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1

Index of /~wilker/misc/Electronics  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Index of /~wilker/misc/Electronics. [ICO], Name · Last modified · Size · Description. [DIR], Parent Directory, -. [ ], dram.pdf, 11-Sep-1998 23:10, 124K. [ ] ...

2

OHA Misc Cases Archive File | Department of Energy  

Broader source: Energy.gov (indexed) [DOE]

This is a archive file of our Misc decisions, Please download this file to your local computer and use the build in adobe search feature. Individual cases are listed in the...

3

Property:Building/SPElectrtyUsePercMisc | Open Energy Information  

Open Energy Info (EERE)

SPElectrtyUsePercMisc SPElectrtyUsePercMisc Jump to: navigation, search This is a property of type String. Miscellaneous Pages using the property "Building/SPElectrtyUsePercMisc" Showing 25 pages using this property. (previous 25) (next 25) S Sweden Building 05K0001 + 0.0 + Sweden Building 05K0002 + 8.20317536691 + Sweden Building 05K0003 + 12.0483761962 + Sweden Building 05K0004 + 0.0 + Sweden Building 05K0005 + 0.0 + Sweden Building 05K0006 + 0.0 + Sweden Building 05K0007 + 19.7634622014 + Sweden Building 05K0008 + 14.4897052022 + Sweden Building 05K0009 + 0.0 + Sweden Building 05K0010 + 7.31692552305 + Sweden Building 05K0011 + 0.0 + Sweden Building 05K0012 + 0.0 + Sweden Building 05K0013 + 20.7341221164 + Sweden Building 05K0014 + 16.7103315141 + Sweden Building 05K0015 + 3.35919986719 +

4

Kraft Rt Kraft Electronics Inc | Open Energy Information  

Open Energy Info (EERE)

Kraft Rt Kraft Electronics Inc Kraft Rt Kraft Electronics Inc Jump to: navigation, search Name Kraft Rt (Kraft Electronics Inc) Place Budapest, Hungary Zip H-112 Sector Solar Product Equipment manufacturer for the clean energy industry, currently focused on thin-film solar cell production equipment. Coordinates 47.506225°, 19.06482° Loading map... {"minzoom":false,"mappingservice":"googlemaps3","type":"ROADMAP","zoom":14,"types":["ROADMAP","SATELLITE","HYBRID","TERRAIN"],"geoservice":"google","maxzoom":false,"width":"600px","height":"350px","centre":false,"title":"","label":"","icon":"","visitedicon":"","lines":[],"polygons":[],"circles":[],"rectangles":[],"copycoords":false,"static":false,"wmsoverlay":"","layers":[],"controls":["pan","zoom","type","scale","streetview"],"zoomstyle":"DEFAULT","typestyle":"DEFAULT","autoinfowindows":false,"kml":[],"gkml":[],"fusiontables":[],"resizable":false,"tilt":0,"kmlrezoom":false,"poi":true,"imageoverlays":[],"markercluster":false,"searchmarkers":"","locations":[{"text":"","title":"","link":null,"lat":47.506225,"lon":19.06482,"alt":0,"address":"","icon":"","group":"","inlineLabel":"","visitedicon":""}]}

5

Minimizing the sulphur content in Kraft lignin.  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

?? The aim of this project is to investigate the possibilities of minimizing the sulphur content in Kraft lignin. Kraft lignin contains about 1.5 to… (more)

Svensson, Sara

2008-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

6

Methanol-reinforced kraft pulping  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

The addition of methanol to a high-sulfidity kraft cook on Scandinavian softwood chips was studied under different process conditions. Delignification and the degradation of carbohydrates were accelerated, but the effect on delignification was greater. Thus, methanol addition improved selectivity. The positive effect of methanol could also be observed for modified kraft cooks having a leveled out alkali concentration and lower concentration of sodium ions and dissolved lignin at the end of the cook. Methanol addition had no discernible effect on pulp strength or on pulp bleachability.

Norman, E.; Olm, L.; Teder, A. (STFI, Stockholm (Sweden))

1993-03-01T23:59:59.000Z

7

Kraft Liquor Corrosion Margaret Gorog  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

1 Kraft Liquor Corrosion Margaret Gorog Federal Way, WA Pulp and Paper Corrosion Symposium Georgia Tech Renewable Bioproducts Institute November 2014 · Brown Stock Corrosion · Alkaline Liquor Corrosion · Black Liquor Corrosion ­ Evaporators ­ Research · High Solids Black Liquor Corrosion of Stainless Steel

Das, Suman

8

Property:Building/SPBreakdownOfElctrcityUseKwhM2Misc | Open Energy  

Open Energy Info (EERE)

SPBreakdownOfElctrcityUseKwhM2Misc SPBreakdownOfElctrcityUseKwhM2Misc Jump to: navigation, search This is a property of type String. Miscellaneous Pages using the property "Building/SPBreakdownOfElctrcityUseKwhM2Misc" Showing 25 pages using this property. (previous 25) (next 25) S Sweden Building 05K0001 + 0.0 + Sweden Building 05K0002 + 9.09953195331 + Sweden Building 05K0003 + 8.78442379242 + Sweden Building 05K0004 + 0.0 + Sweden Building 05K0005 + 0.0 + Sweden Building 05K0006 + 0.0 + Sweden Building 05K0007 + 12.9530389597 + Sweden Building 05K0008 + 6.03377747253 + Sweden Building 05K0009 + 0.0 + Sweden Building 05K0010 + 10.9950724049 + Sweden Building 05K0011 + 0.0 + Sweden Building 05K0012 + 0.0 + Sweden Building 05K0013 + 14.2856105095 + Sweden Building 05K0014 + 27.8718727739 +

9

File:App Misc Easement ROW.pdf | Open Energy Information  

Open Energy Info (EERE)

App Misc Easement ROW.pdf App Misc Easement ROW.pdf Jump to: navigation, search File File history File usage Metadata File:App Misc Easement ROW.pdf Size of this preview: 463 × 599 pixels. Other resolution: 464 × 600 pixels. Go to page 1 2 3 4 Go! next page → next page → Full resolution ‎(1,275 × 1,650 pixels, file size: 1.54 MB, MIME type: application/pdf, 4 pages) File history Click on a date/time to view the file as it appeared at that time. Date/Time Thumbnail Dimensions User Comment current 09:36, 20 June 2013 Thumbnail for version as of 09:36, 20 June 2013 1,275 × 1,650, 4 pages (1.54 MB) Apalazzo (Talk | contribs) You cannot overwrite this file. Edit this file using an external application (See the setup instructions for more information) File usage There are no pages that link to this file.

10

NETL: Utilization Projects - Value Added Products from FGD Sulfite rich  

Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

Value Added Products from FGD Sulfite rich Scrubber Material Value Added Products from FGD Sulfite rich Scrubber Material In pursuit of developing value added products from sulfite-rich scrubber material, e.g., low-density panels, carpet underlayment, siding, pre-cast building material, lumber panels, particle and wafer type boards, the following four experimental tasks are proposed: A comprehensive characterization of sulfite-rich scrubber materials produced by power plant generation. Specifically, the mercury, selenium, arsenic, boron, and organic content will be monitored The sulfite-rich scrubber material will be combined with cheap but renewable agricultural byproducts like micronized core fibers and/or micronized wheat straw, and the composites will be formulated by exploiting the natural polymers of the byproducts. The conditions under which structural composites can be formulated using injection molding and compressive molding will be evaluated.

11

Preventing Strength Loss of Unbleached Kraft Pulp  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Kraft pulp fibers lose inter-fiber bonding ability when they are dried during the manufacture of paper. Adverse environmental consequences of this loss include (a) limitations on the number of times that kraft fibers can be recycled, (b) reduced paper strength, sometimes making it necessary to use heavier paper or paperboard to meet product strength requirements, increasing the usage of raw materials, (c) decreased rates of paper production in cases where the fiber furnish has been over-refined in an attempt to regain inter-fiber bonding ability. The present study is the first of its type to focus on unbleached kraft fibers, which are a main ingredient of linerboard for corrugated containers. About 90 million tons of unbleached kraft fiber are used worldwide every year for this purpose.

Martin Hubbe; Richard Venditti; John Heitmann

2003-04-16T23:59:59.000Z

12

Pilot scale gasification of spent cooking liquor from sodium sulfite based delignification  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

This paper describes a pilot scale high pressure entrained flow gasification experiment with spent cooking liquor from a sodium sulfite based delignification process in the DP-1 black liquor gasifier in Piteå, Sweden. Approximately 92 tons of sulfite ...

Erik Furusjö; Ragnar Stare; Ingvar Landälv; Patrik Löwnertz

2014-11-17T23:59:59.000Z

13

Simulation of Photon energy Spectra Using MISC, SOURCES, MCNP and GADRAS  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

The detector response functions included in the Gamma Detector Response and Analysis Software (GADRAS) are a valuable resource for simulating radioactive source emission spectra. Application of these response functions to the results of three-dimensional transport calculations is a useful modeling capability. Using a 26.2 kg shell of depleted uranium (DU) as a simple test problem, this work illustrates a method for manipulating current tally results from MCNP into the GAM file format necessary for a practical link to GADRAS detector response functions. MISC (MCNP Intrinsic Source Constructor) and SOURCES 4C were used to develop photon and neutron source terms for subsequent MCNP transport, and the resultant spectrum is shown to be in good agreement with that from GADRAS. A 1 kg DU sphere was also modeled with the method described here and showed similarly encouraging results.

Tucker, Lucas P. [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Shores, Erik F. [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Myers, Steven C. [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Felsher, Paul D. [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Garner, Scott E. [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Solomon, Clell J. Jr. [Los Alamos National Laboratory

2012-08-14T23:59:59.000Z

14

R:\Groups\ENVIRO\Work Requests\2010\Misc\100101_Eastshore Trail\100101_Eastshore Trail Construction CX.docx  

Broader source: Energy.gov (indexed) [DOE]

R:\Groups\ENVIRO\Work Requests\2010\Misc\100101_Eastshore Trail\100101_Eastshore Trail Construction CX.docx R:\Groups\ENVIRO\Work Requests\2010\Misc\100101_Eastshore Trail\100101_Eastshore Trail Construction CX.docx Western Area Power Administration Sierra Nevada Region CATEGORICAL EXCLUSION (CX) DETERMINATION Project Number 100101 Integral Elements Project Title: Eastshore Trail Construction Category of Action: B4.9 Grant or denial of requests for multiple-use of a transmission facility rights-of-way, such as grazing permits and crossing agreements, including electric lines, water lines and drainage culverts. Regulatory Requirements for a Categorical Exclusion Determination: The Department of Energy (DOE), National Environmental Policy Act (NEPA) Implementing Procedures, 10 CFR 1021.410(b) require the following determinations be made in order for a proposed action to be categorically excluded (see full text in

15

R:\Groups\ENVIRO\Work Requests\2010\Misc\100101_Eastshore Trail\100101_Eastshore Trail Construction CX.docx  

Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

R:\Groups\ENVIRO\Work Requests\2010\Misc\100101_Eastshore Trail\100101_Eastshore Trail Construction CX.docx R:\Groups\ENVIRO\Work Requests\2010\Misc\100101_Eastshore Trail\100101_Eastshore Trail Construction CX.docx Western Area Power Administration Sierra Nevada Region CATEGORICAL EXCLUSION (CX) DETERMINATION Project Number 100101 Integral Elements Project Title: Eastshore Trail Construction Category of Action: B4.9 Grant or denial of requests for multiple-use of a transmission facility rights-of-way, such as grazing permits and crossing agreements, including electric lines, water lines and drainage culverts. Regulatory Requirements for a Categorical Exclusion Determination: The Department of Energy (DOE), National Environmental Policy Act (NEPA) Implementing Procedures, 10 CFR 1021.410(b) require the following determinations be made in order for a proposed action to be categorically excluded (see full text in

16

R:\Groups\ENVIRO\Work Requests\2010\Misc\100101_Eastshore Trail\100101_Eastshore Trail Construction CX.docx  

Broader source: Energy.gov (indexed) [DOE]

R:\Groups\ENVIRO\Work Requests\2010\Misc\100101_Eastshore Trail\100101_Eastshore Trail Construction CX.docx R:\Groups\ENVIRO\Work Requests\2010\Misc\100101_Eastshore Trail\100101_Eastshore Trail Construction CX.docx Western Area Power Administration Sierra Nevada Region CATEGORICAL EXCLUSION (CX) DETERMINATION Project Number 100101 Integral Elements Project Title: Eastshore Trail Construction Category of Action: B4.9 Grant or denial of requests for multiple-use of a transmission facility rights-of-way, such as grazing permits and crossing agreements, including electric lines, water lines and drainage culverts. Regulatory Requirements for a Categorical Exclusion Determination: The Department of Energy (DOE), National Environmental Policy Act (NEPA) Implementing Procedures, 10 CFR 1021.410(b) require the following determinations be made in order for a proposed action to be categorically excluded (see full text in

17

Accurate Air Engineering, Inc. and Kraft Foods Teaming Profile | ENERGY  

Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

Accurate Air Engineering, Inc. and Kraft Foods Teaming Profile Accurate Air Engineering, Inc. and Kraft Foods Teaming Profile Secondary menu About us Press room Contact Us Portfolio Manager Login Facility owners and managers Existing buildings Commercial new construction Industrial energy management Small business Service providers Service and product providers Verify applications for ENERGY STAR certification Design commercial buildings Energy efficiency program administrators Commercial and industrial program sponsors Associations State and local governments Federal agencies Tools and resources Training In This Section Campaigns Commercial building design Communications resources Energy management guidance Financial resources Portfolio Manager Products and purchasing Recognition Research and reports Service and product provider (SPP) resources

18

Gas Dynamics of NGC 4472 R. P. Kraft(1)  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Gas Dynamics of NGC 4472 R. P. Kraft(1) , W. R. Forman(1) , C. Jones(1) , P. E. J. Nulsen(1) M. J present preliminary results from a 100 ks XMM-Newton observation of the hot gas in the nearby massive to be falling into the Virgo cluster. We find several structures in the gas indicative of a previous epoch

Sarazin, Craig

19

Value-Added Products from FGD Sulfite-Rich Scrubber Materials  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

According to the American Coal Ash Association, about 29.25 million tons of flue gas desulfurization (FGD) byproducts were produced in the USA in 2003. Out of 29.25 million tons, 17.35 million tons were sulfite-rich scrubber materials. At present, unlike its cousin FGD gypsum, the prospect for effective utilization of sulfite-rich scrubber materials is not bright. In fact, almost 16.9 million tons are leftover every year. In our pursuit to mitigate the liability of sulfite-rich FGD scrubber materials' disposal, we are attempting to develop value-added products that can commercially compete. More specifically, for this Innovative Concept Phase I project, we have the following objectives: to characterize the sulfite-rich scrubber material for toxic metals; to optimize the co-blending and processing of scrubber material and natural byproducts; to formulate and develop structural composites from sulfite-rich scrubber material; and to evaluate the composites' mechanical properties and compare them with current products on the market. After successfully demonstrating the viability of our research, a more comprehensive approach will be proposed to take these value-added materials to fruition.

Vivak Malhotra

2010-01-31T23:59:59.000Z

20

Vinyl Kraft Windows and Doors | Open Energy Information  

Open Energy Info (EERE)

Vinyl Kraft Windows and Doors Vinyl Kraft Windows and Doors Jump to: navigation, search Name Vinyl Kraft Windows and Doors Address 3404 Rhodes Ave Place New Boston, Ohio Zip 45662 Sector Buildings, Efficiency, Services Product Business and legal services;Consulting;Energy audits/weatherization; Installation; Maintenance and repair;Manufacturing; Retail product sales and distribution Phone number 740-464-0144 Website http://www.vinylkraft.com Coordinates 38.7456°, -82.9459° Loading map... {"minzoom":false,"mappingservice":"googlemaps3","type":"ROADMAP","zoom":14,"types":["ROADMAP","SATELLITE","HYBRID","TERRAIN"],"geoservice":"google","maxzoom":false,"width":"600px","height":"350px","centre":false,"title":"","label":"","icon":"","visitedicon":"","lines":[],"polygons":[],"circles":[],"rectangles":[],"copycoords":false,"static":false,"wmsoverlay":"","layers":[],"controls":["pan","zoom","type","scale","streetview"],"zoomstyle":"DEFAULT","typestyle":"DEFAULT","autoinfowindows":false,"kml":[],"gkml":[],"fusiontables":[],"resizable":false,"tilt":0,"kmlrezoom":false,"poi":true,"imageoverlays":[],"markercluster":false,"searchmarkers":"","locations":[{"text":"","title":"","link":null,"lat":38.7456,"lon":-82.9459,"alt":0,"address":"","icon":"","group":"","inlineLabel":"","visitedicon":""}]}

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "kraft sulfite misc" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


21

Producing a True Lignin Depolymerase for Biobleaching Softwood Kraft Pulp  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

This project constituted an intensive effort devoted to producing, from the white-rot fungus Tramets Cingulata, a lignin degrading enzyme (lignin depolymerase) that is directly able to biobleach or delignify softwood kraft pulp brownstock. To this end, the solutions in which T. cingulata was grown contained dissolved kraft lignin which fulfilled two functions; it behaved as a lignin deploymerase substrate and it also appeared to act as an inducer of enzyme expression. However, the lignin depolymerase isoenzymes (and other extracellular T. cingulata enzymes) interacted very strongly with both the kraft lignin components and the fungal hypae, so the isolating these proteins from the culture solutions proved to be unexpectedly difficult. Even after extensive experimentation with a variety of protein purification techniques, only one approach appeared to be capable of purifying lignin depolymerases to homogeneity. Unfortunately the procedure was extremely laborious; it involved the iso electric focusing of concentrated buffer-exchanged culture solutions followed by electro-elution of the desired protein bands from the appropriate polyacrylamide gel segments

Simo Sarkanen

2002-02-04T23:59:59.000Z

22

Review: Business and Environmental Policy: Corporate Interests in the American Political System, by Michael E. Kraft and Sheldon Kamieniecki (eds.)  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Martijn Meij Stillwater, Oklahoma, USA Kraft, Michael E. andCandidate in Sociology, Oklahoma State University, Classroom

Meij, Jan-Martin

2008-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

23

A Non-linear Dynamical Systems' Proof of Kraft-McMillan Inequality and its Converse  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

In this short paper, we shall provide a dynamical systems' proof of the famous Kraft-McMillan inequality and its converse. Kraft-McMillan inequality is a basic result in information theory which gives a necessary and sufficient condition for the lengths of the codewords of a code to be uniquely decodable.

Nithin Nagaraj

2007-10-31T23:59:59.000Z

24

Nitrogen oxide emissions from a kraft recovery furnace  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Nitrogen Oxide (NOx) emissions from a rebuilt kraft recovery furnace slightly exceeded the specified limit of 1.1 lb/ton (0.55 kg/metric ton) of black-liquor solids. Mill trials were undertaken to determine whether NOx emissions could be minimized by modifying furnace operation. NOx emissions increased when secondary air was shifted to tertiary ports. NOx emissions fell when the amounts of primary and total air were decreased, but this increased emissions of other pollutants. After demonstrating that best operation of the furnace could not meet the permit with an emissions limit that matched the furnace's performance at best operation.

Prouty, A.L.; Stuart, R.C. (James River Corp., Camas, WA (United States)); Caron, A.L. (NCASI West Coast Regional Office, Corvallis, OR (United States))

1993-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

25

Carbon Fiber Production from a Kraft Hardwood Lignin  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Lignin is a renewable resource material that is being evaluated for the low cost production of carbon fiber for automotive and other applications. Solvent extraction of a commercial hardwood lignin product yielded a purified lignin free of the contaminants typical of lignins derived from the Kraft chemical pulping of wood. The purified lignin was highly melt-spinnable into fibers, from which carbon fiber was subsequently produced. The lignin has been evaluated in terms of its rheological properties, fiber melt spinning ability, and potential for manufacture of low cost carbon fiber without the need for plasticizing agents or chemical modifications.

Baker, Darren A [ORNL; Gallego, Nidia C [ORNL; Baker, Frederick S [ORNL

2008-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

26

Synergistic air port corrosion in kraft recovery boilers  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Localized hot corrosion can occur on the cold-side of air-ports in Kraft recovery boilers. Depending on the basicity of the molten salt, either acidic or basic fluxing takes place, with a solubility minima at the transition between the two reactions. For stainless steel, if the basicity of the fused salt is between the iron and chromium oxide solubility minima, then a synergistic effect can occur that leads to rapid corrosion. The products of one reaction are the reactants of the other, which eliminates the need for rate-controlling diffusion. This effect can explain why stainless steel is attacked more readily than carbon steel.

Holcomb, Gordon R.

2001-08-01T23:59:59.000Z

27

Yield Improvement and Energy Savings Uing Phosphonates as Additives in Kraft pulping  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Project Objective: Develop a commercially viable modification to the Kraft process resulting in energy savings, increased yield and improved bleachability. Evaluate the feasibility of this technology across a spectrum of wood species used in North America. Develop detailed fundamental understanding of the mechanism by which phosphonates improve KAPPA number and yield. Evaluate the North American market potential for the use of phosphonates in the Kraft pulping process. Examine determinants of customer perceived value and explore organizational and operational factors influencing attitudes and behaviors. Provide an economic feasibility assessment for the supply chain, both suppliers (chemical supply companies) and buyers (Kraft mills). Provide background to most effectively transfer this new technology to commercial mills.

Ulrike W. Tschirner; Timothy Smith

2007-03-31T23:59:59.000Z

28

Surface selective removal of xylan from refined never-dried birch kraft pulp  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

In this study, the effect of enzyme treatment on refined, never-dried bleached birch kraft pulp was investigated, using an endo-1,4-?-xylanase, that is substantially free from cellulase activity. The xylanase tre...

Esa Saukkonen; Katja Lyytikäinen; Pavel Geydt; Kaj Backfolk

2014-10-01T23:59:59.000Z

29

Field Comparison of the Sampling Efficacy of Two Smear Media: Cotton Fiber and Kraft Paper  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Two materials were compared in field tests at the Defense Waste Processing Facility: kraft paper (a strong, brown paper made from wood pulp prepared with a sodium sulfate solution) and cotton fiber. Based on a sampling of forty-six pairs of smears, the cotton fiber smears provide a greater sensitivity. The cotton fiber smears collected an average of forty-four percent more beta activity than the kraft paper smears and twenty-nine percent more alpha activity. Results show a greater sensitivity with cotton fiber over kraft paper at the 95 percent confidence level. Regulatory requirements for smear materials are vague. The data demonstrate that the difference in sensitivity of smear materials could lead to a large difference in reported results that are subsequently used for meeting shipping regulations or evaluating workplace contamination levels.

Hogue, M.G.

2002-02-07T23:59:59.000Z

30

Simultaneous and rapid determination of multiple component concentrations in a Kraft liquor process stream  

DOE Patents [OSTI]

The present invention is a rapid method of determining the concentration of the major components in a chemical stream. The present invention is also a simple, low cost, device of determining the in-situ concentration of the major components in a chemical stream. In particular, the present invention provides a useful method for simultaneously determining the concentrations of sodium hydroxide, sodium sulfide and sodium carbonate in aqueous kraft pulping liquors through use of an attenuated total reflectance (ATR) tunnel flow cell or optical probe capable of producing a ultraviolet absorbency spectrum over a wavelength of 190 to 300 nm. In addition, the present invention eliminates the need for manual sampling and dilution previously required to generate analyzable samples. The inventive method can be used in Kraft pulping operations to control white liquor causticizing efficiency, sulfate reduction efficiency in green liquor, oxidation efficiency for oxidized white liquor and the active and effective alkali charge to kraft pulping operations.

Li, Jian (Marietta, GA); Chai, Xin Sheng (Atlanta, GA); Zhu, Junyoung (Marietta, GA)

2008-06-24T23:59:59.000Z

31

Thermal stability of acidic sulfates in kraft recovery boilers  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Acidic sulfates, such as NaHSO[sub 4] and Na[sub 2]S[sub 2]O[sub 7], are suspected in sticky deposit formation and tube corrosion in the generating bank and economizer regions of kraft recovery boilers. Their stability was examined in air, moist conditions, and in the presence of Na[sub 2]CO[sub 3] at various temperatures. The results showed that, in air, NaHSO[sub 4] melts and decomposes to solid Na[sub 2]S[sub 2]O[sub 7] and water vapor at about 180 C. Na[sub 2]S[sub 2]O[sub 7] is relatively stable up to its melting point of 380 C. Molten Na[sub 2]S[sub 2]O[sub 7] partially decomposes to solid Na[sub 2]SO[sub 4], which reacts with the remaining Na[sub 2]S[sub 2]O[sub 7] to form a newly identified compound, 3Na[sub 2]S[sub 2]O[sub 7][center dot]2Na[sub 2]SO[sub 4]; this compound melts at 570 C. Solid Na[sub 2]S[sub 2]O[sub 7] and its complex compounds react rapidly with H[sub 2]O vapor at 300 C to re-form liquid NaHSO[sub 4], which can be corrosive for the generating bank tubes during boiler operation. These acidic sulfates can coexist with Na[sub 2]CO[sub 3] below their respective melting points. They are hygroscopic, absorbing water from moist air to form sulfuric acid, which may cause tube wastage during boiler outages.

Tran, H. (Pulp and Paper Centre, McGill, Quebec (Canada)); Poon, W.; Barham, D. (Univ. of Toronto, Ontario (Canada). Dept. of Chemical Engineering and Applied Chemistry)

1994-05-01T23:59:59.000Z

32

Dry Kraft Pulping at Ambient Pressure for Cost Effective Energy Saving and Pollution Deduction  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Sponsored by the DOE Industrial Energy Efficiency Grand Challenge program, our research team at the Georgia Institute of Technology conducted laboratory studies and confirmed the concept of making wood pulp using a dry pulping technology. This technology is a new process different from any prior pulping technology used in Kraft and CTMP pulping. Three different kinds of dry pulping methods were investigated. (a) Dry Pulping at Atmospheric Pressure: The first one is to dry and bake the pretreated woodchips in a conventional oven at atmospheric pressure without the use of a catalyst. (b) Dry Pulping at Reduced Pressure: The second method is to dry the pretreated woodchips first in a vacuum oven in the presence of anthraquinone (AQ) as a pulping catalyst, followed by baking at elevated temperature. (c) Liquid Free Chemical Pulping, LFCP. The third method is to first remove the free water of pretreated woodchips, followed by dry pulping using a conventional Kraft pulping digester with AQ and triton as additives. Method one: Experimental results indicated that Dry Pulping at Atmospheric Pressure could produce pulp with higher brightness and lower bulk than conventional Kraft pulp. However, tensile strength of the acquired pulp is much lower than traditional Kraft pulp, and their Kappa number and energy consumption are higher than conventional Kraft pulp. By fully analyzing the results, we concluded that wood fibers might be damaged during the drying process at elevated temperature. The main reason for wood fiber damage is that a long drying time was used during evaporation of water from the woodchips. This resulted in an un-uniform reaction condition on the woodchips: the outside layer of the woodchips was over reacted while inside the woodchips did not reacted at all. To solve this problem, dry pulping at reduced pressure was investigated. Method two: To achieve uniform reaction throughout the entire reaction system, the water inside the pretreated woodchips was evaporated first under vacuum condition at low temperature. Then, the dry woodchips were baked at high temperature (120-130 C) at atmospheric pressure. The qualities of the pulp made with this method were improved compared to that made with method one. The pulp shows higher brightness and lower bulk than Kraft pulping. The tensile strength is significantly higher than the pulp made from the first method. Although the pulp is stronger than that of TMP pulp, it is still lower than conventional Kraft fiber. Method Three: The third dry method was done in a Kraft pulping digester at elevated pressure but without free liquid in the digester. With this method, pulp that has almost the same qualities as conventional Kraft pulp could be produced. The screen yield, Kappa number, fiber brightness, pulp strength and pulp bulk are almost identical to the conventional Kraft pulp. The key advantages of this dry pulping method include ca. 55 % of cooking energy saved during the pulping process, as high as 50 wt% of NaOH saving as well as 3 wt% of Na2S saving comparing to Kraft one. By analyzing fiber properties, yields, chemical and energy consumptions, we concluded that the dry pulping method based on Liquid Free Chemical Pulping, LFCP, could be very attractive for the pulp and paper industry. More fundamental studies and scale up trials are needed to fully commercialize the technology. We expect to conduct pilot trials between 12 to 24 months of period if the DOE or industry can provide continual research funding. Based on the technology we demonstrated in this report, several pilot trial facilities in the United States will be available after small modifications. For example, the Herty Foundation in Savannah, Georgia is one of these potential locations. DOE funding for continuous study and final lead to commercialization of the technique is important.

Yulin Deng; Art Ragauskas

2012-08-28T23:59:59.000Z

33

Study on the modification of bleached eucalyptus kraft pulp using birch xylan  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

In this study, birch xylan was deposited onto elementally chlorine free (ECF) bleached eucalyptus kraft pulp, and the corresponding changes in physical properties were determined. An aqueous 5% birch xylan solution at pH 9 was added to 5 wt% slurry of bleached kraft eucalyptus fibers, with stirring at 70 °C for 15 min after which the pH was adjusted to 5–6. The xylan enriched fibers were isolated by filtration and used for physical testing. A 1.15 wt% adsorption of birch xylan on the kraft fibers at 8% xylan addition increased the tensile index, strain and tensile energy absorption values by ?10%, while the burst index increased by 20.15%. The tear index increased by 2.55% with the adsorption of 0.87 wt% birch xylan on the eucalyptus kraft pulp at 3% xylan addition. The pulp beatability was also improved by adding birch xylan. The surface morphology of the unmodified and modified pulp samples were analyzed using atomic force microscopy (AFM) in the tapping mode. The analysis revealed the differences in the fine structure of fibers which showed micrometer-sized xylan structures spreading over the fiber surfaces.

Wenjia Han; Chuanshan Zhao; Thomas Elder; Kefu Chen; Rendang Yang; Dongho Kim; Yunqiao Pu; Jeffery Hsieh; Arthur J. Ragauskas

2012-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

34

Crystallization behavior of organo-nanoclay treated and untreated kraft fiber–HDPE composites  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

Abstract Both non-isothermal and isothermal crystallization behaviors of neat HDPE and organo-nanoclay treated and untreated kraft fiber–high density polyethylene (HDPE) or HDPE–maleic anhydride polyethylene (MAPE) composites were analyzed using differential scanning calorimetry (DSC). The isothermal crystallization process was studied by the Avrami model. The crystallization patterns and organo-nanoclay distribution was characterized by X-ray diffraction (XRD). It was found that both organo-nanoclay treated and untreated kraft fibers could act as nucleating agent for the HDPE polymer when the fiber length was comparatively small. All composites crystallized much faster than the neat HDPE, while their crystallinity levels were lower. The organo-nanoclay treatment of kraft fibers made the crystallinity level lower, but the nucleation rate increased in the composites compared to the untreated kraft fiber–HDPE composites. But both the crystallinity level and the nucleation rate of the composites were increased by adding MAPE compatibilizer to the composites. MAPE increased the d-spacing of the organo-nanoclay layers in the composites and resulted in exfoliated clay platelets when the fiber loading was as high as 40 wt%.

Jieming Chen; Ning Yan

2013-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

35

Microorganisms with Novel Dissimilatory (Bi)Sulfite Reductase Genes Are Widespread and Part of the Core Microbiota in Low-Sulfate Peatlands  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

...accession numbers) qPCR performance Mean efficiency () SD Linearity R 2 Dynamic range (no...cyanobacterial mats of Solar Lake (Sinai, Egypt). Appl. Environ. Microbiol. 64...sulfite, or some organosulfonates for energy conservation but can also be present in...

Doris Steger; Cecilia Wentrup; Christina Braunegger; Pinsurang Deevong; Manuel Hofer; Andreas Richter; Christian Baranyi; Michael Pester; Michael Wagner; Alexander Loy

2010-12-17T23:59:59.000Z

36

Examination of the thermal decomposition of kraft pine lignin by Fourier transform infrared evolved gas analysis  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

The thermal decomposition of kraft lignin was examined by Fourier-transform IR evolved-gas analysis, a technique designed for on-the-fly, simultaneous monitoring of multiple vapor-phase species. Initial degradation occurs at 120-300 degrees from bond fragmentation in the phenylpropane side chains as evidenced by the formation of HCO2H, HCHO, CO2, H2O and SO2. The presence of SO2 is supporting evidence that S from the kraft pulping process may be incorporated into the lignin structure in the form of sulfoxide and(or) sulfone linkages. Major decomposition initiates at approximately 300 degrees and extends to 480 degrees at which point half the intital weight has been lost. MeOH 2-methoxyphenol (guaiacol), and a 2-methoxy-4-alkyl- substituted phenol are the most apparent species evolving in this region and indicate fragmentation of the major chain linkages between the monomeric phenol units in the lignin structure.

Fenner, R.A.; Lephardt, J.O.

1981-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

37

A comprehensive program to develop correlations for physical properties of kraft black liquor. Final report  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

The overall objective of the program was to develop correlations to predict physical properties within requirements of engineering precision from a knowledge of pulping conditions and of kraft black liquor composition, if possible. These correlations were to include those relating thermodynamic properties to pulping conditions and liquor composition. The basic premise upon which the research was based is the premise that black liquor behaves as a polymer solution. This premise has proven to be true, and has been used successfully in developing data reduction methods and in interpreting results. A three phase effort involving pulping, analysis of liquor composition, and measurement of liquor properties was conducted.

Fricke, A.L.; Zaman, A.A.

1998-05-01T23:59:59.000Z

38

Recycling of water in bleached kraft pulp mills by using electrodialysis.  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Conservation of water in bleached kraft pulp mills by recycling the bleach plant effluent directly without treatment will cause accumulation of inorganic ''non-process elements'' (NPEs) and serious operational problems. In this work, an electrodialysis process is being developed for recycling the acidic bleach plant effluent of bleached kraft pulp mills. In this process, electrodialysis functions as a selective kidney to remove inorganic NPEs from bleach plant effluents, before they reach the recovery cycle. Acidic bleach plant effluents from several mills using bleaching sequences based on chlorine dioxide were characterized. The total dissolved solids were mostly inorganic NPEs. Sodium was the predominant cation and chloride was present at significant levels in all these effluents. In laboratory electrodialysis experiments, selective removal of chloride and potentially harmful cations, such as potassium, calcium, and magnesium, were removed efficiently. Rejection of organic compounds was up to 98%. Electrodialysis was shown to be resistant to membrane fouling and scaling, in a 100-hour laboratory experiment. Based on a model mill with 1,000 ton/day pulp production, the economic analysis suggests that the energy cost of electrodialysis is less than $200/day, and the capital cost of the stack is about $500,000.

Fracaro, A. T.; Henry, M. P.; Pfromm, P.; Tsai, S.-P.

1999-01-15T23:59:59.000Z

39

Multimedia sampling for dioxin at a strip mine reclaimed with sludge from bleached kraft wastewater treatment  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

This paper reports that mead conducted a two-year dioxin testing program on strip-mined land being reclaimed with sludge from the wastewater treatment plant of its bleached kraft mill. Many different samples were analyzed for both 2,3,7,8-TCDD (or dioxin) and 2,3,7,8-TCDF (or furan). The study included biodiversity studies to determine the total environmental impact. The results indicate that the sludge is an excellent reclamation material that improves the biodiversity at the site. The tracer dioxin in the sludge does not exhibit any significant migration or bioavailability when used for reclaiming strip mines. These findings differ from assumptions sometimes used in assessing the environmental risks of dioxin.

Krouskop, D.J.; Ayers, K.C. (Metal Corp. (US)); Proctor, J.L. (Ohio Univ., Chillicothe, OH (US))

1991-04-01T23:59:59.000Z

40

4-O-Methyl-?-l-idopyranosyluronic acid linked to xylan from kraft pulp: isolation procedure and characterisation by NMR spectroscopy  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

The tetrasaccharide 2?-O-(4-O-methyl-?-l-idopyranosyluronic acid)xylotriose was isolated from enzymatically hydrolysed, unbleached, birch kraft pulp by anion-exchange chromatography in two steps. The primary structure of the tetrasaccharide was determined by 1H and 13C NMR spectroscopy, using homonuclear and heteronuclear two-dimensional techniques. NOE data and 3JH.H coupling constants show that the 4-O-methyl-?-l-idopyranosyluronic acid in the tetrasaccharide is predominantly in the 1C4 chair conformation. The pKa value (3.17) for 4-O-methyliduronic acid attached ?-(1 ? 2) to xylose was determined from the pH-dependent chemical shift of H-5. The amount of 4-O-methyliduronic acid (0.1–0.5 mol%) in surface xylan of unbleached birch and pine kraft pulps was determined by extensive xylanase treatment and further analysis by NMR spectroscopy and high-performance anion-exchange chromatography.

Anita Teleman; Matti Siika-aho; Harri Sorsa; Johanna Buchert; Marjukka Perttula; Tiina Hausalo; Maija Tenkanen

1996-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "kraft sulfite misc" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


41

Formation of chlorinated dioxins during production of bleached kraft pulp from sawmill chips contaminated with polychlorinated phenols  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Until recently, sawmills used polychlorinated phenol (polyCP) formulations to prevent sap-staining of undried lumber. Bleached kraft pulp mills that used chips from polyCP-treated lumber were found to have elevated levels of hexachlorinated dioxins (hexaCDD) in their pulps, effluents, and sludges. This report presents the results of an investigation to elucidate the mechanism of hexaCDD formation during kraft pulping of polyCP-contaminated sawmill chips. The major constituents of the polyCP formulations- tetraCP and pentaCP-play a negligible role in hexaCDD formation. Polychlorinated phenoxyphenol (polyCPP) contaminants in the polyCP formulations are the key contributing factors, with hexaCDD contamination occurring as a consequence of digester-mediated condensation of polyCPP (i.e., predioxin) contaminants.

