National Library of Energy BETA

Sample records for kw reactive power

  1. A Tariff for Reactive Power

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Kueck, John D; Kirby, Brendan J; Li, Fangxing; Tufon, Christopher; Isemonger, Alan

    2008-07-01

    Two kinds of power are required to operate an electric power system: real power, measured in watts, and reactive power, measured in volt-amperes reactive or VARs. Reactive power supply is one of a class of power system reliability services collectively known as ancillary services, and is essential for the reliable operation of the bulk power system. Reactive power flows when current leads or lags behind voltage. Typically, the current in a distribution system lags behind voltage because of inductive loads such as motors. Reactive power flow wastes energy and capacity and causes voltage droop. To correct lagging power flow, leading reactive power (current leading voltage) is supplied to bring the current into phase with voltage. When the current is in phase with voltage, there is a reduction in system losses, an increase in system capacity, and a rise in voltage. Reactive power can be supplied from either static or dynamic VAR sources. Static sources are typically transmission and distribution equipment, such as capacitors at substations, and their cost has historically been included in the revenue requirement of the transmission operator (TO), and recovered through cost-of-service rates. By contrast, dynamic sources are typically generators capable of producing variable levels of reactive power by automatically controlling the generator to regulate voltage. Transmission system devices such as synchronous condensers can also provide dynamic reactive power. A class of solid state devices (called flexible AC transmission system devices or FACTs) can provide dynamic reactive power. One specific device has the unfortunate name of static VAR compensator (SVC), where 'static' refers to the solid state nature of the device (it does not include rotating equipment) and not to the production of static reactive power. Dynamic sources at the distribution level, while more costly would be very useful in helping to regulate local voltage. Local voltage regulation would reduce system losses, increase circuit capacity, increase reliability, and improve efficiency. Reactive power is theoretically available from any inverter-based equipment such as photovoltaic (PV) systems, fuel cells, microturbines, and adjustable-speed drives. However, the installation is usually only economical if reactive power supply is considered during the design and construction phase. In this report, we find that if the inverters of PV systems or the generators of combined heat and power (CHP) systems were designed with capability to supply dynamic reactive power, they could do this quite economically. In fact, on an annualized basis, these inverters and generators may be able to supply dynamic reactive power for about $5 or $6 per kVAR. The savings from the local supply of dynamic reactive power would be in reduced losses, increased capacity, and decreased transmission congestion. The net savings are estimated to be about $7 per kVAR on an annualized basis for a hypothetical circuit. Thus the distribution company could economically purchase a dynamic reactive power service from customers for perhaps $6/kVAR. This practice would provide for better voltage regulation in the distribution system and would provide an alternate revenue source to help amortize the cost of PV and CHP installations. As distribution and transmission systems are operated under rising levels of stress, the value of local dynamic reactive supply is expected to grow. Also, large power inverters, in the range of 500 kW to 1 MW, are expected to decrease in cost as they become mass produced. This report provides one data point which shows that the local supply of dynamic reactive power is marginally profitable at present for a hypothetical circuit. We expect that the trends of growing power flow on the existing system and mass production of inverters for distributed energy devices will make the dynamic supply of reactive power from customers an integral component of economical and reliable system operation in the future.

  2. 1-10 kW Stationary Combined Heat and Power Systems Status and...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    1-10 kW Stationary Combined Heat and Power Systems Status and Technical Potential: Independent Review 1-10 kW Stationary Combined Heat and Power Systems Status and Technical...

  3. Reactive power compensator

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    El-Sharkawi, Mohamed A. (Renton, WA); Venkata, Subrahmanyam S. (Woodinville, WA); Chen, Mingliang (Kirkland, WA); Andexler, George (Everett, WA); Huang, Tony (Seattle, WA)

    1992-01-01

    A system and method for determining and providing reactive power compensation for an inductive load. A reactive power compensator (50,50') monitors the voltage and current flowing through each of three distribution lines (52a, 52b, 52c), which are supplying three-phase power to one or more inductive loads. Using signals indicative of the current on each of these lines when the voltage waveform on the line crosses zero, the reactive power compensator determines a reactive power compensator capacitance that must be connected to the lines to maintain a desired VAR level, power factor, or line voltage. Alternatively, an operator can manually select a specific capacitance for connection to each line, or the capacitance can be selected based on a time schedule. The reactive power compensator produces control signals, which are coupled through optical fibers (102/106) to a switch driver (110, 110') to select specific compensation capacitors (112) for connections to each line. The switch driver develops triggering signals that are supplied to a plurality of series-connected solid state switches (350), which control charge current in one direction in respect to ground for each compensation capacitor. During each cycle, current flows from ground to charge the capacitors as the voltage on the line begins to go negative from its positive peak value. The triggering signals are applied to gate the solid state switches into a conducting state when the potential on the lines and on the capacitors reaches a negative peak value, thereby minimizing both the potential difference and across the charge current through the switches when they begin to conduct. Any harmonic distortion on the potential and current carried by the lines is filtered out from the current and potential signals used by the reactive power compensator so that it does not affect the determination of the required reactive compensation.

  4. Reactive Power Compensator.

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    El-Sharkawi, M.A.; Venkata, S.S.; Chen, M.; Andexler, G.; Huang, T.

    1992-07-28

    A system and method for determining and providing reactive power compensation for an inductive load. A reactive power compensator (50,50') monitors the voltage and current flowing through each of three distribution lines (52a, 52b, 52c), which are supplying three-phase power to one or more inductive loads. Using signals indicative of the current on each of these lines when the voltage waveform on the line crosses zero, the reactive power compensator determines a reactive power compensator capacitance that must be connected to the lines to maintain a desired VAR level, power factor, or line voltage. Alternatively, an operator can manually select a specific capacitance for connection to each line, or the capacitance can be selected based on a time schedule. The reactive power compensator produces control signals, which are coupled through optical fibers (102/106) to a switch driver (110, 110') to select specific compensation capacitors (112) for connections to each line. The switch driver develops triggering signals that are supplied to a plurality of series-connected solid state switches (350), which control charge current in one direction in respect to ground for each compensation capacitor. During each cycle, current flows from ground to charge the capacitors as the voltage on the line begins to go negative from its positive peak value. The triggering signals are applied to gate the solid state switches into a conducting state when the potential on the lines and on the capacitors reaches a negative peak value, thereby minimizing both the potential difference and across the charge current through the switches when they begin to conduct. Any harmonic distortion on the potential and current carried by the lines is filtered out from the current and potential signals used by the reactive power compensator so that it does not affect the determination of the required reactive compensation. 26 figs.

  5. Reactive Power Compensating System.

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Williams, Timothy J.; El-Sharkawi, Mohamed A.; Venkata, Subrahmanyam S.

    1985-01-04

    The circuit was designed for the specific application of wind-driven induction generators. It has great potential for application in any situation where a varying reactive power load is present, such as with induction motors or generators, or for transmission network compensation.

  6. Reactive power compensating system

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Williams, Timothy J. (Redondo Beach, CA); El-Sharkawi, Mohamed A. (Renton, WA); Venkata, Subrahmanyam S. (Seattle, WA)

    1987-01-01

    The reactive power of an induction machine is compensated by providing fixed capacitors on each phase line for the minimum compensation required, sensing the current on one line at the time its voltage crosses zero to determine the actual compensation required for each phase, and selecting switched capacitors on each line to provide the balance of the compensation required.

  7. ITP Industrial Distributed Energy: Combined Heat & Power Multifamily Performance Program-- Sea Park East 150 kW CHP System

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    Overview of Sea Park East 150 kilowatt (kW) Combined Heat and Power (CHP) System in Brooklyn, New York

  8. Advanced Photovoltaic Inverter Functionality using 500 kW Power Hardware-in-Loop Complete System Laboratory Testing: Preprint

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Mather, B. A.; Kromer, M. A.; Casey, L.

    2013-01-01

    With the increasing penetration of distribution connected photovoltaic (PV) systems, more and more PV developers and utilities are interested in easing future PV interconnection concerns by mitigating some of the impacts of PV integration using advanced PV inverter controls and functions. This paper describes the testing of a 500 kW PV inverter using Power Hardware-in-Loop (PHIL) testing techniques. The test setup is described and the results from testing the inverter in advanced functionality modes, not commonly used in currently interconnected PV systems, are presented. PV inverter operation under PHIL evaluation that emulated both the DC PV array connection and the AC distribution level grid connection are shown for constant power factor (PF) and constant reactive power (VAr) control modes. The evaluation of these modes was completed under varying degrees of modeled PV variability.

  9. 3kW Stirling engine for power and heat production

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Thorsen, J.E.; Bovin, J.; Carlsen, H.

    1996-12-31

    A new 3 kW Beta type Stirling engine has been developed. The engine uses Natural gas as fuel, and it is designed for use as a small combined heat and power plant for single family houses. The electrical power is supplied to the grid. The engine is made as a hermetic device, where the crank mechanism and the alternator are built into a pressurized crank casing. The engine produce 3 kW of shaft power corresponding to 2.4 kW of electric power. The heat input is 10 kW corresponding to a shaft efficiency of 30%, and an electric efficiency of 24%. Helium at 8 MPa mean pressure is used as working gas. The crank mechanism is a combination of an upper- and lower yoke, each forming the half of a Ross mechanism. The upper yoke is linked to the displacer piston and the lower yoke is linked to the working piston. The design gives an approximately linear couple point curve, which eliminates guiding forces on the pistons and the need for X-heads. Grease lubricated needle and ball bearings are used in the kinematic crank mechanism. The burner includes an air preheater and a water jacket, which makes it possible to utilize nearly all of the heat from the combustion gases. The performance of the engine has been tested as a function of mean pressure and hot and cold temperature, and emissions and noise have been measured.

  10. Magnet power supply regulation comments: 240 kW and 500 kW magnet power supplies

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Visser, A.T.

    1993-03-01

    This note is written for users who need better than about 100 ppm regulated magnet fields in electromagnets. A magnet excitation current regulation of 100 ppm is generally specified to obtain this field regulation, but there are many other variables, in addition to magnet excitation that can change the magnet field. The effects of these other variables are often overlooked or underestimated. If things do not work out, the power supply often gets blamed. A field regulation of 100 ppm requires that the power supply regulates substantially better than 100 ppm and that the effects of other variables are limited. Before we can talk about regulation we must define what regulation is. Power supplies can be regulated for current or voltage. We will only talk about current regulation, since that is the regulation mode used to establish precisely regulated magnetic fields in electromagnets. It is assumed that the same current value will always produce the same corresponding magnetic field value. Later on we will discuss that this assumption is not correct.

  11. 100kW Energy Transfer Multiplexer Power Converter Prototype Development Project

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    S. Merrill Skeist; Richard H. (Dick) Baker; Anthony G.P. Marini; DOE Project Officer - Keith Bennett

    2006-03-21

    Project Final Report for "100kW Energy Transfer Multiplexer Power Converter Prototype Development Project" prepared under DOE grant number DE-FG36-03GO13138. This project relates to the further development and prototype construction/evaluation for the Energy Transfer Multiplexer (ETM) power converter topology concept. The ETM uses a series resonant link to transfer energy from any phase of a multiphase input to any phase of a multiphase output, converting any input voltage and frequency to any output voltage and frequency. The basic form of the ETM converter consists of an eight (8)-switch matrix (six phase power switches and two ground power switches) and a series L-C resonant circuit. Electronic control of the switches allows energy to be transferred in the proper amount from any phase to any other phase. Depending upon the final circuit application, the switches may be either SCRs or IGBTs. The inherent characteristics of the ETM converter include the following: Power processing in either direction (bidirectional); Large voltage gain without the need of low frequency magnetics; High efficiency independent of output load and frequency; Wide bandwidth with fast transient response and; Operation as a current source. The ETM is able to synthesize true sinusoidal waveforms with low harmonic distortions. For a low power PM wind generation system, the ETM has the following characteristics and advantages: It provides voltage gain without the need of low frequency magnetics (DC inductors) and; It has constant high efficiency independent of the load. The ETM converter can be implemented into a PM wind power system with smaller size, reduced weight and lower cost. As a result of our analyses, the ETM offers wind power generation technology for the reduction of the cost and size as well as the increase in performance of low power, low wind speed power generation. This project is the further theoretical/analytical exploration of the ETM converter concept in relationship to PM wind power generator applications in the 100kW and under power range. The theoretical/analytical and bench scale work focuses on simplifying the basic ETM converter topology (in terms of parts count and complexity) for the specific application of the low power PM system. The project goals and objectives were for Spellman HV will develop a 100kW prototype ETM power converter based on paralleled lower ratings converters. The proposed configuration of this prototype is a 100kW rated converter comprised of four (4) 34kW rated modules connected in parallel (the fourth converter is included to demonstrate N+1 fault tolerance). This approach is more viable as there is lower technological risk involved in developing a 34kW-rated converter than a single 100kW unit. The modular system approach should have a lower deployment and service cost over a single unit system, because of the economics of scale (smaller units at a higher volume means lower manufacturing cost) and because of improved serviceability (a non-redundant power system with one failed module will still operate at a lower power level). There is also the added benefit that greater commercial application and acceptance should be achieved by having a modular system available in which fault tolerance (N+1 or 2N) is a feature. This modular approach would allow the output power to be increased by adding more paralleled converters. Thus, the maximum output power of the overall power system is a function of the interconnection medium (the hot swap connection subsystem), rather than the ratings of a single module. The project was implemented with Spellman HV acting as the program management and production assembly and test facility; The Baker Company acting as a technical consultant and resource when required; and dtm Associates acting as the design/development resource for the hardware development of the 100kW ETM converter prototype.

  12. Low-Cost 63% Efficient 2.5-kW UHF Power Amplifier for a Wind Profiler Radar

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Popovic, Zoya

    Low-Cost 63% Efficient 2.5-kW UHF Power Amplifier for a Wind Profiler Radar Brad Lindseth1,2 , Tom describes a low-cost 449-MHz 2.5-kW peak pulse amplifier for use in a wind profiling radar. New high- powerW cost upwards of US$30,000 [2,3]. The goal of this work is to develop a low-cost UHF power amplifier

  13. Reactive Power Support Services in Electricity Markets

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Reactive Power Support Services in Electricity Markets Costing and Pricing of Ancillary Services Reactive Power Support Services in Electricity Markets Costing and Pricing of Ancillary Services Project and Pricing of Ancillary Services." The project title reflects the original proposal that was prepared

  14. Gigawatt peak power generation in a relativistic klystron amplifier driven by 1 kW seed-power

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Wu, Y. [Institute of Applied Electronics, China Academy of Engineering Physics, Mianyang 621900 (China) [Institute of Applied Electronics, China Academy of Engineering Physics, Mianyang 621900 (China); Science and Technology on High Power Microwave Laboratory, Mianyang 621900 (China); Xie, H. Q. [College of Science, Southwestern University of Science and Technology, Mianyang 621010 (China)] [College of Science, Southwestern University of Science and Technology, Mianyang 621010 (China); Li, Z. H.; Zhang, Y. J.; Ma, Q. S. [Institute of Applied Electronics, China Academy of Engineering Physics, Mianyang 621900 (China)] [Institute of Applied Electronics, China Academy of Engineering Physics, Mianyang 621900 (China)

    2013-11-15

    An S-band high gain relativistic klystron amplifier driven by kW-level RF power is proposed and studied experimentally. In the device, the RF lossy material is introduced to suppress higher mode excitation. An output power of 1.95 GW with a gain of 62.8 dB is obtained in the simulation. Under conditions of an input RF power of 1.38 kW, a microwave pulse with power of 1.9 GW, frequency of 2.86 GHz, and duration of 105 ns is generated in the experiment, and the corresponding gain is 61.4 dB.

  15. Manufacturing Cost Analysis of 1 kW and 5 kW Solid Oxide Fuel...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    kW and 5 kW Solid Oxide Fuel Cell (SOFC) for Auxiliary Power Applications Manufacturing Cost Analysis of 1 kW and 5 kW Solid Oxide Fuel Cell (SOFC) for Auxiliary Power...

  16. High-power beam injectors for 100 KW free-electron lasers

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Todd, A. M.; Wood R. L.; Bluem, H.; Young, L. M.; Wiseman, M.; Schultheiss, T.; Schrage, D. L.; Russell, S. J.; Rode, C. H.; Rimmer, R.; Nguyen, D. C.; Kelley, J. P.; Kurennoy, S.; wood, r

    2003-01-01

    A key technology issue on the path to high-power FEL operation is the demonstration of reliable, high-brightness, high-power injector operation. We describe two ongoing programs to produce 100 mA injectors as drivers for 100 kW free-electron lasers. In one approach, in collaboration with the Thomas Jefferson National Accelerator Facility, we are fabricating a 750 MHz superconducting RF cryomodule that will be integrated with a room-temperature DC photocathode gun and tested at the Laboratory. In the other approach, in collaboration with Los Alamos National Laboratory, a high-current 700 MHz, normal-conducting, RF photoinjector is being designed and will undergo thermal management testing at the Laboratory. We describe the design, the projected performance and the status of both injectors.

  17. Water reactive hydrogen fuel cell power system

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Wallace, Andrew P; Melack, John M; Lefenfeld, Michael

    2014-11-25

    A water reactive hydrogen fueled power system includes devices and methods to combine reactant fuel materials and aqueous solutions to generate hydrogen. The generated hydrogen is converted in a fuel cell to provide electricity. The water reactive hydrogen fueled power system includes a fuel cell, a water feed tray, and a fuel cartridge to generate power for portable power electronics. The removable fuel cartridge is encompassed by the water feed tray and fuel cell. The water feed tray is refillable with water by a user. The water is then transferred from the water feed tray into the fuel cartridge to generate hydrogen for the fuel cell which then produces power for the user.

  18. Water reactive hydrogen fuel cell power system

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Wallace, Andrew P; Melack, John M; Lefenfeld, Michael

    2014-01-21

    A water reactive hydrogen fueled power system includes devices and methods to combine reactant fuel materials and aqueous solutions to generate hydrogen. The generated hydrogen is converted in a fuel cell to provide electricity. The water reactive hydrogen fueled power system includes a fuel cell, a water feed tray, and a fuel cartridge to generate power for portable power electronics. The removable fuel cartridge is encompassed by the water feed tray and fuel cell. The water feed tray is refillable with water by a user. The water is then transferred from the water feed tray into a fuel cartridge to generate hydrogen for the fuel cell which then produces power for the user.

  19. Wind Turbinie Generator System Power Performance Test Report for the Mariah Windspire 1-kW Wind Turbine

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Huskey, A.; Bowen, A.; Jager, D.

    2009-12-01

    This report summarizes the results of a power performance test that NREL conducted on the Mariah Windspire 1-kW wind turbine. During this test, two configurations were tested on the same turbine. In the first configuration, the turbine inverter was optimized for power production. In the second configuration, the turbine inverter was set for normal power production. In both configurations, the inverter experienced failures and the tests were not finished.

  20. 1?10 kW Stationary Combined Heat and Power Systems Status and Technical Potential: Independent Review

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Maru, H. C.; Singhal, S. C.; Stone, C.; Wheeler, D.

    2010-11-01

    This independent review examines the status and technical potential of 1-10 kW stationary combined heat and power fuel cell systems and analyzes the achievability of the DOE cost, efficiency, and durability targets for 2012, 2015, and 2020.

  1. Review of the State-of-the-Art in Power Electronics Suitable for 10-KW Military Power Systems

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Staunton, R.H.

    2003-12-19

    The purpose of this report is to document the technological opportunities of integrating power electronics-based inverters into a TEP system, primarily in the 10-kW size range. The proposed enhancement offers potential advantages in weight reduction, improved efficiency, better performance in a wider range of generator operating conditions, greater versatility and adaptability, and adequate reliability. In order to obtain strong assurance of the availability of inverters that meet required performance and reliability levels, a market survey was performed. The survey obtained positive responses from several manufacturers in the motor drive and distributed generation industries. This study also includes technology reviews and assessments relating to circuit topologies, reliability issues, vulnerability to pulses of electromagnetic energy, potential improvements in semiconductor materials, and potential performance improvement through cryogenics.

  2. Optimization of Reactive Power based on Newton-Raphson algorithm

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Lavaei, Javad

    the reactive power optimization procedures. Introduction In modern power system transmission technology, reactive power optimization is so important that it has direct influence on the high quality and stable transmitting electrical energy. The first part of the article describes the importance of the reactive power

  3. Development of a Low Cost 10kW Tubular SOFC Power System

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Bessette, Norman; Litka, Anthony; Rawson, Jolyon; Schmidt, Douglas

    2013-06-06

    The DOE program funded from 2003 through early 2013 has brought the Acumentrics SOFC program from an early stage R&D program to an entry level commercial product offering. The development work started as one of the main core teams under the DOE Solid State Energy Conversion Alliance (SECA) program administered by the National Energy Technology Laboratory (NETL) of the DOE. During the first phase of the program, lasting approximately 3-4 years, a 5kW machine was designed, manufactured and tested against the specification developed by NETL. This unit was also shipped to NETL for independent verification testing which validated all of the results achieved while in the laboratory at Acumentrics. The Acumentrics unit passed all criteria established from operational stability, efficiency, and cost projections. Passing of the SECA Phase I test allowed the program to move into Phase II of the program. During this phase, the overall objective was to further refine the unit meeting a higher level of performance stability as well as further cost reductions. During the first year of this new phase, the NETL SECA program was refocused towards larger size units and operation on coal gasification due to the severe rise in natural gas prices and refocus on the US supply of indigenous coal. At this point, the program was shifted to the U.S. DOE’s Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) division located in Golden, Colorado. With this shift, the focus remained on smaller power units operational on gaseous fuels for a variety of applications including micro combined heat and power (mCHP). To achieve this goal, further enhancements in power, life expectancy and reductions in cost were necessary. The past 5 years have achieved these goals with machines that can now achieve over 40% electrical efficiency and field units that have now operated for close to a year and a half with minimal maintenance. The following report details not only the first phase while under the SECA program and the key achievements but also the results while under EERE’s leadership and the transition to an early commercial product offering.

  4. Wind Turbine Generator System Power Quality Test Report for the Gaia Wind 11-kW Wind Turbine

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Curtis, A.; Gevorgian, V.

    2011-07-01

    This report details the power quality test on the Gaia Wind 11-kW Wind Turbine as part of the U.S. Department of Energy's Independent Testing Project. In total five turbines are being tested as part of the project. Power quality testing is one of up to five test that may be performed on the turbines including power performance, safety and function, noise, and duration tests. The results of the testing provide manufacturers with reports that may be used for small wind turbine certification.

  5. Dynamic Reactive Power Control of Isolated Power Systems 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Falahi, Milad

    2012-10-03

    or due to a fault. Isolated power systems experience fast transients due to lack of an infinite bus capable of dictating the voltage and frequency reference. This dissertation only focuses on reactive control of islanded MicroGrids and AC/DC shipboard...

  6. Ocean Power Technologies (TRL 5 6 System) - PB500, 500 kW Utility...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    technologiesinchart.ppt More Documents & Publications Advanced, High Power, Next Scale, Wave Energy Conversion Device Ocean Power Technologies (TRL 7 8 System) - Reedsport PB150...

  7. PB500, 500kW Utility-Scale PowerBuoy Project

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Hart, Philip R.

    2011-09-27

    This presentation from the Water Peer Review highlights one of the program's marine and hyrokinetics device development projects in which Ocean Power Technologies will advance the current PowerBuoy design for commercial readiness.

  8. Design and development of a 6 MW peak, 24 kW average power S-band klystron

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Joshi, L.M.; Meena, Rakesh; Nangru, Subhash; Kant, Deepender; Pal, Debashis; Lamba, O.S.; Jindal, Vishnu; Jangid, Sushil Kumar, E-mail: joslm@rediffmail.com [Central Electronics Engineering Research Institute, Council of Scientific and Industrial Research, Pilani (India); Chakravarthy, D.P.; Dixit, Kavita [Bhabha Atomic Research Centre, Mumbai (India)

    2011-07-01

    A 6 MW peak, 24 kW average power S-band Klystron is under development at CEERI, Pilani under an MoU between BARC and CEERI. The design of the klystron has been completed. The electron gun has been designed using TRAK and MAGIC codes. RF cavities have been designed using HFSS and CST Microwave Studio while the complete beam wave interaction simulation has been done using MAGIC code. The thermal design of collector and RF window has been done using ANSYS code. A Gun Collector Test Module (GCTM) was developed before making actual klystron to validate gun perveance and thermal design of collector. A high voltage solid state pulsed modulator has been installed for performance valuation of the tube. The paper will cover the design aspects of the tube and experimental test results of GCTM and klystron. (author)

  9. MARKETS FOR REACTIVE POWER AND RELIABILITY: A WHITE PAPER

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    , including line and generator failures. This is the correct way, in terms of economics, to determine optimal to zero if optimal investment in reactive-power #12;3 sources (e.g., generators and reactive during contingencies, such as when failures occur, remain relatively low because of the low cost

  10. Reactive Power Compensation Technologies, State-of-the-Art Review

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Catholic University of Chile (Universidad Católica de Chile)

    is generally required to reduce voltage fluctuation at a given terminal of a transmission line. Reactive power electrical characteristics of ac power systems. Series compensation modifies the transmission or distribution at all levels of power transmission, it improves HVDC (High Voltage Direct Current) conversion terminal

  11. Local control of reactive power by distributed photovoltaic generators

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Chertkov, Michael; Turitsyn, Konstantin; Sulc, Petr; Backhaus, Scott

    2010-01-01

    High penetration levels of distributed photovoltaic (PV) generation on an electrical distribution circuit may severely degrade power quality due to voltage sags and swells caused by rapidly varying PV generation during cloud transients coupled with the slow response of existing utility compensation and regulation equipment. Although not permitted under current standards for interconnection of distributed generation, fast-reacting, VAR-capable PV inverters may provide the necessary reactive power injection or consumption to maintain voltage regulation under difficult transient conditions. As side benefit, the control of reactive power injection at each PV inverter provides an opportunity and a new tool for distribution utilities to optimize the performance of distribution circuits, e.g. by minimizing thermal losses. We suggest a local control scheme that dispatches reactive power from each PV inverter based on local instantaneous measurements of the real and reactive components of the consumed power and the real power generated by the PVs. Using one adjustable parameter per circuit, we balance the requirements on power quality and desire to minimize thermal losses. Numerical analysis of two exemplary systems, with comparable total PV generation albeit a different spatial distribution, show how to adjust the optimization parameter depending on the goal. Overall, this local scheme shows excellent performance; it's capable of guaranteeing acceptable power quality and achieving significant saving in thermal losses in various situations even when the renewable generation in excess of the circuit own load, i.e. feeding power back to the higher-level system.

  12. ORNL/CP-97155 Instantaneous Reactive Power and Power Factor of

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    12-16, 1998, St. Louis, MO. 5 H. Akagi, Y. Kanazawa, A. Nabae, "Instantaneous Reactive Power Compensators Comprising Switching Devices without Energy Storage Components," IEEE...

  13. Options for Control of Reactive Power by Distributed Photovoltaic Generators

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Sulc, Petr; Backhaus, Scott; Chertkov, Michael

    2010-01-01

    High penetration levels of distributed photovoltaic(PV) generation on an electrical distribution circuit present several challenges and opportunities for distribution utilities. Rapidly varying irradiance conditions may cause voltage sags and swells that cannot be compensated by slowly responding utility equipment resulting in a degradation of power quality. Although not permitted under current standards for interconnection of distributed generation, fast-reacting, VAR-capable PV inverters may provide the necessary reactive power injection or consumption to maintain voltage regulation under difficult transient conditions. As side benefit, the control of reactive power injection at each PV inverter provides an opportunity and a new tool for distribution utilities to optimize the performance of distribution circuits, e.g. by minimizing thermal losses. We discuss and compare via simulation various design options for control systems to manage the reactive power generated by these inverters. An important design de...

  14. Microprocessor control of power sharing and solar array peak power tracking for high power (2. 5 kW) switching power converters

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Speer, J.H. Jr.

    1981-01-01

    A prototype system of twin power converters for solar array supplement of spacecraft power buses is described. Analog circuits are used for inner control loops and a microprocessor directs power sharing and peak power tracking. 3 refs.

  15. Assessment of the Economic Potential of Microgrids for Reactive Power Supply

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Appen, Jan von

    2012-01-01

    of Commercial Building Microgrids,” IEEE Transactions onEconomic Potential of Microgrids for Reactive Power Supplyof creating an incentive for microgrids to provide reactive

  16. Static reactive power compensators for high-voltage power systems. Final report

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Not Available

    1981-04-01

    A study conducted to summarize the role of static reactive power compensators for high voltage power system applications is described. This information should be useful to the utility system planning engineer in applying static var systems (SVS) to high voltage as (HVAC) systems. The static var system is defined as a form of reactive power compensator. The general need for reactive power compensation in HVAC systems is discussed, and the static var system is compared to other devices utilized to provide reactive power compensation. Examples are presented of applying SVS for specific functions, such as the prevention of voltage collapse. The operating principles of commercially available SVS's are discussed in detail. The perormance and active power loss characteristics of SVS types are compared.

  17. Options for Control of Reactive Power by Distributed Photovoltaic Generators

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Petr Sulc; Konstantin Turitsyn; Scott Backhaus; Michael Chertkov

    2010-08-04

    High penetration levels of distributed photovoltaic(PV) generation on an electrical distribution circuit present several challenges and opportunities for distribution utilities. Rapidly varying irradiance conditions may cause voltage sags and swells that cannot be compensated by slowly responding utility equipment resulting in a degradation of power quality. Although not permitted under current standards for interconnection of distributed generation, fast-reacting, VAR-capable PV inverters may provide the necessary reactive power injection or consumption to maintain voltage regulation under difficult transient conditions. As side benefit, the control of reactive power injection at each PV inverter provides an opportunity and a new tool for distribution utilities to optimize the performance of distribution circuits, e.g. by minimizing thermal losses. We discuss and compare via simulation various design options for control systems to manage the reactive power generated by these inverters. An important design decision that weighs on the speed and quality of communication required is whether the control should be centralized or distributed (i.e. local). In general, we find that local control schemes are capable for maintaining voltage within acceptable bounds. We consider the benefits of choosing different local variables on which to control and how the control system can be continuously tuned between robust voltage control, suitable for daytime operation when circuit conditions can change rapidly, and loss minimization better suited for nighttime operation.

  18. A Guidebook on Grid Interconnection and Islanded Operation of Mini-Grid Power Systems Up to 200 kW

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Greacen, Chris

    2014-01-01

    is connected to a power grid, the frequency is regulated bywith regional or national power grids calls for standardizedisland to the mainland power grid. The solar systems, which

  19. Development of a low cost integrated 15 kW A.C. solar tracking sub-array for grid connected PV power system applications

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Stern, M.; West, R.; Fourer, G.; Whalen, W.; Van Loo, M.; Duran, G.

    1997-02-01

    Utility Power Group has achieved a significant reduction in the installed cost of grid-connected PV systems. The two part technical approach focused on (1) The utilization of a large area factory assembled PV panel, and (2) The integration and packaging of all sub-array power conversion and control functions within a single factory produced enclosure. Eight engineering prototype 15kW ac single axis solar tracking sub-arrays were designed, fabricated, and installed at the Sacramento Municipal Utility District{close_quote}s Hedge Substation site in 1996 and are being evaluated for performance and reliability. A number of design enhancements will be implemented in 1997 and demonstrated by the field deployment and operation of over twenty advanced sub-array PV power systems. {copyright} {ital 1997 American Institute of Physics.}

  20. A Guidebook on Grid Interconnection and Islanded Operation of Mini-Grid Power Systems Up to 200 kW

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Greacen, Chris

    2014-01-01

    are waived for solar projects that do not sell power to thethat convert DC power to AC. Since solar PV modules produce

  1. Distributed control for optimal reactive power compensation in smart microgrids

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Bolognani, Saverio

    2011-01-01

    We consider the problem of optimal reactive power compensation for the minimization of power distribution losses in a smart microgrid. We first propose an approximate model for the power distribution network, which allows us to cast the problem into the class of convex quadratic, linearly constrained, optimization problems. We also show how this model provides the tools for a distributed approach, in which agents have a partial knowledge of the problem parameters and state, and can only perform local measurements. Then, we design a randomized, gossip-like optimization algorithm, providing conditions for convergence together with an analytic characterization of the convergence speed. The analysis shows that the best performance can be achieved when we command cooperation among agents that are neighbors in the smart microgrid topology. Numerical simulations are included to validate the proposed model and to confirm the analytic results about the performance of the proposed algorithm.

  2. A Guidebook on Grid Interconnection and Islanded Operation of Mini-Grid Power Systems Up to 200 kW

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Greacen, Chris

    2014-01-01

    from different sources: wind, solar, and diesel. ” Productsphotovoltaic (PV), wind power, and even diesel generators.

  3. Method of measuring reactive acoustic power density in a fluid

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Wheatley, J.C.; Swift, G.W.; Migliori, A.

    1985-09-03

    A method for determining reactive acoustic power density level and its direction in a fluid using a single sensor is disclosed. In the preferred embodiment, an apparatus for conducting the method, which is termed a thermoacoustic couple, consists of a stack of thin, spaced apart polymeric plates, selected ones of which include multiple bimetallic thermocouple junctions positioned along opposite end edges thereof. The thermocouple junctions are connected in series in the nature of a thermopile, and are arranged so as to be responsive to small temperature differences between the opposite edges of the plates. The magnitude of the temperature difference, as represented by the magnitude of the electrical potential difference generated by the thermopile, is found to be directly related to the level of acoustic power density in the gas. 5 figs.

  4. Method of measuring reactive acoustic power density in a fluid

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Wheatley, John C.; Swift, Gregory W.; Migliori, Albert

    1985-01-01

    A method for determining reactive acoustic power density level and its direction in a fluid using a single sensor is disclosed. In the preferred embodiment, an apparatus for conducting the method, which is termed a thermoacoustic couple, consists of a stack of thin, spaced apart polymeric plates, selected ones of which include multiple bimetallic thermocouple junctions positioned along opposite end edges thereof. The thermocouple junctions are connected in series in the nature of a thermopile, and are arranged so as to be responsive to small temperature differences between the opposite edges of the plates. The magnitude of the temperature difference, as represented by the magnitude of the electrical potential difference generated by the thermopile, is found to be directly related to the level of acoustic power density in the gas.

  5. A Guidebook on Grid Interconnection and Islanded Operation of Mini-Grid Power Systems Up to 200 kW

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Greacen, Chris

    2014-01-01

    of Distributed Resource Island Systems with Electric Powerguidance on operating island systems in these variousof Distributed Resource Island Systems with Electric Power

  6. A Guidebook on Grid Interconnection and Islanded Operation of Mini-Grid Power Systems Up to 200 kW

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Greacen, Chris

    2014-01-01

    guidance on operating island systems in these variousof Distributed Resource Island Systems with Electric Powerof Distributed Resource Island Systems with Electric Power

  7. Solar Energy Grid Integration Systems. Final Report of the Princeton Power Systems Development of the 100kW Demand Response Inverter.

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Bower, Ward Isaac; Heavener, Paul (Princeton Power Systems, Inc., Princeton, NJ); Sena-Henderson, Lisa; Hammell, Darren (Princeton Power Systems, Inc., Princeton, NJ); Holveck, Mark (Princeton Power Systems, Inc., Princeton, NJ); David, Carolyn; Akhil, Abbas Ali; Gonzalez, Sigifredo

    2012-01-01

    Initiated in 2008, the Solar Energy Grid Integration (SEGIS) program is a partnership involving the U.S. Department of Energy, Sandia National Laboratories, electric utilities, academic institutions and the private sector. Recognizing the need to diversify the nation's energy portfolio, the SEGIS effort focuses on specific technologies needed to facilitate the integration of large-scale solar power generation into the nation's power grid Sandia National Laboratories (SNL) awarded a contract to Princeton Power Systems, Inc., (PPS) to develop a 100kW Advanced AC-link SEGIS inverter prototype under the Department of Energy Solar Energy Technologies Program for near-term commercial applications. This SEGIS initiative emphasizes the development of advanced inverters, controllers, communications and other balance-of-system components for photovoltaic (PV) distributed power applications. The SEGIS Stage 3 Contract was awarded to PPS on July 28, 2010. PPS developed and implemented a Demand Response Inverter (DRI) during this three-stage program. PPS prepared a 'Site Demonstration Conference' that was held on September 28, 2011, to showcase the cumulative advancements. This demo of the commercial product will be followed by Underwriters Laboratories, Inc., certification by the fourth quarter of 2011, and simultaneously the customer launch and commercial production sometime in late 2011 or early 2012. This final report provides an overview of all three stages and a full-length reporting of activities and accomplishments in Stage 3.

  8. 18 kW Three Phase Inverter System Using Hermetically Sealed SiC Phase-Leg Power Modules

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Tolbert, Leon M.

    to work as power interface with the grid or connected loads, or as the interface for energy storage[2- efficiency power electronics help to save energy and conserve energy resources. Research on silicon carbide.2% is achieved by the initial prototype without optimization, which is higher than most Si inverters. Keywords--Silicon

  9. PEV-based Reactive Power Compensation for Wind DG Units: A Stackelberg Game Approach

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Huang, Jianwei

    1 PEV-based Reactive Power Compensation for Wind DG Units: A Stackelberg Game Approach Chenye Wu, in particular wind power, in form of distributed generation (DG) units. However, one important challenge with wind DG units is to provide low-cost and fast-responding reactive power compensation of the wind

  10. A Tariff for Reactive Power 0 100 200 300 400 500 600 700 800

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Pennycook, Steve

    that if the inverters of PV systems or the generators of combined heat and power (CHP) systems were designed1 A Tariff for Reactive Power -100 -50 0 50 100 150 200 250 0 100 200 300 400 500 600 700 800 LINE describes a suggested tariff or payment for the local supply of reactive power from distributed energy

  11. Aalborg Universitet Reactive Power Support of Electrical Vehicle Charging Station Upgraded with Flywheel

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Vasquez, Juan Carlos

    Aalborg Universitet Reactive Power Support of Electrical Vehicle Charging Station Upgraded of Electrical Vehicle Charging Station Upgraded with Flywheel Energy Storage System," in Proc. IEEE PowerTech, 2015. Reactive Power Support of Electrical Vehicle Charging Station Upgraded with Flywheel Energy

  12. Evaluation of Reactive Power Control Capabilities of Residential PV in an Unbalanced Distribution Feeder

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    and the overall effectiveness of each solution in realistic feeder states. Index Terms -- photovoltaic systems, reactive power control, voltage control, particle swarm optimization. I. INTRODUCTION Photovoltaic (PV PV is to use the spare reactive power capacity of their grid-tie inverters collectively to benefit

  13. PEV-based Reactive Power Compensation for Wind DG Units: A Stackelberg Game Approach

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Mohsenian-Rad, Hamed

    a multiple timescale dispatch for smart grid with integrated wind power. Wu et al. investigated how to utilize wind power integration into the power grid when aggregators use a linear pricing scheme in [4. Keywords--Distributed generation, wind power integration, plug-in electric vehicles, reactive power

  14. Design and Construction of a 500 KW CW, 400 MHZ Klystron To Be Used As RF Power Source For LHC/RF Component Tests

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Pearson, Chris

    2003-05-05

    A 500 kW cw klystron operating at 400 MHz was developed and constructed jointly by CERN and SLAC for use as a high-power source at CERN for testing LHC/RF components such as circulators, RF absorbers and superconducting cavities with their input couplers. The design is a modification of the 353 MHz SLAC PEP-I klystron. More than 80% of the original PEP-I tube parts could thus be incorporated in the LHC test klystron which resulted in lower engineering costs as well as reduced development and construction time. The physical length between cathode plane and upper pole plate was kept unchanged so that a PEP-I tube focusing solenoid, available at CERN, could be re-used. With the aid of the klystron simulation codes JPNDISK and CONDOR, the design of the LHC tube was accomplished, which resulted in a tube with noticeably higher efficiency than its predecessor, the PEP-I klystron. The integrated cavities were redesigned using SUPERFISH and the output coupling circuit, which also required redesigning, was done with the aid of MAFIA. Details of the tube development and test results are presented.

  15. Assessment of the Economic Potential of Microgrids for Reactive Power Supply

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Appen, Jan von; Marnay, Chris; Stadler, Michael; Momber, Ilan; Klapp, David; Scheven, Alexander von

    2011-05-01

    As power generation from variable distributed energy resources (DER) grows, energy flows in the network are changing, increasing the requirements for ancillary services, including voltage support. With the appropriate power converter, DER can provide ancillary services such as frequency control and voltage support. This paper outlines the economic potential of DERs coordinated in a microgrid to provide reactive power and voltage support at its point of common coupling. The DER Customer Adoption Model assesses the costs of providing reactive power, given local utility rules. Depending on the installed DER, the cost minimizing solution for supplying reactive power locally is chosen. Costs include the variable cost of the additional losses and the investment cost of appropriately over-sizing converters or purchasing capacitors. A case study of a large health care building in San Francisco is used to evaluate different revenue possibilities of creating an incentive for microgrids to provide reactive power.

  16. Energy Storage and Reactive Power Compensator in a Large Wind Farm: Preprint

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Muljadi, E.; Butterfield, C. P.; Yinger, R.; Romanowitz, H.

