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Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "kraft pulping bleaching" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
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1

Recycling of water in bleached kraft pulp mills by using electrodialysis.  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Conservation of water in bleached kraft pulp mills by recycling the bleach plant effluent directly without treatment will cause accumulation of inorganic ''non-process elements'' (NPEs) and serious operational problems. In this work, an electrodialysis process is being developed for recycling the acidic bleach plant effluent of bleached kraft pulp mills. In this process, electrodialysis functions as a selective kidney to remove inorganic NPEs from bleach plant effluents, before they reach the recovery cycle. Acidic bleach plant effluents from several mills using bleaching sequences based on chlorine dioxide were characterized. The total dissolved solids were mostly inorganic NPEs. Sodium was the predominant cation and chloride was present at significant levels in all these effluents. In laboratory electrodialysis experiments, selective removal of chloride and potentially harmful cations, such as potassium, calcium, and magnesium, were removed efficiently. Rejection of organic compounds was up to 98%. Electrodialysis was shown to be resistant to membrane fouling and scaling, in a 100-hour laboratory experiment. Based on a model mill with 1,000 ton/day pulp production, the economic analysis suggests that the energy cost of electrodialysis is less than $200/day, and the capital cost of the stack is about $500,000.

Fracaro, A. T.; Henry, M. P.; Pfromm, P.; Tsai, S.-P.

1999-01-15T23:59:59.000Z

2

Study on the modification of bleached eucalyptus kraft pulp using birch xylan  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

In this study, birch xylan was deposited onto elementally chlorine free (ECF) bleached eucalyptus kraft pulp, and the corresponding changes in physical properties were determined. An aqueous 5% birch xylan solution at pH 9 was added to 5 wt% slurry of bleached kraft eucalyptus fibers, with stirring at 70 °C for 15 min after which the pH was adjusted to 5–6. The xylan enriched fibers were isolated by filtration and used for physical testing. A 1.15 wt% adsorption of birch xylan on the kraft fibers at 8% xylan addition increased the tensile index, strain and tensile energy absorption values by ?10%, while the burst index increased by 20.15%. The tear index increased by 2.55% with the adsorption of 0.87 wt% birch xylan on the eucalyptus kraft pulp at 3% xylan addition. The pulp beatability was also improved by adding birch xylan. The surface morphology of the unmodified and modified pulp samples were analyzed using atomic force microscopy (AFM) in the tapping mode. The analysis revealed the differences in the fine structure of fibers which showed micrometer-sized xylan structures spreading over the fiber surfaces.

Wenjia Han; Chuanshan Zhao; Thomas Elder; Kefu Chen; Rendang Yang; Dongho Kim; Yunqiao Pu; Jeffery Hsieh; Arthur J. Ragauskas

2012-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

3

Formation of chlorinated dioxins during production of bleached kraft pulp from sawmill chips contaminated with polychlorinated phenols  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Until recently, sawmills used polychlorinated phenol (polyCP) formulations to prevent sap-staining of undried lumber. Bleached kraft pulp mills that used chips from polyCP-treated lumber were found to have elevated levels of hexachlorinated dioxins (hexaCDD) in their pulps, effluents, and sludges. This report presents the results of an investigation to elucidate the mechanism of hexaCDD formation during kraft pulping of polyCP-contaminated sawmill chips. The major constituents of the polyCP formulations- tetraCP and pentaCP-play a negligible role in hexaCDD formation. Polychlorinated phenoxyphenol (polyCPP) contaminants in the polyCP formulations are the key contributing factors, with hexaCDD contamination occurring as a consequence of digester-mediated condensation of polyCPP (i.e., predioxin) contaminants.

Luthe, C.E.; Berry, R.M.; Voss, R.H. (Paprican, Pointe Claire, Quebec (Canada))

1993-03-01T23:59:59.000Z

4

Methanol-reinforced kraft pulping  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

The addition of methanol to a high-sulfidity kraft cook on Scandinavian softwood chips was studied under different process conditions. Delignification and the degradation of carbohydrates were accelerated, but the effect on delignification was greater. Thus, methanol addition improved selectivity. The positive effect of methanol could also be observed for modified kraft cooks having a leveled out alkali concentration and lower concentration of sodium ions and dissolved lignin at the end of the cook. Methanol addition had no discernible effect on pulp strength or on pulp bleachability.

Norman, E.; Olm, L.; Teder, A. (STFI, Stockholm (Sweden))

1993-03-01T23:59:59.000Z

5

Surface selective removal of xylan from refined never-dried birch kraft pulp  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

In this study, the effect of enzyme treatment on refined, never-dried bleached birch kraft pulp was investigated, using an endo-1,4-?-xylanase, that is substantially free from cellulase activity. The xylanase tre...

Esa Saukkonen; Katja Lyytikäinen; Pavel Geydt; Kaj Backfolk

2014-10-01T23:59:59.000Z

6

Preventing Strength Loss of Unbleached Kraft Pulp  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Kraft pulp fibers lose inter-fiber bonding ability when they are dried during the manufacture of paper. Adverse environmental consequences of this loss include (a) limitations on the number of times that kraft fibers can be recycled, (b) reduced paper strength, sometimes making it necessary to use heavier paper or paperboard to meet product strength requirements, increasing the usage of raw materials, (c) decreased rates of paper production in cases where the fiber furnish has been over-refined in an attempt to regain inter-fiber bonding ability. The present study is the first of its type to focus on unbleached kraft fibers, which are a main ingredient of linerboard for corrugated containers. About 90 million tons of unbleached kraft fiber are used worldwide every year for this purpose.

Martin Hubbe; Richard Venditti; John Heitmann

2003-04-16T23:59:59.000Z

7

Effects of pulp consistency and mixing intensity on ozone bleaching  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Conventional wisdom holds that ozone bleaching is feasible only at low or high pulp consistencies. However, recent research suggests that ozone bleaching at medium consistency is possible under conditions of high-intensity mixing. This article presents experimental results for softwood and hardwood pulps that were ozone-bleached over a range of consistencies (3-40%) and mixing conditions. Ozone was pressurized and delivered by a proprietary automated system. Results indicate that ozone bleaching at medium consistency can be as effective as bleaching at high consistency. Medium-consistency bleaching has the advantage of greater selectivity, resulting in higher pulp viscosity.

Hurst, M.M. (Quantum Technologies, Inc., Twinsburg, OH (United States))

1993-04-01T23:59:59.000Z

8

Low Odor, High Yield Kraft Pulping  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

In laboratory cooks pure oxygen was profiled into the circulation line of a batch digester during two periods of the cooking cycle: The first injection occurred during the heating steps for the purpose of in-situ generation of polysulfide. This chip treatment was studied to explore stabilization against alkaline induced carbohydrate peeling and to increase pulp yield. Under optimum conditions small amounts of polysulfide were produced with yield increase of about 0.5% These increases fell below earlier reports suggesting that unknown differences in liquor composition may influence the relative amounts of polysulfide and thiosulfate generated during the oxidation. Consequently, further studies are required to understand the factors that influence the ratios of those two sulfur species.

W.T. McKean

2000-12-15T23:59:59.000Z

9

Dry Kraft Pulping at Ambient Pressure for Cost Effective Energy Saving and Pollution Deduction  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Sponsored by the DOE Industrial Energy Efficiency Grand Challenge program, our research team at the Georgia Institute of Technology conducted laboratory studies and confirmed the concept of making wood pulp using a dry pulping technology. This technology is a new process different from any prior pulping technology used in Kraft and CTMP pulping. Three different kinds of dry pulping methods were investigated. (a) Dry Pulping at Atmospheric Pressure: The first one is to dry and bake the pretreated woodchips in a conventional oven at atmospheric pressure without the use of a catalyst. (b) Dry Pulping at Reduced Pressure: The second method is to dry the pretreated woodchips first in a vacuum oven in the presence of anthraquinone (AQ) as a pulping catalyst, followed by baking at elevated temperature. (c) Liquid Free Chemical Pulping, LFCP. The third method is to first remove the free water of pretreated woodchips, followed by dry pulping using a conventional Kraft pulping digester with AQ and triton as additives. Method one: Experimental results indicated that Dry Pulping at Atmospheric Pressure could produce pulp with higher brightness and lower bulk than conventional Kraft pulp. However, tensile strength of the acquired pulp is much lower than traditional Kraft pulp, and their Kappa number and energy consumption are higher than conventional Kraft pulp. By fully analyzing the results, we concluded that wood fibers might be damaged during the drying process at elevated temperature. The main reason for wood fiber damage is that a long drying time was used during evaporation of water from the woodchips. This resulted in an un-uniform reaction condition on the woodchips: the outside layer of the woodchips was over reacted while inside the woodchips did not reacted at all. To solve this problem, dry pulping at reduced pressure was investigated. Method two: To achieve uniform reaction throughout the entire reaction system, the water inside the pretreated woodchips was evaporated first under vacuum condition at low temperature. Then, the dry woodchips were baked at high temperature (120-130 C) at atmospheric pressure. The qualities of the pulp made with this method were improved compared to that made with method one. The pulp shows higher brightness and lower bulk than Kraft pulping. The tensile strength is significantly higher than the pulp made from the first method. Although the pulp is stronger than that of TMP pulp, it is still lower than conventional Kraft fiber. Method Three: The third dry method was done in a Kraft pulping digester at elevated pressure but without free liquid in the digester. With this method, pulp that has almost the same qualities as conventional Kraft pulp could be produced. The screen yield, Kappa number, fiber brightness, pulp strength and pulp bulk are almost identical to the conventional Kraft pulp. The key advantages of this dry pulping method include ca. 55 % of cooking energy saved during the pulping process, as high as 50 wt% of NaOH saving as well as 3 wt% of Na2S saving comparing to Kraft one. By analyzing fiber properties, yields, chemical and energy consumptions, we concluded that the dry pulping method based on Liquid Free Chemical Pulping, LFCP, could be very attractive for the pulp and paper industry. More fundamental studies and scale up trials are needed to fully commercialize the technology. We expect to conduct pilot trials between 12 to 24 months of period if the DOE or industry can provide continual research funding. Based on the technology we demonstrated in this report, several pilot trial facilities in the United States will be available after small modifications. For example, the Herty Foundation in Savannah, Georgia is one of these potential locations. DOE funding for continuous study and final lead to commercialization of the technique is important.

Yulin Deng; Art Ragauskas

2012-08-28T23:59:59.000Z

10

Producing a True Lignin Depolymerase for Biobleaching Softwood Kraft Pulp  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

This project constituted an intensive effort devoted to producing, from the white-rot fungus Tramets Cingulata, a lignin degrading enzyme (lignin depolymerase) that is directly able to biobleach or delignify softwood kraft pulp brownstock. To this end, the solutions in which T. cingulata was grown contained dissolved kraft lignin which fulfilled two functions; it behaved as a lignin deploymerase substrate and it also appeared to act as an inducer of enzyme expression. However, the lignin depolymerase isoenzymes (and other extracellular T. cingulata enzymes) interacted very strongly with both the kraft lignin components and the fungal hypae, so the isolating these proteins from the culture solutions proved to be unexpectedly difficult. Even after extensive experimentation with a variety of protein purification techniques, only one approach appeared to be capable of purifying lignin depolymerases to homogeneity. Unfortunately the procedure was extremely laborious; it involved the iso electric focusing of concentrated buffer-exchanged culture solutions followed by electro-elution of the desired protein bands from the appropriate polyacrylamide gel segments

Simo Sarkanen

2002-02-04T23:59:59.000Z

11

Yield Improvement and Energy Savings Uing Phosphonates as Additives in Kraft pulping  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Project Objective: Develop a commercially viable modification to the Kraft process resulting in energy savings, increased yield and improved bleachability. Evaluate the feasibility of this technology across a spectrum of wood species used in North America. Develop detailed fundamental understanding of the mechanism by which phosphonates improve KAPPA number and yield. Evaluate the North American market potential for the use of phosphonates in the Kraft pulping process. Examine determinants of customer perceived value and explore organizational and operational factors influencing attitudes and behaviors. Provide an economic feasibility assessment for the supply chain, both suppliers (chemical supply companies) and buyers (Kraft mills). Provide background to most effectively transfer this new technology to commercial mills.

Ulrike W. Tschirner; Timothy Smith

2007-03-31T23:59:59.000Z

12

Multimedia sampling for dioxin at a strip mine reclaimed with sludge from bleached kraft wastewater treatment  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

This paper reports that mead conducted a two-year dioxin testing program on strip-mined land being reclaimed with sludge from the wastewater treatment plant of its bleached kraft mill. Many different samples were analyzed for both 2,3,7,8-TCDD (or dioxin) and 2,3,7,8-TCDF (or furan). The study included biodiversity studies to determine the total environmental impact. The results indicate that the sludge is an excellent reclamation material that improves the biodiversity at the site. The tracer dioxin in the sludge does not exhibit any significant migration or bioavailability when used for reclaiming strip mines. These findings differ from assumptions sometimes used in assessing the environmental risks of dioxin.

Krouskop, D.J.; Ayers, K.C. (Metal Corp. (US)); Proctor, J.L. (Ohio Univ., Chillicothe, OH (US))

1991-04-01T23:59:59.000Z

13

Bleaching Miscanthus x giganteus Acetosolv Pulps with a New Totally Chlorine-free Sequence and the Effect of Carbohydrate Protectors  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

The bleaching of semibleached Miscanthus x giganteus Acetosolv pulp, after alkaline and peroxyacetate treatments, was investigated by a novel totally chlorine-free (TCF) sequence. Oxygen delignification (O-stage), peroxide (P-stage), and oxygen-...

Juan José Villaverde; Pablo Ligero; Alberto de Vega

2009-09-02T23:59:59.000Z

14

4-O-Methyl-?-l-idopyranosyluronic acid linked to xylan from kraft pulp: isolation procedure and characterisation by NMR spectroscopy  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

The tetrasaccharide 2?-O-(4-O-methyl-?-l-idopyranosyluronic acid)xylotriose was isolated from enzymatically hydrolysed, unbleached, birch kraft pulp by anion-exchange chromatography in two steps. The primary structure of the tetrasaccharide was determined by 1H and 13C NMR spectroscopy, using homonuclear and heteronuclear two-dimensional techniques. NOE data and 3JH.H coupling constants show that the 4-O-methyl-?-l-idopyranosyluronic acid in the tetrasaccharide is predominantly in the 1C4 chair conformation. The pKa value (3.17) for 4-O-methyliduronic acid attached ?-(1 ? 2) to xylose was determined from the pH-dependent chemical shift of H-5. The amount of 4-O-methyliduronic acid (0.1–0.5 mol%) in surface xylan of unbleached birch and pine kraft pulps was determined by extensive xylanase treatment and further analysis by NMR spectroscopy and high-performance anion-exchange chromatography.

Anita Teleman; Matti Siika-aho; Harri Sorsa; Johanna Buchert; Marjukka Perttula; Tiina Hausalo; Maija Tenkanen

1996-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

15

Survey of hydrogen peroxide bleaching of mechanical and chemimechanical pulp - factors affecting brightness  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

The literature upon which this survey is based covers the period from 1975 to June 1985 and was searched both manually and by computer. More than 100 articles and patents were examined, and of these almost half were singled out as meriting citation. Several recent surveys can be identified as sources that provide a general overview of current peroxide bleaching practice as specifically applied to mechanical and chemimechanical pulps. Additionally, an article by Allison, although not intended as a review, nevertheless serves as one by virtue of the broad scope of its content. 44 references.

Dence, C.W.; Omori, S.

1986-10-01T23:59:59.000Z

16

A New Freeze Concentration Process for Minimum Effluent Process in Bleached Pulp  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

This project researches freeze concentration as a primary volume reduction technology for bleaching plant effluents from paper-pulp mills before they are treated by expensive technologies, such as incineration, for the destruction of the adsorbable organic halogens. Previous laboratory studies show that freeze concentration has a greater than 99.5% purification efficiency for volatile, semivolatile, and nonprocess elements, or any other solute, thus producing pure ice that can be reused in the mill as water. The first section evaluates the anticipated regulatory and public pressures associated with implementing the technology; the remaining sections deal with the experimental results from a scaled-up freeze concentration process in a 100-liter pilot-plant at Tufts University. The results of laboratory scale experiments confirmed that the freeze concentration technology could be an efficient volume reduction technology for the above elements and for removing adsorbable organic hologens and or nonprocess elements from recycled water. They also provide the necessary data for designing and operating a larger pilot plant, and identify the technical problems encountered in the scale-up and the way they could be addressed in the larger scale plants. This project was originally planned to include the operation of a large pilot plant in the facilities of Swenson Process Equipment Inc., and a field test at a pulp mill, but the paper company withdrew its financial support for the field test. In place of a final economic evaluation after the field test, a preliminary evaluation based on the small pilot plant data predicts an economically reasonable freeze concentration process in the case of reduction of the bleaching-effluent flow to less than 5 m3/kkg pulp, a target anticipated in the near future.

Qian, Ru-Ying; Botsaris, Gregory D.

2001-03-06T23:59:59.000Z

17

The Effects of Bleached Kraft Pulp-Mill Effluent on Periphyton DOE FRAP 1996-08  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .15 3.3.4 Polycyclic Aromatic Hydrocarbons . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .17 3.3.5 Dioxins

18

Mineral phases of green liquor dregs, slaker grits, lime mud and wood ash of a Kraft pulp and paper mill  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

Four residues generated in a Kraft, pulp and paper plant, were characterized by X-ray fluorescence spectroscopy (XFA), powder X-ray diffraction (XRD), thermogravimmetric analysis (TG) and Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR). A quantitative phase composition model, that accounts for the observed data and for the physico-chemical conditions of formation, was postulated for each material. Emphasis was given on the identification of the mineral components of each material. The green liquor dregs and the lime mud contain Calcite and Gipsite. The slaker grits contains Calcite, Portlandite, Pirssonite, Larnite and Brucite. The Calcite phase, present in the dregs and in the lime mud, has small amounts of magnesium replacing calcium. The wood ash contains Quartz as the major crystalline mineral phase.

Fernanda Machado Martins; Joaniel Munhoz Martins; Luiz Carlos Ferracin; Carlos Jorge da Cunha

2007-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

19

Effect of raw material and Kraft Pulping Conditions on Characteristics of Dissolved Lignin.  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

?? Lignin is one of the main components in wood and during the chemical pulping processes it is degraded and dissolved into the cooking liquor.… (more)

Svärd, Antonia

2014-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

20

Recycling of bleach plant filtrates by electrodialysis removal of inorganic non-process elements.  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Water use in the pulp and paper industry is very significant, and the U.S. pulp and paper industries as well as other processing industries are actively pursuing water conservation and pollution prevention by in-process recycling of water. Bleach plant effluent is a large portion of the water discharged from a typical bleached kraft pulp mill. The recycling of bleach plant effluents to the kraft recovery cycle is widely regarded as an approach to low effluent bleached kraft pulp production. The focus of this work has been on developing an electrodialysis process for recycling the acidic bleach plant effluent of bleached Kraft pulp mills. Electrodialysis is uniquely suited as a selective kidney to remove non-process elements (NPEs) from bleach plant effluent before they reach the chemical recovery cycle. Using electrodialysis for selective NPE removal can prevent the problems caused by accumulation of inorganic NPEs in the pulping cycle and recovery boiler. In this work, acidic bleach plant filtrates from three mills using different bleaching sequences based on chlorine dioxide were characterized. The analyses showed no fundamental differences in the inorganic NPE composition or other characteristics among these filtrates. The majority of total dissolved solids in the effluents were found to be inorganic NPEs. Chloride and nitrate were present at significant levels in all effluent samples. Sodium was the predominant metal ion, while calcium and magnesium were also present at considerable levels. The feasibility of using electrodialysis to selectively remove inorganic NPEs from the acidic bleach effluent was successfully demonstrated in laboratory experiments with effluents from all these three mills. Although there were some variations in these effluents, chloride and potentially harmful cations, such as potassium, calcium, and magnesium, were removed efficiently from the bleach effluents into a small-volume, concentrated purge stream. This effective removal of inorganic NPEs can enable the mills to recycle bleach effluents to reduce water consumption. The electrodialysis process also effectively retained up to 98% of the organics and can reduce the organic discharge in the mill wastewater. By using suitable commercially available electrodialysis membranes, there were no indications of rapid or irreversible membrane fouling or scale formation, even in extended laboratory scale operations up to 100 hours. Results of laboratory experiments also showed that commercially available membranes properly selected for this process would have good stability to withstand the potentially oxidative conditions of the filtrate. A pilot-scale field demonstration was also conducted at a southern mill, using the D0 filtrate from the bleach plant. During the field demonstration we found serious membrane stack clogging problems, which apparently were caused by fine fibers that escaped through the 5-micron pre-filters, although such a pre-filtration method had been satisfactory in the laboratory tests. Additional R&D is recommended to address this pre-filtration or clogging issue with systems approaches integrating pre-filtration, other separation methods, and stack design. After the pre-filtration/clogging issue is overcome, laboratory development and pilot demonstration are recommended to optimize the process parameters and to evaluate the long-term process parameters. The key technical issues here include membrane lives, control and mitigation of fouling and scaling, and cleaning-in-place protocols.

Tsai, S. P.; Pfromm, P.; Henry, M. P.; Fracaro, A. T.; Swanstrom, C. P.; Moon, P.

2002-03-04T23:59:59.000Z

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "kraft pulping bleaching" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


21

Ozone bleaching of recycled paper  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Chlorinated bleaching chemicals, notably chlorine and hypochlorite, are still being used to bleach deinked, woodfree pulps. Increasing environmental concern about the use of these chemicals--coupled with the industry's efforts to increase the use of recycled fibers--highlight the need to develop better techniques for producing high-quality deinked pulp. Results presented in this report suggest that deinked fibers can be treated with ozone followed by a peroxide bleaching stage to produce a high-quality pulp.

Muguet, M.; Kogan, J. (American Air Liquide, Countryside, IL (United States))

1993-11-01T23:59:59.000Z

22

Trends and guidelines in water pollution control in the Finnish pulp and paper industry  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

There are about 50 paper and pulp mills in Finland. In this paper, their production capacities in 1988 are illustrated. Pulp and paper production has increased quite rapidly during the last few decades. The greatest increase incurred in the production of bleached kraft pulp and mechanical pulp. The production of sulfite pulp has decreased during recent years. Within paper the production of printing papers has had the biggest increase. Estimates predict that the production capacity of the finish pulp and paper industry will show an average increase of 4% per year by the middle of this decade. Final production in 1987 and one estimate of production in 1992 are given. Wastewater loadings per production output are decreasing.

Junna, J. (National Board of Waters and the Environment, P.O. Box 250, SF-00101 Helsinki (FI)); Ruonala, S. (Environmental Research and Development Programme of the Finnish Forest Industry, P.O. Box 250, SF-00101 Helsinki (FI))

1991-07-01T23:59:59.000Z

23

Assessment of Gasification-Based Biorefining at Kraft Pulp and Paper Mills in the United States, Part A: Background and Assumptions  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Commercialization of black liquor and biomass gasification technologies is anticipated in the 2010-2015 time frame, and synthesis gas from gasifiers can be converted into liquid fuels using catalytic synthesis technologies that are already commercially established in the gas-to-liquids or coal-to-liquids industries. This set of two papers describes key results from a major assessment of the prospective energy, environmental, and financial performance of commercial gasification-based biorefineries integrated with kraft pulp and paper mills [1]. Seven detailed biorefinery designs were developed for a reference mill in the southeastern United States, together with the associated mass/energy balances, air emissions estimates, and capital investment requirements. The biorefineries provide chemical recovery services and co-produce process steam for the mill, some electricity, and one of three liquid fuels: a Fischer-Tropsch synthetic crude oil (which could be refined to vehicle fuels at an existing petroleum refinery), dimethyl ether (a diesel engine fuel or propane substitute), or an ethanol-rich mixed-alcohol product. This paper describes the key assumptions that underlie the biorefinery designs. Part B will present analytical results.

Larson, E. D.; Consonni, S.; Katofsky, R. E.; Iisa, K.; Frederick, W. J., Jr.

2008-11-01T23:59:59.000Z

24

Low effluent processing in the pulp and paper industry: Electrodialysis for continuous selective chloride removal  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Pollution prevention is currently a major focus of the United States pulp and paper industry. Significant process changes are inevitable to implement low effluent processing. The kraft pulping process is prevalent for the production of wood pulp. About 50 million tons of wood pulp are produced annually in the United States alone using the kraft process. Water consumption is currently roughly between 30 and 200 m{sup 3} of water per ton of air dry bleached kraft pulp. In-process recycling of water is now being implemented by many mills to reduce the use of increasingly scarce water resources and to reduce the need for waste-water treatment. Mass balance considerations and industrial experience show that nonprocess elements, which are detrimental to the kraft process, such as chloride and potassium, will quickly build up once water use is significantly reduced. High concentrations of chloride and potassium can cause corrosion and lead to more frequent mill shutdowns due to fouling of heat exchanger surfaces in the kraft recovery furnace. Electrodialysis will monovalent selective anion and cation exchange membranes was explored here to selectively remove chlorine as sodium and potassium chloride from a feed stream with very high ionic strength. Experiments with model solutions and extended tests with the actual pulp mill materials were performed. Very good selectivities and current efficiencies were observed for chloride over sulfate. The outstanding performance of the process with actual mill materials containing organic and inorganic contamination shows great promise for rapid transfer to the pilot scale. This work is an example of the usefulness of membrane separations as a kidney in low effluent industrial processing.

Pfromm, P.H. [Institute of Paper Science and Technology, Atlanta, GA (United States)

1997-12-01T23:59:59.000Z

25

Highly Energy Efficient Directed Green Liquor Utilization (D-GLU) Pulping  

Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

This factsheet describes a project that seeks to develop feasible chemical modifications during kraft pulping operations to obtain significant energy and product benefits for U.S. kraft pulp and paper mills.

26

Kraft Liquor Corrosion Margaret Gorog  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

1 Kraft Liquor Corrosion Margaret Gorog Federal Way, WA Pulp and Paper Corrosion Symposium Georgia Tech Renewable Bioproducts Institute November 2014 · Brown Stock Corrosion · Alkaline Liquor Corrosion · Black Liquor Corrosion ­ Evaporators ­ Research · High Solids Black Liquor Corrosion of Stainless Steel

Das, Suman

27

Coupling of solar-assisted advanced oxidative and biological treatment for degradation of agro-residue-based soda bleaching effluent  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

This study evaluates the effect of integrated solar-assisted advanced oxidation process (AOP) and biological...1) stages of soda pulp bleaching in agro-residue-based pulp and paper mill. Biodegradation of the eff...

Amit Dhir; Nagaraja Tejo Prakash…

2012-11-01T23:59:59.000Z

28

Simultaneous and rapid determination of multiple component concentrations in a Kraft liquor process stream  

DOE Patents [OSTI]

The present invention is a rapid method of determining the concentration of the major components in a chemical stream. The present invention is also a simple, low cost, device of determining the in-situ concentration of the major components in a chemical stream. In particular, the present invention provides a useful method for simultaneously determining the concentrations of sodium hydroxide, sodium sulfide and sodium carbonate in aqueous kraft pulping liquors through use of an attenuated total reflectance (ATR) tunnel flow cell or optical probe capable of producing a ultraviolet absorbency spectrum over a wavelength of 190 to 300 nm. In addition, the present invention eliminates the need for manual sampling and dilution previously required to generate analyzable samples. The inventive method can be used in Kraft pulping operations to control white liquor causticizing efficiency, sulfate reduction efficiency in green liquor, oxidation efficiency for oxidized white liquor and the active and effective alkali charge to kraft pulping operations.

Li, Jian (Marietta, GA); Chai, Xin Sheng (Atlanta, GA); Zhu, Junyoung (Marietta, GA)

2008-06-24T23:59:59.000Z

29

The Fractionation of Loblolly Pine Woodchips Into Pulp For Making Paper Products  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

The overall goal of the project was to test the PureVision biomass fractionation technology for making pulp from loblolly pine. A specific goal was to produce a pulp product that is comparable to pulp produced from the kraft process, while reducing the environmental effects of the kraft process, known to be a highly pollutant process. The overall goal of the project was met by using the biomass fractionation concept for making pulp product. This proof-of-concept study, done with Southern pine pinchips as feedstock, evaluated NaOH concentration and residence time as variables in single-stage cocurrent pulping process. It can be concluded that 1% NaOH is adequate for effective delignification using the PureVision process; this is about ? of that used in the kraft process. Also, the PureVision process does not use sulfur-based chemicals such as N2S and hence, is environmentally more benign.

Kiran Kadam, PhD

2006-11-30T23:59:59.000Z

30

Kraft Rt Kraft Electronics Inc | Open Energy Information  

Open Energy Info (EERE)

Kraft Rt Kraft Electronics Inc Kraft Rt Kraft Electronics Inc Jump to: navigation, search Name Kraft Rt (Kraft Electronics Inc) Place Budapest, Hungary Zip H-112 Sector Solar Product Equipment manufacturer for the clean energy industry, currently focused on thin-film solar cell production equipment. Coordinates 47.506225°, 19.06482° Loading map... {"minzoom":false,"mappingservice":"googlemaps3","type":"ROADMAP","zoom":14,"types":["ROADMAP","SATELLITE","HYBRID","TERRAIN"],"geoservice":"google","maxzoom":false,"width":"600px","height":"350px","centre":false,"title":"","label":"","icon":"","visitedicon":"","lines":[],"polygons":[],"circles":[],"rectangles":[],"copycoords":false,"static":false,"wmsoverlay":"","layers":[],"controls":["pan","zoom","type","scale","streetview"],"zoomstyle":"DEFAULT","typestyle":"DEFAULT","autoinfowindows":false,"kml":[],"gkml":[],"fusiontables":[],"resizable":false,"tilt":0,"kmlrezoom":false,"poi":true,"imageoverlays":[],"markercluster":false,"searchmarkers":"","locations":[{"text":"","title":"","link":null,"lat":47.506225,"lon":19.06482,"alt":0,"address":"","icon":"","group":"","inlineLabel":"","visitedicon":""}]}

31

Minimizing the sulphur content in Kraft lignin.  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

?? The aim of this project is to investigate the possibilities of minimizing the sulphur content in Kraft lignin. Kraft lignin contains about 1.5 to… (more)

Svensson, Sara

2008-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

32

A comprehensive program to develop correlations for physical properties of kraft black liquor. Final report  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

The overall objective of the program was to develop correlations to predict physical properties within requirements of engineering precision from a knowledge of pulping conditions and of kraft black liquor composition, if possible. These correlations were to include those relating thermodynamic properties to pulping conditions and liquor composition. The basic premise upon which the research was based is the premise that black liquor behaves as a polymer solution. This premise has proven to be true, and has been used successfully in developing data reduction methods and in interpreting results. A three phase effort involving pulping, analysis of liquor composition, and measurement of liquor properties was conducted.

Fricke, A.L.; Zaman, A.A.

1998-05-01T23:59:59.000Z

33

Carbon Fiber Production from a Kraft Hardwood Lignin  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Lignin is a renewable resource material that is being evaluated for the low cost production of carbon fiber for automotive and other applications. Solvent extraction of a commercial hardwood lignin product yielded a purified lignin free of the contaminants typical of lignins derived from the Kraft chemical pulping of wood. The purified lignin was highly melt-spinnable into fibers, from which carbon fiber was subsequently produced. The lignin has been evaluated in terms of its rheological properties, fiber melt spinning ability, and potential for manufacture of low cost carbon fiber without the need for plasticizing agents or chemical modifications.

Baker, Darren A [ORNL; Gallego, Nidia C [ORNL; Baker, Frederick S [ORNL

2008-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

34

Organosolv pulping: a versatile approach to wood refining  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

The fractionation of hardwoods into pulp, lignin, and hemicellulose has been studied in a multi-stage alcohol extraction pilot plant. By adjusting processing conditions, pulps of different properties were obtained. They have been found to be suitable to furnish components for writing, printing, and high-absorbency papers and as dissolving grades. By-product lignin and hemicelluloses are recovered in separate, high-yield fractions for which several potential commercial applications have been identified. The process is a low-capital-cost, low-environmental-impact alternative to kraft and sulfite pulping.

Lora, J.H.; Aziz, S.

1985-08-01T23:59:59.000Z

35

Field Comparison of the Sampling Efficacy of Two Smear Media: Cotton Fiber and Kraft Paper  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Two materials were compared in field tests at the Defense Waste Processing Facility: kraft paper (a strong, brown paper made from wood pulp prepared with a sodium sulfate solution) and cotton fiber. Based on a sampling of forty-six pairs of smears, the cotton fiber smears provide a greater sensitivity. The cotton fiber smears collected an average of forty-four percent more beta activity than the kraft paper smears and twenty-nine percent more alpha activity. Results show a greater sensitivity with cotton fiber over kraft paper at the 95 percent confidence level. Regulatory requirements for smear materials are vague. The data demonstrate that the difference in sensitivity of smear materials could lead to a large difference in reported results that are subsequently used for meeting shipping regulations or evaluating workplace contamination levels.

Hogue, M.G.

2002-02-07T23:59:59.000Z

36

Continuous on-line measurement of lignin concentration in wood pulp  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

We are working toward the development of an instrument for the continuous, on-line measurement of the lignin concentration in wood pulp. The instrument is based on laser induced fluorescence of the wood pulp and is to be used as a primary sensor for both feedback control of the pulping and feedforward control of bleaching. We report here the results of a series of laboratory tests that characterized the fluorescence properties of wood pulp and demonstrated a correlation between various fluorescence functions and the Kappa number of the pulps as determined by TAPPI Procedure T236.

Jeffers, L.A.; Roman, G.W.

1994-06-01T23:59:59.000Z

37

Sun-bleached hair  

Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

Sun-bleached hair Sun-bleached hair Name: Tami Thein, Kelly Frazier, Liz Valente 8 Glen Crest Jr. High Status: N/A Age: N/A Location: N/A Country: N/A Date: N/A Question: Why does some hair change color when exposed to the sun? We checked archives in biology and general science. Replies: This is a good question for a chemist but I'll try and give you a partial answer. Hair contains pigments that are vulnerable to chemical modification by a process called photobleaching. Rearrangements in the pigments molecular structure changes the way light is absorbed and reflected. A similar effect can be caused by chemical bleaching by the hair stylist or from chlorine in a swimming pool by a process called chemical bleaching. The sun may also change the water content of the hair and this can cause subtle color changes by changing the relative density of the color pigments. Try the chemistry board for a more complete answer. Don't let your roots show!

38

Examination of the thermal decomposition of kraft pine lignin by Fourier transform infrared evolved gas analysis  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

The thermal decomposition of kraft lignin was examined by Fourier-transform IR evolved-gas analysis, a technique designed for on-the-fly, simultaneous monitoring of multiple vapor-phase species. Initial degradation occurs at 120-300 degrees from bond fragmentation in the phenylpropane side chains as evidenced by the formation of HCO2H, HCHO, CO2, H2O and SO2. The presence of SO2 is supporting evidence that S from the kraft pulping process may be incorporated into the lignin structure in the form of sulfoxide and(or) sulfone linkages. Major decomposition initiates at approximately 300 degrees and extends to 480 degrees at which point half the intital weight has been lost. MeOH 2-methoxyphenol (guaiacol), and a 2-methoxy-4-alkyl- substituted phenol are the most apparent species evolving in this region and indicate fragmentation of the major chain linkages between the monomeric phenol units in the lignin structure.

Fenner, R.A.; Lephardt, J.O.

1981-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

39

Biotechnology in the pulp and paper industry; A review  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

This paper reviews biotechnology in the pulp and paper industry. As to biopulping and biobleaching, little effort is being devoted to improving strength properties of pulps. However, positive results have been reported in improving tensile properties by treating mechanical pulps with white-rot organisms and in enzymatic beating of chemical pulps with hemicellulase enzymes. Papermaking is another seemingly overlooked area, although biological systems and processes have been used in the past and ought to be important still. On the other hand, waste treatment has been a stronghold of biotechnology within the industry for years. New possibilities may emerge via biotechnology for removing color and AOX from bleach plant effluents. New research on the use of white-rot organisms and soil bacteria to detoxify chlorinated organics in soils and groundwater may yield technologies that the industry can apply.

Trotter, P.C. (Biotechnology Awareness, Weyerhaeuser Co., Technology Center, Tacoma, WA (US))

1990-05-01T23:59:59.000Z

40

Effects of recycling peroxide liquor on brightness of mechanical pulp  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

The high cost of bleaching softwood mechanical pulps to 80% brightness with peroxide can be partly offset by recycling the unreacted peroxide in the effluent. However, the situation is complicated by the presence of dissolved organic material, aged silicate, and calcium extracted from the pulp. This study examines the effects of these materials on brightening efficiency. Dissolved organic material did not consume peroxide in subsequent cycles. Aged silicate stabilized peroxide as efficiently as fresh silicate. Interaction of silicate with calcium and magnesium caused silicon residue to precipitate on the fibers, with deposition increasing with the number of cycles. Calcium silicate adhered strongly to stainless steel, while magnesium silicate did not.

Froass, W.C. (International Paper Co., Tuxedo, NY (United States)); Omori, S.; Francis, R.C.; Dence, C.W. (State Univ. of New York, Syracuse, NY (United States). Empire State Paper Research Inst.)

1993-11-01T23:59:59.000Z

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "kraft pulping bleaching" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


41

Final Technical Report Steam Cycle Washer for Unbleached Pulp  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Project Abstract for “Steam Cycle Washer for Unbleached Pulp” When completed, the patented SC Washer will provide an innovative, energy efficient demonstration project to wash unbleached pulp using a pressure vessel charged with steam. The Port Townsend Paper Corporation’s pulp mill in Port Townsend, WA was initially selected as the host site for conducting the demonstration of the SCW. Due to 2006 and 2007 delays in the project caused by issues with 21st Century Pulp & Paper, the developer of the SCW, and the 2007 bankruptcy proceedings and subsequent restructuring at Port Townsend Paper, the mill can no longer serve as a host site. An alternate host site is now being sought to complete the commercial demonstration of the Steam Cycle Washer for Unbleached Pulp. Additionally, estimated costs to complete the project have more than doubled since the initial estimates for the project were completed in 2002. Additional grant funding from DOE was sought and in July, 2008 the additional DOE funds were procured under a new DOE award, DE-PS36-08GO98014 issued to INL. Once the new host site is secured the completion of the project will begin under the management of INL. Future progress reports and milestone tracking will be completed under requirements of new DOE Award Number DE-PS36-08GO98014. The following are excerpts from the project Peer Review completed in 2006. They describe the project in some detail. Additional information can be found by reviewing DOE Award Number: DE-PS36-08GO98014. 5. Statement of Problem and Technical Barriers: The chemical pulping industry is one of the major users of fresh water in the United States. On average the industry uses over 80 tons of water to produce one ton of pulp, some states use up to 50% more (Washington 120 and Wisconsin 140). In order to process one ton of pulp using 80 tons of process water, a large amount of: • energy is used in process heat and • power is required for pumping the large volume of pulp slurries through the pulping phases. Most water used in the pulping process ends up as warm waste water in the mill’s effluent discharge, which subsequently pollutes receiving waterways and carries an enormous amount of energy with it. Wash water reduction in brown stock washing with the Steam Cycle Washers (SCW) will save energy, up to 1+ million BTUs per ton of pulp in the evaporators alone. Reduction of liquid volume through bleaching stages will save process heat energy in the amount of 2+ million BTUs per ton of pulp, and as much as 80 – 100 kWhrs of electrical power per ton of pulp due to reduced pumping costs. Currently, the technical barriers to water reduction in chemical pulping are basically as follows: • conventional pulp washers wash the pulp at 10 - 14% consistency, • conventional pulp washers use 12 – 16 tons of wash water per ton of pulp, and • they leave 30 – 70 lbs of soda (Na2SO4) per ton of pulp as soda loss into the washed pulp. The amount of wash water in excess of the amount of process liquid in the pulp is called Dilution Factor (DF), even though it is not a factor in the mathematical sense but an addition. Modern pulp washing lines can wash efficiently with a DF of 3 but most pulp mills in the United States are washing with a DF of 5-7. Therefore, at 10% washing consistency 14-16 tons of wash water is required and 14% consistency requires 11-13 tons of wash water.

