, gate compilation and magic state distillation are critical for solving quantum chemistry problems on a quantum computer. We review recent progress that has improved the efficiency of gate compilation and magic state distillation by orders of magnitude.

  20. New VLSI complexity results for threshold gate comparison

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Beiu, V.

    1996-12-31T23:59:59.000Z

    The paper overviews recent developments concerning optimal (from the point of view of size and depth) implementations of COMPARISON using threshold gates. We detail a class of solutions which also covers another particular solution, and spans from constant to logarithmic depths. These circuit complexity results are supplemented by fresh VLSI complexity results having applications to hardware implementations of neural networks and to VLSI-friendly learning algorithms. In order to estimate the area (A) and the delay (T), as well as the classical AT{sup 2}, we shall use the following {open_quote}cost functions{close_quote}: (i) the connectivity (i.e., sum of fan-ins) and the number-of-bits for representing the weights and thresholds are used as closer approximations of the area; while (ii) the fan-ins and the length of the wires are used for closer estimates of the delay. Such approximations allow us to compare the different solutions-which present very interesting fan-in dependent depth-size and area-delay tradeoffs - with respect to AT{sup 2}.

  1. Atomically flat La-silicate/Si interface using tungsten carbide gate electrode with nano-sized grain

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Tuokedaerhan, K.; Natori, K.; Iwai, H. [Frontier Research Center, Tokyo Institute of Technology, 4259 Nagatsuta, Midori-ku, Yokohama 226-8503 (Japan); Kakushima, K., E-mail: kakushima@ep.titech.ac.jp; Kataoka, Y.; Nishiyama, A.; Sugii, N.; Wakabayashi, H.; Tsutsui, K. [Interdisciplinary Graduate School of Science and Engineering, Tokyo Institute of Technology, 4259 Nagatsuta, Midori-ku, Yokohama 226-8502 (Japan)

    2014-01-13T23:59:59.000Z

    Interface properties of La-silicate gate dielectrics on Si substrates with W or nano-sized grain W{sub 2}C gate electrodes have been investigated. A low interface state density of 2.5?×?10{sup 11}?cm{sup ?2}/eV has been achieved with W{sub 2}C gate electrodes, which is one third of those with W gate electrode. An interface roughness of 0.33?nm with spatial frequency comparable to the grain size of W gate electrode has been observed. Besides, an atomically flat interface of 0.12?nm has been obtained with W{sub 2}C gate electrode. The origin of flat interface may be attributed to the elimination of inhomogeneous stress by grains in metal electrode.

  2. Exact solutions for a universal set of quantum gates on a family of iso-spectral spin chains

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    V. Karimipour; N. Majd

    2005-09-25T23:59:59.000Z

    We find exact solutions for a universal set of quantum gates on a scalable candidate for quantum computers, namely an array of two level systems. The gates are constructed by a combination of dynamical and geometrical (non-Abelian) phases. Previously these gates have been constructed mostly on non-scalable systems and by numerical searches among the loops in the manifold of control parameters of the Hamiltonian.

  3. Realization and Properties of Biochemical-Computing Biocatalytic XOR Gate Based on Enzyme Inhibition by a Substrate

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Jan Halamek; Vera Bocharova; Mary A. Arugula; Guinevere Strack; Vladimir Privman; Evgeny Katz

    2011-05-25T23:59:59.000Z

    We consider a realization of the XOR logic gate in a process biocatalyzed by an enzyme (here horseradish peroxidase: HRP), the function of which can be inhibited by a substrate (hydrogen peroxide for HRP), when the latter is inputted at large enough concentrations. A model is developed for describing such systems in an approach suitable for evaluation of the analog noise amplification properties of the gate. The obtained data are fitted for gate quality evaluation within the developed model, and we discuss aspects of devising XOR gates for functioning in "biocomputing" systems utilizing biomolecules for information processing.

  4. Charge noise analysis of metal oxide semiconductor dual-gate Si/SiGe quantum point contacts

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Kamioka, J.; Oda, S. [Quantum Nanoelectronics Research Center, Tokyo Institute of Technology, 2-12-1-S9-11, Ookayama, Meguro-ku, Tokyo, 152-8552 (Japan); Kodera, T., E-mail: kodera.t.ac@m.titech.ac.jp [Quantum Nanoelectronics Research Center, Tokyo Institute of Technology, 2-12-1-S9-11, Ookayama, Meguro-ku, Tokyo, 152-8552 (Japan); Department of Physical Electronics, Tokyo Institute of Technology, 2-12-1-NE-25, Ookayama, Meguro-ku, Tokyo, 152-8552 (Japan); PRESTO, Japan Science and Technology Agency (JST), 4-1-8 Honcho, Kawaguchi, Saitama 332-0012 (Japan); Takeda, K.; Obata, T. [Department of Applied Physics, School of Engineering, The University of Tokyo, 7-3-1, Hongo, Bunkyo-ku, Tokyo 113-8656 (Japan); Tarucha, S. [Department of Applied Physics, School of Engineering, The University of Tokyo, 7-3-1, Hongo, Bunkyo-ku, Tokyo 113-8656 (Japan); RIKEN, Center for Emergent Matter Science (CEMS), 2-1, Hirosawa, Wako, Saitama 351-0198 (Japan)

    2014-05-28T23:59:59.000Z

    The frequency dependence of conductance noise through a gate-defined quantum point contact fabricated on a Si/SiGe modulation doped wafer is characterized. The 1/f{sup 2} noise, which is characteristic of random telegraph noise, is reduced by application of a negative bias on the global top gate to reduce the local gate voltage. Direct leakage from the large global gate voltage also causes random telegraph noise, and therefore, there is a suitable point to operate quantum dot measurement.

  5. Compact, Intelligent, Digitally Controlled IGBT Gate Drivers for a PEBB-Based ILC Marx Modulator

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Nguyen, M.N.; Burkhart, C.; Olsen, J.J.; Macken, K.; /SLAC; ,

    2010-06-07T23:59:59.000Z

    SLAC National Accelerator Laboratory has built and is currently operating a first generation prototype Marx klystron modulator to meet ILC specifications. Under development is a second generation prototype, aimed at improving overall performance, serviceability, and manufacturability as compared to its predecessor. It is designed around 32 cells, each operating at 3.75 kV and correcting for its own capacitor droop. Due to the uniqueness of this application, high voltage gate drivers needed to be developed for the main 6.5 kV and droop correction 1.7 kV IGBTs. The gate driver provides vital functions such as protection of the IGBT from over-voltage and over-current, detection of gate-emitter open and short circuit conditions, and monitoring of IGBT degradation (based on collector-emitter saturation voltage). Gate drive control, diagnostic processing capabilities, and communication are digitally implemented using an FPGA. This paper details the design of the gate driver circuitry, component selection, and construction layout. In addition, experimental results are included to illustrate the effectiveness of the protection circuit.

  6. UC Davis Fuel Cell, Hydrogen, and Hybrid Vehicle (FCH2V) GATE Center of Excellence

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Erickson, Paul

    2012-05-31T23:59:59.000Z

    This is the final report of the UC Davis Fuel Cell, Hydrogen, and Hybrid Vehicle (FCH2V) GATE Center of Excellence which spanned from 2005-2012. The U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) established the Graduate Automotive Technology Education (GATE) Program, to provide a new generation of engineers and scientists with knowledge and skills to create advanced automotive technologies. The UC Davis Fuel Cell, Hydrogen, and Hybrid Vehicle (FCH2V) GATE Center of Excellence established in 2005 is focused on research, education, industrial collaboration and outreach within automotive technology. UC Davis has had two independent GATE centers with separate well-defined objectives and research programs from 1998. The Fuel Cell Center, administered by ITS-Davis, has focused on fuel cell technology. The Hybrid-Electric Vehicle Design Center (HEV Center), administered by the Department of Mechanical and Aeronautical Engineering, has focused on the development of plug-in hybrid technology using internal combustion engines. The merger of these two centers in 2005 has broadened the scope of research and lead to higher visibility of the activity. UC Davisâ??s existing GATE centers have become the campusâ??s research focal points on fuel cells and hybrid-electric vehicles, and the home for graduate students who are studying advanced automotive technologies. The centers have been highly successful in attracting, training, and placing top-notch students into fuel cell and hybrid programs in both industry and government.

  7. Water gate array for current flow or tidal movement pneumatic harnessing system

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Gorlov, Alexander M. (Brookline, MA)

    1991-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The invention, which provides a system for harnessing power from current flow or tidal movement in a body of water, comprises first and second hydro-pneumatic chambers each having ingress and egress below the water surface near the river or ocean floor and water gates operative to open or seal the ports to the passage of water. In an exemplary embodiment, the gates are sychronized by shafts so that the ingress ports of each chamber are connected to the egress ports of each other chamber. Thus, one set of gates is closed, while the other is open, thereby allowing water to flow into one chamber and build air pressure therein and allowing water to flow out of the other chamber and create a partial vacuum therein. A pipe connects the chambers, and an air turbine harnesses the air movement within the pipe. When water levels are equilibrated, the open set of gates is closed by a counterweight, and the other set is allowed to open by natural force of the water differential. The water gates may be comprised of a plurality of louvers which are ganged for simultaneous opening and closing. The system is designed to operate with air turbines or other pneumatic devices. Its design minimizes construction cost and environmental impact, yet provides a clean renewable energy source.

  8. Optical imaging through turbid media with a degenerate four-wave mixing correlation time gate

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Sappey, Andrew D. (Golden, CO)

    1998-04-14T23:59:59.000Z

    Optical imaging through turbid media is demonstrated using a degenerate four-wave mixing correlation time gate. An apparatus and method for detecting ballistic and/or snake light while rejecting unwanted diffusive light for imaging structures within highly scattering media are described. Degenerate four-wave mixing (DFWM) of a doubled YAG laser in rhodamine 590 is used to provide an ultrafast correlation time gate to discriminate against light that has undergone multiple scattering and therefore has lost memory of the structures within the scattering medium. Images have been obtained of a test cross-hair pattern through highly turbid suspensions of whole milk in water that are opaque to the naked eye, which demonstrates the utility of DFWM for imaging through turbid media. Use of DFWM as an ultrafast time gate for the detection of ballistic and/or snake light in optical mammography is discussed.

  9. Coherent motion of stereocilia assures the concerted gating of hair-cell transduction channels

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Andrei S. Kozlov; Thomas Risler; A. J. Hudspeth

    2009-02-16T23:59:59.000Z

    The hair cell's mechanoreceptive organelle, the hair bundle, is highly sensitive because its transduction channels open over a very narrow range of displacements. The synchronous gating of transduction channels also underlies the active hair-bundle motility that amplifies and tunes responsiveness. The extent to which the gating of independent transduction channels is coordinated depends on how tightly individual stereocilia are constrained to move as a unit. Using dual-beam interferometry in the bullfrog's sacculus, we found that thermal movements of stereocilia located as far apart as a bundle's opposite edges display high coherence and negligible phase lag. Because the mechanical degrees of freedom of stereocilia are strongly constrained, a force applied anywhere in the hair bundle deflects the structure as a unit. This feature assures the concerted gating of transduction channels that maximizes the sensitivity of mechanoelectrical transduction and enhances the hair bundle's capacity to amplify its inputs.

  10. Engineering a C-Phase quantum gate: optical design and experimental realization

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Andrea Chiuri; Chiara Greganti; Paolo Mataloni

    2012-04-12T23:59:59.000Z

    A two qubit quantum gate, namely the C-Phase, has been realized by exploiting the longitudinal momentum (i.e. the optical path) degree of freedom of a single photon. The experimental setup used to engineer this quantum gate represents an advanced version of the high stability closed-loop interferometric setup adopted to generate and characterize 2-photon 4-qubit Phased Dicke states. Some experimental results, dealing with the characterization of multipartite entanglement of the Phased Dicke states are also discussed in detail.

  11. Noise-Protected Gate for Six-Electron Double-Dot Qubits

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Sebastian Mehl; David P. DiVincenzo

    2014-08-05T23:59:59.000Z

    Singlet-triplet spin qubits in six-electron double quantum dots, in moderate magnetic fields, can show superior immunity to charge noise. This immunity results from the symmetry of orbitals in the second energy shell of circular quantum dots: singlet and triplet states in this shell have identical charge distributions. Our phase-gate simulations, which include $1/f$ charge noise from fluctuating traps, show that this symmetry is most effectively exploited if the gate operation switches rapidly between sweet spots deep in the (3,3) and (4,2) charge stability regions; fidelities very close to one are predicted if subnanosecond switching can be performed.

  12. High-Performance Solution-Processed Amorphous-Oxide-Semiconductor TFTs with Organic Polymeric Gate Dielectrics

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Pecunia, Vincenzo; Banger, Kulbinder; Sirringhaus, Henning

    2015-01-13T23:59:59.000Z

    energy offsets (? 1 eV) between the conduction/valence bands of the semiconductor and the gate dielectric are needed to confine the charge carriers at the active interface and minimize undesirable charge injection from the semiconductor into the gate... in solution, all the other polymers came in the form of pellets or powder and were dissolved in suitable anhydrous organic solvents: P?MS was dissolved in xylene at a concentration of 60 mg mL-1; SAN in butyronitrile at 40 mg mL-1; PC in 1,2-dichlorobenzene...

  13. Grating-gate tunable plasmon absorption in InP and GaN based R. E. Peale*a

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Peale, Robert E.

    Grating-gate tunable plasmon absorption in InP and GaN based HEMTs R. E. Peale*a , H. Saxenaa , W, Inc., 1195 Atlas Road, Columbia SC, USA 29209 ABSTRACT Gate-voltage tunable plasmon resonances incident THz radiation into 2D plasmons. Narrow-band resonant absorption of THz radiation was observed

  14. A Technique for Low Power Dynamic Circuit Design in 32nm Double-Gate FinFET Technology

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Ayers, Joseph

    the leakage current (this is accomplished by connecting the back gate to the clock signal of the dynamic. By taking advantage of the independent double gate FinFET, Vth is controlled dynamically by biasing the back and drain of a device are connected to those of the other device. Drain Source Figure 1. FinFET structure

  15. Abstract--Bias temperature instability, hot-carrier injection, and gate-oxide wearout will cause severe lifetime degradation in

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Lipasti, Mikko H.

    affect device performance and lead to timing violations; as well as gate-oxide wearout [3] which can probability of oxide breakdown, leading to a hard failure of a device that exceeds its intended (or targetedAbstract--Bias temperature instability, hot-carrier injection, and gate-oxide wearout will cause

  16. Electrophoretic-like Gating Used To Control Metal-Insulator Transitions in Electronically Phase Separated Manganite Wires

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Tennessee, University of

    traditional carrier doping and by inducing electroresistive phase transitions in the material. In the case, and an electric field applied to the gate acts to change the material's access to electrons. This switchingElectrophoretic-like Gating Used To Control Metal-Insulator Transitions in Electronically Phase

  17. Trapping in deep defects under substrate hot electron stress in TiN/Hf-silicate based gate stacks

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Misra, Durgamadhab "Durga"

    Trapping in deep defects under substrate hot electron stress in TiN/Hf-silicate based gate stacks N. Zaslavsky Abstract Substrate hot electron stress was applied on n+ -ringed n-channel MOS capacitors with TiN/Hf-silicate. Introduction Hafnium silicate based high-j gate dielectrics have been put forth as the leading candidates

  18. An energy relaxation tolerant approach to quantum entanglement, information transfer, and gates with superconducting-quantum-interference-device qubits in cavity QED

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Yang, Chuiping; Chu, Shih-I; Han, Siyuan

    2004-03-31T23:59:59.000Z

    A scheme is proposed for realizing quantum entanglement, information transfer, CNOT gates, and SWAP gates with supercoiiducting-quantum-interference-device (SQUID) qubits in cavity QED. In the scheme, the two logical states ...

  19. Possible realization of entanglement, logical gates, and quantum-information transfer with superconducting-quantum-interference-device qubits in cavity QED

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Yang, Chui-Ping; Chu, Shih-I; Han, Siyuan

    2003-04-17T23:59:59.000Z

    We present a scheme to achieve maximally entangled states, controlled phase-shift gate, and SWAP gate for two superconducting-quantum-interference-device (SQUID) qubits, by placing SQUIDs in a microwave cavity. We also ...

  20. Top-gate zinc tin oxide thin-film transistors with high bias and environmental stress stability

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Fakhri, M.; Theisen, M.; Behrendt, A.; Görrn, P.; Riedl, T. [Institute of Electronic Devices, University of Wuppertal, Wuppertal 42119 (Germany)

    2014-06-23T23:59:59.000Z

    Top gated metal-oxide thin-film transistors (TFTs) provide two benefits compared to their conventional bottom-gate counterparts: (i) The gate dielectric may concomitantly serve as encapsulation layer for the TFT channel. (ii) Damage of the dielectric due to high-energetic particles during channel deposition can be avoided. In our work, the top-gate dielectric is prepared by ozone based atomic layer deposition at low temperatures. For ultra-low gas permeation rates, we introduce nano-laminates of Al{sub 2}O{sub 3}/ZrO{sub 2} as dielectrics. The resulting TFTs show a superior environmental stability even at elevated temperatures. Their outstanding stability vs. bias stress is benchmarked against bottom-gate devices with encapsulation.

  1. Diminished Short Channel Effects in Nanoscale Double-Gate Silicon-on-Insulator MetalOxideSemiconductor Field-Effect-Transistors

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Kumar, M. Jagadesh

    ) and the back-gate oxide (tb) thickness is 2 nm. The doping in the p-type body and n+ source/drain regions­Oxide­Semiconductor Field-Effect-Transistors due to Induced Back-Gate Step Potential M. Jagadesh KUMAR Ã and G. Venkateshwar surface potential profile at the back gate of an asymmetrical double gate (DG) silicon-on-insulator (SOI

  2. IEEE ELECTRON DEVICE LETTERS, VOL. 21, NO. 12, DECEMBER 2000 549 Dual-Gate AlGaN/GaN Modulation-Doped

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Rodwell, Mark J. W.

    IEEE ELECTRON DEVICE LETTERS, VOL. 21, NO. 12, DECEMBER 2000 549 Dual-Gate AlGaN/GaN Modulation--We demonstrate dual-gate AlGaN/GaN modula- tion-doped field-effect transistors (MODFETs) with gate-lengths of 0 power amplifiers. Index Terms--AlGaN/GaN, broadband power amplifiers, dual-gate FETs. I. INTRODUCTION

  3. Power gating is usually driven by a predictive control, and frequent mispredictions can counter-productively lead to a large increase in

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Sorin, Daniel J.

    frames it can consume 70% more energy than a system without power gating. When adding a feature of the most promising mechanisms for reducing leakage energy is power gating, whereby leakage energy is saved is power gated off, some energy is needed for turning the component off and then on again. If the power

  4. Are global trade negotiations behind a fragmented world of "gated globalization"?

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Bandyopadhyay, Antar

    Are global trade negotiations behind a fragmented world of "gated globalization"? James Lake In a very simple three country model where global trade negotiations precede a sequential Free Trade. Even though sequential FTA for- mation may lead to global free trade if governments have not previously

  5. Title: Hydraulic modeling of a mixed water level control hydro-mechanical gate

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Paris-Sud XI, Université de

    Title: Hydraulic modeling of a mixed water level control hydro-mechanical gate Ludovic Cassan1 Abstract: The article describes the hydraulic functioning of a mixed water level control hydro- mechanical of the model to reproduce the functioning of this complex hydro-mechanical system. CE database Subject headings

  6. Finding the Energy Efficient Curve: Gate Sizing for Minimum Power under Delay Constraints

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Kolodny, Avinoam

    Finding the Energy Efficient Curve: Gate Sizing for Minimum Power under Delay Constraints Yoni in a fast circuit by the same factor does not yield an energy-efficient design, and we characterize efficient. A design implementation is considered to be energy efficient when it has the highest performance

  7. Implementation of Power Transmission Lines to Field Programmable Gate Array ICs for Managing Signal

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Swaminathan, Madhavan

    Implementation of Power Transmission Lines to Field Programmable Gate Array ICs for Managing Signal employs power transmission lines (PTL) that supply power to integrated circuits instead of using is able to reduce SSN and enhance power and signal integrity. Pseudo-balanced power transmission line (PB

  8. Gate-modulated thermoelectric conversion in disordered nanowires: I. Low temperature coherent regime

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Recanati, Catherine

    Gate-modulated thermoelectric conversion in disordered nanowires: I. Low temperature coherent as promising thermoelectric devices1 . In comparison to their bulk counterparts, they provide opportunities of thermoelectric conversion at a given temperature T . Indeed, they allow to reduce the phonon contribution ph

  9. Phase transitions in Dual-Gated Bilayer Graphene Gregory S. Boebinger, National High Magnetic Field Laboratory

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Weston, Ken

    Phase transitions in Dual-Gated Bilayer Graphene Gregory S. Boebinger, National High Magnetic Field Laboratory DMR-Award 0654118 DC Field Facility Bilayer graphene, consisting of two layers of carbon atoms of the degeneracy of the electronic states in the graphene bilayer. Resistivity plotted as a function of the front

  10. Neural mechanisms of saccade target selection: gated accumulator model of the visualmotor cascade

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Schall, Jeffrey D.

    Neural mechanisms of saccade target selection: gated accumulator model of the visual­motor cascade, Vanderbilt University, PMB 407817, 2301 Vanderbilt Place, Nashville, TN 37240-7817, USA Keywords: accumulator neurons in the frontal eye field as evidence for stimulus salience that is accumulated in a network

  11. ERK2: a logical AND gate critical for drug-induced plasticity? Truncated title

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    1 Title: ERK2: a logical AND gate critical for drug-induced plasticity? Truncated title: ERK2 signal-regulated kinase (ERK) plays an important role in the underlying molecular mechanisms. ERK. Blockade of ERK activation prevents long- lasting behavioral changes, including psychomotor sensitization

  12. Accuracy of gates in a quantum computer based on vibrational eigenstates Dmitri Babikov

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Reid, Scott A.

    of quantum gates in such a system. Optimal control theory and numerical time-propagation of vibrational wave the computational sciences:2 ``Quantum computing would be to ordinary com- puting what nuclear energy is to fire'' consisting of two states 0 and 1 that have been harnessed for running quantum computing algorithms, setting

  13. Na K -pump ligands modulate gating of palytoxin-induced ion channels

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Gadsby, David

    Na K -pump ligands modulate gating of palytoxin-induced ion channels Pablo Artigas and David C (received for review September 26, 2002) The Na K pump is a ubiquitous P-type ATPase that binds three -ion occlusion to phosphorylation of the pump by ATP and of K -ion occlusion to its dephosphorylation

  14. Spin transistor operation driven by the Rashba spin-orbit coupling in the gated nanowire

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Wójcik, P.; Adamowski, J., E-mail: adamowski@fis.agh.edu.pl; Spisak, B. J.; Wo?oszyn, M. [Faculty of Physics and Applied Computer Science, AGH University of Science and Technology, al. Mickiewicza 30, Kraków (Poland)

    2014-03-14T23:59:59.000Z

    A theoretical description has been proposed for the operation of the spin transistor in the gate-controlled InAs nanowire. The calculated current-voltage characteristics show that the electron current flowing from the source (spin injector) to the drain (spin detector) oscillates as a function of the gate voltage, which results from the precession of the electron spin caused by the Rashba spin-orbit interaction in the vicinity of the gate. We have studied the operation of the spin transistor under the following conditions: (A) the full spin polarization of electrons in the contacts, zero temperature, and the single conduction channel corresponding to the lowest-energy subband of the transverse motion and (B) the partial spin polarization of the electrons in the contacts, the room temperature, and the conduction via many transverse subbands taken into account. For case (A), the spin-polarized current can be switched on/off by the suitable tuning of the gate voltage, for case (B) the current also exhibits the pronounced oscillations but with no-zero minimal values. The computational results obtained for case (B) have been compared with the recent experimental data and a good agreement has been found.

  15. Influence of Electrolyte Composition on Liquid-Gated Carbon Nanotube and Graphene Transistors

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Dekker, Cees

    Influence of Electrolyte Composition on Liquid-Gated Carbon Nanotube and Graphene Transistors Iddo-walled carbon nanotubes (SWNTs) and graphene can function as highly sensitive nanoscale (bio)sensors in solution. Here, we compare experimentally how SWNT and graphene transistors respond to changes in the composition

  16. REAL-TIME DUAL-MICROPHONE SPEECH ENHANCEMENT USING FIELD PROGRAMMABLE GATE ARRAYS

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Sheikholeslami, Ali

    REAL-TIME DUAL-MICROPHONE SPEECH ENHANCEMENT USING FIELD PROGRAMMABLE GATE ARRAYS David Halupka@eecg}.toronto.edu ABSTRACT This paper discusses an implementation of a dual- microphone phase-based speech enhancement or irrelevant conversations, are present has fueled research interest in the areas of speech enhancement

  17. Hafnium-doped tantalum oxide high-k gate dielectric films for future CMOS technology

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Lu, Jiang

    2007-04-25T23:59:59.000Z

    of the doped films were explained by their compositions and bond structures. The Hf-doped TaOx film is a potential high-k gate dielectric for future MOS transistors. A 5 Ã?Â? tantalum nitride (TaNx) interface layer has been inserted between the Hf-doped Ta...

  18. Method and system for measuring gate valve clearances and seating force

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Casada, Donald A. (Knoxville, TN); Haynes, Howard D. (Knoxville, TN); Moyers, John C. (Oak Ridge, TN); Stewart, Brian K. (Burns, TN)

    1996-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Valve clearances and seating force, as well as other valve operational parameters, are determined by measuring valve stem rotation during opening and closing operations of a translatable gate valve. The magnitude of the stem rotation, and the relative difference between the stem rotation on opening and closing provides valuable data on the valve internals in a non-intrusive manner.

  19. Lanthanum silicate gate dielectric stacks with subnanometer equivalent oxide thickness utilizing an interfacial silica consumption reaction

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Garfunkel, Eric

    Lanthanum silicate gate dielectric stacks with subnanometer equivalent oxide thickness utilizing-8087 Received 13 April 2005; accepted 6 June 2005; published online 26 July 2005 A silicate reaction between process route to interface elimination, while producing a silicate dielectric with a higher temperature

  20. Elsevier Science 1 Use of the GATE Monte Carlo package for dosimetry

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Paris-Sud XI, Université de

    Elsevier Science 1 Use of the GATE Monte Carlo package for dosimetry applications D. Visvikis, a* M Angeles, USA Abstract One of the roles for MC simulation studies is in the area of dosimetry. A number of different codes dedicated to dosimetry applications are available and widely used today, such as MCNP

  1. Validation of GATE 6.1 for targeted radiotherapy of metastic melanoma I-labeled benzamide

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Paris-Sud XI, Université de

    1 Validation of GATE 6.1 for targeted radiotherapy of metastic melanoma using 131 I for the treatment of malignant melanoma after injection of a new specific radiopharmaceutical labeled with iodine, named ICF01012, selected to treat35 the malignant melanoma [Chezal et al 2008]. 131 I-labeled ICF01012

  2. New approach to manufacturing field emitter arrays with sub-half-micron gate apertures

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Lee, Jong Duk

    insulator by local oxidation of silicon LOCOS , resulting in the reduction of the gate hole size due. Considering the cathode current level required for flat panel display applications and the measured emission-to-peak. © 1996 American Vacuum Society. I. INTRODUCTION Recently, much attention1,2 has been given to studying

  3. Evidence of gating in hundred nanometer diameter pores: an experimental and theoretical study

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Letant, S E; Schaldach, C M; Johnson, M R; Sawvel, A; Bourcier, W L; Wilson, W D

    2006-01-11T23:59:59.000Z

    We report on the observation of an unexpected gating mechanism at the 100 nm scale on track-etched polycarbonate membranes. Transport measurements of methyl viologen performed by absorption spectroscopy under various pH conditions demonstrated that perfect gating was achieved for 100 nm diameter pores at pH 2, while the positively charged molecular ions moved through the membrane according to diffusion laws at pH 5. An oppositely charged molecular ion, naphthalene disulfonate, in the same membrane, showed the opposite trend: diffusion of the negative ion at pH 2 and perfect gating at pH 5. The influence of parameters such as ionic strength and membrane surface coating were also investigated. A theoretical study of the system shows that at this larger length scale the magnitude of the electric field in the vicinity of the pores is too small to account for the experimental observations, rather, it is the surface trapping of the mobile ion (Cl{sup -} or Na{sup +}) which gives rise to the gating phenomena. This surprising effect might have potential applications for high-throughput separation of large molecules and bio-organisms.

  4. Membrane Tension, Lipid Adaptation, Conformational Changes, and Energetics in MscL Gating

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Rui, Huan; Kumar, Ritesh; Im, Wonpil

    2011-08-03T23:59:59.000Z

    -MscL) is used as a model system; Tb-MscL acts as a safety valve by releasing small osmolytes through the channel opening under extreme hypoosmotic conditions. Based on the assumption that the channel gating involves tilting of the transmembrane (TM) helices, we...

  5. Gate Voltage Control of Oxygen Diffusion on Graphene Dr. Jorge O. Sofo

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Bjørnstad, Ottar Nordal

    Gate Voltage Control of Oxygen Diffusion on Graphene Dr. Jorge O. Sofo Associate Professor conductivity (twice that of diamond). Due to Carbon's affinity for tetrahedral bonding, its surface is amenable atoms. Our research focuses on the attachment and diffusion of different atomic species to the surface

  6. Needle-based reflection refractometry of scattering samples using coherence-gated

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Boppart, Stephen

    effects of internal refractive index variation in near-infrared optical tomography: a finite element, and K. D. Paulsen, "Effects of refractive index on near- infrared tomography of the breast," Appl. OptNeedle-based reflection refractometry of scattering samples using coherence-gated detection Adam M

  7. Gate Delay Calculation Considering the Crosstalk Capacitances Soroush Abbaspour and Massoud Pedram

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Pedram, Massoud

    . As the victim line switches, the impedance of its driving gate changes by orders of magnitude, thereby the various R and C parasitics as well as the capacitive coupling between interconnect lines. However, since of capacitances. For example, for opposite direction switching of two identical coupled lines, switching

  8. A PVT Aware Accurate Statistical Logic Library for High-Metal-Gate Nano-CMOS

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Mohanty, Saraju P.