    2003-10-01

    The size of wind farm power systems is increasing, and so is the number of wind farms contributing to the power systems network. The size of wind turbines is also increasing--from less than 1 MW a few years ago to the 2- to 3-MW machines being installed today and the 5-MW machines under development. The interaction of the wind farm, energy storage, reactive power compensation, and the power system network is being investigated. Because the loads and the wind farms' output fluctuate during the day, the use of energy storage and reactive power compensation is ideal for the power system network. Energy storage and reactive power compensation can minimize real/reactive power imbalances that can affect the surrounding power system. In this paper, we will show how the contribution of wind farms affects the power distribution network and how the power distribution network, energy storage, and reactive power compensation interact when the wind changes. We will also investigate the size of the components in relation to each other and to the power system.

  17. The Effect of Loading on Reactive Market Power Antonio C. Zambroni de Souza Fernando Alvarado Mevludin Glavic

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    that are supposed to be competing in the deregulated energy market. Reactive power supplies can make some particular of the system where additional sources of reactive power injection may be required. If such a region exists

  18. Voltage Control of Distribution Networks with Distributed Generation using Reactive Power

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Pota, Himanshu Roy

    , photovoltaics, and synchronous generators. I. INTRODUCTION Penetration of DG into distribution network in terms of voltage profile improvement, line-loss reduction, and environmental impact reductionVoltage Control of Distribution Networks with Distributed Generation using Reactive Power

  19. SPACE WEATHER AND THE INCIDENCE OF REACTIVE "OFF-COST" OPERATIONS IN THE PJM POWER GRID

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Schrijver, Karel

    space weather impacts the electricity market in the PJM power grid. The starting point of this paperSPACE WEATHER AND THE INCIDENCE OF REACTIVE "OFF-COST" OPERATIONS IN THE PJM POWER GRID 7.6 Kevin F the price of electricity in the PJM power grid. In this paper we examine one of the mechanisms by which

  20. Research and development of a 3 MW power plant from the design, development, and demonstration of a 100 KW power system utilizing the direct contact heat exchanger concept for geothermal brine recovery project. Final report

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Huebner, A.W.; Wall, D.A.; Herlacher, T.L.

    1980-09-01

    The design phase for the 100 KW unit consumed the months of May through November 1978, with the final design selected as having a direct contact boiler and condenser, a single-stage radial inflow induction turbine-generator using isopentane as the working fluid, and a single cell ejector-type cooling tower. The unit was constructed on two, forty-foot flatbed trailers between the months of October 1978 and June 1979. Systems start-up testing, in-field modifications, unit operation, and performance testing were performed between July and December 1979. AP and L (Arkansas Power and Light) personnel assumed responsibility of the unit at that time and conducted further maintenance, operations, and testing through August 1980.

  1. Photo of the Week: Argonne's 10 kW Wind Turbine | Department...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Photo of the Week: Argonne's 10 kW Wind Turbine Photo of the Week: Argonne's 10 kW Wind Turbine November 9, 2012 - 11:57am Addthis At Argonne National Laboratory, the power...

  2. IEEE TRANSACTIONS ON POWER SYSTEMS, VOL. 17, NO. 2, MAY 2002 243 Allocation of the Reactive Power Support

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Gross, George

    of losses. The formulation leads to a nat- ural allocation as a function of the amount of each transactionIEEE TRANSACTIONS ON POWER SYSTEMS, VOL. 17, NO. 2, MAY 2002 243 Allocation of the Reactive Power, IEEE, and Shu Tao Abstract--This paper presents a new physical-flow-based mech- anism for allocating

  3. Reactive power control of grid-connected wind farm based on adaptive dynamic programming

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    He, Haibo

    Reactive power control of grid-connected wind farm based on adaptive dynamic programming Yufei Tang and integration with the grid. This controller can effectively dampen the oscillation of the wind farm system under grid fault. In general, there are mainly three kinds of wind power generators: squirrel

  4. Aalborg Universitet Autonomous Active and Reactive Power Distribution Strategy in Islanded Microgrids

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Vasquez, Juan Carlos

    Microgrids Wu, Dan; Tang, Fen; Guerrero, Josep M.; Quintero, Juan Carlos Vasquez; Chen, Guoliang; Sun, Libing). Autonomous Active and Reactive Power Distribution Strategy in Islanded Microgrids. In Proceedings of the 29th strategy in islanded microgrids," IEEE Applied Power Electronics Conference and Exposition, IEEE APEC 2014

  5. A Preliminary Analysis of the Economics of Using Distributed Energy as a Source of Reactive Power Supply

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Li, Fangxing; Kueck, John D; Rizy, D Tom; King, Thomas F

    2006-04-01

    A major blackout affecting 50 million people in the Northeast United States, where insufficient reactive power supply was an issue, and an increased number of filings made to the Federal Energy Regulatory Commission by generators for reactive power has led to a closer look at reactive power supply and compensation. The Northeastern Massachusetts region is one such area where there is an insufficiency in reactive power compensation. Distributed energy due to its close proximity to loads seems to be a viable option for solving any present or future reactive power shortage problems. Industry experts believe that supplying reactive power from synchronized distributed energy sources can be 2 to 3 times more effective than providing reactive support in bulk from longer distances at the transmission or generation level. Several technology options are available to supply reactive power from distributed energy sources such as small generators, synchronous condensers, fuel cells or microturbines. In addition, simple payback analysis indicates that investments in DG to provide reactive power can be recouped in less than 5 years when capacity payments for providing reactive power are larger than $5,000/kVAR and the DG capital and installation costs are lower than $30/kVAR. However, the current institutional arrangements for reactive power compensation present a significant barrier to wider adoption of distributed energy as a source of reactive power. Furthermore, there is a significant difference between how generators and transmission owners/providers are compensated for reactive power supplied. The situation for distributed energy sources is even more difficult, as there are no arrangements to compensate independent DE owners interested in supplying reactive power to the grid other than those for very large IPPs. There are comparable functionality barriers as well, as these smaller devices do not have the control and communications requirements necessary for automatic operation in response to local or system operators. There are no known distributed energy asset owners currently receiving compensation for reactive power supply or capability. However, there are some cases where small generators on the generation and transmission side of electricity supply have been tested and have installed the capability to be dispatched for reactive power support. Several concerns need to be met for distributed energy to become widely integrated as a reactive power resource. The overall costs of retrofitting distributed energy devices to absorb or produce reactive power need to be reduced. There needs to be a mechanism in place for ISOs/RTOs to procure reactive power from the customer side of the meter where distributed energy resides. Novel compensation methods should be introduced to encourage the dispatch of dynamic resources close to areas with critical voltage issues. The next phase of this research will investigate in detail how different options of reactive power producing DE can compare both economically and functionally with shunt capacitor banks. Shunt capacitor banks, which are typically used for compensating reactive power consumption of loads on distribution systems, are very commonly used because they are very cost effective in terms of capital costs. However, capacitor banks can require extensive maintenance especially due to their exposure to lightning at the top of utility poles. Also, it can be problematic to find failed capacitor banks and their maintenance can be expensive, requiring crews and bucket trucks which often requires total replacement. Another shortcoming of capacitor banks is the fact that they usually have one size at a location (typically sized as 300, 600, 900 or 1200kVAr) and thus don't have variable range as do reactive power producing DE, and cannot respond to dynamic reactive power needs. Additional future work is to find a detailed methodology to identify the hidden benefit of DE for providing reactive power and the best way to allocate the benefit among customers, utilities, transmission companies or RTOs.

  6. Reactive power interconnection requirements for PV and wind plants : recommendations to NERC.

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    McDowell, Jason; Walling, Reigh; Peter, William; Von Engeln, Edi; Seymour, Eric; Nelson, Robert; Casey, Leo; Ellis, Abraham; Barker, Chris.

    2012-02-01

    Voltage on the North American bulk system is normally regulated by synchronous generators, which typically are provided with voltage schedules by transmission system operators. In the past, variable generation plants were considered very small relative to conventional generating units, and were characteristically either induction generator (wind) or line-commutated inverters (photovoltaic) that have no inherent voltage regulation capability. However, the growing level of penetration of non-traditional renewable generation - especially wind and solar - has led to the need for renewable generation to contribute more significantly to power system voltage control and reactive power capacity. Modern wind-turbine generators, and increasingly PV inverters as well, have considerable dynamic reactive power capability, which can be further enhanced with other reactive support equipment at the plant level to meet interconnection requirements. This report contains a set of recommendations to the North-America Electricity Reliability Corporation (NERC) as part of Task 1-3 (interconnection requirements) of the Integration of Variable Generation Task Force (IVGTF) work plan. The report discusses reactive capability of different generator technologies, reviews existing reactive power standards, and provides specific recommendations to improve existing interconnection standards.

  7. EV/PHEV Bidirectional Charger Assessment for V2G Reactive Power Operation

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Kisacikoglu, Mithat C; Ozpineci, Burak; Tolbert, Leon M

    2013-01-01

    This paper presents a summary of the available single-phase ac-dc topologies used for EV/PHEV, level-1 and -2 on-board charging and for providing reactive power support to the utility grid. It presents the design motives of single-phase on-board chargers in detail and makes a classification of the chargers based on their future vehicle-to-grid usage. The pros and cons of each different ac-dc topology are discussed to shed light on their suitability for reactive power support. This paper also presents and analyzes the differences between charging-only operation and capacitive reactive power operation that results in increased demand from the dc-link capacitor (more charge/discharge cycles and increased second harmonic ripple current). Moreover, battery state of charge is spared from losses during reactive power operation, but converter output power must be limited below its rated power rating to have the same stress on the dc-link capacitor.

  8. SOFCSOFC (10kW(10kW )) Stack Stack ( )

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Hong, Deog Ki

    & Mitsubishi (band ) 150 kW module Rolls-Royce () 100kW SOFC TOTO, Kyushu () 20kW stack wet process #12;2 SOFC () Mitsubishi Heavy Ind. § SIS § 250kW § 55% Rolls-Royce § SIS § 250kW (micro GT-SOFC) § 53% (125 kW ) Tokyo Gas § SIS § kW (5kW ) / #12

  9. Directional Reactive Power Ground Plane Transmission - Energy Innovation

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Homesum_a_epg0_fpd_mmcf_m.xls" ,"Available from WebQuantityBonneville Power Administration would like submit theCovalent BondingMeetingDifferencesPlatinum FuelEnergy Innovation

  10. WP-07 Reactive Power Supplemental Proposal (wp07/initial)

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Homesum_a_epg0_fpd_mmcf_m.xls" ,"Available from WebQuantityBonneville Power AdministrationRobust,Field-effectWorking WithTelecentricN A 035(92/02) nerg *415,Rates > Meetings &Case

  11. Real Power and Reactive Power Control of a Three-Phase Single-Stage-PV System and PV voltage Stability

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Li, Huijuan; Xu, Yan; Adhikari, Sarina; Rizy, D Tom; Li, Fangxing; Irminger, Philip

    2012-01-01

    Grid-connected photovoltaic (PV) systems with power electronic interfaces can provide both real and reactive power to meet power system needs with appropriate control algorithms. This paper presents the control algorithm design for a three-phase single-stage grid-connected PV inverter to achieve either maximum power point tracking (MPPT) or a certain amount of real power injection, as well as the voltage/var control. The switching between MPPT control mode and a certain amount of real power control mode is automatic and seamless. Without the DC-to-DC booster stage, PV DC voltage stability is an important issue in the control design especially when the PV inverter is operating at maximum power point (MPP) with voltage/var control. The PV DC voltage collapse phenomenon and its reason are discussed. The method based on dynamic correction of the PV inverter output is proposed to ensure PV DC voltage stability. Simulation results of the single-stage PV system during system disturbances and fast solar irradiation changes confirm that the proposed control algorithm for single-stage PV inverters can provide appropriate real and reactive power services and ensure PV DC voltage stability during dynamic system operation and atmospheric conditions.

  12. Reactive Power Laboratory: Synchronous Condenser Testing&Modeling Results - Interim Report

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Henry, SD

    2005-09-27

    The subject report documents the work carried out by Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL) during months 5-7 (May-July 2005) of a multi-year research project. The project has the overall goal of developing methods of incorporating distributed energy (DE) that can produce reactive power locally and for injecting into the distribution system. The objective for this new type of DE is to be able to provide voltage regulation and dynamic reactive power reserves without the use of extensive communication and control systems. The work performed over this three-month period focused on four aspects of the overall objective: (1) characterization of a 250HP (about 300KVAr) synchronous condenser (SC) via test runs at the ORNL Reactive Power Laboratory; (2) development of a data acquisition scheme for collecting the necessary voltage, current and power readings at the synchronous condenser and on the distribution system; (3) development of algorithms for analyzing raw test data from the various test runs; and (4) validation of a steady-state model for the synchronous condenser via the use of a commercial software package to study its effects on the ORNL 13.8/2.4kV distribution network.

  13. Efficient and Reliable Reactive Power Supply and Consumption --Insights from an Integrated Program of Engineering and EconomicResearch

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Thomas, Robert J.; Mount, Timothy D.; Schuler, Richard; Schulze,William; Zimmerman, Ray; Alvarado, Fernando; Lesieutre, Bernard C.; Overholt, Philip N.; Eto, Joseph H.

    2008-01-01

    In 2005, the Federal Energy Regulatory Commission (FERC) began discussing regulatory policy for reactive-power procurement and pricing in competitive electricity markets. This paper summarizes findings from a unique, interdisciplinary program of public-interest research that lays a formal foundation for evaluating aspects of FERC staff recommendations and offers early insights that should be useful in guiding policy implementation, specifically by: (1) clarifying the consumers and economic characteristics of reactive power as a basis for creating incentives to appropriately price it, (2) defining specific challenges in creating a competitive market for reactive power as well as new tools needed to help ensure such a market functions efficiently, and (3) demonstrating the importance of accounting for the physical characteristics of the transmission network in planning for reactive power and avoiding the exercise of market power by suppliers.

  14. TO APPEAR IN IEEE TRANSACTION ON POWER SYSTEMS 1 Effect of Reactive Power Limit Modeling on

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Cañizares, Claudio A.

    , generator capability curves, maximum loadability, voltage stability, electrical energy markets, reactive such as shunt capacitors and Flexible AC Transmission System (FACTS) controllers (e.g. Static Var Compensators test systems, namely, the CIGRE-32 benchmark system and a 1211-bus dispatch model of a European network

  15. PEV-based P-Q Control in Line Distribution Networks with High Requirement for Reactive Power Compensation

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Huang, Jianwei

    impact of distribution level wind turbines. Our design is based on a nonlinear power flow analysis1 PEV-based P-Q Control in Line Distribution Networks with High Requirement for Reactive Power the electric grid, both as a potential source of energy storage and as a means to improve power quality

  16. 1668 IEEE TRANSACTIONS ON POWER ELECTRONICS, VOL. 27, NO. 4, APRIL 2012 55-kW Variable 3X DC-DC Converter for Plug-in

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Tolbert, Leon M.

    vehicle (HEV) traction drives. The boost converter used in commercial HEVs meets with obstacles when is shown in Fig. 1. In this system, the dc-dc converter boosts the battery voltage from 244 V to three op series-parallel HEV. speed and power demand of the vehicle. In this traditional dc- dc boost converter

  17. A 10kW photovoltaic/hybrid system for Pinnacles National Monument

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Ball, T.J. [Applied Power Corp., Lacey, WA (United States); DeNio, D. [National Park Service, Denver, CO (United States). Denver Service Center

    1997-12-31

    Visitors to the Chaparral area of the Pinnacles National Monument now can enjoy this beautiful section of the park without the constant drone of diesel generators, thanks to a recently installed photovoltaic/hybrid system. Electrical power had been supplied by two 100 KW diesel generators operating 24 hours per day. The diesels were running lightly loaded resulting in poor efficiency and high operating cost. Applied Power Corporation under contract with the National Park Service designed and supplied a 10 KW photovoltaic array, 200 KW hr battery bank and 24 KW of inverters to power the maintenance facility, visitor center and ranger residences. A new 20 KW propane generator was installed to provide supplemental power, totally eliminating the storage and transport of diesel fuel at this site. The Pinnacles PV/Hybrid system was brought on line in early 1996 and the park is now benefiting from the cost savings associated with the system.

  18. Voltage/Pitch Control for Maximization and Regulation of Active/Reactive Powers in Wind Turbines with Uncertainties

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Guo, Yi; Jiang, John N; Tang, Choon Yik; Ramakumar, Rama G

    2010-01-01

    This paper addresses the problem of controlling a variable-speed wind turbine with a Doubly Fed Induction Generator (DFIG), modeled as an electromechanically-coupled nonlinear system with rotor voltages and blade pitch angle as its inputs, active and reactive powers as its outputs, and most of the aerodynamic and mechanical parameters as its uncertainties. Using a blend of linear and nonlinear control strategies (including feedback linearization, pole placement, uncertainty estimation, and gradient-based potential function minimization) as well as time-scale separation in the dynamics, we develop a controller that is capable of maximizing the active power in the Maximum Power Tracking (MPT) mode, regulating the active power in the Power Regulation (PR) mode, seamlessly switching between the two modes, and simultaneously adjusting the reactive power to achieve a desired power factor. The controller consists of four cascaded components, uses realistic feedback signals, and operates without knowledge of the C_p-...

  19. IEEE TRANSACTIONS ON POWER SYSTEMS (ACCEPTED NOVEMBER 8, 2014) 1 Stochastic Reactive Power Management

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Giannakis, Georgios

    its deterministic alternative, as well as its capability to track variations in solar generation and household demand. Index Terms--Photovoltaic inverters, voltage regulation, con- vex relaxation, loss by active power variations. On a clear day, solar generation may easily exceed local demand (especially

  20. Intelligent Voltage and Reactive Power Control of Mini-Hydro Power Stations for Maximisation of Real

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Harrison, Gareth

    . This will be contrasted in energy terms with the increase in dispatch available by operating more flexibly within extensions of the transmission network, mini- hydro schemes are often at the end of long open-ended radial of Real Power Export Aristides E. Kiprakis and A. Robin Wallace Institute for Energy Systems, University

  1. Manufacturing Cost Analysis of 10 kW and 25 kW Direct Hydrogen...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    successful product commercialization. This report provides cost estimates for the manufacture of 10 kW and 25 kW polymer electrolyte membrane (PEM) fuel cells designed for...

  2. Integration of reactive polymeric nanofilms into a low-power electromechanical switch for selective chemical sensing

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Arora, William J.

    This paper presents the fabrication and demonstration of an ultrathin microelectromechanical chemical sensing device. Microcantilevers are etched from 100-nm-thick silicon nitride, and a 75-nm-thick reactive copolymer film ...

  3. DRIVER ACCELERATOR DESIGN FOR THE 10 KW UPGRADE OF THE JEFFERSON LAB IR FEL

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    DRIVER ACCELERATOR DESIGN FOR THE 10 KW UPGRADE OF THE JEFFERSON LAB IR FEL D. Douglas, S. V, Newport News, VA23606, USA Abstract An upgrade of the Jefferson Lab IR FEL [1] is now un- der construction. It will provide 10 kW output light power in a wavelength range of 2­10 µm. The FEL will be driven by a modest

  4. 100 kW CC-OTEC Plant and Deep Ocean water Applications

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    100 kW CC-OTEC Plant and Deep Ocean water Applications in Kumejima, Okinawa, Japan Katsuya Furugen in Kumejima (Okinawa) Okinawa Prefectural Deep Sea Water Research Center, since 2000 OTEC Demonstration. / 1st Power Generation Test Succeeded Surface Water: 23.5 oC, 330t/h Deep Water: 9.3 oC, 250t/h Power

  5. 40 kW Stirling engine for solid fuel

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Carlsen, H.; Ammundsen, N.; Traerup, J.

    1996-12-31

    The external combustion in a Stirling engine makes it very attractive for utilization of solid fuels in decentralized combined heat and power (CHP) plants. Only few projects have concentrated on the development of Stirling engines specifically for biomass. In this project a Stirling engine has been designed primarily for utilization of wood chips. Maximum shaft power is 40 kW corresponding to an electric output of 36 kW. Biomass needs more space in the combustion chamber compared to gas and liquid fuels, and a large heat transfer area is necessary. The design of the new Stirling engine has been adapted to the special demands of combustion of wood chips, resulting in a large engine compared to engines for gas or liquid fuels. The engine has four-cylinders arranged in a square. The design is made as a hermetic unit, where the alternator is built into the pressurized crankcase so that dynamic seals are avoided. Grease lubricated bearings are used in a special designed crank mechanism, which eliminates guiding forces on the pistons Helium is used as working gas at 4 MPa mean pressure. The first test of the 40 kW engine with natural gas as fuel has been made in the laboratory, and the results are in agreement with predicted results from simulation programs. The wood chips combustion system has been tested for some time with very promising results. When the laboratory test of the engine is finished, the test of the complete system will be initiated. The paper describes the engine and results from the test program. Expectations to maintenance and operation problems are also discussed.

  6. Examination of a PHEV Bidirectional Charger System for V2G Reactive Power Compensation

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Tolbert, Leon M.

    the capability to fulfill the energy storage needs of the electric grid by supplying ancillary services will provide economic and environmental benefits, they can also offer a potential source of energy storage which is valuable to the electric power grid. The possibility of using battery-powered vehicles

  7. Examination of a PHEV Bidirectional Charger System for V2G Reactive Power Compensation

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Tolbert, Leon M.

    by maintaining the condition and health of the battery while utilizing it for the best performance. A battery power transfer, the PHEV battery charger should be designed to manage such capability. While many different battery chargers have been available since the inception of the first electric vehicles (EVs), on

  8. Reactive Power Operation Analysis of a Single-Phase EV/PHEV Bidirectional Battery Charger

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Tolbert, Leon M.

    energy outlook report, the transportation sector is going to increase its share in world's total oil@ornl.gov 2 Power and Energy Systems Group Oak Ridge National Laboratory Oak Ridge, TN 37831 Abstract to the market in 2011 and beyond. PHEVs/EVs potentially have the capability to fulfill the energy storage needs

  9. Design considerations of a 15kW heat exchanger for the CSPonD Project

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Adames, Adrian A

    2010-01-01

    The objective of this work was to develop a 15 kW heat exchanger model for the CSPonD molten salt receiver that will shuttle the molten salt's thermal energy for conversion to electric power. A heat extraction system ...

  10. Development of a 55 kW 3X DC-DC Converter for HEV Systems

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Tolbert, Leon M.

    efficiency provide the great potential for the very high temperature operation. The circuit parameter design converter and a traction motor to drive the vehicle. In most commercial HEV systems, the power converter, 37996 Abstract--The design of a 55 kW 3X dc-dc converter is presented for hybrid electric vehicle (HEV

  11. Kaman 40-kW wind system. Phase II. Fabrication and tests. Volume II. Technical report

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Howes, H; Perley, R

    1981-01-01

    A program is underway to design, fabricate and test a horizontal axis Wind Turbine Generator (WTG) capable of producing 40 kW electrical output power in a 20 mph wind. Results are presented of the program effort covering fabrication and testing of the Wing Turbine Generator designed earlier. A minimum of difficulties were experienced during fabrication and, after successful completion of Contractor tests through 20 mph winds, the WTG was shipped to Rocky Flats, assembled and operated there. The 40 kW WTG is presently undergoing extended tests at Rockwell's Rocky Flats test facility.

  12. Wind Turbine Generator System Acoustic Noise Test Report for the Gaia Wind 11-kW Wind Turbine

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Huskey, A.

    2011-11-01

    This report details the acoustic noise test conducted on the Gaia-Wind 11-kW wind turbine at the National Wind Technology Center. The test turbine is a two- bladed, downwind wind turbine with a rated power of 11 kW. The test turbine was tested in accordance with the International Electrotechnical Commission standard, IEC 61400-11 Ed 2.1 2006-11 Wind Turbine Generator Systems -- Part 11 Acoustic Noise Measurement Techniques.

  13. 500-kW DCHX pilot-plant evaluation testing

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Hlinak, A.; Lee, T.; Loback, J.; Nichols, K.; Olander, R.; Oshmyansky, S.; Roberts, G.; Werner, D.

    1981-10-01

    Field tests with the 500 kW Direct Contact Pilot Plant were conducted utilizing brine from well Mesa 6-2. The tests were intended to develop comprehensive performance data, design criteria, and economic factors for the direct contact power plant. The tests were conducted in two phases. The first test phase was to determine specific component performance of the DCHX, turbine, condensers and pumps, and to evaluate chemical mass balances of non-condensible gases in the IC/sub 4/ loop and IC/sub 4/ in the brine stream. The second test phase was to provide a longer term run at nearly fixed operating conditions in order to evaluate plant performance and identify operating cost data for the pilot plant. During these tests the total accumulated run time on major system components exceeded 1180 hours with 777 hours on the turbine prime mover. Direct contact heat exchanger performance exceeded the design prediction.

  14. Design of a high efficiency 30 kW boost composite converter

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Kim, Hyeokjin; Chen, Hua; Maksimovic, Dragan; Erickson, Robert W.

    2015-09-20

    An experimental 30 kW boost composite converter is described in this paper. The composite converter architecture, which consists of a buck module, a boost module, and a dual active bridge module that operates as a DC transformer (DCX), leads to substantial reductions in losses at partial power points, and to significant improvements in weighted efficiency in applications that require wide variations in power and conversion ratio. A comprehensive loss model is developed, accounting for semiconductor conduction and switching losses, capacitor losses, as well as dc and ac losses in magnetic components. Based on the developed loss model, the module and system designs are optimized to maximize efficiency at a 50% power point. Experimental results for the 30 kW prototype demonstrate 98.5%peak efficiency, very high efficiency over wide ranges of power and voltage conversion ratios, as well as excellent agreements between model predictions and measured efficiency curves.

  15. Case History of Reapplication of a 2500 KW Steam Turbine/Gear Drive Generator 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Smith, S.

    1991-01-01

    OF REAPPLICATION OF A 2500 KW STEAM TURBINE/GEAR DRIVE GENERATOR SAMUEL V. SMITH Manager, Technical Sales and ~ervice Revak Turbomachinery SerVlces La Porte, Texas Abstract In today' s equipment market more and more projects are turning toward..., naphtha and a high grade of wax. The plant requires a steam turbine generator set to produce electrical power for its base load operation. This paper covers the history of how the turbine, gear and generator were selected, along with the highlights...

  16. Advanced, High Power, Next Scale, Wave Energy Conversion Device

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Hart, Philip R.

    2011-09-27

    This presentation from the Water Peer Review highlights one of the program's marine and hyrokinetics device design projects to scale up the current Ocean Power Technology PowerBuoy from 150kW to 500kW.

  17. The Chena Hot Springs 400kw Geothermal Power Plant: Experience...

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    PureCycle 200product released by UTC in 2004 and designed to operate offindustrial waste heat applications. The PureCycle 200 usescomponents and hardware from the Carrier...

  18. Development and Demonstration of a New Generation High Efficiency 10kW Stationary Fuel Cell System

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Howell, Thomas Russell

    2013-04-30

    The overall project objective is to develop and demonstrate a polymer electrolyte membrane fuel cell combined heat and power (PEMFC CHP) system that provides the foundation for commercial, mass produced units which achieve over 40% electrical efficiency (fuel to electric conversion) from 50-100% load, greater than 70% overall efficiency (fuel to electric energy + usable waste heat energy conversion), have the potential to achieve 40,000 hours durability on all major process components, and can be produced in high volumes at under $400/kW (revised to $750/kW per 2011 DOE estimates) capital cost.

  19. Abstract--The U.S. power industry is under great pressure to provide reactive power or Var support. Although it is generally

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Tolbert, Leon M.

    (SVCs), STATCOMs, as well as distributed energy resources (DERs) like fuel cells and microturbines a decade ago. There has been significant movement towards competitive energy markets. However, reactive]. The Department of Energy has sponsored the Oak Ridge National Laboratory to investigate the economic benefits

  20. Chemically Reactive Working Fluids for the Capture and Transport of Concentrated Solar Thermal Energy for Power Generation

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    This presentation was delivered at the SunShot Concentrating Solar Power (CSP) Program Review 2013, held April 23–25, 2013 near Phoenix, Arizona.

  1. Export of reactive nitrogen from coal-fired power plants in the U.S.: Estimates from a plume-in-grid modeling study - article no. D04308

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Vijayaraghavan, K.; Zhang, Y.; Seigneur, C.; Karamchandani, P.; Snell, H.E.

    2009-02-15

    The export of reactive nitrogen (nitrogen oxides and their oxidation products, collectively referred to as NOy) from coal-fired power plants in the U.S. to the rest of the world could have a significant global contribution to ozone. Traditional Eulerian gridded air quality models cannot characterize accurately the chemistry and transport of plumes from elevated point sources such as power plant stacks. A state-of-the-science plume-in-grid (PinG) air quality model, a reactive plume model embedded in an Eulerian gridded model, is used to estimate the export of NOy from 25 large coal-fired power plants in the U. S. (in terms of NOx and SO{sub 2} emissions) in July 2001 to the global atmosphere. The PinG model used is the Community Multiscale Air Quality Model with Advanced Plume Treatment (CMAQ-APT). A benchmark simulation with only the gridded model, CMAQ, is also conducted for comparison purposes. The simulations with and without advanced plume treatment show differences in the calculated export of NOy from the 25 plants considered reflecting the effect of using a detailed and explicit treatment of plume transport and chemistry. The advanced plume treatment results in 31% greater simulated export of NOy compared to the purely grid-based modeling approach. The export efficiency of NOy (the fraction of NOy emitted that is exported) is predicted to be 21% without APT and 27% with APT. When considering only export through the eastern boundary across the Atlantic, CMAQ-APT predicts that the export efficiency is 24% and that 2% of NOy is exported as NOx, 49% as inorganic nitrate, and 25% as PAN. These results are in reasonably good agreement with an analysis reported in the literature of aircraft measurements over the North Atlantic.

  2. Reactive Maintenance

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    Reactive maintenance follows a run-it-until-it-breaks strategy where no actions or efforts are taken to maintain equipment as intended by the manufacturer. Studies indicate this is still the predominant mode of maintenance for Federal facilities.

  3. Development of an Underamor 1-kW Thermoelectric Generator Waste...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    an Underamor 1-kW Thermoelectric Generator Waste Heat Recovery System for Military Vehicles Development of an Underamor 1-kW Thermoelectric Generator Waste Heat Recovery System for...

  4. 4 kW Test of Solid Oxide Electrolysis Stacks with Advanced Electrode-Supported Cells

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    J. E. O'Brien; X. Zhang; G. K. Housley; L. Moore-McAteer; G. Tao

    2012-06-01

    A new test stand has been developed at the Idaho National Laboratory for multi-kW testing of solid oxide electrolysis stacks. This test stand will initially be operated at the 4 KW scale. The 4 kW tests will include two 60-cell stacks operating in parallel in a single hot zone. The stacks are internally manifolded with an inverted-U flow pattern and an active area of 100 cm2 per cell. Process gases to and from the two stacks are distributed from common inlet/outlet tubing using a custom base manifold unit that also serves as the bottom current collector plate. The solid oxide cells incorporate a negative-electrode-supported multi-layer design with nickel-zirconia cermet negative electrodes, thin-film yttria-stabilized zirconia electrolytes, and multi-layer lanthanum ferrite-based positive electrodes. Treated metallic interconnects with integral flow channels separate the cells and electrode gases. Sealing is accomplished with compliant mica-glass seals. A spring-loaded test fixture is used for mechanical stack compression. Due to the power level and the large number of cells in the hot zone, process gas flow rates are high and heat recuperation is required to preheat the cold inlet gases upstream of the furnace. Heat recuperation is achieved by means of two inconel tube-in-tube counter-flow heat exchangers. A current density of 0.3 A/cm2 will be used for these tests, resulting in a hydrogen production rate of 25 NL/min. Inlet steam flow rates will be set to achieve a steam utilization value of 50%. The 4 kW test will be performed for a minimum duration of 1000 hours in order to document the long-term durability of the stacks. Details of the test apparatus and initial results will be provided.

  5. Development of a 402.5 MHz 140 kW Inductive Output Tube

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    R. Lawrence Ives; Michael Read, Robert Jackson

    2012-05-09

    This report contains the results of Phase I of an SBIR to develop a Pulsed Inductive Output Tube (IOT) with 140 kW at 400 MHz for powering H-proton beams. A number of sources, including single beam and multiple beam klystrons, can provide this power, but the IOT provides higher efficiency. Efficiencies exceeding 70% are routinely achieved. The gain is typically limited to approximately 24 dB; however, the availability of highly efficient, solid state drivers reduces the significance of this limitation, particularly at lower frequencies. This program initially focused on developing a 402 MHz IOT; however, the DOE requirement for this device was terminated during the program. The SBIR effort was refocused on improving the IOT design codes to more accurately simulate the time dependent behavior of the input cavity, electron gun, output cavity, and collector. Significant improvement was achieved in modeling capability and simulation accuracy.

  6. SaskPower Small Power Producers Program (Saskatchewan, Canada)

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    The Small Power Producers Program accommodates customers who wish to generate up to 100 kilowatts (kW) of electricity for the purpose of offsetting power that would otherwise be purchased from...

  7. Property:Incentive/PVPbiFitMaxKW | Open Energy Information

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Google Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on QA:QAsource History ViewMayo,AltFuelVehicle2 Jump to: navigation, searchContDiv Jump to:FundSrc JumpPVPbiFitMaxKW Jump

  8. Engine combustion control via fuel reactivity stratification

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Reitz, Rolf Deneys; Hanson, Reed M.; Splitter, Derek A.; Kokjohn, Sage L.

    2015-07-14

    A compression ignition engine uses two or more fuel charges having two or more reactivities to control the timing and duration of combustion. In a preferred implementation, a lower-reactivity fuel charge is injected or otherwise introduced into the combustion chamber, preferably sufficiently early that it becomes at least substantially homogeneously dispersed within the chamber before a subsequent injection is made. One or more subsequent injections of higher-reactivity fuel charges are then made, and these preferably distribute the higher-reactivity matter within the lower-reactivity chamber space such that combustion begins in the higher-reactivity regions, and with the lower-reactivity regions following thereafter. By appropriately choosing the reactivities of the charges, their relative amounts, and their timing, combustion can be tailored to achieve optimal power output (and thus fuel efficiency), at controlled temperatures (and thus controlled NOx), and with controlled equivalence ratios (and thus controlled soot).

  9. Engine combustion control via fuel reactivity stratification

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Reitz, Rolf Deneys; Hanson, Reed M; Splitter, Derek A; Kokjohn, Sage L

    2013-12-31

    A compression ignition engine uses two or more fuel charges having two or more reactivities to control the timing and duration of combustion. In a preferred implementation, a lower-reactivity fuel charge is injected or otherwise introduced into the combustion chamber, preferably sufficiently early that it becomes at least substantially homogeneously dispersed within the chamber before a subsequent injection is made. One or more subsequent injections of higher-reactivity fuel charges are then made, and these preferably distribute the higher-reactivity matter within the lower-reactivity chamber space such that combustion begins in the higher-reactivity regions, and with the lower-reactivity regions following thereafter. By appropriately choose the reactivities of the charges, their relative amounts, and their timing, combustion can be tailored to achieve optimal power output (and thus fuel efficiency), at controlled temperatures (and thus controlled NOx), and with controlled equivalence ratios (and thus controlled soot).

  10. A 350 MHz, 200 kW CW, Multiple Beam Inductive Output Tube - Final Report

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    R.Lawrece Ives; George Collins; David Marsden Michael Read; Edward Eisen; Takuchi Kamura, Philipp Borchard

    2012-11-28

    This program developed a 200 kW CW, 350 MHz, multiple beam inductive output tube (MBIOT) for driving accelerator cavities. The MBIOT operates at 30 kV with a gain of 23 dB. The estimated efficiency is 70%. The device uses seven electron beams, each transmitting 1.4 A of current. The tube is approximately six feet long and weighs approximately 400 lbs. The prototype device will be evaluated as a potential RF source for the Advanced Photon Source at Argonne National Laboratory (ANL). Because of issues related to delivery of the electron guns, it was not possible to complete assembly and test of the MBIOT during the Phase II program. The device is being completed with support from Calabazas Creek Research, Inc., Communications & Power Industries, LLC. and the Naval Surface Weapons Center (NSWC) in Dahlgren, VA. The MBIOT will be initially tested at NSWC before delivery to ANL. The testing at NSWC is scheduled for February 2013.

  11. Test Results From The Idaho National Laboratory 15kW High Temperature Electrolysis Test Facility

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Carl M. Stoots; Keith G. Condie; James E. O'Brien; J. Stephen Herring; Joseph J. Hartvigsen

    2009-07-01

    A 15kW high temperature electrolysis test facility has been developed at the Idaho National Laboratory under the United States Department of Energy Nuclear Hydrogen Initiative. This facility is intended to study the technology readiness of using high temperature solid oxide cells for large scale nuclear powered hydrogen production. It is designed to address larger-scale issues such as thermal management (feed-stock heating, high temperature gas handling, heat recuperation), multiple-stack hot zone design, multiple-stack electrical configurations, etc. Heat recuperation and hydrogen recycle are incorporated into the design. The facility was operated for 1080 hours and successfully demonstrated the largest scale high temperature solid-oxide-based production of hydrogen to date.

  12. Industrial Power Factor Analysis Guidebook. (Technical Report...

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    of reactive power in an electrical system. Reactive power represents wasted energy--electricity that does no useful work because the electrical current is out of phase with...

  13. Reactive sputtering of ?-ZrH{sub 2} thin films by high power impulse magnetron sputtering and direct current magnetron sputtering

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Högberg, Hans Tengdelius, Lina; Eriksson, Fredrik; Broitman, Esteban; Lu, Jun; Jensen, Jens; Hultman, Lars; Samuelsson, Mattias

    2014-07-01

    Reactive sputtering by high power impulse magnetron sputtering (HiPIMS) and direct current magnetron sputtering (DCMS) of a Zr target in Ar/H{sub 2} plasmas was employed to deposit Zr-H films on Si(100) substrates, and with H content up to 61 at.?% and O contents typically below 0.2 at.?% as determined by elastic recoil detection analysis. X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy reveals a chemical shift of ?0.7?eV to higher binding energies for the Zr-H films compared to pure Zr films, consistent with a charge transfer from Zr to H in a zirconium hydride. X-ray diffraction shows that the films are single-phase ?-ZrH{sub 2} (CaF{sub 2} type structure) at H content >?55 at.?% and pole figure measurements give a 111 preferred orientation for these films. Scanning electron microscopy cross-section images show a glasslike microstructure for the HiPIMS films, while the DCMS films are columnar. Nanoindentation yield hardness values of 5.5–7 GPa for the ?-ZrH{sub 2} films that is slightly harder than the ?5 GPa determined for Zr films and with coefficients of friction in the range of 0.12–0.18 to compare with the range of 0.4–0.6 obtained for Zr films. Wear resistance testing show that phase-pure ?-ZrH{sub 2} films deposited by HiPIMS exhibit up to 50 times lower wear rate compared to those containing a secondary Zr phase. Four-point probe measurements give resistivity values in the range of ?100–120 ?? cm for the ?-ZrH{sub 2} films, which is slightly higher compared to Zr films with values in the range 70–80 ?? cm.

  14. Combined Heat and Power Systems Technology Development and Demonstrati...

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    engine. Integration of the engines, based on preliminary research, would allow the dual spool engine to provide electrical power in excess of 370 kW, with electrical...

  15. Status of the Advanced Stirling Conversion System Project for 25 kW dish Stirling applications

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Shaltens, R.K.; Schreiber, J.G.

    1991-01-01

    Under the Department of Energy's (DOE) Solar Thermal Technology Program, Sandia National Laboratories is evaluating heat engines for terrestrial Solar Heat Receivers. The Stirling engine has been identified by Sandia as one of the most promising heat engines for terrestrial applications. The Stirling engine also has the potential to meet DOE's performance and cost goals. The NASA Lewis Research Center is conducting technology development for Stirling convertors directed toward a dynamic power source for space applications. Space power requirements include high reliability with very long life, low vibration and high system efficiency. The free-piston Stirling engine has the potential for future high power space conversion systems, either nuclear or solar powered. Although both applications appear to be quite different, their requirements complement each other. NASA Lewis is providing management of the Advanced Stirling Conversion System (ASCS) Project through an Interagency Agreement (IAA) with the DOE. Parallel contracts continue with both Cummins Engine Company (CEC), Columbus, Indiana, and Stirling Technology Company (STC), Richland, Washington for the designs of an ASCS. Each system'' design features a solar receiver/liquid metal heat transport system, and a free-piston Stirling convertor with a means to provide nominally 25 kW of electric power to a utility grid while meeting DOE's performance and long-term'' cost goals. The Cummins free- piston Stirling convertor incorporates a linear alternator to directly provide the electrical output, while the STC design generates electrical power indirectly through a hydraulic pump/motor coupled to an induction generator. Both the Cummins and STC ASCS designs will use technology which can reasonably be expected to be available in the early 1990's. 17 refs., 7 figs., 3 tabs.

  16. Thermoelectric Applications to Truck Essential Power

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    John C. Bass; Norbert B. Elsner

    2001-12-12

    The subjects covered in this report are: thermoelectrics, 1-kW generator for diesel engine; self-powered heater; power for wireless data transmission; and quantum-well thermoelectrics.

  17. WIND TURBINE SITING IN AN URBAN ENVIRONMENT: THE HULL, MA 660 KW TURBINE

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Massachusetts at Amherst, University of

    1 WIND TURBINE SITING IN AN URBAN ENVIRONMENT: THE HULL, MA 660 KW TURBINE J. F. Manwell, J. G. Mc turbine at Windmill Point in Hull, Massachusetts represents a high point in the long history of wind, through the installation of a 40 kW Enertech machine in the 1980's to the installation of the new turbine

  18. Development of a 75-kW heat-pipe receiver for solar heat-engines

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Adkins, D.R.; Andraka, C.E.; Moss, T.A.

