National Library of Energy BETA

Sample records for kraft sulfite misc

  1. Index of /~wilker/misc/Electronics

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Index of /~wilker/misc/Electronics. [ICO], Name · Last modified · Size · Description. [DIR], Parent Directory, -. [ ], dram.pdf, 11-Sep-1998 23:10, 124K. [ ] ...

  2. R:\\Groups\\ENVIRO\\Work Requests\\2010\\Misc\\100101_Eastshore Trail...

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    ENVIROWork Requests2010Misc100101Eastshore Trail100101Eastshore Trail Construction CX.docx Western Area Power Administration Sierra Nevada Region CATEGORICAL...

  3. OHA Misc Cases Archive File | Department of Energy

    Broader source: Energy.gov (indexed) [DOE]

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Homesum_a_epg0_fpd_mmcf_m.xls" ,"Available from WebQuantity of Natural GasAdjustmentsShirleyEnergy AEnergy Managing853926 News enDepartmentHighlights for FYdecisions, PleaseMisc

  4. Oxidation kinetics of by-product calcium sulfite 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Othman, Hasliza

    1992-01-01

    ) process at TU-Electric power plant were characterized using x-ray diffraction and thermal analyses and were found to consist mainly of calcium sulfite hemihydrate. Calcium sulfite can be oxidized in its solid state to form anhydrous calcium sulfate... Preparation and Characterization . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1. Thermal Analysis 2. X-ray Diffraction 3. Particle Size Analysis 4. Chemical Analysis . . . . . B. Calcium Sulfite Oxidation 20 21 21 23 1. Apparatus 2. Procedure I V RESULTS...

  5. Molecular Basis for Enzymatic Sulfite Oxidation -- HOW THREE CONSERVED ACTIVE SITE RESIDUES SHAPE ENZYME ACTIVITY

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Bailey, Susan

    2010-01-01

    plant sulfite oxidase (PSO) which does not contain a hemestructures are available for PSO, CSO and the bacterial

  6. File:App Misc Easement ROW.pdf | Open Energy Information

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Google Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on QA:QAsource History View New Pages Recent Changes All SpecialIDAStateEnvironmentalProcess.pdf40 CFRAmendingAppMisc

  7. Property:Building/SPBreakdownOfElctrcityUseKwhM2Misc | Open Energy

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Google Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on QA:QA J-E-1 SECTION J APPENDIXsourceII JumpQuarterlyInformation Misc Jump to: navigation, search This is a property

  8. Detection and Control of Deposition on Pendant Tubes in Kraft...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    in use in 2011. Applications Can be used by kraft recovery boilers in the pulp and paper industry and also for boilers in the coal power, cement, steel, and glass industries....

  9. Oxidation and characterization of FGD byproduct calcium sulfite and oxidized product 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Gupta, Anurag

    1993-01-01

    . . . . . Production of Calcium Sulfate Hemihydrate. . . , . Utilization of FGD Byproduct Gypsum. . . . . . . . . . . 5 6 8 9 11 12 12 18 19 20 22 EXPERIMENTAL TECHNIQUES. . . . . 23 Characterization of the FGD Byproduct. . . . . . 23 Thermal Analysis.... . . . . X-ray Diffraction Results. Infrared Spectroscopy Results. . . . . Thermal Analysis Results. . . . . . . . . . . Particles Morphology Characterization and Stability of the Sulfite Phase. . . . . . Oxidation of Calcium Sulfite Slurries...

  10. Reply to "Mechanism of the Oscillatory Bromate Oxidation of Sulfite and Ferrocyanide in a

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Epstein, Irving R.

    Reply to "Mechanism of the Oscillatory Bromate Oxidation of Sulfite and Ferrocyanide in a CSTR of the bromite-sulfite-ferrocyanide (BSF) system is better described by a mechanism that includes the component reaction of bromate and sulfur(IV)2 than by the mechanism proposed by Edblom et al.3 (ELOKE), which focuses

  11. The preparation and analysis of ammonia base sulfite pulping liquor 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Honstead, John Frederick

    1950-01-01

    . It was amntion- ed, however, t. . at during the test i' or SO in the Palmrose analysis all the sulfite was converted to sulfate~ which does not interfere with the ammonia-formol reaction. In addition the Palmrose analysis leaves the solution neutralized to a... satisfactorily but above . 5$ ammonia it does not seem advisable to attempt to obtain concentrations from pH measurements. For various solutions of ammonium hydroxide the change of pH with sulfur dioxide concentration was measured. These results are tabulated...

  12. Value-Added Products from FGD Sulfite-Rich Scrubber Materials

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Vivak Malhotra

    2010-01-31

    According to the American Coal Ash Association, about 29.25 million tons of flue gas desulfurization (FGD) byproducts were produced in the USA in 2003. Out of 29.25 million tons, 17.35 million tons were sulfite-rich scrubber materials. At present, unlike its cousin FGD gypsum, the prospect for effective utilization of sulfite-rich scrubber materials is not bright. In fact, almost 16.9 million tons are leftover every year. In our pursuit to mitigate the liability of sulfite-rich FGD scrubber materials' disposal, we are attempting to develop value-added products that can commercially compete. More specifically, for this Innovative Concept Phase I project, we have the following objectives: to characterize the sulfite-rich scrubber material for toxic metals; to optimize the co-blending and processing of scrubber material and natural byproducts; to formulate and develop structural composites from sulfite-rich scrubber material; and to evaluate the composites' mechanical properties and compare them with current products on the market. After successfully demonstrating the viability of our research, a more comprehensive approach will be proposed to take these value-added materials to fruition.

  13. Vinyl Kraft Windows and Doors | Open Energy Information

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Google Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page| Open Energy Information Serbia-EnhancingEt Al.,Turin,Village of Wellington, Ohio (UtilityVinyl Kraft Windows and

  14. Yield Improvement and Energy Savings Uing Phosphonates as Additives in Kraft pulping

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Ulrike W. Tschirner; Timothy Smith

    2007-03-31

    Project Objective: Develop a commercially viable modification to the Kraft process resulting in energy savings, increased yield and improved bleachability. Evaluate the feasibility of this technology across a spectrum of wood species used in North America. Develop detailed fundamental understanding of the mechanism by which phosphonates improve KAPPA number and yield. Evaluate the North American market potential for the use of phosphonates in the Kraft pulping process. Examine determinants of customer perceived value and explore organizational and operational factors influencing attitudes and behaviors. Provide an economic feasibility assessment for the supply chain, both suppliers (chemical supply companies) and buyers (Kraft mills). Provide background to most effectively transfer this new technology to commercial mills.

  15. Oxidation of byproduct calcium sulfite hemihydrate from coal-fired power plants 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Bhatt, Sandeep

    1995-01-01

    concentrations. The solid solutions so prepared were used to determine the critical solubility limit of calcium sulfate in calcium sulfite hemihydrate in the solid solution (CaSO4)a (CaSO3)1-a.(I/2)H20 at room temperature, Gypsite can be oxidized to calcium...

  16. Applications of pulsed EPR spectroscopy to structural studies of sulfite oxidizing enzymes

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Klein, Eric L.; Astashkin, Andrei V.; Raitsimring, Arnold; Enemark, John H.

    2013-01-01

    Sulfite oxidizing enzymes (SOEs), including sulfite oxidase (SO) and bacterial sulfite dehydrogenase (SDH), catalyze the oxidation of sulfite (SO32?) to sulfate (SO42?). The active sites of SO and SDH are nearly identical, each having a 5-coordinate, pseudo-square-pyramidal Mo with an axial oxo ligand and three equatorial sulfur donor atoms. One sulfur is from a conserved Cys residue and two are from a pyranopterindithiolene (molybdopterin, MPT) cofactor. The identity of the remaining equatorial ligand, which is solvent-exposed, varies during the catalytic cycle. Numerous in vitro studies, particularly those involving electron paramagnetic resonance (EPR) spectroscopy of the Mo(V) states of SOEs, have shown that the identity and orientation of this exchangeable equatorial ligand depends on the buffer pH, the presence and concentration of certain anions in the buffer, as well as specific point mutations in the protein. Until very recently, however, EPR has not been a practical technique for directly probing specific structures in which the solvent-exposed, exchangeable ligand is an O, OH?, H2O, SO32?, or SO42? group, because the primary O and S isotopes (16O and 32S) are magnetically silent (I = 0). This review focuses on the recent advances in the use of isotopic labeling, variable-frequency high resolution pulsed EPR spectroscopy, synthetic model compounds, and DFT calculations to elucidate the roles of various anions, point mutations, and steric factors in the formation, stabilization, and transformation of SOE active site structures.

  17. Detection and Control of Deposition on Pendant Tubes in Kraft Chemical Recovery Boilers

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    The kraft chemical recovery boilers used for pulp processing are large and expensive and can be the limiting factor for mill capacity. Improvements in boiler efficiency with better control of...

  18. Value-Added Products From FGD Sulfite-Rich Scrubber Materials

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Vivak M. Malhotra

    2006-09-30

    Massive quantities of sulfite-rich flue gas desulfurization (FGD) scrubber materials are produced every year in the USA. In fact, at present, the production of wet sulfite-rich scrubber cake outstrips the production of wet sulfate-rich scrubber cake by about 6 million tons per year. However, most of the utilization focus has centered on FGD gypsum. Therefore, we have recently initiated research on developing new strategies for the economical, but environmentally-sound, utilization of sulfite-rich scrubber material. In this exploratory project (Phase I), we attempted to ascertain whether it is feasible to develop reconstituted wood replacement products from sulfite-rich scrubber material. In pursuit of this goal, we characterized two different wet sulfite-rich scrubber materials, obtained from two power plants burning Midwestern coal, for their suitability for the development of value-added products. The overall strategy adopted was to fabricate composites where the largest ingredient was scrubber material with additional crop materials as additives. Our results suggested that it may be feasible to develop composites with flexural strength as high as 40 MPa (5800 psi) without the addition of external polymers. We also attempted to develop load-bearing composites from scrubber material, natural fibers, and phenolic polymer. The polymer-to-solid ratio was limited to {le} 0.4. The formulated composites showed flexural strengths as high as 73 MPa (10,585 psi). We plan to harness the research outcomes from Phase I to develop parameters required to upscale our value-added products in Phase II.

  19. Simultaneous and rapid determination of multiple component concentrations in a Kraft liquor process stream

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Li, Jian (Marietta, GA); Chai, Xin Sheng (Atlanta, GA); Zhu, Junyoung (Marietta, GA)

    2008-06-24

    The present invention is a rapid method of determining the concentration of the major components in a chemical stream. The present invention is also a simple, low cost, device of determining the in-situ concentration of the major components in a chemical stream. In particular, the present invention provides a useful method for simultaneously determining the concentrations of sodium hydroxide, sodium sulfide and sodium carbonate in aqueous kraft pulping liquors through use of an attenuated total reflectance (ATR) tunnel flow cell or optical probe capable of producing a ultraviolet absorbency spectrum over a wavelength of 190 to 300 nm. In addition, the present invention eliminates the need for manual sampling and dilution previously required to generate analyzable samples. The inventive method can be used in Kraft pulping operations to control white liquor causticizing efficiency, sulfate reduction efficiency in green liquor, oxidation efficiency for oxidized white liquor and the active and effective alkali charge to kraft pulping operations.

  20. Dry Kraft Pulping at Ambient Pressure for Cost Effective Energy Saving and Pollution Deduction

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Yulin Deng; Art Ragauskas

    2012-08-28

    Sponsored by the DOE Industrial Energy Efficiency Grand Challenge program, our research team at the Georgia Institute of Technology conducted laboratory studies and confirmed the concept of making wood pulp using a dry pulping technology. This technology is a new process different from any prior pulping technology used in Kraft and CTMP pulping. Three different kinds of dry pulping methods were investigated. (a) Dry Pulping at Atmospheric Pressure: The first one is to dry and bake the pretreated woodchips in a conventional oven at atmospheric pressure without the use of a catalyst. (b) Dry Pulping at Reduced Pressure: The second method is to dry the pretreated woodchips first in a vacuum oven in the presence of anthraquinone (AQ) as a pulping catalyst, followed by baking at elevated temperature. (c) Liquid Free Chemical Pulping, LFCP. The third method is to first remove the free water of pretreated woodchips, followed by dry pulping using a conventional Kraft pulping digester with AQ and triton as additives. Method one: Experimental results indicated that Dry Pulping at Atmospheric Pressure could produce pulp with higher brightness and lower bulk than conventional Kraft pulp. However, tensile strength of the acquired pulp is much lower than traditional Kraft pulp, and their Kappa number and energy consumption are higher than conventional Kraft pulp. By fully analyzing the results, we concluded that wood fibers might be damaged during the drying process at elevated temperature. The main reason for wood fiber damage is that a long drying time was used during evaporation of water from the woodchips. This resulted in an un-uniform reaction condition on the woodchips: the outside layer of the woodchips was over reacted while inside the woodchips did not reacted at all. To solve this problem, dry pulping at reduced pressure was investigated. Method two: To achieve uniform reaction throughout the entire reaction system, the water inside the pretreated woodchips was evaporated first under vacuum condition at low temperature. Then, the dry woodchips were baked at high temperature (120-130 C) at atmospheric pressure. The qualities of the pulp made with this method were improved compared to that made with method one. The pulp shows higher brightness and lower bulk than Kraft pulping. The tensile strength is significantly higher than the pulp made from the first method. Although the pulp is stronger than that of TMP pulp, it is still lower than conventional Kraft fiber. Method Three: The third dry method was done in a Kraft pulping digester at elevated pressure but without free liquid in the digester. With this method, pulp that has almost the same qualities as conventional Kraft pulp could be produced. The screen yield, Kappa number, fiber brightness, pulp strength and pulp bulk are almost identical to the conventional Kraft pulp. The key advantages of this dry pulping method include ca. 55 % of cooking energy saved during the pulping process, as high as 50 wt% of NaOH saving as well as 3 wt% of Na2S saving comparing to Kraft one. By analyzing fiber properties, yields, chemical and energy consumptions, we concluded that the dry pulping method based on Liquid Free Chemical Pulping, LFCP, could be very attractive for the pulp and paper industry. More fundamental studies and scale up trials are needed to fully commercialize the technology. We expect to conduct pilot trials between 12 to 24 months of period if the DOE or industry can provide continual research funding. Based on the technology we demonstrated in this report, several pilot trial facilities in the United States will be available after small modifications. For example, the Herty Foundation in Savannah, Georgia is one of these potential locations. DOE funding for continuous study and final lead to commercialization of the technique is important.

  1. J. Phys. Chem. 1990, 94, 4973-4979 4973 A Simple Model for the Oscillatory Iodate Oxidation of Sulfite and Ferrocyanide

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Showalter, Kenneth

    of Sulfite and Ferrocyanide Vilmos GBspirt and Kenneth Showalter* Department of Chemistry, West Virginia for the oscillatoryiodate-sulfite-ferrocyanide reaction. The dynamical behavior of the reduced model is compared) and the related iodate oxidationsof arsenousacid and ferrocyanide2 are characterized by a long period of slow

  2. Composite tube cracking in kraft recovery boilers: A state-of-the-art review

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Singbeil, D.L.; Prescott, R.; Keiser, J.R.; Swindeman, R.W.

    1997-07-01

    Beginning in the mid-1960s, increasing energy costs in Finland and Sweden made energy recovery more critical to the cost-effective operation of a kraft pulp mill. Boiler designers responded to this need by raising the steam operating pressure, but almost immediately the wall tubes in these new boilers began to corrode rapidly. Test panels installed in the walls of the most severely corroding boiler identified austenitic stainless steel as sufficiently resistant to the new corrosive conditions, and discussions with Sandvik AB, a Swedish tube manufacturer, led to the suggestion that coextruded tubes be used for water wall service in kraft recovery boilers. Replacement of carbon steel by coextruded tubes has solved most of the corrosion problems experienced by carbon steel wall tubes, however, these tubes have not been problem-free. Beginning in early 1995, a multidisciplinary research program funded by the US Department of Energy was established to investigate the cause of cracking in coextruded tubes and to develop improved materials for use in water walls and floors of kraft recovery boilers. One portion of that program, a state-of-the-art review of public- and private-domain documents related to coextruded tube cracking in kraft recovery boilers is reported here. Sources of information that were consulted for this review include the following: tube manufacturers, boiler manufacturers, public-domain literature, companies operating kraft recovery boilers, consultants and failure analysis laboratories, and failure analyses conducted specifically for this project. Much of the information contained in this report involves cracking problems experienced in recovery boiler floors and those aspects of spout and air-port-opening cracking not readily attributable to thermal fatigue. 61 refs.

  3. Java interface programming: Everything off the best website I've ever found: http://www-lia.deis.unibo.it/Misc/SW/Java/tutorial/html/native1.1/implementing/index.html

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Nourbakhsh, Illah

    Java interface programming: Everything off the best website I've ever found: http://www-lia.deis.unibo.it/Misc/SW/Java/tutorial/html/native1.1/implementing/index.html Table of Contents Java Native Interface Programming The JDK1.1 supports the Java Native Interface (JNI). On one hand, the JNI defines a standard naming and calling convention so

  4. PERFORMANCE OF BLACK LIQUOR GASIFIER/GAS TURBINE COMBINED CYCLE COGENERATION IN mE KRAFT PULP

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    ,and otherregions with low wood production costs and relatively low per-capita levels of paper use. The majority,and capital cost benefits for kraft mills. Several companie.~arepursuingcon-urercializationof black liquor

  5. Redox states of Desulfovibrio vulgaris DsrC, a key protein in dissimilatory sulfite reduction

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Venceslau, Sofia S.; Cort, John R.; Baker, Erin Shammel; Chu, Rosalie K.; Robinson, Errol W.; Dahl, Christiane; Saraiva, Ligia M.; Pereira, Ines Ac

    2013-11-29

    Dissimilatory reduction of sulfite is carried out by the siroheme enzyme DsrAB, with the involvement of the protein DsrC having two conserved cysteine residues. Here, we report a study of the distribution of DsrC in cell extracts, a cysteine-labelling gel-shift assay to monitor its redox state and behaviour, and procedures to produce the different redox forms. We show that, in the model sulfate reducer Desulfovibrio vulgaris, the majority of DsrC is not associated with DsrAB and is thus free to interact with other proteins. In addition, we successfully produced DsrC with an intramolecular disulfide bond (oxidized state) by treatment with arginine.

  6. Mimic of superoxide dismutase activity protects Chlorella sorokiniana against the toxicity of sulfite

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Rabinowitch, H.D.; Rosen, G.M.; Fridovich, I.

    1989-01-01

    The spin-trapping agent 5,5-dimethyl-1-pyrroline-N-oxide (DMPO) has been used to demonstrate the light-dependent production of O/sub 2/- by Chlorella sorokiniana. In the presence of SO/sub 3/= a light-dependent production of the sulfur trioxy anion radical (SO/sub 3/-.) could also be seen. A complex prepared by reacting desferrioxamine with MnO/sub 2/, which catalyzes the dismutation of O/sub 2/-, protected the alga against the toxicity of sulfite. The data suggest that SO/sub 2/ toxicity is at least partially due to the effects of sulfoxy-free radicals generated by the oxidation of SO3= by O/sub 2/-.

  7. A comprehensive program to develop correlations for physical properties of kraft black liquor. Final report

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Fricke, A.L.; Zaman, A.A.

    1998-05-01

    The overall objective of the program was to develop correlations to predict physical properties within requirements of engineering precision from a knowledge of pulping conditions and of kraft black liquor composition, if possible. These correlations were to include those relating thermodynamic properties to pulping conditions and liquor composition. The basic premise upon which the research was based is the premise that black liquor behaves as a polymer solution. This premise has proven to be true, and has been used successfully in developing data reduction methods and in interpreting results. A three phase effort involving pulping, analysis of liquor composition, and measurement of liquor properties was conducted.

  8. Reaction of Hydrogen Sulfide with Oxygen in the Presence ofSulfite

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Weres, Oleh; Tsao, Leon

    1983-01-01

    Commonly, abatement of hydrogen sulfide emissions from a geothermal powerplant requires that hydrogen sulfide dissolved in the cooling water be eliminated by chemical reaction. Oxidation by atmospheric oxygen is the preferred reaction, but requires a suitable catalyst. Nickel is the most potent and thereby cheapest catalyst for this purpose. One Mg/L nickel in the cooling water would allow 99% removal of hydrogen sulfide to be attained. A major drawback of catalytic air oxidation is that colloidal sulfur is a major reaction product; this causes rapid sludge accumulation and deposition of sulfur scale. The authors studied the kinetics and product distribution of the reaction of hydrogen sulfide with oxygen, catalyzed by nickel. Adding sodium sulfite to the solution completely suppresses formation of colloidal sulfur by converting it to thiosulfate. The oxidation reaction is an autocatalytic, free radical chain reaction. A rate expression for this reaction and a detailed reaction mechanism were developed. Nickel catalyzes the chain initiation step, and polysulfidoradical ions propagate the chains. Several complexes of iron and cobalt were also studied. Iron citrate and iron N-hydroxyEDT are the most effective iron based catalysts. Uncomplexed cobalt is as effective as nickel, but forms a precipitate of cobalt oxysulfide and is too expensive for practical use.

  9. Dynamics of large wood in an eastern U.S. mountain stream Dana R. Warren *, Clifford E. Kraft

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Kraft, Clifford E.

    Dynamics of large wood in an eastern U.S. mountain stream Dana R. Warren *, Clifford E. Kraft recent studies have documented the importance of large woody debris (large wood) in streams of northeastern North America. Large wood retains sediment and organic matter (Thompson, 1995), promotes habitat

  10. Integration of the Mini-Sulfide Sulfite Anthraquinone (MSS-AQ) Pulping Process and Black Liquor Gasification in a Pulp Mill

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Hasan Jameel, North Carolina State University; Adrianna Kirkman, North Carolina State University; Ravi Chandran,Thermochem Recovery International Brian Turk Research Triangle Institute; Brian Green, Research Triangle Institute

    2010-01-27

    As many of the recovery boilers and other pieces of large capital equipment of U.S. pulp mills are nearing the end of their useful life, the pulp and paper industry will soon need to make long-term investments in new technologies. The ability to install integrated, complete systems that are highly efficient will impact the industry’s energy use for decades to come. Developing a process for these new systems is key to the adoption of state-of-the-art technologies in the Forest Products industry. This project defined an integrated process model that combines mini-sulfide sulfite anthraquinone (MSS-AQ) pulping and black liquor gasification with a proprietary desulfurization process developed by the Research Triangle Institute. Black liquor gasification is an emerging technology that enables the use of MSS-AQ pulping, which results in higher yield, lower bleaching cost, lower sulfur emissions, and the elimination of causticization requirements. The recently developed gas cleanup/absorber technology can clean the product gas to a state suitable for use in a gas turbine and also regenerate the pulping chemicals needed to for the MSS-AQ pulping process. The combination of three advanced technologies into an integrated design will enable the pulping industry to achieve a new level of efficiency, environmental performance, and cost savings. Because the three technologies are complimentary, their adoption as a streamlined package will ensure their ability to deliver maximum energy and cost savings benefits. The process models developed by this project will enable the successful integration of new technologies into the next generation of chemical pulping mills. When compared to the Kraft reference pulp, the MSS-AQ procedures produced pulps with a 10-15 % yield benefit and the ISO brightness was 1.5-2 times greater. The pulp refined little easier and had a slightly lower apparent sheet density (In both the cases). At similar levels of tear index the MSS-AQ pulps also produced a comparable tensile and burst index pulps. Product gas composition determined using computer simulations The results demonstrate that RVS-1 can effectively remove > 99.8% of the H2S present in simulated synthesis gas generated from the gasification of black liquor. This level of sulfur removal was consistent over simulated synthesis gas mixtures that contained from 6 to 9.5 vol % H2S.A significant amount of the sulfur in the simulated syngas was recovered as SO2 during regeneration. The average recovery of sulfur as SO2 was about 75%. Because these are first cycle results, this sulfur recovery is expected to improve. Developed WINGems model of the process.The total decrease in variable operating costs for the BLG process compared to the HERB was in excess of $6,200,000 per year for a mill producing 350,000 tons of pulp per year. This represents a decrease in operating cost of about $17.7/ton of oven dry pulp produced. There will be additional savings in labor and maintenance cost that has not been taken into account. The capital cost for the MSSAQ based gasifier system was estimated at $164,000,000, which is comparable to a High Efficiency Recovery Boiler. The return on investment was estimated at 4%. A gasifier replacement cannot be justified on its own, however if the recovery boiler needs to be replaced the MSSAQ gasifier system shows significantly higher savings. Before black liquor based gasifer technology can be commercialized more work is necessary. The recovery of the absorbed sulfur in the absorbent as sulfur dioxide is only 75%. This needs to be greater than 90% for economical operation. It has been suggested that as the number of cycles is increased the sulfur dioxide recovery might improve. Further research is necessary. Even though a significant amount of work has been done on a pilot scale gasifiers using liquors containing sulfur, both at low and high temperatures the lack of a commercial unit is an impediment to the implementation of the MSSAQ technology. The implementation of a commercial unit needs to be facilated before the benefits of

  11. Evaluation and application of SOX measurement procedures for kraft recovery furnaces. Project report July 1976-September 1980

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Jain, A.K.; Blosser, R.O.; Newport, D.B.; Oglesby, H.S.

    1980-09-01

    The objective of this investigation was to determine the sulfuric acid (SO3/H2SO4) and sulfur dioxide (SO2) emissions from kraft recovery furnaces using an extractive sampling system. The Goksoyr and Ross controlled condensation technique was chosen. Equipment was designed and fabricated to evaluate the effect of coil length, grit porosity, temperature, flow rate, and concentration upon the efficiency of capture of H2SO4 in the modified Grahm condenser. The optimum design and operating conditions to minimize SO3/H2SO4 losses in filter holders used in the sampling train for particulate separation were determined, and the effects of recovery furnace particulate upon SO3/H2SO4 losses were investigated. Sampling of five representative Kraft recovery furnace stack gases showed that the SO3/H2SO4 concentrations varied from 0 to 2.98 ppm, while the range of SO2 concentrations was from 14 to 416 ppm. A comparison of these emissions with the SO3/H2SO4 and SO2 emissions from oil and coal fired utility boilers shows the kraft recovery furnace emissions to be much lower.