    (T) which may be due to the environment, through self-heating effects or a combination of the two- tion which leads to high electric field and a high GIDL current [16]. (2) The high- gate dielectric and SiO2 spacers meet at the surface of the drain region, causing a high electric field leading to a high

  9. Method and system for measuring gate valve clearances and seating force

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Casada, D.A.; Haynes, H.D.; Moyers, J.C.; Stewart, B.K.

    1996-01-30T23:59:59.000Z

    Valve clearances and seating force, as well as other valve operational parameters, are determined by measuring valve stem rotation during opening and closing operations of a translatable gate valve. The magnitude of the stem rotation, and the relative difference between the stem rotation on opening and closing provides valuable data on the valve internals in a non-intrusive manner. 8 figs.

  10. A 100V, 3 Phase Gate Driver with integrated digital PWM Generation and Current Sampling

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Ng, Wai Tung

    multiple market segments such as automotive, pumps, motion control and home appliances have been demanding and capabilities of this technology will also be included. Background: Smart power ICs (PICs) are increasingly-5], the smart PICs offered only limited analog sensing and gate drive functions. The protections are usually

  11. Dosimetric effect of intrafraction tumor motion in phase gated lung stereotactic body radiotherapy

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Zhao Bo; Yang Yong; Li Tianfang; Li Xiang; Heron, Dwight E.; Huq, M. Saiful [Department of Radiation Oncology, University of Pittsburgh Cancer Institute, Pittsburgh, Pennsylvania 15232 (United States) and Department of Radiation Oncology, UT Southwestern Medical Center, Dallas, Texas 75390 (United States); Department of Radiation Oncology, University of Pittsburgh Cancer Institute, Pittsburgh, Pennsylvania 15232 (United States)

    2012-11-15T23:59:59.000Z

    Purpose: A major concern for lung intensity modulated radiation therapy delivery is the deviation of actually delivered dose distribution from the planned one due to simultaneous movements of multileaf collimator (MLC) leaves and tumor. For gated lung stereotactic body radiotherapy treatment (SBRT), the situation becomes even more complicated because of SBRT's characteristics such as fewer fractions, smaller target volume, higher dose rate, and extended fractional treatment time. The purpose of this work is to investigate the dosimetric effect of intrafraction tumor motion during gated lung SBRT delivery by reconstructing the delivered dose distribution with real-time tumor motion considered. Methods: The tumor motion data were retrieved from six lung patients. Each of them received three fractions of stereotactic radiotherapy treatments with Cyberknife Synchrony (Accuray, Sunnyvale, CA). Phase gating through an external surrogate was simulated with a gating window of 5 mm. The resulting residual tumor motion curves during gating (beam-on) were retrieved. Planning target volume (PTV) was defined as physician-contoured clinical target volume (CTV) surrounded by an isotropic 5 mm margin. Each patient was prescribed with 60 Gy/3 fractions. The authors developed an algorithm to reconstruct the delivered dose with tumor motion. The DMLC segments, mainly leaf position and segment weighting factor, were recalculated according to the probability density function of tumor motion curve. The new DMLC sequence file was imported back to treatment planning system to reconstruct the dose distribution. Results: Half of the patients in the study group experienced PTV D95% deviation up to 26% for fractional dose and 14% for total dose. CTV mean dose dropped by 1% with tumor motion. Although CTV is almost covered by prescribed dose with 5 mm margin, qualitative comparison on the dose distributions reveals that CTV is on the verge of underdose. The discrepancy happens due to tumor excursion outside of the gating window, which, for our study group, is mainly caused by baseline shift, i.e., the change in general trend of the motion curve during extended period of treatment time. Conclusions: The dose deviation in PTV and CTV due to target motion is not always negligible in gated SBRT. Although CTVs are covered sufficiently with prescribed dose in most cases, some are on the verge of underdose due to large tumor excursion caused by factors such as baseline shift.

  12. Oxygen migration in TiO{sub 2}-based higher-k gate stacks

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Kim, Sang Bum; Brown, Stephen L.; Rossnagel, Stephen M.; Bruley, John; Copel, Matthew; Hopstaken, Marco J. P.; Narayanan, Vijay; Frank, Martin M. [IBM T.J. Watson Research Center, 1101 Kitchawan Road, Yorktown Heights, New York 10598 (United States)

    2010-03-15T23:59:59.000Z

    We report on the stability of high-permittivity (high-k) TiO{sub 2} films incorporated in metal-oxide-silicon capacitor structures with a TiN metal gate electrode, focusing on oxygen migration. Titanium oxide films are deposited by either Ti sputtering [physical vapor deposition (PVD)] followed by radical shower oxidation or by plasma-enhanced atomic layer deposition (PEALD) from titanium isopropoxide (Ti{l_brace}OCH(CH{sub 3}){sub 2{r_brace}4}) and O{sub 2} plasma. Both PVD and PEALD films result in near-stoichiometric TiO{sub 2} prior to high-temperature annealing. We find that dopant activation anneals of TiO{sub 2}-containing gate stacks at 1000 deg. C cause 5 A or more of additional SiO{sub 2} to be formed at the gate-dielectric/Si-channel interface. Furthermore, we demonstrate for the first time that oxygen released from TiO{sub 2} diffuses through the TiN gate electrode and oxidizes the poly-Si contact. The thickness of this upper SiO{sub 2} layer continues to increase with increasing TiO{sub 2} thickness, while the thickness of the regrown SiO{sub 2} at the gate-dielectric/Si interface saturates. The upper SiO{sub 2} layer degrades gate stack capacitance, and simultaneously the oxygen-deficient TiO{sub x} becomes a poor insulator. In an attempt to mitigate O loss from the TiO{sub 2}, top and bottom Al{sub 2}O{sub 3} layers are added to the TiO{sub 2} gate dielectric as oxygen barriers. However, they are found to be ineffective, due to Al{sub 2}O{sub 3}-TiO{sub 2} interdiffusion during activation annealing. Bottom HfO{sub 2}/Si{sub 3}N{sub 4} interlayers are found to serve as more effective oxygen barriers, reducing, though not preventing, oxygen downdiffusion.

  13. Effect of Flow Pulses on Degradation Downstream of Hapcheon Dam, South Korea

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Julien, Pierre Y.

    Effect of Flow Pulses on Degradation Downstream of Hapcheon Dam, South Korea Young Ho Shin1 and Pierre Y. Julien, M.ASCE2 Abstract: The changes in channel geometry downstream of Hapcheon Dam, South sluice gate operations affect the 45-km reach of the Hwang River between the Hapcheon Reregulation Dam

  14. SU-E-J-185: Gated CBCT Imaging for Positioning Moving Lung Tumor in Lung SBRT Treatment

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Li, X; Li, T; Zhang, Y; Burton, S; Karlovits, B; Clump, D; Heron, D; Huq, M [University of Pittsburgh Medical Center, Pittsburgh, PA (United States)

    2014-06-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Purpose: Lung stereo-tactic body radiotherapy(SBRT) treatment requires high accuracy of lung tumor positioning during treatment, which is usually accomplished by free breathing Cone-Beam computerized tomography (CBCT) scan. However, respiratory motion induced image artifacts in free breathing CBCT may degrade such positioning accuracy. The purpose of this study is to investigate the feasibility of gated CBCT imaging for lung SBRT treatment. Methods: Six Lung SBRT patients were selected for this study. The respiratory motion of the tumors ranged from 1.2cm to 3.5cm, and the gating windows for all patients were set between 35% and 65% of the respiratory phases. Each Lung SBRT patient underwent free-breathing CBCT scan using half-fan scan technique. The acquired projection images were transferred out for off-line analyses. An In-house semi-automatic algorithm was developed to trace the diaphragm movement from those projection images to acquire a patient's specific respiratory motion curve, which was used to correlate respiratory phases with each projection image. Afterwards, a filtered back-projection algorithm was utilized to reconstruct the gated CBCT images based on the projection images only within the gating window. Results: Target volumes determined by free breathing CBCT images were 71.9%±72% bigger than the volume shown in gated CBCT image. On the contrary, the target volume differences between gated CBCT and planning CT images at exhale stage were 5.8%±2.4%. The center to center distance of the targets shown in free breathing CBCT and gated CBCT images were 9.2±8.1mm. For one particular case, the superior boundary of the target was shifted 15mm between free breathing CBCT and gated CBCT. Conclusion: Gated CBCT imaging provides better representation of the moving lung tumor with less motion artifacts, and has the potential to improve the positioning accuracy in lung SBRT treatment.

  15. Vehicle Technologies Office Merit Review 2014: GATE Center for Electric Drive Transportation at the University of Michigan- Dearborn

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    Presentation given by Regents University of Michigan at 2014 DOE Hydrogen and Fuel Cells Program and Vehicle Technologies Office Annual Merit Review and Peer Evaluation Meeting about GATE Center...

  16. Cerebellar Purkinje cell death in the P/Q -type voltage-gated calcium ion channel mutant mouse, leaner 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Frank-Cannon, Tamy Catherine

    2006-04-12T23:59:59.000Z

    Mutations of the á1A subunit of P/Q-type voltage-gated calcium channels are responsible for several inherited disorders affecting humans, including familial hemiplegic migraine, episodic ataxia type 2 and spinocerebellar ...

  17. A review of the use and potential of the GATE Monte Carlo simulation code for radiation therapy and dosimetry applications

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Sarrut, David, E-mail: david.sarrut@creatis.insa-lyon.fr [Université de Lyon, CREATIS, CNRS UMR5220, Inserm U1044, INSA-Lyon (France) [Université de Lyon, CREATIS, CNRS UMR5220, Inserm U1044, INSA-Lyon (France); Université Lyon 1 (France); Centre Léon Bérard (France)] [France; Bardiès, Manuel; Marcatili, Sara; Mauxion, Thibault [Inserm, UMR1037 CRCT, F-31000 Toulouse, France and Université Toulouse III-Paul Sabatier, UMR1037 CRCT, F-31000 Toulouse (France)] [Inserm, UMR1037 CRCT, F-31000 Toulouse, France and Université Toulouse III-Paul Sabatier, UMR1037 CRCT, F-31000 Toulouse (France); Boussion, Nicolas [INSERM, UMR 1101, LaTIM, CHU Morvan, 29609 Brest (France)] [INSERM, UMR 1101, LaTIM, CHU Morvan, 29609 Brest (France); Freud, Nicolas; Létang, Jean-Michel [Université de Lyon, CREATIS, CNRS UMR5220, Inserm U1044, INSA-Lyon, Université Lyon 1, Centre Léon Bérard, 69008 Lyon (France)] [Université de Lyon, CREATIS, CNRS UMR5220, Inserm U1044, INSA-Lyon, Université Lyon 1, Centre Léon Bérard, 69008 Lyon (France); Jan, Sébastien [CEA/DSV/I2BM/SHFJ, Orsay 91401 (France)] [CEA/DSV/I2BM/SHFJ, Orsay 91401 (France); Loudos, George [Department of Medical Instruments Technology, Technological Educational Institute of Athens, Athens 12210 (Greece)] [Department of Medical Instruments Technology, Technological Educational Institute of Athens, Athens 12210 (Greece); Maigne, Lydia; Perrot, Yann [UMR 6533 CNRS/IN2P3, Université Blaise Pascal, 63171 Aubière (France)] [UMR 6533 CNRS/IN2P3, Université Blaise Pascal, 63171 Aubière (France); Papadimitroulas, Panagiotis [Department of Biomedical Engineering, Technological Educational Institute of Athens, 12210, Athens (Greece)] [Department of Biomedical Engineering, Technological Educational Institute of Athens, 12210, Athens (Greece); Pietrzyk, Uwe [Institut für Neurowissenschaften und Medizin, Forschungszentrum Jülich GmbH, 52425 Jülich, Germany and Fachbereich für Mathematik und Naturwissenschaften, Bergische Universität Wuppertal, 42097 Wuppertal (Germany)] [Institut für Neurowissenschaften und Medizin, Forschungszentrum Jülich GmbH, 52425 Jülich, Germany and Fachbereich für Mathematik und Naturwissenschaften, Bergische Universität Wuppertal, 42097 Wuppertal (Germany); Robert, Charlotte [IMNC, UMR 8165 CNRS, Universités Paris 7 et Paris 11, Orsay 91406 (France)] [IMNC, UMR 8165 CNRS, Universités Paris 7 et Paris 11, Orsay 91406 (France); and others

    2014-06-15T23:59:59.000Z

    In this paper, the authors' review the applicability of the open-source GATE Monte Carlo simulation platform based on the GEANT4 toolkit for radiation therapy and dosimetry applications. The many applications of GATE for state-of-the-art radiotherapy simulations are described including external beam radiotherapy, brachytherapy, intraoperative radiotherapy, hadrontherapy, molecular radiotherapy, and in vivo dose monitoring. Investigations that have been performed using GEANT4 only are also mentioned to illustrate the potential of GATE. The very practical feature of GATE making it easy to model both a treatment and an imaging acquisition within the same frameworkis emphasized. The computational times associated with several applications are provided to illustrate the practical feasibility of the simulations using current computing facilities.

  18. Regulation of N-type Voltage-Gated Calcium Channels and Presynaptic Function by Cyclin-Dependent Kinase 5

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Su, Susan C.

    N-type voltage-gated calcium channels localize to presynaptic nerve terminals and mediate key events including synaptogenesis and neurotransmission. While several kinases have been implicated in the modulation of calcium ...

  19. Cerebellar Purkinje cell death in the P/Q -type voltage-gated calcium ion channel mutant mouse, leaner

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Frank-Cannon, Tamy Catherine

    2006-04-12T23:59:59.000Z

    . The leaner mutation causes reduced calcium ion influx upon activation of P/Q-type voltage-gated calcium channels. This disrupts calcium homeostasis and leads to a loss of cerebellar neurons, including cerebellar Purkinje cells. Because of its similarities...

  20. Pulse-controlled quantum gate sequences on a strongly coupled qubit chain

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Holger Frydrych; Michael Marthaler; Gernot Alber

    2015-02-12T23:59:59.000Z

    We propose a selective dynamical decoupling scheme on a chain of permanently coupled qubits, which is capable of dynamically suppressing any coupling in the chain by applying sequences of local pulses to the individual qubits. We demonstrate how this pulse control can be used to implement a sequence of quantum gates on the chain which entangles all the qubits. We find that high entanglement fidelities can be achieved as long as the total number of coupled qubits is not too large. We discuss the applicability of our model specifically for superconducting flux qubits which can be strongly coupled to allow for the fast implementation of two-qubit gates. Since dynamically modifying the couplings between flux qubits is challenging, they are a natural candidate for our approach.

  1. A communication-efficient nonlocal measurement with application to communication complexity and bipartite gate capacities

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Aram W. Harrow; Debbie W. Leung

    2011-03-04T23:59:59.000Z

    Two dual questions in quantum information theory are to determine the communication cost of simulating a bipartite unitary gate, and to determine their communication capacities. We present a bipartite unitary gate with two surprising properties: 1) simulating it with the assistance of unlimited EPR pairs requires far more communication than with a better choice of entangled state, and 2) its communication capacity is far lower than its capacity to create entanglement. This suggests that 1) unlimited EPR pairs are not the most general model of entanglement assistance for two-party communication tasks, and 2) the entangling and communicating abilities of a unitary interaction can vary nearly independently. The technical contribution behind these results is a communication-efficient protocol for measuring whether an unknown shared state lies in a specified rank-one subspace or its orthogonal complement.

  2. Risk analysis study of non-routine turbine/generator shutdown events and intake gate evaluation

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Bardy, D.M. [Hydroelectric Design Center, Portland, OR (United States)

    1995-12-31T23:59:59.000Z

    The Corps of Engineers has undertaken a study to perform a reliability and risk analysis for evaluating non-routine turbine/generator shutdown scenarios. The study will evaluate the risks associated with events that would require a powerhouse to shut down a turbine/generator by using intake gates. The goal of this project is to estimate any potential damage that could occur for various intake gate configurations and closure times. The data obtained can also be used to evaluate any of the systems that affect reliability of the turbine/generator using established methods of risk analysis. This paper will briefly outline the study objectives and describe the progress of the study to this point.

  3. 2012 ARPA-E Energy Innovation Summit: Fireside Chat with Steven Chu and Bill Gates

    ScienceCinema (OSTI)

    Chu, Steven (U.S. Department of Energy Secretary); Gates, Bill (Microsoft, Chairman); Podesta, John (Center for American Progress, Chair and Counselor)

    2012-03-21T23:59:59.000Z

    The third annual ARPA-E Energy Innovation Summit was held in Washington D.C. in February, 2012. The event brought together key players from across the energy ecosystem - researchers, entrepreneurs, investors, corporate executives, and government officials - to share ideas for developing and deploying the next generation of energy technologies. This video captures a session called 'Fireside Chat' that featured Steven Chu, the Secretary of Energy, and Bill Gates, Chairman of Microsoft Corporation. The session is moderated by John Podesta, Chair of the Center for American Progress. Energy Secretary Steven Chu and Microsoft Founder and Chairman Bill Gates exchanged ideas about how small businesses and innovators can overcome the challenges that face many startups.

  4. Air-gap gating of MgZnO/ZnO heterostructures

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Tambo, T.; Falson, J., E-mail: falson@kwsk.t.u-tokyo.ac.jp; Kozuka, Y. [Department of Applied Physics and Quantum-Phase Electronics Center (QPEC), University of Tokyo, Tokyo 113-8656 (Japan); Maryenko, D. [RIKEN Center for Emergent Matter Science (CEMS), Wako 351-0198 (Japan); Tsukazaki, A. [Institute for Materials Research (IMR), Tohoku University, Sendai 980-8577 (Japan); PRESTO, Japan Science and Technology Agency (JST), Tokyo 102-0075 (Japan); Kawasaki, M. [Department of Applied Physics and Quantum-Phase Electronics Center (QPEC), University of Tokyo, Tokyo 113-8656 (Japan); RIKEN Center for Emergent Matter Science (CEMS), Wako 351-0198 (Japan)

    2014-08-28T23:59:59.000Z

    The adaptation of “air-gap” dielectric based field-effect transistor technology to controlling the MgZnO/ZnO heterointerface confined two-dimensional electron system (2DES) is reported. We find it possible to tune the charge density of the 2DES via a gate electrode spatially separated from the heterostructure surface by a distance of 5??m. Under static gating, the observation of the quantum Hall effect suggests that the charge carrier density remains homogeneous, with the 2DES in the 3?mm square sample the sole conductor. The availability of this technology enables the exploration of the charge carrier density degree of freedom in the pristine sample limit.

  5. 2012 ARPA-E Energy Innovation Summit: Fireside Chat with Steven Chu and Bill Gates

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Chu, Steven (U.S. Department of Energy Secretary) [U.S. Department of Energy Secretary; Gates, Bill (Microsoft, Chairman) [Microsoft, Chairman; Podesta, John (Center for American Progress, Chair and Counselor) [Center for American Progress, Chair and Counselor

    2012-02-28T23:59:59.000Z

    The third annual ARPA-E Energy Innovation Summit was held in Washington D.C. in February, 2012. The event brought together key players from across the energy ecosystem - researchers, entrepreneurs, investors, corporate executives, and government officials - to share ideas for developing and deploying the next generation of energy technologies. This video captures a session called 'Fireside Chat' that featured Steven Chu, the Secretary of Energy, and Bill Gates, Chairman of Microsoft Corporation. The session is moderated by John Podesta, Chair of the Center for American Progress. Energy Secretary Steven Chu and Microsoft Founder and Chairman Bill Gates exchanged ideas about how small businesses and innovators can overcome the challenges that face many startups.

  6. Formation of low resistivity titanium silicide gates in semiconductor integrated circuits

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Ishida, Emi (Sunnyvale, CA)

    1999-08-10T23:59:59.000Z

    A method of forming a titanium silicide (69) includes the steps of forming a transistor having a source region (58), a drain region (60) and a gate structure (56) and forming a titanium layer (66) over the transistor. A first anneal is performed with a laser anneal at an energy level that causes the titanium layer (66) to react with the gate structure (56) to form a high resistivity titanium silicide phase (68) having substantially small grain sizes. The unreacted portions of the titanium layer (66) are removed and a second anneal is performed, thereby causing the high resistivity titanium silicide phase (68) to convert to a low resistivity titanium silicide phase (69). The small grain sizes obtained by the first anneal allow low resistivity titanium silicide phase (69) to be achieved at device geometries less than about 0.25 micron.

  7. Attosecond x-ray source generation from two-color polarized gating plasmonic field enhancement

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Feng, Liqiang [College of Science, Liaoning University of Technology, Jinzhou 121000 (China) [College of Science, Liaoning University of Technology, Jinzhou 121000 (China); State Key Laboratory of Molecular Reaction Dynamics, Dalian Institute of Chemical Physics, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Dalian 116023 (China); Yuan, Minghu [State Key Laboratory of Molecular Reaction Dynamics, Dalian Institute of Chemical Physics, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Dalian 116023 (China)] [State Key Laboratory of Molecular Reaction Dynamics, Dalian Institute of Chemical Physics, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Dalian 116023 (China); Chu, Tianshu [State Key Laboratory of Molecular Reaction Dynamics, Dalian Institute of Chemical Physics, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Dalian 116023 (China) [State Key Laboratory of Molecular Reaction Dynamics, Dalian Institute of Chemical Physics, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Dalian 116023 (China); Institute for Computational Sciences and Engineering, Laboratory of New Fiber Materials and Modern Textile, The Growing Base for State Key Laboratory, Qingdao University, Qingdao 266071 (China)

    2013-12-15T23:59:59.000Z

    The plasmonic field enhancement from the vicinity of metallic nanostructures as well as the polarization gating technique has been utilized to the generation of the high order harmonic and the single attosecond x-ray source. Through numerical solution of the time-dependent Schrödinger equation, for moderate the inhomogeneity and the polarized angle of the two fields, we find that not only the harmonic plateau has been extended and enhanced but also the single short quantum path has been selected to contribute to the harmonic. As a result, a series of 50 as pulses around the extreme ultraviolet and the x-ray regions have been obtained. Furthermore, by investigating the other parameters effects on the harmonic emission, we find that this two-color polarized gating plasmonic field enhancement scheme can also be achieved by the multi-cycle pulses, which is much better for experimental realization.

  8. A Reconfigurable Gate Architecture for Si/SiGe Quantum Dots

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    D. M. Zajac; T. M. Hazard; X. Mi; K. Wang; J. R. Petta

    2015-02-05T23:59:59.000Z

    We demonstrate a reconfigurable quantum dot gate architecture that incorporates two interchangeable transport channels. One channel is used to form quantum dots and the other is used for charge sensing. The quantum dot transport channel can support either a single or a double quantum dot. We demonstrate few-electron occupation in a single quantum dot and extract charging energies as large as 6.6 meV. Magnetospectroscopy is used to measure valley splittings in the range of 35-70 microeV. By energizing two additional gates we form a few-electron double quantum dot and demonstrate tunable tunnel coupling at the (1,0) to (0,1) interdot charge transition.

  9. Phase gate and readout with an atom/molecule hybrid platform

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Elena Kuznetsova; Marko Gacesa; Susanne F. Yelin; Robin Côté

    2009-08-31T23:59:59.000Z

    We suggest a combined atomic/molecular system for quantum computation, which takes advantage of highly developed techniques to control atoms and recent experimental progress in manipulation of ultracold molecules. We show that two atoms of different species in a given site, {\\it e.g.}, in an optical lattice, could be used for qubit encoding, initialization and readout, with one atom carrying the qubit, the other enabling a gate. In particular, we describe how a two-qubit phase gate can be realized by transferring a pair of atoms into the ground rovibrational state of a polar molecule with a large dipole moment, and allowing two molecules to interact via their dipole-dipole interaction. We also discuss how the reverse process of coherently transferring a molecule into a pair of atoms could be used as a readout tool for molecular quantum computers.

  10. Probing spin entanglement by gate-voltage-controlled interference of current correlation in quantum spin Hall insulators

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Wei Chen; Z. D. Wang; R. Shen; D. Y. Xing

    2014-05-21T23:59:59.000Z

    We propose an entanglement detector composed of two quantum spin Hall insulators and a side gate deposited on one of the edge channels. For an ac gate voltage, the differential noise contributed from the entangled electron pairs exhibits the nontrivial step structures, from which the spin entanglement concurrence can be easily obtained. The possible spin dephasing effects in the quantum spin Hall insulators are also included.

  11. Tri-Gate Bulk CMOS Technology for Improved SRAM Scalability Changhwan Shin, Borivoje Nikoli, Tsu-Jae King Liu

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Nikolic, Borivoje

    ] is an example of such a design; it utilizes a gate electrode that is physically wrapped around the top portion along a poly-Si gate electrode in an SRAM array, for 15nm nominal STI recess depth. The sequence), pull- 570nm 263nm 570nm 263nm PG1 PD1 PU1 PU2 PD2 PG2 (a) 570nm 263nm 570nm 263nm PG1 PD1 PU1 PU2 PD2

  12. Unified approach to topological quantum computation with anyons: From qubit encoding to Toffoli gate

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Haitan Xu; J. M. Taylor

    2011-08-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Topological quantum computation may provide a robust approach for encoding and manipulating information utilizing the topological properties of anyonic quasi-particle excitations. We develop an efficient means to map between dense and sparse representations of quantum information (qubits) and a simple construction of multi-qubit gates, for all anyon models from Chern-Simons-Witten SU(2)$_k$ theory that support universal quantum computation by braiding ($k\\geq 3,\\ k \

  13. Gated current integrator for the beam in the RR barrier buckets

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    A. Cadorn; C. Bhat; J. Crisp

    2003-06-10T23:59:59.000Z

    At the Fermilab Recycler Ring (RR), the antiproton (pbar) beam will be stored azimuthally in different segments created by barrier buckets. The beam in each segment may have widely varying intensities. They have developed a gated integrator system to measure the beam intensity in each of the barrier bucket. Here they discuss the design of the system and the results of beam measurements using the integrator.

  14. Gated frequency-resolved optical imaging with an optical parametric amplifier for medical applications

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Cameron, S.M.; Bliss, D.E.

    1997-02-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Implementation of optical imagery in a diffuse inhomogeneous medium such as biological tissue requires an understanding of photon migration and multiple scattering processes which act to randomize pathlength and degrade image quality. The nature of transmitted light from soft tissue ranges from the quasi-coherent properties of the minimally scattered component to the random incoherent light of the diffuse component. Recent experimental approaches have emphasized dynamic path-sensitive imaging measurements with either ultrashort laser pulses (ballistic photons) or amplitude modulated laser light launched into tissue (photon density waves) to increase image resolution and transmissive penetration depth. Ballistic imaging seeks to compensate for these {open_quotes}fog-like{close_quotes} effects by temporally isolating the weak early-arriving image-bearing component from the diffusely scattered background using a subpicosecond optical gate superimposed on the transmitted photon time-of-flight distribution. The authors have developed a broadly wavelength tunable (470 nm -2.4 {mu}m), ultrashort amplifying optical gate for transillumination spectral imaging based on optical parametric amplification in a nonlinear crystal. The time-gated image amplification process exhibits low noise and high sensitivity, with gains greater than 104 achievable for low light levels. We report preliminary benchmark experiments in which this system was used to reconstruct, spectrally upcovert, and enhance near-infrared two-dimensional images with feature sizes of 65 {mu}m/mm{sup 2} in background optical attenuations exceeding 10{sup 12}. Phase images of test objects exhibiting both absorptive contrast and diffuse scatter were acquired using a self-referencing Shack-Hartmann wavefront sensor in combination with short-pulse quasi-ballistic gating. The sensor employed a lenslet array based on binary optics technology and was sensitive to optical path distortions approaching {lambda}/100.

  15. A comparison of the full custom, standard cell and gate array design methodologies

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Kwan, King-Wai

    1990-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    A COMPARISON OF THE FULL CUSTOM, STANDARD CELL AND GATE ARRAY DESIGN METHODOLOGIES A Thesis by KING-WAI I&WAN Submitted to the Office of Graduate Studies of Texas A&M University in partial fulffllment of the requirements for the degree... approaches, the designers can select appropriate cells in the libraries which meet their specific requirements such as driving capability and power consumption. But standard cell designs can be used to implement specialized macros such as multi-port...

