National Library of Energy BETA

Sample records for knotty head gc512

  1. Click to add heading

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    through: 1) High-strength reinforcing steel bars (rebar) 2) Prefabricated rebar ... hooked bars) 6 headed rebar (HRC-USA) CRI Steel hooked rebar 7 Most Congested (current) ...

  2. Deposition head for laser

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Lewis, Gary K. (Los Alamos, NM); Less, Richard M. (Los Alamos, NM)

    1999-01-01

    A deposition head for use as a part of apparatus for forming articles from materials in particulate form in which the materials are melted by a laser beam and deposited at points along a tool path to form an article of the desired shape and dimensions. The deposition head delivers the laser beam and powder to a deposition zone, which is formed at the tip of the deposition head. A controller comprised of a digital computer directs movement of the deposition zone along the tool path and provides control signals to adjust apparatus functions, such as the speed at which the deposition head moves along the tool path.

  3. Bottom head assembly

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Fife, Alex Blair

    1998-01-01

    A bottom head dome assembly which includes, in one embodiment, a bottom head dome and a liner configured to be positioned proximate the bottom head dome is described. The bottom head dome has a plurality of openings extending therethrough. The liner also has a plurality of openings extending therethrough, and each liner opening aligns with a respective bottom head dome opening. A seal is formed, such as by welding, between the liner and the bottom head dome to resist entry of water between the liner and the bottom head dome at the edge of the liner. In the one embodiment, a plurality of stub tubes are secured to the liner. Each stub tube has a bore extending therethrough, and each stub tube bore is coaxially aligned with a respective liner opening. A seat portion is formed by each liner opening for receiving a portion of the respective stub tube. The assembly also includes a plurality of support shims positioned between the bottom head dome and the liner for supporting the liner. In one embodiment, each support shim includes a support stub having a bore therethrough, and each support stub bore aligns with a respective bottom head dome opening.

  4. Bottom head assembly

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Fife, A.B.

    1998-09-01

    A bottom head dome assembly is described which includes, in one embodiment, a bottom head dome and a liner configured to be positioned proximate the bottom head dome. The bottom head dome has a plurality of openings extending there through. The liner also has a plurality of openings extending there through, and each liner opening aligns with a respective bottom head dome opening. A seal is formed, such as by welding, between the liner and the bottom head dome to resist entry of water between the liner and the bottom head dome at the edge of the liner. In the one embodiment, a plurality of stub tubes are secured to the liner. Each stub tube has a bore extending there through, and each stub tube bore is coaxially aligned with a respective liner opening. A seat portion is formed by each liner opening for receiving a portion of the respective stub tube. The assembly also includes a plurality of support shims positioned between the bottom head dome and the liner for supporting the liner. In one embodiment, each support shim includes a support stub having a bore there through, and each support stub bore aligns with a respective bottom head dome opening. 2 figs.

  5. Maneuvering impact boring head

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Zollinger, W.T.; Reutzel, E.W.

    1998-08-18

    An impact boring head may comprise a main body having an internal cavity with a front end and a rear end. A striker having a head end and a tail end is slidably mounted in the internal cavity of the main body so that the striker can be reciprocated between a forward position and an aft position in response to hydraulic pressure. A compressible gas contained in the internal cavity between the head end of the striker and the front end of the internal cavity returns the striker to the aft position upon removal of the hydraulic pressure. 8 figs.

  6. Maneuvering impact boring head

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Zollinger, W. Thor; Reutzel, Edward W.

    1998-01-01

    An impact boring head may comprise a main body having an internal cavity with a front end and a rear end. A striker having a head end and a tail end is slidably mounted in the internal cavity of the main body so that the striker can be reciprocated between a forward position and an aft position in response to hydraulic pressure. A compressible gas contained in the internal cavity between the head end of the striker and the front end of the internal cavity returns the striker to the aft position upon removal of the hydraulic pressure.

  7. Reactor pressure vessel vented head

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Sawabe, James K.

    1994-01-11

    A head for closing a nuclear reactor pressure vessel shell includes an arcuate dome having an integral head flange which includes a mating surface for sealingly mating with the shell upon assembly therewith. The head flange includes an internal passage extending therethrough with a first port being disposed on the head mating surface. A vent line includes a proximal end disposed in flow communication with the head internal passage, and a distal end disposed in flow communication with the inside of the dome for channeling a fluid therethrough. The vent line is fixedly joined to the dome and is carried therewith when the head is assembled to and disassembled from the shell.

  8. MULTIPLE SHAFT TOOL HEAD

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Colbert, H.P.

    1962-10-23

    An improved tool head arrangement is designed for the automatic expanding of a plurality of ferruled tubes simultaneously. A plurality of output shafts of a multiple spindle drill head are driven in unison by a hydraulic motor. A plurality of tube expanders are respectively coupled to the shafts through individual power train arrangements. The axial or thrust force required for the rolling operation is provided by a double acting hydraulic cylinder having a hollow through shaft with the shaft cooperating with an internally rotatable splined shaft slidably coupled to a coupling rigidly attached to the respectlve output shaft of the drill head, thereby transmitting rotary motion and axial thrust simultaneously to the tube expander. A hydraulic power unit supplies power to each of the double acting cylinders through respective two-position, four-way valves, under control of respective solenoids for each of the cylinders. The solenoids are in turn selectively controlled by a tool selection control unit which in turn is controlled by signals received from a programmed, coded tape from a tape reader. The number of expanders that are extended in a rolling operation, which may be up to 42 expanders, is determined by a predetermined program of operations depending upon the arrangement of the ferruled tubes to be expanded in the tube bundle. The tape reader also supplies dimensional information to a machine tool servo control unit for imparting selected, horizontal and/or vertical movement to the tool head assembly. (AEC)

  9. MAGNETIC RECORDING HEAD

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Merrill, L.C.

    1958-06-17

    An electromagetic recording head is described for simultaneous recording of a plurality of signals within a small space on a magnetically semsitized medium. Basically the head structure comprises a non-magnetic centerpiece provided with only first and second groups of spaced cut-out slots respectively on opposite sides of the centerpiece. The two groups of slots are in parallel alignment and the slots of one group are staggered with respect to the slots of the other group so that one slot is not directly opposite another slot. Each slot has a magnet pole piece disposed therein and cooperating with a second pole and coil to provide a magnetic flux gap at the upper end of the slot. As a tape is drawn over the upper end of the centerpiece the individual magnetic circuits are disposed along its width to provide means for simultaneously recording information on separate portions, tracks. of the tape.

  10. Reactor pressure vessel vented head

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Sawabe, J.K.

    1994-01-11

    A head for closing a nuclear reactor pressure vessel shell includes an arcuate dome having an integral head flange which includes a mating surface for sealingly mating with the shell upon assembly therewith. The head flange includes an internal passage extending therethrough with a first port being disposed on the head mating surface. A vent line includes a proximal end disposed in flow communication with the head internal passage, and a distal end disposed in flow communication with the inside of the dome for channeling a fluid therethrough. The vent line is fixedly joined to the dome and is carried therewith when the head is assembled to and disassembled from the shell. 6 figures.

  11. This Week In Petroleum Summary Printer-Friendly Version

    Annual Energy Outlook [U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA)]

    Desoto Canyon 48 5,876 2008 2013 Knotty Head Nexen Green Canyon 512 3,557 2005 2013 Big Foot Chevron Walker Ridge 29 5,235 2005 2014 Entrada ATP Garden Banks 782 4,531 2000...

  12. Heater head for stirling engine

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Corey, John A.

    1985-07-09

    A monolithic heater head assembly which augments cast fins with ceramic inserts which narrow the flow of combustion gas and obtains high thermal effectiveness with the assembly including an improved flange design which gives greater durability and reduced conduction loss.

  13. Rotary head type reproducing apparatus

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Takayama, Nobutoshi; Edakubo, Hiroo; Kozuki, Susumu; Takei, Masahiro; Nagasawa, Kenichi

    1986-01-01

    In an apparatus of the kind arranged to reproduce, with a plurality of rotary heads, an information signal from a record bearing medium having many recording tracks which are parallel to each other with the information signal recorded therein and with a plurality of different pilot signals of different frequencies also recorded one by one, one in each of the recording tracks, a plurality of different reference signals of different frequencies are simultaneously generated. A tracking error is detected by using the different reference signals together with the pilot signals which are included in signals reproduced from the plurality of rotary heads.

  14. Rotating head and piston engine

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Gomm, T.J.; Messick, N.C.

    1992-07-21

    This patent describes a rotary piston combustion engine. It comprises a housing means, an engine block housing a single toroidal bore, a piston carrier ring spaced outwardly along the entire perimeter of the toroidal bore with at least one finger extending inwardly for piston attachment, a power transfer cylinder, a power output shaft, an auxiliary shaft with driven gearing means meshing with the driving gearing means, a rotating head with windows for piston passage, a trapezoidal porting means in the engine block and in the rotating head, an exhaust port means.

  15. Pressure testing of torispherical heads

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Rana, M.D.; Kalnins, A.; Updike, D.P.

    1995-12-01

    Two vessels fabricated from SA516-70 steel with 6% knuckle radius torispherical heads were tested under internal pressure to failure. The D/t ratios of Vessel 1 and Vessel 2 were 238 and 185 respectively. The calculated maximum allowable working pressures of Vessel 1 and 2 heads using the ASME Section 8, Div. 1 rules and measured dimensions were 85 and 110 psi, respectively. Vessel 1 failed at a nozzle weld in the cylindrical shell at 700 psi pressure. Neither buckling nor any other objectionable deformation of the head was observed at a theoretical double-elastic-slope collapse pressure of 241 and a calculated buckling pressure of 270 psi. Buckles were observed developing slowly after 600 psi pressure, and a total of 22 buckles were observed after the test, having the maximum amplitude of 0.15 inch. Vessel 2 failed at the edge of the longitudinal weld of the cylindrical shell at 1,080 psi pressure. Neither buckling nor any other objectionable deformation of the head was observed up to the final pressure, which exceeded the theoretical double-elastic-slope collapse and calculated buckling pressures of 274 psi and 342 psi, respectively.

  16. Combustor with non-circular head end

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Kim, Won -Wook; McMahan, Kevin Weston

    2015-09-29

    The present application provides a combustor for use with a gas turbine engine. The combustor may include a head end with a non-circular configuration, a number of fuel nozzles positioned about the head end, and a transition piece extending downstream of the head end.

  17. Sealed head access area enclosure

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Golden, Martin P.; Govi, Aldo R.

    1978-01-01

    A liquid-metal-cooled fast breeder power reactor is provided with a sealed head access area enclosure disposed above the reactor vessel head consisting of a plurality of prefabricated structural panels including a center panel removably sealed into position with inflatable seals, and outer panels sealed into position with semipermanent sealant joints. The sealant joints are located in the joint between the edge of the panels and the reactor containment structure and include from bottom to top an inverted U-shaped strip, a lower layer of a room temperature vulcanizing material, a separator strip defining a test space therewithin, and an upper layer of a room temperature vulcanizing material. The test space is tapped by a normally plugged passage extending to the top of the enclosure for testing the seal or introducing a buffer gas thereinto.

  18. Hot gas engine heater head

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Berntell, John O.

    1983-01-01

    A heater head for a multi-cylinder double acting hot gas engine in which each cylinder is surrounded by an annular regenerator unit, and in which the tops of each cylinder and its surrounding regenerator are interconnected by a multiplicity of heater tubes. A manifold for the heater tubes has a centrally disposed duct connected to the top of the cylinder and surrounded by a wider duct connecting the other ends of the heater tubes with the regenerator unit.

  19. Katie Antypas! Data Department Head !

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Data Department Head ! August 22, 2016 Data Day Intro - 1 - NERSC has been supporting data intensive science for a long time Palomar Transient Factory Supernova Planck Satellite Cosmic Microwave Background Radia?on Alice Large Hadron Collider Atlas Large Hadron Collider Dayabay Neutrinos ALS Light Source LCLS Light Source Joint Genome Ins?tute Bioinforma?cs Growth of 'data' projects - 3 - 0 20 40 60 80 100 120 0% 5% 10% 15% 2011 2012 2013 2014 2015 2016 % of Projects Number of Projects What do

  20. ORDER 3770: BEAR HEAD LNG CORPORATION and BEAR HEAD LNG (USA), LLC |

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Department of Energy 3770: BEAR HEAD LNG CORPORATION and BEAR HEAD LNG (USA), LLC ORDER 3770: BEAR HEAD LNG CORPORATION and BEAR HEAD LNG (USA), LLC OPINION AND ORDER GRANTING LONG-TERM, MULTI-CONTRACT AUTHORIZATION TO EXPORT U.S.-SOURCED NATURAL GAS BY PIPELINE TO CANADA FOR LIQUEFACTION AND RE-EXPORT IN THE FORM OF LIQUEFIED NATURAL GAS TO NON-FREE TRADE AGREEMENT COUNTRIES On February 5, 2016, the Energy Department issued an authorization to Bear Head LNG Corporation and Bear Head LNG

  1. Compact organic vapor jet printing print head

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Forrest, Stepehen R; McGraw, Gregory

    2015-01-27

    A first device is provided. The first device includes a print head, and a first gas source hermetically sealed to the print head. The print head further includes a first layer further comprising a plurality of apertures, each aperture having a smallest dimension of 0.5 to 500 microns. A second layer is bonded to the first layer. The second layer includes a first via in fluid communication with the first gas source and at least one of the apertures. The second layer is made of an insulating material.

  2. Bear Head LNG Corporation and Bear Head LNG (USA), LLC- FE Dkt No. 15-14-NG

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    On January 23, 2015, Bear Head LNG Corporation and Bear Head LNG (USA), LLC (together, “Bear Head LNG”), filed an application for long-term, multi-contract authorization to engage in imports from,...

