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  1. Kuwait Petroleum Corporation | Open Energy Information

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    in the world. The corporation brings all state-owned corporations under one corporate umbrella. References "Kuwait Petroeum Corporation" "About KPC" Retrieved from "http:...

  2. U.S. Energy Secretary Visits Kuwait | Department of Energy

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Kuwait U.S. Energy Secretary Visits Kuwait November 15, 2005 - 2:30pm Addthis Stop included meeting with U.S. business leaders and military troops KUWAIT CITY, KUWAIT - On Monday, November 14, 2005, U.S. Department of Energy Secretary Samuel W. Bodman toured the EQUATE petrochemical plant and met with U.S. business representatives while visiting Kuwait, as part of his trip through the Middle East. The EQUATE petrochemical plant is a joint venture between Kuwait's Petrochemical Industries Company

  3. Kuwait: Energy Resources | Open Energy Information

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    Country Profile Name Kuwait Population 2,213,403 GDP 173,438,000,000 Energy Consumption 1.19 Quadrillion Btu 2-letter ISO code KW 3-letter ISO code KWT Numeric ISO...

  4. Successful operation of a large LPG plant. [Kuwait

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Shtayieh, S.; Durr, C.A.; McMillan, J.C.; Collins, C.

    1982-03-01

    The LPG plant located at Mina-Al Ahmadi, Kuwait, is the heart of Kuwait Oil Co.'s massive Gas Project to use the associated gas from Kuwait's oil production. Operation of this three-train plant has been very successful. A description is given of the three process trains consisting of four basic units: extraction, fractionation, product treating, and refrigeration. Initial problems relating to extraction, fractionation, product treating and, refrigeration are discussed. 1 ref.

  5. Costs of Imported Crude Oil by Selected Country

    Annual Energy Outlook [U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA)]

    Baharain, Iran, Iraq, Kuwait, Neutral Zone, Qatar, Saudi Arabia, and United Arab Emirates. c Includes Algeria, Indonesia, Iran, Iraq, Kuwait, Libya, Nigeria, Qatar, Saudi...

  6. untitled

    Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update (EIA)

    Baharain, Iran, Iraq, Kuwait, Neutral Zone, Qatar, Saudi Arabia, and United Arab Emirates. c Includes Algeria, Indonesia, Iran, Iraq, Kuwait, Libya, Nigeria, Qatar, Saudi...

  7. untitled

    Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update (EIA)

    Baharain, Iran, Iraq, Kuwait, Neutral Zone, Qatar, Saudi Arabia, and United Arab Emirates. b Includes Algeria, Indonesia, Iran, Iraq, Kuwait, Libya, Nigeria, Qatar, Saudi...

  8. Table 25. Landed Costs of Imported Crude Oil by Selected Country

    Annual Energy Outlook [U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA)]

    Baharain, Iran, Iraq, Kuwait, Neutral Zone, Qatar, Saudi Arabia, and United Arab Emirates. b Includes Algeria, Indonesia, Iran, Iraq, Kuwait, Libya, Nigeria, Qatar, Saudi...

  9. Table Definitions, Sources, and Explanatory Notes

    Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update (EIA)

    Gulf Includes Bahrain, Iran, Iraq, Kuwait, Qatar, Saudi Arabia, and the United Arab Emirates. Total OPEC Includes Algeria, Indonesia, Iran, Iraq, Kuwait, Libya, Nigeria, Qatar,...

  10. Secretary of Energy Samuel W. Bodman Meets with U.S. Troops in Kuwait

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    ARIFJAN, KUWAIT - U.S. Secretary of Energy Samuel Bodman and his wife Diane Bodman had dinner and conversed with Pfc. James Clark, Logistics Task Force 28, Capt. Zachary Lange, Headquarters and...

  11. Solar Voltaic Malaysia Sdn Bhd | Open Energy Information

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    Voltaic Malaysia Sdn Bhd Jump to: navigation, search Name: Solar Voltaic (Malaysia) Sdn Bhd Place: Kuala Lumpur, Malaysia Zip: 58200 Sector: Solar Product: Solar Voltaic is a...

  12. NNSA Signs Memorandum with Kuwait to Increase Cooperation on Nuclear Safeguards and Nonproliferation

    ScienceCinema (OSTI)

    Thomas D'Agostino

    2010-09-01

    On June 23, 2010, the National Nuclear Security Administration (NNSA) signed a Memorandum of Cooperation on nuclear safeguards and other nonproliferation topics with the Kuwait National Nuclear Energy Committee (KNNEC). NNSA Administrator Thomas D'Agostino and KNNEC's Secretary General, Dr. Ahmad Bishara, signed the memorandum at a ceremony at U.S. Department of Energy headquarters in Washington.

  13. AIR SHIPMENT OF HIGHLY ENRICHED URANIUM SPENT NUCLEAR FUEL FROM ROMANIA AND LIBYA

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Christopher Landers; Igor Bolshinsky; Ken Allen; Stanley Moses

    2010-07-01

    In June 2009 Romania successfully completed the worlds first air shipment of highly enriched uranium (HEU) spent nuclear fuel transported in Type B(U) casks under existing international laws and without special exceptions for the air transport licenses. Special 20-foot ISO shipping containers and cask tiedown supports were designed to transport Russian TUK 19 shipping casks for the Romanian air shipment and the equipment was certified for all modes of transport, including road, rail, water, and air. In December 2009 Libya successfully used this same equipment for a second air shipment of HEU spent nuclear fuel. Both spent fuel shipments were transported by truck from the originating nuclear facilities to nearby commercial airports, were flown by commercial cargo aircraft to a commercial airport in Yekaterinburg, Russia, and then transported by truck to their final destinations at the Production Association Mayak facility in Chelyabinsk, Russia. Both air shipments were performed under the Russian Research Reactor Fuel Return Program (RRRFR) as part of the U.S. National Nuclear Security Administration (NNSA) Global Threat Reduction Initiative (GTRI). The Romania air shipment of 23.7 kg of HEU spent fuel from the VVR S research reactor was the last of three HEU fresh and spent fuel shipments under RRRFR that resulted in Romania becoming the 3rd RRRFR participating country to remove all HEU. Libya had previously completed two RRRFR shipments of HEU fresh fuel so the 5.2 kg of HEU spent fuel air shipped from the IRT 1 research reactor in December made Libya the 4th RRRFR participating country to remove all HEU. This paper describes the equipment, preparations, and license approvals required to safely and securely complete these two air shipments of spent nuclear fuel.

  14. Assessment of damage to the desert surfaces of Kuwait due to the Gulf War

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    El-Baz, F. . Center for Remote Sensing); Al-Ajmi, D. . Environmental and Earth Sciences Div.)

    1993-01-01

    This is a preliminary report on a joint research project by Boston University and the Kuwait Institute for Scientific Research that commenced in April 1992. The project aim is to establish the extent and nature of environmental damage to the desert surface and coastal zone of Kuwait due to the Gulf War and its aftermath. Change detection image enhancement techniques were employed to enhance environmental change by comparison of Landsat Thematic Mapper images obtained before the wars and after the cessation of the oil and well fires. Higher resolution SPOT images were also utilized to evaluate the nature of the environmental damage to specific areas. The most prominent changes were due to: (1) the deposition of oil and course-grained soot on the desert surface as a result of oil rain'' from the plume that emanated from the oil well fires; (2) the formation of hundreds of oil lakes, from oil seepage at the damaged oil well heads; (3) the mobilization of sand and dust and (4) the pollution of segments of the coastal zone by the deposition of oil from several oil spills. Interpretation of satellite image data are checked in the field to confirm the observations, and to assess the nature of the damage. Final results will be utilized in establishing the needs for remedial action to counteract the harmful effects of the various types of damage to the environment of Kuwait.

  15. Malaysia-ClimateWorks Low Carbon Growth Planning Support | Open...

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    Malaysia-ClimateWorks Low Carbon Growth Planning Support Jump to: navigation, search Name Malaysia-Low Carbon Growth Planning Support AgencyCompany Organization ClimateWorks,...

  16. Petroleum prices and profits in the 90 days following the invasion of Kuwait

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Not Available

    1990-11-01

    For the third in the past 20 years the world has experienced an interruption in the flow of oil from the Persian Gulf. The Iraqi invasion of Kuwait on August 2, 1990, and shut down of Kuwait oil production capacity followed by the United Nations boycott of Iraqi oil removed 8 percent of the world's oil supply. The result was a sharp increase in the process of crude oil and petroleum products. These events raised numerous questions about the performance of energy markets and energy firms. This report supplies a first answer for some of those questions. At the time this report was prepared the invasion has been in effect for 90 days. Not all the data is available to fully answer every question. Some issues can only be completely resolved after more time has passed in which the invasion and its effects have had an opportunity to be fully assimilated. This report was specifically requested by W. Henson Moore, Deputy Secretary of Energy as a way of supplying the American public with what could be said about the current situation. Rumors abound and mixconceptions have proliferated. This report strives to give a proper perspective on some of the more vexing issues which the invasion produced. The Energy Information Administration (EIA) has addressed many questions in this report. By the way of summary these are the 10 most most frequently asked questions and EIA's quick answers. The page references tell the reader where to look in the report for further explanation. These are not the only issues addressed and EIA hopes that readers will be able to satisfy their curiosity about their own questions within the pages of this report.

  17. Malaysia: Energy Resources | Open Energy Information

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    Country Profile Name Malaysia Population 28,334,135 GDP Unavailable Energy Consumption 2.45 Quadrillion Btu 2-letter ISO code MY 3-letter ISO code MYS Numeric ISO...

  18. Pacific Northwest Laboratory Gulfstream I measurements of the Kuwait oil-fire plume, July--August 1991

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Busness, K.M.; Hales, J.M.; Hannigan, R.V.; Thorp, J.M.; Tomich, S.D.; Warren, M.J. ); Al-Sunaid, A.A. ); Daum, P.H.; Mazurek, M. )

    1992-11-01

    In 1991, the Pacific Northwest Laboratory conducted a series of aircraft measurements to determine pollutant and radiative properties of the smoke plume from oil fires in Kuwait. This work was sponsored by the US Department emanating of Energy, in cooperation with several other agencies as part of an extensive effort coordinated by the World Meteorological Organization, to obtain a comprehensive data set to assess the characteristics of the plume and its environmental impact. This report describes field measurement activities and introduces the various data collected, but provides only limited analyses of these data. Results of further data analyses will be presented in subsequent open-literature publications.

  19. Thorium: Issues and prospects in Malaysia

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    AL-Areqi, Wadeeah M.; Majid, Amran Ab.; Sarmani, Sukiman; Bahri, Che Nor Aniza Che Zainul

    2015-04-29

    In Malaysia, thorium exists in minerals and rare earth elements production residue. The average range of thorium content in Malaysian monazite and xenotime minerals was found about 70,000 and 15,000 ppm respectively. About 2,636 tonnes of Malaysian monazite was produced for a period of 5 years (2006-2010) and based on the above data, it can be estimated that Malaysian monazite contains about 184.5 tonnes of thorium. Although thorium can become a major radiological problem to our environment, but with the significant deposit of thorium in Malaysian monazite, it has a prospect as a future alternative fuel in nuclear technology. This paper will discuss the thorium issues in Malaysia especially its long term radiological risks to public health and environment at storage and disposal stages, the prospect of exploring and producing high purity thorium from our rare earth elements minerals for future thorium based reactor. This paper also highlights the holistic approach in thorium recovery from Malaysian rare earth element production residue to reduce its radioactivity and extraction of thorium and rare earth elements from the minerals with minimum radiological impact to health and environment.

  20. Measuring the Costs of U.S. Oil Dependence and the Benefits of...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    exporters operating as OPEC." Prof. M. Adelman, MIT, 2004. Algeria Angola Ecuador Iran Iraq Kuwait Libya Nigeria Qatar Saudi Arabia UAE Venezuela 0 20 40 60 80 100 120...

  1. ,"U.S. Liquefied Natural Gas Imports From Malaysia (MMcf)"

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    586-8800",,,"01292016 9:45:36 AM" "Back to Contents","Data 1: U.S. Liquefied Natural Gas Imports From Malaysia (MMcf)" "Sourcekey","N9103MY2" "Date","U.S. Liquefied Natural Gas...

  2. Price of Gulf of Mexico Natural Gas LNG Imports from Malaysia...

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    Malaysia (Nominal Dollars per Thousand Cubic Feet) Price of Gulf of Mexico Natural Gas LNG Imports from Malaysia (Nominal Dollars per Thousand Cubic Feet) Decade Year-0 Year-1 ...

  3. Malaysia-NIES Low-Carbon Society Scenarios 2050 | Open Energy...

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    NIES Low-Carbon Society Scenarios 2050 Jump to: navigation, search Name Malaysia-NIES Low-Carbon Society Scenarios 2050 AgencyCompany Organization National Institute for...

  4. Municipal solid waste management in Malaysia: Practices and challenges

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Manaf, Latifah Abd Samah, Mohd Armi Abu; Zukki, Nur Ilyana Mohd

    2009-11-15

    Rapid economic development and population growth, inadequate infrastructure and expertise, and land scarcity make the management of municipal solid waste become one of Malaysia's most critical environmental issues. The study is aimed at evaluating the generation, characteristics, and management of solid waste in Malaysia based on published information. In general, the per capita generation rate is about 0.5-0.8 kg/person/day in which domestic waste is the primary source. Currently, solid waste is managed by the Ministry of Housing and Local Government, with the participation of the private sector. A new institutional and legislation framework has been structured with the objectives to establish a holistic, integrated, and cost-effective solid waste management system, with an emphasis on environmental protection and public health. Therefore, the hierarchy of solid waste management has given the highest priority to source reduction through 3R, intermediate treatment and final disposal.

  5. Accounting for Depletion of Oil and Gas Resources in Malaysia

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Othman, Jamal Jafari, Yaghoob

    2012-12-15

    Since oil and gas are non-renewable resources, it is important to identify the extent to which they have been depleted. Such information will contribute to the formulation and evaluation of appropriate sustainable development policies. This paper provides an assessment of the changes in the availability of oil and gas resources in Malaysia by first compiling the physical balance sheet for the period 2000-2007, and then assessing the monetary balance sheets for the said resource by using the Net Present Value method. Our findings show serious reduction in the value of oil reserves from 2001 to 2005, due to changes in crude oil prices, and thereafter the depletion rates decreased. In the context of sustainable development planning, albeit in the weak sustainability sense, it will be important to ascertain if sufficient reinvestments of the estimated resource rents in related or alternative capitals are being attempted by Malaysia. For the study period, the cumulative resource rents were to the tune of RM61 billion. Through a depletion or resource rents policy, the estimated quantum may guide the identification of a reinvestment threshold (after considering needed capital investment for future development of the industry) in light of ensuring the future productive capacity of the economy at the time when the resource is exhausted.

  6. Pollen morphology of Rhizophora L. in Peninsular Malaysia

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Mohd-Arrabe', A. B.; Noraini, Talip Noraini

    2013-11-27

    Rhizophora L. are common mangrove genus in Peninsular Malaysia, it contains 3 species and 1 hybrid (R. apiculata Blume, R. mucronata Lam., R. stylosa Griff., R. x lamarckii Montrouz). This genus has some unique adaptation towards extreme environment. Rhizophora has looping aerial stilt-root and uniformly viviparous. The aim of this study is to investigate the variation in the pollen morphology of Rhizophora that can be related to their habitat. Methods include in this study is pollen observation under light and acetolysis method under scanning electron microscope. Pollen type of Rhizophora species studied except hybrid species is classified tricolporate, shape spheroidal based on ratio of length polar axis/ length of equatorial axis (1.03 - 1.09). The exine ornamentation is perforate-reticulate for R. apiculata and R. mucronata, while R. stylosa is perforate. For the only hybrid in Peninsular Malaysia, R. x lamarckii (R. apiculata x R. stylosa) differs from others, tricolpate with the absence of porate, shape is subprolate and exine ornamentation is reticulate and striate in equatorial region. Pollenkitt is present due to the salty and extreme environment. This may enhance the volume of pollenkitt present surrounding the pollen grains in Rhizophora for protection and adaptation purposes. Based on these findings, it is evident that pollen morphology is somehow related to its natural habitat.

  7. Price of Lake Charles, LA Natural Gas LNG Imports from Malaysia (Dollars

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    per Thousand Cubic Feet) Malaysia (Dollars per Thousand Cubic Feet) Price of Lake Charles, LA Natural Gas LNG Imports from Malaysia (Dollars per Thousand Cubic Feet) Decade Year-0 Year-1 Year-2 Year-3 Year-4 Year-5 Year-6 Year-7 Year-8 Year-9 1990's 2.36 2000's NA NA 3.43 4.97 4.93 10.00 -- - = No Data Reported; -- = Not Applicable; NA = Not Available; W = Withheld to avoid disclosure of individual company data. Release Date: 4/29/2016 Next Release Date: 5/31/2016 Referring Pages: U.S. Price

  8. ,"U.S. Liquefied Natural Gas Imports From Malaysia (MMcf)"

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    Malaysia (MMcf)" ,"Click worksheet name or tab at bottom for data" ,"Worksheet Name","Description","# Of Series","Frequency","Latest Data for" ,"Data 1","U.S. Liquefied Natural Gas Imports From Malaysia (MMcf)",1,"Monthly","2/2016" ,"Release Date:","4/29/2016" ,"Next Release Date:","5/31/2016" ,"Excel File Name:","n9103my2m.xls"

  9. ,"Price of U.S. Liquefied Natural Gas Imports From Malaysia (Dollars per Thousand Cubic Feet)"

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    Malaysia (Dollars per Thousand Cubic Feet)" ,"Click worksheet name or tab at bottom for data" ,"Worksheet Name","Description","# Of Series","Frequency","Latest Data for" ,"Data 1","Price of U.S. Liquefied Natural Gas Imports From Malaysia (Dollars per Thousand Cubic Feet)",1,"Monthly","2/2016" ,"Release Date:","4/29/2016" ,"Next Release

  10. Landslide hazard mapping with selected dominant factors: A study case of Penang Island, Malaysia

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Tay, Lea Tien; Alkhasawneh, Mutasem Sh.; Ngah, Umi Kalthum; Lateh, Habibah

    2015-05-15

    Landslide is one of the destructive natural geohazards in Malaysia. In addition to rainfall as triggering factos for landslide in Malaysia, topographical and geological factors play important role in the landslide susceptibility analysis. Conventional topographic factors such as elevation, slope angle, slope aspect, plan curvature and profile curvature have been considered as landslide causative factors in many research works. However, other topographic factors such as diagonal length, surface area, surface roughness and rugosity have not been considered, especially for the research work in landslide hazard analysis in Malaysia. This paper presents landslide hazard mapping using Frequency Ratio (FR) and the study area is Penang Island of Malaysia. Frequency ratio approach is a variant of probabilistic method that is based on the observed relationships between the distribution of landslides and each landslide-causative factor. Landslide hazard map of Penang Island is produced by considering twenty-two (22) landslide causative factors. Among these twenty-two (22) factors, fourteen (14) factors are topographic factors. They are elevation, slope gradient, slope aspect, plan curvature, profile curvature, general curvature, tangential curvature, longitudinal curvature, cross section curvature, total curvature, diagonal length, surface area, surface roughness and rugosity. These topographic factors are extracted from the digital elevation model of Penang Island. The other eight (8) non-topographic factors considered are land cover, vegetation cover, distance from road, distance from stream, distance from fault line, geology, soil texture and rainfall precipitation. After considering all twenty-two factors for landslide hazard mapping, the analysis is repeated with fourteen dominant factors which are selected from the twenty-two factors. Landslide hazard map was segregated into four categories of risks, i.e. Highly hazardous area, Hazardous area, Moderately hazardous area and Not hazardous area. The maps was assessed using ROC (Rate of Curve) based on the area under the curve method (AUC). The result indicates an increase of accuracy from 77.76% (with all 22 factors) to 79.00% (with 14 dominant factors) in the prediction of landslide occurrence.

  11. Disease mapping based on stochastic SIR-SI model for Dengue and Chikungunya in Malaysia

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Samat, N. A.; Ma'arof, S. H. Mohd Imam

    2014-12-04

    This paper describes and demonstrates a method for relative risk estimation which is based on the stochastic SIR-SI vector-borne infectious disease transmission model specifically for Dengue and Chikungunya diseases in Malaysia. Firstly, the common compartmental model for vector-borne infectious disease transmission called the SIR-SI model (susceptible-infective-recovered for human populations; susceptible-infective for vector populations) is presented. This is followed by the explanations on the stochastic SIR-SI model which involve the Bayesian description. This stochastic model then is used in the relative risk formulation in order to obtain the posterior relative risk estimation. Then, this relative estimation model is demonstrated using Dengue and Chikungunya data of Malaysia. The viruses of these diseases are transmitted by the same type of female vector mosquito named Aedes Aegypti and Aedes Albopictus. Finally, the findings of the analysis of relative risk estimation for both Dengue and Chikungunya diseases are presented, compared and displayed in graphs and maps. The distribution from risk maps show the high and low risk area of Dengue and Chikungunya diseases occurrence. This map can be used as a tool for the prevention and control strategies for both diseases.

  12. Libya: Energy Resources | Open Energy Information

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    Natural Gas Reserves 1,539,000,000,000 Cubic Meters (cu m) 23 2010 CIA World Factbook Oil Reserves 47,000,000,000 Barrels (bbl) 9 2010 CIA World Factbook Energy Maps featuring...

  13. East Coast (PADD 1) Imports from All Countries

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    Import Area: East Coast (PADD 1) Midwest (PADD 2) Gulf Coast (PADD 3) Rocky Mountain (PADD 4) West Coast (PADD 5) Period/Unit: Monthly-Thousand Barrels Monthly-Thousand Barrels per Day Annual-Thousand Barrels Annual-Thousand Barrels per Day Country: All Countries Persian Gulf OPEC Algeria Angola Ecuador Indonesia Iraq Kuwait Libya Nigeria Qatar Saudi Arabia United Arab Emirates Venezuela Non OPEC Albania Argentina Aruba Australia Austria Azerbaijan Bahamas Bahrain Barbados Belarus Belgium Bosnia

  14. Assessment of heavy metals in seawater and fish tissues at Pulau Indah, Selangor, Malaysia

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Md Yunus, Sabarina Hamzah, Zaini; Wood, Ab. Khalik; Ahmad

    2015-04-29

    This study focuses on the levels of heavy metals in seawater and selected fish tissue at Pulau Indah, Selangor, Malaysia. Pulau Indah primarily contains Westport (Malaysia’s major port), and a host of full scales factories. Therefore, it is important to monitor the levels of pollution in this water body and the aquatic organisms in the long term effects, due to the human activities in this area. Water samples in this study were taken from 8 locations along the coastal area. The water samples were collected using water sampler and sampling locations were determined using a Global Positioning system (GPS). Similarly, in situ water quality parameters including temperature, dissolve oxygen (DO), salinity, total suspended solid (TSS), pH and turbidity were measured by using portable multi probes meter. Then, the samples were acidified until pH 2 and filtered. Fish samples were purchased from local fisherman along the Pulau Indah coastal area and samples were digested using concentrated nitric acid in wet digestion method. The levels of selected heavy metals in four species of fish and seawater from Pulau Indah coastal area were determined using Inductive Coupled Plasma Mass Spectrometer (ICPMS) after dilution to the samples. In general, the quality of water at Pulau Indah is lower than Malaysia Marine Water Quality Standard except for few locations were higher than the maximum permissible levels. The concentration of heavy metals which are lead (Pb), copper (Cu), zinc (Zn) and uranium (U) in water samples are in the range of 0.36-5.43 µg/L, 75.20-621.58 µg/L, 11.92-30.52 µg/L, and 4.00-4.65 µg/L respectively. While the results of the four selected fish showed the following order of abundance Zn> U> Cu> Pb. Transfer factor (TF) of heavy metals in fish tissue of selected fish species from the water was discussed. However, the observed metal concentration in the sample tissue did not exceed the allowable limit of Malaysian Food Act (1983) and Regulation (1985). Therefore, it is safe for human consumption. Moreover, the pollution levels of these heavy metals were also compared with other studies. This present study can also be used to evaluate the safety dose uptake level of marine biota as well as to monitor environmental health.

  15. Using a contingent valuation approach for improved solid waste management facility: Evidence from Kuala Lumpur, Malaysia

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Afroz, Rafia; Masud, Muhammad Mehedi

    2011-04-15

    This study employed contingent valuation method to estimate the willingness to pay (WTP) of the households to improve the waste collection system in Kuala Lumpur, Malaysia. The objective of this study is to evaluate how household WTP changes when recycling and waste separation at source is made mandatory. The methodology consisted of asking people directly about their WTP for an additional waste collection service charge to cover the costs of a new waste management project. The new waste management project consisted of two versions: version A (recycling and waste separation is mandatory) and version B (recycling and waste separation is not mandatory). The households declined their WTP for version A when they were asked to separate the waste at source although all the facilities would be given to them for waste separation. The result of this study indicates that the households were not conscious about the benefits of recycling and waste separation. Concerted efforts should be taken to raise environmental consciousness of the households through education and more publicity regarding waste separation, reducing and recycling.

  16. Measurement of the solar ultraviolet radiation at ground level in Bangi, Malaysia

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Aljawi, Ohoud; Gopir, Geri; Duay, Abdul Basit

    2015-04-24

    Understanding the amount of ultraviolet (UV) radiation received by human, plant, and animal organisms near the earth’s surface is important to a wide range of fields such as cancer research, agriculture and forestry. The solar ultraviolet spectral irradiance at ground level was measured using the Avantes spectrometer for the period of January to March 2014 at Bangi (2°55´N, 101°46´E, 50 m above sea level) in Malaysia. These data were used to estimate the diurnal variation of UV irradiance (300 – 400 nm). The maximum irradiance of UV radiation was 45 W m{sup −2} on horizontal surface. The maximum irradiance of UV received in the local noon time, and the minimum values of UV irradiance was received in the local morning time. It is found a bigger value of UV radiation was observed on clear sky in January. The estimation of daily flux average of UV irradiance was (921± 91) kJ m{sup −2}.