Starkey, Yvonne; Salminen, Reijo; Karlsnes, Andy

2008-09-22T23:59:59.000Z

42

Fermentation and chemical treatment of pulp and paper mill sludge  

DOE Patents [OSTI]

A method of chemically treating partially de-ashed pulp and/or paper mill sludge to obtain products of value comprising taking a sample of primary sludge from a Kraft paper mill process, partially de-ashing the primary sludge by physical means, and further treating the primary sludge to obtain the products of value, including further treating the resulting sludge and using the resulting sludge as a substrate to produce cellulase in an efficient manner using the resulting sludge as the only carbon source and mixtures of inorganic salts as the primary nitrogen source, and including further treating the resulting sludge and using the resulting sludge to produce ethanol.

Lee, Yoon Y; Wang, Wei; Kang, Li

2014-12-02T23:59:59.000Z

43

A finite difference model for low frequency sound measurement in kraft recovery boilers.  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

Kraft recovery boilers greatly enhance the efficiency of paper pulp mills by burning the organic wastes recovered from the pulp making process and generating electricity but significant smelt?water explosion hazards exist when steam is used as the working fluid due to sodiumcompounds in the sludge from the waste incineration process. Current practice is to use acoustic emission sensors to monitor for leaks in the bottom wall and to initiate an automatic shutdown sequence for the boiler once a leak is detected. A high?frequency model previously developed by the authors and verified by measurements performed in Skoghall Sweden indicated strong attenuation in the sludge between the point of leakage and the detectors but experimental results demonstrated a pass band at low frequencies (under 20 kHz). In this paper the authors develop a two?degree?of?freedom finite difference model for the prediction of acoustic attenuation at low frequencies. The bottom wall is modeled as a periodic tube and fin arrangement and a time?domain finite difference method is used whereby the fin and tube are simple lumped elements. The model is then compared to previous experimental results with which excellent agreement is obtained.

Robert Hildebrand; Matthew Carroll; Ville Jarvinen; Juha Miettinen

2010-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

44

Letter to the Editor: The pollution load caused by ECF Kraft Mills, Botnia-Uruguay: first six months of operation  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

The pollution load caused by Kraft Mills with and without bleaching is analysed. Particularly, the mill emissions of Botnia Fray Bentos S.A. over the first six months of operation are reviewed just as they are presented by the EcoMetrix report dated July 2008, at the request of the International Finance Corporation, World Bank. Regardless of the opinions expressed there, from the numerical values it is absolutely clear that Botnia has discharged great quantities of solid, liquid and gaseous dangerous pollutants into the Uruguay River and into the atmosphere. This pollution load, according to the background known, will cause serious and irreversible damage to the flora, fauna and health of the inhabitants of the basin within a few years.

Elias Jorge Matta

2009-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

45

Mill Integration-Pulping, Stream Reforming and Direct Causticization for Black Liquor Recovery  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

MTCI/StoneChem developed a steam reforming, fluidized bed gasification technology for biomass. DOE supported the demonstration of this technology for gasification of spent wood pulping liquor (or 'black liquor') at Georgia-Pacific's Big Island, Virginia mill. The present pre-commercial R&D project addressed the opportunities as well as identified negative aspects when the MTCI/StoneChem gasification technology is integrated in a pulp mill production facility. The opportunities arise because black liquor gasification produces sulfur (as H{sub 2}S) and sodium (as Na{sub 2}CO{sub 3}) in separate streams which may be used beneficially for improved pulp yield and properties. The negative aspect of kraft black liquor gasification is that the amount of Na{sub 2}CO{sub 3} which must be converted to NaOH (the so called causticizing requirement) is increased. This arises because sulfur is released as Na{sub 2}S during conventional kraft black liquor recovery, while during gasification the sodium associated Na{sub 2}S is partly or fully converted to Na{sub 2}CO{sub 3}. The causticizing requirement can be eliminated by including a TiO{sub 2} based cyclic process called direct causticization. In this process black liquor is gasified in the presence of (low sodium content) titanates which convert Na{sub 2}CO{sub 3} to (high sodium content) titanates. NaOH is formed when contacting the latter titanates with water, thereby eliminating the causticizing requirement entirely. The leached and low sodium titanates are returned to the gasification process. The project team comprised the University of Maine (UM), North Carolina State University (NCSU) and MTCI/ThermoChem. NCSU and MTCI are subcontractors to UM. The principal organization for the contract is UM. NCSU investigated the techno-economics of using advanced pulping techniques which fully utilize the unique cooking liquors produced by steam reforming of black liquor (Task 1). UM studied the kinetics and agglomeration problems of the conversion of Na{sub 2}CO{sub 3} to (high sodium) titanates during gasification of black liquor in the presence of (low sodium) titanates or TiO{sub 2} (Task 2). MTCI/ThermoChem tested the performance and operability of the combined technology of steam reforming and direct causticization in their Process Development Unit (PDU) (Task 3). The specific objectives were: (1) to investigate how split sulfidity and polysulfide (+ AQ) pulping can be used to increase pulp fiber yield and properties compared to conventional kraft pulping; (2) to determine the economics of black liquor gasification combined with these pulping technologies in comparison with conventional kraft pulping and black liquor recovery; (3) to determine the effect of operating conditions on the kinetics of the titanate-based direct causticization reaction during black liquor gasification at relatively low temperatures ({le} 750 C); (4) to determine the mechanism of particle agglomeration during gasification of black liquor in the presence of titanates at relatively low temperatures ({le} 750 C); and (5) to verify performance and operability of the combined technology of steam reforming and direct causticization of black liquor in a pilot scale fluidized bed test facility.

Adriaan van Heiningen

2007-06-30T23:59:59.000Z

46

Accurate Air Engineering, Inc. and Kraft Foods Teaming Profile | ENERGY  

Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

Accurate Air Engineering, Inc. and Kraft Foods Teaming Profile Accurate Air Engineering, Inc. and Kraft Foods Teaming Profile Secondary menu About us Press room Contact Us Portfolio Manager Login Facility owners and managers Existing buildings Commercial new construction Industrial energy management Small business Service providers Service and product providers Verify applications for ENERGY STAR certification Design commercial buildings Energy efficiency program administrators Commercial and industrial program sponsors Associations State and local governments Federal agencies Tools and resources Training In This Section Campaigns Commercial building design Communications resources Energy management guidance Financial resources Portfolio Manager Products and purchasing Recognition Research and reports Service and product provider (SPP) resources

47

Estimating the Thickness of Pulped Wood Fibres  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

... J. Tech. Assoc. Pulp. and Paper Indust., 43, 143 (1960).TAPPI Standards and Suggested Methods (Tech. Assoc. Pulp and Paper Indust., New York, ...

O. J. KALLMES; G. A. BERNIER

1963-03-30T23:59:59.000Z

48

Gas Dynamics of NGC 4472 R. P. Kraft(1)  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Gas Dynamics of NGC 4472 R. P. Kraft(1) , W. R. Forman(1) , C. Jones(1) , P. E. J. Nulsen(1) M. J present preliminary results from a 100 ks XMM-Newton observation of the hot gas in the nearby massive to be falling into the Virgo cluster. We find several structures in the gas indicative of a previous epoch

Sarazin, Craig

49

A comprehensive program to develop correlations for the physical properties of Kraft black liquor. Interim report No. 2  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Experimental effort for the program to evaluate physical properties of kraft black liquors is now proceeding well. Experimental work includes pulping, liquor analysis, lignin purification and characterization, vapor-liquid equilibria, heat capacity, heats of solution and combustion, and viscosity measurements. Measurement of thermal conductivity has not yet begun. Collection of the data necessary for development of generalized correlations is proceeding, but will require about two more years. The digester is operating very well. It is now possible to operate the digester as a closed, rotating reactor or as a batch reactor with liquor circulation. When operated with liquor circulation, temperatures within the chip bed can be monitored during cooking. Cooking is reproducible, and cooks are being performed to produce liquors for experimental studies. The digester could be further modified to permit us to conduct rapid exchange batch pulping or to permit us to simulate continuous pulping. Liquors to be used in experimental studies are concentrated in our large scale evaporator or in our small scale evaporator. The large scale evaporator is used to concentrate liquors to about 50% solids for storage and for use in studies requiring high solids liquors. The small scale evaporator is used for preparing final samples to as high as 85% solids and for measuring vapor-liquid equilibria. Liquors are now routinely analyzed to determine all components, except higher molecular weight organic acids and extractives. Lignin determination by uv-visible means has been improved. Lignin purification from black liquor has been improved and lignin molecular weights are determined routinely. Work on lignin molecular weight distribution is still not satisfactory, but recent developments holds promise.

Fricke, A.L.

1990-12-01T23:59:59.000Z

50

Selective enrichment of a methanol-utilizing consortium using pulp & paper mill waste streams  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Efficient utilization of carbon inputs is critical to the economic viability of the current forest products sector. Input carbon losses occur in various locations within a pulp mill, including losses as volatile organics and wastewater . Opportunities exist to capture this carbon in the form of value-added products such as biodegradable polymers. Waste activated sludge from a pulp mill wastewater facility was enriched for 80 days for a methanol-utilizing consortium with the goal of using this consortium to produce biopolymers from methanol-rich pulp mill waste streams. Five enrichment conditions were utilized: three high-methanol streams from the kraft mill foul condensate system, one methanol-amended stream from the mill wastewater plant, and one methanol-only enrichment. Enrichment reactors were operated aerobically in sequencing batch mode at neutral pH and 25°C with a hydraulic residence time and a solids retention time of four days. Non-enriched waste activated sludge did not consume methanol or reduce chemical oxygen demand. With enrichment, however, the chemical oxygen demand reduction over 24 hour feed/decant cycles ranged from 79 to 89 %, and methanol concentrations dropped below method detection limits. Neither the non-enriched waste activated sludge nor any of the enrichment cultures accumulated polyhydroxyalkanoates (PHAs) under conditions of nitrogen sufficiency. Similarly, the non-enriched waste activated sludge did not accumulate PHAs under nitrogen limited conditions. By contrast, enriched cultures accumulated PHAs to nearly 14% on a dry weight basis under nitrogen limited conditions. This indicates that selectively-enriched pulp mill waste activated sludge can serve as an inoculum for PHA production from methanol-rich pulp mill effluents.

Gregory R. Mockos; William A. Smith; Frank J. Loge; David N. Thompson

2007-04-01T23:59:59.000Z

51

E-Print Network 3.0 - activated bleaching earth Sample Search...  

Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

bleaching earth Search Powered by Explorit Topic List Advanced Search Sample search results for: activated bleaching earth Page: << < 1 2 3 4 5 > >> 1 Mass Coral Reef Bleaching: A...

52

Vinyl Kraft Windows and Doors | Open Energy Information  

Open Energy Info (EERE)

Vinyl Kraft Windows and Doors Vinyl Kraft Windows and Doors Jump to: navigation, search Name Vinyl Kraft Windows and Doors Address 3404 Rhodes Ave Place New Boston, Ohio Zip 45662 Sector Buildings, Efficiency, Services Product Business and legal services;Consulting;Energy audits/weatherization; Installation; Maintenance and repair;Manufacturing; Retail product sales and distribution Phone number 740-464-0144 Website http://www.vinylkraft.com Coordinates 38.7456°, -82.9459° Loading map... {"minzoom":false,"mappingservice":"googlemaps3","type":"ROADMAP","zoom":14,"types":["ROADMAP","SATELLITE","HYBRID","TERRAIN"],"geoservice":"google","maxzoom":false,"width":"600px","height":"350px","centre":false,"title":"","label":"","icon":"","visitedicon":"","lines":[],"polygons":[],"circles":[],"rectangles":[],"copycoords":false,"static":false,"wmsoverlay":"","layers":[],"controls":["pan","zoom","type","scale","streetview"],"zoomstyle":"DEFAULT","typestyle":"DEFAULT","autoinfowindows":false,"kml":[],"gkml":[],"fusiontables":[],"resizable":false,"tilt":0,"kmlrezoom":false,"poi":true,"imageoverlays":[],"markercluster":false,"searchmarkers":"","locations":[{"text":"","title":"","link":null,"lat":38.7456,"lon":-82.9459,"alt":0,"address":"","icon":"","group":"","inlineLabel":"","visitedicon":""}]}

53

Review: Business and Environmental Policy: Corporate Interests in the American Political System, by Michael E. Kraft and Sheldon Kamieniecki (eds.)  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Martijn Meij Stillwater, Oklahoma, USA Kraft, Michael E. andCandidate in Sociology, Oklahoma State University, Classroom

Meij, Jan-Martin

2008-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

54

A Non-linear Dynamical Systems' Proof of Kraft-McMillan Inequality and its Converse  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

In this short paper, we shall provide a dynamical systems' proof of the famous Kraft-McMillan inequality and its converse. Kraft-McMillan inequality is a basic result in information theory which gives a necessary and sufficient condition for the lengths of the codewords of a code to be uniquely decodable.

Nithin Nagaraj

2007-10-31T23:59:59.000Z

55

Nitrogen oxide emissions from a kraft recovery furnace  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Nitrogen Oxide (NOx) emissions from a rebuilt kraft recovery furnace slightly exceeded the specified limit of 1.1 lb/ton (0.55 kg/metric ton) of black-liquor solids. Mill trials were undertaken to determine whether NOx emissions could be minimized by modifying furnace operation. NOx emissions increased when secondary air was shifted to tertiary ports. NOx emissions fell when the amounts of primary and total air were decreased, but this increased emissions of other pollutants. After demonstrating that best operation of the furnace could not meet the permit with an emissions limit that matched the furnace's performance at best operation.

Prouty, A.L.; Stuart, R.C. (James River Corp., Camas, WA (United States)); Caron, A.L. (NCASI West Coast Regional Office, Corvallis, OR (United States))

1993-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

56

Synergistic air port corrosion in kraft recovery boilers  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Localized hot corrosion can occur on the cold-side of air-ports in Kraft recovery boilers. Depending on the basicity of the molten salt, either acidic or basic fluxing takes place, with a solubility minima at the transition between the two reactions. For stainless steel, if the basicity of the fused salt is between the iron and chromium oxide solubility minima, then a synergistic effect can occur that leads to rapid corrosion. The products of one reaction are the reactants of the other, which eliminates the need for rate-controlling diffusion. This effect can explain why stainless steel is attacked more readily than carbon steel.

Holcomb, Gordon R.

2001-08-01T23:59:59.000Z

57

Low Capital Energy Conservation Retrofits at Temple-Eastex Incorporated  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Temple-Eastex, at Evadale, Texas, operates a 1600 ton per day bleached kraft pulp and paperboard mill which was installed in 1954 and expanded in 1958, 1962, 1965, 1967, 1968, 1972, and 1975. All of the currently operating mill was designed...

Hedleston, J. L.

58

Steam System Opportunity Assessment for the Pulp and Paper, Chemical...  

Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

System Opportunity Assessment for the Pulp and Paper, Chemical Manufacturing, and Petroleum Refining Industries Steam System Opportunity Assessment for the Pulp and Paper,...

59

Pulp & Paper Industry- A Strategic Energy Review  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

The pulp and paper industry with yearly energy purchases of $5 billion per year including 50 billion kWh of power is one of the largest industrial energy producers in the U.S. However, structural changes in the global pulp and paper industry could...

Stapley, C. E.

60

HPLC of Anthraquinone in Wood Pulps  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

......anthraquinone content: Analysis of pulp and paper-type materials and pulping liquors by gas chromatography/mass spectrometry. Tappi 62(8): 73-76 (1979). 2. J.O. Broenstad, K.H. Schroeder, and H.D. Friestad. Determina- tion of trace amounts......

K.H. Nelson; D. Schram

1983-05-01T23:59:59.000Z

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "kraft pulping bleaching" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


61

Sulfur-Free Selective Pulping  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Technoeconomic Appraisal," December 1991. 5. DOE Annual Report on Contract No. AC02-83CH10093, Bozell, J. J., Hames, B., Chum, H. L., Dimmel, D. R, Althen, E., Caldwell, P. L., Daube, Oxidation ;; Diels-Alder .. I I -Methanol .. ~ 5 I 3 (C~O) OCH... - Hydrogen 3 (Q-IP) # Q-I 3 o o ~ o 1 2 ~ (H) Lignin DMBQ =two OCH3 groups Anthraquinone MMBQ =one OCH3 group A. K, and Kuroda, K-I.,"Sulfur-free Selective Pulping," March 1992. 6. DOE Annual Report on Contrac No. DE-AC02-83CH10093, Bozell, J. J...

Dimmel, D. R.; Bozell, J. J.

62

Advanced Oxidation Technology for Pulp Mill Effluent  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

parameters. The dissolved solids consist of the chemicals derived from the wood material plus the chemicals added to the specific pulping process. No one technology can adequately treat these effluent streams, rather a combination of treatment methods... suspended or dissolved solids. We are herein considering only the treatment of the dissolved solids portion, assuming the removal of the suspended material by some other means. Dependent upon the nature of the pulping process and the particular...

Hart, J. R.

63

Thermal stability of acidic sulfates in kraft recovery boilers  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Acidic sulfates, such as NaHSO[sub 4] and Na[sub 2]S[sub 2]O[sub 7], are suspected in sticky deposit formation and tube corrosion in the generating bank and economizer regions of kraft recovery boilers. Their stability was examined in air, moist conditions, and in the presence of Na[sub 2]CO[sub 3] at various temperatures. The results showed that, in air, NaHSO[sub 4] melts and decomposes to solid Na[sub 2]S[sub 2]O[sub 7] and water vapor at about 180 C. Na[sub 2]S[sub 2]O[sub 7] is relatively stable up to its melting point of 380 C. Molten Na[sub 2]S[sub 2]O[sub 7] partially decomposes to solid Na[sub 2]SO[sub 4], which reacts with the remaining Na[sub 2]S[sub 2]O[sub 7] to form a newly identified compound, 3Na[sub 2]S[sub 2]O[sub 7][center dot]2Na[sub 2]SO[sub 4]; this compound melts at 570 C. Solid Na[sub 2]S[sub 2]O[sub 7] and its complex compounds react rapidly with H[sub 2]O vapor at 300 C to re-form liquid NaHSO[sub 4], which can be corrosive for the generating bank tubes during boiler operation. These acidic sulfates can coexist with Na[sub 2]CO[sub 3] below their respective melting points. They are hygroscopic, absorbing water from moist air to form sulfuric acid, which may cause tube wastage during boiler outages.

Tran, H. (Pulp and Paper Centre, McGill, Quebec (Canada)); Poon, W.; Barham, D. (Univ. of Toronto, Ontario (Canada). Dept. of Chemical Engineering and Applied Chemistry)

1994-05-01T23:59:59.000Z

64

Crystallization behavior of organo-nanoclay treated and untreated kraft fiber–HDPE composites  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

Abstract Both non-isothermal and isothermal crystallization behaviors of neat HDPE and organo-nanoclay treated and untreated kraft fiber–high density polyethylene (HDPE) or HDPE–maleic anhydride polyethylene (MAPE) composites were analyzed using differential scanning calorimetry (DSC). The isothermal crystallization process was studied by the Avrami model. The crystallization patterns and organo-nanoclay distribution was characterized by X-ray diffraction (XRD). It was found that both organo-nanoclay treated and untreated kraft fibers could act as nucleating agent for the HDPE polymer when the fiber length was comparatively small. All composites crystallized much faster than the neat HDPE, while their crystallinity levels were lower. The organo-nanoclay treatment of kraft fibers made the crystallinity level lower, but the nucleation rate increased in the composites compared to the untreated kraft fiber–HDPE composites. But both the crystallinity level and the nucleation rate of the composites were increased by adding MAPE compatibilizer to the composites. MAPE increased the d-spacing of the organo-nanoclay layers in the composites and resulted in exfoliated clay platelets when the fiber loading was as high as 40 wt%.

Jieming Chen; Ning Yan

2013-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

65

E-Print Network 3.0 - affect bleaching efficiency Sample Search...  

Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

Geosciences 2 MARINE ECOLOGY PROGRESS SERIES Mar Ecol Prog Ser Summary: in temperature, light, sedimentation, and current speed might have affected bleaching dif- ferently across...

66

Detecting coral bleaching, using QuickBird multi-temporal data: A feasibility study at Kish Island, the Persian Gulf  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

Coral bleaching events have become more frequent and intense worldwide and speculated to be a severe threat for coral survival in future. The Persian Gulf, as one of the warmest seas, has also experienced coral mortalities and bleaching events. Historically, bleaching events are known to occur south of the Persian Gulf, such information is scarce in the northern side. Perhaps remoteness and inaccessibility to Iran main coral communities which have developed on offshore islands can explain such lack of data. To address this issue, the feasibility of using multi-temporal satellite images for detecting past bleaching events were investigated. Two QuickBird images (2005, 2008) were selected to detect 2007 bleaching event at Kish Island, Iran, and the accuracy of results were compared to in situ observations. Current study might represent “algae-challenged” scenario in terms of having 7 months' time lapse between bleaching event and post-bleaching satellite image. As a result of this, we had algae-covered corals instead of white bleached corals. In the proposed procedure pre and post-bleaching images were classified, and changes in reflectance values within coral classes were interpreted as bleaching areas. By using this method we could eliminate the effect of miss-classification between bleached corals and sand; as well as algae-covered corals and live corals. Furthermore, it is not necessary to have a post-bleaching image acquired during bleaching events, although having such image will increase the accuracy. The proposed technique detected ?28% of bleached corals and the results support the idea that coral bleaching can be distinguished by detecting the changes in reflectance values in pre and post-bleaching images. Understanding the occurrence, severity, and extent of past bleaching events may help us understand the population dynamics of Iran corals and reveal coral connectivity patterns in the Persian Gulf.

Keivan Kabiri; Biswajeet Pradhan; Kaveh Samimi-Namin; Masoud Moradi

2013-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

67

The response of mechanical and chemical pulps to refining  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

This paper reports on theoretical equations describing the flow of pulp in refiners were used to analyze the experimental results obtained in a series of pilot plant trials. Western red cedar and loblolly pine wood chips were refined in 1-3 stages at rotational speeds of 1200 and 1800 rpm to produce thermomechanical pulps (TMP). Also, sulfate semibleached and low-yield sulfite pulps were refined at low (5%), medium (12%), and high (25%) consistency. The results indicate that the number of refining stages did not affect mechanical pulp quality. At a given specific energy, increasing the rotational speed increased the specific energy per impact and decreased the total number of impacts, resulting in a faster rate of fines generation for mechanical pulps. For chemical pulps higher pulp consistency produced gentler refining and yielded a higher rate of freeness decrease.

Miles, K.B.; Karnis, A. (Pulp and Paper Research Inst. of Canada, 570 St. John's Rd., Pointe Claire, Quebec H9R 3J9 (CA))

1991-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

68

Coral reef bleaching and sea surface temperature anomalies: 1991-1996 global patterns  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Global spatio-temporal patterns of mass coral reef bleaching during the first half of the 1990s continued to show the strong temperature correlations which first became established in the 1980s. Satellite sea surface temperature data and field observations were used to track thermal bleaching events in real time. Most bleaching events followed warm season sea surface temperature anomalies of around +1 degree celsius above historical means. Global bleaching patterns appear to have been strongly affected by worldwide cooling which followed eruption of Mount Pinatubo in June 1991. High water temperatures and mass coral reef bleaching took place in the Caribbean, Indian Ocean, and South Pacific in 1991, but there were few thermal anomalies or bleaching events in 1992 and 1993, years which were markedly cooler worldwide. Following the settling of Mount Pinatubo aerosols and resumption of global warming trends, extensive ocean thermal hot spots and bleaching events resumed in the South Pacific, South Atlantic, and Indian Oceans in 1994. Bleaching again took place in hot spots in the Indian Ocean and Caribbean in 1995, and in the South Atlantic, Caribbean, South Pacific, North Pacific, and Persian Gulf in 1996. Coral reefs worldwide are now very close to their upper temperature tolerance limits. This sensitivity, and the fact that the warmest ecosystems have no source of immigrant species pre-adapted to warmer conditions, may make coral reef ecosystems the first to be severely impacted if global temperatures and sea levels remain at current values or increase further.

Goreau, T.J.; Hayes, R.L.; Strong, A.

1997-12-31T23:59:59.000Z

69

Southern Pine Based on Biorefinery Center  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

This program seeks to develop an integrated southern pine wood to biofuels/biomaterials processing facility on the Recipient’s campus, that will test advanced integrated wood processing technologies at the laboratory scale, including: • The generation of the bioethanol from pines residues and hemicelluloses extracted from pine woodchips; • The conversion of extracted woodchips to linerboard and bleach grade pulps; and • The efficient conversion of pine residues, bark and kraft cooking liquor into a useful pyrolysis oil.

Ragauskas, Arthur J; Singh, Preet

2014-01-10T23:59:59.000Z

70

Intensive management of forest plantations in northern Brazil  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Jari is developing more than a million hectares in northern Brazil, with 100,000 hectares of melina and pine plantations, a 750 TPD bleached kraft pulp-mill, a native-wood sawmill that cuts 100 Mbf/day, kaolin mine and 500 TPD refinery, 4000 hectares of irrigated rice with rice mill, herds of 6500 cattle, 5500 buffalo, and 800 pigs, as well as fryers, fruit and vegetables. Infrastructure includes five towns, schools, hospital, and 4500 km of roads.

Briscoe, C.B.

1980-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

71

Sorption of Chlorophenols to Wood Pulp  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

The good fit indicates that the ionized form of 2,4,5-TCP does not sorb to the pulp fibers, at least not under the low ionic strength conditions used. Figure 4, which plots the sorption of both 2,4-DCP and 2,4,5-TCP to a ? number 69.8 softwood pulp as a function of pH, further confirms these results and also shows an interesting situation in which the sorption of the trichlorophenol, which typically has the higher sorption, drops below that for the dichlorophenol in the pH range of about 7.7?9. ... Increasing quantities of sorbed humic substances increased the sorption of HOC. ... The present work demonstrates that a 3rd variable is important, i.e., the concn. of the sorbing solid phase in the system. ...

Steven J. Severtson; Sujit Banerjee

1996-05-23T23:59:59.000Z

72

Recycling of cleach plant filtrates by electrodialysis removal of inorganic non-process elements.  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Water use in the pulp and paper industry is very significant, and the U.S. pulp and paper industries as well as other processing industries are actively pursuing water conservation and pollution prevention by in-process recycling of water. Bleach plant effluent is a large portion of the water discharged from a typical bleached kraft pulp mill. The recycling of bleach plant effluents to the kraft recovery cycle is widely regarded as an approach to low effluent bleached kraft pulp production. The focus of this work has been on developing an electrodialysis process for recycling the acidic bleach plant effluent of bleached Kraft pulp mills. Electrodialysis is uniquely suited as a selective kidney to remove non-process elements (NPEs) from bleach plant effluent before they reach the chemical recovery cycle. Using electrodialysis for selective NPE removal can prevent the problems caused by accumulation of inorganic NPEs in the pulping cycle and recovery boiler. In this work, acidic bleach plant filtrates from three mills using different bleaching sequences based on chlorine dioxide were characterized. The analyses showed no fundamental differences in the inorganic NPE composition or other characteristics among these filtrates. The majority of total dissolved solids in the effluents were found to be inorganic NPEs. Chloride and nitrate were present at significant levels in all effluent samples. Sodium was the predominant metal ion, while calcium and magnesium were also present at considerable levels. The feasibility of using electrodialysis to selectively remove inorganic NPEs from the acidic bleach effluent was successfully demonstrated in laboratory experiments with effluents from all these three mills. Although there were some variations in these effluents, chloride and potentially harmful cations, such as potassium, calcium, and magnesium, were removed efficiently from the bleach effluents into a small-volume, concentrated purge stream. This effective removal of inorganic NPEs can enable the mills to recycle bleach effluents to reduce water consumption. The electrodialysis process also effectively retained up to 98% of the organics and can reduce the organic discharge in the mill wastewater. By using suitable commercially available electrodialysis membranes, there were no indications of rapid or irreversible membrane fouling or scale formation, even in extended laboratory scale operations up to 100 hours. Results of laboratory experiments also showed that commercially available membranes properly selected for this process would have good stability to withstand the potentially oxidative conditions of the filtrate. A pilot-scale field demonstration was also conducted at a southern mill, using the D0 filtrate from the bleach plant. During the field demonstration we found serious membrane 2 stack clogging problems, which apparently were caused by fine fibers that escaped through the 5-micron pre-filters, although such a pre-filtration method had been satisfactory in the laboratory tests. Additional R&D is recommended to address this pre-filtration or clogging issue with systems approaches integrating pre-filtration, other separation methods, and stack design. After the pre-filtration/clogging issue is overcome, laboratory development and pilot demonstration are recommended to optimize the process parameters and to evaluate the long-term process parameters. The key technical issues here include membrane lives, control and mitigation of fouling and scaling, and cleaning-in-place protocols. From the data collected in this work, a preliminary process design and economic evaluations were performed for a model mill with 1,000-ton/day pulp production that uses a bleaching sequence based on chlorine dioxide. Assuming 3 m{sup 3} acidic effluents to be treated per ton of pulp produced, the electrodialysis process would require a membrane area of about 361 m{sup 2} for this model mill. The energy consumption of the electrodialytic stack for separation is estimated to be about $160/day, and the estimated capital cost of the electrodia

Tsai, S. P.; Pfromm, P.; Henry, M. P.; Fracaro, A. T.; Swanstrom, C. P.; Moon, P.; Energy Systems; Inst. of Paper Science and Tech.

2000-11-01T23:59:59.000Z

73

Pulp and Paper Corrosion Symposium Georgia Tech Renewable Bioproducts Institute  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

1 Pulp and Paper Corrosion Symposium Georgia Tech Renewable Bioproducts Institute November 2014 Digester Corrosion Margaret Gorog Federal Way, WA 2 · Chips plus a mixture of white and black liquor · The pulp is then blown from the bottom of the vessel into a blow tank · Corrosion occurs during filling

Das, Suman

74

A comprehensive program to develop correlations for physical properties of kraft black liquor. Final report  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

A wide variety of experimental techniques have been used in this work, and many of these have been developed completely or improved significantly in the course of the research done during this program. Therefore, it is appropriate to describe these techniques in detail as a reference for future workers so that the techniques can be used in future work with little additional effort or so that the results reported from this program can be compared better with future results from other work. In many cases, the techniques described are for specific analytical instruments. It is recognized that these may be superseded by future developments and improvements in instrumentation if a complete description of techniques used successfully in the past on other instrumentation is available. The total pulping and liquor preparation research work performed included chip and white liquor preparation, digestion, pulp washing, liquor and wash recovery, liquor sampling, weak liquor concentration in two steps to about 45--50% solids with an intermediate soap skimming at about 140F and 27--30% solids, determination of pulp yield and Kappa number, determination of total liquor solids, and a check on the total material balance for pulping. All other research was performed either on a sample of the weak black liquor (the combined black liquor and washes from the digester) or on the skimmed liquor that had been concentrated.

Fricke, A.L.; Zaman, A.A.; Stoy, M.O.; Schmidl, G.W.; Dong, D.J.; Speck, B.

1998-04-01T23:59:59.000Z

75

Gas turbine considerations in the pulp and paper industry  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

The pulp and paper industry is one of the largest users of energy in the industrial arena, requiring large quantities of process steam and electrical energy per unit of production. Developing power generation as an integral part of its power plant systems is one way for the industry to meet these requirements. Gas turbine-based cogeneration systems can also be a desirable approach. In recent years, competitive pressures, environmental concerns, the cost and availability of various fuels, and new power generation opportunities have awakened interest in power generation in the pulp and paper industry and other industries. This paper provides a strategic review of these issues of the pulp and paper industry.

Anderson, J.S. (International Paper Co., Purchase, NY (US)); Kovacik, J.M. (GE Co., Schenectady, NY (US))

1991-03-01T23:59:59.000Z

76

Alabama Pine Pulp Biomass Facility | Open Energy Information  

Open Energy Info (EERE)

Pulp Biomass Facility Pulp Biomass Facility Jump to: navigation, search Name Alabama Pine Pulp Biomass Facility Facility Alabama Pine Pulp Sector Biomass Location Monroe County, Alabama Coordinates 31.5119068°, -87.460397° Loading map... {"minzoom":false,"mappingservice":"googlemaps3","type":"ROADMAP","zoom":14,"types":["ROADMAP","SATELLITE","HYBRID","TERRAIN"],"geoservice":"google","maxzoom":false,"width":"600px","height":"350px","centre":false,"title":"","label":"","icon":"","visitedicon":"","lines":[],"polygons":[],"circles":[],"rectangles":[],"copycoords":false,"static":false,"wmsoverlay":"","layers":[],"controls":["pan","zoom","type","scale","streetview"],"zoomstyle":"DEFAULT","typestyle":"DEFAULT","autoinfowindows":false,"kml":[],"gkml":[],"fusiontables":[],"resizable":false,"tilt":0,"kmlrezoom":false,"poi":true,"imageoverlays":[],"markercluster":false,"searchmarkers":"","locations":[{"text":"","title":"","link":null,"lat":31.5119068,"lon":-87.460397,"alt":0,"address":"","icon":"","group":"","inlineLabel":"","visitedicon":""}]}

77

Energy Management and Computers in the Pulp and Paper Industry  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

dryer hood waste heat. o Biomass feedstocks for the production of specialized chemial products. o Crossing of the stone groundwood process with the thermomechanical pulping process. 236 ESL-IE-81-04-42 Proceedings from the Third Industrial Energy...

Sommerfeld, J. T.; Hartley, E. M.

1981-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

78

Magnet options for sensors for the pulp and paper industry  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

measuring the moisture content of wood chips. pulp or blackmeasurements of the moisture content in wood chips and blackwood species in the incoming chip stream, 3) a measurement of the moisture content

Green, M.A.

2011-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

79

Biosolids recycling at a pulp and paper mill  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

The Bio Gro Division of Wheelabrator Water Technologies Inc. has traditionally been involved in recycling biosolids from domestic wastewater treatment plants. The biosolids, or primarily organic residuals that result from the treatment of wastewater, have long been used in agriculture as a soil conditioner, fertilizer, organic lime material and also for other soil fertility practices. It has long been known that residuals from certain industrial wastewater processes are very high in nutrients and organic matter which can also be successfully used in agricultural activities. One of these industrial biosolids with well-documented agricultural value is the organic residual from the treatment of wastewater from pulp and paper mills. Most pulp and paper producers in the US recognize the value of pulp and paper biosolids as a material that can fertilize their own tree stands or can be used in normal agricultural practices. In 1995, Bio Gro entered into a contract with a two large pulp and paper mills in Maine for the management of its pulp and paper biosolids. Bio Gro was responsible for implementing the beneficial use options for a mixture of primary and secondary biosolids from the wastewater treatment process which was combined with combustion ash from the facility`s power generation facilities. The contract included the layout of spreading areas, mixing of the residuals and spreading the material on the sites. This paper will explain the process that Bio Gro employed to manage the pulp and paper biosolids generated at the mill.

Gratton, P.F. [Wheelabrator Water Technologies Inc., Annapolis, MD (United States). Bio Gro Div.; Montgomery, K.L. [Wheelabrator Water Technologies Inc., Fredericksburg, VA (United States). Bio Gro Div.; Page, S.H. [Wheelabrator Water Technologies Inc., Portland, ME (United States). Bio Gro Div.

1997-12-31T23:59:59.000Z

80

Bioenergy Pumps New Life into Pulp and Paper Mills | Department of Energy  

Broader source: Energy.gov (indexed) [DOE]

Bioenergy Pumps New Life into Pulp and Paper Mills Bioenergy Pumps New Life into Pulp and Paper Mills Bioenergy Pumps New Life into Pulp and Paper Mills December 13, 2011 - 4:12pm Addthis Old Town Fuel and Fiber, a former pulp mill, converts a portion of the wood chips used to make pulp to biofuels. | Energy Department photo. Old Town Fuel and Fiber, a former pulp mill, converts a portion of the wood chips used to make pulp to biofuels. | Energy Department photo. Neil Rossmeissl General Engineer What does this project do? Breathes new life into shuttered factories and mills. Saves and creates jobs. Despite Americans' voracious appetite for paper products -- a staggering 700 pounds per person annually -- America's pulp and paper industry has been struggling as of late due to competition from countries where

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "kraft pulping bleaching" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
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We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
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81

Core Fluxome and Metafluxome of Lactic Acid Bacteria under Simulated Cocoa Pulp Fermentation Conditions  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

...Metabolic network simulation using logical loop algorithm and Jacobian matrix. Metab. Eng. 6...grown in cocoa pulp simulation medium, and fermentation...cultures in cocoa pulp simulation medium (Fig. S1). PDF, 440K Supplemental...

Philipp Adler; Christoph Josef Bolten; Katrin Dohnt; Carl Erik Hansen; Christoph Wittmann

2013-07-12T23:59:59.000Z

82

Bioenergy Pumps New Life into Pulp and Paper Mills | Department of Energy  

Broader source: Energy.gov (indexed) [DOE]

Bioenergy Pumps New Life into Pulp and Paper Mills Bioenergy Pumps New Life into Pulp and Paper Mills Bioenergy Pumps New Life into Pulp and Paper Mills December 13, 2011 - 4:12pm Addthis Old Town Fuel and Fiber, a former pulp mill, converts a portion of the wood chips used to make pulp to biofuels. | Energy Department photo. Old Town Fuel and Fiber, a former pulp mill, converts a portion of the wood chips used to make pulp to biofuels. | Energy Department photo. Neil Rossmeissl General Engineer What does this project do? Breathes new life into shuttered factories and mills. Saves and creates jobs. Despite Americans' voracious appetite for paper products -- a staggering 700 pounds per person annually -- America's pulp and paper industry has been struggling as of late due to competition from countries where

83

Analysis of Energy-Efficiency Opportunities for the Pulp and Paper Industry in China  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

8 Figure 8. Final energy mix in China's pulp and paperFigure 8 shows the final energy mix in China’s pulp andstatistics). Although the energy mix shows a trend toward

Kong, Lingbo

2014-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

84

ITP Forest Products: Energy and Environmental Profile of the U.S. Pulp and Paper Industry  

Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

The United States is the world's leading producer, consumer, and exporter of pulp, paper, and paperboard products.

85

Social Movements and Ecological Modernization: The Transformation of Pulp and Paper Manufacturing  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Pulp and Paper Industry (TAPPI) short-course, “IntroductionInternational (PPI), the TAPPI Journal, and others. The

Sonnenfeld, David A.