Luthe, C.E.; Berry, R.M.; Voss, R.H. (Paprican, Pointe Claire, Quebec (Canada))

1993-03-01T23:59:59.000Z

42

A finite difference model for low frequency sound measurement in kraft recovery boilers.  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

Kraft recovery boilers greatly enhance the efficiency of paper pulp mills by burning the organic wastes recovered from the pulp making process and generating electricity but significant smelt?water explosion hazards exist when steam is used as the working fluid due to sodiumcompounds in the sludge from the waste incineration process. Current practice is to use acoustic emission sensors to monitor for leaks in the bottom wall and to initiate an automatic shutdown sequence for the boiler once a leak is detected. A high?frequency model previously developed by the authors and verified by measurements performed in Skoghall Sweden indicated strong attenuation in the sludge between the point of leakage and the detectors but experimental results demonstrated a pass band at low frequencies (under 20 kHz). In this paper the authors develop a two?degree?of?freedom finite difference model for the prediction of acoustic attenuation at low frequencies. The bottom wall is modeled as a periodic tube and fin arrangement and a time?domain finite difference method is used whereby the fin and tube are simple lumped elements. The model is then compared to previous experimental results with which excellent agreement is obtained.

Robert Hildebrand; Matthew Carroll; Ville Jarvinen; Juha Miettinen

2010-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

43

Index of /~wilker/misc/DEVEL/0061  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

[TXT], SCHULMAN.LST, 08-Dec-1989 14:44, 10K. [ ], SPRITE.EXE, 21-Sep-1989 02:07, 11K. [TXT], STEVENS.LST, 08-Dec-1989 14:57, 6.1K. [TXT], STOUT.

44

Investigation of Pressurized Entrained-Flow Kraft Black Liquor Gasification in an Industrially Relevant Environment  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

The University of Utah's project 'Investigation of Pressurized Entrained-Flow Kraft Black Liquor Gasification in an Industrially Relevant Environment' (U.S. DOE Cooperative Agreement DE-FC26-04NT42261) was a response to U.S. DOE/NETL solicitation DE-PS36-04GO94002, 'Biomass Research and Development Initiative' Topical Area 4-Kraft Black Liquor Gasification. The project began September 30, 2004. The objective of the project was to improve the understanding of black liquor conversion in high pressure, high temperature reactors that gasify liquor through partial oxidation with either air or oxygen. The physical and chemical characteristics of both the gas and condensed phase were to be studied over the entire range of liquor conversion, and the rates and mechanisms of processes responsible for converting the liquor to its final smelt and syngas products were to be investigated. This would be accomplished by combining fundamental, lab-scale experiments with measurements taken using a new semi-pilot scale pressurized entrained-flow gasifier. As a result of insufficient availability of funds and changes in priority within the Office of Biomass Programs of the U.S. Department of Energy, the research program was terminated in its second year. In total, only half of the budgeted funding was made available for the program, and most of this was used during the first year for construction of the experimental systems to be used in the program. This had a severe impact on the program. As a consequence, most of the planned research was unable to be performed. Only studies that relied on computational modeling or existing experimental facilities started early enough to deliver useful results by the time to program was terminated Over the course of the program, small scale (approx. 1 ton/day) entrained-flow gasifier was designed and installed at the University of Utah's off-campus Industrial Combustion and Gasification Research Facility. The system is designed to operate at pressures as high as 32 atmospheres, and at temperatures as high as 1500 C (2730 F). Total black liquor processing capacity under pressurized, oxygen-blown conditions should be in excess of 1 ton black liquor solids per day. Many sampling ports along the conversion section of the system will allow detailed analysis of the environment in the gasifier under industrially representative conditions. Construction was mostly completed before the program was terminated, but resources were insufficient to operate the system. A system for characterizing black liquor sprays in hot environments was designed and constructed. Silhouettes of black liquor sprays formed by injection of black liquor through a twin fluid (liquor and atomizing air) nozzle were videoed with a high-speed camera, and the resulting images were analyzed to identify overall characteristics of the spray and droplet formation mechanisms. The efficiency of liquor atomization was better when the liquor was injected through the center channel of the nozzle, with atomizing air being introduced in the annulus around the center channel, than when the liquor and air feed channels were reversed. Atomizing efficiency and spray angle increased with atomizing air pressure up to a point, beyond which additional atomizing air pressure had little effect. Analysis of the spray patterns indicates that two classifications of droplets are present, a finely dispersed 'mist' of very small droplets and much larger ligaments of liquor that form at the injector tip and form one or more relatively large droplets. This ligament and subsequent large droplet formation suggests that it will be challenging to obtain a narrow distribution of droplet sizes when using an injector of this design. A model for simulating liquor spray and droplet formation was developed by Simulent, Inc. of Toronto. The model was able to predict performance when spraying water that closely matched the vendor specifications. Simulation of liquor spray indicates that droplets on the order 200-300 microns can be expected, and that higher liquor flow will result in be

Kevin Whitty

2008-06-30T23:59:59.000Z

45

Mineral phases of green liquor dregs, slaker grits, lime mud and wood ash of a Kraft pulp and paper mill  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

Four residues generated in a Kraft, pulp and paper plant, were characterized by X-ray fluorescence spectroscopy (XFA), powder X-ray diffraction (XRD), thermogravimmetric analysis (TG) and Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR). A quantitative phase composition model, that accounts for the observed data and for the physico-chemical conditions of formation, was postulated for each material. Emphasis was given on the identification of the mineral components of each material. The green liquor dregs and the lime mud contain Calcite and Gipsite. The slaker grits contains Calcite, Portlandite, Pirssonite, Larnite and Brucite. The Calcite phase, present in the dregs and in the lime mud, has small amounts of magnesium replacing calcium. The wood ash contains Quartz as the major crystalline mineral phase.

Fernanda Machado Martins; Joaniel Munhoz Martins; Luiz Carlos Ferracin; Carlos Jorge da Cunha

2007-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

46

Letter to the Editor: The pollution load caused by ECF Kraft Mills, Botnia-Uruguay: first six months of operation  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

The pollution load caused by Kraft Mills with and without bleaching is analysed. Particularly, the mill emissions of Botnia Fray Bentos S.A. over the first six months of operation are reviewed just as they are presented by the EcoMetrix report dated July 2008, at the request of the International Finance Corporation, World Bank. Regardless of the opinions expressed there, from the numerical values it is absolutely clear that Botnia has discharged great quantities of solid, liquid and gaseous dangerous pollutants into the Uruguay River and into the atmosphere. This pollution load, according to the background known, will cause serious and irreversible damage to the flora, fauna and health of the inhabitants of the basin within a few years.

Elias Jorge Matta

2009-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

47

Testing geopressured geothermal reservoirs in existing wells: Pauline Kraft Well No. 1, Nueces County, Texas. Final report  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

The Pauline Kraft Well No. 1 was originally drilled to a depth of 13,001 feet and abandoned as a dry hole. The well was re-entered in an effort to obtain a source of GEO/sup 2/ energy for a proposed gasohol manufacturing plant. The well was tested through a 5-inch by 2-3/8 inch annulus. The geological section tested was the Frio-Anderson sand of Mid-Oligocene age. The interval tested was from 12,750 to 12,860 feet. A saltwater disposal well was drilled on the site and completed in a Micocene sand section. The disposal interval was perforated from 4710 to 4770 feet and from 4500 to 4542 feet. The test well failed to produce water at substantial rates. Initial production was 34 BWPD. A large acid stimulation treatment increased productivity to 132 BWPD, which was still far from an acceptable rate. During the acid treatment, a failure of the 5-inch production casing occurred. The poor production rates are attributed to a reservoir with very low permeability and possible formation damage. The casing failure is related to increased tensile strain resulting from cooling of the casing by acid and from the high surface injection pressure. The location of the casing failure is now known at this time, but it is not at the surface. Failure as a result of a defect in a crossover joint at 723 feet is suspected.

Not Available

1981-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

48

A comprehensive program to develop correlations for the physical properties of Kraft black liquor. Interim report No. 2  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Experimental effort for the program to evaluate physical properties of kraft black liquors is now proceeding well. Experimental work includes pulping, liquor analysis, lignin purification and characterization, vapor-liquid equilibria, heat capacity, heats of solution and combustion, and viscosity measurements. Measurement of thermal conductivity has not yet begun. Collection of the data necessary for development of generalized correlations is proceeding, but will require about two more years. The digester is operating very well. It is now possible to operate the digester as a closed, rotating reactor or as a batch reactor with liquor circulation. When operated with liquor circulation, temperatures within the chip bed can be monitored during cooking. Cooking is reproducible, and cooks are being performed to produce liquors for experimental studies. The digester could be further modified to permit us to conduct rapid exchange batch pulping or to permit us to simulate continuous pulping. Liquors to be used in experimental studies are concentrated in our large scale evaporator or in our small scale evaporator. The large scale evaporator is used to concentrate liquors to about 50% solids for storage and for use in studies requiring high solids liquors. The small scale evaporator is used for preparing final samples to as high as 85% solids and for measuring vapor-liquid equilibria. Liquors are now routinely analyzed to determine all components, except higher molecular weight organic acids and extractives. Lignin determination by uv-visible means has been improved. Lignin purification from black liquor has been improved and lignin molecular weights are determined routinely. Work on lignin molecular weight distribution is still not satisfactory, but recent developments holds promise.

Fricke, A.L.

1990-12-01T23:59:59.000Z

49

Microsoft Word - SGIG FAQ Misc 01 29 2010.doc  

Broader source: Energy.gov (indexed) [DOE]

Frequently Asked Questions Frequently Asked Questions Grant and Award-Related Frequently Asked Questions Costs and Reimbursement Question: How long after a reimbursement request is submitted should an awardee expect payment? Answer: DOE will make payment within thirty (30) days after receipt of an acceptable invoice. Question: Can DOE confirm that Recipient will bill DOE, and DOE will reimburse Recipient for, 50% of qualified direct project expenses disbursed during the billing period as the federal share along with the proportionate share of fringe benefits? Answer: The Recipient will be reimbursed for all direct and indirect costs pursuant to the applicable OMB Cost Circular. See OMB Cost Circular A-21, Cost Principles for Educational Institutions (05/10/2004) HTML or PDF (109 pages, 263 kb), Relocated to 2 CFR, Part 220 (30 pages, 384 kb); OMB Circular OMB Circular OMB Circular OMB Circular

50

FOIASI - Special Inquiry Review of Allegations InvolvingPotentialMisc...  

Office of Environmental Management (EM)

Office of Environmental Management. The allegations involved potential violations of political activity restrictions, lack of impartiality in performing official duties, misuse of...

51

Assessment of Gasification-Based Biorefining at Kraft Pulp and Paper Mills in the United States, Part A: Background and Assumptions  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Commercialization of black liquor and biomass gasification technologies is anticipated in the 2010-2015 time frame, and synthesis gas from gasifiers can be converted into liquid fuels using catalytic synthesis technologies that are already commercially established in the gas-to-liquids or coal-to-liquids industries. This set of two papers describes key results from a major assessment of the prospective energy, environmental, and financial performance of commercial gasification-based biorefineries integrated with kraft pulp and paper mills [1]. Seven detailed biorefinery designs were developed for a reference mill in the southeastern United States, together with the associated mass/energy balances, air emissions estimates, and capital investment requirements. The biorefineries provide chemical recovery services and co-produce process steam for the mill, some electricity, and one of three liquid fuels: a Fischer-Tropsch synthetic crude oil (which could be refined to vehicle fuels at an existing petroleum refinery), dimethyl ether (a diesel engine fuel or propane substitute), or an ethanol-rich mixed-alcohol product. This paper describes the key assumptions that underlie the biorefinery designs. Part B will present analytical results.

Larson, E. D.; Consonni, S.; Katofsky, R. E.; Iisa, K.; Frederick, W. J., Jr.

2008-11-01T23:59:59.000Z

52

https://mi3.ncdc.noaa.gov/mi3report/MISC/asos-stations.txt  

National Nuclear Security Administration (NNSA)

RGNL AP HELENA AP ASOS UNITED STATES MT LEWIS AND CLARK 46.60556 20012570 94051 JDN JORDAN AP JORDAN AP UNITED STATES MT GARFIELD 47.32583 20012742 24146 244558 GPI KALISPELL...

53

Low Odor, High Yield Kraft Pulping  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

In laboratory cooks pure oxygen was profiled into the circulation line of a batch digester during two periods of the cooking cycle: The first injection occurred during the heating steps for the purpose of in-situ generation of polysulfide. This chip treatment was studied to explore stabilization against alkaline induced carbohydrate peeling and to increase pulp yield. Under optimum conditions small amounts of polysulfide were produced with yield increase of about 0.5% These increases fell below earlier reports suggesting that unknown differences in liquor composition may influence the relative amounts of polysulfide and thiosulfate generated during the oxidation. Consequently, further studies are required to understand the factors that influence the ratios of those two sulfur species.

W.T. McKean

2000-12-15T23:59:59.000Z

54

Spectroscopic and Kinetic Studies of Arabidopsis thaliana Sulfite Oxidase  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

2006). Metabolic deseases: gout. Clinics in Dermatology ,severe rheumatic problems such as gout and gouty arthritis (Enzymes Hyperuricemia (gout) Cause Over-active xanthine

Byrne, Robert Stephen

2010-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

55

Hydrogen Production via Photolytic Oxidation of Aqueous Sodium Sulfite Solutions  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

Sulfur dioxide (SO2) emission from coal-burning power plants and refinery operations has been implicated as a cause of acid rain and other air pollution related problems. ... Compounding its impacts on the environment, there are multiple sources of SO2 emissions, fossil fuel combustion being a primary contributor. ... Figure 2. Effect of initial solution pH on H2 formation via photolytic oxidation of 0.025 M Na2SO3 aqueous solutions (initial solution pH: (a) 7.53 (SO32? + HCl); (b) 8.88 (SO32? + HCl); (c) 9.92 (original Na2SO3 solution); (d) 10.96 (SO32?:CO32? = 1:0.05); ...

Cunping Huang; Clovis A. Linkous; Olawale Adebiyi; Ali T-Raissi

2010-06-01T23:59:59.000Z

56

The preparation and analysis of ammonia base sulfite pulping liquor  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

NH3 Concentrations . . . . . , ~ . ~ . . ~ ~ . ~ q IV The Distribution of S02 in a 2. 82$ RR3 Solution for Various Total SO2 Concentrations . . . . . . , . . . ~ . . . 31 FIGURES l. Variation of pH with Percent NH3 in Solution. . . . . ~. . . 25... 2. Variation of pH with S02 Concentration in Solutions of Various NH Concentrations . . . . ~ . . . ~ . ~ o ~ . o . ~ 27 3 ~ Composition of Solutions to give a Constant pH of T and 2. 5 , ~ 2Q 4. The Variation of the Ratio of Free S02 to Total SO2...

Honstead, John Frederick

1950-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

57

Organosolv pulping: a versatile approach to wood refining  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

The fractionation of hardwoods into pulp, lignin, and hemicellulose has been studied in a multi-stage alcohol extraction pilot plant. By adjusting processing conditions, pulps of different properties were obtained. They have been found to be suitable to furnish components for writing, printing, and high-absorbency papers and as dissolving grades. By-product lignin and hemicelluloses are recovered in separate, high-yield fractions for which several potential commercial applications have been identified. The process is a low-capital-cost, low-environmental-impact alternative to kraft and sulfite pulping.

Lora, J.H.; Aziz, S.

1985-08-01T23:59:59.000Z

58

Effektiv brug af grnne afgifter i kraft-og varmesektoren  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

gennem tilskyndelse til et lavere energiforbrug og en mere miljøvenlig energiproduktion fx ved en øget energiproduktion. Det drejer sig primært om tre styringsmidler: 1. Grønne og ikke så grønne afgifter 2

59

Formation of acidic sulfates in kraft recovery boilers  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Acidic sulfates (NaHSO[sub 4] and Na[sub 2]S[sub 2]O[sub 7]) have been suggested as the cause of corrosive sticky deposits in recovery boilers. Recovery-boiler precipitator dusts and pure Na[sub 2]SO[sub 4] were examined for their tendency to form acidic sulfates in simulated flue gases. Formation was strongly influenced by temperature and by gas-phase concentrations of SO[sub x] and H[sub 2]O. Liquid NaHSO[sub 4] formed readily at 250 C at SO[sub x] concentration above 150 ppm. Formation reactions were hindered by Na[sub 2]CO[sub 3]. Under appropriate conditions, acidic sulfates can exist at tube surfaces near the furnace roof, at the upper screen tubes, and in the generating bank and economizer.

Poon, W.; Barham, D.; Tran, H. (Univ. of Toronto, Ontario (Canada))

1993-07-01T23:59:59.000Z

60

Thermal Behavior of Floor Tubes in a Kraft Recovery Boiler  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

The temperatures of floor tubes in a slope-floored black liquor recovery boiler were measured using an array of thermocouples located on the tube crowns. It was found that sudden, short duration temperature increases occurred with a frequency that increased with distance from the spout wall. To determine if the temperature pulses were associated with material falling from the convective section of the boiler, the pattern of sootblower operation was recorded and compared with the pattern of temperature pulses. During the period from September, 1998, through February, 1999, it was found that more than 2/3 of the temperature pulses occurred during the time when one of the fast eight sootblowers, which are directed at the back of the screen tubes and the leading edge of the first superheater bank, was operating.

Barker, R.E.; Choudhury, K.A.; Gorog, J.P.; Hall, L.M.; Keiser, J.R.; Sarma, G.B.

1999-09-12T23:59:59.000Z

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "kraft sulfite misc" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


61

Admin. Duties 0708 -by person This version : 15/11/2007 12:28 Surname 0708 Duty Type Duty  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Anderson Misc BCS/IEE Accreditation Armstrong Course/Year Organiser MSc Armstrong Director Edinburgh Centre for Bioinformatics (Deputy) Armstrong Misc Bioinformatics MSc Liaison Armstrong Misc PhD Selector - ANC Armstrong MSc

Edinburgh, University of

62

Oxidation and characterization of FGD byproduct calcium sulfite and oxidized product  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

qualitatively and quantitatively analyzed using a Netzsch STA-409 Thermal Analyzer to determine the composition of the sample. The analyzer recorded the change in weight (TG) and the heat effects associated with the exothermic and endothermic reactions (DTA...

Gupta, Anurag

1993-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

63

Oxidation of byproduct calcium sulfite hemihydrate from coal-fired power plant  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

. Hydrogen peroxide can be used for oxidizing slurries with high solids concentration. The exothermic heat generated during the reaction of hydrogen peroxide with gypsite was used to directly obtain calcium sulfate hemihydrate. The effect of various...

Bhatt, Sandeep

1995-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

64

The effect of cooking preparations on the residual sulfite concentrations in shrimp  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

is unknown. Reports have noted responses, upon inhalation of sulfur dioxide, at 1, 3, and 5 ppm over a 10 to 30 minute exposure (Sheppard et al. , 1980; Jamieson et al. , 1985). However, it is controversial whether a response is second- ary to inhalation... or ingestion when consuming food, One hypothesis is the inhalation of sulfur dioxide while consuming an acid solution con- taining metabisulfite such as orange juice (Delohery et al. , 1984). Another hypothesis is the adverse reaction upon ingestion of sul...

Lally, Audrey Ann

2012-06-07T23:59:59.000Z

65

Reducing NO[sub x] emissions from magnesium sulfite liquor boilers  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

The Current design of liquor-combustion boilers is reviewed, along with options for lowering exhaust-gas emissions, particularly NOx. In many cases, modern boilers are being operated at or near optimal conditions for minimum NOx emissions. Possible upgrades to further reduce NOx emissions include addition of a selective noncatalytic reduction step, design modifications to lower the sectional load, a flue-gas recirculation system, and air staging. Calculated and experimental results show that these applications can lower NOx emissions by 40% or more.

Bobik, M. (Austrian Energy and Environment, Graz (Austria))

1993-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

66

Phylogeny of Dissimilatory Sulfite Reductases Supports an Early Origin of Sulfate Respiration  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

...Desulfovibrio desulfuricans Norway), P582 (e.g...species that do not derive energy from sulfate reduction...Desulfovibrio desulfuricans (Norway strain) and its role...transfer proteins, and energy coupling in the sulfate-reducing...R. Overbeek R. The winds of (evolutionary) change...

Michael Wagner; Andrew J. Roger; Jodi L. Flax; Gregory A. Brusseau; David A. Stahl

1998-06-01T23:59:59.000Z

67

Trends and guidelines in water pollution control in the Finnish pulp and paper industry  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

There are about 50 paper and pulp mills in Finland. In this paper, their production capacities in 1988 are illustrated. Pulp and paper production has increased quite rapidly during the last few decades. The greatest increase incurred in the production of bleached kraft pulp and mechanical pulp. The production of sulfite pulp has decreased during recent years. Within paper the production of printing papers has had the biggest increase. Estimates predict that the production capacity of the finish pulp and paper industry will show an average increase of 4% per year by the middle of this decade. Final production in 1987 and one estimate of production in 1992 are given. Wastewater loadings per production output are decreasing.

Junna, J. (National Board of Waters and the Environment, P.O. Box 250, SF-00101 Helsinki (FI)); Ruonala, S. (Environmental Research and Development Programme of the Finnish Forest Industry, P.O. Box 250, SF-00101 Helsinki (FI))

1991-07-01T23:59:59.000Z

68

Production of Lignin-Based Phenolic Resins Using De-Polymerized Kraft Lignin and Process Optimization.  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

??Commercialization of Lignin-based phenol formaldehyde resins (LPF) has been limited due to the increase in curing temperatures and decrease in adhesive strength of LPF compared… (more)

Siddiqui, Homaira

2013-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

69

Effect of raw material and Kraft Pulping Conditions on Characteristics of Dissolved Lignin.  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

?? Lignin is one of the main components in wood and during the chemical pulping processes it is degraded and dissolved into the cooking liquor.… (more)

Svärd, Antonia

2014-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

70

Determination of absolute molecular mass distribution and other structural properties of kraft lignin samples.  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

?? Lignin is an aromatic macromolecule present in wood and also a by-product in the process of making paper. For a long time, this by-product… (more)

Chedid, Fadia

2010-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

71

The Effects of Bleached Kraft Pulp-Mill Effluent on Periphyton DOE FRAP 1996-08  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .15 3.3.4 Polycyclic Aromatic Hydrocarbons . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .17 3.3.5 Dioxins

72

A comprehensive program to develop correlations for physical properties of kraft black liquor. Final report  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

A wide variety of experimental techniques have been used in this work, and many of these have been developed completely or improved significantly in the course of the research done during this program. Therefore, it is appropriate to describe these techniques in detail as a reference for future workers so that the techniques can be used in future work with little additional effort or so that the results reported from this program can be compared better with future results from other work. In many cases, the techniques described are for specific analytical instruments. It is recognized that these may be superseded by future developments and improvements in instrumentation if a complete description of techniques used successfully in the past on other instrumentation is available. The total pulping and liquor preparation research work performed included chip and white liquor preparation, digestion, pulp washing, liquor and wash recovery, liquor sampling, weak liquor concentration in two steps to about 45--50% solids with an intermediate soap skimming at about 140F and 27--30% solids, determination of pulp yield and Kappa number, determination of total liquor solids, and a check on the total material balance for pulping. All other research was performed either on a sample of the weak black liquor (the combined black liquor and washes from the digester) or on the skimmed liquor that had been concentrated.

Fricke, A.L.; Zaman, A.A.; Stoy, M.O.; Schmidl, G.W.; Dong, D.J.; Speck, B.

1998-04-01T23:59:59.000Z

73

Diversity of Dissimilatory Sulfite Reductase Genes (dsrAB) in a Salt Marsh Impacted by Long-Term Acid Mine Drainage  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

...523-536. 42 Howarth, R. W. 1993. Microbial processes in salt-marsh sediments, p. 239-259...in a New England salt marsh. Limnol. Oceanogr. 24: 999-1013. 44 Howarth, R. W., and A. Giblin...reduction in the salt marshes at Sapelo Island, Georgia...

John W. Moreau; Robert A. Zierenberg; Jillian F. Banfield

2010-05-14T23:59:59.000Z

74

Sulfite Reductase Defines a Newly Discovered Bottleneck for Assimilatory Sulfate Reduction and Is Essential for Growth and Development in Arabidopsis thaliana  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

...Supplemental Figure 2 online. (F) Aerial parts of 8-week-old wild-type and...K. , Hayama, A., Masada, M., Fukushima, K., and Tamura, G. (1987). Measurement...M. , Kusano, M., Oikawa, A., Fukushima, A., Noji, M., and Saito, K...

Muhammad Sayyar Khan; Florian Heinrich Haas; Arman Allboje Samami; Amin Moghaddas Gholami; Andrea Bauer; Kurt Fellenberg; Michael Reichelt; Robert Hänsch; Ralf R. Mendel; Andreas J. Meyer; Markus Wirtz; Rüdiger Hell

2010-04-27T23:59:59.000Z

75

Diversity of Dissimilatory Sulfite Reductase Genes (dsrAB) in a Salt Marsh Impacted by Long-Term Acid Mine Drainage  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

...Cluster OTU a Most related dsrAB sequence...Energys Basic Energy Sciences program...characterization of sulfate-reducing bacteria in a...Stahl. 2003. Related assemblages of...acid analysis to measure impact of acid...sediments above gas hydrate (Cascadia...acidophilic sulfate-reducing bacteria. J...

John W. Moreau; Robert A. Zierenberg; Jillian F. Banfield

2010-05-14T23:59:59.000Z

76

Diversity of Sulfate-Reducing Bacteria in Oxic and Anoxic Regions of a Microbial Mat Characterized by Comparative Analysis of Dissimilatory Sulfite Reductase Genes  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

...mm of a field sample of the Solar Lake cyanobacterial mat and...Some members derive energy from disproportionation of sulfur...Krumbein M. Goldberg M. Shilo Solar Lake (Sinai). 1. Physical...Cohen W. E. Krumbein M. Shilo Solar Lake (Sinai). 2. Distribution...

Dror Minz; Jodi L. Flax; Stefan J. Green; Gerard Muyzer; Yehuda Cohen; Michael Wagner; Bruce E. Rittmann; David A. Stahl

1999-10-01T23:59:59.000Z

77

Diversity of Dissimilatory Sulfite Reductase Genes (dsrAB) in a Salt Marsh Impacted by Long-Term Acid Mine Drainage  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

...primary drinking water standards. EPA 816-F-03-016...cycling of sulfur in mining-impacted freshwater...sulfate-reducing bacteria: critical review and research needs...Conceptual remedial action plan, marsh portion of subunit...Salt marsh processes: a review. Environ. Toxicol...

John W. Moreau; Robert A. Zierenberg; Jillian F. Banfield

2010-05-14T23:59:59.000Z

78

Microorganisms with Novel Dissimilatory (Bi)Sulfite Reductase Genes Are Widespread and Part of the Core Microbiota in Low-Sulfate Peatlands  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

...that has contributed to global cooling in the past 8...predicted that long-term global changes such as warming, decreased precipitation...addition, increasing global atmospheric sulfur pollution...the combustion of soft coal in Eastern Europe until...

Doris Steger; Cecilia Wentrup; Christina Braunegger; Pinsurang Deevong; Manuel Hofer; Andreas Richter; Christian Baranyi; Michael Pester; Michael Wagner; Alexander Loy

2010-12-17T23:59:59.000Z

79

Additional file 4a. References of the African populations compiled in the databases. Country Population  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

] 99 Egypt Arab MT 83 [25] 100 Egypt Arab MT 101 [26] 101 Egypt Arab Y 20 [7] 102 Egypt Berber Siwa MT 78 [27] 103 Egypt Copte MT 9 [25] 104 Egypt Copte MT 101 [27] 105 Egypt Misc. MT 32 [28] 106 Egypt Misc. Y 19 [17] 107 Egypt Misc.Upper Egypt MT 24 [28] 108 Egypt Nubia MT 11 [25] 109 Equatorial Guinea

Paris-Sud XI, Université de

80

Documentation of Calculation Methodology, Input data, and Infrastructure for the Home Energy Saver Web Site  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

+ oven + misc. cooking 1 Dishwasher motor + water Clotheswasher motor +water Clothes dryer TV + VCR + audio + other= Water power (hp) = Overall efficiency of pump and motor

2005-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "kraft sulfite misc" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


81

User Financial Account Form  

Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

Rates vary by fiscal year and by the type of expenses incurred. Other Misc. Charges: Safeguard & Security charge applied to all non-DOE projectsfacilities. Federal Administrative...

82

Detection and control of deposition on pendant tubes of Kraft chemical recovery boilers. Quarterly report for the period July-September 1999  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Activities during this period continued to focus on obtaining a clear image of deposits inside an operating recovery boiler.

Kychakoff, George

1999-10-01T23:59:59.000Z

83

Synthesis, Structure, and Dispersion Property of a Novel Lignin-Based Polyoxyethylene Ether from Kraft Lignin and Poly(ethylene glycol)  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

(19) Dimethomorph was provided as a light white powder (50 ?m) with a minimum purity of 98.5% from Noposion Agrochemicals Co., Ltd., China. ... Effect of Molar Ratio of ECH to PEG on the Composition of KL-PEG Copolymer ... Table 3. Structural Compositions of KL-PEG Copolymers ...

Xuliang Lin; Mingsong Zhou; Suya Wang; Hongming Lou; Dongjie Yang; Xueqing Qiu

2014-05-22T23:59:59.000Z

84

Highly Energy Efficient Directed Green Liquor Utilization (D-GLU) Pulping  

Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

This factsheet describes a project that seeks to develop feasible chemical modifications during kraft pulping operations to obtain significant energy and product benefits for U.S. kraft pulp and paper mills.

85

Abteilung Geochemie & Analytik Abteilung Geobiologie & kologie Abteilung Physik & Modellierung Allgemeine & Molekulare Mikrobiologie  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Kraft Standort WHV Küstenforschung Prof. Dr. Emil Stanev W15 2-237 Gemeinsame Berufung mit der GKSS

86

Definition und Klassifizierung von Energiespeichern  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

Abb. 2.3 Definition von sektorenübergreifenden Energiespeichern am Beispiel von Power-to-Heat, flexibler Kraft-W...

Michael Sterner; Ingo Stadler

2014-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

87

Kunst og Videnskab som erkendelsesformer *)  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

tilsammen giver kunsterisk kraft og saft, både hos den skabende kunstner og det oplevelses- hungrige

Emmeche, Claus

88

Analysis of Dissimilatory Sulfite Reductase and 16S rRNA Gene Fragments from Deep-Sea Hydrothermal Sites of the Suiyo Seamount, Izu-Bonin Arc, Western Pacific  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

...Proteobacteria as well as the occurrence...previously from other geothermal environments. Deep-sea...Gulf of California, Mexico (26). Recently...Further studies, as well as microscopy observations...epsilon-Proteobacteria as well as the occurrence...previously from other geothermal environments...

Tatsunori Nakagawa; Jun-Ichiro Ishibashi; Akihiko Maruyama; Toshiro Yamanaka; Yusuke Morimoto; Hiroyuki Kimura; Tetsuro Urabe; Manabu Fukui

2004-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

89

Goulden Equipment and Facilities Lab: 1400 ft2  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

(Sorval RC 5C, etc). Instruments for in-situ remote sensing: (2) FLIR thermal cameras, (2) JAI VIS fluorescence, (1) Ocular Robotics scanning LIDAR, misc pan-tilt mounts (FLIR D100 and D48), computers, software

Kimball, Sarah

90

I  

Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

Water Pumps Am. C.W. Pumps Injection Pumps Cooling Tower Plant Air System L. 0. Storage Tanks Turbine Generator NCG Removal Gantry Crane Vac Hot Well Sulfur Plant Misc. Tanks...

91

Plant Operations Executive Director  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Campus North Campus Recycling Operations Materials Human Resources Payroll Misc Svs Special Projects Planning Spray Shop Glass Shop Upholstery Shop Plant IT Painting Services G. Weincouff Human Resources Business Services Estimating Shutdown Coordination Scheduling L. Rastique Human Resources 67398 M

Awtar, Shorya

92

Standard abbreviations will be used if the company's name is too long. If the company has its own abbreviation, that will be used.  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

EAST BACHELOR OF EDUCATION DOCTOR OF EDUCATION ELECTRONIC DATA PROCESSING EDUCATION, EDUCATIONAL LAB LIAB LIB LK LLC LN LTD M SC MACH MAINT MAND MBA MD MDS MECH MED MFG MGMT MISC MKT MKTG MT MTG MTN

93

CSD Safety and Reliability Data  

Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

FAILURE MISC 0 500 1000 1500 2000 HYDROGEN COMPRESSOR DISPENSER CONTROL ELECTRONICS AIR SYSTEM Labor Hours 55%* 20%* 8%* 11%* NREL cdpmhe52 Created: Sep-21-12 2:58 PM...

94

Feasibility study: a proposed recreational fishing enterprise  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

0 UNEM SKIL LABR SALE PROF MILI CLER MISC MGMT STUD Employment UNEM unemployed/disabled, housewives SKIL skilled labor, electrician, engineer, carpenter, mechanic, pipe fitter, metal worker, plumber, construction, utility worker, air... 0 UNEM SKIL LABR SALE PROF MILI CLER MISC MGMT STUD Employment UNEM unemployed/disabled, housewives SKIL skilled labor, electrician, engineer, carpenter, mechanic, pipe fitter, metal worker, plumber, construction, utility worker, air...

Booth, James D

2012-06-07T23:59:59.000Z

95

Metagenomic and Cultivation-Based Analysis of Novel Microorganisms and Functions in Metal-Contaminated Environments  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

operon encoding production of hydrogen sulfide from sulfite.hydrogen lyase that catalyzes non-syntrophic growth on formate and production

Yelton, Alexis Pepper

2012-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

96

Download Full-text PDF  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

poor solubility in silicones, different techniques have been developed for .... nitrogen gas or anoxic water [5% sodium sulfite solution] and ca. 21% oxygen air)

1999-03-11T23:59:59.000Z

97

For more information on any of the articles in this report, contact Joshua Buck, Rachel Kraft, or Trent Perrotto in NASA's Public Affairs Office at 202-358-1100. To review NASA's other commercial space accomplishments, visit  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

to carry excessive weight all the way to orbit and back to Earth. Thus, every launch requires a brand new will surpass our original requirements." Dream Chaser hybrid motor test firing. Image courtesy of Sierra Nevada SuperDraco hot fire test. Image courtesy of SpaceX Test flight of Apollo's tower abort system. Image

98

Uljabuouda vindkraftpark turbinmodellering och stabilitetsanalys.  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

??This master thesis has been performed at Solvina in Gothenburg for Skellefteå Kraft and Vattenfall Eldistribution. The aim of it is to investigate the consequences… (more)

Lenasson, Magnus

2007-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

99

Lignin as Both Fuel and Fusing Binder in Briquetted Anthracite Fines for Foundry Coke Substitute.  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

??Lignin that had been extracted from Kraft black liquor was investigated as a fusing binder in briquetted anthracite fines for a foundry coke substitute. Cupola… (more)

Lumadue, Matthew

2012-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

100

arXiv:0909.3645v1[astro-ph.CO]20Sep2009 Suzaku Observations of the Radio Galaxy 3C 33  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

. Evans1 , James N. Reeves2 , Martin J. Hardcastle3 , Ralph P. Kraft4 , Julia C. Lee4 , and Shanil N

Evans, Dan

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "kraft sulfite misc" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


101

Brennstoffzellen in der Hausenergieversorgung  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

Durch die gleichzeitige Erzeugung von elektrischem Strom und Wärme (Kraft-Wärme-Kopplung) aus Erdgas lässt sich die Primärenergieeffizienz von Häusern steigern. Brennstoffzellen-Heizgeräte sind Hoffnungsträger...

Thomas Badenhop

2014-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

102

The Fates of Vanadium and Sulfur Introduced with Petcoke to Lime Kilns.  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

??Petroleum coke (petcoke) has been burned at kraft pulp mills to partially substitute for natural gas and fuel oil used in lime kilns. Due to… (more)

Fan, Xiaofei

2010-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

103

Die dispositiven Faktoren  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

Die Geschäfts- und Betriebsleitung, der vierte, dispositive Faktor, bildet das Zentrum, die eigentlich bewegende Kraft des betrieblichen Geschehens. Im Gesamtsystem der betrieblichen Willensbildung stellt sie ...

Dr. Dr. h. c. Erich Gutenberg

1965-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

104

Die dispositiven Faktoren  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

Die Geschäfts- und Betriebsleitung, der vierte, dispositive Faktor, bildet das Zentrum, die eigentlich bewegende Kraft des betrieblichen Geschehens. Im Gesamtsystem der betrieblichen Willensbildung stellt sie ...

Dr. Dr. h. c. Erich Gutenberg

1966-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

105

E-Print Network 3.0 - atypical imaging findings Sample Search...  

Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

and Medicine 94 Categorization Theory and Research in Consumer Psychology Summary: brand image (e.g., Kraft) affect its categori zation? How will the image affect its...

106

Types of Insulation | Department of Energy  

Energy Savers [EERE]

-- into insulation systems that can include a variety of backings, such as kraft paper, plastic film, polyethylene bubbles, or cardboard, as well as thermal insulation materials....

107

E-Print Network 3.0 - af den hidtidige Sample Search Results  

Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

1977 vret en del af den danske kraft- og varmesektor. I... udbredelsen af vedvarende energi Vurdere den ... Source: Ris National Laboratory Collection: Multidisciplinary...

108

Die Vergemeinschaftung des Kollisionsrechts der außervertraglichen Schuldverhältnisse durch Rom II  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

Mit der am 11. Juli 2007 verabschiedeten, zum 11. Januar 2009 in Kraft tretenden sog "Rom II-Verordnung" werden weite Teile des bis...

Helmut Heiss; Leander D. Loacker

2007-10-01T23:59:59.000Z

109

E-Print Network 3.0 - af patienter hos Sample Search Results  

Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

sanser og muskler udveksler indbyrdes... tilsammen giver kunsterisk kraft og saft, bde hos den skabende kunstner og det oplevelses- ... Source: Emmeche, Claus - Center...

110

The R User Conference 2011 General Information  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

's of London, BP, Kraft, Novartis, GlaxoSmithKline, Aviva, Google and HSBC to name but a few. Consultancy We

Goldschmidt, Christina

111

Water treatment method  

DOE Patents [OSTI]

A method is described for reducing the concentration of any undesirable metals dissolved in contaminated water, such as waste water. The method involves uniformly reacting the contaminated water with an excess amount of solid particulate calcium sulfite to insolubilize the undesirable metal ions, followed by removal thereof and of the unreacted calcium sulfite.

Martin, F.S.; Silver, G.L.