  17. Estimation of stochastic volatility with long memory for index prices of FTSE Bursa Malaysia KLCI

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Chen, Kho Chia; Kane, Ibrahim Lawal; Rahman, Haliza Abd; Bahar, Arifah; Ting, Chee-Ming

    2015-02-03

    In recent years, modeling in long memory properties or fractionally integrated processes in stochastic volatility has been applied in the financial time series. A time series with structural breaks can generate a strong persistence in the autocorrelation function, which is an observed behaviour of a long memory process. This paper considers the structural break of data in order to determine true long memory time series data. Unlike usual short memory models for log volatility, the fractional Ornstein-Uhlenbeck process is neither a Markovian process nor can it be easily transformed into a Markovian process. This makes the likelihood evaluation and parameter estimation for the long memory stochastic volatility (LMSV) model challenging tasks. The drift and volatility parameters of the fractional Ornstein-Unlenbeck model are estimated separately using the least square estimator (lse) and quadratic generalized variations (qgv) method respectively. Finally, the empirical distribution of unobserved volatility is estimated using the particle filtering with sequential important sampling-resampling (SIR) method. The mean square error (MSE) between the estimated and empirical volatility indicates that the performance of the model towards the index prices of FTSE Bursa Malaysia KLCI is fairly well.

  18. Multidiscipline studies of the depletion behavior of the F23 Gas Field, offshore Sarawak, East Malaysia

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Heijna, H.B.; Sin, S.L.M.; Ing, S.T.T.; Van Vliet, A.; Wong, K.; Hassan, W.M.W. )

    1994-07-01

    The F23 gas field is located 178 km north-northwest of Bintulu in the central Luconia province, offshore Sarawak. The accumulation consists of a late Miocene layered platform-type carbonate buildup 22 km[sup 2] and a maximum gas thickness of over 1000 ft. Eleven development wells and one observation well were completed in 1983, with initial gas delivery to Malaysia LNG in October 1983. Annual TDT surveys are conducted in the observation well to monitor the movement of the GWC in the central area of the field. As of April 1992, a cumulative rise of 25 ft was observed. This contrasts with material balance calculations predicted rise of some 60 ft based on Sgr of 50% inferred from core measurements. Among the potential explanations were irregular bottom-water encroachment, preferential flank water advance, or larger GIIP. As all had potentially important consequences to depletion strategy and ultimate reserves, multidiscipline studies were initiated. Time-lapse seismic data were used to better determine the existing fluid levels across the field and reservoir simulation studies were used to match observation well data and predict future reservoir behavior. Concurrent reservoir and simulation studies suggested that the material balance and observation well data could be reconciled by (1) a reduced aquifer, and/or increased GIIP, and/or a lower residual gas saturation, or (2) preferential flank water influx due to internal low-permeability layers. As (1) would not lead to early water breakthrough, the simulation effort was aimed to investigate (2), the possibility and implications of early edge water breakthrough via the flank zone.

  19. NREL: Technology Transfer - Kuwait Visitors Interested in NREL...

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    to improve energy efficiency in their refining operations. KOC may also apply concentrated solar power technology to produce some of the steam needed in the company's operations...

  20. State of Kuwait Ministry of Oil | Open Energy Information

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    of the rules or laws organizing the drilling and exploring process simultaneously with production and export operations and to protect such wealth for the next generations....

  1. Net Imports of Total Crude Oil and Products into the U.S. by Country

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    2010 2011 2012 2013 2014 2015 View History Total All Countries 9,441 8,450 7,393 6,237 5,065 4,651 1973-2015 Persian Gulf 1,705 1,842 2,149 1,988 1,861 1,496 1993-2015 OPEC* 4,787 4,429 4,093 3,483 2,996 2,652 1993-2015 Algeria 510 355 241 108 109 105 1993-2015 Angola 393 346 233 215 154 136 1993-2015 Ecuador 135 147 117 153 116 104 1993-2015 Indonesia 37 20 6 23 24 37 1993-2015 Iran 0 0 1993-2014 Iraq 415 459 476 341 369 229 1996-2015 Kuwait 197 191 305 328 311 206 1993-2015 Libya 70 15 60 58 5

  2. East Coast (PADD 1) Distillate Fuel Oil Imports

    Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update (EIA)

    Decade Year-0 Year-1 Year-2 Year-3 Year-4 Year-5 Year-6 Year-7 Year-8 Year-9 1990's 942 1,260 1,471 1,990 2000's 2,114 1,896 1,914 1,969 2,258 2,132 2,118 1,955 1,695 1,237 2010's 1,471 2,114 2,970 2,608 3,801 4,282

    Sep-15 Oct-15 Nov-15 Dec-15 Jan-16 Feb-16 View History All Countries 76 92 133 130 137 187 1981-2016 Persian Gulf 23 1995-2016 OPEC* 10 23 1993-2016 Algeria 1994-2010 Angola 1995-2003 Indonesia 1995-2008 Kuwait 1995-2012 Libya 2013-2013 Nigeria 10 1993-2015 Qatar 23 1995-2016

  3. Nevada Dry Natural Gas Production (Million Cubic Feet)

    Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update (EIA)

    2010 2011 2012 2013 2014 2015 View History Total All Countries 9,441 8,450 7,393 6,237 5,065 4,651 1973-2015 Persian Gulf 1,705 1,842 2,149 1,988 1,861 1,496 1993-2015 OPEC* 4,787 4,429 4,093 3,483 2,996 2,652 1993-2015 Algeria 510 355 241 108 109 105 1993-2015 Angola 393 346 233 215 154 136 1993-2015 Ecuador 135 147 117 153 116 104 1993-2015 Indonesia 37 20 6 23 24 37 1993-2015 Iran 0 0 1993-2014 Iraq 415 459 476 341 369 229 1996-2015 Kuwait 197 191 305 328 311 206 1993-2015 Libya 70 15 60 58 5

  4. Estimated use of explosives in the mining industries of Algeria, Iran, Iraq, and Libya

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Wilburn, D.R.; Russell, J.A.; Bleiwas, D.I.

    1995-09-01

    This work was performed under Memorandum of Agreement B291534 Between the Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory (LLNL) and the United States Bureau of Mines. The Bureau of Mines authors are members of the Minerals Availability Field Office (MAFO) in Denver, CO, which uses an extensive network of information sources to develop and maintain the Minerals Availability database concerning mining and minerals properties worldwide. This study was initiated and directed by F. Heuze at LLNL. A previous study on the same subject had been commissioned by LLNL from the Mining Journal Research Services (MJRS) in London ,UK. Its results were integrated into this report. MJRS is shown as one of the numerous sources which were used for this work. All sources are listed in the report. This document is arranged in four sections, one for each country, in alphabetical order. Thie outline is the same for each country.

  5. U.S. LNG Imports from Malaysia

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    9-2016 Liquefied Natural Gas Prices -- -- -- -- -- -- 1999

  6. Planning and care mark repair of 14-year old leak in Kuwait Oil Co. LPG tank 95

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Shtayieh, S.

    1983-01-10

    This paper points out that the leak, which had been present for such a long time, completely saturated the perlite insulation with hydrocarbons, thus rendering the entire operation of inspection, repair, and maintenance of the inner tank a hazardous operation. It emphasizes the safety aspects, which were complicated by the saturated perlite as well as by the fact that the tank is situated in the middle of the LPG storage area with LPG tanks on either side. Tank design, making preparations, inspection, and repair are discussed. The fact that the leaking flanges were originally installed damaged, indicated the future need of tighter company quality control of all contractors work.

  7. U.S. Crude Oil Imports

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    16,669 220,747 221,117 244,915 237,910 229,402 1920-2016 Persian Gulf 38,247 47,365 49,210 54,496 46,853 44,701 1993-2016 OPEC* 78,078 84,447 86,981 95,282 87,302 85,862 1993-2016 Algeria 1,064 1993-2016 Angola 5,467 5,598 5,725 4,761 5,154 3,463 1993-2016 Ecuador 7,729 7,139 5,721 6,097 10,350 7,133 1993-2016 Indonesia 1,297 1,727 1,329 1,348 1,955 1,004 1993-2016 Iraq 6,079 11,622 8,064 13,844 7,810 7,092 1996-2016 Kuwait 6,337 5,263 4,193 5,972 6,369 8,389 1993-2016 Libya 159 189 2004-2015

  8. World crude output overcomes Persian Gulf disruption

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Not Available

    1992-02-01

    Several OPEC producers made good on their promises to replace 2.7 MMbpd of oil exports that vanished from the world market after Iraq took over Kuwait. Even more incredibly, they accomplished this while a breathtaking 1.2- MMbopd reduction in Soviet output took place during the course of 1991. After Abu Dhabi, Indonesia, Iran, Libya, Nigeria, Saudi Arabia and Venezuela turned the taps wide open, their combined output rose 2.95 MMbopd. Put together with a 282,000-bopd increase by Norway and contributions from smaller producers, this enabled world oil production to remain within 400,000 bopd of its 1990 level. The 60.5-MMbopd average was off by just 0.7%. This paper reports that improvement took place in five of eight regions. Largest increases were in Western Europe and Africa. Greatest reductions occurred in Eastern Europe and the Middle East. Fifteen nations produced 1 MMbopd or more last year, compared with 17 during 1990.

  9. Smokes from the oil fires following the Gulf War: A review and new perspectives

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Radke, L.F.

    1996-12-31

    Emissions resulting from the oil fires in Kuwait and environmental effects from those emissions are described.

  10. Malaysia-Enhancing Capacity for Low Emission Development Strategies...

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    illustrates the U.S. perspective on LEDS: Integrated development goals and objectives, national greenhouse gas inventory, and economic and resource data Long-term projections of...

  11. Malaysia-Lowering Emissions in Asia's Forests (LEAF) | Open Energy...

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    assessing, improving, and implementing REDD+- related forest policies; improving forest management; and encouraging equitable sharing of REDD+ benefits. The program will tailor...

  12. NNSA Conducts Radiological Training in Malaysia | National Nuclear...

    National Nuclear Security Administration (NNSA)

    ... NNSA maintains and enhances the safety, security, reliability, and performance of the U.S. nuclear weapons stockpile without nuclear testing; reduces the global danger from weapons ...

  13. Malaysia-EU-UNDP Low Emission Capacity Building Programme (LECBP...

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    Programme (UNDP), German Federal Ministry for the Environment, Nature Conservation and Nuclear Safety (BMU), Australian Department of Climate Change and Energy Efficiency (DCCEE),...

  14. Malaysia-The Mitigation Action Implementation Network (MAIN)...

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    of Energy Thailand, Ministry of Industry Thailand, Ministry of Natural Resources and Environment Thailand, Pollution Control Department, Ministry of Natural Resources and...

  15. Malaysia-Low Emissions Asian Development (LEAD) Program | Open...

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    the growth of greenhouse gas emissions. The LEAD program supports and enhances country-led development programs, plans, and policies, and complements efforts of other...

  16. Malaysia-NAMA Programme for the Construction Sector in Asia ...

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    United Nations Environment Programme (UNEP) Sector Climate Focus Area Renewable Energy, Buildings, Industry Topics Low emission development planning, -LEDS, -NAMA, Market...

  17. Thorium: Issues and prospects in Malaysia (Journal Article) ...

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    prospect as a future alternative fuel in nuclear technology. ... risks to public health and environment at storage ... 11-13 Nov 2014; Other Information: (c) 2015 AIP Publishing ...

  18. Political dynamics of economic sanctions: a case study of Arab oil embargoes

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Daoudi, M.S.

    1981-01-01

    The general question is considered of the effectiveness of economic sanctions in international politics, in terms of the Arabs' use of oil as a political weapon in 1956, 1967, and 1973. Chapter 3 focuses on the impact of the interruption of oil supplies to Western Europe throughout the 1956 Suez crisis. By 1967, pressure on the conservative governing elites of Saudi Arabia, Kuwait, Libya, and the Gulf Sheikdoms obliged these states to join Iraq and Algeria in imposing production cutbacks and an embargo. Yet the conservative regimes' ties to the West, and the control exerted by multinational oil corporations over all phases of their oil industry, insured that the embargo was not enforced. Chapter 4 explains historically how, by the late 1960s, relinquishment of old concessions, nationalization acts, and participation agreements had caused a decline in the multinationals' domination of the oil industry. The rise of OPEC and OAPEC, which by 1970 had united and organized the producing governments, channeled their demands, and created an international forum for their political grievances, is discussed. Chapter 5 considers how by 1973 international and Arab political developments had forced states like Saudi Arabia, which had sought to dissociate oil and politics, to unsheathe the oil weapon and wave it in the faces of their Western allies. The author concludes from analysis of these complex cases that scholarship has exaggerated the inefficacy of sanctions. The effectiveness of sanctions is seen to depend upon how the demands are formulated and presented and to what extent they can be negotiated, as well as upon the sociopolitical, cultural, and psychological characteristics of the target population.

  19. Word Pro - S11

    Annual Energy Outlook [U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA)]

    Iraq, Kuwait, Qatar, Saudi Arabia, and the United Arab Emirates. Production from the Neutral Zone between Kuwait and Saudi Arabia is included in "Per- sian Gulf Nations." Web Page:

  20. JPRS report: Nuclear developments, [March 14, 1988

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    1988-03-14

    This report contains information concerning the nuclear developments of the following countries: Libya, India, Pakistan, Soviet Union, Austria, Federal Republic of Germany, and Finland.

  1. Katherine F. Crouch (Acting) | Department of Energy

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    of Weapons of Mass Destruction (WMD) in Asia, Middle East and North Africa, and South Asia, including Libya, China, Taiwan, Singapore, UAE, Yemen, India, Pakistan, and Afghanistan. ...

  2. Shipping and Receiving

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    shipping should be used at all other times. Shipping materials to Cuba, Iran, Libya, North Korea, Sudan, and Syria is prohibited; contact Berkeley Lab Procurement for more...

  3. This Week In Petroleum Summary Printer-Friendly Version

    Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update (EIA)

    and political pressures that have already curtailed output. Libya's precarious security environment creates downside production risk from the potential for additional disruptions...

  4. This Week In Petroleum Printer-Friendly Version

    Annual Energy Outlook [U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA)]

    table below indicates, Persian Gulf producers (Saudi Arabia, Kuwait, the United Arab Emirates, Qatar and Iran) appear to have accounted for 80 percent of the overall cutback over...

  5. Governance for Sustainable Development in the Arab Region | Open...

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    Resource Type Guidemanual Website http:www.escwa.un.orginform Country Bahrain, Egypt, Iraq, Jordan, Kuwait, Lebanon, Oman, Qatar, Saudi Arabia, Sudan, Syria, United Arab...

  6. Best Practices and Tools for Large-scale Deployment of Renewable...

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    www.escwa.un.orginformationpublicationsedituploadsdpd-09-TP3.pdf Country: Bahrain, Egypt, Iraq, Jordan, Kuwait, Lebanon, Oman, Qatar, Saudi Arabia, Sudan, Syria, United Arab...

  7. United Nations Economic and Social Commission for Western Asia...

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    Background Membership "ESCWA comprises 14 Arab countries in Western Asia: Bahrain, Egypt, Iraq, Jordan, Kuwait, Lebanon, Oman, Qatar, Saudi Arabia, Sudan, Syria, United Arab...

  8. National Technology Enterprises Co | Open Energy Information

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    Technology Enterprises Co Jump to: navigation, search Name: National Technology Enterprises Co Place: Kuwait Sector: Services Product: Services & Support (Clean Energy) (...

  9. untitled

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    of individual company data. a Free on Board. See Glossary. b Includes Baharain, Iran, Iraq, Kuwait, Neutral Zone, Qatar, Saudi Arabia, and United Arab Emirates. c Includes...

  10. Costs of Imported Crude Oil by Selected Country

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    of individual company data. a Free on Board. See Glossary. b Includes Baharain, Iran, Iraq, Kuwait, Neutral Zone, Qatar, Saudi Arabia, and United Arab Emirates. c Includes...

  11. Table 25. Landed Costs of Imported Crude Oil by Selected Country

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    W Withheld to avoid disclosure of individual company data. a Includes Baharain, Iran, Iraq, Kuwait, Neutral Zone, Qatar, Saudi Arabia, and United Arab Emirates. b Includes...

  12. untitled

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    W Withheld to avoid disclosure of individual company data. a Includes Baharain, Iran, Iraq, Kuwait, Neutral Zone, Qatar, Saudi Arabia, and United Arab Emirates. b Includes...

  13. --No Title--

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    No data reported. W Withheld to avoid disclosure of individual company data. 1 Includes Bahrain, Iran, Iraq, Kuwait, Neutral Zone, Qatar, Saudi Arabia, and United Arab Emirates....

  14. --No Title--

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    W Withheld to avoid disclosure of individual company data. 1 Includes Bahrain, Iran, Iraq, Kuwait, Neutral Zone, Qatar, Saudi Arabia, and United Arab Emirates. 2 Includes...

  15. untitled

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    W Withheld to avoid disclosure of individual company data. a Includes Bahrain, Iran, Iraq, Kuwait, Qatar, Saudi Arabia, and United Arab Emirates. b Includes Algeria,...

  16. --No Title--

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    to avoid disclosure of individual company data. 3 Free on Board. See Glossary. 1 Includes Bahrain, Iran, Iraq, Kuwait, Neutral Zone, Qatar, Saudi Arabia, and United Arab Emirates....

  17. Price of U.S. Liquefied Natural Gas Imports From Malaysia (Dollars per

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    Thousand Cubic Feet) Decade Year-0 Year-1 Year-2 Year-3 Year-4 Year-5 Year-6 Year-7 Year-8 Year-9 1990's -- -- 2.36 2000's -- -- 3.43 4.97 4.93 9.00 -- -- -- -- 2010's -- -- -- --

  18. U.S. Liquefied Natural Gas Imports From Malaysia (Million Cubic Feet)

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    Decade Year-0 Year-1 Year-2 Year-3 Year-4 Year-5 Year-6 Year-7 Year-8 Year-9 1990's 0 0 2,576 2000's 0 0 2,423 2,704 19,999 8,719 0 0 0 0 2010's 0 0 0 0

  19. Price of U.S. Liquefied Natural Gas Imports From Malaysia (Dollars per

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    Thousand Cubic Feet) Year Jan Feb Mar Apr May Jun Jul Aug Sep Oct Nov Dec 1999 -- -- -- -- -- -- 2.36 -- -- -- 2000 -- -- 2001 -- -- -- -- -- -- -- -- -- -- -- -- 2002 -- -- -- -- 3.43 -- -- -- -- -- -- -- 2003 -- -- -- -- -- -- 4.97 -- -- -- -- -- 2004 -- -- -- -- 4.91 -- 4.94 -- 4.91 -- -- -- 2005 5.35 -- 6.67 -- -- -- -- -- -- 14.47 -- -- 2006 -- -- -- -- -- -- -- -- -- -- -- -- 2007 -- -- -- -- -- -- -- -- -- -- -- -- 2008 -- -- -- -- -- -- -- -- -- -- -- -- 2009 -- -- -- -- -- -- -- --

  20. Malaysia-Low Carbon Asia Research Network (LoCARNet) | Open Energy...

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    Energy, Land Focus Area Agriculture, Biomass, Buildings, Economic Development, Energy Efficiency, Forestry, Geothermal, Greenhouse Gas, Hydrogen, Industry, Land Use, People and...

  1. U.S. Liquefied Natural Gas Imports From Malaysia (Million Cubic Feet)

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    Year Jan Feb Mar Apr May Jun Jul Aug Sep Oct Nov Dec 1999 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 2,576 0 0 0 0 2000 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 2001 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 2002 0 0 0 0 2,423 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 2003 0 0 0 0 0 0 2,704 0 0 0 0 0 2004 0 0 0 0 2,667 0 11,336 0 5,996 0 0 0 2005 2,986 0 2,624 0 0 0 0 0 0 3,109 0 0 2006 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 2007 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 2008 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 2009 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 2010 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 2011 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 2012 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 2013 0

  2. Study on the financing mechanism and management for decommissioning of nuclear installations in Malaysia

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Saleh, Lydia Ilaiza Ryong, Kim Tae

    2015-04-29

    The whole cycle of the decommissioning process development of repository requires the relevant bodies to have a financial system to ensure that it has sufficient funds for its whole life cycle (over periods of many decades). Therefore, the financing mechanism and management system shall respect the following status: the national position, institutional and legislative environment, technical capabilities, the waste origin, ownership, characteristics and inventories. The main objective of the studies is to focus on the cost considerations, alternative funding managements and mechanisms, technical and non-technical factors that may affect the repository life-cycle costs. As a conclusion, the outcomes of this paper is to make a good recommendation and could be applied to the national planners, regulatory body, engineers, or the managers, to form a financial management plan for the decommissioning of the Nuclear Installation.

  3. ,"U.S. Total Crude Oil and Products Imports"

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    from Libya of Crude Oil and Petroleum Products (Thousand Barrels)","U.S. Imports from Nigeria of Crude Oil and Petroleum Products (Thousand Barrels)","U.S. Imports from Qatar of...

  4. The Availability and Price of Petroleum and Petroleum Products...

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    by an average of 0.8 million bbld in September and October 2013. Increased global crude oil production, particularly from Libya and Iraq, in the past two months, at a time when...

  5. The Availability and Price of Petroleum and Petroleum Products...

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    boosted global liquid fuels production relative to year-ago levels. However, OPEC crude oil production decreased slightly from year-ago levels, as production gains in Libya and...

  6. This Week In Petroleum Summary Printer-Friendly Version

    Annual Energy Outlook [U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA)]

    of political unrest in North Africa, including violent uprisings in Libya that have led to the shutdown of much of its oil production. The spot prices for West Texas...

  7. This Week In Petroleum Summary Printer-Friendly Version

    Annual Energy Outlook [U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA)]

    that it will respect existing contracts, IOCs seeking to purchase oil from Libya or invest in the country's oil sector must be able to identify their institutional and financial...

  8. This Week In Petroleum Summary Printer-Friendly Version

    Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update (EIA)

    in July, down from 1.5 million bbld in April. Additional deterioration in the security environment in Iraq or Libya could further reduce OPEC production in the short term. In...

  9. Search for: All records | SciTech Connect

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    Assessment of heavy metals in seawater and fish tissues at Pulau Indah, Selangor, Malaysia ... of heavy metals in seawater and selected fish tissue at Pulau Indah, Selangor, Malaysia. ...

  10. Potential of Melastoma malabathricum as bio-accumulator for uranium...

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    > 1 for uranium in the leaf, stem and roots, indicating accumulation of uranium from soil. ... Institute of Science, Universiti Teknologi MARA, 40450 Shah Alam (Malaysia) (Malaysia) ...

  11. TABLE23.CHP:Corel VENTURA

    Annual Energy Outlook [U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA)]

    3. PAD District II-Imports of Crude Oil and Petroleum Products by Country of Origin, a January 1998 Arab OPEC ...... 6,219 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 Kuwait ...

  12. This Week In Petroleum Printer-Friendly Version

    Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update (EIA)

    from September 2008 production levels. Saudi Arabia, Kuwait, the United Arab Emirates (UAE), and Qatar accounted for about three-fourths of the 2.6 million bbld of actual...

  13. TABLE37.CHP:Corel VENTURA

    Annual Energy Outlook [U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA)]

    Zaire. e Includes Bahrain, Iran, Iraq, Kuwait, Qatar, Saudi Arabia, and United Arab Emirates. (s) Less than 500 barrels per day. Note: Totals may not equal sum of components...

  14. TABLE42.CHP:Corel VENTURA

    Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update (EIA)

    Zaire. e Includes Bahrain, Iran, Iraq, Kuwait, Qatar, Saudi Arabia, and United Arab Emirates. (s) Less than 500 barrels per day. Note: Totals may not equal sum of components...

  15. Middle East oil and gas

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Not Available

    1984-12-01

    The following subjects are covered in this publication: (1) position of preeminence of the Middle East; (2) history of area's oil operations for Iran, Iraq, Bahrain, Kuwait, Saudi Arabia, neutral zone, Qatar, United Arab Emirates, Oman and Egypt; (3) gas operations of Saudi Arabia, Iran, Kuwait, Qatar, Iraq and United Arab Emirates; (4) changing relationships with producing countries; (5) a new oil pricing environment; (6) refining and other industrial activities; and (7) change and progress. 10 figs., 12 tabs.

  16. ASEAN-IEA Activities | Open Energy Information

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    Policiesdeployment programs, Technology characterizations Resource Type Workshop, Training materials Country Indonesia, Malaysia, Singapore, Thailand, Philippines, Vietnam,...

  17. Assessment of heavy metals in seawater and fish tissues at Pulau Indah,

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    Selangor, Malaysia (Journal Article) | SciTech Connect Assessment of heavy metals in seawater and fish tissues at Pulau Indah, Selangor, Malaysia Citation Details In-Document Search Title: Assessment of heavy metals in seawater and fish tissues at Pulau Indah, Selangor, Malaysia This study focuses on the levels of heavy metals in seawater and selected fish tissue at Pulau Indah, Selangor, Malaysia. Pulau Indah primarily contains Westport (Malaysia's major port), and a host of full scales

  18. Oil and gas developments in North Africa in 1986

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Michel, R.C.

    1987-10-01

    Licensed oil acreage in the 6 North Africa countries (Algeria, Egypt, Libya, Morocco, Sudan and Tunisia) totaled 1,500,000 km/sup 2/ at the end of 1986, down 290,000 km/sup 2/ from 1985. About 50% of the relinquishments were in Libya. Most oil and gas discoveries were made in Egypt (16 oil and 2 gas). Several oil finds were reported in onshore Libya, and 1 was reported in Algeria in the southeastern Sahara. According to available statistics, development drilling decreased from 1985 levels, except in Tunisia. A 6.3% decline in oil production took place in 1986, falling below the 3 million bbl level (2,912,000 b/d). Only sparse data are released on the gas output in North Africa. 6 figures, 27 tables.

  19. Microsoft Word - Highlights.doc

    Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update (EIA)

    11 1 Short-Term Energy Outlook March 2011 March 8, 2011 Release Highlights  West Texas Intermediate (WTI) and other crude oil spot prices have risen about $15 per barrel since mid-February partly in response to the disruption of crude oil exports from Libya. Continuing unrest in Libya as well as other North African and Middle Eastern countries has led to the highest crude oil prices since 2008. As a result, EIA has raised its forecast for the average cost of crude oil to refiners to $105 per

  20. Analysis of ancient-river systems by 3D seismic time-slice technique: A case study in northeast Malay Basin, offshore Terengganu, Malaysia

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Sulaiman, Noorzamzarina; Hamzah, Umar; Samsudin, Abdul Rahim

    2014-09-03

    Fluvial sandstones constitute one of the major clastic petroleum reservoir types in many sedimentary basins around the world. This study is based on the analysis of high-resolution, shallow (seabed to 500 m depth) 3D seismic data which generated three-dimensional (3D) time slices that provide exceptional imaging of the geometry, dimension and temporal and spatial distribution of fluvial channels. The study area is in the northeast of Malay Basin about 280 km to the east of Terengganu offshore. The Malay Basin comprises a thick (> 8 km), rift to post-rift Oligo-Miocene to Pliocene basin-fill. The youngest (Miocene to Pliocene), post-rift succession is dominated by a thick (15 km), cyclic succession of coastal plain and coastal deposits, which accumulated in a humid-tropical climatic setting. This study focuses on the Pleistocene to Recent (500 m thick) succession, which comprises a range of seismic facies analysis of the two-dimensional (2D) seismic sections, mainly reflecting changes in fluvial channel style and river architecture. The succession has been divided into four seismic units (Unit S1-S4), bounded by basin-wide strata surfaces. Two types of boundaries have been identified: 1) a boundary that is defined by a regionally-extensive erosion surface at the base of a prominent incised valley (S3 and S4); 2) a sequence boundary that is defined by more weakly-incised, straight and low-sinuosity channels which is interpreted as low-stand alluvial bypass channel systems (S1 and S2). Each unit displays a predictable vertical change of the channel pattern and scale, with wide low-sinuosity channels at the base passing gradationally upwards into narrow high-sinuosity channels at the top. The wide variation in channel style and size is interpreted to be controlled mainly by the sea-level fluctuations on the widely flat Sunda land Platform.