  3. Los Alamos names new head of stockpile manufacturing and support

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    New head of stockpile manufacturing and support Los Alamos names new head of stockpile manufacturing and support Carl Beard is the new associate director for stockpile...

  4. Laboratory Demonstration of a New American Low-Head Hydropower...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Laboratory Demonstration of a New American Low-Head Hydropower Turbine Laboratory Demonstration of a New American Low-Head Hydropower Turbine Laboratory Demonstration of a New ...

  5. ARM: Portable Radiation Package: Position and Heading Data with...

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    Position and Heading Data with 5 second resolution Title: ARM: Portable Radiation Package: Position and Heading Data with 5 second resolution Portable Radiation Package: Position ...

  6. ARM: Ship navigational location and attitude: Position and Heading...

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    Ship navigational location and attitude: Position and Heading Data Title: ARM: Ship navigational location and attitude: Position and Heading Data Ship navigational location and ...

  7. Cylinder Head Gasket with Integrated Combustion Pressure Sensors...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Cylinder Head Gasket with Integrated Combustion Pressure Sensors Cylinder Head Gasket with Integrated Combustion Pressure Sensors Poster presented at the 16th Directions in ...

  8. Nags Head, North Carolina: Energy Resources | Open Energy Information

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    Nags Head, North Carolina: Energy Resources (Redirected from Nags Head, NC) Jump to: navigation, search Equivalent URI DBpedia Coordinates 35.9573922, -75.6240619 Show Map...

  9. Vacuum compatible miniature CCD camera head

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Conder, Alan D.

    2000-01-01

    A charge-coupled device (CCD) camera head which can replace film for digital imaging of visible light, ultraviolet radiation, and soft to penetrating x-rays, such as within a target chamber where laser produced plasmas are studied. The camera head is small, capable of operating both in and out of a vacuum environment, and is versatile. The CCD camera head uses PC boards with an internal heat sink connected to the chassis for heat dissipation, which allows for close(0.04" for example) stacking of the PC boards. Integration of this CCD camera head into existing instrumentation provides a substantial enhancement of diagnostic capabilities for studying high energy density plasmas, for a variety of military industrial, and medical imaging applications.

  10. Heater head for a Stirling engine

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Darooka, D.K.

    1988-09-06

    A heater head is described for a compound Stirling engine modules, each including a displacer cylinder coaxially aligned with the displacer cylinder of the other of the engine modules, a displacer piston mounted for reciprocation in the displacer cylinder.

  11. Martin P. Head-Gordon - JCAP

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    martin p. head-gordon Principal Investigator Email: mhg@cchem.berkeley.edu Dr. Martin Head-Gordon is an electronic structure theorist who is known for development of linear scaling methods for performing density functional theory calculations, for new methods for calculating electronic excited states, and for advances in electron correlation methods, including the development of widely used density functionals and many-electron wavefunction theory. He is one of the driving forces behind the

  12. Colorado Students Head to National Science Competition

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Head to National Science Competition For more information contact: e:mail: Public Affairs Golden, Colo., April 9, 1999 — Two teams of Colorado high school students will head to our nation's capital to compete in the U.S. Department of Energy's (DOE) National Science Bowl April 30 - May 3. Students from Smoky Hill High School in Aurora and Fairview High School in Boulder placed first in regional Science Bowl competitions earlier this year and will represent Colorado at the national competition.

  13. Electro-optic voltage sensor head

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Crawford, Thomas M.; Davidson, James R.; Woods, Gregory K.

    1999-01-01

    The invention is an electro-optic voltage sensor head designed for integration with existing types of high voltage transmission and distribution apparatus. The sensor head contains a transducer, which comprises a transducing material in which the Pockels electro-optic effect is observed. In the practice of the invention at least one beam of electromagnetic radiation is routed into the transducing material of the transducer in the sensor head. The beam undergoes an electro-optic effect in the sensor head when the transducing material is subjected to an E-field. The electro-optic effect is observed as a differential phase a shift, also called differential phase modulation, of the beam components in orthogonal planes of the electromagnetic radiation. In the preferred embodiment the beam is routed through the transducer along an initial axis and then reflected by a retro-reflector back substantially parallel to the initial axis, making a double pass through the transducer for increased measurement sensitivity. The preferred embodiment of the sensor head also includes a polarization state rotator and at least one beam splitter for orienting the beam along major and minor axes and for splitting the beam components into two signals which are independent converse amplitude-modulated signals carrying E-field magnitude and hence voltage information from the sensor head by way of optic fibers.

  14. Electro-optic voltage sensor head

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Crawford, T.M.; Davidson, J.R.; Woods, G.K.

    1999-08-17

    The invention is an electro-optic voltage sensor head designed for integration with existing types of high voltage transmission and distribution apparatus. The sensor head contains a transducer, which comprises a transducing material in which the Pockels electro-optic effect is observed. In the practice of the invention at least one beam of electromagnetic radiation is routed into the transducing material of the transducer in the sensor head. The beam undergoes an electro-optic effect in the sensor head when the transducing material is subjected to an E-field. The electro-optic effect is observed as a differential phase a shift, also called differential phase modulation, of the beam components in orthogonal planes of the electromagnetic radiation. In the preferred embodiment the beam is routed through the transducer along an initial axis and then reflected by a retro-reflector back substantially parallel to the initial axis, making a double pass through the transducer for increased measurement sensitivity. The preferred embodiment of the sensor head also includes a polarization state rotator and at least one beam splitter for orienting the beam along major and minor axes and for splitting the beam components into two signals which are independent converse amplitude-modulated signals carrying E-field magnitude and hence voltage information from the sensor head by way of optic fibers. 6 figs.

  15. Most Workers Who Suffer Head Injuries- Were Not Wearing Head Protection

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    A survey by the U.S. Department of Labor’s Bureau of Labor Statistics (BLS) of accidents and injuries noted that most workers who suffered impact injuries to the head were not wearing head protection. In addition, the same survey showed that the majority of workers were injured while performing their normal jobs at their regular worksites.

  16. Head assembly for multiposition borehole extensometer

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Frank, Donald N.

    1983-01-01

    A head assembly for a borehole extensometer and an improved extensometer for measuring subsurface subsidence. A plurality of inflatable anchors provide discrete measurement points. A metering rod is fixed to each of the anchors which are displaced when subsidence occurs, thereby translating the attached rod. The head assembly includes a sprocket wheel rotatably mounted on a standpipe and engaged by a chain which is connected at one end to the metering rod and at the other end to a counterweight. A second sprocket wheel connected to the standpipe also engages the chain and drives a connected potentiometer. The head assembly converts the linear displacement of the metering rod to the rotary motion of the second sprocket wheel, which is measured by the potentiometer, producing a continuous electrical output.

  17. Compact organic vapor jet printing print head

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Forrest, Stephen R; McGraw, Gregory

    2013-12-24

    A first device is provided. The first device includes a print head, and a first gas source hermetically sealed to the print head. The print header further includes a first layer comprising a plurality of apertures, each aperture having a smallest dimension of 0.5 to 500 microns. A second layer is bonded to the first layer. The second layer includes a first via in fluid communication with the first gas source and at least one of the apertures. The second layer is made of an insulating material.

  18. Gas cushion control of OVJP print head position

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Forrest, Stephen R

    2014-10-07

    An OVJP apparatus and method for applying organic vapor or other flowable material to a substrate using a printing head mechanism in which the print head spacing from the substrate is controllable using a cushion of air or other gas applied between the print head and substrate. The print head is mounted for translational movement towards and away from the substrate and is biased toward the substrate by springs or other means. A gas cushion feed assembly supplies a gas under pressure between the print head and substrate which opposes the biasing of the print head toward the substrate so as to form a space between the print head and substrate. By controlling the pressure of gas supplied, the print head separation from the substrate can be precisely controlled.

  19. EM's Los Alamos TRU Waste Campaign Heads Toward Completion |...

    Office of Environmental Management (EM)

    TRU Waste Campaign Heads Toward Completion EM's Los Alamos TRU Waste Campaign Heads Toward Completion November 20, 2013 - 12:00pm Addthis Advanced techniques allowed crews at Los ...

  20. MFRSR Head Refurbishment, Data Logger Upgrade and Calibration Improvements

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    MFRSR Head Refurbishment, Data Logger Upgrade and Calibration Improvements Gary Hodges, CIRES/NOAA and John Schmelzer, PNL gary.hodges@noaa.gov, john.schmelzer@pnl.gov 17th Annual ARM Science Team Meeting 26-30 March 2006 Monterey, CA Head Refurbishment The Process Includes: * New filter detectors * Relocate internal thermistors * New connectors * Gain resistors moved to head * Improved insulation The Finished Heads: * Are lamp calibrated * Have filter profiles measured * Cosine characterized *

  1. Surface treatment of magnetic recording heads

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Komvopoulos, Kyriakos; Brown, Ian G.; Wei, Bo; Anders, Simone; Anders, Andre; Bhatia, C. Singh

    1998-01-01

    Surface modification of magnetic recording heads using plasma immersion ion implantation and deposition is disclosed. This method may be carried out using a vacuum arc deposition system with a metallic or carbon cathode. By operating a plasma gun in a long-pulse mode and biasing the substrate holder with short pulses of a high negative voltage, direct ion implantation, recoil implantation, and surface deposition are combined to modify the near-surface regions of the head or substrate in processing times which may be less than 5 min. The modified regions are atomically mixed into the substrate. This surface modification improves the surface smoothness and hardness and enhances the tribological characteristics under conditions of contact-start-stop and continuous sliding. These results are obtained while maintaining original tolerances.

  2. Surface treatment of magnetic recording heads

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Komvopoulos, K.; Brown, I.G.; Wei, B.; Anders, S.; Anders, A.; Bhatia, S.C.

    1995-12-19

    Surface modification of magnetic recording heads using plasma immersion ion implantation and deposition is disclosed. This method may be carried out using a vacuum arc deposition system with a metallic or carbon cathode. By operating a plasma gun in a long-pulse mode and biasing the substrate holder with short pulses of a high negative voltage, direct ion implantation, recoil implantation, and surface deposition are combined to modify the near-surface regions of the head or substrate in processing times which may be less than 5 min. The modified regions are atomically mixed into the substrate. This surface modification improves the surface smoothness and hardness and enhances the tribological characteristics under conditions of contact-start-stop and continuous sliding. These results are obtained while maintaining original tolerances. 15 figs.

  3. Surface treatment of magnetic recording heads

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Komvopoulos, K.; Brown, I.G.; Wei, B.; Anders, S.; Anders, A.; Bhatia, C.S.

    1998-11-17

    Surface modification of magnetic recording heads using plasma immersion ion implantation and deposition is disclosed. This method may be carried out using a vacuum arc deposition system with a metallic or carbon cathode. By operating a plasma gun in a long-pulse mode and biasing the substrate holder with short pulses of a high negative voltage, direct ion implantation, recoil implantation, and surface deposition are combined to modify the near-surface regions of the head or substrate in processing times which may be less than 5 min. The modified regions are atomically mixed into the substrate. This surface modification improves the surface smoothness and hardness and enhances the tribological characteristics under conditions of contact-start-stop and continuous sliding. These results are obtained while maintaining original tolerances. 22 figs.

  4. Surface treatment of magnetic recording heads

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Komvopoulos, Kyriakos; Brown, Ian G.; Wei, Bo; Anders, Simone; Anders, Andre; Bhatia, Singh C.

    1995-01-01

    Surface modification of magnetic recording heads using plasma immersion ion implantation and deposition is disclosed. This method may be carried out using a vacuum arc deposition system with a metallic or carbon cathode. By operating a plasma gun in a long-pulse mode and biasing the substrate holder with short pulses of a high negative voltage, direct ion implantation, recoil implantation, and surface deposition are combined to modify the near-surface regions of the head or substrate in processing times which may be less than 5 min. The modified regions are atomically mixed into the substrate. This surface modification improves the surface smoothness and hardness and enhances the tribological characteristics under conditions of contact-start-stop and continuous sliding. These results are obtained while maintaining original tolerances.

  5. Optical fiber head for providing lateral viewing

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Everett, Matthew J.; Colston, Billy W.; James, Dale L.; Brown, Steve; Da Silva, Luiz

    2002-01-01

    The head of an optical fiber comprising the sensing probe of an optical heterodyne sensing device includes a planar surface that intersects the perpendicular to axial centerline of the fiber at a polishing angle .theta.. The planar surface is coated with a reflective material so that light traveling axially through the fiber is reflected transverse to the fiber's axial centerline, and is emitted laterally through the side of the fiber. Alternatively, the planar surface can be left uncoated. The polishing angle .theta. must be no greater than 39.degree. or must be at least 51.degree.. The emitted light is reflected from adjacent biological tissue, collected by the head, and then processed to provide real-time images of the tissue. The method for forming the planar surface includes shearing the end of the optical fiber and applying the reflective material before removing the buffer that circumscribes the cladding and the core.

  6. Vapor generator steam drum spray head

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Fasnacht, Jr., Floyd A.

    1978-07-18

    A typical embodiment of the invention provides a combination feedwater and "cooldown" water spray head that is centrally disposed in the lower portion of a nuclear power plant steam drum. This structure not only discharges the feedwater in the hottest part of the steam drum, but also increases the time required for the feedwater to reach the steam drum shell, thereby further increasing the feedwater temperature before it contacts the shell surface, thus reducing thermal shock to the steam drum structure.