  16. Touch sensors based on planar liquid crystal-gated-organic field-effect transistors

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Seo, Jooyeok; Lee, Chulyeon; Han, Hyemi; Lee, Sooyong; Nam, Sungho; Kim, Youngkyoo, E-mail: ykimm@knu.ac.kr [Organic Nanoelectronics Laboratory, Department of Chemical Engineering and Graduate School of Applied Chemical Engineering, Kyungpook National University, Daegu, 702-701 (Korea, Republic of); Kim, Hwajeong [Organic Nanoelectronics Laboratory, Department of Chemical Engineering and Graduate School of Applied Chemical Engineering, Kyungpook National University, Daegu, 702-701 (Korea, Republic of); Priority Research Center, Research Institute of Advanced Energy Technology, Kyungpook National University, Daegu, 702-701 (Korea, Republic of); Lee, Joon-Hyung [School of Materials Science and Engineering, Kyungpook National University, Daegu, 702-701 (Korea, Republic of); Park, Soo-Young; Kang, Inn-Kyu [Department of Polymer Science and Engineering and Graduate School of Applied Chemical Engineering, Kyungpook National University, Daegu, 702-701 (Korea, Republic of)

    2014-09-15T23:59:59.000Z

    We report a tactile touch sensor based on a planar liquid crystal-gated-organic field-effect transistor (LC-g-OFET) structure. The LC-g-OFET touch sensors were fabricated by forming the 10 ?m thick LC layer (4-cyano-4{sup ?}-pentylbiphenyl - 5CB) on top of the 50 nm thick channel layer (poly(3-hexylthiophene) - P3HT) that is coated on the in-plane aligned drain/source/gate electrodes (indium-tin oxide - ITO). As an external physical stimulation to examine the tactile touch performance, a weak nitrogen flow (83.3 ?l/s) was employed to stimulate the LC layer of the touch device. The LC-g-OFET device exhibited p-type transistor characteristics with a hole mobility of 1.5 cm{sup 2}/Vs, but no sensing current by the nitrogen flow touch was measured at sufficiently high drain (V{sub D}) and gate (V{sub G}) voltages. However, a clear sensing current signal was detected at lower voltages, which was quite sensitive to the combination of V{sub D} and V{sub G}. The best voltage combination was V{sub D} = ?0.2 V and V{sub G} = ?1 V for the highest ratio of signal currents to base currents (i.e., signal-to-noise ratio). The change in the LC alignment upon the nitrogen flow touch was assigned as the mechanism for the present LC-g-OFET touch sensors.

  17. Optimal control of quantum gates and suppression of decoherence in a system of interacting two-level particles

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Matthew Grace; Constantin Brif; Herschel Rabitz; Ian A. Walmsley; Robert L. Kosut; Daniel A. Lidar

    2007-04-16T23:59:59.000Z

    Methods of optimal control are applied to a model system of interacting two-level particles (e.g., spin-half atomic nuclei or electrons or two-level atoms) to produce high-fidelity quantum gates while simultaneously negating the detrimental effect of decoherence. One set of particles functions as the quantum information processor, whose evolution is controlled by a time-dependent external field. The other particles are not directly controlled and serve as an effective environment, coupling to which is the source of decoherence. The control objective is to generate target one- and two-qubit unitary gates in the presence of strong environmentally-induced decoherence and under physically motivated restrictions on the control field. The quantum-gate fidelity, expressed in terms of a novel state-independent distance measure, is maximized with respect to the control field using combined genetic and gradient algorithms. The resulting high-fidelity gates demonstrate the feasibility of precisely guiding the quantum evolution via optimal control, even when the system complexity is exacerbated by environmental coupling. It is found that the gate duration has an important effect on the control mechanism and resulting fidelity. An analysis of the sensitivity of the gate performance to random variations in the system parameters reveals a significant degree of robustness attained by the optimal control solutions.

  18. Poly(methyl methacrylate) as a self-assembled gate dielectric for graphene field-effect transistors

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Sanne, A.; Movva, H. C. P.; Kang, S.; McClellan, C.; Corbet, C. M.; Banerjee, S. K. [Microelectronics Research Center, University of Texas, Austin, Texas 78758 (United States)

    2014-02-24T23:59:59.000Z

    We investigate poly(methyl methacrylate) (PMMA) as a low thermal budget organic gate dielectric for graphene field effect-transistors (GFETs) based on a simple process flow. We show that high temperature baking steps above the glass transition temperature (?130?°C) can leave a self-assembled, thin PMMA film on graphene, where we get a gate dielectric almost for “free” without additional atomic layer deposition type steps. Electrical characterization of GFETs with PMMA as a gate dielectric yields a dielectric constant of k?=?3.0. GFETs with thinner PMMA dielectrics have a lower dielectric constant due to decreased polarization arising from neutralization of dipoles and charged carriers as baking temperatures increase. The leakage through PMMA gate dielectric increases with decreasing dielectric thickness and increasing electric field. Unlike conventional high-k gate dielectrics, such low-k organic gate dielectrics are potentially attractive for devices such as the proposed Bilayer pseudoSpin Field-Effect Transistor or flexible high speed graphene electronics.

  19. Respiration Induced Heart Motion and Indications of Gated Delivery for Left-Sided Breast Irradiation

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Qi, X. Sharon, E-mail: xiangrong.qi@ucdenver.edu [Department of Radiation Oncology, University of Colorado Denver, Aurora, CO (United States); Hu, Angela [Department of Radiation Oncology, University of Colorado Denver, Aurora, CO (United States); Wang Kai [Department of Radiation Oncology, Medical College of Wisconsin, Milwaukee, WI (United States); Newman, Francis [Department of Radiation Oncology, University of Colorado Denver, Aurora, CO (United States); Crosby, Marcus; Hu Bin; White, Julia; Li, X. Allen [Department of Radiation Oncology, Medical College of Wisconsin, Milwaukee, WI (United States)

    2012-04-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Purpose: To investigate respiration-induced heart motion for left-sided breast irradiation using a four-dimensional computed tomography (4DCT) technique and to determine novel indications to assess heart motion and identify breast patients who may benefit from a gated treatment. Methods and Materials: Images of 4DCT acquired during free breathing for 20 left-sided breast cancer patients, who underwent whole breast irradiation with or without regional nodal irradiation, were analyzed retrospectively. Dose distributions were reconstructed in the phases of 0%, 20%, and 50%. The intrafractional heart displacement was measured in three selected transverse CT slices using D{sub LAD} (the distance from left ascending aorta to a fixed line [connecting middle point of sternum and the body] drawn on each slice) and maximum heart depth (MHD, the distance of the forefront of the heart to the line). Linear regression analysis was used to correlate these indices with mean heart dose and heart dose volume at different breathing phases. Results: Respiration-induced heart displacement resulted in observable variations in dose delivered to the heart. During a normal free-breathing cycle, heart-induced motion D{sub LAD} and MHD changed up to 9 and 11 mm respectively, resulting in up to 38% and 39% increases of mean doses and V{sub 25.2} for the heart. MHD and D{sub LAD} were positively correlated with mean heart dose and heart dose volume. Respiratory-adapted gated treatment may better spare heart and ipsilateral-lung compared with the conventional non-gated plan in a subset of patients with large D{sub LAD} or MHD variations. Conclusion: Proposed indices offer novel assessment of heart displacement based on 4DCT images. MHD and D{sub LAD} can be used independently or jointly as selection criteria for respiratory gating procedure before treatment planning. Patients with great intrafractional MHD variations or tumor(s) close to the diaphragm may particularly benefit from the gated treatment.

  20. On the interest of carbon-coated plasma reactor for advanced gate stack etching processes

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Ramos, R.; Cunge, G.; Joubert, O. [Freescale Semiconductor Inc., 850 Rue Jean Monnet, 38921 Crolles Cedex (France) and Laboratoire des Technologies de la Microelectronique, CNRS, 17 Rue des Martyrs (c/o CEA-LETI), 38054 Grenoble Cedex 9 (France); Laboratoire des Technologies de la Microelectronique, CNRS, 17 Rue des Martyrs (c/o CEA-LETI), 38054 Grenoble Cedex 9 (France)

    2007-03-15T23:59:59.000Z

    In integrated circuit fabrication the most wide spread strategy to achieve acceptable wafer-to-wafer reproducibility of the gate stack etching process is to dry-clean the plasma reactor walls between each wafer processed. However, inherent exposure of the reactor walls to fluorine-based plasma leads to formation and accumulation of nonvolatile fluoride residues (such as AlF{sub x}) on reactor wall surfaces, which in turn leads to process drifts and metallic contamination of wafers. To prevent this while keeping an Al{sub 2}O{sub 3} reactor wall material, a coating strategy must be used, in which the reactor is coated by a protective layer between wafers. It was shown recently that deposition of carbon-rich coating on the reactor walls allows improvements of process reproducibility and reactor wall protection. The authors show that this strategy results in a higher ion-to-neutral flux ratio to the wafer when compared to other strategies (clean or SiOCl{sub x}-coated reactors) because the carbon walls load reactive radical densities while keeping the same ion current. As a result, the etching rates are generally smaller in a carbon-coated reactor, but a highly anisotropic etching profile can be achieved in silicon and metal gates, whose etching is strongly ion assisted. Furthermore, thanks to the low density of Cl atoms in the carbon-coated reactor, silicon etching can be achieved almost without sidewall passivation layers, allowing fine critical dimension control to be achieved. In addition, it is shown that although the O atom density is also smaller in the carbon-coated reactor, the selectivity toward ultrathin gate oxides is not reduced dramatically. Furthermore, during metal gate etching over high-k dielectric, the low level of parasitic oxygen in the carbon-coated reactor also allows one to minimize bulk silicon reoxidation through HfO{sub 2} high-k gate dielectric. It is then shown that the BCl{sub 3} etching process of the HfO{sub 2} high-k material is highly selective toward the substrate in the carbon-coated reactor, and the carbon-coating strategy thus allows minimizing the silicon recess of the active area of transistors. The authors eventually demonstrate that the carbon-coating strategy drastically reduces on-wafer metallic contamination. Finally, the consumption of carbon from the reactor during the etching process is discussed (and thus the amount of initial deposit that is required to protect the reactor walls) together with the best way of cleaning the reactor after a silicon etching process.

  1. Thermoelectric power factor enhancement with gate-all-around silicon nanowires

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Curtin, Benjamin M., E-mail: bcurtin@ece.ucsb.edu [Department of Electrical and Computer Engineering, University of California, Santa Barbara, California 93106 (United States); Bowers, John E. [Department of Electrical and Computer Engineering, University of California, Santa Barbara, California 93106 (United States); Materials Department, University of California, Santa Barbara, California 93106 (United States)

    2014-04-14T23:59:59.000Z

    The thermoelectric properties of gate-all-around silicon nanowires (Si NWs) are calculated to determine the potential for significant power factor enhancement. The Boltzmann transport equation and relaxation time approximation are employed to develop an electron transport model used to determine the field-effect mobility, electrical conductivity, Seebeck coefficient, and power factor for Si NWs with cross-sectional areas between 4?nm?×?4?nm and 12?nm?×?12?nm and a range of gate biases. Electrical conductivity for the gated Si NWs was much higher than that of doped Si due to the lack of ionized impurities and correspondingly greater carrier mobility. A significant increase in electrical conductivity with decreasing Si NW cross-sectional area was also observed due to a large increase in the average carrier density. For all Si NWs, the Seebeck coefficient was lower than that of doped bulk Si due to the different energy dependence between ionized impurity and phonon-mediated scattering processes. This decrease was also confirmed with Seebeck coefficient measurements of multigated Si NWs and n-type Si thin-films. Quantum confinement was also found to increase the Seebeck coefficient for <8?nm?×?8?nm Si NWs and also at high charge densities. A maximum power factor of 6.8?×?10{sup ?3}?W m{sup ?1} K{sup ?2} was calculated for the 6?nm?×?6?nm Si NWs with typical Si/SiO{sub 2} interface roughness, which is 2–3?×?those obtained experimentally for bulk Si. The power factor was also found to greatly depend on surface roughness, with a root-mean-square roughness of <0.8?nm necessary for power factor enhancement. An increase in ZT may also be possible if a low thermal conductivity can be obtained with minimal surface roughness.

  2. Implementation of quantum gates based on geometric phases accumulated in the eigenstates of periodic invariant operators

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    L. B. Shao; Z. D. Wang; D. Y. Xing

    2006-10-24T23:59:59.000Z

    We propose a new strategy to physically implement a universal set of quantum gates based on geometric phases accumulated in the nondegenerate eigenstates of a designated invariant operator in a periodic physical system. The system is driven to evolve in such a way that the dynamical phase shifts of the invariant operator eigenstates are the same (or {\\it mod} $2\\pi$) while the corresponding geometric phases are nontrivial. We illustrate how this strategy to work in a simple but typical NMR-type qubit system.

  3. Hybrid architecture for shallow accumulation mode AlGaAs/GaAs heterostructures with epitaxial gates

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    MacLeod, S. J.; See, A. M.; Hamilton, A. R.; Farrer, I.; Ritchie, D. A.; Ritzmann, J.; Ludwig, A.; Wieck, A. D.

    2015-01-06T23:59:59.000Z

    ;max) is chosen so the leakage current between the Ohmic contacts and top-gate is ? 10 pA (the resolution limit of the Source Measure Unit SMU) when V? = 2.5V. For the deep device VTG;max = 1V and for the shallow device VTG;max = 0.5V. Figure 2 is a plot... V, where s = 0.00308V is the standard deviation, and n = 5 is the num- ber of points. 34 The reported limit to the reproducability/stability of the SMU, `SMU = 2mV (2400 Series SourceMeter Users Manual, Keith- ley Instruments, Inc. Cleveland, Ohio, U...

  4. Excitation spectrum as a resource for efficient two-qubit entangling gates

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Dmitry Solenov; Sophia E. Economou; Thomas L. Reinecke

    2014-04-03T23:59:59.000Z

    Physical systems representing qubits typically have one or more accessible quantum states in addition to the two states that encode the qubit. We demonstrate that active involvement of such auxiliary states can be beneficial in constructing entangling two-qubit operations. We investigate the general case of two multi-state quantum systems coupled via a quantum resonator. The approach is illustrated with the examples of three systems: self-assembled InAs/GaAs quantum dots, NV-centers in diamond, and superconducting transmon qubits. Fidelities of the gate operations are calculated based on numerical simulations of each system.

  5. Field programmable gate array-assigned complex-valued computation and its limits

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Bernard-Schwarz, Maria, E-mail: maria.bernardschwarz@ni.com [National Instruments, Ganghoferstrasse 70b, 80339 Munich (Germany); Institute of Applied Physics, TU Wien, Wiedner Hauptstrasse 8, 1040 Wien (Austria); Zwick, Wolfgang; Klier, Jochen [National Instruments, Ganghoferstrasse 70b, 80339 Munich (Germany); Wenzel, Lothar [National Instruments, 11500 N MOPac Expy, Austin, Texas 78759 (United States); Gröschl, Martin [Institute of Applied Physics, TU Wien, Wiedner Hauptstrasse 8, 1040 Wien (Austria)

    2014-09-15T23:59:59.000Z

    We discuss how leveraging Field Programmable Gate Array (FPGA) technology as part of a high performance computing platform reduces latency to meet the demanding real time constraints of a quantum optics simulation. Implementations of complex-valued operations using fixed point numeric on a Virtex-5 FPGA compare favorably to more conventional solutions on a central processing unit. Our investigation explores the performance of multiple fixed point options along with a traditional 64 bits floating point version. With this information, the lowest execution times can be estimated. Relative error is examined to ensure simulation accuracy is maintained.

  6. Ungrammatical Double-Island Sluicing as a Diagnostic of Left-Branch Positioning

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Cantor, Sara

    2013-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    a. *I don’t remember which Balkan language they want to hireto hire someone who speaks a Balkan language, but I don’thired someone who speaks a Balkan language, but I don’t re-

  7. Project W-320, 241-C-106 sluicing HVAC calculations, Volume 4

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Bailey, J.W.

    1998-07-30T23:59:59.000Z

    This supporting document has been prepared to make the FDNW calculations for Project W-320, readily retrievable. The report contains the following design calculations: Cooling load in pump pit 241-AY-102; Pressure relief seal loop design; Process building piping stress analysis; Exhaust skid maximum allowable leakage criteria; and Recirculation heat, N509 duct requirements.

  8. Project W-320, 241-C-106 sluicing: Piping calculations. Volume 4

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Bailey, J.W.

    1998-07-24T23:59:59.000Z

    This supporting document has been prepared to make the FDNW calculations for Project W-320 readily retrievable. The objective of this calculation is to perform the structural analysis of the Pipe Supports designed for Slurry and Supernate transfer pipe lines in order to meet the requirements of applicable ASME codes. The pipe support design loads are obtained from the piping stress calculations W320-27-I-4 and W320-27-I-5. These loads are the total summation of the gravity, pressure, thermal and seismic loads. Since standard typical designs are used for each type of pipe support such as Y-Stop, Guide and Anchors, each type of support is evaluated for the maximum loads to which this type of supports are subjected. These loads are obtained from the AutoPipe analysis and used to check the structural adequacy of these supports.

  9. Project W-320, 241-C-106 sluicing piping calculations, Volume 7

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Bailey, J.W.

    1998-07-29T23:59:59.000Z

    The object of this report is to calculate the hydraulic forces imposed at the sluicer nozzle. This is required by Project W-320 waste retrieval for tank 241-C-106. The method of analysis used is Bernoulli`s momentum equation for stead flow.

  10. Project W-320, 241-C-106 sluicing: Civil/structural calculations. Volume 5

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Bailey, J.W.

    1998-07-24T23:59:59.000Z

    This supporting document has been prepared to make the FDNW calculations for Project W-320 readily retrievable.

  11. Project W-320, tank 241-C-106 sluicing acceptance for beneficial use

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    BAILEY, J.W.

    1999-05-18T23:59:59.000Z

    The purpose of this document is to identify the Project W-320 Chiller Documentation required to be turned over from the Projects Organization to Tank Farm Operations as part of the acceptance of the new equipment for beneficial use.

  12. Project W-320, 241-C-106 sluicing: Civil/structural calculations. Volume 3

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Bailey, J.W.

    1998-07-24T23:59:59.000Z

    This supporting document has been prepared to make the FDNW civil/structural calculations for Project W-320 readily retrievable. The Equipment Removal System (ERS) has been identified by WHC as not having any safety class 1 items present in the tank pits during equipment removal activities, Documentation of this finding is provided in Letter of Instruction 3/1 Analysis Requirements for Project W-320 Equipment Removal System (REF: LOI KGS-94-013). Based on this specific direction from WHC, 3/1 analysis for any component of the Project W-320 ERS is required. No further documentation of non-safety impacting safety items is required per DOE-RL Audit finding No.90-02, and filing of this memorandum in the W-320 project files satisfies the intent of the referenced DOE observation.

  13. Project W-320, 241-C-106 sluicing: Civil/structural calculations. Volume 8

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Bailey, J.W.

    1998-07-23T23:59:59.000Z

    This supporting document has been prepared to make the FDNW civil/structural calculations for Project W-320 readily retrievable.

  14. Project W-320, 241-C-106 sluicing electrical calculations, Volume 2

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Bailey, J.W.

    1998-08-07T23:59:59.000Z

    This supporting document has been prepared to make the FDNW calculations for Project W-320, readily retrievable. These calculations are required: To determine the power requirements needed to power electrical heat tracing segments contained within three manufactured insulated tubing assemblies; To verify thermal adequacy of tubing assembly selection by others; To size the heat tracing feeder and branch circuit conductors and conduits; To size protective circuit breaker and fuses; and To accomplish thermal design for two electrical heat tracing segments: One at C-106 tank riser 7 (CCTV) and one at the exhaust hatchway (condensate drain). Contents include: C-Farm electrical heat tracing; Cable ampacity, lighting, conduit fill and voltage drop; and Control circuit sizing and voltage drop analysis for the seismic shutdown system.

  15. Project W-320, 241-C-106 sluicing electrical calculations, Volume 1

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Bailey, J.W.

    1998-08-07T23:59:59.000Z

    This supporting document has been prepared to make the FDNW calculations for Project W-320, readily retrievable.

  16. Project W-320, 241-C-106 sluicing: Civil/structural calculations. Volume 6

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Bailey, J.W.

    1998-07-24T23:59:59.000Z

    This supporting document has been prepared to make the FDNW calculations for Project W-320 readily retrievable. The purpose of this calculation is to conservatively estimate the weight of equipment and structures being added over Tank 241-C-106 as a result of Project W-320 and combine these weights with the estimated weights of existing structures and equipment as calculated in Attachment 1. The combined weights will be compared to the allowable live load limit to provide a preliminary assessment of loading conditions above Tank 241-C-106.

  17. Electron Transport Behavior on Gate Length Scaling in Sub-50 nm GaAs Metal Semiconductor Field Effect Transistors

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Han, Jaeheon [Department of Electronic Engineering, Kangnam University, 111 Gugal-dong, Giheung-gu, Yongin-city, Gyeonggi-do, Korea 446-702 (Korea, Republic of)

    2011-12-23T23:59:59.000Z

    Short channel GaAs Metal Semiconductor Field Effect Transistors (MESFETs) have been fabricated with gate length to 20 nm, in order to examine the characteristics of sub-50 nm MESFET scaling. Here the rise in the measured transconductance is mainly attributed to electron velocity overshoot. For gate lengths below 40 nm, however, the transconductance drops suddenly. The behavior of velocity overshoot and its degradation is investigated and simulated by using a transport model based on the retarded Langevin equation (RLE). This indicates the existence of a minimum acceleration length needed for the carriers to reach the overshoot velocity. The argument shows that the source resistance must be included as an internal element, or appropriate boundary condition, of relative importance in any model where the gate length is comparable to the inelastic mean free path of the carriers.

  18. Extremely scaled high-k/In?.??Ga?.??As gate stacks with low leakage and low interface trap densities

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Chobpattana, Varistha; Mikheev, Evgeny; Zhang, Jack Y.; Mates, Thomas E.; Stemmer, Susanne [Materials Department, University of California, Santa Barbara, California 93106-5050 (United States)

    2014-09-28T23:59:59.000Z

    Highly scaled gate dielectric stacks with low leakage and low interface trap densities are required for complementary metal-oxide-semiconductor technology with III-V semiconductor channels. Here, we show that a novel pre-deposition technique, consisting of alternating cycles of nitrogen plasma and tetrakis(dimethylamino)titanium, allows for HfO? and ZrO? gate stacks with extremely high accumulation capacitance densities of more than 5 ?F/cm? at 1 MHz, low leakage current, low frequency dispersion, and low midgap interface trap densities (10¹²cm?²eV?¹range). Using x-ray photoelectron spectroscopy, we show that the interface contains TiO? and small quantities of In?O?, but no detectable Ga- or As-oxides, or As-As bonding. The results allow for insights into the microscopic mechanisms that control leakage and frequency dispersion in high-k/III-V gate stacks.

  19. Physics of gate leakage current in N-polar InAlN/GaN heterojunction field effect transistors

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Goswami, Arunesh; Trew, Robert J.; Bilbro, Griff L. [ECE Department, Box 7911, North Carolina State University, Raleigh, North Carolina 27695-7911 (United States)

    2014-10-28T23:59:59.000Z

    A physics based model of the gate leakage current in N-polar InAlN/GaN heterojunction field effect transistors is demonstrated. The model is based on the space charge limited current flow dominated by the effects of deep traps in the InAlN surface layer. The model predicts accurately the gate-leakage measurement data of the N-polar InAlN/GaN device with InAlN cap layer. In the pinch-off state, the gate leakage current conduction through the surface of the device in the drain access region dominates the current flow through the two dimensional electron gas channel. One deep trap level and two levels of shallow traps are extracted by fitting the model results with measurement data.

  20. Gate Access

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative1 First Use of Energy for All Purposes (Fuel and Nonfuel), 2002; Level: National5Sales for4,645U.S. DOE Office of Science (SC) Environmental AssessmentsGeoffrey Campbelllong version) The U.S.short version)

  1. Single trap dynamics in electrolyte-gated Si-nanowire field effect transistors

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Pud, S.; Li, J.; Offenhäusser, A.; Vitusevich, S. A., E-mail: s.vitusevich@fz-juelich.de [Peter Grünberg Institute (PGI-8), Forschungszentrum Jülich, 52425 Jülich (Germany); Gasparyan, F. [Peter Grünberg Institute (PGI-8), Forschungszentrum Jülich, 52425 Jülich (Germany); Department of Semiconductor Physics and Microelectronics, Yerevan State University, 1 Alex Manoogian St., 0025 Yerevan (Armenia); Petrychuk, M. [Radiophysics Faculty, T. Shevchenko National University of Kyiv, 60 Volodymyrska St., 01601 Kyiv (Ukraine)

    2014-06-21T23:59:59.000Z

    Liquid-gated silicon nanowire (NW) field effect transistors (FETs) are fabricated and their transport and dynamic properties are investigated experimentally and theoretically. Random telegraph signal (RTS) fluctuations were registered in the nanolength channel FETs and used for the experimental and theoretical analysis of transport properties. The drain current and the carrier interaction processes with a single trap are analyzed using a quantum-mechanical evaluation of carrier distribution in the channel and also a classical evaluation. Both approaches are applied to treat the experimental data and to define an appropriate solution for describing the drain current behavior influenced by single trap resulting in RTS fluctuations in the Si NW FETs. It is shown that quantization and tunneling effects explain the behavior of the electron capture time on the single trap. Based on the experimental data, parameters of the single trap were determined. The trap is located at a distance of about 2?nm from the interface Si/SiO{sub 2} and has a repulsive character. The theory of dynamic processes in liquid-gated Si NW FET put forward here is in good agreement with experimental observations of transport in the structures and highlights the importance of quantization in carrier distribution for analyzing dynamic processes in the nanostructures.

  2. Electrical behavior of atomic layer deposited high quality SiO{sub 2} gate dielectric

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Pradhan, Sangram K.; Tanyi, Ekembu K.; Skuza, Jonathan R.; Xiao, Bo; Pradhan, Aswini K., E-mail: apradhan@nsu.edu [Center for Materials Research, Norfolk State University, 700 Park Ave., Norfolk, Virginia 23504 (United States)

    2015-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Comprehensive and systematic electrical studies were performed on fabrication of high quality SiO{sub 2} thin films MOS capacitor using the robust, novel, and simple atomic layer deposition (ALD) technique using highly reactive ozone and tris (dimethylamino) silane (TDMAS) precursors. Ideal capacitance–voltage curve exhibits a very small frequency dispersion and hysteresis behavior of the SiO{sub 2} MOS capacitor grown at 1?s TDMAS pulse, suggesting excellent interfacial quality and purity of the film as probed using x-ray photoelectron studies. The flat-band voltage of the device shifted from negative toward positive voltage axis with increase of TDMAS pulses from 0.2 to 2 s. Based on an equivalent oxide thickness point of view, all SiO{sub 2} films have gate leakage current density of (5.18?×?10{sup ?8} A/cm{sup 2}) as well as high dielectric break down fields of more than (?10 MV/cm), which is better and comparable to that of thermally grown SiO{sub 2} at temperatures above 800?°C. These appealing electrical properties of ALD grown SiO{sub 2} thin films enable its potential applications such as high-quality gate insulators for thin film MOS transistors, as well as insulators for sensor and nanostructures on nonsilicon substrates.

  3. Nucleotide-induced conformational motions and transmembrane gating dynamics in a bacterial ABC transporter

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Holger Flechsig

    2014-02-07T23:59:59.000Z

    ATP-binding cassette (ABC) transporters are integral membrane proteins that mediate the exchange of diverse substrates across membranes powered by ATP hydrolysis. We report results of coarse-grained dynamical simulations performed for the bacterial heme transporter HmuUV. Based on the nucleotide-free structure, we have constructed a ligand-elastic-network description for this protein and investigated ATP-induced conformational motions in structurally resolved computer experiments. As we found, interactions with nucleotides resulted in generic motions which are functional and robust. Upon binding of ATP-mimicking ligands the structure changed from a conformation in which the nucleotide-binding domains formed an open shape, to a conformation in which they were found in tight contact and the transmembrane domains were rotated. The heme channel was broadened in the ligand-bound complex and the gate to the cytoplasm, which was closed in the nucleotide-free conformation, was rendered open by a mechanism that involved tilting motions of essential transmembrane helices. Based on our findings we propose that the HmuUV transporter behaves like a `simple' mechanical device in which, induced by binding of ATP ligands, linear motions of the nucleotide-binding domains are translated into rotational motions and internal tilting dynamics of the transmembrane domains that control gating inside the heme pathway.

  4. Conductance modulation in topological insulator Bi{sub 2}Se{sub 3} thin films with ionic liquid gating

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Son, Jaesung; Banerjee, Karan; Yang, Hyunsoo, E-mail: eleyang@nus.edu.sg [Department of Electrical and Computer Engineering, National University of Singapore, 4 Engineering Drive 3, Singapore 117576 (Singapore)] [Department of Electrical and Computer Engineering, National University of Singapore, 4 Engineering Drive 3, Singapore 117576 (Singapore); Brahlek, Matthew; Koirala, Nikesh; Oh, Seongshik [Department of Physics and Astronomy, Rutgers, The State University of New Jersey, 136 Frelinghuysen Road, Piscataway, New Jersey 08854 (United States)] [Department of Physics and Astronomy, Rutgers, The State University of New Jersey, 136 Frelinghuysen Road, Piscataway, New Jersey 08854 (United States); Lee, Seoung-Ki [School of Advanced Materials Science and Engineering, Sungkyunkwan University, Suwon 440-746 (Korea, Republic of) [School of Advanced Materials Science and Engineering, Sungkyunkwan University, Suwon 440-746 (Korea, Republic of); School of Electrical and Electronic Engineering, Yonsei University, Seoul 120-749 (Korea, Republic of); Ahn, Jong-Hyun [School of Electrical and Electronic Engineering, Yonsei University, Seoul 120-749 (Korea, Republic of)] [School of Electrical and Electronic Engineering, Yonsei University, Seoul 120-749 (Korea, Republic of)

    2013-11-18T23:59:59.000Z

    A Bi{sub 2}Se{sub 3} topological insulator field effect transistor is investigated by using ionic liquid as an electric double layer gating material, leading to a conductance modulation of 365% at room temperature. We discuss the role of charged impurities on the transport properties. The conductance modulation with gate bias is due to a change in the carrier concentration, whereas the temperature dependent conductance change is originated from a change in mobility. Large conductance modulation at room temperature along with the transparent optical properties makes topological insulators as an interesting (opto)electronic material.