  1. Oil and gas developments in Middle East in 1985

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Hemer, D.O.; Gohrbandt, K.H.A.

    1986-10-01

    Petroleum production in Middle East countries during 1985 totaled 3,837,580,000 bbl (an average rate of 10,513,917 BOPD), down 2.2% from the revised 1984 total of 3,924,034,000 bbl. Iran, Iraq, Dubai, Oman, and Syria had significant increases; Kuwait, Kuwait-Saudi Arabia Divided Neutral Zone, Saudi Arabia, and Qatar had significant decreases. New fields went on production in Iraq, Abu Dhabi, Oman, and Syria. In North Yemen, the first ever oil production in that country was nearing the start-up stage at year end. 9 figures, 9 tables.

  2. Oil/gas separator for installation at burning wells

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Alonso, Carol T.; Bender, Donald A.; Bowman, Barry R.; Burnham, Alan K.; Chesnut, Dwayne A.; Comfort, III, William J.; Guymon, Lloyd G.; Henning, Carl D.; Pedersen, Knud B.; Sefcik, Joseph A.; Smith, Joseph A.; Strauch, Mark S.

    1993-01-01

    An oil/gas separator is disclosed that can be utilized to return the burning wells in Kuwait to production. Advantageously, a crane is used to install the separator at a safe distance from the well. The gas from the well is burned off at the site, and the oil is immediately pumped into Kuwait's oil gathering system. Diverters inside the separator prevent the oil jet coming out of the well from reaching the top vents where the gas is burned. The oil falls back down, and is pumped from an annular oil catcher at the bottom of the separator, or from the concrete cellar surrounding the well.

  3. Oil/gas separator for installation at burning wells

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Alonso, C.T.; Bender, D.A.; Bowman, B.R.; Burnham, A.K.; Chesnut, D.A.; Comfort, W.J. III; Guymon, L.G.; Henning, C.D.; Pedersen, K.B.; Sefcik, J.A.; Smith, J.A.; Strauch, M.S.

    1993-03-09

    An oil/gas separator is disclosed that can be utilized to return the burning wells in Kuwait to production. Advantageously, a crane is used to install the separator at a safe distance from the well. The gas from the well is burned off at the site, and the oil is immediately pumped into Kuwait's oil gathering system. Diverters inside the separator prevent the oil jet coming out of the well from reaching the top vents where the gas is burned. The oil falls back down, and is pumped from an annular oil catcher at the bottom of the separator, or from the concrete cellar surrounding the well.

  4. Petronas | Open Energy Information

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    an oil and gas company located in Kuala Lumpur, Malaysia. About Petronas is the national oil company of Malaysia, established in 1974. It maintains control and ownership over all...

  5. Workbook Contents

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    Malaysia " ,"Click worksheet name or tab at bottom for data" ,"Worksheet Name","Description"," Of Series","Frequency","Latest Data for" ,"Data 1","U.S. LNG Imports from Malaysia ...

  6. Asian Development Outlook 2010 | Open Energy Information

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    Turkmenistan, Uzbekistan, China, South Korea, Mongolia, Afghanistan, Bangladesh, Bhutan, India, Maldives, Pakistan, Sri Lanka, Nepal, Cambodia, Indonesia, Malaysia, Laos, Vietnam,...

  7. Energy Technology Systems Analysis Program (MARKAL) | Open Energy...

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    Switzerland, Albania, Australia, Austria, Bosnia and Herzegovina, Brazil, Bulgaria, Colombia, Croatia, India, Indonesia, Kazakhstan, Malaysia, New Zealand, China, Philippines,...

  8. Oil and gas developments in Middle East in 1981

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Hemer, D.O; Mason, J.F.; Hatch, G.C.

    1982-11-01

    Petroleum production in Middle East countries during 1981 totaled 5,741,096,000 bbl, or an average rate of 15,729,030 BOPD, down 14.9% from 1980. Increases were in Oman, Dubai, and Turkey. Significant decreases occurred in Iraq, Iran, Kuwait, Divided Neutral Zone, Qatar, and Abu Dhabi. New discoveries were made in Oman, Saudi Arabia, and Abu Dhabi.

  9. Oil and gas developments in North Africa in 1985

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Michel, R.C.

    1986-10-01

    Petroleum rights in the 6 North African countries (Algeria, Egypt, Libya, Morocco, Sudan, and Tunisia) covered in this paper were 1,839,817 km/sup 2/ at the end of 1985, a decrease of 3% from the 1,896,446 km/sup 2/ held at the end of 1984. This decrease mainly is due to significant relinquishments made in Algeria, Egypt, and Tunisia. Morocco, however, had an increase of 18,087 km/sup 2/. Oil discoveries were reported in Algeria (possibly 5), Libya (at least 2), and Egypt (16). Only 1 gas find was made (in Morocco). According to sparse information, development drilling may have decreased markedly during 1985. Oil and condensate production increased by 3.1% to approximately 3,054,000 b/d compared to about 2,963,400 b/d in 1984. No statistics are currently available on gas production in North Africa. 8 figures, 27 tables.

  10. 2011 SPR Report to Congress | Department of Energy

    Energy Savers [EERE]

    SPR Report to Congress 2011 SPR Report to Congress Highlights from the report include: Drawdown 2011 - Libya Collective Action On June 23, 2011, President Obama authorized the sale and drawdown of 30 million barrels of crude oil from the Strategic Petroleum Reserve as the United States' share of a coordinated 60 million barrel release of oil from member countries of the IEA that had been announced the same day. The Strategic Petroleum Reserve conducted an online competitive sale that resulted in

  11. Request for Proposal No. DE-SOL-0008418 Section J, Appendix D

    National Nuclear Security Administration (NNSA)

    D SECTION J APPENDIX D SENSITIVE FOREIGN NATIONS CONTROL 1. Pursuant to the Contract Section I Clause 952.204-71 entitled "Sensitive Foreign Nations Controls," "sensitive foreign nations" is one of the countries listed below: Algeria Armenia Azerbaijan Belarus China (People's Republic of China) Cuba Georgia Hong Kong India Iran Iraq Israel Kazakhstan Kyrgyzstan Libya Moldova North Korea (Democratic People's Republic of) Pakistan Russia Sudan Syria Taiwan Tajikistan

  12. Technically Recoverable Shale Oil and Shale Gas Resources:

    Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update (EIA)

    Libya Independent Statistics & Analysis www.eia.gov U.S. Department of Energy Washington, DC 20585 September 2015 September 2015 U.S. Energy Information Administration | Technically Recoverable Shale Oil and Shale Gas Resources i This report was prepared by the U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA), the statistical and analytical agency within the U.S. Department of Energy. By law, EIA's data, analyses, and forecasts are independent of approval by any other officer or employee of the

  13. Microsoft Word - SEC J_Appendix D - Sensitive Foreign Nations Control

    National Nuclear Security Administration (NNSA)

    D, Page 1 SECTION J APPENDIX D SENSITIVE FOREIGN NATIONS CONTROL 1. Pursuant to the Contract Section I Clause entitled "Sensitive Foreign Nations Controls," "sensitive foreign nations" is one of the countries listed below: Algeria Armenia Azerbaijan Belarus China (People's Republic of China) Cuba Georgia Hong Kong India Iran Iraq Israel Kazakhstan Kyrgyzstan Libya Moldova North Korea (Democratic People's Republic of) Pakistan Russia Sudan Syria Taiwan Tajikistan Turkmenistan

  14. APS 2004 Conferences

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    SPIE's 49th Annual Meeting. (Aug. 2-6) Denver, CO Second International Conference on Artificial Intelligence in Engineering and Technology. (Aug. 3-5) Koto Kinabalu, Malaysia...

  15. MMC Corporation Berhad | Open Energy Information

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    Services Product: Malaysia-based investment holding company that operates container port, provides power generation, distributes natural gas and provides engineering and...

  16. Western Pacific; Gas line plans continue to increase

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Quarles, W.R.; Thiede, K.; Parent, L.

    1990-11-01

    The authors report on pipeline activity in the Western Pacific. They discuss projects underway in Australia, Indonesia, Malaysia, New Zealand, Papua New Guinea, and Singapore.

  17. Experimental Determination of the HPGe Spectrometer Efficiency...

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    40450 Shah Alam (Malaysia) Faculty of Applied Sciences, Universiti Teknologi MARA, ... GAMMA RADIATION; GAMMA SPECTRA; GAMMA SPECTROSCOPY; HIGH-PURITY GE DETECTORS; KEV RANGE; ...

  18. Frequently Asked Questions about Natural Gas Regulation | Department...

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    from Algeria, Trinidad & Tobago, Qatar, Malaysia, Australia, and the United Arab Emirates and exported to Japan aboard ocean going tankers. The Quarterly Report Page can give...

  19. Analysis of Technology Transfer in CDM Projects | Open Energy...

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    countries, including Bolivia, Ecuador, Guatemala, Honduras, Indonesia, Kenya, Malaysia, Mexico, Pakistan, South Africa, Sri Lanka, Thailand and Vietnam and significantly lower...

  20. DOE - Fossil Energy:

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    States. The United States imports natural gas from Canada, Mexico, Algeria, Australia, Egypt, Equatorial Guinea, Malaysia, Nigeria, Norway, Oman, Qatar, Trinidad and Tobago, and...

  1. This Week In Petroleum Printer-Friendly Version

    Annual Energy Outlook [U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA)]

    outweigh the benefits, especially for net oil importers. In Bangladesh, Brazil, Brunei, India, Indonesia, Jordan, Malaysia, Burma (Myanmar), Pakistan, South Africa, Sri Lanka,...

  2. Project Catalyst | Open Energy Information

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    Support Kenya-ClimateWorks Low Carbon Growth Planning Support Malaysia-ClimateWorks Low Carbon Growth Planning Support Mexico-ClimateWorks Low Carbon Growth Planning Support...

  3. Asian Development Bank | Open Energy Information

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    Kazakhstan-Clean Technology Fund (CTF) Malaysia-Strengthening Planning Capacity for Low Carbon Growth in Developing Asia Mekong Brahmaputra Clean Development Fund L.P....

  4. U.S. Price of Liquefied Natural Gas Imports by Point of Entry

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    Freeport, TX 2011-2011 Gulf LNG, MS 2011-2011 From Equatorial Guinea -- -- -- -- -- -- 2007-2016 From Indonesia -- -- -- -- -- -- 1997-2016 From Malaysia -- -- -- -- -- -- ...

  5. The Gulf War and the environment

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    El-Baz, F. (ed.) (Boston Univ., MA (United States). Center for Remote Sensing); Makharita, R.M. (ed.) (World Bank, Washington, DC (United States))

    1994-01-01

    The Gulf War inflicted dramatic environmental damage upon the fragile desert and shore environments of Kuwait and northeastern Saudi Arabia. Coastal and marine environments experienced oil spills of more than 8 million barrels, which killed wildlife and damaged the fishing industry. In inland Kuwait, hundreds of oil lakes are scattered across the desert surface: these lakes emit noxious gases, drown insects and birds, and may seep to pollute groundwater. Exploding and burning oil wells released soot particles, oil droplets, and noxious chemicals into the atmosphere, spreading air pollution, acid rain, and respiratory problems. Military diggings, constructions, and vehicles have destroyed much of the desert pavement, resulting in increased dust storms and large, moving dunes.

  6. TABLE29.CHP:Corel VENTURA

    Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update (EIA)

    9. Net Imports of Crude Oil and Petroleum Products into the United States by Country, (Thousand Barrels per Day) January 1998 Arab OPEC .................................. 1,726 37 20 0 (s) 41 -3 (s) 296 391 2,116 Algeria ...................................... 0 37 0 0 0 27 0 0 252 316 316 Iraq ........................................... 36 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 36 Kuwait ....................................... 252 0 0 0 0 0 0 (s) (s) (s) 252 Qatar ........................................ 0 0 0 0 0 0

  7. JPRS report: Arms control, [November 3, 1989

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    1989-11-03

    This report contains translations/transcriptions of articles and/or broadcasts on arms control. Titles include: 5-Power Defense Arrangement Exercise Opens; Paper Sees Growing Danger of Nuclear War; 3rd Round of Conventional Forces Talk; General Notes Inadequate Discipline in Army; Arianespace Assures Liquid Fuel Technology; King Hussain Warns of Nuclear Threat in Region; Kuwait Defense Minister on Weapons Development, GCC; Commentary on Change in NATO Count of Combat Aircraft; and others.

  8. NREL: Geothermal Technologies - News Release Archives

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    5 November 17, 2015 New Geothermal Lab Manager Joins NREL Henry (Bud) Johnston joined NREL on October 12 as the new Laboratory Program Manager for the Geothermal Technologies Program. June 10, 2015 Geothermal Energy Association Honors Two NRELians with Top Recognition Dan Getman and Jordan Macknick were recognized by the Geothermal Energy Association (GEA) during its National Geothermal Summit on June 3, 2015, in Reno, Nevada. June 8, 2015 Kuwait Visitors Interested in NREL Solar and Geothermal

  9. ORISE: Radiation Emergency Training for Iraq, South Africa and Morocco

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    International Training REAC/TS Provides International Radiation Emergency Medical Response Training for Emergency Responders In support of the National Nuclear Security Administration's international approach to nuclear and radiological incident response, REAC/TS staff provide training to physicians, nurses and emergency responders in multiple countries each year. REAC/TS has conducted radiation emergency medical response training in Iraq, Kuwait, Morocco, Singapore, South Africa, and Thailand.

  10. Middle East

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Hemer, D.O.; Mason, J.F.; Hatch, G.C.

    1981-10-01

    Petroleum production in Middle East countries during 1980 totaled 6,747,719,000 bbl or an average rate of 18,436,390,000 bbl/d, down 13.9% from 1979. Increases were in Saudi Arabia and Syria. Significant decreases occurred in Iraq, Iran, Kuwait, and Turkey. New discoveries were made in Abu Dhabi, Iran, Saudi Arabia, Sharjah, and Oman. New areas were explored in Bahrain, Oman, Syria, and Yemen. 9 figures, 16 tables.

  11. Middle East: Output expansions boost drilling

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    1996-08-01

    Iraqi exports may return to the market in limited fashion, but none of the region`s producers seems particularly concerned. They believe that global oil demand is rising fast enough to justify their additions to productive capacity. The paper discusses exploration, drilling and development, and production in Saudi Arabia, Kuwait, the Neutral Zone, Abu Dhabi, Dubai, Oman, Iran, Iraq, Yemen, Qatar, Syria, Turkey, and Sharjah. The paper also briefly mentions activities in Bahrain, Israel, Jordan, and Ras al Khaimah.

  12. Oil and gas developments in Middle East in 1982

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Hemer, D.O.; Hatch, G.C.

    1983-10-01

    Petroleum production in Middle East countries during 1982 totaled 4,499,464,000 bbl (an average rate of 12,162,915 BOPD), down 21.5% from 1981. Increases were in Iraq, Iran, and Oman. Significant decreases occurred in Kuwait, Divided Neutral Zone, Saudi Arabia, Qatar, and Abu Dhabi. New discoveries were reported in Oman, Syria, Abu Dhabi, Dubai, Iran, and Saudi Arabia.

  13. Somebody better find some rigs

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    1997-08-01

    The paper discusses the outlook for the gas and oil industries of the Middle East. Field development projects abound, as the larger exporting nations pursue ambitious policies of production expansion. However, their plans may be hampered by the growing worldwide shortage of rigs. Separate evaluations are given for Saudi Arabia, Kuwait, Neutral Zone, Abu Dhabi, Iran, Iraq, Qatar, Yemen, Syria, Dubai, Turkey, Sharjah, and briefly for Bahrain, Israel, Jordan, UAE-Ajman, and UAE-Ras al-Khaimah.

  14. Concentrating Solar Power Projects by Country | Concentrating Solar Power |

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    NREL Country In this section, you can select a country from the map or the following list of countries. You can then select a specific concentrating solar power (CSP) project and review a profile covering project basics, participating organizations, and power plant configuration data for the solar field, power block, and thermal energy storage. Javascript must be enabled to view Flash movie Algeria Australia Canada Chile China Egypt France Germany India Israel Italy Kuwait Mexico Morocco

  15. Oil and gas developments in North Africa in 1984

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Michel, R.Ch.

    1985-10-01

    Petroleum rights in the 6 North African countries (Algeria, Egypt, Libya, Morocco, Sudan, and Tunisia) covered in this paper were 1,906,065 km/sup 2/ at the end of 1984, an increase of 4.6% from the 1,821,966 km/sup 2/ in force at the end of 1983. This increase is due to large awards in the Sudan despite significant relinquishments elsewhere. Seismic surveys conducted during 1984 decreased to about 510.5 crew-months onshore and 29.5 crew-months offshore. However, exploration in and off Egypt was higher compared to 1983. Exploratory drilling was lower, with only 125 wells drilled compared to 179 tests completed in 1983. The main decrease was in Egypt and Sudan, but drilling in Libya resulted in 20 more completions. A significant oil discovery was made in the offshore part of the Sirte basin, off southwest Cyrenaica. The success rate in North Africa ranged from 19% to 50% (Libya). Development drilling increased during 1984, as higher activity appears to have taken place in 3 countries. Oil production, with an estimated daily rate of 2,952,570 bbl, was up 2.8% from 1983 (2,871,460 BOPD). In Egypt, 7 fields located in the Gulf of Suez area went on stream during the year. Political unrest, which prevailed in southern Sudan during most of 1984, will likely delay the start-up of production in several fields. No statistics are available on gas production in North African countries.

  16. Oil and gas developments in North Africa in 1984

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Michel, R.C.

    1985-10-01

    Petroleum rights in the 6 North African countries (Algeria, Egypt, Libya, Morocco, Sudan, and Tunisia) covered in this paper were 1,906,065 km/sup 2/ at the end of 1984. An increase of 4.6% from the 1,821,966 km/sup 2/ in force at the end of 1983. This increase is due to large awards in the Sudan despite significant relinquishments elsewhere. Seismic surveys conducted during 1984 decreased to about 510.5 crew-months onshore and 29.5 crew-months offshore. However, exploration in and off Egypt was higher compared to 1983. Exploratory drilling was lower, with only 125 wells drilled compared to 179 tests completed in 1983. The main decrease was in Egypt and Sudan, but drilling in Libya resulted in 20 more completions. A significant oil discovery was made in the offshore part of the Sirte basin, off southwest Cyrenaica. The success rate in North America ranged from 19% to 50% (Libya). Development drilling increased during 1984, as higher activity appears to have taken place in 3 countries. Oil production, with an estimated daily rate of 2,952,570 bbl, was 2.8% from 1983 (2,871,460 BOPD). In Egypt, 7 fields located in the Gulf of Suez area went on stream during the year. Political unrest, which prevailed in southern Sudan during most of 1984, will likely delay the start-up of production in several fields. No statistics are available on gas production in North African countries. 9 figures, 27 tables.

  17. Outlook for third Malaysian LNG plant brighter with big gas find

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Not Available

    1993-05-03

    Prospects for a third liquefied natural gas export complex in Malaysia are brighter than ever. A unit of Occidental Petroleum Corp. has drilled its fourth and biggest natural gas strike into a carbonate reef on Block SK-8 off Sarawak, East Malaysia, turning up still more potential reserves for the country's proposed third LNG plant. The find brings to a combined total of 5 tcf of gas in place in the four SK-8 fields for which Oxy has disclosed test results. Well details are given. The LNG project under study would make Malaysia the largest supplier of LNG to the rapidly expanding East Asian market, Oxy said.

  18. Non-OPEC oil supply continues to grow

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Knapp, D.H.

    1995-12-25

    Global reserves of crude oil remain at 1 trillion bbl, according to OGJ`s annual survey of producing countries. Significant gains are in Brazil, Colombia, Congo, Egypt, Libya, Nigeria, Oman, and Papua New Guinea. Decreases were reported by Indonesia, Norway, the U.K., Iran, Canada, Mexico, and the US. Natural gas reserves slipped to 4.9 quadrillion cu ft. The major production trend is a lasting surge from outside of OPEC. This year`s Worldwide Production report begins with a detailed analysis of this crucial development by an international authority. This article discusses the OECD outlook by region and the turnaround in production in the former Soviet Union.

  19. Africa: Unrest and restrictive terms limit abundant potential. [Oil and gas exploration and development in Africa

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Not Available

    1993-08-01

    This paper summarizes the drilling and exploration activity of the oil and gas industries of Egypt, Libya, Tunisia, Algeria, Morocco, Nigeria, Cameroon, Gabon, the Congo, Angola, and South Africa. Information is provided on current and predicted trends in well drilling activities (both onshore and offshore), numbers of new wells, footage information, production statistics and what fields accounted for this production, and planned new exploration activities. The paper also describes the current status of government policies and political problems affecting the oil and gas industry.

  20. Turmoil doesn`t dampen enthusiasm

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    1997-08-01

    The paper discusses the outlook for the African gas and oil industries. Though Africa remains politically and economically volatile, its vast energy potential is becoming increasingly attractive to foreign oil and gas companies. Separate evaluations are given for Algeria, Egypt, Nigeria, Angola, Libya, Congo, Gabon, Tunisia, Cameroon, Cote D`Ivoire, and briefly for South Africa, Sudan, Equatorial Guinea, Ghana, Zaire, Benin, Mozambique, Chad, Namibia, Tanzania, Eritrea, Guinea-Bissau, Senegal, Morocco, Sao Tome and Principe, Ethiopia, Niger, Madagascar, Rwanda, Mauritania, Seychelles, Uganda, and Liberia.

  1. Short-Term Energy Outlook Supplement: Status of Libyan Loading Ports and Oil and Natural Gas Fields

    Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update (EIA)

    Short-Term Energy Outlook Supplement: Status of Libyan Loading Ports and Oil and Natural Gas Fields Tuesday, September 10, 2013, 10:00AM EST Overview During July and August 2013, protests at major oil loading ports in the central-eastern region of Libya forced the complete or partial shut-in of oil fields linked to the ports. As a result of protests at ports and at some oil fields, crude oil production fell to 1.0 million barrels per day (bbl/d) in July and 600,000 bbl/d in August, although the

  2. Apr2003z

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    World War II, Y-12 has carried the national security banner and led with a can-do attitude. Recent world events have renewed that spirit and willingness to go above and beyond the call of duty to serve our country's national security needs. And that is what Y-12 did in January on very short notice when it received Libya's stash of nuclear materials and prepared for a planeload of reporters and dignitaries to descend upon the BWXTYmes April 2004 A newsletter for the employees and friends of the

  3. TABLE21.CHP:Corel VENTURA

    Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update (EIA)

    1. Imports of Crude Oil and Petroleum Products into the United States by Country of Origin, a January 1998 Arab OPEC .................................. 53,500 1,139 2,258 115 625 0 0 1,267 0 0 Algeria ...................................... 0 1,139 1,174 115 0 0 0 824 0 0 Iraq ........................................... 1,110 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 Kuwait ....................................... 7,822 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 Saudi Arabia ............................. 44,568 0 1,084 0 625 0 0 443 0 0 Other

  4. TABLE23.CHP:Corel VENTURA

    Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update (EIA)

    3. PAD District II-Imports of Crude Oil and Petroleum Products by Country of Origin, a January 1998 Arab OPEC ................................... 6,219 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 Kuwait ....................................... 1,253 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 Saudi Arabia ............................. 4,966 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 Other OPEC .................................. 4,136 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 Nigeria ...................................... 540 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 Venezuela ................................. 3,596 0 0

  5. TABLE24.CHP:Corel VENTURA

    Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update (EIA)

    4. PAD District III-Imports of Crude Oil and Petroleum Products by Country of Origin, a January 1998 Arab OPEC ................................... 38,701 294 2,258 0 0 0 0 443 0 0 Algeria ....................................... 0 294 1,174 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 Kuwait ........................................ 5,270 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 Saudi Arabia .............................. 33,431 0 1,084 0 0 0 0 443 0 0 Other OPEC .................................. 41,555 0 1,652 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 Nigeria

  6. TABLE25A.CHP:Corel VENTURA

    Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update (EIA)

    PAD District V PAD District IV January 1998 Non OPEC .................................... 3,980 424 0 0 13 0 140 0 0 0 Canada ..................................... 3,980 424 0 0 13 0 140 0 0 0 Total .............................................. 3,980 424 0 0 13 0 140 0 0 0 Arab OPEC .................................. 2,409 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 Iraq ........................................... 1,110 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 Kuwait ....................................... 1,299 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 Saudi Arabia

  7. Oil and gas developments in Middle East in 1984

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Hemer, D.O.; Lyle, J.H.

    1985-10-01

    Petroleum production in Middle East countries during 1984 totaled 4,088,853,000 bbl (an average rate of 11,144,407 BOPD), down less than 1.0% from the revised total of 4,112,116,000 bbl produced in 1983. Iraq, Kuwait, Qatar, and Oman had significant increases; Iran and Dubai had significant decreases. Jordan produced oil, although a minor amount, for the first time ever, and new production facilities were in the planning stage in Syria, North Yemen, and Oman, which will bring new fields on stream when completed.

  8. Oil and gas developments in Middle East in 1986

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Hemer, D.O.; Gohrbandt, K.H.A.

    1987-10-01

    Petroleum production in Middle East countries during 1986 totaled 4,493,973,000 bbl (an average rate of 12,312,254 BOPD), up 22.3% from the revised 1985 total of 3,673,729,000 bbl. Iraq, Kuwait, Saudi Arabia, Abu Dhabi, and Oman had significant increased; Iran was the only Middle East country with a significant decrease. New fields went on production in Oman and Yemen Arab Republic, and significant discoveries were reported in Iraq, Yemen Arab Republic, Oman, and Syria. However, exploration was generally down in most countries. Exploration and production operations continued to be affected by war in Iraq and Iran. 8 figures, 7 tables.