  7. TO: Procurement Directors Heads of Contracting Activities

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    08 DATE: December 29, 2015 TO: Procurement Directors Heads of Contracting Activities FROM: Acting Chief Contract and Financial Assistance Policy Division Office of Policy Office of Acquisition Management SUBJECT: Archival of Policy Flashes and attachments SUMMARY: This office is reviewing all its energy.gov websites to ensure current guidance is easily accessible and previous guidance is archived for future reference. To that end, all Policy Flashes and attachments from FY2001 - FY2014 have been

  8. TO: Procurement Directors Heads of Contracting Activities

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    1 DATE: January 15, 2016 TO: Procurement Directors Heads of Contracting Activities FROM: Chief Contract and Financial Assistance Policy Division Office of Policy Office of Acquisition Management SUBJECT: Streamlining DOE's Oversight of Compensation and Benefits SUMMARY: The purpose of Acquisition Letter (AL) 2016-01 is to provide guidance regarding required actions to move from DOE traditional transactional approach for approving certain costs relating to compensation and benefits, to a risk

  9. head_sd_logo.gif | OSTI, US Dept of Energy Office of Scientific and

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    Technical Information head_sd_logo.gif

  10. photo_head_dress_wind.jpg | OSTI, US Dept of Energy Office of Scientific

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    and Technical Information photo_head_dress_wind

  11. Mars mission laser tool heads to JPL

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Mars mission laser tool Mars mission laser tool heads to JPL Curiosity will carry the newly delivered laser instrument to reveal which elements are present in Mars' rocks and soils. September 21, 2010 A bright ball of plasma is produced by ChemCam's invisible laser beam striking a rock within the Mars sample chamber. A bright ball of plasma is produced by ChemCam's invisible laser beam striking a rock within the Mars sample chamber. Contact Nancy Ambrosiano Communications Office (505) 667-0471

  12. Integrated head package for top mounted nuclear instrumentation

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Malandra, Louis J.; Hornak, Leonard P.; Meuschke, Robert E.

    1993-01-01

    A nuclear reactor such as a pressurized water reactor has an integrated head package providing structural support and increasing shielding leading toward the vessel head. A reactor vessel head engages the reactor vessel, and a control rod guide mechanism over the vessel head raises and lowers control rods in certain of the thimble tubes, traversing penetrations in the reactor vessel head, and being coupled to the control rods. An instrumentation tube structure includes instrumentation tubes with sensors movable into certain thimble tubes disposed in the fuel assemblies. Couplings for the sensors also traverse penetrations in the reactor vessel head. A shroud is attached over the reactor vessel head and encloses the control rod guide mechanism and at least a portion of the instrumentation tubes when retracted. The shroud forms a structural element of sufficient strength to support the vessel head, the control rod guide mechanism and the instrumentation tube structure, and includes radiation shielding material for limiting passage of radiation from retracted instrumentation tubes. The shroud is thicker at the bottom adjacent the vessel head, where the more irradiated lower ends of retracted sensors reside. The vessel head, shroud and contents thus can be removed from the reactor as a unit and rested safely and securely on a support.

  13. Department of Energy Contractor Diana Lewis Heading to National Small

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Business Week | Department of Energy Department of Energy Contractor Diana Lewis Heading to National Small Business Week Department of Energy Contractor Diana Lewis Heading to National Small Business Week June 10, 2013 - 8:50am Addthis Department of Energy Contractor Diana Lewis Heading to National Small Business Week John H. Hale III John H. Hale III Director, Office of Small and Disadvantaged Business Utilization National Small Business Week is around the corner, kicking off on June 17

  14. Katie Antypas Named New Head of NERSC Services Department

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Katie Antypas Named New Head of NERSC Services Department Katie Antypas Named New Head of NERSC Services Department September 3, 2013 katie2 Katie Antypas Katie Antypas, who has led NERSC's User Services Group since October 2010, has been named as the new Services Department Head, effective September 23. Antypas succeeds Francesca Verdier, who will serve as Allocations Manager until her planned retirement in June 2014. Antypas is also the project lead for the NERSC-8 system procurement, a

  15. ARM: Portable Radiation Package: Position and Heading Data with...

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    Portable Radiation Package: Position and Heading Data with 1 second resolution Authors: Annette Koontz ; R. Reynolds Publication Date: 2015-01-09 OSTI Identifier: 1181874 DOE ...

  16. MHK Projects/Brough Head Wave Farm | Open Energy Information

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    homepage Retrieved from "http:en.openei.orgwindex.php?titleMHKProjectsBroughHeadWaveFarm&oldid680140" Feedback Contact needs updating Image needs updating Reference...

  17. Owls Head, Maine: Energy Resources | Open Energy Information

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    Owls Head, Maine: Energy Resources Jump to: navigation, search Equivalent URI DBpedia Coordinates 44.082303, -69.0572612 Show Map Loading map... "minzoom":false,"mappingservic...

  18. Council on Environmental Quality - Memorandum for Heads of Federal...

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    Jump to: navigation, search OpenEI Reference LibraryAdd to library Memorandum: Council on Environmental Quality - Memorandum for Heads of Federal Departments and Agencies...

  19. MHK Projects/Kendall Head Tidal Energy | Open Energy Information

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    Kendall Head Tidal Energy < MHK Projects Jump to: navigation, search << Return to the MHK database homepage Loading map... "minzoom":false,"mappingservice":"googlemaps3","type":"R...

  20. Laurie Bagley succeeds Lew Meixler as head of Technology Transfer |

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Princeton Plasma Physics Lab Laurie Bagley succeeds Lew Meixler as head of Technology Transfer By Jeanne Jackson DeVoe May 6, 2015 Tweet Widget Google Plus One Share on Facebook Laurie Bagley is the new head of Technology Transfer at PPPL. (Photo by Elle Starkman/PPPL Office of Communications) Laurie Bagley is the new head of Technology Transfer at PPPL. Gallery: Lew Meixler was head of Technology Transfer at PPPL for 23 years. (Photo by Photo by Elle Starkman/PPPL Office of Communications)

  1. Optimizing Cluster Heads for Energy Efficiency in Large-Scale...

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    Optimizing Cluster Heads for Energy Efficiency in Large-Scale Heterogeneous Wireless Sensor Networks Gu, Yi; Wu, Qishi; Rao, Nageswara S. V. Hindawi Publishing Corporation None...

  2. Williams To Head Livermore Site Office | National Nuclear Security...

    National Nuclear Security Administration (NNSA)

    Williams To Head Livermore Site Office August 14, 2008 WASHINGTON, D.C. - Alice C. ... and environment, has been named the new Livermore Site Office manager, effective November ...

  3. Bret Knapp to head combined Weapons Engineering, Weapons Physics...

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Weapons Engineering, Weapons Physics Directorates Bret Knapp to head combined Weapons Engineering, Weapons Physics Directorates at Los Alamos National Laboratory New leadership...

  4. Indian Head Park, Illinois: Energy Resources | Open Energy Information

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    Head Park, Illinois: Energy Resources Jump to: navigation, search Equivalent URI DBpedia Coordinates 41.7703092, -87.9022808 Show Map Loading map... "minzoom":false,"mappingse...

  5. Raft River Geothermal Field Well Head Brine Sample

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Tim Lanyk

    2015-12-18

    Raw data and data workup of assay for real-world brine sample. Brine sample was taken at the well head.

  6. Head Observation Organizer (HObO)

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Steven Predmore

    2008-03-06

    The Head Observation Organizer, HObO, is a computer program that stores and manages measured ground-water levels. HObO was developed to help ground-water modelers compile, manage, and document water-level data needed to calibrate ground-water models. Well-construction and water-level data from the U.S. Geological Survey National Water Database (NWIS) easily can be imported into HObO from the NWIS web site (NWISWeb). The water-level data can be flagged to determine which data will be included in the calibration data set. The utility program HObO_NWISWeb was developed to simplify the down loading of well and water-level data from NWISWeb. An ArcGIS NWISWeb Extension was developed to retrieve site information from NWISWeb. A tutorial is presented showing the basic elements of HObO.

  7. Closure head for a nuclear reactor

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Wade, Elman E.

    1980-01-01

    A closure head for a nuclear reactor includes a stationary outer ring integral with the reactor vessel with a first rotatable plug disposed within the stationary outer ring and supported from the stationary outer ring by a bearing assembly. A sealing system is associated with the bearing assembly to seal the annulus defined between the first rotatable plug and the stationary outer ring. The sealing system comprises tubular seal elements disposed in the annulus with load springs contacting the tubular seal elements so as to force the tubular seal elements against the annulus in a manner to seal the annulus. The sealing system also comprises a sealing fluid which is pumped through the annulus and over the tubular seal elements causing the load springs to compress thereby reducing the friction between the tubular seal elements and the rotatable components while maintaining a gas-tight seal therebetween.

  8. Heading off the permanent oil crisis

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    MacKenzie, J.J.

    1996-11-01

    The 1996 spike in gasoline prices was not a signal of any fundamental worldwide shortage of crude oil. But based on a review of many studies of recoverable crude oil that have been published since the 1950s, it looks as though such a shortfall is now within sight. With world demand for oil growing at 2 percent per year, global production is likely to peak between the years 2007 and 2014. As this time approaches, we can expect prices to rise markedly and, most likely, permanently. Policy changes are needed now to ease the transition to high-priced oil. Oil production will continue, though at a declining rate, for many decades after its peak, and there are enormous amounts of coal, oil sands, heavy oil, and oil shales worldwide that could be used to produce liquid or gaseous substitutes for crude oil, albeit at higher prices. But the facilities for making such synthetic fuels are costly to build and environmentally damaging to operate, and their use would substantially increase carbon dioxide emissions (compared to emissions from products made from conventional crude oil). This paper examines ways of heading of the impending oil crisis. 8 refs., 3 figs.

  9. SEMI-ANNUAL REPORTS FOR - BEAR HEAD LNG CORPORATION AND BEAR...

    Broader source: Energy.gov (indexed) [DOE]

    More Documents & Publications CX-200005: Categorical Exclusion Determination ORDER 3770: BEAR HEAD LNG CORPORATION and BEAR HEAD LNG (USA), LLC Listing of DOEFE Authorizations...

  10. Steam Generator Group Project. Task 6. Channel head decontamination

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Allen, R.P.; Clark, R.L.; Reece, W.D.

    1984-08-01

    The Steam Generator Group Project utilizes a retired-from-service pressurized-water-reactor steam generator as a test bed and source of specimens for research. An important preparatory step to primary side research activities was reduction of the radiation field in the steam generator channel head. This task report describes the channel head decontamination activities. Though not a programmatic research objective it was judged beneficial to explore the use of dilute reagent chemical decontamination techniques. These techniques presented potential for reduced personnel exposure and reduced secondary radwaste generation, over currently used abrasive blasting techniques. Two techniques with extensive laboratory research and vendors prepared to offer commercial application were tested, one on either side of the channel head. As indicated in the report, both techniques accomplished similar decontamination objectives. Neither technique damaged the generator channel head or tubing materials, as applied. This report provides details of the decontamination operations. Application system and operating conditions are described.

  11. Printed circuit board for a CCD camera head

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Conder, Alan D.

    2002-01-01

    A charge-coupled device (CCD) camera head which can replace film for digital imaging of visible light, ultraviolet radiation, and soft to penetrating x-rays, such as within a target chamber where laser produced plasmas are studied. The camera head is small, capable of operating both in and out of a vacuum environment, and is versatile. The CCD camera head uses PC boards with an internal heat sink connected to the chassis for heat dissipation, which allows for close (0.04" for example) stacking of the PC boards. Integration of this CCD camera head into existing instrumentation provides a substantial enhancement of diagnostic capabilities for studying high energy density plasmas, for a variety of military industrial, and medical imaging applications.

  12. Raft River monitor well potentiometric head responses and water...

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    flow system Jump to: navigation, search OpenEI Reference LibraryAdd to library Report: Raft River monitor well potentiometric head responses and water quality as related to the...

  13. Tony Reilly appointed to be SRF Operations Department Head |...

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    to be SRF Operations Department Head Following the appointment of Joe Preble to be the LCLS II Project Lead for Jefferson Lab, we initiated a search to replace Joe as SRF...

  14. Katie Antypas Named New Head of NERSC Services Department

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Katie Antypas Named New Head of NERSC Services Department September 3, 2013 katie2 Katie Antypas Katie Antypas, who has led NERSC's User Services Group since October 2010, has been ...

  15. Zeroth-order inversion of transient head observations

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Vasco, D.W.

    2007-08-15

    A high-frequency, asymptotic solution for transient head,appropriate for a medium containing smoothly varying heterogeneity,provides a basis for efficient inverse modeling. The semi analyticsolution is trajectory based, akin to ray methods used in modeling wavepropagation, and may be constructed by post processing the output of anumerical simulator. For high frequencies, the amplitude sensitivities,the relationship between changes in flow properties and changes in headampliude, are dominated by the phase term which may be computed directlyfrom the output of the simulator. Thus, transient head waveforms may beinverted with little more computation than is required to invert arrivaltimes. An applicatino to synthetic head values indicates that thetechnique can be used to improve the fit to waveforms. An application totransient head data from the Migration experiment in Switzerland revealsa narrow, high conductivity pathway within a 0.5 m thick zone offracturing.

  16. Theoretical collapse pressures for two pressurized torispherical heads

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Kalnins, A.; Updike, D.P.; Rana, M.D.

    1995-12-01

    In order to determine the pressures at which real torispherical heads fail upon a single application of pressure, two heads were pressurized in recent Praxair tests, and displacements and strains were recorded at various locations. In this paper, theoretical results for the two test heads are presented in the form of curves of pressure versus crown deflections, using the available geometry and material parameters. From these curves, limit and collapse pressures are calculated, using procedures permitted by the ASME B and PV Code Section 8/Div.2. These pressures are shown to vary widely, depending on the method and model used to calculate them. The effect of no stress relief on the behavior of the Praxair test heads is also evaluated and found to be of no significance for neither the objectives of the tests nor the objectives of this paper. The results of this paper are submitted as an enhancement to the experimental results recorded during the Praxair tests.