  12. Solution Structure of Pyrobaculum aerophilum DsrC, an Archaeal Homologue of the Gamma Subunit of Dissimilatory Sulfite Reductase

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Cort, John R.; Mariappan, S.V. S.; Kim, Chang Y.; Park, Min S.; Peat, Thomas S.; Waldo, Geoffrey S.; Terwilliger, Thomas C.; Kennedy, Michael A.

    2001-11-29

    The solution structure of DsrC, an archaeal homologue of the g subunit of dissimilatory sulfite reductase has been determined by NMR spectroscopy. This 12.7 kDa protein from the hyperthermophilic archaeon Pyrobaculum aerophilum adopts a novel fold consisting of an orthogonal helical bundle with a b-hairpin along one side. A portion of the structure resembles the helix-turn-helix DNA-binding motif common in transcriptional regulator proteins. The protein contains two disulfide bonds but remains folded in the presence of DTT. DsrC proteins from organisms other than Pyrobaculum species do not contain these disulfide bonds. A conserved cysteine next to the C-terminus, which is not involved in the disulfide bonds, is not part of the globular structure of the protein and is located on an unstructured 7-residue C-terminal arm that extends away from the center of the protein.

  13. Methanol Fractionation of Softwood Kraft Lignin: Impact on the Lignin Properties

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Saito, Tomonori [ORNL] [ORNL; Perkins, Joshua H [ORNL] [ORNL; Vautard, Frederic [ORNL] [ORNL; Meyer III, Harry M [ORNL] [ORNL; Messman, Jamie M [ORNL] [ORNL; Tolnai, Balazs [ORNL] [ORNL; Naskar, Amit K [ORNL] [ORNL

    2014-01-01

    The development of technologies to tune lignin properties for high-performance lignin-based materials is crucial for the utilization of lignin in various applications. Here, the effect of methanol (MeOH) fractionation on the molecular weight, molecular weight distribution, glass transition temperature (Tg), thermal decomposition, and chemical structure of lignin were investigated. Repeated MeOH fractionation of softwood Kraft lignin successfully removed the low-molecular-weight fraction. The separated high-molecular-weight lignin showed a Tg of 211 C and a char yield of 47%, much higher than those of asreceived lignin (Tg 153 C, char yield 41%). The MeOH-soluble fraction of lignin showed an increased low-molecular-weight fraction and a lower Tg (117 C) and char yield (32%). The amount of low-molecular-weight fraction showed a quantitative correlation with both 1/Tg and char yield in a linear regression. This study demonstrated the efficient purification or fractionation technology for lignin; it also established a theoretical and empirical correlation between the physical characteristics of fractionated lignins.

  14. Investigation of Pressurized Entrained-Flow Kraft Black Liquor Gasification in an Industrially Relevant Environment

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Kevin Whitty

    2008-06-30

    The University of Utah's project 'Investigation of Pressurized Entrained-Flow Kraft Black Liquor Gasification in an Industrially Relevant Environment' (U.S. DOE Cooperative Agreement DE-FC26-04NT42261) was a response to U.S. DOE/NETL solicitation DE-PS36-04GO94002, 'Biomass Research and Development Initiative' Topical Area 4-Kraft Black Liquor Gasification. The project began September 30, 2004. The objective of the project was to improve the understanding of black liquor conversion in high pressure, high temperature reactors that gasify liquor through partial oxidation with either air or oxygen. The physical and chemical characteristics of both the gas and condensed phase were to be studied over the entire range of liquor conversion, and the rates and mechanisms of processes responsible for converting the liquor to its final smelt and syngas products were to be investigated. This would be accomplished by combining fundamental, lab-scale experiments with measurements taken using a new semi-pilot scale pressurized entrained-flow gasifier. As a result of insufficient availability of funds and changes in priority within the Office of Biomass Programs of the U.S. Department of Energy, the research program was terminated in its second year. In total, only half of the budgeted funding was made available for the program, and most of this was used during the first year for construction of the experimental systems to be used in the program. This had a severe impact on the program. As a consequence, most of the planned research was unable to be performed. Only studies that relied on computational modeling or existing experimental facilities started early enough to deliver useful results by the time to program was terminated Over the course of the program, small scale (approx. 1 ton/day) entrained-flow gasifier was designed and installed at the University of Utah's off-campus Industrial Combustion and Gasification Research Facility. The system is designed to operate at pressures as high as 32 atmospheres, and at temperatures as high as 1500 C (2730 F). Total black liquor processing capacity under pressurized, oxygen-blown conditions should be in excess of 1 ton black liquor solids per day. Many sampling ports along the conversion section of the system will allow detailed analysis of the environment in the gasifier under industrially representative conditions. Construction was mostly completed before the program was terminated, but resources were insufficient to operate the system. A system for characterizing black liquor sprays in hot environments was designed and constructed. Silhouettes of black liquor sprays formed by injection of black liquor through a twin fluid (liquor and atomizing air) nozzle were videoed with a high-speed camera, and the resulting images were analyzed to identify overall characteristics of the spray and droplet formation mechanisms. The efficiency of liquor atomization was better when the liquor was injected through the center channel of the nozzle, with atomizing air being introduced in the annulus around the center channel, than when the liquor and air feed channels were reversed. Atomizing efficiency and spray angle increased with atomizing air pressure up to a point, beyond which additional atomizing air pressure had little effect. Analysis of the spray patterns indicates that two classifications of droplets are present, a finely dispersed 'mist' of very small droplets and much larger ligaments of liquor that form at the injector tip and form one or more relatively large droplets. This ligament and subsequent large droplet formation suggests that it will be challenging to obtain a narrow distribution of droplet sizes when using an injector of this design. A model for simulating liquor spray and droplet formation was developed by Simulent, Inc. of Toronto. The model was able to predict performance when spraying water that closely matched the vendor specifications. Simulation of liquor spray indicates that droplets on the order 200-300 microns can be expected, and that higher liquor flow will result in be

  15. A Cost-Benefit Assessment of Gasification-Based Biorefining in the Kraft Pulp and Paper Industry

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Eric D. Larson; Stefano Consonni; Ryan E. Katofsky; Kristiina Iisa; W. James Frederick

    2007-03-31

    Production of liquid fuels and chemicals via gasification of kraft black liquor and woody residues (''biorefining'') has the potential to provide significant economic returns for kraft pulp and paper mills replacing Tomlinson boilers beginning in the 2010-2015 timeframe. Commercialization of gasification technologies is anticipated in this period, and synthesis gas from gasifiers can be converted into liquid fuels using catalytic synthesis technologies that are in most cases already commercially established today in the ''gas-to-liquids'' industry. These conclusions are supported by detailed analysis carried out in a two-year project co-funded by the American Forest and Paper Association and the Biomass Program of the U.S. Department of Energy. This work assessed the energy, environment, and economic costs and benefits of biorefineries at kraft pulp and paper mills in the United States. Seven detailed biorefinery process designs were developed for a reference freesheet pulp/paper mill in the Southeastern U.S., together with the associated mass/energy balances, air emissions estimates, and capital investment requirements. Commercial (''Nth'') plant levels of technology performance and cost were assumed. The biorefineries provide chemical recovery services and co-produce process steam for the mill, some electricity, and one of three liquid fuels: a Fischer-Tropsch synthetic crude oil (which would be refined to vehicle fuels at existing petroleum refineries), dimethyl ether (a diesel engine fuel or LPG substitute), or an ethanol-rich mixed-alcohol product. Compared to installing a new Tomlinson power/recovery system, a biorefinery would require larger capital investment. However, because the biorefinery would have higher energy efficiencies, lower air emissions, and a more diverse product slate (including transportation fuel), the internal rates of return (IRR) on the incremental capital investments would be attractive under many circumstances. For nearly all of the cases examined in the study, the IRR lies between 14% and 18%, assuming a 25-year levelized world oil price of $50/bbl--the US Department of Energy's 2006 reference oil price projection. The IRRs would rise to as high as 35% if positive incremental environmental benefits associated with biorefinery products are monetized (e.g., if an excise tax credit for the liquid fuel is available comparable to the one that exists for ethanol in the United States today). Moreover, if future crude oil prices are higher ($78/bbl levelized price, the US Department of Energy's 2006 high oil price scenario projection, representing an extrapolation of mid-2006 price levels), the calculated IRR exceeds 45% in some cases when environmental attributes are also monetized. In addition to the economic benefits to kraft pulp/paper producers, biorefineries widely implemented at pulp mills in the U.S. would result in nationally-significant liquid fuel production levels, petroleum savings, greenhouse gas emissions reductions, and criteria-pollutant reductions. These are quantified in this study. A fully-developed pulpmill biorefinery industry could be double or more the size of the current corn-ethanol industry in the United States in terms of annual liquid fuel production. Forest biomass resources are sufficient in the United States to sustainably support such a scale of forest biorefining in addition to the projected growth in pulp and paper production.

  16. Index of /~wilker/misc/chemistry

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    methanol.pdb, 01-Dec-1998 15:47, 500. [ ], nh3-2.pdb, 01-Dec-1998 15:47, 314. [ ], propane.pdb, 01-Dec-1998 15:47, 840. [ ], vit-c.pdb, 01-Dec-1998 15:47, 1.4 ...

  17. Process Color Profiling: Syncing a Digital Press with an Offset Laura Kraft, Kate Blout, and Paul D. Fleming III; Larry Brink Printing Laboratory and Center for Ink and Printability Research,

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Fleming, Paul D. "Dan"

    Process Color Profiling: Syncing a Digital Press with an Offset Press Laura Kraft, Kate Blout, Michigan Abstract For both printers and clients, accurate proofs are needed before going to press. The proof should predict what the job would look like on the press. Press proofing is an integral part

  18. Nitrogen Dioxide Absorption and Sulfite Oxidation in Aqueous Sulfite

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Rochelle, Gary T.

    oxidation in limestone slurry scrubbing. Introduction Limestone (CaCO3) slurry scrubbing and lime (Ca

  19. Kraft Rt Kraft Electronics Inc | Open Energy Information

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Google Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on QA:QAsource History View NewTexas: Energy ResourcesOrderInformationKizildereTexas:Solar IncKrafla Geothermal

  20. MISC report for Faculty Council 1 March 2013

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Toronto, University of

    raffle prizes, and the rest carried over into the donation total--Thank you! Green iTea Wed, February 27SQL and programming concepts #12;Past events: Executive Mental Health iTea Wed, January 16, 5pm ­ 6pm The i, 5pm ­ 6pm This event was the culmination of a year's worth of efforts to promote green

  1. FOIASI - Special Inquiry Review of Allegations InvolvingPotentialMisc...

    Energy Savers [EERE]

    Federal and contractor officials to access subcontractor personnel files for data mining of demographic information in violation of the procedures for protecting persondly...

  2. Production development and utilization of Zimmer Station wet FGD by-products. Final report. Volume 4, A laboratory study conducted in fulfillment of Phase 2, Objective 1 titled: Inhibition of acid production in coal refuse amended with calcium sulfite and calcium sulfate - containing FGD solids

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    none,

    1998-06-30

    Control of S02 emission from coal combustion requires desulfurization of coal before its combustion to produce coal refuse. Alternatively, gaseous emissions from coal combustion may be scrubbed to yield flue gas desulfurization (FGD) by-products that include calcium sulfite (CaSO3?0.5H2O or simply CaS03). Acid production in coal refuse due to pyrite oxidation and disposal of large amounts of FGD can cause environmental degradation. Addition of CaS03 and CaS03-containing FGD to coal refuse may reduce the amounts of oxygen and ferric ion available to oxidize pyrite because the sulfite moiety in CaS03 is a strong reductant and thus may mitigate acid production in coal refuse. In Chapter 1, it was shown that CaS03 efficiently scavenged dissolved oxygen and ferric ion in water under the conditions commonly encountered in a coal refuse disposal environment. In the presence ofCaS03, the concentration of dissolved oxygen in water exposed to the atmosphere declined to below 0.01 mg L"1 at pH <8.0. In Chapter 2, it was demonstrated that CaS03 prevented a pH drop in coal refuse slurry when 0.2 gCaS03 was added to a 2% fresh coal refuse slurry every three days. Calcium sulfite also inhibited acid leaching from fresh coal refuse in bench-scale columns under controlled conditions. During the initial 13 weeks of leaching, the total amounts of titratable acidity, soluble H\\ Fe, and Al from CaS03-treated refuse (6.4 gin 50 g fresh coal refuse) were only 26%,10%, 32%, and 39% of those of the control columns, respectively. A combination of CaS03 with CaC03 or fly ash enhanced the inhibitory effect of CaS03 on acid leaching. Calcium sulfite-containing FGD which combined CaS03, CaC03, fly ash, and gypsum showed a much stronger inhibitory effect on acid leaching than CaS03 alone. This combination effect was partially due to the positive interaction of CaS03 with CaC03 and fly ash on inhibition of acid leaching. In Chapter 3, CaS03-containing FGD was found to inhibit acid leaching from both fresh and aged coal refuse in large scale columns under simulated field conditions. During 39 weeks of leaching, the reduction of leachate acidity and Fe concentration and the increase ofleachate pH were significant (p <0.05) for the 22% FGD treatment with a linear response to increasing FGD rates (0%, 5.5%, 11%, and 22%). I conclude that CaS03 and CaS03-containing FGD have the ability to inhibit acid production in coal refuse and the inhibitory effect shown in this experiment is likely to occur under field conditions. Thus, the research results present a potential new method for mitigation of acid production in coal refuse and another beneficial utilization of FGD by-products.

  3. WindKraft Inc | Open Energy Information

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Google Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on QA:QA J-E-1 SECTION J APPENDIX ECoop IncIowa (Utility Company)Idaho)VosslohWestConnecticut:Wind WorldWind

  4. UPDATE ON NUCLEAR PLANS AND CARBON LEGISLATION 1 Misc points re climate policies --Energy Security,

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Emissions Trading Workshop Purdue Climate Change Research Center April 30, 2010 #12;UPDATE ON NUCLEAR PLANS side must compromise ·Emissions trading aligns the incentives for both in same direction ·Nuclear

  5. System vendor Contents Type Location Removal of Misc Cable, Conduit and Junction Boxes

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Princeton Plasma Physics Laboratory

    -NCSX-2919 Coils NCSX Coil Winding Facility AC Power Procedure Procedure Files IP-NCSX-2896 Coils Autoclave Facility Procedure Procedure Files IP-NCSX-2968 Coils NCSX Coil Winding Facility Room #2 Extension Procedure Procedure Files IP-NCSX-3035 Coils NCSX TF Winding Table Removal Procedure Procedure Files IP

  6. O.A.R. 734-055 - Pole Lines, Buried Cables, Pipe lines, Signs, Misc.

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Google Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on QA:QAsource History ViewMayo, Maryland:NPI VenturesNewSt. Louis, Minnesota:Nulato,Nyack, New Jump to:Medians |

  7. https://mi3.ncdc.noaa.gov/mi3report/MISC/asos-stations.txt

    National Nuclear Security Administration (NNSA)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Homesum_a_epg0_fpd_mmcf_m.xls" ,"Available from WebQuantity of NaturalDukeWakefield Municipal GasAdministration Medal01 Sandia4)9 FederalRivers andMEDA Station WindSelect aNCDCID WBAN

  8. REACTIONS OF SULFITE AND NITRITE IONS IN AQUEOUS SOLUTIONS

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Chang, S.G.

    2013-01-01

    technology for power plant flue gas desulfurization (FGD).so 2 so 2 Because power plant flue gas contains hundreds of

  9. REACTIONS OF SULFITE AND NITRITE IONS IN AQUEOUS SOLUTIONS

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Chang, S.G.

    2013-01-01

    of NO to N0 in Fig. 2 (Pso PNO::::: PN0 on the reaction isreaction is shown in Fig. (Pso 1000, PNO = PN02 : : : 250is demonstrated in Fig. 5 (Pso PN 02 : : 250 ppm, pH : : 5,

  10. Spectroscopic and Kinetic Studies of Arabidopsis thaliana Sulfite Oxidase

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Byrne, Robert Stephen

    2010-01-01

    no affect on the reaction velocity, it could be concludedincrease in the reaction velocity, since the K m for sulfitesignificant changes in reaction velocity observed over the

  11. Process integration studies on Kraft pulp mill biorefineries producing ethanol

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Ahrendt, Wolfgang

    -of-the-art mills (Brazilian example) 460 500 540 580 620 660 700 Turbines Lignin /m3EtOH New turb/lign HEN + turb below. In the repurposed pulp mill investing in larger turbines or lignin extraction in order to make use of excess steam can improve the energy balance, but improved heat integration (reducing steam

  12. 07/06/2006 12:16 PMhttp://fti.neep.wisc.edu/MISC/EWFullPR07.htm Page 1 of 6http://fti.neep.wisc.edu/MISC/EWFullPR07.htm

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    including solar, biomass and nuclear energy, roughly a $380 million increase for energy supply $18 million for a solar-hydrogen pilot plant; · Biomass -- $213 million, a $63 million increase; #12 Energy and Water Appropriations Bill WASHINGTON ­ Today the Senate Appropriations Committee unanimously

  13. Concentration of Simple Aldehydes by Sulfite-Containing Double-Layer Hydroxide Minerals: Implications for Biopoesis

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Arrhenius, Gustaf

    of production, concentration, and interaction of aldehydes and aldehyde phosphates, potential precursors of the simple aldehydes formaldehyde, glycolaldehyde, and glyceraldehyde by adduct formation in the presence of formaldehyde [1]. However, the environmental plausibility of this model reaction leaves some

  14. Molecular Basis for Enzymatic Sulfite Oxidation -- HOW THREE CONSERVED ACTIVE SITE RESIDUES SHAPE ENZYME ACTIVITY

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Bailey, Susan

    2010-01-01

    assays and the changes in reaction velocity observed; (2) toSDH WT , plots of the reaction velocity vs. the amount of

  15. -Search-Register Submit News Blogs Protocols Forum Groups Shop All Health Bioscience Physical Science Environment Space Tech Life Origins Misc

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Espinosa, Horacio D.

    -Search- Register Submit News Blogs Protocols Forum Groups Shop All Health Bioscience Physical Blog articles Vladimir R BaruchChani Ahmed Michal Labspaces.net on Facebook 1,238 people like Labspaces.net. Like Facebook social plugin Email Forgot password? Not a member?News Blogs Featured Blogs 3-dimensional

  16. Updated: 2/18/09 Macintosh HD :Users:dawnc:Desktop:Misc Faculty Folder:Walsh:Urology Forms:Word format (for editing):Peyronie's Questionnaire.doc

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Washington at Seattle, University of

    ? No Narrowing of shaft: all around like hourglass Hinge effect at head Narrowing of shaft: base Hinge effect at base Narrowing of shaft: mid Narrowing of shaft: left Narrowing of shaft: end Narrowing of shaft: right

  17. Chronic disease and early exposure to air-borne mixtures. 2. Exposure assessment

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    James Argo

    2007-10-15

    This work is part of a larger study of the impact of early exposure to releases from industry on the etiology of cancer. Releases from all kraft and sulfite mills, coke ovens, oil refineries, copper, nickel, and lead/zinc smelters operating in Canada during the exposure period of 1967-1970 have been determined. All plumes have been expressed in g BaP eq/d using the RASH methodology. The releases have been divided into process, boiler fuel, dioxin, and SO{sub 2} emissions. Combustion sources have been defined with FIREv6.23. Dioxin congenors are expected in all source types when the boiler fuel is heavy fuel oil, wood or wood bark, or coal. All about 90 communities examined have an inverted sex ratio. 53 refs., 2 figs., 4 tabs.

  18. Energy Analysis of a Kraft Pulp Mill: Potential for Energy Efficiency and Advanced Biomass Cogeneration 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Subbiah, A.; Nilsson, L. J.; Larson, E. D.

    1995-01-01

    rates. Process modifications and retrofits using commercially proven technologies could reduce steam and electricity demand to as low as 9.7 MMBtu per ADST, a 50% reduction, and 556 kWh per ADST, a 19% reduction, respectively. Electricity demand could...

  19. A comprehensive program to develop correlations for physical properties of kraft black liquor. Final report

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Fricke, A.L.; Zaman, A.A.; Stoy, M.O.; Schmidl, G.W.; Dong, D.J.; Speck, B.

    1998-04-01

    A wide variety of experimental techniques have been used in this work, and many of these have been developed completely or improved significantly in the course of the research done during this program. Therefore, it is appropriate to describe these techniques in detail as a reference for future workers so that the techniques can be used in future work with little additional effort or so that the results reported from this program can be compared better with future results from other work. In many cases, the techniques described are for specific analytical instruments. It is recognized that these may be superseded by future developments and improvements in instrumentation if a complete description of techniques used successfully in the past on other instrumentation is available. The total pulping and liquor preparation research work performed included chip and white liquor preparation, digestion, pulp washing, liquor and wash recovery, liquor sampling, weak liquor concentration in two steps to about 45--50% solids with an intermediate soap skimming at about 140F and 27--30% solids, determination of pulp yield and Kappa number, determination of total liquor solids, and a check on the total material balance for pulping. All other research was performed either on a sample of the weak black liquor (the combined black liquor and washes from the digester) or on the skimmed liquor that had been concentrated.

  20. KRAFT: Supporting Virtual Organisations through Knowledge Fusion Alun Preece, Kit Hui & Peter Gray

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Preece, Alun

    ; they are limited to the exchange of relatively simple relational data. The new XML standard promises to address organisations enable partner companies to develop and manufacture customised products with low costs and rapid they provide mechanisms to allow organisations to advertise their capabilities, exchange rich information

  1. Review: Business and Environmental Policy: Corporate Interests in the American Political System, by Michael E. Kraft and Sheldon Kamieniecki (eds.)

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Meij, Jan-Martin

    2008-01-01

    Review: Business and Environmental Policy: Corporateeds). Business and Environmental Policy: Corporate Interestsalso holds in the environmental policy-making realm and many

  2. Review: Business and Environmental Policy: Corporate Interests in the American Political System, by Michael E. Kraft and Sheldon Kamieniecki (eds.)

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Meij, Jan-Martin

    2008-01-01

    in the realm of environmental policy- making for which itto influence environmental policy making, and politicalBusiness and Environmental Policy: Corporate Interests in

  3. Potential role of lignin in tomorrow's wood utilization technologies

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Glasser, W.G.

    1981-03-01

    Low-grade timber supplies and wood processing residues are presently converted into paper products, used for fuel, or remain totally unused. Competition for this resource will continue to mount, particularly when manufacturers of chemicals and liquid fuels enter the market with new technologies now under development. The type of technology that concentrates on depolymerization of carbohydrates will generate large quantities of lignin-rich residues. The potential of these lignins to contribute to the economic feasibility of new chemical wood process technologies may involve degradative depolymerization to phenols and benzene, or polymer conversion into a wide variety of dispersants, binders, reinforcing and antioxidizing agents, etc. Where lignin's fuel value lies around 3 to 4 cents/lb. (fall of 1979), its raw material value for phenol is reported to be almost 5 cents/lb., and the value of the polymeric materials is estimated to be between 6 and 20 cents/lb. At the lower end of this range of raw material values are ligninsulfonates, which contribute nearly 98 percent to the approximately 1.5 billion lb./yr. U.S. market for lignin products. Kraft lignins are located at the opposite end of this range. Novel bioconversion-type lignins are expected to be more similar in structure and properties to kraft than to sulfite lignins. Whereas application of the dispersant properties of ligninsulfonates in tertiary oil recovery operations is expected to constitute the most significant use of lignin in terms of volume, adhesive and resin applications hold the greatest promise in terms of value. Both utilization schemes seem to require pretreatments in the form of either polymeric fractionation or chemical modification. Potential savings from the use of polymeric lignins in material systems are great.

  4. School of Chemical & Biomolecular Engineering -Undergraduate Post Graduate Activities Detail & History

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Lipson, Michal

    NY Greatpoint Energy Engineering Assistant Chicago IL Hewlett Packard Writing Systems Engineer San Diego CA Heineken * Management Trainee Lagos NIGERIA Kraft Foods Associate Engineer Chicago IL Kraft

  5. Periodic Pulses of Calcium Ions in a Chemical System Krisztina Kurin-Cso1rgei, Irving R. Epstein,*, and Miklos Orban*,

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Epstein, Irving R.

    the bromate-sulfite-ferrocyanide oscillating chemical reaction with the complexation of calcium ion by EDTA

  6. Self-replication of mesa patterns in reaction-diffusion systems

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Kolokolnikov, Theodore

    and numerically in other chemical/biological systems: Ferrocyanide-iodide-sulfite reaction (Lee, Swinney) Belousov

  7. Self-Replication of Mesa Patterns in Reaction-Diffusion T. KOLOKOLNIKOV , M.J. WARD

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Ward, Michael Jeffrey

    -replication behavior. These include the ferrocyanide-iodide-sulfite system (cf. [13]), the Belousov

  8. Designing an enzymatic oscillator: Bistability and feedback controlled oscillations with glucose oxidase in a continuous flow stirred tank reactor

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Epstein, Irving R.

    of horserad- ish peroxidase into the hydrogen peroxide­sulfite­ ferrocyanide reaction31 does not represent

  9. Coarsening and self-replication of mesa patterns in reaction-diffusion systems

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Kolokolnikov, Theodore

    and numerically in other chemical/biological systems: Ferrocyanide-iodide-sulfite reaction (Lee, Swinney) Belousov

  10. Phase-Front Solutions and Instabilities in Forced Oscillations Christian Elphick,1 Aric Hagberg,2 and Ehud Meron3

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Hagberg, Aric

    ], the ferrocyanide-iodate-sulfite reaction [15, 16], and catalytic surface reactions [17]. Stationary -fronts exist

  11. Multiple sulfur isotope signatures of sulfite and thiosulfate reduction by the model dissimilatory sulfate-reducer, Desulfovibrio alaskensis str. G20

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Leavitt, William D.