1991-04-30T23:59:59.000Z

112

Page not found | Department of Energy  

Broader source: Energy.gov (indexed) [DOE]

11 - 1720 of 31,917 results. 11 - 1720 of 31,917 results. Download OHA Misc Cases Archive File This is a archive file of our Misc decisions, Please download this file to your local computer and use the build in adobe search feature. Individual cases are listed in the bookmark section of the... http://energy.gov/oha/downloads/oha-misc-cases-archive-file Article Obama Administration Announces Members of Steering Team to Lead Interagency Coordination of Unconventional Oil and Gas Research and Development The Energy Department announces two members (policy and technical) to unconventional oil and gas research and development steering team. http://energy.gov/articles/obama-administration-announces-members-steering-team-lead-interagency-coordination Download EIS-0492: Notice of Intent to Prepare an Environmental Impact

113

Confidential and Privileged: The President's Foreign Intelligence Advisory Board - Learning Lessons from Its Past to Shape Its Future  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

, 2007, at: http://cio.energy.gov/pfiab-doe.pdf. 8 Warren Rudman, Perspectives on National Security in the Twenty-First Century, Seminar on Intelligence, Command, and Control at Harvard University (Boston), April 22, 2002. 49 Anne L. Armstrong to Leo... Cherne, Washington, D.C., September 20, 1984; PFIAB-Misc. 1/01/84-11/31/85; Leo Cherne Papers; Department of Special Collections; HGARC; Seymour Weiss to Anne Armstrong, Bethesda, MD, September 27, 1984; PFIAB- Misc. 01/01/84-11/31/85; Leo Cherne Papers...

2006-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

114

Categorization Theory and Research in Consumer Psychology  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

brand image (e.g., Kraft) affect its categori zation? How will the image affect its acceptance? What, services, brands, or other marketing entities, states, or events that appear, to the consumer, related product is introduced with an existing brand name (e.g., Kraft microwave popcorn), how will the existing

Barsalou, Lawrence W.

115

Energistyrelsens workshop om  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

fluktuerende energi ·Robusthed over for svingende energipriser ·Stadig stigende internationalisering ·Kan in February 2002 Windpower/consumption,% #12;Betydningen af at forudsige vindkraftproduktionen Vind- kraft MW forudsigelser TidTime 12-36Time 0 Vind- kraft MW Vindkraft forudsigelse Usikkerhed på vindkraft- produktionen

116

Tropical birds have a slow pace of life Popko Wiersma, Agust Muoz-Garcia, Amy Walker, and Joseph B. Williams  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Tropical birds have a slow pace of life Popko Wiersma, Agustí Muñoz-Garcia, Amy Walker, and Joseph.pnas.org/misc/reprints.shtml To order reprints, see: Notes: #12;Tropical birds have a slow pace of life Popko Wiersma, Agusti´ Mun~ oz

Williams, Jos. B.

117

cholesterol in phosphatidylcholine bilayers Assess the nature of cholesterol-lipid interactions through the chemical potential of  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

cholesterol in phosphatidylcholine bilayers Assess the nature of cholesterol-lipid interactions, see: Reprints www.pnas.org/misc/reprints.shtml To order reprints, see: Notes: #12;Assess the nature a vital role in determining the physiochemical properties of cell membranes. However, the detailed nature

Huang, Juyang

118

Challenge for Vision: Seeing a Toy Crane Crane-episodic-memory  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

material here see http://tinyurl.com/CogMisc/AREADME.html Introduction This is a sequel to two previous challenges: Wherever a crank handle is visible, work out what the consequences will be of turning;Picture {19} ----------- 12 #12;The diagram in the instruction manual. (Not followed precisely.) Meccano

Sloman, Aaron

119

Photosynthetic Quantum Yield Dynamics: From Photosystems to Leaves  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

...this allows for an accurate estimation of the PSI:PSII ratio (for...2010, c). Blue light dose-responses of leaf photosynthesis...higher plant on wavelength of radiation. Smithsonian Institution Misc...conversion of near infrared radiation - Part 1 optics and PV-cells...

Sander W. Hogewoning; Emilie Wientjes; Peter Douwstra; Govert Trouwborst; Wim van Ieperen; Roberta Croce; Jeremy Harbinson

2012-05-22T23:59:59.000Z

120

Book Reviews  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

...Department of Health New Books Swine Production. W. E. Carroll and J. L...50. Handbook of Mammals of Kansas. Misc. Publ. No. 7. Contribution...State Biological Survey of Kansas. E. Ray-mond Hall. Museum...Natural History, University of Kansas, Lawrence, 1955. 303 pp...

1956-04-27T23:59:59.000Z

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "kraft sulfite misc" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


121

Biomimetic amplification of nanoparticle homing to tumors Derfus, Meng Yang, Robert M. Hoffman, Sangeeta Bhatia, Michael J. Sailor, and Erkki Ruoslahti  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Biomimetic amplification of nanoparticle homing to tumors Derfus, Meng Yang, Robert M. Hoffman.pnas.org/misc/reprints.shtml To order reprints, see: Notes: #12;Biomimetic amplification of nanoparticle homing to tumors Dmitri, November 22, 2006 (sent for review November 13, 2006) Nanoparticle-based diagnostics and therapeutics hold

Bhatia, Sangeeta

122

with the NCAR Climate System Model Solar influence on climate during the past millennium: Results from transient simulations  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

in climate re- constructions, and if part of the previously estimated large range of past solar irradiancewith the NCAR Climate System Model Solar influence on climate during the past millennium: Results.pnas.org/misc/reprints.shtml To order reprints, see: Notes: #12;Solar influence on climate during the past millennium: Results from

Fortunat, Joos

123

CURRENT ISSUE (/CONTENT/CURRENT) ARCHIVE (/CONTENT) NEWS & MULTIMEDIA (/MULTIMEDIA) FOR AUTHORS (/SITE/AUTHORS/INDEX.XHTML) ABOUT PNAS (/SITE/ABOUTPNAS/INDEX.XHTML)  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

(/SITE/AUTHORS/INDEX.XHTML) ABOUT PNAS (/SITE/ABOUTPNAS/INDEX.XHTML) Spatiotemporal reaction kinetics/misc/PNASalerts.xhtml) Subscribe (/site/subscriptions/index.xhtml) RSS (/site/aboutpnas/rss.xhtml) MOST READ MOST CITED (/content genes in the complete genome of Pacific bluefin

Ihee, Hyotcherl

124

Biocontrol of Listeria monocytogenes and Escherichia coli O157:H7 in Meat by Using Phages Immobilized on Modified Cellulose Membranes  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

...excellent physical properties and low price. Moreover, cellulose can be easily manufactured...search for new applications for these natural bacterial killers using different strategies...Kaufman. 1997. Biodesulfurization of flue gases and other sulfate/sulfite waste streams...

H. Anany; W. Chen; R. Pelton; M. W. Griffiths

2011-07-29T23:59:59.000Z

125

Konfigurasjon av end-flash system for LNG-prosessanlegg; Configuration of end-flash systems for LNG process plant.  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

?? Formålet med masteravhandlingen er å gjennomføre en systematisk evaluering av ulike end-flash løsninger i forhold til kraft- og brenselbalanse, produksjonskapasitet, LNG-produktspesifikasjoner, spesifikt kraftforbruk og… (more)

Haugum, Mathea Korssjøen

2012-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

126

Auslegung eines 1-MW-Brennstoffzellen-Heizkraftwerks  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

Aufbauend auf den Ergebnissen der Machbarkeitsstudie „1,5-MW-PAFC-Heizkraftwerk”, beabsichtigt die GEW, eine 1-MW-Brennstoffzellenanlage zur kombinierten Strom- und Wärmeerzeugung (Kraft-Wärme-Kopplung ... KWK...

U. Langnickel

1997-10-01T23:59:59.000Z

127

Speicherintegration zur Kopplung unterschiedlicher Energiesektoren  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

Neben der bereits etablierten Zusammenführung von Strom- und Wärmesektor...durch die Kraft-Wärme-Kopplung, die durch strombasierte Wärmebereitstellung über Elektrowärmepumpen und Power-to-Heat ergänzt wird, zeich...

Michael Sterner; Ingo Stadler

2014-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

128

E-Print Network 3.0 - atypical imaging features Sample Search...  

Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

to make inferences about unknown attributes or features of the new product, or to form... brand image (e.g., Kraft) affect its categori zation? How will the image affect its...

129

Adsorption of Hydrogen Sulfide onto Activated Carbon Fibers: Effect of  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

. These processes include natural gas processing, petroleum refining, petrochemical plants, Kraft mills, coke ovens, and coal gasifiers. H2S concentrations in these processes vary from 0 to 60 vol % (6). The Claus process

Borguet, Eric

130

Analyse av tekniske og økonomiske forhold ved kraft-varmeproduksjon og fjernvarmeanlegg ved økte energipriser og CO2-avgifter; Analysis of technical and economical conditions by Combined Heat and Power (CHP) with District Heating and increased energy prices and CO2-taxes.  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

??I 1983 nedsatte FN en kommisjon, den såkalte Brundtlandkommisjonen, som blant annet hadde som formål å kartlegge forholdet mellom fattigdom, miljø og utvikling. Etter fire… (more)

Kosberg, Magnus

2010-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

131

Building Energy Software Tools Directory: Tools by Subject - Other  

Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

Misc Applications Misc Applications A B C D E F G I K L M O P Q R S T U Tool Applications Free Recently Updated ACOUSALLE acoustics, codes and standards AcousticCalc HVAC acoustics, sound level prediction, noise level Acoustics Program HVAC acoustics, sound level prediction, noise level Software has been updated. AEPS System Planning electrical system, renewable energy system, planning and design software, modeling, simulation, energy usage, system performance, financial analysis, solar, wind, hydro, behavior characteristics, usage profiles, generation load storage calculations, on-grid, off-grid, residential, commercial, system sizing, utility rate plans, rate comparison, utility costs, energy savings Software has been updated. Animate animated visualization of data, XY graphs, energy-use data

132

Effects of ionizing radiation on the response of certain photosensitive seeds to red light  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

and molecular oxygen. Studies of phosphate metabolism (Surrey and Gordon, 1962) and phosphorylation (Gordon and Surrey, 1961) indicate that energy transfer through phosphate esterification plays an important role and may be the key enzymatic reaction in red... spectrum promoting the germination of light-sensitive lettuce seed. Smithsonian Inst. Pubis. Misc. Collections 96: 1-8 ~ 11. Gordon, S. A. , and K. Surrey. 1961. Phosphorylation and red-spectrum photomorphogenesis. ~n Effects of ionizing radiations...

Richardson, Billy

2012-06-07T23:59:59.000Z

133

Matlab Toolbox for the iRobot Create (MTIC) Version 2.0 (8.25.2011)  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

1 Matlab Toolbox for the iRobot Create (MTIC) Version 2.0 (8.25.2011) Download at: www.usna.edu/Users/weapsys/esposito/roomba.matlab, "Matlab Toolbox for the Create Robot", www.usna.edu/Users/weapsys/esposito/roomba.matlab/, Copyright 2008-2011 Or in BibTex: @MISC{MatlabCreate, author = {Joel M. Esposito and Owen Barton and Josh Koehler and David Lim

Esposito, Joel M.

134

Owens Valley Radio ObsevatoryOwens Valley Radio Obsevatory David Woody  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Owens Valley Radio ObsevatoryOwens Valley Radio Obsevatory David Woody Owens Valley Radio · [Need pictures of the telescopes] 1/24/2008 2Woody #12;The Owens ValleyThe Owens Valley 1/24/2008 3Woody in the future · 40 m ­ 1960s ­ 1-20 GHz ­ Long history single dish and VLBI · VLBA antenna, 25 m dia · Misc. ­ 5

Weinreb, Sander

135

Travaux Diriges de XML no Dans ce TP, toujours autour d'Ingrid Bergman, nous proposons une initiation a XSLT.  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

´es de resume ; · realisateur, tir´e de resume ; · date, tir´e de role ; · misc, tir´e de role celui de role ; · resume, avec comme contenu celui de resume ; · autant de alias, que n;resumes> ... resume filmref="f29" img="29.jpg" pdf="29.pdf" realisateur="Jean Renoir"> Polnish countess

Blanc, Olivier

136

Estimates of energy consumption by building type and end use at U.S. Army installations  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

This report discusses the use of LBNL`s End-use Disaggregation Alogrithm (EDA) to 12 US Army installations nationwide in order to obtain annual estimates of electricity use for all major building types and end uses. The building types include barrack, dining hall, gymnasium, administration, vehicle maintenance, hospital, residential, warehouse, and misc. Up to 8 electric end uses for each type were considered: space cooling, ventilation (air handling units, fans, chilled and hot water pumps), cooking, misc./plugs, refrigeration, exterior and interior lighting, and process loads. Through building simulations, we also obtained estimates of natural gas space heating energy use. Average electricity use for these 12 installations and Fort Hood are: HVAC, misc., and indoor lighting end uses consumed the most electricity (28, 27, and 26% of total[3.8, 3.5, and 3.3 kWh/ft{sup 2}]). Refrigeration, street lighting, exterior lighting, and cooking consumed 7, 7, 3, and 2% of total (0.9, 0.9, 0.4, and 0.3 kWh/ft{sup 2})

Konopacki, S.J.; Akbari, H.

1996-08-01T23:59:59.000Z

137

Mechanical properties and dimensional stability of organo-nanoclay modified biofiber polymer composites  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

In this study, hydrophobic Kraft fibers were obtained by organo-nanoclay modification. The treated fibers were used as reinforcements for improving mechanical performance and dimensional stability of high density polyethylene (HDPE) composites. After the organo-nanoclay treatment, Kraft fibers had a more uniform dispersion in the HDPE matrix and the resulting composites had a higher Young’s modulus and thermal stability than the composites containing untreated fibers. The addition of 5 wt% of maleic anhydride polyethylene (MAPE) compatibilizer improved fiber and matrix adhesion and resulted in increased tensile strength and Young’s modulus as well as thermal stability of both treated and untreated fiber composites. However, this improvement was more significant for the composites with the treated fibers. In addition, water absorption of the organo-nanoclay treated Kraft fiber–HDPE composites decreased after adding the compatibilizer.

Jieming Chen; Ning Yan

2013-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

138

The Fractionation of Loblolly Pine Woodchips Into Pulp For Making Paper Products  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

The overall goal of the project was to test the PureVision biomass fractionation technology for making pulp from loblolly pine. A specific goal was to produce a pulp product that is comparable to pulp produced from the kraft process, while reducing the environmental effects of the kraft process, known to be a highly pollutant process. The overall goal of the project was met by using the biomass fractionation concept for making pulp product. This proof-of-concept study, done with Southern pine pinchips as feedstock, evaluated NaOH concentration and residence time as variables in single-stage cocurrent pulping process. It can be concluded that 1% NaOH is adequate for effective delignification using the PureVision process; this is about ? of that used in the kraft process. Also, the PureVision process does not use sulfur-based chemicals such as N2S and hence, is environmentally more benign.

Kiran Kadam, PhD

2006-11-30T23:59:59.000Z

139

L – Goldschmidt Abstracts 2012  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

...dissimilatory sulfite reductase (Dsr) protein, from which we can extract enzyme-specific...pH (2 and 3) are structurally more disordered and are less dense (i.e., covered...molecular simulations and identifying ensembles of various crystal structures and morphology...

140

Photographic Fixer Disposal The processing of photographic film and paper requires the use of various chemicals to develop and  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

are photoprocessing solutions, spent rinse water, scrap film, and scrap printing paper. The silver in these materials on the cathode where they are collected as metallic silver and the sulfite (SO3 2- ) and thiosulfate (S2O3 2 the remaining silver ions. This process involves the use of an active solid metal, such as iron, which contacts

Maroncelli, Mark

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "kraft sulfite misc" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


141

R E S E A R C H A R T I C L E Bacterial community composition in a large marine anoxic  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

.edu Received 3 August 2012; revised 18 January 2013; accepted 5 February 2013. Final version published online, sulfite, thiosulfate, ammonia, nitrate, nitrite, dissolved man- ganese and iron, dark CO2 fixation throughout the entire water column. These include members of Gamma-, Delta-, and Epsilon- proteobacteria

Meyers, Steven D.

142

Separation of flue-gas scrubber sludge into marketable products. Second year, second quarterly technical progress report, Quarter No. 6, December 1, 1994--February 28, 1995  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

To reduce their sulfur emissions, many coal-fired electric power plants use wet flue-gas scrubbers. These scrubbers convert sulfur oxides into solid sulfate and sulfite sludge, which must then be disposed of. This sludge is a result of reacting limestone with sulfur dioxide to precipitate calcium sulfite and calcium sulfate. It consists of calcium sulfite (CaSO{sub 3}{sm_bullet}0.5H{sub 2}O), gypsum (CaSO{sub 4}{sm_bullet}2H{sub 2}O), and unreacted limestone (CaCO{sub 3}) or lime (Ca(OH){sub 2}), with miscellaneous objectionable impurities such as iron oxides, silica, and magnesium, sodium, and potassium oxides or salts. These impurities prevent many sludges from being utilized as a replacement for natural gypsum, and as a result they must be disposed of in landfills, which presents a serious disposal problem. This project is studying the characteristics of flue-gas scrubber sludges from several sources, which is necessary for the development of purification technologies which will make it possible to directly utilize scrubber sludges rather than landfilling them. This purification will consist of minimal-reagent froth flotation, using the surface properties of the particles of unreacted limestone to remove them and their associated impurities from the material, leaving a purified calcium sulfite/gypsum product.

KAwatra, S.K.; Eisele, T.C.

1995-03-01T23:59:59.000Z

143

Partially Sulfated Lime-Fly Ash Sorbents Activated by Water or Steam for SO2 Removal at a Medium Temperature  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

Partially Sulfated Lime-Fly Ash Sorbents Activated by Water or Steam for SO2 Removal at a Medium Temperature ... The low utilization of calcium-based sorbent is caused by the formation of calcium sulfite or sulfate, which have larger molar volumes than CaO or Ca(OH)2. ... ignition?loss ...

Liming Shi; Xuchang Xu

2005-08-23T23:59:59.000Z

144

Development of media for the isolation and selection of Helicobacter pylori  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

selective media for H. pylori. Several aspects of the media and their effects on growth of H. pylori were considered: presence of sulfites and sulfates, presence and absence of urea, effect of volatile fatty acids, antibiotic combinations, and effect of p...

Hisel, Carrie Suzanne

1995-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

145

APPLIED AND ENVIRONMENTAL MICROBIOLOGY, Nov. 2005, p. 74537460 Vol. 71, No. 11 0099-2240/05/$08.00 0 doi:10.1128/AEM.71.11.74537460.2005  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

with nitrate and incubated with no electron acceptor, was used for the two time points considered and for both- ganese(IV), nitrate, nitrite, thiosulfate, sulfite, trimethylamine N-oxide (TMAO), dimethyl sulfoxide and soluble hexavalent uranyl (UO2 2 ) and chro- mate (CrO4 2 ) to less soluble and less toxic forms [U

Tebo, Brad

146

Recent advances in the study of the sulfate-reducing bacteria.  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

...nigrificans and in the sulfite-hydrogenase system of Desulfo- vtibrio. Coenzyme Q is absent...Selec- tion of a microbial corrosion system for studying effects on structural aluminum...In L. L. Shreir [ed.], Corrosion handbook, vol. 1. John Wiley & Sons, Inc...

J R Postgate

1965-12-01T23:59:59.000Z

147

Separation of flue-gas scrubber sludge into marketable products. Second quarterly technical progress report, December 1, 1993--February 28, 1994 (Quarter No. 2)  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

To reduce their sulfur emissions, many coal-fired electric power plants use wet flue-gas scrubbers. These scrubbers convert sulfur oxides into solid sulfate and sulfite sludge, which must then be disposed of This sludge is a result of reacting limestone with sulfur dioxide to precipitate calcium sulfite and calcium sulfate. It consists of calcium sulfite (CaSO{sub 3}{lg_bullet}0.5H{sub 2}0), gypsum (CaSO{sub 4}{lg_bullet}2H{sub 2}0), and unreacted limestone (CaCO{sub 3}) or lime (Ca(OH){sub 2}), with miscellaneous objectionable impurities such as iron oxides; silica; and magnesium, sodium, and potassium oxides or salts. Currently, the only market for scrubber sludge is for manufacture of gypsum products, such as wallboard and plaster, and for cement. However, the quality of the raw sludge is often not high enough or consistent enough to satisfy manufacturers, and so the material is difficult to sell. This project is developing a process that can produce a high-quality calcium sulfite or gypsum product while keeping process costs low enough that the material produced will be competitive with that from other, more conventional sources. This purification will consist of minimal-reagent froth flotation, using the surface properties of the particles of unreacted limestone to remove them and their associated impurities from the material, leaving a purified gypsum or calcium sulfite product. The separated limestone will be a useful by-product, as it can be recycled to the scrubber, thus boosting the limestone utilization and improving process efficiency. Calcium sulfite will then be oxidized to gypsum, or separated as a salable product in its own right from sludges where it is present in sufficient quantity. The main product of the process will be either gypsum or calcium sulfite, depending on the characteristics of the sludge being processed. These products will be sufficiently pure to be easily marketed, rather that being landfilled.

Kawatra, S.K.; Eisele, T.C.

1994-03-01T23:59:59.000Z

148

EIS-0259 Final Environmental Impact Statement On The Disposal Of Decommissioned, Defueled Cruiser, Ohio Class, And Los Angeles Class Naval Reactor Plants  

Broader source: Energy.gov (indexed) [DOE]

... -. FEASIBILITY STUDY FOR LEAD REMOVAL FROM AND STRUCTURAL RESTORATION OF CRUISER, OHIO, AND LOS ANGELES CLASS REACTOR COMPARTMENT DISPOSAL PACWGES Appendix A A-i . Table of Contents E~CUT~ S~Y . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . ..A.3 1. ~TRODUCTION . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .." . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . ..A.3 2. DESCR~TION OF S~ELD~G LEAD CONTmD ~ REACTOR commmm PAcmGEs . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . ..A.4 2.1 PermanentSMeldingLead . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . ..A-4 2.2 MisceUaneousLead . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . ..A-5 2.3 Considerations . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . ................"A-5 2.4 Assumptions . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .................A-5 3. SHIELD~G LEAD REMOVQ

149

ESH&Q  

Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

Quality Services Section Quality Services Section Documents Active Procedures & Forms Quality Assessments Assessment Schedule & Reports Consolidated Assessment Schedule Frequently Asked Questions DOE Related Documents 2012 QA Audit 2009 QA Audit Submitted to DOE Performance Related Orders & Other Docs Contractor Assurance CAS Website Lessons Learned Lessons Learned Form / Db Incoming LL Initial Review Overdue Lessons Learned Process Flow Contact List Assessment Questionnaire Issues Management - Coming Soon CAS QA Mgmt System Description QAR Information Center Members Quality Assurance Representative Information Sharepoint Site Meeting Minutes 2012 2011 2010 2009 & Prior Presentations Archives Submitted to DOE Misc. Suspect / Counterfeit Items S/CI Trainers & Coordinators Reference Documents

150

Checkout Expendables Item Price Item Price Item Price  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

$6.00 ft Mini DV $5.00 Full CTO $6.00 ft white paper tape $5.00 Mini HDV $7.00 .3 ND $6.00 ft 1/8", 1 $9.50 1650 $200.00 24" Blk Wrap $35 per roll/$2 ft Case lock $9.00 Full Grid Cloth $7.00 ft silica gel pack $10.00 Quiet Grid Cloth $7.00 ft Specialty (Cont) Misc. Spec. Gel Sheet Plus Green $6.00 ft

Dyer, Bill

151

Relationship of land-use patterns to quail habitat  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

were ground cherry (Physals sp. ), yellow wood sorrel (Oxalis dillenii), p lyp ' l~y) p p b ), 'ldb (~gh 1 ~1' ), d d d (~Gh 11' p. ) (1 bl 5). G d h y d y 11 d sorrel represented approximately 62X of the composition. No grass species were... 170. 1 28. 9 23. 1 22. 6 55. 3 Yaupon Indian Cherry Misc. 527 36 35 155. 6 22, 2 22. 2 Total 898 300. 0 598 200. 0 29 blackjack oak, eastern redcedar, and yaupon. Post oak was the most important species, with an importance value...

Grevstad, Gerald Oscar

1976-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

152

Use of Energy Management and Control Systems for Performance Monitoring of Retrofit Projects: Preliminary Engineering Survey, USDOE Forrestal and Germantown Facility, Summary Report, USDOE Office of Conservation and Energy  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Forrestal Building Summary: Full Proposal 05/02/91 Neat Supplies E.tffo $3,000 Wire $400/1000 4 pr, $150/1000 2 pr $1,000 Misc. Electrical Supplies Neat G&A on Supplies & Materials: $3,408 | Neat Subcontract labor_Estimates: $10,000 Electrician Hot Tap...,000 Electrician Hot Tap Contractor Steam Meter Installer Plumber Neat G&A on Subcontracts: $800 Texas A&M Lqhor $10,000 Supplemental Living Allowance $8,000 Travel to & from job Neat G&A Travel: $4,500 Neat Labor $5,000 Management $3,000 Programming & Engineeering...

Claridge, D. E.; Haberl, J. S.; Bryant, J.; Poyner, B.; McBride, J.

1991-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

153

Methods for colloid transport visualization in pore networks Naoyuki Ochiai,1  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Methods for colloid transport visualization in pore networks Naoyuki Ochiai,1 Erika L. Kraft,2 visualization in pore networks, Water Resour. Res., 42, W12S06, doi:10.1029/2006WR004961. 1. Introduction [2 fragments, mineral precipitates and organic macromolecules, as well as micro- organisms (e.g., protozoa

Tullos, Desiree

154

Low Capital Energy Conservation Retrofits at Temple-Eastex Incorporated  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Temple-Eastex, at Evadale, Texas, operates a 1600 ton per day bleached kraft pulp and paperboard mill which was installed in 1954 and expanded in 1958, 1962, 1965, 1967, 1968, 1972, and 1975. All of the currently operating mill was designed...

Hedleston, J. L.

155

Primary Research Paper Invertebrate community and stream substrate responses to woody debris  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

. Introduction Large-extent physical disturbances, such as ice storms, can produce wide-ranging impacts removal from an ice storm-impacted stream system, NY USA Dana R. Warren* & Clifford E. Kraft Department; ice storm; debris dam; high gradient stream; BACI Abstract We assessed the influence of ice

Kraft, Clifford E.

156

OPET Organisations for the Promotion of Energy Technologies Contact: opet@tekes.fi www.tekes.fi/opet/  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

The main innovation Alholmens Kraft Ltd builds the worlds largest biofuelled power plant and the CFB boiler. The power plant is combined condensing and CHP plant. The CFB boiler is manufactured by Kvaerner Pulping in average. The boiler was chosen to be a CFB boiler. It is possible to burn mixtures of the design fuels

157

Downregulation of Cinnamoyl-Coenzyme A Reductase in Poplar: Multiple-Level Phenotyping Reveals Effects on Cell Wall Polymer Metabolism and Structure  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

...transcript levels of a photosystem II reaction center protein and a Gln synthetase similarly...to homogenize the size of the plants. Assessment of Growth Characteristics Height and...opposite impact on the efficiency of industrial kraft pulping. Plant Physiol. 119...

Jean-Charles Leplé; Rebecca Dauwe; Kris Morreel; Véronique Storme; Catherine Lapierre; Brigitte Pollet; Annette Naumann; Kyu-Young Kang; Hoon Kim; Katia Ruel; Andrée Lefèbvre; Jean-Paul Joseleau; Jacqueline Grima-Pettenati; Riet De Rycke; Sara Andersson-Gunnerås; Alexander Erban; Ines Fehrle; Michel Petit-Conil; Joachim Kopka; Andrea Polle; Eric Messens; Björn Sundberg; Shawn D. Mansfield; John Ralph; Gilles Pilate; Wout Boerjan

2007-11-16T23:59:59.000Z

158

BIODIVERSITY The geography of climate change  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

BIODIVERSITY REVIEW The geography of climate change: implications for conservation biogeography D. J. B. Kraft1 INTRODUCTION It is widely recognized that climate change poses a grave threat., 2007). The impacts of climate change are broadly detectable in many taxa, including shifts in phenology

Kraft, Nathan

159

Chemical Engineering Andrew Zydney  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

;ChE Employment (2003 at PSU) Merck Dow ExxonMob Air Products Amgen PPG Sunoco Kraft Foods NRC Procter, microelectronics, consumer products, biotechnology, fuels / energy, environmental engineering, etc. ·Chemical Engineers focus on the processes involved in making new products, including chemical reactions

Maranas, Costas

160

Dramatic Spectral Evolution of WZ Sagittae during the 2001 Superoutburst  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

......evolve by gravitational wave radiation (Kraft et al. 1962; Paczynski...figure 3). With the outburst occuring, the emission line steadily...disk, or ring, that the radiation pressure at the outburst may...examine which model can more naturally allow a sudden change of the......

Daisaku Nogami; Takashi Iijima

2004-03-25T23:59:59.000Z

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "kraft sulfite misc" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


161

Simple Circular Odor Chart for Characterization of Trace Amounts of Odorants Discharged from Thirteen Odor Sources  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

......and F. Dewinter. Gas chromato- graphic determination of ethylene in large air volumes at the fractional parts-per-billion...Mckean, Jr., B.F. Hrutfiord, K.V. Sarkanen, L. Price, and I.B. Douglass. Effect of kraft pulping condi- tions......

Yasuyuki Hoshika; Yoshimasa Nihei; Giichi Muto

1981-04-01T23:59:59.000Z

162

Coping with Drought on Rangelands: Concluding Remarks  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

of information disseminated... From David Kraft #12;Reflections · So, this is our socio ecological system · We spheres of interactions of drought Impacts: ­ Biophysical landscape ­ Economic landscape ­ Institutional provoked liquidation ­ 64% of producers are 55 or older & average farm/ranch size of older producers is 75

163

Bibliography on the Analysis of Mercaptans by GC-1972 to 1983  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

......of Kraft black liquor with ox- ygen. K.P. Kringstad, W.T. McKean, J. Libert, P.J. Kleppe, and C. Laishong. Tappi 55(10): 1528-533 (Oct. 1972). Adsorption of sulfur-containing taste and odor compounds. C. Ishizaki and J.R......

Bibliography on the Analysis of Mercaptans by GC-1972 to 1983

1984-11-01T23:59:59.000Z

164

Simple Circular Odor Chart for Characterization of Trace Amounts of Odorants Discharged from Thirteen Odor Sources  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

......sulfur com- pounds in waste process gases. Tappi. 43: 602-08 (1960). 23. I. Hornstein...kraft pulp mills. Part I. II. III. IV. Tappi. 46: 1-20 (1963). 26. B.J. Tyson...mercaptans and alkyl sulfides and disulfide. Tappi. 42: 601-05 (1959). 59. E.W......

Yasuyuki Hoshika; Yoshimasa Nihei; Giichi Muto

1981-04-01T23:59:59.000Z

165

COLLEGE OF ACES UNDERGRADUATE  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

pursue your own business, a corporate job, a government specialty, or a research position. Design and drainage, erosion control and the effective utilization of natural resources. TSM Specializations such as Deere & Co., a government agency such as the U.S. EPA, or a company like Kraft Foods. You may

Gilbert, Matthew

166

Low effluent processing in the pulp and paper industry: Electrodialysis for continuous selective chloride removal  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Pollution prevention is currently a major focus of the United States pulp and paper industry. Significant process changes are inevitable to implement low effluent processing. The kraft pulping process is prevalent for the production of wood pulp. About 50 million tons of wood pulp are produced annually in the United States alone using the kraft process. Water consumption is currently roughly between 30 and 200 m{sup 3} of water per ton of air dry bleached kraft pulp. In-process recycling of water is now being implemented by many mills to reduce the use of increasingly scarce water resources and to reduce the need for waste-water treatment. Mass balance considerations and industrial experience show that nonprocess elements, which are detrimental to the kraft process, such as chloride and potassium, will quickly build up once water use is significantly reduced. High concentrations of chloride and potassium can cause corrosion and lead to more frequent mill shutdowns due to fouling of heat exchanger surfaces in the kraft recovery furnace. Electrodialysis will monovalent selective anion and cation exchange membranes was explored here to selectively remove chlorine as sodium and potassium chloride from a feed stream with very high ionic strength. Experiments with model solutions and extended tests with the actual pulp mill materials were performed. Very good selectivities and current efficiencies were observed for chloride over sulfate. The outstanding performance of the process with actual mill materials containing organic and inorganic contamination shows great promise for rapid transfer to the pilot scale. This work is an example of the usefulness of membrane separations as a kidney in low effluent industrial processing.

Pfromm, P.H. [Institute of Paper Science and Technology, Atlanta, GA (United States)

1997-12-01T23:59:59.000Z

167

Berkeley Lab News Center » Dancing in the Dark: Berkeley Lab Scientists Shed New Light on Protein-Salt Interactions » Print  

Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

/10 3:30 PM /10 3:30 PM Berkeley Lab News Center » Dancing in the Dark: Berkeley Lab Scientists Shed New Light on Protein-Salt Interactions » Print Page 1 of 3 http://newscenter.lbl.gov/feature-stories/2010/08/11/protein-salt-interactions/print/ Simulation of the interaction between triglycine and dissolved sodium sulfite in water shows the long chain-like triglycine molecule (center) interacting directly with sulfite anions (tripods of yellow and red atoms) while also interacting via multiple hydrogen bonds (thin red or blue lines) with the surrounding water molecules (red and white sticks). - Berkeley Lab News Center - http://newscenter.lbl.gov - Dancing in the Dark: Berkeley Lab Scientists Shed New Light on Protein-Salt Interactions Posted By lcyarris On August 11, 2010 @ 12:08 pm In Feature Stories | Comments Disabled

168

Dancing in the Dark: Berkeley Lab Scientists Computing at NERSC Shed New  

Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

Dancing in the Dark Dancing in the Dark Dancing in the Dark Berkeley Lab scientists computing at NERSC shed new light on protein-salt interactions August 11, 2010 Contact: John Hules, JAHules@lbl.gov , +1 510 486 6008 To study nanostructures in real environments, Berkeley Lab scientists have combined theoretical and experimental approaches to glimpse into a protein's interaction with simple salts in water. Enabled by x-ray absorption simulation software developed at Berkeley Lab's Molecular Foundry, these findings shed new light on how salts impact protein structure at the atomic level. Simulation of the interaction between triglycine and dissolved sodium sulfite in water shows the long chain-like triglycine molecule (center) interacting directly with sulfite anions (tripods of yellow and red atoms)

169

Evaluation energy efficiency of bioconversion knot rejects to ethanol in comparison to other thermochemically pretreated biomass  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

Rejects from sulfite pulp mill that otherwise would be disposed of by incineration were converted to ethanol by a combined physical–biological process that was comprised of physical refining and simultaneous saccharification and fermentation (SSF). The energy efficiency was evaluated with comparison to thermochemically pretreated biomass, such as those pretreated by dilute acid (DA) and sulfite pretreatment to overcome recalcitrance of lignocelluloses (SPORL). It was observed that the structure deconstruction of rejects by physical refining was indispensable to effective bioconversion but more energy intensive than that of thermochemically pretreated biomass. Fortunately, the energy consumption was compensated by the reduced enzyme dosage and the elevated ethanol yield. Furthermore, adjustment of disk-plates gap led to reduction in energy consumption with negligible influence on ethanol yield. In this context, energy efficiency up to 717.7% was achieved for rejects, much higher than that of SPORL sample (283.7%) and DA sample (152.8%).

Zhaojiang Wang; Menghua Qin; J.Y. Zhu; Guoyu Tian; Zongquan Li

2013-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

170

Sulfur Degassing From Volcanoes: Source Conditions, Surveillance, Plume Chemistry and Earth System Impacts  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

of sulfur in magmas owes much to its multiple valence states (-II, 0, IV, VI), speciation (e.g., S2, H2S, SO on the redox chemistry of sulfur: by reducing sulfur, thiosulfate, sulfite and sulfate to H2S, or oxidizing sulfur and H2S to sulfate (e.g., Takano et al. 1997; Amend and Shock 2001; Shock et al. 2010

Boyer, Edmond

171

Separation of the components of flue-gas scrubber sludge by froth flotation  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

To reduce their sulfur emissions, many coal-fired electric power plants use wet flue-gas scrubbers. These scrubbers convert sulfur oxides into solid sulfate and sulfite sludge, which must then be disposed of. Currently, the major markets for scrubber sludge are for manufacture of gypsum products, such as wallboard and plaster, and for cement. However, the quality of the raw sludge is often not high enough or consistent enough to satisfy manufacturers, and so the material is difficult to sell. Other markets, such as paper manufacture and plastics fillers, have even more stringent quality requirements and will not accept raw sludge at all. In the work described in this paper, several reagents have been examined to determine their ability to selectively improve the flotation of the unreacted limestone contaminant away from the desirable products (calcium sulfite and gypsum). The most success has been achieved using a cationic collector, which shows a higher selectivity between calcium sulfite and calcium carbonate than do the anionic collectors that were studied.

Kawatra, S.K.; Eisele, T.C. [Michigan Technological Univ., Houghton, MI (United States). Dept. of Metallurgical and Materials Engineering

1995-12-31T23:59:59.000Z

172

CX-002120: Categorical Exclusion Determination | Department of Energy  

Broader source: Energy.gov (indexed) [DOE]

20: Categorical Exclusion Determination 20: Categorical Exclusion Determination CX-002120: Categorical Exclusion Determination Illinois State Energy Program Large Customer Energy Efficiency Retrofit Projects CX(s) Applied: B5.1 Date: 04/28/2010 Location(s): Chicago, Illinois Office(s): Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy, Golden Field Office The Illinois Department of Commerce & Economic Opportunity (DCED) has submitted the following three projects totaling $1,297,908 that fall within the National Environmental Policy State Energy Program template. Kraft Foods, Naperville; Kraft Foods, Chicago Bakery; and Rentech Energy Midwest. DOCUMENT(S) AVAILABLE FOR DOWNLOAD CX-002120.pdf More Documents & Publications Audit Report: OAS-RA-11-02 CX-009569: Categorical Exclusion Determination CX-002816

173

Stress Assisted Corrosion in Boiler Tubes - Failure Analysis  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Stress assisted corrosion (SAC) of carbon steel boiler tubes is one of the major causes of waterside failure in industrial boilers. SAC is a major concern for kraft recovery boilers in the pulp and paper industry as any water leak into the furnace can cause a smelt-water explosion in the boiler. Failed carbon steel boiler tubes from different kraft recovery boilers were examined to understand the role of carbon steel microstructure on crack initiation and SAC crack morphology. A number of carbon steel tubes showed a deep decarburized layer on the inner surface (water-touched) and also an unusually large grain size at the inner tube surface. SAC cracks were found to initiate in these areas with large-graineddecarburized microstructure. Tubes without such microstructure were also found to have SAC cracks. It was found that the decarburization and large grained microstructure may facilitate initiation and growth but is not necessary for SAC of carbon steel boiler tubes.