  9. Oil and gas developments in Middle East in 1984

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Hemer, D.O.; Lyle, J.H.

    1985-10-01

    Petroleum production in Middle East countries during 1984 totaled 4,088,853,000 bbl (an average rate of 11,144,407 BOPD), down less than 1.0% from the revised total of 4,112,116,000 bbl produced in 1983. Iraq, Kuwait, Qatar, and Oman had significant increases; Iran and Dubai had significant decreases. Jordan produced oil, although a minor amount, for the first time ever, and new production facilities were in the planning stage in Syria, North Yemen, and Oman, which will bring new fields on stream when completed. 4 figures, 9 tables.

  10. Grenzone Pte Ltd | Open Energy Information

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    Singapore-based system integrator for solar PV projects in Malaysia, Thailand and Indonesia. References: Grenzone Pte Ltd1 This article is a stub. You can help OpenEI by...

  11. Natural Gas Weekly Update

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Bcf from the Point Fortin plant. Algeria was the source of approximately 52 Bcf, while Egypt supplied 5.7 Bcf. Nigeria, Malaysia, Oman, and Qatar delivered the remaining 14 Bcf....

  12. Natural Gas Weekly Update, Printer-Friendly Version

    Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update (EIA)

    Bcf from the Point Fortin plant. Algeria was the source of approximately 52 Bcf, while Egypt supplied 5.7 Bcf. Nigeria, Malaysia, Oman, and Qatar delivered the remaining 14 Bcf....

  13. U.S. Natural Gas Imports by Country

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    Equatorial Guinea 0 0 0 0 0 0 2007-2016 Indonesia 0 0 0 0 0 0 1997-2016 Malaysia 0 0 0 0 0 ... Equatorial Guinea -- -- -- -- -- -- 2007-2016 Indonesia -- -- -- -- -- -- 1997-2016 ...

  14. U.S. Total Exports

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    GA Freeport, TX Gulf LNG, MS LNG Imports from Equatorial Guinea LNG Imports from Indonesia LNG Imports from Malaysia LNG Imports from Nigeria Cove Point, MD LNG Imports from ...

  15. Land-use Policy and Program Design Toolkit | Open Energy Information

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    Pages S251-S264 | Wheater, H.; Evans, E. Exploring land use changes and the role of palm oil production in Indonesia and Malaysia Land Use Policy, Volume 28, Issue 1, Pages...

  16. African oil plays

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Clifford, A.J. )

    1989-09-01

    The vast continent of Africa hosts over eight sedimentary basins, covering approximately half its total area. Of these basins, only 82% have entered a mature exploration phase, 9% have had little or no exploration at all. Since oil was first discovered in Africa during the mid-1950s, old play concepts continue to bear fruit, for example in Egypt and Nigeria, while new play concepts promise to become more important, such as in Algeria, Angola, Chad, Egypt, Gabon, and Sudan. The most exciting developments of recent years in African oil exploration are: (1) the Gamba/Dentale play, onshore Gabon; (2) the Pinda play, offshore Angola; (3) the Lucula/Toca play, offshore Cabinda; (4) the Metlaoui play, offshore Libya/Tunisia; (5) the mid-Cretaceous sand play, Chad/Sudan; and (6) the TAG-I/F6 play, onshore Algeria. Examples of these plays are illustrated along with some of the more traditional oil plays. Where are the future oil plays likely to develop No doubt, the Saharan basins of Algeria and Libya will feature strongly, also the presalt of Equatorial West Africa, the Central African Rift System and, more speculatively, offshore Ethiopia and Namibia, and onshore Madagascar, Mozambique, and Tanzania.

  17. SPECIAL SEMINAR - The NOTTE experiment, or how to become a Total Solar Eclipse chaser

    ScienceCinema (OSTI)

    None

    2011-10-06

    The NOTTE experiment (Neutrino Oscillations with Telescope during Total Eclipse) aims at searching for visible photons emitted through a possible radiative decay of solar neutrinos. The experiment and the expeditions organized by a group of physicists and astrophysicists from INFN and INAF Bologna hunting for Total Solar Eclipses from 1998 to 2006 wil be described. The results of observations performed during total solar eclipse expeditions in 2001 (Zambia) and 2006 (Sahara desert, Libya) are presented and a beautiful photo gallery will be shown. Other peculiar observations that can be made during a solar eclipse are also illustrated. The seminar will be followed by a brief presentation of future camps for solar eclipse chasers and scientists organized in 2008 in Russia, Kazakhstan, China and Mongolia, in 2009 in Shanghai and on the Easter Island in 2010.

  18. Gas importers still resisting price parity with crude oil

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Vielvoye, R.

    1981-02-23

    The pricing of natural gas on a parity with crude oil has become an important issue in the international energy market. A prime example of the hostility that can arise over this issue is the ongoing argument between the US and Algeria over the price of SONATRACH's LNG exports to El Paso Co. Because LNG shipping and regasification costs add substantially to its delivered (c.i.f.) cost, price parity at the point of export (f.o.b.) would put LNG's price far above that of crude oil or natural gas. Other LNG exporters, such as Indonesia and Libya, seem to be adopting Algeria's pricing stance. Most European LNG customers believe that if f.o.b. price parity - or even some of the c.i.f. price-calculation methods - becomes the established formula, LNG will be priced out of many industrial markets. Without the big contracts from industry, existing LNG projects might not be economical.

  19. Africa: the emphasis is exploration

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Not Available

    1980-08-15

    Individual country reports on drilling, oil and gas production, and petroleum exploration and reserves are given for Africa. Nigeria was the continent's largest oil producer in 1979, averaging 2.3 million bpd, followed closely by Libya with 2.07 million bpd. Algeria cut production of crude oil in 1979 to a level of 1,194,350 bpd, and increased gas production to 2031 mmcfd. In Egypt, the return of Israeli-occupied oil fields and a surge in productive capacity enabled production averaging 524,000 bpd. Brief country reports are included for Gabon, Angola, Republic of the Congo, Cameroun, Tunisia, Morocco, Zaire, Ivory Coast, Ghana, Niger, Chad, Republic of South Africa, Sudan, Tanzania, Equatorial Guinea, Seychelles Islands, Mauritania, Republic of Mali, Benin, Kenya, Madagascar, Botswana, Gambia, Mozambique, and Senegal.

  20. SPECIAL SEMINAR - The NOTTE experiment, or how to become a Total Solar Eclipse chaser

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    2011-02-08

    The NOTTE experiment (Neutrino Oscillations with Telescope during Total Eclipse) aims at searching for visible photons emitted through a possible radiative decay of solar neutrinos. The experiment and the expeditions organized by a group of physicists and astrophysicists from INFN and INAF Bologna hunting for Total Solar Eclipses from 1998 to 2006 wil be described. The results of observations performed during total solar eclipse expeditions in 2001 (Zambia) and 2006 (Sahara desert, Libya) are presented and a beautiful photo gallery will be shown. Other peculiar observations that can be made during a solar eclipse are also illustrated. The seminar will be followed by a brief presentation of future camps for solar eclipse chasers and scientists organized in 2008 in Russia, Kazakhstan, China and Mongolia, in 2009 in Shanghai and on the Easter Island in 2010.

  1. Latest Jurassic-early Cretaceous regressive facies, northeast Africa craton

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    van Houten, F.B.

    1980-06-01

    Nonmarine to paralic detrital deposits accumulated in six large basins between Algeria and the Arabo-Nubian shield during major regression in latest Jurassic and Early Cretaceous time. The Ghadames Sirte (north-central Libya), and Northern (Egypt) basins lay along the cratonic margin of northeastern Africa. The Murzuk, Kufra, and Southern (Egypt) basins lay in the south within the craton. Data for reconstructing distribution, facies, and thickness of relevant sequences are adequate for the three northern basins only. High detrital influx near the end of Jurassic time and in mid-Cretaceous time produced regressive nubian facies composed largely of low-sinuosity stream and fahdelta deposits. In the west and southwest the Ghadames, Murzuk, and Kufra basins were filled with a few hundred meters of detritus after long-continued earlier Mesozoic aggradation. In northern Egypt the regressive sequence succeeded earlier Mesozoic marine sedimentation; in the Sirte and Southern basins correlative deposits accumulated on Precambrian and Variscan terranes after earlier Mesozoic uplift and erosion. Waning of detrital influx into southern Tunisia and adjacent Libya in the west and into Israel in the east initiated an Albian to early Cenomanian transgression of Tethys. By late Cenomanian time it had flooded the entire cratonic margin, and spread southward into the Murzuk and Southern basins, as well as onto the Arabo-Nubian shield. Latest Jurassic-earliest Cretaceous, mid-Cretaceous, and Late Cretaceous transgressions across northeastern Africa recorded in these sequences may reflect worldwide eustatic sea-level rises. In contrast, renewed large supply of detritus during each regression and a comparable subsidence history of intracratonic and marginal basins imply regional tectonic control. 6 figures.

  2. Table 5.20 Value of Crude Oil Imports From Selected Countries, 1973-2011 (Thousand Dollars )

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    0 Value of Crude Oil Imports From Selected Countries, 1973-2011 (Thousand Dollars 1) Year Persian Gulf 3 Selected OPEC 2 Countries Selected Non-OPEC 2 Countries Total 5 Kuwait Nigeria Saudi Arabia Venezuela Total OPEC 4 Canada Colombia Mexico Norway United Kingdom Total Non-OPEC 4 1973 1,729,733 W 1,486,278 904,979 753,195 5,237,483 1,947,422 W – 0 0 2,351,931 7,589,414 1974 4,419,410 W 3,347,351 1,858,788 1,309,916 11,581,515 3,314,999 0 W – 0 4,054,475 15,635,990 1975 5,169,811 W 3,457,766

  3. New constraints in absorptive capacity and the optimum rate of petroleum output

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    El Mallakh, R

    1980-01-01

    Economic policy in four oil-producing countries is analyzed within a framework that combines a qualitative assessment of the policy-making process with an empirical formulation based on historical and current trends in these countries. The concept of absorptive capacity is used to analyze the optimum rates of petroleum production in Iran, Iraq, Saudi Arabia, and Kuwait. A control solution with an econometric model is developed which is then modified for alternative development strategies based on analysis of factors influencing production decisions. The study shows the consistencies and inconsistencies between the goals of economic growth, oil production, and exports, and the constraints on economic development. Simulation experiments incorporated a number of the constraints on absorptive capacity. Impact of other constraints such as income distribution and political stability is considered qualitatively. (DLC)

  4. untitled

    Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update (EIA)

    0 0 662 0 0 0 Ecuador 68,467 0 0 0 0 0 0 Finland 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 Germany 0 0 0 198 0 0 0 Japan 0 0 0 176 0 209 209 Korea, South 0 0 41 0 0 1,444 1,444 Malaysia 2,417 0 45 1,443 0 43...

  5. untitled

    Annual Energy Outlook [U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA)]

    360 0 0 0 0 0 0 Ecuador 4,705 0 0 0 0 0 0 Finland 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 Germany 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 Japan 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 Korea, South 0 0 0 0 0 481 481 Malaysia 334 0 0 363 0 0 0 Mexico 2,246 0...

  6. PSA Vol 1 Tables Revised Ver 2 Print.xls

    Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update (EIA)

    0 0 662 0 0 0 Ecuador 68,516 0 0 0 0 0 0 Finland 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 Germany 0 0 0 198 0 0 0 Japan 0 0 0 176 0 209 209 Korea, South 0 0 41 0 0 1,444 1,444 Malaysia 2,417 0 90 1,443 0 43...

  7. Mangroves - what are they worth

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Christensen, B.

    1983-01-01

    This paper is based on a study for FAO and on the management and utilization of mangroves in Asia and the Pacific. Land use options are examined in relation to the different roles which mangroves play (provision of firewood, charcoal, timber and pulp; wildlife; fisheries and aquaculture; and agriculture). Special attention is paid to mangrove management in Malaysia. (Refs 26)

  8. U.S. Liquefied Natural Gas Imports by Point of Entry

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    Freeport, TX 2011-2011 Gulf LNG, MS 2011-2011 From Equatorial Guinea 0 0 0 0 0 0 2007-2016 From Indonesia 0 0 0 0 0 0 1997-2016 From Malaysia 0 0 0 0 0 0 1999-2016 From Nigeria 0 0 ...

  9. Sabah barge-mounted power plant in service

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Barker, T.

    1995-03-01

    The world`s largest barge-mounted simple-cycle power plant, constructed by the Sabah Shipyards in Malaysia, is now in service in the Philippines. Construction of similar barges from Westinghouse should begin shortly. This paper discusses in brief the projects in progress at present and prospects in the Asian market from the perspective of the manufacturers.

  10. untitled

    Annual Energy Outlook [U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA)]

    0 0 0 0 0 0 0 Ecuador 5,890 0 0 0 0 0 0 Finland 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 Germany 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 Japan 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 Korea, South 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 Malaysia 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 Mexico 2,397 0 0 0 0 0...

  11. untitled

    Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update (EIA)

    0 0 431 0 0 0 Ecuador 50,492 0 0 0 0 0 0 Finland 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 Germany 0 0 0 198 0 0 0 Japan 0 0 0 176 0 0 0 Korea, South 0 0 0 0 0 1,384 1,384 Malaysia 1,759 0 45 1,443 0 30 30...

  12. Effectiveness of mineral soil to adsorb the natural occurring radioactive

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    material (norm), uranium and thorium (Journal Article) | SciTech Connect Effectiveness of mineral soil to adsorb the natural occurring radioactive material (norm), uranium and thorium Citation Details In-Document Search Title: Effectiveness of mineral soil to adsorb the natural occurring radioactive material (norm), uranium and thorium A study has been performed on U-soil and Th-soil adsorption of three types of soil collected from Selangor State of Malaysia which are Saujana Putra, Bukit

  13. Development and methodology of level 1 probability safety assessment at PUSPATI TRIGA Reactor

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Maskin, Mazleha; Tom, Phongsakorn Prak; Lanyau, Tonny Anak; Saad, Mohamad Fauzi; Ismail, Ahmad Razali; Abu, Mohamad Puad Haji; Brayon, Fedrick Charlie Matthew; Mohamed, Faizal

    2014-02-12

    As a consequence of the accident at the Fukushima Dai-ichi Nuclear Power Plant in Japan, the safety aspects of the one and only research reactor (31 years old) in Malaysia need be reviewed. Based on this decision, Malaysian Nuclear Agency in collaboration with Atomic Energy Licensing Board and Universiti Kebangsaan Malaysia develop a Level-1 Probability Safety Assessment on this research reactor. This work is aimed to evaluate the potential risks of incidents in RTP and at the same time to identify internal and external hazard that may cause any extreme initiating events. This report documents the methodology in developing a Level 1 PSA performed for the RTP as a complementary approach to deterministic safety analysis both in neutronics and thermal hydraulics. This Level-1 PSA work has been performed according to the procedures suggested in relevant IAEA publications and at the same time numbers of procedures has been developed as part of an Integrated Management System programme implemented in Nuclear Malaysia.

  14. Nuclear energy: Where do we go from here?

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Muslim, Dato’ Dr Noramly

    2015-04-29

    As Malaysia progresses towards 2020, the depleting resource of oil and gas has forced a re-look at alternatives to replace fossil fuels as energy sources. Among the viable options is nuclear energy, enabling us to meet energy needs and sustain national development in the twenty-first century. Three essential steps Malaysia must take to introduce nuclear power into its energy mix are: energy planning, infrastructure development, and deployment. Malaysia has to face a series of challenges, including public acceptance, waste management, minimizing proliferation risk, and ensuring the security of nuclear plants and materials. Timely development of qualified and competent manpower is a key limiting factor in the development and transfer of nuclear technologies — and education and training take time, effort and money. There is a need for political will. Within the Asian region, China, Korea and Japan are in the forefront in utilizing nuclear power to meet electricity demands. Countries such as UAE, Bangladesh, Vietnam and Turkey are moving ahead with the nuclear option for electricity generation and they have begun planning and construction of nuclear power plants. Against this backdrop, what are Malaysia’s moves? This paper discusses various options and challenges, obstacles and repercussions in meeting future energy demands.

  15. Why the Gulf War still matters: Foreign perspectives on the war and the future of international security. Report No. 16

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Garrity, P.J.

    1993-07-01

    This report summarizes the main findings of a Center for National Security Studies (CNSS) project that examined how a number of nations other than the United States have reacted to the course and outcome of the Persian Gulf War of 1991. The project was built around studies of key countries on which the Gulf War might reasonably be expected to have had a significant impact: Argentina, the ASEAN states, Brazil, China, Cuba, Egypt, France, Germany, India, Iran, Iraq, Israel, Italy, Japan, Jordan, Libya, North Korea, Russia, Saudi Arabia, South Korea, Spain, Syria, Taiwan, the United Kingdom, Vietnam, and the states of the former Yugoslavia. These country studies were written by well-recognized independent experts following a common set of guidelines provided by CNSS. When the country studies were completed, they were reviewed and supplemented through a series of peer assessments and workshops. The report represents a synthesis of material generated through this process, and is intended to stimulate thought and further analysis on the critical topics discussed herein.

  16. Africa gaining importance in world LPG trade

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Haun, R.R.; Otto, K.W.; Whitley, S.C.

    1997-05-12

    Major LPG projects planned or under way in Africa will increase the importance of that region`s presence in world LPG trade. Supplies will nearly double between 1995 and 2005, at which time they will remain steady for at least 10 years. At the same time that exports are leveling, however, increasing domestic demand for PG is likely to reduce export-market participation by Algeria, Nigeria, Egypt, and Libya. The growth of Africa`s participation in world LPG supply is reflected in comparisons for the next 15--20 years. Total world supply of LPG in 1995 was about 165 million metric tons (tonnes), of which Africans share was 7.8 million tonnes. By 2000, world supply will grow to slightly more than 200 million tonnes, with Africa`s share expected to increase to 13.2 million tonnes (6.6%). And by 2005, world LPG supply will reach nearly 230 million tonnes; Africa`s overall supply volumes by that year will be nearly 16.2 million tonnes (7%). World LPG supply for export in 1995 was on order of 44 million tonnes with Africa supply about 4 million tonnes (9%). By 2005, world export volumes of LPG will reach nearly 70 million tonnes; Africa`s share will have grown by nearly 10 million tonnes (14.3%).

  17. 3-D seismology in the Arabian Gulf

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Al-Husseini, M.; Chimblo, R.

    1995-08-01

    Since 1977 when Aramco and GSI (Geophysical Services International) pioneered the first 3-D seismic survey in the Arabian Gulf, under the guidance of Aramco`s Chief Geophysicist John Hoke, 3-D seismology has been effectively used to map many complex subsurface geological phenomena. By the mid-1990s extensive 3-D surveys were acquired in Abu Dhabi, Oman, Qatar and Saudi Arabia. Also in the mid-1990`s Bahrain, Kuwait and Dubai were preparing to record surveys over their fields. On the structural side 3-D has refined seismic maps, focused faults and fractures systems, as well as outlined the distribution of facies, porosity and fluid saturation. In field development, 3D has not only reduced drilling costs significantly, but has also improved the understanding of fluid behavior in the reservoir. In Oman, Petroleum Development Oman (PDO) has now acquired the first Gulf 4-D seismic survey (time-lapse 3D survey) over the Yibal Field. The 4-D survey will allow PDO to directly monitor water encroachment in the highly-faulted Cretaceous Shu`aiba reservoir. In exploration, 3-D seismology has resolved complex prospects with structural and stratigraphic complications and reduced the risk in the selection of drilling locations. The many case studies from Saudi Arabia, Oman, Qatar and the United Arab Emirates, which are reviewed in this paper, attest to the effectiveness of 3D seismology in exploration and producing, in clastics and carbonates reservoirs, and in the Mesozoic and Paleozoic.

  18. Strategic Petroleum Reserve quarterly report

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Not Available

    1991-08-15

    This August 15, 1991, Strategic Petroleum Reserve Quarterly Report describes activities related to the site development, oil acquisition, budget and cost of the Reserve during the period April 1, 1991, through June 30, 1991. The Strategic Petroleum Reserve storage facilities development program is proceeding on schedule. The Reserve's capacity is currently 726 million barrels. A total of 5.5 million barrels of new gross cavern volume was developed at Big Hill and Bayou Choctaw during the quarter. There were no crude oil deliveries to the Strategic Petroleum Reserve during the calendar quarter ending June 30, 1991. Acquisition of crude oil for the Reserve has been suspended since August 2, 1990, following the invasion of Kuwait by Iraq. As of June 30, 1991, the Strategic Petroleum Reserve inventory was 568.5 million barrels. The reorganization of the Office of the Strategic Petroleum Reserve became effective June 28, 1991. Under the new organization, the Strategic Petroleum Reserve Project Management Office in Louisiana will report to the Strategic Petroleum Reserve Program Office in Washington rather than the Oak Ridge Field Office in Tennessee. 2 tabs.

  19. U.S. Total Crude Oil and Products Imports

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    80,042 272,798 273,770 301,517 301,768 290,577 1981-2016 Persian Gulf 38,707 47,680 49,847 54,969 47,129 45,649 1993-2016 OPEC* 85,626 90,481 95,080 101,480 94,605 93,098 1993-2016 Algeria 4,364 2,341 3,707 2,282 3,896 5,042 1993-2016 Angola 5,467 5,974 6,930 5,137 5,154 3,844 1993-2016 Ecuador 7,925 7,139 5,721 6,097 10,350 7,133 1993-2016 Indonesia 1,467 1,846 1,330 1,441 1,956 1,004 1993-2016 Iraq 6,079 11,622 8,064 13,844 7,810 7,092 1996-2016 Kuwait 6,337 5,263 4,193 5,972 6,369 8,389

  20. CO sub 2 emissions from developing countries: Better understanding the role of energy in the long term

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Sathaye, J.; Goldman, N.

    1991-07-01

    Recent years have witnessed a growing recognition of the link between emissions of carbon dioxide (CO{sub 2}) and changes in the global climate. of all anthropogenic activities, energy production and use generate the single largest portion of these greenhouse gases. Although developing countries currently account for a small share of global carbon emissions, their contribution is increasing rapidly. Due to the rapid expansion of energy demand in these nations, the developing world's share in global modern energy use rose from 16 to 27 percent between 1970 and 1990. If the growth rates observed over the past 20 years persist, energy demand in developing nations will surpass that in the countries of the Organization for Economic Cooperation and Development (OECD) early in the 21st century. The study seeks to examine the forces that galvanize the growth of energy use and carbon emissions, to assess the likely future levels of energy and CO{sub 2} in selected developing nations and to identify opportunities for restraining this growth. The purpose of this report is to provide the quantitative information needed to develop effective policy options, not to identify the options themselves. A combined study was carried out for the countries of the Gulf Cooperation Council (Bahrain, Kuwait, Oman, Qatar, Saudi Arabia and the United Arab Emirates).

  1. CO{sub 2} emissions from developing countries: Better understanding the role of energy in the long term. Volume 4, Ghana, Sierra Leone, Nigeria and the Gulf Cooperation Council (GCC) countries

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Sathaye, J.; Goldman, N.

    1991-07-01

    Recent years have witnessed a growing recognition of the link between emissions of carbon dioxide (CO{sub 2}) and changes in the global climate. of all anthropogenic activities, energy production and use generate the single largest portion of these greenhouse gases. Although developing countries currently account for a small share of global carbon emissions, their contribution is increasing rapidly. Due to the rapid expansion of energy demand in these nations, the developing world`s share in global modern energy use rose from 16 to 27 percent between 1970 and 1990. If the growth rates observed over the past 20 years persist, energy demand in developing nations will surpass that in the countries of the Organization for Economic Cooperation and Development (OECD) early in the 21st century. The study seeks to examine the forces that galvanize the growth of energy use and carbon emissions, to assess the likely future levels of energy and CO{sub 2} in selected developing nations and to identify opportunities for restraining this growth. The purpose of this report is to provide the quantitative information needed to develop effective policy options, not to identify the options themselves. A combined study was carried out for the countries of the Gulf Cooperation Council (Bahrain, Kuwait, Oman, Qatar, Saudi Arabia and the United Arab Emirates).

  2. Domestic petroleum-product prices around the world. Survey: free market or government price controls

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Not Available

    1983-01-27

    In this issue, Energy Detente draws from their regular Western and Eastern Hemisphere Fuel Price/Tax Series, each produced monthly, and adds other survey data and analysis for a broad view of 48 countries around the world. They find that seven Latin American nations, including OPEC members Venezuela and Ecuador, are among the ten countries with lowest gasoline prices. In this Fourth Special Price Report, Energy Detente provides a first-time presentation of which prices are government-controlled, and which are free to respond to market forces. South Korea, with fixed prices since 1964, has the highest premium-grade gasoline price in our survey, US $5.38 per gallon. Paraguay, with prices fixed by PETROPAR, the national oil company, has the second highest premium gasoline price, US $4.21 per gallon. Nicaragua, also with government price controls, ranks third highest in the survey, with US $3.38 per gallon for premium gasoline. Kuwait shows the lowest price at US $0.55 per gallon. Several price changes from the previous survey reflect changes in currency exchange as all prices are converted to US dollars. The Energy Detente fuel price/tax series is presented for Western Hemisphere countries.

  3. The impact of rising energy prices on household energy consumption and expenditure patterns: The Persian Gulf crisis as a case example

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Henderson, L.J. ); Poyer, D.A.; Teotia, A.P.S. . Energy Systems Div.)

    1992-09-01

    The Iraqi invasion of Kuwait and the subsequent war between Iraq and an international alliance led by the United States triggered immediate increases in world oil prices. Increases in world petroleum prices and in US petroleum imports resulted in higher petroleum prices for US customers. In this report, the effects of the Persian Gulf War and its aftermath are used to demonstrate the potential impacts of petroleum price changes on majority, black, and Hispanic households, as well as on poor and nonpoor households. The analysis is done by using the Minority Energy Assessment Model developed by Argonne National Laboratory for the US Department of Energy (DOE). The differential impacts of these price increases and fluctuations on poor and minority households raise significant issues for a variety of government agencies, including DOE. Although the Persian Gulf crisis is now over and world oil prices have returned to their prewar levels, the differential impacts of rising energy prices on poor and minority households as a result of any future crisis in the world oil market remains a significant long-term issue.