  17. Los Alamos National Laboratory names new head of weapons programs

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    weapons programs Los Alamos National Laboratory names new head of weapons programs Bret Knapp has been acting in that position since June 2011. December 1, 2011 Los Alamos National...

  18. Type B Accident Investigation Board Report on the Head Injury...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    New Mexico - August 25, 2004 Type B Accident Investigation Board Report on the Head Injury to a Miner at the Waste Isolation Pilot Plant, Carlsbad, New Mexico - August 25, ...

  19. Design and Test of the CC Cryostat Head Cart

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Jaques, Al; /Fermilab

    1989-08-08

    This Engineering Note documents the design of the stand to be used to transport the CC Cryostat heads into the D-Zero clean room. Due to the width of the clean room access door, the heads will have to be upright to fit through. This head cart will hold the heads upright and wheel them into the clean room on a guided track. Before the wheels are placed on the heat cart, it will be used as a stand to place the heads on for the purpose of test fitting the super insulation. The head cart will not only be structurally sufficient to support the weight of the heads but also stiff enough to allow a maximum deflection of 1/2-inch at the end of the 48-inch cylinder. The heaviest head assembly weighs about 9000 pounds. Following A.I.S.C. specifications and using a 9000 pound design load, the head cart was initially designed and built and later modified in order to meet the deflection requirements. Bending and tension stresses were limited to two thirds the yield strength. Weld and shear stresses are limited to 0.4*Fy. The C7 X 12.25 channels, the L2.5 X 2.5 X 0.25 angles adn the 1/2-inch plate are all A36 steel. In order to validate the need for an end plate in the 48-inch cylinder, an ANSYS model was created of the cylinder itself to determine it's rigidity under a point load applied at it's outer end. Appendix D contains the results which demonstrate the rigidity of the cylinder-end plate assembly. Also included is a Frame-Mac simulation of the head cart which was used to estimate the deflection at the cylinder end. A load test was performed to 133% of the rated capacity, or 12,000 pounds. The test load was incrementally applied using a crane and hook scale. A graph of deflection vs. load is shown in Appendix E. A spreader beam was designed and built to properly test the head cart. Stress calculations for this test spreader beam are included in Appendix C.

  20. Cylinder Head Gasket with Integrated Combustion Pressure Sensors |

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Department of Energy Cylinder Head Gasket with Integrated Combustion Pressure Sensors Cylinder Head Gasket with Integrated Combustion Pressure Sensors Poster presented at the 16th Directions in Engine-Efficiency and Emissions Research (DEER) Conference in Detroit, MI, September 27-30, 2010. p-17_wlodarczyk.pdf (668.6 KB) More Documents & Publications Glow Plug Integrated Piezo-Ceramic Combustion Sensor for Diesel Engines Flex Fuel Optimized SI and HCCI Engine Heavy-Duty HCCI Development

  1. Los Alamos names new head of stockpile manufacturing and support

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    New head of stockpile manufacturing and support Los Alamos names new head of stockpile manufacturing and support Carl Beard is the new associate director for stockpile manufacturing and support. Beard has held this position in an acting capacity since June 2007. January 22, 2008 Los Alamos National Laboratory sits on top of a once-remote mesa in northern New Mexico with the Jemez mountains as a backdrop to research and innovation covering multi-disciplines from bioscience, sustainable energy

  2. Andrew Hutton Named Head of Jefferson Lab's Accelerator Division |

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Andrew Gordon About Us Andrew Gordon - SLAC National Accelerator Laboratory Andrew Gordon is the External Communications Manager at SLAC National Accelerator Laboratory, one of the Department of Energy's 17 National Laboratories. Most Recent The World's Most Powerful X-ray Laser is Getting an Upgrade June 21 Accelerator on a Chip February Jefferson Lab

    Andrew Hutton Named Head of Jefferson Lab's Accelerator Division Andrew Hutton Named Head of Jefferson Lab's Accelerator Division March

  3. Bear Head LNG Corporation and Bear Head LNG (USA), LLC- FE Dkt. No.- 15-33-LNG

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    The Office of Fossil Energy gives notice of receipt of an application filed on February 25, 2015, by Bear Head LNG, requesting long-term multi-contract authority as further described in their...

  4. Integrated head package cable carrier for a nuclear power plant

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Meuschke, Robert E.; Trombola, Daniel M.

    1995-01-01

    A cabling arrangement is provided for a nuclear reactor located within a containment. Structure inside the containment is characterized by a wall having a near side surrounding the reactor vessel defining a cavity, an operating deck outside the cavity, a sub-space below the deck and on a far side of the wall spaced from the near side, and an operating area above the deck. The arrangement includes a movable frame supporting a plurality of cables extending through the frame, each connectable at a first end to a head package on the reactor vessel and each having a second end located in the sub-space. The frame is movable, with the cables, between a first position during normal operation of the reactor when the cables are connected to the head package, located outside the sub-space proximate the head package, and a second position during refueling when the cables are disconnected from the head package, located in the sub-space. In a preferred embodiment, the frame straddles the top of the wall in a substantially horizontal orientation in the first position, pivots about an end distal from the head package to a substantially vertically oriented intermediate position, and is guided, while remaining about vertically oriented, along a track in the sub-space to the second position.

  5. National Clean Energy Business Plan Competition: Five Regional Winners Head

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    to Final Round in Washington, D.C. | Department of Energy Five Regional Winners Head to Final Round in Washington, D.C. National Clean Energy Business Plan Competition: Five Regional Winners Head to Final Round in Washington, D.C. June 10, 2015 - 3:45pm Addthis Five student-led start-up companies that won regional competitions across the United States will travel to Washington, D.C., on June 24 to compete for a $50,000 prize in the National Clean Energy Business Plan Competition. |

  6. Head-Tail Modes for Strong Space Charge

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Burov, Alexey

    2008-12-01

    Head-tail modes are described here for the space charge tune shift significantly exceeding the synchrotron tune. General equation for the modes is derived. Spatial shapes of the modes, their frequencies, and coherent growth rates are explored. The Landau damping rates are also found. Suppression of the transverse mode coupling instability by the space charge is explained.

  7. Simultaneous multi-headed imager geometry calibration method

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Tran, Vi-Hoa; Meikle, Steven Richard; Smith, Mark Frederick

    2008-02-19

    A method for calibrating multi-headed high sensitivity and high spatial resolution dynamic imaging systems, especially those useful in the acquisition of tomographic images of small animals. The method of the present invention comprises: simultaneously calibrating two or more detectors to the same coordinate system; and functionally correcting for unwanted detector movement due to gantry flexing.

  8. Advanced dry head-end reprocessing of light water reactor spent...

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    Patent: Advanced dry head-end reprocessing of light water reactor spent nuclear fuel Citation Details In-Document Search Title: Advanced dry head-end reprocessing of light water ...

  9. Omni Jaw 5(tm) licensed, headed to market | Y-12 National Security...

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    hydraulic tool, invented to shear and trap bolt heads during demolition projects, has been ... A patented, portable, high-powered hydraulic tool, invented to shear and trap bolt heads ...

  10. SEMI-ANNUAL REPORTS FOR - BEAR HEAD LNG CORPORATION AND BEAR...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    SEMI-ANNUAL REPORTS FOR - BEAR HEAD LNG CORPORATION AND BEAR HEAD (USA) LLC - FE DKT. NO. ... REPORTS FOR LNG DEVELOPMENT COMPANY, LLC (DBA Oregon LNG) - FE DKT. NO. 12-48-LNG - ...

  11. Roadmap for Development of an Advanced Head-End Process (Conference...

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    Conference: Roadmap for Development of an Advanced Head-End Process Citation Details In-Document Search Title: Roadmap for Development of an Advanced Head-End Process Authors: ...

  12. Real World Demonstration of a New American Low-Head Hydropower...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Real World Demonstration of a New American Low-Head Hydropower Unit Real World Demonstration of a New American Low-Head Hydropower Unit Real World Demonstration of a New American ...

  13. Scalable Low-head Axial-type Venturi-flow Energy Scavenger | Department of

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Energy Scalable Low-head Axial-type Venturi-flow Energy Scavenger Scalable Low-head Axial-type Venturi-flow Energy Scavenger Scalable Low-head Axial-type Venturi-flow Energy Scavenger 68e_pi_nmsu_prasad.ppt (4.89 MB) More Documents & Publications CX-011410: Categorical Exclusion Determination Water Power Program Peer Review Meeting Agenda Laboratory Demonstration of a New American Low-Head Hydropower Turbine

  14. Development of Advanced Head-End Systems in 'NEXT' Process

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Washiya, Tadahiro; Komaki, Jun; Funasaka, Hideyuki

    2007-07-01

    Japan Atomic Energy Agency (JAEA) has been developing the new aqueous reprocessing system named 'NEXT' (New Extraction system for TRU recovery)1-2, which provides many advantages as waste volume reduction, cost savings by advanced components and simplification of process operation. Advanced head-end systems in the 'NEXT' process consist of fuel disassembly system, fuel shearing system and continuous dissolver system. We developed reliable fuel disassembly system with innovative procedure, and short-length shearing system and continuous dissolver system can be provided highly concentrated dissolution to adapt to the uranium crystallization process. We have carried out experimental studies, and fabrication of engineering-scale test devices to confirm the systems performance. In this paper, research and development of advanced head-end systems are described. (authors)

  15. Integrated hydraulic cooler and return rail in camless cylinder head

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Marriott, Craig D.; Neal, Timothy L.; Swain, Jeff L.; Raimao, Miguel A.

    2011-12-13

    An engine assembly may include a cylinder head defining an engine coolant reservoir, a pressurized fluid supply, a valve actuation assembly, and a hydraulic fluid reservoir. The valve actuation assembly may be in fluid communication with the pressurized fluid supply and may include a valve member displaceable by a force applied by the pressurized fluid supply. The hydraulic fluid reservoir may be in fluid communication with the valve actuation assembly and in a heat exchange relation to the engine coolant reservoir.

  16. Head of Comprehensive Nuclear-Test-Ban Treaty Organization (CTBTO)

    National Nuclear Security Administration (NNSA)

    Preparatory Commission Visits NNSA's Nevada National Security Site (NNSS) for First Time | National Nuclear Security Administration | (NNSA) Head of Comprehensive Nuclear-Test-Ban Treaty Organization (CTBTO) Preparatory Commission Visits NNSA's Nevada National Security Site (NNSS) for First Time November 24, 2015 Dr. Lassina Zerbo of the Comprehensive Nuclear-Test-Ban Treaty Organization, center, inside the P-Tunnel at the Nevada National Security Site. P-Tunnel, a large tunnel inside Ranier

  17. MEMORANDUM FOR HEADS OF DEPARTMENTAL ELEMENTS FROM: IN GRID^,,

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    ,2011 MEMORANDUM FOR HEADS OF DEPARTMENTAL ELEMENTS FROM: IN GRID^,, DIRECT SUBJECT: Working Effectively with Contractors The Department of Energy (DOE) depends on contractors to provide vital support in achieving our mission. Their contributions are critical t o accomplishing our goals in such important areas as energy research and development, weapons production, stockpile management, and environmental remediation and restoration. Although contractors are integral to our mission

  18. MEMORANDUM FOR HEADS OF DEPARTMENTAL ELEMENTS OTHER THAN THE

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    , 2013 MEMORANDUM FOR HEADS OF DEPARTMENTAL ELEMENTS OTHER THAN THE NA TI ON AL NUCLEAR SECURITY ADMINISTRATION FROM: SUBJECT: ROBERT C. GIBBS ~Mb CHIEF HUMAN CAPITAL OFFICER W AIYER OF THE BI-WEEKLY PAY LIMITATION FOR EMERGENCY RESPONSE ACTIVITIES This memorandum replaces: 1) the January 31, 2002, memorandum from Timothy M. Dirks, (former) Director of Human Resources Management, subject: Waiver of Bi-Weekly Premium Pay Limitation, pertaining to "emergency work in connection with the

  19. TO: Procurement Directors Head of Contracting Activities FROM: Director

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    4-39 DATE: August 21, 2014 TO: Procurement Directors Head of Contracting Activities FROM: Director Contract and Financial Assistance Policy Division Office of Policy Office of Procurement and Assistance Management SUBJECT: Initiatives to Achieve Strategic Plan 2014-2018 Performance Goal Focused on Cost Savings SUMMARY: The Department of Energy (DOE) Strategic Plan 2014-2018 includes language designed to expand the use of strategic sourcing across the Department for both federal procurement and

  20. LANL names new head of Nuclear and High Hazard Operations

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Safety organization critical to Lab operations LANL names new head of Nuclear and High Hazard Operations Charles Anderson joined the Laboratory in 2009 as the deputy associate director in ADNHHO. March 7, 2012 Los Alamos National Laboratory sits on top of a once-remote mesa in northern New Mexico with the Jemez mountains as a backdrop to research and innovation covering multi-disciplines from bioscience, sustainable energy sources, to plasma physics and new materials. Los Alamos National

  1. Real World Demonstration of a New American Low-Head Hydropower Unit |

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Department of Energy Real World Demonstration of a New American Low-Head Hydropower Unit Real World Demonstration of a New American Low-Head Hydropower Unit Real World Demonstration of a New American Low-Head Hydropower Unit 69d_hydrogreen_hydro_demonstration_12.ppt (757.5 KB) More Documents & Publications Laboratory Demonstration of a New American Low-Head Hydropower Turbine Turbine Aeration Physical Modeling and Software Design Scalable Low-head Axial-type Venturi-flow Energy Scavenger

  2. Laboratory Demonstration of a New American Low-Head Hydropower Turbine |

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Department of Energy Laboratory Demonstration of a New American Low-Head Hydropower Turbine Laboratory Demonstration of a New American Low-Head Hydropower Turbine Laboratory Demonstration of a New American Low-Head Hydropower Turbine 68b_hydrogreen_small_hydro_ch_11.ppt (278 KB) More Documents & Publications Real World Demonstration of a New American Low-Head Hydropower Unit Turbine Aeration Physical Modeling and Software Design Scalable Low-head Axial-type Venturi-flow Energy Scave

  3. Reactor pressure vessel head vents and methods of using the same

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Gels, John L; Keck, David J; Deaver, Gerald A

    2014-10-28

    Internal head vents are usable in nuclear reactors and include piping inside of the reactor pressure vessel with a vent in the reactor upper head. Piping extends downward from the upper head and passes outside of the reactor to permit the gas to escape or be forcibly vented outside of the reactor without external piping on the upper head. The piping may include upper and lowers section that removably mate where the upper head joins to the reactor pressure vessel. The removable mating may include a compressible bellows and corresponding funnel. The piping is fabricated of nuclear-reactor-safe materials, including carbon steel, stainless steel, and/or a Ni--Cr--Fe alloy. Methods install an internal head vent in a nuclear reactor by securing piping to an internal surface of an upper head of the nuclear reactor and/or securing piping to an internal surface of a reactor pressure vessel.