    Dissimilatory sulfate reduction serves as a key metabolic carbon remineralization process in anoxic marine environments. Sulfate reducing microorganisms can impart a wide range in mass-dependent sulfur isotopic fractionation. ...

  12. From Comfort to Kilowatts: An Integrated Assessment of Electricity Conservation in Thailand's Commercial Sector. Volume 2: Technical Appendix

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Busch Jr., J.F.

    2010-01-01

    the misc. equipment energy use in the public space by taking36% of the total energy costs. The public space bill for the

  13. Claim Form for Vision EN (Rev. 2011-09) VIS CLAIM FORM FOR VISION CARE SERVICES

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Toronto, University of

    : _____________________________________ Is treatment due to a motor vehicle accident? YES NO Date of Accident (YY? Yes No CONTACT LENSES R DISPENSING FEE L MISC./DIAGNOSTIC TEST 1.____________________ 2

  14. Residential HVAC Data, Assumptions and Methodology for End-Use Forecasting with EPRI-REEPS 2.1

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Johnson, F.X.

    2010-01-01

    Fuels = Oil and Gas, Other = LPG and Misc. (3) Sources: 1990includes homes heated with LPG or with miscellaneous fuelssegmentation, homes with LPG heating are included in the

  15. O.A.R. 734-055 - Pole Lines, Buried Cables, Pipe lines, Signs...

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    and Operations (1981). Retrieved from "http:en.openei.orgwindex.php?titleO.A.R.734-055-PoleLines,BuriedCables,Pipelines,Signs,Misc.FacilitiesandOperations...

  16. High-solids black liquor firing in pulp and paper industry kraft recovery boilers: Phase 1 -- Final report. Volume 2: Project technical results

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Southards, W.T.; Clement, J.L.; McIlroy, R.A.; Tharp, M.R.; Verrill, C.L.; Wessell, R.A.

    1995-11-01

    This project is a multiple-phase effort to develop technologies to improve high-solids black liquor firing in pulp mill recovery boilers. The principal means to this end is to construct and operate a pilot-scale recovery furnace simulator (RFS) in which these technologies can be tested. The Phase 1 objectives are to prepare a preliminary design for the RFS, delineate a project concept for evaluating candidate technologies, establish industrial partners, and report the results. Phase 1 addressed the objectives with seven tasks: Develop a preliminary design of the RFS; estimate the detailed design and construction costs of the RFS and the balance of the project; identify interested parties in the paper industry and key suppliers; plan the Phase 2 and Phase 3 tests to characterize the RFS; evaluate the economic justification for high-solids firing deployment in the industry; evaluate high-solids black liquor property data to support the RFS design; manage the project and reporting results, which included planning the future program direction.

  17. Incorporating Global Information into Named Entity Recognition Systems using Relational Context

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    they extract. As an exam- ple, consider the snippet "[MISC Jewish] by birth, [ORG Alamo] married [PER Edith Opal] who was also [MISC Jewish]" which is tagged with LBJ. As one can see, Alamo is correctly-1-60558-896-4/10/07. as an entity, but assigned type ORG (for Organization) instead of PER (for Person). As Alamo appears in LBJ

  18. VOLUME 82, NUMBER 7 P H Y S I C A L R E V I E W L E T T E R S 15 FEBRUARY 1999 Frequency Control of an Oscillatory Reaction by Reversible Binding of an Autocatalyst

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Epstein, Irving R.

    oscillations. Using a ferrocyanide-iodate-sulfite reaction, we show that a chemical buffer can in- crease reaction arise from io- date oxidation of sulfite in the presence of ferrocyanide in a continuously fed

  19. Spiral Wave Nucleation Center for Nonlinear Studies and T-7, Theoretical Division,

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Hagberg, Aric

    been ob- served in experiments on the ferrocyanide-iodate-sulfite (FIS) reaction [14, 15]. II. THE NIB

  20. Oscillating Reaction-Diffusion Spots Aric Hagberg

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Hagberg, Aric

    , oscillating circular spots have also been found in the Ferrocyanide-Iodate-Sulfite reaction [4]. One kind

  1. Temperature-Induced Bifurcations in the Cu(II)-Catalyzed and Catalyst-Free Hydrogen Peroxide-Thiosulfate Oscillating Reaction

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Epstein, Irving R.

    in unstirred reaction- diffusion systems. The FIS (ferrocyanide-iodate-sulfite) sys- tem is a typical p

  2. SIAM J. MATH. ANAL. c 2012 Society for Industrial and Applied Mathematics Vol. 44, No. 5, pp. 35643593

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Kolokolnikov, Theodore

    -replication behavior. These include the ferrocyanide-iodide-sulfite system [11], the Belousov­Zhabotinsky reaction [12

  3. Subscriber access provided by BRANDEIS UNIV The Journal of Physical Chemistry A is published by the American Chemical

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Epstein, Irving R.

    -Amplitude and Mixed-Mode pH Oscillations in the Bromate#Sulfite#Ferrocyanide#Aluminum(III) System Klara Kovacs, Marcin this article #12;Small-Amplitude and Mixed-Mode pH Oscillations in the Bromate-Sulfite-Ferrocyanide on the bromate-sulfite- ferrocyanide (BSF) system, which we couple to the Al(OH)3 precipitation equilibrium

  4. Highly Energy Efficient Directed Green Liquor Utilization (D-GLU) Pulping

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    This factsheet describes a project that seeks to develop feasible chemical modifications during kraft pulping operations to obtain significant energy and product benefits for U.S. kraft pulp and paper mills.

  5. Tectonic signatures on active margins

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Hogarth, Leah Jolynn

    2010-01-01

    behavior of the barrier-island system between Fire Islandand evolution of barrier-island systems (Belknap and Kraft,

  6. Intrinsic Plagiarism Detection in Arabic Text: Preliminary Experiments

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Rosso, Paolo

    Rosso2 , Salim Chikhi1 1 MISC Lab., Mentouri University, Constantine, Algeria bens sizes and topics. Some statistics about this corpus are provided in Table 1. Table 1. Corpus statistics

  7. CRUISE REPORT Cruise Number: DY10-04

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    of satellite buoy (SatBuoy) 1 Transect (Trans) 3 Samples Collected Tows Number misc species in EtOH (AMGEN) 17 of buoy or mooring (Deploy) 1 1 Stimulated fluorescence collected during CTD casts (Fluor) 12 Any other

  8. Directory

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Management Subfolders in "CAES Document Management" Go Up 1 Level Go Up 1 Level Up Folder Archive Arcive Misc, Funding Opportunities, In Progress Requests, MaCS Sample Request...

  9. Essays on productivity, technology, and economic fluctuations

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Christiansen, Lone Engbo

    2007-01-01

    INC SRCH,DET,NAV,GUID,AERO SYS EXXON MOBIL CORP PETROLEUMCORP SRCH,DET,NAV,GUID,AERO SYS HERCULES INC MISC CHEMICALSIEGLER INC SRCH,DET,NAV,GUID,AERO SYS LITTON INDUSTRIES INC

  10. 3-D INTEGRATION USING WAFER BONDING J.-Q. L *, A. KUMAR *, Y. KWON *, E.T. EISENBRAUN **, R.P. KRAFT *, J.F. McDONALD *, R.J.

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Lü, James Jian-Qiang

    . McDonald et al. studied via holes formed by laser drilling, etching, Cu sputtering, and Au plating unattractive. Conventional scaling of planar ICs has advanced significantly in the last decade, partially generations of conventional scaling of planar ICs [5]. However, this scaling process has begun to encounter

  11. Particle acceleration and jet dynamics in Centaurus A Martin J. Hardcastle a , Diana M. Worrall a , Ralph P. Kraft b , W.R. Forman b , C. Jones b and S.S. Murray b

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Hardcastle, Martin

    1 Particle acceleration and jet dynamics in Centaurus A Martin J. Hardcastle a , Diana M. Worrall-dynamic range VLA data, have allowed us to relate the radio and X-ray structure of the jet in Cen A to the jet dynamics. We present evidence that a signi#12;cant fraction of the structure in the Cen A X-ray jet is due

  12. Out-of-phase oscillatory Turing patterns in a bistable reaction-diffusion system Vladimir K. Vanag and Irving R. Epstein

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Epstein, Irving R.

    in the ferrocyanide- iodate-sulfite FIS reaction-diffusion system 29­31 . The FIS system, as well as other p

  13. 8. Richter, P. H. & Ross, J. Concentration oscillations and efficiency: Glycolysis. Science 211, 715717 9. Harris, D. C. Quantitative Chemical Analysis 5th edn 312313 (Freeman, New York, 1999).

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Vallino, Joseph J.

    of the oscillatory bromate­sulfite­ferrocyanide reaction. J. Phys. Chem. 93, 2722­2727 (1989). 11. Ra´bai, G., Orba

  14. New n-Type Organic Semiconductors: Synthesis, Single Crystal Structures, Cyclic Voltammetry, Photophysics,

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Kaminsky, Werner

    ) Kraft, A.; Grimsdale, A. C.; Holmes, A. B. Angew. Chem., Int. Ed. 1998, 37, 402-428. (b) Bernius, M. T

  15. Special Topics in Organic Chemistry 8833A Pulping and Bleaching Chemistry

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Sherrill, David

    /Functionalization of cellulosic fibers f. Chemistry of bleaching recycled fiber: dye oxidation g. Kraft lignin recovery), Principal Journals: Carbohydrate Research, Cellulose, Carbohydrate Polymers, Can. J. Chem., Holzforschung, J

  16. Emerging Energy-Efficiency and Greenhouse Gas Mitigation Technologies for the Pulp and Paper Industry

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Kong, Lingbo

    2014-01-01

    greenhouse gas emissions from lime kilns at kraft pulpIn this trial, the total lime requirement has been reducedreactions instead of just lime causticizing and may cause

  17. Sun City and the Sounds of Liberation: Cultural Resistance for Social Justice in Apartheid South Africa

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Freeman, Jonathan

    2014-01-01

    FNI Multimedia, "Sun City." Http://africanactivist.msu.edu/1985. Kraft, Scott. "Shunning Sun City: Cultural Boycott ofWhites." The Vancouver Sun, March 31, 1990. Lacey, Liam. "

  18. Grand Challenge Portfolio: Driving Innovations in Industrial...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    grades suitable for printing and writing while increasing the filler content of the paper with a composite produced from kraft and process pulp. Increasing the filler content...

  19. Matematik som poesi "Fast ar proportionen

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Boman, Jan

    ellipsformade banor med solen i ena br¨annpunkten, men man hade ingen id´e om vad det var f¨or kraft som

  20. Water treatment method

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Martin, F.S.; Silver, G.L.

    1991-04-30

    A method is described for reducing the concentration of any undesirable metals dissolved in contaminated water, such as waste water. The method involves uniformly reacting the contaminated water with an excess amount of solid particulate calcium sulfite to insolubilize the undesirable metal ions, followed by removal thereof and of the unreacted calcium sulfite.

  1. Transitions in two-dimensional patterns in a ferrocyanideiodatesulfite Qi Ouyang, and Harry L. Swinney

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Transitions in two-dimensional patterns in a ferrocyanide­iodate­sulfite reaction Ge Li,a) Qi-dimensional 2D spatial patterns were investigated in a ferrocyanide­iodate­ sulfite FIS reaction in a circular.2­0.6 mm , reservoir residence time 0.6­4 min , and ferrocyanide concentration 12­80 mM . Iodate

  2. Water treatment method

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Martin, Frank S. (Farmersville, OH); Silver, Gary L. (Centerville, OH)

    1991-04-30

    A method for reducing the concentration of any undesirable metals dissolved in contaminated water, such as waste water. The method involves uniformly reacting the contaminated water with an excess amount of solid particulate calcium sulfite to insolubilize the undesirable metal ions, followed by removal thereof and of the unreacted calcium sulfite.

  3. Life and Times Committee 2011-2012 iTeas occur each Wednesday throughout the Fall and Winter terms. The objective of these social,

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Toronto, University of

    Life and Times Committee 2011-2012 iTeas occur each Wednesday throughout the Fall and Winter termsSchool through engagement, connection, and learning. iTeas, Fall 2011 DATE TITLE HOST/DESCRIPTION ROOM and TIME Sept 14 Welcome iTea Welcome by the Kathleen S. (host), the Dean, Chief librarian, MISC, MSGSA Inforum

  4. Writing the Experience of Information Retrieval: Digital Collection Design as a Form of Dialogue

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Feinberg, Melanie

    @ischool.utexas.edu ABSTRACT In the context of digital libraries and other online resource collections, the substance a process in which designers purposefully use the elements of selection, description, organization; rhetoric; criticism ACM Classification Keywords H.5.2 Information Interfaces and Presentation: Misc General

  5. Non-Credit Activity Reporting This database is put into PeopleSoft for the reporting of the University of Utah's non-credit

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Capecchi, Mario R.

    to Finding Non Credit Activity Tracking panel in PeopleSoft: 1. Log in to CIS 2. Go to Employee Tab 3. Find Directory at http://people.utah.edu/uofu/misc/uWho/basic.hml, select Department/Organization, type

  6. doi:10.1128/mBio.00065-11. 2(3): .mBio.Manduca sexta

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Handelsman, Jo

    - lymph, E. faecalis induces an innate immune response, illustrated by hemocyte aggregation, in larvae Journal go to: http://mbio.asm.org/misc/contentdelivery.xhtml Information about Print on Demand and other prior to death. The degree of hemocyte aggregation is dependent upon the route of E. faecalis entry. Our

  7. Rev 9/14/15 Receipt Requirements Based on Type of Expense and Dollar

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    x Visa/passport expenses 5 x x Road/bridge Tolls x x Other Misc. Travel Expenses x x Taxi Fare 6 x. Traveler must provide reasonable justification for the extra expense. Hotel taxes and fees in the U.S. are not included in the per diem amount and can be reimbursed separately from per diem. For foreign lodging, taxes

  8. Laboratory Waste Disposal HAZARDOUS GLASS

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Sheridan, Jennifer

    Laboratory Waste Disposal HAZARDOUS GLASS Items that could cut or puncture skin or trash- can without any treatment. Hazardous Glass and Plastic: Items that can puncture, cut or scratch if disposed a significant hazard. Bags of misc. plasticware that has been autoclaved to remove bio contamination. Syringe

  9. Demonstration of artificial visual percepts generated through thalamic microstimulation John S. Pezaris, and R. Clay Reid

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Reid, R. Clay

    Demonstration of artificial visual percepts generated through thalamic microstimulation John S.pnas.org/misc/reprints.shtml To order reprints, see: Notes: #12;Demonstration of artificial visual percepts generated through thalamic into the visual path, the hope is that an analogue of vision can be created. Research efforts in visual prostheses

  10. Miscellaneous Numbers FAX ~ Area Code 410

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Boynton, Walter R.

    .8390 Maintenance 221.8333 Main House 228.3843 Sea Grant 221.8456 Misc. Phones Salisbury Line 410.883.3021 Trappe Maintenance 8334 Marine Science Lab 8271 MEERC Lab (109) 8226 MEERC Lab (114) 8229 Morris Marine Lobby 8387 Oxford NOAA Lab 410.226.5193 People, Land, Water project 8227 (old GIS lab) Pfiesteria Lab 8421 Pump

  11. Promoting Eco Friendly Lifestyle to Save Enviornment Accessories

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Chiao, Jung-Chih

    · Geothermal Energy· Green Homes· Green Living· Green Products· Green Tips· Home· Home Appliances· Innovations· Misc· Recycling· Renewable Energy· Reviews· Solar Power· Technology· Tidal and Wave Energy· Transportation· Travel· Uncategorized· Wind Power· Powering your mobiles with wind turbine Page 1 of 7Powering

  12. Welcome to Cal State Fullerton Day 2012 FUNDING YOUR EDUCATION

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    de Lijser, Peter

    Monday-Friday | 8am-5pm Counseling Available from Monday-Thursday | 9am-4pm *Subject to change* #12,400$1,400 Personal/Misc. $3,000$3,000 $3,000$3,000 $3,000$3,000 Total $17,147$17,147 $24,743$24,743 $24

  13. Unified picture of the oxygen isotope effect in cuprate superconductors Ho-kwang Mao

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Wu, Zhigang

    Unified picture of the oxygen isotope effect in cuprate superconductors Ho-kwang Mao Xiao-Jia Chen, see: Reprints www.pnas.org/misc/reprints.shtml To order reprints, see: Notes: #12;Unified picture present a unified picture of the oxygen isotope effect in cuprate superconductors based on a phonon

  14. proper cell division ELYS is a dual nucleoporin/kinetochore protein required for nuclear pore assembly and

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Forbes, Douglass

    proper cell division ELYS is a dual nucleoporin/kinetochore protein required for nuclear pore.pnas.org/misc/reprints.shtml To order reprints, see: Notes: #12;ELYS is a dual nucleoporin kinetochore protein required for nuclear pore 28, 2006 (sent for review July 26, 2006) Nuclear pores span the nuclear envelope and act as gated

  15. AN INTRODUCTION TO LATEX Math 2784 (or 2794W)

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Lozano-Robledo, Alvaro

    tutorials at http://www.comp.leeds.ac.uk/andyr/misc/latex/ might be helpful, especially tutorials 4, 6, 8 to a displayed equation? The command to use is \\ref but we have to label the equation to give it a name to refer

  16. Advanced Reduction Processes - A New Class of Treatment Processes 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Vellanki, Bhanu Prakash

    2012-10-19

    intensity on perchlorate and nitrate degradation were investigated. The effectiveness of the sulfite/UV-L treatment process improved with increasing pH for both perchlorate and nitrate....

  17. J. Am. Chem. SOC.1987, 109, 4869-4876 4869 complexes may be attributed to the more rigid (pd),V geometry,

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Showalter, Kenneth

    and also reported on the oxidations of ferrocyanide and arsenous acid. Their study was the first oxidation of sulfite in a stirred flow reactor (CSTR) when ferrocyanide was also (1 ) Permanent address

  18. Enhancement of Biogenic Sulfide Production in a Packed-Bed Bioreactor Via Critical Inoculum

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Daugulis, Andrew J.

    bioprocesses for the treatment of acid mine drainage and sulfate wastewaters. Biogenic H2S is also a potential/sulfite waste streams (Colleran et al., 1995; Lens et al., 2003), treatment of acid mine drainage (Neculita et

  19. U.S. Department of Energy (DOE)--Surface Biogeochemical Research (SBR) 6th Annual PI Meeting: Abstracts

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Hawkes, Daniel S

    2011-01-01

    in iron and uranium effluent chemistry were difficult tochemistry (dissolved oxygen and dissolved organic carbon) over time, such that there were episodic periods of sulfate reduction and sulfite and uranium

  20. Degradation of Trichloroethylene Using Advanced Reduction Processes 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Farzaneh, Hajar

    2014-10-27

    and produce reducing radicals that can effectively degrade oxidized contaminants. Screening experiments were conducted to evaluate three different reducing reagents (sulfite, sulfide, and dithionite) and three UV light sources (low-pressure mercury UV lamp (UV...

  1. Industry

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Bernstein, Lenny

    2008-01-01

    the solar thermal production of lime. Energy, 29, pp. 811-821. Miller, M.M. , 2003: Lime. In 2003 Minerals Yearbook,greenhouse gas emissions from lime kilns at Kraft pulp

  2. Background

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    loads, the Old Corrugated Container (OCC) load (3.275 aMW) and the Unbleached Kraft Pulp and Paper (main mill) load (approximately 17 aMW). PTPC's Contract Demand, defined in...

  3. Microsoft Word - DRAFT PTPC WTL ROD 5 1 12 FINAL.doc

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    loads, the Old Corrugated Container (OCC) load (3.275 aMW) and the Unbleached Kraft Pulp and Paper (main mill) load (approximately 17 aMW). PTPC's Contract Demand, defined in...

  4. Improving Process Heating System Performance: A Sourcebook for...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    such as cement and wallboard, the recovery of lime in the kraft process of the pulp and paper industry, the production of anodes from petroleum coke for aluminum smelting, and the...

  5. Borate Autocausticizing

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    Boron-based autocausticizing is a new, cost-effective technology to recover kraft pulping chemicals. Conceptually, the technology can be used to supply part or all of the sodium hydroxide...

  6. An Evaluation of the Placement of the Placement of Radiant Barriers on their Effectiveness in Reducing Heat Transfer in Attics 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Katipamula, S.; O'Neal, D.

    1986-01-01

    the attic floor was measured at two different roof deck temperatures (120°F and 140°F). The temperature distribution within the base fibrous insulation was also measured. Three different solid kraft laminates with aluminum foil backing were tested...

  7. ForschungsjournalderTUGraz W i s s e n n T e c h n i k n L e i d e n s c h a f T

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    auszeichnet Knallgasbakterien: Mit ,,explosiver Kraft" den Spieß umdrehen ­ S. 36 CO2 als Rohstoff und nicht-Added Products p. 22 from Biotechnological Processes Patricia Bubner, Vera Novy, Bernd Nidetzky Indoor

  8. Suggested Citation: Fox, L. B., A. A. Arsenault, C. E. Brewer, L. H. Carpenter, B. Jellison, J. A. Jenks, W. F. Jensen, T. W. Keegan, D. J. Kraft, D. W. Lutz, C. L. Richardson, B. D. Trindle, A. P. Schmidt, and T. S. Stivers. 2009. Habitat

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Ecoregion-specific Deer Ecology 6 MAJOR IMPACTS TO MULE DEER HABITAT 8 IN THE GREAT PLAINS CONTRIBUTING are one of the most economically and socially important animals in western North America. A survey the coastal islands of Alaska, down the west coast to southern Baja Mexico and from the northern border

  9. Intrinsic Radiation Source Generation with the ISC Package: Data Comparisons and Benchmarking

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Solomon, Clell J. Jr.

    2012-04-26

    The characterization of radioactive emissions from unstable isotopes (intrinsic radiation) is necessary for shielding and radiological-dose calculations from radioactive materials. While most radiation transport codes, e.g., MCNP [X-5 Monte Carlo Team, 2003], provide the capability to input user prescribed source definitions, such as radioactive emissions, they do not provide the capability to calculate the correct radioactive-source definition given the material compositions. Special modifications to MCNP have been developed in the past to allow the user to specify an intrinsic source, but these modification have not been implemented into the primary source base [Estes et al., 1988]. To facilitate the description of the intrinsic radiation source from a material with a specific composition, the Intrinsic Source Constructor library (LIBISC) and MCNP Intrinsic Source Constructor (MISC) utility have been written. The combination of LIBISC and MISC will be herein referred to as the ISC package. LIBISC is a statically linkable C++ library that provides the necessary functionality to construct the intrinsic-radiation source generated by a material. Furthermore, LIBISC provides the ability use different particle-emission databases, radioactive-decay databases, and natural-abundance databases allowing the user flexibility in the specification of the source, if one database is preferred over others. LIBISC also provides functionality for aging materials and producing a thick-target bremsstrahlung photon source approximation from the electron emissions. The MISC utility links to LIBISC and facilitates the description of intrinsic-radiation sources into a format directly usable with the MCNP transport code. Through a series of input keywords and arguments the MISC user can specify the material, age the material if desired, and produce a source description of the radioactive emissions from the material in an MCNP readable format. Further details of using the MISC utility can be obtained from the user guide [Solomon, 2012]. The remainder of this report presents a discussion of the databases available to LIBISC and MISC, a discussion of the models employed by LIBISC, a comparison of the thick-target bremsstrahlung model employed, a benchmark comparison to plutonium and depleted-uranium spheres, and a comparison of the available particle-emission databases.

  10. Introduction to the LRmix program of the Forensim R package

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    23/08/2013 1 Introduction to the LRmix program of the Forensim R package Hinda Haned Peter Gill;23/08/2013 3 13 (2) Install the Forensim package Option 1: install the package directly from the R environment://forensim.r-forge.r-project.org/misc/LRmix.pdf Option 2: Install the package manually (no Internet connexion) Refer to LRmix tutorial online: 14 (2

  11. Property:Building/SPElectrtyUsePercElctrcEngineHeaters | Open Energy

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Google Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on QA:QA J-E-1 SECTION J APPENDIXsourceII JumpQuarterlyInformation Misc Jump to:

  12. Property:Building/SPElectrtyUsePercFans | Open Energy Information

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Google Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on QA:QA J-E-1 SECTION J APPENDIXsourceII JumpQuarterlyInformation Misc Jump

  13. Property:Building/SPElectrtyUsePercLargeKitchens | Open Energy Information

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Google Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on QA:QA J-E-1 SECTION J APPENDIXsourceII JumpQuarterlyInformation Misc

  14. Proceedings of the black liquor research program review fourth meeting held July 28--30, 1987

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Emerson, D. B.; Whitworth, B. A.

    1987-10-01

    Research programs, presented at the black liquor review meeting are described. Research topics include the following: Cooperative Program in Kraft Recovery; Black Liquor Physical Properties; Viscosity of Strong Black Liquor; Ultrafiltration of Kraft Black Liquor; Molecular Weight Distribution of Kraft Lignin; Black Liquor Droplet Formation Project; Fundamental Studies of Black Liquor Combustion; Black Liquor Combustion Sensors; Flash X-ray Imagining of Black Liquor Sprays; Laser Induced Fluorescence For Process Control In The Pulp and Paper Industry; Recovery Boiler Optimization; Black Liquor Gasification and Use of the Products in Combined-Cycle Cogeneration; Black Liquor Steam Plasma Automization; The B and W Pyrosonic 2000R System; Monsteras Boiler Control System; and Cooperative Program Project Reviews. Individual projects are processed separately for the data bases.