  5. Anomalous electron transport in back-gated field-effect transistors with TiTe2 semimetal thin-film channels

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Anomalous electron transport in back-gated field-effect transistors with TiTe2 semimetal thin. The exfoliated crystalline TiTe2 films were used as the channel layers in the back-gated field-effect transistors-voltage characteristics revealed strongly non-linear behavior with signatures of the source-drain threshold voltage

  6. P-type and N-type multi-gate polycrystalline silicon vertical thin film transistors based on low-temperature technology

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Boyer, Edmond

    is obtained. P-type and N-type vertical TFTs have shown symmetric electrical characteristics. DifferentP-type and N-type multi-gate polycrystalline silicon vertical thin film transistors based on low) ABSTRACT P-type and N-type multi-gate vertical thin film transistors (vertical TFTs) have been fabricated

  7. Native point defects in yttria and relevance to its use as a high-dielectric-constant gate oxide material: First-principles study

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Ceder, Gerbrand

    a promising gate oxide material to replace silicon dioxide in metal-oxide- semiconductor devices. Using-earth-doped lasers. Recently, Y2O3 has re- ceived attention as a promising candidate for replacing sili- con dioxide SiO2 as a gate dielectric material in metal- oxide-semiconductor MOS transistors.1­10 The continual

  8. Thermoelectric properties of electrically gated bismuth telluride nanowires I. Bejenari,1,2,* V. Kantser,2, and A. A. Balandin1,

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Thermoelectric properties of electrically gated bismuth telluride nanowires I. Bejenari,1,2,* V can modify thermoelectric properties of intrinsic, n-type and p-type bismuth telluride nanowires, and thermoelectric figure of merit on the nanowire thickness, gate voltage, and excess hole electron concentration

  9. Modulation of conductance and superconductivity by top-gating in LaAlO{sub 3}/SrTiO{sub 3} 2-dimensional electron systems

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Eerkes, P. D.; Wiel, W. G. van der; Hilgenkamp, H. [MESA Institute for Nanotechnology, University of Twente, P.O. Box 217, 7500 AE Enschede (Netherlands)] [MESA Institute for Nanotechnology, University of Twente, P.O. Box 217, 7500 AE Enschede (Netherlands)

    2013-11-11T23:59:59.000Z

    We report the electrical top-gating of a 2-dimensional electron gas (2DEG) formed at the LaAlO{sub 3}/SrTiO{sub 3} interface, using electron-beam evaporated Au gate electrodes. In these structures, epitaxial LaAlO{sub 3} films grown by pulsed laser deposition induce the 2DEGs at the interface to the SrTiO{sub 3} substrate and simultaneously act as the gate dielectric. The structured top-gates enable a local tuning and complete on/off switching of the interface (super-)conductivity, while maintaining the usual, intrinsic characteristics for these LaAlO{sub 3}/SrTiO{sub 3} interfaces when no gate voltage is applied.

  10. Update and Expansion of the Center of Automotive Technology Excellence Under the Graduate Automotive Technology Education (GATE) Program at the University of Tennessee, Knoxville

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Irick, David

    2012-08-30T23:59:59.000Z

    The Graduate Automotive Technology Education (GATE) Center at the University of Tennessee, Knoxville has completed its seventh year of operation under this agreement, its thirteenth year in total. During this period the Center has involved eleven GATE Fellows and three GATE Research Assistants in preparing them to contribute to advanced automotive technologies in the center’s focus area: Advanced Hybrid Propulsion and Control Systems. In addition to the impact that the Center has had on the students and faculty involved, the presence of the center has led to the acquisition of resources that probably would not have been obtained if the GATE Center had not existed. Significant industry interaction such as equipment donations, and support for GATE students has been realized. The value of the total resources brought to the university (including related research contracts) exceeds $2,000,000.

  11. Time-resolved imaging with OKE-based time-gate: enhancement in spatial resolution using low-coherence ultra-short illumination

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Purwar, Harsh; Rozé, Claude; Blaisot, Jean-Bernard

    2015-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    We propose a collinear optical Kerr effect (OKE) based time-gate configuration with low coherence illumination source, derived from the supercontinuum (SC) generated by focusing the femtosecond laser pulses inside water. At first the spectral broadening in SC generation and corresponding changes in its coherence properties are studied and then a narrow band of wavelengths is extracted to use as the probe beam in the OKE-based time-gate configuration. The gate timings and spatial resolution of the time-gated images are also investigated. The low coherence of the probe ensures that the artifacts due to speckles from the laser are reduced to a minimum. To illustrate this a comparison of the time-resolved images of the fuel sprays obtained with this configuration has been made with the images obtained with the collinear, dual color configuration of the optical gate with coherent illumination.

  12. Graduate Automotive Technology Education (GATE) Program: Center of Automotive Technology Excellence in Advanced Hybrid Vehicle Technology at West Virginia University

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Nigle N. Clark

    2006-12-31T23:59:59.000Z

    This report summarizes the technical and educational achievements of the Graduate Automotive Technology Education (GATE) Center at West Virginia University (WVU), which was created to emphasize Advanced Hybrid Vehicle Technology. The Center has supported the graduate studies of 17 students in the Department of Mechanical and Aerospace Engineering and the Lane Department of Computer Science and Electrical Engineering. These students have addressed topics such as hybrid modeling, construction of a hybrid sport utility vehicle (in conjunction with the FutureTruck program), a MEMS-based sensor, on-board data acquisition for hybrid design optimization, linear engine design and engine emissions. Courses have been developed in Hybrid Vehicle Design, Mobile Source Powerplants, Advanced Vehicle Propulsion, Power Electronics for Automotive Applications and Sensors for Automotive Applications, and have been responsible for 396 hours of graduate student coursework. The GATE program also enhanced the WVU participation in the U.S. Department of Energy Student Design Competitions, in particular FutureTruck and Challenge X. The GATE support for hybrid vehicle technology enhanced understanding of hybrid vehicle design and testing at WVU and encouraged the development of a research agenda in heavy-duty hybrid vehicles. As a result, WVU has now completed three programs in hybrid transit bus emissions characterization, and WVU faculty are leading the Transportation Research Board effort to define life cycle costs for hybrid transit buses. Research and enrollment records show that approximately 100 graduate students have benefited substantially from the hybrid vehicle GATE program at WVU.

  13. Low-frequency noise for different gate dielectrics on state-of-the-art UTBOX SOI nMOSFETs

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Boyer, Edmond

    diameter of the wafer and in linear operation (drain voltage VDS=0.05 V), with the front (VGS) or back gate that also degrades the front-channel mobility. The back interface presents similar performance in both SiO2, offering the ability to control the VT based on the back biasing. Moreover, UTBOX devices present

  14. 250 IEEE TRANSACTIONS ON BIOMEDICAL CIRCUITS AND SYSTEMS, VOL. 4, NO. 4, AUGUST 2010 Digital Microfluidic Logic Gates and Their

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Chakrabarty, Krishnendu

    Microfluidic Logic Gates and Their Application to Built-in Self-Test of Lab-on-Chip Yang Zhao, Student Member for microfluidic lab-on-chip. Robust testing methods are therefore needed to ensure correct results. Previously prone. We present a built-in self-test (BIST) method for digital microfluidic lab-on-chip. This method

  15. Built-in Self-Test and Fault Diagnosis for Lab-on-Chip Using Digital Microfluidic Logic Gates

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Chakrabarty, Krishnendu

    Built-in Self-Test and Fault Diagnosis for Lab-on-Chip Using Digital Microfluidic Logic Gates Yang University, Durham, NC 27708, USA Abstract Dependability is an important system attribute for microfluidic are cumbersome and error-prone. We present a built-in self-test (BIST) method for digital microfluidic lab

  16. Reverse gate bias-induced degradation of AlGaN/GaN high electron mobility transistors

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Florida, University of

    , or temperature in- creases due to self-heating. For example, in the on-state stress condition, there may be strong self-heating of the HEMT and a high density of hot electrons in the channel, but accompanied and gate leakage, but should reduce contributions from hot electrons and self-heating.13

  17. 42 IEEE TRANSACTIONS ON VERY LARGE SCALE INTEGRATION (VLSI) SYSTEMS, VOL. 12, NO. 1, JANUARY 2004 Timing Driven Gate Duplication

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Kastner, Ryan

    42 IEEE TRANSACTIONS ON VERY LARGE SCALE INTEGRATION (VLSI) SYSTEMS, VOL. 12, NO. 1, JANUARY 2004 of transforming a set of boolean equations into a circuit comprising of gates that implement the logic while, and power) but the present work deals with delay optimization. Many timing optimization strategies have been

  18. From salience to saccades: Multiple-alternative gated stochastic accumulator model of visual Braden A. Purcell1,2,3

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Palmeri, Thomas

    1 From salience to saccades: Multiple-alternative gated stochastic accumulator model of visual: (615) 343-7900 fax: (615) 343-8449 We describe a stochastic accumulator model demonstrating that visual competing accumulators. The model quantitatively accounts for behavior and predicts neural dynamics

  19. Lifetime of high-k gate dielectrics and analogy with strength of quasibrittle Jia-Liang Le,1

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Bazant, Martin Z.

    , Northwestern University, 2145 Sheridan Road, Evanston, Illinois 60208, USA 2 Department of Materials Science to breakdown i.e., the integral of the tunneling current over the lifetime .2,4 Re- cently, histogram testingLifetime of high-k gate dielectrics and analogy with strength of quasibrittle structures Jia

  20. International Conference on Internet Computing. Las Vegas, Nevada, p. 620 626. 23 26 June MONSTERS AT THE GATE

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Jansen, James

    , (2) Web agents are searching for a wide variety of information, with 60% of the terms used being: terms exactly as entered by the given user. Data Analysis With these three fields, we located initial June 2003. MONSTERS AT THE GATE: WHEN SOFTBOTS VISIT WEB SEARCH ENGINES Bernard J. Jansen and Amanda S

  1. Coupled electromechanical effects in wurtzite quantum dots with wetting layers in gate controlled electric fields: The multiband case

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Melnik, Roderick

    Coupled electromechanical effects in wurtzite quantum dots with wetting layers in gate controlled quantifies the electromechanical effects on the band structure of wurtzite quantum dots. c Systematic study on the band structure calculations of wurtzite AlN/GaN quantum dots with wetting layers (WLs). Based

  2. Dirac point and transconductance of top-gated graphene field-effect transistors operating at elevated temperature

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Hopf, T.; Vassilevski, K. V., E-mail: k.vasilevskiy@ncl.ac.uk; Escobedo-Cousin, E.; King, P. J.; Wright, N. G.; O'Neill, A. G.; Horsfall, A. B.; Goss, J. P. [School of Electrical and Electronic Engineering, Newcastle University, Newcastle upon Tyne NE1 7RU (United Kingdom); Wells, G. H.; Hunt, M. R. C. [Department of Physics, Durham University, Durham DH1 3LE (United Kingdom)

    2014-10-21T23:59:59.000Z

    Top-gated graphene field-effect transistors (GFETs) have been fabricated using bilayer epitaxial graphene grown on the Si-face of 4H-SiC substrates by thermal decomposition of silicon carbide in high vacuum. Graphene films were characterized by Raman spectroscopy, Atomic Force Microscopy, Scanning Tunnelling Microscopy, and Hall measurements to estimate graphene thickness, morphology, and charge transport properties. A 27?nm thick Al?O? gate dielectric was grown by atomic layer deposition with an e-beam evaporated Al seed layer. Electrical characterization of the GFETs has been performed at operating temperatures up to 100?°C limited by deterioration of the gate dielectric performance at higher temperatures. Devices displayed stable operation with the gate oxide dielectric strength exceeding 4.5 MV/cm at 100?°C. Significant shifting of the charge neutrality point and an increase of the peak transconductance were observed in the GFETs as the operating temperature was elevated from room temperature to 100?°C.

  3. Perfect electrical switching of edge channel transport in HgTe quantum wells controlled by gate voltage

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Fu, Hua-Hua, E-mail: hhfu@mail.hust.edu.cn; Wu, Dan-Dan; Gu, Lei [College of Physics and Wuhan National High Magnetic Field Center, Huazhong University of Science and Technology, Wuhan 430074 (China)

    2014-08-14T23:59:59.000Z

    We present a proposal to realize a perfect electrical switching of topological edge-state transport in a HgTe quantum well (QW). In our device design, we place a strip-like top gate voltage in a conventional quantum-point-contact (QPC) region in the HgTe QW. The numerical calculations show that upon increasing the gate voltage, two new conductance channels are developed in the transport direction and just neighbouring the boundaries of the top gate. The quantum states in the new channels can couple with the edge states to open a gap in energy spectrum, and in turn the gap width can be adjusted by the gate voltage, indicating that switch-on/off of the edge channels can be manipulated in a controllable way. Our device can not only be considered as a development of the conventional QPC structure based on the HgTe QW but also provides a new route to realize topological electrical switchers.

  4. Characterization of the pentacene thin-film transistors with an epoxy resin-based polymeric gate insulator

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Boyer, Edmond

    Characterization of the pentacene thin-film transistors with an epoxy resin-based polymeric gate seeking desirable semi- conductor/insulator combinations [3]. In this study, we adopted an epoxy resin fabricated and characterized. SU-8, a reliable epoxy-based pho- toresist, is tested as a potential highly

  5. Test Set Reordering Using the Gate Exhaustive Test Metric Kyoung Youn Cho and Edward J. McCluskey

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Stanford University

    Test Set Reordering Using the Gate Exhaustive Test Metric Kyoung Youn Cho and Edward J. Mc kycho@crc.stanford.edu Abstract When a test set size is larger than desired, some patterns must be dropped. This paper presents a systematic method to reduce test set size; the method reorders a test set

  6. A Leadership-Class U.S. Domestic Stellarator Program Hutch Neilson, David Gates, and Michael Zarnstorff

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    A Leadership-Class U.S. Domestic Stellarator Program Hutch Neilson, David Gates, and Michael concepts or because they lack the core capabilities for it. U.S. leadership in QS stellarators is both.S. leadership in stellarators requires a domestic program to pursue U.S. innovations targeted to materially

  7. Thermoelectric power factor enhancement with gate-all-around silicon nanowires Benjamin M. Curtin and John E. Bowers

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Bowers, John

    Thermoelectric power factor enhancement with gate-all-around silicon nanowires Benjamin M. Curtin and thermoelectric properties of very high power factor Fe3O4/SiO2/p-type Si(001) devices J. Appl. Phys. 115, 033709 (2014); 10.1063/1.4861729 A comprehensive study of thermoelectric and transport properties of -silicon

  8. Design of a scanning gate microscope for mesoscopic electron systems in a cryogen-free dilution refrigerator

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Goldhaber-Gordon, David

    for Materials and Energy Sciences, SLAC National Accelerator Laboratory, 2575 Sand Hill Road, Menlo Park report on our design of a scanning gate microscope housed in a cryogen-free dilution refrigera- tor for improved energy resolution for spec- troscopic measurements, as well as for investigating physical effects

  9. Role of hydrogen in Ge/HfO2/Al gate stacks subjected to negative bias temperature instability

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Misra, Durgamadhab "Durga"

    Role of hydrogen in Ge/HfO2/Al gate stacks subjected to negative bias temperature instability N 2007; published online 17 January 2008 This work investigates the role of hydrogen and nitrogen in a Ge. Virtually unchanged interface state density as a function of NBTI indicates no atomic hydrogen release from

  10. The Proton-Driven Rotor of ATP Synthase: Ohmic Conductance (10 fS), and Absence of Voltage Gating

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Junge, Wolfgang

    The Proton-Driven Rotor of ATP Synthase: Ohmic Conductance (10 fS), and Absence of Voltage Gating portion of F0F1-ATP synthase, F0, translocates protons by a rotary mechanism. Proton conduction by F0-induced voltage jump was monitored by electrochromic absorption transients to yield the unitary conductance of F0

  11. ANALOG-DECODER EXPERIMENTS WITH SUBTHRESHOLD CMOS SOFT-GATES Matthias Frey, Hans-Andrea Loeliger, Felix Lustenberger

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Loeliger, Hans-Andrea

    in a low-cost semi-custom 0.8 µm technology. These soft-gates allow, in particular, the real- ization given in [6] and [7, 8]; see also [9]. Since 1998, much effort has been spent towards turning BiCMOS technology. Winstead et al. [11] have fabricated a decoder of the (8,4,4) Hamming code in 0

  12. Molecular doping for control of gate bias stress in organic thin film transistors

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Hein, Moritz P., E-mail: hein@iapp.de; Lüssem, Björn; Jankowski, Jens; Tietze, Max L.; Riede, Moritz K. [Institut für Angewandte Photophysik, Technische Universität Dresden, George-Bähr-Straße 1, 01069 Dresden (Germany)] [Institut für Angewandte Photophysik, Technische Universität Dresden, George-Bähr-Straße 1, 01069 Dresden (Germany); Zakhidov, Alexander A. [Fraunhofer COMEDD, Maria-Reiche-Str. 2, 01109 Dresden (Germany)] [Fraunhofer COMEDD, Maria-Reiche-Str. 2, 01109 Dresden (Germany); Leo, Karl [Institut für Angewandte Photophysik, Technische Universität Dresden, George-Bähr-Straße 1, 01069 Dresden (Germany) [Institut für Angewandte Photophysik, Technische Universität Dresden, George-Bähr-Straße 1, 01069 Dresden (Germany); Fraunhofer COMEDD, Maria-Reiche-Str. 2, 01109 Dresden (Germany)

    2014-01-06T23:59:59.000Z

    The key active devices of future organic electronic circuits are organic thin film transistors (OTFTs). Reliability of OTFTs remains one of the most challenging obstacles to be overcome for broad commercial applications. In particular, bias stress was identified as the key instability under operation for numerous OTFT devices and interfaces. Despite a multitude of experimental observations, a comprehensive mechanism describing this behavior is still missing. Furthermore, controlled methods to overcome these instabilities are so far lacking. Here, we present the approach to control and significantly alleviate the bias stress effect by using molecular doping at low concentrations. For pentacene and silicon oxide as gate oxide, we are able to reduce the time constant of degradation by three orders of magnitude. The effect of molecular doping on the bias stress behavior is explained in terms of the shift of Fermi Level and, thus, exponentially reduced proton generation at the pentacene/oxide interface.

  13. Ultrafast control of nuclear spins using only microwave pulses: towards switchable solid-state quantum gates

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    George Mitrikas; Yiannis Sanakis; Georgios Papavassiliou

    2009-10-13T23:59:59.000Z

    We demonstrate the control of the alpha-proton nuclear spin, I=1/2, coupled to the stable radical CH(COOH)2, S=1/2, in a gamma-irradiated malonic acid single crystal using only microwave pulses. We show that, depending on the state of the electron spin mS=+/-1/2, the nuclear spin can be locked in a desired state or oscillate between mI=+1/2 and mI=-1/2 on the nanosecond time scale. This approach provides a fast and efficient way of controlling nuclear spin qubits and also enables the design of switchable spin-based quantum gates by addressing only the electron spin.

  14. A Strained Organic Field-Effect-Transistor with a Gate-Tunable Superconducting Channel

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Hiroshi M. Yamamoto; Masaki Nakano; Masayuki Suda; Yoshihiro Iwasa; Masashi Kawasaki; Reizo Kato

    2013-09-02T23:59:59.000Z

    In state-of-the-art silicon devices, mobility of the carrier is enhanced by the lattice strain from the back substrate. Such an extra control of device performance is significant in realizing high performance computing and should be valid for electric-field-induced superconducting devices, too. However, so far, the carrier density is the sole parameter for field-induced superconducting interfaces. Here we show an active organic superconducting field-effect-transistor whose lattice is modulated by the strain from the substrate. The soft organic lattice allows tuning of the strain by a choice of the back substrate to make an induced superconducting state accessible at low temperature with a paraelectric solid gate. An active three terminal Josephson junction device thus realized is useful both in advanced computing and in elucidating a direct connection between filling-controlled and bandwidth-controlled superconducting phases in correlated materials.

  15. Single photoelectron spin detection and angular momentum transfer in a gate defined quantum dot

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Takafumi Fujita; Kazuhiro Morimoto; Haruki Kiyama; Giles Allison; Marcus Larsson; Arne Ludwig; Sascha R. Valentin; Andreas D. Wieck; Akira Oiwa; Seigo Tarucha

    2015-04-14T23:59:59.000Z

    Recent innovations in fabricating nanoscale confined spin systems have enabled investigation of fundamental quantum correlations between single quanta of photons and matter states. Realization of quantum state transfer from photon polarization to electron spin using gate defined quantum dots (QDs) may give evidence of preserved coherence of angular momentum basis states at the photon-spin interface. The interface would enlarge the concept of quantum information technology, in which single photogenerated electron spins are manipulated with the dots, but this remains a serious challenge. Here, we report the detection of single electron spins generated by polarized single photons via a double QD (DQD) to verify the angular momentum transfer from single photons to single electrons. Pauli spin blockade (PSB) is used to project the photoelectron spin state onto the up or down spin state. Our result promises the realization of coherent quantum state transfer and development of hybrid photon and spin quantum technology.

  16. A digital optical phase-locked loop for diode lasers based on field programmable gate array

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Xu Zhouxiang; Zhang Xian; Huang Kaikai; Lu Xuanhui [Physics Department, Zhejiang University, Hangzhou, 310027 (China)

    2012-09-15T23:59:59.000Z

    We have designed and implemented a highly digital optical phase-locked loop (OPLL) for diode lasers in atom interferometry. The three parts of controlling circuit in this OPLL, including phase and frequency detector (PFD), loop filter and proportional integral derivative (PID) controller, are implemented in a single field programmable gate array chip. A structure type compatible with the model MAX9382/MCH12140 is chosen for PFD and pipeline and parallelism technology have been adapted in PID controller. Especially, high speed clock and twisted ring counter have been integrated in the most crucial part, the loop filter. This OPLL has the narrow beat note line width below 1 Hz, residual mean-square phase error of 0.14 rad{sup 2} and transition time of 100 {mu}s under 10 MHz frequency step. A main innovation of this design is the completely digitalization of the whole controlling circuit in OPLL for diode lasers.

  17. Calibration of a gated flat field spectrometer as a function of x-ray intensity

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Xiong, Gang; Yang, Guohong; Li, Hang; Zhang, Jiyan, E-mail: zhangjiyanzjy@sina.com; Zhao, Yang; Hu, Zhimin; Wei, Minxi; Qing, Bo; Yang, Jiamin; Liu, Shenye; Jiang, Shaoen [Research Center of Laser Fusion, China Academy of Engineering Physics, P. O. Box 919-986, Mianyang 621900 (China)] [Research Center of Laser Fusion, China Academy of Engineering Physics, P. O. Box 919-986, Mianyang 621900 (China)

    2014-04-15T23:59:59.000Z

    We present an experimental determination of the response of a gated flat-field spectrometer at the Shenguang-II laser facility. X-rays were emitted from a target that was heated by laser beams and then were divided into different intensities with a step aluminum filter and collected by a spectrometer. The transmission of the filter was calibrated using the Beijing Synchrotron Radiation Facility. The response characteristics of the spectrometer were determined by comparing the counts recorded by the spectrometer with the relative intensities of the x-rays transmitted through the step aluminum filter. The response characteristics were used to correct the transmission from two shots of an opacity experiment using the same samples. The transmissions from the two shots are consistent with corrections, but discrepant without corrections.

  18. Revealing Carrier-Envelope Phase through Frequency Mixing and Interference in Frequency Resolved Optical Gating

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Snedden, Edward W; Jamison, Steven P

    2015-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    We demonstrate that full temporal characterisation of few-cycle electromagnetic pulses, including retrieval of the carrier envelope phase (CEP), can be directly obtained from Frequency Resolved Optical Gating (FROG) techniques in which the interference between non-linear frequency mixing processes is resolved. We derive a framework for this scheme, defined Real Domain-FROG (ReD-FROG), as applied to the cases of interference between sum and difference frequency components and between fundamental and sum/difference frequency components. A successful numerical demonstration of ReD-FROG as applied to the case of a self-referenced measurement is provided. A proof-of-principle experiment is performed in which the CEP of a single-cycle THz pulse is accurately obtained and demonstrates the possibility for THz detection beyond the bandwidth limitations of electro-optic sampling.

  19. Nucleotide-induced conformational motions and transmembrane gating dynamics in a bacterial ABC transporter

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Flechsig, Holger

    2014-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    ATP-binding cassette (ABC) transporters are integral membrane proteins that mediate the exchange of diverse substrates across membranes powered by ATP hydrolysis. We report results of coarse-grained dynamical simulations performed for the bacterial heme transporter HmuUV. Based on the nucleotide-free structure, we have constructed a ligand-elastic-network description for this protein and investigated ATP-induced conformational motions in structurally resolved computer experiments. As we found, interactions with nucleotides resulted in generic motions which are functional and robust. Upon binding of ATP-mimicking ligands the structure changed from a conformation in which the nucleotide-binding domains formed an open shape, to a conformation in which they were found in tight contact and the transmembrane domains were rotated. The heme channel was broadened in the ligand-bound complex and the gate to the cytoplasm, which was closed in the nucleotide-free conformation, was rendered open by a mechanism that involv...

  20. Gate induced g-factor control and dimensional transition for donors in multi-valley semiconductors

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Rajib Rahman; Seung H. Park; Timothy B. Boykin; Gerhard Klimeck; Sven Rogge; Lloyd C. L. Hollenberg

    2009-05-19T23:59:59.000Z

    The dependence of the g-factors of semiconductor donors on applied electric and magnetic fields is of immense importance in spin based quantum computation and in semiconductor spintronics. The donor g-factor Stark shift is sensitive to the orientation of the electric and magnetic fields and strongly influenced by the band-structure and spin-orbit interactions of the host. Using a multimillion atom tight-binding framework the spin-orbit Stark parameters are computed for donors in multi-valley semiconductors, silicon and germanium. Comparison with limited experimental data shows good agreement for a donor in silicon. Results for gate induced transition from 3D to 2D wave function confinement show that the corresponding g-factor shift in Si is experimentally observable.

  1. A New Gated X-Ray Detector for the Orion Laser Facility

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Clark, David D. [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Aragonez, Robert J. [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Archuleta, Thomas N. [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Fatherley, Valerie E. [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Hsu, Albert H. [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Jorgenson, H. J. [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Mares, Danielle [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Oertel, John A. [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Oades, Kevin [Atomic Weapons Establishment; Kemshall, Paul [Atomic Weapons Establishment; Thomas, Philip [Atomic Weapons Establishment; Young, Trevor [Atomic Weapons Establishment; Pederson, Neal [VI Control Systems

    2012-08-08T23:59:59.000Z

    Gated X-Ray Detectors (GXD) are considered the work-horse target diagnostic of the laser based inertial confinement fusion (ICF) program. Recently, Los Alamos National Laboratory (LANL) has constructed three new GXDs for the Orion laser facility at the Atomic Weapons Establishment (AWE) in the United Kingdom. What sets these three new instruments apart from the what has previously been constructed for the National Ignition Facility (NIF) at Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory (LLNL) is: improvements in detector head microwave transmission lines, solid state embedded hard drive and updated control software, and lighter air box design and other incremental mechanical improvements. In this paper we will present the latest GXD design enhancements and sample calibration data taken on the Trident laser facility at Los Alamos National Laboratory using the newly constructed instruments.

  2. Ripple gate drive circuit for fast operation of series connected IGBTs

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Rockot, Joseph H.; Murray, Thomas W.; Bass, Kevin C.

    2005-09-20T23:59:59.000Z

    A ripple gate drive circuit includes a plurality of transistors having their power terminals connected in series across an electrical potential. A plurality of control circuits, each associated with one of the transistors, is provided. Each control circuit is responsive to a control signal and an optical signal received from at least one other control circuit for controlling the conduction of electrical current through the power terminals of the associated transistor. The control circuits are responsive to a first state of the control circuit for causing each transistor in series to turn on sequentially and responsive to a second state of the control signal for causing each transistor in series to turn off sequentially.

  3. Short range, ultra-wideband radar with high resolution swept range gate

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    McEwan, Thomas E. (Livermore, CA)

    1998-05-26T23:59:59.000Z

    A radar range finder and hidden object locator is based on ultra-wide band radar with a high resolution swept range gate. The device generates an equivalent time amplitude scan with a typical range of 4 inches to 20 feet, and an analog range resolution as limited by a jitter of on the order of 0.01 inches. A differential sampling receiver is employed to effectively eliminate ringing and other aberrations induced in the receiver by the near proximity of the transmit antenna, so a background subtraction is not needed, simplifying the circuitry while improving performance. Uses of the invention include a replacement of ultrasound devices for fluid level sensing, automotive radar, such as cruise control and parking assistance, hidden object location, such as stud and rebar finding. Also, this technology can be used when positioned over a highway lane to collect vehicle count and speed data for traffic control.

  4. Short range, ultra-wideband radar with high resolution swept range gate

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    McEwan, T.E.

    1998-05-26T23:59:59.000Z

    A radar range finder and hidden object locator is based on ultra-wide band radar with a high resolution swept range gate. The device generates an equivalent time amplitude scan with a typical range of 4 inches to 20 feet, and an analog range resolution as limited by a jitter of on the order of 0.01 inches. A differential sampling receiver is employed to effectively eliminate ringing and other aberrations induced in the receiver by the near proximity of the transmit antenna, so a background subtraction is not needed, simplifying the circuitry while improving performance. Uses of the invention include a replacement of ultrasound devices for fluid level sensing, automotive radar, such as cruise control and parking assistance, hidden object location, such as stud and rebar finding. Also, this technology can be used when positioned over a highway lane to collect vehicle count and speed data for traffic control. 14 figs.