    1995-05-01

    A program is now underway to develop commercial power conversion systems that use parabolic dish mirrors in conjunction with Stirling engines to convert solar energy to electric power. In early prototypes, the solar concentrator focused light directly on the heater tubes of the Stirling engine. Liquid-metal heat-pipes are now being developed to transfer energy from the focus of the solar concentrator to the heater tubes of the engine. The dome-shaped heat-pipe receivers are approximately one-half meters in diameter and up to 77-kW of concentrated solar energy is delivered to the absorber surface. Over the past several years, Sandia National Laboratories, through the sponsorship of the Department of Energy, has conducted a major program to explore receiver designs and identify suitable wick materials. A high-flux bench-scale system has been developed to test candidate wick designs, and full-scale systems have been tested on an 11-meter test-bed solar concentrator. Procedures have also been developed in this program to measure the properties of wick materials, and an extensive data-base on wick materials for high temperature heat pipes has been developed. This paper provides an overview of the receiver development program and results from some of the many heat-pipe tests.

  19. Reactive facies: An approach for parameterizing field-scale reactive...

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    Reactive facies: An approach for parameterizing field-scale reactive transport models using geophysical methods Citation Details In-Document Search Title: Reactive facies: An...

  20. Researchers' Hottest New Laser Beams 14.2 kW | Jefferson Lab

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    past the milestone to produce 11.7 kW. But the team didn't stop there. They pushed the machine they had spent years designing, crafting and tweaking to surpass the record they had...

  1. Preparation of activated carbon from coconut shell chars in pilot-scale microwave heating equipment at 60 kW

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Li Wei [Faculty of Materials and Metallurgical Engineering, Kunming University of Science and Technology, Kunming 650093 (China); Faculty of Science, Kunming University of Science and Technology, Kunming 650093 (China); Peng Jinhui [Faculty of Materials and Metallurgical Engineering, Kunming University of Science and Technology, Kunming 650093 (China)], E-mail: jhpeng_ok@yeah.net; Zhang Libo; Yang Kunbin; Xia Hongying; Zhang Shimin; Guo Shenghui [Faculty of Materials and Metallurgical Engineering, Kunming University of Science and Technology, Kunming 650093 (China)

    2009-02-15

    Experiments to prepare activated carbon by microwave heating indicated that microwave energy can decrease reaction temperature, save the energy and shorten processing time remarkably compared to conventional heating, owing to its internal and volumetric heating effects. The above results were based on the laboratory-scale experiments. It is desirable to develop a pilot-scale microwave heating equipment and investigate the parameters with the aim of technological industrialization. In the present study, the components and features of the self-invented equipment were introduced. The temperature rise curves of the chars were obtained. Iodine numbers of the activated carbons all exceed the state standard of China under the following conditions: 25 kg/h charging rate, 0.42 rev/min turning rate of ceramic tube, flow rate of steam at pressure of 0.01 MPa and 40 kW microwave heating power after 60 kW pre-activation for 30 min. Pore structure of the sample obtained at a time point of 46 h, which contained BET surface area, and pore size distributions of micropores and total pores, was tested by nitrogen adsorption at 77 K.

  2. Real-Time Model-Based Fault Diagnosis for Switching Power Converters

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Sanders, Seth

    demonstration for a 1.2 kW rack-level uninterruptable power supply (UPS) dc-dc converter for data center for a 1.2 kW rack- level uninterruptable power supply (UPS) dc-dc converter for data center applicationsReal-Time Model-Based Fault Diagnosis for Switching Power Converters Jason Poon, Ioannis C

  3. System for reactivating catalysts

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Ginosar, Daniel M. (Idaho Falls, ID); Thompson, David N. (Idaho Falls, ID); Anderson, Raymond P. (Idaho Falls, ID)

    2010-03-02

    A method of reactivating a catalyst, such as a solid catalyst or a liquid catalyst is provided. The method comprises providing a catalyst that is at least partially deactivated by fouling agents. The catalyst is contacted with a fluid reactivating agent that is at or above a critical point of the fluid reactivating agent and is of sufficient density to dissolve impurities. The fluid reactivating agent reacts with at least one fouling agent, releasing the at least one fouling agent from the catalyst. The at least one fouling agent becomes dissolved in the fluid reactivating agent and is subsequently separated or removed from the fluid reactivating agent so that the fluid reactivating agent may be reused. A system for reactivating a catalyst is also disclosed.

  4. RF power generation

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Carter, R G

    2011-01-01

    This paper reviews the main types of r.f. power amplifiers which are, or may be, used for particle accelerators. It covers solid-state devices, tetrodes, inductive output tubes, klystrons, magnetrons, and gyrotrons with power outputs greater than 10 kW c.w. or 100 kW pulsed at frequencies from 50 MHz to 30 GHz. Factors affecting the satisfactory operation of amplifiers include cooling, matching and protection circuits are discussed. The paper concludes with a summary of the state of the art for the different technologies.

  5. Development Methodology for Power-Dense Military Diesel Engine

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    Laboratory data and modeling results are presented on a military auxiliary power unit engine that has a peak efficiency of 35.3% at an output shaft power of 25 kW.

  6. Industrial Power Factor Analysis Guidebook. Electrotek Concepts...

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    low power factors, increased conductor and transformer losses, and lower voltages. Utilities must supply both active and reactive power and compensate for these losses. Power...

  7. Development of a 10 kW, 2.815 GHz Klystron

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Ives, Robert Lawrence; Read, Michael; Patrick, Ferguson

    2015-05-15

    Development of a Periodic Permanent Magnet (PPM) focused klystron is described. The klystron was designed to produce 10 kW CW at 2.815 GHz. The program developed an innovative PPM circuit that provided extremely uniform magnetic fields at the electron beam location while providing unprecedented access to the RF circuit for tuners and water cooling. Simulations indicated the klystron would produce more than 11 kW with an efficiency exceeding 65%. Problems with the mechanical design prevented successful testing of the initial prototype; however, a new design was successfully developed and implemented in a 6 MW klystron developed in a follow-on program. Funding is being pursued to rebuild the 10 kW RF circuit and complete the klystron development.

  8. Manufacturing Cost Analysis of 1 kW and 5 kW Solid Oxide Fuel Cell (SOFC)

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Google Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Delicious RankADVANCED MANUFACTURING OFFICESpecial Report Management Challenges at theNavalSolaroffor Auxiliary Power

  9. Radio-frequency power generation

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Carter, Richard G

    2013-01-01

    This paper reviews the main types of radio-frequency power amplifiers which are, or may be, used for high-power hadron accelerators. It covers tetrodes, inductive output tubes, klystrons and magnetrons with power outputs greater than 10 kW continuous wave or 100 kW pulsed at frequencies from 50 MHz to 30 GHz. Factors affecting the satisfactory operation of amplifiers include cooling, matching and protection circuits are discussed. The paper concludes with a summary of the state of the art for the different technologies.

  10. Proceedings of Power Systems 03: Distributed Generation and Advanced Metering 2002 Wichita State University

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Proceedings of Power Systems 03: Distributed Generation and Advanced Metering © 2002 Wichita State are critically dependent on the fuel quality and supply parameters for optimal power delivery and overall System Friction Losses (kW) PBearing Total System Bearing Losses (kW) PCon Electrical Conversion Losses

  11. The Chena Hot Springs 400kw Geothermal Power Plant: Experience Gained

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Google Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page| Open Energy Information Serbia-EnhancingEt Al., 2013) |Information 5th congressionalNIESLook at theDuring the

  12. 3,000 kW Suginoi Hotel geothermal power plant

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Kudo, Kisumi [Beppu Suginoi Hotel, Beppu (Japan)

    1996-05-01

    The Suginoi Hotel is located 200 m above sea level, in Beppu City, which is one of the largest hot spring resort area in Japan. In this hotel, there are some unique hot spring baths, which are interesting to visitors. In Beppu, there are numerous hot springs, some are call {open_quotes}Jigoku{close_quotes} (Hells). The main attraction in Beppu are the hell-like spots created by hot springs such as the Torando Hell, which erupt to a heights of more than 50 meters, The Blood Pond Hell which is bloody red due to red clay content. In yield, these hot springs rank second in the world next to those of Yellowstone National Park in the USA.

  13. Power Scaling of Tm:fiber Lasers to the kW Level Peter F. Moulton

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Van Stryland, Eric

    -06-D-0009 and FA9451-08-D-0199 Technical work: Q-Peak: Glen Rines, Evgueni Slobodtchikov, Kevin Wall

  14. Reducing Pump Power Consumption by 40% (1000 KW) Through Improved Pump Management in a Central Plant 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Deng, S.; Liu, M.; Turner, W. D.

    1998-01-01

    Plant Descri~tion. At the Central Utility Plant, the chilled water system does not have secondary pumps. Primary pumps are used to serve both the in-plant chilled water system (chillers and other components) and the loops at required pump head... chillers 1 - 4 inlet sub-common header and centrifugal chillers 9 - 12 inlet sub-common header (this common header can be enabled or disabled by manual valves on it). Four chilled water loops (East, South, Central and West) serving the main campus...

  15. Development of a Low Cost 3-10kW Tubular SOFC Power System

    Broader source: Energy.gov (indexed) [DOE]

    desulfurizer Collaborations - EFESO Program Enviromentally Friendly Energy from Solid Oxide fuel cell Italian government program granted to Ariston thermal group and 15 partners...

  16. Development of a Low Cost 3-10kW Tubular SOFC Power System |...

    Broader source: Energy.gov (indexed) [DOE]

    -- Washington D.C. fc032bessette2010oweb.pdf More Documents & Publications Solid Oxide Fuel Cell Balance of Plant and Stack Component Integration The Micro-CHP Technologies...

  17. Characterization of a 5 kW solid oxide fuel cell stack using power electronic excitation

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Seger, Eric

    Fuel cells have attracted great interest as a means of clean, efficient conversion of chemical to electrical energy. This paper demonstrates the identification of both non-parametric and lumped circuit models of our stack ...

  18. 50 kW Power Block for Distributed Energy Applications - Energy Innovation

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Homesum_a_epg0_fpd_mmcf_m.xls" ,"Available from WebQuantity of NaturalDukeWakefieldSulfateSciTechtail.TheoryTuesday, August 10, 20102016 News Below are4B Drawings 4B Chamber

  19. 1-10 kW Stationary Combined Heat and Power Systems Status and Technical

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Google Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Delicious Rank EERE:Financing ToolInternationalReport FY2014 -EnergyEnergy 1:AskEnergy:30QA: NA Root

  20. 400kW Geothermal Power Plant at Chena Hot Springs, Alaska | Open Energy

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Google Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on QA:QA J-E-1 SECTION JEnvironmental Jump to:EAand Dalton Jump to:Wylie,InformationSpeciesRegister2008§ 261 Jump

  1. Design Aspects of a 250 kW SOFC SystemDesign Aspects of a 250 kW SOFC System Strategies to Counteract Stack DegradationStrategies to Counteract Stack Degradation

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    -supported Metallic Interconnect Operates at 750 °C Low degradation Currently tested at pilot test facilities Extensive fuel processing experience #12;Conceptual Study 250 kW SystemConceptual Study 250 kW System · Decrease fuel utilisation Higher Nernst potential but lower electric efficiency · Decrease Cell Voltage

  2. FRPs for Strengthening and Rehabilitation: Durability Issues K.W. Neale1

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Labossière, Pierre

    1 FRPs for Strengthening and Rehabilitation: Durability Issues K.W. Neale1 , P. Labossière2 and M) strengthening and rehabilitation technologies are addressed. A brief overview of some recent research activities accelerated tests, is emphasized. Introduction The needs for civil engineering infrastructure rehabilitation

  3. ELECTRICITY FROM WOOD-FIRED GASIFICATION IN UGANDA -A 250 AND 10KW CASE STUDY

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Vermont, University of

    electricity at US$ 0.18 and 0.34/kWh, respectively. A stable electricity demand close to the rated capacityELECTRICITY FROM WOOD-FIRED GASIFICATION IN UGANDA - A 250 AND 10KW CASE STUDY Thomas Buchholza their potential to compete economically with diesel generated electricity when operating close to the rated

  4. Demonstration of a 140-GHz 1-kW Confocal Gyro-Traveling-Wave Amplifier

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Temkin, Richard J.

    The theory, design, and experimental results of a wideband 140-GHz 1-kW pulsed gyro-traveling-wave amplifier (gyro-TWA) are presented. The gyro-TWA operates in the HE [subscript 06] mode of an overmoded quasi-optical ...

  5. 5 kW Multilevel DC-DC Converter for Hybrid Electric and Fuel Cell Automotive

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Tolbert, Leon M.

    5 kW Multilevel DC-DC Converter for Hybrid Electric and Fuel Cell Automotive Applications Faisal H) for future hybrid electric vehicle and fuel cell automotive applications will be presented in this paper will impact if the 42V/14V dual bus system will be a successful and cost effective solution for future

  6. Renewable Energy in China: Xiao Qing Dao Village Power Wind/Diesel Hybrid Pilot Project

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Not Available

    2006-01-01

    In 2000, DOE/NREL and the State Power Corporation of China (SPCC) developed a pilot project to electrify Xiao Qing Dao, a small island located in China's Yellow Sea. The project demonstrates the practicality of renewable energy systems for medium-scale, off-grid applications. It consists of four 10 k-W wind turbines connected to a 30-kW diesel generator, a 40-kW inverter and a battery bank.

  7. Aalborg Universitet Coal-firing and biomass-firing in a 150kW swirl stabilized burner flow reactor

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Berning, Torsten

    Aalborg Universitet Coal-firing and biomass-firing in a 150kW swirl stabilized burner flow reactor). Coal-firing and biomass-firing in a 150kW swirl stabilized burner flow reactor. Poster session-fired boiler could be far more challenging beca se b rner aerod namicsmore challenging, because burner

  8. Ion mass spectrometry investigations of the discharge during reactive high power pulsed and direct current magnetron sputtering of carbon in Ar and Ar/N{sub 2}

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Schmidt, S.; Greczynski, G.; Jensen, J.; Hultman, L.; Czigany, Zs.

    2012-07-01

    Ion mass spectrometry was used to investigate discharges formed during high power impulse magnetron sputtering (HiPIMS) and direct current magnetron sputtering (DCMS) of a graphite target in Ar and Ar/N{sub 2} ambient. Ion energy distribution functions (IEDFs) were recorded in time-averaged and time-resolved mode for Ar{sup +}, C{sup +}, N{sub 2}{sup +}, N{sup +}, and C{sub x}N{sub y}{sup +} ions. An increase of N{sub 2} in the sputter gas (keeping the deposition pressure, pulse width, pulse frequency, and pulse energy constant) results for the HiPIMS discharge in a significant increase in C{sup +}, N{sup +}, and CN{sup +} ion energies. Ar{sup +}, N{sub 2}{sup +}, and C{sub 2}N{sup +} ion energies, in turn, did not considerably vary with the changes in working gas composition. The HiPIMS process showed higher ion energies and fluxes, particularly for C{sup +} ions, compared to DCMS. The time evolution of the plasma species was analyzed for HiPIMS and revealed the sequential arrival of working gas ions, ions ejected from the target, and later during the pulse-on time molecular ions, in particular CN{sup +} and C{sub 2}N{sup +}. The formation of fullerene-like structured CN{sub x} thin films for both modes of magnetron sputtering is explained by ion mass-spectrometry results and demonstrated by transmission electron microscopy as well as diffraction.

  9. Wind Turbine Generator System Duration Test Report for the Gaia-Wind 11 kW Wind Turbine

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Huskey, A.; Bowen, A.; Jager, D.

    2010-09-01

    This test was conducted as part of the U.S. Department of Energy's (DOE) Independent Testing project. This project was established to help reduce the barriers of wind energy expansion by providing independent testing results for small turbines. In total, five turbines are being tested at the National Renewable Energy Laboratory's (NRELs) National Wind Technology Center (NWTC) as a part of this project. Duration testing is one of up to five tests that may be performed on the turbines, including power performance, safety and function, noise, and power quality tests. The results of the testing will provide the manufacturers with reports that may be used for small wind turbine certification. The test equipment includes a Gaia-Wind 11 kW wind turbine mounted on an 18 m monopole tower. Gaia-Wind Ltd. manufactured the turbine in Denmark, although the company is based in Scotland. The system was installed by the NWTC Site Operations group with guidance and assistance from Gaia-Wind.

  10. NREL Small Wind Turbine Test Project: Mariah Power's Windspire Wind Turbine Test Chronology

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Huskey, A.; Forsyth, T.

    2009-06-01

    This report presents a chronology of tests conducted at NREL's National Wind Technology Center on Mariah Power's Windspire 1.2-kW wind turbine and a letter of response from Mariah Power.

  11. Synchronous Reactive Systems Stephen Edwards

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    -state machines 5 #12;STEPHEN EDWARDS SYNCHRONOUS REACTIVE SYSTEMS The Synchronous Model of Time SynchronousSynchronous Reactive Systems Stephen Edwards http://www.eecs.berkeley.edu/~sedwards/ University of California, Berkeley #12;STEPHEN EDWARDS SYNCHRONOUS REACTIVE SYSTEMS Outline Synchronous Reactive Systems

  12. McDonnell 40-kW Giromill Wind System. Phase II. Fabrication and test

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Brulle, R

    1980-06-01

    A 40 kW vertical axis windmill called a ''Giromill'' was fabricated, erected, and tested. The system design is described as well as some design changes made during fabrication. Manufacturing cost estimates are updated. Fabrication of the turbine blades, support arms, and fixed and rotating tower is described as well as the tests. Testing included control systems acceptance tests; Giromill system acceptance tests; structural, mechanical, control system and electric generation operational tests; and performance tests connected to the utility grid. (LEW)

  13. System Description for the KW Basin Integrated Water Treatment System (IWTS) (70.3)

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    DERUSSEAU, R.R.

    2000-04-18

    This is a description of the system that collects and processes the sludge and radioactive ions released by the spent nuclear fuel (SNF) processing operations conducted in the 105 KW Basin. The system screens, settles, filters, and conditions the basin water for reuse. Sludge and most radioactive ions are removed before the water is distributed back to the basin pool. This system is part of the Spent Nuclear Fuel Project (SNFP).

  14. Ammonia as an Alternative Energy Storage Medium for Hydrogen Fuel Cells: Scientific and Technical Review for Near-Term Stationary Power Demonstration Projects, Final Report

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Lipman, Tim; Shah, Nihar

    2007-01-01

    of ammonia per kW of fuel cell power, per hour) 7. EstablishT.R. , “Compact Fuel Cell Power Supplies with Safe FuelUsing ammonia in fuel cell power plants does not generate

  15. Literature Cited and Selected Bibliography Able, K.W. 1999. Measures of juvenile fish habitat quality: examples from a

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Chen, Changsheng

    . Rutgers University Press. New Brunswick, NJ. 342 p. Able, K.W., J.P. Manderson, and A.L. Studholme. 1999 in Hydraulic Computations. 1988. Turbulence modeling of surface flow and transport. Journal of Hydraulic

  16. Conceptual engineering design of a 50-kW rechargeable alkaline zinc/redox battery

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Selman, J.R.; Hollansworth, R.P.

    1984-08-01

    The zinc/ferro-ferricyanide battery has been advanced over the past 6 years from a concept to a working unit of demonstrated high energy efficiency. A conceptual engineering design for a 50-kW solar storage battery system has been formulated, based upon performance data of 60, 200, and 1000 cm/sup 2/ cells and physical property data collected from the literature or determined earlier. Starting with a cell performance model and a crystallizer model, mass and energy balances are analyzed using a modular design. Isothermal and adiabatic operations are considered, and thermal storage requirements estimated

  17. High power laser perforating tools and systems

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Zediker, Mark S; Rinzler, Charles C; Faircloth, Brian O; Koblick, Yeshaya; Moxley, Joel F

    2014-04-22

    ystems devices and methods for the transmission of 1 kW or more of laser energy deep into the earth and for the suppression of associated nonlinear phenomena. Systems, devices and methods for the laser perforation of a borehole in the earth. These systems can deliver high power laser energy down a deep borehole, while maintaining the high power to perforate such boreholes.

  18. High power W-band klystrons

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Caryotakis, George; Scheitrum, Glenn; Jongewaard, Erik; Vlieks, Arnold; Fowkes, Randy [Stanford Linear Accelerator Center, Menlo Park, California 94025 (United States); Li, Jeff [University of California Davis, Davis, California 95616 (United States)

    1999-05-01

    The development of W-band klystrons is discussed. Modeling of the klystron performance predicts 100 kW output power from a single klystron. The permanent magnet focusing and small size of the circuit permit combination of multiple klystrons in a module. A six-klystron module in a single vacuum envelope is expected to produce 500 kW peak power and up to 5 kW average power. The critical issues in the W-band klystron development are the electron beam transport and the fabrication of the klystron circuit. Two microfabrication techniques, EDM and LIGA, are being evaluated to produce the W-band circuit. {copyright} {ital 1999 American Institute of Physics.}

  19. Reactive Air Aluminization

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Choi, Jung-Pyung; Chou, Y. S.; Stevenson, Jeffry W.

    2011-10-28

    Ferritic stainless steels and other alloys are of great interest to SOFC developers for applications such as interconnects, cell frames, and balance of plant components. While these alloys offer significant advantages (e.g., low material and manufacturing cost, high thermal conductivity, and high temperature oxidation resistance), there are challenges which can hinder their utilization in SOFC systems; these challenges include Cr volatility and reactivity with glass seals. To overcome these challenges, protective coatings and surface treatments for the alloys are under development. In particular, aluminization of alloy surfaces offers the potential for mitigating both evaporation of Cr from the alloy surface and reaction of alloy constituents with glass seals. Commercial aluminization processes are available to SOFC developers, but they tend to be costly due to their use of exotic raw materials and/or processing conditions. As an alternative, PNNL has developed Reactive Air Aluminization (RAA), which offers a low-cost, simpler alternative to conventional aluminization methods.

  20. RF Power Generation in LHC

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Brunner, O C; Valuch, D

    2003-01-01

    The counter-rotating proton beams in the Large Hadron Collider (LHC) will be captured and then accelerated to their final energies of 2 x 7 TeV by two identical 400 MHz RF systems. The RF power source required for each beam comprises eight 300 kW klystrons. The output power of each klystron is fed via a circulator and a waveguide line to the input coupler of a single-cell super-conducting (SC) cavity. Four klystrons are powered by a 100 kV, 40A AC/DC power converter, previously used for the operation of the LEP klystrons. A five-gap thyratron crowbar protects the four klystrons in each of these units. The technical specification and measured performance of the various high-power elements are discussed. These include the 400MHz/300kW klystrons with emphasis on their group delay and the three-port circulators, which have to cope with peak reflected power levels up to twice the simultaneously applied incident power of 300 kW. In addition, a novel ferrite loaded waveguide absorber, used as termination for port No...

  1. Drop Dynamics and Speciation in Isolation of Metals from Liquid Wastes by Reactive Scavenging

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Arne J. Pearlstein; Alexander Scheeline

    2002-08-30

    Computational and experimental studies of the motion and dynamics of liquid drops in gas flows were conducted with relevance to reactive scavenging of metals from atomized liquid waste. Navier-Stoke's computations of deformable drops revealed a range of conditions from which prolate drops are expected, and showed how frajectiones of deformable drops undergoing deceleration can be computed. Experimental work focused on development of emission fluorescence, and scattering diagnostics. The instrument developed was used to image drop shapes, soot, and nonaxisymmetric departures from steady flow in a 22kw combustor

  2. Effect of shape reactivity on the rod-ejection accident

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Neogy, P.; Carew, J.F.

    1982-09-01

    The shape reactivity has a significant influence on the rod ejection accident. After the control rod is fully ejected from the core, the neutron flux undergoes a large reduction at the ejected rod location. The corresponding effect on the control reactivity is comparable in magnitude to the Doppler reactivity, and makes a significant contribution to limiting the power excursion during the transient. The neglect of this effect in point kinetics and space time synthesis analyses of the rod ejection accident may account in part for the large degree of conservatism usually associated with these analyses.

  3. Using Batteries to Reduce the Power Costs of Internet-scale Distributed

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Berger, Emery

    margin) Power Savings: (Ppeak ­ Pbatt) Cost Savings: cp(Ppeak ­ Pbatt) ­ cbB/L cp= cost of power ($/KW Empirical Evaluation: Power Savings Empirical Evaluation: Cost Savings Outline Concluding Remarks #12;Power, Global Load Balancing, etc. #12;Provisioning Algorithms Empirical Evaluation: Power Savings Empirical

  4. Efficient solar cooling: first ever non-tracking solar collectors powering a double effect absorption chiller

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Poiry, Heather Marie

    2011-01-01

    23-2011 Power [kW] Chiller Sun Collectors Natural Gas Figurea North-South collector showing the incoming sun rays, reda North-South collector showing the incoming sun rays, red

  5. Plasma and Electrode Emissions from a 1 kW Hydrogen-Nitrogen Arcjet Thruster

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Huang Heji; Pan Wenxia; Meng Xian; Wu Chengkang

    2010-05-21

    Arc root behavior affects the energy transfer and nozzle erosion in an arcjet thruster. To investigate the development of arc root attachment in 1 kW class N{sub 2} and H{sub 2}-N{sub 2} arcjet thrusters from the time of ignition to the stably working condition, a kinetic series of end-on view images of the nozzle obtained by a high-speed video camera was analyzed. The addition of hydrogen leads to higher arc voltage levels and the determining factor for the mode of arc root attachment was found to be the nozzle temperature. At lower nozzle temperatures, constricted type attachment with unstable motions of the arc root was observed, while a fully diffused and stable arc root was observed at elevated nozzle temperatures.

  6. Verification test of a 25kW class SOFC cogeneration system

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Yokoyama, H.; Miyahara, A.; Veyo, S.E.

    1997-12-31

    Osaka Gas and Tokyo Gas have high expectations for natural-gas-fueled Solid Oxide Fuel Cell (SOFC) cogeneration systems. SOFC offers many advantages for on-site cogeneration systems, such as high electrical efficiency, high quality by-product heat and low emissions. They are now executing a joint development program with Westinghouse Electric Corporation (hereinafter called as WELCO). This program is aimed to verify a 25kW class SOFC cogeneration system. This system, which was modified by replacing previous zirconia porous support tube cells (PST cells) with newly designed air electrode supported cells (AES cells), commenced operation on March 21, 1995. The system has been successfully operated for 13,100 hours as of February 7, 1997. This paper presents the performance evaluation of the new AES cells and the results of system operation at WELCO.

  7. Management Of Hanford KW Basin Knockout Pot Sludge As Spent Nuclear Fuel

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Raymond, R. E. [CH2M HIll Plateau Remediation Company, Richland, WA (United States); Evans, K. M. [AREVA, Avignon (France)

    2012-10-22

    CH2M HILL Plateau Remediation Company (CHPRC) and AREVA Federal Services, LLC (AFS) have been working collaboratively to develop and deploy technologies to remove, transport, and interim store remote-handled sludge from the 10S-K West Reactor Fuel Storage Basin on the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Hanford Site near Richland, WA, USA. Two disposal paths exist for the different types of sludge found in the K West (KW) Basin. One path is to be managed as Spent Nuclear Fuel (SNF) with eventual disposal at an SNF at a yet to be licensed repository. The second path will be disposed as remote-handled transuranic (RH-TRU) waste at the Waste Isolation Pilot Plant (WIPP) in Carlsbad, NM. This paper describes the systems developed and executed by the Knockout Pot (KOP) Disposition Subproject for processing and interim storage of the sludge managed as SNF, (i.e., KOP material).

  8. Sampling and Analysis Plan for canister liquid and gas sampling at 105-KW fuel storage basin

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Harris, R.A.; Green, M.A.; Makenas, B.J.; Trimble, D.J.

    1995-03-01

    This Sampling and Analysis Plan (SAP) details the sampling and analyses to be performed on fuel canisters transferred to the Weasel Pit of the 105-KW fuel storage basin. The radionuclide content of the liquid and gas in the canisters must be evaluated to support the shipment of fuel elements to the 300 Area in support of the fuel characterization studies (Abrefah, et al. 1994, Trimble 1995). The following sections provide background information and a description of the facility under investigation, discuss the existing site conditions, present the constituents of concern, outline the purpose and scope of the investigation, outline the data quality objectives (DQO), provide analytical detection limit, precision, and accuracy requirements, and address other quality assurance (QA) issues.

  9. Design of a 1 kW class gamma type Stirling engine

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Raggi, L.; Katsuta, Masafumi; Sekiya, Hiroshi

    1997-12-31

    The study for a design on a kinematic drive gamma type Stirling engine is reported. This unit enters in the 1kW class and it is conceived to move a portable electric generator. The peculiarity of this unit is basically to use components taken from the line production, and also for the parts designed specifically for this application all the efforts are directed to simplicity in terms of material and manufacture. At first the engine performance targets are defined in compatibility with the components taken from a large scale production compressor and then the new components like the heat exchangers and the crank mechanism are designed. Two pre-tests are effected: one to define the performances of the induction motor in the electric regenerative mode and another running the machine as a refrigerator.

  10. Chemically Reactive Working Fluids

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    This fact sheet summarizes the Argonne National Laboratory (ANL) project for the DOE Solar Program through the 2012 SunShot Concentrating Solar Power R&D awards.

  11. Reactive arthritis – two different cases

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Brzezinski, Piotr

    2014-01-01

    syndrome asso- ciated with psoriasis - case report. Actacutaneous lesions of psoriasis (Hg. 3). Fig. 1. BalanitisII. Comparison between psoriasis, reactive arthritis and

  12. Cut Your Power Bills 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Greenwood, R. W.

    1979-01-01

    CUT YOUR POWER BILLS Ralph W. Greenwood Manager, Electric Po\\yer & Steam Supply Union Carbide Corporation INTRODUCTION Electric power bills can often be reduced by careful attention to the inter-relationship between your plant operations... of work and determines the amount of fuel the utility must burn. One kW equals 3413 BTU. ~ hr. Before we analyze how a rate interacts with a customer's load profile, we need to see how a rate is con structed. Rate Design Custome~ Demand and Energy...

  13. Design of a 2.5kW Low Temperature Stirling Engine for Distributed Solar Thermal Generation

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Sanders, Seth

    Design of a 2.5kW Low Temperature Stirling Engine for Distributed Solar Thermal Generation Mike He on the design of a Stirling engine for distributed solar thermal ap- plications. In particular, we design for experimentation. Stirling engines can have broad significance and technological advantages for distributed

  14. Technical Review Report for the Mound 1KW Package Safety Analysis Report for Packaging Waiver for the Use of Modified Primary Containment Vessel (PCV)

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    West, M; Hafner, R

    2008-05-05

    This Technical Review Report (TRR) documents the review, performed by the Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory (LLNL) staff, at the request of the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE), on the Waiver for the Use of Modified Primary Containment Vessels (PCV). The waiver is to be used to support a limited number of shipments of fuel for the Multi-Mission Radioisotope Thermoelectric Generator (MMRTG) Project in support of the National Aeronautics and Space Administration's (NASA's) Mars Science Laboratory (MSL) mission. Under the waiver, an inventory of existing national security PCVs will be converted to standard PCVs. Both types of PCVs are currently approved for use by the Office of Nuclear Energy. LLNL has previously reviewed the national security PCVs under Mound 1KW Package Safety Analysis Report for Packaging, Addendum No. 1, Revision c, dated June 2007 (Addendum 1). The safety analysis of the package is documented in the Safety Analysis Report for Packaging (SARP) for the Mound 1KW Package (i.e., the Mound 1KW SARP, or the SARP) where the standard PCVs have been reviewed by LLNL. The Mound 1KW Package is certified by DOE Certificate of Compliance (CoC) number USA/9516/B(U)F-85 for the transportation of Type B quantities of plutonium heat source material. The waiver requests an exemption, claiming safety equivalent to the requirements specified in 10 CFR 71.12, Specific Exemptions, and will lead to a letter amendment to the CoC. Under the waiver, the Office of Radioisotope Power Systems, NE-34, is seeking an exemption from 10 CFR 71.19(d)(1), Previously Approved Package,[5] which states: '(d) NRC will approve modifications to the design and authorized contents of a Type B package, or a fissile material package, previously approved by NRC, provided--(1) The modifications of a Type B package are not significant with respect to the design, operating characteristics, or safe performance of the containment system, when the package is subjected to the tests specified in {section}71.71 and 71.73.' The LLNL staff had previously reviewed a request from Idaho National Laboratory (INL) to reconfigure national security PCVs to standard PCVs. With a nominal 50% reduction in both the height and the volume, the LLNL staff initially deemed the modifications to be significant, which would not be allowed under the provisions of 10 CFR 71.19(d)(1)--see above. As a follow-up, the DOE requested additional clarification from the Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC). The NRC concluded that the reconfiguration would be a new fabrication, and that an exemption to the regulations would be required to allow its use, as per the requirements specified in 10 CFR 71.19(c)(1), Previously Approved Package: '(c) A Type B(U) package, a Type B(M) package, or a fissile material package previously approved by the NRC with the designation '-85' in the identification number of the NRC CoC, may be used under the general license of {section}71.17 with the following additional conditions: (1) Fabrication of the package must be satisfactorily completed by December 31, 2006, as demonstrated by application of its model number in accordance with 71.85(c).' Although the preferred approach toward the resolution of this issue would be for the applicant to submit an updated SARP, the applicant has stated that the process of updating the Model Mound 1KW Package SARP is a work that is in progress, but that the updated SARP is not yet ready for submittal. The applicant has to provide a submittal, proving that the package meets the '-96' requirements of International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA) Safety Standards Series No. TS-R-1, in order to fabricate approved packagings after December 31, 2006. The applicant has further stated that all other packaging features, as described in the currently approved Model Mound 1KW Package SARP, remain unchanged. This report documents the LLNL review of the waiver request. The specific review for each SARP Chapter is documented.

  15. Nutritional regulation of neural stem cell reactivation in Drosophila melanogaster

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Liu, Jun

    2015-06-09

    to proliferation in both systems (Groszer et al. , 2001, 2006; Peltier et al. , 2007). Exploiting powerful genetic tools that are available in Drosophila led to the recent dis- covery that NSCs reactivate via a fat body and glial cell relay (Figure 1...

  16. The WEI6K, a 6-kW 7-m Small Wind Turbine: Final Technical Report

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Wetzel, Kyle K.; McCleer, Patrick J.; Hahlbeck, Edwin C.; DOE Project Office - Keith Bennett

    2006-07-21

    This project was selected by the U.S. Department of Energy under a DOE solicitation “Low Wind Speed Technology for Small Turbine Development.” The objective of this project has been to design a new small wind turbine with improved cost, reliability and performance in grid-connected residential and small business applications, in order to achieve the overall DOE goal of cost effectiveness in Class 3 wind resources that can now be achieved in Class 5 resources. The scope of work for this project has been to complete the preliminary design of an improved small wind turbine, including preliminary loads and strength analyses; analysis and design of all major components; systems integration and structural dynamic analysis; estimation of life-cycle cost of energy; and design documentation and review. The project did not entail hardware fabrication or testing. The WEI6K Turbine resulting from this project is an upwind horizontal-axis wind turbine rated at 6 kW. It features a 3-blade 7-m diameter rotor. The generator is a direct-drive permanent magnet synchronous machine generating 3-phase power at 240 VAC. The turbine is maintained oriented in to the wind via active yaw control using electromechanical servos. Power is regulated with active blade pitch control. The turbine is presently designed to be placed on a 100-foot (30m) tower. The turbine is predicted to generate electricity at a levelized cost of energy (COE) between 7.3 and 8.9 ¢/kWh at an IEC Class II site, with an average wind speed of 8.5 m/s at hub height, depending upon whether the customer uses a guyed truss tower (the lower figure) or a monopole tower. For the NREL Reference Site, with a mean wind speed of 5.35 m/s at 10 m height, the turbine would generate at a levelized cost of energy of between 9.7 and 11.9 ¢/kWh. The lowest of these numbers is presently competitive with retail electricity rates in most of the country. The 8.9 ¢/kWh is still competitive with retail rates in many regions of the country with high electricity costs. The study further concludes that several design changes could shave 10-14% from the cost of energy determined in the preliminary design. These changes include a new tower design that offers tilt-up capability without guy wires and takes better advantage of the lowered loads produced by pitch control; design a family of airfoils more appropriate for pitch regulation on a turbine of this size; tune the pitch controller properly to minimize shedding of power during turbulent operation in the transition from Region 2 to 3; value engineer the pitch system to shave costs, including consideration of a collective pitch system; and refine the design of the hub and main frame castings to minimize weight and cost. We are generally encouraged by the results. These preliminary numbers show that we can produce a turbine that is competitive with retail electric rates at relatively windy IEC Class II sites. With further improvements in the design, we believe the turbine could be competitive at sites with lesser wind resource.

  17. A Guidebook on Grid Interconnection and Islanded Operation of Mini-Grid Power Systems Up to 200 kW

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Greacen, Chris

    2014-01-01

    James Cale, National Renewable Energy Laboratory (USA) Mr.Coddington, National Renewable Energy Laboratory (USA) Dr.Energy Services Delivery/Renewable Energy for Rural Economic

  18. A Guidebook on Grid Interconnection and Islanded Operation of Mini-Grid Power Systems Up to 200 kW

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Greacen, Chris

    2014-01-01

    wp-content/uploads/2010/01/IREC-Interconnection-Procedures-investor-owned utility IREC: Interstate Renewable EnergyRenewable Energy Council (IREC) Model Interconnection

  19. A Guidebook on Grid Interconnection and Islanded Operation of Mini-Grid Power Systems Up to 200 kW

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Greacen, Chris

    2014-01-01

    electrification, part 9-2: Microgrids,” IEC/TS 62257-9-2the role of mini-grids/microgrids is fundamentally differentspecifications addresses microgrids, though it does not

  20. A Guidebook on Grid Interconnection and Islanded Operation of Mini-Grid Power Systems Up to 200 kW

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Greacen, Chris

    2014-01-01

    on renewable energy project development in India, includingagency GIZ and India’s Ministry of New and Renewable Energy,indias-grid-expansion-erodes-island-solar-scheme Energy Services Delivery/Renewable

  1. Completing the complex Poynting theorem: Conservation of reactive energy in reactive time

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Gerald Kaiser

    2014-12-11

    The complex Poynting theorem is extended canonically to a time-scale domain $(t, s)$ by replacing the phasors of time-harmonic fields by the analytic signals $X(r, t+is)$ of fields $X(r,t)$ with general time dependence. The imaginary time $s>0$ is shown to play the role of a time resolution scale, and the extended Poynting theorem splits into two conservation laws: its real part gives the conservation in $t$ of the scale-averaged active energy at fixed $s$, and its imaginary part gives the conservation in $s$ of the scale-averaged reactive energy at fixed $t$. At coarse scales (large $s$, slow time), where the system reduces to the circuit level, this may have applications to the theory of electric power transmission and conditioning. At fine scales (small $s$, fast time) it describes reactive energy dynamics in radiating systems.

  2. Thermal analysis of vascular reactivity 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Deshpande, Chinmay Vishwas

    2009-05-15

    ANALYSIS OF VASCULAR REACTIVITY A Thesis by CHINMAY DESHPANDE Submitted to the Office of Graduate Studies of Texas A&M University in partial fulfillment of the requirements for the degree of MASTER OF SCIENCE Approved by: Chair of Committee, Obdulia Ley... of Advisory Committee: Dr. Obdulia Ley Cardiovascular disease (CVD) is the leading cause of death in the United States. Analysis of vascular reactivity (VR) in response to brachial artery occlusion is used to estimate arterial health and to determine...

  3. Combining thorium with burnable poison for reactivity control of a very long cycle BWR

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Inoue, Yuichiro, 1969-

    2004-01-01

    The effect of utilizing thorium together with gadolinium, erbium, or boron burnable absorber in BWR fuel assemblies for very long cycle is investigated. Nuclear characteristics such as reactivity and power distributions ...

  4. High Efficiency 370kW Microturbine with Integral Heat Recovery

    Broader source: Energy.gov (indexed) [DOE]

    Design a small turbine power generation system with the following: 42% Engine Efficiency 85% Total System Efficiency with CHP 2007 CARB-level emissions without...

  5. Dynamic response analysis of a 900 kW wind turbine subject to ground excitation

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Caudillo, Adrian Felix

    2012-01-01

    powered by wind energy, wind turbines themselves stillWind Energy and Earthquake Activity Wind Turbines areTested wind turbine provided courtesy of Oak Creek Energy

  6. A 40KW ROOF MOUNTED PV THERMAL CONCENTRATOR SYSTEM J.F.H. Smeltink1

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    thermal (PV-T) concentrator system. This system is based on its Combined Heat and Power Solar (CHAPS called Combined Heat and Power Solar (CHAPS) Systems. During 2002 the Australian Greenhouse Office made of 37x. Heat is removed from the solar cells using a fluid, which flows through a passage in the cell

  7. Advanced, High-Reliability, System-Integrated 500kW PV Inverter Development: Final Subcontract Report, 29 September 2005 - 31 May 2008

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    West, R.

    2008-08-01

    Xantrex Technology accomplished subcontract goals of reducing parts cost, weight, and size of its 500-kW inverter by 25% compared to state-of-the-art PV inverters, while extending reliability by 25%.