Singh, Preet M [Georgia Institute of Technology; Pawel, Steven J [ORNL; Yang, Dong [Georgia Institute of Technology; Mahmood, Jamshad [Georgia Institute of Technology

2007-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

174

Mechanistic investigation of vinylic carbonfluorine bond activation of perfluorinated cycloalkenes using Cp*2ZrH2 and Cp*2ZrHF  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

using Cp*2ZrH2 and Cp*2ZrHF Bradley M. Kraft a , Eric Clot b , Odile Eisenstein b , William W behaves similarly [4]. In contrast, Cp*Rh(PMe3)H2 reacts with C6F6 by way of an SNAr2 attack by its conjugate base to give Cp*Rh(PMe3)(C6F5)H and fluoride ion, resulting in an autocatalytic reaction [5]. Cp

Jones, William D.

175

Exergy Analysis of the Process for Dimethyl Ether Production through Biomass Steam Gasification  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

About 6.37% of the total carbon is released to the environment in the form of wastewater and waste gas. ... If the heat for gasifying the biomass could be obtained from other energy resource, the carbon atom utilization could be increased greatly, and the CO2 emissions could be decreased considerably. ... A Cost?Benefit Assessment of Gasification-Based Biorefining in the Kraft Pulp and Paper Industry: Volume 1 Main Report; Princeton University: Princeton, NJ, 2006. ...

Xiangping Zhang; Christian Solli; Edgar G. Hertwich; Xiao Tian; Suojiang Zhang

2009-11-09T23:59:59.000Z

176

Southern Pine Based on Biorefinery Center  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

This program seeks to develop an integrated southern pine wood to biofuels/biomaterials processing facility on the Recipient’s campus, that will test advanced integrated wood processing technologies at the laboratory scale, including: • The generation of the bioethanol from pines residues and hemicelluloses extracted from pine woodchips; • The conversion of extracted woodchips to linerboard and bleach grade pulps; and • The efficient conversion of pine residues, bark and kraft cooking liquor into a useful pyrolysis oil.

Ragauskas, Arthur J; Singh, Preet

2014-01-10T23:59:59.000Z

177

Cellulose challenge: where do we go from here  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Because of its relatively low cost and high level of availability, wood has become a popular biomass resource for the manufacture of fuels and chemical products. The producers of high-purity cellulose pulps face problems because the kraft process which is the standard source of dissolving pulp involves huge investments. The article examines the future of this industry and assesses these new technologies: solvent pulping; low lignin biomass and microbial cellulose. 6 references.

Lipinsky, E.S.

1983-10-01T23:59:59.000Z

178

Intensive management of forest plantations in northern Brazil  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Jari is developing more than a million hectares in northern Brazil, with 100,000 hectares of melina and pine plantations, a 750 TPD bleached kraft pulp-mill, a native-wood sawmill that cuts 100 Mbf/day, kaolin mine and 500 TPD refinery, 4000 hectares of irrigated rice with rice mill, herds of 6500 cattle, 5500 buffalo, and 800 pigs, as well as fryers, fruit and vegetables. Infrastructure includes five towns, schools, hospital, and 4500 km of roads.

Briscoe, C.B.

1980-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

179

Computational fluid dynamics combustion modelling--A comparison of secondary air system designs  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

A newly developed computer simulation of the combustion process in a kraft recovery furnace uses computational fluid dynamics to model the processes of mass, momentum, and energy transport. This paper describes two models and a presentation of the flow fields obtained. The results predict a dramatic improvement in combustion behavior using a refined secondary air system with reduction in particulate carryover, enhanced operating temperatures, more uniform gas flow, and less carbon monoxide at the furnace exit.

Jones, A.K. (ABB Combustion Engineering Systems, Ottawa, Ontario (Canada)); Chapman, P.J. (ABB Combustion Engineering Systems, Windsor, CT (United States))

1993-07-01T23:59:59.000Z

180

Conceptual design of a black liquor gasification pilot plant  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

In July 1985, Champion International completed a study of kraft black liquor gasification and use of the product gases in a combined cycle cogeneration system based on gas turbines. That study indicated that gasification had high potential as an alternative to recovery boiler technology and offered many advantages. This paper describes the design of the plant, the construction of the pilot plant, and finally presents data from operation of the plant.

Kelleher, E. G.

1987-08-01T23:59:59.000Z

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "kraft sulfite misc" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


181

Statistically steady measurements of Rayleigh-Taylor mixing in a gas channel  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

guidance, support and advice during the course of this work. This work has been funded by the US Department of Energy under contract number DE-FG03-02NA00060. I also wish to thank Wayne Kraft for his help in running the experiments and our numerous...U .......................................................................97 U5.4.2 Effect of Binary Air-Helium MixtureU ......................................................99 U6. EXPERIMENTAL RESULTSU ...................................................................................104 U6.1 Preliminaries...

Banerjee, Arindam

2006-10-30T23:59:59.000Z

182

Black liquor combustion validated recovery boiler modeling: Final year report. Volume 1 (Main text and Appendix I, sections 1--4)  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

This project was initiated in October 1990, with the objective of developing and validating a new computer model of a recovery boiler furnace using a computational fluid dynamics (CFD) code specifically tailored to the requirements for solving recovery boiler flows, and using improved submodels for black liquor combustion based on continued laboratory fundamental studies. The key tasks to be accomplished were as follows: (1) Complete the development of enhanced furnace models that have the capability to accurately predict carryover, emissions behavior, dust concentrations, gas temperatures, and wall heat fluxes. (2) Validate the enhanced furnace models, so that users can have confidence in the predicted results. (3) Obtain fundamental information on aerosol formation, deposition, and hardening so as to develop the knowledge base needed to relate furnace model outputs to plugging and fouling in the convective sections of the boiler. (4) Facilitate the transfer of codes, black liquid submodels, and fundamental knowledge to the US kraft pulp industry. Volume 1 contains the main body of the report and the first 4 sections of Appendix 1: Modeling of black liquor recovery boilers -- summary report; Flow and heat transfer modeling in the upper furnace of a kraft recovery boiler; Numerical simulation of black liquor combustion; and Investigation of turbulence models and prediction of swirling flows for kraft recovery furnaces.

Grace, T.M.; Frederick, W.J.; Salcudean, M.; Wessel, R.A.

1998-08-01T23:59:59.000Z

183

Integrated Forest Products Refinery (IFPR)  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Pre-extraction–kraft studies of hardwoods showed that when extracting about 10% of the wood, the final kraft pulp yield and physical properties could only be maintained at a level similar to that of regular kraft pulp when the final extract pH was close to neutral. This so-called “near neutral” pre-extraction condition at a level of 10% wood dissolution was achieved by contacting the wood chips with green liquor (GL) at a charge of about 3% (as Na2O on wood) at 160 °C for almost 2 hours (or an H-factor of about 800 hrs.). During subsequent kraft cooking of the pre-extracted hardwood chips the effective alkali charge could be reduced by about 3% (as Na2O on wood) and the cooking time shortened relative to that during regular kraft cooking, while still producing the same bleachable grade kappa number as the kraft control pulp. For softwood, no extraction conditions were discovered in the present investigation whereby both the final kraft pulp yield and physical properties could be maintained at a level similar to that of regular softwood kraft pulp. Therefore for hardwoods the “near- neutral green liquor pre-extraction conditions do meet the requirements of the IFPR concept, while for softwood, no extraction conditions were discovered which do meet these requirements. Application of simulated industrial GL at an extraction H-factor of about 800 hrs and 3% GL charge in a recirculating digester produced an hardwood extract containing about 4% (on wood) of total anhydro-sugars, 2% of acetic acid, and 1.3% of lignin. Xylan comprised of 80% of the sugars of which about 85% is oligomeric. Since only polymeric hemicelluloses and lignin may be adsorbed on pulp (produced at a yield of about 50% from the original wood), the maximum theoretical yield increase due to adsorption may be estimated as 10% on pulp (or 5% on wood). However, direct application of raw GL hardwood extract for hemicelluloses adsorption onto hardwood kraft pulp led to a yield increase of only about 1% (on pulp). By using the wet-end retention aid guar gum during the adsorption process at a charge of 0.5% on pulp the yield gain may be increased to about 5%. Unfortunately, most of this yield increase is lost during subsequent alkaline treatments in the pulp bleach plant. It was found that by performing the adsorption at alkaline conditions the adsorption loss during alkaline treatment in the bleach plant is mostly avoided. Thus a permanent adsorption yield of about 3 and 1.5% (on pulp) was obtained with addition of guar gum at a charge of 0.5 and 0.1% respectively during adsorption of GL hardwood extract on pre-extracted kraft pulp at optimal conditions of pH 11.5, 90 C for 60 minutes at 5% consistency. The beatability of the adsorbed kraft pulps was improved. Also, significant physical strength improvements were achieved. Further study is needed to determine whether the improvements in pulp yield and paper properties make this an economic IFPR concept. Application of the wood solids of a hot water extract of Acer rubrum wood strands as a substitute for polystyrene used for production of SMC maintained the water adsorption properties of the final product. Further work on the physical properties of the hemicellulose containing SMCs need to be completed to determine the potential of wood extracts for the production of partially renewable SMCs. The discovery of the “near-neutral” green liquor extraction process for hardwood was formed the basis for a commercial Integrated Biorefinery that will extract hemicelluloses from wood chips to make biofuels and other specialty chemicals. The pulp production process will be maintained as is proposed in the present researched IFBR concept. This Integrated Biorefinery will be constructed by Red Shield Acquisition LLC (RSA) at the Old Town kraft pulp mill in Maine. RSA in collaboration with the University of Maine will develop and commercialize the hemicellulose extraction process, the conversion of the hemicellulose sugars into butanol by fermentation, and the separation of specialty chemicals such as acetic acid fr

van Heiningen, Adriaan R. P.

2010-05-29T23:59:59.000Z

184

BCP Home  

Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

Boulder Canyon Project Information Module Boulder Canyon Project Information Module HOME MODULE OVERVIEW LEGISLATION TIMELINE TIMELINE SUMMARY CASE LAW PROJECT HISTORY MISC. DOCUMENTS RELATED LINKS Home Page Image Welcome Hoover Dam is the highest and third largest concrete dam in the United States. The dam, power plant, and high-voltage switchyards are located in the Black Canyon of the Colorado River on the Arizona-Nevada state line. Lake Mead, the reservoir behind the dam, will hold the average two-year flow of the Colorado River. Hoover Dam´s authorized purposes are: first, river regulation, improvement of navigation, and flood control; second, delivery of stored water for irrigation and other domestic uses; and third, power generation. This Page was last modified on : 05-12-2009

185

City of Gillette, Wyoming (Utility Company) | Open Energy Information  

Open Energy Info (EERE)

Gillette, Wyoming (Utility Company) Gillette, Wyoming (Utility Company) Jump to: navigation, search Name Gillette City of Place Wyoming Utility Id 7222 Utility Location Yes Ownership M NERC Location WECC NERC WECC Yes Operates Generating Plant Yes Activity Generation Yes Activity Transmission Yes Activity Distribution Yes References EIA Form EIA-861 Final Data File for 2010 - File1_a[1] Energy Information Administration Form 826[2] LinkedIn Connections CrunchBase Profile No CrunchBase profile. Create one now! This article is a stub. You can help OpenEI by expanding it. Utility Rate Schedules Grid-background.png Commercial & Misc Service Commercial Demand Meter Industrial Residential Residential Residential All Electric Residential Average Rates Residential: $0.0894/kWh Commercial: $0.0692/kWh

186

DOE-STD-1033-92; Guide to Good Practices for Operations and Administration Updates Through Required Reading  

Broader source: Energy.gov (indexed) [DOE]

3-92 3-92 December 1992 CHANGE NOTICE NO.1 December 1998 DOE STANDARD GUIDE TO GOOD PRACTICES FOR OPERATIONS AND ADMINISTRATION UPDATES THROUGH REQUIRED READING U.S. Department of Energy AREA MISC Washington, D.C. 20585 DISTRIBUTION STATEMENT A. Approved for public release; distribution is unlimited. This document has been reproduced from the best available copy. Available to DOE and DOE contractors from ES&H Technical Information Services, U.S. Department of Energy, (800) 473-4375, fax: (301) 903-9823. Available to the public from the U.S. Department of Commerce, Technology Administration, National Technical Information Service, Springfield, VA 22161; (703) 605-6000. Change Notice No.1 DOE-STD-1033-92 December 1998 Guide to Good Practices for Operations and Administration Updates Through

187

DOE-STD-1032-92 CN 1; Guide to Good Practices for Operations Organization and Administration  

Broader source: Energy.gov (indexed) [DOE]

2-92 2-92 December 1992 CHANGE NOTICE NO.1 December 1998 DOE STANDARD GUIDE TO GOOD PRACTICES FOR OPERATIONS ORGANIZATION AND ADMINISTRATION U.S. Department of Energy AREA MISC Washington, D.C. 20585 DISTRIBUTION STATEMENT A. Approved for public release; distribution is unlimited. This document has been reproduced from the best available copy. Available to DOE and DOE contractors from ES&H Technical Information Services, U.S. Department of Energy, (800) 473-4375, fax: (301) 903-9823. Available to the public from the U.S. Department of Commerce, Technology Administration, National Technical Information Service, Springfield, VA 22161; (703) 605-6000. Change Notice No.1 DOE-STD-1032-92 December 1998 Guide to Good Practices for Operations Organization and Administration

188

Index of /research/alcator/documentation/2003  

Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

3 3 [ICO] Name Last modified Size Description [DIR] Parent Directory - [DIR] 2003_misc/ 27-Oct-2010 09:24 - [DIR] 20030317_In_Vessel/ 27-Oct-2010 09:21 - [DIR] 20030317_RF/ 27-Oct-2010 09:21 - [DIR] 20030325_Alternator/ 27-Oct-2010 09:21 - [DIR] 20030327_ Alternator/ 27-Oct-2010 09:21 - [DIR] 20030401_Alternator/ 28-Oct-2010 11:21 - [DIR] 20030403_ Alternator/ 27-Oct-2010 09:22 - [DIR] 20030422_Alternator/ 27-Oct-2010 09:22 - [DIR] 20030515_ Alternator/ 27-Oct-2010 09:22 - [DIR] 20030515_dterry/ 27-Oct-2010 09:22 - [DIR] 20030723 Alternator/ 27-Oct-2010 09:22 - [DIR] 20030805_Alternator_and_LH/ 27-Oct-2010 09:22 - [DIR] 20030805_RF/ 27-Oct-2010 09:22 - [DIR] 20030806_ Alternator/ 27-Oct-2010 09:22 -

189

DOE-HDBK-3012-2003; DOE Handbook Guide to Good Practices for Operational Readiness Reviews (ORR) Team Leader's Guide  

Broader source: Energy.gov (indexed) [DOE]

NOT MEASUREMENT NOT MEASUREMENT SENSITIVE DOE-HDBK-3012-2003 SUPERSEDING DOE-HDBK-3012-96 DOE HANDBOOK GUIDE TO GOOD PRACTICES FOR OPERATIONAL READINESS REVIEWS (ORR) TEAM LEADER'S GUIDE U.S. Department of Energy AREA MISC Washington, D.C. 20585 DISTRIBUTION STATEMENT A. Approved for public release; distribution is unlimited. DOE-HDBK-3012-2003 FOREWORD This Department of Energy handbook, Guide to Good Practices for Conducting Operational Readiness Reviews (ORR) Team Leader's Handbook, is approved for use by all DOE Components and their contractors. The guidance in this document is the distillation of the experience and lessons learned during numerous operational readiness reviews contributed by team leaders with a wide range of backgrounds. There are

190

e00053-12.full.pdf  

Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

10.1128/mBio.00053-12. 10.1128/mBio.00053-12. 3(2): . mBio . Temperature-Dependent Product Formation Engineering a Hyperthermophilic Archaeon for 2012. Mirko Basen, Junsong Sun and Michael W. W. Adams Product Formation Archaeon for Temperature-Dependent Engineering a Hyperthermophilic http://mbio.asm.org/content/3/2/e00053-12.full.html Updated information and services can be found at: REFERENCES http://mbio.asm.org/content/3/2/e00053-12.full.html#ref-list-1 This article cites 28 articles, 13 of which can be accessed free at: CONTENT ALERTS more>> article), Receive: RSS Feeds, eTOCs, free email alerts (when new articles cite this http://journals.asm.org/subscriptions/ To subscribe to another ASM Journal go to: http://mbio.asm.org/misc/contentdelivery.xhtml Information about Print on Demand and other content delivery options:

191

DOE-STD-1036-93; Guide to Good Practices for Independent Verification  

Broader source: Energy.gov (indexed) [DOE]

6-93 6-93 June 1993 CHANGE NOTICE NO. 1 December 1998 DOE STANDARD GUIDE TO GOOD PRACTICES FOR INDEPENDENT VERIFICATION U.S. Department of Energy AREA MISC Washington, D.C. 20585 DISTRIBUTION STATEMENT A. Approved for public release; distribution is unlimited. This document has been reproduced from the best available copy. Available to DOE and DOE contractors from ES&H Technical Information Services, U.S. Department of Energy, (800) 473-4375, fax: (301) 903-9823. Available to the public from the U.S. Department of Commerce, Technology Administration, National Technical Information Service, Springfield, VA 22161; (703) 605-6000. Change Notice No. 1 DOE-STD-1036-93 December 1998 Guide to Good Practices for Independent Verification Page / Section Change p. 11 / Section 4.1.2

192

DOE-STD-1039-93; Guide to Good Practices for Control of Equipment and System Status  

Broader source: Energy.gov (indexed) [DOE]

9-93 9-93 March 1993 CHANGE NOTICE NO. 1 December 1998 DOE STANDARD GUIDE TO GOOD PRACTICES FOR CONTROL OF EQUIPMENT AND SYSTEM STATUS U.S. Department of Energy AREA MISC Washington, D.C. 20585 DISTRIBUTION STATEMENT A. Approved for public release; distribution is unlimited. This document has been reproduced from the best available copy. Available to DOE and DOE contractors from ES&H Technical Information Services, U.S. Department of Energy, (800) 473-4375, fax: (301) 903-9823. Available to the public from the U.S. Department of Commerce, Technology Administration, National Technical Information Service, Springfield, VA 22161; (703) 605-6000. Change Notice No. 1 DOE-STD-1039-93 December 1998 Guide to Good Practices for Control of Equipment and System Status Page / Section

193

DOE-STD-1041-93 CN-1; Guide to Good Practices for Shift Routines and Operating Practices  

Broader source: Energy.gov (indexed) [DOE]

1-93 1-93 June 1998 Change Notice No. 1 December 1998 DOE STANDARD GUIDE TO GOOD PRACTICES FOR SHIFT ROUTINES AND OPERATING PRACTICES U.S. Department of Energy AREA MISC Washington, D.C. 20585 DISTRIBUTION STATEMENT A:Approved for public release; distribution unlimited. This document has been reproduced from the best available copy. Available to DOE and DOE contractors from ES&H Technical Information Services, U.S. Department of Energy, (800) 473-4375, fax: (301) 903-9823. Available to the public from the U.S. Department of Commerce, Technology Administration, National Technical Information Service, Springfield, VA 22161; (703) 605-6000. Change Notice No. 1 DOE-STD-1041-93 December 1998 Guide to Good Practices for Shift Routines and Operating Practices Page / Section Change

194

PowerPoint Presentation  

Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

Webbers Falls Major Rehab Webbers Falls Major Rehab Webbers Falls Major Rehab BUILDING STRONG ® 6/8/2010 2 Plant Cross Section Plant Cross Section BUILDING STRONG ® Project Cost and Scope Project Cost and Scope *Current Cost: $72.7M *Current Completion Date: Jun 2012 *Rehab 2 Bridge Cranes *Rehab 2 Gantry Cranes *Rewind 3 Generators *Install New 13.8KV Breakers and Buss *Repair Misc Mechanical & Electrical Items BUILDING STRONG ® Project Funding Project Funding *Project was 100% funded through customer funding until FY09 ARRA funds were received. ARRA funds now being used for, gantry cranes, breakers, cables and distribution panels. *To date customer funds in the amount of $67.9M have been provided for this project. BUILDING STRONG ® Total Cost Breakdown Total Cost Breakdown

195

The Standards Actions, November 1996  

Broader source: Energy.gov (indexed) [DOE]

DOE Technical Standards Recently Sent for DOE Technical Standards Recently Sent for Coordination The appropriate Technical Standards Managers (TSM) will provide selected reviewers with copies for comment. If you wish to comment on a particular document, please notify your TSM. DOE documents sent for coordination during the past month are given below. * Supplementary Guidance and Design Experience for DOE Fusion Safety Standards, SAFT-0059, (Steve Herring, INEL, 208-525-9497, sth@inel.gov. * Risk-Based Prioritization of DOE Activities, MISC-0022, (Kenneth P . Ferlic, DP-45, 301-903-6703, Kenneth.Ferlic@dp.doe.gov); comments due November 4, 1996. Documents Recently Published The following DOE documents have recently been published: * DOE-STD-1095-95, Department of Energy Laboratory Accredi- tation Program for Personnel Dosimetry Systems, December

196

DOE-STD-3006-95; DOE Standard Planning and Conduct of Operational Readiness Reviews (ORR)  

Broader source: Energy.gov (indexed) [DOE]

3006-95 3006-95 November 1995 SUPERSEDING DOE-STD-3006-93 November 1993 DOE STANDARD PLANNING AND CONDUCT OF OPERATIONAL READINESS REVIEWS (ORR) U.S. Department of Energy AREA MISC Washington, D.C. 20585 DISTRIBUTION STATEMENT A. Approved for public release; distribution is unlimited. This document has been reproduced directly from the best available copy. Available to DOE and DOE contractors from the Office of Scientific and Technical Information, P.O. Box 62, Oak Ridge, TN 37831; (615) 576-8401. Available to the public from the U.S. Department of Commerce, Technology Administration, National Technical Information Service, Springfield, VA 22161; (703) 487-4650. DOE-STD-3006-95 i PLANNING AND CONDUCT OF OPERATIONAL READINESS REVIEWS (ORR) FOREWORD 1. DOE 0 425.1 establishes the requirement to conduct Operational Readiness Reviews

197

DOE-STD-1038-93; Guide to Good Practices for Operations Turnover  

Broader source: Energy.gov (indexed) [DOE]

8-93 8-93 June 1993 CHANGE NOTICE NO. 1 December 1998 DOE STANDARD GUIDE TO GOOD PRACTICES FOR OPERATIONS TURNOVER U.S. Department of Energy AREA MISC Washington, D.C. 20585 DISTRIBUTION STATEMENT A. Approved for public release; distribution is unlimited. This document has been reproduced from the best available copy. Available to DOE and DOE contractors from ES&H Technical Information Services, U.S. Department of Energy, (800) 473-4375, fax: (301) 903-9823. Available to the public from the U.S. Department of Commerce, Technology Administration, National Technical Information Service, Springfield, VA 22161; (703) 605-6000. Change Notice No.1 DOE-STD-1038-93 December 1998 Guide to Good Practices for Operations Turnover Page/Section Change Concluding Material The Preparing Activity was changed from NE-

198

DOE-STD-1042-93 CN-1; Guide to Good Practices for Control Area Activities  

Broader source: Energy.gov (indexed) [DOE]

2-93 2-93 June 1993 CHANGE NOTICE NO. 1 December 1998 DOE STANDARD GUIDE TO GOOD PRACTICES FOR CONTROL AREA ACTIVITIES U.S. Department of Energy AREA MISC Washington, D.C. 20585 DISTRIBUTION STATEMENT A. Approved for public release; distribution is unlimited. This document has been reproduced from the best available copy. Available to DOE and DOE contractors from ES&H Technical Information Services, U.S. Department of Energy, (800) 473-4375, fax: (301) 903-9823. Available to the public from the U.S. Department of Commerce, Technology Administration, National Technical Information Service, Springfield, VA 22161; (703) 605-6000. Change Notice No.1 DOE-STD-1042-93 December 1998 Guide to Good Practices for Operations Turnover Page/Section Change Concluding Material Preparing Activity was changed from

199

Intercoastal Oil Case No. LEF-0057  

Broader source: Energy.gov (indexed) [DOE]

Intercoastal Oil Case No. LEF-0057 Intercoastal Oil Case No. LEF-0057 file:///C|/Documents%20and%20Settings/blackard/Desktop/MiscCases/lef0057.htm[11/29/2012 2:35:38 PM] Case Nos. LEF-0057 and LEF-0073 September 6, 2001 DECISION AND ORDER DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY Implementation of Special Refund Procedures Names of Firms:Intercoastal Oil Corporation Gulf States Oil & Refining Dates of Filing: July 20, 1993 July 20, 1993 Case Numbers:LEF-0057 LEF-0073 The Office of General Counsel (OGC) of the Department of Energy (DOE) filed a Petition requesting that the Office of Hearings and Appeals (OHA) formulate and implement Subpart V special refund proceedings. Under the procedural regulations of the DOE, special refund proceedings may be implemented to refund monies to persons injured by violations of the DOE petroleum price regulations,

200

Material Balance Report NRC 742u  

National Nuclear Security Administration (NNSA)

2*** 2*** Company Name and Address License Number RIS A 10/01/2007 09/30/2008 20 / E4 1 1 1 COMPANY NAME RIS A 2 1 1 DATE SIGNATURE (See instructions for provisions on confidentiality) TITLE 54. SHIPMENTS -- MISC 65. ROUNDING ADJUSTMENT 58. DONATED MATERIAL -- TO U.S. GOVT BY OTHERS 59. DONATED MATERIAL -- TO OTHERS BY U.S. GOVT a. ICT b. ICT 72. DECAY 75. ACCIDENTAL LOSSES 73. FISSION AND TRANSMUTATION 74. NORMAL OPERATIONAL LOSSES/MEASURED DISCARDS 77. INVENTORY DIFFERENCE 82. TOTAL (lines 41-81) 80. ENDING INVENTORY -- U.S. GOVT OWNED 81. ENDING INVENTORY -- NOT U.S. GOVT OWNED MATERIAL ACCOUNTABILITY SECTION A (Continued) FOREIGN OBLIGATIONS SECTION B CERTIFICATION SECTION C To the best of my knowledge and belief, the information given above and in any attached schedules is true, complete, and correct.

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "kraft sulfite misc" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


201

Lincoln Electric Coop, Inc | Open Energy Information  

Open Energy Info (EERE)

Montana Montana Utility Id 11022 Utility Location Yes Ownership C NERC Location WECC NERC WECC Yes Activity Distribution Yes References EIA Form EIA-861 Final Data File for 2010 - File1_a[1] LinkedIn Connections CrunchBase Profile No CrunchBase profile. Create one now! This article is a stub. You can help OpenEI by expanding it. Utility Rate Schedules Grid-background.png Area Lighting - 100 Watt HPS Lighting Area Lighting - 1000 Watt MV Lighting Area Lighting - 150 Watt HPS Lighting Area Lighting - 250 Watt HPS Lighting Area Lighting - 400 Watt HPS Lighting Area Lighting - Misc. (sirens) Lighting Green Power Premium Residential Industrial Service Industrial Irrigation Service Industrial Large Commercial Service Commercial Residential and General Service Residential Small Commercial Service Commercial

202

Data:Fae609c8-361f-45f9-9a78-bf0242b7f353 | Open Energy Information  

Open Energy Info (EERE)

c8-361f-45f9-9a78-bf0242b7f353 c8-361f-45f9-9a78-bf0242b7f353 No revision has been approved for this page. It is currently under review by our subject matter experts. Jump to: navigation, search Loading... 1. Basic Information 2. Demand 3. Energy << Previous 1 2 3 Next >> Basic Information Utility name: Lincoln Electric Coop, Inc Effective date: 2010/08/20 End date if known: Rate name: Area Lighting - Misc. (sirens) Sector: Lighting Description: Source or reference: http://www.lincolnelectric.coop/PDF/schedule-hsecuritylightservice.pdf Source Parent: Comments Applicability Demand (kW) Minimum (kW): Maximum (kW): History (months): Energy (kWh) Minimum (kWh): Maximum (kWh): History (months): Service Voltage Minimum (V): Maximum (V): Character of Service Voltage Category: Phase Wiring: << Previous

203

DOE-STD-1045-93 CN-1; Guide to Good Practices for Notifications and Investigation of Abnormal Events  

Broader source: Energy.gov (indexed) [DOE]

5-93 5-93 June 1993 CHANGE NOTICE NO. 1 December 1998 DOE STANDARD GUIDE TO GOOD PRACTICES FOR NOTIFICATIONS AND INVESTIGATION OF ABNORMAL EVENTS U.S. Department of Energy AREA MISC Washington, D.C. 20585 DISTRIBUTION STATEMENT A. Approved for public release; distribution is unlimited. This document has been reproduced from the best available copy. Available to DOE and DOE contractors from ES&H Technical Information Services, U.S. Department of Energy, (800) 473-4375, fax: (301) 903-9823. Available to the public from the U.S. Department of Commerce, Technology Administration, National Technical Information Service, Springfield, VA 22161; (703) 605-6000. Change Notice No. 1 DOE-STD-1045-93 December 1998 Guide to Good Practices for Notifications and Investigation of Abnormal Events

204

DOE-HDBK-3012-96; Team Leader's Preparation Guide for Operational Readiness Reviews (ORR)  

Broader source: Energy.gov (indexed) [DOE]

INCH-POUND INCH-POUND DOE-HDBK-3012-96 June 1996 SUPERSEDING DOE-HDBK-3012-94 September 1994 DOE HANDBOOK GUIDE TO GOOD PRACTICES FOR OPERATIONAL READINESS REVIEWS (ORR) TEAM LEADER'S GUIDE U.S. Department of Energy AREA MISC Washington, D.C. 20585 DISTRIBUTION STATEMENT A. Approved for public release; distribution is unlimited. This document has been reproduced directly from the best available copy. Available to DOE and DOE contractors from the Office of Scientific and Technical Information, P.O. Box 62, Oak Ridge, TN 37831; (423) 576-8401. Available to the public from the U.S. Department of Commerce, Technology Administration, National Technical Information Service, Springfield, VA 22161; (703) 487-4650. Order No. DE96009471 DOE-HDBK-3012-96 iii FOREWORD This Department of Energy handbook, Guide to Good Practices for Conducting Operational

205

DOE-STD-1035-93; Guide to Good Practices for Logkeeping  

Broader source: Energy.gov (indexed) [DOE]

5-93 5-93 March 1993 CHANGE NOTICE NO. 1 December 1998 DOE STANDARD GUIDE TO GOOD PRACTICES FOR LOGKEEPING U.S. Department of Energy AREA MISC Washington, D.C. 20585 DISTRIBUTION STATEMENT A. Approved for public release; distribution is unlimited. This document has been reproduced from the best available copy. Available to DOE and DOE contractors from ES&H Technical Information Services, U.S. Department of Energy, (800) 473-4375, fax: (301) 903-9823. Available to the public from the U.S. Department of Commerce, Technology Administration, National Technical Information Service, Springfield, VA 22161; (703) 605-6000. Change Notice No. 1 DOE-STD-1035-93 December 1998 Guide to Good Practices for Logkeeping Page / Section Change p. 13 / Section 4.7 The references to DOE O 1324.5 and DOE O 1324.2A

206

DOE-STD-1043-93 CN-1; Guide to Good Practices for Operator Aid Postings  

Broader source: Energy.gov (indexed) [DOE]

3-93 3-93 June 1993 CHANGE NOTICE NO. 1 December 1998 DOE STANDARD GUIDE TO GOOD PRACTICES FOR OPERATOR AID POSTINGS U.S. Department of Energy AREA MISC Washington, D.C. 20585 DISTRIBUTION STATEMENT A. Approved for public release; distribution is unlimited. This document has been reproduced from the best available copy. Available to DOE and DOE contractors from ES&H Technical Information Services, U.S. Department of Energy, (800) 473-4375, fax: (301) 903-9823. Available to the public from the U.S. Department of Commerce, Technology Administration, National Technical Information Service, Springfield, VA 22161; (703) 605-6000. Change Notice No. 1 DOE-STD-1043-93 December 1998 Guide to Good Practices for Operator Aid Postings Page / Section Change Concluding Material

207

8441.full.pdf  

Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

28 September 2012. 28 September 2012. 10.1128/AEM.02130-12. 2012, 78(23):8441. DOI: Appl. Environ. Microbiol. David A. Hogsett and Lee R. Lynd Kara K. Podkaminer, Adam M. Guss, Heather L. Trajano, through Targeted Gene Deletions Thermoanaerobacterium saccharolyticum Discovery of a New Endoxylanase in Characterization of Xylan Utilization and http://aem.asm.org/content/78/23/8441 Updated information and services can be found at: These include: SUPPLEMENTAL MATERIAL Supplemental material REFERENCES http://aem.asm.org/content/78/23/8441#ref-list-1 at: This article cites 29 articles, 13 of which can be accessed free CONTENT ALERTS more» articles cite this article), Receive: RSS Feeds, eTOCs, free email alerts (when new http://journals.asm.org/site/misc/reprints.xhtml Information about commercial reprint orders:

208

Brown-J Bacteriol -12.pdf  

Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

12):3290. DOI: 10.1128/JB.00473-12. 12):3290. DOI: 10.1128/JB.00473-12. J. Bacteriol. Keller and Edward A. Bayer Zamin Yang, Miriam L. Land, Sagar M. Utturkar, Martin Yuval Shoham, Dawn M. Klingeman, Courtney M. Johnson, Steven D. Brown, Raphael Lamed, Ely Morag, Ilya Borovok, Mutant Strain AD2 Derived Cellulose Adhesion-Defective thermocellum Wild-Type Strain YS and Draft Genome Sequences for Clostridium http://jb.asm.org/content/194/12/3290 Updated information and services can be found at: These include: REFERENCES http://jb.asm.org/content/194/12/3290#ref-list-1 at: This article cites 39 articles, 21 of which can be accessed free CONTENT ALERTS more» articles cite this article), Receive: RSS Feeds, eTOCs, free email alerts (when new http://journals.asm.org/site/misc/reprints.xhtml Information about commercial reprint orders:

209

DOE-STD-1034-93; Guide to Good Practices for Timely Orders to Operators  

Broader source: Energy.gov (indexed) [DOE]

4-93 4-93 March 1993 CHANGE NOTICE NO. 1 December 1998 DOE STANDARD GUIDE TO GOOD PRACTICES FOR TIMELY ORDERS TO OPERATORS U.S. Department of Energy AREA MISC Washington, D.C. 20585 DISTRIBUTION STATEMENT A. Approved for public release; distribution is unlimited. This document has been reproduced from the best available copy. Available to DOE and DOE contractors from ES&H Technical Information Services, U.S. Department of Energy, (800) 473-4375, fax: (301) 903-9823. Available to the public from the U.S. Department of Commerce, Technology Administration, National Technical Information Service, Springfield, VA 22161; (703) 605-6000. Change Notice No. 1 DOE-STD-1034-93 December 1998 Guide to Good Practices for Timely Orders to Operators Page / Section Change p. 10 / Section 4.3

210

PowerPoint Presentation  

Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

Dan Brueggenjohann - SWT Project Manager Dan Brueggenjohann - SWT Project Manager Byron Floyd - Resident Engineer 12 June 2013 Ozark and Webbers Falls Powerhouse Major Rehabilitation BUILDING STRONG ® * Project Scope: Rehabilitation of the Ozark Powerhouse to include replacement of five turbines, rehabilitation of all cranes, rehab of water Treatment, and misc aux systems * Project Cost including management expenses: $125.7M ($32.9M Customer Funded) * Turbine Contract Notice to Proceed : July 2005 * Awarded Turbine Contract Amount: $74.5M * Current Turbine Contract Amount: $99.0M * Current Required Completion Date : April 20, 2014 * Anticipated Completion Date: March 24, 2017 Ozark Scope, Cost and Schedule BUILDING STRONG ® Ozark Funding Status Ozark/Webbers Falls Major Rehab

211

Approaches to Electric Utility Energy Efficiency for Low Income Customers  

Open Energy Info (EERE)

Approaches to Electric Utility Energy Efficiency for Low Income Customers Approaches to Electric Utility Energy Efficiency for Low Income Customers in a Changing Regulatory Environment Jump to: navigation, search Tool Summary LAUNCH TOOL Name: Approaches to Electric Utility Energy Efficiency for Low Income Customers in a Changing Regulatory Environment Focus Area: Energy Efficiency Topics: Best Practices Website: www.ornl.gov/~webworks/cppr/y2001/misc/99601.pdf Equivalent URI: cleanenergysolutions.org/content/approaches-electric-utility-energy-ef Language: English Policies: "Regulations,Financial Incentives" is not in the list of possible values (Deployment Programs, Financial Incentives, Regulations) for this property. Regulations: Feebates This report, written for members of the Weatherization Assistance Program

212

Buildings Energy Data Book: 8.3 Commercial Sector Water Consumption  

Buildings Energy Data Book [EERE]

4 4 Normalized Annual End Uses of Water in Select Supermarkets in Western United States (1) Fixture/End Use Toilets/Urinals Other/Misc. Indoor (2) Cooling Total Building Size (SF) Benchmarking Values for Supermarkets (3) N Indoor Use with Cooling, gal./SF/year 38 Indoor Use with Cooling, gal./SF/daily transaction 38 Note(s): Source(s): 25th Percentile of Users 52 - 64 9 - 16 1) Water use data for the buildings was collected over a few days. Estimates of annual use were created by accounting for seasonal use and other variables, billing data, and interviews with building managers. 2) Includes water for sinks, spraying vegetables, cleaning, etc. 3) The study derived efficiency benchmarks by analyzing measured data and audit data. The benchmark was set at the lower 25th percentile of

213

Buildings Energy Data Book: 8.3 Commercial Sector Water Consumption  

Buildings Energy Data Book [EERE]

6 6 Normalized Annual End Uses of Water in Two California High Schools Fixture/End Use Toilet Urinal Faucet Shower Kitchen Misc. uses (2) Cooling Leaks Swimming Pool Total Use Benchmarking Values for Schools (3) N Indoor Use, Gal./sq. ft./year 142 Indoor Use, Gal./school day/student 141 Cooling Use, Gal./sq. ft./year 35 Note(s): Source(s): 8 - 20 1) Water use data for the buildings was collected over a few days. Estimates of annual use were created by accounting for seasonal use and other variables, billing data, and interviews with building managers. 2) One high school. 3) The study derived efficiency benchmarks by analyzing measured data and audit data. The benchmark was set at the lower 25th percentile of users. American Water Works Association Research Foundation, Commercial and Institutional End Uses of Water, 2000.