  4. 'Tuning' the variable stiffness head gasket: An interactive computational approach

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Glander, D.W.; Punch, E.F.

    1987-01-01

    Problems of bore distortion, combustion blowby and gasket fatigue in lightweight engine blocks are ultimately related to the gasket sealing pressure distribution. For both conventional embossed steel gaskets and composite ones this distribution can be modified by suitable local changes in gasket stiffness. Current methods of gasket optimization concentrate on large scale iterative finite element analysis of the head/gasket/block system, with major computational costs. This paper presents a more economical alternative in which condensed compliance matrices are obtained either from elementary NASTRAN runs or by experimental means. The algorithm enables the gasket engineer to 'tune' the gasket to the desired sealing pressure profile with acceptable stiffness variations.

  5. Flame Arrival Measurement By Instrumented Spark Plug or Head Gasket

    Energy Science and Technology Software Center (OSTI)

    1995-04-10

    PLUGBIN was developed to support Sandia technologies involving instrumented head gaskets and spark plugs for engine research and development. It acquires and processes measurements of flame arrival and pressure from a spark ignition. Flame arrival is determined from analog ionization-probe or visible-emission signals, and/or digitial signals from a dedicated flame arrival measurement processor. The pressure measurements are analyzed to determine the time of peak pressure and the time to burn 10 and 90 percent ofmore » the charge. Histograms are then calculated and displayed for each measurement.« less

  6. Extreme high-head portables provide more pumping options

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Fiscor, S.

    2006-10-15

    Three years ago, Godwin Pumps, one of the largest manufacturers of portable pumps, introduced its Extreme Duty High Lift (HL) series of pumps and more mines are finding unique applications for these pumps. The Extreme HL series is a range single-stage Dri-Prime pumps with heads up to 600 feet and flows up to 5,000 gallons per minute. The American Coal Co.'s Galatia mine, an underground longwall mine in southern Illinois, used an HL 160 to replace a multiple-staged centrifugal pump. It provided Galatia with 1,500 gpm at 465 ft. 3 photos.

  7. Head, Facilities and Site Services | Princeton Plasma Physics Lab

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Security Administration | (NNSA) Hazel O'Leary is Sworn in as Secretary of Energy Hazel O'Leary is Sworn in as Secretary of Energy Washington, DC Hazel R. O'Leary is sworn in as seventh Secretary of Energy. She is the first and only female Secretary of Energy in the history of the department Preparatory Commission Visits NNSA's Nevada National Security Site (NNSS) for First Time | National Nuclear Security Administration | (NNSA)

    Head of Comprehensive Nuclear-Test-Ban Treaty

  8. LANL names new head of Plutonium Science and Manufacturing

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Jeff Yarbrough joins Los Alamos from B&W Pantex LANL names new head of Plutonium Science and Manufacturing Jeff Yarbrough joins Los Alamos from the B&W Pantex plant in Amarillo, Texas. March 2, 2012 Los Alamos National Laboratory sits on top of a once-remote mesa in northern New Mexico with the Jemez mountains as a backdrop to research and innovation covering multi-disciplines from bioscience, sustainable energy sources, to plasma physics and new materials. Los Alamos National Laboratory

  9. Low hydrostatic head electrolyte addition to fuel cell stacks

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Kothmann, Richard E.

    1983-01-01

    A fuel cell and system for supply electrolyte, as well as fuel and an oxidant to a fuel cell stack having at least two fuel cells, each of the cells having a pair of spaced electrodes and a matrix sandwiched therebetween, fuel and oxidant paths associated with a bipolar plate separating each pair of adjacent fuel cells and an electrolyte fill path for adding electrolyte to the cells and wetting said matrices. Electrolyte is flowed through the fuel cell stack in a back and forth fashion in a path in each cell substantially parallel to one face of opposite faces of the bipolar plate exposed to one of the electrodes and the matrices to produce an overall head uniformly between cells due to frictional pressure drop in the path for each cell free of a large hydrostatic head to thereby avoid flooding of the electrodes. The bipolar plate is provided with channels forming paths for the flow of the fuel and oxidant on opposite faces thereof, and the fuel and the oxidant are flowed along a first side of the bipolar plate and a second side of the bipolar plate through channels formed into the opposite faces of the bipolar plate, the fuel flowing through channels formed into one of the opposite faces and the oxidant flowing through channels formed into the other of the opposite faces.

  10. Imaging system for cardiac planar imaging using a dedicated dual-head gamma camera

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Majewski, Stanislaw; Umeno, Marc M.

    2011-09-13

    A cardiac imaging system employing dual gamma imaging heads co-registered with one another to provide two dynamic simultaneous views of the heart sector of a patient torso. A first gamma imaging head is positioned in a first orientation with respect to the heart sector and a second gamma imaging head is positioned in a second orientation with respect to the heart sector. An adjustment arrangement is capable of adjusting the distance between the separate imaging heads and the angle between the heads. With the angle between the imaging heads set to 180 degrees and operating in a range of 140-159 keV and at a rate of up to 500kHz, the imaging heads are co-registered to produce simultaneous dynamic recording of two stereotactic views of the heart. The use of co-registered imaging heads maximizes the uniformity of detection sensitivity of blood flow in and around the heart over the whole heart volume and minimizes radiation absorption effects. A normalization/image fusion technique is implemented pixel-by-corresponding pixel to increase signal for any cardiac region viewed in two images obtained from the two opposed detector heads for the same time bin. The imaging system is capable of producing enhanced first pass studies, bloodpool studies including planar, gated and non-gated EKG studies, planar EKG perfusion studies, and planar hot spot imaging.

  11. Advanced dry head-end reprocessing of light water reactor spent...

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    reprocessing of light water reactor spent nuclear fuel Citation Details In-Document Search Title: Advanced dry head-end reprocessing of light water reactor spent nuclear fuel ...

  12. Are We Heading Towards a Reversal of the Trend for Ever-Greater...

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    Mobility? Jump to: navigation, search Tool Summary LAUNCH TOOL Name: Are We Heading Towards a Reversal of the Trend for Ever-Greater Mobility? AgencyCompany Organization:...

  13. Integrated titer plate-injector head for microdrop array preparation, storage and transfer

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Swierkowski, Stefan P.

    2000-01-01

    An integrated titer plate-injector head for preparing and storing two-dimensional (2-D) arrays of microdrops and for ejecting part or all of the microdrops and inserting same precisely into 2-D arrays of deposition sites with micrometer precision. The titer plate-injector head includes integrated precision formed nozzles with appropriate hydrophobic surface features and evaporative constraints. A reusable pressure head with a pressure equalizing feature is added to the titer plate to perform simultaneous precision sample ejection. The titer plate-injector head may be utilized in various applications including capillary electrophoresis, chemical flow injection analysis, microsample array preparation, etc.

  14. NNSA Sites Host Head of Comprehensive Nuclear-Test-Ban Treaty...

    National Nuclear Security Administration (NNSA)

    Sites Host Head of Comprehensive Nuclear-Test-Ban Treaty Organization (CTBTO) Friday, ... Commission for the Comprehensive Nuclear-Test-Ban Treaty Organization (CTBTO); and NNSA ...

  15. In search of a new governing failure criterion for torispherical heads

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Kalnins, A.; Updike, D.P.; Rana, M.D.

    1995-12-01

    The failure criterion that governs the present design rules of formed heads in Section 8/Div. 2 of the ASME B and PV Code limits crown displacement upon a single application of pressure, and it does so by means of a calculated collapse pressure. One problem with the rules is that they require greater head thicknesses than those of Section 8/Div. 1. Another problem is that recent test data taken for two formed heads have shown no signs of head displacements or deformations that could have rendered the heads unserviceable at pressures substantially higher than the calculated collapse pressures. Any link between the calculated collapse pressures and the failures of the test heads could not be established. The main thesis proposed in the paper is that such a link does not exist for torispherical heads in general. The reason for this is investigated theoretically and attributed to the geometric strengthening of heads, as they deform. It is recommended that the reasons for limiting displacements or deformations for a single application of pressure be reviewed and, if needed, a new failure criterion defined, or other failure modes, such as tensile plastic instability (burst), be considered. The latter mode is described and options for its evaluation are presented in this paper. The protection of torispherical heads against the failure modes of low-cycle fatigue and incremental plastic growth upon cyclic loading, which are controlled by shakedown, is not covered in this paper but is left to future investigations.

  16. Match-Heads Boost Photovoltaic Efficiency | U.S. DOE Office of...

    Office of Science (SC) Website

    Tiny "match-head" wires act as built-in light concentrators, enhancing solar cell ... carrier collection are essential characteristics of highly efficient solar cells. ...

  17. Low-head air stripper treats oil tanker ballast water

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Goldman, M. )

    1992-02-01

    Prototype tests conducted during the winter of 1989/90 have successfully demonstrated an economical design for air stripping volatile hydrocarbons from oily tanker ballast water. The prototype air stripper, developed for Alyeska's Ballast Water Treatment (BWT) facility in Valdez, Alaska, ran continuously for three months with an average removal of 88% of the incoming volatile organics. Initially designed to remove oil and grease compounds from tanker ballast water, the BWT system has been upgraded to a three-step process to comply with new, stringent regulations. The BWT biological oxidation process enhances the growth of bacteria present in the incoming ballast water through nutrient addition, aeration, and recirculation within a complete-mixed bioreactor. The average removal of BETX is over 95%, however, occassional upsets required the placement of a polishing air stripper downstream of the aeration tanks. Packed-tower air stripping was investigated but deemed economically unfeasible for a facility that would only occasionally be used. Twelve feet of excess gravity head in the existing BWT hydraulic gradeline were employed to drive the air stripper feed. This limited the stripper packing depth to 8 feet and imposed constraints on the design of the inlet water and air distributors. Water distribution, air flow, temperature effects, and fouling from constituents in the ballast water were investigated. The prototype was operated under water and air flow conditions similar to those specified for the full-scale unit, and at a range of test conditions above and below the normal design conditions.

  18. Head of EM Visits Waste Isolation Pilot Plant for First Underground...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Head of EM Visits Waste Isolation Pilot Plant for First Underground Tour Since February Incidents October 16, 2014 - 12:00pm Addthis CBFO Manager Joe Franco, left, and EM Acting ...

  19. NREL: Wind Research - NREL Heads to Big Easy to Host Collegiate...

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    NREL Heads to Big Easy to Host Collegiate Wind Competition 2016 May 20, 2016 The U.S. Department of Energy Collegiate Wind Competition 2016 begins May 24-less than a week from ...

  20. Water-Efficient Technology Opportunity: Multi-Stream Rotational Sprinkler Heads

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    FEMP identified multi-stream rotational sprinkler heads as a water-saving technology that is relevant to the federal sector, is commercially available, and offers significant water-savings potential.

  1. Demonstration of variable speed permanent magnet generator at small, low-head hydro site

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Brown Kinloch, David

    2015-12-18

    Small hydro developers face a limited set of bad choices when choosing a generator for a small low-head hydro site. Direct drive synchronous generators are expensive and technically complex to install. Simpler induction generators are higher speed, requiring a speed increaser, which results in inefficiencies and maintenance problems. In addition, both induction and synchronous generators turn at a fixed speed, causing the turbine to run off its peak efficiency curve whenever the available head is different than the designed optimum head.The solution to these problems is the variable speed Permanent Magnet Generators (PMG). At the Weisenberger Mill in Midway, KY, a variable speed Permanent Magnet Generator has been installed and demonstrated. This new PMG system replaced an existing induction generator that had a HTD belt drive speed increaser system. Data was taken from the old generator before it was removed and compared to data collected after the PMG system was installed. The new variable speed PMG system is calculated to produce over 96% more energy than the old induction generator system during an average year. This significant increase was primarily due to the PMG generator operating at the correct speed at the maximum head, and the ability for the PMG generator to reduce its speed to lower optimum speeds as the stream flow increased and the net head decreased.This demonstration showed the importance of being able to adjust the speed of fixed blade turbines. All fixed blade turbines with varying net heads could achieve higher efficiencies if the speed can be matched to the optimum speed as the head changes. In addition, this demonstration showed that there are many potential efficiencies that could be realized with variable speed technology at hydro sites where mismatched turbine and generator speeds result in lower power output, even at maximum head. Funding for this project came from the US Dept. of Energy, through Award Number DE-EE0005429.