  8. Aalborg Universitet Tvindkraft: Implementing a 500 kW 21-IGBT-Based Frequency Converter for a 1.7 MW

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Schaltz, Erik

    Rotor Synchronous Generator (WRSG), installed in the windmill's hub, to the grid, by operating-filterRectifier SG 500 kW 21-IGBT-based frequency converter Generator and step- down transformer Step-up transformer

  9. PQMII POWER QUALITY METER INSTRUCTION MANUAL 11 PQMII Power Quality Meter

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Meyers, Steven D.

    #12;#12;#12;PQMII POWER QUALITY METER ­ INSTRUCTION MANUAL 1­1 PQMII Power Quality Meter Chapter 1 Multilin PQMII Power Quality Meter is an ideal choice for continuous monitoring of a single or three-phase system. It provides metering for current, voltage, real power, reactive power, apparent power, energy use

  10. Abstract--The optimal power flow (OPF) problem is a critical problem for power generation and is generally non-convex. This

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Lavaei, Javad

    1 Abstract-- The optimal power flow (OPF) problem is a critical problem for power generation flow on the line P: vector of active power generations Q: vector of reactive power generations L: loss/reactive power generation limits. Given the practical importance of the problem, a great many studies have been

  11. Small geothermal electric systems for remote powering

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Entingh, Daniel J.; Easwaran, Eyob.; McLarty, Lynn

    1994-08-08

    This report describes conditions and costs at which quite small (100 to 1,000 kilowatt) geothermal systems could be used for off-grid powering at remote locations. This is a first step in a larger process of determining locations and conditions at which markets for such systems could be developed. The results suggest that small geothermal systems offer substantial economic and environmental advantages for powering off-grid towns and villages. Geothermal power is most likely to be economic if the system size is 300 kW or greater, down to reservoir temperatures of 100{degree}C. For system sizes smaller than 300 kW, the economics can be favorable if the reservoir temperature is about 120{degree}C or above. Important markets include sites remote from grids in many developing and developed countries. Estimates of geothermal resources in many developing countries are shown.

  12. Mitochondrial reactive oxygen species and cancer

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Chandel, Navdeep S

    Mitochondria produce reactive oxygen species (mROS) as a natural by-product of electron transport chain activity. While initial studies focused on the damaging effects of reactive oxygen species, a recent paradigm shift ...

  13. Nuclear Power No Solution to the Climate Crisis

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Laughlin, Robert B.

    construction of new nuclear reactors as a means of addressing the climate crisis. Available renewable energy Reality Check, Part 4 · Costs raise serious questions about nuclear's competitiveness · 15 cents per kwNuclear Power No Solution to the Climate Crisis Michael Mariotte Nuclear Information and Resource

  14. Minnesota Power- Solar-Electric (PV) Rebate Program

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE)

    Minnesota Power offers a rebate of $1,000 per kilowatt (kW) DC for grid-connected solar-electric (PV) systems, with a maximum award of $20,000 per customer or 60% installed costs per customer. This...

  15. Minnesota Power- SolarSense Solar Rebate Program

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    Minnesota Power offers a rebate of $1,000 per kilowatt (kW) DC for grid-connected solar-electric (PV) systems, with a maximum award of $20,000 per customer or 60% installed costs per customer. This...

  16. Rocky Mountain Power- Self-Direction Credit Program

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    Rocky Mountain Power offers a Self-Direction Credit program to its industrial and large commercial customers with annual electric usage of more than 5,000,000 kWh or a 1,000 kW peak load. Through...

  17. Rocky Mountain Power- Self-Direction Credit Program

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    Rocky Mountain Power offers a Self-Direction Credit program to its industrial and large commercial customers with annual electric usage of more than 5 million kWh or a peak load of 1,000 kW or more...

  18. Lithium Mass Flow Control for High Power Lorentz Force Accelerators

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Lithium Mass Flow Control for High Power Lorentz Force Accelerators Andrea D. Kodys1 , Gregory Laboratory, Pasadena, CA 91109 (609).258.5220, choueiri@princeton.edu Abstract. A lithium feeding system has been developed to measure and control propellant flow for 30-200 kW Lithium Lorentz Force Accelerators

  19. Performance Characteristics of a Cluster of 5-kW Laboratory Hall Thrusters

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Walker, Mitchell

    thrust changes within 4% to 2%, significantly better than a simple random flux calculation that uses power is increasing. Recent satellite designs suggest that electric propulsion (EP) systems will have [2]. If the tank pressure is too high, the background gas can artificially modify the exhaust plume

  20. Validation of an Integrated System for a Hydrogen-Fueled Power Park

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    simulation ­ Efficiency ­ Waste heat availability Develop cost of operation models ­ Capital ­ Fuel costs reformer with equal loads All waste heat can be utilized 3-5 kW commercially available PEM fuel cells Heat and Power Has the Potential to Lower Power Cost by ~$0.01/kWh · CHP Requires Reformer and Fuel

  1. Recovery Act. Solid Oxide Fuel Cell Diesel Auxilliary Power Unit Demonstration

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Geiger, Gail E.

    2013-09-30

    Solid Oxide Fuel Cell Diesel Auxilliary Power Unit Demonstration Project. Summarizing development of Delphi’s next generation SOFC system as the core power plant to prove the viability of the market opportunity for a 3-5 kW diesel SOFC system. Report includes test and demonstration results from testing the diesel APU in a high visibility fleet customer vehicle application.

  2. Surface loss limit of the power scaling of a thin-disk laser

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Kouznetsov, Dmitrii

    Surface loss limit of the power scaling of a thin-disk laser Dmitrii Kouznetsov, Jean, and the proposals for the 100 kw laser have been patented.13 The successive scaling of power to values necessary-François Bisson, Jun Dong, and Ken-ichi Ueda Institute for Laser Science, University of Electro-Communications, 1

  3. Reactive composite compositions and mat barriers

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Langton, Christine A. (Aiken, SC); Narasimhan, Rajendran (Evans, GA); Karraker, David G. (Aiken, SC)

    2001-01-01

    A hazardous material storage area has a reactive multi-layer composite mat which lines an opening into which a reactive backfill and hazardous material are placed. A water-inhibiting cap may cover the hazardous material storage area. The reactive multi-layer composite mat has a backing onto which is placed an active layer which will neutralize or stabilize hazardous waste and a fronting layer so that the active layer is between the fronting and backing layers. The reactive backfill has a reactive agent which can stabilize or neutralize hazardous material and inhibit the movement of the hazardous material through the hazardous material storage area.

  4. Medium Power 352 MHZ solid state pulsed RF amplifiers for the CERN LINAC4 Project

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Broere, J; Gómez Martínez, Y; Rossi, M

    2011-01-01

    Economic, modular and highly linear pulsed RF amplifiers have recently been developed to be used for the three buncher cavities in the CERN Linac4. The amplifiers are water-cooled and can provide up to 33 kW pulsed RF Power, 1.5 ms pulse length and 50 Hz repetition rate. Furthermore a 60 kW unit is under construction to provide the required RF Power for the debuncher cavity. The concept is based on 1.2 kW RF power modules using the latest 6th generation LDMOS technology. For integration into the CERN control environment the amplifiers have an internal industrial controller, which will provide easy control and extended diagnostic functions. This paper describes the construction, performance, including linearity, phase stability and EMC compliance tests

  5. Microsoft Word - EXTERNAL BPA classroom presentations CA and KW editsSES

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Homesum_a_epg0_fpd_mmcf_m.xls" ,"Available from WebQuantityBonneville Power Administration wouldMass map shines light on77 PAGE OF PAGESpersonal MarchBoardJune 1, 2015 1 ProcedureJRC6 13

  6. Power production from renewable resources in a gasification power system

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Paisley, M.A.; Farris, G.; Bain, R.

    1996-12-31

    The US Department of Energy (DOE) has been a leader in the promotion and development of alternative fuel supplies based on renewable energy crops. One promising power generation technology is biomass gasification coupled with either a gas turbine in a combined cycle system or a fuel cell. The gasification of biomass can efficiently and economically produce a renewable source of a clean gaseous fuel suitable for use in these high efficiency power systems or as a substitute fuel in other combustion devices such as boilers, kilns, or other natural gas fired equipment. This paper discusses the development and commercialization of the Battelle high-throughput gasification process for gas turbine based power generation systems. Projected process economics for a gas turbine combined cycle plant are presented along with a description of integrated system operation coupling a 200kW gas turbine power generation system to a 10 ton per day gasifier, and current commercialization activities. 6 refs., 3 figs., 1 tab.

  7. Reactivity transients during a blowdown in a MSIV closure ATWS

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Cheng, H.S.; Diamond, D.J. (Brookhaven National Lab., Upton, NY (USA))

    1988-01-01

    Anticipated transients without scram (ATWS) events have received considerable attention in the past and are still a subject of great interest in severe-accident analysis. Of special interest is the effect of the low-pressure emergency core cooling system (ECCS) on the plant response following a blowdown by the automatic depressurization system (ADS). There is a potential for positive reactivity insertion due to the cold water injection of the low-pressure coolant injection (LPCI) system and the low-pressure core spray system in a boiling water reactor (BWR)/4. The main concern is whether a power excursion and pressure oscillation can occur in such an event. Furthermore, since thermal-hydraulic feedback plays an important role in these accidents, the uncertainty of the reactivity feedback coefficients used can impact the outcome of the analysis for such a power excursion. The objectives of the work reported in this paper are to study the consequences of the reactivity transients during a blowdown in an ATWS event with closure of the main steam isolation valves (MSIVs) and to evaluate the effect of the LPCI system and the sensitivity of plant response to the feedback coefficients. This work was performed with the Brookhaven National Laboratory plant analyzer.

  8. Sub-100 fs pulses at watt-level powers from a dissipative-soliton fiber laser

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Kieu, Khanh

    Sub-100 fs pulses at watt-level powers from a dissipative-soliton fiber laser K. Kieu,* W. H with cladding pumping for high average power. The laser generates 31 nJ chirped pulses at 70 MHz repetition rate, for an average power of 2.2 W. After dechirping outside the laser, 80 fs pulses, with 200 kW peak power

  9. Layered reactive particles with controlled geometries, energies, and reactivities, and methods for making the same

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Fritz, Gregory M; Knepper, Robert Allen; Weihs, Timothy P; Gash, Alexander E; Sze, John S

    2013-04-30

    An energetic composite having a plurality of reactive particles each having a reactive multilayer construction formed by successively depositing reactive layers on a rod-shaped substrate having a longitudinal axis, dividing the reactive-layer-deposited rod-shaped substrate into a plurality of substantially uniform longitudinal segments, and removing the rod-shaped substrate from the longitudinal segments, so that the reactive particles have a controlled, substantially uniform, cylindrically curved or otherwise rod-contoured geometry which facilitates handling and improves its packing fraction, while the reactant multilayer construction controls the stability, reactivity and energy density of the energetic composite.

  10. High power laser downhole cutting tools and systems

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Zediker, Mark S; Rinzler, Charles C; Faircloth, Brian O; Koblick, Yeshaya; Moxley, Joel F

    2015-01-20

    Downhole cutting systems, devices and methods for utilizing 10 kW or more laser energy transmitted deep into the earth with the suppression of associated nonlinear phenomena. Systems and devices for the laser cutting operations within a borehole in the earth. These systems and devices can deliver high power laser energy down a deep borehole, while maintaining the high power to perform cutting operations in such boreholes deep within the earth.

  11. High power laser workover and completion tools and systems

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Zediker, Mark S; Rinzler, Charles C; Faircloth, Brian O; Koblick, Yeshaya; Moxley, Joel F

    2014-10-28

    Workover and completion systems, devices and methods for utilizing 10 kW or more laser energy transmitted deep into the earth with the suppression of associated nonlinear phenomena. Systems and devices for the laser workover and completion of a borehole in the earth. These systems and devices can deliver high power laser energy down a deep borehole, while maintaining the high power to perform laser workover and completion operations in such boreholes deep within the earth.

  12. First waste-to-energy power station put into operation in Vietnam has successfully produced electricity from household and industrial waste as a

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Columbia University

    First waste-to-energy power station put into operation in Vietnam Vietnam has successfully produced electricity from household and industrial waste as a newly-generated power supply has come online of the first turbine of the waste-powered electricity plant has been successful. The plant can produce 14,400KW

  13. Engine combustion control at low loads via fuel reactivity stratification

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Reitz, Rolf Deneys; Hanson, Reed M; Splitter, Derek A; Kokjohn, Sage L

    2014-10-07

    A compression ignition (diesel) engine uses two or more fuel charges during a combustion cycle, with the fuel charges having two or more reactivities (e.g., different cetane numbers), in order to control the timing and duration of combustion. By appropriately choosing the reactivities of the charges, their relative amounts, and their timing, combustion can be tailored to achieve optimal power output (and thus fuel efficiency), at controlled temperatures (and thus controlled NOx), and with controlled equivalence ratios (and thus controlled soot). At low load and no load (idling) conditions, the aforementioned results are attained by restricting airflow to the combustion chamber during the intake stroke (as by throttling the incoming air at or prior to the combustion chamber's intake port) so that the cylinder air pressure is below ambient pressure at the start of the compression stroke.

  14. Exploring the reactivity of bacterial multicomponent monooxygenases

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Tinberg, Christine Elaine

    2010-01-01

    Chapter 1. Introduction: The Reactivity of Bacterial Multicomponent Monooxygenases Bacterial multicomponent monooxygenases constitute a remarkable family of enzymes that oxidize small, inert hydrocarbon substrates using ...

  15. Rejuvenating Permeable Reactive Barriers by Chemical Flushing

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    Final Report:Rejuvenating Permeable Reactive Barriers by Chemical Flushing,U.S. Environmental Protection Agency, Region 8 Support.August 2004

  16. High Efficiency Fuel Reactivity Controlled Compression Ignition...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    High Efficiency Fuel Reactivity Controlled Compression Ignition Combustion An optimized dual-fuel PCCI concept, RCCI, is proposed. deer10reitz.pdf More Documents & Publications...

  17. Permeable Reactive Barriers | Department of Energy

    Office of Environmental Management (EM)

    reaction occurs with the barrier material that results in adsorption, mineral precipitation, or degradation to a harmless compound. Reactive barriers that do not incorporate...

  18. High-Temperature SiC Power Module with Integrated SiC Gate Drivers for Future High-Density Power Electronics Applications

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Whitaker, Mr. Bret [APEI, Inc.; Cole, Mr. Zach [APEI, Inc.; Passmore, Mr. Brandon [APEI, Inc.; Mcnutt, Tyler [APEI, Inc.; Lostetter, Dr. Alex [APEI, Inc.; Ericson, Milton Nance [ORNL; Frank, Steven [ORNL; Britton Jr, Charles L [ORNL; Marlino, Laura D [ORNL; Mantooth, Alan [University of Arkansas; Francis, Matt [APEI, Inc.; Lamichhane, Ranjan [APEI, Inc.; Shepherd, Paul [APEI, Inc.; Glover, Michael [APEI, Inc.

    2014-01-01

    This paper presents a high-temperature capable intelligent power module that contains SiC power devices and SiC gate driver integrated circuits (ICs). The high-temperature capability of the SiC gate driver ICs allows for them to be packaged into the power module and be located physically close to the power devices. This provides a distinct advantage by reducing the gate driver loop inductance, which promotes high frequency operation, while also reducing the overall volume of the system through higher levels of integration. The power module was tested in a bridgeless-boost converter (Fig. 1) to determine the performance of the module in a system level application. The converter was operated with a switching frequency of 200 kHz with a peak output power of approximately 5 kW. The peak efficiency was found to be 97.5% at 2.9 kW.

  19. Method for reactivating catalysts and a method for recycling supercritical fluids used to reactivate the catalysts

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Ginosar, Daniel M. (Idaho Falls, ID); Thompson, David N. (Idaho Falls, ID); Anderson, Raymond P. (Idaho Falls, ID)

    2008-08-05

    A method of reactivating a catalyst, such as a solid catalyst or a liquid catalyst. The method comprises providing a catalyst that is at least partially deactivated by fouling agents. The catalyst is contacted with a fluid reactivating agent that is at or above a critical point of the fluid reactivating agent and is of sufficient density to dissolve impurities. The fluid reactivating agent reacts with at least one fouling agent, releasing the at least one fouling agent from the catalyst. The at least one fouling agent becomes dissolved in the fluid reactivating agent and is subsequently separated or removed from the fluid reactivating agent so that the fluid reactivating agent may be reused. A system for reactivating a catalyst is also disclosed.

  20. RF Power Upgrade for CEBAF at Jefferson Laboratory

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Andrew Kimber,Richard Nelson

    2011-03-01

    Jefferson Laboratory (JLab) is currently upgrading the 6GeV Continuous Electron Beam Accelerator Facility (CEBAF) to 12GeV. As part of the upgrade, RF systems will be added, bringing the total from 340 to 420. Existing RF systems can provide up to 6.5 kW of CW RF at 1497 MHZ. The 80 new systems will provide increased RF power of up to 13 kW CW each. Built around a newly designed and higher efficiency 13 kW klystron developed for JLab by L-3 Communications, each new RF chain is a completely revamped system using hardware different than our present installations. This paper will discuss the main components of the new systems including the 13 kW klystron, waveguide isolator, and HV power supply using switch-mode technology. Methodology for selection of the various components and results of initial testing will also be addressed. Notice: Authored by Jefferson Science Associates, LLC under U.S. DOE Contract No. DE-AC05-06OR23177. The U.S. Government retains a non-exclusive, paid-up, irrevocable, world-wide license to publish or reproduce this manuscript for U.S. Government purposes.

  1. BEAM-POWER DEPOSITION IN A 4-MW TARGET STATION FOR A MUON COLLIDER OR A NEUTRINO FACTORY

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    McDonald, Kirk

    BEAM-POWER DEPOSITION IN A 4-MW TARGET STATION FOR A MUON COLLIDER OR A NEUTRINO FACTORY (IPAC11 with shielding out to 1.2 m radius. W-C shielding likely needed beyond the target station, where ~ 800 kW power-carbide + water shielding of superconducting magnets for the target station at a Muon Collider or Neutrino Factory

  2. Analysis of Reactivity Induced Accident for Control Rods Ejection with Loss of Cooling

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Saad, Hend Mohammed El Sayed; Wahab, Moustafa Aziz Abd El

    2013-01-01

    Understanding of the time-dependent behavior of the neutron population in nuclear reactor in response to either a planned or unplanned change in the reactor conditions, is a great importance to the safe and reliable operation of the reactor. In the present work, the point kinetics equations are solved numerically using stiffness confinement method (SCM). The solution is applied to the kinetics equations in the presence of different types of reactivities and is compared with different analytical solutions. This method is also used to analyze reactivity induced accidents in two reactors. The first reactor is fueled by uranium and the second is fueled by plutonium. This analysis presents the effect of negative temperature feedback with the addition positive reactivity of control rods to overcome the occurrence of control rod ejection accident and damaging of the reactor. Both power and temperature pulse following the reactivity- initiated accidents are calculated. The results are compared with previous works and...

  3. Analysis of Reactivity Induced Accident for Control Rods Ejection with Loss of Cooling

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Hend Mohammed El Sayed Saad; Hesham Mohammed Mohammed Mansour; Moustafa Aziz Abd El Wahab

    2013-06-05

    Understanding of the time-dependent behavior of the neutron population in nuclear reactor in response to either a planned or unplanned change in the reactor conditions, is a great importance to the safe and reliable operation of the reactor. In the present work, the point kinetics equations are solved numerically using stiffness confinement method (SCM). The solution is applied to the kinetics equations in the presence of different types of reactivities and is compared with different analytical solutions. This method is also used to analyze reactivity induced accidents in two reactors. The first reactor is fueled by uranium and the second is fueled by plutonium. This analysis presents the effect of negative temperature feedback with the addition positive reactivity of control rods to overcome the occurrence of control rod ejection accident and damaging of the reactor. Both power and temperature pulse following the reactivity- initiated accidents are calculated. The results are compared with previous works and satisfactory agreement is found.

  4. Chemically Reactive Working Fluids, Concentrating Solar Power (Fact Sheet)

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Not Available

    2012-09-01

    Argonne National Laboratory (ANNL) is one of the 2012 SunShot CSP R&D awardees for their advanced receivers. This fact sheet explains the motivation, description, and impact of the project.

  5. 60 KEV 30 KW ELECTRON BEAM FACILITY FOR ELECTRON BEAM Yu.I.Semenov, V.E.Akimov, M.A.Batazova, B.A.Dovzhenko, V.V.Ershov, A.R.Frolov,

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Kozak, Victor R.

    60 KEV 30 KW ELECTRON BEAM FACILITY FOR ELECTRON BEAM TECHNOLOGY Yu.I.Semenov, V.E.Akimov, M Abstract At the Budker Institute of Nuclear Physics, Novosibirsk, the 60 keV 30 kW electron beam facility for electron beam technology has been developed. The electron gun provides continuous or modulated beam within

  6. Cleanup Verification Package for the 100-K-55:1 and 100-K-56:1 Pipelines and the 116-KW-4 and 116-KE-5 Heat Recovery Stations

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    J. M. Capron

    2005-09-28

    This cleanup verification package documents completion of remedial action for the 100-K-55:1 and 100-K-56:1 reactor cooling effluent underground pipelines and for the 116-KW-4 and 116-KE-5 heat recovery stations. The 100-K-55 and 100-K-56 sites consisted of those process effluent pipelines that serviced the 105-KW and 105-KE Reactors.

  7. Current and Future High Power Operation of Fermilab Main Injector

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Kourbanis, I.; Adamson, P.; Brown, B.; Capista, D.; Chou, W.; Morris, D.; Seyia, K.; Wu, G.; Yang, M.J.; /Fermilab

    2009-04-01

    Fermilab's Main Injector on acceleration cycles to 120 GeV has been running a mixed mode operation delivering beam to both the antiproton source for pbar production and to the NuMI[1] target for neutrino production since 2005. On January 2008 the slip stacking process used to increase the beam to the pbar target was expanded to include the beam to the NuMI target increasing the MI beam power at 120 GeV to 400KW. The current high power MI operation will be described along with the plans to increase the power to 700KW for NOvA and to 2.1 MW for project X.

  8. Wind Power

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Wind Power Bioenergy Power Systems Wind Power Wind Power Main Page Outreach Programs Image Gallery FAQs Links Software Hydro Power INL Home Wind Power Introduction The Wind Power...

  9. Controlling uranium reactivity March 18, 2008

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Meyer, Karsten

    March 2008 Controlling uranium reactivity March 18, 2008 Uranium is an often misunderstood metal uranium research. In reality, uranium presents a wealth of possibilities for funda- mental chemistry. Many research groups have been involved in utilizing the large size and unique reactivity of the uranium atom

  10. Shield Synthesis: Runtime Enforcement for Reactive Systems

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Wang, Chao

    Shield Synthesis: Runtime Enforcement for Reactive Systems Roderick Bloem1 , Bettina K¨onighofer1 shield" that is attached to the design to enforce the properties at run time. Shield synthesis can of reactive synthesis. The shield continuously monitors the input/output of the design and corrects its erro

  11. The unitary theory of the electrical powers

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Gheorghe Mihai

    2009-04-07

    General physics approach is applied to analysis of power components in electrical systems under sinusoidal and non-sinusoidal conditions. Physical essence of active, reactive and distorting powers are determinate. It is shown that the all three powers are the different aspects of the same physical phenomenon: mechanical action per time of Coulomb forces or inertial forces.

  12. Power Plant Power Plant

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Stillwater Power Plant Wabuska Power Plant Casa Diablo Power Plant Glass Mountain Geothermal Area Lassen Geothermal Area Coso Hot Springs Power Plants Lake City Geothermal Area Thermo Geothermal Area Lakeview Geothermal Area Raft River Geothermal Area Cove Fort Power Plant Roosevelt Power Plant Borax Lake

  13. Strengthening and AcceleratingStrengthening and Accelerating the Development of Fusion Powerthe Development of Fusion Power

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    (used to fuel a fusion power station) 200,000 KW-hrs = (total US electricity production for 15 years goal This timetable is underwritten by global collaboration in building ITER and a Japan that energy R&D boosted by oil crisis but then collapsed) It is very challenging - need to heat ~ 2000 m3

  14. High Average Power Operation of a Scraper-Outcoupled Free-Electron Laser

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Michelle D. Shinn; Chris Behre; Stephen Vincent Benson; Michael Bevins; Don Bullard; James Coleman; L. Dillon-Townes; Tom Elliott; Joe Gubeli; David Hardy; Kevin Jordan; Ronald Lassiter; George Neil; Shukui Zhang

    2004-08-01

    We describe the design, construction, and operation of a high average power free-electron laser using scraper outcoupling. Using the FEL in this all-reflective configuration, we achieved approximately 2 kW of stable output at 10 um. Measurements of gain, loss, and output mode will be compared with our models.

  15. Reactive Molecular Simulations of Protonation of Water Clusters...

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    Reactive Molecular Simulations of Protonation of Water Clusters and Depletion of Acidity in H-ZSM-5 Zeolite Citation Details In-Document Search Title: Reactive Molecular...

  16. Light-Duty Reactivity Controlled Compression Ignition Drive Cycle...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Light-Duty Reactivity Controlled Compression Ignition Drive Cycle Fuel Economy and Emissions Estimates Light-Duty Reactivity Controlled Compression Ignition Drive Cycle Fuel...

  17. Characterization of Dual-Fuel Reactivity Controlled Compression...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Dual-Fuel Reactivity Controlled Compression Ignition (RCCI) Using Hydrated Ethanol and Diesel Fuel Characterization of Dual-Fuel Reactivity Controlled Compression Ignition (RCCI)...

  18. Inducing and Quantifying Forbidden Reactivity with Single Molecule...

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    Inducing and Quantifying Forbidden Reactivity with Single Molecule Polymer Mechanochemistry Citation Details In-Document Search Title: Inducing and Quantifying Forbidden Reactivity...

  19. Compositional Reactive Semantics of SystemC and Verification with RuleBase

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Gupta, Rajesh

    C. Keywords: SystemC, semantics, verification, model checking 1 Introduction System-level modeling using for verification of SystemC com- ponents, providing a powerful workbench for testing and verification. 2 OverviewCompositional Reactive Semantics of SystemC and Verification with RuleBase Rudrapatna K

  20. Developing Embedded/Real-Time and Cyber-Physical Systems: Functional Reactive Programming, RTL-based Formal Verification, Response Time

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Cheng, Albert M. K.

    , specification, modeling, scheduling, and formal verification of real- time, embedded, and cyber-physical systems-based Formal Verification, Response Time Analysis, and Power-Aware Scheduling Albert M. K. Cheng Real reactive programming, RTL (real-time logic)-based formal verification, response time analysis, and power

  1. Theoretical and Experimental Evaluation of Chemical Reactivity 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Wang, Qingsheng

    2011-10-21

    theoretical and experimental methods. Methylcyclopentadiene (MCP) and Hydroxylamine (HA) are selected as representatives of unsaturated hydrocarbons and self-reacting chemicals, respectively. Chemical reactivity of MCP, including isomerization, dimerization...

  2. Reactivity control assembly for nuclear reactor

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Bollinger, Lawrence R. (Schenectady, NY)

    1984-01-01

    Reactivity control assembly for nuclear reactor comprises supports stacked above reactor core for holding control rods. Couplers associated with the supports and a vertically movable drive shaft have lugs at their lower ends for engagement with the supports.

  3. Cell Comp't Thermal Reactivity & Improvements

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    for better abuse tolerance Coating cathode particle with stable nano-films of Al-oxide or Al-fluoride that act as a barrier against electrolyte reactivity with cathodes ...

  4. Groundwater well with reactive filter pack

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Gilmore, T.J.; Holdren, G.R. Jr.; Kaplan, D.I.

    1998-09-08

    A method and apparatus are disclosed for the remediation of contaminated soil and ground water wherein a reactive pack material is added to the annular fill material utilized in standard well construction techniques. 3 figs.

  5. Groundwater well with reactive filter pack

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Gilmore, Tyler J. (Pasco, WA); Holdren, Jr., George R. (Kennewick, WA); Kaplan, Daniel I. (Richland, WA)

    1998-01-01

    A method and apparatus for the remediation of contaminated soil and ground water wherein a reactive pack material is added to the annular fill material utilized in standard well construction techniques.

  6. Systematic approach for chemical reactivity evaluation 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Aldeeb, Abdulrehman Ahmed

    2004-09-30

    incidents, and have harmed people, property, and the environment. Evaluation of reactive chemical hazards is critical to design and operate safer chemical plant processes. Much effort is needed for experimental techniques, mainly calorimetric analysis...

  7. Reactive Attachment Disorder: Concepts, Treatment, and Research

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Walter, Uta M.; Petr, Chris

    2004-06-01

    Reactive Attachment Disorder (RAD) is a disorder characterized by controversy, both with respect to its definition and its treatment. By definition, the RAD diagnosis attempts to characterize and explain the origin of certain troubling behaviors...

  8. IEEE TRANSACTIONS ON POWER ELECTRONICS, VOL. 22, NO. 4, JULY 2007 1437 A Ripple-Mitigating and Energy-Efficient Fuel Cell

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Mazumder, Sudip K.

    -Mitigating and Energy-Efficient Fuel Cell Power-Conditioning System Sudip K. Mazumder, Senior Member, IEEE, Rajni K-efficient, fuel-cell power-con- ditioning system (PCS) for stationary application, which reduces the variations in the current drawn from the fuel-cell stack and can potentially meet the $40/kW cost target. The PCS consists

  9. UNCORRECTEDPROOF Please cite this article in press as: J. Tomic, W. Kempton, J. Power Sources (2007), doi:10.1016/j.jpowsour.2007.03.010

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Firestone, Jeremy

    2007-01-01

    utility-owned fleets of battery electric-drive vehicles to provide power for a specific electricity market, regulation, in four US regional regulation services markets. The two battery-electric fleet cases are: (a of regulation services, (b) the power capacity (kW) of the electrical connections and wiring, and (c) the energy

  10. Fuel Cell Combined Heat and Power Commercial Demonstration

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Brooks, Kriston P.; Makhmalbaf, Atefe

    2014-09-02

    This is the annual report for the Market Transformation project as required by DOE EERE's Fuel Cell Technologies Office. We have been provided with a specific format. It describes the work that was done in developing evaluating the performance of 5 kW stationary combined heat and power fuel cell systems that have been deployed in Oregon and California. It also describes the business case that was developed to identify markets and address cost.

  11. Advanced, High Power, Next Scale, Wave Energy Conversion Device

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Mekhiche, Mike; Dufera, Hiz; Montagna, Deb

    2012-10-29

    The project conducted under DOE contract DE?EE0002649 is defined as the Advanced, High Power, Next Scale, Wave Energy Converter. The overall project is split into a seven?stage, gated development program. The work conducted under the DOE contract is OPT Stage Gate III work and a portion of Stage Gate IV work of the seven stage product development process. The project effort includes Full Concept Design & Prototype Assembly Testing building on our existing PowerBuoy? technology to deliver a device with much increased power delivery. Scaling?up from 150kW to 500kW power generating capacity required changes in the PowerBuoy design that addressed cost reduction and mass manufacturing by implementing a Design for Manufacturing (DFM) approach. The design changes also focused on reducing PowerBuoy Installation, Operation and Maintenance (IO&M) costs which are essential to reducing the overall cost of energy. In this design, changes to the core PowerBuoy technology were implemented to increase capability and reduce both CAPEX and OPEX costs. OPT conceptually envisaged moving from a floating structure to a seabed structure. The design change from a floating structure to seabed structure would provide the implementation of stroke? unlimited Power Take?Off (PTO) which has a potential to provide significant power delivery improvement and transform the wave energy industry if proven feasible.

  12. Low Cost Non-Reactive

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Homesum_a_epg0_fpd_mmcf_m.xls" ,"Available from WebQuantityBonneville Power Administration would likeUniverseIMPACTThousand CubicResourcelogoFeet) DeliveriesSubstrates -

  13. Initial tests of thermoacoustic space power engine.

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Backhaus, S. N.

    2002-01-01

    Future NASA deep-space missions will require radioisotope-powered electric generators that are just as reliable as current RTGs, but more efficient and of higher specific power (Wikg). Thennoacoustic engines at the -1-kW scale have converted high-temperature heat into acoustic, or PV, power without moving parts at 30% efficiency. Consisting of only tubes and a few heat exchangers, thennoacoustic engines are low mass and promise to be highly reliable. Coupling a thennoacoustic engine to a low mass, highly reliable and efficient linear alternator will create a heat-driven electric generator suitable for deep-space applications. Conversion efficiency data will be presented on a demonstration thennoacoustic engine designed for the 1 00-Watt power range.

  14. High power couplers for Project X

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Kazakov, S.; Champion, M.S.; Yakovlev, V.P.; Kramp, M.; Pronitchev, O.; Orlov, Y.; /Fermilab

    2011-03-01

    Project X, a multi-megawatt proton source under development at Fermi National Accelerator Laboratory. The key element of the project is a superconducting (SC) 3GV continuous wave (CW) proton linac. The linac includes 5 types of SC accelerating cavities of two frequencies.(325 and 650MHz) The cavities consume up to 30 kW average RF power and need proper main couplers. Requirements and approach to the coupler design are discussed in the report. New cost effective schemes are described. Results of electrodynamics and thermal simulations are presented.

  15. DIRECT CONTACT HEAT EXCHANGER 10 kW POWER LOOP. SECTION 1: EXECUTIVE SUMMARY. SECTION 2: TEST SERIES NO. 1. SECTION 3; TEST SERIES NO. 2

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Engineering, Barber-Nicholas

    2011-01-01

    i t h e r l i q u i d iso- butane or brine. The c o n s t rand thermometers located in d butane temperatures and , and-e t o t h e DCHX 330 + 5OF Butane o u t l e t t e m p e r a

  16. Fuel Cell Demonstration Project - 200 kW - Phosphoric Acid Fuel Cell Power Plant Located at the National Transportation Research Center: FINAL REPORT

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Berry, JB

    2005-05-06

    Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL) researches and develops distributed generation technology for the Department of Energy, Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy Distributed Energy Program. This report describes installation and operation of one such distributed generation system, a United Technology Corporation fuel cell located at the National Transportation Research Center in Knoxville, Tennessee. Data collected from June 2003 to June of 2004, provides valuable insight regarding fuel cell-grid compatibility and the cost-benefit of the fuel cell operation. The NTRC fuel cell included a high-heat recovery option so that use of thermal energy improves project economics and improves system efficiency to 59% year round. During the year the fuel cell supplied a total of 834MWh to the NTRC and provided 300MBtu of hot water. Installation of the NTRC fuel cell was funded by the Distributed Energy Program with partial funding from the Department of Defense's Climate Change Fuel Cell Buy Down Program, administered by the National Energy Technology Laboratory. On-going operational expenses are funded by ORNL's utility budget and are paid from operational cost savings. Technical information and the benefit-cost of the fuel cell are both evaluated in this report and sister reports.

  17. DIRECT CONTACT HEAT EXCHANGER 10 kW POWER LOOP. SECTION 1: EXECUTIVE SUMMARY. SECTION 2: TEST SERIES NO. 1. SECTION 3; TEST SERIES NO. 2

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Engineering, Barber-Nicholas

    2011-01-01

    high pressure brine to a direct contact heat exchanger whichPRESSURE RATIO Figure ,11. Pure IC4 calibration test (using hairpin heat exchanger).exchanger where heat was extracted from it to isobutane. The high pressure

  18. Method and apparatus for delivering high power laser energy over long distances

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Zediker, Mark S; Rinzler, Charles C; Faircloth, Brian O; Koblick, Yeshaya; Moxley, Joel F

    2013-08-20

    Systems, devices and methods for the transmission of 1 kW or more of laser energy deep into the earth and for the suppression of associated nonlinear phenomena. Systems, devices and methods for the laser drilling of a borehole in the earth. These systems can deliver high power laser energy down a deep borehole, while maintaining the high power to advance such boreholes deep into the earth and at highly efficient advancement rates.

  19. Methods for enhancing the efficiency of creating a borehole using high power laser systems

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Zediker, Mark S.; Rinzler, Charles C.; Faircloth, Brian O.; Koblick, Yeshaya; Moxley, Joel F.

    2014-06-24

    Methods for utilizing 10 kW or more laser energy transmitted deep into the earth with the suppression of associated nonlinear phenomena to enhance the formation of Boreholes. Methods for the laser operations to reduce the critical path for forming a borehole in the earth. These methods can deliver high power laser energy down a deep borehole, while maintaining the high power to perform operations in such boreholes deep within the earth.

  20. UTC Power/Delphi SECA CBS Final Report

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Gorman, Michael; Kerr, Rich

    2013-04-04

    The subject report summarizes the results of solid oxide fuel cell development conducted by UTC Power in conjunction with Delphi Automotive Systems under a cost-share program with from October 2008 through March of 2013. Over that period Delphi Automotive Systems developed a nearly four times larger area solid oxide fuel cell stack capable of operating on pre-reformed natural gas and simulated coal gas with durability demonstrated to 5,000 hours and projected to exceed 10,000 hours. The new stack design was scaled to 40-cell stacks with power output in excess of 6.25kW. Delphi also made significant strides in improving the manufacturability, yield and production cost of these solid oxide fuel cells over the course of the program. Concurrently, UTC Power developed a conceptual design for a 120 MW Integrated Gasification Fuel Cell (IGFC) operating on coal syngas with as high as 57% Higher Heating Value (HHV) efficiency as a measure of the feasibility of the technology. Subsequently a 400 kW on-site system preliminary design with 55% Lower Heating Value (LHV) efficiency operating on natural gas was down-selected from eighteen candidate designs. That design was used as the basis for a 25kW breadboard power plant incorporating four Delphi cell stacks that was tested on natural gas before the program was discontinued due to the sale of UTC Power in early 2013. Though the program was cut short of the endurance target of 3,000 hours, many aspects of the technology were proven including: large-area, repeatable cell manufacture, cell stack operation on simulated coal gas and natural gas and integrated power plant operation on natural gas. The potential of the technology for high efficiency stationary electric power generation is clear. Acceptable production costs, durability, and reliability in real world environments are the remaining challenges to commercialization.

  1. High-power pulsed thulium fiber oscillator modulated by stimulated Brillouin scattering

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Tang, Yulong, E-mail: yulong@sjtu.edu.cn; Xu, Jianqiu [Department of Physics and Astronomy, Key Laboratory for Laser Plasmas (Ministry of Education), Shanghai Jiao Tong University, Shanghai 200240 (China)] [Department of Physics and Astronomy, Key Laboratory for Laser Plasmas (Ministry of Education), Shanghai Jiao Tong University, Shanghai 200240 (China)

    2014-01-06

    A pulsed ?2-?m thulium-doped fiber laser passively modulated by distributed stimulated Brillouin scattering achieves 10.2?W average power and >100?kHz repetition rate with a very simple all-fiber configuration. The maximum pulse energy and peak power surpass 100??J and 6?kW, respectively. Another distinct property is that the pulse width is clamped around 17?ns at all power levels. All the average-power, pulse energy, and peak power show the highest values from passively modulated fiber lasers in all wavelength regions.

  2. Experimental study of a low radio frequency power driven relativistic klystron amplifier

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Li Zhenghong [Science College, Southwestern University of Science and Technology, Mianyang 621021 (China)

    2010-02-15

    Using particle in cell simulation codes, a low radio frequency (rf) power driven relativistic klystron amplifier is designed according to the beam with current of 7.5 kA and voltage of 750 kV with special measures to avoid the mode competition. Simulated power reaches 1.7 GW when the driven rf power is 7.0 kW, the corresponding gain is 53.9 dB. Also the experiment is carried out on a telsa-typed accelerator, whose beam is with current of 8 kA and voltage of 800 kV. The measured rf output power reaches 2.04 GW in the experiment when the input rf power is 62 kW and frequency 2.850 GHz, the corresponding gain is 45.1 dB and efficiency is 32%. The maximum gain reaches 46.7 dB when the input decreases to 39 kW, the corresponding output rf power is 1.84 GW.

  3. A solid oxide fuel cell power system: 1992--1993 field operation

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Veyo, S.E.; Kusunoki, A.; Takeuchi, S.; Kaneko, S.; Yokoyama, H.

    1994-05-01

    Westinghouse has deployed fully integrated, automatically controlled, packaged solid oxide fuel cell (SOFC) power generation systems in order to obtain useful customer feedback. Recently, Westinghouse has deployed 20 kW class natural gas fueled SOFC generator modules integrated into two 25 kW SOFC systems, the first with The UTILITIES, a Japanese consortium. The UTILITIES 25 kW SOFC system is the focus of this paper. The unit was shipped to the Rokko Island Test Center for Advanced Energy Systems (near Kobe, Japan) operated by Kansai Electric Power Co.; testing was initiated February 1992. Module A operated for 2601 hours at an ave output 16.6 kW dc; final shutdown was induced by current stability problems with dissipator (restart not possible because of damaged cells). Module B operated for 1579 hours at ave output 17.8 kWdc. The unit was damaged by operation at excessively high fuel utilization > 91%. It was rebuilt and returned to Rokko Island. This module B2 operated for 1843 hours on PNG; shutdown was cuased by air supply failure. After a new blower and motor were installed July 1993, the system was restarted August 5, 1993 and operated continuously until November 10, 1993, when an automatic shutdown was induced as part of a MITI licensing inspection. After restart, the unit passed 6000 hours of operation on desulfurized PNG on January 25, 1994. Westinghouse`s future plans are outlined.

  4. High power RF systems for the BNL ERL project

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Zaltsman, A.; Lambiase, R.