  5. Using polymer electrolyte gates to set-and-freeze threshold voltage and local potential in nanowire-based devices and thermoelectrics

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Sofia Fahlvik Svensson; Adam M. Burke; Damon J. Carrad; Martin Leijnse; Heiner Linke; Adam P. Micolich

    2014-11-11T23:59:59.000Z

    We use the strongly temperature-dependent ionic mobility in polymer electrolytes to 'freeze in' specific ionic charge environments around a nanowire using a local wrap-gate geometry. This enables us to set both the threshold voltage for a conventional doped substrate gate and the local disorder potential at temperatures below 200 Kelvin, which we characterize in detail by combining conductance and thermovoltage measurements with modeling. Our results demonstrate that local polymer electrolyte gates are compatible with nanowire thermoelectrics, where they offer the advantage of a very low thermal conductivity, and hold great potential towards setting the optimal operating point for solid-state cooling applications.

  6. Damage threshold and focusability of mid-infrared free-electron laser pulses gated by a plasma mirror with nanosecond switching pulses

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Wang, Xiaolong; Nakajima, Takashi; Zen, Heishun; Kii, Toshiteru; Ohgaki, Hideaki [Institute of Advanced Energy, Kyoto University, Gokasho, Uji, Kyoto 611-0011 (Japan)] [Institute of Advanced Energy, Kyoto University, Gokasho, Uji, Kyoto 611-0011 (Japan)

    2013-11-04T23:59:59.000Z

    The presence of a pulse train structure of an oscillator-type free-electron laser (FEL) results in the immediate damage of a solid target upon focusing. We demonstrate that the laser-induced damage threshold can be significantly improved by gating the mid-infrared FEL pulses with a plasma mirror. Although the switching pulses we employ have a nanosecond duration which does not guarantee the clean wavefront of the gated FEL pulses, the high focusability is experimentally confirmed through the observation of spectral broadening by a factor of 2.1 when we tightly focus the gated FEL pulses onto the Ge plate.

  7. SiO2 Passivation Effects on the Leakage Current in Dual-Gate AlGaN/GaN High Electron Mobility Transistors

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Seo, Kwang Seok

    was grown on c-plane sapphire substrate by MOCVD. Undoped 30 nm-thick Al0.26Ga0.74N and Fe-doped 3 m GaN substrate 3 nm undoped GaN 0.26 0.74 Source DrainMain-GateSiO2 2DEG SiO2 SiO2 Additional Gate 5 m3 m3 m 3 mSiO2 Passivation Effects on the Leakage Current in Dual-Gate AlGaN/GaN High Electron Mobility

  8. Evaluation of delivered monitor unit accuracy of gated step-and-shoot IMRT using a two-dimensional detector array

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Cheong, Kwang-Ho; Kang, Sei-Kwon; Lee, MeYeon; Kim, Su SSan; Park, SoAh; Hwang, Tae-Jin; Kim, Kyoung Ju; Oh, Do Hoon; Bae, Hoonsik; Suh, Tae-Suk [Department of Radiation Oncology, Hallym University College of Medicine, Seoul, 431070 (Korea, Republic of) and Department of Biomedical Engineering, College of Medicine, Catholic University of Korea, Seoul 137701 (Korea, Republic of); Department of Radiation Oncology, Hallym University College of Medicine, Seoul 431070 (Korea, Republic of); Department of Biomedical Engineering, College of Medicine, Catholic University of Korea, Seoul 137701 (Korea, Republic of)

    2010-03-15T23:59:59.000Z

    Purpose: To overcome the problem of organ motion in intensity-modulated radiation therapy (IMRT), gated IMRT is often used for the treatment of lung cancer. In this study, the authors investigated the accuracy of the delivered monitor units (MUs) from each segment during gated IMRT using a two-dimensional detector array for user-specific verification purpose. Methods: The authors planned a 6 MV photon, seven-port step-and-shoot lung IMRT delivery. The respiration signals for gated IMRT delivery were obtained from the one-dimensional moving phantom using the real-time position management (RPM) system (Varian Medical Systems, Palo Alto, CA). The beams were delivered using a Clinac iX (Varian Medical Systems, Palo Alto, CA) with the Millennium 120 MLC. The MatriXX (IBA Dosimetry GmbH, Germany) was validated through consistency and reproducibility tests as well as comparison with measurements from a Farmer-type ion chamber. The authors delivered beams with varying dose rates and duty cycles and analyzed the MatriXX data to evaluate MU delivery accuracy. Results: There was quite good agreement between the planned segment MUs and the MUs computed from the MatriXX within {+-}2% error. The beam-on times computed from the MatriXX data were almost identical for all cases, and they matched well with the RPM beam-on and beam-off signals. A slight difference was observed between them, but it was less than 40 ms. The gated IMRT delivery demonstrated an MU delivery accuracy that was equivalent to ungated IMRT, and the delivered MUs with a gating signal agreed with the planned MUs within {+-}0.5 MU regardless of dose rate and duty cycle. Conclusions: The authors can conclude that gated IMRT is able to deliver an accurate dose to a patient during a procedure. The authors believe that the methodology and results can be transferred to other vendors' devices, particularly those that do not provide MLC log data for a verification purpose.

  9. Vehicle Technologies Office Merit Review 2015: GATE Center of Excellence at UAB for Lightweight Materials and Manufacturing for Automotive, Truck and Mass Transit

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    Presentation given by University of Alabama Birmingham at 2015 DOE Hydrogen and Fuel Cells Program and Vehicle Technologies Office Annual Merit Review and Peer Evaluation Meeting about GATE Center...

  10. Vehicle Technologies Office Merit Review 2014: GATE Center of Excellence at UAB for Lightweight Materials and Manufacturing for Automotive, Truck and Mass Transit

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    Presentation given by University of Alabama at Birmingham at 2014 DOE Hydrogen and Fuel Cells Program and Vehicle Technologies Office Annual Merit Review and Peer Evaluation Meeting about GATE...

  11. Vehicle Technologies Office Merit Review 2014: GATE Center of Excellence at UAB for Lightweight Materials and Manufacturing for Automotive, Truck and Mass Transit

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    Presentation given by University of Alabama at 2014 DOE Hydrogen and Fuel Cells Program and Vehicle Technologies Office Annual Merit Review and Peer Evaluation Meeting about GATE Center of...

  12. Comparison Of Intake Gate Closure Methods At Lower Granite, Little Goose, Lower Monumental, And Mcnary Dams Using Risk-Based Analysis

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Gore, Bryan F.; Blackburn, Tyrone R.; Heasler, Patrick G.; Mara, Neil L.; Phan, Hahn K.; Bardy, David M.; Hollenbeck, Robert E.

    2001-01-19T23:59:59.000Z

    The objective of this report is to compare the benefits and costs of modifications proposed for intake gate closure systems at four hydroelectric stations on the Lower Snake and Upper Columbia Rivers in the Walla Walla District that are unable to meet the COE 10-minute closure rule due to the installation of fish screens. The primary benefit of the proposed modifications is to reduce the risk of damage to the station and environs when emergency intake gate closure is required. Consequently, this report presents the results and methodology of an extensive risk analysis performed to assess the reliability of powerhouse systems and the costs and timing of potential damages resulting from events requiring emergency intake gate closure. As part of this analysis, the level of protection provided by the nitrogen emergency closure system was also evaluated. The nitrogen system was the basis for the original recommendation to partially disable the intake gate systems. The risk analysis quantifies this protection level.

  13. High performance organic field-effect transistors with ultra-thin HfO{sub 2} gate insulator deposited directly onto the organic semiconductor

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Ono, S., E-mail: shimpei@criepi.denken.or.jp [Central Research Institute of Electric Power Industry, Komae, Tokyo 201-8511 (Japan); Häusermann, R. [Central Research Institute of Electric Power Industry, Komae, Tokyo 201-8511 (Japan) [Central Research Institute of Electric Power Industry, Komae, Tokyo 201-8511 (Japan); Laboratory for Solid State Physics, ETH Zurich, Zurich 8093 (Switzerland); Chiba, D. [Institute for Chemical Research, Kyoto University, Gokasho, Uji, Kyoto 611-0011 (Japan) [Institute for Chemical Research, Kyoto University, Gokasho, Uji, Kyoto 611-0011 (Japan); PRESTO, Japan Science and Technology Agency, 4-1-8 Honcho Kawaguchi, Saitama 322-0012 (Japan); Department of Applied Physics, University of Tokyo, Tokyo 113-8656 (Japan); Shimamura, K.; Ono, T. [Institute for Chemical Research, Kyoto University, Gokasho, Uji, Kyoto 611-0011 (Japan)] [Institute for Chemical Research, Kyoto University, Gokasho, Uji, Kyoto 611-0011 (Japan); Batlogg, B. [Laboratory for Solid State Physics, ETH Zurich, Zurich 8093 (Switzerland)] [Laboratory for Solid State Physics, ETH Zurich, Zurich 8093 (Switzerland)

    2014-01-06T23:59:59.000Z

    We have produced stable organic field-effect transistors (OFETs) with an ultra-thin HfO{sub 2} gate insulator deposited directly on top of rubrene single crystals by atomic layer deposition (ALD). We find that ALD is a gentle deposition process to grow thin films without damaging rubrene single crystals, as results these devices have a negligibly small threshold voltage and are very stable against gate-bias-stress, and the mobility exceeds 1 cm{sup 2}/V s. Moreover, the devices show very little degradation even when kept in air for more than 2 months. These results demonstrate thin HfO{sub 2} layers deposited by ALD to be well suited as high capacitance gate dielectrics in OFETs operating at small gate voltage. In addition, the dielectric layer acts as an effective passivation layer to protect the organic semiconductor.

  14. Enhancing controllability and stability of bottom-gated graphene thin-film transistors by passivation with methylamine

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Drapeko, Maksim, E-mail: maksim.drapeko.10@ucl.ac.uk, E-mail: md584@cam.ac.uk [London Centre for Nanotechnology, University College London, 17-19 Gordon Street, WC1H 0AH London, United Kingdom and Centre for Advanced Photonics and Electronics, Department of Engineering, Cambridge University, 9 J J Thomson Avenue, CB3 0HE Cambridge (United Kingdom)

    2014-06-02T23:59:59.000Z

    This paper is intended to aid to bridge the gap between chemistry and electronic engineering. In this work, the fabrication of chemical vapour deposited graphene field-effect transistors employing silicon-nitride (Si{sub 3}N{sub 4}) gate dielectric is presented, showing originally p-type channel conduction due to ambient impurities yielding uncontrollable behaviour. Vacuum annealing has been performed to balance off hole and electron conduction in the channel, leading to the observation of the Dirac point and therefore improving controllability. Non-covalent functionalisation by methylamine has been performed for passivation and stability reasons yielding electron mobility of 4800?cm{sup 2}/V?s and hole mobility of 3800?cm{sup 2}/V?s as well as stabilised controllable behaviour of a bottom-gated transistor. The introduction of interface charge following the non-covalent functionalisation as well as the charge balance have been discussed and analysed.

  15. Daily targeting of liver tumors: Screening patients with a mock treatment and using a combination of internal and external fiducials for image-guided respiratory-gated radiotherapy

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Krishnan, Sunil; Briere, Tina Marie; Dong Lei; Murthy, Ravi; Ng, Chaan; Balter, Peter; Mohan, Radhe; Gillin, Michael T.; Beddar, A. Sam [Department of Radiation Oncology, MD Anderson Cancer Center, Houston, Texas 77030 (United States); Department of Radiation Physics, MD Anderson Cancer Center, Houston, Texas 77030 (United States); Department of Diagnostic Radiology, MD Anderson Cancer Center, Houston, Texas 77030 (United States); Department of Radiation Physics, MD Anderson Cancer Center, Houston, Texas 77030 (United States)

    2007-12-15T23:59:59.000Z

    The feasibility and accuracy of using a mock treatment to screen suitable patients for respiratory-gated image-guided radiotherapy was investigated. Radio-opaque fiducials implanted adjacent to the liver tumor were used for online positioning to minimize the systematic error in patient positioning. The consistency in the degree of correlation between the external and internal fiducials was analyzed during a mock treatment. This technique could screen patients for gated therapy, reduce setup inaccuracy, and possibly individualize treatment margins.

  16. Nondestructive characterization of a TiN metal gate: Chemical and structural properties by means of standing-wave hard x-ray

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Fadley, Charles

    Nondestructive characterization of a TiN metal gate: Chemical and structural properties by means (HXPS, HAXPES) is applied to a thick (100 A° ) film of a metal gate TiN grown on top of a Si/MoSi2 of TiN, as well as the buried interface between TiN and the native oxide on top of the mirror

  17. Robust quantum gates for systems subject to decoherence via optimal control: Markovian vs non-Markovian dynamics

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Frederik Floether; Pierre de Fouquieres; Sophie Schirmer

    2012-05-28T23:59:59.000Z

    We study the implementation of one-, two-, and three-qubit quantum gates for interacting qubits using optimal control. Different Markovian and non-Markovian environments are compared and efficient optimisation algorithms utilising analytic gradient expressions and quasi-Newton updates are given for both cases. The performance of the algorithms is analysed for a large set of problems in terms of the fidelities attained and the observed convergence behaviour. New notions of success rate and success speed are introduced and density plots are utilised to study the effect of key parameters, such as gate operation times, and random variables, such as the initial fields required to start the iterative algorithm. Core characteristics of the optimal fields are statistically analysed. Substantial differences between Markovian and non-Markovian environments in terms of the possibilities for control and the control mechanisms are uncovered. In particular, in the Markovian case it is found that the optimal fields obtained without considering the environment cannot be improved substantially by taking the environment into account and the fidelities attained are determined mostly by the gate operation time as well as the overall strength of the environmental effects. Computation time is saved if the fields are pre-optimised neglecting decoherence. In the non-Markovian case, on the other hand, substantial improvements in the fidelities are observed when the details of the system-bath coupling are taken into account. In that case, field leakage is shown to be a significant issue which can make high gate fidelities impossible to obtain unless both the system and noise qubits are fully controlled.

  18. Gating A 911 with a 412 using Mode 1 in Recycle Mode John Wertenbaker 5/8/07

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Princeton Plasma Physics Laboratory

    ;#12;#12;#12;#12;#12;#12;#12;#12;#12;Gating A 911 with a 412 using Mode 1 in Recycle Mode John Wertenbaker 5/8/07 The Recycle Mode of a 412,777,215 Let's assume that the recycle counter is set to 5, the 412 clock divider is set to 1, and the 412,905uSec. This is 1,000,000 + recycle delay - Tperiod. This example assumes that the user is already

  19. AlGaN/GaN MIS-HEMT Gate Structure Improvement Using Al2O3 Deposited by PEALD

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Boyer, Edmond

    AlGaN/GaN MIS-HEMT Gate Structure Improvement Using Al2O3 Deposited by PEALD R. Meunier1 , A, 38054 Grenoble Cedex 9, France 2 LAAS-CNRS, 7 Avenue du Colonel Roche, 31400 Toulouse, France AlGaN /GaN behavior. Those trapped charges can be associated to the carbon contamination of the AlGaN surface

  20. Rio Grande project partnerships

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Supercinski, Danielle

    2008-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    for supporting hydrologic analysis and modeling. The information will help develop bi-national cooperation between Mexico and the United States concerning water in the Rio Grande Basin. It will also provide accurate and reli- able data necessary for analysis... municipal demands. With the population expected to double in the next 50 years, the urban water demands will increase proportionately. Story by Danielle Supercinski At the Cameron County Irrigation District No. 2 in San Benito, sluice gates inside...

  1. Novel concepts of superconductive optoelectronic devices: Resonances of photoconductivity in the Cu{sub 2}O gate region

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Masumi, Taizo; Isobe, Masakatsu [Gunma Univ., Kiryu, Gunma (Japan). Dept. of Electronic Engineering

    1996-12-31T23:59:59.000Z

    On the basis of the discoveries of anomalous photoconductivity of insulators correlated with high-{Tc} superconductivity, the authors introduce novel concepts of superconductive optoelectronic devices. They have proposed that one must be able to fabricate a new type of device by combining these photoconductors for the gate region and relevant superconductors for the source and drain regions, both effective below their Tc`s. They have been continuing a series of further experimental studies seeking actual possibilities by utilizing the basic substance Cu{sub 2}O for the gate material and superconductive LBCO, LSCO and YBCO for the source and drain materials, e.g., YBCO/Cu{sub 2}O/YBCO. Here, they report an observation of resonant and hybrid emergences of photoconductivity of Cu{sub 2}O in the gate region peculiarly in conjugation with the high-Tc superconductivity utilized in the source and drain regions in superconductive optoelectronic devices. Microwave photosignals at 35 GHz guarantee a high-speed operation of the device in the n-sec region. They feed these results in a Nano-engineering back to basic Physics of Oxide Superconductor in order to shed a new light on substantial natures of the Cu-O based high-{Tc} superconductivity.

  2. Cryogenic on-chip multiplexer for the study of quantum transport in 256 split-gate devices

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Al-Taie, H., E-mail: ha322@cam.ac.uk; Kelly, M. J. [Centre for Advanced Photonics and Electronics, Electrical Engineering Division, Department of Engineering, 9 J. J. Thomson Avenue, University of Cambridge, Cambridge CB3 0FA (United Kingdom) [Centre for Advanced Photonics and Electronics, Electrical Engineering Division, Department of Engineering, 9 J. J. Thomson Avenue, University of Cambridge, Cambridge CB3 0FA (United Kingdom); Cavendish Laboratory, Department of Physics, University of Cambridge, J. J. Thomson Avenue, Cambridge CB3 0HE (United Kingdom); Smith, L. W.; Xu, B.; Griffiths, J. P.; Beere, H. E.; Jones, G. A. C.; Ritchie, D. A.; Smith, C. G. [Cavendish Laboratory, Department of Physics, University of Cambridge, J. J. Thomson Avenue, Cambridge CB3 0HE (United Kingdom)] [Cavendish Laboratory, Department of Physics, University of Cambridge, J. J. Thomson Avenue, Cambridge CB3 0HE (United Kingdom); See, P. [National Physical Laboratory, Hampton Road, Teddington, Middlesex TW11 0LW (United Kingdom)] [National Physical Laboratory, Hampton Road, Teddington, Middlesex TW11 0LW (United Kingdom)

    2013-06-17T23:59:59.000Z

    We present a multiplexing scheme for the measurement of large numbers of mesoscopic devices in cryogenic systems. The multiplexer is used to contact an array of 256 split gates on a GaAs/AlGaAs heterostructure, in which each split gate can be measured individually. The low-temperature conductance of split-gate devices is governed by quantum mechanics, leading to the appearance of conductance plateaux at intervals of 2e{sup 2}/h. A fabrication-limited yield of 94% is achieved for the array, and a “quantum yield” is also defined, to account for disorder affecting the quantum behaviour of the devices. The quantum yield rose from 55% to 86% after illuminating the sample, explained by the corresponding increase in carrier density and mobility of the two-dimensional electron gas. The multiplexer is a scalable architecture, and can be extended to other forms of mesoscopic devices. It overcomes previous limits on the number of devices that can be fabricated on a single chip due to the number of electrical contacts available, without the need to alter existing experimental set ups.

  3. A large Bradbury Nielsen ion gate with flexible wire spacing based on photo-etched stainless steel grids and its characterization applying symmetric and asymmetric potentials

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    T. Brunner; A. R. Mueller; K. O'Sullivan; M. C. Simon; M. Kossick; S. Ettenauer; A. T. Gallant; E. Mané; D. Bishop; M. Good; G. Gratta; J. Dilling

    2011-09-14T23:59:59.000Z

    Bradbury Nielsen gates are well known devices used to switch ion beams and are typically applied in mass or mobility spectrometers for separating beam constituents by their different flight or drift times. A Bradbury Nielsen gate consists of two interleaved sets of electrodes. If two voltages of the same amplitude but opposite polarity are applied the gate is closed, and for identical (zero) potential the gate is open. Whereas former realizations of the device employ actual wires resulting in difficulties with winding, fixing and tensioning them, our approach is to use two grids photo-etched from a metallic foil. This design allows for simplified construction of gates covering large beam sizes up to at least 900\\,mm$^2$ with variable wire spacing down to 250\\,\\textmu m. By changing the grids the wire spacing can be varied easily. A gate of this design was installed and systematically tested at TRIUMF's ion trap facility, TITAN, for use with radioactive beams to separate ions with different mass-to-charge ratios by their time-of-flight.

  4. Response of left ventricular ejection fraction to recovery from general anesthesia: measurement by gated radionuclide angiography

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Coriat, P.; Mundler, O.; Bousseau, D.; Fauchet, M.; Rous, A.C.; Echter, E.; Viars, P.

    1986-06-01T23:59:59.000Z

    To test the hypothesis that, after anesthesia for noncardiac surgical procedures, the increased cardiac work during recovery induces wall motion and ejection fraction (EF) abnormalities in patients with mild angina pectoris, gated radionuclide angiography was performed in patients undergoing simple cholecystectomy under narcotic-relaxant general anesthesia. The ejection fraction was determined during anesthesia at the end of surgery, and then determined 3 min and 3 hr after extubation. A new angiography was performed 24 hr later, and a myocardial scintigraphy (Thallium 201) was performed during infusion of the coronary vasodilator, dipyridamole. In the first part of the investigation, eight patients without coronary artery disease (CAD) (group 1) and 20 patients with mild angina (group 2) were studied. In the second part of the study, seven patients (group 3) with mild angina pectoris received an intravenous infusion of 0.4 microgram X kg-1 X min-1 of nitroglycerin started before surgery and gradually decreased 4 hr after extubation. In group 1, EF remained unchanged at recovery. In contrast in group 2, EF responded abnormally to recovery: EF decreased from 55% during anesthesia to 45% 3 min after extubation (P less than 0.001). Patients in group 3, who received intravenous nitroglycerin, showed no change of EF at recovery. This study demonstrates that recovery from general anesthesia causes abnormalities in left ventricular function in patients suffering from CAD. These abnormalities are prevented by prophylactic intravenous nitroglycerin.

  5. A novel solution to the gated x-ray detector gain droop problem

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Oertel, J. A., E-mail: Oertel@lanl.gov; Archuleta, T. N. [Los Alamos National Laboratory, Los Alamos, New Mexico 87545 (United States)

    2014-11-15T23:59:59.000Z

    Microchannel plate (MCP), microstrip transmission line based, gated x-ray detectors used at the premier ICF laser facilities have a drop in gain as a function of mircostrip length that can be greater than 50% over 40 mm. These losses are due to ohmic losses in a microstrip coating that is less than the optimum electrical skin depth. The electrical skin depth for a copper transmission line at 3 GHz is 1.2 ?m while the standard microstrip coating thickness is roughly half a single skin depth. Simply increasing the copper coating thickness would begin filling the MCP pores and limit the number of secondary electrons created in the MCP. The current coating thickness represents a compromise between gain and ohmic loss. We suggest a novel solution to the loss problem by overcoating the copper transmission line with five electrical skin depths (?6 ?m) of Beryllium. Beryllium is reasonably transparent to x-rays above 800 eV and would improve the carrier current on the transmission line. The net result should be an optically flat photocathode response with almost no measurable loss in voltage along the transmission line.

  6. Evaluation of soft-core processors on a Xilinx Virtex-5 field programmable gate array.

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Learn, Mark Walter

    2011-04-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Node-based architecture (NBA) designs for future satellite projects hold the promise of decreasing system development time and costs, size, weight, and power and positioning the laboratory to address other emerging mission opportunities quickly. Reconfigurable field programmable gate array (FPGA)-based modules will comprise the core of several of the NBA nodes. Microprocessing capabilities will be necessary with varying degrees of mission-specific performance requirements on these nodes. To enable the flexibility of these reconfigurable nodes, it is advantageous to incorporate the microprocessor into the FPGA itself, either as a hard-core processor built into the FPGA or as a soft-core processor built out of FPGA elements. This document describes the evaluation of three reconfigurable FPGA-based soft-core processors for use in future NBA systems: the MicroBlaze (uB), the open-source Leon3, and the licensed Leon3. Two standard performance benchmark applications were developed for each processor. The first, Dhrystone, is a fixed-point operation metric. The second, Whetstone, is a floating-point operation metric. Several trials were run at varying code locations, loop counts, processor speeds, and cache configurations. FPGA resource utilization was recorded for each configuration.

  7. SNM neutron detection using a time-gated synthetic aperture hybrid approach

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Molinar, M.; Yi, C.; Edgar, C. A.; Manalo, K.; Chin, M.; Sjoden, G. [Nuclear and Radiological Engineering Program, George W. Woodruff School of Mechanical Engineering, Georgia Institute of Technology, 770 State Street, Atlanta GA 30332-0745 (United States)

    2013-07-01T23:59:59.000Z

    This work focuses on using forward and adjoint transport in a hybrid application of 3-D deterministic (PENTRAN) and Monte Carlo (MCNP5) codes to model a series of neutron detector blocks. These blocks, or 'channels, ' contain a unique set of moderators with 4 atm He-3 detectors tuned to detect and profile a gross energy spectrum of a passing neutron (SNM) source. Ganging the units together as a large area system enables one to apply time gating the source-detector response to maximize signal to noise responses from a passing source with minimal background; multiple units may be positioned as a collective synthetic aperture detector array to be used as a way of performing real time neutron spectroscopy for detecting special nuclear materials in moving vehicles. The initial design, detector response coupling, confirmation of initial design functionality using adjoint transport calculations, and realistic simulation using PENTRAN and MCNP5 are presented. Future work will include optimization and application to realistic scenarios and additional sources. (authors)

  8. Droplet minimizers for the Gates-Lebowitz-Penrose free energy functional

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    E. A. Carlen; M. C. Carvalho; R. Esposito; J. L. Lebowitz; R. Marra

    2009-05-21T23:59:59.000Z

    We study the structure of the constrained minimizers of the Gates-Lebowitz-Penrose free-energy functional ${\\mathcal F}_{\\rm GLP}(m)$, non-local functional of a density field $m(x)$, $x\\in {\\mathcal T}_L$, a $d$-dimensional torus of side length $L$. At low temperatures, ${\\mathcal F}_{\\rm GLP}$ is not convex, and has two distinct global minimizers, corresponding to two equilibrium states. Here we constrain the average density $L^{-d}\\int_{{\\cal T}_L}m(x)\\dd x$ to be a fixed value $n$ between the densities in the two equilibrium states, but close to the low density equilibrium value. In this case, a "droplet" of the high density phase may or may not form in a background of the low density phase, depending on the values $n$ and $L$. We determine the critical density for droplet formation, and the nature of the droplet, as a function of $n$ and $L$. The relation between the free energy and the large deviations functional for a particle model with long-range Kac potentials, proven in some cases, and expected to be true in general, then provides information on the structure of typical microscopic configurations of the Gibbs measure when the range of the Kac potential is large enough.

  9. Model for cradle-to-gate life cycle assessment of clinker production

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Michael Elias Boesch; Annette Koehler; Stefanie Hellweg [ETH Zurich, Zurich (Switzerland). Institute of Environmental Engineering

    2009-10-01T23:59:59.000Z

    A model for input- and technology-dependent cradle-to-gate life cycle assessments (LCA) was constructed to quantify emissions and resource consumption of various clinker production options. The model was compiled using data of more than 100 clinker production lines and complemented with literature data and best judgment from experts. It can be applied by the cement industry for the selection of alternative fuels and raw materials (AFR) and by authorities for decision-support regarding the permission of waste co-processing in cement kilns. In the field of sustainable construction, the model can be used to compare clinker production options. Two case studies are presented. First, co-processing of four different types of waste is analyzed at a modern precalciner kiln system. Second, clinker production is compared between five kiln systems. Results show that the use of waste (tires, prepared industrial waste, dried sewage sludge, blast furnace slag) led to reduced greenhouse gas emissions, decreased resource consumption, and mostly to reduced aggregated environmental impacts. Regarding the different kiln systems, the environmental impact generally increased with decreasing energy efficiency. 35 refs., 2 figs., 2 tabs.

  10. New insights into self-heating in double-gate transistors by solving Boltzmann transport equations

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Thu Trang Nghiêm, T., E-mail: tthutrang.nghiem@gmail.com [Institute of Fundamental Electronics, UMR 8622, CNRS-University of Paris-Sud, Orsay (France); The Center for Thermal Sciences of Lyon, UMR 5008, CNRS–INSA–University of Lyon 1, Villeurbanne (France); Saint-Martin, J.; Dollfus, P. [Institute of Fundamental Electronics, UMR 8622, CNRS-University of Paris-Sud, Orsay (France)

    2014-08-21T23:59:59.000Z

    Electro-thermal effects become one of the most critical issues for continuing the downscaling of electron devices. To study this problem, a new efficient self-consistent electron-phonon transport model has been developed. Our model of phonon Boltzmann transport equation (pBTE) includes the decay of optical phonons into acoustic modes and a generation term given by electron-Monte Carlo simulation. The solution of pBTE uses an analytic phonon dispersion and the relaxation time approximation for acoustic and optical phonons. This coupled simulation is applied to investigate the self-heating effects in a 20?nm-long double gate MOSFET. The temperature profile per mode and the comparison between Fourier temperature and the effective temperature are discussed. Some significant differences occur mainly in the hot spot region. It is shown that under the influence of self-heating effects, the potential profile is modified and both the drain current and the electron ballisticity are reduced because of enhanced electron-phonon scattering rates.