1999-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

86

EXTENDING FIBER RESOURCES: FIBER LOADING RECYCLED FIBERAND MECHANICAL PULPS FOR LIGHTWEIGHT, HIGH OPACITY PAPER  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

, precipitates calcium carbonate (PCC) in situ within pulp fibers. Because paper made from fiber-loaded pulp increasing the recovery and utilization of recycled fiber and optimizing virgin fiber yield by relying moreEXTENDING FIBER RESOURCES: FIBER LOADING RECYCLED FIBERAND MECHANICAL PULPS FOR LIGHTWEIGHT, HIGH

Abubakr, Said

87

Magnet options for sensors for the pulp and paper industry  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

The Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory (LBNL) has been developing sensors for the pulp and paper industry that uses a magnetic field. The applications for magnetic sensors that have studied include (1) sensors for the measurement of the water and ice content of wood chips entering the pulping mill, (2) sensors for measuring the water content and other constituents of the black liquor leaving the paper digester, and (3) sensors for measuring paper thickness and water content as the paper is being processed. These tasks can be done using nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR). The magnetic field used for doing the NMR can come from either permanent magnets or superconducting magnets. The choice of the magnet is dependent on a number of factors, which include the size of the sample and field strength needed to do the sensing task at hand. This paper describes some superconducting magnet options that can be used in the pulp and paper industry.

Green, M.A.; Barale, P.J.; Fong, C.G.; Luft, P.A.; Reimer, J.A.; Yahnke, M.S.

2001-05-05T23:59:59.000Z

88

Nanocellulose A sustainable nanomaterial derived from wood pulp with  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Nanocellulose A sustainable nanomaterial derived from wood pulp with applications in composites, sensors, and biomedical devices. The Sustainable Nano-Biocomposites lab in the chemical engineering-renewable resources while offering better performance. #12;Research Program Research in the Sustainable Nano

Thompson, Michael

89

Organic halogens in unpolluted waters and large bodies of water receiving bleach plant effluents  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

In this paper the authors review and update recently performed studies of organic halogens in unpolluted waters and two large bodies of water receiving bleach plant effluents---Lake Vattern in Sweden and the Baltic Sea. All water samples contained measurable amounts of adsorbable organic halogens (AOX); the highest concentrations (up to 200 {mu}g Cl/L) were observed in humic lakes not exposed to any industrial discharges. Analysis of chlorophenols revealed that there is a long-distance transport ({gt} 100 km) of chloroguaiacols from bleach plants to remote parts of receiving waters. However, there was no evidence of chlorinated organics from bleach plants accumulating over several years in the water phase. One chlorophenol, 2,4,6-trichlorophenol, and its methylated analogue, 2,4,6-trichloroanisole, were also detected in surface waters considered to be unpolluted. Mass balance calculations showed that different processes in terrestrial environments make large contributions of AOX; enzyme-mediated chlorination of humic substances is a plausible explanation to the widespread occurrence of organic halogens.

Grimvall, A.; Jonsson, S.; Karlsson, S.; Savenhed, R.; Boren, H. (Dept. of Water and Environmental Studies, Linkoping Univ., S-58183 Linkoping (SE))

1991-05-01T23:59:59.000Z

90

Microsoft Word - Pulp and Paper EPI Documentation FINAL 05212012  

Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

- DO NOT QUOTE OR CITE - DO NOT QUOTE OR CITE DEVELOPMENT OF ENERGY STAR® ENERGY PERFORMANCE INDICATORS FOR PULP, PAPER, AND PAPERBOARD MILLS GALE A. BOYD AND YI FANG GUO DUKE UNIVERSITY DEPARTMENT OF ECONOMICS BOX 90097, DURHAM, NC 27708 MAY 21, 2012 SPONSORED BY THE U.S. ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY AS PART OF THE ENERGY STAR PROGRAM. 1 ACKNOWLEDGMENTS This work was sponsored by the U.S. EPA Climate Protection Partnerships Division's ENERGY STAR program. The research has benefited from comments by participants involved with the ENERGY STAR Pulp, Paper, and Paperboard Industry Focus meetings. The research in this paper was conducted while the author was a Special Sworn Status researcher of the U.S. Census Bureau at the Triangle Census

91

Production of high quality and low energy chemithermomechanical pulp  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Chemithermomechanical pulps (CTMP) were produced from Eastern black spruce chips in a two-stage pilot plant using different conditions of chemical pretreatment and refining intensity. The conventional CTMP was produced by impregnating chips with sulfite liquor at a pH of approximately 10 and the conducting the first-stage refining in a double disc refiner at 1,200 rpm. The distribution of specific energy and refining intensity was about the same in the two stages. The experiments showed that, by decreasing the impregnating liquor pH to approximately 4.5 and conducting the first-stage refining at a relatively low specific energy and high refining intensity (by operating the refiner at 1,800 rpm), an energy saving of up to 33% could be achieved without any adverse effect on the pulp quality.

Stationwala, M.I. (Pulp and Paper Research Institute of Canada, Pointe Claire, PQ (Canada))

1994-02-01T23:59:59.000Z

92

Emerging Energy-Efficiency and Greenhouse Gas Mitigation Technologies for the Pulp and Paper Industry  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

2007. Dual pressure recovery boiler. Patent No. : US 7243619Cycle Power or Recovery Boiler into an Existing Pulp Mill".Monacelli. 2009. "Recovery Boiler Reheat Steam Cycle". Paper

Kong, Lingbo

2014-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

93

Dried Citrus Peel and Pulp as a Feed for Lactating Cows.  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

between the three esperiments. DISCUSSION diffi grol I!! i>n 14 ,>,,. ( t!le:: ftl![l fere esults of the effects of feeding citrus peel and pulp in the dairy :entrate mixture using 5070 of the entire concentrate mixture as us pulp as compared... between the three esperiments. DISCUSSION diffi grol I!! i>n 14 ,>,,. ( t!le:: ftl![l fere esults of the effects of feeding citrus peel and pulp in the dairy :entrate mixture using 5070 of the entire concentrate mixture as us pulp as compared...

Copeland, O. C. (Orlin Cephas); Shepardson, C. N. (Charles Noah)

1944-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

94

Analysis of Energy-Efficiency Opportunities for the Pulp and Paper Industry in China  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

wastewater treatment and sludge handling at pulp and paperutilization b -2.52 e Sludge recovery and utilization butilization, incorporating sludge recovery and utilization,

Kong, Lingbo

2014-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

95

ENERGY EFFICIENCY OPPORTUNITIES IN THE U.S. PULP AND PAPER INDUSTRY  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

NAICS Code Sub-Sector Pulp mills Paper (except newsprint) mills Newsprint mills Paperboard mills Total % of Total Total Black Liquor Natural Gas

Kramer, Klaas Jan

2010-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

96

Investigation of Pressurized Entrained-Flow Kraft Black Liquor Gasification in an Industrially Relevant Environment  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

The University of Utah's project 'Investigation of Pressurized Entrained-Flow Kraft Black Liquor Gasification in an Industrially Relevant Environment' (U.S. DOE Cooperative Agreement DE-FC26-04NT42261) was a response to U.S. DOE/NETL solicitation DE-PS36-04GO94002, 'Biomass Research and Development Initiative' Topical Area 4-Kraft Black Liquor Gasification. The project began September 30, 2004. The objective of the project was to improve the understanding of black liquor conversion in high pressure, high temperature reactors that gasify liquor through partial oxidation with either air or oxygen. The physical and chemical characteristics of both the gas and condensed phase were to be studied over the entire range of liquor conversion, and the rates and mechanisms of processes responsible for converting the liquor to its final smelt and syngas products were to be investigated. This would be accomplished by combining fundamental, lab-scale experiments with measurements taken using a new semi-pilot scale pressurized entrained-flow gasifier. As a result of insufficient availability of funds and changes in priority within the Office of Biomass Programs of the U.S. Department of Energy, the research program was terminated in its second year. In total, only half of the budgeted funding was made available for the program, and most of this was used during the first year for construction of the experimental systems to be used in the program. This had a severe impact on the program. As a consequence, most of the planned research was unable to be performed. Only studies that relied on computational modeling or existing experimental facilities started early enough to deliver useful results by the time to program was terminated Over the course of the program, small scale (approx. 1 ton/day) entrained-flow gasifier was designed and installed at the University of Utah's off-campus Industrial Combustion and Gasification Research Facility. The system is designed to operate at pressures as high as 32 atmospheres, and at temperatures as high as 1500 C (2730 F). Total black liquor processing capacity under pressurized, oxygen-blown conditions should be in excess of 1 ton black liquor solids per day. Many sampling ports along the conversion section of the system will allow detailed analysis of the environment in the gasifier under industrially representative conditions. Construction was mostly completed before the program was terminated, but resources were insufficient to operate the system. A system for characterizing black liquor sprays in hot environments was designed and constructed. Silhouettes of black liquor sprays formed by injection of black liquor through a twin fluid (liquor and atomizing air) nozzle were videoed with a high-speed camera, and the resulting images were analyzed to identify overall characteristics of the spray and droplet formation mechanisms. The efficiency of liquor atomization was better when the liquor was injected through the center channel of the nozzle, with atomizing air being introduced in the annulus around the center channel, than when the liquor and air feed channels were reversed. Atomizing efficiency and spray angle increased with atomizing air pressure up to a point, beyond which additional atomizing air pressure had little effect. Analysis of the spray patterns indicates that two classifications of droplets are present, a finely dispersed 'mist' of very small droplets and much larger ligaments of liquor that form at the injector tip and form one or more relatively large droplets. This ligament and subsequent large droplet formation suggests that it will be challenging to obtain a narrow distribution of droplet sizes when using an injector of this design. A model for simulating liquor spray and droplet formation was developed by Simulent, Inc. of Toronto. The model was able to predict performance when spraying water that closely matched the vendor specifications. Simulation of liquor spray indicates that droplets on the order 200-300 microns can be expected, and that higher liquor flow will result in be

Kevin Whitty

2008-06-30T23:59:59.000Z

97

Halogenated Volatile Organic Compounds from the Use of Chlorine-Bleach-Containing Household Products  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

A number of household cleaning products (bleaches, mildew stain removers, toilet cleaners, cleaning sprays, gels, and scouring powders) contain sodium hypochlorite (NaOCl, ?5%). ... Each tube was packed at the upstream (sampling) end with 3 mm silanized glass-wool followed by a series of sections of 150 mg Tenax TA (60/80 mesh) (Supelco, Bellefonte, PA, USA), 3 mm silanized glass-wool, 100 mg Carboxen 1000 (Supelco, Bellefonte, PA), and finally, 3 mm silanized glass-wool at the downstream end. ...

Mustafa Odabasi

2008-02-01T23:59:59.000Z

98

Sibling species in Montastraea annularis, coral bleaching, and the coral climate record  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Measures of growth and skeletal isotopic ratios in the Caribbean coral Montastraea annularis are fundamental to many studies of paleoceanography, environmental degradation, and global climate change. This taxon is shown to consist of at least three sibling species in shallow water. The two most commonly studied of these show highly significant differences in growth rate and oxygen isotopic ratios, parameters routinely used to estimate past climatic conditions; unusual coloration in the third may have confused research on coral bleaching. Interpretation or comparison of past and current studies can be jeopardized by ignoring these species boundaries.

Knowlton, N.; Weil, E.; Weigt, L.A.; Guzman, H.M. (Smithsonian Tropical Research Inst., Apartado, Balboa (Panama))

1992-01-17T23:59:59.000Z

99

Integrated Forest Products Refinery (IFPR)  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Pre-extraction–kraft studies of hardwoods showed that when extracting about 10% of the wood, the final kraft pulp yield and physical properties could only be maintained at a level similar to that of regular kraft pulp when the final extract pH was close to neutral. This so-called “near neutral” pre-extraction condition at a level of 10% wood dissolution was achieved by contacting the wood chips with green liquor (GL) at a charge of about 3% (as Na2O on wood) at 160 °C for almost 2 hours (or an H-factor of about 800 hrs.). During subsequent kraft cooking of the pre-extracted hardwood chips the effective alkali charge could be reduced by about 3% (as Na2O on wood) and the cooking time shortened relative to that during regular kraft cooking, while still producing the same bleachable grade kappa number as the kraft control pulp. For softwood, no extraction conditions were discovered in the present investigation whereby both the final kraft pulp yield and physical properties could be maintained at a level similar to that of regular softwood kraft pulp. Therefore for hardwoods the “near- neutral green liquor pre-extraction conditions do meet the requirements of the IFPR concept, while for softwood, no extraction conditions were discovered which do meet these requirements. Application of simulated industrial GL at an extraction H-factor of about 800 hrs and 3% GL charge in a recirculating digester produced an hardwood extract containing about 4% (on wood) of total anhydro-sugars, 2% of acetic acid, and 1.3% of lignin. Xylan comprised of 80% of the sugars of which about 85% is oligomeric. Since only polymeric hemicelluloses and lignin may be adsorbed on pulp (produced at a yield of about 50% from the original wood), the maximum theoretical yield increase due to adsorption may be estimated as 10% on pulp (or 5% on wood). However, direct application of raw GL hardwood extract for hemicelluloses adsorption onto hardwood kraft pulp led to a yield increase of only about 1% (on pulp). By using the wet-end retention aid guar gum during the adsorption process at a charge of 0.5% on pulp the yield gain may be increased to about 5%. Unfortunately, most of this yield increase is lost during subsequent alkaline treatments in the pulp bleach plant. It was found that by performing the adsorption at alkaline conditions the adsorption loss during alkaline treatment in the bleach plant is mostly avoided. Thus a permanent adsorption yield of about 3 and 1.5% (on pulp) was obtained with addition of guar gum at a charge of 0.5 and 0.1% respectively during adsorption of GL hardwood extract on pre-extracted kraft pulp at optimal conditions of pH 11.5, 90 C for 60 minutes at 5% consistency. The beatability of the adsorbed kraft pulps was improved. Also, significant physical strength improvements were achieved. Further study is needed to determine whether the improvements in pulp yield and paper properties make this an economic IFPR concept. Application of the wood solids of a hot water extract of Acer rubrum wood strands as a substitute for polystyrene used for production of SMC maintained the water adsorption properties of the final product. Further work on the physical properties of the hemicellulose containing SMCs need to be completed to determine the potential of wood extracts for the production of partially renewable SMCs. The discovery of the “near-neutral” green liquor extraction process for hardwood was formed the basis for a commercial Integrated Biorefinery that will extract hemicelluloses from wood chips to make biofuels and other specialty chemicals. The pulp production process will be maintained as is proposed in the present researched IFBR concept. This Integrated Biorefinery will be constructed by Red Shield Acquisition LLC (RSA) at the Old Town kraft pulp mill in Maine. RSA in collaboration with the University of Maine will develop and commercialize the hemicellulose extraction process, the conversion of the hemicellulose sugars into butanol by fermentation, and the separation of specialty chemicals such as acetic acid fr

van Heiningen, Adriaan R. P.

2010-05-29T23:59:59.000Z

100

The effect of TMP refining using an adjustable-speed drive on energy consumption and pulp quality. [ThermoMechanical Pulp  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

An experimental investigation was conducted to study the effect of TMP refining using adjustable-speed drive (ASD) on energy consumption and pulp quality. The project is based on the studies of disc refiner models at high- and low-consistency refining. The primary objectives is to examine the potential energy efficiency improvement of a TMP system by evaluating the effect of TMP refining using ASD in pilot scale at the Center for High Yield Pulping Science. The pilot experimental results show that certain benefits of TMP refining using ASD can be obtained. Preliminary results demonstrate that increasing the first stage of refining speed reduces electrical energy at similar pulp quality.

Su, W.; Hsieh, J. (Georgia Inst. of Technology, Atlanta, GA (United States))

1994-09-01T23:59:59.000Z

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "kraft pulping bleaching" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


101

Carbon Emissions Reduction Potential in the US Chemicals and Pulp and Paper Industries by Applying CHP Technologies, June 1999  

Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

Assessment of the potential of CHP technologies to reduce carbon emissions in the US chemicals and pulp and paper industries.

102

EXTENDING FIBER RESOURCES: FIBER LOADING RECYCLED FIBER AND MECHANICAL PULPS FOR LIGHTWEIGHT, HIGH OPACITY PAPER  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

alkalinity, precipitates calcium carbonate (PCC) in situ within pulp fibers. Because paper made from fiber include increasing the recovery and utilization of recycled fiber and optimizing virgin fiber yieldEXTENDING FIBER RESOURCES: FIBER LOADING RECYCLED FIBER AND MECHANICAL PULPS FOR LIGHTWEIGHT, HIGH

Abubakr, Said

103

Color Removal from Pulp Mill Effluent Using Coal Ash Produced from Georgia Coal Combustion Power Plants  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

/0702/citing-global- warming-georgia-judge-blocks-coal-plant/picture1.jpg/5307532-1-eng-US/picture1.jpgColor Removal from Pulp Mill Effluent Using Coal Ash Produced from Georgia Coal Combustion Power color from pulp mill effluent using coal ash. Prevent coal ash adsorbent from leaching arsenic

Hutcheon, James M.

104

Department of Energy Awards $2.2 Million to Save Energy in the Pulp and  

Broader source: Energy.gov (indexed) [DOE]

Awards $2.2 Million to Save Energy in the Pulp Awards $2.2 Million to Save Energy in the Pulp and Paper Industry Department of Energy Awards $2.2 Million to Save Energy in the Pulp and Paper Industry December 20, 2005 - 4:50pm Addthis Total Cost-Shared Value of Research is $4.3 Million WASHINGTON, DC - The U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) today awarded $2.2 million in research and development grants for projects to save energy in the pulp and paper industry. The research will focus on removing water from pulp in the paper making process and determining the technical and commercial feasibility of next generation manufacturing concepts. "New efficient technologies and processes are key to reducing our energy consumption now and in the future," said Douglas L. Faulkner, Acting Assistant Secretary for Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy.

105

Cogeneration handbook for the pulp and paper industry. [Contains glossary  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

The decision of whether to cogenerate involves several considerations, including technical, economic, environmental, legal, and regulatory issues. Each of these issues is addressed separately in this handbook. In addition, a chapter is included on preparing a three-phase work statement, which is needed to guide the design of a cogeneration system. In addition, an annotated bibliography and a glossary of terminology are provided. Appendix A provides an energy-use profile of the pulp and paper industry. Appendices B and O provide specific information that will be called out in subsequent chapters.

Griffin, E.A.; Moore, N.L.; Fassbender, L.L.; Garrett-Price, B.A.; Fassbender, A.G.; Eakin, D.E.; Gorges, H.A.

1984-03-01T23:59:59.000Z

106

Compaction of wood chips - physical and pulping characteristics  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

The temperatures of the uncompacted chips of Pinus taeda were, in general, higher than those of compacted chips when stored outdoors in containers for 236 days. The results of the study after storage indicated that the moisture content (MC) of compacted chips is the same as that of green chips, the uncompacted equivalent mass of chips exhibits a substantial loss in MC, and there is approximately 18% increase in MC of the uncompacted chips simulating a stockpile when compared with MC of green chips. The compaction process neither damaged wood fibers nor altered the chip response to conventional pulping.

Hassan, A.E.; Reeves, R.H.

1980-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

107

Species–specific interactions between algal endosymbionts and coral hosts define their bleaching response to heat and light stress  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

...financial support from CONACYT (Mexico) and Brockmann/State of Jalisco...and carotenoid pigments during solar bleaching in the coral Goniastrea...J.H Farrell2004Exposure to solar radiation increases damage to...Won1995Depth-dependent responses to solar ultraviolet-radiation and...

2008-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

108

Continuous On-Line Measurement of Lignin Concentration in Wood Pulp  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

). In the second, the pulp is loaded into an open j so that the laser directly illuminates the pulp. Res Il~ obtained with the two methods are comparable e ut the open jar approach allows better control and wider variation of the pulp consistency. In both... spanning the range of Kappa numbers from approximately 15 to 55. The range of Kappa numbers was achieved by removing samples from the digester at different times so that within a set. each of the samples came from the same parent wood-chip stock...

Jeffers, L. A.; Roman, G. W.

109

Refining intensity, energy consumption, and pulp quality in two-stage chip refining  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

This paper reports on thermomechanical pulps produced in two pilot plant installations. Both installations were conventional two-stage systems in which the first stage was pressurized and the second was atmospheric. At a given specific energy, pulp quality was improved. Alternatively, for a given pulp quality, the energy consumption was reduced when refining in the first stage was carried out at a high refining intensity. High refining intensity was reached by operating the first stage either at a high rotational speed or low consistency. There were indications that these benefits could be enhanced if the second stage were operated at a low refining intensity.

Miles, K.B.; May, W.D.; Karnis, A. (Pulp and Paper Research Inst. of Canada, 570 St. John's Boulevard, Pointe Claire, Quebec H9R 3J9 (CA))

1991-03-01T23:59:59.000Z

110

Testing geopressured geothermal reservoirs in existing wells: Pauline Kraft Well No. 1, Nueces County, Texas. Final report  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

The Pauline Kraft Well No. 1 was originally drilled to a depth of 13,001 feet and abandoned as a dry hole. The well was re-entered in an effort to obtain a source of GEO/sup 2/ energy for a proposed gasohol manufacturing plant. The well was tested through a 5-inch by 2-3/8 inch annulus. The geological section tested was the Frio-Anderson sand of Mid-Oligocene age. The interval tested was from 12,750 to 12,860 feet. A saltwater disposal well was drilled on the site and completed in a Micocene sand section. The disposal interval was perforated from 4710 to 4770 feet and from 4500 to 4542 feet. The test well failed to produce water at substantial rates. Initial production was 34 BWPD. A large acid stimulation treatment increased productivity to 132 BWPD, which was still far from an acceptable rate. During the acid treatment, a failure of the 5-inch production casing occurred. The poor production rates are attributed to a reservoir with very low permeability and possible formation damage. The casing failure is related to increased tensile strain resulting from cooling of the casing by acid and from the high surface injection pressure. The location of the casing failure is now known at this time, but it is not at the surface. Failure as a result of a defect in a crossover joint at 723 feet is suspected.

Not Available

1981-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

111

Emerging Energy-Efficiency and Greenhouse Gas Mitigation Technologies for the Pulp and Paper Industry  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

efficiency with regard to carbon capture". Energy 31 (15):67 3.6. Emerging Carbon Capture Technologies for the Pulp2011. Technology Roadmaps: Carbon Capture and Storage in

Kong, Lingbo

2014-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

112

Steam System Opportunity Assessment for the Pulp and Paper, Chemical Manufacturing, and Petroleum Refining Industries  

Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

This report assesses steam generation and use in the pulp and paper, chemical manufacturing, and the petroleum refining industries. The report also estimates the energy savings potential available from implementing steam system performance and efficiency improvements.

113

Advanced Powerhouse Controls Save Pulp Mill $500 in Purchased Energy in First Month  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

This case study describes the application of advanced regulatory and supervisory controls to powerhouse operations at a large pulp mill in central British Columbia. Substantial reductions in mill operating costs were achieved by actively managing...

Morrison, R.; Hilder, S.

2004-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

114

Effects of LED–laser hybrid light on bleaching effectiveness and tooth sensitivity: a randomized clinical study  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

The study evaluated the effectiveness and the sensitivity of in-office tooth bleaching with the use of a hybrid photo-activation system composed by LEDs and lasers. 40 patients, both genders, aged 18 through 25 years, were randomly distributed into two treatment groups: group I, 35% hydrogen peroxide, with a total bleaching time of 135 min divided into three sessions, and group II, 35% hydrogen peroxide and photo-thermal catalysis by an LED–laser system (300 mW cm?2), for a total bleaching time of 72 min divided into three sessions. The treatment efficiency was measured by reflectance spectroscopy and sensitivity by a visual analog scale (VAS). The final luminosity value (?L), color variation (?E) and sensitivity (S) resulting from the treatments were analyzed by the generalized estimating equations method (GEEs), and Bonferroni post hoc multiple comparisons at 5% significance. The two groups presented similar colors (?E) and luminosities (?L) after treatment. Group I presented a greater sensitivity index (37.6 ± 5.9%) compared to group II (11.1 ± 3.3%), statistically significant at p 

Janaina F Bortolatto; Hermes Pretel; Carolina S Neto; Marcelo F Andrade; Gustavo Moncada; Osmir B Oliveira Junior

2013-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

115

Treatment of pulp mill sludges by supercritical water oxidation  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Supercritical water oxidation (SCWO) is new process that can oxidize organics very effectively at moderate temperatures (400 to 650{degree}C) and high pressure (3700 psi). It is an environmentally acceptable alternative for sludge treatment. In bench scale tests, total organic carbon (TOC) and total organic halide (TOX) reductions of 99 to 99.9% were obtained; dioxin reductions were 95 to 99.9%. A conceptual design for commercial systems has been completed and preliminary economics have been estimated. Comparisons confirm that SCWO is less costly than dewatering plus incineration for treating pulp mill sludges. SCWO can also compete effectively with dewatering plus landfilling where tipping fees exceed $35/yd{sup 3}. In some regions of the US, tipping fees are now $75/yd{sup 3} and rising steadily. In the 1995 to 2000 time frame, SCWO has a good chance of becoming the method of choice. MODEC's objective is to bring the technology to commercial availability by 1993. 10 refs., 6 figs., 19 tabs.

Modell, M.

1990-07-01T23:59:59.000Z

116

Ketchikan Pulp's hog-fuel-boiler energy retrofits  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Ketchikan Pulp Co. (KPC) is a 600-b.d. Ton/day sulfite mill located 679 Alaska Airlines miles north of Seattle on the island of Revillagigedo. Designed to produce 860 psig steam at 825[degrees]F, each of the boilers is fired off a combination of No. 6 oil and waste wood. This paper reports that in 1984, a rotary bark dyer was installed in series between the existing boiler I.D. fans and the boiler stack. This system consists of a direct-contact rotary dryer unit followed by an additional I.D. fan and four cyclone separators. The combustion gases then return to the existing stack by way of the existing I.D. fan discharge ducting. This unit was designed to operate at a flue-gas inlet temperature of 550[degrees]F and maintained a discharge temperature of 300[degrees]F. The unit was designed to process approximately 360 units of hog fuel per day, drying it from 60% moisture to 40% moisture in a single-pass operation.

Sweet, R.N. (Howard Needles Tammen and Bergendoff, Bellevue, WA (United States))

1991-09-01T23:59:59.000Z

117

The Fates of Vanadium and Sulfur Introduced with Petcoke to Lime Kilns.  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

??Petroleum coke (petcoke) has been burned at kraft pulp mills to partially substitute for natural gas and fuel oil used in lime kilns. Due to… (more)

Fan, Xiaofei

2010-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

118

Overview of the government/industry workshop on opportunities for new materials in pulp and paper processing  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

This report presents a synopsis of the presentations made at the two-day workshop conducted in Portland, Oregon, on August 12 and 13, 1993, for the Advanced Industrial Concepts division (AICD) of the US Department of Energy (DOE) Office of Industrial Technologies (OIT) and DOE national laboratory representatives from the pulp and paper industry. The information from the presentations is supplemented by additional statistics, as appropriate. The workshop objectives were (1) to develop a strategy and framework for collaboration between the pulp and paper industries and DOE`s national laboratories, (2) to identify major challenges to pulp and paper industry modernization, and (3) to identify research objectives for DOE national laboratories to improve materials and process technology in pulp and paper mills. Prior to the workshop, participants had the opportunity to tour paper mills and gain familiarity with pulp and paper processing methods. During the workshop, research needs for materials and processing that were identified at earlier AICD workshops were reviewed. Major problems of the pulp and paper industry were addressed, and ways in which DOE national laboratories are interacting with other industries to foster innovation and solve problems were presented. As a result of this and other workshops, a Pulp Paper Mill of the future strategy is being developed to address challenges identified in these proceedings. Continued efforts are expected by AICD to match candidate materials and processes from DOE national laboratories with the technology needs of pulp and paper mills.

Young, J.K.; Fowler, R.A.

1994-05-01T23:59:59.000Z

119

Proceedings of the 6th international Conference on Biotechnology in the Pulp and Paper Industry: Advances in Applied and Fundamental Research  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Proceedings of the 6th international Conference on Biotechnology in the Pulp and Paper Industry during refining, improved paper strength properties, and reduced the environmental impact of pulping (2 for pulping. The chemical demand can also be lessened due to prior degradation of the lignin by the fungus

Abubakr, Said

120

Pulp and Paper Mills: Profiting for Efficient Motor System Use | ENERGY  

Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

Pulp and Paper Mills: Profiting for Efficient Motor System Use Pulp and Paper Mills: Profiting for Efficient Motor System Use Secondary menu About us Press room Contact Us Portfolio Manager Login Facility owners and managers Existing buildings Commercial new construction Industrial energy management Small business Service providers Service and product providers Verify applications for ENERGY STAR certification Design commercial buildings Energy efficiency program administrators Commercial and industrial program sponsors Associations State and local governments Federal agencies Tools and resources Training In This Section Campaigns Commercial building design Communications resources Energy management guidance Financial resources Portfolio Manager Products and purchasing Recognition Research and reports Service and product provider (SPP) resources

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "kraft pulping bleaching" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


121

“What Efficiency Projects are Being Installed in the Pulp and Paper Industry”  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

The Wisconsin Focus on Energy program has seven years of experience on the actual projects that are being installed in the Pulp and Paper industry. The program has a broad perspective on the types and trends of investments in energy efficiency...

Nicol, J.

2008-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

122

Energy Conservation Progress and Opportunities in the Pulp and Paper Industry  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

In 1980 the pulp and paper industry was the third ranking consumer of total purchased fuels and energy in the U.S. industrial sector and the highest single industry in terms of residual oil consumption. Over the past decade in response to rapidly...

Watkins, J. J.; Hunter, W. D.

1984-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

123

In situ SEM micro-indentation of single wood pulp fibres in transverse direction  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

......Fibre deformation and sheet strength. TAPPI (1996) 79:105-111. 4 Page DH , El-Hosseiny...compression loading of single pulp fibres. TAPPI (1986) 69:98-102. 6 Dunford JA...method, yield, beating, and drying. TAPPI (1970) 53:820-823. 11 Sedighi Gilani......

Ramesh-Babu Adusumalli; Rejin Raghavan; Patrick Schwaller; Tanja Zimmermann; Johann Michler

2010-10-01T23:59:59.000Z

124

In situ SEM micro-indentation of single wood pulp fibres in transverse direction  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

......loading of single pulp fibres. TAPPI (1986) 69:98-102. 6 Dunford...yield, beating, and drying. TAPPI (1970) 53:820-823. 11...ESEM and video image analysis. TAPPI (1995) 78:143-148. 14...Fiber Sci. (1996) 28:429-437. 15 Gindl W , Gupta HS. Cell-wall......

Ramesh-Babu Adusumalli; Rejin Raghavan; Patrick Schwaller; Tanja Zimmermann; Johann Michler

2010-10-01T23:59:59.000Z

125

Mineralized and osteoid tissue from dental pulp stem cells on micro-arc oxidation titanium in vitro  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

The presence of insufficient bone volume affects the implant healing and success. The aim of this study was to evaluate osteogenic capacity of dental pulp stem cells (DPSCs) on micro-arc oxidation (MAO) titanium ...

Yi Huang ? ?; Ting Chang ? ?; Cheng Yang ? ?…

2012-08-01T23:59:59.000Z

126

Opportunities to improve energy efficiency and reduce greenhouse gas emissions in the U.S. pulp and paper industry  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

primary stage consistency” TAPPI Journal 80 (1). Allan, G. ;drying of pulp and paper,” TAPPI Journal 8 (80). Pp. 175-impulse- drying temperature,” TAPPI Journal 77(2). Pages:

Martin, Nathan; Anglani, N.; Einstein, D.; Khrushch, M.; Worrell, E.; Price, L.K.

2000-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

127

Reductive burning of high-yield spent pulping liquors by the addition of pulverized coal  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

This paper reports on the reductive burning of high-yield spent pulping liquors which can be accomplished by the addition of pulverized coal to increase the heat content and generate the proper reducing conditions. Samples from a 78%-yield sodium bisulfite pulping process employing a hardwood furnish were mixed with 10-50% pulveriized coal and burned at 950[degrees]C under reducing conditions in a box furnace. Even in these uncontrolled combustion conditions 76. 5% of the sulfur found in the soluble portion of the smelt was converted from lignousulfonates to useful sulfide ion. For the remainder of the sulfur, analyses determined it to be 19. 5% as sulfite ion, 3. 1% as thiosulfate ion, and 0.9% as sulfate ion.

Sell, N.J.; Norman, J.C. (Natural and Applied Sciences, Univ. of Wisconsin-Green Bay, Green Bay, WI (United States))

1992-10-01T23:59:59.000Z

128

Conifer tissue culture and how it may impact the pulp and paper industry  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

This is a report on the state-of-the-art of tissue culture of conifers. Developments in organogenesis and somatic embryogenesis are looked at. This technology is expected to help the pulp and paper industry in achieving its goal of maximum productivity in two principal ways: (a) by providing rapid and efficient in vitro propagation methods for elite trees, and (b) by providing a technology for producing desired hybrids via somatic cell genetics and hybridization.

Verma, D.C.; Einspahr, D.W.

1983-11-01T23:59:59.000Z

129

On-line measurement of lignin in wood pulp by color shift of fluorescence  

DOE Patents [OSTI]

Lignin concentrations from wood pulp samples are measured by applying an excitation light at a selected wavelength to the samples in order to cause the lignin to emit fluorescence. A spectral distribution of the fluorescence emission is then determined. The lignin concentration is then calculated based on the spectral distribution signal. The spectral distribution is quantified by either a wavelength centroid method or a band ratio method. 6 figs.

Jeffers, L.A.; Malito, M.L.

1996-01-23T23:59:59.000Z

130

Use of Residual Solids from Pulp and Paper Mills for Enhancing Strength and Durability of Ready-Mixed Concrete  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

This research was conducted to establish mixture proportioning and production technologies for ready-mixed concrete containing pulp and paper mill residual solids and to study technical, economical, and performance benefits of using the residual solids in the concrete. Fibrous residuals generated from pulp and paper mills were used, and concrete mixture proportions and productions technologies were first optimized under controlled laboratory conditions. Based on the mixture proportions established in the laboratory, prototype field concrete mixtures were manufactured at a ready-mixed concrete plant. Afterward, a field construction demonstration was held to demonstrate the production and placement of structural-grade cold-weather-resistant concrete containing residual solids.

Tarun R. Naik; Yoon-moon Chun; Rudolph N. Kraus

2003-09-18T23:59:59.000Z

131

Biomechanical pulping of aspen chips; Energy savings resulting from different fungal treatments  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Besides increasing paper strength, fungal treatments can also reduce the electrical energy needed for fiberizing chips during mechanical pulping. Fungal species, chip movement, and treatment duration affected the extent of energy savings. This paper reports that four-week-long treatment with white-rot fungi, including Phlebia species or Pholiota mutabilis, in a stationary wire tray bioreactor resulted in at least 35% energy savings for pulping chips to 100 mL CSF in a 300-mm-diameter disc refiner. With Phanerochaete chrysosporium in a rotating-drum bioreactor, the optimal treatment duration was four weeks. Treatment with a brown-rot fungus also resulted in energy savings. Over the range of fungi and conditions tested, neither chip weight loss nor lignin loss correlated with energy savings. Some treatments giving the least chip weight loss ({lt}5%) saved the most energy. Wood modifications responsible for energy savings differed from those that increased strength. Treatments that saved the most energy did not necessarily give the highest strength properties.

Leatham, G.F.; Myers, G.C.; Wegner, T.H. (USDA Forest Service, Forest Products Lab., Madison, WI (US))

1990-05-01T23:59:59.000Z

132

Presentation 3.1: Report on energy efficient technologies and CO2 reduction potentials in the pulp and paper industry  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

, at the International Energy Agency in Paris. The goal of the workshop is to better quantify the global potentialPresentation 3.1: Report on energy efficient technologies and CO2 reduction potentials in the pulp, and it will imply a fundamental rethinking of the sector's strategy. 251 #12;#12;INTERNATIONAL ENERGY AGENCY AGENCE

133

DOE Joint Genome Institute. Pulp NonFiction: Fungal Analysis Reveals Clues  

Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

March 22, 2012 March 22, 2012 Pulp NonFiction: Fungal Analysis Reveals Clues for Targeted Biomass Deconstruction Without fungi and microbes to break down dead trees and leaf litter in nature, the forest floor might look like a scene from TV's "Hoarders." Ceriporiopsis subvermispora mycelium on wood Photo: Scanning electron micrograph of Ceriporiopsis subvermispora mycelium on wood. (R. Blanchette, University of Minnesota) Massive-scale genome sequencing projects supported by the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) and being carried out at the DOE Joint Genome Institute (JGI) highlight the importance of learning how the cellulose, hemicellulose and lignin that serve as a plant's infrastructure can be broken down by these forest organisms to extract needed nutrients. Among the fungi being

134

Changing Trends in the Bulk Chemicals and Pulp and Paper Industries (released in AEO2005)  

Reports and Publications (EIA)

Compared with the experience of the 1990s, rising energy prices in recent years have led to questions about expectations of growth in industrial output, particularly in energy-intensive industries. Given the higher price trends, a review of expected growth trends in selected industries was undertaken as part of the production of Annual Energy Outlook 2005 (AEO). In addition, projections for the industrial value of shipments, which were based on the Standard Industrial Classification (SIC) system in AEO2004, are based on the North American Industry Classification System (NAICS) in AEO2005. The change in industrial classification leads to lower historical growth rates for many industrial sectors. The impacts of these two changes are highlighted in this section for two of the largest energy-consuming industries in the U.S. industrial sector-bulk chemicals and pulp and paper.

2005-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

135

Improved Wood Properties Through Genetic Manipulation: Engineering of Syringyl Lignin in Softwood Species Through Xylem-Specific Expression of Hardwood Syringyl Monolignol Pathway Genes  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Project Objective: Our long-term goal is to genetically engineer higher value raw materials with desirable wood properties to promote energy efficiency, international competitiveness, and environmental responsiveness of the U.S. forest products industry. The immediate goal of this project was to produce the first higher value softwood raw materials engineered with a wide range of syringyl lignin quantities. Summary: The most important wood property affecting directly the levels of energy, chemical and bleaching requirements for kraft pulp production is lignin. Softwoods contain almost exclusively chemically resistant guaiacyl (G) lignin, whereas hardwoods have more reactive or easily degradable lignins of the guaiacyl (G)-syringyl (S) type. It is also well established that the reactive S lignin component is the key factor that permits much lower effective alkali and temperature, shorter pulping time and less bleaching stages for processing hardwoods than for softwoods. Furthermore, our pulping kinetic study explicitly demonstrated that every increase in one unit of the lignin S/G ratio would roughly double the rate of lignin removal. These are clear evidence that softwoods genetically engineered with S lignin are keys to revolutionizing the energy efficiency and enhancing the environmental performance of this industry. Softwoods and hardwoods share the same genetic mechanisms for the biosynthesis of G lignin. However, in hardwoods, three additional genes branch out from the G-lignin pathway and become specifically engaged in regulating S lignin biosynthesis. In this research, we simultaneously transferred aspen S-specific genes into a model softwood, black spruce, to engineer S lignin.