  4. The motor gasoline industry: Past, present, and future. [Contains glossary

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Not Available

    1991-01-01

    Motor gasoline constitutes the largest single component of US demand for petroleum products and is the Nation's most widely used transportation fuel. Because of its importance as a transportation fuel, motor gasoline has been the focus of several regulatory and tax policy initiatives in recent years. Much of the US refining capacity is specifically geared toward maximizing motor gasoline production, and future investments by the petroleum industry in refining infrastructure are likely to be made largely to produce larger volumes of clean motor gasoline. This report addresses major events and developments that have had an impact on motor gasoline supply, distribution, prices, and demand. The report provides historical perspective as well as analyses of important events from the 1970's and 1980's. Long-term forecasts are provided for the period from 1990 to 2010 in an effort to present and analyze possible future motor gasoline trends. Other forecasts examine the near-term impact of the invasion of Kuwait. 18 figs., 10 tabs.

  5. Oil and gas development in Middle East in 1987

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Hemer, D.O.; Gohrbandt, K.H.A.; Phillips, C.B.

    1988-10-01

    Petroleum production in Middle East countries during 1987 totaled an estimated 4,500,500,000 bbl (an average rate of 12,330,137 b/d), up slightly from the revised 1986 total of 4,478,972,000 bbl. Iran, Iraq, Syria, and Yemen Arab Republic had significant increases; Kuwait and Saudi Arabia had significant decreases. Production was established for the first time in People's Democratic Republic of Yemen. New fields went on production in Iraq, Oman, People's Democratic Republic of Yemen, and Syria, and significant oil discoveries were reported in Iraq, Oman, People's Democratic Republic of Yemen, Syria, and Yemen Arab Republic. The level of exploration increased in 1987 with new concessions awarded in some countries, drilling and seismic activities on the increase, new regions in mature areas explored for the first time, and significant reserve additions reported in new and old permits. The Iraq-Iran war still had a negative impact in some regions of the Middle East, particularly in and around the Gulf. 11 figs., 4 tabs.

  6. Global warming and the regions in the Middle East

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Alvi, S.H.; Elagib, N.

    1996-12-31

    The announcement of NASA scientist James Hansen made at a United States Senate`s hearing in June 1988 about the onset of global warming ignited a whirlwind of public concern in United States and elsewhere in the world. Although the temperature had shown only a slight shift, its warming has the potential of causing environmental catastrophe. According to atmosphere scientists, the effect of higher temperatures will change rainfall patterns--some areas getting drier, some much wetter. The phenomenon of warming in the Arabian Gulf region was first reported by Alvi for Bahrain and then for Oman. In the recent investigations, the authors have found a similar warming in other regions of the Arabian Gulf and in several regions of Sudan in Africa. The paper will investigate the observed data on temperature and rainfall of Seeb in Oman, Bahrain, International Airport in Kuwait as index stations for the Arabian Gulf and Port Sudan, Khartoum and Malakal in the African Continent of Sudan. Based on various statistical methods, the study will highlight a drying of the regions from the striking increase in temperature and decline of rainfall amount. Places of such environmental behavior are regarded as desertifying regions. Following Hulme and Kelly, desertification is taken to mean land degradation in dryland regions, or the permanent decline in the potential of the land to support biological activity, and hence human welfare. The paper will also, therefore, include the aspect of desertification for the regions under consideration.

  7. The oil policies of the Gulf Arab Nations

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Ripple, R.D.; Hagen, R.E.

    1995-03-01

    At its heart, Arab oil policy is inseparable from Arab economic and social policy. This holds whether we are talking about the Arab nations as a group or each separately. The seven Arab nations covered in this report-Bahrain, Iraq, Kuwait, Oman, Qatar, Saudi Arabia, and the United Arab Emirates--participate in several organizations focusing on regional cooperation regarding economic development, social programs, and Islamic unity, as well as organizations concerned with oil policies. This report focuses on the oil-related activities of the countries that may reveal the de facto oil policies of the seven Persian Gulf nations. Nevertheless it should be kept in mind that the decision makers participating in the oil policy organizations are also involved with the collaborative efforts of these other organizations. Oil policies of five of the seven Arab nations are expressed within the forums of the Organization of Petroleum Exporting Countries (OPEC) and the Organization of Arab Petroleum Exporting Countries (OAPEC). Only Oman, among the seven, is not a member of either OAPEC or OPEC; Bahrain is a member of OAPEC but not of OPEC. OPEC and OAPEC provide forums for compromise and cooperation among their members. Nevertheless, each member state maintains its own sovereignty and follows its own policies. Each country deviates from the group prescription from time to time, depending upon individual circumstances.

  8. State companies dominate OGJ100 list of non-U. S. oil producers

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Not Available

    1993-09-20

    State owned oil and gas companies dominate the OGJ100 list of non-U.S. producers. Because many of them report only operating information, companies on the worldwide list cannot be ranked by assets or revenues. The list, therefore, is organized regionally, based on location of companies' corporate headquarters. The leading nongovernment company in both reserves and production is Royal Dutch/Shell. It ranks sixth in the world in liquids production and 11th in liquids reserves, as it has for the past 2 years. British Petroleum is the next largest nongovernment company. BP ranks 11th in liquids production and 16th in liquids reserves. Elf Aquitaine, 55.8% government-controlled, ranked 17th in liquids production. AGIP was 20th in liquids production. Kuwait Petroleum returned to the list of top 20 producers, ranking 12th, as it restored production shut in by facilities damage sustained during the Persian Gulf crisis. New to the top 20 reserves list is Petroleo Brasileiro, which moved to 20th position. The top 20 companies in the OGJ100 held reserves estimated at 869.3 billion bbl in 1992 vs. 869.5 billion bbl in 1991 and 854.2 billion bbl in 1990.

  9. Gamma greenhouse: A chronic facility for crops improvement and agrobiotechnology

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Azhar, M. Ahsanulkhaliqin, A. W.

    2014-02-12

    Gamma irradiation is one of the most common procedures in plant mutagenesis and agrobiotechnology activities. The procedures consist of chronic and acute gamma radiation. Generally, {sup 60}Co and {sup 137}Cs are gamma radiation sources for radiation processing with relatively high energy (half-life 5.27 years for {sup 60}Co and 30.1 years for {sup 137}Cs). The energy associated with gamma radiation is high enough to break the molecular bonds and ionize atoms without affecting structure of the atomic nucleus (avoiding induction of radioactivity). The Gamma Green House (GGH) is the only chronic irradiation facility in Malaysia, located at Malaysian Nuclear Agency (Nuclear Malaysia). GGH is used for induction of mutation in plants and other biological samples at low dose radiation over period of time depending on the nature and sensitivity of the plant species. The GGH consist of circular green house with 30 meters radius, control room and irradiator with interlock system. The irradiator produces low dose gamma radiation derived from Caesium-137 radioactive source. The biological samples can be exposed to low dose radiation in days, weeks, months or years. The current irradiation rate for GGH is 2.67 Gy/hr at 1 meter from the source. Chronic gamma irradiation produces a wider mutation spectrum and useful for minimizing radiation damages towards obtaining new improved traits for research and commercial values. The prospect of the gamma greenhouse is its uses in research, educations and services on induced mutation techniques for the improvement of plant varieties and microbes. In generating awareness and attract users to the facility, Nuclear Malaysia provides wide range of irradiation services for plant species and mutagenesis consultancies to academicians, students scientists, and plant breeders, from local universities, other research institutes, and growers. Charges for irradiation and consultancy services are at nominal rates. The utilization activities of the gamma greenhouse mainly cover Research and Development, Research Collaboration, Exchange of Information, Irradiation Services, Training Programs, Education, Exchange of Scientists and Seminars/ Conferences.

  10. International oil companies in the Far East

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Mlotok, P.

    1984-10-01

    All of the major international oil companies have extensive operations in the Far East, and in most cases, these operations account for a significant part of their worldwide earnings. In the refining and marketing end of the business, near-term profitability could be hampered by problems in the Singapore refining center. An expansion of Indonesian refining capacity has reduced profits from processing arrangements, and new Saudi product exports will enter Singapore starting this year. Longer term, however, the strong economic growth in the region renders it a highly attractive area in which to operate. On the producing end, rising output will boost profits for the international oil companies in Indonesia and Malaysia. Caltex (a 50/50 joint venture between Chevron and Texaco) is one of the largest marketers in the Far East. It will not initially be affected greatly by the Singapore refinery problem, as its production from this area goes directly into its own marketing system rather than into the open market. Exxon is a medium-size marketer with especially strong positions in Japan, Malaysia and Thailand. However, the company could be vulnerable to near-term problems in Singapore. Mobil, another medium-size marketer, has a very strong position in Japan but problems in Australia. As those problems are corrected, earnings should grow over time. The Royal Dutch Shell Group is one of the largest marketers in the Far East, with good positions in Singapore, Malaysia and Australia. Shell will have difficulty adjusting to the changing conditions in Singapore, but once this is complete, downstream earnings growth should resume. British Petroleum (BP) has a smaller upstream and downstream presence than the other international oils. Estimated 1983 Far East earnings are tabulated for these five companies. 5 figures.

  11. Implementation of optimum solar electricity generating system

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Singh, Balbir Singh Mahinder Karim, Samsul Ariffin A.; Sivapalan, Subarna; Najib, Nurul Syafiqah Mohd; Menon, Pradeep

    2014-10-24

    Under the 10{sup th} Malaysian Plan, the government is expecting the renewable energy to contribute approximately 5.5% to the total electricity generation by the year 2015, which amounts to 98MW. One of the initiatives to ensure that the target is achievable was to establish the Sustainable Energy Development Authority of Malaysia. SEDA is given the authority to administer and manage the implementation of the feed-in tariff (FiT) mechanism which is mandated under the Renewable Energy Act 2011. The move to establish SEDA is commendable and the FiT seems to be attractive but there is a need to create awareness on the implementation of the solar electricity generating system (SEGS). In Malaysia, harnessing technologies related to solar energy resources have great potential for implementation. However, the main issue that plagues the implementation of SEGS is the intermittent nature of this source of energy. The availability of sunlight is during the day time, and there is a need for electrical energy storage system, so that there is electricity available during the night time as well. The meteorological condition such as clouds, haze and pollution affects the SEGS as well. The PV based SEGS is seems to be promising electricity generating system that can contribute towards achieving the 5.5% target and will be able to minimize the negative effects of utilizing fossil fuels for electricity generation on the environment. Malaysia is committed to Kyoto Protocol, which emphasizes on fighting global warming by achieving stabilization of greenhouse gas concentrations in the atmosphere at a level that would prevent dangerous anthropogenic interference with the climate system. In this paper, the technical aspects of the implementation of optimum SEGS is discussed, especially pertaining to the positioning of the PV panels.

  12. Delineating Bukit Bunuh impact crater boundary by geophysical and geotechnical investigation

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Azwin, I. N. Rosli, S.; Nordiana, M. M.; Ragu, R. R.; Mark, J.; Mokhtar, S.

    2015-03-30

    Evidences of crater morphology and shock metamorphism in Bukit Bunuh, Lenggong, Malaysia were found during the archaeological research conducted by the Centre for Global Archaeological Research Malaysia, Universiti Sains Malaysia. In order to register Bukit Bunuh as one of the world meteorite impact site, detailed studies are needed to verify the boundary of the crater accordingly. Geophysical study was conducted utilising the seismic refraction and 2-D electrical resistivity method. Seismic refraction survey was done using ABEM MK8 24 channel seismograph with 14Hz geophones and 40kg weight drop while 2-D electrical resistivity survey was performed using ABEM SAS4000 Terrameter and ES10-64C electrode selector with pole-dipole array. Bedrock depths were digitized from the sections obtained. The produced bedrock topography map shows that there is low bedrock level circulated by high elevated bedrock and interpreted as crater and rim respectively with diameter approximately 8km. There are also few spots of high elevated bedrock appear at the centre of the crater which interpreted as rebounds zone. Generally, the research area is divided into two layers where the first layer with velocity 400-1100?m/s and resistivity value of 10-800 Om predominantly consists of alluvium mix with gravel and boulders. Second layer represents granitic bedrock with depth of 5-50m having velocity >2100?m/s and resistivity value of >1500 Om. This research is strengthen by good correlation between geophysical data and geotechnical borehole records executed inside and outside of the crater, on the rim, as well as at the rebound area.

  13. Illicit Trafficking of Natural Radionuclides

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Friedrich, Steinhaeusler; Lyudmila, Zaitseva

    2008-08-07

    Natural radionuclides have been subject to trafficking worldwide, involving natural uranium ore (U 238), processed uranium (yellow cake), low enriched uranium (<20% U 235) or highly enriched uranium (>20% U 235), radium (Ra 226), polonium (Po 210), and natural thorium ore (Th 232). An important prerequisite to successful illicit trafficking activities is access to a suitable logistical infrastructure enabling an undercover shipment of radioactive materials and, in case of trafficking natural uranium or thorium ore, capable of transporting large volumes of material. Covert en route diversion of an authorised uranium transport, together with covert diversion of uranium concentrate from an operating or closed uranium mines or mills, are subject of case studies. Such cases, involving Israel, Iran, Pakistan and Libya, have been analyzed in terms of international actors involved and methods deployed. Using international incident data contained in the Database on Nuclear Smuggling, Theft and Orphan Radiation Sources (DSTO) and international experience gained from the fight against drug trafficking, a generic Trafficking Pathway Model (TPM) is developed for trafficking of natural radionuclides. The TPM covers the complete trafficking cycle, ranging from material diversion, covert material transport, material concealment, and all associated operational procedures. The model subdivides the trafficking cycle into five phases: (1) Material diversion by insider(s) or initiation by outsider(s); (2) Covert transport; (3) Material brokerage; (4) Material sale; (5) Material delivery. An Action Plan is recommended, addressing the strengthening of the national infrastructure for material protection and accounting, development of higher standards of good governance, and needs for improving the control system deployed by customs, border guards and security forces.

  14. Tropical Africa: Land use, biomass, and carbon estimates for 1980

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Brown, S.; Gaston, G.; Daniels, R.C.

    1996-06-01

    This document describes the contents of a digital database containing maximum potential aboveground biomass, land use, and estimated biomass and carbon data for 1980 and describes a methodology that may be used to extend this data set to 1990 and beyond based on population and land cover data. The biomass data and carbon estimates are for woody vegetation in Tropical Africa. These data were collected to reduce the uncertainty associated with the possible magnitude of historical releases of carbon from land use change. Tropical Africa is defined here as encompassing 22.7 x 10{sup 6} km{sup 2} of the earth`s land surface and includes those countries that for the most part are located in Tropical Africa. Countries bordering the Mediterranean Sea and in southern Africa (i.e., Egypt, Libya, Tunisia, Algeria, Morocco, South Africa, Lesotho, Swaziland, and Western Sahara) have maximum potential biomass and land cover information but do not have biomass or carbon estimate. The database was developed using the GRID module in the ARC/INFO{sup TM} geographic information system. Source data were obtained from the Food and Agriculture Organization (FAO), the U.S. National Geophysical Data Center, and a limited number of biomass-carbon density case studies. These data were used to derive the maximum potential and actual (ca. 1980) aboveground biomass-carbon values at regional and country levels. The land-use data provided were derived from a vegetation map originally produced for the FAO by the International Institute of Vegetation Mapping, Toulouse, France.

  15. Search for: All records | SciTech Connect

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    Switch to Detail View for this search SciTech Connect Search Results Page 1 of 1 Search for: All records Creators/Authors contains: "Hamzah, Zaini" × Sort by Relevance Sort by Date (newest first) Sort by Date (oldest first) Sort by Relevance « Prev Next » Everything7 Electronic Full Text0 Citations7 Multimedia0 Datasets0 Software0 Filter Results Filter by Subject concentration ratio (5) environmental sciences (5) uranium (5) element abundance (4) malaysia (4) thorium (4) thorium 232

  16. Country Total

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    Country Total Percent of U.S. total China 1,461,074 34 Republic of Korea 172,379 4 Taiwan 688,311 16 All others 1,966,263 46 Total 4,288,027 100 Note: All Others includes Canada, Czech Republic, Federal Republic of Germany, Malaysia, Mexico, Philippines and Singapore Source: U.S. Energy Information Administration, Form EIA-63B, 'Annual Photovoltaic Cell/Module Shipments Report.' Table 7 . Photovoltaic module import shipments by country, 2013 (peak kilowatts)

  17. Asia to see major pipelines in near future

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Friedman, D.R.

    1987-11-30

    Recent discoveries of crude oil and natural gas in Asia and the Far East have spawned a number of major pipeline projects. Many of these are underway or likely to be started in the next few years. The author reviews what is being done in Taiwan, South Korea, Thailand, Malaysia, Indonesia, Papua New Guinea, and China. He says all of the countries discussed are undergoing an overall improvement in the quality of life, demonstrated by changing life styles, and an overall advancement in economic activity as a result of the discovery of oil and the need for pipelines.

  18. Asia-Pacific focus of coming LNG trade boom

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Not Available

    1992-11-16

    This paper reports that the Asia-Pacific region remains the centerpiece of a booming world trade in liquefied natural gas. Biggest growth in LNG demand is expected from some of the region's strongest economies such as Japan, South Korea, and Taiwan, Key LNG exporters such as Brunei, Malaysia, and Indonesia are scrambling to implement projects to meet that expected demand growth. Uncertainties cloud the outlook for Far East LNG trade, Australia, for one, is more cautious in pressing expansion of its LNG export capacity as more competing LNG expansions spring up around the world, notably in the Middle East and Africa.

  19. Jeremy Huckins

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Jeremy Huckins Climber With a Camera Jeremy Huckins Jeremy Huckins feeds native Malaysian deer in Northern Malaysia. "I basically grew up in the metal shop that my parents owned," says NIF Field Engineer Jeremy Huckins, explaining the roots of his draw to engineering. "From there, it was an easy jump." Huckins knows something about jumping: in addition to spending his working days as an LLNL mechanical engineer, he is an avid rock climber. This includes everything from

  20. Options for developing countries in mining development

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Walrond, G.W.; Kumar, R.

    1985-01-01

    This book is a study of the issues that developing countries face in planning and implementing mineral development, taking as case studies Botswana, Sierra Leone, Zambia, Tanzania, Malaysia, Papua New Guinea and the developed states of Quebec and Western Australia. The authors consider the major aspects of the matter including organization and administration; regulation; taxation and surplus distribution; the dynamics of such instruments as royalty, rent resource tax and capital allowances under various cost/price scenarios; and selected mining agreements and their key provisions. They stress throughout the need for foreign investment while maximizing the economic benefits reaped from exhaustible resources.

  1. Asian success stories in promoting energy efficiency in industry and building

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Yang, Ming

    1996-12-31

    This article describes the program of the International Institute for Energy Conservation (IIEC), which has offices in Washington, Bangkok, Santiago, and London, in addition to staff in a number of other countries. The mission of this private organization is to promote the efficient use of energy as a tool for sustainable development by supporting the development of policies, technologies, and practices. Its focus is on energy efficiency, transportation systems, and renewable energy sources. Examples of specific program activities in Thailand, China, Philippines, Malaysia, Indonesia and Singapore are discussed.

  2. A General Investigation of Optimized Atmospheric Sample Duration

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Eslinger, Paul W.; Miley, Harry S.

    2012-11-28

    ABSTRACT The International Monitoring System (IMS) consists of up to 80 aerosol and xenon monitoring systems spaced around the world that have collection systems sensitive enough to detect nuclear releases from underground nuclear tests at great distances (CTBT 1996; CTBTO 2011). Although a few of the IMS radionuclide stations are closer together than 1,000 km (such as the stations in Kuwait and Iran), many of them are 2,000 km or more apart. In the absence of a scientific basis for optimizing the duration of atmospheric sampling, historically scientists used a integration times from 24 hours to 14 days for radionuclides (Thomas et al. 1977). This was entirely adequate in the past because the sources of signals were far away and large, meaning that they were smeared over many days by the time they had travelled 10,000 km. The Fukushima event pointed out the unacceptable delay time (72 hours) between the start of sample acquisition and final data being shipped. A scientific basis for selecting a sample duration time is needed. This report considers plume migration of a nondecaying tracer using archived atmospheric data for 2011 in the HYSPLIT (Draxler and Hess 1998; HYSPLIT 2011) transport model. We present two related results: the temporal duration of the majority of the plume as a function of distance and the behavior of the maximum plume concentration as a function of sample collection duration and distance. The modeled plume behavior can then be combined with external information about sampler design to optimize sample durations in a sampling network.

  3. Oil prices in a new light

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Fesharaki, F. )

    1994-05-01

    For a clear picture of how oil prices develop, the author steps away from the price levels to which the world is accustomed, and evaluates scientifically. What makes prices jump from one notch to another The move results from a political or economic shock or the perception of a particular position by the futures market and the media. The shock could range from a war or an assassination to a promise of cooperation among OPEC members (when believed by the market) or to speculation about another failure at an OPEC meeting. In the oil market, only a couple of factual figures can provide a floor to the price of oil. The cost of production of oil in the Gulf is around $2 to $3/bbl, and the cost of production of oil (capital and operating costs) in key non-OPEC areas is well under $10/bbl. With some adjustments for transport and quality, a price range of $13/bbl to $16/bbl would correspond to a reasonable sustainable floor price. The reason for prices above the floor price has been a continuous fear of oil supply interruptions. That fear kept prices above the floor price for many years. The fear factor has now almost fully disappeared. The market has gone through the drama of the Iranian Revolution, the Iran-Iraq war, the tanker war, the invasion of Kuwait, and the expulsions of the Iraqis. And still the oil flowed -- all the time. It has become abundantly clear that fears above the oil market were unjustified. Everyone needs to export oil, and oil will flow under the worst circumstances. The demise of the fear factor means that oil prices tend toward the floor price for a prolonged period.

  4. Post Fukushima tsunami simulations for Malaysian coasts

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Koh, Hock Lye; Teh, Su Yean; Abas, Mohd Rosaidi Che

    2014-10-24

    The recent recurrences of mega tsunamis in the Asian region have rekindled concern regarding potential tsunamis that could inflict severe damage to affected coastal facilities and communities. The 11 March 2011 Fukushima tsunami that crippled nuclear power plants in Northern Japan has further raised the level of caution. The recent discovery of petroleum reserves in the coastal water surrounding Malaysia further ignites the concern regarding tsunami hazards to petroleum facilities located along affected coasts. Working in a group, federal government agencies seek to understand the dynamics of tsunami and their impacts under the coordination of the Malaysian National Centre for Tsunami Research, Malaysian Meteorological Department. Knowledge regarding the generation, propagation and runup of tsunami would provide the scientific basis to address safety issues. An in-house tsunami simulation models known as TUNA has been developed by the authors to assess tsunami hazards along affected beaches so that mitigation measures could be put in place. Capacity building on tsunami simulation plays a critical role in the development of tsunami resilience. This paper aims to first provide a simple introduction to tsunami simulation towards the achievement of tsunami simulation capacity building. The paper will also present several scenarios of tsunami dangers along affected Malaysia coastal regions via TUNA simulations to highlight tsunami threats. The choice of tsunami generation parameters reflects the concern following the Fukushima tsunami.

  5. The Russian Federation's Ministry of Atomic Energy: Programs and Developments

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    CM Johnson

    2000-07-24

    This paper reviews select programs driving the Ministry of Atomic Energy of the Russian Federation's (Minatom) efforts to raise funds, comments on their potential viability, and highlights areas likely to be of particular concern for the US over the next three to five years. The paper's findings are: (1) Despite numerous cabinet displacements throughout the Yeltsin administration, Yevgeny Adamov was reappointed Minister on four occasions. With Boris Yeltsin's January 1, 2000 resignation, Adamov's long-term position as the head of the Ministry is more tenuous, but he will likely retain his position until at least the March 2000 elections. Acting President Vladimir Putin is unlikely to reorganize his cabinet prior to that date and there are no signs that Putin is dissatisfied with Adamov's leadership of Minatom. (2) Adamov's chief priorities are downsizing Minatom's defense sector, increasing the oversight of subsidiary bodies by the central bureaucracy and consolidating commercial elements of the Ministry within an umbrella organization called Atomprom. (3) Viktor Mikhaylov, Adamov's predecessor and critic of his reform efforts, has been relieved of his duties as First Deputy Minister. While he retains his positions as Chief of the Science Councils and Chief Scientist at Arzamas-16, his influence on Minatom's direction is greatly diminished. Adamov will likely continue his efforts to further marginalize Mikhaylov in the coming year. (4) Securing extra-budgetary sources of income continues to be the major factor guiding Minatom's international business dealings. The Ministry will continue to aggressively promote the sale of nuclear technology abroad, often to countries with questionable nonproliferation commitments. (5) Given the financial difficulties in Russia and Minatom's client states, however, few nuclear development programs will come to fruition for a number of years, if ever. Nevertheless, certain peaceful nuclear cooperation agreements should be carefully monitored--particularly those negotiated with Cuba, Iran, Libya and Syria. (6) Waste management has also risen in importance for Minatom. Opportunities for raising funds by reprocessing, storing and permanently disposing of spent fuel from foreign states are being explored. Although currently prohibited by federal law, the Russian Parliament will likely pass legislation in support of this program.

  6. Technical Training Workshop on International Safeguards: An Introduction to Safeguards for Emerging Nuclear States

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Frazar, Sarah L.; Gastelum, Zoe N.; Olson, Jarrod; Mathews, Caroline E.; Solodov, Alexander; Zhernosek, Alena; Raffo-Caiado, Ana; Baldwin, George; Horak, Karl; McClelland-Kerr, John; VanSickle, Matthew; Mininni, Margot; Kovacic, Donald

    2009-10-06

    The U.S. Department of Energy/National Nuclear Security Administration (DOE/NNSA) hosted a workshop from May 4-22, 2009, on the fundamental elements of international safeguards. Entitled "A Technical Training Workshop on International Safeguards," the workshop introduced post-graduate students from Malaysia, Vietnam, Indonesia, Thailand, Morocco, Egypt, Algeria and Tunisia to the fundamental issues and best practices associated with international safeguards and encouraged them to explore potential career paths in safeguards. Workshops like these strengthen the international safeguards regime by promoting the development of a "safeguards culture" among young nuclear professionals within nascent nuclear countries. While this concept of safeguards culture is sometimes hard to define and even harder to measure, this paper will demonstrate that the promotion of safeguards cultures through workshops like these justifies the investment of U.S. taxpayer dollars.