    2011-03-28

    The Energy Recovery Linac (ERL) project, now under construction at Brookhaven National Laboratory, requires two high power RF systems. The first RF system is for the 703.75 MHz superconducting electron gun. The RF power from this system is used to drive nearly half an Ampere of beam current to 2 MeV. There is no provision to recover any of this energy so the minimum amplifier power is 1 MW. It consists of 1 MW CW klystron, transmitter and power supplies, 1 MW circulator, 1 MW dummy load and a two-way power splitter. The second RF system is for the 703.75 MHz superconducting cavity. The system accelerates the beam to 54.7 MeV and recovers this energy. It will provide up to 50 kW of CW RF power to the cavity. It consists of 50 kW transmitter, circulator, and dummy load. This paper describes the two high power RF systems and presents the test data for both.

  5. The Ritz Carlton San Francisco has become the first hotel in the world to install the PureComfort 240M a combined cooling, heating, power system developed by UTC

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Pennycook, Steve

    Comfort 240M ­ a combined cooling, heating, power system developed by UTC Power in partnership with the DE, heating, and cooling demands of large hotels are high year-round. The benefits of integrated energy system Program. It is anticipated that the IES will provide 240 kW of electricity and 120 tons of cooling

  6. Goldschmidt Conference Abstracts 2005 Mineral Surface Reactivity

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Sparks, Donald L.

    Goldschmidt Conference Abstracts 2005 Mineral Surface Reactivity A492 "Hydration" of rhyolitic of Tennessee, Knoxville, Tennessee 37996, USA 2 Chemical Sciences Division, MS 6110, P.O. Box 2008, Bldg. 4500S, Oak Ridge National Laboratory, Oak Ridge, Tennessee 37831-6110, USA 3 Chemical Sciences Division, MS

  7. Neutron Radiography Reactor Reactivity -- Focused Lessons Learned

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Eric Woolstenhulme; Randal Damiana; Kenneth Schreck; Ann Marie Phillips; Dana Hewit

    2010-11-01

    As part of the Global Threat Reduction Initiative, the Neutron Radiography Reactor (NRAD) at the Idaho National Laboratory (INL) was converted from using highly enriched uranium (HEU) to low enriched uranium (LEU) fuel. After the conversion, NRAD resumed operations and is meeting operational requirements. Radiography image quality and the number of images that can be produced in a given time frame match pre-conversion capabilities. However, following the conversion, NRAD’s excess reactivity with the LEU fuel was less than it had been with the HEU fuel. Although some differences between model predictions and actual performance are to be expected, the lack of flexibility in NRAD’s safety documentation prevented adjusting the reactivity by adding more fuel, until the safety documentation could be modified. To aid future reactor conversions, a reactivity-focused Lessons Learned meeting was held. This report summarizes the findings of the lessons learned meeting and addresses specific questions posed by DOE regarding NRAD’s conversion and reactivity.

  8. Design, simulation and conditioning of the fundamental power couplers for BNL SRF gun

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Xu W.; Altinbas, Z.; Belomestnykh, S.; Ben-Zvi, I. et al

    2012-05-20

    The 704 MHz SRF gun for the BNL Energy Recovery Linac (ERL) prototype uses two fundamental power couplers (FPCs) to deliver up to 1 MW of CW RF power to the half-cell cavity. To prepare the couplers for high-power RF service and process multipacting, the FPCs should be conditioned prior to installation into the gun cryomodule. A room-temperature test stand was configured for conditioning FPCs in full reflection regime with varied phase of the reflecting wave. The FPCs have been conditioned up to 250 kW in pulse mode and 125 kW in CW mode. The multipacting simulations were carried out with Track3P code developed at SLAC. The simulations matched the experimental results very well. This paper presents the FPC RF and thermal design, multipacting simulations and conditioning of the BNL gun FPCs.

  9. A DSP based real time power quality measurement system with voltage distortion improvement capability 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Gou, Jian

    1992-01-01

    have been established to specify the limitation on the magnitudes of both harmonic currents and harmonic voltage distortion at different frequencies. Among these the "IEEE Guide for Harmonic Control and Reactive Compensation of Static Power... by the utility and by the electricity consumer has arrived. These measurements include: current and voltage harmonics, input power 1'actor, reactive power, real power, total harmonic distortion (THD), percentage load unbalance, etc. The measured data can...

  10. Installation of 200 kW UTC PC-25 Natural Gas Fuel Cell At City of Anaheim Police Station

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Dina Predisik

    2006-09-15

    The City of Anaheim Public Utilities Department (Anaheim) has been providing electric service to Anaheim residents and businesses for over a century. As a city in a high-growth region, identifying sources of reliable energy to meet demand is a constant requirement. Additionally, as more power generation is needed, locating generating stations locally is a difficult proposition and must consider environmental and community impacts. Anaheim believes benefits can be achieved by implementing new distributed generation technologies to supplement central plants, helping keep pace with growing demand for power. If the power is clean, then it can be delivered with minimal environmental impact. Anaheim started investigating fuel cell technology in 2000 and decided a field demonstration of a fuel cell power plant would help determine how the technology can best serve Anaheim. As a result, Anaheim completed the project under this grant as a way to gain installation and operating experience about fuel cells and fuel cell capabilities. Anaheim also hopes to help others learn more about fuel cells by providing information about this project to the public. Currently, Anaheim has hosted a number of requested tours at the project site, and information about the project can be found on Anaheim Public Utilities RD&D Project website. The Anaheim project was completed in four phases including: research and investigation, purchase, design, and construction. The initial investigative phase started in 2000 and the construction of the project was completed in February 2005. Since acceptance and startup of the fuel cell, the system has operated continuously at an availability of 98.4%. The unit provides an average of about 4,725 kilowatthours a day to the Utilities' generation resources. Anaheim is tracking the operation of the fuel cell system over the five-year life expectancy of the fuel stack and will use the information to determine how fuel cells can serve Anaheim as power generators.

  11. Cell Comp't Thermal Reactivity & Improvements | Department of...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Comp't Thermal Reactivity & Improvements Cell Comp't Thermal Reactivity & Improvements Presentation from the U.S. DOE Office of Vehicle Technologies "Mega" Merit Review 2008 on...

  12. Fluid-rock interaction: A reactive transport approach

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Steefel, C.

    2009-01-01

    to coupled mass transport and fluid-rock interaction in aof a reactive transport approach in fluid-rock interaction,reactive transport models for fluid-rock interaction. Case

  13. The effects of radient heat on pain reactivity 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Kallina, Charles Frank

    1994-01-01

    Prior research has shown that an aversive event can produce either a decrease (hypoalgesia) or an increase in pain reactivity (hyperalgesia). The present study explores the impact of a suprathreshold exposure to radiant heat on pain reactivity. Rats...

  14. Testing and Evaluation of a Power Factor Correction for Power-Savings Potential 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Alotaibi, A.

    2011-01-01

    is to develop the electromagnetic fields (EMFs) to ground the induction windings of the motor. In Kuwait, consumers only pay for the active power and energy used in kWh. A PFC unit stores the reactive power needed to create EMFs within the inductive loads...

  15. Investigation of a family of power conditioners integrated into the utility grid: Category 1. Residential power conditioner. Final report

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Steigerwald, R.L.; Ferraro, A.; Tompkins, R.E.

    1981-07-01

    The development of power conditioners for residential photovoltaic applications of approximately 5 to 30 kW is reported. The interface of the inverter and the solar array, as well as the ac utility is investigated including the effects of array input current, utility impedance, and injected harmonic currents. The trade-off study of alternate power conversion schemes are covered which results in a recommended approach. A conceptual design of the recommended approach, including performance results obtained from an inverter simulated is presented. (LEW)

  16. ORNL/CP-97155 Instantaneous Reactive Power and Power Factor of

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Homesum_a_epg0_fpd_mmcf_m.xls" ,"Available from WebQuantity of NaturalDukeWakefield MunicipalTechnical Report: AchievementsTemperatures Year 6Report) | SciTech

  17. North American Power Symposium NAPS, San Luis Obispo, California, October 1999. EMTP Studies of UPFC Power Oscillation Damping

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Cañizares, Claudio A.

    transmission sys- tems, rather then on building new transmission lines and power stations, for economical and reactive power on transmission lines to allow for their secure loading, to full thermal capability in some . The SSSC, a substitute for the TCSC, can be used to control the power ow in a transmission line by changing

  18. High-Power Rf Load

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Tantawi, Sami G. (San Mateo, CA); Vlieks, Arnold E. (Livermore, CA)

    1998-09-01

    A compact high-power RF load comprises a series of very low Q resonators, or chokes [16], in a circular waveguide [10]. The sequence of chokes absorb the RF power gradually in a short distance while keeping the bandwidth relatively wide. A polarizer [12] at the input end of the load is provided to convert incoming TE.sub.10 mode signals to circularly polarized TE.sub.11 mode signals. Because the load operates in the circularly polarized mode, the energy is uniformly and efficiently absorbed and the load is more compact than a rectangular load. Using these techniques, a load having a bandwidth of 500 MHz can be produced with an average power dissipation level of 1.5 kW at X-band, and a peak power dissipation of 100 MW. The load can be made from common lossy materials, such as stainless steel, and is less than 15 cm in length. These techniques can also produce loads for use as an alternative to ordinary waveguide loads in small and medium RF accelerators, in radar systems, and in other microwave applications. The design is easily scalable to other RF frequencies and adaptable to the use of other lossy materials.

  19. The Use of a Solid State Analog Television Transmitter as a Superconducting Electron Gun Power Amplifier

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    J.G. Kulpin, K.J. Kleman, R.A. Legg

    2012-07-01

    A solid state analog television transmitter designed for 200 MHz operation is being commissioned as a radio frequency power amplifier on the Wisconsin superconducting electron gun cavity. The amplifier consists of three separate radio frequency power combiner cabinets and one monitor and control cabinet. The transmitter employs rugged field effect transistors built into one kilowatt drawers that are individually hot swappable at maximum continuous power output. The total combined power of the transmitter system is 33 kW at 200 MHz, output through a standard coaxial transmission line. A low level radio frequency system is employed to digitally synthesize the 200 MHz signal and precisely control amplitude and phase.

  20. Nuclear reactivity control using laser induced polarization

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Bowman, Charles D. (Los Alamos, NM)

    1990-01-01

    A control element for reactivity control of a fission source provides an atomic density of .sup.3 He in a control volume which is effective to control criticality as the .sup.3 He is spin-polarized. Spin-polarization of the .sup.3 He affects the cross section of the control volume for fission neturons and hence, the reactivity. An irradiation source is directed within the .sup.3 He for spin-polarizing the .sup.3 He. An alkali-metal vapor may be included with the .sup.3 He where a laser spin-polarizes the alkali-metal atoms which in turn, spin-couple with .sup.3 He to spin-polarize the .sup.3 He atoms.

  1. Nuclear reactivity control using laser induced polarization

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Bowman, Charles D. (Los Alamos, NM)

    1991-01-01

    A control element for reactivity control of a fission source provides an atomic density of .sup.3 He in a control volume which is effective to control criticality as the .sup.3 He is spin-polarized. Spin-polarization of the .sup.3 He affects the cross section of the control volume for fission neutrons and hence, the reactivity. An irradiation source is directed within the .sup.3 He for spin-polarizing the .sup.3 He. An alkali-metal vapor may be included with the .sup.3 He where a laser spin-polarizes the alkali-metal atoms which in turn, spin-couple with .sup.3 He to spin-polarize the .sup.3 He atoms.

  2. Reactivity control assembly for nuclear reactor. [LMFBR

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Bollinger, L.R.

    1982-03-17

    This invention, which resulted from a contact with the United States Department of Energy, relates to a control mechanism for a nuclear reactor and, more particularly, to an assembly for selectively shifting different numbers of reactivity modifying rods into and out of the core of a nuclear reactor. It has been proposed heretofore to control the reactivity of a breeder reactor by varying the depth of insertion of control rods (e.g., rods containing a fertile material such as ThO/sub 2/) in the core of the reactor, thereby varying the amount of neutron-thermalizing coolant and the amount of neutron-capturing material in the core. This invention relates to a mechanism which can advantageously be used in this type of reactor control system.

  3. PowerPoint Presentation

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Schwartz, pschwartz@tm-lift.com DE-FOA-0000823 Grantee The Natural Gas Heat Pump and Air Conditioner 2014 Building Technologies Office Peer Review FREE Heat from Ambient (10 kW)...

  4. Abstract: In this paper we provide a systematic review of generator-provided reactive support as an unbundled ancillary

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    including generators, shunt capacitors/reactors, synchronous condensers and static VAr compensators. Since1 Abstract: In this paper we provide a systematic review of generator-provided reactive support costs, which are evaluated from the foregone profits of a generator in the real power markets

  5. High-Temperature SiC Power Module with Integrated SiC Gate Drivers for Future High-Density Power Electronics Applications

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Whitaker, Mr. Bret [APEI, Inc.; Cole, Mr. Zach [APEI, Inc.; Passmore, Mr. Brandon [APEI, Inc.; Martin, Daniel [APEI, Inc.; Mcnutt, Tyler [APEI, Inc.; Lostetter, Dr. Alex [APEI, Inc.; Ericson, Milton Nance [ORNL; Frank, Steven Shane [ORNL; Britton Jr, Charles L [ORNL; Marlino, Laura D [ORNL; Mantooth, Alan [University of Arkansas; Francis, Dr. Matt [University of Arkansas; Lamichhane, Ranjan [University of Arkansas; Shepherd, Dr. Paul [University of Arkansas; Glover, Dr. Michael [University of Arkansas

    2015-01-01

    This paper presents the testing results of an all-silicon carbide (SiC) intelligent power module (IPM) for use in future high-density power electronics applications. The IPM has high-temperature capability and contains both SiC power devices and SiC gate driver integrated circuits (ICs). The high-temperature capability of the SiC gate driver ICs allows for them to be packaged into the power module and be located physically close to the power devices. This provides a distinct advantage by reducing the gate driver loop inductance, which promotes high frequency operation, while also reducing the overall volume of the system through higher levels of integration. The power module was tested in a bridgeless-boost converter to showcase the performance of the module in a system level application. The converter was initially operated with a switching frequency of 200 kHz with a peak output power of approximately 5 kW. The efficiency of the converter was then evaluated experimentally and optimized by increasing the overdrive voltage on the SiC gate driver ICs. Overall a peak efficiency of 97.7% was measured at 3.0 kW output. The converter s switching frequency was then increased to 500 kHz to prove the high frequency capability of the power module was then pushed to its limits and operated at a switching frequency of 500 kHz. With no further optimization of components, the converter was able to operate under these conditions and showed a peak efficiency of 95.0% at an output power of 2.1 kW.

  6. IEEE TRANSACTIONS ON PLASMA SCIENCE, VOL. 31, NO. 4, AUGUST 2003 745 Study of the Effects of ECH Power and Pulse Length

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    -GHz 500-kW gyrotron tube being made by Communications and Power Industries. The ECH preionization to start the plasma current; and (c) somewhat reduce the Volt-s expenditure from the transformer needed]. The Modeling efforts of Fidone and Granata [5] showed that for a large tokamak, energy deposition would

  7. May 19-22, 2003 DTE Hydrogen Power Park

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    infrastructure. #12;Page 5 Approach 25kW Photovoltaics Switchgear w/ Controls Electrolysis Equipment w

  8. Properties of reactive oxygen species by quantum Monte Carlo

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Zen, Andrea; Trout, Bernhardt L.; Guidoni, Leonardo

    2014-07-07

    The electronic properties of the oxygen molecule, in its singlet and triplet states, and of many small oxygen-containing radicals and anions have important roles in different fields of chemistry, biology, and atmospheric science. Nevertheless, the electronic structure of such species is a challenge for ab initio computational approaches because of the difficulties to correctly describe the statical and dynamical correlation effects in presence of one or more unpaired electrons. Only the highest-level quantum chemical approaches can yield reliable characterizations of their molecular properties, such as binding energies, equilibrium structures, molecular vibrations, charge distribution, and polarizabilities. In this work we use the variational Monte Carlo (VMC) and the lattice regularized Monte Carlo (LRDMC) methods to investigate the equilibrium geometries and molecular properties of oxygen and oxygen reactive species. Quantum Monte Carlo methods are used in combination with the Jastrow Antisymmetrized Geminal Power (JAGP) wave function ansatz, which has been recently shown to effectively describe the statical and dynamical correlation of different molecular systems. In particular, we have studied the oxygen molecule, the superoxide anion, the nitric oxide radical and anion, the hydroxyl and hydroperoxyl radicals and their corresponding anions, and the hydrotrioxyl radical. Overall, the methodology was able to correctly describe the geometrical and electronic properties of these systems, through compact but fully-optimised basis sets and with a computational cost which scales as N{sup 3} ? N{sup 4}, where N is the number of electrons. This work is therefore opening the way to the accurate study of the energetics and of the reactivity of large and complex oxygen species by first principles.

  9. Dynamic simulation of a solar-driven carbon dioxide transcritical power system for small scale combined heat and power production

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Chen, Y.; Lundqvist, Per; Pridasawas, Wimolsiri

    2010-07-15

    Carbon dioxide is an environmental benign natural working fluid and has been proposed as a working media for a solar-driven power system. In the current work, the dynamic performance of a small scale solar-driven carbon dioxide power system is analyzed by dynamic simulation tool TRNSYS 16 and Engineering Equation Solver (EES) using co-solving technique. Both daily performance and yearly performance of the proposed system have been simulated. Different system operating parameters, which will influence the system performance, have been discussed. Under the Swedish climatic condition, the maximum daily power production is about 12 kW h and the maximum monthly power production is about 215 kW h with the proposed system working conditions. Besides the power being produced, the system can also produce about 10 times much thermal energy, which can be used for space heating, domestic hot water supply or driving absorption chillers. The simulation results show that the proposed system is a promising and environmental benign alternative for conventional low-grade heat source utilization system. (author)

  10. Development of a Hybrid Power Supply and RF Transmission Line for SANAEM RFQ Accelerator

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Ogur, S; Unel, G; Alacakir, A

    2015-01-01

    SANAEM Project Prometheus (SPP) has been building a proton beamline at MeV range. Its proton source, two solenoids, and a low energy diagnostic box have been already manufactured and installed. These are going to be followed by a 4-vane RFQ to be powered by two stage PSU. The first stage is a custom-built solid state amplifier providing 6 kW at 352.2 MHz operating frequency. The second stage, employing TH 595 tetrodes from Thales, will amplify this input to 160 kW in a short pulsed mode. The power transfer to the RFQ will be achieved by the means of a number of WR2300 full and half height waveguides, 3 1/8" rigid coaxial cables, joined by appropriate adapters and converters and by a custom design circulator. This paper summarizes the experience acquired during the design and the production of these components.

  11. High power 325 MHz vector modulators for the Fermilab High Intensity Neutrino Source (HINS)

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Madrak, Robyn Leigh; Wildman, David; /Fermilab

    2008-10-01

    One of the goals of the low energy 60 MeV section of the HINS H{sup -} linac [1] is to demonstrate that a total of {approx}40 RF cavities can be powered by a single 2.5 MW, 325 MHz klystron. This requires individual vector modulators at the input of each RF cavity to independently adjust the amplitude and phase of the RF input signal during the 3.5 ms RF pulse. Two versions of vector modulators have been developed; a 500 kW device for the radiofrequency quadrupole (RFQ) and a 75 kW modulator for the RF cavities. High power tests showing the vector modulator phase and amplitude responses will be presented.

  12. Solid oxide fuel cell power system development

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Kerr, Rick; Wall, Mark; Sullivan, Neal

    2015-06-26

    This report summarizes the progress made during this contractual period in achieving the goal of developing the solid oxide fuel cell (SOFC) cell and stack technology to be suitable for use in highly-efficient, economically-competitive, commercially deployed electrical power systems. Progress was made in further understanding cell and stack degradation mechanisms in order to increase stack reliability toward achieving a 4+ year lifetime, in cost reduction developments to meet the SECA stack cost target of $175/kW (in 2007 dollars), and in operating the SOFC technology in a multi-stack system in a real-world environment to understand the requirements for reliably designing and operating a large, stationary power system.

  13. Advanced Soldier Thermoelectric Power System for Power Generation from Battlefield Heat Sources

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Hendricks, Terry J.; Hogan, Tim; Case, Eldon D.; Cauchy, Charles J.

    2010-09-01

    The U.S. military uses large amounts of fuel during deployments and battlefield operations. This project sought to develop a lightweight, small form-factor, soldier-portable advanced thermoelectric (TE) system prototype to recover and convert waste heat from various deployed military equipment (i.e., diesel generators/engines, incinerators, vehicles, and potentially mobile kitchens), with the ultimate purpose of producing power for soldier battery charging, advanced capacitor charging, and other battlefield power applications. The technical approach employed microchannel technology, a unique “power panel” approach to heat exchange/TE system integration, and newly-characterized LAST (lead-antimony-silver-telluride) and LASTT (lead-antimony-silver-tin-telluride) TE materials segmented with bismuth telluride TE materials in designing a segmented-element TE power module and system. This project researched never-before-addressed system integration challenges (thermal expansion, thermal diffusion, electrical interconnection, thermal and electrical interfaces) of designing thin “power panels” consisting of alternating layers of thin, microchannel heat exchangers (hot and cold) sandwiching thin, segmented-element TE power generators. The TE properties, structurally properties, and thermal fatigue behavior of LAST and LASTT materials were developed and characterized such that the first segmented-element TE modules using LAST / LASTT materials were fabricated and tested at hot-side temperatures = 400 °C and cold-side temperatures = 40 °C. LAST / LASTT materials were successfully segmented with bismuth telluride and electrically interconnected with diffusion barrier materials and copper strapping within the module electrical circuit. A TE system design was developed to produce 1.5-1.6 kW of electrical energy using these new TE modules from the exhaust waste heat of 60-kW Tactical Quiet Generators as demonstration vehicles.

  14. High Power Coax Window

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Neubauer, M. L.; Dudas, A.; Sah, R.; Elliott, T. S.; Rimmer, R. A.; Stirbet, M. S.

    2010-05-23

    A su­per­con­duct­ing RF (SRF) power cou­pler ca­pa­ble of han­dling 500 kW CW RF power is re­quired for pre­sent and fu­ture stor­age rings and linacs. There are over 35 cou­pler de­signs for SRF cav­i­ties rang­ing in fre­quen­cy from 325 to 1500 MHz. Cou­pler win­dows vary from cylin­ders to cones to disks, and RF power cou­plers are lim­it­ed by the abil­i­ty of ce­ram­ic win­dows to with­stand the stress­es due to heat­ing and me­chan­i­cal flex­ure. We pro­pose a novel ro­bust co-ax­i­al SRF cou­pler de­sign which uses com­pressed win­dow tech­nol­o­gy. This tech­nol­o­gy will allow the use of high­ly ther­mal­ly con­duc­tive ma­te­ri­als for cryo­genic win­dows. Using com­pressed win­dow tech­niques on disk co-ax­i­al win­dows will make sig­nif­i­cant im­prove­ments in the power han­dling of SRF cou­plers. We pre­sent the bench test re­sults of two win­dow as­sem­blies back to back, as well as in­di­vid­u­al win­dow VSWR in EIA3.125 coax. A vac­u­um test as­sem­bly was made and the win­dows baked out at 155C. The pro­cess­es used to build win­dows is scal­able to larg­er di­am­e­ter coax and to high­er power lev­els.

  15. Internal neutronics-temperature coupling in Serpent 2 - Reactivity differences resulting from choice of material property correlations

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Valtavirta, V. [VTT Technical Research Centre of Finland, P.O. Box 1000, FI-02044 VTT (Finland)

    2013-07-01

    This paper describes the unique way of simultaneously solving the power and temperature distributions of a nuclear system with the Monte Carlo neutron transport code Serpent 2. The coupled solution is achieved through the implementation of an internal temperature solver and material property correlations in the code. The program structure is reviewed concerning the temperature solver and the internal correlations as well as the internal coupling between these two and the neutron transport part. To estimate the reactivity differences resulting from correlation choices a simple pin-cell case has been calculated. It is established, that some correlation choices may result in difference in reactivity of approximately 100 pcm. (authors)

  16. Implementation of Energy and Power Saving Scheme in The Avenues Mall 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Al-Hadban, Y.; Maheshwari, G.; Al-Taqi, H. H.; Al-Nakib, D.; Alasseri, R.

    2010-01-01

    of Energy and Power Saving Scheme in The Avenues Mall Y. Al-Hadban, G. P. Maheshwari, H. Al-Taqi, D. Al-Nakib and R. Alasseri Department of Building and Energy Technologies Environment and Urban Development Division Kuwait Institute for Scientific... Research P.O. Box 24885, 13109, Safat, Kuwait htaqi@safat.kisr.edu.kw ABSTRACT This paper presents the results on an energy audit and subsequent implementation of energy efficient operation and maintenance strategies between April 2008 and March...

  17. Final Technical Report - Kotzebue Wind Power Project - Volume II

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Rana Zucchi, Global Energy Concepts, LLC; Brad Reeve, Kotzebue Electric Association; DOE Project Officer - Doug Hooker

    2007-10-31

    The Kotzebue Wind Power Project is a joint undertaking of the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE); Kotzebue Electric Association (KEA); and the Alaska Energy Authority (AEA). The goal of the project is to develop, construct, and operate a wind power plant interconnected to a small isolated utility grid in an arctic climate in Northwest Alaska. The primary objective of KEA’s wind energy program is to bring more affordable electricity and jobs to remote Alaskan communities. DOE funding has allowed KEA to develop a multi-faceted approach to meet these objectives that includes wind project planning and development, technology transfer, and community outreach. The first wind turbines were installed in the summer of 1997 and the newest turbines were installed in the spring of 2007. The total installed capacity of the KEA wind power project is 1.16 MW with a total of 17 turbines rated between 65 kW and 100 kW. The operation of the wind power plant has resulted in a wind penetration on the utility system in excess of 35% during periods of low loads. This document and referenced attachments are presented as the final technical report for the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) grant agreement DE-FG36-97GO10199. Interim deliverables previously submitted are also referenced within this document and where reasonable to do so, specific sections are incorporated in the report or attached as appendices.

  18. Low-Maintenance Wind Power System

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Rasson, Joseph E

    2010-09-30

    Turbines of 1, 3 and 30 kW were designed, prototyped and evaluated. A 55 kW unit has been preliminarily designed. Two 1 kW alpha units and a 3 kW alpha unit were delivered to the US in 2005 and Empire Magnetics provided custom alternators for the units. After evaluation, the 6 bladed, 3 kW unit was chosen for beta fabrication and 5 units were delivered to the US in December, 2009 while others remained for testing in Russia.

  19. High Power RF Tests on WR650 Pre-Stressed Planar Windows

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Stirbet, Mircea [JLAB; Davis, G. Kirk [JLAB; Elliott, Thomas S. [JLAB; King, Larry [JLAB; Powers, Thomas J. [JLAB; Rimmer, Robert A. [JLAB; Walker, Richard L. [JLAB

    2009-11-01

    A new planar, ceramic window intended to be used with WR650 waveguide fundamental power couplers at 1300 MHz or 1500 MHz has been developed. It is based on the pre-stressed planar window concept tested in PEP II and LEDA. A test stand that made use of the 100kW CW 1500 MHz RF system in the JLAB FEL was commissioned and used to apply up to 80 kW traveling wave (TW)to the windows. Two different types of RF windows (brazed and diffusion bonded ceramics) with design specification of 50 kW CW in TW mode were successfully tested both as a gas barrier (intended to operate up to 2 psi) and as a vacuum barrier. The vacuum windows were able to maintain UHV quality vacuum and were successfully operated in the 10{sup -9} mbar range. An overview of the pre-stressed power windows, RF test stand, procedures and RF power testing results will be presented.

  20. Free-piston Stirling technology for space power

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Slaby, J.G.

    1994-09-01

    An overview is presented of the NASA Lewis Research Center free-piston Stirling engine activities directed toward space power. This work is being carried out under NASA`s new Civil Space Technology Initiative (CSTI). The overall goal of CSTI`s High Capacity Power element is to develop the technology base needed to meet the long duration, high capacity power requirements for future NASA space missions. The Stirling cycle offers an attractive power conversion concept for space power needs. Discussed in this paper is the completion of the Space Power Demonstrator Engine (SPDE) testing - culminating in the generation of 25 kW of engine power from a dynamically-balanced opposed-piston Stirling engine at a temperature ratio of 2.0. Engine efficiency was approximately 22 percent. The SPDE recently has been divided into two separate single-cylinder engines, called Space Power Research Engines (SPRE), that now serve as test beds for the evaluation of key technology disciplines. These disciplines include hydrodynamic gas bearings, high-efficiency linear alternators, space qualified heat pipe heat exchangers, oscillating flow code validation, and engine loss understanding. The success of the SPDE at 650 K has resulted in a more ambitious Stirling endeavor - the design, fabrication, test and evaluation of a designed-for-space 25 kW per cylinder Stirling Space Engine (SSE). The SSE will operate at a hot metal temperature of 1050 K using superalloy materials. This design is a low temperature confirmation of the 1300 K design. It is the 1300 K free-piston Stirling power conversion system that is the ultimate goal; to be used in conjunction with the SP-100 reactor. The approach to this goal is in three temperature steps. However, this paper concentrates on the first two phases of this program - the 650 K SPDE and the 1050 K SSE.

  1. Experimental Evidence for Self-Limiting Reactive Flow through...

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    Experimental Evidence for Self-Limiting Reactive Flow through a Fractured Cement Core: Implications for Time-Dependent Wellbore Leakage Citation Details In-Document Search Title:...

  2. Characterization and Surface Reactivity of Ferrihydrite Nanoparticles Assembled in Ferritin

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Sparks, Donald L.

    Characterization and Surface Reactivity of Ferrihydrite Nanoparticles Assembled in Ferritin Gang of the nanoparticles were characterized by AFM and STM. Scanning tunneling spectroscopy (STS) measurements suggested

  3. PFLOTRAN User Manual: A Massively Parallel Reactive Flow and...

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    Technical Report: PFLOTRAN User Manual: A Massively Parallel Reactive Flow and Transport Model for Describing Surface and Subsurface Processes Citation Details In-Document Search...

  4. PFLOTRAN User Manual: A Massively Parallel Reactive Flow and...

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    PFLOTRAN User Manual: A Massively Parallel Reactive Flow and Transport Model for Describing Surface and Subsurface Processes Lichtner, Peter OFM Research; Karra, Satish Los...

  5. Reactive MD Simulations of Electrochemical Oxide Interfaces at...

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    National Laboratory Reactive MD Simulations of Electrochemical Oxide Interfaces at Mesoscale PI Name: Subramanian Sankaranarayanan PI Email: skrssank@anl.gov Institution:...

  6. Chemical Imaging and Dynamical Studies of Reactivity and Emergent...

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    uses of chemical imaging, and the development of advanced reactivity concepts in combustion and catalysis including carbon management. These activities directly benefitted...

  7. Airborne measurement of OH reactivity during INTEX-B

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    2009-01-01

    plus OH sign), reactiv- propane ing different gases gases atisoprene (plus sign), propane (star) and propene (triangle).NMHC includes ethane, ethene, propane, propene, i-butane, n-

  8. Effects of ethanol and reactive species on Hepatitis C virus

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Seronello, Scott E.

    2010-01-01

    polymerase chain reaction; RNS, reactive nitrogen species;oxygen/nitrogen species (ROS/RNS) and decreased antioxidantincrease the levels of ROS/RNS, oxidized thioredoxin, lipid

  9. Reactive Dehydration technology for Production of Fuels and Chemicals...

    Broader source: Energy.gov (indexed) [DOE]

    Catalytic and Reactive Distillation) for compact, inexpensive production of biomass-based chemicals from complex aqueous mixtures. SeparationPurification of Biomass...

  10. High power windows for WR650 waveguide couplers

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Mircea Stirbet; Robert Rimmer; Thomas Elliott; Edward Daly; Katherine Wilson; Lynn Vogel; Haipeng Wang; Brian Carpenter; Karl Smith; Thomas Powers; Michael Drury; Robert Nichols; G. Davis

    2007-06-01

    Based on the robust, pre-stressed planar window concept successfully tested for PEP II and LEDA, a new design for planar ceramic windows to be used with WR650 waveguide fundamental power couplers at 1300 MHz or 1500 MHz has been developed. These windows should operate in pulsed or CW mode and sustain at least 100 kW average power levels. This paper describes an overview of the simulations performed to match the ceramics in WR650 waveguides, design details, as well as the RF measurements and performance assessed by RF power tests on several high power windows manufactured at JLAB. Funding Agency: Authored by Jefferson Science Associates, LLC under U.S. DOE Contract No. DE-AC05-06OR23177, and by The Office of Naval Research under contract to the Dept. of Energy.

  11. High power test of a wideband diplexer with short-slotted metal half mirrors for electron cyclotron current drive system

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Saigusa, M.; Atsumi, K.; Yamaguchi, T.; Nagashima, K. [Ibaraki University, Hitachi, Ibaraki 316-8511 (Japan); Oda, Y.; Fukunari, M.; Sakamoto, K. [Japan Atomic Energy Agency, Naka, Ibaraki 311-0193 (Japan)

    2014-02-12

    The wideband high power diplexer has been developed for combining and fast switching of high power millimeter waves generated by a dual frequency gyrotron. The actual diplexer was tested at the frequency band of 170 GHz in low power. After adjusting a resonant frequency of diplexer for the gyrotron frequency, the evacuated wideband diplexer with short-slotted metal half mirrors was tested at an incident power of about 150 kW, a pulse duration of 30 ms and a frequency band of 170.2–170.3 GHz. Any discharge damage was not observed in the diplexer.

  12. Adaptive Environmentally Contained Power and Cooling IT Infrastructure for the Data Center

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Mann, Ron; Chavez, Miguel, E.

    2012-06-27

    The objectives of this program were to research and develop a fully enclosed Information Technology (IT) rack system for 100 kilowatts (KW) of IT load that provides its own internal power and cooling with High Voltage Alternating Current (HVAC defined as 480 volt) and chilled water as the primary inputs into the system and accepts alternative energy power sources such as wind and solar. For maximum efficiency, internal power to the IT equipment uses distributed High Voltage Direct Current power (HVDC defined as 360-380 volt) from the power source to the IT loads. The management scheme aggressively controls energy use to insure the best utilization of available power and cooling resources. The solution incorporates internal active management controls that not only optimizes the system environment for the given dynamic IT loads and changing system conditions, but also interfaces with data center Building Management Systems (BMS) to provide a complete end-to-end view of power and cooling chain. This technology achieves the goal of a Power Usage Effectiveness (PUE) of 1.25, resulting in a 38% reduction in the total amount of energy needed to support a 100KW IT load compared to current data center designs.

  13. An Integrated Approach to Reducing Power Dissipation in Memory Hierarchies

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    , and then propose on-chip memory module buffers, called Energy-Saver Buffers (ESB), which reside in- between the L2-delay product, Energy-Saver Buffers (ESB), integrated approach, power, RDRAM 1. INTRODUCTION One of the major costs associated with reactivating memory modules from a low- power state by introducing Energy-Saver

  14. Quantum mechanical reaction probabilities with a power series Green's function

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Miller, William H.

    Quantum mechanical reaction probabilities with a power series Green's function Scott M. Auerbach 1993) We present a new method to compute the energy Green's function with absorbing boundary conditions be superior to the fast Fourier transform method for reactive scattering. We apply the resulting power series

  15. Transient modeling of thermionic space nuclear power systems 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Berge, Francoise M

    1991-01-01

    be activated or disabled. The reactor kinetics model itself can be disabled so that only the thermal-hydraulic model is solved. Five types of reactivity feed- back mechanisms are implemented in CENTAR: programmed reactivity, fuel tempera- ture feedback... do not include the reactivity control. The power can be controlled as a function of the transient time. The pump head, on the other hand, can be specified to be constant and/or controlled as a function of the transient time and/or any temperature...

  16. Spent fuel dry storage technology development: fuel temperature measurements under imposed dry storage conditions (I kW PWR spent fuel assembly)

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Unterzuber, R.; Wright, J.B.

    1980-09-01

    A spent fuel assembly temperature test under imposed dry storage conditions was conducted at the Engine Maintenance Assembly and Disassembly (E-MAD) facility on the Nevada Test Site in support of spent fuel dry storage technology development. This document presents the test data and results obtained from an approximately 1.0 kW decay heat level PWR spent fuel assembly. A spent fuel test apparatus was designed to utilize a representative stainless steel spent fuel canister, a canister lid containing internal temperature instrumentation to measure fuel cladding temperatures, and a carbon steel liner that encloses the canister and lid. Electrical heaters along the liner length, on the lid, and below the canister are used to impose dry storage canister temperature profiles. Temperature instrumentation is provided on the liner and canister. The liner and canister are supported by a test stand in one of the large hot cells (West Process Cell) inside E-MAD. Fuel temperature measurements have been performed using imposed canister temperature profiles from the electrically heated and spent fuel drywell tests being conducted at E-MAD as well as for four constant canister temperature profiles, each with a vacuum, helium and air backfill. Computer models have been utilized in conjunction with the test to predict the thermal response of the fuel cladding. Computer predictions are presented, and they show good agreement with the test data.

  17. Spent fuel dry storage technology development: fuel temperature measurements under imposed dry storage conditions (1.4 kW PWR spent fuel assembly)

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Unterzuber, R.

    1981-09-01

    A spent fuel assembly temperature test under imposed dry storage conditions was conducted at the Engine Maintenance Assembly and Disassembly (E-MAD) facility on the Nevada Test Site in support of spent fuel dry storage technology development. This document presents the test data and results obtained from an approximately 1.4 kW decay heat level PWR spent fuel assembly. A spent fuel test apparatus was designed to utilize a stainless steel canister representative of actual fuel canisters, a canister lid containing internal temperature instrumentation to measure fuel cladding temperatures, and a carbon steel liner that encloses the canister and lid. Electrical heaters along the liner length, on the lid, and below the canister are used to impose dry storage canister temperature profiles. Temperature instrumentation is provided on the liner and canister. The liner and canister are supported by a test stand in one of the large hot cells (West Process Cell) inside E-MAD. Fuel temperature measurements have been performed using imposed canister temperature profiles from the electrically heated and spent fuel near-surface drywell tests being conducted at E-MAD, the spent fuel deep geologic storage test being conducted in Climax granite on the Nevada Test Site, and for five constant canister temperature profiles, each with a vacuum, helium and air backfill. Computer models have been utilized in conjunction with the test to predict the thermal response of the fuel cladding. Computer predictions are presented, and they show good agreement with the test data.

  18. Phase of atmospheric secondary organic material affects its reactivity

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    of the reactivity of atmospheric SOM particles. atmospheric chemistry chemical aging organic aerosol collectionPhase of atmospheric secondary organic material affects its reactivity Mikinori Kuwata and Scot T of atmospheric organic particles among solid, semisolid, and liquid phases is of keen current scientific interest

  19. Assessment of sequence homology and cross-reactivity

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Aalberse, Rob C. [Department of Immunopathology, Sanquin Research at CLB, Plesmanlaan 125, 1066 CX Amsterdam (Netherlands) and Landsteiner Laboratory, Academic Medical Centre, 1066 CX Amsterdam (Netherlands)]. E-mail: r.aalberse@sanquin.nl

    2005-09-01

    Three aspects of allergenicity assessment and are discussed: IgE immunogenicity, IgE cross-reactivity and T cell cross-reactivity, all with emphasis on in-silico predictability: from amino acid sequence via 3D structure to allergenicity.(1)IgE immunogenicity depends to an overwhelming degree on factors other than the protein itself: the context and history of the protein by the time it reaches the immune system. Without specification of these two factors very few foreign proteins can be claimed to be absolutely non-allergenic. Any antigen may be allergenic, particularly if it avoids activation of TH2-suppressive mechanisms (CD8 cells, TH1 cells, other regulatory T cells and regulatory cytokines). (2)IgE cross-reactivity can be much more reliably assessed by a combination of in-silico homology searches and in vitro IgE antibody assays. The in-silico homology search is unlikely to miss potential cross-reactivity with sequenced allergens. So far, no biologically relevant cross-reactivity at the antibody level has been demonstrated between proteins without easily-demonstrable homology. (3)T cell cross-reactivity is much more difficult to predict compared to B cell cross-reactivity, and its effects are more diverse. Yet, pre-existing cross-reactive T cell activity is likely to influence the outcome not only of the immune response, but also of the effector phase of the allergic reaction.

  20. Controller Patterns for Component-based Reactive Control Software Systems

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Lau, Kung-Kiu

    Controller Patterns for Component-based Reactive Control Software Systems Petr Stepán, Kung-Kiu Lau Organization]: Special-Purpose and Application-Based Systems--Process control systems; D.2.2 [Software of the device they are embedded in, hence we call them reactive control systems. The general schema

  1. Abstract Interpretation of Reactive Systems DENNIS DAMS and ROB GERTH

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Grumberg, Orna

    Abstract Interpretation of Reactive Systems DENNIS DAMS and ROB GERTH Eindhoven University, formal methods, model checking, mu-calculus, reactive systems Correspondenceaddress: D. Dams, Dept;112 Dennis Dams et al. 1. INTRODUCTION In the model-checking approach Queille and Sifakis 1982 Clarke et al

  2. Abstract Interpretation of Reactive Systems DENNIS DAMS and ROB GERTH

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Dams, Dennis

    Abstract Interpretation of Reactive Systems DENNIS DAMS and ROB GERTH Eindhoven University, formal methods, model checking, mu­calculus, reactive systems Correspondence address: D. Dams, Dept; 112 \\Delta Dennis Dams et al. 1. INTRODUCTION In the model­checking approach [Queille and Sifakis 1982

  3. A REACTIVE APPROACH FOR MINING PROJECT EVALUATION UNDER PRICE UNCERTAINTY

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Duffy, Ken

    A REACTIVE APPROACH FOR MINING PROJECT EVALUATION UNDER PRICE UNCERTAINTY Meimei Zhang. This method often undervalues a mining project since it ignores future price uncertainty and does not allow on metal price. This paper also demonstrates that the "reactive" approach can estimate the mine project

  4. Reactive ion etched substrates and methods of making and using

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Rucker, Victor C. (San Francisco, CA); Shediac, Rene (Oakland, CA); Simmons, Blake A. (San Francisco, CA); Havenstrite, Karen L. (New York, NY)

    2007-08-07

    Disclosed herein are substrates comprising reactive ion etched surfaces and specific binding agents immobilized thereon. The substrates may be used in methods and devices for assaying or isolating analytes in a sample. Also disclosed are methods of making the reactive ion etched surfaces.