Chandrashekhar P. Joshi; Vincent L. Chiang

2009-01-29T23:59:59.000Z

136

Effect of radiation on the response of dental pulp to operative and endodontic procedures: an experimental study  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Thirty-six 56-day-old male Sprague-Dawley albino rats served as two groups of experimental animals. Group 1 was irradiated with 400 rads delivered as total-body radiation from a cesium source. Group 2 served as the control group and was not irradiated. Three weeks later, the dental microscope was used to facilitate various dental procedures in both groups of animals (cavity preparation filled with zinc oxide-eugenol, pulp exposure capped with zinc oxide-eugenol, and pulp exposure left open). Two animals for each procedure from Groups 1 and 2 were killed at time intervals of 2, 4, and 8 weeks. The results showed that (1) radiation at this dose resulted in a depression of the normal response of the dental pulp to the trauma and infection induced by pulpal exposure, (2) there were no pathologic changes in the untreated molars of the irradiated animals, and (3) the use of the dental microscope greatly facilitated cavity preparation in the molars of rats.

Fawzi, M.I.; Shklar, G.; Krakow, A.A.

1985-04-01T23:59:59.000Z

137

Chemicals for enhanced oil recovery. Annual report, October 1, 1980-September 30, 1981  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

The main objective has been to reduce barriers to implementation of micellar flooding arising from the cost and/or supply of chemicals. The effort has been comprised of search for suitable raw materials in waste streams or in low-cost byproducts, evaluation of these components, research supporting field production of biopolymers, microbiological production of cosurfactants, and search for competitive adsorbates or sacrifical agents. Emphasis has been on substances from other than petroleum sources. Because of the large volume of organic chemicals having low value produced in the pulping of wood, considerable attention has been given to the paper industry. Surfactant evaluation has centered on the fatty-acid fraction of tall oils, in which sodium oleate seems to dominate the interfacial properties. Phase and interfacial behavior of natural mixtures and chemical modifications of components have been investigated. Biopolymer research was centered on scleroglucans because of their superior potential for field production. Fermentation, evaluation of feeds alternative to glucose, wet separation of polymer from fermentation broth, reduction of difficulties in plugging formations, and beneficial disposal of biomass were all investigated. Several organic chemicals from pulping were found to have potential as sacrificial agents. Sodium saccarinates, weak black liquor, and caustic extract from the bleaching of pulp were the most promising from the kraft process. By selection, Clostridia strains capable of producing higher alcohols from various wood-pulping wastes were isolated. Analysis of separation processes indicated that, in spite of the lower alcohol content of the mash in comparison with yeast fermentation to ethanol, free energies of the neutral-solvent solutions made the costs of concentration in money and heat comparable.

Compere, A.L.; Gracey, R.A.; Griffith, W.L.; Johnson, J.S. Jr.; Jones, R.M.; Magid, L.J.; Triolo, R.; Westmoreland, C.G.

1983-05-01T23:59:59.000Z

138

Hydroxyalkylated xylans – Their synthesis and application in coatings for packaging and paper  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

This paper demonstrates opportunities for wood-based xylan derivatives to be used in coating applications. A route for extraction and purification of white and pure xylan from bleached birch kraft pulp is described as a part of the production of high adsorption and high crystalline pulp. Derivatization of the xylan during the extraction step was also demonstrated. Efficient derivatization of xylan to water soluble derivatives was achieved and promising results were obtained in primary application tests as a coating component in barrier coatings on board and as a binder component in pigment coating of offset paper. With the best xylan derivate coating, the barrier properties were better than with a commercial biopolymer coating, while oxygen permeability was roughly one third of that for a polyethylene terephthalate coating. Likewise, surface strength close to the reference latex as a binder in pigment coatings was achieved by a xylan derivative. This work is part of a platform of hemicellulose derivatives enabling novel application for this medium to high molar mass hemicellulose of high purity.

Christiane Laine; Ali Harlin; Jonas Hartman; Sari Hyvärinen; Kari Kammiovirta; Björn Krogerus; Heikki Pajari; Hille Rautkoski; Harri Setälä; Jenni Sievänen; Johanna Uotila; Mika Vähä-Nissi

2013-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

139

Monitoring needs in the U.S. southeast: Impact of dioxins and other industrial wastes and wildlife  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

The US southeast is a center for forest industry activities and over 180 pulp and paper mills have been reported from Tennessee, North and South Carolina, Georgia, Florida, Alabama, Mississippi, Arkansas and Louisiana. Many of these facilities emit bleached kraft mill effluents (BKMEs) into receiving waters. Contaminants present in these mill effluents and in other industrial activities known to adversely affect wildlife and fisheries resources include chlorinated phenolics, dioxins, furans and resin acids. Tennessee and North Carolina have issued fish consumption advisories for specific areas and a fishery has been closed in Arkansas. The extent of injury to wildlife resources from dioxins and other effluents from mill and industrial waste is not presently known. However, preliminary studies indicate effects on biota at several localities. Bioaccumulation of dioxins from mill effluents has been documented in channel catfish (Ictalurus punctatus) (1--2 ppt) and soft-shelled turtles (Trionyx ferox) (17--31 ppt) from pulp/paper mill effluent in St. Joseph`s and Perdido Bays, Florida; reproductive abnormalities were noted in female Gambusia (sp.) exposed to mill effluent. In Jacksonville, Arkansas abnormalities > 10% were noted in fish and reproduction of wood duck (Aix sponsa) was impaired downstream from a chemical plant. Further work is needed to define mill and industrial facilities in the southeast and to monitor adverse effects on fish and wildlife resources.

Glooschenko, V. [National Biological Survey, Atlanta, GA (United States); Brim, M. [USFWS, Panama City, FL (United States); Augspurger, T. [USFWS, Raleigh, NC (United States)

1994-12-31T23:59:59.000Z

140

Greenhouse gas emission by wastewater treatment plants of the pulp and paper industry – Modeling and simulation  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

Abstract Greenhouse gas (GHG) emission and energy consumption in wastewater treatment plants (WWTPs) of the pulp and paper industry were modeled and estimated. Aerobic, anaerobic, and hybrid biological processes were used for the removal of contaminants. In addition to the removal of carbonaceous compounds, anaerobic digestion of the produced sludge and the removal of excess nitrogen in the effluent of treatment plants by nitrification/denitrification processes were incorporated in the model. Carbon dioxide, methane, and nitrous oxide were the major \\{GHGs\\} generated during the biological treatment, combustion, energy generation, and transportation. The generated biogas from the anaerobic processes was assumed to be recovered and used as a source of energy for the treatment plant, in an effort to reduce GHG emissions while decreasing the total energy needs of the WWTP. The established kinetic relationships of wastewater treatment processes along with mass and energy balances were employed for the simulation of different treatment systems and estimation of GHG emissions. Various sources of GHG emission were divided into on-site and off-site sources to simplify the modeling and simulation procedure. The overall GHG generation in the presence of biogas recovery was equal to 1.576, 3.026, and 3.271 kg CO2-equivalent/kg BOD by the three examined systems. The energy produced by the recovery and combustion of biogas could exceed the energy demands of all different treatment plants examined in this study and reduce off-site GHG emission. The generation of \\{GHGs\\} from aerobic and hybrid processes increased by 27% and 33.2%, respectively, when N2O emission from nitrogen removal processes was taken into consideration.

Omid Ashrafi; Laleh Yerushalmi; Fariborz Haghighat

2013-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "kraft pulping bleaching" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


141

Photo-Catalytic Degradation of Wastewater from Straw Pulp and Paper Mill by Fe2O3/UV/H2O2  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

The purpose of this study was to examine the photo catalytic degradation of real effluents from wheat straw pulp and paper mill by nano-Fe2O3 catalyst. Four different ferric oxide samples were synthesized by homogeneous precipitation of reflux at different ... Keywords: potocatalysis, ?-Fe2O3, efluent, COD

Aimei Li; Haizhen Yang; Yiren Zhu

2011-02-01T23:59:59.000Z

142

Results of multiyear studies on the dynamics of pollution of lake Baikal by polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons in the area waste water discharge from the Baikal Pulp and Paper Plant  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

New data on the concentration and spatial distribution of the benz(a)pyrene and polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons in bottom sediments in the testing area ... Baikal Pulp and Paper Plant (BPPP) waste water discharg...

A. M. Nikonorov; A. A. Matveev; S. A. Reznikov; V. S. Arakelyan…

2012-03-01T23:59:59.000Z

143

Cellulose challenge: where do we go from here  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Because of its relatively low cost and high level of availability, wood has become a popular biomass resource for the manufacture of fuels and chemical products. The producers of high-purity cellulose pulps face problems because the kraft process which is the standard source of dissolving pulp involves huge investments. The article examines the future of this industry and assesses these new technologies: solvent pulping; low lignin biomass and microbial cellulose. 6 references.

Lipinsky, E.S.

1983-10-01T23:59:59.000Z

144

Carbon emissions reduction potential in the US chemicals and pulp and paper industries by applying CHP technologies  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

The chemical and the pulp/paper industries combined provide 55% of CHP generation in the US industry. Yet, significant potential for new CHP capacities exists in both industries. From the present steam consumption data, the authors estimate about 50 GW of additional technical potential for CHP in both industries. The reduced carbon emissions will be equivalent to 44% of the present carbon emissions in these industries. They find that most of the carbon emissions reductions can be achieved at negative costs. Depending on the assumptions used in calculations, the economic potential of CHP in these industries can be significantly lower, and carbon emissions mitigation costs can be much higher. Using sensitivity analyses, they determine that the largest effect on the CHP estimate have the assumptions in the costs of CHP technology, in the assumed discount rates, in improvements in efficiency of CHP technologies, and in the CHP equipment depreciation periods. Changes in fuel and electricity prices and the growth in the industries' steam demand have less of an effect. They conclude that the lowest carbon mitigation costs are achieved with the CHP facility is operated by the utility and when industrial company that owns the CHP unit can sell extra electricity and steam to the open wholesale market. Based on the results of the analyses they discuss policy implications.

Khrushch, M.; Worrell, E.; Price, L.; Martin, N.; Einstein, D.

1999-07-01T23:59:59.000Z

145

Studies on the fibre surfaces modified with xylan polyelectrolytes  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

Xylan was isolated from birch wood chips by using pressurized hot water extraction (PHWE). The extracted xylan was chemically modified yielding three different xylan derivatives (XDs): xylan sulfate (XS), carboxymethyl xylan (CMX) and xylan-4-[N,N,N-trimethylammonium]butyrate chloride (XTMAB). The structure and molecular weight of \\{XDs\\} was determined by using NMR spectroscopy and size exclusion chromatography (SEC). The potential utilization of xylan polyelectrolytes for modifying fibre surfaces was assessed by sorption experiments using bleached pine Kraft pulp as substrate. Polyelectrolyte titration method was chosen for estimating the amount of sorbed \\{XDs\\} onto the fibres. The cationic xylan derivative XTMAB had a strong interaction with fibres while the anionic derivatives did not show any sorption. X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS) and time of flight secondary ion mass spectrometry (ToF-SIMS) were selected as advanced surface analyses for studying the amount of surface anionic groups and the surface distribution of the XTMAB. XPS and polyelectrolyte titration results suggested that the XTMAB is sorbed onto the fibre surfaces. ToF-SIMS imaging showed that XTMAB was evenly distributed on fibre surfaces.

B. Vega; K. Petzold-Welcke; P. Fardim; T. Heinze

2012-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

146

This information was effective as at September 2011 and is subject to change without notice. Visit us at vw.co.za  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

to three environmental pillars: A minimum of 60% of the pulp of this paper is sugar cane fibre; the bleaching process is chlorine-free; and the remaining pulp comprises of wood fibre obtained from sustainable, we can prove that it's easy to live an ecologically-sustainable life without too much compromise. #12

de Villiers, Marienne

147

OPET Organisations for the Promotion of Energy Technologies Contact: opet@tekes.fi www.tekes.fi/opet/  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

The main innovation Alholmens Kraft Ltd builds the worlds largest biofuelled power plant and the CFB boiler. The power plant is combined condensing and CHP plant. The CFB boiler is manufactured by Kvaerner Pulping in average. The boiler was chosen to be a CFB boiler. It is possible to burn mixtures of the design fuels

148

Downregulation of Cinnamoyl-Coenzyme A Reductase in Poplar: Multiple-Level Phenotyping Reveals Effects on Cell Wall Polymer Metabolism and Structure  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

...transcript levels of a photosystem II reaction center protein and a Gln synthetase similarly...to homogenize the size of the plants. Assessment of Growth Characteristics Height and...opposite impact on the efficiency of industrial kraft pulping. Plant Physiol. 119...

Jean-Charles Leplé; Rebecca Dauwe; Kris Morreel; Véronique Storme; Catherine Lapierre; Brigitte Pollet; Annette Naumann; Kyu-Young Kang; Hoon Kim; Katia Ruel; Andrée Lefèbvre; Jean-Paul Joseleau; Jacqueline Grima-Pettenati; Riet De Rycke; Sara Andersson-Gunnerås; Alexander Erban; Ines Fehrle; Michel Petit-Conil; Joachim Kopka; Andrea Polle; Eric Messens; Björn Sundberg; Shawn D. Mansfield; John Ralph; Gilles Pilate; Wout Boerjan

2007-11-16T23:59:59.000Z

149

Simple Circular Odor Chart for Characterization of Trace Amounts of Odorants Discharged from Thirteen Odor Sources  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

......and F. Dewinter. Gas chromato- graphic determination of ethylene in large air volumes at the fractional parts-per-billion...Mckean, Jr., B.F. Hrutfiord, K.V. Sarkanen, L. Price, and I.B. Douglass. Effect of kraft pulping condi- tions......

Yasuyuki Hoshika; Yoshimasa Nihei; Giichi Muto

1981-04-01T23:59:59.000Z

150

Simple Circular Odor Chart for Characterization of Trace Amounts of Odorants Discharged from Thirteen Odor Sources  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

......sulfur com- pounds in waste process gases. Tappi. 43: 602-08 (1960). 23. I. Hornstein...kraft pulp mills. Part I. II. III. IV. Tappi. 46: 1-20 (1963). 26. B.J. Tyson...mercaptans and alkyl sulfides and disulfide. Tappi. 42: 601-05 (1959). 59. E.W......

Yasuyuki Hoshika; Yoshimasa Nihei; Giichi Muto

1981-04-01T23:59:59.000Z

151

X-ray Studies of Regenerated Cellulose Fibers Wet Spun from Cotton Linter Pulp in NaOH/Thiourea Aqueous Solutions  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Regenerated cellulose fibers were fabricated by dissolution of cotton linter pulp in NaOH (9.5 wt%) and thiourea (4.5 wt%) aqueous solution followed by wet-spinning and multi-roller drawing. The multi-roller drawing process involved three stages: coagulation (I), coagulation (II) and post-treatment (III). The crystalline structure and morphology of regenerated cellulose fiber was investigated by synchrotron wide-angle X-ray diffraction (WAXD) and small-angle X-ray scattering (SAXS) techniques. Results indicated that only the cellulose II crystal structure was found in regenerated cellulose fibers, proving that the cellulose crystals were completely transformed from cellulose I to II structure during spinning from NaOH/thiourea aqueous solution. The crystallinity, orientation and crystal size at each stage were determined from the WAXD analysis. Drawing of cellulose fibers in the coagulation (II) bath (H{sub 2}SO{sub 4}/H{sub 2}O) was found to generate higher orientation and crystallinity than drawing in the post-treatment (III). Although the post-treatment process also increased crystal orientation, it led to a decrease in crystallinity with notable reduction in the anisotropic fraction. Compared with commercial rayon fibers fabricated by the viscose process, the regenerated cellulose fibers exhibited higher crystallinity but lower crystal orientation. SAXS results revealed a clear scattering maximum along the meridian direction in all regenerated cellulose fibers, indicating the formation of lamellar structure during spinning.

Chen,X.; Burger, C.; Fang, D.; Ruan, D.; Zhang, L.; Hsiao, B.; Chu, B.

2006-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

152

Waste to energy by industrially integrated supercritical water gasification – Effects of alkali salts in residual by-products from the pulp and paper industry  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

Supercritical water gasification (SCWG) is a method by which biomass can be converted into a hydrogen-rich gas product. Wet industrial waste streams, which contain both organic and inorganic material, are well suited for treatment by SCWG. In this study, the gasification of two streams of biomass resulting from the pulp and paper industry, black liquor and paper sludge, has been investigated. The purpose is to convert these to useful products, both gaseous and solids, which can be used either in the papermaking process or in external applications. Simple compounds, such as glucose, have been fully gasified in SCWG, but gasification of more complex compounds, such as biomass and waste, have not reached as high conversions. The investigated paper sludge was not easily gasified. Improving gasification results with catalysts is an option and the use of alkali salts for this purpose was studied. The relationship between alkali concentration, temperature, and gasification yields was studied with the addition of KOH, K2CO3, NaOH and black liquor to the paper sludge. Addition of black liquor to the paper sludge resulted in similarly enhancing effects as when the alkali salts were added, which made it possible to raise the dry matter content and gasification yield without expensive additives.

I. Rönnlund; L. Myréen; K. Lundqvist; J. Ahlbeck; T. Westerlund

2011-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

153

Self bleaching photoelectrochemical-electrochromic device  

DOE Patents [OSTI]

A photoelectrochemical-electrochromic device comprising a first transparent electrode and a second transparent electrode in parallel, spaced relation to each other. The first transparent electrode is electrically connected to the second transparent electrode. An electrochromic material is applied to the first transparent electrode and a nanoporous semiconductor film having a dye adsorbed therein is applied to the second transparent electrode. An electrolyte layer contacts the electrochromic material and the nanoporous semiconductor film. The electrolyte layer has a redox couple whereby upon application of light, the nanoporous semiconductor layer dye absorbs the light and the redox couple oxidizes producing an electric field across the device modulating the effective light transmittance through the device.

Bechinger, Clemens S. (Konstanz, DE); Gregg, Brian A. (Golden, CO)

2002-04-09T23:59:59.000Z

154

Effektiv brug af grnne afgifter i kraft-og varmesektoren  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

gennem tilskyndelse til et lavere energiforbrug og en mere miljøvenlig energiproduktion fx ved en øget energiproduktion. Det drejer sig primært om tre styringsmidler: 1. Grønne og ikke så grønne afgifter 2

155

Formation of acidic sulfates in kraft recovery boilers  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Acidic sulfates (NaHSO[sub 4] and Na[sub 2]S[sub 2]O[sub 7]) have been suggested as the cause of corrosive sticky deposits in recovery boilers. Recovery-boiler precipitator dusts and pure Na[sub 2]SO[sub 4] were examined for their tendency to form acidic sulfates in simulated flue gases. Formation was strongly influenced by temperature and by gas-phase concentrations of SO[sub x] and H[sub 2]O. Liquid NaHSO[sub 4] formed readily at 250 C at SO[sub x] concentration above 150 ppm. Formation reactions were hindered by Na[sub 2]CO[sub 3]. Under appropriate conditions, acidic sulfates can exist at tube surfaces near the furnace roof, at the upper screen tubes, and in the generating bank and economizer.

Poon, W.; Barham, D.; Tran, H. (Univ. of Toronto, Ontario (Canada))

1993-07-01T23:59:59.000Z

156

Thermal Behavior of Floor Tubes in a Kraft Recovery Boiler  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

The temperatures of floor tubes in a slope-floored black liquor recovery boiler were measured using an array of thermocouples located on the tube crowns. It was found that sudden, short duration temperature increases occurred with a frequency that increased with distance from the spout wall. To determine if the temperature pulses were associated with material falling from the convective section of the boiler, the pattern of sootblower operation was recorded and compared with the pattern of temperature pulses. During the period from September, 1998, through February, 1999, it was found that more than 2/3 of the temperature pulses occurred during the time when one of the fast eight sootblowers, which are directed at the back of the screen tubes and the leading edge of the first superheater bank, was operating.

Barker, R.E.; Choudhury, K.A.; Gorog, J.P.; Hall, L.M.; Keiser, J.R.; Sarma, G.B.

1999-09-12T23:59:59.000Z

157

Burning mill sludge in a fluidized-bed incinerator and waste-heat-recovery system; Ten years of successful operation  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

This paper reports on burning mill sludge in a fluidized-bed incinerator and waste-heat-recovery system. In the late 1970s, the Lielahti sulfite mill of G.A. Serlachius Corp. (now Metsa Serla Oy) began investigating alternative methods of sludge disposal. The mill had an annual capacity of 100,000 tons of bleached pulp, generated 80,000 tons of by-product lignin sulfonates, and specialized in dissolving pulps. Because of the end product's high quality requirements, the mill had a low pulp yield and high losses in the form of both dissolved and suspended solids.

Nickull, O. (Metsa Serla, Oy (FI)); Lehtonen, O. (Tampella Ltd., Tampere (FI)); Mullen, J. (Tampella Keeler, Williamsport, PA (US))

1991-03-01T23:59:59.000Z

158

BLEACHABILITY OF RECYCLED FIBERS DEINKED WITH ENZYME PREPARATIONS  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

the recycling emphasis from ink removal to color removal. Our research indicates that enzymes can. This brightness matched that achieved by bleaching conven- tionally deinked pulps that used additional peroxide deinking. BACKGROUND For the removal of toner inks, enzyme preparations are ef- fective substitutes

Abubakr, Said

159

VICKERY, JOHN D. Fundamental Properties and Bond Characteristics of Chlorinated Polyvinyl Chloride and SS340 Adhesive for Evaluation of Steel Tank Linings. (Under  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Chloride and SS340 Adhesive for Evaluation of Steel Tank Linings. (Under the Direction of Dr. Sami Rizkalla.) Tank linings are used to extend the service life of tanks and to avoid replacement of damaged tanks is to understand the behavior of the different materials proposed for lining typical bleach tanks used in the pulp

160

Gene Expression and Cell Proliferation in Rat Liver after 2,3,7,8-Tetrachlorodibenzo-p-dioxin Exposure  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

...subgroup is the halogenated aromatic hydrocarbon TCDD.1 This chemical is a highly toxic...the bleaching of paper pulp, and the combustion of chlorine- containing organic materials...were dried (Speed-Vac; Savant); heat-denatured (65 Cfor 5 min) in a 50...

Tony R. Fox; Lang L. Best; Susan M. Goldsworthy; Jeremy J. Mills; and Thomas L. Goldsworthy

1993-05-15T23:59:59.000Z

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "kraft pulping bleaching" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


161

Determining Chlorine Concentrations in Air and Water Samples for Scrubbing Studies Using Ion Chromatography  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

......References 2. J.L. Morrison. Recovery scrubber for waste chlorine gas. Tappi 51(12): 124A25A (1968). 3. G.Y. Pan, J.F. DeGraw, and J.J. Renard. Tappi Proceedings, 1982 Pulping Conference, pp. 36570. 4. I.F. Rees. Bleach......

William C. Askew; Stephen J. Morisani

1989-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

162

Exergy Analysis of the Process for Dimethyl Ether Production through Biomass Steam Gasification  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

About 6.37% of the total carbon is released to the environment in the form of wastewater and waste gas. ... If the heat for gasifying the biomass could be obtained from other energy resource, the carbon atom utilization could be increased greatly, and the CO2 emissions could be decreased considerably. ... A Cost?Benefit Assessment of Gasification-Based Biorefining in the Kraft Pulp and Paper Industry: Volume 1 Main Report; Princeton University: Princeton, NJ, 2006. ...

Xiangping Zhang; Christian Solli; Edgar G. Hertwich; Xiao Tian; Suojiang Zhang

2009-11-09T23:59:59.000Z

163

Characterization of the gun phenotype under photo-bleaching conditions.  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

??Protein complexes involved in biochemical processes of organelles are composed of subunits encoded in the organelles and the nucleus. To guarantee energysaving assembly and efficient… (more)

Voigt, Christian

2010-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

164

ORIGINAL PAPER Symbiont bleaching in fossil planktonic foraminifera  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

, this is analogous with modern species that possess an association with algal photosymbionts. Turborotalia-celled protists that shield their cytoplasm within a secreted calcareous (CaCO3) skeleton (Hemleben et al. 1989). There are several potential advantages to planktonic foraminifera harbouring algal symbionts. These endosymbionts

165

Endolithic algae: an alternative source of photoassimilates during coral bleaching  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

...calcium carbonate, and the storage of energy-rich compounds...is often linked to elevated seawater temperature (Glynn 1991...tissue, zooxanthellae and seawater, whereas pigment extraction...separate the tissue from the seawater. The skeleton was further...

2002-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

166

Supercritical Fluid Extraction of Wood Pulps  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

......capillary column inlet system which was main tained...great concern in this study because (a) their relative...McNally and J.R. Wheeler. J. Chromatogr. 447...Chaplin, and N.R. Foster. J. Supercrit. Fluids...Wells, and N.R. Foster. J. Supercrit. Fluids......

A.J. Sequeira; L.T. Taylor

1992-10-01T23:59:59.000Z

167

Energy management in pulp and paper mills  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

The spectrum of energy management within the paper industry spans from large waste boilers at one end to lightning controls at the other, with the restrictions of a continuous process in between. Managerial challenges greatly outnumber the technical ones, and careful application of incremental cost principles is particularly important. There are situations in which increased energy use is justified by greater productivity, and other cases when extra energy can lower raw material costs. The future of law grade heat recovery is also considered.

Knapp, K.

1985-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

168

Stress Assisted Corrosion in Boiler Tubes - Failure Analysis  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Stress assisted corrosion (SAC) of carbon steel boiler tubes is one of the major causes of waterside failure in industrial boilers. SAC is a major concern for kraft recovery boilers in the pulp and paper industry as any water leak into the furnace can cause a smelt-water explosion in the boiler. Failed carbon steel boiler tubes from different kraft recovery boilers were examined to understand the role of carbon steel microstructure on crack initiation and SAC crack morphology. A number of carbon steel tubes showed a deep decarburized layer on the inner surface (water-touched) and also an unusually large grain size at the inner tube surface. SAC cracks were found to initiate in these areas with large-graineddecarburized microstructure. Tubes without such microstructure were also found to have SAC cracks. It was found that the decarburization and large grained microstructure may facilitate initiation and growth but is not necessary for SAC of carbon steel boiler tubes.

Singh, Preet M [Georgia Institute of Technology; Pawel, Steven J [ORNL; Yang, Dong [Georgia Institute of Technology; Mahmood, Jamshad [Georgia Institute of Technology

2007-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

169

NETL: Gasifipedia  

Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

Gasifier: Commercial Gasifiers: Gasifiers for Special Applications Gasifier: Commercial Gasifiers: Gasifiers for Special Applications Black Liquor Gasification What is Black Liquor? Industrial paper manufacture involves a procedure known as the Kraft process, where wood is converted into wood pulp and then into paper. The process, however, produces a toxic byproduct referred to as black liquor. This primarily liquid mixture of pulping residues (like lignin and hemicellulose) and inorganic chemicals from the Kraft process (sodium hydroxide and sodium sulfide, for example) is toxic and until the invention of recovery boilers in the early 20th century was often simply released into waterways. Recovery boilers allowed paper manufacturers to recover and reuse the inorganic chemicals and extract energy from the pulping residues. Many of these boilers were built in the 1960s and 70s and will need to be replaced sometime in the next few decades. The replacement of these boilers brings new interest in producing not only steam and electricity, but perhaps also fuels and chemicals via gasification of black liquor.

170

Ultrafiltration. (Latest citations from the NTIS bibliographic database). Published Search  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

The bibliography contains citations concerning ultrafiltration, the separation of colloids or fine solid materials by filtration through microporous or semi-permeable materials. Citations discuss the use of the ultrafiltration process for removing dissolved toxic metals from groundwater, production of food-grade protein, treating kraft black liquor from pulp and paper processing, decontamination of low-level radioactive waste water, desalination, and hemodialysis. Topics also include ultrafiltration equipment and membrane descriptions. Procedures for preventing fouling and the cleaning of the filtration materials and membranes are also presented. (Contains 50-250 citations and includes a subject term index and title list.) (Copyright NERAC, Inc. 1995)

NONE

1995-12-01T23:59:59.000Z

171

An overview of 1990 Clean Air Act Amendments as related to engineering and maintenance aspects  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Titles I and III of the 1990 Clean Air Act Amendments will regulate nonattainment-area pollutants (ozone, CO, PM-10, SO[sub 2], NO[sub x], and lead) and hazardous air pollutants, respectively. These regulations will have a significant impact on existing and new pulp and paper facilities. Several states have already addressed Title I requirements in their State Implementation Plans. As for Title III, the Environmental Protection Agency plans to propose emission standards for chemical pulping/bleaching facilities by Oct. 1993, with promulgation by Sept. 1995. This report summarizes the anticipated requirements and highlights their impact on the pulp and paper industry. The new regulations will require many facilities to modify existing equipment and/or install new pollution-control devices.

Mehta, Y.M. (Brown and Root, Inc., Houston, TX (United States))

1994-03-01T23:59:59.000Z

172

STATEMENT OF CONSIDERATIONS REQUEST BY BABCOCK & WILCOX COMPANY (B&W)  

Broader source: Energy.gov (indexed) [DOE]

BABCOCK & WILCOX COMPANY (B&W) BABCOCK & WILCOX COMPANY (B&W) FOR AN ADVANCE WAIVER OF DOMESTIC AND FOREIGN RIGHTS UNDER DOE COOPERATIVE AGREEMENT NO.. DE-FC36-94GO 10002; W(A)-94-030; CH-0847 This waiver request is for domestic and foreign rights for all subject inventions made by the Babcock & Wilcox Company's (B&W's) employees under the subject cooperative agreement. The object of the work to be performed under this cooperative agreement is to develop technologies to improve high solids firing of black liquor in pulp mill recovery boilers or to recover kraft pulping or mill process chemicals by alternate means involving black liquor gasification. Principally, the work involves evaluating and selecting either the high solids advanced combustion or black liquor gasification technology, designing, constructing and using a pilot scale unit to develop

173

Production of Lignin-Based Phenolic Resins Using De-Polymerized Kraft Lignin and Process Optimization.  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

??Commercialization of Lignin-based phenol formaldehyde resins (LPF) has been limited due to the increase in curing temperatures and decrease in adhesive strength of LPF compared… (more)

Siddiqui, Homaira

2013-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

174

Determination of absolute molecular mass distribution and other structural properties of kraft lignin samples.  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

?? Lignin is an aromatic macromolecule present in wood and also a by-product in the process of making paper. For a long time, this by-product… (more)

Chedid, Fadia

2010-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

175

Black liquor combustion validated recovery boiler modeling: Final year report. Volume 1 (Main text and Appendix I, sections 1--4)  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

This project was initiated in October 1990, with the objective of developing and validating a new computer model of a recovery boiler furnace using a computational fluid dynamics (CFD) code specifically tailored to the requirements for solving recovery boiler flows, and using improved submodels for black liquor combustion based on continued laboratory fundamental studies. The key tasks to be accomplished were as follows: (1) Complete the development of enhanced furnace models that have the capability to accurately predict carryover, emissions behavior, dust concentrations, gas temperatures, and wall heat fluxes. (2) Validate the enhanced furnace models, so that users can have confidence in the predicted results. (3) Obtain fundamental information on aerosol formation, deposition, and hardening so as to develop the knowledge base needed to relate furnace model outputs to plugging and fouling in the convective sections of the boiler. (4) Facilitate the transfer of codes, black liquid submodels, and fundamental knowledge to the US kraft pulp industry. Volume 1 contains the main body of the report and the first 4 sections of Appendix 1: Modeling of black liquor recovery boilers -- summary report; Flow and heat transfer modeling in the upper furnace of a kraft recovery boiler; Numerical simulation of black liquor combustion; and Investigation of turbulence models and prediction of swirling flows for kraft recovery furnaces.

Grace, T.M.; Frederick, W.J.; Salcudean, M.; Wessel, R.A.

1998-08-01T23:59:59.000Z

176

Design and performance of the Champion pilot-constructed wetland treatment system  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Pilot wetlands were built at Champion International Corp.'s Pensacola, FL, bleached kraft paper mill to evaluate the potential for final effluent polishing. The pilot wetlands began operation July 1, 1991. Monitoring ended June 30, 1993. Removal rates and outflow concentrations for five-day biochemical oxygen demand (BOD[sub 5]), total suspended solids (TSS), ammonia nitrogen, total nitrogen (TN), and total phosphorus (TP) depended most on hydraulic loading rates (HLRs). Two-year average removal efficiencies for these constituents were above 67%. Slight color and total dissolved solids reductions were seen at the lower HLRs tested. Deep zones enhanced flow distribution, increase hydraulic residence time, and significantly increased pollutant assimilation in the pilot wetlands. The wetland cells reduced or eliminated chronic toxicity to cladocerans and fathead minnows. The most suitable plant species in the wetland were cattails, bulrush, and sawgrass.

Knight, R.L. (CH2M Hill, Gainesville, FL (United States)); Hilleke, J.; Grayson, S. (Champion International Corp., West Nyack, NY (United States))

1994-05-01T23:59:59.000Z

177

Valves: Corrosion and maintenance  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

A mill setting is without doubt a harsh, demanding environment for valves. In a polling of valve suppliers, several areas were identified as the most corrosive to valves, particularly chemical pulping, bleaching, chemical recovery, and waste-water treatment. In some uses, a valve may only last 12-18 months. Depending on the alloy and seat material used, the life expectancy can also exceed 10 years in some applications. This survey of valve manufacturers gives basic tips on selecting, protecting, and maintaining valves.

Meadows, D.G.

1993-08-01T23:59:59.000Z

178

Optimizing Aeration in Pulp Mill Secondary Treatment Systems  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

lagoon performance so as to prioritize which aerators could be shut off and under what conditions. The two major elements of the study were (a) detailed lithium tracer work to identify the relatively stagnant zones in the pond, and (b) a radiotracer study...

Mahmood, T.; Banerjee, S.; Welsh, J. T.; Sackellares, R. W.

179

Dried Citrus Pulp in Beef Cattle Fattening Rations.  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Animal Husbandry AGRICULTrRAL ,QND MECHANICAL COLLEGE OF TEXAS T. 0. WALTON, President I rr+y-.-' -d - ." bg[j~~;Eura1 fJ,' , . ,* ,.. - '" re: SRt3$~;-P~~s" '+;+ [Blank Page in Original Bulletin] When dried citrus plp was fed to replace 25... of Range Animal Husbandry; Superintendent, Substation No. 1, ~eeviile; Animal Husbandman, Substation No. 1, Beeville; and Animal Hus- bandman, Division of Range Animal Husbandry, respectively. 6 BULLETIN KO. 613, TEXAS AGR.ICULTUaAL EXPERIMENT STATION...

Jones, J. M. (John McKInley)

1942-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

180

Gas Turbine Considerations in the Pulp and Paper Industry  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

37.8 90.1 104.4 ? Supp Fired 4201655 301.0 5960 338.0 5630 722.0 5410 1044.0 5350 lliS.4 5420 301.5 5540 6301755 289.5 5980 324.5 5670 695.0 5420 1004.0 5360 159.0 5430 290.0 5550 8951130 281.0 6030 '315.0 5710 676.0 5440 9n.0 5370 154.8 5440 282... 37.8 90.1 104.4 ? Supp Fired 4201655 301.0 5960 338.0 5630 722.0 5410 1044.0 5350 lliS.4 5420 301.5 5540 6301755 289.5 5980 324.5 5670 695.0 5420 1004.0 5360 159.0 5430 290.0 5550 8951130 281.0 6030 '315.0 5710 676.0 5440 9n.0 5370 154.8 5440 282...

Anderson, J. S.; Kovacik, J. M.

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "kraft pulping bleaching" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


181

The preparation and analysis of ammonia base sulfite pulping liquor  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

NH3 Concentrations . . . . . , ~ . ~ . . ~ ~ . ~ q IV The Distribution of S02 in a 2. 82$ RR3 Solution for Various Total SO2 Concentrations . . . . . . , . . . ~ . . . 31 FIGURES l. Variation of pH with Percent NH3 in Solution. . . . . ~. . . 25... 2. Variation of pH with S02 Concentration in Solutions of Various NH Concentrations . . . . ~ . . . ~ . ~ o ~ . o . ~ 27 3 ~ Composition of Solutions to give a Constant pH of T and 2. 5 , ~ 2Q 4. The Variation of the Ratio of Free S02 to Total SO2...

Honstead, John Frederick

1950-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

182

Pulp and paper research energized by DOE and IPST  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

The DOE's National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL) announced its partnerships with the Pacific International Center for High Technology Research, University of Florida, Weyerhaeuser Co., and Wood Industries Co. for cost-shared projects to study the production of ethanol form dedicated energy crops and forestry product wastes. Weyerhaeuser, in collaboration with Amoco Corp., proposes to investigate expanding the use of biomass at the Weyerhaeuser facility in New Bern, NC. Weyerhaeuser will provide saw-mill wastes and other forestry residues to produce ethanol and electricity which would help the forestry industry attain self-sufficiency. Wood Industries Co. (WICO) of Visalia, CA, proposes to operate a 100-acre demofarm using plantation crops of seed sorghum, kenaf and hybrid poplar, willow, and eucalyptus to produce ethanol for gasoline blending and solid fuel for generating electricity. WICO will investigate cost-reduction strategies for the biomass-to-energy process. According to IPST (Institute of Paper Science and Technology) President Richard A. Matula, the institute's research efforts can be categorized as follows: Fundamental, long-term research; Applied, mid-term research; Commercialization of new technology; and Process engineering products.

Not Available

1994-09-01T23:59:59.000Z

183

Pinpointing energy savings opportunities in a pulp mill  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

In the exergetic analysis, which involves the application of the Second Law of Thermodynamics, the authors consider not only the quantity but also the quality of energy, recognizing, for example, that 1 J of heat at 300{sup 0}C is more useful than 1J at 30{sup 0}C. Because all operations are complexly interwoven, a number of indirect effects results from any change in a process. A simple example is the use of less fresh water during washing. The primary effect is related to the removal of soluble impurities and the recovery of chemicals. The secondary effect is that less energy is required to evaporate the excess water.

Iribarne, J. (Gamma Ingenieros Ltd., Elidoro Yanez 2308, Santiago (CL))

1989-03-01T23:59:59.000Z

184

Upgrading Recovered Paper With Enzyme Pretreat ment and Pressurized Peroxide Bleaching  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

tiveness of enzymes for toner removal was subsequently confirmed on an industrial scale (2,3). In addition to be effective for toner ink removal, can improve the bleachability of low quality recovered paper. When followed mixed recovered paper demonstrated that an enzymatic pretreatment improves the removal of residual inks

Abubakr, Said

185

Membrane lipids of symbiotic algae are diagnostic of sensitivity to thermal bleaching in corals  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

selected for a reduced tolerance to elevated temper- atures in the latter portion of the Cenozoic. Coral. Materials and Methods Cultures and Corals. Cultures of Symbiodinium spp., obtained from culture collections quanta m 2 s 1 . Corals were grown at 26°C in 800 liters of aquaria with running artificial seawater (Ins

Falkowski, Paul G.

186

Nonlinear bleaching, absorption, and scattering of 532-nm-irradiated plasmonic nanoparticles  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Single-pulse irradiation of Au and Ag suspensions of nanospheres and nanodisks with 532-nm 4-ns pulses has identified complex optical nonlinearities while minimizing material damage. For all materials tested, we observe competition between saturable absorption (SA) and reverse SA (RSA), with RSA behavior dominating for intensities above {approx}50 MW/cm{sup 2}. Due to reduced laser damage in single-pulse experiments, the observed intrinsic nonlinear absorption coefficients are the highest reported to date for Au nanoparticles. We find size dependence to the nonlinear absorption enhancement for Au nanoparticles, peaking in magnitude for 80-nm nanospheres and falling off at larger sizes. The nonlinear absorption coefficients for Au and Ag spheres are comparable in magnitude. On the other hand, the nonlinear absorption for Ag disks, when corrected for volume fraction, is several times higher. These trends in nonlinear absorption are correlated to local electric field enhancement through quasi-static mean-field theory. Through variable size aperture measurements, we also separate nonlinear scattering from nonlinear absorption. For all materials tested, we find that nonlinear scattering is highly directional and that its magnitude is comparable to that of nonlinear absorption. These results indicate methods to improve the efficacy of plasmonic nanoparticles as optical limiters in pulsed laser systems.