  2. Simulations of coherent beam-beam effects with head-on compensation

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    White S.; Fischer, W.; Luo. Y.

    2012-05-20

    Electron lenses are under construction for installation in RHIC in order to mitigate the head-on beam-beam effects. This would allow operation with higher bunch intensity and result in a significant increase in luminosity. We report on recent strong-strong simulations and experiments that were carried out using the RHIC upgrade parameters to assess the impact of coherent beam-beam effects in the presence of head-on compensation.

  3. Energy Secretary Bodman Heads to West Virginia to Promote Energy Bill |

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Department of Energy Heads to West Virginia to Promote Energy Bill Energy Secretary Bodman Heads to West Virginia to Promote Energy Bill July 7, 2005 - 2:00pm Addthis Secretary Promotes Energizing America for Energy Security BELLE, WV - Secretary of Energy Samuel W. Bodman today traveled to West Virginia to urge the Congress to pass comprehensive energy legislation that is now before them. The bill reflects many of the principles of President Bush's national energy policy including the

  4. Accelerated Life Structural Benchmark Testing for a Stirling Convertor Heater Head

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Krause, David L.; Kantzos, Pete T.

    2006-01-20

    For proposed long-duration NASA Space Science missions, the Department of Energy, Lockheed Martin, Infinia Corporation, and NASA Glenn Research Center are developing a high-efficiency, 110-watt Stirling Radioisotope Generator (SRG110). A structurally significant limit state for the SRG110 heater head component is creep deformation induced at high material temperature and low stress level. Conventional investigations of creep behavior adequately rely on experimental results from uniaxial creep specimens, and a wealth of creep data is available for the Inconel 718 material of construction. However, the specified atypical thin heater head material is fine-grained with a heat treatment that limits precipitate growth, and little creep property data for this microstructure is available in the literature. In addition, the geometry and loading conditions apply a multiaxial stress state on the component, far from the conditions of uniaxial testing. For these reasons, an extensive experimental investigation is ongoing to aid in accurately assessing the durability of the SRG110 heater head. This investigation supplements uniaxial creep testing with pneumatic testing of heater head-like pressure vessels at design temperature with stress levels ranging from approximately the design stress to several times that. This paper presents experimental results, post-test microstructural analyses, and conclusions for four higher-stress, accelerated life tests. Analysts are using these results to calibrate deterministic and probabilistic analytical creep models of the SRG110 heater head.

  5. Results of head-on beam-beam compensation studies at the Tevatron

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Valishev, A.; Stancari, G.; /Fermilab

    2011-03-01

    At the Tevatron collider, we studied the feasibility of suppressing the antiproton head-on beam-beamtune spread using a magnetically confined 5-keV electron beam with Gaussian transverse profile overlapping with the circulating beam. When electron cooling of antiprotons is applied in regular Tevatron operations, the head-on beam-beam effect on antiprotons is small. Therefore, we first focused on the operational aspects, such as beam alignment and stability, and on fundamental observations of tune shifts, tune spreads, lifetimes, and emittances. We also attempted two special collider stores with only 3 proton bunches colliding with 3 antiproton bunches, to suppress long-range forces and enhance head-on effects. We present here the results of this study and a comparison between numerical simulations and observations, in view of the planned application of this compensation concept to RHIC.

  6. Stability of Single Particle Motion with Head-On Beam-Beam Compensation in the RHIC

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Luo,Y.; Fischer, W.; Abreu, N.

    2008-05-01

    To compensate the large tune shift and tune spread generated by the head-on beam-beam interactions in the polarized proton run in the Relativistic Heavy Ion Collider (RHIC), we proposed a low energy electron beam with a Gaussian transverse profiles to collide head-on with the proton beam. In this article, with a weak-strong beam-beam interaction model, we investigate the stability of single particle motion in the presence of head-on beam-beam compensation. Tune footprints, tune diffusion, Lyapunov exponents, and 10{sup 6} turn dynamic apertures are calculated and compared between the cases without and with beam-beam compensation. A tune scan is performed and the possibility of increasing the bunch intensity is studied. The cause of tune footprint foldings is discussed, and the tune diffusion and Lyapunov exponent analysis are compared.

  7. Dynamic structural analysis of a head assembly for a large loop-type LMFBR

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Kulak, R.F.; Fiala, C.

    1984-01-01

    An investigation is presented on the dynamic structural response of the primary vessel's head closure to slug impact loadings generated from a 1000 MJ source term. The reference reactor considered was designed in a loop configuration. The head structure consisted of a deck and a triple rotatable plug assembly. Two designs were considered for the deck structure: a reference design and an alternate design. The reference deck was designed as a single flat annular plate. For the alternate design, the deck plate was reinforced by adding an extender cylinder with a flange and flanged webs between the deck-plate and cylinder. The investigation showed that the reference design cannot maintain containment integrity when subjected to slug loading generated by a 1000 MJ source term. It was determined that the head deformed excessively.

  8. Double-stranded DNA organization in bacteriophage heads: An alternative toroid-based model

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Hud, N.V.

    1995-10-01

    Studies of the organization of double-stranded DNA within bacteriophage heads during the past four decades have produced a wealth of data. However, despite the presentation of numerous models, the true organization of DNA within phage heads remains unresolved. The observations of toroidal DNA structures in electron micrographs of phage lysates have long been cited as support for the organization of DNA in a spool-like fashion. This particular model, like all other models, has not been found to be consistent with all available data. Recently, the authors proposed that DNA within toroidal condensates produced in vitro is organized in a manner significantly different from that suggested by the spool model. This new toroid model has allowed the development of an alternative model for DNA organization within bacteriophage heads that is consistent with a wide range of biophysical data. Here the authors propose that bacteriophage DNA is packaged in a toroid that is folded into a highly compact structure.

  9. Evaluating the Impact of Head Rotation Amplification on Virtual Reality Training Effectiveness

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Ragan, Eric D; Bowman, Doug A; Scerbo, Siroberto; Bacim, Felipe

    2013-01-01

    Virtual reality (VR) systems have been proposed for use in numerous training scenarios, such as room clearing, which require the trainee to maintain spatial awareness. But many VR training systems lack a fully surrounding display, requiring trainees to use a combination of physical and virtual turns to view the environment, thus decreasing spatial awareness. One solution to this problem is to amplify head rotations, such that smaller physical turns are mapped to larger virtual turns, allowing trainees to view the surrounding environment with head movements alone. For example, in a multi-monitor system covering only a 90-degree field of regard, head rotations could be amplified four times to allow the user to see the entire 360-degree surrounding environment. This solution is attractive because it can be used with lower-cost VR systems and does not require virtual turning. However, the effects of amplified head rotations on spatial awareness and training transfer are not well understood. We hypothesized that small amounts of amplification might be tolerable, but that larger amplifications might cause trainees to become disoriented and to have decreased task performance and training transfer. In this paper, we will present our findings from an experiment designed to investigate these hypotheses. The experiment placed users in a virtual warehouse and asked them to move from room to room, counting objects placed around them in space. We varied the amount of amplification applied during these trials, and also varied the type of display used (head-mounted display or CAVE). We measured task performance and spatial awareness. We then assessed training transfer in an assessment environment with a fully surrounding display and no amplification. The results of this study will inform VR training system developers about the potential negative effects of using head rotation amplification and contribute to more effective VR training system design.

  10. STATUS OF THE RHIC HEAD-ON BEAM-BEAM COMPENSATION PROJECT

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Fischer, W.; Luo, Y.; Pikin, A.; Beebe, E.; Bruno, D.; Gassner, D.; Hocke, J.; Jain, A.; Lambiase, R.; Mapes, M.; Meng, W.; Montag, C.; Oerter, B.; Okamura, M.; Raparia, D.; Than, R.; Tuozzolo, J.

    2010-05-23

    In polarized proton operation the luminosity of RHIC is limited by the head-on beam-beam effect, and methods that mitigate the effect will result in higher peak and average luminosities. Two electron lenses, one for each ring, are being constructed to partially compensate the head-on beam-beam effect in the two rings. An electron lens consists of a low energy electron beam that creates the same amplitude dependent transverse kick as the proton beam. We discuss design considerations and present the main parameters.

  11. Multi-particle weak-strong simulation of RHIC head-on beam-beam compensation.

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Luo,Y.; Abreu, N.; Beebe-Wang, J.; FischW; Robert-Demolaize, G.

    2008-06-23

    To compensate the large tune spread generated by the beam-beam interactions in the polarized proton (pp) run in the Relativistic Heavy Ion Collider (RHIC), a low energy round Gaussian electron beam or electron lens is proposed to collide head-on with the proton beam. Using a weakstrong beam-beam interaction model, we carry out multiparticle simulations to investigate the effects of head-on beam-beam compensation on the proton beam's lifetime and emittance growth. The simplectic 6-D element-by-element tracking code SixTrack is adopted and modified for this study. The code benchmarking and preliminary simulation results are presented.

  12. Head-on collision of dust-ion-acoustic soliton in quantum pair-ion plasma

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Chatterjee, Prasanta; Ghorui, Malay kr.; Wong, C. S.

    2011-10-15

    In this paper, we study the head-on collision between two dust ion acoustic solitons in quantum pair-ion plasma. Using the extended Poincare-Lighthill-Kuo method, we obtain the Korteweg-de Vries equation, the phase shifts, and the trajectories after the head-on collision of the two dust ion acoustic solitons. It is observed that the phase shifts are significantly affected by the values of the quantum parameter H, the ratio of the multiples of the charge state and density of positive ions to that of the negative ions {beta} and the concentration of the negatively charged dust particles {delta}.

  13. Numerical Simulation of Earth Pressure on Head Chamber of Shield Machine with FEM

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Li Shouju; Kang Chengang [State Key Laboratory of structural analysis for industrial equipment, Dalian University of Technology, Dalian 116023 (China); Sun, Wei [School of Mechanical Engineering, Dalian University of Technology, Dalian 116023 (China); Shangguan Zichang [School of Civil and Hydraulic Engineering, Dalian University of Technology, Dalian 116023 (China); Institute of Civil Engineering, Dalian Fishery University, Dalian 116023 (China)

    2010-05-21

    Model parameters of conditioned soils in head chamber of shield machine are determined based on tree-axial compression tests in laboratory. The loads acting on tunneling face are estimated according to static earth pressure principle. Based on Duncan-Chang nonlinear elastic constitutive model, the earth pressures on head chamber of shield machine are simulated in different aperture ratio cases for rotating cutterhead of shield machine. Relationship between pressure transportation factor and aperture ratio of shield machine is proposed by using aggression analysis.

  14. Internal combuston engine having separated cylinder head oil drains and crankcase ventilation passages

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Boggs, David Lee; Baraszu, Daniel James; Foulkes, David Mark; Gomes, Enio Goyannes

    1998-01-01

    An internal combustion engine includes separated oil drain-back and crankcase ventilation passages. The oil drain-back passages extend from the cylinder head to a position below the top level of oil in the engine's crankcase. The crankcase ventilation passages extend from passages formed in the main bearing bulkheads from positions above the oil level in the crankcase and ultimately through the cylinder head. Oil dams surrounding the uppermost portions of the crankcase ventilation passages prevent oil from running downwardly through the crankcase ventilation passages.

  15. Internal combuston engine having separated cylinder head oil drains and crankcase ventilation passages

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Boggs, D.L.; Baraszu, D.J.; Foulkes, D.M.; Gomes, E.G.

    1998-12-29

    An internal combustion engine includes separated oil drain-back and crankcase ventilation passages. The oil drain-back passages extend from the cylinder head to a position below the top level of oil in the engine`s crankcase. The crankcase ventilation passages extend from passages formed in the main bearing bulkheads from positions above the oil level in the crankcase and ultimately through the cylinder head. Oil dams surrounding the uppermost portions of the crankcase ventilation passages prevent oil from running downwardly through the crankcase ventilation passages. 4 figs.

  16. Head Erosion with Emittance Growth in PWFA (Conference) | SciTech Connect

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    Conference: Head Erosion with Emittance Growth in PWFA Citation Details In-Document Search Title: Head Erosion with Emittance Growth in PWFA Authors: Li, S.Z. ; /SLAC ; Adli, E. ; /SLAC /U. Oslo ; England, R.J. ; Frederico, J. ; Gessner, S.J. ; Hogan, M.J. ; Litos, M.D. ; Walz, D.R. ; /SLAC ; Muggli, P. ; /Munich, Max Planck Inst. ; An, W. ; Clayton, C.E. ; Joshi, C. ; Lu, W. ; Marsh, K.A. ; Mori, W. ; Vafaei, N. more »; /UCLA « less Publication Date: 2012-08-08 OSTI Identifier: 1053431 Report

  17. 103 Teams to Head to DOE's National Science Bowl in Washington, D.C. |

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Department of Energy 3 Teams to Head to DOE's National Science Bowl in Washington, D.C. 103 Teams to Head to DOE's National Science Bowl in Washington, D.C. April 23, 2009 - 12:00am Addthis WASHINGTON, DC- Students from 67 high school teams and 36 middle school teams from across the nation will compete next weekend for championship titles in the U.S. Department of Energy's (DOE) National Science Bowl in Washington D.C. The National Science Bowl is the nation's largest academic competition of

  18. Simulation study of dynamic aperture with head-on beam-beam compensation in the RHIC

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Luo, Y.; Fischer, W.

    2010-08-01

    In this note we summarize the calculated 10{sup 6} turn dynamic apertures with the proposed head-on beam-beam compensation in the Relativistic Heavy Ion Collider (RHIC). To compensate the head-on beam-beam effect in the RHIC 250 GeV polarized proton run, we are planning to introduce a DC electron beam with the same transverse profile as the proton beam to collide with the proton beam. Such a device to provide the electron beam is called an electron lens (e-lens). In this note we first present the optics and beam parameters and the tracking setup. Then we compare the calculated dynamic apertures without and with head-on beam-beam compensation. The effects of adjusted phase advances between IP8 and the center of e-lens and second order chromaticity correction are checked. In the end we will scan the proton and electron beam parameters with head-on beam-beam compensation.