  15. Use of sulfide-containing liquors for removing mercury from flue gases

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Nolan, Paul S. (North Canton, OH); Downs, William (Alliance, OH); Bailey, Ralph T. (Uniontown, OH); Vecci, Stanley J. (Alliance, OH)

    2003-01-01

    A method and apparatus for reducing and removing mercury in industrial gases, such as a flue gas, produced by the combustion of fossil fuels, such as coal, adds sulfide ions to the flue gas as it passes through a scrubber. Ideally, the source of these sulfide ions may include at least one of: sulfidic waste water, kraft caustic liquor, kraft carbonate liquor, potassium sulfide, sodium sulfide, and thioacetamide. The sulfide ion source is introduced into the scrubbing liquor as an aqueous sulfide species. The scrubber may be either a wet or dry scrubber for flue gas desulfurization systems.

  16. Use of sulfide-containing liquors for removing mercury from flue gases

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Nolan, Paul S.; Downs, William; Bailey, Ralph T.; Vecci, Stanley J.

    2006-05-02

    A method and apparatus for reducing and removing mercury in industrial gases, such as a flue gas, produced by the combustion of fossil fuels, such as coal, adds sulfide ions to the flue gas as it passes through a scrubber. Ideally, the source of these sulfide ions may include at least one of: sulfidic waste water, kraft caustic liquor, kraft carbonate liquor, potassium sulfide, sodium sulfide, and thioacetamide. The sulfide ion source is introduced into the scrubbing liquor as an aqueous sulfide species. The scrubber may be either a wet or dry scrubber for flue gas desulfurization systems.

  17. Impacts of Natural Organic Matter on Perchlorate Removal by an Advanced Reduction Process 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Duan, Yuhang

    2012-10-19

    reductants (e.g. sulfite) with activating methods (e.g. UV light) in order to produce highly reactive reducing free radicals that are capable of rapid and effective perchlorate reduction. However, other compounds in a real system might inhibit or promote...

  18. Sulfur Dioxide Treatment from Flue Gases Using a Biotrickling

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    ), and several episodes in London (1). All fuels used by humans such as coal, oil, natural gas, peat, wood s for a concentration range of 300-1000 ppmv. All the absorbed SO2 was recovered in the biotrickling filter liquid of sulfite). The biotrickling filter liquid effluent was further processed biologically in a single post

  19. Sulfur dioxide inhibits calcium carbonate precipitation: Implications for early Mars and Earth

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Schrag, Daniel

    or H2SO3) whose conjugate base, sulfite (SO3 2À ), can form a mineral with calcium. This mineral, hannebachite (CaSO3 Â 1 2H2O), is $90 times more soluble than the least soluble calcium carbonate (calcite

  20. Physica D 239 (2010) 757765 Contents lists available at ScienceDirect

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Epstein, Irving R.

    2010-01-01

    -AOT system, a monolayer shell of the surfactant AOT (sodium bis(2-ethylhexyl) sulfosuccinate) sur- rounds amount of Br2 (a key species that plays the role of a fast-diffusing inhibitor), thus reduc- ing- stirred reactor). This system is composed of the well-known bro- mate­sulfite­ferrocyanide (BSF) [7

  1. Vrme-och strmningsteknik / Thermal and flow engineering Massverfring & separationsteknik /

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Zevenhoven, Ron

    dras genom en vätskebassäng. En liten försöksanläggning används för att få information om hur stor kraft, F (N), behövs för att dra folier med olika bredder B (m) genom vätskan medan folier är dränkta) och hastigheten med vilken folierna dras genom vätskan, v (m/s): v B F ).( c a. Gör en

  2. Energiemethoden der Mechanik / Prof. Popov / Vorlesung 10. Das Verfahren von Castigliano. Lit: Ostermeyer 25.3

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Berlin,Technische Universität

    Feder, an der mit der Kraft F gezogen wird. Es gilt: F cx= , F x c = , 21 2 U cx= 2 2 F U c = . Daraus gleich. Beispiel: Für eine Feder ist 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 cx cx F U xF U cx U c = - = - = = = . Der 2. Satz von

  3. OPET Organisations for the Promotion of Energy Technologies Contact: opet@tekes.fi www.tekes.fi/opet/

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    . The power plant is combined condensing and CHP plant. The CFB boiler is manufactured by Kvaerner Pulping the planning of Alholmens Kraft new power plant (AK2) was started, the most important objectives were's district heating § exploitation of pulp and paper mill and saw mill by-products as fuel § optimisation

  4. U.S. -Arab Economic Relations and the Obama Administration

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Fraden, Seth

    important policy challenges to the Obama administration: China's and India's increasing energy interests of areas of the Middle East in which poverty and inequality lead to instability and political violence and Middle Eastern Studies Kanan Makiya, PhD Lecturer on the Myra and Robert Kraft Chair in Arab Politics

  5. COMPUTER ANIMATION AND VIRTUAL WORLDS Comp. Anim. Virtual Worlds 2013; 24:155164

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Cao, Yong

    present a crowd model informed by common ground theory to accommodate high-level socially aware behavioral PAPER Simulating and animating social dynamics: embedding small pedestrian groups in crowds Seung theory *Correspondence Seung In Park, Computer Science, Virginia Tech, 220 Kraft Dr., Blacksburg, VA

  6. Association of University Export Control Officers David Brady, Chair

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Noble, James S.

    Association of University Export Control Officers David Brady, Chair 2000 Kraft Drive, Suite 2000-0112 Re: RIN 1400--AC59; Export Exemption for Technical Data Dear Mr. Shotwell: The Association of University Export Control Officers ("AUECO"), on behalf of its members, appreciates the opportunity

  7. Building Name Street Number Street Prefix Direction Street Name Suffix Street Direction Community 1901 1901 INNOVATION DR VIRGINIA TECH

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Building Name Street Number Street Prefix Direction Street Name Suffix Street Direction Community 1901 1901 INNOVATION DR VIRGINIA TECH 1971 1971 KRAFT DR VIRGINIA TECH Ag Engineering Building 120 OLD MILL RD VIRGINIA TECH Agronomy Service Building 1008 OLD MILL RD VIRGINIA TECH Agronomy Storage

  8. Wood Residues as Fuel Source for Lime Kilns 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Azarniouch, M. K.; Philp, R. J.

    1984-01-01

    One of the main obstacles to total energy self sufficiency of kraft mills appears to be the fossil fuel requirements of the lime kilns. If an economical technology can be developed which allows fossil fuel to be replaced in whole or in part by wood...

  9. Computational modelling in chemical engineering

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Kraft, Markus

    2008-08-27

    Dynamic Gauging DNS of a flame kernel Flow in a oscillatory flow reactor. Pom-Pom equation for polydisperse polystyren Markus Kraft mk306@cam.ac.uk Engine optimisation •Increase Efficiency reduce carbon dioxide •Reduce Emission soot,NOx, unburnt...

  10. An Experience with Ontology-based Agent Clustering Pepijn R. S. Visser

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Tamma, Valentina

    .liv.ac.uk £ From January 99 at: SAP-AG HRMS Development D-69190 Walldorf Pepijn.Visser@sap-ag.de Abstract/ experiment has been to identify the types of heterogeneity that can affect distributed systems. Furthermore-off of the KRAFT project [Gra97], [Gra98], a knowl- edge integration project that is currently conducted

  11. BIODIVERSITY The geography of climate change

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Kraft, Nathan

    BIODIVERSITY REVIEW The geography of climate change: implications for conservation biogeography D. J. B. Kraft1 INTRODUCTION It is widely recognized that climate change poses a grave threat., 2007). The impacts of climate change are broadly detectable in many taxa, including shifts in phenology

  12. Increasing vehicle fuel efficiency and decreasing de-pendence on foreign oil are priorities of the U.S. De-

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Pennycook, Steve

    chemical compound commonly derived from wood via Kraft pulping. Lignin will become increas- ingly available then solidified and pellet- ized. The pellets enter a melt spinning process during which they are melted, extruded examine carbon fiber preform. Lignin is a compound derived from wood. It is a carbon fiber precursor

  13. December 2007 Faculty and Staff Activities and Accomplishments

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Vetriani, Costantino

    for sale to U.S. and worldwide retail and foodservice markets. New Jersey businesses seeking to export Myers received the Regional Power of Youth Award. Lyons, Kraft, and James Stanmore, received, enter the market, expand distribution, or license production will be provided with assistance

  14. Hosts: Sponsors: NorTex Nano Summit: Agenda

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Ayhan Deputy Minister, Norwegian Ministry of Trade, Industry and Fisheries Nanotechnology for the Oil University Technology Commercialization Tom Kraft Director of Technology Ventures Development Rice Alliance and Communications, NTNU Pawel Sikorski Professor of Physics, NTNU Nano Energy 1 ­ Oil & Gas Session Chairs: Mc

  15. Department of Natural Resources Spring Seminar Series 2015

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Walter, M.Todd

    University, Natural Resources "Uncertain Futures: Predicting the Ecological and Economic Effects of AquaticDepartment of Natural Resources Spring Seminar Series 2015 Tuesdays from 3:30pm -- 4:30pm G24 Fernow January 27 Cliff Kraft, Cornell University, Natural Resources "Environmental influences

  16. Fabrication and Control of an Electrostatically Levitated Rotating Charles D. Ellis, Bogdan M. Wilamowski,

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Wilamowski, Bogdan Maciej

    by the group associated with Tokimec and a similar concept is being developed in Europe led by M. Kraft described by groups from Europe (1) and Japan (2) who have developed MEMS based levitated gyroscope devices of electrode design has been shown to be unstable, or at best, hard to stabilize due to mechanical or charge

  17. Mechanism of Vinylic and Allylic Carbon-Fluorine Bond Activation of Non-Perfluorinated Olefins Using Cp*2ZrH2

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Jones, William D.

    Using Cp*2ZrH2 Bradley M. Kraft and William D. Jones* Contribution from the Department of Chemistry, UniVersity of Rochester, Rochester, New York 14627 Received November 16, 2001 Abstract: Cp*2ZrH2 (1) (CpH10) to afford Cp*2ZrHF (2) and hydrodefluorinated products. Experimental evidence suggests

  18. Contrasting trait responses in plant communities to experimental and geographic variation in precipitation

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Kraft, Nathan

    in precipitation Brody Sandel1,2 , Leah J. Goldstein3 , Nathan J.B. Kraft1,4 , Jordan G. Okie5 , Michal I. Shuldman: climate change, experiments, functional ecology, plant communities, plant functional traits, precipitation. Summary · Patterns of precipitation are likely to change significantly in the coming century

  19. Structure of the NS1 Protein N-Terminal Origin Recognition/Nickase Domain from the Emerging Human Bocavirus

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Tewary, Sunil Kumar; Zhao, Haiyan; Shen, Weiran; Qiu, Jianming; Tang, Liang

    2013-08-21

    .org/site/misc/reprints.xhtmlInformation about commercial reprint orders: http://journals.asm.org/site/subscriptions/To subscribe to to another ASM Journal go to: o n June 30, 2014 by University of Kansas http://jvi.asm.org/ D ow nloaded from o n June 30, 2014 by University of Kansas... http://jvi.asm.org/ D ow nloaded from Structure of the NS1 Protein N-Terminal Origin Recognition/Nickase Domain from the Emerging Human Bocavirus Sunil Kumar Tewary,a Haiyan Zhao,a Weiran Shen,b Jianming Qiu,b Liang Tanga Department of Molecular...

  20. A Shared Population of Epidemic Methicillin-Resistant Staphylococcus aureus 15 Circulates in Humans and Companion Animals

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Harrison, Ewan M.; Weinert, Lucy A.; Holden, Matthew T. G.

    2014-05-13

    .org/misc/reprints.xhtmlInformation about commercial reprint orders: m bio.asm .org o n July 15, 2014 - Published by m bio.asm .org D ow nloaded from m bio.asm .org o n July 15, 2014 - Published by m bio.asm .org D ow nloaded from A Shared Population of Epidemic Methicillin... 00985-13 ® mbio.asm.org 1 m bio.asm .org o n July 15, 2014 - Published by m bio.asm .org D ow nloaded from alence of MRSA colonization of cats appears to be lower than that for dogs, with reported carriage rates of 0 to 4% (18), including 1...

  1. File:App easement pdf.pdf | Open Energy Information

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Google Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on QA:QAsource History View New Pages Recent Changes All SpecialIDAStateEnvironmentalProcess.pdf40 CFRAmendingAppMiscApp

  2. 2013 DOE Occupational Radiation Exposure Report Appendices

    Broader source: Energy.gov (indexed) [DOE]

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  3. 2013 Distributed Wind Market Report

    Broader source: Energy.gov (indexed) [DOE]

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  4. 2013 Distributed Wind Market Report Data | Department of Energy

    Broader source: Energy.gov (indexed) [DOE]

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  5. 2013 Distributed Wind Market Report | Department of Energy

    Broader source: Energy.gov (indexed) [DOE]

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  6. 2013 Environmental/Radiological Assistance Directory (ERAD) Presentations |

    Broader source: Energy.gov (indexed) [DOE]

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  7. 2013 Facility EMS Annual Report Data (DOE-LM) | Department of Energy

    Broader source: Energy.gov (indexed) [DOE]

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  8. 2013 Former Worker Medical Screening Program Annual Report | Department of

    Broader source: Energy.gov (indexed) [DOE]

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  9. 2013 NCSAM Campaign | Department of Energy

    Broader source: Energy.gov (indexed) [DOE]

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  10. 2013 National Clean Energy Business Plan Competition | Department of Energy

    Broader source: Energy.gov (indexed) [DOE]

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  11. 2013 National Environmental Justice Conference and Training Program |

    Broader source: Energy.gov (indexed) [DOE]

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  12. 2013 Real Property Desk Guide | Department of Energy

    Broader source: Energy.gov (indexed) [DOE]

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  13. 2013 Reliability & Markets Peer Review - Day 1 Presentations | Department

    Broader source: Energy.gov (indexed) [DOE]

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  14. 2013 Reliability & Markets Peer Review - Day 2 Presentations | Department

    Broader source: Energy.gov (indexed) [DOE]

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  15. 2013 SSL Market Introduction Workshop Presentations Posted | Department of

    Broader source: Energy.gov (indexed) [DOE]

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  16. 2013 Transmission Reliability Program Peer Review - Day 1 Presentations |

    Broader source: Energy.gov (indexed) [DOE]

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  17. 2013 Transmission Reliability Program Peer Review - Day 2 Presentations |

    Broader source: Energy.gov (indexed) [DOE]

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  18. 2013 Tribal Renewable Energy Webinar Series to Kick Off January 30 |

    Broader source: Energy.gov (indexed) [DOE]

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  19. 2013 Unconventional Oil and Gas Project Selections | Department of Energy

    Broader source: Energy.gov (indexed) [DOE]

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  20. 2013 Year in Review

    Broader source: Energy.gov (indexed) [DOE]

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  1. 2013 guidance fo real Property Inventory Reporting | Department of Energy

    Broader source: Energy.gov (indexed) [DOE]

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  2. 2013-01 "Action in Analysis of Disposal Pathways for Disposition of 33

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  3. 2013-02 "Review Material Disposal Areas at LANL in Addition to Technical

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  4. 2013-03 "FY'2015 Budget Priorities" | Department of Energy

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  5. 2013-04 "LANL Clean-up" | Department of Energy

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  6. Property:Building/SPBreakdownOfElctrcityUseKwhM2Pcs | Open Energy

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  7. Property:Building/SPBreakdownOfElctrcityUseKwhM2Printers | Open Energy

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  8. Property:Building/SPBreakdownOfElctrcityUseKwhM2Pumps | Open Energy

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  9. Property:Building/SPBreakdownOfElctrcityUseKwhM2Total | Open Energy

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  10. Property:Building/SPElectrtyUsePercAirCompressors | Open Energy Information

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  12. Property:Building/SPElectrtyUsePercElctrcHeating | Open Energy Information

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  13. Property:Building/SPElectrtyUsePercElevators | Open Energy Information

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  18. Property:Building/SPElectrtyUsePercPcs | Open Energy Information

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  19. Property:Building/SPElectrtyUsePercPrinters | Open Energy Information

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  20. Property:Building/SPElectrtyUsePercPumps | Open Energy Information

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Google Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on QA:QA J-E-1 SECTION J APPENDIXsourceII JumpQuarterlyInformation MiscSPElectrtyUsePercLaundry

  1. Lamellar structures and self-replicating spots in a reaction-diffusion system

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Lee, K.J.; Swinney, H.L. (Center for Nonlinear Dynamics and the Department of Physics, The Univeristy of Texas, Austin, Texas 78712 (United States))

    1995-03-01

    Experiments on a ferrocyanide-iodate-sulfite reaction-diffusion system reveal several different planar spatial patterns: stationary lamellae arising from a transverse front instability and a front interaction; spot patterns that undergo a continuous process of growth through replication and death through overcrowding; waves with a repulsive front interaction; and conventional excitable waves that annihilate upon collision. The patterns form in a thin gel layer that is in contact with a continuously fed stirred reservoir. Lamellae are observed in both multistable and monostable regimes of the gel layer, while the self-replicating spots are found in a monostable regime. Numerical simulations on a one-dimensional, four-species model of the ferrocyanide-iodate-sulfite reaction describe the observed front interaction phenomena and some aspects of the bifurcation sequences observed in the laboratory experiments.

  2. Method for scavenging mercury

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Chang, Shih-ger (El Cerrito, CA); Liu, Shou-heng (Kaohsiung, TW); Liu, Zhao-rong (Bejing, CN); Yan, Naiqiang (Burkeley, CA)

    2010-07-13

    Disclosed herein is a method for removing mercury from a gas stream comprising contacting the gas stream with a getter composition comprising bromine, bromochloride, sulphur bromide, sulphur dichloride or sulphur monochloride and mixtures thereof. In one preferred embodiment the getter composition is adsorbed onto a sorbent. The sorbent may be selected from the group consisting flyash, limestone, lime, calcium sulphate, calcium sulfite, activated carbon, charcoal, silicate, alumina and mixtures thereof. Preferred is flyash, activated carbon and silica.

  3. Method for scavenging mercury

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Chang, Shih-Ger (El Cerrito, CA); Liu, Shou-Heng (Kaohsiung, TW); Liu, Zhao-Rong (Beijing, CN); Yan, Naiqiang (Berkeley, CA)

    2011-08-30

    Disclosed herein is a method for removing mercury from a gas stream comprising contacting the gas stream with a getter composition comprising bromine, bromochloride, sulphur bromide, sulphur dichloride or sulphur monochloride and mixtures thereof. In one preferred embodiment the getter composition is adsorbed onto a sorbent. The sorbent may be selected from the group consisting of flyash, limestone, lime, calcium sulphate, calcium sulfite, activated carbon, charcoal, silicate, alumina and mixtures thereof. Preferred is flyash, activated carbon and silica.

  4. Method for scavenging mercury

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Chang, Shih-ger (El Cerrito, CA); Liu, Shou-heng (Kaohsiung, TW); Liu, Zhao-rong (Beijing, CN); Yan, Naiqiang (Berkeley, CA)

    2009-01-20

    Disclosed herein is a method for removing mercury from a gas stream comprising contacting the gas stream with a getter composition comprising bromine, bromochloride, sulphur bromide, sulphur dichloride or sulphur monochloride and mixtures thereof. In one preferred embodiment the getter composition is adsorbed onto a sorbent. The sorbent may be selected from the group consisting of flyash, limestone, lime, calcium sulphate, calcium sulfite, activated carbon, charcoal, silicate, alumina and mixtures thereof. Preferred is flyash, activated carbon and silica.

  5. Copolymerization study of 1,2- and 1,4-cyclohexene oxide 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Glaesmann, Orville Lee

    1972-01-01

    , ~ ~ ~ ~ ~ ~ ~ ~ ~ ~ 21 Infrared. End Group Physical Properties IV. Bibliography, . . . , . . ~ ~ ~ ~ ~ c ~ ~ ~ 38 ~ ~ ~ ~ ~ ~ ~ 51 ~ ~ 1 ~ ~ ~ ~ ~ 55 60 V. Vita. . ~ . ~ ~ ~ ~ ~ ~ e ~ ~ ~ ~ ~ 69 LIST OF TABLES 1. Homopolymerization Data (Charges, Conditions... sulfite; TiC1 plus dibutylzinc; stannous 28 salts of carboxylic acids; alcoholates, and alum- 3O inumalkyl metal chelate systems, 31 A search of the literature was performed under the names 7-oxabicyclo f4:liQ7 heptane (1, 2-cyclohexene oxide) and 7...

  6. Author's personal copy Sulfitesulfidesulfatecarbonate equilibria with applications to Mars

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Winglee, Robert M.

    solid phases added included the sulfites: Na2SO3Á7H2O, K2SO3, (NH4)2SO3ÁH2O, MgSO3Á6H2O, CaSO3Á0.5H2O, and FeSO3Á1.5H2O, and the sulfide: FeS2. The lowest eutectic of these miner- als was K2SO3 (= 6.57 m

  7. Method for plating with metal oxides

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Silver, G.L.; Martin, F.S.

    1994-08-23

    A method is disclosed of plating hydrous metal oxides on at least one substrate, which method is indifferent to the electrochemical properties of the substrate, and comprises reacting metallic ions in aqueous solution with an appropriate oxidizing agent such as sodium hypochlorite or calcium sulfite with oxygen under suitable conditions of pH and concentration such that oxidation and precipitation of metal oxide are sufficiently slow to allow satisfactory plating of metal oxide on the substrate. 1 fig.

  8. Method for plating with metal oxides

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Silver, Gary L. (Centerville, OH); Martin, Frank S. (Farmersville, OH)

    1994-08-23

    A method of plating hydrous metal oxides on at least one substrate, which method is indifferent to the electrochemical properties of the substrate, and comprises reacting metallic ions in aqueous solution with an appropriate oxidizing agent such as sodium hypochlorite or calcium sulfite with oxygen under suitable conditions of pH and concentration such that oxidation and precipitation of metal oxide are sufficiently slow to allow satisfactory plating of metal oxide on the substrate.

  9. Vinyl Siding Institute (VSI) | Open Energy Information

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Google Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page| Open Energy Information Serbia-EnhancingEt Al.,Turin,Village of Wellington, Ohio (UtilityVinyl Kraft Windows

  10. Viralcool | Open Energy Information

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Google Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page| Open Energy Information Serbia-EnhancingEt Al.,Turin,Village of Wellington, Ohio (UtilityVinyl Kraft

  11. Gamma irradiation effects on the biodegradation of lignin 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Krysinski, Thomas Leon

    1966-01-01

    was valuable in the composition of the manuscript. TABLE OF CONTENTS ACKNOWLEDGMENTS LIST OF TABLES LIST OF ILLUSTRATIONS Page Vl Chapter I. INTRODUCTION II. RADIOACTIVE WASTES III. PAPER MILL WASTES IV. IRRADIATION OF WOOD V. EXPERIMENTAL STUDIES... products and the waste effluent from Kraft Process paper mills. The present practice of storing radioactive wastes in under- ground tanks is both costiy and unsatisfactory as a long term solution to the problem. With the increase of these wastes...

  12. Fundamental Investigations of C1O2 Delignification - Final Report - 07/10/1996 - 07/09/1999

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Ragauskas, Arthur J.; McDonough, T. J.

    2001-05-18

    The overall objective of this project was to develop a fundamental understanding of the mechanisms of chlorine dioxide delignification of low kappa kraft pulps and identify new methods of improving the efficiency and effectiveness of this bleaching agent. The approach adopted was to investigate the fundamental structural components of lignin that contribute to delignification reactions with chlorine dioxide. These results were then used to examine new bleaching technologies that will permit enhanced delignification while simultaneously reducing the generation of chlorinated organic compounds.

  13. Sulfur dioxide and nitrogen oxides emissions from U.S. pulp and paper mills, 1980-2005

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    John E. Pinkerton

    2007-08-15

    Estimates of total SO{sub 2} and NOx emissions from U.S. pulp and paper mills were developed from industry-wide surveys conducted at 5-yr intervals from 1980 to 2005. The following conclusions were drawn from these estimates: (1) Total SO{sub 2} emissions from pulp and paper mills were 340,000 t in 2005. Since 1980, SO{sub 2} emissions have decreased steadily. The decline over the 25-yr period was over 60%. Paper production increased by 50% over the same period. (2) Boilers burning coal and oil are the primary source of SO{sub 2} emissions, with minor contributions from black liquor combustion in kraft recovery furnaces and the burning of noncondensable gases in boilers at kraft pulp mills. Factors contributing to the decline in boiler SO{sub 2} emissions include large reductions in residual oil use, recent decreases in coal use, declines in the average sulfur content of residual oil and coal being burned, and increasing use of flue gas desulfurization systems.(3) NOx emissions from pulp and paper mills were 230,000 t in 2005. NOx emissions were fairly constant through 1995, but then declined by 12% in 2000 and an additional 17% between 2000 and 2005. (4) In 2005, boilers accounted for two-thirds of the NOx emissions, and kraft mill sources approximately 30%. Boiler NOx emissions exhibited very little change through 1995, but decreased by one third in the next 10 yr. The lower emissions resulted from declines in fossil fuel use, a reduction in the EPA emission factors for natural gas combustion in boilers without NOx controls, and more widespread use of combustion modifications and add-on NOx control technologies, particularly on coal-fired boilers subject to EPA's NOx SIP call. Total NOx emissions from kraft mill sources changed little over the 25-yr period. 7 refs., 4 figs., 3 tabs.