  7. Medium term municipal solid waste generation prediction by autoregressive integrated moving average

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Younes, Mohammad K.; Nopiah, Z. M.; Basri, Noor Ezlin A.; Basri, Hassan

    2014-09-12

    Generally, solid waste handling and management are performed by municipality or local authority. In most of developing countries, local authorities suffer from serious solid waste management (SWM) problems and insufficient data and strategic planning. Thus it is important to develop robust solid waste generation forecasting model. It helps to proper manage the generated solid waste and to develop future plan based on relatively accurate figures. In Malaysia, solid waste generation rate increases rapidly due to the population growth and new consumption trends that characterize the modern life style. This paper aims to develop monthly solid waste forecasting model using Autoregressive Integrated Moving Average (ARIMA), such model is applicable even though there is lack of data and will help the municipality properly establish the annual service plan. The results show that ARIMA (6,1,0) model predicts monthly municipal solid waste generation with root mean square error equals to 0.0952 and the model forecast residuals are within accepted 95% confident interval.

  8. Making choices for sectoral organization in water and sanitation. Technical report

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Edwards, D.B.; Salt, E.; Rosenweig, F.

    1992-03-01

    The report provides an analytical framework for assessing the organization of the water and sanitation (W S) sector and uses the framework to develop case studies of Paraguay, Chile, Tunisia, Malaysia, and Zimbabwe. The analytical framework covers four areas: (1) the primary factors influencing sectoral organization, including historical background, political system, level of economic development, land area and population, and availability of water resources; (2) the division of roles and responsibilities among sectoral agencies; (3) the adequacy of institutional arrangements for setting policies and standards, and planning, financing, and implementing projects; and (4) the sector's ability to address the issues of cost recovery, community management, health and hygiene education, and operations and maintenance. A final section details the lessons learned from the case studies.

  9. The chemical industry, by country

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Not Available

    1995-03-01

    Beijing will be the site for the third ACHEMASIA, international petrochemical and chemical exhibition and conference, May 15--20, 1995. In preparation for this conference, Hydrocarbon Processing contacted executives of petrochemical/chemical industries and trade associations, seeking views on the state of the industry. The Asia-Pacific region is the center of new construction and expanded capacity and also a mixture of mature, developing and emerging petrochemical industries. Established countries must mold and grow with emerging economies as the newcomers access natural resources and develop their own petrochemical infrastructures. The following nation reports focus on product supply/demand trends, economic forecasts, new construction, etc. Space limitations prohibit publishing commentaries from all countries that have petrochemical/chemical capacity. Reports are published from the following countries: Australia, China, Japan, Korea, Malaysia, Philippines, Thailand, and Vietnam.

  10. Curve fitting methods for solar radiation data modeling

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Karim, Samsul Ariffin Abdul E-mail: balbir@petronas.com.my; Singh, Balbir Singh Mahinder E-mail: balbir@petronas.com.my

    2014-10-24

    This paper studies the use of several type of curve fitting method to smooth the global solar radiation data. After the data have been fitted by using curve fitting method, the mathematical model of global solar radiation will be developed. The error measurement was calculated by using goodness-fit statistics such as root mean square error (RMSE) and the value of R{sup 2}. The best fitting methods will be used as a starting point for the construction of mathematical modeling of solar radiation received in Universiti Teknologi PETRONAS (UTP) Malaysia. Numerical results indicated that Gaussian fitting and sine fitting (both with two terms) gives better results as compare with the other fitting methods.

  11. Hazardous waste management in the Pacific basin

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Cirillo, R.R.; Chiu, S.; Chun, K.C.; Conzelmann, G.; Carpenter, R.A.; Indriyanto, S.H.

    1994-11-01

    Hazardous waste control activities in Asia and the Pacific have been reviewed. The review includes China (mainland, Hong Kong, and Taiwan), Indonesia, Korea, Malaysia, Papua New Guinea, the Philippines, Singapore, and Thailand. It covers the sources of hazardous waste, the government structure for dealing with hazardous waste, and current hazardous waste control activities in each country. In addition, the hazardous waste program activities of US government agencies, US private-sector organizations, and international organizations are reviewed. The objective of these reviews is to provide a comprehensive picture of the current hazardous waste problems and the waste management approaches being used to address them so that new program activities can be designed more efficiently.

  12. Potential seen for doubling U. S. LNG imports

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Not Available

    1980-04-21

    According to a U.S. Office of Technology Assessment report, Nigeria, Indonesia, Australia, Malaysia, Trinidad, Colombia, and Chile are the most likely sources of U.S. imports of LNG, although the areas with the greatest amounts of exportable surplus LNG are the Persian Gulf, with > 231 trillion cu ft/yr, and the U.S.S.R., with 439 trillion cu ft/yr. The import of LNG would increase the U.S. balance of payments deficit, but LNG imports seem preferable to oil imports. LNG producers have a tendency to sell to Europe or Japan, since these areas are closer to the LNG sources. Maritime Administration and Export-Import Bank programs favor the use of domestic rather than foreign LNG tankers, which tends to reduce the financial stake of foreign suppliers in uninterrupted deliveries. Exportable LNG surpluses (in trillions of cu ft/yr) include: Algeria, 8; Nigeria, 33; Southeast Asia, 41; and Western Hemisphere, 19.

  13. Development of characterization protocol for mixed liquid radioactive waste classification

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Zakaria, Norasalwa; Wafa, Syed Asraf; Wo, Yii Mei; Mahat, Sarimah

    2015-04-29

    Mixed liquid organic waste generated from health-care and research activities containing tritium, carbon-14, and other radionuclides posed specific challenges in its management. Often, these wastes become legacy waste in many nuclear facilities and being considered as problematic waste. One of the most important recommendations made by IAEA is to perform multistage processes aiming at declassification of the waste. At this moment, approximately 3000 bottles of mixed liquid waste, with estimated volume of 6000 litres are currently stored at the National Radioactive Waste Management Centre, Malaysia and some have been stored for more than 25 years. The aim of this study is to develop a characterization protocol towards reclassification of these wastes. The characterization protocol entails waste identification, waste screening and segregation, and analytical radionuclides profiling using various analytical procedures including gross alpha/ gross beta, gamma spectrometry, and LSC method. The results obtained from the characterization protocol are used to establish criteria for speedy classification of the waste.

  14. Carbon emissions and sequestration in forests: Case studies from seven developing countries. Volume 3, India and China

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Makundi, W.; Sathaye, J.; Ravindranath, N.H.; Somashekhar, B.S.; Gadgil, M.; Deying, Xu

    1992-08-01

    As part of the effort to understand the sources of carbon dioxide and other major greenhouse gases, the Tropical Forestry and Global Climate Change Research Network (F-7) was established. The countries taking part in the F-7 Network -- Brazil, China, India, Indonesia, Malaysia, Mexico, Nigeria and Thailand -- possess large tracts of tropical forests and together experience the bulk of large scale tropical deforestation. Integreation of work of indigenous researchers and institutions from the participating countries should allow for the gathering of on-site information into the more general and universally available base of knowledge. The information contained in this report represents the results of the first phase of the F-7 project, which had the explicit aim of providing quantitative data on forestry-related carbon emissions from India and China.

  15. Carbon emissions and sequestration in forests: Case studies from seven developing countries

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Makundi, W.; Sathaye, J. ); Ravindranath, N.H.; Somashekhar, B.S.; Gadgil, M. . Center for Ecological Sciences and ASTRA); Deying, Xu . Research Inst. of Forestry)

    1992-08-01

    As part of the effort to understand the sources of carbon dioxide and other major greenhouse gases, the Tropical Forestry and Global Climate Change Research Network (F-7) was established. The countries taking part in the F-7 Network -- Brazil, China, India, Indonesia, Malaysia, Mexico, Nigeria and Thailand -- possess large tracts of tropical forests and together experience the bulk of large scale tropical deforestation. Integreation of work of indigenous researchers and institutions from the participating countries should allow for the gathering of on-site information into the more general and universally available base of knowledge. The information contained in this report represents the results of the first phase of the F-7 project, which had the explicit aim of providing quantitative data on forestry-related carbon emissions from India and China.

  16. Gas in developing countries: Volume 2, Country studies

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Not Available

    1987-01-01

    This volume contains detailed case-studies of the history and prospects for natural gas utilization in eight developing countries: Argentina, Egypt, Malaysia, Nigeria, Pakistan, Tanzania, Thailand and Tunisia. All of these countries have been visited by members of the research team, with the exception of Pakistan. Running through all the case-histories is the importance of defining a clear market for the gas. In some cases this can prove remarkably difficult, especially when the oil price is relatively low. In other cases a market does exist, but is very limited in relation to the size of available reserves. The other theme which recurs over and over again is the importance of the relationship between the government and its agencies, and the foreign oil companies which are involved in exploration and development of gas reserves. These two issues are addressed in detail in each case study. But it is also the case that each country highlights specific aspects of the gas story.

  17. Natural gas: Governments and oil companies in the Third World

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Davidson, A.; Hurst, C.; Mabro, R.

    1988-01-01

    It is asserted that oil companies claim to be generally receptive to gas development proposals; however, the lack of potential markets for gas, problems of foreign exchange convertibility, and lack of a legal framework often hinders their engagement. Governments, on the other hand, need to secure domestic energy supply and, if possible, gain some export earnings or royalties. An extensive discussion on the principles of pricing and fiscal regimes, potential points of disagreement is provided. A course of action is outlined from the managerial point of view to circumvent the most common pitfalls in planning and financing a gas project. Eight very detailed case studies are presented for Argentina, Egypt, Malaysia, Nigeria, Pakistan, Tanzania, Tunisia and Thailand.

  18. Identifying irradiated flours by photo-stimulated luminescence technique

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Ramli, Ros Anita Ahmad; Yasir, Muhamad Samudi; Othman, Zainon; Abdullah, Wan Saffiey Wan

    2014-02-12

    Photo-stimulated luminescence (PSL) technique was used in this study to detect gamma irradiation treatment of five types of flours (corn, rice, tapioca, wheat and glutinous rice) at four different doses 0, 0.2, .05 and 1kGy. The signal level was compared with two threshold values (700 and 5000). With the exception of glutinous rice, all irradiated samples produced a strong signal above the upper threshold (5000 counts/60s). All control samples produced negative result with the signals below the lower threshold (700 counts/60s) suggesting that the samples have not been irradiated. Irradiated glutinous rice samples produced intermediate signals (700 - 5000 counts/60s) which were subsequently confirmed using calibrated PSL. The PSL signals remained stable after 90 days of storage. The findings of this study will be useful to facilitate control of food irradiation application in Malaysia.

  19. Variations in embodied energy and carbon emission intensities of construction materials

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Wan Omar, Wan-Mohd-Sabki; Doh, Jeung-Hwan; Panuwatwanich, Kriengsak

    2014-11-15

    Identification of parameter variation allows us to conduct more detailed life cycle assessment (LCA) of energy and carbon emission material over their lifecycle. Previous research studies have demonstrated that hybrid LCA (HLCA) can generally overcome the problems of incompleteness and accuracy of embodied energy (EE) and carbon (EC) emission assessment. Unfortunately, the current interpretation and quantification procedure has not been extensively and empirically studied in a qualitative manner, especially in hybridising between the process LCA and I-O LCA. To determine this weakness, this study empirically demonstrates the changes in EE and EC intensities caused by variations to key parameters in material production. Using Australia and Malaysia as a case study, the results are compared with previous hybrid models to identify key parameters and issues. The parameters considered in this study are technological changes, energy tariffs, primary energy factors, disaggregation constant, emission factors, and material price fluctuation. It was found that changes in technological efficiency, energy tariffs and material prices caused significant variations in the model. Finally, the comparison of hybrid models revealed that non-energy intensive materials greatly influence the variations due to high indirect energy and carbon emission in upstream boundary of material production, and as such, any decision related to these materials should be considered carefully. - Highlights: • We investigate the EE and EC intensity variation in Australia and Malaysia. • The influences of parameter variations on hybrid LCA model were evaluated. • Key significant contribution to the EE and EC intensity variation were identified. • High indirect EE and EC content caused significant variation in hybrid LCA models. • Non-energy intensive material caused variation between hybrid LCA models.

  20. An application of the theory of planned behaviour to study the influencing factors of participation in source separation of food waste

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Karim Ghani, Wan Azlina Wan Ab.; Rusli, Iffah Farizan; Biak, Dayang Radiah Awang; Idris, Azni

    2013-05-15

    Highlights: ? Theory of planned behaviour (TPB) has been conducted to identify the influencing factors for participation in source separation of food waste using self administered questionnaires. ? The findings suggested several implications for the development and implementation of waste separation at home programme. ? The analysis indicates that the attitude towards waste separation is determined as the main predictors where this in turn could be a significant predictor of the repondents actual food waste separation behaviour. ? To date, none of similar have been reported elsewhere and this finding will be beneficial to local Authorities as indicator in designing campaigns to promote the use of waste separation programmes to reinforce the positive attitudes. - Abstract: Tremendous increases in biodegradable (food waste) generation significantly impact the local authorities, who are responsible to manage, treat and dispose of this waste. The process of separation of food waste at its generation source is identified as effective means in reducing the amount food waste sent to landfill and can be reused as feedstock to downstream treatment processes namely composting or anaerobic digestion. However, these efforts will only succeed with positive attitudes and highly participations rate by the public towards the scheme. Thus, the social survey (using questionnaires) to analyse publics view and influencing factors towards participation in source separation of food waste in households based on the theory of planned behaviour technique (TPB) was performed in June and July 2011 among selected staff in Universiti Putra Malaysia, Serdang, Selangor. The survey demonstrates that the public has positive intention in participating provided the opportunities, facilities and knowledge on waste separation at source are adequately prepared by the respective local authorities. Furthermore, good moral values and situational factors such as storage convenience and collection times are also encouraged publics involvement and consequently, the participations rate. The findings from this study may provide useful indicator to the waste management authorities in Malaysia in identifying mechanisms for future development and implementation of food waste source separation activities in household programmes and communication campaign which advocate the use of these programmes.

  1. The Citizen Cyberscience Lectures - 1) Mobile phones and Africa: a success story 2) Citizen Problem Solving

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    2009-10-28

    Mobile phones and Africa: a success story Dr. Mo Ibrahim, Mo Ibrahim Foundation Citizen Problem Solving Dr. Alpheus Bingham, InnoCentive The Citizen Cyberscience Lectures are hosted by the partners of the Citizen Cyberscience Centre, CERN, The UN Institute of Training and Research and the University of Geneva. The goal of the Lectures is to provide an inspirational forum for participants from the various international organizations and academic institutions in Geneva to explore how information technology is enabling greater citizen participation in tackling global development challenges as well as global scientific research. The first Citizen Cyberscience Lectures will welcome two speakers who have both made major innovative contributions in this area. Dr. Mo Ibrahim, founder of Celtel International, one of Africas most successful mobile network operators, will talk about Mobile phones and Africa: a success story. Dr. Alpheus Bingham, founder of InnoCentive, a Web-based community that solves industrial R&D; challenges, will discuss Citizen Problem Solving. The Citizen Cyberscience Lectures are open and free of charge. Participants from outside CERN must register by sending an email to Yasemin.Hauser@cern.ch BEFORE the 23rd october to be able to access CERN. THE LECTURES Mobile phones and Africa: a success story Dr. Mo Ibrahim, Mo Ibrahim Foundation Abstract The introduction of mobile phones into Africa changed the continent, enabling business and the commercial sector, creating directly and indirectly, millions of jobs. It enriched the social lives of many people. Surprisingly, it supported the emerging civil society and advanced the course of democracy Bio Dr Mo Ibrahim is a global expert in mobile communications with a distinguished academic and business career. In 1998, Dr Ibrahim founded Celtel International to build and operate mobile networks in Africa. Celtel became one of Africas most successful companies with operations in 15 countries, covering more than a third of the continents population and investing more than US$750 million in Africa. The company was sold to MTC Kuwait in 2005 for $3.4billion. In 2006 Dr Ibrahim established the Mo Ibrahim Foundation to support great African leadership. The Foundation focuses on two major initiatives to stimulate debate around, and improve the quality of, governance in Africa. The Ibrahim Prize for Achievement in African Leadership recognises and celebrates excellence; and the Ibrahim Index of African Governance provides civil society with a comprehensive and quantifiable tool to promote government accountability. Dr Ibrahim is also Founding Chairman of Satya Capital Ltd, an investment company focused on opportunities in Africa. Dr Ibrahim has been awarded an Honorary Doctorate by the University of Londons School of Oriental and African Studies, the University of Birmingham and De Montfort University, Leicester as well as an Honorary Fellowship Award from the London Business School. He has also received the Chairmans Award for Lifetime Achievement from the GSM Association in 2007 and the Economists Innovation Award 2007 for Social & Economic Innovation. In 2008 Dr Ibrahim was presented with the BNP Paribas Prize for Philanthropy, and also listed by TIME magazine as one of the 100 most influential people in the world. Citizen Problem Solving Dr. Alpheus Bingham, InnoCentive Abstract American playwright Damien Runyon (Guys and Dolls) once remarked, "the race is not always to the swift, nor the victory to the strong -- but that IS how you bet." Not only does a system of race handicapping follow from this logic, but the whole notion of expertise and technical qualifications. Such 'credentials' allow one to 'bet' on who might most likely solve a difficult challenge, whether as consultant, contractor or employee. Of course, the approach would differ if one were allowed to bet AFTER the race. When such systems came into broad use, i.e., chat rooms, usenets, innocentive, etc., and were subsequently studied, it was often found that the greate

  2. Prototyping and validating requirements of radiation and nuclear emergency plan simulator

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Hamid, AHA.; Rozan, MZA.; Ibrahim, R.; Deris, S.; Selamat, A.

    2015-04-29

    Organizational incapability in developing unrealistic, impractical, inadequate and ambiguous mechanisms of radiological and nuclear emergency preparedness and response plan (EPR) causing emergency plan disorder and severe disasters. These situations resulting from 65.6% of poor definition and unidentified roles and duties of the disaster coordinator. Those unexpected conditions brought huge aftermath to the first responders, operators, workers, patients and community at large. Hence, in this report, we discuss prototyping and validating of Malaysia radiation and nuclear emergency preparedness and response plan simulation model (EPRM). A prototyping technique was required to formalize the simulation model requirements. Prototyping as systems requirements validation was carried on to endorse the correctness of the model itself against the stakeholders intensions in resolving those organizational incapability. We have made assumptions for the proposed emergency preparedness and response model (EPRM) through the simulation software. Those assumptions provided a twofold of expected mechanisms, planning and handling of the respective emergency plan as well as in bringing off the hazard involved. This model called RANEPF (Radiation and Nuclear Emergency Planning Framework) simulator demonstrated the training emergency response perquisites rather than the intervention principles alone. The demonstrations involved the determination of the casualties absorbed dose range screening and the coordination of the capacity planning of the expected trauma triage. Through user-centred design and sociotechnical approach, RANEPF simulator was strategized and simplified, though certainly it is equally complex.

  3. Energy management study: A proposed case of government building

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Tahir, Mohamad Zamhari; Nawi, Mohd Nasrun Mohd; Baharum, Mohd Faizal

    2015-05-15

    Align with the current needs of the sustainable and green technology in Malaysian construction industry, this research is conducted to seek and identify opportunities to better manage energy use including the process of understand when, where, and how energy is used in a building. The purpose of this research is to provide a best practice guideline as a practical tool to assist construction industry in Malaysia to improve the energy efficiency of the office building during the post-production by reviewing the current practice of the building operation and maintenance in order to optimum the usage and reduce the amount of energy input into the building. Therefore, this paper will review the concept of maintenance management, current issue in energy management, and on how the research process will be conducted. There are several process involves and focuses on technical and management techniques such as energy metering, tracing, harvesting, and auditing based on the case study that will be accomplish soon. Accordingly, a case study is appropriate to be selected as a strategic research approach in which involves an empirical investigation of a particular contemporary phenomenon within its real life context using multiple sources of evidence for the data collection process. A Government office building will be selected as an appropriate case study for this research. In the end of this research, it will recommend a strategic approach or model in a specific guideline for enabling energy-efficient operation and maintenance in the office building.

  4. Food waste management using an electrostatic separator with corona discharge

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Lai, Koonchun; Teh, Pehchiong; Lim, Sooking

    2015-05-15

    In Malaysia, municipal solid waste contains a high portion of organic matters, typically contributed by food waste. It is estimated that about 45% of the municipal waste are food waste, followed by the non-food waste such as plastics, metals, glass and others. Food waste, while being properly sorted and contamination free from non-food waste, can be reused (e.g. fertiliser) instead of being landfilled. Therefore, recycling of food waste is crucial not only from the view point of waste management, but also with respect to the reduction of resource losses and greenhouse gases emission. A new waste separation process involved food particles, non-food particles and electrostatic discharge was investigated in this study. The empirical results reveal that the corona electrostatic separation is an environmental-friendly way in recovering foods from municipal waste. The efficiency of the separator, under same operating conditions, varies with the particle size of the food and non-food particles. The highest efficiency of 82% is recorded for the particle sizes between 1.5 and 3.0?mm.

  5. Performance analysis of solar-assisted chemical heat-pump dryer

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Fadhel, M.I.; Sopian, K.; Daud, W.R.W.

    2010-11-15

    A solar-assisted chemical heat-pump dryer has been designed, fabricated and tested. The performance of the system has been studied under the meteorological conditions of Malaysia. The system consists of four main components: solar collector (evacuated tubes type), storage tank, solid-gas chemical heat pump unit and dryer chamber. A solid-gas chemical heat pump unit consists of reactor, condenser and evaporator. The reaction used in this study (CaCl2-NH{sub 3}). A simulation has been developed, and the predicted results are compared with those obtained from experiments. The maximum efficiency for evacuated tubes solar collector of 80% has been predicted against the maximum experiment of 74%. The maximum values of solar fraction from the simulation and experiment are 0.795 and 0.713, respectively, whereas the coefficient of performance of chemical heat pump (COP{sup h}) maximum values 2.2 and 2 are obtained from simulation and experiments, respectively. The results show that any reduction of energy at condenser as a result of the decrease in solar radiation will decrease the coefficient of performance of chemical heat pump as well as decrease the efficiency of drying. (author)

  6. Survival analysis of colorectal cancer patients with tumor recurrence using global score test methodology

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Zain, Zakiyah Ahmad, Yuhaniz; Azwan, Zairul E-mail: farhanaraduan@gmail.com Raduan, Farhana E-mail: farhanaraduan@gmail.com Sagap, Ismail E-mail: farhanaraduan@gmail.com; Aziz, Nazrina

    2014-12-04

    Colorectal cancer is the third and the second most common cancer worldwide in men and women respectively, and the second in Malaysia for both genders. Surgery, chemotherapy and radiotherapy are among the options available for treatment of patients with colorectal cancer. In clinical trials, the main purpose is often to compare efficacy between experimental and control treatments. Treatment comparisons often involve several responses or endpoints, and this situation complicates the analysis. In the case of colorectal cancer, sets of responses concerned with survival times include: times from tumor removal until the first, the second and the third tumor recurrences, and time to death. For a patient, the time to recurrence is correlated to the overall survival. In this study, global score test methodology is used in combining the univariate score statistics for comparing treatments with respect to each survival endpoint into a single statistic. The data of tumor recurrence and overall survival of colorectal cancer patients are taken from a Malaysian hospital. The results are found to be similar to those computed using the established Wei, Lin and Weissfeld method. Key factors such as ethnic, gender, age and stage at diagnose are also reported.

  7. Role of decommissioning plan and its progress for the PUSPATI TRIGA Reactor

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Zakaria, Norasalwa Mustafa, Muhammad Khairul Ariff Anuar, Abul Adli Idris, Hairul Nizam Ba'an, Rohyiza

    2014-02-12

    Malaysian nuclear research reactor, the PUSPATI TRIGA Reactor, reached its first criticality in 1982, and since then, it has been serving for more than 30 years for training, radioisotope production and research purposes. Realizing the age and the need for its decommissioning sometime in the future, a ground basis of assessment and an elaborative project management need to be established, covering the entire process from termination of reactor operation to the establishment of final status, documented as the Decommissioning Plan. At international level, IAEA recognizes the absence of Decommissioning Plan as one of the factors hampering progress in decommissioning of nuclear facilities in the world. Throughout the years, IAEA has taken initiatives and drawn out projects in promoting progress in decommissioning programmes, like CIDER, DACCORD and R2D2P, for which Malaysia is participating in these projects. This paper highlights the concept of Decommissioning plan and its significances to the Agency. It will also address the progress, way forward and challenges faced in developing the Decommissioning Plan for the PUSPATI TRIGA Reactor. The efforts in the establishment of this plan helps to provide continual national contribution at the international level, as well as meeting the regulatory requirement, if need be. The existing license for the operation of PUSPATI TRIGA Reactor does not impose a requirement for a decommissioning plan; however, the renewal of license may call for a decommissioning plan to be submitted for approval in future.

  8. International Workshops to Foster Implementation of the IAEA Additional Protocol

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Killinger, Mark H.; Coates, Cameron W.; Bedke, Michael L.

    2003-07-14

    A country’s adherence to the International Atomic Energy Agency’s (IAEA) Additional Protocol is an important statement to the world of that country’s commitment to nuclear nonproliferation. Without the Additional Protocol (AP) it is possible, as demonstrated in Iraq, for a country party to the Non-Proliferation Treaty (NPT) to clandestinely work toward nuclear weapons and be undetected by the IAEA. This is because classical safeguards under the NPT are directed at diversion of nuclear material from declared activities. But a country may instead build undeclared activities to produce weapons-grade nuclear material. The AP is directed at detecting those undeclared activities. As of May 2003, 73 countries had signed the AP, but only 35 have entered into force. To further adherence to the AP, the IAEA has held regional, high-level seminars in Japan, South Africa, Kazakhstan, Peru, Romania, and Malaysia to explain AP provisions. To supplement these policy-level seminars, the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) has undertaken to develop a set of modules of technical competencies required to implement the AP. The intent is to work closely with the IAEA by providing these technical competencies to countries as well as to complement the IAEA’s regional seminars and other outreach efforts. This paper briefly describes the technical competency modules.

  9. Forestry management for sustainable development. EDI Policy Seminar Report 32

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    D`Silva, E.; Appanah, S.

    1993-09-01

    Forests will continue to disappear rapidly, the authors contend, until they are recognized as a valuable economic resource. This paper examines the causes of deforestation in Asia and suggests practical ways to achieve sustainable forest management. The report focuses on commercial logging, demand for firewood and fodder, and clearing forest land for farming. Economic policies and forest institutions have failed to protect natural forests. The authors point out technical problems that hinder forest management, such as improper tree harvesting. They describe conflicting goals among forest users and government investments that deplete forests. The authors argue that sustainable forest management calls for sound pricing policies and strong institutions to enforce them. They discuss benefit-sharing schemes that give local people incentives to protect forests and new ways to manage tree plantations to serve many different users. Detailed case studies look at effective forest management programs in Indonesia, Malaysia, Papua New Guinea, and the Philippines. The paper examines profitable opportunities for trade in environmental services. Such trade would involve industrial countries paying developing nations not to clear their natural forests. The protected forests would help reduce global carbon emissions and preserve biodiversity.