  11. Graduate Automotive Technology Education (GATE) Center for Hybrid Electric Drivetrains and Control Strategies

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    David Holloway

    2005-09-30T23:59:59.000Z

    Beginning the fall semester of 1999, The University of Maryland, Departments of Mechanical and Electrical Engineering and the Institute for Systems Research served as a U.S. Department of Energy (USDOE) Graduate Automotive Technology Education (GATE) Center for Hybrid Electric Drivetrains and Control Strategies. A key goal was to produce a graduate level education program that educated and prepared students to address the technical challenges of designing and developing hybrid electric vehicles, as they progressed into the workforce. A second goal was to produce research that fostered the advancement of hybrid electric vehicles, their controls, and other related automotive technologies. Participation ended at the University of Maryland after the 2004 fall semester. Four graduate courses were developed and taught during the course of this time, two of which evolved into annually-taught undergraduate courses, namely Vehicle Dynamics and Control Systems Laboratory. Five faculty members from Mechanical Engineering, Electrical Engineering, and the Institute for Systems Research participated. Four Ph.D. degrees (two directly supported and two indirectly supported) and seven Master's degrees in Mechanical Engineering resulted from the research conducted. Research topics included thermoelectric waste heat recovery, fuel cell modeling, pre- and post-transmission hybrid powertrain control and integration, hybrid transmission design, H{sub 2}-doped combustion, and vehicle dynamics. Many of the participating students accepted positions in the automotive industry or government laboratories involved in automotive technology work after graduation. This report discusses the participating faculty, the courses developed and taught, research conducted, the students directly and indirectly supported, and the publication list. Based on this collection of information, the University of Maryland firmly believes that the key goal of the program was met and that the majority of the participating students are now contributing to the advancement of automotive technology in this country.

  12. Method and infrastructure for cycle-reproducible simulation on large scale digital circuits on a coordinated set of field-programmable gate arrays (FPGAs)

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Asaad, Sameh W; Bellofatto, Ralph E; Brezzo, Bernard; Haymes, Charles L; Kapur, Mohit; Parker, Benjamin D; Roewer, Thomas; Tierno, Jose A

    2014-01-28T23:59:59.000Z

    A plurality of target field programmable gate arrays are interconnected in accordance with a connection topology and map portions of a target system. A control module is coupled to the plurality of target field programmable gate arrays. A balanced clock distribution network is configured to distribute a reference clock signal, and a balanced reset distribution network is coupled to the control module and configured to distribute a reset signal to the plurality of target field programmable gate arrays. The control module and the balanced reset distribution network are cooperatively configured to initiate and control a simulation of the target system with the plurality of target field programmable gate arrays. A plurality of local clock control state machines reside in the target field programmable gate arrays. The local clock state machines are configured to generate a set of synchronized free-running and stoppable clocks to maintain cycle-accurate and cycle-reproducible execution of the simulation of the target system. A method is also provided.

  13. The Golden Gate Textile Barrier: Preserving California Bay of San Francisco from a Rising North Pacific Ocean

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Cathcart, R B; Bolonkin, Alexander A.; Cathcart, Richart B.

    2007-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Climate change in California may require construction of a barrier separating the Pacific Ocean from San Francisco Bay and the Sacramento River-San Joaquin River Delta simply because Southern California is remarkably dependent on freshwater exported from the Delta. We offer a new kind of salt barrier, a macroproject built of impermeable textile materials stretched across the Golden Gate beneath the famous bridge. We anticipate it might eventually substitute for a recently proposed San Francisco In-Stream Tidal Power Plant harnessing a 1.7 m tide at the Bay entrance if future climate conditions Statewide is conducive. First-glance physics underpin our macroproject.

  14. The Golden Gate Textile Barrier: Preserving California Bay of San Francisco from a Rising North Pacific Ocean

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Richart B. Cathcart; Alexander A. Bolonkin

    2007-02-04T23:59:59.000Z

    Climate change in California may require construction of a barrier separating the Pacific Ocean from San Francisco Bay and the Sacramento River-San Joaquin River Delta simply because Southern California is remarkably dependent on freshwater exported from the Delta. We offer a new kind of salt barrier, a macroproject built of impermeable textile materials stretched across the Golden Gate beneath the famous bridge. We anticipate it might eventually substitute for a recently proposed San Francisco In-Stream Tidal Power Plant harnessing a 1.7 m tide at the Bay entrance if future climate conditions Statewide is conducive. First-glance physics underpin our macroproject.

  15. Weak-Light, Zero to -\\pi Lossless Kerr-Phase Gate in Quantum-well System via Tunneling Interference Effect

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Shi, Y L; Wu, J X; Zhu, C J; Xu, J P; Yang, Y P

    2015-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    We examine a Kerr phase gate in a semiconductor quantum well structure based on the tunnelling interference effect. We show that there exist a specific signal field detuning, at which the absorption/amplification of the probe field will be eliminated with the increase of the tunnelling interference. Simultaneously, the probe field will acquire a -\\pi phase shift at the exit of the medium. We demonstrate with numerical simulations that a complete 180^\\circ phase rotation for the probe field at the exit of the medium is achieved, which may result in many applications in information science and telecommunication.

  16. Ballistic Imaging of High-Pressure Fuel Sprays using Incoherent, Ultra- short Pulsed Illumination with an Ultrafast OKE-based Time Gating

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Purwar, Harsh; Rozé, Claude; Blaisot, Jean-Bernard

    2015-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    We present an optical Kerr effect based time-gate with the collinear incidence of the pump and probe beams at the Kerr medium, liquid carbon disulfide, for ballistic imaging of the high-pressure fuel sprays. The probe pulse used to illuminate the object under study is extracted from the supercontinuum generated by tightly focusing intense femtosecond laser pulses inside water, thereby destroying their coherence. The optical imaging spatial resolution and gate timings are investigated and compared with a similar setup without supercontinuum generation, where the probe is still coherent. And finally, a few ballistic images of the fuel sprays using coherent and incoherent illumination with the proposed time-gate are presented and compared qualitatively.

  17. Current collapse imaging of Schottky gate AlGaN/GaN high electron mobility transistors by electric field-induced optical second-harmonic generation measurement

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Katsuno, Takashi, E-mail: e1417@mosk.tytlabs.co.jp; Ishikawa, Tsuyoshi; Ueda, Hiroyuki; Uesugi, Tsutomu [Toyota Central R and D Laboratories Inc., Nagakute, Aichi 480-1192 (Japan); Manaka, Takaaki; Iwamoto, Mitsumasa [Department of Physical Electronics, Tokyo Institute of Technology, Meguro, Tokyo 152-8552 (Japan)

    2014-06-23T23:59:59.000Z

    Two-dimensional current collapse imaging of a Schottky gate AlGaN/GaN high electron mobility transistor device was achieved by optical electric field-induced second-harmonic generation (EFISHG) measurements. EFISHG measurements can detect the electric field produced by carriers trapped in the on-state of the device, which leads to current collapse. Immediately after (e.g., 1, 100, or 800??s) the completion of drain-stress voltage (200?V) in the off-state, the second-harmonic (SH) signals appeared within 2??m from the gate edge on the drain electrode. The SH signal intensity became weak with time, which suggests that the trapped carriers are emitted from the trap sites. The SH signal location supports the well-known virtual gate model for current collapse.

  18. A simple template-based transfer method to fabricate Bradbury–Nielsen gates with uniform tension for ion mobility spectrometry

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Kai, Ni, E-mail: ni.kai@sz.tsinghua.edu.cn; Jingran, Guo; Guangli, Ou; Yu, Lei; Quan, Yu; Xiang, Qian; Xiaohao, Wang [Division of Advanced Manufacturing, Graduate School at Shenzhen, Tsinghua University, Shenzhen 518055 (China)

    2014-08-15T23:59:59.000Z

    A Bradbury–Nielsen gate (BNG) consists of two interleaved and electrically isolated sets of wires. It is usually used to gate or modulate ion beams. Uniformly tense wires can remain parallel, equidistant, and coplanar over a wide working temperature range, which is critical to reliable BNG performance. Hence, this study analyzes the non-uniform tension of wires wound using traditional sequential winding methods in which the elastic modulus of the metal wire is much larger than that of the insulation substrate. To address this problem, a simple and reliable template-based transfer method is developed. First, a template with large elastic modulus is used to fabricate a wire mesh with uniform tension. The mesh is then transferred to the substrate. Theoretically, this method reduces the non-uniformity of the tension in wires to less than 2%; therefore, it is used to construct a BNG with stainless steel wire, a stainless steel template, and a printed circuit board substrate. The BNG was installed in our homebuilt ion mobility spectrometer. To confirm that the performance of the BNG meets the requirements of portable ion mobility spectrometry, signal intensity and resolution (approximately 30) were experimentally determined.

  19. Variations of the Respiration Signals for Respiratory-Gated Radiotherapy Using the Video Coached Respiration Guiding System

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Lee, Hyun Jeong; Oh, Se An

    2015-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Respiratory-gated radiation therapy (RGRT) has been used to minimize the dose to normal tissue in lung-cancer radiotherapy. The present research aims to improve the regularity of respiration in RGRT using a video coached respiration guiding system. In the study, 16 patients with lung cancer were evaluated. The respiration signals of the patients were measured by a real-time position management (RPM) Respiratory Gating System (Varian, USA) and the patients were trained using the video coached respiration guiding system. The patients performed free breathing and guided breathing, and the respiratory cycles were acquired for ~5 min. Then, Microsoft Excel 2010 software was used to calculate the mean and standard deviation for each phase. The standard deviation was computed in order to analyze the improvement in the respiratory regularity with respect to the period and displacement. The standard deviation of the guided breathing decreased to 65.14% in the inhale peak and 71.04% in the exhale peak compared with the...

  20. Energy-band engineering for improved charge retention in fully self-aligned double floating-gate single-electron memories

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Xiaohui Tang; Christophe Krzeminski; Aurélien Lecavelier des Etangs-Levallois; Zhenkun Chen; Emmanuel Dubois; Erich Kasper; Alim Karmous; Nicolas Reckinger; Denis Flandre; Laurent A. Francis; Jean-Pierre Colinge; Jean-Pierre Raskin

    2011-11-15T23:59:59.000Z

    We present a new fully self-aligned single-electron memory with a single pair of nano floating gates, made of different materials (Si and Ge). The energy barrier that prevents stored charge leakage is induced not only by quantum effects but also by the conduction-band offset that arises between Ge and Si. The dimension and position of each floating gate are well defined and controlled. The devices exhibit a long retention time and single-electron injection at room temperature.

  1. Spatially-resolved EELS and EDS Analysis of HfOxNy Gate Dielectrics Deposited by MOCVD using [(C2H5)2N]4Hf with NO and O2

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Ng, Wai Tung

    -resolved electron energy loss spectroscopy (EELS) and energy-dispersive spectrometry (EDS). HfOxNy gate dielectrics a replacement for SiO2 as the gate dielectric material. HfO2 is a promising candidate due to its high dielectric constant its stability on Si. However, crystallization temperatures of less than 500 °C and high impurity

  2. Study of gate oxide traps in HfO[subscript 2]/AlGaN/GaN metal-oxide-semiconductor high-electron-mobility transistors by use of ac transconductance method

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Sun, X.

    We introduce an ac-transconductance method to profile the gate oxide traps in a HfO[subscript 2] gated AlGaN/GaN Metal-Oxide-Semiconductor High-Electron-Mobility Transistors (MOS-HEMTs) that can exchange carriers with metal ...

  3. Si and SiGe based double top gated accumulation mode single electron transistors for quantum bits.

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Wendt, Joel Robert; Ten Eyck, Gregory A.; Childs, Kenton David; Celler, G. (SOITEC); Eng, Kevin; Eriksson, Mark A. (University of Wisconsin); Kluskiewicz, Dan (University of New Mexico); Stevens, Jeffrey; Carroll, Malcolm S.; Nordberg, Eric; Lilly, Michael Patrick; Lemp, Thomas; Sheng, Josephine Juin-Jye

    2008-10-01T23:59:59.000Z

    There is significant interest in forming quantum bits (qubits) out of single electron devices for quantum information processing (QIP). Information can be encoded using properties like charge or spin. Spin is appealing because it is less strongly coupled to the solid-state environment so it is believed that the quantum state can better be preserved over longer times (i.e., that is longer decoherence times may be achieved). Long spin decoherence times would allow more complex qubit operations to be completed with higher accuracy. Recently spin qubits were demonstrated by several groups using electrostatically gated modulation doped GaAs double quantum dots (DQD) [1], which represented a significant breakthrough in the solid-state field. Although no Si spin qubit has been demonstrated to date, work on Si and SiGe based spin qubits is motivated by the observation that spin decoherence times can be significantly longer than in GaAs. Spin decoherence times in GaAs are in part limited by the random spectral diffusion of the non-zero nuclear spins of the Ga and As that couple to the electron spin through the hyperfine interaction. This effect can be greatly suppressed by using a semiconductor matrix with a near zero nuclear spin background. Near zero nuclear spin backgrounds can be engineered using Si by growing {sup 28}Si enriched epitaxy. In this talk, we will present fabrication details and electrical transport results of an accumulation mode double top gated Si metal insulator semiconductor (MIS) nanostructure, Fig 1 (a) & (b). We will describe how this single electron device structure represent a path towards forming a Si based spin qubit similar in design as that demonstrated in GaAs. Potential advantages of this novel qubit structure relative to previous approaches include the combination of: no doping (i.e., not modulation doped); variable two-dimensional electron gas (2DEG) density; CMOS compatible processes; and relatively small vertical length scales to achieve smaller dots. A primary concern in this structure is defects at the insulator-silicon interface. The Sandia National Laboratories 0.35 {micro}m fab line was used for critical processing steps including formation of the gate oxide to examine the utility of a standard CMOS quality oxide silicon interface for the purpose of fabricating Si qubits. Large area metal oxide silicon (MOS) structures showed a peak mobility of 15,000 cm{sup 2}/V-s at electron densities of {approx}1 x 10{sup 12} cm{sup -2} for an oxide thickness of 10 nm. Defect density measured using standard C-V techniques was found to be greater with decreasing oxide thickness suggesting a device design trade-off between oxide thickness and quantum dot size. The quantum dot structure is completed using electron beam lithography and poly-silicon etch to form the depletion gates, Fig 1 (a). The accumulation gate is added by introducing a second insulating Al{sub 2}O{sub 3} layer, deposited by atomic layer deposition, followed by an Al top gate deposition, Fig. 1 (b). Initial single electron transistor devices using SiO{sub 2} show significant disorder in structures with relatively large critical dimensions of the order of 200-300 nm, Fig 2. This is not uncommon for large silicon structures and has been cited in the literature [2]. Although smaller structures will likely minimize the effect of disorder and well controlled small Si SETs have been demonstrated [3], the design constraints presented by disorder combined with long term concerns about effects of defects on spin decoherence time (e.g., paramagnetic centers) motivates pursuit of a 2nd generation structure that uses a compound semiconductor approach, an epitaxial SiGe barrier as shown in Fig. 2 (c). SiGe may be used as an electron barrier when combined with tensilely strained Si. The introduction of strained-Si into the double top gated device structure, however, represents additional fabrication challenges. Thermal budget is potentially constrained due to concerns related to strain relaxation. Fabrication details related to the introduction of st

  4. First observation of a plasmon-mediated tunable photoresponse in a grating-gated InGaAs/InP HEMT for millimeter-wave detection

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Peale, Robert E.

    First observation of a plasmon-mediated tunable photoresponse in a grating-gated InGaAs/InP HEMT-radiation to plasmons in the two-dimensional electron gas (2DEG) of the HEMT. The resonant excitation of plasmons, which-scale frequency-agile mm-wave detectors, which may be scaled to THz frequencies. Keywords: HEMT, Plasmon

  5. High linearity GaN HEMT power amplifier with pre-linearization gate diode Shouxuan Xie, Vamsi Paidi, Sten Heikman, Alessandro Chini,

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Long, Stephen I.

    GaN/GaN HEMT technology. In order to obtain high linearity, a pre-linearization gate diode is added. Introduction. Our previously described single-ended Class B power amplifier design using GaN HEMT technology is biased at exactly the pinch off point (Class B configuration) [1]. In order to further improve

  6. Two-stage Model for Lifetime Prediction of Highly Stable Amorphous-Silicon Thin-Film Transistors under Low-Gate Field

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    that (i) a "unified stretched exponential fit" models the drain current degradation from 60°C to 140 stable back-channel passivated (BCP) a-Si TFTs were fabricated with a standard bottom-gate non field of 2.0×105 V/cm) and a constant drain voltage of 7.5V. The positive threshold voltage shift of a

  7. IEEE TRANSACTIONS ON COMPUTER-AIDED DESIGN OF INTEGRATED CIRCUITS AND SYSTEMS, VOL. 29, NO. 9, SEPTEMBER 2010 1409 Gate-Sizing-Based Single Vdd Test for Bridge

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Chakrabarty, Krishnendu

    complementary metal- oxide-semiconductor and can constitute 50% or more, of total defect count [1]. A bridge, SEPTEMBER 2010 1409 Gate-Sizing-Based Single Vdd Test for Bridge Defects in Multivoltage Designs Saqib design technique. Recent research has shown that testing for resistive bridging faults in such designs

  8. http://seattlepi.nwsource.com/business/368079_gatesqa24ww.html Q&A: Gates talks about letting go, the future and the foundation

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Sadoway, Donald Robert

    'm prodding people: 'Hey, have you looked at this,' or 'Boy, this is a really good piece of work,' or 'Maybe things, or even helping them with some of their agricultural things, or using DVD availability to help behavior, and at the company's business practices -- would you have done anything differently? Gates: Well

  9. Multi-Gate Modulation Doped In0.7Ga0.3As Quantum Well FET for Ultra Low Power Digital Logic

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Yener, Aylin

    Multi-Gate Modulation Doped In0.7Ga0.3As Quantum Well FET for Ultra Low Power Digital Logic L. LiuQFET is promising device architecture for future ultra low power information processing applications. Introduction for reconfigurable and ultra-low-power binary decision diagram (BDD) logic ECS Transactions, 35 (3) 311-317 (2011) 10

  10. High linearity GaN HEMT power amplifier with pre-linearization gate diode Shouxuan Xie, Vamsi Paidi, Sten Heikman, Alessandro Chini,

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Rodwell, Mark J. W.

    High linearity GaN HEMT power amplifier with pre-linearization gate diode Shouxuan Xie, Vamsi Paidi Santa Barbara, CA 93106, USA A high linearity MMIC RF power amplifier is reported in the AlGaN/GaN HEMT to compensate the non-linear effect caused by the nonlinear input capacitance Cgs of the GaN HEMT device

  11. Gate-Recessed InAlN/GaN HEMTs on SiC Substrate With Al[subscript 2]O[subscript 3] Passivation

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Guo, Shiping

    We studied submicrometer (L[subscript G] = 0.15-0.25 à ¿m) gate-recessed InAlN/AlN/GaN high-electron mobility transistors (HEMTs) on SiC substrates with 25-nm Al[subscript 2]O[subscript 3] passivation. The combination of ...

  12. 1282 IEEE ELECTRON DEVICE LETTERS, VOL. 33, NO. 9, SEPTEMBER 2012 Top-Gate GaN Thin-Film Transistors Based

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    is to deposit high-quality GaN thin films using inexpensive substrate under low temper- ature. Recently1282 IEEE ELECTRON DEVICE LETTERS, VOL. 33, NO. 9, SEPTEMBER 2012 Top-Gate GaN Thin-Film Transistors Based on AlN/GaN Heterostructures Rongsheng Chen, Wei Zhou, Meng Zhang, and Hoi Sing Kwok Abstract

  13. All-metallic electrically gated 2H-TaSe2 thin-film switches and logic circuits J. Renteria,1

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    off, and the single-atom thickness of graphene leaves it susceptible to radiation damage.18 non-linear current-voltage characteristics, unusual optical response, and electrical gating at room radiation-hard all-metallic logic circuits. These results may open new application space for thin films

  14. Molecules as Segmented Storage Elements in Floating Gate Memories................................................................................................MAT.1 In-situ Deposition of High-k Dielectrics on a III-V Compound Semiconductor .............

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Reif, Rafael

    that are on the order of 1nm in size, representing a uniform set of identical nanostructured charge-storage centers. WeMaterials Molecules as Segmented Storage Elements in Floating Gate Memories ....................................................................................MAT.2 A CMOS-compatible Substrate and Contact Technology for Monolithic Integration of III-V Devices

  15. Process sensing and metrology in gate oxide growth by rapid thermal chemical vapor deposition from SiH4 and N2O

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Rubloff, Gary W.

    Process sensing and metrology in gate oxide growth by rapid thermal chemical vapor deposition from for Advanced Electronic Materials Processing, North Carolina State University, Raleigh, North Carolina 27695-7920 Received 7 January 1999; accepted 21 May 1999 Active sampling mass spectrometry has been used for process

  16. Flammable Gas Release Estimates for Modified Sluicing Retrieval of Waste from Selected Hanford Single-Shell Tanks

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    J. L. Huckaby; B. E. Wells

    2004-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    under Contract DE-AC06-76RL01830 DISCLAIMER This report was prepared as an account of work sponsored by an agency of the United States Government. Neither the United States Government nor any agency thereof, nor Battelle Memorial Institute, nor any of their employees, makes any warranty, express or implied, or assumes any legal liability or responsibility for the accuracy, completeness, or usefulness of any information, apparatus, product, or process disclosed, or represents that its use would not infringe privately owned rights. Reference herein to any specific commercial product, process, or service by trade name, trademark, manufacturer, or otherwise does not necessarily constitute or imply its endorsement, recommendation, or favoring by the United States Government or any agency thereof, or Battelle Memorial Institute. The views and opinions of authors expressed herein do not necessarily state or reflect those of the United States Government or any agency thereof.

  17. Development and Deployment of the Extended Reach Sluicing System (ERSS) for Retrieval of Hanford Single Shell Tank Waste. Draft

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Bauer, Roger E. [Washington River Protection Systems, Richland, WA (United States); Figley, Reed R. [Washington River Protection Systems, Richland, WA (United States); Innes, A. G. [Washington River Protection Systems, Richland, WA (United States)

    2013-11-11T23:59:59.000Z

    A history of the evolution and the design development of Extended Reach Sluicer System (ERSS) is presented. Several challenges are described that had to be overcome to create a machine that went beyond the capabilities of prior generation sluicers to mobilize waste in Single Shell Tanks for pumping into Double Shell Tank receiver tanks. Off-the-shelf technology and traditional hydraulic fluid power systems were combined with the custom-engineered components to create the additional functionality of the ERSS, while still enabling it to fit within very tight entry envelope into the SST. Problems and challenges inevitably were encountered and overcome in ways that enhance the state of the art of fluid power applications in such constrained environments. Future enhancements to the ERSS design are explored for retrieval of tanks with different dimensions and internal obstacles.

  18. A Comparison of Amplitude-Based and Phase-Based Positron Emission Tomography Gating Algorithms for Segmentation of Internal Target Volumes of Tumors Subject to Respiratory Motion

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Jani, Shyam S., E-mail: sjani@mednet.ucla.edu [Department of Radiation Oncology, David Geffen School of Medicine, University of California, Los Angeles, California (United States); Robinson, Clifford G. [Department of Radiation Oncology, Siteman Cancer Center, Washington University in St Louis, St Louis, Missouri (United States); Dahlbom, Magnus [Department of Molecular and Medical Pharmacology, David Geffen School of Medicine, University of California, Los Angeles, California (United States); White, Benjamin M.; Thomas, David H.; Gaudio, Sergio; Low, Daniel A.; Lamb, James M. [Department of Radiation Oncology, David Geffen School of Medicine, University of California, Los Angeles, California (United States)

    2013-11-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Purpose: To quantitatively compare the accuracy of tumor volume segmentation in amplitude-based and phase-based respiratory gating algorithms in respiratory-correlated positron emission tomography (PET). Methods and Materials: List-mode fluorodeoxyglucose-PET data was acquired for 10 patients with a total of 12 fluorodeoxyglucose-avid tumors and 9 lymph nodes. Additionally, a phantom experiment was performed in which 4 plastic butyrate spheres with inner diameters ranging from 1 to 4 cm were imaged as they underwent 1-dimensional motion based on 2 measured patient breathing trajectories. PET list-mode data were gated into 8 bins using 2 amplitude-based (equal amplitude bins [A1] and equal counts per bin [A2]) and 2 temporal phase-based gating algorithms. Gated images were segmented using a commercially available gradient-based technique and a fixed 40% threshold of maximum uptake. Internal target volumes (ITVs) were generated by taking the union of all 8 contours per gated image. Segmented phantom ITVs were compared with their respective ground-truth ITVs, defined as the volume subtended by the tumor model positions covering 99% of breathing amplitude. Superior-inferior distances between sphere centroids in the end-inhale and end-exhale phases were also calculated. Results: Tumor ITVs from amplitude-based methods were significantly larger than those from temporal-based techniques (P=.002). For lymph nodes, A2 resulted in ITVs that were significantly larger than either of the temporal-based techniques (P<.0323). A1 produced the largest and most accurate ITVs for spheres with diameters of ?2 cm (P=.002). No significant difference was shown between algorithms in the 1-cm sphere data set. For phantom spheres, amplitude-based methods recovered an average of 9.5% more motion displacement than temporal-based methods under regular breathing conditions and an average of 45.7% more in the presence of baseline drift (P<.001). Conclusions: Target volumes in images generated from amplitude-based gating are larger and more accurate, at levels that are potentially clinically significant, compared with those from temporal phase-based gating.

  19. Characterization of SiO{sub 2}/SiN{sub x} gate insulators for graphene based nanoelectromechanical systems

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Tóvári, E.; Csontos, M., E-mail: csontos@dept.phy.bme.hu; Kriváchy, T.; Csonka, S. [Department of Physics, Budapest University of Technology and Economics and Condensed Matter Research Group of the Hungarian Academy of Sciences, Budafoki út 8, H-1111 Budapest (Hungary); Fürjes, P. [MEMS Lab, Institute for Technical Physics and Materials Science, RCNS, HAS, Konkoly-Thege út 29-33, H-1121 Budapest (Hungary)

    2014-09-22T23:59:59.000Z

    The structural and magnetotransport characterization of graphene nanodevices exfoliated onto Si/SiO{sub 2}/SiN{sub x} heterostructures are presented. Improved visibility of the deposited flakes is achieved by optimal tuning of the dielectric film thicknesses. The conductance of single layer graphene Hall-bar nanostructures utilizing SiO{sub 2}/SiN{sub x} gate dielectrics were characterized in the quantum Hall regime. Our results highlight that, while exhibiting better mechanical and chemical stability, the effect of non-stoichiometric SiN{sub x} on the charge carrier mobility of graphene is comparable to that of SiO{sub 2}, demonstrating the merits of SiN{sub x} as an ideal material platform for graphene based nanoelectromechanical applications.

  20. Qualification of a high-efficiency, gated spectrometer for x-ray Thomson scattering on the National Ignition Facility

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Döppner, T.; Kritcher, A. L.; Bachmann, B.; Burns, S.; Hawreliak, J.; House, A.; Landen, O. L.; LePape, S.; Ma, T.; Pak, A.; Swift, D. [Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory, Livermore, California 94550 (United States); Neumayer, P. [Gesellschaft für Schwerionenphysik, 64291 Darmstadt (Germany); Kraus, D. [University of California, Berkeley, California 94720 (United States); Falcone, R. W. [University of California, Berkeley, California 94720 (United States); Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory, Berkeley, California 94720 (United States); Glenzer, S. H. [SLAC National Accelerator Laboratory, Menlo Park, California 94309 (United States)

    2014-11-15T23:59:59.000Z

    We have designed, built, and successfully fielded a highly efficient and gated Bragg crystal spectrometer for x-ray Thomson scattering measurements on the National Ignition Facility (NIF). It utilizes a cylindrically curved Highly Oriented Pyrolytic Graphite crystal. Its spectral range of 7.4–10?keV is optimized for scattering experiments using a Zn He-? x-ray probe at 9.0 keV or Mo K-shell line emission around 18 keV in second diffraction order. The spectrometer has been designed as a diagnostic instrument manipulator-based instrument for the NIF target chamber at the Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory, USA. Here, we report on details of the spectrometer snout, its novel debris shield configuration and an in situ spectral calibration experiment with a Brass foil target, which demonstrated a spectral resolution of E/?E = 220 at 9.8 keV.

  1. Enhancement of thermal stability and water resistance in yttrium-doped GeO{sub 2}/Ge gate stack

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Lu, Cimang, E-mail: cimang@adam.t.u-tokyo.ac.jp; Hyun Lee, Choong; Zhang, Wenfeng; Nishimura, Tomonori; Nagashio, Kosuke; Toriumi, Akira [Department of Materials Engineering, The University of Tokyo, 7-3-1 Hongo, Tokyo 113-8656 (Japan); JST, CREST, 7-3-1 Hongo, Tokyo 113-8656 (Japan)

    2014-03-03T23:59:59.000Z

    We have systematically investigated the material and electrical properties of yttrium-doped GeO{sub 2} (Y-GeO{sub 2}) on Germanium (Ge). A significant improvement of both thermal stability and water resistance were demonstrated by Y-GeO{sub 2}/Ge stack, compared to that of pure GeO{sub 2}/Ge stack. The excellent electrical properties of Y-GeO{sub 2}/Ge stacks with low D{sub it} were presented as well as enhancement of dielectric constant in Y-GeO{sub 2} layer, which is beneficial for further equivalent oxide thickness scaling of Ge gate stack. The improvement of thermal stability and water resistance are discussed both in terms of the Gibbs free energy lowering and network modification of Y-GeO{sub 2}.

  2. DNA and RNA sequencing by nanoscale reading through programmable electrophoresis and nanoelectrode-gated tunneling and dielectric detection

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Lee, James W.; Thundat, Thomas G.