  14. Comparative functionality of plasma protein isolate in meat food products 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Weinblatt, Philip Jeffrey

    1978-01-01

    /sa "an/polyethylene) and displayed under simulated retail light conditions (883 lux, 5'C, 8 hr per day) . Slice number six of each shoulder was placed on a flat styrofoam board and packaged in a polyvinyl chloride film (PVC) . These slices were... are reported as ppm. C= Control; STP = Sodium Tripoly Phosphate; PP = Plasma Protein. b Retail display (883 lux, 5'C, 8 hr per day). c PEP = polyethylene-coated kraft paper; PVC = polyvinyl chloride film; VP = impermeable laminated nylon...

  15. Southern Pine Based on Biorefinery Center

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Ragauskas, Arthur J; Singh, Preet

    2014-01-10

    This program seeks to develop an integrated southern pine wood to biofuels/biomaterials processing facility on the Recipient’s campus, that will test advanced integrated wood processing technologies at the laboratory scale, including: • The generation of the bioethanol from pines residues and hemicelluloses extracted from pine woodchips; • The conversion of extracted woodchips to linerboard and bleach grade pulps; and • The efficient conversion of pine residues, bark and kraft cooking liquor into a useful pyrolysis oil.

  16. Mechanistic investigation of vinylic carbonfluorine bond activation of perfluorinated cycloalkenes using Cp*2ZrH2 and Cp*2ZrHF

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Jones, William D.

    using Cp*2ZrH2 and Cp*2ZrHF Bradley M. Kraft a , Eric Clot b , Odile Eisenstein b , William W behaves similarly [4]. In contrast, Cp*Rh(PMe3)H2 reacts with C6F6 by way of an SNAr2 attack by its conjugate base to give Cp*Rh(PMe3)(C6F5)H and fluoride ion, resulting in an autocatalytic reaction [5]. Cp

  17. Integrated Forest Products Refinery (IFPR)

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    van Heiningen, Adriaan R. P.

    2010-05-29

    Pre-extraction–kraft studies of hardwoods showed that when extracting about 10% of the wood, the final kraft pulp yield and physical properties could only be maintained at a level similar to that of regular kraft pulp when the final extract pH was close to neutral. This so-called “near neutral” pre-extraction condition at a level of 10% wood dissolution was achieved by contacting the wood chips with green liquor (GL) at a charge of about 3% (as Na2O on wood) at 160 °C for almost 2 hours (or an H-factor of about 800 hrs.). During subsequent kraft cooking of the pre-extracted hardwood chips the effective alkali charge could be reduced by about 3% (as Na2O on wood) and the cooking time shortened relative to that during regular kraft cooking, while still producing the same bleachable grade kappa number as the kraft control pulp. For softwood, no extraction conditions were discovered in the present investigation whereby both the final kraft pulp yield and physical properties could be maintained at a level similar to that of regular softwood kraft pulp. Therefore for hardwoods the “near- neutral green liquor pre-extraction conditions do meet the requirements of the IFPR concept, while for softwood, no extraction conditions were discovered which do meet these requirements. Application of simulated industrial GL at an extraction H-factor of about 800 hrs and 3% GL charge in a recirculating digester produced an hardwood extract containing about 4% (on wood) of total anhydro-sugars, 2% of acetic acid, and 1.3% of lignin. Xylan comprised of 80% of the sugars of which about 85% is oligomeric. Since only polymeric hemicelluloses and lignin may be adsorbed on pulp (produced at a yield of about 50% from the original wood), the maximum theoretical yield increase due to adsorption may be estimated as 10% on pulp (or 5% on wood). However, direct application of raw GL hardwood extract for hemicelluloses adsorption onto hardwood kraft pulp led to a yield increase of only about 1% (on pulp). By using the wet-end retention aid guar gum during the adsorption process at a charge of 0.5% on pulp the yield gain may be increased to about 5%. Unfortunately, most of this yield increase is lost during subsequent alkaline treatments in the pulp bleach plant. It was found that by performing the adsorption at alkaline conditions the adsorption loss during alkaline treatment in the bleach plant is mostly avoided. Thus a permanent adsorption yield of about 3 and 1.5% (on pulp) was obtained with addition of guar gum at a charge of 0.5 and 0.1% respectively during adsorption of GL hardwood extract on pre-extracted kraft pulp at optimal conditions of pH 11.5, 90 C for 60 minutes at 5% consistency. The beatability of the adsorbed kraft pulps was improved. Also, significant physical strength improvements were achieved. Further study is needed to determine whether the improvements in pulp yield and paper properties make this an economic IFPR concept. Application of the wood solids of a hot water extract of Acer rubrum wood strands as a substitute for polystyrene used for production of SMC maintained the water adsorption properties of the final product. Further work on the physical properties of the hemicellulose containing SMCs need to be completed to determine the potential of wood extracts for the production of partially renewable SMCs. The discovery of the “near-neutral” green liquor extraction process for hardwood was formed the basis for a commercial Integrated Biorefinery that will extract hemicelluloses from wood chips to make biofuels and other specialty chemicals. The pulp production process will be maintained as is proposed in the present researched IFBR concept. This Integrated Biorefinery will be constructed by Red Shield Acquisition LLC (RSA) at the Old Town kraft pulp mill in Maine. RSA in collaboration with the University of Maine will develop and commercialize the hemicellulose extraction process, the conversion of the hemicellulose sugars into butanol by fermentation, and the separation of specialty chemicals such as acetic acid fr

  18. High Selectivity Oxygen Delignification

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Arthur J. Ragauskas

    2005-09-30

    The overall objective of this program was to develop improved extended oxygen delignification (EOD) technologies for current U.S. pulp mill operations. This was accomplished by: (1) Identifying pulping conditions that optimize O and OO performance; (2) Identifying structural features of lignin that enhance reactivity towards EOD of high kappa pulps; (3) Identifying factors minimizing carbohydrate degradation and improve pulp strength of EOD high kappa pulps; (4) Developing a simple, reproducible method of quantifying yield gains from EOD; and (5) Developing process conditions that significantly reduce the capital requirements of EOD while optimizing the yield benefits. Key research outcomes included, demonstrating the use of a mini-O sequence such as (E+O)Dkf:0.05(E+O) or Dkf:0.05(E+O)(E+O) without interstage washing could capture approximately 60% of the delignification efficiency of a conventional O-stage without the major capital requirements associated with an O-stage for conventional SW kraft pulps. The rate of formation and loss of fiber charge during an O-stage stage can be employed to maximize net fiber charge. Optimal fiber charge development and delignification are two independent parameters and do not parallel each other. It is possible to utilize an O-stage to enhance overall cellulosic fiber charge of low and high kappa SW kraft pulps which is beneficial for physical strength properties. The application of NIR and multi-variant analysis was developed into a rapid and simple method of determining the yield of pulp from an oxygen delignification stage that has real-world mill applications. A focus point of this program was the demonstration that Kraft pulping conditions and oxygen delignification of high and low-kappa SW and HW pulps are intimately related. Improved physical pulp properties and yield can be delivered by controlling the H-factor and active alkali charge. Low AA softwood kraft pulp with a kappa number 30 has an average improvement of 2% in yield and 4 cP in viscosity in comparison to high AA pulp for the oxygen delignification. This difference is also seen for high-kappa SW kraft pulps with an average improvement of {approx}3% in yield and 3 cP in viscosity for low AA high kappa number 50 pulp. Low AA hardwood kappa number 20 pulp had an average improvement of {approx}4% in yield and 6-12 cP in viscosity as compared to high AA pulp. Lower kraft cooking temperature (160 vs. 170 C) in combination with the medium AA provides a practical approach for integrating high kappa pulping of hardwoods (i.e., low rejects) with an advanced extended oxygen delignification stage. ECF pulp bleaching of low and high kappa kraft SW and HW pulps exhibit comparable optical and physical strength properties when bleached D(EPO)D.

  19. "Aegean Seals of the Late Bronze Age: Stylistic Groups. VII. Concordance"

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Younger, John G.

    1989-01-01

    -56) Caprids from Isopata T. 3 (IV 60-61 & 69) Columbia (Vl 58-59) Conch Blower, HM 24 (III 63) Contorted Bull (N 61'-62) Couchant Boars (IV 66-67) Cretan Popular (CP): CP Agrimia (II 125) CP Boars (Ii 125) CP Bulls (11124-1'25) CP Cult (II 124) CP Deet (Il 125...) CP Lions (lI 1.24) CP Men (Il1.23-124) CP Monsters (II 126-127) CP Octopus (lI 126) CP Women (II123) CP Waterbirds (II 125) Crossed Hocks (VI 59-60) Danicourt (IIl 58-60) Dot-Eye Misc. (IV 73) Dot-Eye Mumps (M0-72) dependent: Glass Minotaurs (IV 72...

  20. Monolithically interconnected GaAs solar cells: A new interconnection technology for high voltage solar cell output

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Dinetta, L.C.; Hannon, M.H.

    1995-10-01

    Photovoltaic linear concentrator arrays can benefit from high performance solar cell technologies being developed at AstroPower. Specifically, these are the integration of thin GaAs solar cell and epitaxial lateral overgrowth technologies with the application of monolithically interconnected solar cell (MISC) techniques. This MISC array has several advantages which make it ideal for space concentrator systems. These are high system voltage, reliable low cost monolithically formed interconnections, design flexibility, costs that are independent of array voltage, and low power loss from shorts, opens, and impact damage. This concentrator solar cell will incorporate the benefits of light trapping by growing the device active layers over a low-cost, simple, PECVD deposited silicon/silicon dioxide Bragg reflector. The high voltage-low current output results in minimal 12R losses while properly designing the device allows for minimal shading and resistance losses. It is possible to obtain open circuit voltages as high as 67 volts/cm of solar cell length with existing technology. The projected power density for the high performance device is 5 kW/m for an AMO efficiency of 26% at 1 5X. Concentrator solar cell arrays are necessary to meet the power requirements of specific mission platforms and can supply high voltage power for electric propulsion systems. It is anticipated that the high efficiency, GaAs monolithically interconnected linear concentrator solar cell array will enjoy widespread application for space based solar power needs. Additional applications include remote man-portable or ultra-light unmanned air vehicle (UAV) power supplies where high power per area, high radiation hardness and a high bus voltage or low bus current are important. The monolithic approach has a number of inherent advantages, including reduced cost per interconnect and increased reliability of array connections. There is also a high potential for a large number of consumer products.

  1. Membrane Based intensification of ammonia removal from wastewater

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Almutairi, Azel

    2011-12-31

    , exchanging zone, moving through a packed bed [109]. A+ is equivalent for the sodium form and B+ for ammonium ion. 78 Figure 2.8: Breakthrough curves [5]. 79 Figure 2.9: Basic methods of cell immobilization [122]. 84 Figure 2.10: Ion exchange process....30: Deoxygenation of 2.5 L tap water by 2.5 mg sodium sulfite. 180 Figure 4.31: Silicon tube membrane oxygenation at different pressures. 181 Figure 4.32: Porous membrane oxygenation at P = 1.0 psi. 182 Figure 4.33: Porous membrane oxygenation at P = 4.0 psi...

  2. Catalytic iron oxide for lime regeneration in carbonaceous fuel combustion

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Shen, Ming-Shing (Rocky Point, NY); Yang, Ralph T. (Middle Island, NY)

    1980-01-01

    Lime utilization for sulfurous oxides absorption in fluidized combustion of carbonaceous fuels is improved by impregnation of porous lime particulates with iron oxide. The impregnation is achieved by spraying an aqueous solution of mixed iron sulfate and sulfite on the limestone before transfer to the fluidized bed combustor, whereby the iron compounds react with the limestone substrate to form iron oxide at the limestone surface. It is found that iron oxide present in the spent limestone acts as a catalyst to regenerate the spent limestone in a reducing environment. With only small quantities of iron oxide the calcium can be recycled at a significantly increased rate.

  3. Carbonaceous fuel combustion with improved desulfurization

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Yang, Ralph T. (Middle Island, NY); Shen, Ming-shing (Rocky Point, NY)

    1980-01-01

    Lime utilization for sulfurous oxides adsorption in fluidized combustion of carbonaceous fuels is improved by impregnation of porous lime particulates with iron oxide. The impregnation is achieved by spraying an aqueous solution of mixed iron sulfate and sulfite on the limestone before transfer to the fluidized bed combustor, whereby the iron compounds react with the limestone substrate to form iron oxide at the limestone surface. The iron oxide present in the spent limestone is found to catalyze the regeneration rate of the spent limestone in a reducing environment. Thus both the calcium and iron components may be recycled.

  4. Exhaust gas clean up process

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Walker, R.J.

    1988-06-16

    A method of cleaning an exhaust gas containing particulates, SO/sub 2/ and NO/sub x/ is described. The method involves prescrubbing with water to remove HCl and most of the particulates, scrubbing with an aqueous absorbent containing a metal chelate and dissolved sulfite salt to remove NO/sub x/ and SO/sub 2/, and regenerating the absorbent solution by controlled heating, electrodialysis and carbonate salt addition. The NO/sub x/ is removed as N/sub 2/ gas or nitrogen sulfonate ions and the oxides of sulfur are removed as a valuable sulfate salt. 4 figs.

  5. Exhaust gas clean up process

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Walker, Richard J. (McMurray, PA)

    1989-01-01

    A method of cleaning an exhaust gas containing particulates, SO.sub.2 and NO.sub.x includes prescrubbing with water to remove HCl and most of the particulates, scrubbing with an aqueous absorbent containing a metal chelate and dissolved sulfite salt to remove NO.sub.x and SO.sub.2, and regenerating the absorbent solution by controlled heating, electrodialysis and carbonate salt addition. The NO.sub.x is removed as N.sub.2 or nitrogen-sulfonate ions and the oxides of sulfur are removed as a vaulable sulfate salt.

  6. Integrated genome based studies of Shewanella ecophysiology

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Saffarini, Daad A

    2013-03-07

    Progress is reported in these areas: Regulation of anaerobic respiration by cAMP receptor protein and role of adenylate cyclases; Identification of an octaheme c cytochrome as the terminal sulfite reductase in S. oneidensis MR-1; Identification and analysis of components of the electron transport chains that lead to reduction of thiosulfate, tetrathionate, and elemental sulfur in MR-1; Involvement of pili and flagella in metal reduction by S. oneidensis MR-1; and work suggesting that HemN1 is the major enzyme that is involved in heme biosynthesis under anaerobic conditions.

  7. Molecular interactions of SO2 with carbonate minerals under co-sequestration conditions: a combined experimental and theoretical study

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Glezakou, Vassiliki Alexandra; McGrail, B. Peter; Schaef, Herbert T.

    2012-09-01

    We present a combined experimental and theoretical study investigating the reactivity between selected and morphologically important surfaces of carbonate minerals with supercritical CO2 with co-existing H2O and SO2. Trace amounts of SO2 cause formation of CaSO3 in the form of hannebachite in the initial stages of SO2 adsorption and transformation. Atomistic simulations of these initial steps indicate a somewhat catalytic activity of water, which is enhanced by the presence of Magnesium atoms in the mineral surface. Under co-sequestration conditions, traces of water are not likely to cause carbonate dissolution, however the presence of SO2 greatly stabilizes the sulfite product.

  8. Novel Pulping Technology: Directed Green Liquor Utilization (D-GLU) Pulping

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Lucian A. Lucia

    2005-11-15

    The general objectives of this new project are the same as those described in the original proposal. Conventional kraft pulping technologies will be modified for significant improvements in pulp production, such as strength, bleachability, and yield by using green liquor, a naturally high, kraft mill-derived sulfidity source. Although split white liquor sulfidity and other high sulfidity procedures have the promise of addressing several of the latter important economic needs of pulp mills, they require considerable engineering/capital retrofits, redesigned production methods, and thus add to overall mill expenditures. Green liquor use, however, possesses the required high sulfidity to obtain in general the benefits attributable to higher sulfidity cooking, without the required capital constraints for implementation. Before introduction of green liquor in our industrial operations, a stronger understanding of its fundamental chemical interaction with the lignin and carbohydrates in US hardwood and softwoods must be obtained. In addition, its effect on bleachability, enhancement of pulp properties, and influence on the overall energy and recovery of the mill requires further exploration before the process witnesses widespread mill use in North America. Thus, proof of principle will be accomplished in this work and the consequent effect of green liquor and other high sulfide sources on the pulping and bleaching operations will be explored for US kraft mills. The first year of this project will generate the pertinent information to validate its ability for implementation in US pulping operations, whereas year two will continue this work while proceeding to analyze pulp bleachability and final pulp/paper properties and develop a general economic and feasibility analysis for its eventual implementation in North America.

  9. Viola, Kansas: Energy Resources | Open Energy Information

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Google Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page| Open Energy Information Serbia-EnhancingEt Al.,Turin,Village of Wellington, Ohio (UtilityVinyl Kraft WindowsViola,

  10. Viola, New York: Energy Resources | Open Energy Information

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Google Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page| Open Energy Information Serbia-EnhancingEt Al.,Turin,Village of Wellington, Ohio (UtilityVinyl Kraft WindowsViola,New

  11. Virden, Illinois: Energy Resources | Open Energy Information

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Google Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page| Open Energy Information Serbia-EnhancingEt Al.,Turin,Village of Wellington, Ohio (UtilityVinyl KraftVirden, Illinois:

  12. Virent Energy Systems Inc | Open Energy Information

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Google Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page| Open Energy Information Serbia-EnhancingEt Al.,Turin,Village of Wellington, Ohio (UtilityVinyl KraftVirden,

  13. Viresco Energy | Open Energy Information

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Google Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page| Open Energy Information Serbia-EnhancingEt Al.,Turin,Village of Wellington, Ohio (UtilityVinyl KraftVirden,Energy

  14. Control of the Accumulation of Non-Process Elements in Pulp Mills with Bleach Filtrate Reuse: A Chemical Equilibrium Approach to Predicting the Partitioning of Metals in Pulp Mill and Bleach Plant Streams

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Frederick, W.J. Jr.; Rudie, A.W.; Schmidl, G.W.; Sinquefield, S.A.; Rorrer, G.L.; Laver, M.L.; Yantasee, W.; Ming, D.

    2000-08-01

    The overall goal of this project was to develop fundamental, experimentally based methods for predicting the solubility or organic and inorganic matter and their interactions in recycled effluent from kraft pulp mills and bleach plants. This included: characterizing the capacity of wood pulp and dissolved organic matter to bind metal ions, developing a thermodynamic database of properties needed to describe the solubility of inorganic matter in pulp mill streams, incorporation of the database into equilibrium calculation software for predicting the solubility of the metals of interest, and evaluating its capability to predict the distribution of the metals between pulp fibers, inorganic precipitates, and solution.

  15. Black liquor gasification phase 2D final report

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Kohl, A.L.; Stewart, A.E.

    1988-06-01

    This report covers work conducted by Rockwell International under Amendment 5 to Subcontract STR/DOE-12 of Cooperative Agreement DE-AC-05-80CS40341 between St. Regis Corporation (now Champion International) and the Department of Energy (DOE). The work has been designated Phase 2D of the overall program to differentiate it from prior work under the same subcontract. The overall program is aimed at demonstrating the feasibility of and providing design data for the Rockwell process for gasifying Kraft black liquor. In this process, concentrated black liquor is converted into low-Btu fuel gas and reduced melt by reaction with air in a specially designed gasification reactor.

  16. Industrial Heat Pump Case Study 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Wagner, J. R.; Brush, F. C.

    1985-01-01

    -effect ijeSi. g ns. A high degree of recirculation is maintain d, with several hundred pounds of product liquor bei g recir culated for every pound of water evaporate. Kraft uses its evaporator to concentrate and cr stal1ize lactose, using cheese whey... undesirable results. Concentrated liquor exits at the bottom of ~e sepa rator, where a small portion is drawn off an sent to the next stage" of the production process. dditona1 raw material is continuously added to compefate for product removal...

  17. Fermentation and chemical treatment of pulp and paper mill sludge

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Lee, Yoon Y; Wang, Wei; Kang, Li

    2014-12-02

    A method of chemically treating partially de-ashed pulp and/or paper mill sludge to obtain products of value comprising taking a sample of primary sludge from a Kraft paper mill process, partially de-ashing the primary sludge by physical means, and further treating the primary sludge to obtain the products of value, including further treating the resulting sludge and using the resulting sludge as a substrate to produce cellulase in an efficient manner using the resulting sludge as the only carbon source and mixtures of inorganic salts as the primary nitrogen source, and including further treating the resulting sludge and using the resulting sludge to produce ethanol.

  18. "What's Going On Out There?" A Baseline Survey for the LCRA's Good Cents Home Program 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Knutsen, T.

    1994-01-01

    was a batt rated at R-13. About half the builders used unfaced batts, which are fitted into the spaces between studs, so the insulation is not compressed and gives full value. Interviews with builders or their sales staff revealed that R-13... but applies to window styles and attic insulation. In 1986 the most common wall insulation was a batt rated at R-11 faced with kraft paper. That kind of insulation is fitted between wall studs and is supposed to be stapled in place using the paper...

  19. Apparatus for control of mercury

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Downs, William (Alliance, OH); Bailey, Ralph T. (Uniontown, OH)

    2001-01-01

    A method and apparatus for reducing mercury in industrial gases such as the flue gas produced by the combustion of fossil fuels such as coal adds hydrogen sulfide to the flue gas in or just before a scrubber of the industrial process which contains the wet scrubber. The method and apparatus of the present invention is applicable to installations employing either wet or dry scrubber flue gas desulfurization systems. The present invention uses kraft green liquor as a source for hydrogen sulfide and/or the injection of mineral acids into the green liquor to release vaporous hydrogen sulfide in order to form mercury sulfide solids.

  20. Genetic variation in stromal proteins decorin and lumican with breast cancer: investigations in two case-control studies

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Kelemen, Linda E.; Couch, Fergus J.; Ahmed, Shahana; Dunning, Alison M.; Pharoah, Paul D. P.; Easton, Douglas F.; Fredericksen, Zachary S.; Vierkant, Robert A.; Pankratz, Vernon Shane; Goode, Ellen L.; Scott, Christopher G.; Rider, David N.; Wang, Xianshu; Cerhan, James R.; Vachon, Celine M.

    2008-11-26

    Pharoah3, Douglas F Easton3,4, Zachary S Fredericksen5, Robert A Vierkant5, V Shane Pankratz5, Ellen L Goode5, Christopher G Scott5, David N Rider5, Xianshu Wang2, James R Cerhan3 and Celine M Vachon5 1Department of Population Health Research, Alberta... , Rice JP, Roberts J, et al.: Replicating genotype- phenotype associations. Nature 2007, 447:655-660. 31. Cancer Genetic Markers of Susceptibility [https://caintegra tor.nci.nih.gov/cgems/] 32. Hunter DJ, Kraft P, Jacobs KB, Cox DG, Yeager M, Hankinson...

  1. Historical collection of preprints, reprints, working papers, correspondence, and other documents related to the "cold fusion" experiments conducted by Stanley Pons and Martin Fleischmann.

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    2013-04-01

    This historical collection consists of various letters, correspondence, working papers, reprints, preprints, workshop reports, and news clippings related to the "cold fusion" experiments conducted by Stanley Pons and Martin Fleischmann. Binders and contents. 1. Laboratory Reprints/Preprints (Laboratory Documents from 9 national Labs. Some original documents); 2. Summary Report by Dr. Duane L. Barney (Articles, Letters, and Reports through 1994 on Cold Fusion. Original Documents); 3. Conference Workshops (Official Documents, schedules, and notes from 4 conferences); 4. HSS&T Hearings, SRI Incident Jan. 1992 (Summary of Cold Fusion Research and reports following SRI Incident. Original Documents); 5. Media 1989 to Present (circa 1995) (Journals, Magazines, Newspapers, and Press Releases from 1989-1995. Some reprints, some original articles/magazines); 6. Science in Service of National Economy aka Manfred's Book (A comprehensive overview of various research being done at Laboratories across the country that could impact the economy); 7. ERAB Information (Comprehensive Report on Cold Fusion Research w/ recommendations on funding and continued research. Original documents); 8. Misc.: Memorandum, Notes, Reports, Summaries, and Updates Chronologically 1989 (Various documents related to Cold Fusion in order of print from 1989. Original documents); 9. Misc.: Memorandum, Notes, Reports, Summaries, and Updates Chronologically 1990-1992 (Various documents related to Cold Fusion including status reports and research in order of print from 1990-1992. Original documents); 10. Misc.: Memorandum, Notes, Reports, Summaries, and Updates Chronologically 1993-1995 (Various documents related to Cold Fusion including status reports and research in order of print from 1993-1995. Original documents); 11. General: Preprints/Reprints Filed by Institution A-H (Reports of Research and Conclusion from various universities and institutions.); 12. General: Preprints/Reprints Filed by Institution I-R (Reports of Research and Conclusion from various universities and institutions.); 13. General: Preprints/Reprints Filed by Institution S-Z (Reports of Research and Conclusion from various universities and institutions.); 14. General: Correspondence, Incoming, Inquiries A-F (Letters, Correspondence, and Inquiries regarding Cold Fusion and its research. Sorted by Last Name of Author. Original documents); 15. General: Correspondence, Incoming, Inquiries G-L (Letters, Correspondence, and Inquiries regarding Cold Fusion and its research. Sorted by Last Name of Author. Original documents); 16. General: Correspondence, Incoming, Inquiries M-R (Letters, Correspondence, and Inquiries regarding Cold Fusion and its research. Sorted by Last Name of Author. Original documents); 17. General: Correspondence, Incoming, Inquiries S-Z (Letters, Correspondence, and Inquiries regarding Cold Fusion and its research. Sorted by Last Name of Author. Original documents); 18. Miscellaneous papers (Investigation of Cold Fusion Phenomena in Deuterated Metals-NCFI Final Report Volumes I. II, and III; June 1991; 4th Annual Conference on Cold Fusion Proceedings: Volumes 1-4; Development of Advanced Concepts for Nuclear Processes in Deuterated Metals; A Comprehensive Report on the research methods, background information, and principles related to Cold Fusion; Cold Fusion Research: November 1989; ERAB report on Cold Fusion Research; Proceedings: Workshop on Anomalous Effects in Deuterided Metals; Workshop designed to generate audio between skeptics and advocates to examine Cold Fusion research results and remaining questions in research methods; Muon Catalyzed Fusion; Overview of Muon Catalyzed Fusion; Grant Application for Cold Fusion Research; Original application to DOE from Prof. Pons that was withdrawn in favor of a new grant proposal).