  5. Biodiesel Fuel Property Effects on Particulate Matter Reactivity

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Williams, A.; Black, S.; McCormick, R. L.

    2010-06-01

    Controlling diesel particulate emissions to meet the 2007 U.S. standard requires the use of a diesel particulate filter (DPF). The reactivity of soot, or the carbon fraction of particulate matter, in the DPF and the kinetics of soot oxidation are important in achieving better control of aftertreatment devices. Studies showed that biodiesel in the fuel can increase soot reactivity. This study therefore investigated which biodiesel fuel properties impact reactivity. Three fuel properties of interest included fuel oxygen content and functionality, fuel aromatic content, and the presence of alkali metals. To determine fuel effects on soot reactivity, the performance of a catalyzed DPF was measured with different test fuels through engine testing and thermo-gravimetric analysis. Results showed no dependence on the aromatic content or the presence of alkali metals in the fuel. The presence and form of fuel oxygen was the dominant contributor to faster DPF regeneration times and soot reactivity.

  6. Perovskite Power

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Perovskite Power 1663 Los Alamos science and technology magazine Latest Issue:October 2015 past issues All Issues submit Perovskite Power A breakthrough in the production of...

  7. High-Power Options for LANSCE

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Garnett, Robert W.

    2011-01-01

    The LANSCE linear accelerator at Los Alamos National Laboratory has a long history of successful beam operations at 800 kW. We have recently studied options for restoration of high-power operations including approaches for increasing the performance to multi-MW levels. In this paper we will discuss the results of this study including the present limitations of the existing accelerating structures at LANSCE, and the high-voltage and RF systems that drive them. Several options will be discussed and a preferred option will be presented that will enable the first in a new generation of scientific facilities for the materials community. The emphasis of this new facility is 'Matter-Radiation Interactions in Extremes' (MaRIE) which will be used to discover and design the advanced materials needed to meet 21st century national security and energy security challenges.

  8. Importance of the Equlibrium Node in Preventing the Voltage Collapse Occurs in the Wind Power System

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Lavaei, Javad

    or insufficient reactive power supplies may also contribute to voltage collapse and blackouts. In recent years, the voltage collapse or blackouts have occurred worldwide, such as the blackout in France at 1978 and blackout

  9. Application of power-factor correction in the Tandem Mirror Experiment Upgrade magnet power supply

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Corvin, W.C.

    1981-08-14

    The magnet power supply for the Tandem Mirror Experiment Upgrade (TMX Upgrade) contains 24 groups of dc rectifiers that feed the water-cooled magnets. Each group consists of five or less rectifiers, connected in series. All 24 are current-regulating, using phase-controlled bilateral thyristors in the rectifier transformer primaries. The electric utility system must furnish reactive power to these phase-controlled thyristors as well as to the cmmutating diodes in the rectifier bridges.

  10. Regional respiratory tract absorption of inhaled reactive gases

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Miller, F.J.; Overton, J.H.; Kimbell, J.S.; Russell, M.L.

    1992-06-29

    Highly reactive gases present unique problems due to the number of factors which must be taken into account to determine regional respiratory tract uptake. The authors reviewed some of the physical, chemical, and biological factors that affect dose and that must be understood to interpret toxicological data, to evaluate experimental dosimetry studies, and to develop dosimetry models. Selected dosimetry experiments involving laboratory animals and humans were discussed, showing the variability and uptake according to animal species and respiratory tract region for various reactive gases. New experimental dosimetry approaches, such as those involving isotope ratio mass spectroscopy and cyclotron generation reactive gases, were discussed that offer great promise for improving the ability to study regional respiratory tract absorption of reactive gases. Various dosimetry modeling applications were discussed which demonstrate: the importance of airflow patterns for site-specific dosimetry in the upper respiratory tract, the influence of the anatomical model used to make inter- and intraspecies dosimetric comparisons, the influence of tracheobronchial path length on predicted dose curves, and the implications of ventilatory unit structure and volume on dosimetry and response. Collectively, these examples illustrate important aspects of regional respiratory tract absorption of inhaled reactive gases. Given the complex nature of extent and pattern of injury in the respiratory tract from exposure to reactive gases, understanding interspecies differences in the absorption of reactive gases will continue to be an important area for study.

  11. Initial performance of the NEOWISE reactivation mission

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Mainzer, A.; Bauer, J.; Masiero, J.; Eisenhardt, P.; Fabinsky, B.; Heinrichsen, I.; Liu, F. [Jet Propulsion Laboratory, California Institute of Technology, Pasadena, CA 91109 (United States); Cutri, R. M.; Beck, R.; Conrow, T.; Dailey, J.; Fajardo-Acosta, S.; Fowler, J.; Gelino, C.; Grillmair, C.; Kirkpatrick, J. Davy; Masci, F. [Infrared Processing and Analysis Center, California Institute of Technology, Pasadena, CA 91125 (United States); Grav, T. [Planetary Science Institute, Tucson, AZ (United States); Clarkson, P.; Kendall, M., E-mail: amainzer@jpl.nasa.gov [Ball Aerospace and Technology Center, Boulder, CO (United States); and others

    2014-09-01

    NASA's Wide-field Infrared Survey Explorer (WISE) spacecraft has been brought out of hibernation and has resumed surveying the sky at 3.4 and 4.6 ?m. The scientific objectives of the NEOWISE reactivation mission are to detect, track, and characterize near-Earth asteroids and comets. The search for minor planets resumed on 2013 December 23, and the first new near-Earth object (NEO) was discovered 6 days later. As an infrared survey, NEOWISE detects asteroids based on their thermal emission and is equally sensitive to high and low albedo objects; consequently, NEOWISE-discovered NEOs tend to be large and dark. Over the course of its three-year mission, NEOWISE will determine radiometrically derived diameters and albedos for ?2000 NEOs and tens of thousands of Main Belt asteroids. The 32 months of hibernation have had no significant effect on the mission's performance. Image quality, sensitivity, photometric and astrometric accuracy, completeness, and the rate of minor planet detections are all essentially unchanged from the prime mission's post-cryogenic phase.

  12. HE ELECTRIC POWER INDUSTRY in the United States is facing a disquieting shortage

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    , wholesale and retail electricity marketing, reactive power management, and other ancillary support systemsT HE ELECTRIC POWER INDUSTRY in the United States is facing a disquieting shortage of trained engineering personnel. For decades, things have gone downhill. The salaries paid to power engineers have been

  13. Project Profile: Chemically Reactive Working Fluids

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    Argonne National Laboratory (ANL), under the 2012 SunShot Concentrating Solar Power (CSP) R&D funding opportunity announcement (FOA), is working to identify and test new heat-transfer fluids (HTFs) that store energy chemically for more efficient energy transfer in CSP applications.

  14. M-C Power commercialization program overview

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Camara, E.H.

    1996-12-31

    Competition in the electric generation market will increase, owing to unbundling and repackaging of electric energy services. One technology that will enable electric companies to expand their role in the energy services marketplace is the molten carbonate fuel cell (MCFC). Distributed power plants using MCFCs can fill the demand for localized, efficient, and environmentally friendly energy supplies at the lowest possible cost. This type of equipment will allow electric companies to supply the majority of a customer`s electric and thermal energy needs from small power plants located at the customer`s facilities. M-C Power`s mission is the development and commercialization of MCFC stacks. Advanced separator plates were designed, and cost of non-repeat hardware was reduced. In the technology development phase of the commercialization program, a 250 KW MCFC demonstration plant at the Naval Air Station Miramar in Sand Diego is the culminating event in the product development test project. Product requirements, economic analysis, and market entry are discussed. This is the 2nd year of a 5-year program.

  15. Enhanced durability and reactivity for zinc ferrite desulfurization sorbent

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Jha, M.C.; Berggren, M.H.

    1987-10-27

    AMAX Research Development Center (AMAX R D) has been investigating methods for improving the reactivity and durability of the zinc ferrite desulfurization sorbent. Zinc ferrite sorbents are intended for use in desulfurization of hog coal gas in integrated gasification combined cycle (IGCC) or molten carbonate fuel cell (MCFC) applications. The reactivity of the sorbent may be defined as its sulfur sorption capacity at the breakthrough point in a bench-scale fixed-bed reactor. The durability may be defined as the ability of the sorbent to maintain its reactivity and other important physical characteristics such as size, strength, and specific surface area during 10 cycles of sulfidation and regeneration. Two base case sorbents, spherical pellets and cylindrical extrudes used in related METC sponsored projects, are being used to provide a basis for the comparison of physical characteristics and chemical reactivity.

  16. Reactive Oxygen Species Driven Angiogenesis by Inorganic Nanorods

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Patra, Chitta Ranjan

    The exact mechanism of angiogenesis by europium hydroxide nanorods was unclear. In this study we have showed that formation of reactive oxygen species (H2O2 and O2·?) is involved in redox signaling pathways during angiogenesis, ...

  17. Reactivity of ethylene oxide in contact with contaminants 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Dinh, Linh Thi Thuy

    2009-05-15

    , such as isomerization, polymerization, hydrolysis, combustion and decomposition Due to its very reactive characteristic and widely industrial applications, EO has been involved in a number of serious incidents such as Doe Run 1962, Freeport 1974, Deer Park 1988...

  18. Towards Interactive Timing Analysis for Designing Reactive Systems

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    : Medium: Timing Centric Software), and #0931843 (ActionWebs), the Naval Research Laboratory (NRL #N0013- action Time, Synchronous Languages, Precision Timed Machines, Sequential Constructiveness 1 Introduction reactive systems. Such systems typically interact with the physical environment by sensing, performing

  19. Conversion of carboxylate salts to carboxylic acids via reactive distillation 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Williamson, Shelly Ann

    2000-01-01

    , municipal solid wastes, sewage sludge, and industrial biosludge. Using a proprietary technology owned by Texas A&M University the wastes are first treated with lime to enhance reactivity. Then they are converted to calcium carboxylate salts using a mixed...

  20. Highly reactive light-dependent monoterpenes in the Amazon

    DOE Public Access Gateway for Energy & Science Beta (PAGES Beta)

    Jardine, A. B.; Jardine, K. J.; Fuentes, J. D.; Martin, S. T.; Martins, G.; Durgante, F.; Carneiro, V.; Higuchi, N.; Manzi, A. O.; Chambers, J. Q.

    2015-03-06

    Despite orders of magnitude difference in atmospheric reactivity and great diversity in biological functioning, little is known about monoterpene speciation in tropical forests. Here we report vertically resolved ambient air mixing ratios for 12 monoterpenes in a central Amazon rainforest including observations of the highly reactive cis-?-ocimene (160 ppt), trans-?-ocimene (79 ppt), and terpinolene (32 ppt) which accounted for an estimated 21% of total monoterpene composition yet 55% of the upper canopy monoterpene ozonolysis rate. All 12 monoterpenes showed a mixing ratio peak in the upper canopy, with three demonstrating subcanopy peaks in 7 of 11 profiles. Leaf level emissionsmore »of highly reactive monoterpenes accounted for up to 1.9% of photosynthesis confirming light-dependent emissions across several Amazon tree genera. These results suggest that highly reactive monoterpenes play important antioxidant roles during photosynthesis in plants and serve as near-canopy sources of secondary organic aerosol precursors through atmospheric photooxidation via ozonolysis.« less

  1. Towards Synthesis of Reactive & Robust Behavior Chains Amol D. Mali

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Mali, Amol D.

    Towards Synthesis of Reactive & Robust Behavior Chains Amol D. Mali Electrical Engg. & Computer Science, P.O.Box 784 University of Wisconsin, Milwaukee, Milwaukee, WI 53201, USA. e-mail: mali

  2. Comparison of Conventional Diesel and Reactivity Controlled Compressio...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    in a Light-Duty Engine CFD modeling was used to compare conventional diesel and dual-fuel Reactivity Controlled Compression Ignition combustion at US Tier 2 Bin 5 NOx...

  3. Quantifying the Economic Development Impacts of Wind Power in...

    Wind Powering America (EERE)

    size * Turbine size * Project construction cost (kW) * Annual operation and maintenance cost (kW) * Current dollar year. 3 In addition to the above items, for a general...

  4. Reduced-reactivity-swing LEU fuel cycle analyses for HFR Petten

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Deen, J.R.; Snelgrove, J.L.

    1985-01-01

    The primary objective of these low enriched uranium (LEU) fuel cycle analyses was to effect at least a 33% reduction in the reactivity swing now experienced in the high enriched uranium (HEU) cycle while minimizing increases in /sup 235/U loading and power peaking. All LEU equilibrium fuel cycle calculations were performed using either a 19- or 20-plate fuel element with 0.76-mm-thick meat and 0.5- or 0.6-mm-thick Cd wires as burnable absorbers and 16- or 17-plate control rod fuel followers with 0.76-mm-thick meat. Burnup-dependent microscopic cross sections were used for all heavy metals and fission products. A three-dimensional model was used to account for the effect of partially inserted control rods upon burnup profiles of fuel and of burnable absorbers and upon power peaking. The equilibrium cycle reactivity swing (or, equivalently control rod movement) was reduced by 50% using LEU fuel with U meat densities <4.8 Mg/m/sup 3/. 6 refs., 4 tabs.

  5. Studies on Waterborne Pathogen Reactivation after Disinfection 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Kaur, Jasjeet

    2013-12-09

    20 kHz and 800 kHz result in propagation of ultrasound waves. When these waves propagate into liquid media, alternating compressions and rarefactions are produced. When the amplitude of the ultrasound wave is high enough, cavitation occurs (Cameron... et al. 2008). Acoustic cavitation caused by ultrasonication helps in mechanically disrupting the biological cells. High power ultrasound at low frequencies is an effective means for disintegrating bacterial cells (Piyasena et al. 2003; Cameron et al...

  6. Power supply

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Yakymyshyn, Christopher Paul (Seminole, FL); Hamilton, Pamela Jane (Seminole, FL); Brubaker, Michael Allen (Loveland, CO)

    2007-12-04

    A modular, low weight impedance dropping power supply with battery backup is disclosed that can be connected to a high voltage AC source and provide electrical power at a lower voltage. The design can be scaled over a wide range of input voltages and over a wide range of output voltages and delivered power.

  7. Fuel reactivity effects on the efficiency and operational window of dual-fuel compression ignition engines

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Splitter, Derek A [ORNL; Reitz, Rolf [University of Wisconsin

    2014-01-01

    Fuel reactivity effects on the efficiency and operational window of dual-fuel compression ignition engines

  8. High power operation of an X-band coaxial multi-beam relativistic klystron amplifier

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Liu, Zhenbang; Huang, Hua; Jin, Xiao; Zhao, Yucong; He, Hu; Lei, Lurong; Chen, Zhaofu [Science and Technology on High Power Microwave Laboratory, Institute of Applied Electronics, China Academy of Engineering Physics, Mianyang 621900 (China)] [Science and Technology on High Power Microwave Laboratory, Institute of Applied Electronics, China Academy of Engineering Physics, Mianyang 621900 (China)

    2013-11-15

    An X-band coaxial multi-beam relativistic klystron amplifier is designed in order to increase output microwave power and operating frequency of the amplifier tube. The experiment is performed on a Tesla-type accelerator. The amplifier is driven by an electron beam of 2.8 kA at 720 kV, and a microwave power of 30 kW and frequency of 9.384 GHz is injected into an input cavity by means of an external source, then a microwave power of over 800 MW is extracted, the amplifier gain is about 44 dB, and conversion efficiency is 40%. The experiment proves that output power of nearly GWs can be generated with the X-band coaxial multi-beam relativistic klystron amplifier driven by a kW-level input power.

  9. Reactive Air Aluminizing - Energy Innovation Portal

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Homesum_a_epg0_fpd_mmcf_m.xls" ,"Available from WebQuantityBonneville Power Administration wouldMassR&D100 Winners * Impacts on GlobalRachel2RateCaseElements

  10. Interfacial Structure and Reactivity | Argonne National Laboratory

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Homesum_a_epg0_fpd_mmcf_m.xls" ,"Available from WebQuantityBonneville Power Administration would likeUniverseIMPACT EVALUATION PLANIsProcess Relevant to Carbon SequestrationInterfacial

  11. A Total Cost of Ownership Model for Low Temperature PEM Fuel Cells in Combined Heat and Power and Backup Power Applications

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    University of California, Berkeley; Wei, Max; Lipman, Timothy; Mayyas, Ahmad; Chien, Joshua; Chan, Shuk Han; Gosselin, David; Breunig, Hanna; Stadler, Michael; McKone, Thomas; Beattie, Paul; Chong, Patricia; Colella, Whitney; James, Brian

    2014-06-23

    A total cost of ownership model is described for low temperature proton exchange membrane stationary fuel cell systems for combined heat and power (CHP) applications from 1-250kW and backup power applications from 1-50kW. System designs and functional specifications for these two applications were developed across the range of system power levels. Bottom-up cost estimates were made for balance of plant costs, and detailed direct cost estimates for key fuel cell stack components were derived using design-for-manufacturing-and-assembly techniques. The development of high throughput, automated processes achieving high yield are projected to reduce the cost for fuel cell stacks to the $300/kW level at an annual production volume of 100 MW. Several promising combinations of building types and geographical location in the U.S. were identified for installation of fuel cell CHP systems based on the LBNL modelling tool DER CAM. Life-cycle modelling and externality assessment were done for hotels and hospitals. Reduced electricity demand charges, heating credits and carbon credits can reduce the effective cost of electricity ($/kWhe) by 26-44percent in locations such as Minneapolis, where high carbon intensity electricity from the grid is displaces by a fuel cell system operating on reformate fuel. This project extends the scope of existing cost studies to include externalities and ancillary financial benefits and thus provides a more comprehensive picture of fuel cell system benefits, consistent with a policy and incentive environment that increasingly values these ancillary benefits. The project provides a critical, new modelling capacity and should aid a broad range of policy makers in assessing the integrated costs and benefits of fuel cell systems versus other distributed generation technologies.

  12. Magnitude and reactivity consequences of moisture ingress into the modular High-Temperature Gas-Cooled Reactor core

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Smith, O.L. (Oak Ridge National Lab., TN (United States))

    1992-12-01

    Inadvertent admission of moisture into the primary system of a modular high-temperature gas-cooled reactor has been identified in US Department of Energy-sponsored studies as an important safety concern. The work described here develops an analytical methodology to quantify the pressure and reactivity consequences of steam-generator tube rupture and other moisture-ingress-related incidents. Important neutronic and thermohydraulic processes are coupled with reactivity feedback and safety and control system responses. The rate and magnitude of steam buildup are found to be dominated by major system features such as break size compared with safety valve capacity and reliability and less sensitive to factors such as heat transfer coefficients. The results indicate that ingress transients progress at a slower pace than previously predicted by bounding analyses, with milder power overshoots and more time for operator or automatic corrective actions.

  13. Primary Side Power Flow Control of Wireless Power Transfer for Electric Vehicle Charging

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Miller, John M; Onar, Omer C; Chinthavali, Madhu Sudhan

    2015-01-01

    Various noncontacting methods of plug-in electric vehicle charging are either under development or now deployed as aftermarket options in the light-duty automotive market. Wireless power transfer (WPT) is now the accepted term for wireless charging and is used synonymously for inductive power transfer and magnetic resonance coupling. WPT technology is in its infancy; standardization is lacking, especially on interoperability, center frequency selection, magnetic fringe field suppression, and the methods employed for power flow regulation. This paper proposes a new analysis concept for power flow in WPT in which the primary provides frequency selection and the tuned secondary, with its resemblance to a power transmission network having a reactive power voltage control, is analyzed as a transmission network. Analysis is supported with experimental data taken from Oak Ridge National Laboratory s WPT apparatus. This paper also provides an experimental evidence for frequency selection, fringe field assessment, and the need for low-latency communications in the feedback path.

  14. Power LCAT

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Drennen, Thomas

    2012-08-15

    POWER LCAT is a software tool used to compare elements of efficiency, cost, and environmental effects between different sources of energy.

  15. QM Power

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    QM Power’s Q-Sync™ is an innovative, highly efficient and cost effective motor technology. Utilizing DoE SBIR funding, QM Power has developed advanced Q-Sync fan motor technology for 9-12 watt commercial refrigeration fan applications and is launching its first product lines targeting both new and existing commercial refrigeration equipment. For this project, QM Power will team with Oak Ridge National Labs, market leading OEMs, subject matter experts, end users, retrofit contractors and utilities to install and demonstrate approximately 10,000 high efficiency Q-Sync fan motors in over 50 grocery sites throughout the US.

  16. Power LCAT

    ScienceCinema (OSTI)

    Drennen, Thomas

    2014-06-27

    POWER LCAT is a software tool used to compare elements of efficiency, cost, and environmental effects between different sources of energy.

  17. Biostirling({trademark}): A small biomass power conversion system using an advanced stirling engine

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Johansson, L.; Ziph, B.; McKeough, W.; Houtman, W.

    1996-12-31

    Over the past decade the need for small power conversion systems to serve rural and/or remote needs has increased dramatically. The requirements for systems <100 kW are very similar, whether the need is defined as {open_quotes}rural electrification{close_quotes} in developed countries, or as {open_quotes}village power{close_quotes} in developing countries. The availability of biomass fuel resources to serve such systems is not in doubt, be they agricultural, forestry, animal or urban wastes. The main inhibiting factor has been the absence of a biomass power conversion system characterized by: reliability, cost effectiveness, low pollution, and ease of maintenance. Stirling Thermal Motors of Ann Arbor, Michigan, is recognized as the leader worldwide in the development and application of Stirling engine technology. It is currently demonstrating a {open_quotes}BioStirling({trademark}){close_quotes} Power Conversion System which combines its unique STM4-120 engine rated at 25 kW with a proven commercial gasifier. The BioStirling({trademark}) proof-of-concept demonstration is funded by DOE`s National Renewable Energy Laboratory and is to be completed in late 1996, with field demonstrations in 1997 and commercial availability 1998.

  18. Advanced underground Vehicle Power and Control: The locomotive Research Platform

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Vehicle Projects LLC

    2003-01-28

    Develop a fuelcell mine locomotive with metal-hydride hydrogen storage. Test the locomotive for fundamental limitations preventing successful commercialization of hydride fuelcells in underground mining. During Phase 1 of the DOE-EERE sponsored project, FPI and its partner SNL, completed work on the development of a 14.4 kW fuelcell power plant and metal-hydride energy storage. An existing battery-electric locomotive with similar power requirements, minus the battery module, was used as the base vehicle. In March 2001, Atlas Copco Wagner of Portland, OR, installed the fuelcell power plant into the base vehicle and initiated integration of the system into the vehicle. The entire vehicle returned to Sandia in May 2001 for further development and integration. Initial system power-up took place in December 2001. A revision to the original contract, Phase 2, at the request of DOE Golden Field Office, established Vehicle Projects LLC as the new prime contractor,. Phase 2 allowed industry partners to conduct surface tests, incorporate enhancements to the original design by SNL, perform an extensive risk and safety analysis, and test the fuelcell locomotive underground under representative production mine conditions. During the surface tests one of the fuelcell stacks exhibited reduced power output resulting in having to replace both fuelcell stacks. The new stacks were manufactured with new and improved technology resulting in an increase of the gross power output from 14.4 kW to 17 kW. Further work by CANMET and Hatch Associates, an engineering consulting firm specializing in safety analysis for the mining industry, both under subcontract to Vehicle Projects LLC, established minimum requirements for underground testing. CANMET upgraded the Programmable Logic Control (PLC) software used to monitor and control the fuelcell power plant, taking into account locomotive operator's needs. Battery Electric, a South Africa manufacturer, designed and manufactured (at no cost to the project) a new motor controller capable of operating the higher rpm motor and different power characteristics of the fuelcells. In early August 2002, CANMET, with the technical assistance of Nuvera Fuel Cells and Battery Electric, installed the new PLC software, installed the new motor controller, and installed the new fuelcell stacks. After minor adjustments, the fuelcell locomotive pulled its first fully loaded ore cars on a surface track. The fuelcell-powered locomotive easily matched the battery powered equivalent in its ability to pull tonnage and equaled the battery-powered locomotive in acceleration. The final task of Phase 2, testing the locomotive underground in a production environment, occurred in early October 2002 in a gold mine. All regulatory requirements to allow the locomotive underground were completed and signed off by Hatch Associates prior to going underground. During the production tests, the locomotive performed flawlessly with no failures or downtime. The actual tests occurred during a 2-week period and involved moving both gold ore and waste rock over a 1,000 meter track. Refueling, or recharging, of the metal-hydride storage took place on the surface. After each shift, the metal-hydride storage module was removed from the locomotive, transported to surface, and filled with hydrogen from high-pressure tanks. The beginning of each shift started with taking the fully recharged metal-hydride storage module down into the mine and re-installing it onto the locomotive. Each 8 hour shift consumed approximately one half to two thirds of the onboard hydrogen. This indicates that the fuelcell-powered locomotive can work longer than a similar battery-powered locomotive, which operates about 6 hours, before needing a recharge.

  19. Effect of superbanana diffusion on fusion reactivity in stellarators

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Hinton, Fred L. [Center for Astrophysics and Space Sciences, University of California, San Diego, La Jolla, California 92093-0424 (United States)

    2012-08-15

    Fusion reactivity is usually obtained using a Maxwellian distribution. However, energy-dependent radial diffusion can modify the energy distribution. Superbanana diffusion is energy-dependent and occurs in nonaxisymmetric magnetic confinement devices, such as stellarators, because of ripple-trapped particles which can take large steps between collisions. In this paper, the D-T fusion reactivity is calculated using a non-Maxwellian energy distribution obtained by solving the Fokker-Planck equation numerically, including radial superbanana diffusion as well as energy scattering. The ions in the tail of the distribution, with energies larger than thermal, which are most needed for fusion, are depleted by superbanana diffusion. In this paper, it is shown that the D-T fusion reactivity is reduced by tail ion depletion due to superbanana diffusion, by roughly a factor of 0.5 for the parameters used in the calculation.

  20. Method and apparatus for measuring reactivity of fissile material

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Lee, D.M.; Lindquist, L.O.

    1982-09-07

    Given are a method and apparatus for measuring nondestructively and noninvasively (i.e., using no internal probing) the burnup, reactivity, or fissile content of any material which emits neutrons and which has fissionable components. The assay is accomplished by altering the return flux of neutrons into the fuel assembly by means of changing the reflecting material. The existing passive neutron emissions in the material being assayed are used as the source of interrogating neutrons. Two measurements of either emitted neutron or emitted gamma-ray count rates are made and are then correlated to either reactivity, burnup, or fissionable content of the material being assayed, thus providing a measurement of either reactivity, burnup, or fissionable content of the material being assayed. Spent fuel which has been freshly discharged from a reactor can be assayed using this method and apparatus. Precisions of 1000 MWd/tU appear to be feasible.

  1. Demonstration of a Highly Efficient Solid Oxide Fuel Cell Power System Using Adiabatic Steam Reforming and Anode Gas Recirculation

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Powell, Michael R.; Meinhardt, Kerry D.; Sprenkle, Vincent L.; Chick, Lawrence A.; Mcvay, Gary L.

    2012-05-01

    Solid oxide fuel cells (SOFC) are currently being developed for a wide variety of applications because of their high efficiency at multiple power levels. Applications for SOFCs encompass a large range of power levels including 1-2 kW residential combined heat and power applications, 100-250 kW sized systems for distributed generation and grid extension, and MW-scale power plants utilizing coal. This paper reports on the development of a highly efficient, small-scale SOFC power system operating on methane. The system uses adiabatic steam reforming of methane and anode gas recirculation to achieve high net electrical efficiency. The anode exit gas is recirculated and all of the heat and water required for the endothermic reforming reaction are provided by the anode gas emerging from the SOFC stack. Although the single-pass fuel utilization is only about 55%, because of the anode gas recirculation the overall fuel utilization is up to 93%. The demonstrated system achieved gross power output of 1650 to 2150 watts with a maximum net LHV efficiency of 56.7% at 1720 watts. Overall system efficiency could be further improved to over 60% with use of properly sized blowers.

  2. Enhanced durability and reactivity for zinc ferrite desulfurization sorbent

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Jha, M.C.; Berggren, M.H.

    1989-05-02

    AMAX Research Development Center (AMAX R D) has been investigating methods for enhancing the reactivity and durability of the zinc ferrite desulfurization sorbent. Zinc ferrite sorbents are intended for use in desulfurization of hot coal gas in integrated gasification combined cycle (IGCC) or molten carbonate fuel cell (MCFC) applications. For the present program, the reactivity of the sorbent may be defined as its sulfur sorption capacity at the breakthrough point and at saturation in a bench-scale, fixed-bed reactor. Durability may be defined as the ability of the sorbent to maintain important physical characteristics such As size, strength, and specific surface area during 10 cycles of sulfidation and oxidation.

  3. Enhanced durability and reactivity for zinc ferrite desulfurization sorbent

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Jha, M.C.; Berggren, M.H.

    1988-11-14

    AMAX Research Development Center (AMAX R D) has been investigating methods for enhancing the reactivity and durability of the zinc ferrite desulfurization sorbent. Zinc ferrite sorbents are intended for use in desulfurization of hot coal gas in integrated gasification combined cycle (IGCC) or molten carbonate fuel cell (MCFC) applications. For the present program, the reactivity of the sorbent may be defined as its sulfur sorption capacity at the breakthrough point and at saturation in a bench-scale, fixed-bed reactor. Durability may be defined as the ability of the sorbent to maintain important physical characteristics such As size, strength, and specific surface area during 10 cycles of sulfidation and oxidation.

  4. Enhanced durability and reactivity for zinc ferrite desulfurization sorbent

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Jha, M.C.; Berggren, M.H.

    1989-03-06

    AMAX Research Development Center (AMAX R D) has been investigating methods for enhancing the reactivity and durability of the zinc ferrite desulfurization sorbent. Zinc ferrite sorbents are intended for use in desulfurization of hot coal gas in integrated gasification combined cycle (IGCC) or molten carbonate fuel cell (MCFC) applications. For the present program, the reactivity of the sorbent may be defined as its sulfur sorption capacity at the breakthrough point and at saturation in a bench-scale, fixed-bed reactor. Durability may be defined as the ability of the sorbent to maintain important physical characteristics such As size, strength, and specific surface area during 10 cycles of sulfidation and oxidation.

  5. Enhanced durability and reactivity for zinc ferrite desulfurization sorbent

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Jha, M.C.; Berggren, M.H.

    1988-08-19

    AMAX Research Development Center (AMAX R D) has been investigating methods for enhancing the reactivity and durability of the zinc ferrite desulfurization sorbent. Zinc ferrite sorbents are intended for use in desulfurization of hot coal gas in integrated gasification combined cycle (IGCC) or molten carbonate fuel cell (MCFC) applications. For the present program, the reactivity of the sorbent may be defined as its sulfur sorption capacity at the breakthrough point and at saturation in a bench-scale, fixed-bed reactor. Durability may be defined as the ability of the sorbent to maintain important physical characteristics such As size, strength, and specific surface area during 10 cycles of sulfidation and oxidation.

  6. Enhanced durability and reactivity for zinc ferrite desulfurization sorbent

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Jha, M.C.; Baltich, L.K.; Berggren, M.H.

    1987-05-18

    AMAX Research Development Center (AMAX R D) has been investigating methods for enhancing the reactivity and durability of the zinc ferrite desulfurization sorbent. Zinc ferrite sorbents are intended for use in desulfurization of hot coal gas in integrated gasification combined cycle (IGCC) or molten carbonate fuel cell (MCFC) applications. For the present program, the reactivity of the sorbent may be defined as its sulfur sorption capacity at the breakthrough point and at saturation in a bench-scale, fixed-bed reactor. Durability may be defined as the ability of the sorbent to maintain important physical characteristics such As size, strength, and specific surface area during 10 cycles of sulfidation and oxidation.

  7. Enhanced durability and reactivity for zinc ferrite desulfurization sorbent

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Jha, M.C.; Baltich, L.K.; Berggren, M.H.

    1987-08-28

    AMAX Research Development Center (AMAX R D) has been investigating methods for enhancing the reactivity and durability of the zinc ferrite desulfurization sorbent. Zinc ferrite sorbents are intended for use in desulfurization of hot coal gas in integrated gasification combined cycle (IGCC) or molten carbonate fuel cell (MCFC) applications. For the present program, the reactivity of the sorbent may be defined as its sulfur sorption capacity at the breakthrough point and at saturation in a bench-scale, fixed-bed reactor. Durability may be defined as the ability of the sorbent to maintain important physical characteristics such As size, strength, and specific surface area during 10 cycles of sulfidation and oxidation.

  8. Increasing Class C fly ash reduces alkali silica reactivity

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Hicks, J.K.

    2007-07-01

    Contrary to earlier studies, it has been found that incremental additions of Class C fly ash do reduce alkali silica reactivity (ASR), in highly reactive, high alkali concrete mixes. AST can be further reduced by substituting 5% metakaolin or silica fume for the aggregate in concrete mixes with high (more than 30%) Class C fly ash substitution. The paper reports results of studies using Class C fly ash from the Labadie Station plant in Missouri which typically has between 1.3 and 1.45% available alkalis by ASTM C311. 7 figs.

  9. The relative reactivity of formic esters with aromatic amines

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Markley, Max C.

    1922-01-01

    at 100° are as follows- Ester used Percent yield Methyl formate ' 3% Ethyl M 81 Propyl " 92 Butyl " 80 Sec,octyl n 10 ( 15 ) PROPYL P OREATE W ITH SEVERAL A MINES The next move was to secure data on the relative reactivity of the amines... at 100° are as follows- Ester used Percent yield Methyl formate ' 3% Ethyl M 81 Propyl " 92 Butyl " 80 Sec,octyl n 10 ( 15 ) PROPYL P OREATE W ITH SEVERAL A MINES The next move was to secure data on the relative reactivity of the amines...

  10. Power system

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Hickam, Christopher Dale (Glasford, IL)

    2008-03-18

    A power system includes a prime mover, a transmission, and a fluid coupler having a selectively engageable lockup clutch. The fluid coupler may be drivingly connected between the prime mover and the transmission. Additionally, the power system may include a motor/generator drivingly connected to at least one of the prime mover and the transmission. The power-system may also include power-system controls configured to execute a control method. The control method may include selecting one of a plurality of modes of operation of the power system. Additionally, the control method may include controlling the operating state of the lockup clutch dependent upon the mode of operation selected. The control method may also include controlling the operating state of the motor/generator dependent upon the mode of operation selected.

  11. Nanocrystalline films for gas-reactive applications

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Eastman, Jeffrey A.; Thompson, Loren J.

    2004-02-17

    A gas sensor for detection of oxidizing and reducing gases, including O.sub.2, CO.sub.2, CO, and H.sub.2, monitors the partial pressure of a gas to be detected by measuring the temperature rise of an oxide-thin-film-coated metallic line in response to an applied electrical current. For a fixed input power, the temperature rise of the metallic line is inversely proportional to the thermal conductivity of the oxide coating. The oxide coating contains multi-valent cation species that change their valence, and hence the oxygen stoichiometry of the coating, in response to changes in the partial pressure of the detected gas. Since the thermal conductivity of the coating is dependent on its oxygen stoichiometry, the temperature rise of the metallic line depends on the partial pressure of the detected gas. Nanocrystalline (<100 nm grain size) oxide coatings yield faster sensor response times than conventional larger-grained coatings due to faster oxygen diffusion along grain boundaries rather than through grain interiors.

  12. Development and commercialization of a biomass gasification/power generation system

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Paisley, M.A.; Farris, G.

    1995-11-01

    The US Department of Energy (DOE) has been a leader in the promotion and development of alternative fuel supplies based on renewable energy crops. One promising power generation technology is biomass gasification coupled with either a gas turbine in a combined cycle system or a fuel cell. The gasification of biomass can efficiently and economically produce a renewable source of a clean gaseous fuel suitable for use in these high efficiency power systems or as a substitute fuel in other combustion devices such as boilers, kilns, or other natural gas fired equipment. This paper discusses the development and commercialization of the Battelle high-throughput gasification process for gas turbine based power generation systems. Projected process economics for a gas turbine combined cycle plant are presented along with a description of integrated system operation coupling a 200kW gas turbine power generation system to a 10 ton per day gasifier, and current commercialization activities.

  13. Cost Study for Manufacturing of Solid Oxide Fuel Cell Power Systems

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Weimar, Mark R.; Chick, Lawrence A.; Gotthold, David W.; Whyatt, Greg A.

    2013-09-30

    Solid oxide fuel cell (SOFC) power systems can be designed to produce electricity from fossil fuels at extremely high net efficiencies, approaching 70%. However, in order to penetrate commercial markets to an extent that significantly impacts world fuel consumption, their cost will need to be competitive with alternative generating systems, such as gas turbines. This report discusses a cost model developed at PNNL to estimate the manufacturing cost of SOFC power systems sized for ground-based distributed generation. The power system design was developed at PNNL in a study on the feasibility of using SOFC power systems on more electric aircraft to replace the main engine-mounted electrical generators [Whyatt and Chick, 2012]. We chose to study that design because the projected efficiency was high (70%) and the generating capacity was suitable for ground-based distributed generation (270 kW).

  14. Wave-actuated power take-off device for electricity generation

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Chertok, Allan

    2013-01-31

    Since 2008, Resolute Marine Energy, Inc. (RME) has been engaged in the development of a rigidly moored shallow-water point absorber wave energy converter, the "3D-WEC". RME anticipated that the 3D-WEC configuration with a fully buoyant point absorber buoy coupled to three power take off (PTO) units by a tripod array of tethers would achieve higher power capture than a more conventional 1-D configuration with a single tether and PTO. The investigation conducted under this program and documented herein addressed the following principal research question regarding RME'Â?Â?s power take off (PTO) concept for its 3D-WEC: Is RME's winch-driven generator PTO concept, previously implemented at sub-scale and tested at the Ohmsett wave tank facility, scalable in a cost-effective manner to significant power levels Â?Â?e.g., 10 to 100kW?

  15. Ion flux characteristics and efficiency of the deposition processes in high power impulse magnetron sputtering of zirconium

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Lazar, J.; Vlcek, J.; Rezek, J. [Department of Physics, University of West Bohemia, Univerzitni 22, 30614 Plzen (Czech Republic)

    2010-09-15

    High power impulse magnetron sputtering of zirconium was investigated at the average target power density of up to 2.22 kW cm{sup -2} in a pulse. The depositions were performed using a strongly unbalanced magnetron with a planar zirconium target of 100 mm diameter at the argon pressure of 1 Pa. The repetition frequency was 500 Hz at duty cycles ranging from 4% to 10%. Time-averaged mass spectroscopy was carried out at the substrate positions of 100 and 200 mm from the target. The increase in the average target power density from 0.97 kW cm{sup -2} to 2.22 kW cm{sup -2} in shortened voltage pulses (from 200 to 80 {mu}s) at an average target power density of 100 W cm{sup -2} in a period led to high fractions (21%-32%) of doubly charged zirconium ions in total ion fluxes onto the substrate located 100 mm from the target. However, the respective fractions of singly charged zirconium ions decreased from 23% to 3%. It was observed that ion energy distributions were extended to high energies (up to 100 eV relative to the ground potential) under these conditions. The increased target power densities during the shortened voltage pulses resulted in a reduced deposition rate of films from 590 to 440 nm/min and in a weakly decreasing ionized fraction (from 55% to 49%) of the sputtered zirconium atoms in the flux onto the substrate. The doubly charged zirconium ions became strongly predominant (up to 63%) in the total ion flux onto the substrate at the distance of 200 mm from the target. Model calculations were carried out to explain the complicated deposition processes.

  16. Techno-Economic Feasibility of Highly Efficient Cost-Effective Thermoelectric-SOFC Hybrid Power Generation Systems

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Jifeng Zhang; Jean Yamanis

    2007-09-30

    Solid oxide fuel cell (SOFC) systems have the potential to generate exhaust gas streams of high temperature, ranging from 400 to 800 C. These high temperature gas streams can be used for additional power generation with bottoming cycle technologies to achieve higher system power efficiency. One of the potential candidate bottoming cycles is power generation by means of thermoelectric (TE) devices, which have the inherent advantages of low noise, low maintenance and long life. This study was to analyze the feasibility of combining coal gas based SOFC and TE through system performance and cost techno-economic modeling in the context of multi-MW power plants, with 200 kW SOFC-TE module as building blocks. System and component concepts were generated for combining SOFC and TE covering electro-thermo-chemical system integration, power conditioning system (PCS) and component designs. SOFC cost and performance models previously developed at United Technologies Research Center were modified and used in overall system analysis. The TE model was validated and provided by BSST. The optimum system in terms of energy conversion efficiency was found to be a pressurized SOFC-TE, with system efficiency of 65.3% and cost of $390/kW of manufacturing cost. The pressurization ratio was approximately 4 and the assumed ZT of the TE was 2.5. System and component specifications were generated based on the modeling study. The major technology and cost barriers for maturing the system include pressurized SOFC stack using coal gas, the high temperature recycle blowers, and system control design. Finally, a 4-step development roadmap is proposed for future technology development, the first step being a 1 kW proof-of-concept demonstration unit.