214

Material Balance Report NRC 742u  

National Nuclear Security Administration (NNSA)

*** *** Company Name and Address License Number RIS 10/01/2007 09/30/2008 20 / E4 A 1 COMPANY NAME RIS A 2 1 1 1 1 DATE SIGNATURE (See instructions for provisions on confidentiality) TITLE 54. SHIPMENTS -- MISC 65. ROUNDING ADJUSTMENT 58. DONATED MATERIAL -- TO U.S. GOVT BY OTHERS 59. DONATED MATERIAL -- TO OTHERS BY U.S. GOVT a. ICT b. ICT 72. DECAY 75. ACCIDENTAL LOSSES 73. FISSION AND TRANSMUTATION 74. NORMAL OPERATIONAL LOSSES/MEASURED DISCARDS 77. INVENTORY DIFFERENCE 82. TOTAL (lines 41-81) 80. ENDING INVENTORY -- U.S. GOVT OWNED 81. ENDING INVENTORY -- NOT U.S. GOVT OWNED MATERIAL ACCOUNTABILITY SECTION A (Continued) FOREIGN OBLIGATIONS SECTION B CERTIFICATION SECTION C To the best of my knowledge and belief, the information given above and in any attached schedules is true, complete, and correct.

215

Material Balance Report NRC 742u  

National Nuclear Security Administration (NNSA)

*** *** Company Name and Address License Number RIS A 10/01/2007 09/30/2008 20 / E4 1 1 1 Company 1 RIS A 2 1 1 COMPANY NAME RIS A 3 1 1 DATE SIGNATURE (See instructions for provisions on confidentiality) TITLE 54. SHIPMENTS -- MISC 65. ROUNDING ADJUSTMENT 58. DONATED MATERIAL -- TO U.S. GOVT BY OTHERS 59. DONATED MATERIAL -- TO OTHERS BY U.S. GOVT a. ICT b. ICT 72. DECAY 75. ACCIDENTAL LOSSES 73. FISSION AND TRANSMUTATION 74. NORMAL OPERATIONAL LOSSES/MEASURED DISCARDS 77. INVENTORY DIFFERENCE 82. TOTAL (lines 41-81) 80. ENDING INVENTORY -- U.S. GOVT OWNED 81. ENDING INVENTORY -- NOT U.S. GOVT OWNED MATERIAL ACCOUNTABILITY SECTION A (Continued) FOREIGN OBLIGATIONS SECTION B CERTIFICATION SECTION C To the best of my knowledge and belief, the information given above and in any attached schedules is true, complete, and correct.

216

Material Balance Report NRC 742u  

National Nuclear Security Administration (NNSA)

Example 4 *** Example 4 *** Company Name and Address License Number RIS A 10/01/2007 09/30/2008 20 / E4 1 1 1 A 2 1 1 DATE SIGNATURE (See instructions for provisions on confidentiality) TITLE 54. SHIPMENTS -- MISC 65. ROUNDING ADJUSTMENT 58. DONATED MATERIAL -- TO U.S. GOVT BY OTHERS 59. DONATED MATERIAL -- TO OTHERS BY U.S. GOVT a. ICT b. ICT 72. DECAY 75. ACCIDENTAL LOSSES 73. FISSION AND TRANSMUTATION 74. NORMAL OPERATIONAL LOSSES/MEASURED DISCARDS 77. INVENTORY DIFFERENCE 82. TOTAL (lines 41-81) 80. ENDING INVENTORY -- U.S. GOVT OWNED 81. ENDING INVENTORY -- NOT U.S. GOVT OWNED MATERIAL ACCOUNTABILITY SECTION A (Continued) FOREIGN OBLIGATIONS SECTION B CERTIFICATION SECTION C To the best of my knowledge and belief, the information given above and in any attached schedules is true, complete, and correct.

217

Notice of Availability of the Draft Environmental Assessment Addendum for Disposition of Additional Waste at the Paducah Gaseous Diffusion Plant (DOE/EA-1339A) (April 30, 2003)  

Broader source: Energy.gov (indexed) [DOE]

117 117 Federal Register / Vol. 68, No. 83 / Wednesday, April 30, 2003 / Notices Corp., Club Affiliation, Disability, Hobbies, Military Affiliation, National Merit, Athletics, Union Affiliation, Misc., Career Objective, or Programs of Study)) * ParentVeteran? (Is either parent a Veteran) * ParentDisabledInMilitary? * ParentKilledInMilitary? * HouseholdIncome (Annual) Financial Aid Wizard For each School tracked in the user's EDpack * Tuition * RoomBoard * Fees * Books * OtherExpense Used in the EFC calculation * StOfResidence * Veteran? * SchoolsOfAttendance * ChildSupport? * OtherDependants? * Orphan? * PeopleInHousehold * CollegeStudentIn House * CompletedTaxReturn? * 1040EZ Able to file 1040A or 1040EZ) * AGI (Adjusted Gross Income) * IncomeTax * Exemptions * YouWages * SpouseWages

218

DOE-HDBK-5504-95; Guidance for Evaluation of Operational Emergency Plans  

Broader source: Energy.gov (indexed) [DOE]

5504-95 5504-95 March 1995 DOE HANDBOOK GUIDANCE FOR EVALUATION OF OPERATIONAL EMERGENCY PLANS U.S. Department of Energy AREA MISC Washington, D.C. 20585 DISTRIBUTION STATEMENT A. Approved for public release; distribution is unlimited. This document has been reproduced directly from the best available copy. Available to DOE and DOE contractors from the Office of Scientific and Technical Information, P.O. Box 62, Oak Ridge, TN 37831; (615) 576-8401. Available to the public from the U.S. Department of Commerce, Technology Administration, National Technical Information Service, Springfield, VA 22161; (703) 487-4650. Order No. DE95012002 DOE-HDBK-5504-95 iii FOREWORD This handbook incorporates emergency planning information from the following EPA and OSHA regulations:

219

Franklin Job Completion Analysis Yun (Helen) He, Hwa-Chun Wendy Lin, and  

Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

Job Completion Analysis Job Completion Analysis Yun (Helen) He, Hwa-Chun Wendy Lin, and Woo-Sun Yang National Energy Research Scientific Computing Center CUG 2010, May 24-27, Edinburgh 2 Our Goal * Identify and track system issues that cause user jobs to fail. Work with Cray to get them fixed. * Job completion report, i.e. how many jobs ran successfully and how many jobs failed for what reasons. 3 Our Data Job Completion rate = Success + User related failures 4 User Related Job Failures * Application Errors: APEXIT, APNOENT, APRESOURCE, APWRAP * Runtime Errors: CCERUNTIME, PATHRUNTIME * MPI Errors: MPIABORT, MPIENV, MPIFATAL, MPIIO * IO Errors: PGFIO * PTL Errors: PTLUSER * Signal: SIGSEGV, SIGTERM, * Misc: XBIGOUT, DISKQUOTA, OOM, NIDTERM 5 System Related Job Failures

220

DOE-STD-1037-93; Guide to Good Practices for Operations Aspects of Unique Processes  

Broader source: Energy.gov (indexed) [DOE]

7-93 7-93 June 1993 CHANGE NOTICE NO. 1 December 1998 DOE STANDARD GUIDE TO GOOD PRACTICES FOR OPERATIONS ASPECTS OF UNIQUE PROCESSES U.S. Department of Energy AREA MISC Washington, D.C. 20585 DISTRIBUTION STATEMENT A. Approved for public release; distribution is unlimited. This document has been reproduced from the best available copy. Available to DOE and DOE contractors from ES&H Technical Information Services, U.S. Department of Energy, (800) 473-4375, fax: (301) 903-9823. Available to the public from the U.S. Department of Commerce, Technology Administration, National Technical Information Service, Springfield, VA 22161; (703) 605-6000. Change Notice No. 1 DOE-STD-1037-93 December 1998 Guide to Good Practices for Operations Aspects of Unique Processes Page / Section

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "kraft sulfite misc" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


221

The Standards Actions, November 1995  

Broader source: Energy.gov (indexed) [DOE]

Assessment Criteria, Assessment Criteria, September 1995. * DOS-STD-1032-92, Guide to Good Practices for Operations Organization and Administration, December 1992. * DOE-STD-1045-93, Guide to Good Practices for Notifications and Identification of Abnormal Events, June 1993. * DOE-STD-1061-93, Guide to Technical Standards Program Document Status as of 10/31/95 Projects Initiated The following DOE technical standards projects were recently initiated. If you are interested in participating in the development of these standards, please contact the persons listed below. * DOE-STD-3006-93, Planning and Conduct of Operational Readiness Reviews, Project No. MISC-0030; Jeffery L. Roberson, DP-31; 301-903- 8026. (Note: This project will revise the standard to conform with the new DOE Orders System. Since this

222

Alaska Meeting #1 | OpenEI Community  

Open Energy Info (EERE)

Alaska Meeting #1 Alaska Meeting #1 Home > Groups > Geothermal Regulatory Roadmap Kwitherbee's picture Submitted by Kwitherbee(15) Member 12 August, 2012 - 21:38 The kickofff meeting for Alaska was sparsely attended with representatives from Division of Oil and Gas, Alaska Energy Authority, and Economic Development Commission. Discussions included current and planned geothermal development in AK. Progress was made in review of flowcharts for geothermal leasing and the use of the Misc Land Use Pwermit for geothermal/geophysical exploration, including seismic. Follow up with state agency personnel is planned prior to the planned second meeting. Groups: Geothermal Regulatory Roadmap Login to post comments Kwitherbee's blog Latest blog posts Kyoung Geothermal NEPA Workshop at GRC

223

Help:Preferences | Open Energy Information  

Open Energy Info (EERE)

Preferences Preferences Jump to: navigation, search Clicking on the my preferences link in the upper right while logged in allows you to change your preferences. You will be presented with the User profile section, as well as a bar of tabs across the top for changing other types of settings. Contents 1 User profile 1.1 User profile 1.2 Change password 1.3 E-mail 1.4 Languages 2 Skin 3 Math 4 Files 5 Date and time 6 Editing 7 Recent changes 8 Watchlist 9 Search 10 Misc 11 See also User profile User profile Username: Your user name. Only bureaucrats can change your username, and the wiki must also have the Renameuser extension installed. User ID: A number assigned to your account when you created it (for example, if your number is 42 you are the 42nd user to sign up at this particular wiki). This number is used for internal purposes.

224

U.S. CMS - U.S. CMS @ Work - Detector Maintenance and Operations Subproject  

Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

HCAL Announcements, Documentation, and Resources HCAL Announcements, Documentation, and Resources Forward Pixels SiTracker ECAL HCAL Endcap Muon System TriDAS (This page last updated August 2000, although the 1997 version of the TDR was added in July 2010.) [See also HCAL web pages at Maryland and Boston.] HCAL Review Documents HCAL Project Organization Chart (13 Kb gif file) [ps: 46 Kb] HCAL Meeting Announcements, Agendas, and Minutes HCAL Technical Design Report HCAL Drawings: 3-D and perspective barrel HCAL views. HCAL Trigger: Calorimeter trigger algorithm specifications. HCAL Display Resources: transparencies, misc. figures, ... HCAL Documents: Technical Proposal, DRDC Notes, and Papers. CMS Technical Notes: HCAL, HCAL-HV. HCAL Page on CMSDOC WWW Server at CERN HCAL HF Document Server from the University of Iowa

225

Monolithically interconnected GaAs solar cells: A new interconnection technology for high voltage solar cell output  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Photovoltaic linear concentrator arrays can benefit from high performance solar cell technologies being developed at AstroPower. Specifically, these are the integration of thin GaAs solar cell and epitaxial lateral overgrowth technologies with the application of monolithically interconnected solar cell (MISC) techniques. This MISC array has several advantages which make it ideal for space concentrator systems. These are high system voltage, reliable low cost monolithically formed interconnections, design flexibility, costs that are independent of array voltage, and low power loss from shorts, opens, and impact damage. This concentrator solar cell will incorporate the benefits of light trapping by growing the device active layers over a low-cost, simple, PECVD deposited silicon/silicon dioxide Bragg reflector. The high voltage-low current output results in minimal 12R losses while properly designing the device allows for minimal shading and resistance losses. It is possible to obtain open circuit voltages as high as 67 volts/cm of solar cell length with existing technology. The projected power density for the high performance device is 5 kW/m for an AMO efficiency of 26% at 1 5X. Concentrator solar cell arrays are necessary to meet the power requirements of specific mission platforms and can supply high voltage power for electric propulsion systems. It is anticipated that the high efficiency, GaAs monolithically interconnected linear concentrator solar cell array will enjoy widespread application for space based solar power needs. Additional applications include remote man-portable or ultra-light unmanned air vehicle (UAV) power supplies where high power per area, high radiation hardness and a high bus voltage or low bus current are important. The monolithic approach has a number of inherent advantages, including reduced cost per interconnect and increased reliability of array connections. There is also a high potential for a large number of consumer products.

Dinetta, L.C.; Hannon, M.H.

1995-10-01T23:59:59.000Z

226

Exhaust gas clean up process  

DOE Patents [OSTI]

A method of cleaning an exhaust gas containing particulates, SO.sub.2 and NO.sub.x includes prescrubbing with water to remove HCl and most of the particulates, scrubbing with an aqueous absorbent containing a metal chelate and dissolved sulfite salt to remove NO.sub.x and SO.sub.2, and regenerating the absorbent solution by controlled heating, electrodialysis and carbonate salt addition. The NO.sub.x is removed as N.sub.2 or nitrogen-sulfonate ions and the oxides of sulfur are removed as a vaulable sulfate salt.

Walker, Richard J. (McMurray, PA)

1989-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

227

Molecular interactions of SO2 with carbonate minerals under co-sequestration conditions: a combined experimental and theoretical study  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

We present a combined experimental and theoretical study investigating the reactivity between selected and morphologically important surfaces of carbonate minerals with supercritical CO2 with co-existing H2O and SO2. Trace amounts of SO2 cause formation of CaSO3 in the form of hannebachite in the initial stages of SO2 adsorption and transformation. Atomistic simulations of these initial steps indicate a somewhat catalytic activity of water, which is enhanced by the presence of Magnesium atoms in the mineral surface. Under co-sequestration conditions, traces of water are not likely to cause carbonate dissolution, however the presence of SO2 greatly stabilizes the sulfite product.

Glezakou, Vassiliki Alexandra; McGrail, B. Peter; Schaef, Herbert T.

2012-09-01T23:59:59.000Z

228

Burning mill sludge in a fluidized-bed incinerator and waste-heat-recovery system; Ten years of successful operation  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

This paper reports on burning mill sludge in a fluidized-bed incinerator and waste-heat-recovery system. In the late 1970s, the Lielahti sulfite mill of G.A. Serlachius Corp. (now Metsa Serla Oy) began investigating alternative methods of sludge disposal. The mill had an annual capacity of 100,000 tons of bleached pulp, generated 80,000 tons of by-product lignin sulfonates, and specialized in dissolving pulps. Because of the end product's high quality requirements, the mill had a low pulp yield and high losses in the form of both dissolved and suspended solids.

Nickull, O. (Metsa Serla, Oy (FI)); Lehtonen, O. (Tampella Ltd., Tampere (FI)); Mullen, J. (Tampella Keeler, Williamsport, PA (US))

1991-03-01T23:59:59.000Z

229

Residual Strain Distribution in Bent Composite Boiler Tubes  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Kraft recovery boilers are typically constructed of carbon steel boiler tubes clad with a corrosion resistant layer, and these composite tubes are bent and welded together to form air port panels which enable the combustion air to enter the boiler. In this paper, the through-thickness residual strain in the carbon steel layer of non-heat-treated and heat-treated composite bent tubes were measured by neutron diffraction techniques and modeled by finite element modeling. The results can be used to optimize material selection and manufacturing processes to prevent stress corrosion and corrosion fatigue cracking in the boiler tubes.

Hubbard, Camden R [ORNL; Gorti, Sarma B [ORNL; Tang, Fei [ORNL

2006-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

230

Fermentation and chemical treatment of pulp and paper mill sludge  

DOE Patents [OSTI]

A method of chemically treating partially de-ashed pulp and/or paper mill sludge to obtain products of value comprising taking a sample of primary sludge from a Kraft paper mill process, partially de-ashing the primary sludge by physical means, and further treating the primary sludge to obtain the products of value, including further treating the resulting sludge and using the resulting sludge as a substrate to produce cellulase in an efficient manner using the resulting sludge as the only carbon source and mixtures of inorganic salts as the primary nitrogen source, and including further treating the resulting sludge and using the resulting sludge to produce ethanol.

Lee, Yoon Y; Wang, Wei; Kang, Li

2014-12-02T23:59:59.000Z

231

On the characterization and spinning of solvent extracted lignin towards the manufacture of low-cost carbon fiber  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

ABSTRACT: A Kraft hardwood lignin (HWL) and an organic-purified hardwood lignin (HWL-OP) were evaluated as potential precursors for the production of lowcost carbon fibers. It was found that the unpurified HWL exhibited poor spinnability while the HWL-OP exhibited excellent spinnability characteristics. Fibers of various diameters were obtained from the HWL-OP. Thermostabilization studies showed that oxidative stabilization can only be used to convert HWL-OP-based fibers into carbon fibers if extremely low heating rates are applied. Carbonized lignin-based fibers had tensile strength of 0.51 GPa and tensile modulus of 28.6 GPa. VC

Baker, Darren A [ORNL; Gallego, Nidia C [ORNL; Baker, Frederick S [ORNL

2012-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

232

Fate of Fuel Nitrogen in the Furnace of an Industrial Bubbling Fluidized Bed Boiler during Combustion of Biomass Fuel Mixtures  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

Co-firing biomass with challenging fuels, such as sludge, demolition wood, and solid recovered fuel (SRF), has become an attractive possibility to improve the economy of power production and to reduce the amount of landfill. ... Therefore, the fuel was extremely wet, with a dry solids content below 50 wt %. ... Thus, CS could reduce NOx effectively in devices where other techniques fails, e.g., in kraft recovery boilers, fluidized bed combustors, low-grade fuel combustors, small and domestic boilers, and fast engines. ...

Emil Vainio; Anders Brink; Mikko Hupa; Hannu Vesala; Tuula Kajolinna

2011-11-28T23:59:59.000Z

233

Ultrafiltration. (Latest citations from the NTIS bibliographic database). Published Search  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

The bibliography contains citations concerning ultrafiltration, the separation of colloids or fine solid materials by filtration through microporous or semi-permeable materials. Citations discuss the use of the ultrafiltration process for removing dissolved toxic metals from groundwater, production of food-grade protein, treating kraft black liquor from pulp and paper processing, decontamination of low-level radioactive waste water, desalination, and hemodialysis. Topics also include ultrafiltration equipment and membrane descriptions. Procedures for preventing fouling and the cleaning of the filtration materials and membranes are also presented. (Contains 50-250 citations and includes a subject term index and title list.) (Copyright NERAC, Inc. 1995)

NONE

1995-12-01T23:59:59.000Z

234

Development and application of a real-time recovery boiler expert system  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

The recovery boiler, although often a bottleneck, is an integral part of any kraft mill. Maximizing production while maintaining safe operation are primary concerns. Statistical process control (SPC) and simulation are powerful tools for addressing these problems. SPC is useful for maintaining stable operation, whereas off-line simulation has proven useful to evaluate various operating strategies. Real-time integration of these methods has also been proposed. This paper describes integration of a millwide information system, an expert system shell, SPC, and real-time process simulation into a prototype advisory system for recovery boiler operation.

Smith, D.B.; Damon, R.A. (James River Corp., Camas Technical Center, Camas, WA (US)); Edwards, L.L. (Univ. of Idaho, Chemical Engineering, Buchannon Engineering Lab., Moscow, ID (US))

1991-11-01T23:59:59.000Z

235

Recovery and utilization of gypsum and limestone from scrubber sludge. [Quarterly] technical report, March 1, 1993--May 31, 1993  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Wet flue-gas desulfurization units in coal-fired power plants produce a large amount of sludge which must be disposed of, and which is currently landfilled in most cases. Increasing landfill costs are gradually forcing utilities to find other alternatives. In principle, this sludge can be used to make gypsum (CaSO{sub 4}-2H{sub 2}O) for products such as plaster-of-Paris and wallboard, but only if impurities such as unreacted limestone and soluble salts are removed, and the calcium sulfite (CaSO{sub 3}) is oxidized to calcium sulfate (CaSO{sub 4}). This project is investigating methods for removing the impurities from the sludge so that high-quality, salable gypsum products can be made. Work done in the previous quarter concentrated on developing a low-cost froth flotation process that could remove limestone, unburned carbon, and related contaminants from the sludge while recovering the bulk of the calcium sulfite and gypsum. In the current quarter, experiments to remove impurities from the sludge using a water-only cyclone were conducted. The cyclone has been found to be effective for removing the coarser limestone impurities, as well as removing contaminants such as fine gravel and grinding-ball chips. These results show that the cyclone will be very complementary with froth flotation, which mainly removes the very fine impurities.

Kawatra, S.K.; Eisele, T.C. [Michigan Technological Univ., Houghton, MI (United States). Dept. of Metallurgical and Materials Engineering

1993-09-01T23:59:59.000Z

236

NETL: Gasifipedia  

Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

Gasifier: Commercial Gasifiers: Gasifiers for Special Applications Gasifier: Commercial Gasifiers: Gasifiers for Special Applications Black Liquor Gasification What is Black Liquor? Industrial paper manufacture involves a procedure known as the Kraft process, where wood is converted into wood pulp and then into paper. The process, however, produces a toxic byproduct referred to as black liquor. This primarily liquid mixture of pulping residues (like lignin and hemicellulose) and inorganic chemicals from the Kraft process (sodium hydroxide and sodium sulfide, for example) is toxic and until the invention of recovery boilers in the early 20th century was often simply released into waterways. Recovery boilers allowed paper manufacturers to recover and reuse the inorganic chemicals and extract energy from the pulping residues. Many of these boilers were built in the 1960s and 70s and will need to be replaced sometime in the next few decades. The replacement of these boilers brings new interest in producing not only steam and electricity, but perhaps also fuels and chemicals via gasification of black liquor.

237

Das Standard Modell  

Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

Model Model Was ist fundamental? Das Standard Modell Physiker haben eine Theorie - Das Standard Modell - entwickelt, welche erklärt, woraus die Welt besteht und was sie zusammenhält. Es ist eine einfache und überzeugende Theorie, welche hunderte von Teilchen und ihre gegenseitigen Wechselwirkungen erklärt. Dazu braucht sie nur wenige elementare Teilchen : 6 Quarks. 6 Leptonen. Das bekannteste Lepton ist das Elektron. Wir reden gleich von Leptonen. Kraft-Träger Teilchen, wie z.B. das Photon. Wir werden später über diese Teilchen reden. Alle bekannten materiellenTeilchen sind aus Quarks und Leptonen zusammengesetzt und sie wechselwirken untereinander durch den Austausch von Kraft-Träger Teilchen. Das Standard Modell ist eine gute Theorie. Eine grosse Zahl von Experimenten haben ihre Voraussagen mit unglaublicher Präzision bestätigt und alle Teilchen, welche die Theorie bis heute vorausgesagt hat, wurden auch gefunden. Aber die Theorie kann nicht alles erklären. Die Schwerkraft zum Beispiel ist nicht im Standard Modell eingeschlossen.

238

Data:A1964da0-1cf8-488d-885a-2acfbed9b357 | Open Energy Information  

Open Energy Info (EERE)

da0-1cf8-488d-885a-2acfbed9b357 da0-1cf8-488d-885a-2acfbed9b357 No revision has been approved for this page. It is currently under review by our subject matter experts. Jump to: navigation, search Loading... 1. Basic Information 2. Demand 3. Energy << Previous 1 2 3 Next >> Basic Information Utility name: Duke Energy Indiana Inc Effective date: 2009/09/14 End date if known: Rate name: AL - 150 watt HPS - Misc. Sector: Lighting Description: Availability This rate schedule is no longer available after September 1, 2004. Potential lighting customers wanting a lighting system installed and maintained by Company can do so via the Outdoor Lighting Equipment agreement (OLE). Potential customers should contact a Company account representative for further information concerning OLE options. This rate schedule terminates May 1, 2014. Customers currently being provided service under this rate schedule can continue being provided service under this rate schedule until their contract expires or this rate schedule terminates, whichever occurs first.

239

Hanford Tank Waste Residuals  

Broader source: Energy.gov (indexed) [DOE]

Hanford Hanford Tank Waste Residuals DOE HLW Corporate Board November 6, 2008 Chris Kemp, DOE ORP Bill Hewitt, YAHSGS LLC Hanford Tanks & Tank Waste * Single-Shell Tanks (SSTs) - ~27 million gallons of waste* - 149 SSTs located in 12 SST Farms - Grouped into 7 Waste Management Areas (WMAs) for RCRA closure purposes: 200 West Area S/SX T TX/TY U 200 East Area A/AX B/BX/BY C * Double-Shell Tanks (DSTs) - ~26 million gallons of waste* - 28 DSTs located in 6 DST Farms (1 West/5 East) * 17 Misc Underground Storage Tanks (MUST) * 43 Inactive MUST (IMUST) 200 East Area A/AX B/BX/BY C * Volumes fluctuate as SST retrievals and 242-A Evaporator runs occur. Major Regulatory Drivers * Radioactive Tank Waste Materials - Atomic Energy Act - DOE M 435.1-1, Ch II, HLW - Other DOE Orders * Hazardous/Dangerous Tank Wastes - Hanford Federal Facility Agreement and Consent Order (TPA) - Retrieval/Closure under State's implementation

240

NETL: News Archive  

Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

12.29.2008 News Three Property Sales for "Misc. Scrap Metal" have been posted. 12.23.2008 News Fossil Energy Research Grants Awarded to Four Minority Universities Continuing its long-standing minority university research program, DOE has selected four institutions where students and faculty will investigate projects dealing with sensors and controls, computational energy sciences, and advanced materials for use in fossil fuel power systems. 12.22.2008 News Funding Opportunity Announcement DE-PS26-09NT01236 entitled "Clean Cities FY 09 Petroleum Reduction Technologies Projects for Transportation Sector" has been posted in our Business Solicitation area. 12.19.2008 News NETL's Multiphase Flow Research Group Wins INCITE Award The Multiphase Flow Research Group at the National Energy Technology Laboratory (NETL) has won a 2009 Innovative and Novel Computational Impact on Theory and Experiment (INCITE) award from the U.S. Department of Energy for their proposal "Clean and Efficient Coal Gasifier Designs using Large-Scale Simulations."

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "kraft sulfite misc" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


241

Data:A4403d2b-559d-493d-8a68-567e3d396128 | Open Energy Information  

Open Energy Info (EERE)

559d-493d-8a68-567e3d396128 559d-493d-8a68-567e3d396128 No revision has been approved for this page. It is currently under review by our subject matter experts. Jump to: navigation, search Loading... 1. Basic Information 2. Demand 3. Energy << Previous 1 2 3 Next >> Basic Information Utility name: Duke Energy Indiana Inc Effective date: 2009/09/14 End date if known: Rate name: AL - 400 watt HPS - Misc. Sector: Lighting Description: Availability This rate schedule is no longer available after September 1, 2004. Potential lighting customers wanting a lighting system installed and maintained by Company can do so via the Outdoor Lighting Equipment agreement (OLE). Potential customers should contact a Company account representative for further information concerning OLE options. This rate schedule terminates May 1, 2014. Customers currently being provided service under this rate schedule can continue being provided service under this rate schedule until their contract expires or this rate schedule terminates, whichever occurs first.

242

Forms of Al in Hanford Tank Waste  

Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

Actual Waste Testing Actual Waste Testing Lanée Snow Sandra Fiskum Rick Shimskey Reid Peterson 4/9/09 2 Tested > 75% of sludge waste types Sludge Sources Bi-Phosphate waste Redox Purex Cladding TBP FeCN sludge Redox Cladding Zirc Cladding Purex waste Misc NA 4/9/09 3 Tested > 75% of saltcake waste types Saltcake fractions Bi-phosphate saltcake S A B R NA Tested 8 groups of tank waste types Group ID Type Al Cr PO 4 3- Oxalate Sulfate Fluoride 1 Bi Phosphate sludge 3% 3% 21% 2% 6% 12% 2 Bi Phosphate saltcake (BY, T) 18% 25% 36% 36% 43% 36% 3 PUREX Cladding Waste sludge 12% 1% 3% 1% 1% 3% 4 REDOX Cladding Waste sludge 8% 1% 0% 0% 0% 2% 5 REDOX sludge 26% 8% 1% 3% 1% 2% 6 S - Saltcake (S) 11% 38% 12% 24% 14% 3% 7 TBP Waste sludge 1% 1% 8% 0% 2% 1% 8 FeCN sludge 2% 1% 4% 1% 1% 1% *Percentages reflect % of total inventory of species in the tank farm. *Discussion will focus on those that make up the largest fraction of the Al

243

C:\My Documents\FORMS\DOE F 4200.40.cdr  

Broader source: Energy.gov (indexed) [DOE]

PROCUREMENT PROCUREMENT ACTIONS DOE F 4200.40 (10-03) (All Other Editions Are Obsolete) U.S. DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY INDIVIDUAL PROCUREMENT ACTION REPORT (IPAR) See Handbook for the Preparation of the Individual Procurement Action Report Original - Contract File Goldenrod - ADP Entry Printed with soy ink on recycled paper 80. DATE 81. DOLLARS 82. MISC. 83. INT. OFF. USE 84. PR NUMBER 85. TEXT 86. TRANSFERRED TO OFFICE 18. EMG SM BUS 19. HUBZone BUS 20. VERY SM BUS 23. R & D 5. CONTRACTOR NAME 6. DIVISION 7. MASTER BIN 16. SDB 17. B(A) PGM ADD/CHANGE/DELETE 1. AWARD BIN 2. MOD NUMBER 3. KIND OF AWARD Change Delete Add 24. SUPP SERV 26. HISPANIC INST. 25. SAFETY & HEALTH 4. DUNS NO. 14. CO SIZE 15. TOB CODE 21. TYPE OF AWARD 22. E-GOVT 8. STATE 9. COUNTRY 10. CITY 11. COUNTY 12. ZIP CODE 13. CONG. DIST. 30. SR INVESTIGATOR 27. ADMIN DELEG OFF 28. ADMIN DELEG DATE OTHER No No No No No No No No No No No No No No No No No No

244

Buildings Energy Data Book: 8.3 Commercial Sector Water Consumption  

Buildings Energy Data Book [EERE]

5 5 Normalized Annual End Uses of Water in Select Hotels in Western United States (Gallons per Room per Year) (1) Fixture/End Use Bathtub (2) Faucets Showers Toilets Leaks Laundry Ice making (3) Other/misc. indoor Total Indoor Use Number of Rooms Logged average daily use, kgal: Peak instantaneous demand, gpm: Benchmarking Values for Hotels N Indoor Use, gal./day/occupied room 98 Cooling Use, gal./year/occupied room 97 Note(s): Source(s): 25th Percentile of Users 60 - 115 7,400 - 41,600 Based on four budget hotels and one luxury hotel. Three budget hotels in Southern California, one in Phoenix, AZ. Luxury hotel in Los Angeles, CA. 1) Water use data for the buildings was collected over a few days. Estimates of annual use were created by accounting for seasonal use and other variables, billing data, and interviews with building managers. 2) Based on one hotel. 3) Based on three hotels. 5) The

245

Changes in Energy Intensity in the Manufacturing Sector 1985-1994  

U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

Changes in Energy Intensity in the Manufacturing Sector 1985 - 1994 Full Report Introduction Summary of Data Data Tables Data Summaries All (20-39) Food (20) Textiles (22) Apparel (23) Lumber (24) Furniture (25) Paper (26) Printing (27) Chemicals (28) Refineries (29) Rubber (30) Stone (32) Metals (33) Fab. Metals (34) Machinery (35) El. Equip.(36) Instruments (38) Misc. (39) Appendices Survey Design Quality of Data Sector Description Nonobservation Errors Glossary Intensity Sites Commercial Residential Transportation International Manufacturing Energy Intensity Changes in Energy Intensity Click for Full Graph Manufacturing Energy Consumption Consumption of Energy Click for Full Graph Manufacturing Shipments History of Shipments Click for Full Graph The focus of this data report is on intensity of energy use, measured by energy consumption relative to constant dollar shipments of manufactured products -- commonly called energy intensities (EI) by energy analysts. This report explicitly relates changes in two energy measures of energy intensity to efficiency, while being cognizant that there are structural and behavioral effects enmeshed in those measures of energy efficiency. Reporting EI serves to continue the Intensity Change report series.

246

Processes to remove acid forming gases from exhaust gases  

DOE Patents [OSTI]

The present invention relates to a process for reducing the concentration of NO in a gas, which process comprises: (A) contacting a gas sample containing NO with a gaseous oxidizing agent to oxidize the NO to NO[sub 2]; (B) contacting the gas sample of step (A) comprising NO[sub 2] with an aqueous reagent of bisulfite/sulfite and a compound selected from urea, sulfamic acid, hydrazinium ion, hydrazoic acid, nitroaniline, sulfanilamide, sulfanilic acid, mercaptopropanoic acid, mercaptosuccinic acid, cysteine or combinations thereof at between about 0 and 100 C at a pH of between about 1 and 7 for between about 0.01 and 60 sec; and (C) optionally contacting the reaction product of step (A) with conventional chemical reagents to reduce the concentrations of the organic products of the reaction in step (B) to environmentally acceptable levels. Urea or sulfamic acid are preferred, especially sulfamic acid, and step (C) is not necessary or performed. 16 figs.

Chang, S.G.

1994-09-20T23:59:59.000Z

247

Control of scale in flue gas scrubbers  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

This patent describes a flue gas desulfurization system in which sulfur dioxide-containing flue gas is passed in countercurrent flow with an aqueous calcium-bearing scrubbing liquor whereby the sulfur dioxide is removed from the flue gas by being absorbed by the scrubbing liquor and converted to calcium sulfite and/or calcium sulfate. The improvement of minimizing the formation of calcium scale on the surfaces of the system comprises maintaining in the scrubbing liquor about 0.1-25 ppm of a 1:1 diisobutylene-maleic anhydride copolymer having an average molecular weight of 11000. The copolymer is incorporated in the scrubbing liquor as a 10-15% aqueous dispersion.

Thomas, P.A.; Dewitt-Dick, D.B.

1987-06-02T23:59:59.000Z

248

Production of high quality and low energy chemithermomechanical pulp  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Chemithermomechanical pulps (CTMP) were produced from Eastern black spruce chips in a two-stage pilot plant using different conditions of chemical pretreatment and refining intensity. The conventional CTMP was produced by impregnating chips with sulfite liquor at a pH of approximately 10 and the conducting the first-stage refining in a double disc refiner at 1,200 rpm. The distribution of specific energy and refining intensity was about the same in the two stages. The experiments showed that, by decreasing the impregnating liquor pH to approximately 4.5 and conducting the first-stage refining at a relatively low specific energy and high refining intensity (by operating the refiner at 1,800 rpm), an energy saving of up to 33% could be achieved without any adverse effect on the pulp quality.

Stationwala, M.I. (Pulp and Paper Research Institute of Canada, Pointe Claire, PQ (Canada))

1994-02-01T23:59:59.000Z

249

Reductive burning of high-yield spent pulping liquors by the addition of pulverized coal  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

This paper reports on the reductive burning of high-yield spent pulping liquors which can be accomplished by the addition of pulverized coal to increase the heat content and generate the proper reducing conditions. Samples from a 78%-yield sodium bisulfite pulping process employing a hardwood furnish were mixed with 10-50% pulveriized coal and burned at 950[degrees]C under reducing conditions in a box furnace. Even in these uncontrolled combustion conditions 76. 5% of the sulfur found in the soluble portion of the smelt was converted from lignousulfonates to useful sulfide ion. For the remainder of the sulfur, analyses determined it to be 19. 5% as sulfite ion, 3. 1% as thiosulfate ion, and 0.9% as sulfate ion.

Sell, N.J.; Norman, J.C. (Natural and Applied Sciences, Univ. of Wisconsin-Green Bay, Green Bay, WI (United States))

1992-10-01T23:59:59.000Z

250

The response of mechanical and chemical pulps to refining  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

This paper reports on theoretical equations describing the flow of pulp in refiners were used to analyze the experimental results obtained in a series of pilot plant trials. Western red cedar and loblolly pine wood chips were refined in 1-3 stages at rotational speeds of 1200 and 1800 rpm to produce thermomechanical pulps (TMP). Also, sulfate semibleached and low-yield sulfite pulps were refined at low (5%), medium (12%), and high (25%) consistency. The results indicate that the number of refining stages did not affect mechanical pulp quality. At a given specific energy, increasing the rotational speed increased the specific energy per impact and decreased the total number of impacts, resulting in a faster rate of fines generation for mechanical pulps. For chemical pulps higher pulp consistency produced gentler refining and yielded a higher rate of freeness decrease.

Miles, K.B.; Karnis, A. (Pulp and Paper Research Inst. of Canada, 570 St. John's Rd., Pointe Claire, Quebec H9R 3J9 (CA))

1991-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

251

On the effects of common pollutants on the corrosion of copper-nickel alloys in sulfide polluted seawater  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Various pollutants are often introduced in seawater by wet and dry deposition and by improper dumping of municipal wastewater. These pollutants often affect the corrosivity of seawater on copper-based alloys which might be thought to be resistant in this environment and do not receive sufficient research efforts. In the present investigation the effect was determined of some common pollutants such as urea, sodium sulfite, sodium nitrate, sodium phosphate, copper sulfate, lead acetate, ammonium sulfate, and ammonium chloride at a level of 10 ppm and of chlorine at 1 ppm concentration on the corrosion characteristics of the 90Cu-10Ni and the 70Cu-30Ni alloys in seawater, both in the presence and in the absence of 10 ppm sulfide. Both small amplitude cyclic voltammetry (SACV) and the Tafel extrapolation technique were employed as test procedures. All pollutants under investigation have led to an increase in corrosion rate and their effect was more pronounced when sulfide was also present. The effects of pollutants were more intense on 90Cu-10Ni as compared to 70Cu-30Ni alloys. In unpolluted seawater, the worst pollutant for 90Cu-10Ni alloy is sulfide followed by urea and chlorine while for the 70Cu-30Ni alloy, the worst pollutant was ammonium chloride followed by sulfide and sodium phosphate. In unpolluted seawater, the introduction of pollutants led to a corrosion reaction which was under cathodic control except for sulfide where the reaction was under anodic control and resulted in a sharp negative shift in the corrosion potential. In sulfide polluted seawater, the worst pollutant for 90Cu-10Ni alloy was ammonium sulfate followed by urea while for 70Cu-30Ni alloy, the worst pollutant was urea followed by ammonium chloride, ammonium sulfate, and sulfite ions.