  2. Standard Practice for Irradiation of Fresh and Frozen Red Meat and Poultry to Control Pathogens and Other Microorganisms

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    American Society for Testing and Materials. Philadelphia

    2008-01-01

    1.1 This practice outlines procedures for the irradiation of fresh or frozen meat and poultry. Note 1—The Codex Alimentarius Commission defines meat as “the edible part of any mammal” and poultry as “any domesticated bird, including chicken, turkeys, ducks, geese, guinea-fowls, or pigeons” (CAC/MISC 5). Note 2—Current U.S. regulations limit the definition of livestock species to cattle, sheep, swine, goat, horse, mule, or other equine and poultry species to chicken, turkey, duck, goose, and guinea (2, 3). 1.2 This practice covers absorbed doses used for inactivation of parasites and reduction of bacterial load in fresh and frozen red meat and poultry. Such doses are typically less than 10 kGy. 1.3 This practice addresses irradiation of pre-packaged product for retail sale or for use as an ingredient in other products. It also addresses the in-line irradiation of unpackaged product. 1.4 This standard does not purport to address all of the safety concerns, if any, associated with its use. It i...

  3. Fluid extraction using carbon dioxide and organophosphorus chelating agents

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Smart, N.G.; Wai, C.M.; Lin, Y.; Kwang, Y.H.

    1998-11-24

    Methods for extracting metalloid and metal species from a solid or liquid material by exposing the material to a fluid solvent, particularly supercritical CO{sub 2}, and a chelating agent are described. The chelating agent forms a chelate with the species, the chelate being soluble in the fluid to allow removal of the species from the material. In preferred embodiments the extraction solvent is supercritical CO{sub 2} and the chelating agent comprises an organophosphorous chelating agent, particularly sulfur-containing organophosphorous chelating agents, including mixtures of chelating agents. Examples of chelating agents include monothiophosphinic acid, di-thiophosphinic acid, phosphine sulfite, phosphorothioic acid, and mixtures thereof. The method provides an environmentally benign process for removing metal and metalloids from industrial waste solutions, particularly acidic solutions. Both the chelate and the supercritical fluid can be regenerated and the contaminant species recovered to provide an economic, efficient process. 1 fig.

  4. Fluid extraction using carbon dioxide and organophosphorus chelating agents

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Smart, Neil G. (Moscow, ID); Wai, Chien M. (Moscow, ID); Lin, Yuehe (Moscow, ID); Kwang, Yak Hwa (Moscow, ID)

    1998-01-01

    Methods for extracting metalloid and metal species from a solid or liquid material by exposing the material to a fluid solvent, particularly supercritical CO.sub.2, and a chelating agent are described. The chelating agent forms a chelate with the species, the chelate being soluble in the fluid to allow removal of the species from the material. In preferred embodiments the extraction solvent is supercritical CO.sub.2 and the chelating agent comprises an organophosphorous chelating agent, particularly sulfur-containing organophosphorous chelating agents, including mixtures of chelating agents. Examples of chelating agents include monothiophosphinic acid, di-thiophosphinic acid, phosphine sulfite, phosphorothioic acid, and mixtures thereof. The method provides an environmentally benign process for removing metal and metalloids from industrial waste solutions, particularly acidic solutions. Both the chelate and the supercritical fluid can be regenerated and the contaminant species recovered to provide an economic, efficient process.

  5. Method of removing oxides of sulfur and oxides of nitrogen from exhaust gases

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Walker, Richard J. (Bethel Park, PA)

    1986-01-01

    A continuous method is presented for removing both oxides of sulfur and oxides of nitrogen from combustion or exhaust gases with the regeneration of the absorbent. Exhaust gas is cleaned of particulates and HCl by a water scrub prior to contact with a liquid absorbent that includes an aqueous solution of bisulfite and sulfite ions along with a metal chelate, such as, an iron or zinc aminopolycarboxylic acid. Following contact with the combustion gases the spent absorbent is subjected to electrodialysis to transfer bisulfite ions into a sulfuric acid solution while splitting water with hydroxide and hydrogen ion migration to equalize electrical charge. The electrodialysis stack includes alternate layers of anion selective and bipolar membranes. Oxides of nitrogen are removed from the liquid absorbent by air stripping at an elevated temperature and the regenerated liquid absorbent is returned to contact with exhaust gases for removal of sulfur oxides and nitrogen oxides.

  6. Processes to remove acid forming gases from exhaust gases

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Chang, S.G.

    1994-09-20

    The present invention relates to a process for reducing the concentration of NO in a gas, which process comprises: (A) contacting a gas sample containing NO with a gaseous oxidizing agent to oxidize the NO to NO[sub 2]; (B) contacting the gas sample of step (A) comprising NO[sub 2] with an aqueous reagent of bisulfite/sulfite and a compound selected from urea, sulfamic acid, hydrazinium ion, hydrazoic acid, nitroaniline, sulfanilamide, sulfanilic acid, mercaptopropanoic acid, mercaptosuccinic acid, cysteine or combinations thereof at between about 0 and 100 C at a pH of between about 1 and 7 for between about 0.01 and 60 sec; and (C) optionally contacting the reaction product of step (A) with conventional chemical reagents to reduce the concentrations of the organic products of the reaction in step (B) to environmentally acceptable levels. Urea or sulfamic acid are preferred, especially sulfamic acid, and step (C) is not necessary or performed. 16 figs.

  7. Sulfur gas emissions from stored flue gas desulfurization solids. Final report

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Adams, D.F.; Farwell, S.O.

    1981-10-01

    The emissions of volatile, sulfur-containing compounds from the surfaces of 13 flue gas desulfurization (FGD) solids field storage sites have been characterized. The sulfur gas emissions from these storage surfaces were determined by measuring the sulfur gas enhancement of sulfur-free sweep air passing through a dynamic emission flux chamber placed over selected sampling areas. Samples of the enclosure sweep air were cryogenically concentrated in surface-deactivated Pyrex U traps. Analyses were conducted by wall-coated, open-tubular, capillary column, cryogenic, temperature-programmed gas chromatography using a sulfur-selective flame photometric detector. Several major variables associated with FGD sludge production processes were examined in relation to the measured range and variations in sulfur fluxes including: the sulfur dioxide scrubbing reagent used, sludge sulfite oxidation, unfixed or stabilized (fixed) FGD solids, and ponding or landfill storage. The composition and concentration of the measured sulfur gas emissions were found to vary with the type of solids, the effectiveness of rainwater drainage from the landfill surface, the method of impoundment, and the sulfate/sulfite ratio of the solids. The FGD solids emissions may contain hydrogen sulfide, carbonyl sulfide, dimethyl sulfide, carbon disulfide, and dimethyl disulfide in varying concentrations and ratios. In addition, up to four unidentified organo-sulfur compounds were found in the emissions from four different FGD solids. The measured, total sulfur emissions ranged from less than 0.01 to nearly 0.3 kg of sulfur per day for an equivalent 40.5 hectare (100 acre) FGD solids impoundment surface.

  8. Sacrificial adsorbate for surfactants utilized in chemical floods of enhanced oil recovery operations

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Johnson, J.S. Jr.; Westmoreland, C.G.

    1980-08-20

    The present invention is directed to a sacrificial or competitive adsorbate for surfactants contained in chemical flooding emulsions for enhanced oil recovery operations. The adsorbate to be utilized in the method of the present invention is a caustic effluent from the bleach stage or the weak black liquor from the digesters and pulp washers of the kraft pulping process. This effluent or weak black liquor is injected into an oil-bearing subterranean earth formation prior to or concurrent with the chemical flood emulsion and is adsorbed on the active mineral surfaces of the formation matrix so as to effectively reduce adsorption of surfactant in the chemical flood. Alternatively, the effluent or liquor can be injected into the subterranean earth formation subsequent to a chemical flood to displace the surfactant from the mineral surfaces for the recovery thereof.

  9. Sacrificial adsorbate for surfactants utilized in chemical floods of enhanced oil recovery operations

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Johnson, Jr., James S. (Oak Ridge, TN); Westmoreland, Clyde G. (Rockwood, TN)

    1982-01-01

    The present invention is directed to a sacrificial or competitive adsorbate for surfactants contained in chemical flooding emulsions for enhanced oil recovery operations. The adsorbate to be utilized in the method of the present invention is a caustic effluent from the bleach stage or the weak black liquor from the digesters and pulp washers of the kraft pulping process. This effluent or weak black liquor is injected into an oil-bearing subterranean earth formation prior to or concurrent with the chemical flood emulsion and is adsorbed on the active mineral surfaces of the formation matrix so as to effectively reduce adsorption of surfactant in the chemical flood. Alternatively, the effluent or liquor can be injected into the subterranean earth formation subsequent to a chemical flood to displace the surfactant from the mineral surfaces for the recovery thereof.

  10. Cracking and Corrosion of Composite Tubes in Black Liquor Recovery Boiler Primary Air Ports

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Keiser, James R.; Singbeil, Douglas L.; Sarma, Gorti B.; Kish, Joseph R.; Yuan, Jerry; Frederick, Laurie A.; Choudhury, Kimberly A.; Gorog, J. Peter; Jetté, Francois R.; Hubbard, Camden R.; Swindeman, Robert W.; Singh, Prett M.; Maziasz, Phillip J.

    2006-10-01

    Black liquor recovery boilers are an essential part of kraft mills. Their design and operating procedures have changed over time with the goal of providing improved boiler performance. These performance improvements are frequently associated with an increase in heat flux and/or operating temperature with a subsequent increase in the demand on structural materials associated with operation at higher temperatures and/or in more corrosive environments. Improvements in structural materials have therefore been required. In most cases the alternate materials have provided acceptable solutions. However, in some cases the alternate materials have solved the original problem but introduced new issues. This report addresses the performance of materials in the tubes forming primary air port openings and, particularly, the problems associated with use of stainless steel clad carbon steel tubes and the solutions that have been identified.

  11. Isolation of a bacterium capable of degrading peanut hull lignin

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Kerr, T.A.; Kerr, R.D.; Benner, R.

    1983-11-01

    Thirty-seven bacterial strains capable of degrading peanut hull lignin were isolated by using four types of lignin preparations and hot-water-extracted peanut hulls. One of the isolates, tentatively identified as Arthrobacter species, was capable of utilizing all four lignin preparations as well as extracted peanut hulls as a sole source of carbon. The bacterium was also capable of degrading specifically labeled (/sup 14/C) lignin-labeled lignocellulose and (/sup 14/C)cellulose-labeled lignocellulose from the cordgrass Spartina alterniflora and could also degrade (/sup 14/C) Kraft lignin from slash pine. After 10 days of incubation with (/sup 14/C) cellulose-labeled lignocellulose or (/sup 14/C) lignin-labeled lignocellulose from S. alterniflora, the bacterium mineralized 6.5% of the polysaccharide component and 2.9% of the lignin component. (Refs. 24).

  12. Mill Designed Bio bleaching Technologies

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Institute of Paper Science Technology

    2004-01-30

    A key finding of this research program was that Laccase Mediator Systems (LMS) treatments on high-kappa kraft could be successfully accomplished providing substantial delignification (i.e., > 50%) without detrimental impact on viscosity and significantly improved yield properties. The efficiency of the LMS was evident since most of the lignin from the pulp was removed in less than one hour at 45 degrees C. Of the mediators investigated, violuric acid was the most effective vis-a-vis delignification. A comparative study between oxygen delignification and violuric acid revealed that under relatively mild conditions, a single or a double LMS{sub VA} treatment is comparable to a single or a double O stage. Of great notability was the retention of end viscosity of LMS{sub VA} treated pulps with respect to the end viscosity of oxygen treated pulps. These pulps could then be bleached to full brightness values employing conventional ECF bleaching technologies and the final pulp physical properties were equal and/or better than those bleached in a conventional ECF manner employing an aggressively O or OO stage initially. Spectral analyses of residual lignins isolated after LMS treated high-kappa kraft pulps revealed that similar to HBT, VA and NHA preferentially attack phenolic lignin moieties. In addition, a substantial decrease in aliphatic hydroxyl groups was also noted, suggesting side chain oxidation. In all cases, an increase in carboxylic acid was observed. Of notable importance was the different selectivity of NHA, VA and HBT towards lignin functional groups, despite the common N-OH moiety. C-5 condensed phenolic lignin groups were overall resistant to an LMS{sub NHA, HBT} treatments but to a lesser extent to an LMS{sub VA}. The inactiveness of these condensed lignin moieties was not observed when low-kappa kraft pulps were biobleached, suggesting that the LMS chemistry is influenced by the extent of delignification. We have also demonstrated that the current generation of laccase has a broad spectrum of operating parameters. Nonetheless, the development of future genetically engineered laccases with enhanced temperature, pH and redox potentials will dramatically improve the overall process. A second challenge for LMS bleaching technologies is the need to develop effective, catalytic mediators. From the literature we already know this is feasible since ABTS and some inorganic mediators are catalytic. Unfortunately, the mediators that exhibit catalytic properties do not exhibit significant delignification properties and this is a challenge for future research studies. Potential short-term mill application of laccase has been recently reported by Felby132 and Chandra133 as they have demonstrated that the physical properties of linerboard can be improved when exposed to laccase without a chemical mediator. In addition, xxx has shown that the addition of laccase to the whitewater of the paper machine has several benefits for the removal of colloidal materials. Finally, this research program has presented important features on the delignification chemistry of LMS{sub NHA} and LMS{sub VA} that, in the opinion of the author, are momentous contributions to the overall LMS chemistry/biochemistry knowledge base which will continue to have future benefits.

  13. Process for removal of mineral particulates from coal-derived liquids

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    McDowell, William J. (Knoxville, TN)

    1980-01-01

    Suspended mineral solids are separated from a coal-derived liquid containing the solids by a process comprising the steps of: (a) contacting said coal-derived liquid containing solids with a molten additive having a melting point of 100.degree.-500.degree. C. in an amount of up to 50 wt. % with respect to said coal-derived liquid containing solids, said solids present in an amount effective to increase the particle size of said mineral solids and comprising material or mixtures of material selected from the group of alkali metal hydroxides and inorganic salts having antimony, tin, lithium, sodium, potassium, magnesium, calcium, beryllium, aluminum, zinc, molybdenum, cobalt, nickel, ruthenium, rhodium or iron cations and chloride, iodide, bromide, sulfate, phosphate, borate, carbonate, sulfite, or silicate anions; and (b) maintaining said coal-derived liquid in contact with said molten additive for sufficient time to permit said mineral matter to agglomerate, thereby increasing the mean particle size of said mineral solids; and (c) recovering a coal-derived liquid product having reduced mineral solids content. The process can be carried out with less than 5 wt. % additive and in the absence of hydrogen pressure.

  14. Sulfur gas emissions from stored flue-gas-desulfurization sludges

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Adams, D.F.; Farwell, S.O.

    1980-01-01

    In field studies conducted for the Electric Power Research Institute by the University of Washington (1978) and the University of Idaho (1979), 13 gas samples from sludge storage sites at coal-burning power plants were analyzed by wall-coated open-tube cryogenic capillary-column gas chromatography with a sulfur-selective flame-photometric detector. Hydrogen sulfide, carbonyl sulfide, dimethyl sulfide, carbon disulfide, and dimethyl disulfide were identified in varying concentrations and ratios in the emissions from both operating sludge ponds and landfills and from FGD sludge surfaces that had been stored in the open for 3-32 mo or longer. Other sulfur compounds, probably propanethiols, were found in emissions from some sludges. Chemical ''stabilization/fixation'' sulfate-sulfite ratio, sludge water content, and temperature were the most significant variables controlling sulfur gas production. The average sulfur emissions from each of the 13 FGD storage sites ranged from 0.01 to 0.26 g/sq m/yr sulfur.

  15. Method and system for capturing carbon dioxide and/or sulfur dioxide from gas stream

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Chang, Shih-Ger; Li, Yang; Zhao, Xinglei

    2014-07-08

    The present invention provides a system for capturing CO.sub.2 and/or SO.sub.2, comprising: (a) a CO.sub.2 and/or SO.sub.2 absorber comprising an amine and/or amino acid salt capable of absorbing the CO.sub.2 and/or SO.sub.2 to produce a CO.sub.2- and/or SO.sub.2-containing solution; (b) an amine regenerator to regenerate the amine and/or amino acid salt; and, when the system captures CO.sub.2, (c) an alkali metal carbonate regenerator comprising an ammonium catalyst capable catalyzing the aqueous alkali metal bicarbonate into the alkali metal carbonate and CO.sub.2 gas. The present invention also provides for a system for capturing SO.sub.2, comprising: (a) a SO.sub.2 absorber comprising aqueous alkali metal carbonate, wherein the alkali metal carbonate is capable of absorbing the SO.sub.2 to produce an alkali metal sulfite/sulfate precipitate and CO.sub.2.

  16. HIGH SO2 REMOVAL EFFICIENCY TESTING

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Gary M. Blythe; James L. Phillips

    1997-10-15

    This final report describes the results of performance tests at six full-scale wet lime- and limestone-reagent flue gas desulfurization (FGD) systems. The objective of these tests was to evaluate the effectiveness of low capital cost sulfur dioxide (SO{sub 2}) removal upgrades for existing FGD systems as an option for complying with the provisions of the Clean Air Act Amendments of 1990. The upgrade options tested at the limestone-reagent systems included the use of organic acid additives (dibasic acid (DBA) and/or sodium formate) as well as increased reagent ratio (higher excess limestone levels in the recirculating slurry solids) and absorber liquid-to-gas ratio. One system also tested operating at higher flue gas velocities to allow the existing FGD system to treat flue gas from an adjacent, unscrubbed unit. Upgrade options for the one lime-based system tested included increased absorber venturi pressure drop and increased sulfite concentration in the recirculating slurry liquor.

  17. Crystal structure studies on sulfur oxygenase reductase from Acidianus tengchongensis

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Li Mei [National Laboratory of Biomacromolecules, Institute of Biophysics, Chinese Academy of Sciences, 15 Datun Road, Chaoyang District, Beijing 100101 (China); Chen Zhiwei [State Key Laboratory of Microbial Resources, Institute of Microbiology, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Beijing 100101 (China); Zhang Pingfeng; Pan Xiaowei [National Laboratory of Biomacromolecules, Institute of Biophysics, Chinese Academy of Sciences, 15 Datun Road, Chaoyang District, Beijing 100101 (China); Graduate University of the Chinese Academy of Sciences, Beijing 100049 (China); Jiang Chengying [State Key Laboratory of Microbial Resources, Institute of Microbiology, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Beijing 100101 (China); An Xiaomin [National Laboratory of Biomacromolecules, Institute of Biophysics, Chinese Academy of Sciences, 15 Datun Road, Chaoyang District, Beijing 100101 (China); Liu Shuangjiang [State Key Laboratory of Microbial Resources, Institute of Microbiology, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Beijing 100101 (China); Chang Wenrui [National Laboratory of Biomacromolecules, Institute of Biophysics, Chinese Academy of Sciences, 15 Datun Road, Chaoyang District, Beijing 100101 (China)], E-mail: wrchang@sun5.ibp.ac.cn

    2008-05-09

    Sulfur oxygenase reductase (SOR) simultaneously catalyzes oxidation and reduction of elemental sulfur to produce sulfite, thiosulfate, and sulfide in the presence of molecular oxygen. In this study, crystal structures of wild type and mutants of SOR from Acidianus tengchongensis (SOR-AT) in two different crystal forms were determined and it was observed that 24 identical SOR monomers form a hollow sphere. Within the icosatetramer sphere, the tetramer and trimer channels were proposed as the paths for the substrate and products, respectively. Moreover, a comparison of SOR-AT with SOR-AA (SOR from Acidianus ambivalens) structures showed that significant differences existed at the active site. Firstly, Cys31 is not persulfurated in SOR-AT structures. Secondly, the iron atom is five-coordinated rather than six-coordinated, since one of the water molecules ligated to the iron atom in the SOR-AA structure is lost. Consequently, the binding sites of substrates and a hypothetical catalytic process of SOR were proposed.

  18. Coolside waste management demonstration OCDO grant agreement No. CDO/D-902-9. Final report

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Wu, M.; Winschel, R.A. [CONSOL Inc., Library, PA (United States). Research & Development

    1997-10-01

    The objectives of this project were to evaluate the potential utilization in road construction of wastes produced from the Coolside, LIMB (limestone injection multi-stage burner) and FBC (fluidized-bed combustion) processes, and to specify criteria for landfill disposal of waste from the Coolside process. These three processes are considered to be clean coal technologies. The Coolside process involves injecting an aqueous slurry of hydrated lime into the ductwork downstream of the air preheater in a coal-fired boiler. The hydrated lime captures sulfur dioxide from the flue gas producing anhydrous calcium sulfite and calcium sulfate, which are collected along with the unused hydrated lime and fly ash. The LIMB process involves injection of lime or hydrated lime directly into the furnace to capture sulfur dioxide. The waste consists principally of anhydrous calcium sulfate, lime, and fly ash. Both processes were demonstrated successfully at the Edgewater Station of Ohio Edison in Lorrain, OH, from 1989 to 1992. Circulating fluidized-bed combustion (FBC) is a commercial technology which combines steam generation with SO{sub 2} control by burning coal in a circulating bed of limestone. The waste, chemically similar to LIMB waste, is produced by bleed-off of the bed material and by collection of the flue dust. All three processes produce a dry solid waste, which must either be used or disposed of and managed to ensure environmental compliance and economic feasibility. The project was completed in June 1996.

  19. Reactivity of iron-bearing minerals and CO2 sequestration: A multi-disciplinary experimental approach

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Schoonen, Martin A. [Stony Brook University

    2014-12-22

    The reactivity of sandstones was studied under conditions relevant to the injection of supercritical carbon dioxide in the context of carbon geosequestration. The emphasis of the study was on the reactivity of iron-bearing minerals when exposed to supercritical CO2 (scCO2) and scCO2 with commingled aqueous solutions containing H2S and/or SO2. Flow through and batch experiments were conducted. Results indicate that sandstones, irrespective of their mineralogy, are not reactive when exposed to pure scCO2 or scCO2 with commingled aqueous solutions containing H2S and/or SO2 under conditions simulating the environment near the injection point (flow through experiments). However, sandstones are reactive under conditions simulating the edge of the injected CO2 plume or ahead of the plume (batch experiments). Sandstones containing hematite (red sandstone) are particularly reactive. The composition of the reaction products is strongly dependent on the composition of the aqueous phase. The presence of dissolved sulfide leads to the conversion of hematite into pyrite and siderite. The relative amount of the pyrite and siderite is influenced by the ionic strength of the solution. Little reactivity is observed when sulfite is present in the aqueous phase. Sandstones without hematite (grey sandstones) show little reactivity regardless of the solution composition.

  20. Effect of ionic liquid treatment on the structures of lignins in solutions

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Cheng, Gang [Joint Bioenergy Institute; Kent, Michael S [ORNL; He, Lilin [ORNL; Varanasi, Patanjali [Joint Bioenergy Institute; Dibble, Dean [Joint Bioenergy Institute; Melnichenko, Yuri B [ORNL; Simmons, Blake [Sandia National Laboratories (SNL); Singh, Seema [Joint Bioenergy Institute

    2012-01-01

    The solution structures of three types of isolated lignin - organosolv (OS), Kraft (K), and low sulfonate (LS) - before and after treatment with 1-ethyl-3-methylimidazolium acetate were studied using small-angle neutron scattering (SANS) and dynamic light scattering (DLS) over a concentration range of 0.3-2.4 wt %. The results indicate that each of these lignins is comprised of aggregates of well-defined basal subunits, the shapes and sizes of which, in D{sub 2}O and DMSO-d{sub 6}, are revealed using these techniques. LS lignin contains a substantial amount of nanometer-scale individual subunits. In aqueous solution these subunits have a well-defined elongated shape described well by ellipsoidal and cylindrical models. At low concentration the subunits are highly expanded in alkaline solution, and the effect is screened with increasing concentration. OS lignin dissolved in DMSO was found to consist of a narrow distribution of aggregates with average radius 200 {+-} 30 nm. K lignin in DMSO consists of aggregates with a very broad size distribution. After ionic liquid (IL) treatment, LS lignin subunits in alkaline solution maintained the elongated shape but were reduced in size. IL treatment of OS and K lignins led to the release of nanometer-scale subunits with well-defined size and shape.

  1. Rotational and radial velocities of 1.3-2.2 M {sub ?} red giants in open clusters

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Carlberg, Joleen K.

    2014-06-01

    This study presents the rotational distribution of red giant (RG) stars in 11 old to intermediate age open clusters. The masses of these stars are all above the Kraft break, so they lose negligible amounts of their birth angular momentum (AM) during the main-sequence (MS) evolution. However, they do span a mass range with quite different AM distributions imparted during formation, with the stars less massive than ?1.6M {sub ?} arriving on the MS with lower rotation rates than the more massive stars. The majority of RGs in this study are slow rotators across the entire red giant branch regardless of mass, supporting the picture that intermediate-mass stars rapidly spin down when they evolve off the MS and develop convection zones capable of driving a magnetic dynamo. Nevertheless, a small fraction of RGs in open clusters show some level of enhanced rotation, and faster rotators are as common in these clusters as in the field RG population. Most of these enhanced rotators appear to be red clump stars, which is also true of the underlying stellar sample, while others are clearly RGs that are above or below the clump. In addition to rotational velocities, the radial velocities (RVs) and membership probabilities of individual stars are also presented. Cluster heliocentric RVs for NGC 6005 and Pismis 18 are reported for the first time.