  19. Water energy resources of the United States with emphasis on low head/low power resources

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Hall, Douglas G.; Cherry, Shane J.; Reeves, Kelly S.; Lee, Randy D.; Carroll, Gregory R.; Sommers, Garold L.; Verdin, Kristine L.

    2004-04-01

    Analytical assessments of the water energy resources in the 20 hydrologic regions of the United States were performed using state-of-the-art digital elevation models and geographic information system tools. The principal focus of the study was on low head (less than 30 ft)/low power (less than 1 MW) resources in each region. The assessments were made by estimating the power potential of all the stream segments in a region, which averaged 2 miles in length. These calculations were performed using hydrography and hydraulic heads that were obtained from the U.S. Geological Survey’s Elevation Derivatives for National Applications dataset and stream flow predictions from a regression equation or equations developed specifically for the region. Stream segments excluded from development and developed hydropower were accounted for to produce an estimate of total available power potential. The total available power potential was subdivided into high power (1 MW or more), high head (30 ft or more)/low power, and low head/low power total potentials. The low head/low power potential was further divided to obtain the fractions of this potential corresponding to the operating envelopes of three classes of hydropower technologies: conventional turbines, unconventional systems, and microhydro (less than 100 kW). Summing information for all the regions provided total power potential in various power classes for the entire United States. Distribution maps show the location and concentrations of the various classes of low power potential. No aspect of the feasibility of developing these potential resources was evaluated. Results for each of the 20 hydrologic regions are presented in Appendix A, and similar presentations for each of the 50 states are made in Appendix B.

  20. A new design criterion based on pressure testing of torispherical heads

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Kalnins, A.; Rana, M.D.

    1996-08-01

    Two vessels with torispherical heads were pressurized to destruction at the Praxair Tonawanda facility on September 12--13, 1994. The objective was to determine pressures at which observable or measurable indications of failure could be detected. Plastic limit pressures for the two heads were calculated at 190 and 240 psi, respectively. For Vessel 1, the only observable action was a slow formation of some waviness of the knuckle profile at approximately 600 psi. It lost pressure at 700 psi when a crack developed at a nozzle weld at the bottom of the shell. For Vessel 2, no indication of any sign of failure was observed until it burst at a pressure of 1,080 psi by a ductile fracture along the longitudinal weld of the shell. The main conclusion is that there is a problem in the application of the double elastic slope collapse criterion to torispherical heads. It was determined that when using this criterion a collapse pressure signaling excessive deformation cannot be determined with any certainty. Furthermore, the test data do not show anything at any of the calculated collapse pressures that suggests excessive deformation. Thus, the collapse pressures for torispherical heads cannot be confirmed by test. This leads to the inconsistency that if the collapse load is divided by a safety factor, say 1.5, to obtain an allowable pressure, the actual safety margin of the design is not known and may not be 1.5. For a material with sufficient ductility, the use of an estimated burst pressure appears preferable. A design criterion based on the membrane stress at the crown of a torispherical head reaching the ultimate tensile strength is proposed, which is simple, can be supported by theoretical arguments, and is shown to be conservative by current test results as well as by those of two previous test programs.

  1. SU-E-I-32: Benchmarking Head CT Doses: A Pooled Vs. Protocol Specific Analysis of Radiation Doses in Adult Head CT Examinations

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Fujii, K; Bostani, M; Cagnon, C; McNitt-Gray, M

    2015-06-15

    Purpose: The aim of this study was to collect CT dose index data from adult head exams to establish benchmarks based on either: (a) values pooled from all head exams or (b) values for specific protocols. One part of this was to investigate differences in scan frequency and CT dose index data for inpatients versus outpatients. Methods: We collected CT dose index data (CTDIvol) from adult head CT examinations performed at our medical facilities from Jan 1st to Dec 31th, 2014. Four of these scanners were used for inpatients, the other five were used for outpatients. All scanners used Tube Current Modulation. We used X-ray dose management software to mine dose index data and evaluate CTDIvol for 15807 inpatients and 4263 outpatients undergoing Routine Brain, Sinus, Facial/Mandible, Temporal Bone, CTA Brain and CTA Brain-Neck protocols, and combined across all protocols. Results: For inpatients, Routine Brain series represented 84% of total scans performed. For outpatients, Sinus scans represented the largest fraction (36%). The CTDIvol (mean ± SD) across all head protocols was 39 ± 30 mGy (min-max: 3.3–540 mGy). The CTDIvol for Routine Brain was 51 ± 6.2 mGy (min-max: 36–84 mGy). The values for Sinus were 24 ± 3.2 mGy (min-max: 13–44 mGy) and for Facial/Mandible were 22 ± 4.3 mGy (min-max: 14–46 mGy). The mean CTDIvol for inpatients and outpatients was similar across protocols with one exception (CTA Brain-Neck). Conclusion: There is substantial dose variation when results from all protocols are pooled together; this is primarily a function of the differences in technical factors of the protocols themselves. When protocols are analyzed separately, there is much less variability. While analyzing pooled data affords some utility, reviewing protocols segregated by clinical indication provides greater opportunity for optimization and establishing useful benchmarks.

  2. Western Pond Turtle Head-starting and Reintroduction; 2004-2005 Annual Report.

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Van Leuven, Susan; Allen, Harriet; Slavin, Kate

    2005-09-01

    This report covers the results of the western pond turtle head-starting and reintroduction project for the period of October 2004-September 2005. Wild hatchling western pond turtles from the Columbia River Gorge were reared at the Woodland Park and Oregon Zoos in 2004 and 2005 as part of the recovery effort for this Washington State endangered species. The objective of the program is to reduce losses to introduced predators like bullfrogs and largemouth bass by raising the hatchlings to a size where they are too large to be eaten by most of these predators. Thirty-five turtles were placed at the Woodland Park Zoo and 53 at the Oregon Zoo. Of these, 77 head-started juvenile turtles were released at three sites in the Columbia Gorge in 2005. Four were held back to attain more growth in captivity. Eleven were released at the Klickitat ponds, 22 at the Klickitat lake, 39 at the Skamania site, and 5 at Pierce National Wildlife Refuge (NWR). This brought the total number of head-start turtles released since 1991 to 257 for the Klickitat ponds, 136 for the Klickitat lake, 206 for the Skamania pond complex, and 255 at Pierce NWR. In 2005, 34 females from the two Columbia Gorge populations were equipped with transmitters and monitored for nesting activity. Twenty-four nests were located and protected; these produced 90 hatchlings. The hatchlings were collected in September and transported to the Oregon and Woodland Park zoos for rearing in the head-start program. During the 2005 field season trapping effort, 486 western pond turtles were captured in the Columbia Gorge, including 430 previously head-started turtles. These recaptures, together with confirmed nesting by head-start females and visual resightings, indicate the program is succeeding in boosting juvenile recruitment to increase the populations. Records were also collected on 216 individual painted turtles captured in 2005 during trapping efforts at Pierce NWR, to gather baseline information on this native

  3. Western Pond Turtle Head-starting and Reintroduction, 2005-2006 Annual Report.

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Van Leuven, Susan; Allen, Harriet; Slavens, Kate

    2006-11-01

    This report covers the results of the western pond turtle head-starting and reintroduction project for the period of October 2005-September 2006. Wild hatchling western pond turtles from the Columbia River Gorge were reared at the Woodland Park and Oregon zoos in 2005 and 2006 as part of the recovery effort for this Washington State endangered species. The objective of the program is to reduce losses to introduced predators like bullfrogs and largemouth bass by raising the hatchlings to a size where they are too large to be eaten by most of these predators. Twenty-six turtles were placed at the Woodland Park Zoo and 62 at the Oregon Zoo in fall 2005. These turtles joined two that were held back from release in summer 2005 due to their small size. All 90 juvenile turtles were released at three sites in the Columbia Gorge in 2006. Twenty-eight juvenile turtles were released at the Klickitat ponds, 22 at the Klickitat lake, 21 at the Skamania site, and 19 at Pierce National Wildlife Refuge (NWR). This brought the total number of head-start turtles released since 1991 to 944; 285 for the Klickitat ponds, 158 for the Klickitat lake, 227 for the Skamania pond complex, and 274 at Pierce NWR. In 2006, 20 females from the Klickitat population were equipped with transmitters and monitored for nesting activity. Fifteen nests were located and protected; these produced 55 hatchlings. The hatchlings were collected in September and transported to the Oregon and Woodland Park zoos for rearing in the head-start program. One wild hatchling captured in spring 2006 was placed in the head-start program to attain more growth in captivity. During the 2006 field season trapping effort, 414 western pond turtles were captured in the Columbia Gorge, including 374 previously head-started turtles. These recaptures, together with confirmed nesting by head-start females and visual resightings, indicate the program is succeeding in boosting juvenile recruitment to increase the populations

  4. Western Pond Turtle Head-starting and Reintroduction; 2003-2004 Annual Report.

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Van Leuven, Susan; Allen, Harriet; Slavin, Kate

    2004-09-01

    This report covers the results of the western pond turtle head-starting and reintroduction project for the period of October 2003-September 2004. Wild hatchling western pond turtles from the Columbia River Gorge were reared at the Woodland Park and Oregon Zoos in 2003 and 2004 as part of the recovery effort for this Washington State endangered species. The objective of the program is to reduce losses to introduced predators like bullfrogs and largemouth bass by raising the hatchlings to a size where they are too large to be eaten by most of these predators. Sixty-nine turtles were over-wintered at the Woodland Park Zoo and 69 at the Oregon Zoo. Of these, 136 head-started juvenile turtles were released at three sites in the Columbia Gorge in 2004. Two were held back to attain more growth in captivity. Thirty-four were released at the Klickitat ponds, 19 at the Klickitat lake, 21 at the Skamania site, and 62 at Pierce National Wildlife Refuge (NWR). This brought the total number of head-start turtles released since 1991 to 246 for the Klickitat ponds, 114 for the Klickitat lake, 167 for the Skamania pond complex, and 250 at Pierce NWR. In 2004, 32 females from the two Columbia Gorge populations were equipped with transmitters and monitored for nesting activity. Twenty-one of the females nested and produced 85 hatchlings. The hatchlings were collected in September and October and transported to the Woodland Park and Oregon zoos for rearing in the head-start program. Data collection for a four-year telemetry study of survival and habitat use by juvenile western pond turtles at Pierce NWR concluded in 2004. Radio transmitters on study animals were replaced as needed until all replacements were in service; afterward, the turtles were monitored until their transmitters failed. The corps of study turtles ranged from 39 in August 2003 to 2 turtles at the end of August 2004. These turtles showed the same seasonal pattern of movements between summer water and upland winter

  5. Recent studies related to head-end fuel processing at the Hanford PUREX plant

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Swanson, J.L.

    1988-08-01

    This report presents the results of studies addressing several problems in the head-end processing (decladding, metathesis, and core dissolution) of N Reactor fuel elements in the Hanford PUREX plant. These studies were conducted over 2 years: FY 1986 and FY 1987. The studies were divided into three major areas: 1) differences in head-end behavior of fuels having different histories, 2) suppression of /sup 106/Ru volatilization when the ammonia scrubber solution resulting from decladding is decontaminated by distillation prior to being discharged, and 3) suitability of flocculating agents for lowering the amount of transuranic (TRU) element-containing solids that accompany the decladding solution to waste. 16 refs., 43 figs.

  6. Head-on beam-beam compensation with electron lenses in the RHIC.

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Luo,Y.; FischW; Abreu, N.; Beebe, E.; Montag, C.; Okamura, M.; Pikin, A.; Robert-Demolaize, G.

    2008-06-23

    The working point for the polarized proton run in the Relativistic Heavy Ion Collider is constrained between 2/3 and 7/10 in order to maintain good beam lifetime and polarization. To further increase the bunch intensity to improve the luminosity, a low energy Gaussian electron beam, or an electron lens is proposed to head-on collide with the proton beam to compensate the large tune shift and tune spread generated by the proton-proton beam-beam interactions at IP6 and IP8. In this article, we outline the scheme of head-on beam-beam compensation in the RHIC and give the layout of e-lens installation and the parameters of the proton and electron beams. The involved physics and engineering issues are shortly discussed.

  7. LOCA analyses for nuclear steam supply systems with upper head injection. [PWR

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Byers, R.K.; Bartel, T.J.

    1980-01-01

    The term Upper Head Injection describes a relatively new addition to a nuclear reactor's emergency cooling system. With this feature, water is delivered directly to the top of the reactor vessel during a loss-of-coolant accident, in addition to the later injection of coolant into the primary operating loops. Established computer programs, with various modifications to models for heat transfer and two-phase flow, were used to analyze a transient following a large break in one of the main coolant loops of a reactor equipped with upper head injection. The flow and heat transfer modifications combined to yield fuel cladding temperatures during blowdown which were as much as 440K (800/sup 0/F) lower than were obtained with standard versions of the codes (for best estimate calculations). The calculations also showed the need for more uniformity of applications of heat transfer models in the computer programs employed.

  8. Lattice design for head-on beam-beam compensation at RHIC

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Montag, C.

    2011-03-28

    Electron lenses for head-on beam-beam compensation will be installed in IP 10 at RHIC. Compensation of the beam-beam effect experienced at IP 8 requires betatron phase advances of {Delta}{psi} = k {center_dot} {pi} between the proton-proton interaction point at IP 8, and the electron lens at IP 10. This paper describes the lattice solutions for both the BLUE and the YELLOW ring to achieve this goal.