Liberman, V.; Sworin, M.; Kingsborough, R. P.; Geurtsen, G. P.; Rothschild, M. [Lincoln Laboratory, Massachusetts Institute of Technology, 244 Wood Street, Lexington, Massachusetts 02420 (United States)

2013-02-07T23:59:59.000Z

187

Emergency Water Treatment with Bleach in the United States: The Need to Revise EPA Recommendations  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

(2) However, research has dispelled this myth, showing instead that populations have increased waterborne illness risk only in those emergencies that cause flooding or displacement,(3, 4) or when infrastructure systems are damaged and do not provide safe, chlorinated water. ... Colorado ... It should be noted that surface water supplies had by far the most total coliforms contamination, and thus surface water supplies (and in particular flood waters) should only be used if there are no other options for water supply by the emergency-affected population. ...

Daniele Lantagne; Bobbie Person; Natalie Smith; Ally Mayer; Kelsey Preston; Elizabeth Blanton; Kristen Jellison

2014-03-31T23:59:59.000Z

188

NETL: Gasifipedia  

Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

Tools Tools Bibliography Gasification Plant Databases - National Energy Technology Laboratory 2009 Corporate Responsibility Report - Air Products 5th International Symposium on Gas Cleaning at High Temperatures A Cost-Benefit Assessment of Gasification-Based Biorefining in the Kraft Pulp and Paper Industry (Princeton University Energy Group - Dec 2006) A Pathway Study Focused on Non-Carbon Capture Advanced Power Systems R&D Using Bituminous Coal, Volume 1 (Oct 2008) A Review of Air Separation Technologies and their Integration with Energy Conversion Processes - A. Smith, Fuel Processing Technology (2000) About Gasification - Clean-energy.us Acid Gas Removal - The Linde Group (Nov 2011) Advanced Gasification Systems Development - S.P. Fusselman, K.M. Sprouse, A.K. Darby, J. Tennant and G.J. Stiegel, International Pittsburgh Coal Conference (Sept 2005)

189

Floor tube corrosion in recovery boilers  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Lower sulfur emissions at a pulp mill result in higher sulfidity levels and in the enrichment of potassium in the mill`s liquor system. The sulfidity values at Scandinavian kraft mills previously fluctuated between 28 and 35%; today they exceed 45%. Viscosity measurements show that the viscosity decreases drastically when the sulfidity increases from 30 mole% to 40 mole%, its potassium and chlorine levels are high enough, and the char bed is low, the smelt flows easily and may penetrate the char bed, approaching the floor tubes. In extreme cases, the hot smelt destroys the layer of solidified smelt on the floor tube`s surface and reacts very rapidly with the floor tube.

Klarin, A. [A. Ahistrom Corp., Helsinki (Finland)

1993-12-01T23:59:59.000Z

190

Stable isotopic records of bleaching and endolithic algae blooms in the skeleton of the boulder forming coral Montastraea faveolata  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

high concentrations of brucite (Mg(OH) 2 ) crystals (BusterNothdurft et al. 2005). Brucite does not contain carbon andskeletal formations. While brucite precipitation may

Hartmann, A. C.; Carilli, J. E.; Norris, R. D.; Charles, C. D.; Deheyn, D. D.

2010-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

191

A community change in the algal endosymbionts of a scleractinian coral following a natural bleaching event: field evidence of acclimatization  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

...they do confirm that several interrelated processes play a role in shaping reef symbiont...backgrounds symbionts and the process and conditions under which they...population. Understanding the processes that underpin the temporal changes...

2008-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

192

Detection and control of deposition on pendant tubes of Kraft chemical recovery boilers. Quarterly report for the period July-September 1999  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Activities during this period continued to focus on obtaining a clear image of deposits inside an operating recovery boiler.

Kychakoff, George

1999-10-01T23:59:59.000Z

193

Synthesis, Structure, and Dispersion Property of a Novel Lignin-Based Polyoxyethylene Ether from Kraft Lignin and Poly(ethylene glycol)  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

(19) Dimethomorph was provided as a light white powder (50 ?m) with a minimum purity of 98.5% from Noposion Agrochemicals Co., Ltd., China. ... Effect of Molar Ratio of ECH to PEG on the Composition of KL-PEG Copolymer ... Table 3. Structural Compositions of KL-PEG Copolymers ...

Xuliang Lin; Mingsong Zhou; Suya Wang; Hongming Lou; Dongjie Yang; Xueqing Qiu

2014-05-22T23:59:59.000Z

194

Letter to the Editor: Botnia Fray Bentos and the environment of Uruguay River basin. The reports of EcoMetrix-World Bank  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

The pollution load caused by Botnia Fray Bentos S.A., a Mega Kraft Mills with ECF bleaching, is analysed on the basis of two reports of EcoMetrix at the request of the International Finance Corporation, World Bank. The first report evaluates the first six months of mill operations, from November 2007 to April 2008. The second report covers the 12 months of 2008. Regardless of the opinions expressed by EcoMetrix, from the numerical values shown in the reports it is clear that Botnia has discharged huge quantities of dangerous pollutants into the Uruguay River and into the atmosphere. This pollution load, according to the background known, will cause serious and irreversible damage to the flora, fauna and health of the inhabitants of the basin within a few years. Since the findings of EcoMetrix are in contradiction to the logical analysis of the same values that the consultant presents, a detailed discussion of the criteria and limits (standard) used in the reports is unavoidable.

Elias Jorge Matta

2009-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

195

ENERGY EFFICIENCY OPPORTUNITIES IN THE U.S. PULP AND PAPER INDUSTRY  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Industrial/Commercial Boiler Population. Report Submitted toCouncil of Industrial Boiler Owners, Burke, Virginia. [23]Assessment Case Study. Boiler Blowdown Heat Recovery Project

Kramer, Klaas Jan

2010-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

196

Analysis of Energy-Efficiency Opportunities for the Pulp and Paper Industry in China  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

and Emission Reduction Technologies. Food and AgriculturalIEA). 2009. Energy Technology Transitions for Industry -IEA). 2010. Energy Technology Perspectives - Scenarios and

Kong, Lingbo

2014-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

197

Emerging Energy-Efficiency and Greenhouse Gas Mitigation Technologies for the Pulp and Paper Industry  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Biomass Gasification Technologies for Fuels, Chemicals andEnergy, National Energy Technology Laboratory. CO ? Solution01GO10621. Industrial Technologies Progarm (ITP). 2006e.

Kong, Lingbo

2014-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

198

ITP Forest Products: Report for AIChE Pulp and Paper Industry...  

Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

the maintenance efficiencies of disk refiners with the refining efficiency of a Jordan. The impact is reduced energy consumption, about 40% to 70% 41 , to develop fibers to...

199

Analysis of Energy-Efficiency Opportunities for the Pulp and Paper Industry in China  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Input Determine penetration rate of technologies PrepareCTAPI 2011). For the penetration rate of energy-efficiencyhave the current penetration rate of each energy efficiency

Kong, Lingbo

2014-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

200

ENERGY EFFICIENCY OPPORTUNITIES IN THE U.S. PULP AND PAPER INDUSTRY  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

CHP) units, one steam turbine, and a steam accumulator. Theand power (CHP) Steam expansion turbines Motor Systems MotorPinch analysis Steam injected gas turbines Cogeneration of

Kramer, Klaas Jan

2010-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "kraft pulping bleaching" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


201

ITP Forest Products: Report for AIChE Pulp and Paper Industry Energy Bandwidth Study Report  

Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

The American Institute of Chemical Engineers (AIChE) has been requested to manage a project to develop estimates of the present energy consumption.

202

ENERGY EFFICIENCY OPPORTUNITIES IN THE U.S. PULP AND PAPER INDUSTRY  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Waste. Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy,Industry. Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy,Savings. Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy,

Kramer, Klaas Jan

2010-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

203

Rate of Industrial Conservation - Petroleum Refining, Chemicals and Pulp and Paper Manufacture  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

-31% of 1972 levels; through 1978 a 13-20% actual reduction in energy use has been achieved. 2) The additional can be realized by; 1982 by "strong action", or by 1987 by "moderate action". To date moderate action has been taken. 3) Overall energy conservation...

Prengle, H. W. Jr.; Golden, S. A.

1979-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

204

ENERGY EFFICIENCY OPPORTUNITIES IN THE U.S. PULP AND PAPER INDUSTRY  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

1639. [18] Industrial Assessment Centers (IAC) (2008).Industrial Assessment Centers Database. Rutgers University,

Kramer, Klaas Jan

2010-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

205

Emerging Energy-Efficiency and Greenhouse Gas Mitigation Technologies for the Pulp and Paper Industry  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

72 3.6.2. Biomass Conversion with Pre-combustion Carbon73 Figure 33. Biomass conversion with CO 2UNIDO 2011. 3.6.2. Biomass Conversion with Pre-combustion

Kong, Lingbo

2014-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

206

Emerging Energy-Efficiency and Greenhouse Gas Mitigation Technologies for the Pulp and Paper Industry  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Products Industry Technology Roadmap. Agenda 2020 Technology2011. "The IEA CCS Technology Roadmap: One Year On". Energy1287- Reitzer, R. 2007. Technology Roadmap - Applications of

Kong, Lingbo

2014-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

207

Emerging Energy-Efficiency and Greenhouse Gas Mitigation Technologies for the Pulp and Paper Industry  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

fuel) through biological and/or chemical synthesis from biomass containing carbohydrates Bioenergy carriers produced by micro- organisms (algae,

Kong, Lingbo

2014-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

208

Economic Modeling of Energy Supply from Burning Wood Wastes at British Columbia Pulp and Paper Mills  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

This paper analyzes the use of wood wastes to replace the extensive fossil-fuel consumption ... Columbia, and the further use of wood wastes to produce electricity at these mills. The ... would be willing to pay ...

A. J. Cox…

1980-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

209

Analysis of Energy-Efficiency Opportunities for the Pulp and Paper Industry in China  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

adoption rates Fuel Electricity Cost- effective savings (PJ)of measures Fuel Electricity Cost- effective savings (PJ)2 ) IC ** Investment Cost (%) Electricity Cumulative CCF * (

Kong, Lingbo

2014-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

210

Pulp Production in Fray Bentos: Uruguayan Forest Development as a Source of Diplomatic Conflict  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Bell, Stephen. “Social Networks and Innovation in the SouthBell, Stephen. “Social Networks and Innovation in the Souththe Bell. “Social Networks and Innovation,” 7. Pintos,

Schoorl, Daniel Mateo

2012-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

211

Preparation of brightness stabilization agent for lignin containing pulp from biomass pyrolysis oils  

DOE Patents [OSTI]

A process for producing a brightness stabilization mixture of water-soluble organic compounds from biomass pyrolysis oils comprising: a) size-reducing biomass material and pyrolyzing the size-reduced biomass material in a fluidized bed reactor; b) separating a char/ash component while maintaining char-pot temperatures to avoid condensation of pyrolysis vapors; c) condensing pyrolysis gases and vapors, and recovering pyrolysis oils by mixing the oils with acetone to obtain an oil-acetone mixture; d) evaporating acetone and recovering pyrolysis oils; e) extracting the pyrolysis oils with water to obtain a water extract; f) slurrying the water extract with carbon while stirring, and filtering the slurry to obtain a colorless filtrate; g) cooling the solution and stabilizing the solution against thermally-induced gelling and solidification by extraction with ethyl acetate to form an aqueous phase lower layer and an organic phase upper layer; h) discarding the upper organic layer and extracting the aqueous layer with ethyl acetate, and discarding the ethyl acetate fraction to obtain a brown-colored solution not susceptible to gelling or solidification upon heating; i) heating the solution to distill off water and other light components and concentrating a bottoms fraction comprising hydroxyacetaldehyde and other non-volatile components having high boiling points; and j) decolorizing the stabilized brown solution with activated carbon to obtain a colorless solution.

Agblevor, Foster A. (Blacksburg, VA); Besler-Guran, Serpil (Flemington, NJ)

2001-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

212

E-Print Network 3.0 - acai pulp euterpe Sample Search Results  

Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

- Waste-to-Energy Research and Technology Council (WTERT) Collection: Renewable Energy 47 Press release For Immediate Release Seattle, USA. May 21, 2008 Summary: and...

213

Emerging Energy-Efficiency and Greenhouse Gas Mitigation Technologies for the Pulp and Paper Industry  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

economics of black liquor gasifier/gas turbine cogenerationblack liquor and biomass gasifier/gas turbine technology".entrained flow booster gasifier in New Bern, North Carolina;

Kong, Lingbo

2014-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

214

Investment-Grade Compressed Air System Audit, Analysis, and Upgrade in a Pulp and Paper Mill  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

be of immense help in conducting such "systems analysis" of motor systems. This article presents a real-life successful project, with an investment of about $0.75 million dollars, documented energy savings of 2,935,000 kWh/year, and other non-energy benefits...

Parekh, P. S.

215

Coliform Bacteria and Nitrogen Fixation in Pulp and Paper Mill Effluent Treatment Systems  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

...performance of activated-sludge biotreatment systems...also cause rising sludge in the secondary...entrapment of N2 gas bubbles, resulting in biosolid...occur in activated-sludge aeration tanks or...samples onto 1/5-strength Trypticase soy agar...

Francis Gauthier; Josh D. Neufeld; Brian T. Driscoll; Frederick S. Archibald

2000-12-01T23:59:59.000Z

216

Manufacturing Energy Bandwidth Studies: Chemical, Peroleum Refining, Pulp and Paer, and Iron and Steel Sectors  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

identify energy intensity and consumption for key manufacturing processes and the sector as a whole. Potential energy savings opportunities are identified by quantifying four measures of energy consumption for each process area: current average (year 2010...

Brueske, S.; Cresko, J.; Capenter, A.

2014-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

217

Analysis of Energy-Efficiency Opportunities for the Pulp and Paper Industry in China  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

to decrease). Since coal prices vary in different regions ofThe average unit price of coal with 5,500 kilocalories per

Kong, Lingbo

2014-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

218

ENERGY EFFICIENCY OPPORTUNITIES IN THE U.S. PULP AND PAPER INDUSTRY  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Assessment Saves Energy and Reduces Waste. Office of EnergyAssessment Saves Energy and Reduces Waste. Office of Energytrading, energy and materials, and waste processing.

Kramer, Klaas Jan

2010-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

219

Emerging Energy-Efficiency and Greenhouse Gas Mitigation Technologies for the Pulp and Paper Industry  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

gasification with combined cycles biological oxygen demandsintegrated gasification combined cycle Intergovernmentalbe integrated with combined-cycle (CC) technology (BLGCC),

Kong, Lingbo

2014-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

220

Analysis of Energy-Efficiency Opportunities for the Pulp and Paper Industry in China  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

rate, electricity and fuel prices, investment costs, and therate, electricity and fuel prices, investment costs, and theSERC 2011a) is used as the fuel price in the fuel CSC. An

Kong, Lingbo

2014-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "kraft pulping bleaching" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


221

Emerging Energy-Efficiency and Greenhouse Gas Mitigation Technologies for the Pulp and Paper Industry  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

requirements Pre-combustion Syngas is concentrated in CO 2combustion carbon capture involves reacting black liquor with oxygen or air to give mainly a syngas

Kong, Lingbo

2014-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

222

Emerging Energy-Efficiency and Greenhouse Gas Mitigation Technologies for the Pulp and Paper Industry  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

to produce hydrogen, and biomass combustion to produceCommercial status for biomass combustion, biogas production;gasification over biomass combustion is that the power

Kong, Lingbo

2014-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

223

PREVENTING LOSS AND RESTORING WATER RETENTION VALUES TO PULP BY FIBER LOADING  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

or service. 2000 TAPPI Recycling Symposium / 663 #12;Equipment A Hobart (Troy, OH) mixer was used to mix

Abubakr, Said

224

Emerging Energy-Efficiency and Greenhouse Gas Mitigation Technologies for the Pulp and Paper Industry  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

southern mixed hardwoods". TAPPI 94 (1). Zafeiris, T. 2010.for recycling in concrete". TAPPI 3 (12): 7-10. Cichoracki,forming: A new concept". TAPPI 84 (3). Ciferno, J. P. , and

Kong, Lingbo

2014-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

225

Analysis of Energy-Efficiency Opportunities for the Pulp and Paper Industry in China  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

in China. Table 2. Energy savings and costs for energy-4 Table 2. Energy savings and costs for energy-efficientWorrell. 2009. Energy Efficiency Improvement and Cost Saving

Kong, Lingbo

2014-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

226

Analysis of Energy-Efficiency Opportunities for the Pulp and Paper Industry in China  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

and cost assessment of energy efficiency improvement andin Thai cement industry". Energy Efficiency 4 (1): 93-113.2012a. Assessment of Energy Efficiency Improvement and CO 2

Kong, Lingbo

2014-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

227

A Moderately Thermophilic Mixed Microbial Culture for Bioleaching of Chalcopyrite Concentrate at High Pulp Density  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

...chalcopyrite) served as energy sources. After that...about 70% of copper reserves in the world (1). It is also the...chalcopyrite, and high lattice energy (1, 3, 4). Bioleaching...bioleaching of chalcopyrite. World J. Microbiol. Biotechnol...

Yuguang Wang; Weimin Zeng; Guanzhou Qiu; Xinhua Chen; Hongbo Zhou

2013-11-15T23:59:59.000Z

228

Chemicals for enhanced oil recovery. Quarterly report, October 1-December 31, 1980  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Studies on the salinity range in which three liquid phases are observed for systems containing a tall oil ethoxylate or related nonionic surfactant, a cosurfactant, aqueous NaCl, and a hydrocarbon were extended. Increasing hydrophile-lipophile balance, HLB, causes an increase in the salinity needed to effect the transition of the surfactant from the lower to the upper phase. However, other factors besides HLB seem to be involved. Addition of the nonionic surfactant increases optimal salinity by an amount which depends on its hydrophilic character. Sodium-2-methyloleate,-2-butyloleate, -2-hexyloleate, -2,2-dimethyloleate, and -2,2-diethyloleate were synthesized and its phase behavior in aqueous/hydrocarbon systems studied. Adsorption of a commercial petroleum sulfonate from 0.1 M NaCl on the sodium form of montmorillonite was reduced a factor of ten by caustic extract from bleaching of wood pulp. In a comparison of several pulping wastes or byproducts as sacrificial agents, caustic extract and weak black liquor appeared most effective, and lignosulfonate only slightly less effective. Plugging tests of the filtrates obtained in the biomass-polymer separations indicated that polish filtration probably would be required. The microscreen is the most economical of the biomass separation methods. Small fermenter tests indicate that Sclerotium rolfsii cultures are able to tolerate salinity of 2 to 4% w/v NaCl in the fermentation broth makeup water; however, the organism was unable to grow in 6% w/v NaCl.

Johnson, J.S. Jr.

1980-10-01T23:59:59.000Z

229

Abteilung Geochemie & Analytik Abteilung Geobiologie & kologie Abteilung Physik & Modellierung Allgemeine & Molekulare Mikrobiologie  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Kraft Standort WHV Küstenforschung Prof. Dr. Emil Stanev W15 2-237 Gemeinsame Berufung mit der GKSS

230

Definition und Klassifizierung von Energiespeichern  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

Abb. 2.3 Definition von sektorenübergreifenden Energiespeichern am Beispiel von Power-to-Heat, flexibler Kraft-W...

Michael Sterner; Ingo Stadler

2014-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

231

Kunst og Videnskab som erkendelsesformer *)  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

tilsammen giver kunsterisk kraft og saft, både hos den skabende kunstner og det oplevelses- hungrige

Emmeche, Claus

232

Productivity and cost of harvesting a stemwood biomass product from integrated cut-to-length harvest operations in Australian Pinus radiata plantations  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

Abstract Significant quantities of woody biomass from the tops of trees and larger woody ‘waste’ pieces that fall outside existing sawlog and pulpwood specifications are left on site post final harvest in Australian radiata Pinus radiata (D. Don) (radiata pine) plantations. Woody biomass is a potential product for pulp making or energy generation. Commercial use of woody biomass from radiata pine plantations would add extra value to the Australian plantation estate through improved resource utilisation, and potentially reduced post-harvesting silvicultural costs. This study investigated the productivity and cost impact of the harvest and extraction to roadside of woody biomass in an integrated harvest operation in a typical Australian two machine (harvester/processor and forwarder), cut-to-length, clearfall operation in a mature, thinned radiata pine plantation. The harvest operation yielded 23 GMt/ha (5% of the total yield) of woody biomass (known as ‘fibreplus’), 443 GMt/ha of sawlogs and 28 GMt/ha of pulpwood. The mean quantity of biomass left on site was 128 GMt/ha, mainly consisting of branches and needles, sufficient to minimise nutrient loss and protect the soil from erosion. Woodchips derived from the fibreplus product were suitable for kraft pulp making, (when blended in small amounts with clean de-barked roundwood woodchips), and for energy generation. The method trialed with the fibreplus product being produced did not impact harvesting and processing productivity and costs, but extraction was 14% less productive. Through analysis of the productivities of each phase and development of a cost model the harvest and extraction of the fibreplus product was estimated to increase total unit costs by ?4.9%.

D. Walsh; M. Strandgard

2014-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

233

E-Print Network 3.0 - affecting sodium hypochlorite Sample Search...  

Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

Workshop Summary: equipment, vehicles Sodium hypochlorite (bleach) 200-500 ppm Nets, boots, clothing. Surfaces must be clean... hypochlorite solution.Note: Bleach is 5.25%...

234

Deconstruction of Lignin Model Compounds and Biomass-Derived Lignin using Layered Double Hydroxide Catalysts  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Lignin is an underutilized value stream in current biomass conversion technologies because there exist no economic and technically feasible routes for lignin depolymerization and upgrading. Base-catalyzed deconstruction (BCD) has been applied for lignin depolymerization (e.g., the Kraft process) in the pulp and paper industry for more than a century using aqueous-phase media. However, these efforts require treatment to neutralize the resulting streams, which adds significantly to the cost of lignin deconstruction. To circumvent the need for downstream treatment, here we report recent advances in the synthesis of layered double hydroxide and metal oxide catalysts to be applied to the BCD of lignin. These catalysts may prove more cost-effective than liquid-phase, non-recyclable base, and their use obviates downstream processing steps such as neutralization. Synthetic procedures for various transition-metal containing catalysts, detailed kinetics measurements using lignin model compounds, and results of the application of these catalysts to biomass-derived lignin will be presented.

Chmely, S. C.; McKinney, K. A.; Lawrence, K. R.; Sturgeon, M.; Katahira, R.; Beckham, G. T.

2013-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

235

Significance of xylan on the stability and water interactions of cellulosic nanofibrils  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

Abstract In this paper, the significance of xylan on the behaviour of kraft birch pulp based nanofibrillated cellulose (CNF) is discussed. The influence of CNF xylan content on fibril morphology, charge and stability as well as on the film formation ability was investigated, and the features detected on nanoscale and on macroscale are compared. In addition to this, the ability of fibrils to uptake water molecules were investigated by bulk and surface sensitive methods which are dynamic water sorption analysis (DVS) and quartz crystal microbalance with dissipation monitoring (QCM-D) equipped with the humidity module, respectively. Surface xylan plays a significant role as an electrosteric stabilizer in dilute CNF dispersions when the surface forces are dominant whereas the removal of xylan drastically changes the CNF dispersion properties. The settling of the unstable CNF dispersions displays behaviour which is typical for hindered sedimentation. When considering thin nanoscale layers of CNF, nanofibrillated cellulosic materials with high content of surface xylan has somewhat higher ability to bind water molecules. However, it seems that in more concentrated CNF dispersions where the fibrillar network itself plays also a decisive role, especially with respect to film formation ability, the impact of xylan diminishes. Solvent cast macroscale CNF films are still enough dense to maintain good oxygen barrier performance at higher humid conditions although agglomeration tendency of fibrils is higher due to the excessive xylan removal. These findings are of high relevance when considering nanocellulosic materials, especially in the form of gels and films, as templates for high added value material solutions.

Tiia-Maria Tenhunen; Maria Soledad Peresin; Paavo A. Penttilä; Jaakko Pere; Ritva Serimaa; Tekla Tammelin

2014-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

236

Chemicals for enhanced oil recovery. Quarterly report, April 1, 1979-June 30, 1979  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Sodium-2-ethyloleate of higher purity has been prepared. The shift in alkane number of lowest interfacial tension with increasing surfactant concentration is no longer seen. Interfacial tensions in the millidyne/cm range are still observed, but the minimum for top vs bottom phases appears to be slightly above nonane for both 0.01 M and 0.05 M surfactant, 0.5 M NaCl and 5% ibutyl alcohol, pH 9.8, (the initial aqueous phase). Previously, the minima appeard to be about undecane for 0.01 M surfactant and about octane for 0.05 M. In direct sulfonation of oleamide with SO/sub 3/-tributylphosphate complex, an unsaturated sulfonated amide was obtained in yield greater than 90%. Addition of ethoxylated tall oils to petroleum sulfonates broadened the region of three phase behavior. No ultralow interfacial tensions have yet been observed with these mixtures, however. Further studies on the effect of bleach plant effluent from the draft process for pulping of wood in reducing the adsorption of petroleum sulfonates on montmorillonite and on Berea sandstone have clarified some earlier results. Displacment of previously adsorbed surfactant from clay be contact with solutions containing bleach plant effluent was confirmed. Batch bench scale tests of Sporotrichum dimorphosporum QM 806 exolaminarinase showed an improvement in the stability of enzyme activity on scleroglucan in the presence of 10 mM added magnesium. Activity variation with pH was different for scleroglucan and laminarin substrates, with activity maxima at pH3 and 5, respectively. Temperature maxima were above 70 C in both cases.

Compere, A.L.; Crenshaw, J.M.; Fowler, C.M.

1980-02-01T23:59:59.000Z

237

Integrated chain analysis of recycled vis-a-vis wood pulp paper industry: an Indian manufacturer viewpoint  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

Strict environmental regulations and the ever-increasing shortages in the availability of natural resources are making reverse logistics an area of growing importance. From the manufacturer's point of view, this paper proposes a linear programming optimisation model for the Indian paper industry with two different sources of raw materials (i.e., wood and wastepaper). The objective of the model is to minimise the paper supply chain cost, which includes costs of collection, transportation, segregation and disposal (for recycled paper), inventory, and manufacturing. The inclusions of environmental cost and cost of quality added a new dimension to the said model, which was not explored earlier in the supply chain context. To know the behaviour of the system under different scenarios, sensitivity analysis, shortage analysis and finally, indifference curve analysis have been performed on the model. The model will help the manufacturer make strategic decision under different shortage scenarios of the paper supply chain.

Rupesh Kumar Pati; Prem Vrat; Pradeep Kumar

2006-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

238

Dry matter, yield components and pulping quality studies on four varieties of kenaf as influenced by nitrogen fertilization  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

content + ? '1 Nitrooen (ko ha ) V=. ic y 1 i anu. !g Iyo. 1 Cuba 20;2 F. ye r g ]. ade s 7 l 67 3a 33 31. 1. 8 28. 03 26. 55 ] 34 32. 75 35. 73 31. 98 31. 00 32. 54' 33. 45 30. 00 28. 78 29. 52 32. 00 + . . i'; im' er =. '. d t' in r... content + ? '1 Nitrooen (ko ha ) V=. ic y 1 i anu. !g Iyo. 1 Cuba 20;2 F. ye r g ]. ade s 7 l 67 3a 33 31. 1. 8 28. 03 26. 55 ] 34 32. 75 35. 73 31. 98 31. 00 32. 54' 33. 45 30. 00 28. 78 29. 52 32. 00 + . . i'; im' er =. '. d t' in r...

Idem, Nditoi Udo Akpan

2012-06-07T23:59:59.000Z

239

Energy Efficiency in the Pulp and Paper Industry: Simulation of Steam Challenge and CHP Incentives with ITEMS  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Two programs being considered to encourage energy efficiency in industry, as possible ways to reduce greenhouse gas emissions, are 1) "Steam Challenge," designed to improve steam use in industrial plants, and 2) incentives to encourage greater...

Roop, J. M.

240

A comparison of the GHG emissions caused by manufacturing tissue paper from virgin pulp or recycled waste paper  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

The aim of this work is to compare greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions from producing tissue paper from virgin...

Eskinder Demisse Gemechu; Isabela Butnar…

2013-09-01T23:59:59.000Z

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "kraft pulping bleaching" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


241

Field testing of paper/polymerized vegetable oil mulches for enhancing growth of eastern cottonwood trees for pulp  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

Field studies of biodegradable polymerized vegetable oil-coated paper mulches were conducted to determine if these could replace non-degradable polyethylene mulches for stopping weeds and promoting growth of cottonwood trees. Tests were conducted over two growing seasons in two adjacent field sites in southeastern Missouri. At the end of the 2001 season, eastern cottonwood trees grown on the coated paper mulches had average heights (4.57–4.66 m, 15.0–15.3 ft), which were not significantly different from the control black polyethylene mulch (4.75 m, 15.6 ft). Tree heights were significantly less for uncoated paper mulch (4.45 m, 14.6 ft) or no mulch (3.90 m, 12.8 ft), presumably due to heavy weed growth around the trees. Uncoated paper mulch was extensively degraded after only about 4 weeks, while the coated paper persisted until the fall. Addition of ZnO to the oil coating delayed the onset of visible degradation, such as the formation of holes and tears, especially near the buried edge and above the drip tube. Similar results were seen for the 2002 study except that weed growth was not extensive so that tree heights for the mulched and bare plots were not significantly different. These results suggest that polymerized vegetable oil-coated paper mulches can function as effective mulches during the first year of tree growth, and thus, eliminate the need to use non-degradable polyethylene mulches.

Randal L. Shogren; Randall J. Rousseau

2005-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

242

Inactivation of Phenyl Mercuric Acetate in Groudwood Pulp by a Mercury-resistant Strain of Penicillium roqueforti Thom  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

... . Successful treatment on these lines has already been reported. Appling, Buckman and Meals, Tappi, 32, No. 7 (July 1949).

P. RUSSELL

1955-12-10T23:59:59.000Z

243

Chemical Characterization of Lignin and Lipid Fractions in Industrial Hemp Bast Fibers Used for Manufacturing High-Quality Paper Pulps  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

Klason lignin was estimated as the residue after sulfuric acid hydrolysis of the pre-extracted material, and neutral sugars from polysaccharide hydrolysis were analyzed as alditol acetates by GC according to Tappi rules T222 om-88 and T249 om85 (14), respectively. ... 57/341/369/437/453/760 ...

Ana Gutiérrez; Isabel M. Rodríguez; José C. del Río

2006-02-16T23:59:59.000Z

244

For more information on any of the articles in this report, contact Joshua Buck, Rachel Kraft, or Trent Perrotto in NASA's Public Affairs Office at 202-358-1100. To review NASA's other commercial space accomplishments, visit  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

to carry excessive weight all the way to orbit and back to Earth. Thus, every launch requires a brand new will surpass our original requirements." Dream Chaser hybrid motor test firing. Image courtesy of Sierra Nevada SuperDraco hot fire test. Image courtesy of SpaceX Test flight of Apollo's tower abort system. Image

245

Uljabuouda vindkraftpark turbinmodellering och stabilitetsanalys.  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

??This master thesis has been performed at Solvina in Gothenburg for Skellefteå Kraft and Vattenfall Eldistribution. The aim of it is to investigate the consequences… (more)

Lenasson, Magnus

2007-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

246

Lignin as Both Fuel and Fusing Binder in Briquetted Anthracite Fines for Foundry Coke Substitute.  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

??Lignin that had been extracted from Kraft black liquor was investigated as a fusing binder in briquetted anthracite fines for a foundry coke substitute. Cupola… (more)

Lumadue, Matthew

2012-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

247

arXiv:0909.3645v1[astro-ph.CO]20Sep2009 Suzaku Observations of the Radio Galaxy 3C 33  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

. Evans1 , James N. Reeves2 , Martin J. Hardcastle3 , Ralph P. Kraft4 , Julia C. Lee4 , and Shanil N

Evans, Dan

248

Brennstoffzellen in der Hausenergieversorgung  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

Durch die gleichzeitige Erzeugung von elektrischem Strom und Wärme (Kraft-Wärme-Kopplung) aus Erdgas lässt sich die Primärenergieeffizienz von Häusern steigern. Brennstoffzellen-Heizgeräte sind Hoffnungsträger...

Thomas Badenhop

2014-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

249

Die dispositiven Faktoren  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

Die Geschäfts- und Betriebsleitung, der vierte, dispositive Faktor, bildet das Zentrum, die eigentlich bewegende Kraft des betrieblichen Geschehens. Im Gesamtsystem der betrieblichen Willensbildung stellt sie ...

Dr. Dr. h. c. Erich Gutenberg

1965-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

250

Die dispositiven Faktoren  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

Die Geschäfts- und Betriebsleitung, der vierte, dispositive Faktor, bildet das Zentrum, die eigentlich bewegende Kraft des betrieblichen Geschehens. Im Gesamtsystem der betrieblichen Willensbildung stellt sie ...

Dr. Dr. h. c. Erich Gutenberg

1966-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

251

E-Print Network 3.0 - atypical imaging findings Sample Search...  

Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

and Medicine 94 Categorization Theory and Research in Consumer Psychology Summary: brand image (e.g., Kraft) affect its categori zation? How will the image affect its...

252

Types of Insulation | Department of Energy  

Energy Savers [EERE]

-- into insulation systems that can include a variety of backings, such as kraft paper, plastic film, polyethylene bubbles, or cardboard, as well as thermal insulation materials....

253

E-Print Network 3.0 - af den hidtidige Sample Search Results  

Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

1977 vret en del af den danske kraft- og varmesektor. I... udbredelsen af vedvarende energi Vurdere den ... Source: Ris National Laboratory Collection: Multidisciplinary...

254

Die Vergemeinschaftung des Kollisionsrechts der außervertraglichen Schuldverhältnisse durch Rom II  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

Mit der am 11. Juli 2007 verabschiedeten, zum 11. Januar 2009 in Kraft tretenden sog "Rom II-Verordnung" werden weite Teile des bis...

Helmut Heiss; Leander D. Loacker

2007-10-01T23:59:59.000Z

255

E-Print Network 3.0 - af patienter hos Sample Search Results  

Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

sanser og muskler udveksler indbyrdes... tilsammen giver kunsterisk kraft og saft, bde hos den skabende kunstner og det oplevelses- ... Source: Emmeche, Claus - Center...

256

The R User Conference 2011 General Information  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

's of London, BP, Kraft, Novartis, GlaxoSmithKline, Aviva, Google and HSBC to name but a few. Consultancy We

Goldschmidt, Christina

257

Highly Energy Efficient Directed Green Liquor Utilization (D...  

Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

Highly Energy Efficient Directed Green Liquor Utilization (D-GLU) Pulping Highly Energy Efficient Directed Green Liquor Utilization (D-GLU) Pulping This factsheet describes a...

258

Categorization Theory and Research in Consumer Psychology  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

brand image (e.g., Kraft) affect its categori zation? How will the image affect its acceptance? What, services, brands, or other marketing entities, states, or events that appear, to the consumer, related product is introduced with an existing brand name (e.g., Kraft microwave popcorn), how will the existing

Barsalou, Lawrence W.

259

Energistyrelsens workshop om  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

fluktuerende energi ·Robusthed over for svingende energipriser ·Stadig stigende internationalisering ·Kan in February 2002 Windpower/consumption,% #12;Betydningen af at forudsige vindkraftproduktionen Vind- kraft MW forudsigelser TidTime 12-36Time 0 Vind- kraft MW Vindkraft forudsigelse Usikkerhed på vindkraft- produktionen

260

2.1E BDL Summary  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

e2=.2) (e2=.2) SINGLE ELECTROCHROMIC ABSORBING B L E A C H ED / C O L O R E D SINGLE ELECTROCHROMIC REFLECTING BLEACHED/Air 705F Air DOUBLE ELECTROCHROMIC ABSORBING IG BLEACHED/

Winkelmann, F.C.

2010-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "kraft pulping bleaching" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


261

Download  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

Photosynthesis and light utilization in the Caribbean coral Montastraea faveolata recovering from a bleaching event. Aimé Rodr?guez-Román.

2006-10-04T23:59:59.000Z

262

Duplex Stainless Steels Margaret Gorog  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

, substituted for 6% mo SS in bleach plant Hyper DSS, Offshore oil applications Super, Hyper ­ Corrosion

Das, Suman

263

J.F. Bruno C.E. Siddon J.D. Witman P.L. Colin M.A. Toscano  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

bleaching in Palau, Western Caroline Islands Received: 3 January 2000 / Accepted: 8 January 2001 / Published% were partially bleached. Overall, the results indicate that the 1998 coral bleaching episode in Palau Disturbance á El Nin� o á Palau á Sea surface temperature Introduction Coral reefs throughout the world

Bruno, John F.

264

Pacific Ethanol, Inc | Department of Energy  

Broader source: Energy.gov (indexed) [DOE]

Major DOE Biofuels Project Locations RSE Pulp & Chemical, LLC (Subsidiary of Red Shield Environmental, LLC)...

265

ECE/TIM/SP/23 Timber Section, Geneva, Switzerland  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

, timber, wood industry, pulp and paper industry, wood fuels, certification, wood products, tropical timber

266

Bottom-up Representation of Industrial Energy Efficiency Technologies in Integrated Assessment Models for the U.S. Pulp and Paper Sector  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

screen out thick chips, boiler maintenance, steam trapSteam Production and Efficiency Boiler maintenance Improved of black liquor in recovery boiler High temperature video 

Xu, Tengfang

2014-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

267

CRADA Final Report: Materials Development For Pulp and Paper Mills, Task 9 Proof of Commercial Concept: Commodity Carbon Fibers From Weyerhaeuser Lignin Based Fibers  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Tasks were assigned to Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL) researchers for the development of lignin-based carbon fiber from a specific precursor that was produced by the Participant (Weyerhaeuser Corporation). These tasks included characterization of precursor polymers and fibers; and the development of conversion parameters for the fibers. ORNL researchers provided recommendations for in-house characterization of the precursor at the participant's laboratory. During the early stage of the precursor fiber production trials of various spools of fibers with varied compositions were produced. Some of those samples were sent to ORNL (by the Participant) for the development of conversion protocol. The trial tow samples were oxidized at ORNL's precursor evaluation system (PES), a bench-scale facility consisting of an oven, filament winder, tension controller, and a let off creel. The PES is a modular tool useful for the development of precursor conversion protocol. It can handle a single filament to a large single tow (50k filaments). It can also offer precise tensioning for few-filament tows. In the PES, after oxidation, fibers are typically carbonized first at low temperature, {le} 600 C, and subsequently at a higher temperature, {le} 1200 C with controlled residence time. ORNL has recently installed a new carbonization furnace with 1700 C limit and a furnace with 2500 C capacity is under installation. A protocol for the oxidation and carbonization of the trial precursor fibers was developed. Oxidized fiber with a density of 1.46 g/cc (oxidation time: 90 min) shows qualitative flame retardancy via simple flame test (fibers do not catch fire or shrink when exposed to flame). Oxidized and carbonized filaments of the Weyerhaeuser precursor fibers show moderate mechanical properties and 47-51 % carbon yield (based on oxidized fiber mass) after carbonization between 1000-1400 C. The properties of fibers from nonoptimized composition and processing parameters indicate the potential of low-cost, low-end carbon fibers based on renewable resource materials. Further work is necessary to produce high quality precursor and the corresponding carbonized filaments of superior properties.