    2005-06-14T23:59:59.000Z

    An apparatus and method for performing nucleic acid (DNA and/or RNA) sequencing on a single molecule. The genetic sequence information is obtained by probing through a DNA or RNA molecule base by base at nanometer scale as though looking through a strip of movie film. This DNA sequencing nanotechnology has the theoretical capability of performing DNA sequencing at a maximal rate of about 1,000,000 bases per second. This enhanced performance is made possible by a series of innovations including: novel applications of a fine-tuned nanometer gap for passage of a single DNA or RNA molecule; thin layer microfluidics for sample loading and delivery; and programmable electric fields for precise control of DNA or RNA movement. Detection methods include nanoelectrode-gated tunneling current measurements, dielectric molecular characterization, and atomic force microscopy/electrostatic force microscopy (AFM/EFM) probing for nanoscale reading of the nucleic acid sequences.

  3. September 16-21, 2007 Las Vegas, Nevada Gate recess technology on AlGaN/GaN HFET with InGaN as etch-stop layer

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Pala, Nezih

    0 2 V(V) C(pF) Before etching (material) After etching (device) G AlGaN substrate i-GaN DS AlN AlGaN substrate AlN i-GaN AlGaN S G DAlGaNAlGaN InGaNInGaN Standard gate recess InGaN stop layer gate recess InGaNICNS 7 September 16-21, 2007 ­ Las Vegas, Nevada Gate recess technology on AlGaN/GaN HFET with InGaN

  4. Respiratory motion management using audio-visual biofeedback for respiratory-gated radiotherapy of synchrotron-based pulsed heavy-ion beam delivery

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    He, Pengbo; Ma, Yuanyuan; Huang, Qiyan; Yan, Yuanlin [Institute of Modern Physics, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Lanzhou 730000 (China); Key Laboratory of Heavy Ion Radiation Biology and Medicine of Chinese Academy of Sciences, Lanzhou 730000 (China); School of Life Sciences, University of Chinese Academy of Sciences, Beijing 100049 (China); Li, Qiang, E-mail: liqiang@impcas.ac.cn; Liu, Xinguo; Dai, Zhongying; Zhao, Ting; Fu, Tingyan; Shen, Guosheng [Institute of Modern Physics, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Lanzhou 730000 (China); Key Laboratory of Heavy Ion Radiation Biology and Medicine of Chinese Academy of Sciences, Lanzhou 730000 (China)

    2014-11-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Purpose: To efficiently deliver respiratory-gated radiation during synchrotron-based pulsed heavy-ion radiotherapy, a novel respiratory guidance method combining a personalized audio-visual biofeedback (BFB) system, breath hold (BH), and synchrotron-based gating was designed to help patients synchronize their respiratory patterns with synchrotron pulses and to overcome typical limitations such as low efficiency, residual motion, and discomfort. Methods: In-house software was developed to acquire body surface marker positions and display BFB, gating signals, and real-time beam profiles on a LED screen. Patients were prompted to perform short BHs or short deep breath holds (SDBH) with the aid of BFB following a personalized standard BH/SDBH (stBH/stSDBH) guiding curve or their own representative BH/SDBH (reBH/reSDBH) guiding curve. A practical simulation was performed for a group of 15 volunteers to evaluate the feasibility and effectiveness of this method. Effective dose rates (EDRs), mean absolute errors between the guiding curves and the measured curves, and mean absolute deviations of the measured curves were obtained within 10%–50% duty cycles (DCs) that were synchronized with the synchrotron’s flat-top phase. Results: All maneuvers for an individual volunteer took approximately half an hour, and no one experienced discomfort during the maneuvers. Using the respiratory guidance methods, the magnitude of residual motion was almost ten times less than during nongated irradiation, and increases in the average effective dose rate by factors of 2.39–4.65, 2.39–4.59, 1.73–3.50, and 1.73–3.55 for the stBH, reBH, stSDBH, and reSDBH guiding maneuvers, respectively, were observed in contrast with conventional free breathing-based gated irradiation, depending on the respiratory-gated duty cycle settings. Conclusions: The proposed respiratory guidance method with personalized BFB was confirmed to be feasible in a group of volunteers. Increased effective dose rate and improved overall treatment precision were observed compared to conventional free breathing-based, respiratory-gated irradiation. Because breathing guidance curves could be established based on the respective average respiratory period and amplitude for each patient, it may be easier for patients to cooperate using this technique.

  5. AlGaN/GaN High-Electron-Mobility Transistor Employing an Additional Gate for High-Voltage Switching Applications

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Seo, Kwang Seok

    AlGaN/GaN High-Electron-Mobility Transistor Employing an Additional Gate for High-Voltage Switching 16, 2004; accepted May 10, 2005; published September 8, 2005) We have proposed and fabricated an AlGaN/GaN: GaN, AlGaN, HEMT, switch 1. Introduction GaN has attracted attention for high-power and high

  6. AlGaN/GaN MIS-HEMT Gate Structure Improvement Using Al2O3 Deposited by Plasma-Enhanced ALD

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Paris-Sud XI, Université de

    AlGaN/GaN MIS-HEMT Gate Structure Improvement Using Al2O3 Deposited by Plasma-Enhanced ALD R(0)438782894 Abstract - In this work we evaluate the influence of the Al2O3 ALD deposition technique on AlGaN/GaN MIS drastically reduced with a measured average of 1e-11 A/mm for a drain-source bias of 5V. 1. Introduction AlGaN

  7. Investigation of buffer traps in AlGaN/GaN-on-Si devices by thermally stimulated current spectroscopy and back-gating measurement

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Yang, Shu; Zhou, Chunhua; Jiang, Qimeng; Chen, Kevin J., E-mail: eekjchen@ust.hk [Department of Electronic and Computer Engineering, The Hong Kong University of Science and Technology, Clear Water Bay, Kowloon (Hong Kong); Lu, Jianbiao; Huang, Baoling [Department of Mechanical and Aerospace Engineering, The Hong Kong University of Science and Technology, Clear Water Bay, Kowloon (Hong Kong)] [Department of Mechanical and Aerospace Engineering, The Hong Kong University of Science and Technology, Clear Water Bay, Kowloon (Hong Kong)

    2014-01-06T23:59:59.000Z

    Thermally stimulated current (TSC) spectroscopy and high-voltage back-gating measurement are utilized to study GaN buffer traps specific to AlGaN/GaN lateral heterojunction structures grown on a low-resistivity Si substrate. Three dominating deep-level traps in GaN buffer with activation energies of ?E{sub T1}???0.54?eV, ?E{sub T2}???0.65?eV, and ?E{sub T3}???0.75?eV are extracted from TSC spectroscopy in a vertical GaN-on-Si structure. High back-gate bias applied to the Si substrate could influence the drain current in an AlGaN/GaN-on-Si high-electron-mobility transistor in a way that cannot be explained with a simple field-effect model. By correlating the trap states identified in TSC with the back-gating measurement results, it is proposed that the ionization/deionization of both donor and acceptor traps are responsible for the generation of buffer space charges, which impose additional modulation to the 2DEG channel.

  8. Positive bias temperature instability in p-type metal-oxide-semiconductor devices with HfSiON/SiO{sub 2} gate dielectrics

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Samanta, Piyas, E-mail: piyas@vcfw.org [Department of Physics, Vidyasagar College for Women, 39 Sankar Ghosh Lane, Kolkata 700 006 (India); Huang, Heng-Sheng; Chen, Shuang-Yuan [Institute of Mechatronic Engineering, National Taipei University of Technology, No. 1, Sec. 3, Chung-Hsiao E. Rd., Taipei 106, Taiwan (China); Liu, Chuan-Hsi [Department of Mechatronic Technology, National Taiwan Normal University, No. 162, Sec. 1, He-Ping E. Rd., Taipei 106, Taiwan (China); Cheng, Li-Wei [Central R and D Division, United Microelectronics Corporation, No. 3, Li-Hsin Rd. II, Hsinchu 300, Taiwan (China)

    2014-02-21T23:59:59.000Z

    We present a detailed investigation on positive-bias temperature stress (PBTS) induced degradation of nitrided hafnium silicate (HfSiON)/SiO{sub 2} gate stack in n{sup +}-poly crystalline silicon (polySi) gate p-type metal-oxide-semiconductor (pMOS) devices. The measurement results indicate that gate dielectric degradation is a composite effect of electron trapping in as-fabricated as well as newly generated neutral traps, resulting a significant amount of stress-induced leakage current and generation of surface states at the Si/SiO{sub 2} interface. Although, a significant amount of interface states are created during PBTS, the threshold voltage (V{sub T}) instability of the HfSiON based pMOS devices is primarily caused by electron trapping and detrapping. It is also shown that PBTS creates both acceptor- and donor-like interface traps via different depassivation mechanisms of the Si{sub 3}???SiH bonds at the Si/SiO{sub 2} interface in pMOS devices. However, the number of donor-like interface traps ?N{sub it}{sup D} is significantly greater than that of acceptor-like interface traps ?N{sup A}{sub it}, resulting the PBTS induced net interface traps as donor-like.

  9. A digitizer based compact digital spectrometer for ion beam analysis using field programmable gate arrays and various energy algorithms

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Jäger, Markus [Faculty of Mathematics and Computer Science, University of Leipzig, PF 100920, 04009 Leipzig (Germany)] [Faculty of Mathematics and Computer Science, University of Leipzig, PF 100920, 04009 Leipzig (Germany); Reinert, Tilo [Department of Physics, University of North Texas, 1155 Union Circle, Denton, Texas 76203 (United States)] [Department of Physics, University of North Texas, 1155 Union Circle, Denton, Texas 76203 (United States)

    2013-08-15T23:59:59.000Z

    We report on the implementation of a compact multi-detector fully digital spectrometer and data acquisition system at a nuclear microprobe for ion beam analysis and imaging. The spectrometer design allows for system scalability with no restriction on the number of detectors. It consists of four-channel high-speed digitizer modules for detector signal acquisition and one low-speed digital-to-analog converter (DAC) module with two DAC channels and additional general purpose inputs/outputs to control ion beam scanning and data acquisition. Each digitizer module of the spectrometer provides its own Field Programmable Gate Array (FPGA) as digital signal processing unit to analyze detector signals as well as to synchronize the ion beam position in hard real-time. With the customized FPGA designs for all modules, all calculation intensive tasks are executed inside the modules, which reduces significantly the data stream to and CPU load on the control computer. To achieve an optimal energy resolution for all detector/preamplifier pulse shape characteristics, a user-definable infinite impulse response filter with high throughput for energy determination was implemented. The new spectrometer has an online data analysis feature, a compact size, and is able to process any type of detector signals such as particle induced x-ray emission, Rutherford backscattering spectrometry, or scanning transmission ion microscopy.

  10. Short range micro-power impulse radar with high resolution swept range gate with damped transmit and receive cavities

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    McEwan, T.E.

    1998-06-30T23:59:59.000Z

    A radar range finder and hidden object locator is based on ultra-wide band radar with a high resolution swept range gate. The device generates an equivalent time amplitude scan with atypical range of 4 inches to 20 feet, and an analog range resolution as limited by a jitter of on the order of 0.01 inches. A differential sampling receiver is employed to effectively eliminate ringing and other aberrations induced in the receiver by the near proximity of the transmit antenna, so a background subtraction is not needed, simplifying the circuitry while improving performance. Uses of the invention include a replacement of ultrasound devices for fluid level sensing, automotive radar, such as cruise control and parking assistance, hidden object location, such as stud and rebar finding. Also, this technology can be used when positioned over a highway lane to collect vehicle count and speed data for traffic control. Techniques are used to reduce clutter in the receive signal, such as decoupling the receive and transmit cavities by placing a space between them, using conductive or radiative damping elements on the cavities, and using terminating plates on the sides of the openings. 20 figs.

  11. A field programmable gate array-based time-resolved scaler for collinear laser spectroscopy with bunched radioactive potassium beams

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Rossi, D. M., E-mail: rossi@nscl.msu.edu; Davis, M.; Ringle, R.; Rodriguez, J. A.; Ryder, C. A.; Schwarz, S.; Sumithrarachchi, C.; Zhao, S. [National Superconducting Cyclotron Laboratory, Michigan State University, East Lansing, Michigan 48824 (United States); Minamisono, K., E-mail: minamiso@nscl.msu.edu; Barquest, B. R.; Bollen, G.; Hughes, M.; Strum, R.; Tarazona, D. [National Superconducting Cyclotron Laboratory, Michigan State University, East Lansing, Michigan 48824 (United States); Department of Physics and Astronomy, Michigan State University, East Lansing, Michigan 48824 (United States); Cooper, K.; Hammerton, K.; Mantica, P. F.; Morrissey, D. J. [National Superconducting Cyclotron Laboratory, Michigan State University, East Lansing, Michigan 48824 (United States); Department of Chemistry, Michigan State University, East Lansing, Michigan 48824 (United States)

    2014-09-15T23:59:59.000Z

    A new data acquisition system including a Field Programmable Gate Array (FPGA) based time-resolved scaler was developed for laser-induced fluorescence and beam bunch coincidence measurements. The FPGA scaler was tested in a collinear laser-spectroscopy experiment on radioactive {sup 37}K at the BEam COoler and LAser spectroscopy (BECOLA) facility at the National Superconducting Cyclotron Laboratory at Michigan State University. A 1.29 ?s bunch width from the buncher and a bunch repetition rate of 2.5 Hz led to a background suppression factor of 3.1 × 10{sup 5} in resonant photon detection measurements. The hyperfine structure of {sup 37}K and its isotope shift relative to the stable {sup 39}K were determined using 5 × 10{sup 4} s{sup ?1} {sup 37}K ions injected into the BECOLA beam line. The obtained hyperfine coupling constants A({sup 2}S{sub 1/2}) = 120.3(1.4) MHz, A({sup 2}P{sub 1/2}) = 15.2(1.1) MHz, and A({sup 2}P{sub 3/2}) = 1.4(8) MHz, and the isotope shift ??{sup 39,} {sup 37} = ?264(3) MHz are consistent with the previously determined values, where available.

  12. Short range micro-power impulse radar with high resolution swept range gate with damped transmit and receive cavities

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    McEwan, Thomas E. (Livermore, CA)

    1998-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    A radar range finder and hidden object locator is based on ultra-wide band radar with a high resolution swept range gate. The device generates an equivalent time amplitude scan with atypical range of 4 inches to 20 feet, and an analog range resolution as limited by a jitter of on the order of 0.01 inches. A differential sampling receiver is employed to effectively eliminate ringing and other aberrations induced in the receiver by the near proximity of the transmit antenna, so a background subtraction is not needed, simplifying the circuitry while improving performance. Uses of the invention include a replacement of ultrasound devices for fluid level sensing, automotive radar, such as cruise control and parking assistance, hidden object location, such as stud and rebar finding. Also, this technology can be used when positioned over a highway lane to collect vehicle count and speed data for traffic control. Techniques are used to reduce clutter in the receive signal, such as decoupling the receive and transmit cavities by placing a space between them, using conductive or radiative damping elements on the cavities, and using terminating plates on the sides of the openings.

  13. A novel voltage-gated potassium ion channel gene (Kv5.1): Molecular cloning and characterization

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Beisel, K.W.; Lofton, N.C.; Kelley, P.M. Jr. [Boys Town National Research Hospital, Omaha, NE (United States)] [and others

    1994-09-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Voltage-activated potassium channels comprise a family of genes which play a role in the electrophysiological properties of neurosensory and neuronal tissue. We have recently identified a novel voltage-gated potassium ion channel (designated as Kv5.1) using the both RT-PCR with degenerative oligodeoxynucleotide primers and dideoxy sequence analyses. A full length sequence of the mature transcript was obtained by mRNA walking using gene-specific oligodeoxynucleotide primers. The deduced amino acid sequence suggested that this protein has six hydrophobic membrane spanning regions (S1-S6) and an ion-selective pore (P or H5) located between S5 and S6. This structural motif is found in other members of this gene family. Kv5.1 has an amino acid sequence homology of 55% with the Shab gene, Kv2.1, within the N-terminus and the membrane spanning regions. No sequence homology was found for the C-terminus. Northern analysis using mRNA isolated from a panel of rat tissues demonstrated that a 2.4 kb message was expressed in heart and cochlear tissue. Because of the low sequence homology and the unique tissue distribution, we have tentatively assigned the Kv5.1 gene as a new subfamily. Both the rat and human homologues were sequenced and the nucleotide and amino acid homologies were 88% and 96%, respectively. In the rat, the open reading frame encodes a 540-amino acid protein with a predicted molecular mass of 61,781 daltons. Interestingly, the human homologue is truncated by 83 residues in the C-terminus by a stop codon. We have recently isolated a human genomic {lambda} clone which contains the entire human gene and are now determining chromosomal location of Kv5.1 by in situ hybridization and PCR analysis of DNA from a panel of somatic cell hybrids.

  14. Femtosecond all-optical parallel logic gates based on tunable saturable to reverse saturable absorption in graphene-oxide thin films

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Roy, Sukhdev, E-mail: sukhdevroy@dei.ac.in; Yadav, Chandresh [Department of Physics and Computer Science, Dayalbagh Educational Institute, Dayalbagh, Agra 282 005 (India)] [Department of Physics and Computer Science, Dayalbagh Educational Institute, Dayalbagh, Agra 282 005 (India)

    2013-12-09T23:59:59.000Z

    A detailed theoretical analysis of ultrafast transition from saturable absorption (SA) to reverse saturable absorption (RSA) has been presented in graphene-oxide thin films with femtosecond laser pulses at 800?nm. Increase in pulse intensity leads to switching from SA to RSA with increased contrast due to two-photon absorption induced excited-state absorption. Theoretical results are in good agreement with reported experimental results. Interestingly, it is also shown that increase in concentration results in RSA to SA transition. The switching has been optimized to design parallel all-optical femtosecond NOT, AND, OR, XOR, and the universal NAND and NOR logic gates.

  15. Representative Control Gates

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Rhoads, James

    & Integrated - Operationaly Certified As-Deployed Baseline Mission Analysis Risk, Cost, etc Tools & MethodsUnderstand Customer Identify Feasible Alternatives Final Design Disposal Management Decision - System Deployed Requirements Concept Definition Analysis & Evaluation Definition Flowdown Criteria & Priorities Peer Review MCR

  16. West Gate - 2 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Unknown

    2005-06-30T23:59:59.000Z

    FACTORS AF'FECTING ATTITUDINAL PATTERNS TOWARD EDUCATION IN THE DOHINICAN REPUBLIC A Thesi. s by EDWIN HUGH CARPENTER Submitted to the Graduate College of the Texas A&M University in partial fulfillment of the requirements for the degree... of Department) (Membe. ) (Member) Qiember) August 1968 111 ABSTRACT Factors Affecting Attitudinal Patterns toward Education in the Dominican Republic. (August 1968) Edwin H. Carpenter, B. A. , Texas A&M University; Directed by: Dr. Earl Jones...

  17. David Gates home page

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative1 First Use of Energy for All Purposes (Fuel and Nonfuel), 2002; Level: National5Sales for4,645U.S. DOEThe Bonneville Power Administration wouldDECOMPOSITION OFSupplementalC. L. Martin andandTopFoster About ESnet

  18. Al{sub 2}O{sub 3}/GeO{sub x} gate stack on germanium substrate fabricated by in situ cycling ozone oxidation method

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Yang, Xu; Zeng, Zhen-Hua [Advanced Photonics Center, School of Electronic Science and Engineering, Southeast University, Nanjing 210096 (China); Microwave Device and IC Department, Institute of Microelectronics of Chinese Academy of Sciences, Beijing 100029 (China); Wang, Sheng-Kai, E-mail: wangshengkai@ime.ac.cn, E-mail: xzhang62@aliyun.com, E-mail: liuhonggang@ime.ac.cn; Sun, Bing; Zhao, Wei; Chang, Hu-Dong; Liu, Honggang, E-mail: wangshengkai@ime.ac.cn, E-mail: xzhang62@aliyun.com, E-mail: liuhonggang@ime.ac.cn [Microwave Device and IC Department, Institute of Microelectronics of Chinese Academy of Sciences, Beijing 100029 (China); Zhang, Xiong, E-mail: wangshengkai@ime.ac.cn, E-mail: xzhang62@aliyun.com, E-mail: liuhonggang@ime.ac.cn [Advanced Photonics Center, School of Electronic Science and Engineering, Southeast University, Nanjing 210096 (China)

    2014-09-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Al{sub 2}O{sub 3}/GeO{sub x}/Ge gate stack fabricated by an in situ cycling ozone oxidation (COO) method in the atomic layer deposition (ALD) system at low temperature is systematically investigated. Excellent electrical characteristics such as minimum interface trap density as low as 1.9?×?10{sup 11?}cm{sup ?2?}eV{sup ?1} have been obtained by COO treatment. The impact of COO treatment against the band alignment of Al{sub 2}O{sub 3} with respect to Ge is studied by x-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS) and spectroscopic ellipsometry (SE). Based on both XPS and SE studies, the origin of gate leakage in the ALD-Al{sub 2}O{sub 3} is attributed to the sub-gap states, which may be correlated to the OH-related groups in Al{sub 2}O{sub 3} network. It is demonstrated that the COO method is effective in repairing the OH-related defects in high-k dielectrics as well as forming superior high-k/Ge interface for high performance Ge MOS devices.

  19. AVTA Federal Fleet PEV Readiness Data Logging and Characterization Study for the National Park Service: Golden Gate National Recreation Area

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Stephen Schey; Jim Francfort

    2014-03-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Battelle Energy Alliance, LLC, managing and operating contractor for the U.S. Department of Energy's Idaho National Laboratory, is the lead laboratory for U.S. Department of Energy Advanced Vehicle Testing. Battelle Energy Alliance, LLC contracted with Intertek Testing Services, North America (ITSNA) to collect data on federal fleet operations as part of the Advanced Vehicle Testing Activity's Federal Fleet Vehicle Data Logging and Characterization study. The Advanced Vehicle Testing Activity study seeks to collect data to validate the utilization of advanced electric drive vehicle transportation. This report focuses on the Golden Gate National Recreation Area (GGNRA) fleet to identify daily operational characteristics of select vehicles and report findings on vehicle and mission characterizations to support the successful introduction of plug-in electric vehicles (PEVs) into the agencies' fleets. Individual observations of these selected vehicles provide the basis for recommendations related to electric vehicle adoption and whether a battery electric vehicle or plug-in hybrid electric vehicle (PHEV) (collectively PEVs) can fulfill the mission requirements. GGNRA identified 182 vehicles in its fleet, which are under the management of the U.S. General Services Administration. Fleet vehicle mission categories are defined in Section 4, and while the GGNRA vehicles conduct many different missions, only two (i.e., support and law enforcement missions) were selected by agency management to be part of this fleet evaluation. The selected vehicles included sedans, trucks, and sport-utility vehicles. This report will show that battery electric vehicles and/or PHEVs are capable of performing the required missions and providing an alternative vehicle for support vehicles and PHEVs provide the same for law enforcement, because each has a sufficient range for individual trips and time is available each day for charging to accommodate multiple trips per day. These charging events could occur at the vehicle home base, high-use work areas, or intermediately along routes that the vehicles frequently travel. Replacement of vehicles in the current fleet would result in significant reductions in the emission of greenhouse gases and petroleum use, while also reducing fuel costs. The San Francisco Bay Area is a leader in the adoption of PEVs in the United States. PEV charging stations, or more appropriately identified as electric vehicle supply equipment, located on the GGNRA facility would be a benefit for both GGNRA fleets and general public use. Fleet drivers and park visitors operating privately owned PEVs benefit by using the charging infrastructure. ITSNA recommends location analysis of the GGNRA site to identify the optimal placement of the electric vehicle supply equipment station. ITSNA recognizes the support of Idaho National Laboratory and ICF International for their efforts to initiate communication with the National Parks Service and GGNRA for participation in the study. ITSNA is pleased to provide this report and is encouraged by the high interest and support from the National Park Service and GGNRA personnel.

  20. Directions to the River's Edge Catering & Conference Center, Naval Air Station Patuxent River For mapping GPS program reference, Lexington Park, MD is the town just outside the base gates. Physical

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Yener, Aylin

    Rev 0310 Directions to the River's Edge Catering & Conference Center, Naval Air Station Patuxent. Physical address is 46870 Tate Road ­ Bldg 2815, Patuxent River, MD. 20670. REC&C (301) 342-6210. From River For mapping GPS program reference, Lexington Park, MD is the town just outside the base gates

  1. 15/01/08 12:01The impact of gated Communities on property values: evidence of changes in real estate markets -Los ... -Cybergeo Page 1 of 23http://www.cybergeo.eu/index6225.html

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Paris-Sud XI, Université de

    (construction and maintenance costs of infrastructure within the gates). Such a structuring of residential space estate markets -Los ... - Cybergeo Page 1 of 23http://www.cybergeo.eu/index6225.html Cybergeo Systemic governments and land developers. Both agree to charge the homebuyer with the cost of urban sprawl

  2. Thermal stability of TaSi/sub x/-GaAs Schottky barriers in rapid thermal processing. [Self-aligned gate fabrication of GaAs MESFETs

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Haynes, T.E.; Han, C.C.; Lau, S.S.; Picraux, S.T.; Chu, W.K.

    1987-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Co-sputtered TaSi/sub x/ films on GaAs have been examined as potential refractory Schottky barrier contacts suitable for self-aligned gate fabrication of GaAs MESFETs. Thermal stability of electrical and physical characteristics has been studied following furnace annealing and rapid thermal processing of contacts with compositions near Ta/sub 5/Si/sub 3/ (x = 0.6). Assessment of integrity of the annealed contacts has been made based on measurement of electrical characteristics, interface interdiffusion, and evaporation of GaAs through the contact. Superior stability as a function of anneal temperature up to 900/sup 0/C was achieved for TaSi/sub 0.6/ contacts using rapid thermal processing (RTP) techniques rather than furnace annealing. Current-voltage characteristics were found to be insensitive to RTP temperature between 700 and 900/sup 0/C.

  3. New field programmable gate array-based image-oriented acquisition and real-time processing applied to plasma facing component thermal monitoring

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Martin, V. [Pulsar Team-Project, INRIA Sophia Antipolis, Sophia Antipolis F-06902 (France); Dunand, G.; Moncada, V. [Sophia Conseil Company, Sophia Antipolis F-06560 (France); Jouve, M.; Travere, J.-M. [CEA, IRFM, Saint-Paul-Lez-Durance F-13108 (France)

    2010-10-15T23:59:59.000Z

    During operation of present fusion devices, the plasma facing components (PFCs) are exposed to high heat fluxes. Understanding and preventing overheating of these components during long pulse discharges is a crucial safety issue for future devices like ITER. Infrared digital cameras interfaced with complex optical systems have become a routine diagnostic to measure surface temperatures in many magnetic fusion devices. Due to the complexity of the observed scenes and the large amount of data produced, the use of high computational performance hardware for real-time image processing is then mandatory to avoid PFC damages. At Tore Supra, we have recently made a major upgrade of our real-time infrared image acquisition and processing board by the use of a new field programmable gate array (FPGA) optimized for image processing. This paper describes the new possibilities offered by this board in terms of image calibration and image interpretation (abnormal thermal events detection) compared to the previous system.

  4. Upgrading the Center for Lightweighting Automotive Materials and Processing - a GATE Center of Excellence at the University of Michigan-Dearborn

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Mallick, P. K.

    2012-08-30T23:59:59.000Z

    The Center for Lightweighting Materials and Processing (CLAMP) was established in September 1998 with a grant from the Department of Energy’s Graduate Automotive Technology Education (GATE) program. The center received the second round of GATE grant in 2005 under the title “Upgrading the Center for Lightweighting Automotive Materials and Processing”. Using the two grants, the Center has successfully created 10 graduate level courses on lightweight automotive materials, integrated them into master’s and PhD programs in Automotive Systems Engineering, and offered them regularly to the graduate students in the program. In addition, the Center has created a web-based lightweight automotive materials database, conducted research on lightweight automotive materials and organized seminars/symposia on lightweight automotive materials for both academia and industry. The faculty involved with the Center has conducted research on a variety of topics related to design, testing, characterization and processing of lightweight materials for automotive applications and have received numerous research grants from automotive companies and government agencies to support their research. The materials considered included advanced steels, light alloys (aluminum, magnesium and titanium) and fiber reinforced polymer composites. In some of these research projects, CLAMP faculty have collaborated with industry partners and students have used the research facilities at industry locations. The specific objectives of the project during the current funding period (2005 – 2012) were as follows: (1) develop new graduate courses and incorporate them in the automotive systems engineering curriculum (2) improve and update two existing courses on automotive materials and processing (3) upgrade the laboratory facilities used by graduate students to conduct research (4) expand the Lightweight Automotive Materials Database to include additional materials, design case studies and make it more accessible to outside users (5) provide support to graduate students for conducting research on lightweight automotive materials and structures (6) provide industry/university interaction through a graduate certificate program on automotive materials and technology idea exchange through focused seminars and symposia on automotive materials.

  5. Hydroacoustic Evaluation of Juvenile Salmonid Passage at The Dalles Dam Sluiceway, 2005

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Johnson, Gary E.; Khan, Fenton; Hedgepeth, J; Mueller, Robert P.; Rakowski, Cynthia L.; Richmond, Marshall C.; Serkowski, John A.; Skalski, John R.