  17. Hole-boring through clouds for laser power beaming

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Lipinski, R.J. [Sandia National Labs., Albuquerque, NM (United States); Walter, R.F. [W.J. Schafer Associates, Inc., Albuquerque, NM (United States)

    1994-12-31

    Power beaming to satellites with a ground-based laser can be limited by clouds. Hole-boring through the clouds with a laser has been proposed as a way to overcome this obstacle. This paper reviews the past work on laser hole-boring and concludes that hole-boring for direct beaming to satellites is likely to require 10--100 MW. However, it may be possible to use an airborne relay mirror at 10--25 km altitude for some applications in order to extend the range of the laser (e.g., for beaming to satellites near the horizon). In these cases, use of the relay mirror also would allow a narrow beam between the laser and the relay, as well as the possibility of reducing the crosswind if the plane matched speed with the cloud temporarily. Under these conditions, the power requirement to bore a hole through most cirrus and cirrostratus clouds might be only 500-kW if the hole is less than 1 m in diameter and if the crosswind speed is less than 10 m/s. Overcoming cirrus and cirrostratus clouds would reduce the downtime due to weather by a factor of 2. However, 500 kW is a large laser, and it may be more effective instead to establish a second power beaming site in a separate weather zone. An assessment of optimum wavelengths for hole boring also was made, and the best options were found to be 3.0--3.4 {mu}m and above 10 {mu}m.

  18. Safety approaches for high power modular laser operation

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Handren, R.T.

    1993-03-01

    Approximately 20 years ago, a program was initiated at the Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory (LLNL) to study the feasibility of using lasers to separate isotopes of uranium and other materials. Of particular interest has been the development of a uranium enrichment method for the production of commercial nuclear power reactor fuel to replace current more expensive methods. The Uranium Atomic Vapor Laser Isotope Separation (U-AVLIS) Program has progressed to the point where a plant-scale facility to demonstrate commercial feasibility has been built and is being tested. The U-AVLIS Program uses copper vapor lasers which pump frequency selective dye lasers to photoionize uranium vapor produced by an electron beam. The selectively ionized isotopes are electrostatically collected. The copper lasers are arranged in oscillator/amplifier chains. The current configuration consists of 12 chains, each with a nominal output of 800 W for a system output in excess of 9 kW. The system requirements are for continuous operation (24 h a day, 7 days a week) and high availability. To meet these requirements, the lasers are designed in a modular form allowing for rapid change-out of the lasers requiring maintenance. Since beginning operation in early 1985, the copper lasers have accumulated over 2 million unit hours at a >90% availability. The dye laser system provides approximately 2.5 kW average power in the visible wavelength range. This large-scale laser system has many safety considerations, including high-power laser beams, high voltage, and large quantities ({approximately}3000 gal) of ethanol dye solutions. The Laboratory`s safety policy requires that safety controls be designed into any process, equipment, or apparatus in the form of engineering controls. Administrative controls further reduce the risk to an acceptable level. Selected examples of engineering and administrative controls currently being used in the U-AVLIS Program are described.

  19. Uncertainty in BWR power during ATWS events

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Diamond, D.J.

    1986-01-01

    A study was undertaken to improve our understanding of BWR conditions following the closure of main steam isolation valves and the failure of reactor trip. Of particular interest was the power during the period when the core had reached a quasi-equilibrium condition with a natural circulation flow rate determined by the water level in the downcomer. Insights into the uncertainity in the calculation of this power with sophisticated computer codes were quantified using a simple model which relates power to the principal thermal-hydraulic variables and reactivity coefficients; the latter representing the link between the thermal-hydraulics and the neutronics. Assumptions regarding the uncertainty in these variables and coefficients were then used to determine the uncertainty in power.

  20. IEEE TRANSACTIONS ON POWER SYSTEMS, VOL. 17, NO. 4, NOVEMBER 2002 1283 Corrections

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Gross, George

    for the allocation of losses. The formulation leads to a natural allocation as a function of the amount of eachIEEE TRANSACTIONS ON POWER SYSTEMS, VOL. 17, NO. 4, NOVEMBER 2002 1283 Corrections Allocation-flow-based mech- anism for allocating the reactive power support requirements provided by the generators

  1. Price Discovery in Dynamic Power Markets with Low-Voltage Distribution-Network Participants

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Caramanis, Michael

    Price Discovery in Dynamic Power Markets with Low-Voltage Distribution-Network Participants Elli. To this end, we define a distribution market that can discover spatiotemporal real and reactive power prices dynamically to optimize cost and utility of distributed generation assets, consumers, transformer and other

  2. Utility of reactively sputtered CuN{sub x} films in spintronics devices

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Fang Yeyu; Persson, J.; Zha, C.; Willman, J.; Miller, Casey W.; Aakerman, Johan

    2012-04-01

    We have studied nitrified copper (CuN{sub x}) thin films grown by reactive sputtering in the context of spintronic devices. The Ar-to-N{sub 2} flow ratio enables tunability of the electrical resistivity and surface roughness of the CuN{sub x} films, with the former increasing to nearly 20 times that of Cu, and the latter reduced to the atomic scale. Incorporating this into a Ta/CuN{sub x}/Ta seed stack for spin valves improves the current-in-plane (CIP) magnetoresistance; maximum magnetoresistance results with CuN{sub x} seed layer and Cu interlayer. Finally, finite element modeling results are presented that suggest the use of CuN{sub x} in nanocontact spin torque oscillators can enhance current densities by limiting the current spread through the device. This may positively impact threshold currents, power requirements, and device reliability.

  3. Structural and thermal properties of nanocrystalline CuO synthesized by reactive magnetron sputtering

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Verma, M.; Gupta, V. K.; Gautam, Y. K.; Dave, V.; Chandra, R.

    2014-01-28

    Recent research has shown immense application of metal oxides like CuO, MgO, CaO, Al{sub 2}O{sub 3}, etc. in different areas which includes chemical warfare agents, medical drugs, magnetic storage media and solar energy transformation. Among the metal oxides, CuO nanoparticles are of special interest because of their excellent gas sensing and catalytic properties. In this paper we report structural and thermal properties of CuO synthesized by reactive magnetron DC sputtering. The synthesized nanoparticles were characterized by X-ray diffractometer. The XRD result reveals that as DC power increased from 30W to 80W, size of the CuO nanoparticles increased. The same results have been verified through TEM analysis. Thermal properties of these particles were studied using thermogravimetry.

  4. Study of static reactive power compensators for high-voltage power systems. Final report, May 12, 1981

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Byerly, R.T.; Bennon, R.J.; Taylor, E.R. Jr.; Poznaniak, D.T.

    1981-05-12

    A general study of the application of static VAR compensators (SVC's) to high-voltage transmission systems has been performed. Considerable emphasis has been placed on improvements to synchronous stability, and it is shown that SVC's can provide significant benefits in terms of damping for unstable modes of oscillation and increases in transient stability limits. This report includes descriptions of static VAR compensators, technical and economic comparisons of different compensators, compensator models for system studies, comprehensive study procedures, study results for two small-scale systems, and guidelines for SVC application.

  5. Melting Alpine Glaciers Enrich High-Elevation Lakes with Reactive

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Wolfe, Alexander P.

    melt alone (SF lakes) and those fed by both glacial and snowpack meltwaters (GSF lakes). We foundMelting Alpine Glaciers Enrich High-Elevation Lakes with Reactive Nitrogen J A S M I N E E . S A R century in many regions of the world. Resulting changes in glacial runoff not only affect the hydrological

  6. Towards Energy-Efficient Reactive Thermal Management in Instrumented Datacenters

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Pompili, Dario

    Towards Energy-Efficient Reactive Thermal Management in Instrumented Datacenters Ivan Rodero, Eun techniques used to alleviate thermal anomalies (i.e., hotspots) in cloud datacenter's servers of by reducing such as voltage scaling that also can be applied to reduce the temperature of the servers in datacenters. Because

  7. Neutron economic reactivity control system for light water reactors

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Luce, Robert G. (Glenville, NY); McCoy, Daniel F. (Latham, NY); Merriman, Floyd C. (Rotterdam, NY); Gregurech, Steve (Scotia, NY)

    1989-01-01

    A neutron reactivity control system for a LWBR incorporating a stationary seed-blanket core arrangement. The core arrangement includes a plurality of contiguous hexagonal shaped regions. Each region has a central and a peripheral blanket area juxapositioned an annular seed area. The blanket areas contain thoria fuel rods while the annular seed area includes seed fuel rods and movable thoria shim control rods.

  8. Fe(III) Oxide Reactivity Toward Biological versus Chemical

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Roden, Eric E.

    size, surface area, and solubility of the mineral. Such variations lead to a continuum of Fe(III) oxideFe(III) Oxide Reactivity Toward Biological versus Chemical Reduction E R I C E . R O D E N of synthetic Fe(III) oxides with a broad range of crystallinity and specific surface area were examined

  9. Neural reactivation links unconscious thought to decision-making performance

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Creswell, J. David

    Neural reactivation links unconscious thought to decision-making performance John David Creswell,1 of Psychology, Northeastern University, 360 Huntington Ave, Boston, MA 02115, USA Brief periods of unconscious-making performance after the UT period. These results provide initial evidence for post-encoding unconscious neural

  10. On-Road Emission Measurements of Reactive Nitrogen Compounds from

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Denver, University of

    - equippedvehiclesarenotbelievedtobesignificant(1).Oxides of nitrogen (NOx) emission rates from light-duty gasoline vehicles have been shown to be rapidly decreasing across the United States, but total NOx emissions are decreasing at a slower rate dueOn-Road Emission Measurements of Reactive Nitrogen Compounds from Three California Cities G A R Y

  11. Photochemical Reactivity of Graphene Haitao Liu, Sunmin Ryu,

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    semiconductor. A recent study showed that photoge- nerated carriers in graphene first equilibrate amongPhotochemical Reactivity of Graphene Haitao Liu, Sunmin Ryu, Zheyuan Chen, Michael L. Steigerwald a photochemical reaction between graphene and benzoyl peroxide. The reaction introduces spatially localized

  12. EULERIANLAGRANGIAN LOCALIZED ADJOINT METHODS FOR REACTIVE TRANSPORT IN GROUNDWATER \\Lambda

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Ewing, Richard E.

    EULERIAN­LAGRANGIAN LOCALIZED ADJOINT METHODS FOR REACTIVE TRANSPORT IN GROUNDWATER \\Lambda RICHARD in groundwater flowing through an adsorbing porous medium. These ELLAM schemes are developed for various and discussed. x1. Introduction. In recent years, the contamination and pollution of groundwater resources have

  13. Supporting Information Reactive processing of formaldehyde and acetaldehyde in aqueous

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Meskhidze, Nicholas

    S1 Supporting Information Reactive processing of formaldehyde and acetaldehyde in aqueous aerosol: Acetaldehyde; Form: Formaldehyde #12;S2 Density functional theory calculations of paraformaldehyde ionization+ of atomized solutions of 1 M formaldehyde in 3.1 M AS. m/z (amu) ± 1.0 amu Ion Formula Molecular Formula

  14. Field, Laboratory, and Modeling Study of Reactive Transport of

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    University of New York, Flushing, New York 11367, Department of Marine Chemistry and Geochemistry, Woods Hole Bay, MA, shed light on coupled control of chemistry and hydrology on reactive transport), phosphate (5), and oxyanions of molybdenum (6) and uranium (7, 8) in aquifers. In addition

  15. Reactive Stochastic Local Search Algorithms for the Genomic Median Problem

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Wolf, Christian

    Reactive Stochastic Local Search Algorithms for the Genomic Median Problem Renaud Lenne1 5558, Universit´e de Lyon 1, France eric.tannier@inria.fr Abstract. The genomic median problem of the common ancestor to multiple living species. It is formulated as the search for a genome that minimizes

  16. Nuclear Power 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    2010-01-01

    be inherently safe and environmentally benign. These realities of today's world are among the reasons that lead to serious interest in deploying nuclear power as a sustainable energy source. Today's nuclear reactors are safe and highly efficient energy systems...

  17. ORNL/TM-2008/083 A Tariff for Reactive Power

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Pennycook, Steve

    & Electric Company Alan G. Isemonger, California Independent System Operator Brendan Kirby, ORNL, Knowledge, and International Nuclear Information System (INIS) representatives from the following source. Office of Scientific Ridge, Tennessee 37831-6283 managed by UT-BATTELLE, LLC for the U.S. DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY under contract

  18. 39333939 ORNL/TM-2008/174 Local Dynamic Reactive Power for

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Pennycook, Steve

    available free via the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Information Bridge: Web site: http://www.osti-576-8401 Fax: 865-576-5728 E-mail: reports@adonis.osti.gov Web site: http://www.osti

  19. Assessment of the Economic Potential of Microgrids for Reactive Power Supply

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Appen, Jan von

    2012-01-01

    loses for the microgrid, since the payment is connected toa microgrid’s advantages, the following price This payment

  20. Assessment of the Economic Potential of Microgrids for Reactive Power Supply

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Appen, Jan von

    2012-01-01

    condensers are synchronous generators that are redesigned toconverter. ICEs with synchronous generators can provideinverters, and DER synchronous generators only require an

  1. Assessment of the Economic Potential of Microgrids for Reactive Power Supply

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Appen, Jan von

    2012-01-01

    10] M. Braun, Provision of Ancillary Services by Distributedand Voltage Control Ancillary Services - Part I: Technicalthe requirements for ancillary services, including voltage

  2. Aalborg Universitet Supervisory Control for Real Time Reactive Power Flow Optimization in Islanded

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Vasquez, Juan Carlos

    production paradigm to local and distributed generation. However, such energy systems require complex-662 Warsaw, Poland b Aalborg University, Institute of Energy Technology, Pontoppidanstraede 101, DK-9220 Aalborg East, Denmark c Universitat Politècnica de Catalunya Department of Chemical Engineering EUETIB

  3. Assessment of the Economic Potential of Microgrids for Reactive Power Supply

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Appen, Jan von

    2012-01-01

    of Renewable Energies, Darmstadt, Germany 2 LawrenceSolar Energy Conference (EU PVSEC 2009), Hamburg (Germany),

  4. A Case Study on Reactive Protocols for Aircraft Electric Power Distribution

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Xu, Huan

    by physical constraints and per- formance criteria. Because safety of the aircraft is solely or mostly, and Richard M. Murray3 Abstract-- We consider the problem of designing a control protocol for the aircraft a design exploration to show the benefits and tradeoffs between centralized and distributed control

  5. Property:OpenEI/UtilityRate/DemandReactivePowerCharge | Open Energy

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Google Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on QA:QAsource History ViewMayo,AltFuelVehicle2 JumpPublicationDate JumpEnergy Information

  6. Application of Automated Controls for Voltage and Reactive Power Management - Initial Results

    Broader source: Energy.gov (indexed) [DOE]

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Homesum_a_epg0_fpd_mmcf_m.xls" ,"Available from WebQuantity of Natural GasAdjustmentsShirleyEnergyTher i n c i p a l De p u t yWasteCommentsTransmission Company:DesiertoTransmission

  7. Power combiner

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Arnold, Mobius; Ives, Robert Lawrence

    2006-09-05

    A power combiner for the combining of symmetric and asymmetric traveling wave energy comprises a feed waveguide having an input port and a launching port, a reflector for reflecting launched wave energy, and a final waveguide for the collection and transport of launched wave energy. The power combiner has a launching port for symmetrical waves which comprises a cylindrical section coaxial to the feed waveguide, and a launching port for asymmetric waves which comprises a sawtooth rotated about a central axis.

  8. Enhanced durability and reactivity for zinc ferrite desulfurization sorbent

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Berggren, M.H.; Jha, M.C.

    1989-10-01

    AMAX Research Development Center (AMAX R D) investigated methods for enhancing the reactivity and durability of zinc ferrite desulfurization sorbents. Zinc ferrite sorbents are intended for use in desulfurization of hot coal gas in integrated gasification combined cycle (IGCC) or molten carbonate fuel cell (MCFC) applications. For this program, the reactivity of the sorbent may be defined as its sulfur sorption capacity at the breakthrough point and at saturation in a bench-scale, fixed-bed reactor. Durability may be defined as the ability of the sorbent to maintain important physical characteristics such as size, strength, and specific surface area during 10 cycles of sulfidation and oxidation. Two base case sorbents, a spherical pellet and a cylindrical extrude used in related METC-sponsored projects, were used to provide a basis for the aimed enhancement in durability and reactivity. Sorbent performance was judged on the basis of physical properties, single particle kinetic studies based on thermogravimetric (TGA) techniques, and multicycle bench-scale testing of sorbents. A sorbent grading system was utilized to quantify the characteristics of the new sorbents prepared during the program. Significant enhancements in both reactivity and durability were achieved for the spherical pellet shape over the base case formulation. Overall improvements to reactivity and durability were also made to the cylindrical extrude shape. The primary variables which were investigated during the program included iron oxide type, zinc oxide:iron oxide ratio, inorganic binder concentration, organic binder concentration, and induration conditions. The effects of some variables were small or inconclusive. Based on TGA studies and bench-scale tests, induration conditions were found to be very significant.

  9. SUPERCRITICAL STEAM CYCLE FOR NUCLEAR POWER PLANT

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Tsiklauri, Georgi V.; Talbert, Robert J.; Schmitt, Bruce E.; Filippov, Gennady A.; Bogojavlensky, Roald G.; Grishanin, Evgeny I.

    2005-07-01

    Revolutionary improvement of the nuclear plant safety and economy with light water reactors can be reached with the application of micro-fuel elements (MFE) directly cooled by a supercritical pressure light-water coolant-moderator. There are considerable advantages of the MFE as compared with the traditional fuel rods, such as: Using supercritical and superheated steam considerably increases the thermal efficiency of the Rankine cycle up to 44-45%. Strong negative coolant and void reactivity coefficients with a very short thermal delay time allow the reactor to shutdown quickly in the event of a reactivity or power excursion. Core melting and the creation of corium during severe accidents are impossible. The heat transfer surface area is larger by several orders of magnitude due to the small spherical dimensions of the MFE. The larger heat exchange surface significantly simplifies residual heat removal by natural convection and radiation from the core to a subsequent passive system of heat removal.

  10. A Two-level Prediction Model for Deep Reactive Ion Etch (DRIE)

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Taylor, Hayden K.

    We contribute a quantitative and systematic model to capture etch non-uniformity in deep reactive ion etch of microelectromechanical systems (MEMS) devices. Deep reactive ion etch is commonly used in MEMS fabrication where ...

  11. Pollution-enhanced reactive chlorine chemistry in the eastern tropical Atlantic boundary layer

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    2009-01-01

    doi:10.1029/2008GL036666, 2009 Pollution-enhanced reactiveE. S. Saltzman (2009), Pollution-enhanced reactive chlorine5 L08810 LAWLER ET AL. : POLLUTION-ENHANCED CLX IN THE MBL

  12. A Reactive Force Field study of Li/C Systems for Electrical Energy...

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    A Reactive Force Field study of LiC Systems for Electrical Energy Storage Citation Details In-Document Search Title: A Reactive Force Field study of LiC Systems for Electrical...

  13. Reactive greenhouse gas scenarios: Systematic exploration of uncertainties and the role of atmospheric chemistry

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Holmes, Christopher D.

    Reactive greenhouse gas scenarios: Systematic exploration of uncertainties and the role chemistry of reactive greenhouse gases is needed to accurately quantify the relationship between human activities and climate, and to incorporate uncertainty in our projections of greenhouse gas abundances. We

  14. Characterization of Dual-Fuel Reactivity Controlled Compression Ignition (RCCI) Using Hydrated Ethanol and Diesel Fuel

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    This study uses numerical simulations to explore the use of wet ethanol as the low-reactivity fuel and diesel as the high-reactivity fuel for RCCI operation in a heavy-duty diesel engine.

  15. Non-invasive in situ plasma monitoring of reactive gases using the floating harmonic method for inductively coupled plasma etching application

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Lee, J. H.; Kim, M. J.; Yoon, Y. S.

    2013-04-15

    The floating harmonic method was developed for in situ plasma diagnostics of allowing real time measurement of electron temperature (T{sub e}) and ion flux (J{sub ion}) without contamination of the probe from surface modification by reactive species. In this study, this novel non-invasive diagnostic system was studied to characterize inductively coupled plasma of reactive gases monitoring T{sub e} and J{sub ion} for investigating the optimum plasma etching conditions and controlling of the real-time plasma surface reaction in the range of 200-900 W source power, 10-100 W bias power, and 3-15 mTorr chamber pressure, respectively.

  16. Low Power Design Low PowerLow Power

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Pedram, Massoud

    Low Power Design USC/LPCAD Page 1 USCUSC Low PowerLow Power CADCAD MassoudMassoud PedramPedram High-Level Design Challenges and Solutions for Low Power Systems Massoud Pedram University of Southern California Department of EE-Systems Los Angeles CA 90089-256 Email: massoud@zugros.usc.edu USCUSC Low PowerLow Power

  17. RF Input Power Couplers for High Current SRF Applications

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Khan, V. F.; Anders, W.; Burrill, Andrew; Knobloch, Jens; Kugeler, Oliver; Neumann, Axel; Wang, Haipeng

    2014-12-01

    High current SRF technology is being explored in present day accelerator science. The bERLinPro project is presently being built at HZB to address the challenges involved in high current SRF machines with the goal of generating and accelerating a 100 mA electron beam to 50 MeV in continuous wave (cw) mode at 1.3 GHz. One of the main challenges in this project is that of handling the high input RF power required for the photo-injector as well as booster cavities where there is no energy recovery process. A high power co-axial input power coupler is being developed to be used for the photo-injector and booster cavities at the nominal beam current. The coupler is based on the KEK–cERL design and has been modified to minimise the penetration of the coupler tip in the beam pipe without compromising on beam-power coupling (Qext ~105). Herein we report on the RF design of the high power (115 kW per coupler, dual couplers per cavity) bERLinPro (BP) coupler along with initial results on thermal calculations. We summarise the RF conditioning of the TTF-III couplers (modified for cw operation) performed in the past at BESSY/HZB. A similar conditioning is envisaged in the near future for the low current SRF photo-injector and the bERLinPro main linac cryomodule.

  18. Solid Oxide Fuel Cell Hybrid System for Distributed Power Generation

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    David Deangelis; Rich Depuy; Debashis Dey; Georgia Karvountzi; Nguyen Minh; Max Peter; Faress Rahman; Pavel Sokolov; Deliang Yang

    2004-09-30

    This report summarizes the work performed by Hybrid Power Generation Systems, LLC (HPGS) during the April to October 2004 reporting period in Task 2.3 (SOFC Scaleup for Hybrid and Fuel Cell Systems) under Cooperative Agreement DE-FC26-01NT40779 for the U. S. Department of Energy, National Energy Technology Laboratory (DOE/NETL), entitled ''Solid Oxide Fuel Cell Hybrid System for Distributed Power Generation''. This study analyzes the performance and economics of power generation systems for central power generation application based on Solid Oxide Fuel Cell (SOFC) technology and fueled by natural gas. The main objective of this task is to develop credible scale up strategies for large solid oxide fuel cell-gas turbine systems. System concepts that integrate a SOFC with a gas turbine were developed and analyzed for plant sizes in excess of 20 MW. A 25 MW plant configuration was selected with projected system efficiency of over 65% and a factory cost of under $400/kW. The plant design is modular and can be scaled to both higher and lower plant power ratings. Technology gaps and required engineering development efforts were identified and evaluated.

  19. System aspects of a Space Nuclear Reactor Power System

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Jaffe, L.; Fujita, T.; Beatty, R.; Bhandari, P.; Chow, E.; Deininger, W.; Ewell, R.; Grossman, M.; Kia, T.; Nesmith, B.

    1988-01-01

    Selected systems aspects of a 300 kW nuclear reactor power system for spacecraft have been studied. The approach included examination of two candidate missions and their associated spacecraft, and a number of special topics dealing with the power system design and operation. The missions considered were a reusable orbital transfer vehicle and a space-based radar. The special topics included: power system configuration and scaling, launch vehicle integration, operating altitude, orbital storage, start-up, thawing, control, load following, procedures in case of malfunction, restart, thermal and nuclear radiation to other portions of the spacecraft, thermal stresses between subsystems, boom and cable designs, vibration modes, altitude control, reliability, and survivability. Among the findings are that the stowed length of the power system is important to mission design and that orbital storage for months to years may be needed for missions involving orbital assembly. The power system design evolved during the study and has continued to evolve; the current design differs somewhat from that examined in this paper.

  20. NOTES ON THE KIVA-II SOFTWARE AND CHEMICALLY REACTIVE FLUID MECHANICS

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Holst, Michael J.

    NOTES ON THE KIVA-II SOFTWARE AND CHEMICALLY REACTIVE FLUID MECHANICS MICHAEL J. HOLST Numerical, California #12;NOTES ON THE KIVA-II SOFTWARE AND CHEMICALLY REACTIVE FLUID MECHANICS Michael J. Holst intro- duction to continuum mechanics, to fluid mechanics, and to the mechanics of chemically reactive

  1. Power inverters

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Miller, David H. (Redondo Beach, CA); Korich, Mark D. (Chino Hills, CA); Smith, Gregory S. (Woodland Hills, CA)

    2011-11-15

    Power inverters include a frame and a power module. The frame has a sidewall including an opening and defining a fluid passageway. The power module is coupled to the frame over the opening and includes a substrate, die, and an encasement. The substrate includes a first side, a second side, a center, an outer periphery, and an outer edge, and the first side of the substrate comprises a first outer layer including a metal material. The die are positioned in the substrate center and are coupled to the substrate first side. The encasement is molded over the outer periphery on the substrate first side, the substrate second side, and the substrate outer edge and around the die. The encasement, coupled to the substrate, forms a seal with the metal material. The second side of the substrate is positioned to directly contact a fluid flowing through the fluid passageway.

  2. Power Recovery 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Murray, F.

    1986-01-01

    , will be the use of the ASTM Theoretical Steam Rate Tables. In addition, the author's experience regarding the minimum size for power recovery units that are economic in a Culf Coast plant will be presented. INTROD\\Jr.'rION When surveying an operation...)' The pressure ~ecompression term(~2) k~l, is used in the equat10n in a manner 1 which reduces the power recovery as calculated by the first term of the equation. From a practical view a decompression ra~~y ~0.3 is a good screening point. Note...

  3. Solar Power

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Homesum_a_epg0_fpd_mmcf_m.xls" ,"Available from WebQuantityBonneville Power AdministrationRobust,Field-effect Photovoltaics -7541 *ImpactScience(TechnicalFor Milwaukee, BySoft Solar Power

  4. Yakama Power

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Homesum_a_epg0_fpd_mmcf_m.xls" ,"Available from WebQuantityBonneville Power AdministrationRobust,Field-effectWorkingLos Alamos verifies largest single| National1958,1CaseYakama Power May

  5. Fusion Power

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Homesum_a_epg0_fpd_mmcf_m.xls" ,"Available from WebQuantityBonneville Power Administration would likeUniverse (Journal Article)Forthcoming UpgradesArea:Benefits of FES »Power

  6. Photovoltaic power conditioning subsystem: state of the art and development opportunities

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Krauthamer, S.; Bahrami, K.; Das, R.; Macie, T.; Rippel, W.

    1984-01-15

    Photovoltaic sytems, the state of the art of power conditioning subsystem components, and the design and operational interaction between photovoltaic systems and hot utilities are detailed in this document. Major technical issues relating to the design and development of power conditioning systems for photovoltaic application are also considered, including: (1) standards, guidelines, and specifications; (2) cost-effective hardware design; (3) impact of advanced components on power conditioning development; (4) protection and safety; (5) quality of power; (6) system efficiency; and (7) system integration with the host utility. In addition, theories of harmonic distortion and reactive power flow are discussed, and information about power conditioner hardware and manufacturers is provided.

  7. E-beam high voltage switching power supply

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Shimer, D.W.; Lange, A.C.

    1997-03-11

    A high power, solid state power supply is described for producing a controllable, constant high voltage output under varying and arcing loads suitable for powering an electron beam gun or other ion source. The present power supply is most useful for outputs in a range of about 100-400 kW or more. The power supply is comprised of a plurality of discrete switching type dc-dc converter modules, each comprising a voltage regulator, an inductor, an inverter for producing a high frequency square wave current of alternating polarity, an improved inverter voltage clamping circuit, a step up transformer, and an output rectifier for producing a dc voltage at the output of each module. The inputs to the converter modules are fed from a common dc rectifier/filter and are linked together in parallel through decoupling networks to suppress high frequency input interactions. The outputs of the converter modules are linked together in series and connected to the input of the transmission line to the load through a decoupling and line matching network. The dc-dc converter modules are phase activated such that for n modules, each module is activated equally 360{degree}/n out of phase with respect to a successive module. The phased activation of the converter modules, combined with the square current waveforms out of the step up transformers, allows the power supply to operate with greatly reduced output capacitance values which minimizes the stored energy available for discharge into an electron beam gun or the like during arcing. The present power supply also provides dynamic response to varying loads by controlling the voltage regulator duty cycle using simulated voltage feedback signals and voltage feedback loops. Circuitry is also provided for sensing incipient arc currents reflected at the output of the power supply and for simultaneously decoupling the power supply circuitry from the arcing load. 7 figs.

  8. E-beam high voltage switching power supply

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Shimer, Daniel W. (Danville, CA); Lange, Arnold C. (Livermore, CA)

    1997-01-01

    A high power, solid state power supply is described for producing a controllable, constant high voltage output under varying and arcing loads suitable for powering an electron beam gun or other ion source. The present power supply is most useful for outputs in a range of about 100-400 kW or more. The power supply is comprised of a plurality of discrete switching type dc-dc converter modules, each comprising a voltage regulator, an inductor, an inverter for producing a high frequency square wave current of alternating polarity, an improved inverter voltage clamping circuit, a step up transformer, and an output rectifier for producing a dc voltage at the output of each module. The inputs to the converter modules are fed from a common dc rectifier/filter and are linked together in parallel through decoupling networks to suppress high frequency input interactions. The outputs of the converter modules are linked together in series and connected to the input of the transmission line to the load through a decoupling and line matching network. The dc-dc converter modules are phase activated such that for n modules, each module is activated equally 360.degree./n out of phase with respect to a successive module. The phased activation of the converter modules, combined with the square current waveforms out of the step up transformers, allows the power supply to operate with greatly reduced output capacitance values which minimizes the stored energy available for discharge into an electron beam gun or the like during arcing. The present power supply also provides dynamic response to varying loads by controlling the voltage regulator duty cycle using simulated voltage feedback signals and voltage feedback loops. Circuitry is also provided for sensing incipient arc currents reflected at the output of the power supply and for simultaneously decoupling the power supply circuitry from the arcing load.

  9. Selective Monoterpene-like Cyclization Reactions Achieved by Water Exclusion from Reactive Intermediates in a Supramolecular Catalyst

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Hart-Cooper, William

    2014-01-01

    9  has  been  observed when water is absent.   (31)  For the  exclusion  of  water  from  reactive  intermediates Reactions Achieved by Water Exclusion from Reactive

  10. Generation of neutral atomic beams utilizing photodetachment by high power diode laser stacks

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    O'Connor, A P; Grussie, F; Koenning, T P; Miller, K A; de Ruette, N; Stützel, J; Savin, D W; Urbain, X; Kreckel, H

    2015-01-01

    We demonstrate the use of high power diode laser stacks to photodetach fast hydrogen and carbon anions and produce ground term neutral atomic beams. We achieve photodetachment efficiencies of $\\sim$7.4\\% for H$^-$ at a beam energy of 10\\,keV and $\\sim$3.7\\% for C$^-$ at 28\\,keV. The diode laser systems used here operate at 975\\,nm and 808\\,nm, respectively, and provide high continuous power levels of up to 2\\,kW, without the need of additional enhancements like optical cavities. The alignment of the beams is straightforward and operation at constant power levels is very stable, while maintenance is minimal. We present a dedicated photodetachment setup that is suitable to efficiently neutralize the majority of stable negative ions in the periodic table.

  11. Catalytic destruction of groundwater contaminants in reactive extraction wells

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    McNab, Jr., Walt W. (Concord, CA); Reinhard, Martin (Stanford, CA)

    2002-01-01

    A system for remediating groundwater contaminated with halogenated solvents, certain metals and other inorganic species based on catalytic reduction reactions within reactive well bores. The groundwater treatment uses dissolved hydrogen as a reducing agent in the presence of a metal catalyst, such a palladium, to reduce halogenated solvents (as well as other substituted organic compounds) to harmless species (e.g., ethane or methane) and immobilize certain metals to low valence states. The reactive wells function by removing water from a contaminated water-bearing zone, treating contaminants with a well bore using catalytic reduction, and then reinjecting the treated effluent into an adjacent water-bearing zone. This system offers the advantages of a compact design with a minimal surface footprint (surface facilities) and the destruction of a broad suite of contaminants without generating secondary waste streams.

  12. Solid polymer battery electrolyte and reactive metal-water battery

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Harrup, Mason K. (Idaho Falls, ID); Peterson, Eric S. (Idaho Falls, ID); Stewart, Frederick F. (Idaho Falls, ID)

    2000-01-01

    In one implementation, a reactive metal-water battery includes an anode comprising a metal in atomic or alloy form selected from the group consisting of periodic table Group 1A metals, periodic table Group 2A metals and mixtures thereof. The battery includes a cathode comprising water. Such also includes a solid polymer electrolyte comprising a polyphosphazene comprising ligands bonded with a phosphazene polymer backbone. The ligands comprise an aromatic ring containing hydrophobic portion and a metal ion carrier portion. The metal ion carrier portion is bonded at one location with the polymer backbone and at another location with the aromatic ring containing hydrophobic portion. The invention also contemplates such solid polymer electrolytes use in reactive metal/water batteries, and in any other battery.

  13. An Inherited Heteroplasmic Mutation in Mitochondrial Gene COI in a Patient with Prostate Cancer Alters Reactive Oxygen, Reactive Nitrogen and Proliferation

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    2013-01-01

    reactive nitrogen species (RNS). 2. Materials and MethodsAssay for ROS and RNS. Peroxides Assay: Lymphoblasts werebelow (“Cybrid ROS and RNS”). 3.4. Cybrid Generation. In

  14. Reactive Distillation for Esterification of Bio-based Organic Acids

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Fields, Nathan; Miller, Dennis J.; Asthana, Navinchandra S.; Kolah, Aspi K.; Vu, Dung; Lira, Carl T.

    2008-09-23

    The following is the final report of the three year research program to convert organic acids to their ethyl esters using reactive distillation. This report details the complete technical activities of research completed at Michigan State University for the period of October 1, 2003 to September 30, 2006, covering both reactive distillation research and development and the underlying thermodynamic and kinetic data required for successful and rigorous design of reactive distillation esterification processes. Specifically, this project has led to the development of economical, technically viable processes for ethyl lactate, triethyl citrate and diethyl succinate production, and on a larger scale has added to the overall body of knowledge on applying fermentation based organic acids as platform chemicals in the emerging biorefinery. Organic acid esters constitute an attractive class of biorenewable chemicals that are made from corn or other renewable biomass carbohydrate feedstocks and replace analogous petroleum-based compounds, thus lessening U.S. dependence on foreign petroleum and enhancing overall biorefinery viability through production of value-added chemicals in parallel with biofuels production. Further, many of these ester products are candidates for fuel (particularly biodiesel) components, and thus will serve dual roles as both industrial chemicals and fuel enhancers in the emerging bioeconomy. The technical report from MSU is organized around the ethyl esters of four important biorenewables-based acids: lactic acid, citric acid, succinic acid, and propionic acid. Literature background on esterification and reactive distillation has been provided in Section One. Work on lactic acid is covered in Sections Two through Five, citric acid esterification in Sections Six and Seven, succinic acid in Section Eight, and propionic acid in Section Nine. Section Ten covers modeling of ester and organic acid vapor pressure properties using the SPEAD (Step Potential Equilibrium and Dynamics) method.

  15. Point kinetics calculations with fully coupled thermal fluids reactivity feedback

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Zhang, H.; Zou, L.; Andrs, D.; Zhao, H.; Martineau, R.

    2013-07-01

    The point kinetics model has been widely used in the analysis of the transient behavior of a nuclear reactor. In the traditional nuclear reactor system safety analysis codes such as RELAP5, the reactivity feedback effects are calculated in a loosely coupled fashion through operator splitting approach. This paper discusses the point kinetics calculations with the fully coupled thermal fluids and fuel temperature feedback implemented into the RELAP-7 code currently being developed with the MOOSE framework. (authors)

  16. Star Power

    ScienceCinema (OSTI)

    None

    2014-11-18

    The U.S. Department of Energy's Princeton Plasma Physics Laboratory has released ''Star Power,'' a new informational video that uses dramatic and beautiful images and thought-provoking interviews to highlight the importance of the Laboratory's research into magnetic fusion.

  17. Star Power

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    2014-10-17

    The U.S. Department of Energy's Princeton Plasma Physics Laboratory has released ''Star Power,'' a new informational video that uses dramatic and beautiful images and thought-provoking interviews to highlight the importance of the Laboratory's research into magnetic fusion.

  18. Initial test results from the RedFlow 5 kW, 10 kWh zinc-bromide module, phase 1.

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Ferreira, Summer Rhodes; Rose, David Martin

    2012-02-01

    In this paper the performance results of the RedFlow zinc-bromide module (ZBM) Gen 2.0 are reported for Phase 1 of testing, which includes initial characterization of the module. This included physical measurement, efficiency as a function of charge and discharge rates, efficiency as a function of maximum charge capacity, duration of maximum power supplied, and limited cycling with skipped strip cycles. The goal of this first phase of testing was to verify manufacturer specifications of the zinc-bromide flow battery. Initial characterization tests have shown that the ZBM meets the manufacturer's specifications. Further testing, including testing as a function of temperature and life cycle testing, will be carried out during Phase 2 of the testing, and these results will be issued in the final report, after Phase 2 testing has concluded.

  19. Ionic Liquids: Radiation Chemistry, Solvation Dynamics and Reactivity Patterns

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Wishart, J.F.

    2011-06-12

    Ionic liquids (ILs) are a rapidly expanding family of condensed-phase media with important applications in energy production, nuclear fuel and waste processing, improving the efficiency and safety of industrial chemical processes, and pollution prevention. ILs generally have low volatilities and are combustion-resistant, highly conductive, recyclable and capable of dissolving a wide variety of materials. They are finding new uses in chemical synthesis, catalysis, separations chemistry, electrochemistry and other areas. Ionic liquids have dramatically different properties compared to conventional molecular solvents, and they provide a new and unusual environment to test our theoretical understanding of primary radiation chemistry, charge transfer and other reactions. We are interested in how IL properties influence physical and dynamical processes that determine the stability and lifetimes of reactive intermediates and thereby affect the courses of reactions and product distributions. We study these issues by characterization of primary radiolysis products and measurements of their yields and reactivity, quantification of electron solvation dynamics and scavenging of electrons in different states of solvation. From this knowledge we wish to learn how to predict radiolytic mechanisms and control them or mitigate their effects on the properties of materials used in nuclear fuel processing, for example, and to apply IL radiation chemistry to answer questions about general chemical reactivity in ionic liquids that will aid in the development of applications listed above. Very early in our radiolysis studies it became evident that the slow solvation dynamics of the excess electron in ILs (which vary over a wide viscosity range) increase the importance of pre-solvated electron reactivity and consequently alter product distributions and subsequent chemistry. This difference from conventional solvents has profound effects on predicting and controlling radiolytic yields, which need to be quantified for the successful use under radiolytic conditions. Electron solvation dynamics in ILs are measured directly when possible and estimated using proxies (e.g. coumarin-153 dynamic emission Stokes shifts or benzophenone anion solvation) in other cases. Electron reactivity is measured using ultrafast kinetics techniques for comparison with the solvation process.

  20. Controllable generation of reactive oxygen species by femtosecond-laser irradiation

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Yan, Wei; He, Hao Wang, Yintao; Wang, Yisen; Hu, Minglie; Wang, Chingyue

    2014-02-24

    Femtosecond lasers have been advancing Biophotonics research in the past two decades with multiphoton microscopy, microsurgery, and photodynamic therapy. Nevertheless, laser irradiation is identified to bring photodamage to cells via reactive oxygen species (ROS) generation with unclear mechanism. Meanwhile, currently in biological researches, there is no effective method to provide controllable ROS production precisely, which originally is leaked from mitochondria during respiration and plays a key role in a lot of important cellular processes and cellular signaling pathways. In this study, we show the process of how the tightly focused femtosecond-laser induces ROS generation solely in mitochondria at the very beginning and then release to cytosol if the stimulus is intense enough. At certain weak power levels, the laser pulses induce merely moderate Ca{sup 2+} release but this is necessary for the laser to generate ROS in mitochondria. Cellular original ROS are also involved with a small contribution. When the power is above a threshold, ROS are then released to cytosol, indicating photodamage overwhelming cellular repair ability. The mechanisms in those two cases are quite different. Those results clarify parts of the mechanism in laser-induced ROS generation. Hence, it is possible to further this optical scheme to provide controllable ROS generation for ROS-related biological researches including mitochondrial diseases and aging.