Alhajji, J.N.; Reda, M.R. [Kuwait Univ., Safat (Kuwait)

1995-09-01T23:59:59.000Z

252

Simpson Tacoma Biomass Facility | Open Energy Information  

Open Energy Info (EERE)

Tacoma Biomass Facility Tacoma Biomass Facility Jump to: navigation, search Name Simpson Tacoma Biomass Facility Facility Simpson Tacoma Sector Biomass Owner Simpson Tacoma Kraft Location Tacoma, Washington Coordinates 47.2528768°, -122.4442906° Loading map... {"minzoom":false,"mappingservice":"googlemaps3","type":"ROADMAP","zoom":14,"types":["ROADMAP","SATELLITE","HYBRID","TERRAIN"],"geoservice":"google","maxzoom":false,"width":"600px","height":"350px","centre":false,"title":"","label":"","icon":"","visitedicon":"","lines":[],"polygons":[],"circles":[],"rectangles":[],"copycoords":false,"static":false,"wmsoverlay":"","layers":[],"controls":["pan","zoom","type","scale","streetview"],"zoomstyle":"DEFAULT","typestyle":"DEFAULT","autoinfowindows":false,"kml":[],"gkml":[],"fusiontables":[],"resizable":false,"tilt":0,"kmlrezoom":false,"poi":true,"imageoverlays":[],"markercluster":false,"searchmarkers":"","locations":[{"text":"","title":"","link":null,"lat":47.2528768,"lon":-122.4442906,"alt":0,"address":"","icon":"","group":"","inlineLabel":"","visitedicon":""}]}

253

Categorical Exclusion Determinations: Pennsylvania | Department of Energy  

Broader source: Energy.gov (indexed) [DOE]

November 9, 2010 November 9, 2010 CX-004431: Categorical Exclusion Determination Pennsylvania Economic Development Association Sustainable Business Recovery for the Kraft Foods Global, Incorporated CX(s) Applied: B5.1 Date: 11/09/2010 Location(s): Allentown, Pennsylvania Office(s): Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy, National Energy Technology Laboratory November 8, 2010 CX-004433: Categorical Exclusion Determination Pennsylvania Economic Development Association Sustainable Business Recovery for the Fox Chase Cancer Center CX(s) Applied: B5.1 Date: 11/08/2010 Location(s): Philadelphia, Pennsylvania Office(s): Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy, National Energy Technology Laboratory November 8, 2010 CX-004402: Categorical Exclusion Determination The Use of Scrap Tires for Oil Well Stimulation

254

Page not found | Department of Energy  

Broader source: Energy.gov (indexed) [DOE]

41 - 3050 of 31,917 results. 41 - 3050 of 31,917 results. Download CX-004371: Categorical Exclusion Determination Kapstone Kraft Paper Company #3 Paper Machine Steam Efficiency Improvements CX(s) Applied: B5.1 Date: 11/02/2010 Location(s): North Carolina Office(s): Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy, National Energy Technology Laboratory http://energy.gov/nepa/downloads/cx-004371-categorical-exclusion-determination Download Energy Management and Financing This Tuesday Webcast for Industry covers how to become a Certified Energy Manager and Certified Practitioner in Energy Management Systems http://energy.gov/eere/downloads/energy-management-and-financing Download Small Business Innovation Research Project Phase I Release 2 Solicitations Awards List of awards announced on February 5, 2013 for the SBIR Program's Phase

255

CX-004717: Categorical Exclusion Determination | Department of Energy  

Broader source: Energy.gov (indexed) [DOE]

717: Categorical Exclusion Determination 717: Categorical Exclusion Determination CX-004717: Categorical Exclusion Determination Earl Fisher Biofuels CX(s) Applied: B5.1 Date: 12/14/2010 Location(s): Chester, Montana Office(s): Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy, Golden Field Office The Montana Department of Environmental Quality is proposing to provide $25,000 of State Energy Program American Recovery and Reinvestment Act funds to Earl Fisher Biofuels, LLC (EFB) for the purchase and installation of two Kern Kraft KK40 oil seed crushers at their existing biodiesel production facility located in Chester's industrial park west of Chester, Montana. The purpose of the proposed project is to increase oil seed crushing capacity and biodiesel production by 40% and support a self sustaining industry by creating a market for oilseed crops that can be

256

Page not found | Department of Energy  

Broader source: Energy.gov (indexed) [DOE]

91 - 6600 of 29,416 results. 91 - 6600 of 29,416 results. Download CX-004431: Categorical Exclusion Determination Pennsylvania Economic Development Association Sustainable Business Recovery for the Kraft Foods Global, Incorporated CX(s) Applied: B5.1 Date: 11/09/2010 Location(s): Allentown, Pennsylvania Office(s): Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy, National Energy Technology Laboratory http://energy.gov/nepa/downloads/cx-004431-categorical-exclusion-determination Download CX-004432: Categorical Exclusion Determination Pennsylvania Economic Development Association Sustainable Business Recovery - Albright College Co-Generation Facility CX(s) Applied: B1.15, B2.2, B5.1 Date: 11/09/2010 Location(s): Reading, Pennsylvania Office(s): Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy, National Energy

257

NETL: Gasifipedia  

Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

Tools Tools Bibliography Gasification Plant Databases - National Energy Technology Laboratory 2009 Corporate Responsibility Report - Air Products 5th International Symposium on Gas Cleaning at High Temperatures A Cost-Benefit Assessment of Gasification-Based Biorefining in the Kraft Pulp and Paper Industry (Princeton University Energy Group - Dec 2006) A Pathway Study Focused on Non-Carbon Capture Advanced Power Systems R&D Using Bituminous Coal, Volume 1 (Oct 2008) A Review of Air Separation Technologies and their Integration with Energy Conversion Processes - A. Smith, Fuel Processing Technology (2000) About Gasification - Clean-energy.us Acid Gas Removal - The Linde Group (Nov 2011) Advanced Gasification Systems Development - S.P. Fusselman, K.M. Sprouse, A.K. Darby, J. Tennant and G.J. Stiegel, International Pittsburgh Coal Conference (Sept 2005)

258

Water Sampling At Teels Marsh Area (Coolbaugh, Et Al., 2006) | Open Energy  

Open Energy Info (EERE)

Teels Marsh Area (Coolbaugh, Et Al., 2006) Teels Marsh Area (Coolbaugh, Et Al., 2006) Jump to: navigation, search GEOTHERMAL ENERGYGeothermal Home Exploration Activity: Water Sampling At Teels Marsh Area (Coolbaugh, Et Al., 2006) Exploration Activity Details Location Teels Marsh Area Exploration Technique Water Sampling Activity Date Usefulness useful DOE-funding Unknown Notes Follow up (to ASTER satellite imaging) analysis of spring and well waters yielded geothermometer reservoir estimates up to 192°C References Mark F. Coolbaugh, Chris Kraft, Chris Sladek, Richard E. Zehner, Lisa Shevenell (2006) Quaternary Borate Deposits As A Geothermal Exploration Tool In The Great Basin Retrieved from "http://en.openei.org/w/index.php?title=Water_Sampling_At_Teels_Marsh_Area_(Coolbaugh,_Et_Al.,_2006)&oldid=388168

259

STATEMENT OF CONSIDERATIONS REQUEST BY BABCOCK & WILCOX COMPANY (B&W)  

Broader source: Energy.gov (indexed) [DOE]

BABCOCK & WILCOX COMPANY (B&W) BABCOCK & WILCOX COMPANY (B&W) FOR AN ADVANCE WAIVER OF DOMESTIC AND FOREIGN RIGHTS UNDER DOE COOPERATIVE AGREEMENT NO.. DE-FC36-94GO 10002; W(A)-94-030; CH-0847 This waiver request is for domestic and foreign rights for all subject inventions made by the Babcock & Wilcox Company's (B&W's) employees under the subject cooperative agreement. The object of the work to be performed under this cooperative agreement is to develop technologies to improve high solids firing of black liquor in pulp mill recovery boilers or to recover kraft pulping or mill process chemicals by alternate means involving black liquor gasification. Principally, the work involves evaluating and selecting either the high solids advanced combustion or black liquor gasification technology, designing, constructing and using a pilot scale unit to develop

260

Categorical Exclusion Determinations: Office of Energy Efficiency and  

Broader source: Energy.gov (indexed) [DOE]

0, 2010 0, 2010 CX-004423: Categorical Exclusion Determination Carolina Blue Skies Initiative CX(s) Applied: A1, B5.1 Date: 11/10/2010 Location(s): Sumter, South Carolina Office(s): Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy, National Energy Technology Laboratory November 9, 2010 CX-004432: Categorical Exclusion Determination Pennsylvania Economic Development Association Sustainable Business Recovery - Albright College Co-Generation Facility CX(s) Applied: B1.15, B2.2, B5.1 Date: 11/09/2010 Location(s): Reading, Pennsylvania Office(s): Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy, National Energy Technology Laboratory November 9, 2010 CX-004431: Categorical Exclusion Determination Pennsylvania Economic Development Association Sustainable Business Recovery for the Kraft Foods Global, Incorporated

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261

Microsoft Word - DOE Final Report-July 13.doc  

Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

Dewatering Aids Dewatering Aids for Minerals and Coal Fines by Roe-Hoan Yoon, Ramazan Asmatulu, Ismail Yildirim, William Jansen, Jinming Zhang, Brad Atkinson, and Jeff Havens The Final Report to United States Department of Energy for Project Period During January 2001 to January 2004 DOE Award Number, DE-FC26-01NT41053 Mineral and Coal Technologies (MCT) Inc. 1800 Kraft Drive, Suite 106 Blacksburg, VA 24060 Report Issued July 2004 2 DISCLAIMER This report was prepared as an account of work sponsored by an agency of the United States Government. Neither the United States Government nor any agency thereof, nor any of their employees, makes any warranty, express or implied, or assumes any legal liability or responsibility for the accuracy, completeness, or

262

Deep oxidation of glucose in enzymatic fuel cells through a synthetic enzymatic pathway containing a cascade of two thermostable dehydrogenases  

Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

Deep Deep oxidation of glucose in enzymatic fuel cells through a synthetic enzymatic pathway containing a cascade of two thermostable dehydrogenases Zhiguang Zhu a , Fangfang Sun a , Xiaozhou Zhang a,d , Y.-H. Percival Zhang a,b,c,d,n a Biological Systems Engineering Department, Virginia Polytechnic Institute and State University (Virginia Tech), 210-A Seitz Hall, Blacksburg, Virginia 24061, USA b Institute for Critical Technology and Applied Science (ICTAS), Virginia Polytechnic Institute and State University, Blacksburg, Virginia 24061, USA c DOE BioEnergy Science Center (BESC), Oak Ridge, Tennessee 37831, USA d Gate Fuels Inc., 2200 Kraft Drive, Suite 1200B, Blacksburg, VA 24060, USA a r t i c l e i n f o Article history: Received 12 January 2012 Received in revised form 26 March 2012 Accepted 4 April 2012 Keywords: Deep oxidation Enzymatic fuel cell Glucose biobattery Thermoenzyme

263

Water Sampling At Rhodes Marsh Area (Coolbaugh, Et Al., 2006) | Open Energy  

Open Energy Info (EERE)

Rhodes Marsh Area (Coolbaugh, Et Al., 2006) Rhodes Marsh Area (Coolbaugh, Et Al., 2006) Jump to: navigation, search GEOTHERMAL ENERGYGeothermal Home Exploration Activity: Water Sampling At Rhodes Marsh Area (Coolbaugh, Et Al., 2006) Exploration Activity Details Location Rhodes Marsh Area Exploration Technique Water Sampling Activity Date Usefulness useful DOE-funding Unknown Notes Follow up (to ASTER satellite imaging) analysis of spring and well waters yielded geothermometer reservoir estimates up to 162°C References Mark F. Coolbaugh, Chris Kraft, Chris Sladek, Richard E. Zehner, Lisa Shevenell (2006) Quaternary Borate Deposits As A Geothermal Exploration Tool In The Great Basin Retrieved from "http://en.openei.org/w/index.php?title=Water_Sampling_At_Rhodes_Marsh_Area_(Coolbaugh,_Et_Al.,_2006)&oldid=387552"

264

Quantitative Molecular Structure–Pyrolytic Energy Correlation for Hardwood Lignins  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

† Departamento de Química, Universidade Federal de Viçosa, Viçosa, Minas Gerais 36570-000, Brazil ... The use of renewable resources has emerged as a powerful alternative to fossil fuels because not only does it provide a local solution to energy dependence but it also helps to minimize environmental impacts by closing the greenhouse gas (CO2) loop. ... A kinetic anal. of the thermal decompn. of eucalyptus sawdust, cellulose, and eucalyptus kraft lignin was accomplished from temp.-programmed reaction expts., using two different approaches: the 1st assumed an overall reaction model, whereas in the 2nd, pyrolysis was viewed as a process consisting of multiple reactions in parallel and a distribution of activation energies is derived. ...

Teresa Cristina Fonseca Silva; Ricardo Baillerini Santos; Hasan Jameel; Jorge Luiz Colodette; Lucian A. Lucia

2012-01-17T23:59:59.000Z

265

Recycling of cleach plant filtrates by electrodialysis removal of inorganic non-process elements.  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Water use in the pulp and paper industry is very significant, and the U.S. pulp and paper industries as well as other processing industries are actively pursuing water conservation and pollution prevention by in-process recycling of water. Bleach plant effluent is a large portion of the water discharged from a typical bleached kraft pulp mill. The recycling of bleach plant effluents to the kraft recovery cycle is widely regarded as an approach to low effluent bleached kraft pulp production. The focus of this work has been on developing an electrodialysis process for recycling the acidic bleach plant effluent of bleached Kraft pulp mills. Electrodialysis is uniquely suited as a selective kidney to remove non-process elements (NPEs) from bleach plant effluent before they reach the chemical recovery cycle. Using electrodialysis for selective NPE removal can prevent the problems caused by accumulation of inorganic NPEs in the pulping cycle and recovery boiler. In this work, acidic bleach plant filtrates from three mills using different bleaching sequences based on chlorine dioxide were characterized. The analyses showed no fundamental differences in the inorganic NPE composition or other characteristics among these filtrates. The majority of total dissolved solids in the effluents were found to be inorganic NPEs. Chloride and nitrate were present at significant levels in all effluent samples. Sodium was the predominant metal ion, while calcium and magnesium were also present at considerable levels. The feasibility of using electrodialysis to selectively remove inorganic NPEs from the acidic bleach effluent was successfully demonstrated in laboratory experiments with effluents from all these three mills. Although there were some variations in these effluents, chloride and potentially harmful cations, such as potassium, calcium, and magnesium, were removed efficiently from the bleach effluents into a small-volume, concentrated purge stream. This effective removal of inorganic NPEs can enable the mills to recycle bleach effluents to reduce water consumption. The electrodialysis process also effectively retained up to 98% of the organics and can reduce the organic discharge in the mill wastewater. By using suitable commercially available electrodialysis membranes, there were no indications of rapid or irreversible membrane fouling or scale formation, even in extended laboratory scale operations up to 100 hours. Results of laboratory experiments also showed that commercially available membranes properly selected for this process would have good stability to withstand the potentially oxidative conditions of the filtrate. A pilot-scale field demonstration was also conducted at a southern mill, using the D0 filtrate from the bleach plant. During the field demonstration we found serious membrane 2 stack clogging problems, which apparently were caused by fine fibers that escaped through the 5-micron pre-filters, although such a pre-filtration method had been satisfactory in the laboratory tests. Additional R&D is recommended to address this pre-filtration or clogging issue with systems approaches integrating pre-filtration, other separation methods, and stack design. After the pre-filtration/clogging issue is overcome, laboratory development and pilot demonstration are recommended to optimize the process parameters and to evaluate the long-term process parameters. The key technical issues here include membrane lives, control and mitigation of fouling and scaling, and cleaning-in-place protocols. From the data collected in this work, a preliminary process design and economic evaluations were performed for a model mill with 1,000-ton/day pulp production that uses a bleaching sequence based on chlorine dioxide. Assuming 3 m{sup 3} acidic effluents to be treated per ton of pulp produced, the electrodialysis process would require a membrane area of about 361 m{sup 2} for this model mill. The energy consumption of the electrodialytic stack for separation is estimated to be about $160/day, and the estimated capital cost of the electrodia

Tsai, S. P.; Pfromm, P.; Henry, M. P.; Fracaro, A. T.; Swanstrom, C. P.; Moon, P.; Energy Systems; Inst. of Paper Science and Tech.

2000-11-01T23:59:59.000Z

266

Dudresnaya babbittiana (Dumontiaceae, Gigartinales), a new red algal species from Midway Atoll, North Central Pacific  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

Dudresnaya babbittiana I.A. Abbott et McDermid, sp. nov., is described from subtidal habitats at Midway Atoll, among the westernmost reefs and lagoons and series of islets in the Hawaiian archipelago. The new species differs in size, habit, internal rhizoids and auxiliary-cell morphology from the two species that have been previously described from the high islands of Hawaii about 1 400 km to the southeast, D. hawaiiensis R.K.S. Lee and D. littleri I.A. Abbott. Closest affinities appear to be with D. capricornica Robins et Kraft from tropical eastern and western Australia, which differs in having a much greater abundance of medullary rhizoids, more consistently present and larger hexagonal crystals in central-axial cells, a far less regular alignment of surface cortical cells, and differently structured carpogonial and auxiliary-cell filaments.

Isabella A. Abbott; Karla J. McDermid

2001-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

267

Thailand's gas line underway: coating a major achievement  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Using primarily local personnel and materials, Bredero Price International's Thai pipe-coating plant has prepared some 374 miles of 34 and 28-in. pipe for service in the Gulf of Thailand gas-pipeline project. The enamel-coating shop cleaned, primed and coated all the pipe with coal-tar enamel, glass-fiber mat, felt, and a kraft-paper outer wrap; the cement-coating facility then added a concrete-weight coating to the portion of the pipe earmarked for offshore duty. Scheduled for a 1981 completion, the pipeline will initially carry 250 million CF/day to power-generating plants in Bangpakong and South Bangkok; the volume transported will eventually reach 500 million CF/day when addition offshore production is tied in to the line and an offshore compressor station added.

Hale, D.

1980-12-01T23:59:59.000Z

268

Mill Integration-Pulping, Stream Reforming and Direct Causticization for Black Liquor Recovery  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

MTCI/StoneChem developed a steam reforming, fluidized bed gasification technology for biomass. DOE supported the demonstration of this technology for gasification of spent wood pulping liquor (or 'black liquor') at Georgia-Pacific's Big Island, Virginia mill. The present pre-commercial R&D project addressed the opportunities as well as identified negative aspects when the MTCI/StoneChem gasification technology is integrated in a pulp mill production facility. The opportunities arise because black liquor gasification produces sulfur (as H{sub 2}S) and sodium (as Na{sub 2}CO{sub 3}) in separate streams which may be used beneficially for improved pulp yield and properties. The negative aspect of kraft black liquor gasification is that the amount of Na{sub 2}CO{sub 3} which must be converted to NaOH (the so called causticizing requirement) is increased. This arises because sulfur is released as Na{sub 2}S during conventional kraft black liquor recovery, while during gasification the sodium associated Na{sub 2}S is partly or fully converted to Na{sub 2}CO{sub 3}. The causticizing requirement can be eliminated by including a TiO{sub 2} based cyclic process called direct causticization. In this process black liquor is gasified in the presence of (low sodium content) titanates which convert Na{sub 2}CO{sub 3} to (high sodium content) titanates. NaOH is formed when contacting the latter titanates with water, thereby eliminating the causticizing requirement entirely. The leached and low sodium titanates are returned to the gasification process. The project team comprised the University of Maine (UM), North Carolina State University (NCSU) and MTCI/ThermoChem. NCSU and MTCI are subcontractors to UM. The principal organization for the contract is UM. NCSU investigated the techno-economics of using advanced pulping techniques which fully utilize the unique cooking liquors produced by steam reforming of black liquor (Task 1). UM studied the kinetics and agglomeration problems of the conversion of Na{sub 2}CO{sub 3} to (high sodium) titanates during gasification of black liquor in the presence of (low sodium) titanates or TiO{sub 2} (Task 2). MTCI/ThermoChem tested the performance and operability of the combined technology of steam reforming and direct causticization in their Process Development Unit (PDU) (Task 3). The specific objectives were: (1) to investigate how split sulfidity and polysulfide (+ AQ) pulping can be used to increase pulp fiber yield and properties compared to conventional kraft pulping; (2) to determine the economics of black liquor gasification combined with these pulping technologies in comparison with conventional kraft pulping and black liquor recovery; (3) to determine the effect of operating conditions on the kinetics of the titanate-based direct causticization reaction during black liquor gasification at relatively low temperatures ({le} 750 C); (4) to determine the mechanism of particle agglomeration during gasification of black liquor in the presence of titanates at relatively low temperatures ({le} 750 C); and (5) to verify performance and operability of the combined technology of steam reforming and direct causticization of black liquor in a pilot scale fluidized bed test facility.

Adriaan van Heiningen

2007-06-30T23:59:59.000Z

269

Recycling of bleach plant filtrates by electrodialysis removal of inorganic non-process elements.  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Water use in the pulp and paper industry is very significant, and the U.S. pulp and paper industries as well as other processing industries are actively pursuing water conservation and pollution prevention by in-process recycling of water. Bleach plant effluent is a large portion of the water discharged from a typical bleached kraft pulp mill. The recycling of bleach plant effluents to the kraft recovery cycle is widely regarded as an approach to low effluent bleached kraft pulp production. The focus of this work has been on developing an electrodialysis process for recycling the acidic bleach plant effluent of bleached Kraft pulp mills. Electrodialysis is uniquely suited as a selective kidney to remove non-process elements (NPEs) from bleach plant effluent before they reach the chemical recovery cycle. Using electrodialysis for selective NPE removal can prevent the problems caused by accumulation of inorganic NPEs in the pulping cycle and recovery boiler. In this work, acidic bleach plant filtrates from three mills using different bleaching sequences based on chlorine dioxide were characterized. The analyses showed no fundamental differences in the inorganic NPE composition or other characteristics among these filtrates. The majority of total dissolved solids in the effluents were found to be inorganic NPEs. Chloride and nitrate were present at significant levels in all effluent samples. Sodium was the predominant metal ion, while calcium and magnesium were also present at considerable levels. The feasibility of using electrodialysis to selectively remove inorganic NPEs from the acidic bleach effluent was successfully demonstrated in laboratory experiments with effluents from all these three mills. Although there were some variations in these effluents, chloride and potentially harmful cations, such as potassium, calcium, and magnesium, were removed efficiently from the bleach effluents into a small-volume, concentrated purge stream. This effective removal of inorganic NPEs can enable the mills to recycle bleach effluents to reduce water consumption. The electrodialysis process also effectively retained up to 98% of the organics and can reduce the organic discharge in the mill wastewater. By using suitable commercially available electrodialysis membranes, there were no indications of rapid or irreversible membrane fouling or scale formation, even in extended laboratory scale operations up to 100 hours. Results of laboratory experiments also showed that commercially available membranes properly selected for this process would have good stability to withstand the potentially oxidative conditions of the filtrate. A pilot-scale field demonstration was also conducted at a southern mill, using the D0 filtrate from the bleach plant. During the field demonstration we found serious membrane stack clogging problems, which apparently were caused by fine fibers that escaped through the 5-micron pre-filters, although such a pre-filtration method had been satisfactory in the laboratory tests. Additional R&D is recommended to address this pre-filtration or clogging issue with systems approaches integrating pre-filtration, other separation methods, and stack design. After the pre-filtration/clogging issue is overcome, laboratory development and pilot demonstration are recommended to optimize the process parameters and to evaluate the long-term process parameters. The key technical issues here include membrane lives, control and mitigation of fouling and scaling, and cleaning-in-place protocols.

Tsai, S. P.; Pfromm, P.; Henry, M. P.; Fracaro, A. T.; Swanstrom, C. P.; Moon, P.

2002-03-04T23:59:59.000Z

270

Cracking and Corrosion of Composite Tubes in Black Liquor Recovery Boiler Primary Air Ports  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Black liquor recovery boilers are an essential part of kraft mills. Their design and operating procedures have changed over time with the goal of providing improved boiler performance. These performance improvements are frequently associated with an increase in heat flux and/or operating temperature with a subsequent increase in the demand on structural materials associated with operation at higher temperatures and/or in more corrosive environments. Improvements in structural materials have therefore been required. In most cases the alternate materials have provided acceptable solutions. However, in some cases the alternate materials have solved the original problem but introduced new issues. This report addresses the performance of materials in the tubes forming primary air port openings and, particularly, the problems associated with use of stainless steel clad carbon steel tubes and the solutions that have been identified.

Keiser, James R.; Singbeil, Douglas L.; Sarma, Gorti B.; Kish, Joseph R.; Yuan, Jerry; Frederick, Laurie A.; Choudhury, Kimberly A.; Gorog, J. Peter; Jetté, Francois R.; Hubbard, Camden R.; Swindeman, Robert W.; Singh, Prett M.; Maziasz, Phillip J.

2006-10-01T23:59:59.000Z

271

Cracking of Composite Modified Alloy 825 Primary Air Port Tubes  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Twenty primary air ports fabricated from modified Alloy 825-based composite tubes underwent a metallurgical examination to document the mode and extent of cracking on the external fireside surface of a kraft recovery boiler. Collectively, the crack features found are most consistent with thermal fatigue, but corrosion fatigue cannot be ruled out. Regardless of the true cracking mechanism, temperature cycling is implicated as a critical factor for crack propagation. on the basis of the relative crack lengths observed, membrane welds and tube weld repairs, and their adjacent heat-affected zones, appear to be more susceptible to cracking than the cladding itself. This work suggests that mills should avoid boiler operating conditions that promote large temperature fluctuations, which can cause Alloy 825-based composite tubes to crack.

Kish, Joseph R. [Paprican; Keiser, James R [ORNL; Singbeil, Douglas [Paprican; Willoughby, Adam W [ORNL; Longmire, Hu Foster [ORNL

2007-04-01T23:59:59.000Z

272

Floor tube corrosion in recovery boilers  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Lower sulfur emissions at a pulp mill result in higher sulfidity levels and in the enrichment of potassium in the mill`s liquor system. The sulfidity values at Scandinavian kraft mills previously fluctuated between 28 and 35%; today they exceed 45%. Viscosity measurements show that the viscosity decreases drastically when the sulfidity increases from 30 mole% to 40 mole%, its potassium and chlorine levels are high enough, and the char bed is low, the smelt flows easily and may penetrate the char bed, approaching the floor tubes. In extreme cases, the hot smelt destroys the layer of solidified smelt on the floor tube`s surface and reacts very rapidly with the floor tube.

Klarin, A. [A. Ahistrom Corp., Helsinki (Finland)

1993-12-01T23:59:59.000Z

273

Visualization of the recovery-bioler flow fields predicted by computational fluid dynamics  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Flow patterns in the kraft recovery furnace can be simulated using models based on computational fluid dynamics (CFD). The use of CFD is becoming increasingly common as computer workstations become more powerful and CFD software is improved. In this article, the authors present simulated results for flow fields in the lower furnace. Because the flows in the lower furnace are dominated by the air system, the authors chose to simulate flow fields under isothermal conditions. The predicted flow fields were used to supplement results obtained from physical modeling. When a physical model is used for testing, each air-system configuration is typically evaluated based on air and gas velocities and the mixing distribution as measured at a limited number of test planes. Such measurements are commonly used to quantitatively assess air-system configurations for modeling studies or to validate CFD models.

Chapman, P.J.; Janik, S.G. (Kreisinger Development Lab. ABB Combustion Engineering Systems, Windsor, CT (United States)); Jones, A.K. (ABB Canada, Ottawa, ON (Canada))

1992-03-01T23:59:59.000Z

274

Design and performance of the Champion pilot-constructed wetland treatment system  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Pilot wetlands were built at Champion International Corp.'s Pensacola, FL, bleached kraft paper mill to evaluate the potential for final effluent polishing. The pilot wetlands began operation July 1, 1991. Monitoring ended June 30, 1993. Removal rates and outflow concentrations for five-day biochemical oxygen demand (BOD[sub 5]), total suspended solids (TSS), ammonia nitrogen, total nitrogen (TN), and total phosphorus (TP) depended most on hydraulic loading rates (HLRs). Two-year average removal efficiencies for these constituents were above 67%. Slight color and total dissolved solids reductions were seen at the lower HLRs tested. Deep zones enhanced flow distribution, increase hydraulic residence time, and significantly increased pollutant assimilation in the pilot wetlands. The wetland cells reduced or eliminated chronic toxicity to cladocerans and fathead minnows. The most suitable plant species in the wetland were cattails, bulrush, and sawgrass.

Knight, R.L. (CH2M Hill, Gainesville, FL (United States)); Hilleke, J.; Grayson, S. (Champion International Corp., West Nyack, NY (United States))

1994-05-01T23:59:59.000Z

275

Page not found | Department of Energy  

Broader source: Energy.gov (indexed) [DOE]

01 - 8410 of 26,764 results. 01 - 8410 of 26,764 results. Download CX-005319: Categorical Exclusion Determination Alternative Fuel/Advanced Vehicle Technology - City of Raleigh CX(s) Applied: A1, B5.1 Date: 02/24/2011 Location(s): Raleigh, North Carolina Office(s): Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy, National Energy Technology Laboratory http://energy.gov/nepa/downloads/cx-005319-categorical-exclusion-determination Download CX-004431: Categorical Exclusion Determination Pennsylvania Economic Development Association Sustainable Business Recovery for the Kraft Foods Global, Incorporated CX(s) Applied: B5.1 Date: 11/09/2010 Location(s): Allentown, Pennsylvania Office(s): Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy, National Energy Technology Laboratory http://energy.gov/nepa/downloads/cx-004431-categorical-exclusion-determination

276

Ohio's 2nd congressional district: Energy Resources | Open Energy  

Open Energy Info (EERE)

Ohio. Ohio. Registered Energy Companies in Ohio's 2nd congressional district AHL-TECH Ameridian Speciality Services CECO Environmental Corp CIMx Software Cinergy Ventures II LLC DELTEC INC Eagle Energy LLC Global Energy Inc Green Builder Media /Green Builder College Icon Solar Power, LLC Innovative Solutions Unlimited, LLC (InSolves) KATZEN International Inc Macy's Manuta Chemical Consulting Inc. Melink Industries Melink Solar OnPower Inc Pilus Energy SEMCO THOR Turner Hunt Ocean Renewable LLC The Utilities Group Inc Ultimate Best Buy LLC Vinyl Kraft Windows and Doors Vision Energy Energy Generation Facilities in Ohio's 2nd congressional district Melink Solar Canopy at the Cincinnati Zoo Retrieved from "http://en.openei.org/w/index.php?title=Ohio%27s_2nd_congressional_district&oldid=196998

277

In Situ Bioreduction of Uranium (VI) to Submicromolar Levels and Reoxidation by Dissolved Oxygen  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Groundwater within Area 3 of the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Environmental Remediation Sciences Program (ERSP) Field Research Center at Oak Ridge, TN (ORFRC) contains up to 135 {micro}M uranium as U(VI). Through a series of experiments at a pilot scale test facility, we explored the lower limits of groundwater U(VI) that can be achieved by in-situ biostimulation and the effects of dissolved oxygen on immobilized uranium. Weekly 2 day additions of ethanol over a 2-year period stimulated growth of denitrifying, Fe(III)-reducing, and sulfate-reducing bacteria, and immobilization of uranium as U(IV), with dissolved uranium concentrations decreasing to low levels. Following sulfite addition to remove dissolved oxygen, aqueous U(VI) concentrations fell below the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency maximum contaminant limit (MCL) for drinking water (<30 {micro}g L{sup -1} or 0.126 {micro}M). Under anaerobic conditions, these low concentrations were stable, even in the absence of added ethanol. However, when sulfite additions stopped, and dissolved oxygen (4.0-5.5 mg L{sup -1}) entered the injection well, spatially variable changes in aqueous U(VI) occurred over a 60 day period, with concentrations increasing rapidly from <0.13 to 2.0 {micro}M at a multilevel sampling (MLS) well located close to the injection well, but changing little at an MLS well located further away. Resumption of ethanol addition restored reduction of Fe(III), sulfate, and U(VI) within 36 h. After 2 years of ethanol addition, X-ray absorption near-edge structure spectroscopy (XANES) analyses indicated that U(IV) comprised 60-80% of the total uranium in sediment samples. At the completion of the project (day 1260), U concentrations in MLS wells were less than 0.1 {micro}M. The microbial community at MLS wells with low U(VI) contained bacteria that are known to reduce uranium, including Desulfovibrio spp. and Geobacter spp., in both sediment and groundwater. The dominant Fe(III)-reducing species were Geothrix spp.

Wu, Weimin [ORNL; Carley, Jack M [ORNL; Luo, Jian [Stanford University; Ginder-Vogel, Matthew A. [Stanford University; Cardenas, Erick [Michigan State University, East Lansing; Leigh, Mary Beth [Michigan State University, East Lansing; Hwang, Chaichi [Miami University, Oxford, OH; Kelly, Shelly D [Argonne National Laboratory (ANL); Ruan, Chuanmin [ORNL; Wu, Liyou [University of Oklahoma, Norman; Van Nostrand, Joy [University of Oklahoma, Norman; Gentry, Terry J [ORNL; Lowe, Kenneth Alan [ORNL; Mehlhorn, Tonia L [ORNL; Carroll, Sue L [ORNL; Luo, Wensui [ORNL; Fields, Matthew Wayne [Miami University, Oxford, OH; Gu, Baohua [ORNL; Watson, David B [ORNL; Kemner, Kenneth M [Argonne National Laboratory (ANL); Marsh, Terence [Michigan State University, East Lansing; Tiedje, James [Michigan State University, East Lansing; Zhou, Jizhong [University of Oklahoma, Norman; Fendorf, Scott [Stanford University; Kitanidis, Peter K. [Stanford University; Jardine, Philip M [ORNL; Criddle, Craig [ORNL

2007-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

278

Coolside waste management research. Quarterly technical progress report, April 1, 1993--June 30, 1993  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Reactions controlling the formation, composition and disintegration of ettringite are critical in determining the overall stability and strength of cements and concretes derived from dry-flue gas desulfurization wastes. These wastes typically consist primarily of fly ash, along with, CaSO{sub 3}, and CaSO{sub 4} and unreacted Ca(OH){sub 2}. The sulfites and sulfates in these materials react with the portiandite (Ca(OH){sub 2}) along with the glassy aluminosilicate Portion of the fly ash to form calcium sulfo-aluminate minerals. Ettringite, the most important of these, is the main contributor to the compressive strength development of the FGD waste mixtures. Excessive ettringite formation causes first lateral and horizontal swelling of the concrete which often leads to destructive crack formation. It has been shown that the quantity of ettringite formed and compressive strength of the FGD waste mixtures reach a maximum until ettringite begins to disintegrate. Because the formation mechanisms of ettringite are not entirely understood, swelling in FGD derived products is difficult to predict. This study focused on the formation and disintegration mechanism of ettringite in FGD waste mixtures with varying contents of aluminum (hydr)oxides, and calcium (hydr)oxides of the starting materials. Mineralogical transformations were documented in X-ray diffraction and scanning electron microscope (SEM) observations of the materials.

Not Available

1993-12-31T23:59:59.000Z

279

Chapter 6 Research needs and future directions  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

Publisher Summary This chapter discusses research needs and future directions. Significant research has been done since the early 1990s in the development of biodesulfurization. The majority of this work has been done in biocatalyst development, although advances in the area of process development have also been made. The major thrust for these activities was from the identification of a sulfur-specific desulfurization pathway in Rhodococcus erythropolis, sp. IGTS8 in the early 1990s. This significantly raised the potential of developing an efficient biodesulfurization process due to the selective nature of the reaction and thus, retention of the fuel value of the oil. The metabolic pathway for biodesulfurization in the organism was characterized and the enzymes necessary for the biochemical reactions were identified. Following this, the genes expressing these enzymes were also characterized and cloned into E. coli and other organisms. The rate of each step in the reaction pathway was determined, both in vivo and in vitro and the rate-limiting step was identified as the last step in the pathway involving enzyme DszB, which releases the sulfur as sulfite. All the enzymes in the pathway were over expressed and the rate of DBT conversion was increased by over an order of magnitude. Over expression of the enzyme DszD, which regenerates the co-factor required for the first two steps, was also achieved, further enhancing the rate of conversion .

2007-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

280

Study on Conditioning of SO2–Ethanol–Water Spent Liquor from Spruce Chips/Softwood Biomass for ABE Fermentation  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

This study is an integral part of a project which aims at creating an economic process that can utilize cheap forestry residues such as twigs, cones, treetops, branches, and bark to produce renewable chemicals and liquid fuels. ... Further instruments were used for various analyses: furfural and hydroxymethylfurfural by HPLC (Dionex UltiMate 3000 equipped with diode array detector); acetic acid, formic acid, and ethanol by an HP 1100 HPLC; aldonic acids by HPAEC equipped with a Dionex CarboPac PA10 column; uronic acids by methanolysis/GC-FID (Shimadzu GC-2010 Plus with NB-30 capillary column of 30 m length and 0.32 mm interior diameter) according to Sundberg et al.(17) and Iakovlev and van Heiningen;(2) concentrations of sulfate and sulfite anions (after adding NaOH) by ion chromatography (Dionex ICS 1500, Sunnyvale, CA, USA); inorganic analysis of the feedstocks by a Varian Liberty ICP-AAS; CHN/S analysis of the feedstocks by a 2400 Series II CHN/S PerkinElmer elemental analyzer (Jones factor of 6.25 used to convert nitrogen content to protein content according to Mariotti et al.(18)); sulfur content in the LCC by combustion in oxygen in a Schöniger flask, followed by absorption of SO2 in H2O2 solution, and the formed sulfate anions were determined by ion chromatography (SCAN-CM 57:99). ...