  10. Southern Asia future plans feature long-distance lines

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Not Available

    1991-11-01

    This paper reports that although pipe line mileage working, planned and under study has dipped slightly from 47,346 km (29,420 mi) to 44,853 km (27,871 mi), Southern Asia continues to hold a strong position for future projects with some of the most interesting programs in the international market. Two dramatic, long-distance natural gas transmission, gathering and lateral networks continue to hold the future pipe line construction spotlight in Southern Asia. The Association of South East Asian Nations (ASEAN) continues to study a 7,830 km (4,865 mi) gas transmission system. With an estimated cost of $10 billion, the system includes some 6,276 km (3,900 mi) of transmission lines, with 1,094 km (680 mi) offshore. Group members include Brunei, Indonesia, Malaysia, the Philippines, Singapore and Thailand. The second project, the Trans-Asian Pipeline System, involves 3,380 km (2,100 mi) of transmission lines from the Iran's Bandar Abbas gas field across Pakistan to a terminal at Calcutta, India.

  11. Radiation dose to Malaysian infants from natural radionuclides via consumption of powdered milk

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Uwatse, Onosohwo Bemigho; Olatunji, Michael Adekunle; Khandaker, Mayeen Uddin; Amin, Yusoff Mohd.

    2015-04-24

    Milk is the basic food stuff for the infants because they generally consume more milk on a daily basis as its minerals and proteins are essential for their growth and development, therefore, it is very important to assess the natural radioactivity levels and the associated dose in the widely consumed powered infant’s milk. As a result, 14 brands of infant’s powdered milk were collected from different supermarkets around Selangor, Malaysia and analysed for {sup 226}Ra, {sup 232}Th and {sup 40}K activities. The obtained mean activity of {sup 226}Ra, {sup 232}Th and {sup 40}K are 3.05±1.84, 2.55±2.48 and 99.1±69.5 Bqkg{sup −1}, respectively. Among the analysed milk samples, the brand from Philippines (Lactogen) showed low level of radioactivity while Singaporean brand (S26 SMA Gold) showed the highest. The estimated mean annual effective doses due to the ingestion of natural radionuclides in the sampled milk are 635 and 111 µSv for infant ≤ 1y and infant 1-2y, respectively. The obtained dose value does not yet pose any significant radiological hazards to the population under investigation comparing with the 1.0 mSvy{sup −1} recommended by ICRP for all ages.

  12. Potential of Melastoma malabathricum as bio-accumulator for uranium and thorium from soil

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Saat, Ahmad; Kamsani, Ain Shaqina; Kamri, Wan Nur Aina Nadzira; Talib, Nur Hasyimah Mat; Wood, Ab Khalik; Hamzah, Zaini

    2015-04-29

    Uranium and Thorium are naturally occuring radionuclides. However, due to anthropogenic activities in some locations their concentrations in the soils could be elevated. This study explores the potential of Melastoma malabathricum (locally known as ‘pokok senduduk’) as bio-accumulator of uranium and thorium from soils of three different study areas, namely former tin mining, industrial and residential/commercial areas in Peninsular Malaysia. The study found elevated concentrations of uranium and thorium in former tin mining soils as compared to natural abundance. However in industral and residential/commercial areas the concentrations are within the range of natural abundance. In terms of transfer factor (TF), in ex-mining areas TF > 1 for uranium in the leaf, stem and roots, indicating accumulation of uranium from soil. However for thorium TF < 1, indicating the occurence of transfer from soil to root, stem and leaf, but no accumulation. For other areas only transfer of uranium and thorium were observed. The results indicated the potential of Melastoma malabathricum to be used as bio-accumulatior of uranium, especially in areas of elevated concentration.

  13. Adsorption of basic Red 46 using sea mango (Cerbera odollam) based activated carbon

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Azmi, Nur Azira Iqlima; Zainudin, Nor Fauziah; Ali, Umi Fazara Md

    2015-05-15

    Sea mango or Cerbera Odollam is another source of carbonaceous material that can be found abundantly in Malaysia. In this research, it is used as a new agricultural source of activated carbon. Sea mango activated carbon was prepared by chemical activation using potassium hydroxide (KOH). The sea mango was soaked in KOH at impregnation ratio of 1:1 and followed by carbonization at temperature of 600C for 1 hour. The sample was then characterized using Scanning Electron Microscope (SEM) for surface morphology, while Brunauer-Emmett-Teller (BET) was used to study the surface area. The result shown that sea mango activated carbon (SMAC) developed new pores on its surface and the BET surface area measured was 451.87 m{sup 2}/g. The SMAC performance was then tested for the removal of Basic Red 46 in batch process. The removal of Basic Red 46 (50?mg/L, natural pH, 0.1?g SMAC) was more than 99% in 15 minutes where it reached equilibrium in 30 minutes.

  14. Indonesia: Asia-Pacific energy series, country report

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Prawiraatmadja, W.; Yamaguchi, N.; Breazeale, K.; Basari, S.R.

    1991-04-01

    As part of our continuing assessment of Asia-Pacific energy markets, the Energy Program has embarked on a series of country studies that discuss in detail the structure of the energy sector in each major country in the region. To date, our reports to the US Department of Energy have covered Australia, China, Indonesia, Japan, Malaysia, the Philippines, Singapore, South Korea, Taiwan, and Thailand. The country studies also provide the reader with an overview of the economic and political situation in the various countries. We have particularly highlighted petroleum and gas issues in the country studies and have attempted to show the foreign trade implications of oil and gas trade. Finally, to the greatest extent possible, we have provided the latest available statistics -- often from unpublished and disparate sources that are unavailable to most readers. Staff members have traveled extensively in -- and at times have lived in -- the countries under review and have held discussions with senior policymakers in government and industry. Thus, these reports provide not only information but also the latest thinking on energy issues in the various countries. This report covers Indonesia. 37 refs., 36 figs., 64 tabs.

  15. Interconnection economics of small power systems -- A case study

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Bloethe, W.G.; Thakar, H.C. [Sargent and Lundy, Chicago, IL (United States); Kim, L.C. [Sarawak Electricity Supply Corp., Kuching (Malaysia); Samin, S. [PT PLN Persero, Jakarta (Indonesia)

    1996-11-01

    The advantages of interconnecting large electric power systems has been almost universally accepted in those parts of North America that are not geographically isolated. However, interconnecting power systems can result in significant economic advantages, even in those parts of the world where power systems are small and widely separated. This paper examines two small, isolated power systems on the island of Borneo in Southeast Asia. The Malaysian State of Srawak lies on the north coast of Borneo. With an area of 123,156 square km (47,555 square mi.) and population of 1.7 million, it is the largest, but most sparsely populated, state in the Federation of Malaysia. Its neighbor to the south is the Indonesian Province of West Kalimantan. A study examining the feasibility of interconnecting these two power systems was undertaken in 1994 as a part of the Association of Southeast Asian Nations (ASEAN) initiative to interconnect the power systems in the region. The ASEAN region is characterized by rapidly growing economies and rapid load growth.

  16. Trace element analysis of soil type collected from the Manjung and central Perak

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Azman, Muhammad Azfar Hamzah, Suhaimi; Rahman, Shamsiah Abdul; Elias, Md Suhaimi; Abdullah, Nazaratul Ashifa; Hashim, Azian; Shukor, Shakirah Abd; Kamaruddin, Ahmad Hasnulhadi Che

    2015-04-29

    Trace elements in soils primarily originated from their parent materials. Parents’ material is the underlying geological material that has been undergone different types of chemical weathering and leaching processes. Soil trace elements concentrations may be increases as a result of continuous input from various human activities, including power generation, agriculture, mining and manufacturing. This paper describes the Neutron Activation Analysis (NAA) method used for the determination of trace elements concentrations in part per million (ppm) present in the terrestrial environment soil in Perak. The data may indicate any contamination of trace elements contributed from human activities in the area. The enrichment factors were used to check if there any contamination due to the human activities (power plants, agricultural, mining, etc.) otherwise the values would serve as a baseline data for future study. The samples were collected from 27 locations of different soil series in the area at two different depths: the top soil (0-15cm) and the sub soil (15-30cm). The collected soil samples were air dried at 60°C and passed through 2 µm sieve. Instrumental Neutron Activation Analysis (NAA) has been used for the determination of trace elements. Samples were activated in the Nuclear Malaysia TRIGA Mark II reactor followed by gamma spectrometric analysis. By activating the stable elements in the samples, the elements can be determined from the intensities of gamma energies emitted by the respected radionuclides.

  17. Bibliography of information sources on East Asian energy

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Salosis, J.

    1982-11-01

    The first section of this bibliography is a subject index by title to sources of information on East Asian energy. The countries considered were: Brunei, the PRC, Taiwan, Hong Kong, Indonesia, Japan, the Koreas, Malaysia, the Philippines, Singapore, Thailand and Vietnam. If the geographic coverage by any source is restricted to a particular country and was not indicated by the title, a country abbreviation in parentheses was added. Titles that include the term data base are computerized. The second section contains the Title Index which lists each printed publication alphabetically with frequency of publication and the US$ price for a yearly air mail subscription. The publisher or distribution office is listed below the title. The Data Base Index lists computerized sources with the author and the vendor providing either online access or tapes. No prices have been quoted in this section because of the wide range of methods in use and the impossibility of running benchmarks for this study. The Address Index lists the publishers, data base authors and vendors alphabetically.

  18. Combined heat and power systems that consist of biomass fired fluidised bed combustors and modern steam engines

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Joseph, S.D.; Errey, S.; Thomas, M.; Kruger, P.

    1996-12-31

    Biomass energy is widely used in many processing industries in the ASEAN region. The residue produced by agricultural and wood processing plant is either inefficiently combusted in simple furnaces or in the open, or disposed of in land fill sites or in rivers. Many of these industries are paying high prices for electricity in rural areas and/or supply is unreliable. An ASEAN/Australian cooperation program has been under way for the last ten years to introduce clean burning biomass fired heat and/or combined heat and power equipment. It aims to transfer Australian know how in the design and manufacture of fluidised bed CHP technology to the ASEAN region. The main participants involved in the program include SIRIM and UKM in Malaysia, PCIERD, FPRI and Asia Ratan in the Philippines, King Monkutt Institute of Technology (KMITT) in Thailand, LIPI and ITB in Indonesia, and the University of Singapore. In this paper an outline of the program will be given including results of market research and development undertaken into fluidised bed combustion, the proposed plant design and costings, and research and development undertaken into modem steam engine technology. It will be shown that all of the projects to be undertaken are financially viable. In particular the use of simple low cost high efficient steam engines ensures that the smaller CHP plant (50-100 kWe) can be viable.

  19. India: Asia-Pacific energy series country report

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Gazdar, M.N.

    1992-03-01

    As part of our continuing assessment of Asia-Pacific energy markets, the Resources Programs of the East-West Center series of country studies that discuss in detail the structure of the energy sector. To date, our reports to the US Department of Energy, Assistant Secretary for International Affairs and Energy Emergencies, have covered Australia, China, India, Indonesia, Japan, Malaysia, New Zealand, Pakistan, the Philippines, Singapore, South Korea, Taiwan, and Thailand. The country studies provide an overview of the economic and political situation in the various countries. We have highlighted petroleum and gas issues in the country studies and have attempted to show the foreign trade implications of oil and gas trade. To the greatest extent possible, we have provided the latest available statistics. Staff members have traveled extensively in-and at times have lived in-the countries under review and have held discussions with senior policymakers in government and industry. Thus, these reports provide not only information but also the latest thinking on energy issues in the various countries. Over the next few years these country studies can be updated and will provide a continuous, long-term source of energy sector analysis for the Asia-Pacific region. This India Asia-Pacific Energy Series Country Report is the follow-on to a study by Victor Lobo, Energy in India: The Oil Sector, which was published by the East-West Center in December 1989. The study focused on the petroleum industry, particularly refining, infrastructure, marketing and distribution, specifications of products, demand structure and pricing. This current study, must be seen as a supplement to our 1989 study and, as such, does not cover the petroleum sector in depth.

  20. Optimization of the pyrolysis process of empty fruit bunch (EFB) in a fixed-bed reactor through a central composite design (CCD)

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Mohamed, Alina Rahayu; Hamzah, Zainab; Daud, Mohamed Zulkali Mohamed

    2014-07-10

    The production of crude palm oil from the processing of palm fresh fruit bunches in the palm oil mills in Malaysia hs resulted in a huge quantity of empty fruit bunch (EFB) accumulated. The EFB was used as a feedstock in the pyrolysis process using a fixed-bed reactor in the present study. The optimization of process parameters such as pyrolysis temperature (factor A), biomass particle size (factor B) and holding time (factor C) were investigated through Central Composite Design (CCD) using Stat-Ease Design Expert software version 7 with bio-oil yield considered as the response. Twenty experimental runs were conducted. The results were completely analyzed by Analysis of Variance (ANOVA). The model was statistically significant. All factors studied were significant with p-values < 0.05. The pyrolysis temperature (factor A) was considered as the most significant parameter because its F-value of 116.29 was the highest. The value of R{sup 2} was 0.9564 which indicated that the selected factors and its levels showed high correlation to the production of bio-oil from EFB pyrolysis process. A quadratic model equation was developed and employed to predict the highest theoretical bio-oil yield. The maximum bio-oil yield of 46.2 % was achieved at pyrolysis temperature of 442.15 °C using the EFB particle size of 866 μm which corresponded to the EFB particle size in the range of 710–1000 μm and holding time of 483 seconds.

  1. Progress of teaching and learning of nuclear engineering courses at College of Engineering, Universiti Tenaga Nasional (UNITEN)

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Hamid, Nasri A. Mohamed, Abdul Aziz; Yusoff, Mohd. Zamri

    2015-04-29

    Developing human capital in nuclear with required nuclear background and professional qualifications is necessary to support the implementation of nuclear power projects in the near future. Sufficient educational and training skills are required to ensure that the human resources needed by the nuclear power industry meets its high standard. The Government of Malaysia has made the decision to include nuclear as one of the electricity generation option for the country, post 2020 in order to cater for the increasing energy demands of the country as well as to reduce CO{sub 2} emission. The commitment by the government has been made clearer with the inclusion of the development of first NPP by 2021 in the Economic Transformation Program (ETP) which was launched by the government in October 2010. The In tandem with the government initiative to promote nuclear energy, Center for Nuclear Energy, College of Engineering, Universiti Tenaga Nasional (UNITEN) is taking the responsibility in developing human capital in the area of nuclear power and technology. In the beginning, the College of Engineering has offered the Introduction to Nuclear Technology course as a technical elective course for all undergraduate engineering students. Gradually, other nuclear technical elective courses are offered such as Nuclear Policy, Security and Safeguards, Introduction to Nuclear Engineering, Radiation Detection and Nuclear Instrumentation, Introduction to Reactor Physics, Radiation Safety and Waste Management, and Nuclear Thermal-hydraulics. In addition, another course Advancement in Nuclear Energy is offered as one of the postgraduate elective courses. To enhance the capability of teaching staffs in nuclear areas at UNITEN, several junior lecturers are sent to pursue their postgraduate studies in the Republic of Korea, United States and the United Kingdom, while the others are participating in short courses and workshops in nuclear that are conducted locally and abroad. This paper describes the progress of teaching and learning in nuclear engineering and technology at UNITEN that include curriculum development, students’ enrolment and performance, and teaching staff’s human resource development.

  2. Web-GIS oriented systems viability for municipal solid waste selective collection optimization in developed and transient economies

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Rada, E.C.; Ragazzi, M.; Fedrizzi, P.

    2013-04-15

    Highlights: ? As an appropriate solution for MSW management in developed and transient countries. ? As an option to increase the efficiency of MSW selective collection. ? As an opportunity to integrate MSW management needs and services inventories. ? As a tool to develop Urban Mining actions. - Abstract: Municipal solid waste management is a multidisciplinary activity that includes generation, source separation, storage, collection, transfer and transport, processing and recovery, and, last but not least, disposal. The optimization of waste collection, through source separation, is compulsory where a landfill based management must be overcome. In this paper, a few aspects related to the implementation of a Web-GIS based system are analyzed. This approach is critically analyzed referring to the experience of two Italian case studies and two additional extra-European case studies. The first case is one of the best examples of selective collection optimization in Italy. The obtained efficiency is very high: 80% of waste is source separated for recycling purposes. In the second reference case, the local administration is going to be faced with the optimization of waste collection through Web-GIS oriented technologies for the first time. The starting scenario is far from an optimized management of municipal solid waste. The last two case studies concern pilot experiences in China and Malaysia. Each step of the Web-GIS oriented strategy is comparatively discussed referring to typical scenarios of developed and transient economies. The main result is that transient economies are ready to move toward Web oriented tools for MSW management, but this opportunity is not yet well exploited in the sector.

  3. New Zealand: Asia-Pacific energy series, country report

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Yamaguchi, N.D.; Keevill, H.D.

    1992-03-01

    The New Zealand energy sector has undergone significant changes in the past few years. Reform and deregulation came to New Zealand in large doses and at a rapid pace. Unlike Japan where deregulation was designed for a five-year phase-in period or even Australia where the government was fully geared up to handle deregulation, deregulation occurred in New Zealand almost with no phase-in period and very little planning. Under fast-paced Rogernomics,'' the energy sector was but one more element of the economy to be deregulated and/or privatized. While the New Zealand energy sector deregulation is generally believed to have been successful, there are still outstanding questions as to whether the original intent has been fully achieved. The fact that a competent energy bureaucracy was mostly lost in the process makes it even more difficult to find those with long enough institutional memories to untangle the agreements and understandings between the government and the private sector over the previous decade. As part of our continuing assessment of Asia-Pacific energy markets, the Resources Programs at the East-West Center has embarked on a series of country studies that discuss in detail the structure of the energy sector in each major country in the region. To date, our reports to the US Department of Energy, Assistant Secretary for International Affairs and Energy Emergencies, have covered Australia, China, India, Indonesia, Japan, Malaysia, New Zealand, Pakistan, the Philippines, Singapore, South Korea, Taiwan, and Thailand. The country studies also provide the reader with an overview of the economic and political situation in the various counties. We have particularly highlighted petroleum and gas issues in the country studies and have attempted to show the foreign trade implications of oil and gas trade. Finally, to the greatest extent possible, we have provided the latest available statistics.

  4. ASEAN--USAID Buildings Energy Conservation Project final report. Volume 2, Technology

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Levine, M.D.; Busch, J.F.

    1992-06-01

    This volume reports on research in the area of energy conservation technology applied to commercial buildings in the Association of Southeast Asian Nations (ASEAN) region. Unlike Volume I of this series, this volume is a compilation of original technical papers prepared by different authors in the project. In this regard, this volume is much like a technical journal. The papers that follow report on research conducted by both US and ASEAN researchers. The authors representing Indonesia, Malaysia, Philippines, and Thailand, come from a range of positions in the energy arena, including government energy agencies, electric utilities, and universities. As such, they account for a wide range of perspectives on energy problems and the role that technology can play in solving them. This volume is about using energy more intelligently. In some cases, the effort is towards the use of more advanced technologies, such as low-emittance coatings on window glass, thermal energy storage, or cogeneration. In others, the emphasis is towards reclaiming traditional techniques for rendering energy services, but in new contexts such as lighting office buildings with natural light, or cooling buildings of all types with natural ventilation. Used in its broadest sense, the term ``technology`` encompasses all of the topics addressed in this volume. Along with the more customary associations of technology, such as advanced materials and equipment and the analysis of their performance, this volume treats design concepts and techniques, analysis of ``secondary`` impacts from applying technologies (i.e., unintended impacts, or impacts on parties not directly involved in the purchase and use of the technology), and the collection of primary data used for conducting technical analyses.

  5. The East Asia geographic map series

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Terman, M.J.; Bell, E.P. )

    1990-06-01

    During the last 15 years, the Circum-Pacific Map Project Northwest Quadrant Panel (NWQP) has created a map inventory of geoscience data at a scale of 1:10,000,000. Now, for East Asia, a second set of thematic maps is being initiated cooperatively by the Circum-Pacific Council for Energy and Mineral Resources and the Committee for Coordination of Joint Prospecting for Mineral Resources in Asian Offshore Areas (CCOP). These new maps will constitute the East Asia Map Project, and they will present geoscience parameters at a scale of 1:2,000,000 that can be used to evaluate the potential for undiscovered resources with the application of new deposit modeling methodologies. The following map series are being compiled or are under consideration: geography, geotectonics, geophysics, mineral resources, energy resources, and hazards. The U.S, Geological Survey (USGS) is compiling the East Asia Geographic Map Series. Shorelines, rivers, and international boundaries have been computer plotted by the National Mapping Division from the most detailed version of the World Data Bank II (WDB II). This publicly available bank was hand digitized from a 1:3,000,000-scale global map compiled from a variety of sources. The East Asia series is composed of eight overlapping sheets with Lambert Azimuthal Equal-Area Projection having a common point of origin at 120{degree}E and 15{degree}N; neatlines for each sheet are 39{degree} {times} 54.4{degree}. Titles reflect each map's coverage: Sheet 1, Japan/Korea/Northeast China; Sheet 2, Southeast China; Sheet 3, Southeast Asia; Sheet 4, Philippines; Sheet 5, Malaysia/ West Indonesia; Sheet 6, East Indonesia; Sheet 7, Papua New Guinea/ Solomon Islands; and Sheet 8, Western Pacific Islands. Contours have been scribed by the USGS's Office of International Geology.

  6. The use of Eupatorium Odoratum as bio-monitor for radionuclides determination in Manjung, Perak

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Zainal, Fetri Hamzah, Zaini; Wood, Khalik; Saat, Ahmad; Alias, Masitah

    2015-04-29

    The accumulation of radionuclides in plants can be used as bio-monitoring in the environment. This technique is a cost-effective as the plants used to uptake deposited radionuclides from soil, commonly as soil-to-plant transfer factor (TF), which is widely used for calculating radiological risk. Radionuclides deposited in the soil carry by the air as particles or gases lead to the accumulation in soil. Eupatorium odoratum, known as pokok kapal terbang in Malaysia was chosen as sample for their abundances and properties to measure surface soil contamination. The plants were collected in three different directions (North, North-East and South-East) from Manjung district. The plants were collected in same size and then separated in to three parts (roots, stems and leaves) to determine the transfer factor from soil to each part. The concentrations of thorium (Th) and uranium (U) were analyzed using Energy Disperse X-Ray Fluorescence (EDXRF) and found in the range of 1.20-3.50 mg/kg and 1.20-3.90 mg/kg in roots, 1.40-3.90 mg/kg and 1.50-5.90 mg/kg in stems and 1.50-2.50 mg/kg and 2.00-6.00 mg/kg in leaves, respectively. Transfer factor (TF) was calculated through concentrations as reported in this article and show that the plants have transferred and accumulated radionuclides in significant values. From radionuclides concentrations in topsoil, the radiological risk was calculated and the present result show that external hazard index (H{sub ex}) is below than unity indicate low radiological risk at that area.

  7. Effectiveness of mineral soil to adsorb the natural occurring radioactive material (norm), uranium and thorium

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Amir, Muhammad Nur Iman; Ismail, Nurul Izzatiafifi; Wood, Ab. Khalik Saat, Ahmad; Hamzah, Zaini

    2015-04-29

    A study has been performed on U-soil and Th-soil adsorption of three types of soil collected from Selangor State of Malaysia which are Saujana Putra, Bukit Changgang and Jenderam Hilir. In this study, natural radionuclide (U and Th) soil adsorption based on batch experiments with various initial concentrations of the radionuclide elements were carried out. Parameters that were set constant include pH at 5;amount of soil used was 5 g each, contact time was 24 hour and different initial concentration for each solution of U and Th which is 5 mg/L, 10 mg/L, 15 mg/L, 20 mg/L, 25 mg/L and 40 mg/L were used. The K{sub d} values for each type of soil were determined in this batch experiments which was based on US-EPA method, in order to estimate adsorption capacity of the soil.The K{sub d} values of Th found higher than Kd values of U for all of the soil samples, and the highest was found on the soil collected from Bukit Changgang. The soil clay content was one of factors to influence the adsorption of both U and Th from dilute initial solution. The U-soil and Th-soil adsorption process for all the soil samples studied are generally obeying unimolecular layer Langmuir isotherm model. From Langmuir isotherm, the maximum adsorption capacity for U was 0.393mg/g and for Th was 1.53 mg/g for the soil that was taken from Bukit Changgang. From the study, it suggested that the soil from Bukit Changgang applicable as potential enhanced barrier for site disposing waste containing U and Th.

  8. ASEAN-USAID buildings energy conservation project. Volume 1, Energy standards: Final report

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Levine, M.D.; Busch, J.F.; Deringer, J.J.

    1992-06-01

    Mandatory or voluntary energy-efficiency standards for new or existing buildings can play an important role in a national program aimed at promoting energy conservation. Building codes and standards can provide a degree of control over design and building practices throughout the construction process, and encourage awareness of energy-conscious design. Studies in developed countries indicate that efficiency standards can produce energy reductions on the order of 20 to 40% or more. Within ASEAN, analyses of the savings potential from the proposed standards suggest that if implemented, these standards would produce savings over current new design practice of 19% to 24%. In this volume we provide an overview of the ASEAN-USAID project aimed at promulgating standards for energy efficiency in commercial buildings. The process of developing and implementing energy-efficiency standards for buildings can be subdivided into two key components: policy development; and technical and economic analysis. Each of these involves a number of steps and processes, as outlined in Figure 1-1. This volume describes the technical and economic analyses used to develop the proposed energy efficiency standards for four countries (Malaysia, Thailand, the Philippines, and Indonesia), and to refine an energy standard existing in Singapore since 1979. Though oriented toward the ASEAN region, the analysis methods described here are applicable in a range of settings, provided appropriate modifications are made for local building construction, climatic, economic, and political conditions. Implementation issues are not specifically addressed here; rather this volume is oriented towards the analytical work needed to establish or revise an energy standard for buildings.

  9. Southeast Asia: `A robust market`

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Pagano, S.S.