  2. Horizontal-flow anaerobic immobilized sludge (HAIS) reactor for paper industry wastewater treatment

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Foresti, E.; Cabral, A.K.A.; Zaiat, M.; Del Nery, V.

    1996-11-01

    Immobilized cell reactors are known to permit the continuous operation without biomass washout and also for increasing the time available for cells` catalytic function in a reaction or in a series of reactions. Several cell immobilization supports have been used in different reactors for anaerobic wastewater treatment, such as: agar gel, acrylamide, porous ceramic, and polyurethane foam besides the self-immobilized biomass from UASB reactors. However, the results are not conclusive as to the advantages of these different reactors with different supports as compared to other anaerobic reactor configurations. This paper describes a new anaerobic attached growth reactor configuration, herein referred as horizontal-flow anaerobic immobilized sludge (HAIS) reactor and presents the results of its performance test treating kraft paper industry wastewater. The reactor configuration was conceived aiming to increase the ratio useful volume/total volume by lowering the volume for gas separation. The HAIS reactor conception would permit also to incorporate the reactor hydrodynamic characteristics in its design criteria if the flow pattern could be approximated as plug-flow.

  3. Radial velocities in the globular cluster omega Centauri

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    R. A. Reijns; P. Seitzer; R. Arnold; K. C. Freeman; T. Ingerson; R. C. E. van den Bosch; G. van de Ven; P. T. de Zeeuw

    2005-09-08

    We have used the ARGUS multi-object spectrometer at the CTIO 4m Blanco telescope to obtain 2756 radial velocity measurements for 1966 individual stars in the globular cluster omega Centauri brighter than blue photographic magnitude of about 16.5. Of these, 1589 stars are cluster members. A comparison with two independent radial velocity studies, carried out by Suntzeff & Kraft and by Mayor et al., demonstrates that the median error of our measurements is below 2 km/s for the stars brighter than B-magnitude 15, which constitute the bulk of the sample. The observed velocity dispersion decreases from about 15 km/s in the inner few arcmin to about 6 km/s at a radius of 25 arcmin. The cluster shows significant rotation, with a maximum amplitude of about 6 km/s in the radial zone between 6 and 10 arcmin. In a companion paper by van de Ven et al., we correct these radial velocities for the perspective rotation caused by the space motion of the cluster, and combine them with the internal proper motions of nearly 8000 cluster members measured by van Leeuwen et al., to construct a detailed dynamical model of omega Centauri and to measure its distance.

  4. RESIDUES FROM COAL CONVERSION AND UTILIZATION: ADVANCED MINERALOGICAL CHARACTERIZATION AND DISPOSED BYPRODUCT DIAGENESIS

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Gregory J. McCarthy; Dean G. Grier

    2001-01-01

    Prior to the initiation of this study, understanding of the long-term behavior of environmentally-exposed Coal Combustion By-Products (CCBs) was lacking in (among others) two primary areas addressed in this work. First, no method had been successfully applied to achieve full quantitative analysis of the partitioning of chemical constituents into reactive or passive crystalline or noncrystalline compounds. Rather, only semi-quantitative methods were available, with large associated errors. Second, our understanding of the long-term behavior of various CCBs in contact with the natural environment was based on a relatively limited set of study materials. This study addressed these areas with two objectives, producing (1) a set of protocols for fully quantitative phase analysis using the Rietveld Quantitative X-ray Diffraction (RQXRD) method and (2) greater understanding of the hydrologic and geochemical nature of the long-term behavior of disposed and utilized CCBs. The RQXRD technique was initially tested using (1) mixtures of National Institute of Standards and Technology (NIST) crystalline standards, and (2) mixtures of synthetic reagents simulating various CCBs, to determine accuracy and precision of the method, and to determine the most favorable protocols to follow in order to efficiently quantify multi-phase mixtures. Four sets of borehole samples of disposed or utilized CCBs were retrieved and analyzed by RQXRD according to the protocols developed under the first objective. The first set of samples, from a Class F ash settling pond in Kentucky disposed for up to 20 years, showed little mineralogical alteration, as expected. The second set of samples, from an embankment in Indiana containing a mixture of chain-grate (stoker) furnace ash and fluidized bed combustion (FBC) residues, showed formation of the mineral thaumasite, as observed in previously studied exposed FBC materials. Two high-calcium CCBs studied, including a dry-process flue gas desulfurization (FGD) by-product disposed in the Midwest, and a mixture of Class C fly ash and wet process FGD by-product codisposed in North Dakota, appeared relatively unchanged mineralogically over the up to 5 and 17 years of emplacement, respectively. Each of these two materials contained mineralogies consistent with short-term hydration products of their respective starting (dry) materials. The hydration product ettringite persisted throughout the duration of emplacement at each site, and the diagenetic ash alteration product thaumasite did not form at either site. Explanations for the absence of thaumasite in these two sites include a lack of significant carbonate, sulfate, and alkalinity sources in the case of the North Dakota site, and a lack of sulfate, alkalinity, and sufficient moisture in the Midwest site. Potential for future thaumasite formation in these materials may exist if placed in contact with cold, wet materials containing the missing components listed above. In the presence of the sulfite scrubber mineral hannebachite, the ettringites formed had crystallographic unit cell dimensions smaller than those of pure sulfate ettringite, suggesting either incorporation of sulfite ions into the ettringite structure, or incorporation of silicon and carbonate ions, forming a solid solution towards thaumasite.

  5. Coolside waste management research. Annual technical progress report, October 1992--September 1993

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Not Available

    1993-10-01

    The composition (major, minor and trace elements) of approximately 400 Coolside waste samples form the Edgewater Coolside demonstration and CONSOL pilot plant tests are summarized and tabulated in this report. The composition changes in the waste samples collected during the Edgewater Coolside demonstration can be correlated with the processing variables and operation conditions. A study was conducted that focused on the formation mechanism of ettringite crystals in FGD waste materials since they were observed to form in Coolside, FBC, and AFBC derived wastes. The degree of swelling in FGD-derived waste can be correlated to the amounts of ettringite crystals present. Reactions controlling the formation, composition and disintegration of ettringite are critical in determining the overall stability and strength of cements and concretes derived from dry-flue gas desulfurization wastes. Since these wastes consist of fly ash, along with, CaSO{sub 3}, and CaSO{sub 4} and unreacted Ca(OH){sub 2}, the sulfites and sulfates react with the Ca(OH){sub 2} along with the glassy aluminosilicates in the fly ash to form calcium sulfo-aluminate minerals. Ettringite, the most important of these, is the main contributor to the compressive strength development of the FGD waste mixtures. However, excessive ettringite formation causes swelling which often leads to destructive crack formation. It has been shown that the quantity of ettringite formed and compressive strength of the FGD waste mixtures reach a maximum until ettringite begins to disintegrate. Because the formation mechanisms of ettringite are not entirely understood, swelling in FGD derived products is difficult to predict.

  6. Chemical and isotopic kinetics of sulfate reduction by organic matter under hydrothermal conditions

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Kaiser, C.J.

    1988-01-01

    This study investigated the feasibility of nonbacterial sulfate reduction by organic matter in geologic environments. Sulfate is reduced by dextrose under acidic conditions at temperatures of 230-270 C. Reaction products include sulfide and organic-sulfur compounds; sulfite, thiosulfate and elemental sulfur were not detected. The rate law for the initial one- or two-electron reduction of sulfate at 250C is first-order in bisulfate and about one-half-order in initial dextrose concentration, and shows a very strong dependence on pH. The kinetics of sulfate reduction by fructose at 250C are virtually the same. The lack of sulfate reduction by formaldehyde, methanol, ethanol and acetic acid at 250 C indicates that the reducing power of dextrose and fructose cannot be attributed to carbonyl, carboxyl or hydroxyl functional groups. The form of the rate law for sulfate reduction by dextrose and the presence of an induction period rather suggest that the initial reduction of sulfate occurs with free radicals derived from the thermal decomposition of the hexoses or their alteration products. The inferred sulfate-reduction reaction mechanism suggest that aqueous sulfate may be reduced to sulfide in geologic environments such as deep sedimentary basins. The observed acid-catalysis of the reaction in the laboratory may be supplanted by clay-mineral catalysis in geologic environments. Sulfur isotopes are fractionated during the reduction of sulfate by dextrose under hydrothermal conditions. Computer simulations of the isotopic evolution of the experiments suggest that sulfate-sulfide isotopic exchange largely controls the isotopic composition of sulfate and sulfide. The extent of isotopic fractionation due solely to sulfate reduction thus cannot be determined from the experiments

  7. Land application uses for dry FGD by-products, Phase 1 report

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Bigham, J.; Dick, W.; Forster, L.; Hitzhusen, F.; McCoy, E.; Stehouwer, R.; Traina, S.; Wolfe, W.

    1993-04-01

    The 1990 amendments to the Clean Air Act have spurred the development of flue gas desulfurization (FGD) processes, several of which produce a dry, solid by-product material consisting of excess sorbent, reaction products containing sulfates and sulfites, and coal fly ash. FGD by-product materials are treated as solid wastes and must be landfilled. It is highly desirable to find beneficial reuses for these materials provided the environmental impacts are minimal and socially acceptable. Phase 1 results of a 4 and 1/2 year study to demonstrate large volume beneficial uses of FGD by-products are reported. The purpose of the Phase 1 portion of the project was to characterize the chemical, physical, mineralogical and engineering properties of the FGD by-product materials obtained from various FGD technologies being developed in the state of Ohio. Phase 1 also involved the collection of baseline economic data related to the beneficial reuse of these FGD materials. A total of 58 samples were collected and analyzed. The results indicated the chemical composition of the FGD by-product materials were dominated by Ca, S, Al, and Si. Many of the elements regulated by the US Environmental Protection Agency reside primarily in the fly ash. Phase 1 results revealed that FGD by-product materials are essentially coal fly ash materials diluted with unreacted sorbent and reaction products. High volume beneficial reuses will depend on the economics of their substituting for existing materials for various types of applications (e.g. as an agricultural liming material, soil borrow for highway embankment construction, and reclamation of active and abandoned surface coal mines). Environmental constraints to the beneficial reuse of dry FGD by-product materials, based on laboratory and leachate studies, seem to be less than for coal fly ash.

  8. Determination of thiol functional groups on bacteria and natural organic matter in environmental systems

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Anandha Rao, Balaji [ORNL] [ORNL; Lin, Hui [ORNL] [ORNL; Liang, Liyuan [ORNL] [ORNL; Gu, Baohua [ORNL] [ORNL

    2014-01-01

    Organic thiols (R-SH) are known to react and form complexes with some toxic soft metals such as mercury (Hg) in both biotic and abiotic systems. However, a clear understanding of these interactions is currently limited because quantifying thiols in environmental matrices is difficult due to their low abundance, susceptibility to oxidation, and measurement interference by non-thiol compounds in samples. Here, we report a fluorescence-labeling method using a maleimide containing probe, ThioGlo-1 (TG-1), to determine total thiols directly on bacterial cells and natural organic matter (NOM). We systematically evaluated the optimal thiol labeling conditions and interference from organic compounds such as disulfide, methionine, thiourea, and amine, and inorganic ions such as Na+, K+, Ca2+, Fe2+, Cl-, SO42-, HCO3-, and SCN-, and found that the method is highly sensitive and selective. Only relatively high levels of sulfide (S2-) and sulfite (SO32-) significantly interfere with the thiol analysis. The method was successful in determining thiols in a bacterium Geobacter sulfurreducens PCA and its mutants in a phosphate buffered saline solution. The measured value of ~2.1 104 thiols cell-1 (or ~0.07 mol g-1 wet cells) is in good agreement with that observed during reactions between Hg and PCA cells. Using the standard addition, we determined the total thiols of two reference NOM samples, the reduced Elliot soil humic acid and Suwanee River NOM, to be 3.6 and 0.7 mol g-1, respectively, consistent with those obtained based on their reactions with Hg.

  9. Advanced Flue Gas Desulfurization (AFGD) demonstration project: Volume 2, Project performance and economics. Final technical report

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    1996-04-30

    The project objective is to demonstrate removal of 90--95% or more of the SO{sub 2} at approximately one-half the cost of conventional scrubbing technology; and to demonstrate significant reduction of space requirements. In this project, Pure Air has built a single SO{sub 2} absorber for a 528-MWe power plant. The absorber performs three functions in a single vessel: prequencher, absorber, and oxidation of sludge to gypsum. Additionally, the absorber is of a co- current design, in which the flue gas and scrubbing slurry move in the same direction and at a relatively high velocity compared to conventional scrubbers. These features all combine to yield a state- of-the-art SO{sub 2} absorber that is more compact and less expensive than conventional scrubbers. The project incorporated a number of technical features including the injection of pulverized limestone directly into the absorber, a device called an air rotary sparger located within the base of the absorber, and a novel wastewater evaporation system. The air rotary sparger combines the functions of agitation and air distribution into one piece of equipment to facilitate the oxidation of calcium sulfite to gypsum. Additionally, wastewater treatment is being demonstrated to minimize water disposal problems inherent in many high-chloride coals. Bituminous coals primarily from the Indiana, Illinois coal basin containing 2--4.5% sulfur were tested during the demonstration. The Advanced Flue Gas Desulfurization (AFGD) process has demonstrated removal of 95% or more of the SO{sub 2} while providing a commercial gypsum by-product in lieu of solid waste. A portion of the commercial gypsum is being agglomerated into a product known as PowerChip{reg_sign} gypsum which exhibits improved physical properties, easier flowability and more user friendly handling characteristics to enhance its transportation and marketability to gypsum end-users.

  10. Effect of the deletion of qmoABC and the promoter distal gene encoding a hypothetical protein on sulfate-reduction in Desulfovibrio vulgaris Hildenborough

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Zane, Grant M.; Yen, Huei-chi Bill; Wall, Judy D.

    2010-03-18

    The pathway of electrons required for the reduction of sulfate in sulfate-reducing bacteria (SRB) is not yet fully characterized. In order to determine the role of a transmembrane protein complex suggested to be involved in this process, a deletion of Desulfovibrio vulgaris Hildenborough was created by marker exchange mutagenesis that eliminated four genes putatively encoding the QmoABC complex and a hypothetical protein (DVU0851). The Qmo complex (quinone-interacting membrane-bound oxidoreductase) is proposed to be responsible for transporting electrons to the dissimilatory adenosine-5?phosphosulfate (APS) reductase in SRB. In support of the predicted role of this complex, the deletion mutant was unable to grow using sulfate as its sole electron acceptor with a range of electron donors. To explore a possible role for the hypothetical protein in sulfate reduction, a second mutant was constructed that had lost only the gene that codes for DVU0851. The second constructed mutant grew with sulfate as the sole electron acceptor; however, there was a lag that was not present with the wild-type or complemented strain. Neither deletion strain was significantly impaired for growth with sulfite or thiosulfate as terminal electron acceptor. Complementation of the D(qmoABC-DVU0851) mutant with all four genes or only the qmoABC genes restored its ability to grow by sulfate respiration. These results confirmed the prediction that the Qmo complex is in the electron pathway for sulfate-reduction and revealed that no other transmembrane complex could compensate when Qmo was lacking.

  11. High SO{sub 2} removal efficiency testing. Technical progress report

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Blythe, G.

    1994-04-28

    The project involves testing at six full-scale utility flue gas desulfurization (FGD) systems, to evaluate low capital cost upgrades that may allow these systems to achieve up to 98% SO{sub 2} removal efficiency. The upgrades to be evaluated mostly involve using additives in the FGD systems. On the base program, testing was completed at the Tampa Electric Big Bend Station in November 1992. The upgrade option tested was DBA additive. For Option 1, at the Hoosier Energy Merom Station, three upgrade options have been tested: DBA additive, sodium formate additive, and high pH set point operation. Option 2 has involved testing at the Southwestern Electric Power Company Pirkey Station. Both sodium formate and DBA additives were tested as potential upgrade options at Pirkey. On Option 3, for testing at the PSI Energy Gibson Station, a DBA additive performance and consumption test was conducted in late February through mid-March 1994. Preliminary results from these tests are discussed in Section 3 of this progress report. Option 4 is for testing at the Duquesne Light Elrama Station. The FGD system employs magnesium-enhanced lime reagent and venturi absorber modules. An EPRI-funded model evaluation of potential upgrade options for this FGD system, along with a preliminary economic evaluation, determined that the most attractive upgrade options for this site were to increase thiosulfate ion concentrations in the FGD system liquor to lower oxidation percentages and increase liquid-phase sulfite alkalinity, and to increase the venturi absorber pressure drop to improve gas/liquid contacting. Parametric testing of these upgrade options was conducted in late March 1994. Preliminary results from these tests are also discussed in Section 3 of this progress report.

  12. Selectivity Principles in Anion Separation by Crystallization of Hydrogen-Bonding Capsules

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Custelcean, Radu; Bock, Aurelien; Moyer, Bruce A

    2010-01-01

    The fundamental factors controlling anion selectivity in the crystallization of hydrogen-bonding capsules [Mg(H2O)6][X L2] (X = SO42-, 1a; SeO42-, 1b; SO32-, 1c; CO32-, 1d; L = tris[2-(3-pyridylurea)ethyl]-amine) from water have been investigated by solution and solid-state thermodynamic measurements, anion competition experiments, and X-ray structural analysis. The crystal structures of 1a-d are isomorphous, thereby simplifying the interpretation of the observed selectivities based on differences in anion coordination geometries. The solubilities of 1a-d in water follow the order: 1a < 1b < 1c < 1d, which is consistent with the selectivity for the tetrahedral sulfate and selenate anions observed in competitive crystallization experiments. Crystallization of the capsules is highly exothermic, with the most favorable {Delta}H{sub cryst}{sup o} of -99.1 and -108.5 kJ/mol corresponding to SO42- and SeO42-, respectively, in agreement with the X-ray structural data showing shape complementarity between these tetrahedral anions and the urea-lined cavities of the capsules. Sulfite, on the other hand, has a significantly less negative {Delta}H{sub cryst}{sup o} of -64.6 kJ/mol, which may be attributed to its poor fit inside the capsules, involving repulsive interactions. The more favorable entropy of crystallization for this anion, however, partly offsets the enthalpic disadvantage, resulting in a solubility product very similar to that of the selenate complex. Because of their very similar shape and size, SO42- and SeO42- have a propensity to form solid solutions, which limits the selectivity between these two anions in competitive crystallizations. In the end, a comprehensive picture of contributing factors to anion selectivity in crystalline hydrogen-bonding capsules emerges.

  13. Land application uses for dry FGD by-products

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Bigham, J.; Dick, W.; Forster, L.; Hitzhusen, F.; McCoy, E.; Stehouwer, R.; Traina, S.; Wolfe, W. ); Haefner, R. . Water Resources Div.)

    1993-04-01

    The 1990 amendments to the Clean Air Act have spurred the development of flue gas desulfurization (FGD) processes, several of which produce a dry, solid by-product material consisting of excess sorbent, reaction products containing sulfates and sulfites, and coal fly ash. Presently FGD by-product materials are treated as solid wastes and must be landfilled. However, landfill sites are becoming more scarce and tipping fees are constantly increasing. It is, therefore, highly desirable to find beneficial reuses for these materials provided the environmental impacts are minimal and socially acceptable. Phase 1 results of a 4 and 1/2 year study to demonstrate large volume beneficial uses of FGD by-products are reported. The purpose of the Phase 1 portion of the project was to characterize the chemical, physical, mineralogical and engineering properties of the FGD by-product materials obtained from various FGD technologies being developed in the state of Ohio. Phase 1 also involved the collection of baseline economic data related to the beneficial reuse of these FGD materials. A total of 58 samples were collected and analyzed. In summary Phase 1 results revealed that FGD by-product materials are essentially coal fly ash materials diluted with unreacted sorbent and reaction products. High volume beneficial reuses will depend on the economics of their substituting for existing materials for various types of applications (e.g. as an agricultural liming material, soil borrow for highway embankment construction, and reclamation of active and abandoned surface coal mines). Environmental constraints to the beneficial reuse of dry FGD byproduct materials, based on laboratory and leachate studies, seem to be less than for coal fly ash.

  14. Land application uses for dry FGD by-products. Phase 1, [Annual report], December 1, 1991--November 30, 1992

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Bigham, J.; Dick, W.; Forster, L.; Hitzhusen, F.; McCoy, E.; Stehouwer, R.; Traina, S.; Wolfe, W.; Haefner, R.

    1993-04-01

    The 1990 amendments to the Clean Air Act have spurred the development of flue gas desulfurization (FGD) processes, several of which produce a dry, solid by-product material consisting of excess sorbent, reaction products containing sulfates and sulfites, and coal fly ash. Presently FGD by-product materials are treated as solid wastes and must be landfilled. However, landfill sites are becoming more scarce and tipping fees are constantly increasing. It is, therefore, highly desirable to find beneficial reuses for these materials provided the environmental impacts are minimal and socially acceptable. Phase 1 results of a 4 and 1/2 year study to demonstrate large volume beneficial uses of FGD by-products are reported. The purpose of the Phase 1 portion of the project was to characterize the chemical, physical, mineralogical and engineering properties of the FGD by-product materials obtained from various FGD technologies being developed in the state of Ohio. Phase 1 also involved the collection of baseline economic data related to the beneficial reuse of these FGD materials. A total of 58 samples were collected and analyzed. In summary Phase 1 results revealed that FGD by-product materials are essentially coal fly ash materials diluted with unreacted sorbent and reaction products. High volume beneficial reuses will depend on the economics of their substituting for existing materials for various types of applications (e.g. as an agricultural liming material, soil borrow for highway embankment construction, and reclamation of active and abandoned surface coal mines). Environmental constraints to the beneficial reuse of dry FGD byproduct materials, based on laboratory and leachate studies, seem to be less than for coal fly ash.

  15. Advanced coal-fueled industrial cogeneration gas turbine system particle removal system development

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Stephenson, M.

    1994-03-01

    Solar Turbines developed a direct coal-fueled turbine system (DCFT) and tested each component in subscale facilities and the combustion system was tested at full-scale. The combustion system was comprised of a two-stage slagging combustor with an impact separator between the two combustors. Greater than 90 percent of the native ash in the coal was removed as liquid slag with this system. In the first combustor, coal water slurry mixture (CWM) was injected into a combustion chamber which was operated loan to suppress NO{sub x} formation. The slurry was introduced through four fuel injectors that created a toroidal vortex because of the combustor geometry and angle of orientation of the injectors. The liquid slag that was formed was directed downward toward an impaction plate made of a refractory material. Sixty to seventy percent of the coal-borne ash was collected in this fashion. An impact separator was used to remove additional slag that had escaped the primary combustor. The combined particulate collection efficiency from both combustors was above 95 percent. Unfortunately, a great deal of the original sulfur from the coal still remained in the gas stream and needed to be separated. To accomplish this, dolomite or hydrated lime were injected in the secondary combustor to react with the sulfur dioxide and form calcium sulfite and sulfates. This solution for the sulfur problem increased the dust concentrations to as much as 6000 ppmw. A downstream particulate control system was required, and one that could operate at 150 psia, 1850-1900{degrees}F and with low pressure drop. Solar designed and tested a particulate rejection system to remove essentially all particulate from the high temperature, high pressure gas stream. A thorough research and development program was aimed at identifying candidate technologies and testing them with Solar`s coal-fired system. This topical report summarizes these activities over a period beginning in 1987 and ending in 1992.

  16. Bench-scale Kinetics Study of Mercury Reactions in FGD Liquors

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Gary Blythe; John Currie; David DeBerry

    2008-03-31

    This document is the final report for Cooperative Agreement DE-FC26-04NT42314, 'Kinetics Study of Mercury Reactions in FGD Liquors'. The project was co-funded by the U.S. DOE National Energy Technology Laboratory and EPRI. The objective of the project has been to determine the mechanisms and kinetics of the aqueous reactions of mercury absorbed by wet flue gas desulfurization (FGD) systems, and develop a kinetics model to predict mercury reactions in wet FGD systems. The model may be used to determine optimum wet FGD design and operating conditions to maximize mercury capture in wet FGD systems. Initially, a series of bench-top, liquid-phase reactor tests were conducted and mercury species concentrations were measured by UV/visible light spectroscopy to determine reactant and byproduct concentrations over time. Other measurement methods, such as atomic absorption, were used to measure concentrations of vapor-phase elemental mercury, that cannot be measured by UV/visible light spectroscopy. Next, a series of bench-scale wet FGD simulation tests were conducted. Because of the significant effects of sulfite concentration on mercury re-emission rates, new methods were developed for operating and controlling the bench-scale FGD experiments. Approximately 140 bench-scale wet FGD tests were conducted and several unusual and pertinent effects of process chemistry on mercury re-emissions were identified and characterized. These data have been used to develop an empirically adjusted, theoretically based kinetics model to predict mercury species reactions in wet FGD systems. The model has been verified in tests conducted with the bench-scale wet FGD system, where both gas-phase and liquid-phase mercury concentrations were measured to determine if the model accurately predicts the tendency for mercury re-emissions. This report presents and discusses results from the initial laboratory kinetics measurements, the bench-scale wet FGD tests, and the kinetics modeling efforts.