Paulauskas, Felix L [ORNL; Naskar, Amit K [ORNL; Ozcan, Soydan [ORNL; Keiser, James R [ORNL; Gorog, John Peter [Weyerhaeuser Company

2010-09-01T23:59:59.000Z

268

Relationship between organisational value addition and environmental sustainability performance in an Indian pulp and paper manufacturing unit and its supply chain: a longitudinal case study  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

Organisations that improve 'value addition' by implementing several initiatives do not verify impact of these initiatives have on environment. The modern sustainability era, demands elimination of environmental impacts, i.e., a positive correlation is expected between value addition and environmental performance on long term basis. Many studies on Corporate Sustainability Management, based on the data at one point of time, did not examine above said relationship. This paper discusses the relationship between value addition and environmental sustainability using ten years data of an Indian Paper Mill. Analysis of the data reveals that there is a negative correlation between value addition and environmental sustainability over the ten-year period.

A. Arivalagan; B. Sudhakar

2005-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

269

Bottom-up Representation of Industrial Energy Efficiency Technologies in Integrated Assessment Models for the U.S. Pulp and Paper Sector  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

2001. The Energy Technology Systems Analysis Programme (and Institute of Paper Science and Technology (IPST) atGeorgia Institute of Technology, Atlanta. Kramer, K. J. ,

Xu, Tengfang

2014-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

270

Bottom-up Representation of Industrial Energy Efficiency Technologies in Integrated Assessment Models for the U.S. Pulp and Paper Sector  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

stream through the high efficiency turbine connected to themechanical drive turbines or zero efficiency pressure

Xu, Tengfang

2014-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

271

Assessment of actual versus modeled SO/sub 2/ impacts of two pulps mills in a northwestern river valley using complex I  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

On March 8, 1982, the Air Quality Division of the state of Oregon Department of Environmental Quality (DEQ) informed Publishers Paper Company, and Crown Zellerbach Corporation West Linn that recent ambient air quality modeling in support of a proposed municipal solid waste resource recovery facility indicated that the mills were causing violations of state and national ambient air quality standards for SO/sub 2/. These violations were predicted in elevated terrain surrounding the West Linn/Oregon city area. The department stated that the mills had two options: one, have their air contaminant discharge permits restricted to some amount of low or no sulfur boiler fuels; or two, perform an ambient monitoring program to resolve the SO/sub 2/ attainment status of the area and to ''calibrate/validate'' the air quality impact model. Discussions with DEQ regarding the companies' concerns led to a cooperative five month monitoring program involving equipment and personnel resources from Publishers, Crown and DEQ. All sampling was done in conformance with Environmental Protection Agency's (EPA) ambient monitoring guidelines for prevention of significant deterioration with strict quality assurance and quality control. The monitoring program began in October of 1982 and ended in April of 1983. Five months of valid ambient SO/sub 2/ and meteorological data were acquired (November through March).

Crews, W.B.; Gilbert, R.E.; Walther, J.E.

1984-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

272

Pulping black liquor used directly as a green and effective source for neat oil and as an emulsifier of catalytic cracking heavy oil  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

The objective of this study is to evaluate the use of emulsified heavy oils to conduct the FCC reaction. The emulsified heavy oil was prepared by homogenizing. Properties of emulsified heavy oil, including int...

Ge Xu; Ji-he Yang; Hui-hui Mao; Zhi Yun

2011-09-01T23:59:59.000Z

273

Fundamental Advances in the Pulp and Paper Industry 159 AIChE Symposium Series No. 322, Vol. 95, 1999 Compatibility of Pressure Sensitive Adhesives With Recycling  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

, 1999 Compatibility of Pressure Sensitive Adhesives With Recycling Unit Operations David Bormett*, Carl) from recovered paper is a major problem facing the paper recycling industry. As a result of a United Testing and Research, paper recovery companies, paper recyclers, adhesive manufacturers, and chemical

Abubakr, Said

274

Bottom-up Representation of Industrial Energy Efficiency Technologies in Integrated Assessment Models for the U.S. Pulp and Paper Sector  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Best Practices in the Netherlands: Top Ten Energy Saving Opportunities. Proceedings COST Strategic Workshop “Improving Energy Efficiency

Xu, Tengfang

2014-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

275

Bottom-up Representation of Industrial Energy Efficiency Technologies in Integrated Assessment Models for the U.S. Pulp and Paper Sector  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Production Experience with LWC. TAPPI Papermakers ConferenceProceedings, 1995. TAPPI, Atlanta, Georgia. Cannell, E.for mini Mill Applications. TAPPI Papermakers Conference

Xu, Tengfang

2014-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

276

Bottom-up Representation of Industrial Energy Efficiency Technologies in Integrated Assessment Models for the U.S. Pulp and Paper Sector  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Assessment to Identify Energy and Cost Saving Opportunities.to Identify Energy and Cost Savings Opportunities. Accesscan add up to big energy and cost savings. For example, one

Xu, Tengfang

2014-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

277

Bottom-up Representation of Industrial Energy Efficiency Technologies in Integrated Assessment Models for the U.S. Pulp and Paper Sector  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

building controls, waste heat recovery or adjustable speedoptimizing ventilation) Waste heat recovery Condebelt dryingand optimizing  ventilation) Waste heat recovery Condebelt 

Xu, Tengfang

2014-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

278

Design of Refractory Linings for Balanced Energy Efficiency, Uptime, and Capacity in Lime Kilns  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

The rotary kilns used by the pulp and paper industry to regenerate lime in the Kraft process are very energy intensive. Throughout the 90 s, in response to increasing fuel prices, the industry used back up insulation in conjunction with the high alumina brick used to line the burning zones of their kilns. While this improved energy efficiency, the practice of installing insulating brick behind the working lining increased the inner wall temperatures. In the worst case, due to the increased temperatures, rapid brick failures occurred causing unscheduled outages and expensive repairs. Despite these issues, for the most part, the industry continued to use insulating refractory linings in that the energy savings were large enough to offset any increase in the cost of maintaining the refractory lining. Due to the dramatic decline in the price of natural gas in some areas combined with mounting pressures to increasing production of existing assets, over the last decade, many mills are focusing more on increasing the uptime of their kilns as opposed to energy savings. To this end, a growing number of mills are using basic (magnesia based) brick instead of high alumina brick to line the burning zone of the kiln since the lime mud does not react with these bricks at the operating temperatures of the burning zone of the kiln. In the extreme case, a few mills have chosen to install basic brick in the front end of the kiln running a length equivalent to 10 diameters. While the use of basic brick can increase the uptime of the kiln and reduce the cost to maintain the refractory lining, it does dramatically increase the heat losses resulting from the increased operating temperatures of the shell. Also, over long periods of time operating at these high temperatures, damage can occur in the shell. There are tradeoffs between energy efficiency, capacity and uptime. When fuel prices are very high, it makes sense to insulate the lining. When fuel prices are lower, trading some thermal efficiency for increased uptime and capacity seems reasonable. This paper considers a number of refractory linings in an effort to develop optimized operating strategies that balance these factors. In addition to considering a range of refractory materials, the paper examines other factors such as the chain area, discharge dams and other operating variables that impact the service life of the refractory lining. The paper provides recommendations that will help mill personnel develop a strategy to select a refractory lining that is optimized for their specific situation.

Gorog, John Peter [ORNL; Hemrick, James Gordon [ORNL; Walker, Harold [Refratechnik North America, Inc.; Leary, William R [ORNL; Ellis, Murray [Australian Paper, Co.

2014-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

279

Konfigurasjon av end-flash system for LNG-prosessanlegg; Configuration of end-flash systems for LNG process plant.  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

?? Formålet med masteravhandlingen er å gjennomføre en systematisk evaluering av ulike end-flash løsninger i forhold til kraft- og brenselbalanse, produksjonskapasitet, LNG-produktspesifikasjoner, spesifikt kraftforbruk og… (more)

Haugum, Mathea Korssjøen

2012-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

280

Auslegung eines 1-MW-Brennstoffzellen-Heizkraftwerks  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

Aufbauend auf den Ergebnissen der Machbarkeitsstudie „1,5-MW-PAFC-Heizkraftwerk”, beabsichtigt die GEW, eine 1-MW-Brennstoffzellenanlage zur kombinierten Strom- und Wärmeerzeugung (Kraft-Wärme-Kopplung ... KWK...

U. Langnickel

1997-10-01T23:59:59.000Z

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "kraft pulping bleaching" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


281

Speicherintegration zur Kopplung unterschiedlicher Energiesektoren  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

Neben der bereits etablierten Zusammenführung von Strom- und Wärmesektor...durch die Kraft-Wärme-Kopplung, die durch strombasierte Wärmebereitstellung über Elektrowärmepumpen und Power-to-Heat ergänzt wird, zeich...

Michael Sterner; Ingo Stadler

2014-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

282

E-Print Network 3.0 - atypical imaging features Sample Search...  

Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

to make inferences about unknown attributes or features of the new product, or to form... brand image (e.g., Kraft) affect its categori zation? How will the image affect its...

283

Adsorption of Hydrogen Sulfide onto Activated Carbon Fibers: Effect of  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

. These processes include natural gas processing, petroleum refining, petrochemical plants, Kraft mills, coke ovens, and coal gasifiers. H2S concentrations in these processes vary from 0 to 60 vol % (6). The Claus process

Borguet, Eric

284

Analyse av tekniske og økonomiske forhold ved kraft-varmeproduksjon og fjernvarmeanlegg ved økte energipriser og CO2-avgifter; Analysis of technical and economical conditions by Combined Heat and Power (CHP) with District Heating and increased energy prices and CO2-taxes.  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

??I 1983 nedsatte FN en kommisjon, den såkalte Brundtlandkommisjonen, som blant annet hadde som formål å kartlegge forholdet mellom fattigdom, miljø og utvikling. Etter fire… (more)

Kosberg, Magnus

2010-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

285

Hydraulic Institute and TAPPI forge standards partnership  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

The Hydraulic Institute (HI) and the Technical Association of Pulp and Paper Industry (TAPPI) are partnering to provide their memberships with a direct link to purchase pump standards specific to pumps installed or required in the pulp and paper industry.

2009-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

286

Downregulation of Cinnamoyl-Coenzyme A Reductase in Poplar: Multiple-Level Phenotyping Reveals Effects on Cell Wall Polymer Metabolism and Structure  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

...decrease when active alkali increases. The significantly...gene for improving wood quality for pulping. Selection...associated relative increase in cellulose suggest...antisense CAD gene: Wine-red lignin from coniferyl...2003). Significant increases in pulping efficiency...

Jean-Charles Leplé; Rebecca Dauwe; Kris Morreel; Véronique Storme; Catherine Lapierre; Brigitte Pollet; Annette Naumann; Kyu-Young Kang; Hoon Kim; Katia Ruel; Andrée Lefèbvre; Jean-Paul Joseleau; Jacqueline Grima-Pettenati; Riet De Rycke; Sara Andersson-Gunnerås; Alexander Erban; Ines Fehrle; Michel Petit-Conil; Joachim Kopka; Andrea Polle; Eric Messens; Björn Sundberg; Shawn D. Mansfield; John Ralph; Gilles Pilate; Wout Boerjan

2007-11-16T23:59:59.000Z

287

A Design Guide for Early-Market Electrochromic Windows  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

of a thin-film ceramic electrochromic window: Field studywindows in a bleached state (left) or colored state (right). Electrochromic coatings (EC) are switchable thin-film

2006-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

288

Side 1 af 43 Alternative Additives  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

) ...............................................................12 5.1.2 Melting analysis of bleaching earth waste, sand, anorthosite, and clay sludge.............................................................................33 7.4 CLAY-SLUDGE................................................

289

TAPPI 90  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Topics covered in this book include: Evolution of bleach plant design practice to minimize environmental impact and Super PGW from southern pine.

Not Available

1990-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

290

Download Full-text PDF  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

motility suggests limited energy reserves in each sperm cell. .... the future of the world's coral reefs. Mar. ... Statement on global coral bleaching in 1997–1998.

1910-10-41T23:59:59.000Z

291

Injection risk behavior among women syringe exchangers in San Francisco.  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

injection supplies (cotton, cookers, water, and bleach),injection equipment, such as cookers, cottons, and rinsepartners, n=148 Shared cooker, cotton, or rinse water

Lum, Paula J; Sears, Clare; Guydish, Joseph

2005-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

292

PUBLICATIONS A. Journal articles and books  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Pulps - Added Value for Paper and Board, Helsinki, Finland, June 4-8, 2001. Helsinki, Finland. pp. 373

293

ImagINEa s u s t a i n a b l e c a m p u s How Can You Help?  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

in a plant using hydroelectricity to partially power the pulping process. How is Xerox Helping the U of C

Calgary, University of

294

Assessment of China's Energy-Saving and Emission-Reduction Accomplishments and Opportunities During the 11th Five Year Plan  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

calcium carbide, coking, cement, coal, plate glass, pulp andcarbide 2 Mt Coking 80 Mt Cement 250 Mt Coal mining (

Levine, Mark D.

2010-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

295

Diatom succession trends in recent sediments from Lake Baikal and their relation to atmospheric pollution and to climate change  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

...to the Baikalsk paper and pulp mill, we do provide evidence of localized...to the Baikalsk paper and pulp mill but, as far as the authors are...diatom assemblages in an upland, wind-stressed lake (Loch Fleet...bottom of Baikal near a pulp mill. Chemosphere 21, 1381^1334...

1998-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

296

By-Products Utilization  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

; microfibers; pulp and paper mills; recycling; deicing salt scaling; sludge; wastewater treatment residuals with Recycled Materials. Yoon-moon Chun is a postdoctoral fellow at the UWM-CBU. His research interests include residuals from the pulp and paper industry in concrete. INTRODUCTION Pulp and paper mill wastewater

Wisconsin-Milwaukee, University of

297

PHYSICAL PLANT OPERATING POLICY AND PROCEDURE  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

, or grounds. PP/OP 08.13 #12;Page 2 2. Potential Sources of Storm Water Contamination a. West Cooling Tower sources of contamination are: cooling tower drift, bleach leaks from the bleach room, acid spills onto ­ on the driveway, street, or acid vault cap. d. Brine Tanks: Leaks or spills could occur during brine delivery

Gelfond, Michael

298

in this issue nature methods | VOL.8 NO.2 | FEBRUARY 2011  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

in ensembles of molecules. But because fluorescent dyes are prone to bleaching and blink- ing, the time of the -spectrin SH3 domain and the protein BBL. The cocktail contains cysteamine, which minimizes bleaching fat is a worm? To understand metabolic disorders such as obesity, one needs to study the genetic

Cai, Long

299

Syngas as an Additional Energy Carrier in the Pulp and Paper Industry: A Mill-Wide System Analysis of a Combined Drying Concept, Utilizing On-Site Generated Gas and Steam  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

syngas combusted in a burner; flue gases mixed into the impingement section drying air ... Furthermore, there is an uncertainty about the assumption that char burns in the bed, because the char from the gasification reactor that enters the boiler BFB might partly elutriate from the bed and burn in the boiler freeboard, which would further lower the bed temperature. ... 25-45% of the initial fixed carbon followed this pathway, with the remainder being directly burnt as coarse char. ...

Christer Gustavsson; Lars Nilsson; Roger Renström

2014-08-18T23:59:59.000Z

300

Mechanical properties and dimensional stability of organo-nanoclay modified biofiber polymer composites  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

In this study, hydrophobic Kraft fibers were obtained by organo-nanoclay modification. The treated fibers were used as reinforcements for improving mechanical performance and dimensional stability of high density polyethylene (HDPE) composites. After the organo-nanoclay treatment, Kraft fibers had a more uniform dispersion in the HDPE matrix and the resulting composites had a higher Young’s modulus and thermal stability than the composites containing untreated fibers. The addition of 5 wt% of maleic anhydride polyethylene (MAPE) compatibilizer improved fiber and matrix adhesion and resulted in increased tensile strength and Young’s modulus as well as thermal stability of both treated and untreated fiber composites. However, this improvement was more significant for the composites with the treated fibers. In addition, water absorption of the organo-nanoclay treated Kraft fiber–HDPE composites decreased after adding the compatibilizer.

Jieming Chen; Ning Yan

2013-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "kraft pulping bleaching" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


301

Advanced Recombinant Manganese Peroxidase for Biosynthesis of Lignin Bioproducts, Phase I Final Report, STTR Grant #: DE-SC0007503.  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

The core purpose of this Phase I STTR was to evaluate the feasibility of a new method of producing a recombinant version of manganese peroxidase (MnP) enzyme. MnP is a potentially valuable enzyme for producing high value lignin products and also for industrial de-coloring operations such as biobleaching of pulp and color removal from textile dye effluents. This lignin-modifying enzyme is produced in small amounts by the native host, a white rot fungus. Previous work by Oregon State University developed a secreted recombinant version of the enzyme in the yeast Pichia pastoris. Unfortunately, the expression is barely moderate and the enzyme is heavily glycosylated, which inhibits purification. In this work, the gene for the enzyme is given a tag which targets production of the enzyme to the peroxisome. This is a promising approach since this location is also where heme and hydrogen peroxide are sequestered, which are both necessary cofactors for MnP. More than ten recombinant strains were constructed, verified, and expressed in the Pichia system. Constitutive (GAP) and methanol-induced promoters (AOX) were tried for peroxisomal targeted, cytosolic, and secreted versions of MnP. Only the secreted strains showed activity. The amount of expression was not significantly changed. The degree of glycosylation was lessened using the AOX (methanol) promotoer, but the resulting enzyme was still not able to be purified using immobilized metal affinity chromatography. Additional work beyond the scope of the defined Phase I project was undertaken to construct, verify, and express Pichia strains that mutated the MnP glycosylation sites to inhibit this process. These strains did not show significant activity. The cause is not known, but it is possible that these sites are important to the structure of the enzyme. Also beyond the scope proposed for our Phase I STTR, the team collaborated with AbSci, a startup with a new E. coli based expression system focused on the production of antibodies and enzymes containing disulfide bonds and requiring folding/post-translational modification. With only limited time remaining in the Phase I schedule, a single construct was made to produce MnP with this system. The enzyme was produced in the soluble fraction of the cell lysate, but no activity was measured. MnP from the existing recombinant source was used to act on lignin. The lignin was from a Kraft process and had a molecular weight of about 10,000 Da. Using 1000 Da dialysis membranes and UV-visible spectroscopy, no modification of either lignin was evident in the dialysate or the retentate. Assays using 2,6 dimethoxy phenol (DMP) as a substrate showed consistent activity throughout the project. In summary, these results fell far short of our expectations. A Phase II proposal was not submitted. Possible reasons for the failure of peroxisomal targeting include destruction by native hydrogen peroxide, native proteases, or unforeseen causes. The AbSci system was only lighted tested and further work may yield a strain with active enzyme. The lack of evidence for lignin modification may be due to the techniques employed. NMR or GC-MS studies may reveal evidence of modification.

Beatty, Christopher; Kitner, Joshua; Lajoie, Curtis; McClain, Sean; Potochnik, Steve

2012-12-13T23:59:59.000Z

302

Pacific Ethanol, Inc  

Broader source: Energy.gov (indexed) [DOE]

RSE Pulp & Chemical, LLC RSE Pulp & Chemical, LLC (Subsidiary of Red Shield Environmental, LLC) Corporate HQ: Old Town, Maine Proposed Facility Location: Old Town, Maine Description: Develop, design, and install a biorefinery facility in an existing pulp mill to demonstrate the production of cellulosic ethanol from lignocellulosic (wood) extract. CEO or Equivalent: Edward Paslawski, Chairman and CEO of Red Shield Environmental, LLC Participants: University of Maine, American Process Inc. Production: * Capacity of 2.2 million gallons per year of cellulosic ethanol Technology and Feedstocks: * University of Maine proprietary process for pre-extracting hemicelluloses during the pulping process * 80 dry tons/day hemicellulose extract from woody biomass

303

Pacific Ethanol, Inc | Department of Energy  

Broader source: Energy.gov (indexed) [DOE]

Pacific Ethanol, Inc Pacific Ethanol, Inc Pacific Ethanol, Inc More Documents & Publications RSE Pulp & Chemical, LLC (Subsidiary of Red Shield Environmental, LLC) Major DOE...

304

Solventless Process for Macking Tackifiers and Adhesives  

Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

are manufactured annually and used in the pulp and paper, electronics, wireless telecommunications, medical devices, cosmetic and personal hygiene, and other industries....

305

Download  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

Jan 19, 1978 ... winds. This upwelling coincides with re- duced river flow into estuaries bordering the ocean. As a result ... industrialized with pulp mills, forest-.

2000-01-09T23:59:59.000Z

306

Download Full-text PDF  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

directly from municipal wastewater outfalls and pulp mills. The total flux of organic ... of summer wind storms could have increased primary production. Applying ...

2013-12-23T23:59:59.000Z

307

water quality and upwelling at grays harbor entrance  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

welling as related to prevailing winds, den- sity layers in the sea, and internal waves ... pulp mills is presented in Figure 1. TIIE RAYONIER. PROGRAM. In 1950 ...

308

Center for Nanophase Materials Sciences (CNMS) - ORNL develops...  

Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

ORNL DEVELOPS LIGNIN-BASED THERMOPLASTIC CONVERSION PROCESS (Newswise) Turning lignin, a plant's structural "glue" and a byproduct of the paper and pulp industry, into something...

309

Lignin studies of transgenic Norway spruce.  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

??An attractive objective in tree breeding is to reduce the content of lignin, or increase its extractability, to favor delignification during pulping. This study investigates… (more)

Wadenbäck, Johan

2006-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

310

E-Print Network 3.0 - annual shipping outlook Sample Search Results  

Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

the pulp, MDF and biomass industries. Summary: in the business of international trade of woodchips, pulplogs and biomass fiber. This annual report examines... of international...

311

United States Industrial Motor Systems Market Opportunities Assessment...  

Broader source: Energy.gov (indexed) [DOE]

Executive Summary (December 1998) More Documents & Publications United States Industrial Electric Motor Systems Market Opportunities Assessment Pulp and Paper Mills: Profiting...

312

Methods of pretreating comminuted cellulosic material with carbonate-containing solutions  

DOE Patents [OSTI]

Methods of pretreating comminuted cellulosic material with an acidic solution and then a carbonate-containing solution to produce a pretreated cellulosic material are provided. The pretreated material may then be further treated in a pulping process, for example, a soda-anthraquinone pulping process, to produce a cellulose pulp. The pretreatment solutions may be extracted from the pretreated cellulose material and selectively re-used, for example, with acid or alkali addition, for the pretreatment solutions. The resulting cellulose pulp is characterized by having reduced lignin content and increased yield compared to prior art treatment processes.

Francis, Raymond

2012-11-06T23:59:59.000Z

313

ITP Forest Products: Energy and Environmental Profile of the...  

Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

Energy Use by Fuel for Paper Manufacturing Purchased Electricity 7% Fuel Oil 5% Natural Gas 18% Self Generated & Renewable Energy (Spent Pulping Liquors, Bark, Wood, Hydropower)...

314

E-Print Network 3.0 - automatic fuzzy rule Sample Search Results  

Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

PROCESSING TO PREDICT PULP BRIGHTNESS USING FUZZY LOGICPULP BRIGHTNESS USING FUZZY LOGIC Summary: Decision Support System (FuzzyFlou) Automatic Generation of Fuzzy Knowledge...

315

AbitibiBowater Advanced Measurement & Analysis  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Systems Inc. � DMI-Peace River Pulp Division � DTE PetCoke � Eastman Kodak Company � Eco-Tec Inc

Sun, Yu

316

Level: National and Regional Data; Row: Selected NAICS Codes...  

U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

Btu. Wood Residues and Wood-Related Pulping Liquor Wood Byproducts and NAICS or Biomass Agricultural Harvested Directly from Mill Paper-Related Code(a) Subsector and...

317

Panoramic Radiology: Endodontic Considerations  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

Endodontics is concerned with the morphology, physiology, and pathology of the human dental pulp and periradicular tissues. Radiology is especially important for diagnosis in the...

2007-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

318

ITP Chemicals: Energy and Environmental Profile of the U.S. Chemical...  

Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

the U.S. Chemical Industry, May 2000 profilefull.pdf More Documents & Publications Steam System Opportunity Assessment for the Pulp and Paper, Chemical Manufacturing, and...

319

E-Print Network 3.0 - aromatic carotenoid synthesized Sample...  

Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

in a Citrus Cybrid Summary: , and carotenoid are the most important indicators of fruit taste and nutritional and organoleptic quality... in the cybrid fruit pulp than in Eureka...

320

AMO Industrial Distributed Energy: Immediate Deployment of Waste Energy Technologies at Multiple Sites  

Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

Fact sheet overviewing Verso Paper Corp. project that will deploy industrial technologies to recover and reuse water and steam at pulp and paper facilities.

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "kraft pulping bleaching" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


321

Energy efficiency programs and policies in the industrial sector in industrialized countries  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

energy efficiency. Among industries included are cement, pulp and paper and plasticenergy efficiency in industry. Achievements: Production standards have been set for the engineering, plastics,

Galitsky, Christina; Price, Lynn; Worrell, Ernst

2004-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

322

Dentistry (D.D.S. and D.M.D.) Degree There are two types of degrees dentist can attain  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

and pulp), orthodontics, pediatric dentistry, periodontics (tissue and bone supporting teeth), prosthodontics, and oral and maxillofacial pathology, radiology, and surgery. Prerequisite Courses The following

Pilyugin, Sergei S.

323

LOCAL POPULATION IMPACTS OF GEOTHERMAL ENERGY DEVELOPMENT IN THE GEYSERS - CALISTOGA REGION  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

GEOTHERMAL APPLICATIONS Heat cost - total cost ratio vt temperaturn Power generation Pulp and paper .Heavy water Canning Desalination Sugar refining District heating

Haven, Kendal F.

2012-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

324

The National Chemical Laboratory  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

... the aqueous leach pulp and the extracting solvent. This principle is employed in the disk contactor : the disks are wetted by the aqueous phase, and, as they rotate, ...

1958-12-27T23:59:59.000Z

325

A Guidebook for Low-Carbon Development at the Local Level  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Coal mining (production) Cement Iron-making Steel-making Electricity Pulp & paper Alcohol Monosodium glutamate Electrolytic aluminum Citric acid Coking

Zhou, Nan

2012-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

326

EARTH SCIENCES DIVISION ANNUAL REPORT 1978  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

on the price of geothermal energy, a cost differential forcosts for and availability of energy. Several process plans of pulp and paper operations using geothermal

Authors, Various

2012-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

327

Effect of Exposure to Gamma-Rays on the Hygroscopicity of Sitka Spruce Wood  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

... , Hungate, R. E., Bryant, M. P., and Hall, E., Tappi (Tech. Assoc. Pulp and Paper Industry 34, 113A (Dec. 1951); Science ...

J. M. PATON; R. F. S. HEARMON

1957-09-28T23:59:59.000Z

328

SUPPLMENTTECHNIQUE The principle and details of a new test for detecting antibiotics  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

of the Pulp and Paper Industry (Tappi), à Badford Springs (Pa.), du 14 au 16 mai 1958, R. L. ERRATT,R,. G

Paris-Sud XI, Université de

329

Effect of 'Gammexane' on the Durability of Paper  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

... the folding endurance of the treated and control samples were measured according to the standard TAPPI (Technical Association of the Pulp and Paper Industry, New York) methods.

S. CHAKRAVORTI

1949-04-16T23:59:59.000Z

330

Coastal eutrophication as a driver of salt marsh loss  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

... , M. J. Modified procedure to determine acid-insoluble lignin in wood and pulp. Tappi J. 60, 143–144 (1977) Bowen, J. L., Crump, B. ...

Linda A. Deegan; David Samuel Johnson; R. Scott Warren; Bruce J. Peterson; John W. Fleeger; Sergio Fagherazzi; Wilfred M. Wollheim

2012-10-17T23:59:59.000Z

331

Neil Rossmeissl | Department of Energy  

Broader source: Energy.gov (indexed) [DOE]

is a General Engineer with the Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy's Biomass Program. Most Recent Bioenergy Pumps New Life into Pulp and Paper Mills December 13...

332

BONNEVILLE POWER ADMINISTRATION  

Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

Email stever@abacusrm.com rons@abacusrm.com Company Airclean Technologies Expertise Pumps, fans, and motor systems. Pulp & paper, petroleum, cement, steel, wastewater, wood...

333

Methods for colloid transport visualization in pore networks Naoyuki Ochiai,1  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Methods for colloid transport visualization in pore networks Naoyuki Ochiai,1 Erika L. Kraft,2 visualization in pore networks, Water Resour. Res., 42, W12S06, doi:10.1029/2006WR004961. 1. Introduction [2 fragments, mineral precipitates and organic macromolecules, as well as micro- organisms (e.g., protozoa

Tullos, Desiree

334

Primary Research Paper Invertebrate community and stream substrate responses to woody debris  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

. Introduction Large-extent physical disturbances, such as ice storms, can produce wide-ranging impacts removal from an ice storm-impacted stream system, NY USA Dana R. Warren* & Clifford E. Kraft Department; ice storm; debris dam; high gradient stream; BACI Abstract We assessed the influence of ice

Kraft, Clifford E.

335

BIODIVERSITY The geography of climate change  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

BIODIVERSITY REVIEW The geography of climate change: implications for conservation biogeography D. J. B. Kraft1 INTRODUCTION It is widely recognized that climate change poses a grave threat., 2007). The impacts of climate change are broadly detectable in many taxa, including shifts in phenology

Kraft, Nathan

336

Chemical Engineering Andrew Zydney  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

;ChE Employment (2003 at PSU) Merck Dow ExxonMob Air Products Amgen PPG Sunoco Kraft Foods NRC Procter, microelectronics, consumer products, biotechnology, fuels / energy, environmental engineering, etc. ·Chemical Engineers focus on the processes involved in making new products, including chemical reactions

Maranas, Costas

337

Dramatic Spectral Evolution of WZ Sagittae during the 2001 Superoutburst  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

......evolve by gravitational wave radiation (Kraft et al. 1962; Paczynski...figure 3). With the outburst occuring, the emission line steadily...disk, or ring, that the radiation pressure at the outburst may...examine which model can more naturally allow a sudden change of the......

Daisaku Nogami; Takashi Iijima

2004-03-25T23:59:59.000Z

338

Coping with Drought on Rangelands: Concluding Remarks  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

of information disseminated... From David Kraft #12;Reflections · So, this is our socio ecological system · We spheres of interactions of drought Impacts: ­ Biophysical landscape ­ Economic landscape ­ Institutional provoked liquidation ­ 64% of producers are 55 or older & average farm/ranch size of older producers is 75

339

Bibliography on the Analysis of Mercaptans by GC-1972 to 1983  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

......of Kraft black liquor with ox- ygen. K.P. Kringstad, W.T. McKean, J. Libert, P.J. Kleppe, and C. Laishong. Tappi 55(10): 1528-533 (Oct. 1972). Adsorption of sulfur-containing taste and odor compounds. C. Ishizaki and J.R......

Bibliography on the Analysis of Mercaptans by GC-1972 to 1983

1984-11-01T23:59:59.000Z

340

COLLEGE OF ACES UNDERGRADUATE  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

pursue your own business, a corporate job, a government specialty, or a research position. Design and drainage, erosion control and the effective utilization of natural resources. TSM Specializations such as Deere & Co., a government agency such as the U.S. EPA, or a company like Kraft Foods. You may

Gilbert, Matthew

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "kraft pulping bleaching" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


341

Neuronal Culture Preparation and Stimulation. Dissociated hippocampal cell culture was prepared as described in ref. 1. Briefly, rats were killed on postnatal day 0-1,  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

and bleaching throughout the experiment. Neurons were imaged with a mercury arc lamp with 0.33-1.5% neutral precipitation (2), allowed to mature to 14-17 DIV and assayed. Highly expressing neurons with clear plasma

Tsien, Roger Y.

342

Environmental Mass Spectrometry: Emerging Contaminants and Current Issues  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

Alkylphenol ethoxylate surfactants are used heavily in the textile industry in pretreatment formulations and as additives in detergents or wetting agents for wool scouring, hydrogen peroxide bleaching, and dyeing. ...

Susan D. Richardson

2008-05-23T23:59:59.000Z

343

Investigation of the effect of continuous finishing on the mechanical properties and the handle of wool fabrics  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

The effect of scouring, bleaching and dyeing on the low stress mechanical and surface properties of wool woven fabrics was studied. Fabric properties were ... of the treated fabrics are greatly affected by scouring

D. Sun; G. K. Stylios

2006-09-01T23:59:59.000Z

344

Treatment of Wool with Laccase and Dyeing with Madder  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

In textile processing, laccase has been used for improving the fabric whiteness in bleaching process, decolorization of dyed textile materials and colored effluent and scouring of fibers, wool dyeing, and wool an...

Majid Montazer; Fatemeh Dadashian…

2009-09-01T23:59:59.000Z

345

Modifying cellulose fibers by adsorption/precipitation of xylan  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

Xylan was precipitated on bleached and unbleached softwood ... more detailed information of the distribution of adsorbed xylan on cellulosic surfaces. The adsorption step was carried out at ... the beating degree...

Albrecht Miletzky; Manuel Punz; Armin Zankel; Sandra Schlader…

2014-10-01T23:59:59.000Z

346

Nanotechnology in our Daily Life Iridescent car paint: Based on interference colors  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Nanotechnology in our Daily Life Iridescent car paint: Based on interference colors (like a butterly, no bleaching after 5 years Miami) #12;Nanotechnology on our Desktops Hard Disk Sensor Medium

Himpsel, Franz J.

347

A photo-stable chalcogenide glass  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

Photo-darkening and photo-bleaching are well known phenomena in As-Se and Ge-Se chalcogenide glasses, respectively. Consequently, a systematic dependence of photo-induced optical...

Yang, Guang; Jain, Himanshu; Ganjoo, Ashtosh; Zhao, Donghui; Xu, Yinsheng; Zeng, Huidan; Chen, Guorong

2008-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

348

Poleward expansion of mangroves is a threshold response to decreased frequency of extreme cold events  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

...tipping points for mass coral bleaching and...responses. The “velocity” of climate-driven...Fig. 1. (A) Map of study area showing...those dispersed by wind or animals (35...Loarie SR ( 2009 ) The velocity of climate change...

Kyle C. Cavanaugh; James R. Kellner; Alexander J. Forde; Daniel S. Gruner; John D. Parker; Wilfrid Rodriguez; Ilka C. Feller

2014-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

349

Shock Chlorination of Wells  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Shock chlorination is a method of disinfecting a water well. This publication gives complete instructions for chlorinating with bleach or with dry chlorine. It is also available in Spanish as publication L-5441S...

McFarland, Mark L.; Dozier, Monty

2003-06-11T23:59:59.000Z

350

Fish assemblages on coral reefs in Guanaja, Bay Islands, Honduras  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

reefs that support a wide variety of habitats, a rich ichthyofauna, and one of the highest coral diversities found in the Caribbean, Guanaja is one of Honduras' major eco-tourism destinations. Coral bleaching, a phenomena initially documented in 1931...

Mahendran, Christopher Kandiah

2012-06-07T23:59:59.000Z

351

Author's personal copy ecological modelling 2 2 0 ( 2 0 0 9 ) 192208  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Keywords: Coral population model Arabian/Persian Gulf Coral reef Bleaching Mass mortality Satellite imagery for the Arabian/Persian Gulf, but is generally applicable. We assume three species groups (Acro- pora, faviids

Purkis, Sam

352

Quick Stain Removal Guide  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

. Over time, soil can build up on some fabrics, espe- cially polyesters. A pretreatment product may actually super-clean an area, and may resemble a bleached spot. You can usually correct this by treating the entire garment with a prespotter.... Over time, soil can build up on some fabrics, espe- cially polyesters. A pretreatment product may actually super-clean an area, and may resemble a bleached spot. You can usually correct this by treating the entire garment with a prespotter...

Brown, Pamela J.

1998-07-29T23:59:59.000Z

353

through world-class science and technology  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Operational Excellence - Leveraging core competence in pulp & paper processes ·Achieving cost and reliability by developing renewable chemicals ·Creating sustainable fuels from forest biomass Biomaterials - Leveraging for Sustainable Systems (ISS) IPST Analytical Services Specialized analytical services in pulp and paper

354

Influence of Air Quality on the Composition of Microbial Pathogens in Fresh Rainwater  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

...samples near pulp and paper mills, suggesting that it is...weather conditions such as wind direction on the total...reported on the influence of wind and other climatic variables...and RH Dunstan. 2006. Wind, rain and bacteria...found in pulp and paper mill water systems. Water...

Rajni Kaushik; Rajasekhar Balasubramanian; Armah A. de la Cruz

2012-02-10T23:59:59.000Z

355

Department of Mechanical Engineering Fall 2011 PSU Engineering Leadership and Development Program Baobab Fruit  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Program ­ Baobab Fruit Pulp Processor Overview A baobab is a fruit that grows on trees native to sub-Saharan region in Africa. Many small villages are beginning to process the baobab fruit by separating the seeds of students designed a baobab fruit pulp processor for a small community in Africa. For our project we were

Demirel, Melik C.

356

By-Products Utilization  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

at the Technical Session on Recycling Concrete and Other Materials for Sustainable Development at 2003 ACI Spring; microfiber reinforcement; pulp and paper mill residual solids; recycling; salt-scaling resistance. 1 Director - INTRODUCTION Pulp and paper mill wastewater treatment plant residuals (also called sludge) are the solid

Wisconsin-Milwaukee, University of

357

By-Products Utilization  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

shrinkage; durability; freezing and thawing; recycling; sludge; wastewater treatment; wood cellulose fibersCenter for By-Products Utilization RECYCLING OF PULP AND PAPER MILL RESIDUALS TO INCREASE FREEZING College of Engineering and Applied Science THE UNIVERSITY OF WISCONSIN ­ MILWAUKEE #12;Recycling of Pulp

Wisconsin-Milwaukee, University of

358

ABSTRACT:  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

......epltheium, the devetopmont of Wood vessels around the aVaotar sac...scanning electron microscopy on the red pulp of various mammalian spleens...hydrostatic pressures. The splenic red pulp of these animals consisted...olycoconjugatcs and sulfoglycoconju gates in the rat digestive tract This......

The Fiftieth Annual Meeting of the Japanese Society of Electron Microscopy

1994-08-01T23:59:59.000Z

359

The Effect of Uncertainty on Pollution Abatement Investments: Measuring Hurdle Rates for Swedish Industry  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

, oil price uncertainty, abatement investment, sulfur emissions, pulp and paper industry, energy ex post data. The method is based on a structural option value model where the future price using a panel of firms from the Swedish pulp and paper industry, and the energy and heating sector

Paris-Sud XI, Université de

360

The National Chemical Laboratory  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

... a compact solvent extraction plant embodying four stages of a recently developed rotatory-disk film contactor, which operates directly on unfiltered leach slurries. Extraction from pulps appears to be a ... leach slurries. Extraction from pulps appears to be a promising technique, and the rotary contactor has already been tested over lengthy periods.