    1997-04-01

    Southeast Asia is emerging as a robust market for exploration and field development activities. While much of the worldwide attention is focused on lucrative deep water drilling and production in the U.S. Gulf of Mexico, Brazil, and West Africa, the burgeoning Pacific Rim region is very much in the spotlight. As the industry approaches the next century. Southeast Asia is a key growth area that will be the focus of extensive drilling and development. Regional licensing activity is buoyant as oil and gas companies continue to express interest in Southeast Asian opportunities. During 1996, about 75 new license awards were granted. This year, at least an equal number of licenses likely will be awarded to international major and independent oil companies. In the past five years, the number of production-sharing contracts and concessions awarded declined slightly as oil companies apparently opted to invest in other foreign markets. Brunei government officials plan to open offshore areas to licensing in 1997, including what may prove to be attractive deep water areas. Indonesia`s state oil company Pertamina will offer 26 offshore tracts under production-sharing and technical assistance contracts this year. Malaysia expects to attract international interest in some 30 blocks it will soon offer under production-sharing terms. Bangladesh expects to call for tenders for an unspecified number of concessions later this year. Nearby, bids were submitted earlier this year to the Australian government for rights to explore 38 offshore areas. Results are expected to be announced by mid-year.

  10. Temperature effect on gastric emptying time of hybrid grouper (Epinephelus spp.)

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    De, Moumita; Ghaffar, Mazlan Abd.; Das, Simon K.

    2014-09-03

    Knowledge of fish gastric emptying time is a necessary component for understanding the fish feeding rates, energy budgets and commercial production of fishes in aquaculture. The hybrid grouper Epinephelus spp. is getting popular as a culture species in Malaysia for their faster growth rate compared to commonly cultured grouper species (giant grouper Epinephelus lanceolatus and tiger grouper Epinephelus fuscoguttatus). There are data suggests that elevated sea water temperature affects gastric emptying time (GET) of fishes. Hence, this study aims to study the GET of hybrid grouper at different temperature (22, 26, 30, 34°C) in laboratory condition with commercial diet pellet. The gastric emptying times (GETs) at different temperatures were determined X-radiographically, using barium sulfate (BaSO{sub 4}) as a contrast medium food marker. The food marker and X-radiography showed that initial voidance of fecal matter began 4-6 h after feeding at all temperature. The fastest GET (13 h) was obsereved in the 30°C group, whereas the longest (17 h) GET was seen in 22°C group fed with artificial diet pellet. Not much differences in GET were recorded between the 26 and 34°C groups as 34°C groups fed lesser amount compared to 26°C groups. Nevertheless a substantial delay in GET was observed in the 22°C group. The findings of this study suggest to culture hybrid grouper between 26 to 30°C with commercial diet pellet as this temperature ranges proliferate the faster digestion process which may contribute faster growth rate of this commerical important fish species. Overall, these findings may have important consequences for optimization of commercial production of hybrid grouper.

  11. Mathematical modelling for the drying method and smoothing drying rate using cubic spline for seaweed Kappaphycus Striatum variety Durian in a solar dryer

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    M Ali, M. K. E-mail: eutoco@gmail.com; Ruslan, M. H. E-mail: eutoco@gmail.com; Muthuvalu, M. S. E-mail: jumat@ums.edu.my; Wong, J. E-mail: jumat@ums.edu.my; Sulaiman, J. E-mail: hafidzruslan@eng.ukm.my; Yasir, S. Md. E-mail: hafidzruslan@eng.ukm.my

    2014-06-19

    The solar drying experiment of seaweed using Green V-Roof Hybrid Solar Drier (GVRHSD) was conducted in Semporna, Sabah under the metrological condition in Malaysia. Drying of sample seaweed in GVRHSD reduced the moisture content from about 93.4% to 8.2% in 4 days at average solar radiation of about 600W/m{sup 2} and mass flow rate about 0.5 kg/s. Generally the plots of drying rate need more smoothing compared moisture content data. Special cares is needed at low drying rates and moisture contents. It is shown the cubic spline (CS) have been found to be effective for moisture-time curves. The idea of this method consists of an approximation of data by a CS regression having first and second derivatives. The analytical differentiation of the spline regression permits the determination of instantaneous rate. The method of minimization of the functional of average risk was used successfully to solve the problem. This method permits to obtain the instantaneous rate to be obtained directly from the experimental data. The drying kinetics was fitted with six published exponential thin layer drying models. The models were fitted using the coefficient of determination (R{sup 2}), and root mean square error (RMSE). The modeling of models using raw data tested with the possible of exponential drying method. The result showed that the model from Two Term was found to be the best models describe the drying behavior. Besides that, the drying rate smoothed using CS shows to be effective method for moisture-time curves good estimators as well as for the missing moisture content data of seaweed Kappaphycus Striatum Variety Durian in Solar Dryer under the condition tested.

  12. Potential for biomass electricity in four Asian countries

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Kinoshita, C.M.; Turn, S.Q.; Tantlinger, J.; Kaya, M.

    1997-12-31

    Of all forms of renewable energy, biomass offers the best near-term opportunity for supplying a significant portion of the world`s need for electric power. Biomass is especially competitive when fuel supply costs are partially defrayed as production activities associated with the processing of another product, e.g., sugar, rice, or vegetable oil. Not only do such processing situations provide cost savings, they also generate very large supplies of fuel and therefore can contribute significantly to the local energy mix. Access to ample supplies of competitively-priced biomass feedstocks is only one of several factors needed to encourage the use of biomass for power generation; equally important is a healthy market for electricity, i.e., need for large blocks of additional power and sufficient strength in the economy to attract investment in new capacity. Worldwide, the Asia-Pacific region is projected to have the greatest need for new generating capacity in the next decade and shows the highest rate of economic growth, making it an attractive market for biomass power. Also critical to the expansion of bioenergy is the adoption of positive, stable policies on energy production, distribution, and sale, that encourage the generation and use of electricity from biomass. The aforementioned three factors--adequate biomass supplies, increasing demand for electricity, and supportive policies--are examined for four Asian countries, the Philippines, Thailand, Malaysia, and Indonesia. Information presented for each of the four countries include the types and amounts of bioresidues and their associated electric power generation potential; present and future supplies and demand for electricity; and existing or planned government and utility policies that could impact the generation and use of biomass power.

  13. Mobility of heavy metals through granitic soils using mini column infiltration test

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Zarime, Nur 'Aishah; Yaacob, W. Z.W.

    2014-09-03

    This study is about the mobility of cadmium through compacted granitic soils. Two granitic soils namely the Broga (BGR) and Kajang (KGR) granitic soils were collected in Selangor, Malaysia. Physical and chemical tests were applied for both granitic soils to determine the physical and chemical properties of soil materials. Physical test results shows granitic soils (BGR and KGR) have high percentage of sand ranging between 54%–63% and 46%–54% respectively, an intermediate and intermediate to high plasticity index as well as high specific gravity ie; 2.50–2.59 and 2.45–2.66 respectively. For chemical test, granitic soils shows acidic pH values ranged from 5.35–5.85 for BGR and pH 5.32–5.54 for KGR. For organic matter, SSA and CEC test, it shows low values ranged from 0.22%–0.34% and 0.39%– 0.50% respectively for organic matter test, 17.96 m{sup 2}/g–21.93 m{sup 2}/g and 25.76 m{sup 2}/g–26.83 m{sup 2}/g respectively for SSA test and 0.79 meq/100g–1.35 meq/100g and 1.31 meq/100g–1.35 meq/100g respectively for CEC test. Mini column infiltration test was conducted to determine the retention of cadmium while flowing through granite soils. This test conducted based on the falling head permeability concepts. Different G-force ranging from 231G to 1442G was used in this test. The breakthrough curves show the concentration of Cd becomes higher with the increasing of G-force for both granitic samples (BGR and KGR). The selectivity sorption for both granites ranked in the following decreasing order of; 231G>519G>923G>1442G. Results demonstrated that granitic soils also have low buffering capacity due to low resist of pH changes.

  14. Thorium, uranium and rare earth elements content in lanthanide concentrate (LC) and water leach purification (WLP) residue of Lynas advanced materials plant (LAMP)

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    AL-Areqi, Wadeeah M. Majid, Amran Ab. Sarmani, Sukiman

    2014-02-12

    Lynas Advanced Materials Plant (LAMP) has been licensed to produce the rare earths elements since early 2013 in Malaysia. LAMP processes lanthanide concentrate (LC) to extract rare earth elements and subsequently produce large volumes of water leach purification (WLP) residue containing naturally occurring radioactive material (NORM). This residue has been rising up the environmental issue because it was suspected to accumulate thorium with significant activity concentration and has been classified as radioactive residue. The aim of this study is to determine Th-232, U-238 and rare earth elements in lanthanide concentrate (LC) and water leach purification (WLP) residue collected from LAMP and to evaluate the potential radiological impacts of the WLP residue on the environment. Instrumental Neutron Activation Analysis and γ-spectrometry were used for determination of Th, U and rare earth elements concentrations. The results of this study found that the concentration of Th in LC was 1289.7 ± 129 ppm (5274.9 ± 527.6Bq/kg) whereas the Th and U concentrations in WLP were determined to be 1952.9±17.6 ppm (7987.4 ± 71.9 Bq/kg) and 17.2 ± 2.4 ppm respectively. The concentrations of Th and U in LC and WLP samples determined by γ- spectrometry were 1156 ppm (4728 ± 22 Bq/kg) and 18.8 ppm and 1763.2 ppm (7211.4 Bq/kg) and 29.97 ppm respectively. This study showed that thorium concentrations were higher in WLP compare to LC. This study also indicate that WLP residue has high radioactivity of {sup 232}Th compared to Malaysian soil natural background (63 - 110 Bq/kg) and come under preview of Act 304 and regulations. In LC, the Ce and Nd concentrations determined by INAA were 13.2 ± 0.6% and 4.7 ± 0.1% respectively whereas the concentrations of La, Ce, Nd and Sm in WLP were 0.36 ± 0.04%, 1.6%, 0.22% and 0.06% respectively. This result showed that some amount of rare earth had not been extracted and remained in the WLP and may be considered to be reextracted.

  15. The Citizen Cyberscience Lectures - 1) Mobile phones and Africa: a success story 2) Citizen Problem Solving

    ScienceCinema (OSTI)

    None

    2011-10-06

    Mobile phones and Africa: a success story Dr. Mo Ibrahim, Mo Ibrahim Foundation Citizen Problem Solving Dr. Alpheus Bingham, InnoCentive The Citizen Cyberscience Lectures are hosted by the partners of the Citizen Cyberscience Centre, CERN, The UN Institute of Training and Research and the University of Geneva. The goal of the Lectures is to provide an inspirational forum for participants from the various international organizations and academic institutions in Geneva to explore how information technology is enabling greater citizen participation in tackling global development challenges as well as global scientific research. The first Citizen Cyberscience Lectures will welcome two speakers who have both made major innovative contributions in this area. Dr. Mo Ibrahim, founder of Celtel International, one of Africa?s most successful mobile network operators, will talk about ?Mobile phones and Africa: a success story?. Dr. Alpheus Bingham, founder of InnoCentive, a Web-based community that solves industrial R&D; challenges, will discuss ?Citizen Problem Solving?. The Citizen Cyberscience Lectures are open and free of charge. Participants from outside CERN must register by sending an email to Yasemin.Hauser@cern.ch BEFORE the 23rd october to be able to access CERN. THE LECTURES Mobile phones and Africa: a success story Dr. Mo Ibrahim, Mo Ibrahim Foundation Abstract The introduction of mobile phones into Africa changed the continent, enabling business and the commercial sector, creating directly and indirectly, millions of jobs. It enriched the social lives of many people. Surprisingly, it supported the emerging civil society and advanced the course of democracy Bio Dr Mo Ibrahim is a global expert in mobile communications with a distinguished academic and business career. In 1998, Dr Ibrahim founded Celtel International to build and operate mobile networks in Africa. Celtel became one of Africa?s most successful companies with operations in 15 countries, covering more than a third of the continent?s population and investing more than US$750 million in Africa. The company was sold to MTC Kuwait in 2005 for $3.4billion. In 2006 Dr Ibrahim established the Mo Ibrahim Foundation to support great African leadership. The Foundation focuses on two major initiatives to stimulate debate around, and improve the quality of, governance in Africa. The Ibrahim Prize for Achievement in African Leadership recognises and celebrates excellence; and the Ibrahim Index of African Governance provides civil society with a comprehensive and quantifiable tool to promote government accountability. Dr Ibrahim is also Founding Chairman of Satya Capital Ltd, an investment company focused on opportunities in Africa. Dr Ibrahim has been awarded an Honorary Doctorate by the University of London?s School of Oriental and African Studies, the University of Birmingham and De Montfort University, Leicester as well as an Honorary Fellowship Award from the London Business School. He has also received the Chairman?s Award for Lifetime Achievement from the GSM Association in 2007 and the Economists Innovation Award 2007 for Social & Economic Innovation. In 2008 Dr Ibrahim was presented with the BNP Paribas Prize for Philanthropy, and also listed by TIME magazine as one of the 100 most influential people in the world. Citizen Problem Solving Dr. Alpheus Bingham, InnoCentive Abstract American playwright Damien Runyon (Guys and Dolls) once remarked, "the race is not always to the swift, nor the victory to the strong -- but that IS how you bet." Not only does a system of race handicapping follow from this logic, but the whole notion of expertise and technical qualifications. Such 'credentials' allow one to 'bet' on who might most likely solve a difficult challenge, whether as consultant, contractor or employee. Of course, the approach would differ if one were allowed to bet AFTER the race. When such systems came into broad use, i.e., chat rooms, usenets, innocentive, etc., and were subsequently studied, it was often found that the greatest probability of solution lies in the "long tail" of the function rather than in the head representing formally vetted 'experts.' Insight into a problem is often the intersection of training, experience, metaphor and provocation (think Archimedes). Examples of "citizens" outside a targeted field of expertise providing uniques solutions will illustrate the principles involved. Bio Dr. Alph Bingham is a pioneer in the field of open innovation and an advocate of collaborative approaches to research and development. He is co-founder, and former president and chief executive officer of InnoCentive Inc., a Web-based community that matches companies facing R&D; challenges with scientists who propose solutions. Through InnoCentive, a platform that leverages the ability to connect to a whole planet of people through the Internet, organizations can access individuals ? problem solvers ? who might never have been found. Alph spent more than 25 years with Eli Lilly and Company, and offers deep experience in pharmaceutical research and development, research acquisitions and collaborations, and R&D; strategic planning. During his career he was instrumental in creating and developing Eli Lilly's portfolio management process as well as establishing the divisions of Research Acquisitions, the Office of Alliance Management and e.Lilly, a business innovation unit, from which various other ventures were spun out that create the advantages of open and networked organizational structures, including: InnoCentive, YourEncore, Inc., Coalesix, Inc., Maaguzi, Inc., Indigo Biosystems, Seriosity, Chorus and Collaborative Drug Discovery, Inc. He currently serves on the Board of Directors of InnoCentive, Inc., and Collaborative Drug Discovery, Inc.; the advisory boards of the Center for Collective Intelligence (MIT), and the Business Innovation Factory, as well as a member of the board of trustees of the Bankinter Foundation for Innovation in Madrid. He has lectured extensively at both national and international events and serves as a Visiting Scholar at the National Center for Supercomputing Application at the University of Illinois at Champaign-Urbana. He is also the former chairman of the Board of Editors of the Research Technology Management Journal. Dr. Bingham was the recipient of the Economist's Fourth Annual Innovation Summit "Business Process Award" for InnoCentive. He was also named as one of Project Management Institute's "Power 50" leaders in October 2005. Dr. Bingham received a Ph.D. in organic chemistry from Stanford University.

  16. Geographical Distribution of Biomass Carbon in Tropical Southeast Asian Forests: A Database

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Brown, S

    2001-05-22

    A database was generated of estimates of geographically referenced carbon densities of forest vegetation in tropical Southeast Asia for 1980. A geographic information system (GIS) was used to incorporate spatial databases of climatic, edaphic, and geomorphological indices and vegetation to estimate potential (i.e., in the absence of human intervention and natural disturbance) carbon densities of forests. The resulting map was then modified to estimate actual 1980 carbon density as a function of population density and climatic zone. The database covers the following 13 countries: Bangladesh, Brunei, Cambodia (Campuchea), India, Indonesia, Laos, Malaysia, Myanmar (Burma), Nepal, the Philippines, Sri Lanka, Thailand, and Vietnam. The data sets within this database are provided in three file formats: ARC/INFOTM exported integer grids, ASCII (American Standard Code for Information Interchange) files formatted for raster-based GIS software packages, and generic ASCII files with x, y coordinates for use with non-GIS software packages. This database includes ten ARC/INFO exported integer grid files (five with the pixel size 3.75 km x 3.75 km and five with the pixel size 0.25 degree longitude x 0.25 degree latitude) and 27 ASCII files. The first ASCII file contains the documentation associated with this database. Twenty-four of the ASCII files were generated by means of the ARC/INFO GRIDASCII command and can be used by most raster-based GIS software packages. The 24 files can be subdivided into two groups of 12 files each. These files contain real data values representing actual carbon and potential carbon density in Mg C/ha (1 megagram = 10{sup 6} grams) and integer-coded values for country name, Weck's Climatic Index, ecofloristic zone, elevation, forest or non-forest designation, population density, mean annual precipitation, slope, soil texture, and vegetation classification. One set of 12 files contains these data at a spatial resolution of 3.75 km, whereas the other set of 12 files has a spatial resolution of 0.25 degree. The remaining two ASCII data files combine all of the data from the 24 ASCII data files into 2 single generic data files. The first file has a spatial resolution of 3.75 km, and the second has a resolution of 0.25 degree. Both files also provide a grid-cell identification number and the longitude and latitude of the center-point of each grid cell. The 3.75-km data in this numeric data package yield an actual total carbon estimate of 42.1 Pg (1 petagram = 10{sup 15} grams) and a potential carbon estimate of 73.6 Pg; whereas the 0.25-degree data produced an actual total carbon estimate of 41.8 Pg and a total potential carbon estimate of 73.9 Pg. Fortran and SAS{trademark} access codes are provided to read the ASCII data files, and ARC/INFO and ARCVIEW command syntax are provided to import the ARC/INFO exported integer grid files. The data files and this documentation are available without charge on a variety of media and via the Internet from the Carbon Dioxide Information Analysis Center (CDIAC).

  17. Geographical Distribution of Biomass Carbon in Tropical Southeast Asian Forests: A Database

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Brown, S.

    2002-02-07

    A database was generated of estimates of geographically referenced carbon densities of forest vegetation in tropical Southeast Asia for 1980. A geographic information system (GIS) was used to incorporate spatial databases of climatic, edaphic, and geomorphological indices and vegetation to estimate potential (i.e., in the absence of human intervention and natural disturbance) carbon densities of forests. The resulting map was then modified to estimate actual 1980 carbon density as a function of population density and climatic zone. The database covers the following 13 countries: Bangladesh, Brunei, Cambodia (Campuchea), India, Indonesia, Laos, Malaysia, Myanmar (Burma), Nepal, the Philippines, Sri Lanka, Thailand, and Vietnam. The data sets within this database are provided in three file formats: ARC/INFO{trademark} exported integer grids, ASCII (American Standard Code for Information Interchange) files formatted for raster-based GIS software packages, and generic ASCII files with x, y coordinates for use with non-GIS software packages. This database includes ten ARC/INFO exported integer grid files (five with the pixel size 3.75 km x 3.75 km and five with the pixel size 0.25 degree longitude x 0.25 degree latitude) and 27 ASCII files. The first ASCII file contains the documentation associated with this database. Twenty-four of the ASCII files were generated by means of the ARC/INFO GRIDASCII command and can be used by most raster-based GIS software packages. The 24 files can be subdivided into two groups of 12 files each. These files contain real data values representing actual carbon and potential carbon density in Mg C/ha (1 megagram = 10{sup 6} grams) and integer- coded values for country name, Weck's Climatic Index, ecofloristic zone, elevation, forest or non-forest designation, population density, mean annual precipitation, slope, soil texture, and vegetation classification. One set of 12 files contains these data at a spatial resolution of 3.75 km, whereas the other set of 12 files has a spatial resolution of 0.25 degree. The remaining two ASCII data files combine all of the data from the 24 ASCII data files into 2 single generic data files. The first file has a spatial resolution of 3.75 km, and the second has a resolution of 0.25 degree. Both files also provide a grid-cell identification number and the longitude and latitude of the centerpoint of each grid cell. The 3.75-km data in this numeric data package yield an actual total carbon estimate of 42.1 Pg (1 petagram = 10{sup 15} grams) and a potential carbon estimate of 73.6 Pg; whereas the 0.25-degree data produced an actual total carbon estimate of 41.8 Pg and a total potential carbon estimate of 73.9 Pg. Fortran and SASTM access codes are provided to read the ASCII data files, and ARC/INFO and ARCVIEW command syntax are provided to import the ARC/INFO exported integer grid files. The data files and this documentation are available without charge on a variety of media and via the Internet from the Carbon Dioxide Information Analysis Center (CDIAC).

  18. Radiological risk assessment of environmental radon

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Khalid, Norafatin; Majid, Amran Ab; Yahaya, Redzuwan; Yasir, Muhammad Samudi

    2013-11-27

    Measurements of radon gas ({sup 222}Rn) in the environmental are important to assess indoor air quality and to study the potential risk to human health. Generally known that exposure to radon is considered the second leading cause of lung cancer after smoking. The environmental radon concentration depends on the {sup 226}Ra concentration, indoor atmosphere, cracking on rocks and building materials. This study was carried out to determine the indoor radon concentration from selected samples of tin tailings (amang) and building materials in an airtight sealed homemade radon chamber. The radiological risk assessment for radon gas was also calculated based on the annual exposure dose, effective dose equivalent, radon exhalation rates and fatal cancer risk. The continuous radon monitor Sun Nuclear model 1029 was used to measure the radon concentration emanates from selected samples for 96 hours. Five types of tin tailings collected from Kampar, Perak and four samples of building materials commonly used in Malaysia dwellings or building constructions were analysed for radon concentration. The indoor radon concentration determined in ilmenite, monazite, struverite, xenotime and zircon samples varies from 219.6 76.8 Bq m{sup ?3} to 571.1 251.4 Bq m{sup ?3}, 101.0 41.0 Bq m{sup ?3} to 245.3 100.2 Bq m{sup ?3}, 53.1 7.5 Bq m{sup ?3} to 181.8 9.7 Bq m{sup ?3}, 256.1 59.3 Bq m{sup ?3} to 652.2 222.2 Bq m{sup ?3} and 164.5 75.9 Bq m{sup ?3} to 653.3 240.0 Bq m{sup ?3}, respectively. Whereas, in the building materials, the radon concentration from cement brick, red-clay brick, gravel aggregate and cement showed 396.3 194.3 Bq m{sup ?3}, 192.1 75.4 Bq m{sup ?3}, 176.1 85.9 Bq m{sup ?3} and 28.4 5.7 Bq m{sup ?3}, respectively. The radon concentration in tin tailings and building materials were found to be much higher in xenotime and cement brick samples than others. All samples in tin tailings were exceeded the action level for radon gas of 148 Bq m{sup ?3} proposed by EPA except monazite 0.15 kg, struverite 0.15 kg and 0.25 kg. Whereas, all building material samples have exceeded the radon concentration in concrete and building materials of 3 to 7 Bq m{sup ?3} estimated by ICRP. The annual effective dose, effective dose equivalent, and radon exhalation rates in tin tailings were calculated to be in the range of 2.47 to 11.46 mSv, 5.94 to 1090.56 mSv y{sup ?1}, and 0.23 to 1.18 mBq kg{sup ?1} h{sup ?1}. For building materials, the calculated risk assessment of the annual effective dose, effective dose equivalent, radon exhalation rates and fatal cancer risk were 0.72 to 10.00 mSv, 1.73 to 24.00 mSv y{sup ?1}, 0.010 to 0.06 mBq kg{sup ?1} h{sup ?1} and 40 to 550 chances of persons will suffer the cancer per million (1 10{sup 6}), respectively.

  19. Towards SEA for the developing nations of Asia

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Briffett, Clive; Obbard, Jeffrey Philip; Mackee, Jamie

    2003-03-01

    In the developing and transitional countries of Asia, environmental impact assessment (EIA) has been widely practiced as a planning tool that identifies the potential impacts associated with developments and determines their level of significance and the need for mitigating measures. Not withstanding its extensive use in many Asian countries, certain limitations are now being increasingly recognised with regard to achieving sustainable development within the planning process. It is also noted that the natural environment in Asia has continued to be severely degraded despite the adoption of EIA. This research project was undertaken at the National University of Singapore to review the status on the implementation of EIA procedures and to investigate the status and potential of strategic environmental assessment (SEA) in Asia. The research project generally investigated the existing physical attributes of six countries including Hong Kong and Singapore, Malaysia and the Philippines, Sri Lanka and Vietnam and discussed their prevailing environmental conditions. It more specifically reviewed policymaking and environmental planning, environmental legislation and the practice and procedures of environmental impact assessment. It also evaluated environmental assessment education and training activities. In some cases such as Hong Kong, an opportunity to analyse actual SEA practice was included. In other cases, the potential for possible take up of formal SEA was assessed. A comparative review assesses the degree to which EIA and SEA procedures have been utilized, considers how the use of SEA could overcome the deficiencies of the EIA project-based system and includes aspects of meeting sustainability criteria. Results show that the use and application of EIA is relatively strong across all countries with the possible exception of Singapore which relies more heavily on its planning and control system to address potential environmental impacts arising from development projects. Despite this, EIAs have been undertaken in every country due to aid and bank lending agencies requiring them and multinational companies and many local NGOs completing voluntary EIAs. Even though the mandatory introduction of EIA into some countries is fairly recent such as Hong Kong (1999) and Vietnam (1994), efforts to conduct such investigations may have started many years before. The country reviews highlight many common problems and adverse influences that give rise to inadequate EIA practice, and in some cases, recommendations for improvement are proposed. The potential for SEA is assessed on the basis of its present usage which is generally small except for Hong Kong and the environmental strategic decision-making that is being conducted in policy, plan and programme formulations. While the more comprehensive and well-refined westernized model of SEA is generally weakly implemented at present, there is evidence to suggest that Agenda 21, along with other international treaties such as the Biodiversity Charter and the Ramsar Convention, has motivated certain sustainability initiatives that are resulting in increased environmental considerations at a strategic level. In some cases, these may be reflected in National Plan policymaking or in the sector and area-based activities of various ministries and departments. It is concluded that SEA potential is generally strong in those countries with smaller centralized bureaucracies but that its successful implementation will be highly dependent on changing the mind-sets and motivations of top personnel at ministerial level.