  1. Power superconducting power transmission cable

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Ashworth, Stephen P. (Cambridge, GB)

    2003-01-01

    The present invention is for a compact superconducting power transmission cable operating at distribution level voltages. The superconducting cable is a conductor with a number of tapes assembled into a subconductor. These conductors are then mounted co-planarly in an elongated dielectric to produce a 3-phase cable. The arrangement increases the magnetic field parallel to the tapes thereby reducing ac losses.

  2. High average power magnetic modulator for copper lasers

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Cook, E.G.; Ball, D.G.; Birx, D.L.; Branum, J.D.; Peluso, S.E.; Langford, M.D.; Speer, R.D.; Sullivan, J.R.; Woods, P.G.

    1991-06-14

    Magnetic compression circuits show the promise of long life for operation at high average powers and high repetition rates. When the Atomic Vapor Laser Isotope Separation (AVLIS) Program at Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory needed new modulators to drive their higher power copper lasers in the Laser Demonstration Facility (LDF), existing technology using thyratron switched capacitor inversion circuits did not meet the goal for long lifetimes at the required power levels. We have demonstrated that magnetic compression circuits can achieve this goal. Improving thyratron lifetime is achieved by increasing the thyratron conduction time, thereby reducing the effect of cathode depletion. This paper describes a three stage magnetic modulator designed to provide a 60 kV pulse to a copper laser at a 4. 5 kHz repetition rate. This modulator operates at 34 kW input power and has exhibited MTBF of {approx}1000 hours when using thyratrons and even longer MTBFs with a series of stack of SCRs for the main switch. Within this paper, the electrical and mechanical designs for the magnetic compression circuits are discussed as are the important performance parameters of lifetime and jitter. Ancillary circuits such as the charge circuit and reset circuit are shown. 8 refs., 5 figs., 1 tab.

  3. Voltage multi-stability in distribution grids with power flow reversal

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Hung D. Nguyen; Konstantin Turitsyn

    2014-07-08

    High levels of penetration of distributed generation and aggressive reactive power compensation with modern power electronics may result in the reversal of active and reactive power flows in future distribution grids. The voltage stability of these operating conditions may be very different from the more traditional power consumption regime. We study the stability characteristics of distribution networks with reversed power flow. After introducing a universal algebraic approach to characterize all the solutions of the power flow equations, we show that new solutions appear in the reversed power flow regime even in the simplest three bus systems. We show that the some of these solutions are stable and the system may exhibit a phenomenon of multistability, where multiple stable equilibria co-exist at the given set of parameters, and the system may converge to an undesirable equilibrium after a disturbance. These predictions are validated with dynamic simulations of two different systems. Under certain conditions the new states are viable and may be characterized by relatively high voltages. Possible approaches towards reactive power/voltage regulation as well as permissible distributed generation capacity in future power systems are proposed and discussed in the end of the paper.

  4. High-power magnetron transmitter as an RF source for the electron collider ring of the MEIC facility

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Kazakevich, G

    2014-01-01

    A novel concept of high-power transmitters utilizing the Continuous Wave (CW) magnetrons, frequency-locked by phase-modulated signals has been proposed to compensate energy losses caused by Synchrotron Radiation (SR) in the electron ring of the MEIC facility. At operating frequency of about 750 MHz the SR losses are ~2 MW. They can be compensated by some number of Superconducting RF (SRF) cavities at the feeding power of about 100-200 kW per cavity. A high-power CW transmitters, based on magnetrons, frequency-locked by phase-modulated signal, allowing a wide-band control in phase and power, and associated with a wide-band closed feedback loop are proposed to feed the SRF cavities to compensate the SR losses of the electron beam in the MEIC collider electron ring.

  5. A SCOPING STUDY: Development of Probabilistic Risk Assessment Models for Reactivity Insertion Accidents During Shutdown In U.S. Commercial Light Water Reactors

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    S. Khericha

    2011-06-01

    This report documents the scoping study of developing generic simplified fuel damage risk models for quantitative analysis from inadvertent reactivity insertion events during shutdown (SD) in light water pressurized and boiling water reactors. In the past, nuclear fuel reactivity accidents have been analyzed both mainly deterministically and probabilistically for at-power and SD operations of nuclear power plants (NPPs). Since then, many NPPs had power up-rates and longer refueling intervals, which resulted in fuel configurations that may potentially respond differently (in an undesirable way) to reactivity accidents. Also, as shown in a recent event, several inadvertent operator actions caused potential nuclear fuel reactivity insertion accident during SD operations. The set inadvertent operator actions are likely to be plant- and operation-state specific and could lead to accident sequences. This study is an outcome of the concern which arose after the inadvertent withdrawal of control rods at Dresden Unit 3 in 2008 due to operator actions in the plant inadvertently three control rods were withdrawn from the reactor without knowledge of the main control room operator. The purpose of this Standardized Plant Analysis Risk (SPAR) Model development project is to develop simplified SPAR Models that can be used by staff analysts to perform risk analyses of operating events and/or conditions occurring during SD operation. These types of accident scenarios are dominated by the operator actions, (e.g., misalignment of valves, failure to follow procedures and errors of commissions). Human error probabilities specific to this model were assessed using the methodology developed for SPAR model human error evaluations. The event trees, fault trees, basic event data and data sources for the model are provided in the report. The end state is defined as the reactor becomes critical. The scoping study includes a brief literature search/review of historical events, developments of a small set of comprehensive event trees and fault trees and recommendation for future work.

  6. Power Right. Power Smart. Efficient Computer Power Supplies and...

    Energy Savers [EERE]

    consume? Higher efficiency power supplies reduce energy consumption, thus cutting your electricity bill. They reduce power consumption, helping your electric utility meet peak...

  7. Microsoft PowerPoint - Forest County Potawatomi Project Greenfire

    Office of Environmental Management (EM)

    of Energy's Community Renewable Energy Deployment ("CRED") program Started small: installed 30 kW solar photovoltaic panels at Milwaukee Administration Building during...

  8. Wet oxidation of high-concentration reactive dyes

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Chen, G.; Lei, L.; Yue, P.L.

    1999-05-01

    Advanced oxidation methods were used to degrade reactive dyes at high concentrations in aqueous solutions. Wet peroxide oxidation (WPO) was found to be the best method in terms of the removal of color and total organic carbon (TOC). Reactive blue (Basilen Brilliant Blue P-3R) was chosen as a model dye for determining the suitable reaction conditions. The variables studied include reaction temperature, H{sub 2}O{sub 2} dosage, solution pH, dye concentration, and catalyst usage. The removal of TOC and color by wet oxidation is very sensitive to the reaction temperature. At 150 C, the removal of 77% TOC and 90% color was obtained in less than 30 min. The initial TOC removal rate is proportional to the H{sub 2}O{sub 2} dosage. The TOC removal is insignificant even when 50% of the stoichiometric amount of H{sub 2}O{sub 2} is used. No color change is observed until the dosage of H{sub 2}O{sub 2} is 100% of the stoichiometric amount. The color removal is closely related to TOC removal. When the pH of the solution is adjusted to 3.5, the dye degradation rate increases significantly. The rates of TOC and color removal are enhanced by using a Cu{sup 2+} catalyst. Another four reactive dyes, Procion Red PX-4B, Cibacron Yellow P-6GS, Cibacron Brown P-6R, and Procion Black PX-2R, were treated at 150 C using WPO. More than 80% TOC was removed from the solution in less than 15 min. The process can remove the colors of al these dyes except Procion Black PX-2R.

  9. Wind Power

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Homesum_a_epg0_fpd_mmcf_m.xls" ,"Available from WebQuantityBonneville Power AdministrationRobust,Field-effectWorking WithTelecentricNCubicthe FOIA?ResourceMeasurement Buoy AdvancesWind

  10. Design and development of Stirling engines for stationary-power-generation applications in the 500- to 3000-horsepower range. Phase I final report

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    1980-10-01

    A program plan and schedule for the implementation of the proposed conceptual designs through the remaining four phases of the overall large Stirling engine development program was prepared. The objective of Phase II is to prepare more detailed designs of the conceptual designs prepared in Phase I. At the conclusion of Phase II, a state-of-the-art design will be selected from the candidate designs developed in Phase I for development. The objective of Phase III is to prepare manufacturing drawings of the candidate engine design. Also, detailed manufacturing drawings of both 373 kW (500 hp) and 746 kW (1000 hp) power pack skid systems will be completed. The power pack skid systems will include the generator, supporting skid, controls, and other supporting auxiliary subsystems. The Stirling cycle engine system (combustion system, Stirling engine, and heat transport system) will be mounted in the power pack skid system. The objective of Phase IV is to procure parts for prototype engines and two power pack skid systems and to assemble Engines No. 1 and 2. The objective of Phase V is to perform extensive laboratory and demonstration testing of the Stirling engines and power pack skid systems, to determine the system performance and cost and commercialization strategy. Scheduled over a 6 yr period the cost of phases II through V is estimated at $22,063,000. (LCL)

  11. Validation of the U.S. NRC coupled code system TRITON/TRACE/PARCS with the special power excursion reactor test III (SPERT III)

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Wang, R. C.; Xu, Y.; Downar, T.; Hudson, N.

    2012-07-01

    The Special Power Excursion Reactor Test III (SPERT III) was a series of reactivity insertion experiments conducted in the 1950's. This paper describes the validation of the U.S. NRC Coupled Code system TRITON/PARCS/TRACE to simulate reactivity insertion accidents (RIA) by using several of the SPERT III tests. The work here used the SPERT III E-core configuration tests in which the RIA was initiated by ejecting a control rod. The resulting super-prompt reactivity excursion and negative reactivity feedback produced the familiar bell shaped power increase and decrease. The energy deposition during such a power peak has important safety consequences and provides validation basis for core coupled multi-physics codes. The transients of five separate tests are used to benchmark the PARCS/TRACE coupled code. The models were thoroughly validated using the original experiment documentation. (authors)

  12. Reactive multilayer synthesis of hard ceramic foils and films

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Makowiecki, Daniel M. (Livermore, CA); Holt, Joseph B. (San Jose, CA)

    1996-01-01

    A method for synthesizing hard ceramic materials such as carbides, borides nd aluminides, particularly in the form of coatings provided on another material so as to improve the wear and abrasion performance of machine tools, for example. The method involves the sputter deposition of alternating layers of reactive metals with layers of carbon, boron, or aluminum and the subsequent reaction of the multilayered structure to produce a dense crystalline ceramic. The material can be coated on a substrate or formed as a foil which can be coild as a tape for later use.

  13. Method for preparing hydride configurations and reactive metal surfaces

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Silver, Gary L. (Centerville, OH)

    1988-08-16

    A method for preparing highly hydrogen-reactive surfaces on metals which normally require substantial heating, high pressures, or an extended induction period, which involves pretreatment of said surfaces with either a non-oxidizing acid or hydrogen gas to form a hydrogen-bearing coating on said surfaces, and subsequently heating said coated metal in the absence of moisture and oxygen for a period sufficient to decompose said coating and cooling said metal to room temperature. Surfaces so treated will react almost instantaneously with hydrogen gas at room temperature and low pressure. The method is particularly applicable to uranium, thorium, and lanthanide metals.

  14. Hanford ferrocyanide reactivity: Effects of other tank constituents

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Scheele, R.D.; Burger, L.L.; Tingey, J.M.; Johnston, J.W.; Sell, R.L.

    1993-04-01

    This paper presents results of studies using synthetic chemicals to determine the effect of other potential waste constituents on the reactivity and explosivity of Hanford ferrocyanide wastes. These studies have shown that either individually or in combination some of the tested additives (sodium ethylenediaminetetraacetate and the hydroxide precipitates of iron (III), chromium (III), and nickel] can at a concentration of 0.03 mole/mole ferrocyanide reduce the time to explosion of a near-stoichiometric mixture of sodium nickel ferrocyanide and equimolar sodium nitrate and nitrite. These studies also found no reduction in observed minimum explosion temperature of 293{degrees}C.

  15. DOE - Office of Legacy Management -- Reactive Metals Inc - OH 10

    Office of Legacy Management (LM)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Homesum_a_epg0_fpd_mmcf_m.xls" ,"Available from WebQuantity of NaturalDukeWakefield Municipal Gas &SCE-SessionsSouth Dakota Edgemont,Manufacturing0-19Rulison - COQueenReactive

  16. Reactivity monitoring using the area method for the subcritic al VENUS-F core within the framework of the FREYA Project

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    N. Marie; G. Lehaut; J. L. Lecouey; A. Billebaud; S. Chabod; X. Doligez; F. R. Lecolley; A. Kochetkov; W. Uyttenhove; G. Vittiglio; J. Wagemans; F. Mellier; G. Ban; H. E. Thyébault; D. Villamarin

    2013-06-05

    Accelerator-Driven Systems (ADS) could be employed to incinerate minor actinides and so partly contribute to answer the problem of nuclear waste management. An ADS consists of the coupling of a subcritical fast reactor to a particle accelerator via a heavy material spallation target. The on-line reactivity monitoring of such an ADS is a serious issue regarding its safety. In order to study the methodology of this monitoring, zero-power experimentswere undertaken at the GUINEVERE facility within the framework of the FP6-IP-EUROTRANS programme. Such experiments have been under completion within the FREYA FP7 project. The GUINEVERE facility is hosted at the SCK-CEN site in Mol (Belgium). It couples the VENUS-F subcritical fast core with the GENEPI-3C accelerator. The latter delivers a beam of deuterons, which are converted into 14-MeV neutrons via fusion reactions on a tritiated target. This paper presents one of the investigated methods for ADS on-line reactivity monitoring which has to be validated in the program of the FREYA project. It describes the results obtained when Pulsed Neutron Source experiments are analysed using the so called Area Method, in order to estimate the reactivity of a few sub-critical configurations of the VENUS-F reactor, around keff= 0.96. First the GUINEVERE facility is described. Then, following general considerations on the Area method, the results of its application to the neutron population time decrease spectra measured after a pulse by several fission chambers spread out over the whole reactor are discussed. Finally the reactivity values extracted are compared to the static reactivity values obtained using the Modified Source Multiplication (MSM) method.

  17. Hybrid nuclear reactor grey rod to obtain required reactivity worth

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Miller, John V. (Munhall, PA); Carlson, William R. (Scott Township, Allegheny County, PA); Yarbrough, Michael B. (Hempfield Township, Westmoreland County, PA)

    1991-01-01

    Hybrid nuclear reactor grey rods are described, wherein geometric combinations of relatively weak neutron absorber materials such as stainless steel, zirconium or INCONEL, and relatively strong neutron absorber materials, such as hafnium, silver-indium cadmium and boron carbide, are used to obtain the reactivity worths required to reach zero boron change load follow. One embodiment includes a grey rod which has combinations of weak and strong neutron absorber pellets in a stainless steel cladding. The respective pellets can be of differing heights. A second embodiment includes a grey rod with a relatively thick stainless steel cladding receiving relatively strong neutron absorber pellets only. A third embodiment includes annular relatively weak netron absorber pellets with a smaller diameter pellet of relatively strong absorber material contained within the aperture of each relatively weak absorber pellet. The fourth embodiment includes pellets made of a homogeneous alloy of hafnium and a relatively weak absorber material, with the percentage of hafnium chosen to obtain the desired reactivity worth.

  18. Magnets and Power Supplies

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Up: APS Storage Ring Parameters Previous: Longitudinal bunch profile and Magnets and Power Supplies Dipole Magnets and Power Supplies Value Dipole Number 80+1 No. of power...

  19. Interpreting Territory and Power

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Bevir, Mark

    2010-01-01

    Press, 1960). Bulpitt, Territory and Power, p. 57.Bulpitt, Territory and Power, p. 61-62.Bulpitt, Territory and Power, p. 63. Bulpitt, Territory and

  20. Power Simulator for Smartphones

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Gkolemis, Nikolaos

    2013-01-01

    Kim M. , Woo S. , “Accurate GPU Power Estimation forMobile Device Power Profiling”, IEEE ICCE (2013),http://Kumar S. , John L. , “Power Modeling of SDRAMs”, University

  1. Solar powered desalination system

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Mateo, Tiffany Alisa

    2011-01-01

    2008, uses concentrated solar power to split water. Figurethe main reason the potential for solar power is boundless.a clean energy source, solar power is inexhaustible, fairly

  2. PowerPoint Presentation

    Office of Environmental Management (EM)

    to these monitors to handle brief power outages, but future plans include providing site emergency power to these monitors for extended power outages Equipment to be added...

  3. Wind Power Outreach Campaign

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Wind Power Wind Power Main Page Outreach Programs Image Gallery FAQs Links Software Hydro Power INL Home Outreach Programs A team of educators and scientists from the Idaho...

  4. ELECTROCHEMICAL POWER FOR TRANSPORTATION

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Cairns, Elton J.

    2012-01-01

    electric power generating plant, and the distributionrequired on the power-generating plant and not on the vehi-in either power-generating plants or combustion engines,

  5. Northwest, the Bonneville Power

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    causing a protective shutdown that created cascading power outages across the regional power grid. Power outages like these are much more than an inconvenience to consumers....

  6. Power management system

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Algrain, Marcelo C. (Peoria, IL); Johnson, Kris W. (Washington, IL); Akasam, Sivaprasad (Peoria, IL); Hoff, Brian D. (East Peoria, IL)

    2007-10-02

    A method of managing power resources for an electrical system of a vehicle may include identifying enabled power sources from among a plurality of power sources in electrical communication with the electrical system and calculating a threshold power value for the enabled power sources. A total power load placed on the electrical system by one or more power consumers may be measured. If the total power load exceeds the threshold power value, then a determination may be made as to whether one or more additional power sources is available from among the plurality of power sources. At least one of the one or more additional power sources may be enabled, if available.

  7. LEDA - A HIGH-POWER TEST BED OF INNOVATION AND OPPORTUNITY

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    J. SCHNEIDER; R. SHEFFIELD

    2000-08-01

    The low-energy demonstration accelerator (LEDA) is an operational 6.7-MeV. 100-mA proton accelerator consisting of an injector, radio-frequency quadrupole (RFQ), and all associated integration equipment. In order to achieve this unprecedented level of performance (670-kW of beam power) from an RFQ, a number of design innovations were required. They will highlight a number of those more significant technical advances, including those in the proton injector, the RFQ configuration, the RF klystrons, the beam stop, and the challenges of beam measurements. In addition to identifying the importance of these innovations to LEDA performance, they will summarize the plans for further testing, and the possibilities for addition of more accelerating structures, including the planned use of very-low-beta super-conducting structures. LEDA's current and upgradable configuration is appropriate for several future high-power accelerators, including those for the transmutation of radioactive waste.

  8. Geographic Variation in Potential of Rooftop Residential Photovoltaic Electric Power Production in the United States

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    This paper describes a geographic evaluation of Zero Energy Home (ZEH) potential, specifically an assessment of residential roof-top solar electric photovoltaic (PV) performance around the United States and how energy produced would match up with very-efficient and super-efficient home designs. We performed annual simulations for 236 TMY2 data locations throughout the United States on two highly-efficient one-story 3-bedroom homes with a generic grid-tied solar electric 2kW PV system. These annual simulations show how potential annual solar electric power generation (kWh) and potential energy savings from PV power vary geographically around the U.S. giving the user in a specific region an indication of their expected PV system performance.

  9. Operational Status and Power Upgrade Prospects of the Neutrino Experimental Facility at J-PARC

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Taku Ishida; for the T2K Beam Group

    2015-03-08

    In order to explore CP asymmetry in the lepton sector, a power upgrade to the neutrino experimental facility at J-PARC is a key requirement for both the Tokai to Kamioka (T2K) long-baseline neutrino oscillation experiment and a future project with Hyper-Kamiokande. Based on five years of operational experience, the facility has achieved stable operation with 230 kW beam power without significant problems on the beam-line apparatus. After successful maintenance works in 2013-2014 to replace all electromagnetic horns and a production target, the facility is now ready to accomodate a 750-kW-rated beam. Also, the possibility of achieving a few to multi-MW beam operation is discussed in detail.

  10. POWER PURCHASE AGREEMENT DELMARVA POWER & LIGHT COMPANY

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Firestone, Jeremy

    POWER PURCHASE AGREEMENT between DELMARVA POWER & LIGHT COMPANY ("Buyer") and BLUEWATER WIND 3.5 Energy Forecasts, Scheduling and Balancing.......................................... 39 3

  11. Passive Two-Phase Cooling of Automotive Power Electronics: Preprint

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Moreno, G.; Jeffers, J. R.; Narumanchi, S.; Bennion, K.

    2014-08-01

    Experiments were conducted to evaluate the use of a passive two-phase cooling strategy as a means of cooling automotive power electronics. The proposed cooling approach utilizes an indirect cooling configuration to alleviate some reliability concerns and to allow the use of conventional power modules. An inverter-scale proof-of-concept cooling system was fabricated, and tests were conducted using the refrigerants hydrofluoroolefin HFO-1234yf and hydrofluorocarbon HFC-245fa. Results demonstrated that the system can dissipate at least 3.5 kW of heat with 250 cm3 of HFC-245fa. An advanced evaporator design that incorporates features to improve performance and reduce size was conceived. Simulation results indicate its thermal resistance can be 37% to 48% lower than automotive dual side cooled power modules. Tests were also conducted to measure the thermal performance of two air-cooled condensers--plain and rifled finned tube designs. The results combined with some analysis were then used to estimate the required condenser size per operating conditions and maximum allowable system (i.e., vapor and liquid) temperatures.

  12. Photovoltaic Shading Testbed for Module-Level Power Electronics

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Deline, C.; Meydbray, J.; Donovan, M.; Forrest, J.

    2012-05-01

    This document describes a repeatable test procedure that attempts to simulate shading situations, as would be experienced by typical residential rooftop photovoltaic (PV) systems. This type of shading test is particularly useful to evaluate the impact of different power conversion setups, including microinverters, DC power optimizers and string inverters, on overall system performance. The performance results are weighted based on annual estimates of shade to predict annual performance improvement. A trial run of the test procedure was conducted with a side by side comparison of a string inverter with a microinverter, both operating on identical 8kW solar arrays. Considering three different shade weighting conditions, the microinverter was found to increase production by 3.7% under light shading, 7.8% under moderate shading, and 12.3% under heavy shading, relative to the reference string inverter case. Detail is provided in this document to allow duplication of the test method at different test installations and for different power electronics devices.

  13. Power oscillator

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Gitsevich, Aleksandr (Montgomery Village, MD)

    2001-01-01

    An oscillator includes an amplifier having an input and an output, and an impedance transformation network connected between the input of the amplifier and the output of the amplifier, wherein the impedance transformation network is configured to provide suitable positive feedback from the output of the amplifier to the input of the amplifier to initiate and sustain an oscillating condition, and wherein the impedance transformation network is configured to protect the input of the amplifier from a destructive feedback signal. One example of the oscillator is a single active element device capable of providing over 70 watts of power at over 70% efficiency. Various control circuits may be employed to match the driving frequency of the oscillator to a plurality of tuning states of the lamp.

  14. Composite Materials for Hazard Mitigation of Reactive Metal Hydrides.

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Pratt, Joseph William; Cordaro, Joseph Gabriel; Sartor, George B.; Dedrick, Daniel E.; Reeder, Craig L.

    2012-02-01

    In an attempt to mitigate the hazards associated with storing large quantities of reactive metal hydrides, polymer composite materials were synthesized and tested under simulated usage and accident conditions. The composites were made by polymerizing vinyl monomers using free-radical polymerization chemistry, in the presence of the metal hydride. Composites with vinyl-containing siloxane oligomers were also polymerized with and without added styrene and divinyl benzene. Hydrogen capacity measurements revealed that addition of the polymer to the metal hydride reduced the inherent hydrogen storage capacity of the material. The composites were found to be initially effective at reducing the amount of heat released during oxidation. However, upon cycling the composites, the mitigating behavior was lost. While the polymer composites we investigated have mitigating potential and are physically robust, they undergo a chemical change upon cycling that makes them subsequently ineffective at mitigating heat release upon oxidation of the metal hydride. Acknowledgements The authors would like to thank the following people who participated in this project: Ned Stetson (U.S. Department of Energy) for sponsorship and support of the project. Ken Stewart (Sandia) for building the flow-through calorimeter and cycling test stations. Isidro Ruvalcaba, Jr. (Sandia) for qualitative experiments on the interaction of sodium alanate with water. Terry Johnson (Sandia) for sharing his expertise and knowledge of metal hydrides, and sodium alanate in particular. Marcina Moreno (Sandia) for programmatic assistance. John Khalil (United Technologies Research Corp) for insight into the hazards of reactive metal hydrides and real-world accident scenario experiments. Summary In an attempt to mitigate and/or manage hazards associated with storing bulk quantities of reactive metal hydrides, polymer composite materials (a mixture of a mitigating polymer and a metal hydride) were synthesized and tested under simulated usage and accident conditions. Mitigating the hazards associated with reactive metal hydrides during an accident while finding a way to keep the original capability of the active material intact during normal use has been the focus of this work. These composites were made by polymerizing vinyl monomers using free-radical polymerization chemistry, in the presence of the metal hydride, in this case a prepared sodium alanate (chosen as a representative reactive metal hydride). It was found that the polymerization of styrene and divinyl benzene could be initiated using AIBN in toluene at 70 degC. The resulting composite materials can be either hard or brittle solids depending on the cross-linking density. Thermal decomposition of these styrene-based composite materials is lower than neat polystyrene indicating that the chemical nature of the polymer is affected by the formation of the composite. The char-forming nature of cross-linked polystyrene is low and therefore, not an ideal polymer for hazard mitigation. To obtain composite materials containing a polymer with higher char-forming potential, siloxane-based monomers were investigated. Four vinyl-containing siloxane oligomers were polymerized with and without added styrene and divinyl benzene. Like the styrene materials, these composite materials exhibited thermal decomposition behavior significantly different than the neat polymers. Specifically, the thermal decomposition temperature was shifted approximately 100 degC lower than the neat polymer signifying a major chemical change to the polymer network. Thermal analysis of the cycled samples was performed on the siloxane-based composite materials. It was found that after 30 cycles the siloxane-containing polymer composite material has similar TGA/DSC-MS traces as the virgin composite material indicating that the polymer is physically intact upon cycling. Hydrogen capacity measurements revealed that addition of the polymer to the metal hydride in the form of a composite material reduced the inherent hydrogen storage capacity of the material. This

  15. Reactive-coupling-induced normal mode splittings in microdisk resonators coupled to waveguides

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Huang Sumei; Agarwal, G. S. [Department of Physics, Oklahoma State University, Stillwater, Oklahoma 74078 (United States)

    2010-05-15

    We study the optomechanical design introduced by M. Li et al. [Phys. Rev. Lett. 103, 223901 (2009)], which is very effective for investigation of the effects of reactive coupling. We show the normal mode splitting that is due solely to reactive coupling rather than due to dispersive coupling. We suggest feeding the waveguide with a pump field along with a probe field and scanning the output probe for evidence of reactive-coupling-induced normal mode splitting.

  16. Essential Power Systems Workshop - OEM Perspective

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Bill Gouse

    2001-12-12

    In California, idling is largely done for climate control. This suggests that climate control devices alone could be used to reduce idling. Line-haul truck drivers surveyed require an average of 4-6 kW of power for a stereo, CB radio, light, refrigerator, and climate control found in the average truck. More power may likely be necessary for peak power demands. The amount of time line-haul trucks reported to have stopped is between 25 and 30 hours per week. It was not possible to accurately determine from the pilot survey the location, purpose, and duration of idling. Consulting driver logs or electronically monitoring trucks could yield more accurate data, including seasonal and geographic differences. Truck drivers were receptive to idling alternatives. Two-thirds of truck drivers surveyed support a program to reduce idling. Two-thirds of drivers reported they would purchase idling reduction technologies if the technology yielded a payback period of two years or less. Willingness to purchase auxiliary power units appears to be higher for owner-operators than for company drivers. With a 2-year payback period, 82% of owner- operators would be willing to buy an idle- reducing device, while 63% of company drivers thought their company would do the same. Contact with companies is necessary to discern whether this difference between owner- operators and companies is true or simply due to the perception of the company drivers. Truck stops appear to be a much more attractive option for electrification than rest areas by a 48% to 21% margin. Much of this discrepancy may be due to perceived safety problems with rest areas. This survey did not properly differentiate between using these areas for breaks or overnight. The next, full survey will quantify where the truck drivers are staying overnight, where they go for breaks, and the duration of time they spend at each place. The nationwide survey, which is in progress, will indicate how applicable the results are to the US in general. In addition to the survey, we believe data loggers and focus groups will be necessary to collect the idling duration and location data necessary to compare auxiliary power units to truck stop electrification. Focus groups are recommended to better understand the driver response to APUs and electrification. The appearance and perception of the new systems will need further clarification, which could be accomplished with a demonstration for truck drivers.

  17. Chemical reactivities of ambient air samples in three Southern California communities

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    2015-01-01

    and A.K. Cho. 2012. The chemical biology of naphthoquinonesinvolvement of organic chemicals and oxidative stress. Curr.www.tandfonline.com/loi/uawm20 Chemical reactivities of

  18. Chalcogen-Rich Lanthanide Clusters: Cluster Reactivity and the Influence of Ancillary Ligands on Structure

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Lawson, Catherine L.

    Chalcogen-Rich Lanthanide Clusters: Cluster Reactivity and the Influence of Ancillary Ligands that highly electronegative, sterically saturating ancillary ligands (e.g. Cp*) are not a prerequisite

  19. Corrosion-induced gas generation in a nuclear waste repository: Reactive geochemistry and multiphase flow effect

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Xu, T.

    2009-01-01

    Lying Repositories for Nuclear Waste, NAGRA Technical Reporthost rock formation for nuclear waste storage. EngineeringGas Generation in a Nuclear Waste Repository: Reactive

  20. The effect of minerals on the reactivity of coal char treated thermally

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Zhang, S.; Lu, J.; Zhao, B.; Zhang, J.; Yue, G. [Shanghai University of Science & Technology, Shanghai (China)

    2008-07-01

    The effect of minerals on the reactivity of coal char is addressed in this article. The chars were prepared in N{sub 2} under the inert conditions from the raw coals and their demineralized samples. Thermo-gravimetric analysis (TGA) was used to examine the effect of the minerals in the coals on the reactivity of the derived chars. The effect of minerals on the reactivity of YXV char is different from that on the reactivity of JJV char. The behavior of minerals differs from each other and can be attributed to the different amount, nature, and distribution in the two coals.

  1. Electron beam diagnostic for profiling high power beams

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Elmer, John W. (Danville, CA); Palmer, Todd A. (Livermore, CA); Teruya, Alan T. (Livermore, CA)

    2008-03-25

    A system for characterizing high power electron beams at power levels of 10 kW and above is described. This system is comprised of a slit disk assembly having a multitude of radial slits, a conducting disk with the same number of radial slits located below the slit disk assembly, a Faraday cup assembly located below the conducting disk, and a start-stop target located proximate the slit disk assembly. In order to keep the system from over-heating during use, a heat sink is placed in close proximity to the components discussed above, and an active cooling system, using water, for example, can be integrated into the heat sink. During use, the high power beam is initially directed onto a start-stop target and after reaching its full power is translated around the slit disk assembly, wherein the beam enters the radial slits and the conducting disk radial slits and is detected at the Faraday cup assembly. A trigger probe assembly can also be integrated into the system in order to aid in the determination of the proper orientation of the beam during reconstruction. After passing over each of the slits, the beam is then rapidly translated back to the start-stop target to minimize the amount of time that the high power beam comes in contact with the slit disk assembly. The data obtained by the system is then transferred into a computer system, where a computer tomography algorithm is used to reconstruct the power density distribution of the beam.

  2. National Account Energy Alliance Final Report for the Ritz Carlton, San Francisco Combined Heat and Power Project

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Rosfjord, Thomas J

    2007-11-01

    Under collaboration between DOE and the Gas Technology Institute (GTI), UTC Power partnered with Host Hotels and Resorts to install and operate a PureComfort 240M Cooling, Heating and Power (CHP) System at the Ritz-Carlton, San Francisco. This packaged CHP system integrated four microturbines, a double-effect absorption chiller, two fuel gas boosters, and the control hardware and software to ensure that the system operated predictably, reliably, and safely. The chiller, directly energized by the recycled hot exhaust from the microturbines, could be configured to provide either chilled or hot water. As installed, the system was capable of providing up to 227 kW of net electrical power and 142 RT of chilled water at a 59F ambient temperature.

  3. A Two-Stage Distributed Architecture for Voltage Control in Power Distribution Systems

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Hadjicostis, Christoforos

    (PHEVs). These generation and storage resources are commonly referred to as distributed energy resources in distribution networks that relies on controlling reactive power injections provided by distributed energy resources (DERs). A local controller on each bus of the network monitors the bus voltage and, whenever

  4. JOURNAL OF PROPULSION AND POWER Vol. 22, No. 6, NovemberDecember 2006

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Dame, where he considers problems in reactive fluid mechanics, high-speed flows, propulsion, energeticJOURNAL OF PROPULSION AND POWER Vol. 22, No. 6, November­December 2006 Review of Multiscale to detonation-driven propulsion systems are discussed. It is suggested that a failure of most existing

  5. Transport of secondary electrons and reactive species in ion tracks

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Surdutovich, Eugene

    2015-01-01

    The transport of reactive species brought about by ions traversing tissue-like medium is analysed analytically. Secondary electrons ejected by ions are capable of ionizing other molecules; the transport of these generations of electrons is studied using the random walk approximation until these electrons remain ballistic. Then, the distribution of solvated electrons produced as a result of interaction of low-energy electrons with water molecules is obtained. The radial distribution of energy loss by ions and secondary electrons to the medium yields the initial radial dose distribution, which can be used as initial conditions for the predicted shock waves. The formation, diffusion, and chemical evolution of hydroxyl radicals in liquid water are studied as well.

  6. Anode reactive bleed and injector shift control strategy

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Cai, Jun [Rochester, NY; Chowdhury, Akbar [Pittsford, NY; Lerner, Seth E [Honeoye Falls, NY; Marley, William S [Rush, NY; Savage, David R [Rochester, NY; Leary, James K [Rochester, NY

    2012-01-03

    A system and method for correcting a large fuel cell voltage spread for a split sub-stack fuel cell system. The system includes a hydrogen source that provides hydrogen to each split sub-stack and bleed valves for bleeding the anode side of the sub-stacks. The system also includes a voltage measuring device for measuring the voltage of each cell in the split sub-stacks. The system provides two levels for correcting a large stack voltage spread problem. The first level includes sending fresh hydrogen to the weak sub-stack well before a normal reactive bleed would occur, and the second level includes sending fresh hydrogen to the weak sub-stack and opening the bleed valve of the other sub-stack when the cell voltage spread is close to stack failure.

  7. Improved efficiency and power density for thermoacoustic coolers. Technical report, 1 June 1995-31 May 1996

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Hofler, T.J.

    1996-06-01

    Work continues on building a thermoacoustic heat driven cooler having no moving parts, with cooling power in the 0.5 to 1.0 kW range. Previous work dealt with numerical modeling of a new engine topology used in the above engine and various work on improved heat exchangers. Recently, morn modeling suggests that cooling powers in the range of 35 kW (10 ton) may be possible with an engine having a longest dimension of 4 ft. and that efficiency improves significantly with size. Also, the authors have solved some fabrication problems with their high temperature nickel heat exchangers. The major work this year has been on the high temperature thermoacoustic stack structure. A common Stirling engine regenerator structure consisting of stacked disks cut from stainless steel wire mesh was tested in an apparatus previously used for high amplitude heat exchanger measurements. Stacks are very easy to construct in this fashion and longitudinal thermal conduction is greatly reduced. Results show that amplitude performance is very good and within 10% of the usual spiral roll structures. More impressively, the efficiency of the mesh stack is as much as 30% higher than for spiral rolls stacks. The authors are also conducting measurements on pure carbon random structures that could be used at extremely high temperatures.

  8. Control strategies for 2-quadrant converter used in grid power flow control

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Maestri, Sebastian; Uicich, Gustavo; Benedetti, Mario; Papastergiou, Konstantinos; Le Godec, Gilles

    2015-01-01

    This work presents the analysis of a two-quadrant regulator connected to the DC-link of a 4-quadrant magnet supply. The key objective is to present some regulation strategies for controlling the peak power required from the power network as well as to recover the magnet energy into capacitor banks. A comparative study that highlights the trade off between the size of reactive elements, and the peak current drawn from the electrical network is presented.

  9. Generalization of the Linearized Approximation to the Semiclassical Initial Value Representation for Reactive Flux Correlation Functions

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Miller, William H.

    of linearization of the general SC-IVR expression for the reactive flux correlation function (which is related10ARTICLES Generalization of the Linearized Approximation to the Semiclassical Initial Value Representation for Reactive Flux Correlation Functions William H. Miller Department of Chemistry, Uni

  10. How laminar frontal cortex and basal ganglia circuits interact to control planned and reactive saccades

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Crawford, Doug

    How laminar frontal cortex and basal ganglia circuits interact to control planned and reactive reactive behaviors are insufficient. This paper proposes a new model, called TELOS, to explain how laminar). In amphibians and all land vertebrates, the BG interact with a laminar structure, the optic tectum (OT), or its

  11. A gas-kinetic scheme for reactive ows Yongsheng Lian, Kun Xu*

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Xu, Kun

    A gas-kinetic scheme for reactive ¯ows Yongsheng Lian, Kun Xu* Department of Mathematics, Hong Kong in revised form 22 July 1999; accepted 22 July 1999 Abstract In this paper, the gas-kinetic BGK scheme for the compressible ¯ow equations is extended to chemical reactive ¯ow. The mass fraction of the unburnt gas

  12. Generation of Reactive Oxygen Species Mediated by 1Hydroxyphenazine, a Virulence Factor of Pseudomonas aeruginosa

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Gates, Kent. S.

    Generation of Reactive Oxygen Species Mediated by 1Hydroxyphenazine, a Virulence Factor tool for the detection of ROS generation mediated by 1-HP. These assays provided evidence that 1-HP evidence that 1-HP mediates the generation of intracellular oxidants. Generation of reactive oxygen species

  13. Comparison of reactivity measurements using water height, rods, and boron poison in the CX-SNTP

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Ball, R.M. [B& W Nuclear Environmental Services, Inc., Lynchburg, VA (United States); Hoovler, G.S. [Babcock & Wilcox, Lynchburg, VA (United States)

    1995-12-31

    Babcock & Wilcox (B&W) designed and fabricated the experimental nuclear reactor (CX), for the Space Nuclear Thermal Propulsion (SNTP) program sponsored by the U.S. Air Force. The CX had an excess reactivity between $2.0 and $2.5. Variations in differential boric acid worth depending on the method used for balancing the reactivity are discussed in this paper.

  14. A reactive BGK-type model: influence of elastic collisions and chemical interactions

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Ceragioli, Francesca

    , Portugal Abstract. A BGK-type model for a reactive multicomponent gas undergoing chemical bimolecularA reactive BGK-type model: influence of elastic collisions and chemical interactions R. Monaco£ , M, as well as on common mean velocity and tempera- ture, is investigated with respect to chemical equilibrium

  15. Context-Specific Freezing and Associated Physiological Reactivity as a Dysregulated Fear Response

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Wisconsin at Madison, University of

    Context-Specific Freezing and Associated Physiological Reactivity as a Dysregulated Fear Response; only task-specific freezing behavior predicted higher reactive and basal cortisol levels and resting.g., freezing and startle), and social manifestations (e.g., shy- ness). Although components of the same

  16. Relating theories of actions and reactive control Chitta Baral and Tran Cao Son

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Baral, Chitta

    Relating theories of actions and reactive control Chitta Baral and Tran Cao Son Department In this paper 1 we give a formal characterization of reactive control using ac­ tion theories. In the process we provenly correct control modules. We then extend our approach to action theories and control modules

  17. Finite Volume Element Approximations of Nonlocal Reactive Flows in Porous Media

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Ewing, Richard E.

    , Raytcho Lazarov Institute for Scienti#12;c Computation Texas A&M University 612 Blocker Building College. This model is very important in the transport of reactive and passive contaminates in aquifers, an area point of view, the evolution of either a passive or reactive chemical within a velocity #12;eld

  18. Relating maximum airway dilation and subsequent reconstriction to reactivity in human lungs

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Lutchen, Kenneth

    Relating maximum airway dilation and subsequent reconstriction to reactivity in human lungs Lauren in human lungs. J Appl Physiol 96: 1808­1814, 2004. First published February 6, 2004; 10.1152/japplphysiol reactivity in healthy lungs by prohibiting DI for an extended period. The present study had two goals. First

  19. Modeling Reactive Flows in Porous Media Peter Lichtner (lead PI), Los Alamos National Laboratory

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Mills, Richard

    and reactive transport in porous media. Apply it to field-scale studies of Geologic CO2 sequestrationModeling Reactive Flows in Porous Media Peter Lichtner (lead PI), Los Alamos National Laboratory NCCS Users Meeting March 28, 2007 #12;Introduction Companion to SciDAC-II project, "Modeling

  20. Multicomponent reactive transport modeling at the Ratones uranium mine, Cceres (Spain)

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Politècnica de Catalunya, Universitat

    Multicomponent reactive transport modeling at the Ratones uranium mine, Cáceres (Spain) Modelación management. The Ratones uranium mine was abandoned and flooded in 1974. Due to its reducing underground water, uranium, reactive transport, granite hydrochemistry, Ratones mine. Resumen La inundación de minas