Evangelos Sklavounos; Mikhail Iakovlev; Adriaan van Heiningen

2013-02-26T23:59:59.000Z

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "kraft sulfite misc" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


281

Health Hazard Evaluation determination report HHE 81-000-113, Martin-Marietta Cement, Tulsa, Oklahoma  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

In response to a request from the United Cement, Lime, Gypsum and Allied Workers Union Local 421, an investigation was made of possible health hazards occurring from the burning of high sulfur coal which exposed workers to sulfur-dioxide, carbon-dioxide, and hydrogen-sulfide at Martin-Marietta Cement, Tulsa, Oklahoma. Mail questionnaires were sent to employees prior to a hazard survey, and were followed up with medical interviews focusing on neurological symptoms, syncope, strokes, chest pain, and mucous membrane irritation. Environmental samples were collected for sulfur-dioxide, sulfates, sulfites, carbon-monoxide, nitrogen-dioxide, and hydrogen-sulfide, and measured predominately in work areas near the back end of the kiln. Eighteen of 29 questionnaire respondents and 20 of 21 interviewed workers reported mucous membrane irritation compatible with sulfur-dioxide exposure. The NIOSH recommended limit for sulfur-dioxide was 0.5ppm as a time weighted average. The authors conclude that a health hazard did exist at the time of the survey, and recommend that controls be implemented to minimize sulfur-dioxide exposure in the facility.

Sanderson, W.; Hodgson, M.J.

1992-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

282

Management of solid wastes from the Limestone Injection Dry Scrubbing (LIDS) clean coal technology. Final report  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

The objectives of this project were to characterize by-products from a pilot Limestone Injection Dry Scrubbing (LIDS) process and to develop processes directed toward the safe and economic use or disposal of these wastes. Because LIDS is a developing Clean Coal technology, a database of chemical and physical characteristics of the by-product was first developed. During the course of this project, it was found that the waste alone did not form high-strength products sufficient for use in construction and engineering applications. Therefore, the project was redirected to evaluate the by-product as a soil-cement and Portland cement raw material, agricultural liming agent, backfill/landfill material component, and mine reclamation/neutralizing agent. Based on these evaluations, the most viable uses for the LIDS byproduct include use in mine reclamation or as a neutralization agent. If soluble sulfites can be minimized by avoiding a dolomitic LIDS reagent, use as an agricultural liming agent has promise. Interest from an Ohio utility in the LIDS process suggests possible application of results at the demonstration or commercial stages.

Musiol, W.F. Jr.; Czuczwa, J.M.

1993-03-01T23:59:59.000Z

283

Impact of additives for enhanced sulfur dioxide removal on re-emissions of mercury in wet flue gas desulfurization  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

Abstract The wet flue gas desulfurization process (FGD) in fossil fired power plants offers the advantage of simultaneously removing SO2 and other water soluble pollutants, such as certain oxidized mercury compounds (Hg2+). In order to maximize SO2 removal efficiency of installed FGD units, organic additives can be utilized. In the context of multi-pollutant control by wet FGD, the effect of formic and adipic acid on redox reactions of dissolved mercury compounds is investigated with a continuously operated lab-scale test-rig. For sulfite ( SO 3 2 - ) concentrations above a certain critical value, their potential as reducing agent leads to rapidly increasing formation and re-emission of elemental mercury (Hg0). Increasing chloride concentration and decreasing pH and slurry temperature have been identified as key factors for depressing Hg0 re-emissions. Both organic additives have a negative impact on Hg-retention and cause increased Hg0 re-emissions in the wet FGD process, with formic acid being the significantly stronger reducing agent. Different pathways of Hg2+ reduction were identified by qualitative interpretation of the pH-dependence and by comparison of activation enthalpies and activation entropies. While the first mechanism proposed identifies SO 3 2 - as reducing agent and is therefore relevant for any FGD process, the second mechanism involves the formate anion, thus being exclusively relevant for \\{FGDs\\} utilizing formic acid as additive.

Barna Heidel; Melanie Hilber; Günter Scheffknecht

2014-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

284

NANOSCALE BOEHMITE FILLER FOR CORROSION AND WEAR RESISTANT POLYPHENYLENESULFIDE COATINGS.  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

The authors evaluated the usefulness of nanoscale boehmite crystals as a filler for anti-wear and anti-corrosion polyphenylenesulfide (PPS) coatings exposed to a very harsh, 300 C corrosive geothermal environment. The boehmite fillers dispersed uniformly into the PPS coating, conferring two advanced properties: First, they reduced markedly the rate of blasting wear; second, they increased the PPS's glass transition temperature and thermal decomposition temperature. The wear rate of PPS surfaces was reduced three times when 5wt% boehmite was incorporated into the PPS. During exposure for 15 days at 300 C, the PPS underwent hydrothermal oxidation, leading to the substitution of sulfide linkages by the sulfite linkages. However, such molecular alteration did not significantly diminish the ability of the coating to protect carbon steel against corrosion. In fact, PPS coating filled with boehmite of {le} 5wt% adequately mitigated its corrosion in brine at 300 C. One concern in using this filler was that it absorbs brine. Thus, adding an excess amount of boehmite was detrimental to achieving the maximum protection afforded by the coatings.

SUGAMA,T.

2003-06-26T23:59:59.000Z

285

Ion chromatographic analysis of oil shale leachates  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

In the present work an investigation of the use of ion chromatography to determine environmentally significant anions present in oil shale leachates was undertaken. Nadkarni et al. have used ion chromatography to separate and quantify halogen, sulfur and nitrogen species in oil shales after combustion in a Parr bomb. Potts and Potas used ion chromatography to monitor inorganic ions in cooling tower wastewater from coal gasification. Wallace and coworkers have used ion chromatography to determine anions encountered in retort wastewaters. The ions of interest in this work were the ions of sulfur oxides including sulfite (SO{sub 3}{sup 2{minus}}), sulfate (SO{sub 4}{sup 2{minus}}), thiosulfate (S{sub 2}O{sub 3}{sup 2{minus}}), dithionite (S{sub 2}O{sub 4}{sup 2{minus}}), dithionate (S{sub 2}O{sub 6}{sup 2{minus}}), peroxyodisulfate (S{sub 2}O{sub 8}{sup 2{minus}}), and tetrathionate (S{sub 4}O{sub 6}{sup 2{minus}}), and thiocyanate (SCN{sup {minus}}), sulfide (S{sup 2{minus}}) hydrosulfide (HS{sup {minus}}), cyanide (CN{sup {minus}}), thiocyanate (SCN{sup {minus}}), and cyanate (OCN{sup {minus}}). A literature search was completed and a leaching procedure developed. 15 refs., 6 figs., 1 tab.

Butler, N.L.

1990-10-01T23:59:59.000Z

286

Recovery and utilization of gypsum and limestone from scrubber sludge. Technical report, December 1, 1992--February 28, 1993  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Wet flue-gas desulfurization units in coal-fired power plants produce a large amount of sludge which must be disposed of, and which is currently landfilled in most cases. Increasing landfill costs are gradually forcing utilities to find other alternatives. In principle, this sludge can be used to make gypsum (CaSO{sub 4}-2H{sub 2}O) for products such as plaster-of-Paris and wallboard, but only if impurities such as unreacted limestone and soluble salts are removed, and the calcium sulfite (CaSO{sub 3}) is oxidized to calcium sulfate (CaSO{sub 4}). This project is investigating methods for removing the impurities from the sludge so that high-quality, salable gypsum products can be made. Work done in the previous quarter concentrated on developing a dependable technique for analysis of scrubber sludge, so that it would be possible to determine exactly how well a particular purification process was working. This technique was then used to characterize the sludge from a particular Illinois power station. In the current quarter, studies were carried out using froth flotation to produce a product that could be oxidized to high-purity gypsum. These experiments have been quite successful, due to certain properties of the limestone impurity that makes it easier to remove by this method than was expected.

Kawatra, S.K.; Eisele, T.C. [Michigan Technological Univ., Houghton, MI (United States). Dept. of Metallurgical and Materials Engineering; Banerjee, D. [Illinois Clean Coal Inst., Carterville, IL (United States)

1993-05-01T23:59:59.000Z

287

Comparative investigation on chemical looping combustion of coal-derived synthesis gas containing H2S over supported NiO oxygen carriers  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Chemical looping combustion (CLC) of simulated coal-derived synthesis gas was conducted with NiO oxygen carriers supported on SiO2, ZrO2, TiO2, and sepiolite. The effect of H2S on the performance of these samples for the CLC process was also evaluated. Five-cycle thermogravimetric analysis (TGA) tests at 800 #1;C indicated that all oxygen carriers had a stable performance at 800 #1;C, except NiO/SiO2. Full reduction/oxidation reactions of the oxygen carrier were obtained during the five-cycle test. It was found that support had a significant effect on reaction performance of NiO both in reduction and oxidation rates. The reduction reaction was significantly faster than the oxidation reaction for all oxygen carriers, while the oxidation reaction is fairly slow due to oxygen diffusion on NiO layers. The reaction profile was greatly affected by the presence of H2S, but there was no effect on the capacity due to the presence of H2S in synthesis gas. The presence of H2S decreased reduction reaction rates significantly, but oxidation rates of reduced samples increased. X-ray diffraction (XRD) data of the oxidized samples after a five-cycle test showed stable crystalline phases without any formation of sulfides or sulfites/sulfates. Increase in reaction temperature to 900 #1;C had a positive effect on the performance.

Ksepko, E.; Siriwardane, R.; Tian, H.; Simonyi, T.; Sciazko, M.

2010-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

288

Field-Scale Evaluation of Biological Uranium Reduction and Reoxidation in the Near-Source Zone at the NABIR Field Research Center in Oak Ridge, TN  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

We have now added ethanol intermittently for over 700 days. Ethanol has been added weekly with each injection lasting for a few days. We are now observing: (1) Uranium immobilization at 700-2000 mg/kg. Baseline levels before remediation were 30-500 mg/kg. (2) Uranium concentrations in groundwater at the monitoring wells have fallen below the U.S. drinking water standard (30 ppb). This is an important milestone. (3) XANES analyses for day 535 indicate 51% U(IV) at the inner loop injection well, 35% U(IV) at MLS well 101-2, and 28% U(IV) at the extraction well. These numbers indicate that U(IV) reduction is not localized to the injection well, and is spreading through the aquifer. (4) We have had success removing trace levels of oxygen from recirculated water by addition of sulfite and related compounds. These compounds also provide the added benefit that in removing oxygen that themselves are oxidized to sulfate, an important electron acceptor needed for maintenance of our system.

Criddle, Craig S.

2006-06-01T23:59:59.000Z

289

Impact of Cell Wall Acetylation on Corn Stover Hydrolysis by Cellulolytic and Xylanolytic Enzymes  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Analysis of variously pretreated corn stover samples showed neutral to mildly acidic pretreatments were more effective at removing xylan from corn stover and more likely to maintain the acetyl to xylopyranosyl ratios present in untreated material than were alkaline treatments. Retention of acetyl groups in the residual solids resulted in greater resistance to hydrolysis by endoxylanase alone, although the synergistic combination of endoxylanase and acetyl xylan esterase enzymes permitted higher xylan conversions to be observed. Acetyl xylan esterase alone did little to improve hydrolysis by cellulolytic enzymes, although a direct relationship was observed between the enzymatic removal of acetyl groups and improvements in the enzymatic conversion of xylan present in substrates. In all cases, effective xylan conversions were found to significantly improve glucan conversions achievable by cellulolytic enzymes. Additionally, acetyl and xylan removal not only enhanced the respective initial rates of xylan and glucan conversion, but also the overall extents of conversion. This work emphasizes the necessity for xylanolytic enzymes during saccharification processes and specifically for the optimization of acetyl esterase and xylanase synergies when biomass processes include milder pretreatments, such as hot water or sulfite steam explosion.

Selig, M. J.; Adney, W. S.; Himmel, M. E.; Decker, S. R.

2009-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

290

Reactivity of iron-bearing minerals and CO2 sequestration: A multi-disciplinary experimental approach  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

The reactivity of sandstones was studied under conditions relevant to the injection of supercritical carbon dioxide in the context of carbon geosequestration. The emphasis of the study was on the reactivity of iron-bearing minerals when exposed to supercritical CO2 (scCO2) and scCO2 with commingled aqueous solutions containing H2S and/or SO2. Flow through and batch experiments were conducted. Results indicate that sandstones, irrespective of their mineralogy, are not reactive when exposed to pure scCO2 or scCO2 with commingled aqueous solutions containing H2S and/or SO2 under conditions simulating the environment near the injection point (flow through experiments). However, sandstones are reactive under conditions simulating the edge of the injected CO2 plume or ahead of the plume (batch experiments). Sandstones containing hematite (red sandstone) are particularly reactive. The composition of the reaction products is strongly dependent on the composition of the aqueous phase. The presence of dissolved sulfide leads to the conversion of hematite into pyrite and siderite. The relative amount of the pyrite and siderite is influenced by the ionic strength of the solution. Little reactivity is observed when sulfite is present in the aqueous phase. Sandstones without hematite (grey sandstones) show little reactivity regardless of the solution composition.

Schoonen, Martin A. [Stony Brook University] (ORCID:0000000271331160)

2014-12-22T23:59:59.000Z

291

Process for removal of mineral particulates from coal-derived liquids  

DOE Patents [OSTI]

Suspended mineral solids are separated from a coal-derived liquid containing the solids by a process comprising the steps of: (a) contacting said coal-derived liquid containing solids with a molten additive having a melting point of 100.degree.-500.degree. C. in an amount of up to 50 wt. % with respect to said coal-derived liquid containing solids, said solids present in an amount effective to increase the particle size of said mineral solids and comprising material or mixtures of material selected from the group of alkali metal hydroxides and inorganic salts having antimony, tin, lithium, sodium, potassium, magnesium, calcium, beryllium, aluminum, zinc, molybdenum, cobalt, nickel, ruthenium, rhodium or iron cations and chloride, iodide, bromide, sulfate, phosphate, borate, carbonate, sulfite, or silicate anions; and (b) maintaining said coal-derived liquid in contact with said molten additive for sufficient time to permit said mineral matter to agglomerate, thereby increasing the mean particle size of said mineral solids; and (c) recovering a coal-derived liquid product having reduced mineral solids content. The process can be carried out with less than 5 wt. % additive and in the absence of hydrogen pressure.

McDowell, William J. (Knoxville, TN)

1980-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

292

Method and system for capturing carbon dioxide and/or sulfur dioxide from gas stream  

DOE Patents [OSTI]

The present invention provides a system for capturing CO.sub.2 and/or SO.sub.2, comprising: (a) a CO.sub.2 and/or SO.sub.2 absorber comprising an amine and/or amino acid salt capable of absorbing the CO.sub.2 and/or SO.sub.2 to produce a CO.sub.2- and/or SO.sub.2-containing solution; (b) an amine regenerator to regenerate the amine and/or amino acid salt; and, when the system captures CO.sub.2, (c) an alkali metal carbonate regenerator comprising an ammonium catalyst capable catalyzing the aqueous alkali metal bicarbonate into the alkali metal carbonate and CO.sub.2 gas. The present invention also provides for a system for capturing SO.sub.2, comprising: (a) a SO.sub.2 absorber comprising aqueous alkali metal carbonate, wherein the alkali metal carbonate is capable of absorbing the SO.sub.2 to produce an alkali metal sulfite/sulfate precipitate and CO.sub.2.

Chang, Shih-Ger; Li, Yang; Zhao, Xinglei

2014-07-08T23:59:59.000Z

293

Ketchikan Pulp's hog-fuel-boiler energy retrofits  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Ketchikan Pulp Co. (KPC) is a 600-b.d. Ton/day sulfite mill located 679 Alaska Airlines miles north of Seattle on the island of Revillagigedo. Designed to produce 860 psig steam at 825[degrees]F, each of the boilers is fired off a combination of No. 6 oil and waste wood. This paper reports that in 1984, a rotary bark dyer was installed in series between the existing boiler I.D. fans and the boiler stack. This system consists of a direct-contact rotary dryer unit followed by an additional I.D. fan and four cyclone separators. The combustion gases then return to the existing stack by way of the existing I.D. fan discharge ducting. This unit was designed to operate at a flue-gas inlet temperature of 550[degrees]F and maintained a discharge temperature of 300[degrees]F. The unit was designed to process approximately 360 units of hog fuel per day, drying it from 60% moisture to 40% moisture in a single-pass operation.

Sweet, R.N. (Howard Needles Tammen and Bergendoff, Bellevue, WA (United States))

1991-09-01T23:59:59.000Z

294

Elektromagnetische Restwechselwirkung  

Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

E-M Force E-M Force Was hält sie zusammen? Elektromagnetische Restwechselwirkung Atome haben normalerweise dieselbe Anzahl Elektronen wie Protonen. Sie sind elektrisch neutral, weil sich die Ladungen der Protonen und der Elektronen gerade aufheben. Wenn sie aber neutral sind, warum können sie dennoch stabile Moleküle bilden? Die Antwort tönt etwas seltsam: wir haben entdeckt, dass geladene Teile des Atoms mit geladenen Teilen anderer Atome wechselwirken können, ein Effekt, der elektromagnetische Restwechselwirkung genannt wird. Er bewirkt, dass verschiedene Atome zusammenhalten können. Es ist wiederum die e-m Kraft, die es den Atomen ermöglicht, sich zu Molekülen zu verbinden. Auf diese Weise hält die Welt zusammen und so wird auch die Materie gebildet mit der wir ständig in Wechselwirkung stehen. Interessant, nicht wahr? Alle Strukturen der Welt existieren nur deshalb, weil Protonen und Elektronen entgegengesetzt elektrisch geladen sind!

295

Reconnecting broken blood vessels  

Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

Reconnecting broken blood vessels Reconnecting broken blood vessels Name: Catherine A Kraft Status: N/A Age: N/A Location: N/A Country: N/A Date: N/A Question: While watching the television program "Chicago Hope" the other day, I watched a doctor sew someone's ear back on using an elaborate microscope. I was wondering if a surgeon is required to reconnect all the broken blood vessels, and how you would accomplish this? Thanks for your time! Replies: I'm not a surgeon, but I think the answer to your question is "no." The blood will flow across the wound (out the end of one blood vessel and into the end of another), although not efficiently. I believe they sometimes use leeches sucking on the end of the reconnected part to help induce flow of blood in the right direction through the area. You probably do need to put the ends of the major vessels near each other, so the distribution of blood flow is reasonably like it was before the injury, and so the vessels can eventually reconnect. But probably the microscope is used mostly to be sure the various layers of muscle, connective tissue, and fat are connected together correctly.

296

Effect of ionic liquid treatment on the structures of lignins in solutions  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

The solution structures of three types of isolated lignin - organosolv (OS), Kraft (K), and low sulfonate (LS) - before and after treatment with 1-ethyl-3-methylimidazolium acetate were studied using small-angle neutron scattering (SANS) and dynamic light scattering (DLS) over a concentration range of 0.3-2.4 wt %. The results indicate that each of these lignins is comprised of aggregates of well-defined basal subunits, the shapes and sizes of which, in D{sub 2}O and DMSO-d{sub 6}, are revealed using these techniques. LS lignin contains a substantial amount of nanometer-scale individual subunits. In aqueous solution these subunits have a well-defined elongated shape described well by ellipsoidal and cylindrical models. At low concentration the subunits are highly expanded in alkaline solution, and the effect is screened with increasing concentration. OS lignin dissolved in DMSO was found to consist of a narrow distribution of aggregates with average radius 200 {+-} 30 nm. K lignin in DMSO consists of aggregates with a very broad size distribution. After ionic liquid (IL) treatment, LS lignin subunits in alkaline solution maintained the elongated shape but were reduced in size. IL treatment of OS and K lignins led to the release of nanometer-scale subunits with well-defined size and shape.

Cheng, Gang [Joint Bioenergy Institute; Kent, Michael S [ORNL; He, Lilin [ORNL; Varanasi, Patanjali [Joint Bioenergy Institute; Dibble, Dean [Joint Bioenergy Institute; Melnichenko, Yuri B [ORNL; Simmons, Blake [Sandia National Laboratories (SNL); Singh, Seema [Joint Bioenergy Institute

2012-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

297

Deconstruction of Lignin Model Compounds and Biomass-Derived Lignin using Layered Double Hydroxide Catalysts  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Lignin is an underutilized value stream in current biomass conversion technologies because there exist no economic and technically feasible routes for lignin depolymerization and upgrading. Base-catalyzed deconstruction (BCD) has been applied for lignin depolymerization (e.g., the Kraft process) in the pulp and paper industry for more than a century using aqueous-phase media. However, these efforts require treatment to neutralize the resulting streams, which adds significantly to the cost of lignin deconstruction. To circumvent the need for downstream treatment, here we report recent advances in the synthesis of layered double hydroxide and metal oxide catalysts to be applied to the BCD of lignin. These catalysts may prove more cost-effective than liquid-phase, non-recyclable base, and their use obviates downstream processing steps such as neutralization. Synthetic procedures for various transition-metal containing catalysts, detailed kinetics measurements using lignin model compounds, and results of the application of these catalysts to biomass-derived lignin will be presented.

Chmely, S. C.; McKinney, K. A.; Lawrence, K. R.; Sturgeon, M.; Katahira, R.; Beckham, G. T.

2013-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

298

Application of stochastic weighted algorithms to a multidimensional silica particle model  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Highlights: •Stochastic weighted algorithms (SWAs) are developed for a detailed silica model. •An implementation of SWAs with the transition kernel is presented. •The SWAs’ solutions converge to the direct simulation algorithm’s (DSA) solution. •The efficiency of SWAs is evaluated for this multidimensional particle model. •It is shown that SWAs can be used for coagulation problems in industrial systems. -- Abstract: This paper presents a detailed study of the numerical behaviour of stochastic weighted algorithms (SWAs) using the transition regime coagulation kernel and a multidimensional silica particle model. The implementation in the SWAs of the transition regime coagulation kernel and associated majorant rates is described. The silica particle model of Shekar et al. [S. Shekar, A.J. Smith, W.J. Menz, M. Sander, M. Kraft, A multidimensional population balance model to describe the aerosol synthesis of silica nanoparticles, Journal of Aerosol Science 44 (2012) 83–98] was used in conjunction with this coagulation kernel to study the convergence properties of SWAs with a multidimensional particle model. High precision solutions were calculated with two SWAs and also with the established direct simulation algorithm. These solutions, which were generated using large number of computational particles, showed close agreement. It was thus demonstrated that SWAs can be successfully used with complex coagulation kernels and high dimensional particle models to simulate real-world systems.

Menz, William J. [Department of Chemical Engineering and Biotechnology, University of Cambridge, New Museums Site, Pembroke Street, Cambridge CB2 3RA (United Kingdom)] [Department of Chemical Engineering and Biotechnology, University of Cambridge, New Museums Site, Pembroke Street, Cambridge CB2 3RA (United Kingdom); Patterson, Robert I.A.; Wagner, Wolfgang [Weierstrass Institute for Applied Analysis and Stochastics, Mohrenstrasse 39, Berlin 10117 (Germany)] [Weierstrass Institute for Applied Analysis and Stochastics, Mohrenstrasse 39, Berlin 10117 (Germany); Kraft, Markus, E-mail: mk306@cam.ac.uk [Department of Chemical Engineering and Biotechnology, University of Cambridge, New Museums Site, Pembroke Street, Cambridge CB2 3RA (United Kingdom)] [Department of Chemical Engineering and Biotechnology, University of Cambridge, New Museums Site, Pembroke Street, Cambridge CB2 3RA (United Kingdom)

2013-09-01T23:59:59.000Z

299

Significance of xylan on the stability and water interactions of cellulosic nanofibrils  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

Abstract In this paper, the significance of xylan on the behaviour of kraft birch pulp based nanofibrillated cellulose (CNF) is discussed. The influence of CNF xylan content on fibril morphology, charge and stability as well as on the film formation ability was investigated, and the features detected on nanoscale and on macroscale are compared. In addition to this, the ability of fibrils to uptake water molecules were investigated by bulk and surface sensitive methods which are dynamic water sorption analysis (DVS) and quartz crystal microbalance with dissipation monitoring (QCM-D) equipped with the humidity module, respectively. Surface xylan plays a significant role as an electrosteric stabilizer in dilute CNF dispersions when the surface forces are dominant whereas the removal of xylan drastically changes the CNF dispersion properties. The settling of the unstable CNF dispersions displays behaviour which is typical for hindered sedimentation. When considering thin nanoscale layers of CNF, nanofibrillated cellulosic materials with high content of surface xylan has somewhat higher ability to bind water molecules. However, it seems that in more concentrated CNF dispersions where the fibrillar network itself plays also a decisive role, especially with respect to film formation ability, the impact of xylan diminishes. Solvent cast macroscale CNF films are still enough dense to maintain good oxygen barrier performance at higher humid conditions although agglomeration tendency of fibrils is higher due to the excessive xylan removal. These findings are of high relevance when considering nanocellulosic materials, especially in the form of gels and films, as templates for high added value material solutions.

Tiia-Maria Tenhunen; Maria Soledad Peresin; Paavo A. Penttilä; Jaakko Pere; Ritva Serimaa; Tekla Tammelin

2014-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

300

Hydroxyalkylated xylans – Their synthesis and application in coatings for packaging and paper  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

This paper demonstrates opportunities for wood-based xylan derivatives to be used in coating applications. A route for extraction and purification of white and pure xylan from bleached birch kraft pulp is described as a part of the production of high adsorption and high crystalline pulp. Derivatization of the xylan during the extraction step was also demonstrated. Efficient derivatization of xylan to water soluble derivatives was achieved and promising results were obtained in primary application tests as a coating component in barrier coatings on board and as a binder component in pigment coating of offset paper. With the best xylan derivate coating, the barrier properties were better than with a commercial biopolymer coating, while oxygen permeability was roughly one third of that for a polyethylene terephthalate coating. Likewise, surface strength close to the reference latex as a binder in pigment coatings was achieved by a xylan derivative. This work is part of a platform of hemicellulose derivatives enabling novel application for this medium to high molar mass hemicellulose of high purity.

Christiane Laine; Ali Harlin; Jonas Hartman; Sari Hyvärinen; Kari Kammiovirta; Björn Krogerus; Heikki Pajari; Hille Rautkoski; Harri Setälä; Jenni Sievänen; Johanna Uotila; Mika Vähä-Nissi

2013-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "kraft sulfite misc" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


301

Studies on the fibre surfaces modified with xylan polyelectrolytes  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

Xylan was isolated from birch wood chips by using pressurized hot water extraction (PHWE). The extracted xylan was chemically modified yielding three different xylan derivatives (XDs): xylan sulfate (XS), carboxymethyl xylan (CMX) and xylan-4-[N,N,N-trimethylammonium]butyrate chloride (XTMAB). The structure and molecular weight of \\{XDs\\} was determined by using NMR spectroscopy and size exclusion chromatography (SEC). The potential utilization of xylan polyelectrolytes for modifying fibre surfaces was assessed by sorption experiments using bleached pine Kraft pulp as substrate. Polyelectrolyte titration method was chosen for estimating the amount of sorbed \\{XDs\\} onto the fibres. The cationic xylan derivative XTMAB had a strong interaction with fibres while the anionic derivatives did not show any sorption. X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS) and time of flight secondary ion mass spectrometry (ToF-SIMS) were selected as advanced surface analyses for studying the amount of surface anionic groups and the surface distribution of the XTMAB. XPS and polyelectrolyte titration results suggested that the XTMAB is sorbed onto the fibre surfaces. ToF-SIMS imaging showed that XTMAB was evenly distributed on fibre surfaces.

B. Vega; K. Petzold-Welcke; P. Fardim; T. Heinze

2012-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

302

Gulf Coast geopressured-geothermal program summary report compilation. Volume 2-A: Resource description, program history, wells tested, university and company based research, site restoration  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

The US Department of Energy established a geopressured-geothermal energy program in the mid 1970`s as one response to America`s need to develop alternate energy resources in view of the increasing dependence on imported fossil fuel energy. This program continued for 17 years and approximately two hundred million dollars were expended for various types of research and well testing to thoroughly investigate this alternative energy source. This volume describes the following studies: Geopressured-geothermal resource description; Resource origin and sediment type; Gulf Coast resource extent; Resource estimates; Project history; Authorizing legislation; Program objectives; Perceived constraints; Program activities and structure; Well testing; Program management; Program cost summary; Funding history; Resource characterization; Wells of opportunity; Edna Delcambre No. 1 well; Edna Delcambre well recompletion; Fairfax Foster Sutter No. 2 well; Beulah Simon No. 2 well; P.E. Girouard No. 1 well; Prairie Canal No. 1 well; Crown Zellerbach No. 2 well; Alice C. Plantation No. 2 well; Tenneco Fee N No. 1 well; Pauline Kraft No. 1 well; Saldana well No. 2; G.M. Koelemay well No. 1; Willis Hulin No. 1 well; Investigations of other wells of opportunity; Clovis A. Kennedy No. 1 well; Watkins-Miller No. 1 well; Lucien J. Richard et al No. 1 well; and the C and K-Frank A. Godchaux, III, well No. 1.

John, C.J.; Maciasz, G.; Harder, B.J.

1998-06-01T23:59:59.000Z

303

Proceedings of the black liquor research program review fifth meeting  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

On June 14--17, 1988 the participants and invited guests of the Cooperative Program in Kraft Recovery gathered in Charleston, South Carolina, to review progress on four major black liquor research programs being executed at the Institute of Paper Chemistry, the University of Maine, the National Bureau of Standards, and the University of Florida. These programs include: (1) Black Liquor Properties; (2) Black Liquor Droplet Formation; (3) Black Liquor Nozzle Evaluation; and (4) Black Liquor Combustion. In addition to the objectives of previous meetings, this meeting made a direct attempt to gather ideas on how to improve our ability to move from new technology concepts to commercial implementation. Also attached is the agenda for the Charleston meeting. The first two days were involved with updates and reviews of the four major black liquor programs. A half day was spent discussing pathways to implementation and developing thoughts on what industry, DOE and academia could do to facilitate commercial implementation of the research results. This publication is a summary of the presentations made in Charleston and the industry responses to the research work. Readers are cautioned that the contents are in-progress updates on the status of the research and do not represent referred technical papers. Any questions regarding the content should be referred to the principal investigators of the project.

Not Available

1988-09-01T23:59:59.000Z

304

Monitoring needs in the U.S. southeast: Impact of dioxins and other industrial wastes and wildlife  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

The US southeast is a center for forest industry activities and over 180 pulp and paper mills have been reported from Tennessee, North and South Carolina, Georgia, Florida, Alabama, Mississippi, Arkansas and Louisiana. Many of these facilities emit bleached kraft mill effluents (BKMEs) into receiving waters. Contaminants present in these mill effluents and in other industrial activities known to adversely affect wildlife and fisheries resources include chlorinated phenolics, dioxins, furans and resin acids. Tennessee and North Carolina have issued fish consumption advisories for specific areas and a fishery has been closed in Arkansas. The extent of injury to wildlife resources from dioxins and other effluents from mill and industrial waste is not presently known. However, preliminary studies indicate effects on biota at several localities. Bioaccumulation of dioxins from mill effluents has been documented in channel catfish (Ictalurus punctatus) (1--2 ppt) and soft-shelled turtles (Trionyx ferox) (17--31 ppt) from pulp/paper mill effluent in St. Joseph`s and Perdido Bays, Florida; reproductive abnormalities were noted in female Gambusia (sp.) exposed to mill effluent. In Jacksonville, Arkansas abnormalities > 10% were noted in fish and reproduction of wood duck (Aix sponsa) was impaired downstream from a chemical plant. Further work is needed to define mill and industrial facilities in the southeast and to monitor adverse effects on fish and wildlife resources.

Glooschenko, V. [National Biological Survey, Atlanta, GA (United States); Brim, M. [USFWS, Panama City, FL (United States); Augspurger, T. [USFWS, Raleigh, NC (United States)

1994-12-31T23:59:59.000Z

305

Letter to the Editor: Botnia Fray Bentos and the environment of Uruguay River basin. The reports of EcoMetrix-World Bank  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

The pollution load caused by Botnia Fray Bentos S.A., a Mega Kraft Mills with ECF bleaching, is analysed on the basis of two reports of EcoMetrix at the request of the International Finance Corporation, World Bank. The first report evaluates the first six months of mill operations, from November 2007 to April 2008. The second report covers the 12 months of 2008. Regardless of the opinions expressed by EcoMetrix, from the numerical values shown in the reports it is clear that Botnia has discharged huge quantities of dangerous pollutants into the Uruguay River and into the atmosphere. This pollution load, according to the background known, will cause serious and irreversible damage to the flora, fauna and health of the inhabitants of the basin within a few years. Since the findings of EcoMetrix are in contradiction to the logical analysis of the same values that the consultant presents, a detailed discussion of the criteria and limits (standard) used in the reports is unavoidable.

Elias Jorge Matta

2009-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

306

Analysis of composite tube cracking in recovery boiler floors  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Cracking of co-extruded (generally identified as composite) floor tubes in kraft black liquor recovery boilers was first observed in Scandinavia, but this problem has now been found in many North American boilers. In most cases, cracking in the outer 304L stainless steel has not progressed into the carbon steel, but the potential for such crack propagation is a cause of concern. A multidimensional study has been initiated to characterize the cracking seen in composite floor tubes, to measure the residual stresses resulting from composite tube fabrication, and to predict the stresses in tubes under operating conditions. The characterization studies include review of available reports and documents on composite tube cracking, metallographic examination of a substantial number of cracked tubes, and evaluation of the dislocation structure in cracked tubes. Neutron and X-ray diffraction are being used to determine the residual stresses in composite tubes from two major manufacturers, and finite element analysis is being used to predict the stresses in the tubes during normal operation and under conditions where thermal fluctuations occur.

Keiser, J.R.; Taljat, B.; Wang, X.L.; Maziasz, P.J.; Hubbard, C.R.; Swindeman, R.W. [Oak Ridge National Lab., TN (United States); Singbeil, D.L.; Prescott, R. [Pulp and Paper Research Inst. of Canada, Vancouver, British Columbia (Canada)

1996-08-01T23:59:59.000Z

307

RESIDUES FROM COAL CONVERSION AND UTILIZATION: ADVANCED MINERALOGICAL CHARACTERIZATION AND DISPOSED BYPRODUCT DIAGENESIS  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Prior to the initiation of this study, understanding of the long-term behavior of environmentally-exposed Coal Combustion By-Products (CCBs) was lacking in (among others) two primary areas addressed in this work. First, no method had been successfully applied to achieve full quantitative analysis of the partitioning of chemical constituents into reactive or passive crystalline or noncrystalline compounds. Rather, only semi-quantitative methods were available, with large associated errors. Second, our understanding of the long-term behavior of various CCBs in contact with the natural environment was based on a relatively limited set of study materials. This study addressed these areas with two objectives, producing (1) a set of protocols for fully quantitative phase analysis using the Rietveld Quantitative X-ray Diffraction (RQXRD) method and (2) greater understanding of the hydrologic and geochemical nature of the long-term behavior of disposed and utilized CCBs. The RQXRD technique was initially tested using (1) mixtures of National Institute of Standards and Technology (NIST) crystalline standards, and (2) mixtures of synthetic reagents simulating various CCBs, to determine accuracy and precision of the method, and to determine the most favorable protocols to follow in order to efficiently quantify multi-phase mixtures. Four sets of borehole samples of disposed or utilized CCBs were retrieved and analyzed by RQXRD according to the protocols developed under the first objective. The first set of samples, from a Class F ash settling pond in Kentucky disposed for up to 20 years, showed little mineralogical alteration, as expected. The second set of samples, from an embankment in Indiana containing a mixture of chain-grate (stoker) furnace ash and fluidized bed combustion (FBC) residues, showed formation of the mineral thaumasite, as observed in previously studied exposed FBC materials. Two high-calcium CCBs studied, including a dry-process flue gas desulfurization (FGD) by-product disposed in the Midwest, and a mixture of Class C fly ash and wet process FGD by-product codisposed in North Dakota, appeared relatively unchanged mineralogically over the up to 5 and 17 years of emplacement, respectively. Each of these two materials contained mineralogies consistent with short-term hydration products of their respective starting (dry) materials. The hydration product ettringite persisted throughout the duration of emplacement at each site, and the diagenetic ash alteration product thaumasite did not form at either site. Explanations for the absence of thaumasite in these two sites include a lack of significant carbonate, sulfate, and alkalinity sources in the case of the North Dakota site, and a lack of sulfate, alkalinity, and sufficient moisture in the Midwest site. Potential for future thaumasite formation in these materials may exist if placed in contact with cold, wet materials containing the missing components listed above. In the presence of the sulfite scrubber mineral hannebachite, the ettringites formed had crystallographic unit cell dimensions smaller than those of pure sulfate ettringite, suggesting either incorporation of sulfite ions into the ettringite structure, or incorporation of silicon and carbonate ions, forming a solid solution towards thaumasite.

Gregory J. McCarthy; Dean G. Grier

2001-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

308

Coolside waste management research. Annual technical progress report, October 1992--September 1993  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

The composition (major, minor and trace elements) of approximately 400 Coolside waste samples form the Edgewater Coolside demonstration and CONSOL pilot plant tests are summarized and tabulated in this report. The composition changes in the waste samples collected during the Edgewater Coolside demonstration can be correlated with the processing variables and operation conditions. A study was conducted that focused on the formation mechanism of ettringite crystals in FGD waste materials since they were observed to form in Coolside, FBC, and AFBC derived wastes. The degree of swelling in FGD-derived waste can be correlated to the amounts of ettringite crystals present. Reactions controlling the formation, composition and disintegration of ettringite are critical in determining the overall stability and strength of cements and concretes derived from dry-flue gas desulfurization wastes. Since these wastes consist of fly ash, along with, CaSO{sub 3}, and CaSO{sub 4} and unreacted Ca(OH){sub 2}, the sulfites and sulfates react with the Ca(OH){sub 2} along with the glassy aluminosilicates in the fly ash to form calcium sulfo-aluminate minerals. Ettringite, the most important of these, is the main contributor to the compressive strength development of the FGD waste mixtures. However, excessive ettringite formation causes swelling which often leads to destructive crack formation. It has been shown that the quantity of ettringite formed and compressive strength of the FGD waste mixtures reach a maximum until ettringite begins to disintegrate. Because the formation mechanisms of ettringite are not entirely understood, swelling in FGD derived products is difficult to predict.