J. S. ANDERSON

1960-12-17T23:59:59.000Z

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "kraft pulping bleaching" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


361

USDA Forest Service Gen. Tech. Rep. PSW-152. 1995. 257 Pollution and Fishing Threats to Marbled Murrelets  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

(PCB), and pulp mill discharges containing polychlorinated dibenzo-dioxins (PCDD) and polychlorinated dioxins and furans which have been discharged to the environment at levels resulting in significant injury of dioxins in Western Grebes, which have a prey base Figure 1--Distribution of paper grade pulp mills active

Standiford, Richard B.

362

Sucrose synthase affects carbon partitioning to increase cellulose production and altered cell wall ultrastructure  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

...and Paper Industry Useful Method 250 (TAPPI UM-250) (47). Determination of {alpha}-Cellulose...of the Pulp and Paper Industry ( 1991 ) Tappi Useful Method UM-250. Acid-soluble lignin in wood and pulp ( Tappi Press , Atlanta ). 48 Yokoyama T Kadla...

Heather D. Coleman; Jimmy Yan; Shawn D. Mansfield

2009-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

363

Defibering and specific energy consumption in bale pulpers  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

In this paper, the defibering and the specific energy consumption (SEC) for bale pulping of old corrugated containers and supercalendered paper are studied. Experimental variables were pulper dimensions, rotor shape, process temperature, and pulp consistency. The extent of defibering was monitored by measuring Somerville shives, and SEC was determined for a range of pulping conditions. It was found that SEC is reduced by at least 50% when process temperature is increased from 20{degrees}C to 60{degrees}C and by about 30% when pulp consistency is increased from 3.5% to 7%. The results also showed that defibering is increased by rotors that generate shear forces both radially and tangentially. The more swiftly the mass bale and the flakes are wetted, the lower will be the SEC. The rheology of low-consistency water-fiber suspensions is also discussed, with emphasis on how shear affects defibering during the pulping process.

Savolainen, A. (Tampere Univ. of Technology, Lab. of Process, Technology, P.O. Box 527, 33101 Tampere (FI)); Jusila, T.; Nikula, S. (Tampella Papertech Oy, P.O. Box 56, LE2 33701 Tampere (FI))

1991-11-01T23:59:59.000Z

364

The interrelationship between environmental goals, productivity improvement, and increased energy efficiency in integrated paper and steel plants  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

This report presents the results of an investigation into the interrelationships between plant-level productivity, energy efficiency, and environmental improvements for integrated pulp and paper mills and integrated steel mills in the US. Integrated paper and steel plants are defined as those facilities that use some form of onsite raw material to produce final products (for example, paper and paperboard or finished steel). Fully integrated pulp and paper mills produce onsite the pulp used to manufacture paper from virgin wood fiber, secondary fiber, or nonwood fiber. Fully integrated steel mills process steel from coal, iron ore, and scrap inputs and have onsite coke oven facilities.

NONE

1997-06-01T23:59:59.000Z

365

A Novel Method for the Determination of Carbonyl Groups in Cellulosics by Fluorescence Labeling. 3. Monitoring Oxidative Processes  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

This work, as the third and last part of this series, gives four illustrative examples, which are not only scientifically interesting but also industrially relevant:? solutions of cellulose in N-methylmorpholine-N-oxide (NMMO) as used in the Lyocell process; alkalization and aging of pulp in 18% NaOH as the initial step in the viscose rayon production; electron beaming of pulp as a means of activation for further processing to derivatives; cellulose changes as occurring upon prolonged drying and storage of pulp under thermal stress. ... It was evident that both processes, carbonyl generation and chain shortening, were closely interrelated and proceeded simultaneously. ...

Antje Potthast; Jürgen Röhrling; Thomas Rosenau; Andrea Borgards; Herbert Sixta; Paul Kosma

2003-02-27T23:59:59.000Z

366

CX-002120: Categorical Exclusion Determination | Department of Energy  

Broader source: Energy.gov (indexed) [DOE]

20: Categorical Exclusion Determination 20: Categorical Exclusion Determination CX-002120: Categorical Exclusion Determination Illinois State Energy Program Large Customer Energy Efficiency Retrofit Projects CX(s) Applied: B5.1 Date: 04/28/2010 Location(s): Chicago, Illinois Office(s): Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy, Golden Field Office The Illinois Department of Commerce & Economic Opportunity (DCED) has submitted the following three projects totaling $1,297,908 that fall within the National Environmental Policy State Energy Program template. Kraft Foods, Naperville; Kraft Foods, Chicago Bakery; and Rentech Energy Midwest. DOCUMENT(S) AVAILABLE FOR DOWNLOAD CX-002120.pdf More Documents & Publications Audit Report: OAS-RA-11-02 CX-009569: Categorical Exclusion Determination CX-002816

367

Mechanistic investigation of vinylic carbonfluorine bond activation of perfluorinated cycloalkenes using Cp*2ZrH2 and Cp*2ZrHF  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

using Cp*2ZrH2 and Cp*2ZrHF Bradley M. Kraft a , Eric Clot b , Odile Eisenstein b , William W behaves similarly [4]. In contrast, Cp*Rh(PMe3)H2 reacts with C6F6 by way of an SNAr2 attack by its conjugate base to give Cp*Rh(PMe3)(C6F5)H and fluoride ion, resulting in an autocatalytic reaction [5]. Cp

Jones, William D.

368

Computational fluid dynamics combustion modelling--A comparison of secondary air system designs  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

A newly developed computer simulation of the combustion process in a kraft recovery furnace uses computational fluid dynamics to model the processes of mass, momentum, and energy transport. This paper describes two models and a presentation of the flow fields obtained. The results predict a dramatic improvement in combustion behavior using a refined secondary air system with reduction in particulate carryover, enhanced operating temperatures, more uniform gas flow, and less carbon monoxide at the furnace exit.

Jones, A.K. (ABB Combustion Engineering Systems, Ottawa, Ontario (Canada)); Chapman, P.J. (ABB Combustion Engineering Systems, Windsor, CT (United States))

1993-07-01T23:59:59.000Z

369

Conceptual design of a black liquor gasification pilot plant  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

In July 1985, Champion International completed a study of kraft black liquor gasification and use of the product gases in a combined cycle cogeneration system based on gas turbines. That study indicated that gasification had high potential as an alternative to recovery boiler technology and offered many advantages. This paper describes the design of the plant, the construction of the pilot plant, and finally presents data from operation of the plant.

Kelleher, E. G.

1987-08-01T23:59:59.000Z

370

Statistically steady measurements of Rayleigh-Taylor mixing in a gas channel  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

guidance, support and advice during the course of this work. This work has been funded by the US Department of Energy under contract number DE-FG03-02NA00060. I also wish to thank Wayne Kraft for his help in running the experiments and our numerous...U .......................................................................97 U5.4.2 Effect of Binary Air-Helium MixtureU ......................................................99 U6. EXPERIMENTAL RESULTSU ...................................................................................104 U6.1 Preliminaries...

Banerjee, Arindam

2006-10-30T23:59:59.000Z

371

NETL: News Release - DOE Opens Competition for Black Liquor/Biomass  

Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

January 7, 2000 January 7, 2000 DOE Opens Competition for Black Liquor/Biomass Gasification Program Intended to Boost Efficiency, Reduce Greenhouse Gases from Pulp and Paper Mills A new competition begun this week by the Department of Energy could make the pulp and paper mills of the 21st century cleaner and more energy efficient by demonstrating improved technologies to convert their spent cooking liquor streams into new sources of energy. The advanced processes would also simultaneously recover and recycle pulping chemicals. MORE INFO Download the solicitation The department's National Energy Technology Laboratory has issued a call for projects to demonstrate advanced ways to gasify the black liquor or biomass of pulp and paper mills. The gases can be more easily cleaned of

372

Selenium Accumulation, Distribution, and Speciation in Spineless Prickly Pear Cactus: A Drought- and Salt-Tolerant, Selenium-Enriched Nutraceutical Fruit Crop for Biofortified Foods  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Enriched Nutraceutical Fruit Crop for Bioforti?ed Foods Garyavonoids found in Opuntia fruit can enhance the function ofof total Se in cladode, fruit juice, fruit pulp, and seed is

Banuelos, Gary S.

2012-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

373

IPST: Enabling the Forest Bioproducts Industry  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Report (2014 Edition) Additionally: · Ranked 8th in Engineering/Technology and Computer Science in manufacturing and paper products · Sustaining U.S. Manufacturing Capacity · New / Improved Pulp, Paper

374

Surface properties of CTMP fibers modified with xylans  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

This study investigated the effect of modification with xylan on the surface properties of chemithermomechanical pulp (CTMP) from spruce. The surface modifications were carried out by controlled sorption of birch...

Åsa Henriksson; Paul Gatenhalm

2002-03-01T23:59:59.000Z

375

Rule-Based Energy Management System Applied to Large Industrial Facilities  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Deregulation of electricity and rising fuel costs are causing renewed interest in Energy Management Systems (EMS). This paper details the results of integrating a rule-based EMS controller at a Pulp and Paper Mill and additional findings from...

Gauthier, M.; Childress, R. L.

376

The Analysis and Development of Large Industrial Steam Systems  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Chemicals, petroleum, pulp and paper, and many other industries depend heavily on extensive complex steam systems for thermal and mechanical energy delivery. Steam's versatility and desirable characteristics as both a heat transfer medium and a...

Waterland, A. F.

1980-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

377

Quantifying fatigue generated in high strain rate cyclic loading of Norway spruce  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

Papermaking especially mechanical pulping consumes much energy. To reduce this energy consumption one has to understand and exploit the phenomena present during the pulping. An important phenomenon to understand is wood fatigue. We quantitatively measure the fatigue generated during high strain rate cyclic loading of spruce wood performed under conditions resembling those present during mechanical pulping. We impacted the samples with 5% strain pulses at 500 Hz. The radial direction stiffness drop in the samples was quantified by 500 kHz ultrasonic through-transmission postimpacting. The depth profile of the generated fatigue was also determined. A dependency of the amount of fatigue generated during cyclic straining on the moisture content was detected. A hypothesis about the temporal and spatial evolution of the fatigue during the process is presented. The results supporting the hypothesis provide insight into wood behavior under mechanical pulping conditions.

Ari Salmi; Lauri Salminen; Edward Hæggström

2009-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

378

A new era in palaeomicrobiology: prospects for ancient dental calculus as a long-term record of the human oral microbiome  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

...pestis in dental pulp. Microbiology 150, 263-264; discussion...0.26885-0 ) 16 Gilbert, MT , Cuccui, J...putative plague victims. Microbiology 150, 341-354...0.26594-0 ) 17 Gilbert, MTP , Cuccui, J...

2015-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

379

Greening the invisible hand : how environmental non-governmental organizations (NGOs) succeed and fall in technology change  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

This dissertation examines how national environmental non-governmental organizations (NGOs) in Sweden and the United States (US) tried to diffuse cleaner production technologies in the pulp and paper industry from 1980-1998. ...

Rossi, Mark S. (Mark Stephen), 1962-

2003-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

380

Toxicity Analysis of Polycyclic Aromatic Hydrocarbon Mixtures  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

in people who work in pulp and paper mills, at hazardous waste sites, municipal and hazardous waste incinerators, and those involved in production, use, and disposal of chlorinated pesticides and herbicides. The most toxic of the PCDDs, 2...

Naspinski, Christine S.

2010-01-16T23:59:59.000Z

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "kraft pulping bleaching" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


381

Biology, ecology, and biotechnological applications of anaerobic bacteria adapted to environmental stresses in temperature, pH, salinity, or substrates.  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

...liquors from the pulp and paper industry and oil shale rock refining wastes from the synfuel industry. Effective biodegradation of these wastes may require salt-tolerant...anaerobic bacteria. Coal gasification and waste treatment. The...

S E Lowe; M K Jain; J G Zeikus

1993-06-01T23:59:59.000Z

382

Making industrial energy efficiency mainstream and profitable: Where public benefit and private interests intersect  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Pulp and Paper Industry (TAPPI) became an Allied Partner andmills across the country. TAPPI has 33,000 members and hasfree of charge. OIT and TAPPI have cooperated to conduct

McKane, Aimee T.; Tutterow, Vestal; Cockrill, Chris

2001-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

383

Comparative genomics of Ceriporiopsis subvermispora and Phanerochaete chrysosporium provide insight into selective ligninolysis  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

...1992) Biomechanical pulping of loblolly pine with different strains of the white rot fungus Ceriporiopsis subvermispora. TAPPI 75:105 109. 46. Blanchette R (1991) Delignification by wood decay fungi. Ann Rev Phytopath 29:381 398. 47. Blanchette...

Elena Fernandez-Fueyo; Francisco J. Ruiz-Dueñas; Patricia Ferreira; Dimitrios Floudas; David S. Hibbett; Paulo Canessa; Luis F. Larrondo; Tim Y. James; Daniela Seelenfreund; Sergio Lobos; Rubén Polanco; Mario Tello; Yoichi Honda; Takahito Watanabe; Takashi Watanabe; Jae San Ryu; Christian P. Kubicek; Monika Schmoll; Jill Gaskell; Kenneth E. Hammel; Franz J. St. John; Amber Vanden Wymelenberg; Grzegorz Sabat; Sandra Splinter BonDurant; Khajamohiddin Syed; Jagjit S. Yadav; Harshavardhan Doddapaneni; Venkataramanan Subramanian; José L. Lavín; José A. Oguiza; Gumer Perez; Antonio G. Pisabarro; Lucia Ramirez; Francisco Santoyo; Emma Master; Pedro M. Coutinho; Bernard Henrissat; Vincent Lombard; Jon Karl Magnuson; Ursula Kües; Chiaki Hori; Kiyohiko Igarashi; Masahiro Samejima; Benjamin W. Held; Kerrie W. Barry; Kurt M. LaButti; Alla Lapidus; Erika A. Lindquist; Susan M. Lucas; Robert Riley; Asaf A. Salamov; Dirk Hoffmeister; Daniel Schwenk; Yitzhak Hadar; Oded Yarden; Ronald P. de Vries; Ad Wiebenga; Jan Stenlid; Daniel Eastwood; Igor V. Grigoriev; Randy M. Berka; Robert A. Blanchette; Phil Kersten; Angel T. Martinez; Rafael Vicuna; Dan Cullen

2012-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

384

Comprehensive Research Areas in ChBE Biomedical Engineering  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

& BioprocessingCatalysis, Reaction Kinetics & Reaction EngineeringComplex Fluids & Multiphase Flow EnergyComprehensive Research Areas in ChBE Biomedical Engineering Biotechnology, Bioinformatics & M EM S Nanotechnology Polymers & Materials Science Process Systems Engineering Pulp & Paper

Sherrill, David

385

Leaf-Induced Gibberellin Signaling Is Essential for Internode Elongation, Cambial Activity, and Fiber Differentiation in Tobacco Stems  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

...results in the production of wood, which is a valuable renewable source of energy and is a raw material for pulping and construction...biotechnological approaches to induce fiber formation as renewable resources. To assess auxin- and GA-dependent...

Jonathan Dayan; Nickolay Voronin; Fan Gong; Tai-ping Sun; Peter Hedden; Hillel Fromm; Roni Aloni

2012-01-17T23:59:59.000Z

386

Investigations into the Chemistry of Laudering  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

in the solution 1711-1666 Same as above, but completely immersed 1634, 1634 Boiled in 2.5 N a 2 C 0 3 , for 3.5 hrs. half im­ mersed 1648 Same as one above but completely immersed... 1636 Boiled in 5 per cent NasCOa for 3.5 hrs., im­ mersed completely 1625... D OF CLOTH solution used Original muslin JVJJ Muslin, bleached medium (Muslin A ) v/!;; Muslin, bleached strongly (Muslin B) A/ 1 0 _ Muslin B N 7 1 0 rinsed 3 times with distilled wat( Original muslin A V J O Muslin A A7J0 Muslin B AV 0...

Faragher, W.F.

1910-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

387

Health and Hygiene in Evacuation Centers  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

). To sanitize, use 1 teaspoon of household bleach in 1 quart of clean water. Any cleaning product with a label stating that it is a sanitizer will also work. Health and Hygiene in Evacuation Centers ? Clean all surfaces in the living area with a household...). To sanitize, use 1 teaspoon of household bleach in 1 quart of clean water. Any cleaning product with a label stating that it is a sanitizer will also work. Health and Hygiene in Evacuation Centers ? Clean all surfaces in the living area with a household...

Norman, Lisa

2005-09-30T23:59:59.000Z

388

Emerging Energy-Efficiency and Greenhouse Gas Mitigation Technologies for  

Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

Emerging Energy-Efficiency and Greenhouse Gas Mitigation Technologies for Emerging Energy-Efficiency and Greenhouse Gas Mitigation Technologies for the Pulp and Paper Industry Title Emerging Energy-Efficiency and Greenhouse Gas Mitigation Technologies for the Pulp and Paper Industry Publication Type Report Year of Publication 2012 Authors Kong, Lingbo, Ali Hasanbeigi, and Lynn K. Price Date Published 12/2012 Publisher Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory Keywords emerging technologies, energy efficiency, ghg, Low Emission & Efficient Industry, pulp and paper Abstract The pulp and paper industry ranks fourth in terms of energy consumption among industries worldwide. Globally, the pulp and paper industry accounted for approximately 5 percent of total world industrial final energy consumption in 2007, and contributed 2 percent of direct carbon dioxide (CO2)emissions from industry. Worldwide pulp and paper demand and production are projected to increase significantly by 2050, leading to an increase in this industry's absolute energy use and greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions. Development of new energy-efficiency and GHG mitigation technologies and their deployment in the market will be crucial for the pulp and paper industry's mid- and long-term climate change mitigation strategies. This report describes the industry's processes and compiles available information on the energy savings, environmental and other benefits, costs, commercialization status, and references for 36 emerging technologies to reduce the industry's energy use and GHG emissions. Although studies from around the world identify a variety of sector-specific and cross-cutting energy-efficiency technologies that have already been commercialized for the pulp and paper industry, information is scarce and/or scattered regarding emerging or advanced energy-efficiency and low-carbon technologies that are not yet commercialized. The purpose of this report is to provide engineers, researchers, investors, paper companies, policy makers, and other interested parties with easy access to a well-structured resource of information on these technologies.

389

Environmental Impact on Applied Technology- Global Warming CFCs & VOCs  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Fuel Oil -3299 -3093 -2834 Coal -4545 -4338 -4079 Wood Waste -5232 -5025 -4766 Coping With Environmental Pressures The textile finishing industry, pulp and paper and thers rejecting large quantities of warm water are undegoing increased... Fuel Oil -3299 -3093 -2834 Coal -4545 -4338 -4079 Wood Waste -5232 -5025 -4766 Coping With Environmental Pressures The textile finishing industry, pulp and paper and thers rejecting large quantities of warm water are undegoing increased...

Gilbert, J. S.

390

A Benthic Terrain Classification Scheme for American Samoa Accepted for publication in Marine Geodesy, 2006  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

, invasive species, security training activities, offshore oil and gas exploration, and coral bleaching the western Pacific. #12;3 Introduction The high productivity of coral reef ecosystems demands a quantifiable to increasing coastal populations (Culliton 1998). Natural and anthropogenic processes threaten natural

Wright, Dawn Jeannine

391

TAF9b (Formerly TAF9L) Is a Bona Fide TAF That Has Unique and Overlapping Roles with TAF9  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

...protein (CFP) TAF9b fusions were generated by subcloning...YFP- and CFP-TAF6 fusions. A total of 1.5 105...IV matrix-assisted laser desorption-time of...YFP (Y) and CFP (C) fusion proteins with TAF6...bleaching by the 514-nm laser line (the cell in the...

Mattia Frontini; Evi Soutoglou; Manuela Argentini; Christine Bole-Feysot; Bernard Jost; Elisabeth Scheer; Làszlò Tora

2005-06-01T23:59:59.000Z

392

Dating and context of three middle stone age sites with bone points in the Upper Semliki Valley, Zaire  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

...HOMO-SAPIENS CRANIA FROM LAKE EYASI, TANZANIA, JOURNAL OF ARCHAEOLOGICAL SCIENCE 14...dated MSA occur-rences are at Mumba (Tanzania) (2) in association with uranium decay...170 10 Gy. This result assumes that the solar bleaching of the sediment at deposition...

AS Brooks; DM Helgren; JS Cramer; A Franklin; W Hornyak; JM Keating; RG Klein; WJ Rink; H Schwarcz; JN Smith; al. et

1995-04-28T23:59:59.000Z

393

Nano TiO2 as a New Tool for Mothproofing of Wool: Protection of Wool against Anthrenus verbasci  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

Nano TiO2 as a New Tool for Mothproofing of Wool: Protection of Wool against Anthrenus verbasci ... 2.3 Scouring and Bleaching Treatment ... Scouring of wool fabrics was performed using 1% nonionic detergent (based on weight of fabric, OWF) at 60 °C for 60 min with a liquor to goods ratio of 30:1. ...

Ali Nazari; Majid Montazer; Mehdi Dehghani-Zahedani

2012-12-31T23:59:59.000Z

394

SCIENTIFIC NOTES AND NEWS  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

...wastes studied in detail are those resulting from wool scouring, cotton-yarn bleaching, cotton-yarn dyeing...the costs of treatment, and the recovery of wool fat and potash from wool-scouring liquor will in many cases result in-a sub-stantial...

1908-10-30T23:59:59.000Z

395

UNIVERSITY AND EDUCATIONAL NEWS  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

...wastes studied in detail are those resulting from wool scouring, cotton-yarn bleaching, cotton-yarn dyeing...the costs of treatment, and the recovery of wool fat and potash from wool-scouring liquor will in many cases result in-a sub-stantial...

1908-10-30T23:59:59.000Z

396

Fruit and Vegetable Safety Challenge Game Directions  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

1 Fruit and Vegetable Safety Challenge Game Directions Equipment needed: 1. Computer, projector (fruits, vegetables, and meat) 6. Cleaning solutions (bleach, soap, water) 7. Stop watch 8. Team prizes How to Start: This game can be used with the "A Healthy Harvest: Safe Handling of Fresh Fruits

397

GEOCHEMISTRY, GEOPHYSICS, GEOSYSTEMS, VOL. ???, XXXX, DOI:10.1029/, In-situ re-deposition of trace metals mobilized by  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

.1002/ggge.20104 #12;X - 2 WIGLEY ET AL.: TRACE METAL RE-DEPOSITION Abstract. Mobilization of contaminants by CO2-charged brines is one concern relating to injection of CO2 as part of carbon capture and storage of Green River, Utah (USA), where CO2- charged brines have bleached red sandstones, and concentrated trace

Boyer, Edmond

398

OAA's geostationary and polar-orbiting satellites provide critical data for short-term and  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

, El Niño and La Niña, coral bleaching, ocean acidification, and algae blooms. Real-Time Data span of 5 years but are equipped with 10 years of fuel if they go past their life cycle. POES operates

399

Method of digesting an explosive nitro compound  

DOE Patents [OSTI]

The present invention is a process wherein bleaching oxidants are used to digest explosive nitro compounds. The process has an excellent reaction rate for digesting explosives and operates under multivariate conditions. Reaction solutions may be aqueous, non-aqueous or a combination thereof, and can also be any pH, but preferably have a pH between 2 and 9. The temperature may be ambient as well as any temperature above which freezing of the solution would occur and below which any degradation of the bleaching oxidant would occur or below which any explosive reaction would be initiated. The pressure may be any pressure, but is preferably ambient or atmospheric, or a pressure above a vapor pressure of the aqueous solution to avoid boiling of the solution. Because the bleaching oxidant molecules are small, much smaller than an enzyme molecule for example, they can penetrate the microstructure of plastic explosives faster. The bleaching oxidants generate reactive hydroxyl radicals, which can destroy other organic contaminants, if necessary, along with digesting the explosive nitro compound.

Shah, Manish M. (Richland, WA)

2000-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

400

Number Plastic Type Common Items Number of Items (tally) 1 polyethylene terephthalate  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

End Time: Number Plastic Type Common Items Number of Items (tally) 1 polyethylene terephthalate and vegetable oil containers; ovenable food trays. 2 high density polyethylene Milk jugs, juice bottles; bleach, piping, candy wrappers 4 low density polyethylene Squeezable bottles; bread, frozen food, dry cleaning

Schladow, S. Geoffrey

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "kraft pulping bleaching" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


401

SICILY & THE AMALFI COAST FROM $3195 | OCTOBER 3 12, 2014  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

seemingly untouched by time. Discover sun-bleached Greek temples, Roman ruins and ancient theaters amidst and drives is all provided. Detailed travel and destination information to assist in planning Pre-trip gift~TAORMINA MARE Educational focus: History of Sicilian Art and Architecture. Excursion: Taormina. Explore

402

The Nuclear Import of TAF10 Is Regulated by One of Its Three Histone Fold Domain-Containing Interaction Partners  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

...localization signal and its nuclear transport is dependent...the regulation of the nuclear localization of TAF10...expression vector containing a nuclear localization signal...Research Institute, Japan) by using primers containing...of 1 Airy unit. Laser power for bleaching was maximal...

Evi Soutoglou; Màté A. Demény; Elisabeth Scheer; Giulia Fienga; Paolo Sassone-Corsi; Làszlò Tora

2005-05-01T23:59:59.000Z

403

UDP-Glucose 4-Epimerase Isoforms UGE2 and UGE4 Cooperate in Providing UDP-Galactose for Cell Wall Biosynthesis and Growth of Arabidopsis thaliana  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

...Plant Growth Arabidopsis seeds were surface-sterilized in 5% cleaning bleach...scanning electron microscope. Sublimation of surface frost was performed at C for 3 min before...Monoclonal antibodies to plant cell wall xylans and arabinoxylans. J. Histochem. Cytochem...

Johannes Rösti; Christopher J. Barton; Sandra Albrecht; Paul Dupree; Markus Pauly; Kim Findlay; Keith Roberts; Georg J. Seifert

2007-05-11T23:59:59.000Z

404

Tips for Living Green Conduct a home energy audit -hes.lbl.gov or fcgov.com/greenbuilding/home/existing_programs.php  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

overnight and when not in use. Save energy and money by covering your pots while cooking and air dry your money and resources. Replace caustic cleaning products with environmentally-friendly alternatives like products. Give up the bleach: switch to organic cotton tampons or check out the Diva Cup - www

405

MONDAY, JANUARY 28, 2008 16:00 -16:30 Opening Ceremony Hall A, Herods Forum  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

THE EFFECT OF GLOBAL CLIMATE CHANGE ON CORALS REEFS: BLEACHING AND SKELETON LOSS 19:15 M. Horowitz, Hebrew:30 Parallel Session A-3: microRNA - from plants to humans in development, health and disease Hall D, Dan. Mandelboim, Hebrew University - Hadassah Medical School VIRAL AND HUMAN microRNAs USE SHARED TARGET SEQUENCES

Shamir, Ron

406

RESEARCH ARTICLE Open Access Developing the anemone Aiptasia as a tractable  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

fixed carbon to the host [5]. Reef-building corals have recently declined worldwide, with pollution are declining globally due to a number of stressors, including rising sea-surface temperatures and pollution endosymbiotic dinoflagellates, a process known as coral bleaching. Although the environmental stresses causing

Pringle, John

407

Response of the symbiotic cnidarian Anthopleura elegantissima transcriptome to temperature and UV increase  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

environmental factors, such as high light, high UV radiation and pollution can act synergistically to exacerbate radiation, are now recognized as the primary environmental stresses that lead to mass cnidarian bleaching Symbiodinium, the same genus of symbionts found in reef-building corals. Symbiotic anemones were subjected

408

Synthesis, characterization and performance of vanadium hexacyanoferrate as electrocatalyst of H2O2  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

in environmental, food, and industrial analysis; it is used to pollution control, to bleach textiles and paper.01­3.0 mM H2O2 was constructed. Limit of detection (S/N = 3) of 4 lM H2O2 was calculated. The proposed

Trikalitis, Pantelis N.

409

Author's personal copy The most temperature-adapted corals have an Achilles' Heel  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

N. Ocean Drive, Dania Beach, FL 33004, USA a r t i c l e i n f o Keywords: Persian/Arabian Gulf Marine hardground Coral habitat Global change a b s t r a c t The corals of the Persian/Arabian Gulf of the Persian/Arabian Gulf display unusual resilience to temperature stress (bleaching). Summer daily

Purkis, Sam

410

Purification and Characterization of Broad Bean Lipoxygenase Isoenzymes  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

Yoon and Klein (1979) isolated four pea LOX isoenzymes (PL), showing PL I and PL II isoforms with differences in pH profiles, substrate specificity, carotene, and chlorophyl-bleaching activity and in their ability to produce carbonyl compounds during the linoleate oxidation reaction. ... A.C. and R.O. are recipients of a grant from the Spanish Ministry of Education. ...

Alfonso Clemente; Raquel Olías; Jose Manuel Olías

2000-03-18T23:59:59.000Z

411

Quantitation of Dibenzodioxin and Dibenzofuran (DBD/DBF) in Petroleum-Base Oil by HPLC and GC/MS  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

......Hise and H.L Hintz. The effect of brownstock washing on the formation of chlorinated dioxins and furans during bleaching. TAPPI Journal, 73:185 (1990). 4. U.S. EPA. Paper industry cooperative dioxin screening study. NCASI Tech. Bull. No......

Michael T. Cheng; Cresente D. Dimagmaliw; Raffaele G. Ruberto; Michael A. Shippey

1992-12-01T23:59:59.000Z

412

New Taxa of Octocorals (Anthozoa: Octocorallia) from the Northeastern Pacific Ocean  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

occur in the northwestern and eastern Pacific -- Japan and Panama. According to Wing and Barnard (2004 of vertetillid pennatulaceans from the northwestern and eastern Pacific Ocean include several species from Japan hypochlorite (household bleach). Micrographs were made using a Nikon Coolpix 990 digital camera, sometimes

Williams, Gary C.

413

Quantifying changes in the thiol redox proteome upon oxidative stress in vivo  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

...hypochlorite, an active ingredient of household bleach, is the most widely used disinfectant known. Moreover, it has been...pressure of ~ 6. 10-7 torr and a collision energy of 2kV. 7 Peptide identifications...National Bio Resource Project (NIG, Japan) (4). All mutant strains listed below...

Lars I. Leichert; Florian Gehrke; Harini V. Gudiseva; Tom Blackwell; Marianne Ilbert; Angela K. Walker; John R. Strahler; Philip C. Andrews; Ursula Jakob

2008-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

414

The Arabidopsis Rop2 GTPase Is a Positive Regulator of Both Root Hair Initiation and Tip Growth  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

...thaliana seed (4 min in 10% household bleach, 4 min in ethanol...video camera (JVC, Yokohama, Japan) and Leica (Wetzlar, Germany...with either a Nikon (Tokyo, Japan) Optiphot upright microscope...Foundation, and Department of Energy grants (to Z.Y.), a Biotechnology...

Mark A. Jones; Jun-Jiang Shen; Ying Fu; Hai Li; Zhenbiao Yang; Claire S. Grierson

2002-04-04T23:59:59.000Z

415

Rat Ovarian Granulosa Cell Culture: A Model System for the Study of Cell-Cell Communication during Multistep Transformation  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

...The photobleached negative control (/) does not regain fluorescence; a nonphoto bleached...cell lines (57). However, the SIGC does not seem to exhibit increasing onco- genic...and T. Curran (cds.). The Oncogene Handbook, pp. 403-424. New York: Elsevier...

Lisa S. Stein; George Stoica; Roger Tilley; and Robert C. Burghardt

1991-01-15T23:59:59.000Z

416

Laboratory Director PRINCETON PLASMA PHYSICS LABORATORY  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

.D. Levine Dep: R. Sheneman Human Resources Director: S.E. Murphy­ LaMarche Best Practices and Outreach Head Projects: HTX, MNX,OSOR Beam Dynamics and Non-Neutral Plasmas R.C. Davidson Best Practices J. Graham Environmental Services Division R. Sheneman Accounting A.F. Bleach Procurement R. Templon Mechanical P

Princeton Plasma Physics Laboratory

417

Residual Strain Distribution in Bent Composite Boiler Tubes  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Kraft recovery boilers are typically constructed of carbon steel boiler tubes clad with a corrosion resistant layer, and these composite tubes are bent and welded together to form air port panels which enable the combustion air to enter the boiler. In this paper, the through-thickness residual strain in the carbon steel layer of non-heat-treated and heat-treated composite bent tubes were measured by neutron diffraction techniques and modeled by finite element modeling. The results can be used to optimize material selection and manufacturing processes to prevent stress corrosion and corrosion fatigue cracking in the boiler tubes.

Hubbard, Camden R [ORNL; Gorti, Sarma B [ORNL; Tang, Fei [ORNL

2006-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

418

On the characterization and spinning of solvent extracted lignin towards the manufacture of low-cost carbon fiber  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

ABSTRACT: A Kraft hardwood lignin (HWL) and an organic-purified hardwood lignin (HWL-OP) were evaluated as potential precursors for the production of lowcost carbon fibers. It was found that the unpurified HWL exhibited poor spinnability while the HWL-OP exhibited excellent spinnability characteristics. Fibers of various diameters were obtained from the HWL-OP. Thermostabilization studies showed that oxidative stabilization can only be used to convert HWL-OP-based fibers into carbon fibers if extremely low heating rates are applied. Carbonized lignin-based fibers had tensile strength of 0.51 GPa and tensile modulus of 28.6 GPa. VC

Baker, Darren A [ORNL; Gallego, Nidia C [ORNL; Baker, Frederick S [ORNL

2012-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

419

Fate of Fuel Nitrogen in the Furnace of an Industrial Bubbling Fluidized Bed Boiler during Combustion of Biomass Fuel Mixtures  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

Co-firing biomass with challenging fuels, such as sludge, demolition wood, and solid recovered fuel (SRF), has become an attractive possibility to improve the economy of power production and to reduce the amount of landfill. ... Therefore, the fuel was extremely wet, with a dry solids content below 50 wt %. ... Thus, CS could reduce NOx effectively in devices where other techniques fails, e.g., in kraft recovery boilers, fluidized bed combustors, low-grade fuel combustors, small and domestic boilers, and fast engines. ...

Emil Vainio; Anders Brink; Mikko Hupa; Hannu Vesala; Tuula Kajolinna

2011-11-28T23:59:59.000Z

420

Development and application of a real-time recovery boiler expert system  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

The recovery boiler, although often a bottleneck, is an integral part of any kraft mill. Maximizing production while maintaining safe operation are primary concerns. Statistical process control (SPC) and simulation are powerful tools for addressing these problems. SPC is useful for maintaining stable operation, whereas off-line simulation has proven useful to evaluate various operating strategies. Real-time integration of these methods has also been proposed. This paper describes integration of a millwide information system, an expert system shell, SPC, and real-time process simulation into a prototype advisory system for recovery boiler operation.

Smith, D.B.; Damon, R.A. (James River Corp., Camas Technical Center, Camas, WA (US)); Edwards, L.L. (Univ. of Idaho, Chemical Engineering, Buchannon Engineering Lab., Moscow, ID (US))

1991-11-01T23:59:59.000Z

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "kraft pulping bleaching" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


421

Black liquor gasification combined cycle with Co2 capture – Technical and economic analysis  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

Abstract The pulp and paper sector is intensive in the use of energy, and presents a high participation in the industrial context, specially based in the black liquor, a renewable source generated in the pulp process. Black liquor gasification is not still completely dominated; however, it has the potential of becoming an important alternative for the pulp and paper sector. In this article, the traditional steam cycle based on chemical recovery and biomass boilers associated to backpressure/extraction turbine is compared to black liquor gasification combined cycle schemes, associated to biomass boiler, considering the technical and economic attractiveness of capturing and sequestering CO2. Results show that despite its interesting exergetic efficiency, the adoption CO2 capture system for BLGCC did not prove to be attractive under the prescribed conditions without major incentive.

Elzimar Tadeu de Freitas Ferreira; José Antonio Perrella Balestieri

2014-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

422

Biopulping: A new energy-saving technology for papermaking  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Biopulping is defined as the treatment of wood chips with lignin-degrading fungi prior to pulping. Fungal pretreatment prior to mechanical pulping reduces electrical energy requirements during refining or increases mill throughput, improves paper strength, reduces the pitch content, reduces cooking time for sulfite pulping, and reduces the environmental impact of pulping. The recent work involved scaling up the biopulping process towards the industrial level, investigating both the engineering and economic feasibility of the technology. The authors envision the process to be done in either a chip-pile or silo-based system for which several factors need to be considered. These factors include the degree of decontamination, a hospitable environment for the fungus, and the overall process economics. Currently, treatment of the chips with low pressure steam is sufficient for decontamination. Furthermore, a simple, forced ventilation system can be used to maintain the proper temperature, humidity, and moisture content throughout the chip bed, thus promoting uniform growth of the fungus. The pilot-scale trial resulted in the successful treatment of 4 tons, of wood chips (dry weight basis) with results comparable to those on a laboratory scale. For mechanical pulping, a 2-week treatment results in approximately 30% energy savings that, considering the additional equipment and operating costs, results in an overall savings of $9 to $20/ton of pulp in a chip-pile system. The other benefits that biopulping confers improve the economics considerably A larger, 40-ton trial was also successful, with energy savings and paper properties comparable with the laboratory scale.

Scott, G.M.; Akhtar, M.; Lentz, M.J.; Kirk, T.K.; Swaney, R.; Shipley, D.F.

1997-07-01T23:59:59.000Z

423

Development of a Performance-based Industrial Energy Efficiency Indicator  

Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

Pulp, Paper, and Paperboard Mills Pulp, Paper, and Paperboard Mills Secondary menu About us Press room Contact Us Portfolio Manager Login Facility owners and managers Existing buildings Commercial new construction Industrial energy management Small business Service providers Service and product providers Verify applications for ENERGY STAR certification Design commercial buildings Energy efficiency program administrators Commercial and industrial program sponsors Associations State and local governments Federal agencies Tools and resources Training In This Section Campaigns Commercial building design Communications resources Energy management guidance Financial resources Portfolio Manager Products and purchasing Recognition Research and reports Service and product provider (SPP) resources Success stories Target Finder

424

On-Machine Sensors to Measure Paper Mechanical Properties  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

. REFERENCES I. Baum, G.A., Brerman, D.C., and Habeger, C.C., Tappi Journal, "Orthotropic Elastic Constants of Paper," 64 (8):97(1981). 2. Hersh, H.N., "Energy and Material Flows in the Production of Pulp and Paper," Argorme National Laboratory, ANL.... REFERENCES I. Baum, G.A., Brerman, D.C., and Habeger, C.C., Tappi Journal, "Orthotropic Elastic Constants of Paper," 64 (8):97(1981). 2. Hersh, H.N., "Energy and Material Flows in the Production of Pulp and Paper," Argorme National Laboratory, ANL...

Hall, M. S.

425

Survey and analysis of federally developed technology  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

The methodology and results of a test effort to determine whether there exist unexpected opportunities for the direct transfer of technologies from federal laboratories to industry are presented. Specifically, the latest results of six federal laboratories with potential application in the pulp and paper industry, particularly those results applicable to improving energy productivity, were evaluated, cataloged, and distributed to industry representatives to gauge their reaction. The principal methodological steps in this effort were the development of a taxonomy of the pulp and paper industry, identification of industry needs and laboratory capabilities, laboratory visits, review of technology findings with industry, and evaluation and compilation of industry responses.

Reed, J.E.; Conrad, J.L.