  17. O sub 2 -dependent methionine auxotrophy in Cu,Zn superoxide dismutase-deficient mutants of Saccharomyces cerevisiae

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Chang, E.C.; Kosman, D.J. (State Univ. of New York, Buffalo (USA))

    1990-04-01

    Mutant strains of the yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae which lack functional Cu,Zn superoxide dismutase (SOD-1) do not grow aerobically unless supplemented with methionine. The molecular basis of this O2-dependent auxotrophy in one of the mutants, Dscd1-1C, has been investigated. Sulfate supported anaerobic but not aerobic mutant growth. On the other hand, cysteine and homocysteine supported aerobic growth while serine, O-acetylserine, and homoserine did not, indicating that the interconversion of cysteine and methionine (and homocysteine) was not impaired. Thiosulfate (S2O3)2- and sulfide (S2-) also supported aerobic growth; the activities of thiosulfate reductase and sulfhydrylase in the aerobic mutant strain were at wild-type levels. Although the levels of SO4(2-) and adenosine-5'-sulfate (the first intermediate in the SO4(2-) assimilation pathway) were elevated in the aerobically incubated mutant strain, this condition could be attributed to a decrease in protein synthesis caused by the de facto sulfur starvation and not to a block in the pathway. Therefore, the activation of SO4(2-) (to form 3'-phosphoadenosine-5'-phosphosulfate) appeared to be O2 tolerant. Sulfite reductase activity and substrate concentrations (( NADPH) and (SO3(2-))) were not significantly different in aerobically grown mutant cultures and anaerobic cultures, indicating that SOD-1- mutant strains could reductively assimilate sulfur oxides. However, the mutant strain exhibited an O2-dependent sensitivity to SO3(2-) concentrations of less than 50 microM not exhibited by any SOD-1+ strain or by SOD-1- strains supplemented with a cytosolic O2(-)-scavenging activity.

  18. 3rd year final contractor report for: U.S. Department of Energy Stewardship Science Academic Alliances Program Project Title: Detailed Measurements of Rayleigh-Taylor Mixing at Large and Small Atwood Numbers

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Malcolm J. Andrews

    2006-04-14

    This project had two major tasks: Task 1. The construction of a new air/helium facility to collect detailed measurements of Rayleigh-Taylor (RT) mixing at high Atwood number, and the distribution of these data to LLNL, LANL, and Alliance members for code validation and design purposes. Task 2. The collection of initial condition data from the new Air/Helium facility, for use with validation of RT simulation codes at LLNL and LANL. This report describes work done in the last twelve (12) months of the project, and also contains a summary of the complete work done over the three (3) life of the project. As of April 1, 2006, the air/helium facility (Task 1) is now complete and extensive testing and validation of diagnostics has been performed. Initial condition studies (Task 2) is also comp lete. Detailed experiments with air/helium with Atwood numbers up to 0.1 have been completed, and Atwood numbers of 0.25. Within the last three (3) months we have been able to successfully run the facility at Atwood numbers of 0.5. The progress matches the project plan, as does the budget. We have finished the initial condition studies using the water channel, and this work has been accepted for publication on the Journal of Fluid Mechanics (the top fluid mechanics journal). Mr. Nick Mueschke and Mr. Wayne Kraft are continuing with their studies to obtain PhDs in the same field, and will also continue their collaboration visits to LANL and LLNL. Over its three (3) year life the project has supported two(2) Ph.D.’s and three (3) MSc’s, and produced nine (9) international journal publications, twenty four (24) conference publications, and numerous other reports. The highlight of the project has been our close collaboration with LLNL (Dr. Oleg Schilling) and LANL (Drs. Dimonte, Ristorcelli, Gore, and Harlow).

  19. HIGHLY ENERGY EFFICIENT D-GLU (DIRECTED-GREEN LIQ-UOR UTILIZATION) PULPING

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Lucia, Lucian A

    2013-04-19

    Purpose: The purpose of the project was to retrofit the front end (pulp house) of a commercial kraft pulping mill to accommodate a mill green liquor (GL) impregna-tion/soak/exposure and accrue downstream physical and chemical benefits while prin-cipally reducing the energy footprint of the mill. A major player in the mill contrib-uting to excessive energy costs is the lime kiln. The project was intended to offload the energy (oil or natural gas) demands of the kiln by by-passing the causticization/slaking site in the recovery area and directly using green liquor as a pulping medium for wood. Scope: The project was run in two distinct, yet mutually compatible, phases: Phase 1 was the pre-commercial or laboratory phase in which NC State University and the Insti-tute of Paper Science and Technology (at the Georgia Institute of Technology) ran the pulping and associated experiments, while Phase 2 was the mill scale trial. The first tri-al was run at the now defunct Evergreen Pulp Mill in Samoa, CA and lead to a partial retrofit of the mill that was not completed because it went bankrupt and the work was no longer the low-hanging fruit on the tree for the new management. The second trial was run at the MeadWestvaco Pulp Mill in Evedale, TX which for all intents and pur-poses was a success. They were able to fully retrofit the mill, ran the trial, studied the pulp properties, and gave us conclusions.

  20. Closeout of the Melton Valley Completion Project at the Oak Ridge National Laboratory

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Bonilla, R.; Johnson, Ch. [Bechtel Jacobs Company, LLC, Oak Ridge, TN (United States); Skinner, R. [U.S. DOE, Oak Ridge Operations Office, Oak Ridge, TN (United States); Adams, V. [U.S. DOE, Office of Groundwater and Soil Remediation, Washington, DC (United States)

    2008-07-01

    The U.S. Department of Energy DOE Order 413.3A (Program and Project Management for the Acquisition of Capital Assets) identifies major milestones in a project life cycle that require approval upon achievement, including Critical Decision-4 (CD-4), the project completion milestone. A CD-4 document is required for all DOE projects in accordance with DOE Order 413.3A, Program and Project Management for Acquisition of Capital Assets. A conditional CD-4 report was prepared for the Melton Valley Completion Project (MVCP) in order to document the completion of the remedial action in the Melton Valley watershed. Approval of the MVCP CD-4 was 'conditional' pending final resolution of a small quantity of unexpected pyrophoric material, with no current disposition pathway, remaining in one of the waste trenches that were to be remediated as part of the completion project. This paper will provide an overview of the MVCP remediation work and the process successfully used to demonstrate closeout of a major CERCLA project in accordance with DOE requirements. In summary: The MV ROD was planned to be completed in 12 years; however, under the ACP the remedial activities were completed 6 years ahead of schedule (September 2006). Highlights of the remedial actions include: - Completion of remedial action activities at 219 release sites identified in the MV ROD. - Construction of 58 hectares of multilayer caps for SWSA 4, SWSA 5, SWSA 6, Pits 2, 3 and 4 and Trenches 5, 6, and 7; - Complete excavation, retrieval and over-pack of 204 casks, 8 boxes, and 530 m{sup 3} of loose waste from the TRU waste retrieval project; - Complete demolition and disposition of approx. 557 m{sup 2} of various buildings such as HRE ancillary facilities, NHF, Liquid LLW pumping stations, 7841 Scrap Yard, misc. storage buildings, and well P and A; - Removal of LLW sludges and stabilization of T-1, T-2, and HFIR tanks; - In situ grouting/stabilization of approx. 12 km of inactive waste pipelines; - Excavation and disposition of approx. 38,000 m{sup 3} of soil from HFIR impoundments, HRE cryogenic pond, IHP and contaminated soil from miscellaneous leak sites; - Completion of in-situ grouting of LLLW matrix at Trenches 5 and 7. The CD-4 document to demonstrate attainment of the project completion milestone was prepared to document close-out activities. Approval of the MVCP CD-4 was obtained but deemed 'conditional' pending final resolution of a small quantity of unexpected pyrophoric material, with no current disposition pathway, remaining in Trench 13 of the 22 Trench Area in SWSA 5N. DOE is currently evaluating options for the final disposition of this material and has committed to resolution of the issue by the end of Fiscal Year 2008. At that time, all aspects of the Melton Valley Completion Project will be complete. (authors)

  1. Solar High Temperature Water-Splitting Cycle with Quantum Boost

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Taylor, Robin; Davenport, Roger; Talbot, Jan; Herz, Richard; Genders, David; Symons, Peter; Brown, Lloyd

    2014-04-25

    A sulfur family chemical cycle having ammonia as the working fluid and reagent was developed as a cost-effective and efficient hydrogen production technology based on a solar thermochemical water-splitting cycle. The sulfur ammonia (SA) cycle is a renewable and sustainable process that is unique in that it is an all-fluid cycle (i.e., with no solids handling). It uses a moderate temperature solar plant with the solar receiver operating at 800°C. All electricity needed is generated internally from recovered heat. The plant would operate continuously with low cost storage and it is a good potential solar thermochemical hydrogen production cycle for reaching the DOE cost goals. Two approaches were considered for the hydrogen production step of the SA cycle: (1) photocatalytic, and (2) electrolytic oxidation of ammonium sulfite to ammonium sulfate in aqueous solutions. Also, two sub-cycles were evaluated for the oxygen evolution side of the SA cycle: (1) zinc sulfate/zinc oxide, and (2) potassium sulfate/potassium pyrosulfate. The laboratory testing and optimization of all the process steps for each version of the SA cycle were proven in the laboratory or have been fully demonstrated by others, but further optimization is still possible and needed. The solar configuration evolved to a 50 MW(thermal) central receiver system with a North heliostat field, a cavity receiver, and NaCl molten salt storage to allow continuous operation. The H2A economic model was used to optimize and trade-off SA cycle configurations. Parametric studies of chemical plant performance have indicated process efficiencies of ~20%. Although the current process efficiency is technically acceptable, an increased efficiency is needed if the DOE cost targets are to be reached. There are two interrelated areas in which there is the potential for significant efficiency improvements: electrolysis cell voltage and excessive water vaporization. Methods to significantly reduce water evaporation are proposed for future activities. Electrolysis membranes that permit higher temperatures and lower voltages are attainable. The oxygen half cycle will need further development and improvement.

  2. Production development and utilization of Zimmer Station wet FGD by-products. Final report. Volume 1, Executive summary

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Smith, Kevin; Beeghly, Joel H.

    2000-11-30

    About 30 electric utility units with a combined total of 15,000 MW utilize magnesium enhanced lime flue gas desulfurization (FGD) systems. A disadvantage of this and other inhibited or natural oxidation wet FGD systems is the capital and operating cost associated with landfill disposal of the calcium sulfite based solids. Fixation to stabilize the solids for compaction in a landfill also consumes fly ash that otherwise may be marketable. This Executive Summary describes efforts to dewater the magnesium hydroxide and gypsum slurries and then process the solids into a more user friendly and higher value form. To eliminate the cost of solids disposal in its first generation Thiosorbic® system, the Dravo Lime Company developed the ThioClear® process that utilizes a magnesium based absorber liquor to remove S02 with minimal suspended solids. Magnesium enhanced lime is added to an oxidized bleed stream of thickener overflow (TOF) to produce magnesium hydroxide [Mg(OH)2] and gypsum (CaS04 • 2H20), as by-products. This process was demonstrated at the 3 to 5 MW closed loop FGD system pilot plant at the Miami Fort Station of Cinergy, near Cincinnati, Ohio with the help of OCDO Grant Agreement CDO/D-91-6. A similar process strictly for'recovery and reuse of Mg(OH)2 began operation at the Zimmer Station of Cinergy in late 1994 that can produce 900 pounds of Mg(OH)2 per hour and 2,600 pounds of gypsum per hour. This by-product plant, called the Zimmer Slipstream Magnesium Hydroxide Recovery Project Demonstration, was conducted with the help of OCDO Grant Agreement CDO/D-921-004. Full scale ThioClear® plants began operating in 1997 at the 130 MW Applied Energy Services plant, in Monaca, PA, and in year 2000 at the 1,330 MW Allegheny Energy Pleasants Station at St. Marys, WV.

  3. Design of Refractory Linings for Balanced Energy Efficiency, Uptime, and Capacity in Lime Kilns

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Gorog, John Peter; Hemrick, James Gordon; Walker, Harold; Leary, William R; Ellis, Murray

    2014-01-01

    The rotary kilns used by the pulp and paper industry to regenerate lime in the Kraft process are very energy intensive. Throughout the 90 s, in response to increasing fuel prices, the industry used back up insulation in conjunction with the high alumina brick used to line the burning zones of their kilns. While this improved energy efficiency, the practice of installing insulating brick behind the working lining increased the inner wall temperatures. In the worst case, due to the increased temperatures, rapid brick failures occurred causing unscheduled outages and expensive repairs. Despite these issues, for the most part, the industry continued to use insulating refractory linings in that the energy savings were large enough to offset any increase in the cost of maintaining the refractory lining. Due to the dramatic decline in the price of natural gas in some areas combined with mounting pressures to increasing production of existing assets, over the last decade, many mills are focusing more on increasing the uptime of their kilns as opposed to energy savings. To this end, a growing number of mills are using basic (magnesia based) brick instead of high alumina brick to line the burning zone of the kiln since the lime mud does not react with these bricks at the operating temperatures of the burning zone of the kiln. In the extreme case, a few mills have chosen to install basic brick in the front end of the kiln running a length equivalent to 10 diameters. While the use of basic brick can increase the uptime of the kiln and reduce the cost to maintain the refractory lining, it does dramatically increase the heat losses resulting from the increased operating temperatures of the shell. Also, over long periods of time operating at these high temperatures, damage can occur in the shell. There are tradeoffs between energy efficiency, capacity and uptime. When fuel prices are very high, it makes sense to insulate the lining. When fuel prices are lower, trading some thermal efficiency for increased uptime and capacity seems reasonable. This paper considers a number of refractory linings in an effort to develop optimized operating strategies that balance these factors. In addition to considering a range of refractory materials, the paper examines other factors such as the chain area, discharge dams and other operating variables that impact the service life of the refractory lining. The paper provides recommendations that will help mill personnel develop a strategy to select a refractory lining that is optimized for their specific situation.

  4. BIOMASS GASIFICATION AND POWER GENERATION USING ADVANCED GAS TURBINE SYSTEMS

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    David Liscinsky

    2002-10-20

    A multidisciplined team led by the United Technologies Research Center (UTRC) and consisting of Pratt & Whitney Power Systems (PWPS), the University of North Dakota Energy & Environmental Research Center (EERC), KraftWork Systems, Inc. (kWS), and the Connecticut Resource Recovery Authority (CRRA) has evaluated a variety of gasified biomass fuels, integrated into advanced gas turbine-based power systems. The team has concluded that a biomass integrated gasification combined-cycle (BIGCC) plant with an overall integrated system efficiency of 45% (HHV) at emission levels of less than half of New Source Performance Standards (NSPS) is technically and economically feasible. The higher process efficiency in itself reduces consumption of premium fuels currently used for power generation including those from foreign sources. In addition, the advanced gasification process can be used to generate fuels and chemicals, such as low-cost hydrogen and syngas for chemical synthesis, as well as baseload power. The conceptual design of the plant consists of an air-blown circulating fluidized-bed Advanced Transport Gasifier and a PWPS FT8 TwinPac{trademark} aeroderivative gas turbine operated in combined cycle to produce {approx}80 MWe. This system uses advanced technology commercial products in combination with components in advanced development or demonstration stages, thereby maximizing the opportunity for early implementation. The biofueled power system was found to have a levelized cost of electricity competitive with other new power system alternatives including larger scale natural gas combined cycles. The key elements are: (1) An Advanced Transport Gasifier (ATG) circulating fluid-bed gasifier having wide fuel flexibility and high gasification efficiency; (2) An FT8 TwinPac{trademark}-based combined cycle of approximately 80 MWe; (3) Sustainable biomass primary fuel source at low cost and potentially widespread availability-refuse-derived fuel (RDF); (4) An overall integrated system that exceeds the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) goal of 40% (HHV) efficiency at emission levels well below the DOE suggested limits; and (5) An advanced biofueled power system whose levelized cost of electricity can be competitive with other new power system alternatives.

  5. Full-Scale Testing of a Mercury Oxidation Catalyst Upstream of a Wet FGD System

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Gary Blythe; Jennifer Paradis

    2010-06-30

    This document presents and discusses results from Cooperative Agreement DE-FC26-06NT42778, 'Full-scale Testing of a Mercury Oxidation Catalyst Upstream of a Wet FGD System,' which was conducted over the time-period July 24, 2006 through June 30, 2010. The objective of the project was to demonstrate at full scale the use of solid honeycomb catalysts to promote the oxidation of elemental mercury in pulverized-coal-fired flue gas. Oxidized mercury is removed downstream in wet flue gas desulfurization (FGD) absorbers and collected with the byproducts from the FGD system. The project was co-funded by EPRI, the Lower Colorado River Authority (LCRA), who also provided the host site, Great River Energy, Johnson Matthey, Southern Company, Salt River Project (SRP), the Tennessee Valley Authority (TVA), NRG Energy, Ontario Power and Westar. URS Group was the prime contractor and also provided cofunding. The scope of this project included installing and testing a gold-based catalyst upstream of one full-scale wet FGD absorber module (about 200-MW scale) at LCRA's Fayette Power Project (FPP) Unit 3, which fires Powder River Basin coal. Installation of the catalyst involved modifying the ductwork upstream of one of three wet FGD absorbers on Unit 3, Absorber C. The FGD system uses limestone reagent, operates with forced sulfite oxidation, and normally runs with two FGD modules in service and one spare. The full-scale catalyst test was planned for 24 months to provide catalyst life data. Over the test period, data were collected on catalyst pressure drop, elemental mercury oxidation across the catalyst module, and mercury capture by the downstream wet FGD absorber. The demonstration period began on May 6, 2008 with plans for the catalyst to remain in service until May 5, 2010. However, because of continual increases in pressure drop across the catalyst and concerns that further increases would adversely affect Unit 3 operations, LCRA decided to end the demonstration early, during a planned unit outage. On October 2, 2009, Unit 3 was taken out of service for a fall outage and the catalyst upstream of Absorber C was removed. This ended the demonstration after approximately 17 months of the planned 24 months of operation. This report discusses reasons for the pressure drop increase and potential measures to mitigate such problems in any future application of this technology. Mercury oxidation and capture measurements were made on Unit 3 four times during the 17-month demonstration. Measurements were performed across the catalyst and Absorber C and 'baseline' measurements were performed across Absorber A or B, which did not have a catalyst upstream. Results are presented in the report from all four sets of measurements during the demonstration period. These results include elemental mercury oxidation across the catalyst, mercury capture across Absorber C downstream of the catalyst, baseline mercury capture across Absorber A or B, and mercury re-emissions across both absorbers in service. Also presented in the report are estimates of the average mercury control performance of the oxidation catalyst technology over the 17-month demonstration period and the resulting mercury control costs.

  6. A process for the preparation of cysteine from cystine

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Chang, Shih-Ger (El Cerrito, CA); Liu, David K. (Oakland, CA); Griffiths, Elizabeth A. (Morristown, NJ); Littlejohn, David (Oakland, CA)

    1989-01-01

    The present invention in one aspect relates to a process for the simultaneous removal of NO.sub.x and SO.sub.2 from a fluid stream comprising mixtures thereof and in another aspect relates to the separation, use and/or regeneration of various chemicals contaminated or spent in the process and which includes the steps of: (A) contacting the fluid stream at a temperature of between about 105.degree. and 180.degree. C. with a liquid aqueous slurry or solution comprising an effective amount of an iron chelate of an amino acid moiety having at least one --SH group; (B) separating the fluid stream from the particulates formed in step (A) comprising the chelate of the amino acid moiety and fly ash; (C) washing and separating the particulates of step (B) with an aqeous solution having a pH value of between about 5 to 8; (D) subsequently washing and separating the particulates of step (C) with a strongly acidic aqueous solution having a pH value of between about 1 to 3; (E) washing and separating the particulates of step (D) with an basic aqueous solution having a pH value of between about 9 to 12; (F) optionally adding additional amino acid moiety, iron (II) and alkali to the aqueous liquid from step (D) to produce an aqueous solution or slurry similar to that in step (A) having a pH value of between about 4 to 12; and (G) recycling the aqueous slurry of step (F) to the contacting zone of step (A). Steps (D) and (E) can be carried out in the reverse sequence, however the preferred order is (D) and then (E). In a preferred embodiment the present invention provides an improved process for the preparation (regeneration) of cysteine from cystine, which includes reacting an aqueous solution of cystine at a pH of between about 9 to 13 with a reducing agent selected from hydrogen sulfide or alkali metal sulfides, sulfur dioxide, an alkali metal sulfite or mixtures thereof for a time and at a temperature effective to cleave and reduce the cystine to cysteine with subsequent recovery of the cysteine. In another preferred embodiment the present invention provides a process for the removal of NO.sub.x, SO.sub.2 and particulates from a fluid stream which includes the steps of (A) injecting into a reaction zone an aqueous solution itself comprising (i) an amino acid moiety selected from those described above; (ii) iron (II) ion; and (iii) an alkali, wherein the aqueous solution has a pH of between about 4 and 11; followed by solids separation and washing as is described in steps (B), (C), (D) and (E) above. The overall process is useful to reduce acid rain components from combustion gas sources.

  7. NEXT GENERATION TURBINE PROGRAM

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    William H. Day

    2002-05-03

    The Next Generation Turbine (NGT) Program's technological development focused on a study of the feasibility of turbine systems greater than 30 MW that offer improvement over the 1999 state-of-the-art systems. This program targeted goals of 50 percent turndown ratios, 15 percent reduction in generation cost/kW hour, improved service life, reduced emissions, 400 starts/year with 10 minutes to full load, and multiple fuel usage. Improvement in reliability, availability, and maintainability (RAM), while reducing operations, maintenance, and capital costs by 15 percent, was pursued. This program builds on the extensive low emissions stationary gas turbine work being carried out by Pratt & Whitney (P&W) for P&W Power Systems (PWPS), which is a company under the auspices of the United Technologies Corporation (UTC). This study was part of the overall Department of Energy (DOE) NGT Program that extends out to the year 2008. A follow-on plan for further full-scale component hardware testing is conceptualized for years 2002 through 2008 to insure a smooth and efficient transition to the marketplace for advanced turbine design and cycle technology. This program teamed the National Energy Technology Laboratory (NETL), P&W, United Technologies Research Center (UTRC), kraftWork Systems Inc., a subcontractor on-site at UTRC, and Multiphase Power and Processing Technologies (MPPT), an off-site subcontractor. Under the auspices of the NGT Program, a series of analyses were performed to identify the NGT engine system's ability to serve multiple uses. The majority were in conjunction with a coal-fired plant, or used coal as the system fuel. Identified also was the ability of the NGT system to serve as the basis of an advanced performance cycle: the humid air turbine (HAT) cycle. The HAT cycle is also used with coal gasification in an integrated cycle HAT (IGHAT). The NGT systems identified were: (1) Feedwater heating retrofit to an existing coal-fired steam plant, which could supply both heat and peaking power (Block 2 engine); (2) Repowering of an older coal-fired plant (Block 2 engine); (3) Gas-fired HAT cycle (Block 1 and 2 engines); (4) Integrated gasification HAT (Block 1 and 2 engines). Also under Phase I of the NGT Program, a conceptual design of the combustion system has been completed. An integrated approach to cycle optimization for improved combustor turndown capability has been employed. The configuration selected has the potential for achieving single digit NO{sub x}/CO emissions between 40 percent and 100 percent load conditions. A technology maturation plan for the combustion system has been proposed. Also, as a result of Phase I, ceramic vane technology will be incorporated into NGT designs and will require less cooling flow than conventional metallic vanes, thereby improving engine efficiency. A common 50 Hz and 60 Hz power turbine was selected due to the cost savings from eliminating a gearbox. A list of ceramic vane technologies has been identified for which the funding comes from DOE, NASA, the U.S. Air Force, and P&W.

  8. Advanced Recombinant Manganese Peroxidase for Biosynthesis of Lignin Bioproducts, Phase I Final Report, STTR Grant #: DE-SC0007503.

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Beatty, Christopher; Kitner, Joshua; Lajoie, Curtis; McClain, Sean; Potochnik, Steve

    2012-12-13

    The core purpose of this Phase I STTR was to evaluate the feasibility of a new method of producing a recombinant version of manganese peroxidase (MnP) enzyme. MnP is a potentially valuable enzyme for producing high value lignin products and also for industrial de-coloring operations such as biobleaching of pulp and color removal from textile dye effluents. This lignin-modifying enzyme is produced in small amounts by the native host, a white rot fungus. Previous work by Oregon State University developed a secreted recombinant version of the enzyme in the yeast Pichia pastoris. Unfortunately, the expression is barely moderate and the enzyme is heavily glycosylated, which inhibits purification. In this work, the gene for the enzyme is given a tag which targets production of the enzyme to the peroxisome. This is a promising approach since this location is also where heme and hydrogen peroxide are sequestered, which are both necessary cofactors for MnP. More than ten recombinant strains were constructed, verified, and expressed in the Pichia system. Constitutive (GAP) and methanol-induced promoters (AOX) were tried for peroxisomal targeted, cytosolic, and secreted versions of MnP. Only the secreted strains showed activity. The amount of expression was not significantly changed. The degree of glycosylation was lessened using the AOX (methanol) promotoer, but the resulting enzyme was still not able to be purified using immobilized metal affinity chromatography. Additional work beyond the scope of the defined Phase I project was undertaken to construct, verify, and express Pichia strains that mutated the MnP glycosylation sites to inhibit this process. These strains did not show significant activity. The cause is not known, but it is possible that these sites are important to the structure of the enzyme. Also beyond the scope proposed for our Phase I STTR, the team collaborated with AbSci, a startup with a new E. coli based expression system focused on the production of antibodies and enzymes containing disulfide bonds and requiring folding/post-translational modification. With only limited time remaining in the Phase I schedule, a single construct was made to produce MnP with this system. The enzyme was produced in the soluble fraction of the cell lysate, but no activity was measured. MnP from the existing recombinant source was used to act on lignin. The lignin was from a Kraft process and had a molecular weight of about 10,000 Da. Using 1000 Da dialysis membranes and UV-visible spectroscopy, no modification of either lignin was evident in the dialysate or the retentate. Assays using 2,6 dimethoxy phenol (DMP) as a substrate showed consistent activity throughout the project. In summary, these results fell far short of our expectations. A Phase II proposal was not submitted. Possible reasons for the failure of peroxisomal targeting include destruction by native hydrogen peroxide, native proteases, or unforeseen causes. The AbSci system was only lighted tested and further work may yield a strain with active enzyme. The lack of evidence for lignin modification may be due to the techniques employed. NMR or GC-MS studies may reveal evidence of modification.