    2006-06-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The U.S. Army Corps of Engineers Portland District engaged the Pacific Northwest National Laboratory to evaluate fish passage at The Dalles Dam powerhouse in 2005. The goal of the study was to provide information on smolt passage that will inform decisions on long-term measures and operations to enhance sluiceway passage and reduce turbine passage to improve smolt survival at the dam. The study addressed one of the main programs dedicated to improving juvenile salmonid survival at The Dalles Dam: Surface Flow Bypass. The study objectives (see below) were met using a combination of hydroacoustic and hydraulic data. The study incorporated fixed-location hydroacoustic methods across the entire powerhouse, with especially intense sampling using multiple split-beam transducers at all sluiceway portals. We did not sample fish passage at the spillway in 2005. In the sluiceway nearfield, we used an acoustic camera to track fish movements. The fish data were interpreted with hydraulic data from a computational fluid dynamics (CFD) model. Fish passage data were collected in the framework of an “experiment” using a randomized block design (3-day treatments; two treatments) to compare two sluiceway operational configurations: Sluice 2+5 and Sluice 2+19 (six gates open for each configuration). Total project outflow was 76% of the 10-year average for spring and 71% of the 10-year average for summer. Based on these findings, we make the following recommendations: 1) The sluice should be operated 24 h/d from April until November. 2) Open six rather than three sluice gates to take advantage of the maximum hydraulic capacity of the sluiceway. 3) Open the three gates above the western-most operating main turbine unit and the three gates at MU 8 where turbine passage rates are relatively high. 4) Operate the turbine units below open sluice gates as a standard fish operations procedure. 5) Develop hydraulic and entrance enhancements to the sluiceway to tap the potential of The Dalles Dam sluiceway to be highly efficient and effective at passing juvenile salmonids. 6) Consider the following elements for surface flow bypasses during design of any sluiceway enhancements at The Dalles Dam: Form an extensive surface flow bypass flow net (surface bypass discharge greater than ~7% of total project discharge) at both west and east ends of the dam; Create a gradual increase in water velocity approaching the surface flow bypass (ideally, acceleration < 1 m/s per meter); Make water velocities at an entrance high enough (> 3 m/s) to entrain the subject juvenile fishes, e.g., 10,000 cfs or so; Adapt the shape and orientation of the surface entrance(s) to fit site-specific features, i.e., test a Removable Sluiceway Weir. 7)The Dalles Dam sluiceway has potential to be highly efficient and effective at passing juvenile salmonids. We recommend tapping this potential with enhancements to the sluiceway.

  6. Demonstration and optimisation of an ultrafast all-optical AND logic gate using four-wave mixing in a semiconductor optical amplifier

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Razaghi, M; Nosratpour, A; Das, N K

    2013-02-28T23:59:59.000Z

    We have proposed an all-optical AND logic gate based on four-wave mixing (FWM) in a semiconductor optical amplifier (SOA) integrated with an optical filter. In the scheme proposed, the preferred logical function can be performed without using a continuous-wave (cw) signal. The modified nonlinear Schroedinger equation (MNLSE) is used for the modelling wave propagation in a SOA. The MNLSE takes into account all nonlinear effects relevant to pico- and sub-picosecond pulse durations and is solved by the finite-difference beam-propagation method (FD-BPM). Based on the simulation results, the optimal output signal with a 40-fJ energy can be obtained at a bit rate of 50 Gb s{sup -1}. In the simulations, besides the nonlinearities included in the model, the pattern effect of the signals propagating in the SOA medium and the effect of the input signal bit rate are extensively investigated to optimise the system performance. (optical logic elements)

  7. Apo calmodulin binding to the L-type voltage-gated calcium channel Ca{sub v}1.2 IQ peptide

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Lian Luyun [School of Biological Sciences, University of Liverpool, P.O. Box 147, Liverpool L69 7ZB (United Kingdom)]. E-mail: lu-yun.lian@liverpool.ac.uk; Myatt, Daniel [School of Medicine, Cardiovascular and Endocrine Sciences, University of Manchester, Manchester M13 9NT (United Kingdom); Kitmitto, Ashraf [School of Medicine, Cardiovascular and Endocrine Sciences, University of Manchester, Manchester M13 9NT (United Kingdom)]. E-mail: ashraf.kitmitto@manchester.ac.uk

    2007-02-16T23:59:59.000Z

    The influx of calcium through the L-type voltage-gated calcium channels (LTCCs) is the trigger for the process of calcium-induced calcium release (CICR) from the sarcoplasmic recticulum, an essential step for cardiac contraction. There are two feedback mechanisms that regulate LTCC activity: calcium-dependent inactivation (CDI) and calcium-dependent facilitation (CDF), both of which are mediated by calmodulin (CaM) binding. The IQ domain (aa 1645-1668) housed within the cytoplasmic domain of the LTCC Ca{sub v}1.2 subunit has been shown to bind both calcium-loaded (Ca{sup 2+}CaM ) and calcium-free CaM (apoCaM). Here, we provide new data for the structural basis for the interaction of apoCaM with the IQ peptide using NMR, revealing that the apoCaM C-lobe residues are most significantly perturbed upon complex formation. In addition, we have employed transmission electron microscopy of purified LTCC complexes which shows that both apoCaM and Ca{sup 2+}CaM can bind to the intact channel.

  8. Experimental investigation of bright spots in broadband, gated x-ray images of ignition-scale implosions on the National Ignition Facility

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Barrios, M. A.; Suter, L. J.; Glenn, S.; Benedetti, L. R.; Bradley, D. K.; Collins, G. W.; Hammel, B. A.; Izumi, N.; Ma, T.; Scott, H.; Smalyuk, V. A. [Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory, Livermore, California 94550 (United States)] [Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory, Livermore, California 94550 (United States); Regan, S. P.; Epstein, R. [Laboratory for Laser Energetics, University of Rochester 250 East River Road, Rochester, New York 14623-199 (United States)] [Laboratory for Laser Energetics, University of Rochester 250 East River Road, Rochester, New York 14623-199 (United States); Kyrala, G. A. [Los Alamos National Laboratory, Los Alamos, New Mexico 87545 (United States)] [Los Alamos National Laboratory, Los Alamos, New Mexico 87545 (United States)

    2013-07-15T23:59:59.000Z

    Bright spots in the hot spot intensity profile of gated x-ray images of ignition-scale implosions at the National Ignition Facility [G. H. Miller et al., Opt. Eng. 443, (2004)] are observed. X-ray images of cryogenically layered deuterium-tritium (DT) and tritium-hydrogen-deuterium (THD) ice capsules, and gas filled plastic shell capsules (Symcap) were recorded along the hohlraum symmetry axis. Heterogeneous mixing of ablator material and fuel into the hot spot (i.e., hot-spot mix) by hydrodynamic instabilities causes the bright spots. Hot-spot mix increases the radiative cooling of the hot spot. Fourier analysis of the x-ray images is used to quantify the evolution of bright spots in both x- and k-space. Bright spot images were azimuthally binned to characterize bright spot location relative to known isolated defects on the capsule surface. A strong correlation is observed between bright spot location and the fill tube for both Symcap and cryogenically layered DT and THD ice targets, indicating the fill tube is a significant seed for the ablation front instability causing hot-spot mix. The fill tube is the predominant seed for Symcaps, while other capsule non-uniformities are dominant seeds for the cryogenically layered DT and THD ice targets. A comparison of the bright spot power observed for Si- and Ge-doped ablator targets shows heterogeneous mix in Symcap targets is mostly material from the doped ablator layer.

  9. Hydroacoustic Evaluation of Juvenile Salmonid Passage at The Dalles Dam in 2004

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Johnson, Gary E.; Hanks, Michael E.; Khan, Fenton; Cook, Chris B.; Hedgepeth, J; Mueller, Robert P.; Rakowski, Cynthia L.; Richmond, Marshall C.; Sargeant, Susan L.; Serkowski, John A.; Skalski, John R.

    2005-06-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The U.S. Army Corps of Engineers Portland District engaged the Pacific Northwest National Laboratory to evaluate juvenile salmon passage at The Dalles Dam in 2004 to inform decisions about long-term measures and operations to enhance sluiceway and spill passage and reduce turbine passage to improve smolt survival at the dam. PNNL used fixed-location hydroacoustic sampling across the entire project, especially at the sluiceway and spillway, using multiple split-beam transducers at selected locations. At the sluiceway nearfield, we used an acoustic camera to track fish. The fish data were interpreted and integrated with hydraulic data from a CFD model and in-field ADCP measurements. Two sluiceway operations were compared: West only (SL 1) vs. West+East (SL 1 + SL 18). Based on our findings, we concluded that The Dalles Dam sluiceway has the potential to be highly efficient and effective at passing juvenile salmonids. This potential could be tapped with hydraulic and entrance enhancements to the sluiceway. We recommended the following: (1) six rather than three sluice gates should be opened to take advantage of the maximum hydraulic capacity of the sluiceway. (2) The turbine units below open sluice gates should be operated as a standard fish operations procedure. (3) In 2005, the Corps and fisheries agencies should consider operating sluice gates in one or more of the following combinations of six gates: (a) SL 1-1, 1-2, 1-3 and SL 18-1, 18-2, 18-3 (repeat 2004 operation), (b) SL 1-1, 1-2, 1-3 and SL 11-1, 11-2, 11-3, or (c) SL 1-1, 1-2, 1-3 and SL 2-1, 2-2, 2-3. The following elements for surface flow bypasses which should be considered during design of any sluiceway enhancements at The Dalles Dam: (1) form an extensive surface flow bypass flow net (surface bypass discharge greater than {approx}7% of total project discharge), (2) create a gradual increase in water velocity approaching the surface flow bypass (ideally, acceleration < 1 m/s/m), (3) make water velocities at an entrance high enough (> 3 m/s) to entrain the subject juvenile fishes, (4) adapt the shape and orientation of the surface entrance(s) to fit site-specific features, and (5) consider installing a forebay wall to increase fish availability to the surface flow bypass.

  10. Intracellular shunting of O{sub 2}{sup ?} contributes to charge compensation and preservation of neutrophil respiratory burst in the absence of voltage-gated proton channel activity

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Decleva, Eva [Department of Life Sciences, University of Trieste, Trieste (Italy); Menegazzi, Renzo, E-mail: menegazz@units.it [Department of Life Sciences, University of Trieste, Trieste (Italy); Fasolo, Alba [Department of Life Sciences, University of Trieste, Trieste (Italy); Defendi, Federica [Université Joseph Fourier, GREPI/AGIM CNRS FRE 3405, Grenoble (France); Sebastianutto, Michele; Dri, Pietro [Department of Life Sciences, University of Trieste, Trieste (Italy)

    2013-07-15T23:59:59.000Z

    Proton efflux via voltage-gated proton channels (Hv1) is considered to mediate the charge compensation necessary to preserve NADPH oxidase activity during the respiratory burst. Using the Hv1 inhibitor Zn{sup 2+}, we found that the PMA-induced respiratory burst of human neutrophils is inhibited when assessed as extracellular production of O{sub 2}{sup ?} and H{sub 2}O{sub 2}, in accordance with literature studies, but, surprisingly, unaffected when measured as oxygen consumption or total (extracellular plus intracellular) H{sub 2}O{sub 2} production. Furthermore, we show that inhibiting Hv1 with Zn{sup 2+} results in an increased production of intracellular ROS. Similar results, i.e. decreased extracellular and increased intracellular ROS production, were obtained using a human granulocyte-like cell line with severely impaired Hv1 expression. Acidic extracellular pH, which dampens proton efflux, also augmented intracellular production of H{sub 2}O{sub 2}. Zinc caused an increase in the rate but not in the extent of depolarization and cytosolic acidification indicating that mechanisms other than proton efflux take part in charge compensation. Our results suggest a hitherto unpredicted mechanism of charge compensation whereby, in the absence of proton efflux, part of O{sub 2}{sup ?} generated within gp91{sup phox} in the plasma membrane is shunted intracellularly down electrochemical gradient to dampen excessive depolarization. This would preserve NADPH oxidase activity under conditions such as the inflammatory exudate in which the acidic pH hinders charge compensation by proton efflux. Highlights: • Neutrophils’ respiratory burst is not inhibited by the H{sup +} channel inhibitor Zn{sup 2+}. • Intracellular production of O{sub 2}{sup ?} and H{sub 2}O{sub 2} is increased in the presence of Zn{sup 2+}. • Intracellular H{sub 2}O{sub 2} production is increased in H{sup +} channels knock-down cells. • Zn{sup 2+} increases the rate but not the extent of depolarization and pH{sub i} decrease. • Intracellular shunting of O{sub 2}{sup ?} contributes to charge compensation in neutrophils.

  11. Anti-addiction drug ibogaine inhibits voltage-gated ionic currents: A study to assess the drug's cardiac ion channel profile

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Koenig, Xaver; Kovar, Michael; Rubi, Lena; Mike, Agnes K.; Lukacs, Peter; Gawali, Vaibhavkumar S.; Todt, Hannes [Center for Physiology and Pharmacology, Department of Neurophysiology and -pharmacology, Medical University of Vienna, 1090 Vienna (Austria); Hilber, Karlheinz, E-mail: karlheinz.hilber@meduniwien.ac.at [Center for Physiology and Pharmacology, Department of Neurophysiology and -pharmacology, Medical University of Vienna, 1090 Vienna (Austria); Sandtner, Walter [Center for Physiology and Pharmacology, Institute of Pharmacology, Medical University of Vienna, 1090 Vienna (Austria)

    2013-12-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The plant alkaloid ibogaine has promising anti-addictive properties. Albeit not licenced as a therapeutic drug, and despite hints that ibogaine may perturb the heart rhythm, this alkaloid is used to treat drug addicts. We have recently reported that ibogaine inhibits human ERG (hERG) potassium channels at concentrations similar to the drugs affinity for several of its known brain targets. Thereby the drug may disturb the heart's electrophysiology. Here, to assess the drug's cardiac ion channel profile in more detail, we studied the effects of ibogaine and its congener 18-Methoxycoronaridine (18-MC) on various cardiac voltage-gated ion channels. We confirmed that heterologously expressed hERG currents are reduced by ibogaine in low micromolar concentrations. Moreover, at higher concentrations, the drug also reduced human Na{sub v}1.5 sodium and Ca{sub v}1.2 calcium currents. Ion currents were as well reduced by 18-MC, yet with diminished potency. Unexpectedly, although blocking hERG channels, ibogaine did not prolong the action potential (AP) in guinea pig cardiomyocytes at low micromolar concentrations. Higher concentrations (? 10 ?M) even shortened the AP. These findings can be explained by the drug's calcium channel inhibition, which counteracts the AP-prolonging effect generated by hERG blockade. Implementation of ibogaine's inhibitory effects on human ion channels in a computer model of a ventricular cardiomyocyte, on the other hand, suggested that ibogaine does prolong the AP in the human heart. We conclude that therapeutic concentrations of ibogaine have the propensity to prolong the QT interval of the electrocardiogram in humans. In some cases this may lead to cardiac arrhythmias. - Highlights: • We study effects of anti-addiction drug ibogaine on ionic currents in cardiomyocytes. • We assess the cardiac ion channel profile of ibogaine. • Ibogaine inhibits hERG potassium, sodium and calcium channels. • Ibogaine’s effects on ion channels are a potential source of cardiac arrhythmias. • 18-Methoxycoronaridine has a lower affinity for cardiac ion channels than ibogaine.

  12. Gated charged-particle trap

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Benner, W. Henry (Danville, CA)

    1999-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The design and operation of a new type of charged-particle trap provides simultaneous measurements of mass, charge, and velocity of large electrospray ions. The trap consists of a detector tube mounted between two sets of center-bored trapping plates. Voltages applied to the trapping plates define symmetrically-opposing potential valleys which guide axially-injected ions to cycle back and forth through the charge-detection tube. A low noise charge-sensitive amplifier, connected to the tube, reproduces the image charge of individual ions as they pass through the detector tube. Ion mass is calculated from measurement of ion charge and velocity following each passage through the detector.

  13. Attachment 3 Segmented Gate System

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    7500-912 MOD 0.42 0.63 06/3.3/00 0 6 / 2 9 / 0 0165103 67 IS0 THORIUM (SHORT CT) NAS & DOE MOD p C i-725 orium 228 0.54 J 0.25 0.16 06/13/00 06/16/0 0165257 67 Thorium 230 0.58 J 0.25 0.03 06/13/00 06/16/0 0165257 67 0.64 J 0.26 0.05 0-6/13/00 06/16/0 0165257 67Thorium 232 a I NOTE (9) Data arm incamplate

  14. from Microsoft's Bill Gates. Summer

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative1 First Use of Energy for All Purposes (Fuel and Nonfuel), 2002; Level:Energy: Grid Integration Redefining What'sis Taking Over OurThe Iron4 Self-Scrubbing:,, , ., December 8,JohnResolving Modeling9 OnPower surge

  15. Role of the dielectric for the charging dynamics of the dielectric/barrier interface in AlGaN/GaN based metal-insulator-semiconductor structures under forward gate bias stress

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Lagger, P., E-mail: peter.lagger@infineon.com [Infineon Technologies Austria AG, Siemensstraße 2, 9500 Villach (Austria); Institute of Solid State Electronics, Vienna University of Technology, Floragasse 7, 1040 Wien (Austria); Steinschifter, P.; Reiner, M.; Stadtmüller, M.; Denifl, G.; Ostermaier, C. [Infineon Technologies Austria AG, Siemensstraße 2, 9500 Villach (Austria); Naumann, A.; Müller, J.; Wilde, L.; Sundqvist, J. [Fraunhofer IPMS-CNT, Königsbrücker Straße 178, 01099 Dresden (Germany); Pogany, D. [Institute of Solid State Electronics, Vienna University of Technology, Floragasse 7, 1040 Wien (Austria)

    2014-07-21T23:59:59.000Z

    The high density of defect states at the dielectric/III-N interface in GaN based metal-insulator-semiconductor structures causes tremendous threshold voltage drifts, ?V{sub th}, under forward gate bias conditions. A comprehensive study on different dielectric materials, as well as varying dielectric thickness t{sub D} and barrier thickness t{sub B}, is performed using capacitance-voltage analysis. It is revealed that the density of trapped electrons, ?N{sub it}, scales with the dielectric capacitance under spill-over conditions, i.e., the accumulation of a second electron channel at the dielectric/AlGaN barrier interface. Hence, the density of trapped electrons is defined by the charging of the dielectric capacitance. The scaling behavior of ?N{sub it} is explained universally by the density of accumulated electrons at the dielectric/III-N interface under spill-over conditions. We conclude that the overall density of interface defects is higher than what can be electrically measured, due to limits set by dielectric breakdown. These findings have a significant impact on the correct interpretation of threshold voltage drift data and are of relevance for the development of normally off and normally on III-N/GaN high electron mobility transistors with gate insulation.

  16. Effects of rapid thermal annealing on the electrical properties of the AlGaN/AlN/GaN heterostructure field-effect transistors with Ti/Al/Ni/Au gate electrodes

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Zhao, Jingtao; Lin, Zhaojun, E-mail: linzj@sdu.edu.cn; Luan, Chongbiao; Zhou, Yang; Yang, Ming [School of Physics, Shandong University, Jinan 250100 (China); Lv, Yuanjie; Feng, Zhihong [National Key Laboratory of Application Specific Integrated Circuit (ASIC), Hebei Semiconductor Research Institute, Shijiazhuang 050051 (China)

    2014-08-25T23:59:59.000Z

    In this study, we investigated the electrical properties of the AlGaN/AlN/GaN heterostructure field-effect transistors (HFETs) with Ti/Al/Ni/Au gate electrodes using the measured capacitance-voltage, current-voltage characteristics, and micro-Raman spectroscopy. We found that the uneven distribution of the strain caused by the Schottky metals was a major factor that generates the polarization Coulomb field scattering in AlGaN/AlN/GaN HFETs, and after appropriate rapid thermal annealing (RTA) processes, the polarization Coulomb field scattering was greatly weakened and the two-dimensional electron gas electron mobility was improved. We also found that the Schottky barrier height and the DC characteristics of the devices became better after appropriate RTA. Of course, the electrical performances mentioned above became deteriorated after excessive annealing.

  17. GaSb molecular beam epitaxial growth on p-InP(001) and passivation with in situ deposited Al{sub 2}O{sub 3} gate oxide

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Merckling, C.; Brammertz, G.; Hoffmann, T. Y.; Caymax, M.; Dekoster, J. [Interuniversity Microelectronics Center (IMEC vzw), Kapeldreef 75, 3001, Leuven (Belgium); Sun, X. [Katholieke Universiteit Leuven, Celestijnelaan 200D, 3001, Leuven (Belgium); Department of Electrical Engineering, Yale University, New Haven, Connecticut 06520-8284 (United States); Alian, A.; Heyns, M. [Interuniversity Microelectronics Center (IMEC vzw), Kapeldreef 75, 3001, Leuven (Belgium); Katholieke Universiteit Leuven, Celestijnelaan 200D, 3001, Leuven (Belgium); Afanas'ev, V. V. [Katholieke Universiteit Leuven, Celestijnelaan 200D, 3001, Leuven (Belgium)

    2011-04-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The integration of high carrier mobility materials into future CMOS generations is presently being studied in order to increase drive current capability and to decrease power consumption in future generation CMOS devices. If III-V materials are the candidates of choice for n-type channel devices, antimonide-based semiconductors present high hole mobility and could be used for p-type channel devices. In this work we first demonstrate the heteroepitaxy of fully relaxed GaSb epilayers on InP(001) substrates. In a second part, the properties of the Al{sub 2}O{sub 3}/GaSb interface have been studied by in situ deposition of an Al{sub 2}O{sub 3} high-{kappa} gate dielectric. The interface is abrupt without any substantial interfacial layer, and is characterized by high conduction and valence band offsets. Finally, MOS capacitors show well-behaved C-V with relatively low D{sub it} along the bandgap, these results point out an efficient electrical passivation of the Al{sub 2}O{sub 3}/GaSb interface.

  18. Countering Aging Effects through Field Gate Sizing

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Henrichson, Trenton D.

    2010-01-14T23:59:59.000Z

    . Using HSPICE and 70nm BPTM process numbers, we simulated the technique on four circuits (a ring oscillator, a fan-out four circuit, an ISCAS c432 and c2670). Over the lifetime of the circuit, our simulations predict a 8.89% and a 13% improvement in power...

  19. GATE: Energy Efficient Vehicles for Sustainable Mobility

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    2013 DOE Hydrogen and Fuel Cells Program and Vehicle Technologies Program Annual Merit Review and Peer Evaluation Meeting

  20. Quasiprobability methods for multimode conditional optical gates

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    G. J. Milburn

    2006-12-05T23:59:59.000Z

    We present a method for computing the action of conditional linear optical transformations, conditioned on photon counting, for arbitrary signal states. The method is based on the Q-function, a quasi probability distribution for anti normally ordered moments. We treat an arbitrary number of signal and ancilla modes. The ancilla modes are prepared in an arbitrary product number state. We construct the conditional, non unitary, signal transformations for an arbitrary photon number count on each of the ancilla modes.

  1. Yuanmingyuan East Gate of Peking University

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Gu, Jin

    and Mechanology 7 Dept. of Thermal Engineering 8 Dept. of Automotive Engineering 9 Dept. of Industrial Toliet Legend 1 School of Architecture 2 Dept. of Civil Engineering 3 Dept. of Hydraulic Engineering 4 School of Enviroment 5 Dept. of Mechanical Engineering 6 Dept. of Precision Instruments

  2. Quantum Gates for Superconducting A Dissertation

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Devoret, Michel H.

    , and the minimal number of non-linear circuit elements are particularly interesting, as they would reduce from Fourier analysis of the circuit Hamiltonian in a partic- ular multiply-rotating reference frame with the electromagnetic modes of an engineered quantum circuit. Doing so requires the subtle application of control

  3. A laser-programmable gate array 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Gullette, James Benjamin

    1985-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    process with double layer polysilicon, typicaHy used for capacitors, and single layer metal. The laser techniques used to program the devices were the interconnection of the over- lapping polysilicon layers and the cutting of metal and polysilicon links... Array The VLSI program at Texas A&M University was provided with a standard double-poly N-channel Metal Oxide Semiconductor (NMOS) process. It has been found that certain laser personalization techniques for creating and deleting con- nections...

  4. David A Gates | Princeton Plasma Physics Lab

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative1 First Use of Energy for All Purposes (Fuel and Nonfuel), 2002; Level: National5Sales for4,645 3,625govInstrumentstdmadapInactiveVisitingContract Management Fermi SitePARTOfficeOctoberDanielDTNTop science news ofA

  5. Graduate Automotive Technology Education (GATE) Initiative Awards |

    Broader source: Energy.gov (indexed) [DOE]

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative1 First Use of Energy for All Purposes (Fuel and Nonfuel), 2002; Level: National5Sales for4,645 3,625 1,006 492 742Energy ChinaofSchaefer To: CongestionDevelopment of aLogging Systems (December 1983) |The

  6. LEXSEE 35 GOLDEN GATE U.L. REV. 429 Copyright (c) 2005 Golden Gate University

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Kammen, Daniel M.

    petroleum fuel and internal combustion engine ("ICE") manufacturers, will thus be the focus of this Comment, which diminishes the size of wildlife corridors. n6 These are just a few of the international social and environmental harms associated with the petro indus- try. n7 Comprising oil companies, refineries, engine

  7. E-print Network Topics: G

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    gated spect myocardial gated spect qgs gated spect studies gated spet myocardial gated tc-99m sestamibi gated tl-201 myocardial gated tl-201 perfusion gated trpm8 channels gated...

  8. EA-1070: Revised Finding of No Significant Impact

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    Natural Fluctuation of Water Level in Par Pond and Reduced Water Flow in Steel Creek below L Lake at the Savannah River Site

  9. FLOATING GATE COMPARATOR WITH AUTOMATIC OFFSET MANIPULATION FUNCTIONALITY

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Maryland at College Park, University of

    , including analog-to- digital converters, memories, dynamic logic, and sense am- plifiers. A comparator. The injection mechanism has been extensively described in the literature [7, 8], and the injection feedback constant current configurations. An accurate model in [10] suggests that injection current Iinj = Is exp

  10. Looking at Transistor Gate Oxide Formation in Real Time

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    that conducts current and permits control of the electron flow between the source and drain electrodes of the transistor. This layer is traditionally made of silicon dioxide but...

  11. Status of the NSTX control Presented by D. A. Gates

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Princeton Plasma Physics Laboratory

    - 2005 #12;Hardware standards ease development Merlin 9422 16-bit Digitizer w/ FPDP 0.5Gbit/s-3µsec · Graphical user interface · Shot "construction" from multiple archived shots · Interface to EFIT database

  12. GATE Center of Excellence in Sustainable Vehicle Systems

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    2013 DOE Hydrogen and Fuel Cells Program and Vehicle Technologies Program Annual Merit Review and Peer Evaluation Meeting

  13. thebulletin27 November 2011 -Issue 108 Gates Foundation funding

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Aickelin, Uwe

    matter that collectively make it very good for the microbial fuel cells. "When we first started using of urine runs over the stack and produces power as the microbes inside the MFCs get to work on the urine

  14. ExhibitionRoadPrince'sGate Prince's Gardens (North Side)

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Roderic Hill Building Aeronautics,TheCompositesCentre,ChemicalEngineering andChemicalTechnology,CentreforProcessSystems Engineering 9 Bone Building Aeronautics,ChemicalEngineeringandChemicalTechnology 10 Royal School of Mines (temporary accommodation) 15 Huxley Building Computing,Mathematics,Physics 16 ACE Extension Aeronautics

  15. advanced gate drive: Topics by E-print Network

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    in the evolution of centrifugal... pumps and their application. The fundamentals of variable speed centrifugal pump operation are reviewed, then the advantages and evaluation...

  16. PENN STATE DOE GRADUATE AUTOMOTIVE TECHNOLOGY EDUCATION (GATE...

    Broader source: Energy.gov (indexed) [DOE]

    - Donald Streit (ME) followed by Joel Anstrom (PA Transportation Institute, Systems) - Battery storage - Chao-Yang Wang (ME, ECEC) - Ultra-capacitors - Michael Lanagan (ES&M,...

  17. Penn State DOE Graduate Automotive Technology Education (Gate...

    Broader source: Energy.gov (indexed) [DOE]

    - Donald Streit (ME) followed by Joel Anstrom (PA Transportation Institute, Systems) - Battery storage - Chao-Yang Wang (ME, ECEC) - Ultra-capacitors - Michael Lanagan (ES&M,...

  18. Choosing a gate dielectric for graphene based transistors

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Hsu, Pei-Lan, M. Eng. Massachusetts Institute of Technology

    2008-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Much attention has recently been focused on graphene as an alternative semiconductor to silicon. Transistors with graphene conduction channels have only recently been fabricated and their performance remains to be optimized. ...

  19. active gate driver: Topics by E-print Network

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    chip for SiC FET-driver chip is intended to drive SiC power FETs in DC-DC converters in a hybrid electric vehicle Tolbert, Leon M. 7 Current Balancing Control for Parallel...

  20. Measuring ultrashort pulses using frequency-resolved optical gating

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Trebino, R. [Sandia National Laboratories, Livermore, CA (United States)

    1993-12-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The purpose of this program is the development of techniques for the measurement of ultrafast events important in gas-phase combustion chemistry. Specifically, goals of this program include the development of fundamental concepts and spectroscopic techniques that will augment the information currently available with ultrafast laser techniques. Of equal importance is the development of technology for ultrafast spectroscopy. For example, methods for the production and measurement of ultrashort pulses at wavelengths important for these studies is an important goal. Because the specific vibrational motion excited in a molecule depends sensitively on the intensity, I(t), and the phase, {psi}(t), of the ultrashort pulse used to excite the motion, it is critical to measure both of these quantities for an individual pulse. Unfortunately, this has remained an unsolved problem for many years. Fortunately, this year, the authors present a technique that achieves this goal.