1983-02-01T23:59:59.000Z

426

Das Standard Modell  

Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

Model Model Was ist fundamental? Das Standard Modell Physiker haben eine Theorie - Das Standard Modell - entwickelt, welche erklärt, woraus die Welt besteht und was sie zusammenhält. Es ist eine einfache und überzeugende Theorie, welche hunderte von Teilchen und ihre gegenseitigen Wechselwirkungen erklärt. Dazu braucht sie nur wenige elementare Teilchen : 6 Quarks. 6 Leptonen. Das bekannteste Lepton ist das Elektron. Wir reden gleich von Leptonen. Kraft-Träger Teilchen, wie z.B. das Photon. Wir werden später über diese Teilchen reden. Alle bekannten materiellenTeilchen sind aus Quarks und Leptonen zusammengesetzt und sie wechselwirken untereinander durch den Austausch von Kraft-Träger Teilchen. Das Standard Modell ist eine gute Theorie. Eine grosse Zahl von Experimenten haben ihre Voraussagen mit unglaublicher Präzision bestätigt und alle Teilchen, welche die Theorie bis heute vorausgesagt hat, wurden auch gefunden. Aber die Theorie kann nicht alles erklären. Die Schwerkraft zum Beispiel ist nicht im Standard Modell eingeschlossen.

427

Effect of variable valence impurities on the formation of bismuth-related optical centres in a silicate glass  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

We have studied the effect of variable valence impurities (cerium and iron) on the formation of bismuth-related IR luminescence centres and the optical loss between 1000 and 1300 nm in a magnesium aluminosilicate glass. The results demonstrate that additional doping of the glass with ceria leads to effective bleaching in a wide spectral range, including the luminescence range of the bismuth centres. At the same time, ceria reduces the concentration of luminescence centres. Gamma irradiation of the glass bleached by cerium restores the luminescence centres but leads to a background loss in a wide spectral range. Iron is shown to be a very harmful impurity in bismuth-doped active media: even trace levels of iron prevent the formation of bismuth-related active centres in the glass and produce a strong, broad absorption band centred near 1 {mu}m. (luminescence of glasses)

Galagan, B I; Denker, B I; Lili Hu; Sverchkov, S E; Shulman, I L; Dianov, Evgenii M

2012-10-31T23:59:59.000Z

428

Chapter 9. Chemical Equilibrium 9.1 The Nature of Chemical Equilibrium  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

equation for this process is 2 Cl2(g) + 2 HgO(s) + H2O(l) HgO�HgCl2(s) + 2 HOCl(aq) Write the equilibrium) CO(g) + 0.5 O2(g) CO2(g) #12;Law of Mass Action for Reactions in Solution #12;Example 9.2 · Household laundry bleach is a solution of sodium hypochlorite (NaOCl) prepared by adding gaseous Cl2 to a solution

Ihee, Hyotcherl

429

Tree planters' notes. Volume 43, Number 4, Fall 1992. Quarterly report  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Contents: the rain forest in tropical america: forest dynamics, reforestation, seed handling, and problems of management; plantation establishment techniques in tropical america; seed technology: a challenge for tropical forestry; the issa system for production of container tree seedlings; scarification of limba seeds with hot water, bleach, and acid; nursery morphology and preliminary comparison of 3-year field performance of 1+0 and 2+0 bareroot ponderosa pine seedlings.

Mangold, R.; Nisley, R.; Karrfalt, R.; Landis, T.; Lantz, C.

1992-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

430

First-of-its-Kind Carbon Capture and Conversion Demonstration Technology Opening in Texas  

Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

WASHINGTON D.C. — Today, the Department of Energy and Skyonic Corporation marked the opening of a major project demonstration for converting carbon dioxide (CO2) into commercial products. This new plant will use a first-of-its-kind process to capture 75,000 tons of CO2 from a San Antonio, Texas, cement plant and convert the greenhouse gas into other products, including sodium carbonate and sodium bicarbonate, hydrochloric acid and bleach.

431

Rice (Oryza sativa L.) response to clomazone as influenced by rate, soil type, and planting date  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

: ____________________________ ____________________________ James M. Chandler Scott A. Senseman (Chair of Committee) (Member) ____________________________ ____________________________ Garry N. McCauley Rodney W. Bovey (Member) (Member.... If bleaching is severe, it can lead to necrosis and eventual plant death. Clomazone is taken up by plant roots and shoots and moves primarily in the xylem to plant leaves (Duke and Paul 1986). Clomazone indirectly inhibits 1-deoxy-D-xylulose-5-phosphate...

O'Barr, John Houston

2006-08-16T23:59:59.000Z

432

Electrochromic window with high reflectivity modulation  

DOE Patents [OSTI]

A multi-layered, active, thin film, solid-state electrochromic device having a high reflectivity in the near infrared in a colored state, a high reflectivity and transmissivity modulation when switching between colored and bleached states, a low absorptivity in the near infrared, and fast switching times, and methods for its manufacture and switching are provided. In one embodiment, a multi-layered device comprising a first indium tin oxide transparent electronic conductor, a transparent ion blocking layer, a tungsten oxide electrochromic anode, a lithium ion conducting-electrically resistive electrolyte, a complimentary lithium mixed metal oxide electrochromic cathode, a transparent ohmic contact layer, a second indium oxide transparent electronic conductor, and a silicon nitride encapsulant is provided. Through elimination of optional intermediate layers, simplified device designs are provided as alternative embodiments. Typical colored-state reflectivity of the multi-layered device is greater than 50% in the near infrared, bleached-state reflectivity is less than 40% in the visible, bleached-state transmissivity is greater than 60% in the near infrared and greater than 40% in the visible, and spectral absorbance is less than 50% in the range from 0.65-2.5 .mu.m.

Goldner, Ronald B. (Lexington, MA); Gerouki, Alexandra (Medford, MA); Liu, Te-Yang (Arlington, MA); Goldner, Mark A. (Cambridge, MA); Haas, Terry E. (Southborough, MA)

2000-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

433

" Row: Selected SIC Codes; Column: Energy Sources;"  

U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

S5.1. Selected Byproducts in Fuel Consumption, 1998;" S5.1. Selected Byproducts in Fuel Consumption, 1998;" " Level: National Data; " " Row: Selected SIC Codes; Column: Energy Sources;" " Unit: Trillion Btu." " "," "," "," "," "," "," "," ","Waste"," ",," " " "," "," ","Blast"," "," ","Pulping Liquor"," ","Oils/Tars","RSE" "SIC"," "," ","Furnace/Coke"," ","Petroleum","or","Wood Chips,","and Waste","Row"

434

" Electricity Generation by Census Region, Census Division, Industry Group, and"  

U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

A6. Total Inputs of Selected Byproduct Energy for Heat, Power, and" A6. Total Inputs of Selected Byproduct Energy for Heat, Power, and" " Electricity Generation by Census Region, Census Division, Industry Group, and" " Selected Industries, 1994" " (Estimates in Trillion Btu)" " "," "," "," "," "," "," "," ","Waste"," " " "," "," ","Blast"," "," "," "," ","Oils/Tars","RSE" "SIC"," "," ","Furnace/Coke"," ","Petroleum","Pulping","Wood Chips,","And Waste","Row"

435

Table 3.5 Selected Byproducts in Fuel Consumption, 2002  

U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

5 Selected Byproducts in Fuel Consumption, 2002;" 5 Selected Byproducts in Fuel Consumption, 2002;" " Level: National Data and Regional Totals; " " Row: NAICS Codes; Column: Energy Sources;" " Unit: Trillion Btu." " "," "," "," "," "," "," "," ","Waste"," ",," " " "," "," ","Blast"," "," ","Pulping Liquor"," ","Oils/Tars","RSE" "NAICS"," "," ","Furnace/Coke","Waste","Petroleum","or","Wood Chips,","and Waste","Row"

436

Table N5.1. Selected Byproducts in Fuel Consumption, 1998  

U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

1. Selected Byproducts in Fuel Consumption, 1998;" 1. Selected Byproducts in Fuel Consumption, 1998;" " Level: National Data and Regional Totals; " " Row: NAICS Codes; Column: Energy Sources;" " Unit: Trillion Btu." " "," "," "," "," "," "," "," ","Waste"," ",," " " "," "," ","Blast"," "," ","Pulping Liquor"," ","Oils/Tars","RSE" "NAICS"," "," ","Furnace/Coke"," ","Petroleum","or","Wood Chips,","and Waste","Row"

437

"RSE Table N5.1. Relative Standard Errors for Table N5.1;"  

U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

1. Relative Standard Errors for Table N5.1;" 1. Relative Standard Errors for Table N5.1;" " Unit: Percents." " "," "," "," "," "," "," "," ","Waste",," " " "," "," ","Blast"," "," ","Pulping Liquor"," ","Oils/Tars" "NAICS"," "," ","Furnace/Coke"," ","Petroleum","or","Wood Chips,","and Waste" "Code(a)","Subsector and Industry","Total","Oven Gases","Waste Gas","Coke","Black Liquor","Bark","Materials"

438

RSE Table 3.5 Relative Standard Errors for Table 3.5  

U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

5 Relative Standard Errors for Table 3.5;" 5 Relative Standard Errors for Table 3.5;" " Unit: Percents." " "," "," "," "," "," "," "," ","Waste",," " " "," "," ","Blast"," "," ","Pulping Liquor"," ","Oils/Tars" "NAICS"," "," ","Furnace/Coke","Waste","Petroleum","or","Wood Chips,","and Waste" "Code(a)","Subsector and Industry","Total","Oven Gases","Gas","Coke","Black Liquor","Bark","Materials"

439

This article was originally published in a journal published by Elsevier, and the attached copy is provided by Elsevier for the  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

- ing industries, accounting for about 4% of world energy consumption1 according to the World Energy Council [1]. The paper machine alone accounts for 35% of the total energy consumption in a pulp and paper mill [2]. On a nor- malized basis, the energy use is given as the specific energy consumption (SEC

Kjelstrup, Signe

440

Retrofit Sizing and Economics of Air Preheaters and Economizers for Process Heaters and Boilers  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

.S. industrial operations. Let us first consider the status of industrial energy prior to 1974. Report S/D-10, prepared for the GEAC presents the 1973 energy use by 308 plants of Texas in the categories: petroleum refining, chemical manufacture, pulp and paper...

Kumar, A.; Vasquez, R.; Crump, J. R.

1979-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "kraft pulping bleaching" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


441

Sponsors of CIEEDAC: Natural Resources Canada, Environment Canada, Aluminium Industry Association, Canadian Chemical Producers' Association, Canadian Foundry Association, Canadian Gas Association, Canadian Petroleum  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Petroleum Products Institute, Canadian Portland Cement Association, Canadian Pulp and Paper Association des ressources naturelles, Québec. Ministry of Energy Mines and Petroleum Resource, BC. CIEEDAC-0019 15 Canadian Council of Ministers of the Environment / I-0070 65 Canadian Association of Petroleum

442

The Development of a Hydrothermal Method for Slurry Feedstock Preparation for Gasification Technology  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Hydrothermal gasification of biomass and organic wastes. Thewaste, and organic waste from anaerobic wastewater digester and black liquid from paper pulping process have been investigated in the supercritical water gasificationgasification normally exceeds 22MPa [131]. Flowable feedstocks, such as woody waste,

He, Wei

2011-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

443

Control of Lime Kiln Heat Balance is Key to Reduced Fuel Consumption  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

This article discusses the various heat loads in a pulp mill lime sludge kiln, pointing out which heat loads cannot be reduced and which heat loads can, and how a reduction in energy use can be achieved. In almost any existing rotary lime sludge...

Kramm, D. J.

1982-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

444

Climate change impacts on forestry  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

...further used to produce energy directly or as feedstock to produce a variety of energy products, including...Pulp mills have large energy requirements and are...technology, the prices for renewable wood-based...shift toward southern Brazil and Argentina. In some...

Andrei P. Kirilenko; Roger A. Sedjo

2007-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

445

Portable X-ray fluorescence in the assessment of rare earth element-enriched sedimentary phosphate deposits  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

...fluorescence in the assessment of rare earth element-enriched sedimentary...considered as potential sources of rare earth elements (REEs) and...phosphate deposit|pulps|rare earth elements|recalibration...into effluents associated with phosphogypsum stockpiles and could pose a...

G.J. Simandl; R. Fajber; S. Paradis

446

Corrosion Repair and Corrosion Protection of Reinforced Concrete Structures in  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

11/14/2014 1 Corrosion Repair and Corrosion Protection of Reinforced Concrete Structures in Pulp and Paper Mills Vector Construction / Vector Corrosion Technologies www.vectorgroup.com www.vector-corrosion.com Presentation Outline · Introduction · Corrosion of Reinforced Concrete Structures · Protection of Chests

Das, Suman

447

The Selective Value of Bacterial Shape  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

...up to 10% of the total bacteria in pulp mill lagoons, including species of Ancalomicrobium...physically strengthen the epidermis to resist wind and rain (82). It is not too outlandish...friable sandstone surfaces in a desiccating, wind-abraded environment of south-central...

Kevin D. Young

2006-09-01T23:59:59.000Z

448

Home Page > Business > Industrial > Global Trade Of Wood Chips Down 26% In 2009 As Pulpmills Reduce Production Worldwide, Reports Wood Resources International  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

from South Africa have declined 40%. With pulp production slowly increasing this fall and energy are Australia, South Africa, Vietnam and Uruguay. Australia, the world's largest exporter, has reduced shipmentsHome Page > Business > Industrial > Global Trade Of Wood Chips Down 26% In 2009 As Pulpmills Reduce

449

On the Inside How Low Can Lignin Go?  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

On the Inside How Low Can Lignin Go? Reducing the lignin content of plants has long been a goal of plant biotech- nology. Lignin is an unwanted product in the pulp and paper industry because it increases. Moreover, reducing the lignin content of the raw biomass material may allow more efficient hydrolysis

Kachroo, Pradeep

450

European Market Study for BioOil (Pyrolysis Oil)  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

European Market Study for BioOil (Pyrolysis Oil) Dec 15, 2006 Doug Bradley President Climate Change Solutions National Team Leader- IEA Bioenergy Task 40- Bio-trade 402 Third Avenue ·Ottawa, Ontario ·Canada K. Market Determining Factors 5. EU Country Perspectives 6. Potential European Markets 6.1. Pulp Mill Lime

451

11 September 2014 SENT TO LSU AGCENTER/LOUISIANA FOREST PRODUCTS DEVELOPMENT CENTER -FOREST SECTOR / FORESTY PRODUCTS INTEREST GROUP  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

companies in Finland, Norway and Sweden totaling close to three billion dollars, as reported in the Wood. In Finland, Metsä Fiber has plans to invest 1.5 billion dollars in a plant that will produce softwood pulp, renewable bioenergy and what the company categorizes as "various biomaterials". Some of the factors

452

BIOTECHNOLOGY: WORKING WITH NATURE TO IMPROVE FOREST RESOURCES AND PRODUCTS  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

BIOTECHNOLOGY: WORKING WITH NATURE TO IMPROVE FOREST RESOURCES AND PRODUCTS Marguerite Sykes of biotechnology in the forest products industry is expanding beyond the pulp and paper industry. Applications. This paper provides an overview of recent publications in these new areas of biotechnology. INTRODUCTION

Abubakr, Said

453

Influence of Mitochondria Origin on Fruit Quality in a Citrus Cybrid  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Influence of Mitochondria Origin on Fruit Quality in a Citrus Cybrid JEAN-BAPTISTE BASSENE, LILIANE, and carotenoid are the most important indicators of fruit taste and nutritional and organoleptic quality. These components were studied on fruit pulp of the cybrid between Willow leaf mandarin (Citrus deliciosa Ten

Paris-Sud XI, Université de

454

The Growth Reduction Associated with Repressed Lignin Biosynthesis in Arabidopsis thaliana Is Independent of Flavonoids  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

...negative impacts on forage quality, pulping efficiency, and...been employed to identify or engineer plants with low lignin content...cytochrome P450 enzymes for forage quality improvement in alfalfa (Medicago...lignification, development and forage quality. Phytochemistry 68 : 1521-1529...

Xu Li; Nicholas D. Bonawitz; Jing-Ke Weng; Clint Chapple

2010-05-28T23:59:59.000Z

455

Modeling of the wet end part of a paper mill with Dymola  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

This paper describes the ongoing research on the physical modeling of AssiDomän paper mill in Frövi (Sweden). This project includes the developing of a Modelica base library for thermohydraulic, pulp and paper systems. Up to now, the model ... Keywords: modeling, object-oriented, paper mill

Gianantonio Bortolin; Stefan Borg; Per Olof Gutman

2004-04-01T23:59:59.000Z

456

WoodChemistry Wood Degradation & Preservation  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

31 WoodChemistry Wood Degradation & Preservation Chemical Utilization of Wood Pulp & Paper and carbohydrates is of considerable interest in connection with a number of issues in wood chemistry, such as the reactions taking place during the formation of wood, the natural molecular weight distribution of lignin

Geldenhuys, Jaco

457

Original article A study on growth stresses, tension wood  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Original article A study on growth stresses, tension wood distribution and other related wood variations of wood structure (specific gravity and pulp yield), and the transverse mechanical resistance of wood. To investigate growth stresses, longitudinal displacements after stress release were estimated

Paris-Sud XI, Université de

458

Subscriber access provided by BRANDEIS UNIV The Journal of Physical Chemistry A is published by the American Chemical  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

ion generated by industries such as tanning, pulp, paper, mining, and oil and gas drilling and Mechanistic Analysis of the Chlorite#Sulfide Reaction in a Continuous-Flow Stirred Tank Reactor Shancheng Mao;Oscillations and Mechanistic Analysis of the Chlorite-Sulfide Reaction in a Continuous-Flow Stirred Tank

Epstein, Irving R.

459

By-Products Utilization  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

-leveling, self-compacting, cementitious material, which has a consistency similar to a pancake batter. CLSM can fibrous residuals from pulp and paper mills. The flowable slurry will meet ACI (American Concrete Institute) 229 recommendations for flowable Controlled Low-Strength Materials (CLSM). CLSM is a self

Wisconsin-Milwaukee, University of

460

This document must be cited according to its final version which is published in a conference proceeding as  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

. White liquor and pre- steamed chips are introduced at the top of the digester into the impregnation zone of cold, dilute liquor. This effectively quenches the delignification reaction. The quality of the resulting pulp is described by Kappa #, which is a measure of the residual lignin content. A typical control

Boyer, Edmond

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "kraft pulping bleaching" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


461

PEER REVIEWED FIBER SUPPLY Beetle-killed spruce utilization in the Kenai peninsula  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

in a stainless-steel digester with pumped liquor circulation and indirect steam heating. Each log was pulped wood. Burst and tensile strength were strongly depen- dent on the amount of log decay, as measured quality when com- pared to the control. 48 TAPPI JOURNAL JUNE 2000 #12;

Abubakr, Said

462

Zelftest chemie voor 1 Ba Bio-ir, Chemie, Fysica en sterrenkunde Voor meer informatie: contacteer csb.etterbeek@vub.ac.be  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Zelftest chemie voor 1 Ba Bio-ir, Chemie, Fysica en sterrenkunde Voor meer informatie: contacteer opgenomen in het bijhorend overzicht van de verwachte voorkennis chemie. 1. Elementaire chemie en chemisch, whisky, fruitsap met pulp, keukenzout #12;Zelftest chemie voor 1 Ba Bio-ir, Chemie, Fysica en

Einmahl, Uwe

463

Doctor of Philosophy Recipients Brian C. Attwood Lara S. Chang  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Advisors: Peter Fedkiw/Saad Khan Master of Chemical Engineering Recipients R. Lawson Phillips Advisors Graduates Timothy James Armstrong John Ashton Craig Tiffany Kirsten Creech Abishek Vinod Dhawan David Otto Summa Cum Laude #12;Student Accomplishments Timothy James Armstrong ­ BS in Pulp and Paper Technology

Velev, Orlin D.

464

Fig. 1: Cross-section of experimental combustor and instrumentation  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

combustion is widelyused for wood wasteand other biomass conversion in the pulp and paper industryand proportion of volatiles (typically 80-85% for wood); thus pyrolysis is a very important part, and local gas compositions are measured by a water- cooled sampling probe connected to a gas chromatograph

Hallett, William L.H.

465

Sol-gel Solutions (SGS) Environmental Remediation  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

dioxide and water, allowing reuse of the sorbent numerous times. The technology has also been proven-pending process de- veloped at the University of Florida. Using synergistic adsorption and photocatalytic desired, reused. Potential applications include chemical plants, pulp and paper mills, paint-spray booths

Jawitz, James W.

466

ABSTRACTS:  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

......there were no smooth muscle cells in the red pulp, so nerve fibers terminated around...longitudinal faces, were. prepared from small wood blocks. They were useful to understand...microscopic histochemistry of glycoconju- gates in the duodenal glands of the cow Kazushige......

Abstracts of Papers Presented at the Thirtieth Hokkaido Regional; Memorial Meeting of the Japanese Society of Electron Microscopy

1990-04-01T23:59:59.000Z

467

Preparedfor theTAPPIInternationalChemicalRecoveryConference .Tampa, Florida, 1-4June1998  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

processing rates corresponding to mill production rates of 500 to 2000 air-dry metric tonnes per day of pulp and paper production (and, possibly, the cost-effectiveness of generating excess power for sale), while] consider "rubber" gas turbines, i.e., turbines that match a specified black liquor rate

468

Prediction of flashover voltage of non-ceramic insulators under contaminated conditions  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

areas are contaminated by industrial pollutants such as paper pulp, fly-ash, cement dust etc. Insulators. For new construction, relevant field experience may not be available and laboratory experiments are time, environmental) encountered in service. NCI also differ significantly from ceramic insulators

469

Chalcopyrite = 72 % wt Pyrite = 6 %wt  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Mineralogy (XRD) Conditioning processing Volcanic massive deposit, Portugal Volcanic massive deposit, Portugal Volcanic massive deposit, Canada Hydrothermal deposit, Peru Geological origin Surface oxidation percentage = 25 %wt Pulp parameters Mineral processing Bulk solid: D10 = 2.3 µm D50 = 17.0 µm D90 = 69.6 µm

Aubertin, Michel

470

Dietary Fish Oil Alters T Lymphocyte Cell Populations and Exacerbates Disease in a Mouse Model of Inflammatory Colitis  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

...Caryocar brasiliense Camb) fruit pulp oil decrease the DNA damage caused by chemical...flavonoids, saponins and tannins, and essential oils. The aim of this study was to evaluate the action of the pequi oil in the DNA damage in experimental model...

Hillary L. Woodworth; Sarah J. McCaskey; David M. Duriancik; Jonathan F. Clinthorne; Ingeborg M. Langohr; Elizabeth M. Gardner; Jenifer I. Fenton

2010-10-15T23:59:59.000Z

471

Gene Expression and Cell Proliferation in Rat Liver after 2,3,7,8-Tetrachlorodibenzo-p-dioxin Exposure  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

...halogenated aromatic hydrocarbon TCDD.1 This chemical...paper pulp, and the combustion of chlorine- containing...Speed-Vac; Savant); heat-denatured (65 Cfor...of unpaired multiple data sets was used to determine...the model and actual data obtained from liquid...

Tony R. Fox; Lang L. Best; Susan M. Goldsworthy; Jeremy J. Mills; and Thomas L. Goldsworthy

1993-05-15T23:59:59.000Z

472

Identifying Microbially Influenced Corrosion in Paper  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

1 Identifying Microbially Influenced Corrosion in Paper Machines and elsewhere Sandy Sharp, SharpConsultant, Columbia, MD, USA Symposium on Corrosion in Pulp and Paper Mills and Biorefineries, Georgia Tech., November (floating in solution) do not cause corrosion, but Sessile bacteria (attached to metal surfaces) can

Das, Suman

473

Isolation, characterization, and distribution of denitrifying toluene degraders from a variety of habitats.  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

...C. He was the carrier gas. Acetylene and ethylene...at 320 C with N2 as the gas carrier. NO3 and N02...methane as the carrier gas. Nucleotide sequence...industrial 2/3 INA sludge Ontario, Canada; pulp...begin to be seen on 1/10 strength TSA as DNA isolated from...

M R Fries; J Zhou; J Chee-Sanford; J M Tiedje

1994-08-01T23:59:59.000Z

474

Regulation of cytochrome P450 3A4 gene expression through modulating pregnane X receptor transcriptional activity by NF-? aryl hydrocarbon receptor and xenobiotics  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

), Uranium (U), Vanadium (V) Industrial chemicals include environmental pollutants and waste chemicals such as PBBs, PCBs, dioxins and furans, estrogens in the environment, pulp mill effluents, heavy metals, Radon and Radon decay products, Asbestos....6 Immunocytochemistry?????????.????????.??.... 66 2.7 Reporter gene assay???????????????????.??. 66 2.8 Western blot analysis???????????.???????.??.. 66 2.9 GST pull-down???????????????????????. 67 2.10 Co...

Gu, Xinsheng

2009-05-15T23:59:59.000Z

475

Organic chemical contaminants in Biosolids Sally Brown  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

under the general classification "dioxins." Dioxins are one of the well known dangerous organic chemicals. Dioxins had commercial uses, primarily in the pulp and paper industry, but have been outlawed due. There are many types of dioxins. "Dioxin" is actually a general term for a large number of compounds that contain

Brown, Sally

476

Using Sediment Records to Determine Sources, Distribution, Bioavailability, and Potential Toxicity of Dioxins in the Houston Ship Channel: A Multi-proxy Approach  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

contaminants (HOC). Analytical data on total organic carbon (TOC), BC, PAHs, dioxins and lignin (likely discarded from a pulp and paper mill along the Channel) were determined. This multi-proxy approach revealed that over the last several decades, HOC inputs...

Seward, Shaya M.

2012-07-16T23:59:59.000Z

477

The AmMYB308 and AmMYB330 Transcription Factors from Antirrhinum Regulate Phenylpropanoid and Lignin Biosynthesis in Transgenic Tobacco  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

...harvested wood is processed for pulp and papermaking. This process requires the removal of most of the lignin by using harsh...induction and subsequent activity of two groups of metabolically interrelated enzymes Halpin C. Knight M.E. Foxon G.A. Campbell M...

Lodovico Tamagnone; Angel Merida; Adrian Parr; Steve Mackay; Francisco A. Culianez-Macia; Keith Roberts; Cathie Martin

478

Waste treatment by reverse osmosis and membrane processes. January 1980-January 1992 (Citations from the NTIS Data Base). Rept. for Jan 80-Jan 92  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

The bibliography contains citations concerning the use of membranes and reverse osmosis to treat wastes. Ion exchange, electrodialysis, and ultrafiltration processes are described. Removal of metals, sodium compounds, nitrates, fluorides, dyes, and radioactive waste using membranes is examined. Wastewater treatment for chemical, pulp, textile, and steel mills using this technology is included. (Contains 63 citations with title list and subject index.)

Not Available

1991-12-01T23:59:59.000Z

479

By-Products Utilization  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

wood with supplementary fuels such as coal, oil, natural gas, and coke by pulp and paper mills and wood, knots, chips, etc. with other supplementary fuels such as coal, oil, natural gas, and coke to generateCenter for By-Products Utilization DEVELOPMENT OF CLSM USING COAL ASH AND WOOD ASH, A SOURCE OF NEW

Wisconsin-Milwaukee, University of

480

By-Products Utilization  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

with supplementary fuels such as coal, oil, natural gas, and coke by pulp and paper mills and wood, such as bark, twigs, knots, chips, etc. with other supplementary fuels such as coal, oil, natural gas, and cokeCenter for By-Products Utilization CLSM CONTAINING MIXTURES OF COAL ASH AND A NEW POZZOLANIC

Wisconsin-Milwaukee, University of

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "kraft pulping bleaching" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


481

Numer.Math.97(2004)1,25-65 WELL-POSEDNESS IN BVt AND CONVERGENCE OF  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

and pulp-and-paper industries as well as in wastewater treatment plants. Mathematical models are urgently-1516, USA. E-mail:jtowers@cts.com, URL: www.miracosta.cc.ca.us/home/jtowers/. 1 #12;2 B¨URGER, KARLSEN

Karlsen, Kenneth Hvistendahl

482

Understanding and managing leakage in forest–based greenhouse–gas–mitigation projects  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

...Sectors: fossil fuel or biomass Leakage can occur in...emissions from some form of biomass (veg- etation, forests...g. vegetable oil, wood pulp, cacao, rice...discuss projects that use biomass to substitute for fossil-fuel-intensive...sector, while biomass plantations as a source of supply...

2002-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

483

SME Annual Meeting Feb. 26-28, Denver, Colorado  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

, surface tension, and froth stability measurements. These fundamental studies were developed to understand methods used to de- ink printed-paper pulp. It works by collecting dispersed ink particles on air bubbles and have smoother surfaces as compared to mineral particles. Also, ink is a substantially lighter material

Drelich, Jaroslaw W.

484

MIXTURES OF FINE-GRAINED MINERALS – KAOLINITE AND CARBONATE GRAINS  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

...suspensions. Pp. 63-69 in: 1995 Coating Fundamental Symposium. TAPPI Proceedings, Technical Association of the Pulp and Paper Industries...characteristics: I. Relationship of particle shape to particle packing. TAPPI , 43 , 277 - 288. Herrera, M.C., Lizcano, A., and Santamarina...

Angelica M. Palomino; Susan E. Burns; J. Carlos Santamarina

485

New cogeneration plant provides steam for Oxnard papermaking facility  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

In January 1990, the Proctor and Gamble Co.'s Oxnard, Calif., papermaking facility started up Cogen Two, the newest of the company's four gas-turbine-based cogeneration plants. In addition to reviewing Cogen Two project specifics, this article demonstrates the success of state-of-the-art cogeneration systems and the important role these systems play in the pulp and paper industry.

Price, K.R. (Thermal Energy Systems, Engineering Div., Procter and Gamble Co., Winston Hill Technical Center, Cincinnati, OH (US)); Anderson, W.A. (Utilities Dept., Oxnard Plant, Procter and Gamble Co., Oxnard, CA (US))

1991-07-01T23:59:59.000Z

486

PEOPLE IN THE NEWS  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

...ical behaviour of deep-seated faults." TAPPI LEADERSHIP & SERVICE AWARD AND DUPONT SOY...Minerals Society, has been awarded the 2014 TAPPI (Technical Association of the Pulp and...leadership and service to the division. TAPPI is a professional organization of more...

487

NMR characterization of lignins in Arabidopsis altered in the activity of ferulate 5-hydroxylase  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

...Lignocellulosics Characterization , eds Argyropoulos D S Rials T ( TAPPI , Technical Association of the Pulp and Paper Industry, Atlanta, GA ), pp 55...341 – 342 . 23 Sarkanen K V Chang H-M Allan G G ( 1967 ) TAPPI 50 : 587 – 590 . 24 Musha Y Goring D A I ( 1975 ) Wood Sci...

Jane M. Marita; John Ralph; Ronald D. Hatfield; Clint Chapple

1999-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

488

Development of a prototype lignin concentration sensor  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

The US Department of Energy, Office of Industrial Technologies, is sponsoring a research and development program for the development of a real-time, in-situ sensor to measure the concentration of lignin in wood pulp. The program is composed of phase I showing feasibility which is now complete, phase II for development and testing of a Field Prototype, in progress, Phase III commercialization. Phase I work (funded entirely by B&W) demonstrated a correlation between the fluorescence intensity and lignin concentration (as measured by TAPPI procedure, T 236 hm-85 Kappa Number of Pulp) for undiluted wood pulp samples. In Phase II, a laboratory test program directed at characterizing the fluorescence of wood pulp has been conducted as a prelude to the design of a prototype sensor. The current report summarizes the testing completed in Phase I and documents the Phase II laboratory testing completed through December 1991. Future Phase II efforts include additional laboratory testing, design and fabrication of a prototype sensor, and field testing of the prototype sensor. Phase III of the program will concentrate on the incorporation of the sensor into a control system and commercialization of the sensor.

Malito, M.L.; Jeffers, L.A.

1993-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

489

Energy conservation technology and methods seminar - 1985  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

This book presents the papers given at a conference which dealt with energy conservation in the paper industry. Topics considered at the conference included energy management in pulp and paper mills, wet pressing, paper dryers, adjustable speed drives, turbine moisture measurement, energy efficiency, and the performance of wood-fired boilers.

Not Available

1985-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

490

CINNAMYL ALCOHOL DEHYDROGENASE-C and -D Are the Primary Genes Involved in Lignin Biosynthesis in the Floral Stem of Arabidopsis  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

...Res. 201, 97-105. Sarkanen, K.V., Chang, H.-M., and Ericsson, B. (1967). Species variation in lignins. TAPPI (Tech. Assoc. Pulp Pap. Ind.) 50, 572-575. Sasaki, T., and Sederoff, R.R. (2003). Genome studies and molecular...

Richard Sibout; Aymerick Eudes; Gregory Mouille; Brigitte Pollet; Catherine Lapierre; Lise Jouanin; Armand Séguin

2005-06-03T23:59:59.000Z

491

A Lignin Carbohydrate Bond as revealed by Infra-red Spectroscopy  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

... where the reference beam passes through an analytically determined amount of holocellulose (obtained by the Tappi method3) of the wTood or pulp under examination in the sample beam of the ... good quality, and only two difficulties have been encountered. The first is that the Tappi holocellulose isolation fails to preserve all the acetyl groups, and the band due to ...

HENRY I. BOLKER

1963-02-02T23:59:59.000Z

492

Global climate analysis of growth rings in woods, and its implications for deep-time paleoclimate studies  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

...R. 1967. Silvicultural control on the characteristics of wood used for furniture. Pp. 143a 150 in Proceedings of the 4th TAPPI forest biology conference. Pulp and Paper Research Institute of Canada, Quebec. a µ Martens, D. M. 1993. Hydrologic...

Howard J. Falcon-Lang

493

Toner-print removal from paper by long and ultrashort pulsed lasers  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

...paper samples in order to obtain high-quality spectra. All paper samples were conditioned in accordance to the T402 sp-08 TAPPI standard (standard conditioning and testing atmospheres for paper, board, pulp hand sheets and related products). Pre-conditioning...

2012-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

494

An Analysis of the Wood Sugar Assay Using HPLC: A Comparison with Paper Chromatography  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

......and M. Desrochers. Simplified analysis of wood sugars. Tappi 65(7): 103-06 (1982). 3. J.F.. Saeman, W.E...of pulp constituents by quantitative paper chromatography. Tappi 37(8): 336-43 (1954). 4. W.J. Youden. Statistical......

Roger C. Pettersen; Virgil H. Schwandt; Marilyn J. Effland

1984-11-01T23:59:59.000Z

495

Development of a prototype lignin concentration sensor  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

The US Department of Energy, Office of Industrial Technologies, is sponsoring a research and development program for the development of a real-time, in-situ sensor to measure the concentration of lignin in wood pulp. The program is composed of phase I showing feasibility which is now complete, phase II for development and testing of a Field Prototype, in progress, Phase III commercialization. Phase I work (funded entirely by B W) demonstrated a correlation between the fluorescence intensity and lignin concentration (as measured by TAPPI procedure, T 236 hm-85 Kappa Number of Pulp) for undiluted wood pulp samples. In Phase II, a laboratory test program directed at characterizing the fluorescence of wood pulp has been conducted as a prelude to the design of a prototype sensor. The current report summarizes the testing completed in Phase I and documents the Phase II laboratory testing completed through December 1991. Future Phase II efforts include additional laboratory testing, design and fabrication of a prototype sensor, and field testing of the prototype sensor. Phase III of the program will concentrate on the incorporation of the sensor into a control system and commercialization of the sensor.

Malito, M.L.; Jeffers, L.A.

1993-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

496

Press release For Immediate Release Seattle, USA. May 21, 2008  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

records in 1Q 2008, according to the Wood Resource Quarterly Tight residual supply, higher fuel costs and unfavourable weather were all factors that pushed wood costs for the world's pulp industry to new record levels in 1Q/08. Wood costs went up in most of the 17 world regions covered by the market report Wood Resource

497

Vietnam's Timber Market Attains Position as World's Fourth Largest Hardwood Chip Exporter, Reports Wood Resource Quarterly  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Wood Resource Quarterly Chip mills running at a reduced rate due to a lack of logs For Immediate of plantation Eucalyptus and Acacia wood chips to the pulp industry in both Japan and China. The country has exporter, reports the Wood Resource Quarterly. Vietnam has become a major exporter of wood chips in a short

498

Simpson Tacoma Biomass Facility | Open Energy Information  

Open Energy Info (EERE)

Tacoma Biomass Facility Tacoma Biomass Facility Jump to: navigation, search Name Simpson Tacoma Biomass Facility Facility Simpson Tacoma Sector Biomass Owner Simpson Tacoma Kraft Location Tacoma, Washington Coordinates 47.2528768°, -122.4442906° Loading map... {"minzoom":false,"mappingservice":"googlemaps3","type":"ROADMAP","zoom":14,"types":["ROADMAP","SATELLITE","HYBRID","TERRAIN"],"geoservice":"google","maxzoom":false,"width":"600px","height":"350px","centre":false,"title":"","label":"","icon":"","visitedicon":"","lines":[],"polygons":[],"circles":[],"rectangles":[],"copycoords":false,"static":false,"wmsoverlay":"","layers":[],"controls":["pan","zoom","type","scale","streetview"],"zoomstyle":"DEFAULT","typestyle":"DEFAULT","autoinfowindows":false,"kml":[],"gkml":[],"fusiontables":[],"resizable":false,"tilt":0,"kmlrezoom":false,"poi":true,"imageoverlays":[],"markercluster":false,"searchmarkers":"","locations":[{"text":"","title":"","link":null,"lat":47.2528768,"lon":-122.4442906,"alt":0,"address":"","icon":"","group":"","inlineLabel":"","visitedicon":""}]}

499

Categorical Exclusion Determinations: Pennsylvania | Department of Energy  

Broader source: Energy.gov (indexed) [DOE]

November 9, 2010 November 9, 2010 CX-004431: Categorical Exclusion Determination Pennsylvania Economic Development Association Sustainable Business Recovery for the Kraft Foods Global, Incorporated CX(s) Applied: B5.1 Date: 11/09/2010 Location(s): Allentown, Pennsylvania Office(s): Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy, National Energy Technology Laboratory November 8, 2010 CX-004433: Categorical Exclusion Determination Pennsylvania Economic Development Association Sustainable Business Recovery for the Fox Chase Cancer Center CX(s) Applied: B5.1 Date: 11/08/2010 Location(s): Philadelphia, Pennsylvania Office(s): Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy, National Energy Technology Laboratory November 8, 2010 CX-004402: Categorical Exclusion Determination The Use of Scrap Tires for Oil Well Stimulation

500

Page not found | Department of Energy  

Broader source: Energy.gov (indexed) [DOE]

41 - 3050 of 31,917 results. 41 - 3050 of 31,917 results. Download CX-004371: Categorical Exclusion Determination Kapstone Kraft Paper Company #3 Paper Machine Steam Efficiency Improvements CX(s) Applied: B5.1 Date: 11/02/2010 Location(s): North Carolina Office(s): Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy, National Energy Technology Laboratory http://energy.gov/nepa/downloads/cx-004371-categorical-exclusion-determination Download Energy Management and Financing This Tuesday Webcast for Industry covers how to become a Certified Energy Manager and Certified Practitioner in Energy Management Systems http://energy.gov/eere/downloads/energy-management-and-financing Download Small Business Innovation Research Project Phase I Release 2 Solicitations Awards List of awards announced on February 5, 2013 for the SBIR Program's Phase