Not Available

1993-10-01T23:59:59.000Z

309

Chemicals for enhanced oil recovery. Biennial report, April 1978-March 1980  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

The objective of Chemicals for Enhanced Oil Recovery is to lower barriers to implementation of the micellar flood approach by decreasing cost and increasing availability of chemicals used in the process. This is done by finding alternative feedstocks in wastes or low valued organic byproducts and by development of lower cost production procedures. For biopolymers in particular, emphasis has been on developments important for field production, to obviate the expense necessary for preparation of a dry product, feasible for shipping, and of redispersion for injection into formations. Because of the large quantities of waste and low valued byproducts generated by the paper industry, wood pulping streams have received particular attention. The interests have been not only in surfactants and mobility control polymers, but also in cosurfactants, sequestering agents for control of hardness, and competitive adsorbates. Some of the highlights of this period are: microscreens compared favorably in installed cost and operating energy to diatomaceous earth filtration and centrifugation for gross biomass removal; four fungi from genera other than Sclerotium, Helotium, or Stromatinia were tested and found to be potential biopolymer producers; methods of hydrolyzing polymers sequentially from the ends were investigated, and pH and temperature optima for these were obtained; coagent alcohols and alcohol-ketone mixture were readily produced from weak acid sulfite liquor, condenser effluent, and thermomechanical effluent streams; preparations of pure sodium oleate and a number of derivatives with substituents on the carbon next to the carboxylate were carried out and their phase behavior in systems containing a fixed cosurfactant were compared as a function of alkane molecular weight and of NaCl concentration; commercial ethoxylated fatty acids of different hydrophilic/hydrophobic ratios were evaluated, both alone and in conjunction with a petroleum sulfonate surfactant.

Compere, A.L.; Crenshaw, J.M.; Greene, S.V.; Griffith, W.L.; Hall, J.E. Jr.; Johnson, J.S. Jr.; Jones, R.M.; Magid, L.J.; Triolo, R.; Westmoreland, C.G.

1981-03-01T23:59:59.000Z

310

Thermoflexus hugenholtzii gen. nov., sp. nov., a thermophilic, microaerophilic, filamentous bacterium representing a novel class in the Chloroflexi, Thermoflexia classis nov., and description of Thermoflexaceae fam. nov. and Thermoflexales ord. nov.  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

A thermophilic, filamentous, heterotrophic bacterium designated strain JAD2T was isolated from sediment of Great Boiling Spring in Nevada, USA. Cells had an average diameter of 0.3 µm and length of 4.0 µm, and formed filaments typically ranging in length from 20 µm to 200 µm. Filaments were negative for the Gram stain reaction, spores were not formed, and motility was not observed. The optimum temperature for growth was 75 °C with a range from 67.5-75 °C, and the optimum pH for growth was 6.75 with a range from 6.5-7.75. Peptone, tryptone or yeast extract were able to support growth when supplemented with a vitamin solution, but no growth was observed using a variety of defined organic substrates. Strain JAD2T was a facultative microaerophile, with optimal growth at 1% v/v O2 and an upper limit of 8% O2, and anaerobic growth was stimulated by fumarate but inhibited by sulfite and elemental sulfur. The major cellular fatty acids (>5%) were C16:0, C19:0, C18:0, C20:0, and C19:1. The genomic DNA G+C content was 69.3%. Phylogenetic and phylogenomic analyses using 16S rRNA gene sequences and other conserved genes placed JAD2T and other members of the yet-uncultivated GAL35 group within the phylum Chloroflexi, but not within any existing class in this phylum. These results indicate that strain JAD2T is the first cultivated representative of a new lineage within the phylum Chloroflexi, for which we propose the name Thermoflexus hugenholtzii gen. nov., sp. nov., type strain JAD2T, within Thermoflexia classis nov., Thermoflexales ord. nov., and Thermoflexaceae fam. nov.

Dodsworth, Jeremy A.; Gevorkian, Jonathan; Despujos, Fairuz; Cole, Jesse; Murugapiran, Senthil K.; Ming, Hong; Li, Wen J.; Zhang, Gengxin; Dohnalkova, Alice; Hedlund, Brian P.

2014-06-06T23:59:59.000Z

311

Enhancing the use of coals by gas reburning-sorbent injection  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

This Clean Coal Technology project will demonstrate a combination of two developed technologies to reduce both NO[sub x] and SO[sub x] emissions: gas reburning and calcium based dry sorbent injection. The demonstrations will be conducted on two pre-NSPS utility boilers representative of the US boilers which contribute significantly to the inventory of acid rain precursor emissions: tangentially and cyclone fired units. Gas reburning is a combustion modification technique that consists of firing 80--85 percent of the fuel (corresponding to the total heat release) in the lower furnace. Reduction of NO[sub x] to molecular nitrogen (N[sub 2]) is accomplished via the downstream injection of the remaining fuel requirement in the form of natural gas (which also reduces the total SO[sub x] emissions). In a third stage, burnout air is injected at lower temperatures in the upper furnace to complete the combustion process without generating significant additional NO[sub x]. Dry sorbent injection consists of injecting calcium based sorbents (such as limestone, dolomite, or hydrated lime) into the combustion products. For sulfation of the sorbent to CaSO[sub 4], an injection temperature of about 1230[degrees]C is optimum, but calcium-sulfur reactions can also take place at lower temperatures. Thus, the sorbent may be injected at different locations, such as with the burnout air, at the exit from the superheater, or into the ducting downstream of the air heater with H[sub 2]0 added for humidification. The calcium sulfate or sulfite products are collected together with unreacted sorbent fly ash by the electrostatic precipitator. The specific goal of this project is to demonstrate NO[sub x] and SO[sub x] emission reductions of 60 percent and 50 percent, respectively, on two coal fired utility boilers having the design characteristics mentioned above.

Not Available

1992-11-16T23:59:59.000Z

312

Enhancing the use of coals by gas reburning-sorbent injection. Environmental monitoring quarterly report No. 9, July 1--September 30, 1992  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

This Clean Coal Technology project will demonstrate a combination of two developed technologies to reduce both NO{sub x} and SO{sub x} emissions: gas reburning and calcium based dry sorbent injection. The demonstrations will be conducted on two pre-NSPS utility boilers representative of the US boilers which contribute significantly to the inventory of acid rain precursor emissions: tangentially and cyclone fired units. Gas reburning is a combustion modification technique that consists of firing 80--85 percent of the fuel (corresponding to the total heat release) in the lower furnace. Reduction of NO{sub x} to molecular nitrogen (N{sub 2}) is accomplished via the downstream injection of the remaining fuel requirement in the form of natural gas (which also reduces the total SO{sub x} emissions). In a third stage, burnout air is injected at lower temperatures in the upper furnace to complete the combustion process without generating significant additional NO{sub x}. Dry sorbent injection consists of injecting calcium based sorbents (such as limestone, dolomite, or hydrated lime) into the combustion products. For sulfation of the sorbent to CaSO{sub 4}, an injection temperature of about 1230{degrees}C is optimum, but calcium-sulfur reactions can also take place at lower temperatures. Thus, the sorbent may be injected at different locations, such as with the burnout air, at the exit from the superheater, or into the ducting downstream of the air heater with H{sub 2}0 added for humidification. The calcium sulfate or sulfite products are collected together with unreacted sorbent fly ash by the electrostatic precipitator. The specific goal of this project is to demonstrate NO{sub x} and SO{sub x} emission reductions of 60 percent and 50 percent, respectively, on two coal fired utility boilers having the design characteristics mentioned above.

Not Available

1992-11-16T23:59:59.000Z

313

Bench-scale Kinetics Study of Mercury Reactions in FGD Liquors  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

This document is the final report for Cooperative Agreement DE-FC26-04NT42314, 'Kinetics Study of Mercury Reactions in FGD Liquors'. The project was co-funded by the U.S. DOE National Energy Technology Laboratory and EPRI. The objective of the project has been to determine the mechanisms and kinetics of the aqueous reactions of mercury absorbed by wet flue gas desulfurization (FGD) systems, and develop a kinetics model to predict mercury reactions in wet FGD systems. The model may be used to determine optimum wet FGD design and operating conditions to maximize mercury capture in wet FGD systems. Initially, a series of bench-top, liquid-phase reactor tests were conducted and mercury species concentrations were measured by UV/visible light spectroscopy to determine reactant and byproduct concentrations over time. Other measurement methods, such as atomic absorption, were used to measure concentrations of vapor-phase elemental mercury, that cannot be measured by UV/visible light spectroscopy. Next, a series of bench-scale wet FGD simulation tests were conducted. Because of the significant effects of sulfite concentration on mercury re-emission rates, new methods were developed for operating and controlling the bench-scale FGD experiments. Approximately 140 bench-scale wet FGD tests were conducted and several unusual and pertinent effects of process chemistry on mercury re-emissions were identified and characterized. These data have been used to develop an empirically adjusted, theoretically based kinetics model to predict mercury species reactions in wet FGD systems. The model has been verified in tests conducted with the bench-scale wet FGD system, where both gas-phase and liquid-phase mercury concentrations were measured to determine if the model accurately predicts the tendency for mercury re-emissions. This report presents and discusses results from the initial laboratory kinetics measurements, the bench-scale wet FGD tests, and the kinetics modeling efforts.

Gary Blythe; John Currie; David DeBerry

2008-03-31T23:59:59.000Z

314

Biopulping: A new energy-saving technology for papermaking  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Biopulping is defined as the treatment of wood chips with lignin-degrading fungi prior to pulping. Fungal pretreatment prior to mechanical pulping reduces electrical energy requirements during refining or increases mill throughput, improves paper strength, reduces the pitch content, reduces cooking time for sulfite pulping, and reduces the environmental impact of pulping. The recent work involved scaling up the biopulping process towards the industrial level, investigating both the engineering and economic feasibility of the technology. The authors envision the process to be done in either a chip-pile or silo-based system for which several factors need to be considered. These factors include the degree of decontamination, a hospitable environment for the fungus, and the overall process economics. Currently, treatment of the chips with low pressure steam is sufficient for decontamination. Furthermore, a simple, forced ventilation system can be used to maintain the proper temperature, humidity, and moisture content throughout the chip bed, thus promoting uniform growth of the fungus. The pilot-scale trial resulted in the successful treatment of 4 tons, of wood chips (dry weight basis) with results comparable to those on a laboratory scale. For mechanical pulping, a 2-week treatment results in approximately 30% energy savings that, considering the additional equipment and operating costs, results in an overall savings of $9 to $20/ton of pulp in a chip-pile system. The other benefits that biopulping confers improve the economics considerably A larger, 40-ton trial was also successful, with energy savings and paper properties comparable with the laboratory scale.

Scott, G.M.; Akhtar, M.; Lentz, M.J.; Kirk, T.K.; Swaney, R.; Shipley, D.F.

1997-07-01T23:59:59.000Z

315

Integrated flue gas treatment for simulataneous emission control and heat rate improvement - demonstration project at Ravenswood  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Results are presented for electric-utility, residual-oil fired, field demonstration testing of advanced-design, heat-recovery type, flue gas sub-coolers that incorporate sulfite-alkali-based wet scrubbing for efficient removal of volatile and semi-volatile trace elements, sub-micron solid particulate matter, SO{sub 2} and SO{sub 3}. By innovative adaptation of wet collector system operation with methanol injection into the rear boiler cavity to convert flue-gas NO to No{sub 2}, simultaneous removal of NO{sub x} is also achieved. The focus of this integrated flue gas treatment (IFGT) technology development and demonstration-scale, continuous performance testing is an upward-gas-flow, indirectly water-cooled, condensing heat exchanger fitted with acid-proof, teflon-covered tubes and tubesheets and that provides a unique condensing (non-evaporative) wet-scrubbing mode to address air toxics control objectives of new Clean Air Act, Title III. Advantageous trace-metal condensation/nucleation/agglomeration along with substantially enhanced boiler efficiency is accomplished in the IFGT system by use of boiler makeup water as a heat sink in indirectly cooling boiler flue gas to a near-ambient-temperature, low-absolute-humidity, water-saturated state. Moreover, unique, innocuous, stack systems design encountered with conventional high-humidity, wet-scrubber operations. The mechanical design of this advanced flue-gas cooling/scrubbing equipment is based on more than ten years of commercial application of such units is downward-gas-flow design/operation for energy recovery, e.g. in preheating of makeup water, in residual-oil and natural-gas fired boiler operations.

Heaphy, J.; Carbonara, J.; Cressner, A. [Consolidated Edison Company, New York, NY (United States)] [and others

1995-06-01T23:59:59.000Z

316

Improved Wood Properties Through Genetic Manipulation: Engineering of Syringyl Lignin in Softwood Species Through Xylem-Specific Expression of Hardwood Syringyl Monolignol Pathway Genes  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Project Objective: Our long-term goal is to genetically engineer higher value raw materials with desirable wood properties to promote energy efficiency, international competitiveness, and environmental responsiveness of the U.S. forest products industry. The immediate goal of this project was to produce the first higher value softwood raw materials engineered with a wide range of syringyl lignin quantities. Summary: The most important wood property affecting directly the levels of energy, chemical and bleaching requirements for kraft pulp production is lignin. Softwoods contain almost exclusively chemically resistant guaiacyl (G) lignin, whereas hardwoods have more reactive or easily degradable lignins of the guaiacyl (G)-syringyl (S) type. It is also well established that the reactive S lignin component is the key factor that permits much lower effective alkali and temperature, shorter pulping time and less bleaching stages for processing hardwoods than for softwoods. Furthermore, our pulping kinetic study explicitly demonstrated that every increase in one unit of the lignin S/G ratio would roughly double the rate of lignin removal. These are clear evidence that softwoods genetically engineered with S lignin are keys to revolutionizing the energy efficiency and enhancing the environmental performance of this industry. Softwoods and hardwoods share the same genetic mechanisms for the biosynthesis of G lignin. However, in hardwoods, three additional genes branch out from the G-lignin pathway and become specifically engaged in regulating S lignin biosynthesis. In this research, we simultaneously transferred aspen S-specific genes into a model softwood, black spruce, to engineer S lignin.

Chandrashekhar P. Joshi; Vincent L. Chiang

2009-01-29T23:59:59.000Z

317

Chemicals for enhanced oil recovery. Annual report, October 1, 1980-September 30, 1981  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

The main objective has been to reduce barriers to implementation of micellar flooding arising from the cost and/or supply of chemicals. The effort has been comprised of search for suitable raw materials in waste streams or in low-cost byproducts, evaluation of these components, research supporting field production of biopolymers, microbiological production of cosurfactants, and search for competitive adsorbates or sacrifical agents. Emphasis has been on substances from other than petroleum sources. Because of the large volume of organic chemicals having low value produced in the pulping of wood, considerable attention has been given to the paper industry. Surfactant evaluation has centered on the fatty-acid fraction of tall oils, in which sodium oleate seems to dominate the interfacial properties. Phase and interfacial behavior of natural mixtures and chemical modifications of components have been investigated. Biopolymer research was centered on scleroglucans because of their superior potential for field production. Fermentation, evaluation of feeds alternative to glucose, wet separation of polymer from fermentation broth, reduction of difficulties in plugging formations, and beneficial disposal of biomass were all investigated. Several organic chemicals from pulping were found to have potential as sacrificial agents. Sodium saccarinates, weak black liquor, and caustic extract from the bleaching of pulp were the most promising from the kraft process. By selection, Clostridia strains capable of producing higher alcohols from various wood-pulping wastes were isolated. Analysis of separation processes indicated that, in spite of the lower alcohol content of the mash in comparison with yeast fermentation to ethanol, free energies of the neutral-solvent solutions made the costs of concentration in money and heat comparable.

Compere, A.L.; Gracey, R.A.; Griffith, W.L.; Johnson, J.S. Jr.; Jones, R.M.; Magid, L.J.; Triolo, R.; Westmoreland, C.G.

1983-05-01T23:59:59.000Z

318

3rd year final contractor report for: U.S. Department of Energy Stewardship Science Academic Alliances Program Project Title: Detailed Measurements of Rayleigh-Taylor Mixing at Large and Small Atwood Numbers  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

This project had two major tasks: Task 1. The construction of a new air/helium facility to collect detailed measurements of Rayleigh-Taylor (RT) mixing at high Atwood number, and the distribution of these data to LLNL, LANL, and Alliance members for code validation and design purposes. Task 2. The collection of initial condition data from the new Air/Helium facility, for use with validation of RT simulation codes at LLNL and LANL. This report describes work done in the last twelve (12) months of the project, and also contains a summary of the complete work done over the three (3) life of the project. As of April 1, 2006, the air/helium facility (Task 1) is now complete and extensive testing and validation of diagnostics has been performed. Initial condition studies (Task 2) is also comp lete. Detailed experiments with air/helium with Atwood numbers up to 0.1 have been completed, and Atwood numbers of 0.25. Within the last three (3) months we have been able to successfully run the facility at Atwood numbers of 0.5. The progress matches the project plan, as does the budget. We have finished the initial condition studies using the water channel, and this work has been accepted for publication on the Journal of Fluid Mechanics (the top fluid mechanics journal). Mr. Nick Mueschke and Mr. Wayne Kraft are continuing with their studies to obtain PhDs in the same field, and will also continue their collaboration visits to LANL and LLNL. Over its three (3) year life the project has supported two(2) Ph.D.’s and three (3) MSc’s, and produced nine (9) international journal publications, twenty four (24) conference publications, and numerous other reports. The highlight of the project has been our close collaboration with LLNL (Dr. Oleg Schilling) and LANL (Drs. Dimonte, Ristorcelli, Gore, and Harlow).

Malcolm J. Andrews

2006-04-14T23:59:59.000Z

319

Selective enrichment of a methanol-utilizing consortium using pulp & paper mill waste streams  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Efficient utilization of carbon inputs is critical to the economic viability of the current forest products sector. Input carbon losses occur in various locations within a pulp mill, including losses as volatile organics and wastewater . Opportunities exist to capture this carbon in the form of value-added products such as biodegradable polymers. Waste activated sludge from a pulp mill wastewater facility was enriched for 80 days for a methanol-utilizing consortium with the goal of using this consortium to produce biopolymers from methanol-rich pulp mill waste streams. Five enrichment conditions were utilized: three high-methanol streams from the kraft mill foul condensate system, one methanol-amended stream from the mill wastewater plant, and one methanol-only enrichment. Enrichment reactors were operated aerobically in sequencing batch mode at neutral pH and 25°C with a hydraulic residence time and a solids retention time of four days. Non-enriched waste activated sludge did not consume methanol or reduce chemical oxygen demand. With enrichment, however, the chemical oxygen demand reduction over 24 hour feed/decant cycles ranged from 79 to 89 %, and methanol concentrations dropped below method detection limits. Neither the non-enriched waste activated sludge nor any of the enrichment cultures accumulated polyhydroxyalkanoates (PHAs) under conditions of nitrogen sufficiency. Similarly, the non-enriched waste activated sludge did not accumulate PHAs under nitrogen limited conditions. By contrast, enriched cultures accumulated PHAs to nearly 14% on a dry weight basis under nitrogen limited conditions. This indicates that selectively-enriched pulp mill waste activated sludge can serve as an inoculum for PHA production from methanol-rich pulp mill effluents.

Gregory R. Mockos; William A. Smith; Frank J. Loge; David N. Thompson

2007-04-01T23:59:59.000Z

320

Productivity and cost of harvesting a stemwood biomass product from integrated cut-to-length harvest operations in Australian Pinus radiata plantations  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

Abstract Significant quantities of woody biomass from the tops of trees and larger woody ‘waste’ pieces that fall outside existing sawlog and pulpwood specifications are left on site post final harvest in Australian radiata Pinus radiata (D. Don) (radiata pine) plantations. Woody biomass is a potential product for pulp making or energy generation. Commercial use of woody biomass from radiata pine plantations would add extra value to the Australian plantation estate through improved resource utilisation, and potentially reduced post-harvesting silvicultural costs. This study investigated the productivity and cost impact of the harvest and extraction to roadside of woody biomass in an integrated harvest operation in a typical Australian two machine (harvester/processor and forwarder), cut-to-length, clearfall operation in a mature, thinned radiata pine plantation. The harvest operation yielded 23 GMt/ha (5% of the total yield) of woody biomass (known as ‘fibreplus’), 443 GMt/ha of sawlogs and 28 GMt/ha of pulpwood. The mean quantity of biomass left on site was 128 GMt/ha, mainly consisting of branches and needles, sufficient to minimise nutrient loss and protect the soil from erosion. Woodchips derived from the fibreplus product were suitable for kraft pulp making, (when blended in small amounts with clean de-barked roundwood woodchips), and for energy generation. The method trialed with the fibreplus product being produced did not impact harvesting and processing productivity and costs, but extraction was 14% less productive. Through analysis of the productivities of each phase and development of a cost model the harvest and extraction of the fibreplus product was estimated to increase total unit costs by ?4.9%.

D. Walsh; M. Strandgard

2014-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

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321

Solar High Temperature Water-Splitting Cycle with Quantum Boost  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

A sulfur family chemical cycle having ammonia as the working fluid and reagent was developed as a cost-effective and efficient hydrogen production technology based on a solar thermochemical water-splitting cycle. The sulfur ammonia (SA) cycle is a renewable and sustainable process that is unique in that it is an all-fluid cycle (i.e., with no solids handling). It uses a moderate temperature solar plant with the solar receiver operating at 800°C. All electricity needed is generated internally from recovered heat. The plant would operate continuously with low cost storage and it is a good potential solar thermochemical hydrogen production cycle for reaching the DOE cost goals. Two approaches were considered for the hydrogen production step of the SA cycle: (1) photocatalytic, and (2) electrolytic oxidation of ammonium sulfite to ammonium sulfate in aqueous solutions. Also, two sub-cycles were evaluated for the oxygen evolution side of the SA cycle: (1) zinc sulfate/zinc oxide, and (2) potassium sulfate/potassium pyrosulfate. The laboratory testing and optimization of all the process steps for each version of the SA cycle were proven in the laboratory or have been fully demonstrated by others, but further optimization is still possible and needed. The solar configuration evolved to a 50 MW(thermal) central receiver system with a North heliostat field, a cavity receiver, and NaCl molten salt storage to allow continuous operation. The H2A economic model was used to optimize and trade-off SA cycle configurations. Parametric studies of chemical plant performance have indicated process efficiencies of ~20%. Although the current process efficiency is technically acceptable, an increased efficiency is needed if the DOE cost targets are to be reached. There are two interrelated areas in which there is the potential for significant efficiency improvements: electrolysis cell voltage and excessive water vaporization. Methods to significantly reduce water evaporation are proposed for future activities. Electrolysis membranes that permit higher temperatures and lower voltages are attainable. The oxygen half cycle will need further development and improvement.

Taylor, Robin [SAIC] [SAIC; Davenport, Roger [SAIC] [SAIC; Talbot, Jan [UCSD] [UCSD; Herz, Richard [UCSD] [UCSD; Genders, David [Electrosynthesis Co.] [Electrosynthesis Co.; Symons, Peter [Electrosynthesis Co.] [Electrosynthesis Co.; Brown, Lloyd [TChemE] [TChemE

2014-04-25T23:59:59.000Z

322

Design of Refractory Linings for Balanced Energy Efficiency, Uptime, and Capacity in Lime Kilns  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

The rotary kilns used by the pulp and paper industry to regenerate lime in the Kraft process are very energy intensive. Throughout the 90 s, in response to increasing fuel prices, the industry used back up insulation in conjunction with the high alumina brick used to line the burning zones of their kilns. While this improved energy efficiency, the practice of installing insulating brick behind the working lining increased the inner wall temperatures. In the worst case, due to the increased temperatures, rapid brick failures occurred causing unscheduled outages and expensive repairs. Despite these issues, for the most part, the industry continued to use insulating refractory linings in that the energy savings were large enough to offset any increase in the cost of maintaining the refractory lining. Due to the dramatic decline in the price of natural gas in some areas combined with mounting pressures to increasing production of existing assets, over the last decade, many mills are focusing more on increasing the uptime of their kilns as opposed to energy savings. To this end, a growing number of mills are using basic (magnesia based) brick instead of high alumina brick to line the burning zone of the kiln since the lime mud does not react with these bricks at the operating temperatures of the burning zone of the kiln. In the extreme case, a few mills have chosen to install basic brick in the front end of the kiln running a length equivalent to 10 diameters. While the use of basic brick can increase the uptime of the kiln and reduce the cost to maintain the refractory lining, it does dramatically increase the heat losses resulting from the increased operating temperatures of the shell. Also, over long periods of time operating at these high temperatures, damage can occur in the shell. There are tradeoffs between energy efficiency, capacity and uptime. When fuel prices are very high, it makes sense to insulate the lining. When fuel prices are lower, trading some thermal efficiency for increased uptime and capacity seems reasonable. This paper considers a number of refractory linings in an effort to develop optimized operating strategies that balance these factors. In addition to considering a range of refractory materials, the paper examines other factors such as the chain area, discharge dams and other operating variables that impact the service life of the refractory lining. The paper provides recommendations that will help mill personnel develop a strategy to select a refractory lining that is optimized for their specific situation.

Gorog, John Peter [ORNL; Hemrick, James Gordon [ORNL; Walker, Harold [Refratechnik North America, Inc.; Leary, William R [ORNL; Ellis, Murray [Australian Paper, Co.

2014-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

323

Full-Scale Testing of a Mercury Oxidation Catalyst Upstream of a Wet FGD System  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

This document presents and discusses results from Cooperative Agreement DE-FC26-06NT42778, 'Full-scale Testing of a Mercury Oxidation Catalyst Upstream of a Wet FGD System,' which was conducted over the time-period July 24, 2006 through June 30, 2010. The objective of the project was to demonstrate at full scale the use of solid honeycomb catalysts to promote the oxidation of elemental mercury in pulverized-coal-fired flue gas. Oxidized mercury is removed downstream in wet flue gas desulfurization (FGD) absorbers and collected with the byproducts from the FGD system. The project was co-funded by EPRI, the Lower Colorado River Authority (LCRA), who also provided the host site, Great River Energy, Johnson Matthey, Southern Company, Salt River Project (SRP), the Tennessee Valley Authority (TVA), NRG Energy, Ontario Power and Westar. URS Group was the prime contractor and also provided cofunding. The scope of this project included installing and testing a gold-based catalyst upstream of one full-scale wet FGD absorber module (about 200-MW scale) at LCRA's Fayette Power Project (FPP) Unit 3, which fires Powder River Basin coal. Installation of the catalyst involved modifying the ductwork upstream of one of three wet FGD absorbers on Unit 3, Absorber C. The FGD system uses limestone reagent, operates with forced sulfite oxidation, and normally runs with two FGD modules in service and one spare. The full-scale catalyst test was planned for 24 months to provide catalyst life data. Over the test period, data were collected on catalyst pressure drop, elemental mercury oxidation across the catalyst module, and mercury capture by the downstream wet FGD absorber. The demonstration period began on May 6, 2008 with plans for the catalyst to remain in service until May 5, 2010. However, because of continual increases in pressure drop across the catalyst and concerns that further increases would adversely affect Unit 3 operations, LCRA decided to end the demonstration early, during a planned unit outage. On October 2, 2009, Unit 3 was taken out of service for a fall outage and the catalyst upstream of Absorber C was removed. This ended the demonstration after approximately 17 months of the planned 24 months of operation. This report discusses reasons for the pressure drop increase and potential measures to mitigate such problems in any future application of this technology. Mercury oxidation and capture measurements were made on Unit 3 four times during the 17-month demonstration. Measurements were performed across the catalyst and Absorber C and 'baseline' measurements were performed across Absorber A or B, which did not have a catalyst upstream. Results are presented in the report from all four sets of measurements during the demonstration period. These results include elemental mercury oxidation across the catalyst, mercury capture across Absorber C downstream of the catalyst, baseline mercury capture across Absorber A or B, and mercury re-emissions across both absorbers in service. Also presented in the report are estimates of the average mercury control performance of the oxidation catalyst technology over the 17-month demonstration period and the resulting mercury control costs.

Gary Blythe; Jennifer Paradis

2010-06-30T23:59:59.000Z

324

Advanced Recombinant Manganese Peroxidase for Biosynthesis of Lignin Bioproducts, Phase I Final Report, STTR Grant #: DE-SC0007503.  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

The core purpose of this Phase I STTR was to evaluate the feasibility of a new method of producing a recombinant version of manganese peroxidase (MnP) enzyme. MnP is a potentially valuable enzyme for producing high value lignin products and also for industrial de-coloring operations such as biobleaching of pulp and color removal from textile dye effluents. This lignin-modifying enzyme is produced in small amounts by the native host, a white rot fungus. Previous work by Oregon State University developed a secreted recombinant version of the enzyme in the yeast Pichia pastoris. Unfortunately, the expression is barely moderate and the enzyme is heavily glycosylated, which inhibits purification. In this work, the gene for the enzyme is given a tag which targets production of the enzyme to the peroxisome. This is a promising approach since this location is also where heme and hydrogen peroxide are sequestered, which are both necessary cofactors for MnP. More than ten recombinant strains were constructed, verified, and expressed in the Pichia system. Constitutive (GAP) and methanol-induced promoters (AOX) were tried for peroxisomal targeted, cytosolic, and secreted versions of MnP. Only the secreted strains showed activity. The amount of expression was not significantly changed. The degree of glycosylation was lessened using the AOX (methanol) promotoer, but the resulting enzyme was still not able to be purified using immobilized metal affinity chromatography. Additional work beyond the scope of the defined Phase I project was undertaken to construct, verify, and express Pichia strains that mutated the MnP glycosylation sites to inhibit this process. These strains did not show significant activity. The cause is not known, but it is possible that these sites are important to the structure of the enzyme. Also beyond the scope proposed for our Phase I STTR, the team collaborated with AbSci, a startup with a new E. coli based expression system focused on the production of antibodies and enzymes containing disulfide bonds and requiring folding/post-translational modification. With only limited time remaining in the Phase I schedule, a single construct was made to produce MnP with this system. The enzyme was produced in the soluble fraction of the cell lysate, but no activity was measured. MnP from the existing recombinant source was used to act on lignin. The lignin was from a Kraft process and had a molecular weight of about 10,000 Da. Using 1000 Da dialysis membranes and UV-visible spectroscopy, no modification of either lignin was evident in the dialysate or the retentate. Assays using 2,6 dimethoxy phenol (DMP) as a substrate showed consistent activity throughout the project. In summary, these results fell far short of our expectations. A Phase II proposal was not submitted. Possible reasons for the failure of peroxisomal targeting include destruction by native hydrogen peroxide, native proteases, or unforeseen causes. The AbSci system was only lighted tested and further work may yield a strain with active enzyme. The lack of evidence for lignin modification may be due to the techniques employed. NMR or GC-MS studies may reveal evidence of modification.

Beatty, Christopher; Kitner, Joshua; Lajoie, Curtis; McClain, Sean; Potochnik, Steve

2012-12-13T23:59:59.000Z

325

Nitrate Enhanced Microbial Cr(VI) Reduction-Final Report  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

A major challenge for the bioremediation of radionuclides (i.e., uranium, technetium) and metals (i.e., Cr(VI), Hg) is the co-occurrence of nitrate as it can inhibit metal transformation. Denitrification (nitrate reduction to dinitrogen gas) is considered the most important ecological process. For many metal and metalloid reducing bacteria, however, ammonia is the end product through respiratory nitrate reduction (RNRA). The focus of this work was to determine how RNRA impacts Cr(VI) transformation. The goal was to elucidate the specific mechanism(s) that limits Cr(VI) reduction in the presence of nitrate and to use this information to develop strategies that enhance Cr(VI) reduction (and thus detoxification). Our central hypothesis is that nitrate impacts the biotransformation of metals and metalloids in three ways 1) as a competitive alternative electron acceptor (inhibiting transformation), 2) as a co-metabolite (i.e., concomitant reduction, stimulating transformation), and 3) as an inducer of specific proteins and pathways involved in oxidation/reduction reactions (stimulating transformation). We have identified three model organisms, Geobacter metallireducens (mechanism 1), Sulfurospirillum barnesii, (mechasism 2), and Desulfovibrio desulfuricans (mechanisms 3). Our specific aims were to 1) investigate the role of Cr(VI) concentration on the kinetics of both growth and reduction of nitrate, nitrite, and Cr(VI) in these three organisms; 2) develop a profile of bacterial enzymes involved in nitrate transformation (e.g., oxidoreductases) using a proteomic approach; 3) investigate the function of periplasmic nitrite reductase (Nrf) as a chromate reductase; and 4) develop a strategy to maximize microbial chromium reduction in the presence of nitrate. We found that growth on nitrate by G. metallireducens was inhibited by Cr(VI). Over 240 proteins were identified by LC/MS-MS. Redox active proteins, outer membrane heavy metal efflux proteins, and chemotaxis sensory proteins (Gmet_2478 and Gmet_1641) were up-regulated with exposure to Cr(VI). A nine-heme cytochrome C was purified that could reduce nitrite and could be oxidized by Cr(VI). For D. desulfuricans, we found that confirmed that Cr(VI) induced a prolonged lag period when Cr(VI) was reduced. Over three hundred proteins were unequivocally identified by LC/MS-MS and a significant number of down-regulated proteins for which the levels were changed >2 fold compared to control. Sulfite reductase levels were similar, however, nitrate and nitrite reductase were down-regulated. The supernatant of spent cultures was found to contain a filterable, heat stable compound that rapidly reduced Cr(VI). In addition, desulfoviridin was purified from nitrate grown cells and shown to have nitrite reductase activity that was inhibited by Cr(VI). For S. barnesii, periplasmic nitrate reductase (Nap), nitrite reductase (Nrf), and the metalloid reductase (Rar) were purified and characterized. The supernatant of spent cultures was also found to contain a filterable, heat stable compound that rapidly reduced Cr(VI) but that Rar also reduced Cr(VI). Our results from specific aims 1 through 3 indicate that for G. metallireducens, Cr(VI) inhibits nitrate respiration as it oxidizes cytochromes involved in nitrate respiration. Iron reduction is apparently not affected and the inhibitory affects of Cr(VI) may be attenuated by the addition of sufficient Fe(III) to generate Fe(II) that abiotically reduces the chromium. For S. barnesii, although the enzyme assays indicate that the components of the respiratory pathway for nitrate (e.g. Nap and Nrf) are inhibited by chromate, the organism has a mechanism to prevent this from actually occurring. Our current hypothesis is that the non-specific metalloid reductase (Rar) is providing resistance by reducing the Cr(VI). The strategy here would be to enhance its growth and metabolism in the natural setting. Lactate is a suitable electron donor for S. barnesii but other donors are possible. Although the version of the Phylochip used for monitoring the microb

John F. Stolz

2011-06-15T23:59:59.000Z

326

Final Report, Materials for Industrial Heat Recovery Systems, Tasks 3 and 4 Materials for Heat Recovery in Recovery Boilers  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

The DOE-funded project on materials for industrial heat recovery systems included four research tasks: materials for aluminum melting furnace recuperator tubes, materials and operational changes to prevent cracking and corrosion of the co-extruded tubes that form primary air ports in black liquor recovery boilers, the cause of and means to prevent corrosion of carbon steel tubes in the mid-furnace area of recovery boilers, and materials and operational changes to prevent corrosion and cracking of recovery boiler superheater tubes. Results from studies on the latter two topics are given in this report while separate reports on results for the first two tasks have already been published. Accelerated, localized corrosion has been observed in the mid-furnace area of kraft recovery boilers. This corrosion of the carbon steel waterwall tubes is typically observed in the vicinity of the upper level of air ports where the stainless clad co-extruded wall tubes used in the lower portion of the boiler are welded to the carbon steel tubes that extend from this transition point or “cut line” to the top of the boiler. Corrosion patterns generally vary from one boiler to another depending on boiler design and operating parameters, but the corrosion is almost always found within a few meters of the cut line and often much closer than that. This localized corrosion results in tube wall thinning that can reach the level where the integrity of the tube is at risk. Collection and analysis of gas samples from various areas near the waterwall surface showed reducing and sulfidizing gases were present in the areas where corrosion was accelerated. However, collection of samples from the same areas at intervals over a two year period showed the gaseous environment in the mid-furnace section can cycle between oxidizing and reducing conditions. These fluctuations are thought to be due to gas flow instabilities and they result in an unstable or a less protective scale on the carbon steel tubes. Also, these fluctuating air flow patterns can result in deposition of black liquor on the wall tubes, and during periods when deposition is high, there is a noticeable increase in the concentrations of sulfur-bearing gases like hydrogen sulfide and methyl mercaptan. Laboratory studies have shown that chromized and aluminized surface treatments on carbon steel improve the resistance to sulfidation attack. Studies of superheater corrosion and cracking have included laboratory analyses of cracked tubes, laboratory corrosion studies designed to simulate the superheater environment and field tests to study the movement of superheater tubes and to expose a corrosion probe to assess the corrosion behavior of alternate superheater alloys, particularly alloys that would be used for superheaters operating at higher temperatures and higher pressures than most current boilers. In the laboratory corrosion studies, samples of six alternate materials were immersed in an aggressive, low melting point salt mixture and exposed for times up to 336 h, at temperatures of 510, 530 or 560°C in an inert or reactive cover gas. Using weight change and results of metallographic examination, the samples were graded on their resistance to the various environments. For the superheater corrosion probe studies, samples of the same six materials were exposed on an air-cooled corrosion probe exposed in the superheater section of a recovery boiler for 1000 h. Post exposure examination showed cracking and/or subsurface attack in the samples exposed at the higher temperatures with the attack being more severe for samples 13 exposed above the first melting temperature of the deposits that collected on the superheater tubes. From these superheater studies, a ranking was developed for the six materials tested. The task addressing cracking and corrosion of primary air port tubes that was part of this project produced results that have been extensively implemented in recovery boilers in North America, the Nordic countries and many other parts of the world. By utilizing these results, boilers ar

Keiser, James R.; Kish, Joseph R.; Singh, Preet M.; Sarma, Gorti B.; Yuan, Jerry; Gorog, J. Peter; Frederick, Laurie A.; Jette, Francois R.; Meisner, Roberta A.; Singbeil, Douglas L.

2007-12-31T23:59:59.000Z