  9. NNSA Appoints Kim Davis Lebak to Head Los Alamos Field Office | National

    National Nuclear Security Administration (NNSA)

    Nuclear Security Administration | (NNSA) Appoints Kim Davis Lebak to Head Los Alamos Field Office January 15, 2014 WASHINGTON, D.C. - The National Nuclear Security Administration (NNSA) has announced that Kim Davis Lebak will be the Los Alamos Field Office Manager effective January 2014. As Field Office Manager, Lebak will serve as the Secretary of Energy's senior representative on site at Los Alamos National Laboratory in New Mexico. "With her strong leadership skills and wide

  10. NNSA Sites Host Head of Comprehensive Nuclear-Test-Ban Treaty Organization

    National Nuclear Security Administration (NNSA)

    (CTBTO) | National Nuclear Security Administration | (NNSA) Sites Host Head of Comprehensive Nuclear-Test-Ban Treaty Organization (CTBTO) Friday, December 4, 2015 - 10:48am NNSA Blog From left, NNSA Deputy Administrator for Defense Nuclear Nonproliferation Anne Harrington; Dr. Lassina Zerbo, Executive Secretary of the Preparatory Commission for the Comprehensive Nuclear-Test-Ban Treaty Organization (CTBTO); and NNSA Acting Deputy Administrator for Defense Programs Brigadier General Stephen

  11. SCDAP/RELAP5 Modeling of Heat Transfer and Flow Losses in Lower Head Porous Debris

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Siefken, Larry James; Coryell, Eric Wesley; Paik, Seungho; Kuo, Han Hsiung

    1999-07-01

    Designs are described for implementing models for calculating the heat transfer and flow losses in porous debris in the lower head of a reactor vessel. The COUPLE model in SCDAP/RELAP5 represents both the porous and nonporous debris that results from core material slumping into the lower head. Currently, the COUPLE model has the capability to model convective and radiative heat transfer from the surfaces of nonporous debris in a detailed manner and to model only in a simplistic manner the heat transfer from porous debris. In order to advance beyond the simplistic modeling for porous debris, designs are developed for detailed calculations of heat transfer and flow losses in porous debris. Correlations are identified for convective heat transfer in porous debris for the following modes of heat transfer; (1) forced convection to liquid, (2) forced convection to gas, (3) nucleate boiling, (4) transition boiling, and (5) film boiling. Interphase heat transfer is modeled in an approximate manner. Designs are described for models to calculate the flow losses and interphase drag of fluid flowing through the interstices of the porous debris, and to apply these variables in the momentum equations in the RELAP5 part of the code. Since the models for heat transfer and flow losses in porous debris in the lower head are designed for general application, a design is also described for implementation of these models to the analysis of porous debris in the core region. A test matrix is proposed for assessing the capability of the implemented models to calculate the heat transfer and flow losses in porous debris. The implementation of the models described in this report is expected to improve the COUPLE code calculation of the temperature distribution in porous debris and in the lower head that supports the debris. The implementation of these models is also expected to improve the calculation of the temperature and flow distribution in porous debris in the core region.

  12. Robotic real-time translational and rotational head motion correction during frameless stereotactic radiosurgery

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Liu, Xinmin; Belcher, Andrew H.; Grelewicz, Zachary; Wiersma, Rodney D.

    2015-06-15

    Purpose: To develop a control system to correct both translational and rotational head motion deviations in real-time during frameless stereotactic radiosurgery (SRS). Methods: A novel feedback control with a feed-forward algorithm was utilized to correct for the coupling of translation and rotation present in serial kinematic robotic systems. Input parameters for the algorithm include the real-time 6DOF target position, the frame pitch pivot point to target distance constant, and the translational and angular Linac beam off (gating) tolerance constants for patient safety. Testing of the algorithm was done using a 4D (XY Z + pitch) robotic stage, an infrared head position sensing unit and a control computer. The measured head position signal was processed and a resulting command was sent to the interface of a four-axis motor controller, through which four stepper motors were driven to perform motion compensation. Results: The control of the translation of a brain target was decoupled with the control of the rotation. For a phantom study, the corrected position was within a translational displacement of 0.35 mm and a pitch displacement of 0.15° 100% of the time. For a volunteer study, the corrected position was within displacements of 0.4 mm and 0.2° over 98.5% of the time, while it was 10.7% without correction. Conclusions: The authors report a control design approach for both translational and rotational head motion correction. The experiments demonstrated that control performance of the 4D robotic stage meets the submillimeter and subdegree accuracy required by SRS.

  13. MEMORANDUM FOR J.E. SURASH FROM: SUBJECT: HEAD OF CONTRACTING ACTIVITY

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Department of Energy Washington, DC 20585 March 17, 2015 MEMORANDUM FOR J.E. SURASH FROM: SUBJECT: HEAD OF CONTRACTING ACTIVITY OFFICE OF ENVIRONMENTAL MANAGEMENT BENJAMIN ZASLOW CHIEF FIELD ASSISTANCE AND OVERSIGHT DIVISION OFFICE OF CONTRACT MANAGEMENT OFFICE OF ACQUISITION AND PROJECT MANAGEMENT Contract Management Plan for the Waste Treatment and Immobilization Plant Project (WTP) In accordance with Acquisition Guide chapter 71.1, we have reviewed the subject Contract Management Plan for

  14. Head-end process for the reprocessing of HTGR spent fuel

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Chen, J.; Wen, M.

    2013-07-01

    The reprocessing of HTGR spent fuels is in favor of the sustainable development of nuclear energy to realize the maximal use of nuclear resource and the minimum disposal of nuclear waste. The head-end of HTGR spent fuels reprocessing is different from that of the LWR spent fuels reprocessing because of the difference of spent fuel structure. The dismantling of the graphite spent fuel element and the highly effective dissolution of fuel kernel is the most difficult process in the head end of the reprocessing. Recently, some work on the head-end has been done in China. First, the electrochemical method with nitrate salt as electrolyte was studied to disintegrate the graphite matrix from HTGR fuel elements and release the coated fuel particles, to provide an option for the head-end technology of reprocessing. The results show that the graphite matrix can be effectively separated from the coated particle without any damage to the SiC layer. Secondly, the microwave-assisted heating was applied to dissolve the UO{sub 2} kernel from the crashed coated fuel particles. The ceramic UO{sub 2} as the solute has a good ability to absorb the microwave energy. The results of UO{sub 2} kernel dissolution from crushed coated particles by microwave heating show that the total dissolution percentage of UO{sub 2} is more than 99.99% after 3 times cross-flow dissolution with the following parameters: 8 mol/L HNO{sub 3}, temperature 100 Celsius degrees, initial ratio of solid to liquid 1.2 g/ml. (authors)

  15. Report covering examination of parts from downhole steam generators. [Combustor head and sleeve parts

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Pettit, F. S.; Meier, G. H.

    1983-08-01

    Combustor head and sleeve parts were examined by using optical and scanning electron metallography after use in oxygen/diesel and air/diesel downhole steam generators. The degradation of the different alloy components is described in terms of reactions with oxygen, sulfur and carbon in the presence of cyclic stresses, all generated by the combustion process. Recommendations are presented for component materials (alloys and coatings) to extend component lives in the downhole steam generators. 9 references, 22 figures, 3 tables.

  16. Natural gas inventories heading to record levels at start of winter heating season

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    Natural gas inventories heading to record levels at start of winter heating season U.S. natural gas inventories are expected to be at record levels to start the winter heating season. In its new forecast, the U.S. Energy Information Administration said the amount of natural gas stored underground should total almost 4 trillion cubic feet by the beginning of November, reflecting record high natural gas production. Inventories could go even higher if heating demand is not strong during October

  17. Active test of head-end facility at Rokkasho reprocessing plant

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Yamamoto, Yoshiro; Tanaka, Satoshi; Kawabe, Shuji; Kamada, Yoshiaki

    2007-07-01

    During the first step, the second and the third step of Active Test (AT) at Rokkasho Reprocessing Plant (RRP), the performances of the Head-end Facility were checked, mainly for shearing and dissolution: shearing force and shearing time were the values as expected and concentration of U and Pu in dissolution solution were the values as expected. And safety requirement for acidity in dissolution solution was satisfied. (authors)

  18. Marginal Misses After Postoperative Intensity-Modulated Radiotherapy for Head and Neck Cancer

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Chen, Allen M.; Farwell, D. Gregory; Luu, Quang; Chen, Leon M.; Vijayakumar, Srinivasan; Purdy, James A.

    2011-08-01

    Purpose: To describe the spatial distribution of local-regional recurrence (LRR) among patients treated postoperatively with intensity-modulated radiotherapy (IMRT) for head and neck cancer. Methods and Materials: The medical records of 90 consecutive patients treated by gross total resection and postoperative IMRT for squamous cell carcinoma of the head and neck from January 2003 to July 2009 were reviewed. Sites of disease were the oral cavity (43 patients), oropharynx (20 patients), larynx (15 patients), and hypopharynx (12 patients). Fifty patients (56%) received concurrent chemotherapy. Results: Seventeen of 90 patients treated with postoperative IMRT experienced LRR, yielding a 2-year estimate of local regional control of 80%. Among the LRR patients, 11 patients were classified as in-field recurrences, occurring within the physician-designated clinical target volume, and 6 patients were categorized as marginal recurrences. There were no out-of-field geographical misses. Sites of marginal LRRs included the contralateral neck adjacent to the spared parotid gland (3 patients), the dermal/subcutaneous surface (2 patients), and the retropharyngeal/retrostyloid lymph node region (1 patient). Conclusions: Although the incidence of geographical misses was relatively low, the possibility of this phenomenon should be considered in the design of target volumes among patients treated by postoperative IMRT for head and neck cancer.

  19. Primary Radiation Therapy for Head-and-Neck Cancer in the Setting of Human Immunodeficiency Virus

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Klein, Emily A.; Guiou, Michael; Farwell, D. Gregory; Luu, Quang; Lau, Derick H.; Stuart, Kerri; Vaughan, Andrew; Vijayakumar, Srinivasan; Chen, Allen M.

    2011-01-01

    Purpose: To analyze outcomes after radiation therapy for head-and-neck cancer among a cohort of patients with human immunodeficiency virus (HIV). Methods and Materials: The medical records of 12 patients with serologic evidence of HIV who subsequently underwent radiation therapy to a median dose of 68 Gy (range, 64-72 Gy) for newly diagnosed squamous cell carcinoma of the head and neck were reviewed. Six patients (50%) received concurrent chemotherapy. Intensity-modulated radiotherapy was used in 6 cases (50%). All patients had a Karnofsky performance status of 80 or 90. Nine patients (75%) were receiving antiretroviral therapies at the time of treatment, and the median CD4 count was 460 (range, 266-800). Toxicity was graded according to the Radiation Therapy Oncology Group / European Organization for the Treatment of Cancer toxicity criteria. Results: The 3-year estimates of overall survival and local-regional control were 78% and 92%, respectively. Acute Grade 3+ toxicity occurred in 7 patients (58%), the most common being confluent mucositis (5 patients) and moist skin desquamation (4 patients). Two patients experienced greater than 10% weight loss, and none experienced more than 15% weight loss from baseline. Five patients (42%) experienced treatment breaks in excess of 10 cumulative days, although none required hospitalization. There were no treatment-related fatalities. Conclusions: Radiation therapy for head-and-neck cancer seems to be relatively well tolerated among appropriately selected patients with HIV. The observed rates of toxicity were comparable to historical controls without HIV.

  20. Optimizing Cluster Heads for Energy Efficiency in Large-Scale Heterogeneous Wireless Sensor Networks

    DOE Public Access Gateway for Energy & Science Beta (PAGES Beta)

    Gu, Yi; Wu, Qishi; Rao, Nageswara S. V.

    2010-01-01

    Many complex sensor network applications require deploying a large number of inexpensive and small sensors in a vast geographical region to achieve quality through quantity. Hierarchical clustering is generally considered as an efficient and scalable way to facilitate the management and operation of such large-scale networks and minimize the total energy consumption for prolonged lifetime. Judicious selection of cluster heads for data integration and communication is critical to the success of applications based on hierarchical sensor networks organized as layered clusters. We investigate the problem of selecting sensor nodes in a predeployed sensor network to be the cluster headsmore » to minimize the total energy needed for data gathering. We rigorously derive an analytical formula to optimize the number of cluster heads in sensor networks under uniform node distribution, and propose a Distance-based Crowdedness Clustering algorithm to determine the cluster heads in sensor networks under general node distribution. The results from an extensive set of experiments on a large number of simulated sensor networks illustrate the performance superiority of the proposed solution over the clustering schemes based on k -means algorithm.« less

  1. Of Boys and girls and Bumps on the Head (414th Brookhaven Lecture)

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Biegon, Anat

    2006-04-19

    If you are a young man driving your wife and her parents, be very careful. If you are involved in a serious car accident, you and your mother-in-law are most likely to survive. This 'warning' is one conclusion of Anat Biegon's upcoming 414th Brookhaven Lecture, entitled 'Of Boys and Girls and Bumps on the Head.' Joanna Fowler of the Chemistry Department, Director of BNL's Translational Neuroimaging Center, will introduce the lecturer. Biegon, a senior medical scientist in the Medical Department, will detail how research has refined scientists view of gender differences in the prevalence and outcome of diseases affecting the brain. Although it has been well documented that gender affects the prevalence of disorders such as depression and Attention deficit-hyperactivity disorder, recent head injury trials suggest that both age and sex affect the likelihood and degree of recovery from injuries to the brain. While girls are more likely to die following a traumatic brain injury than boys, that result is reversed after the age of 50, when men die twice as often. Although it has been well documented that gender affects the prevalence of disorders such as depression and Attention deficit-hyperactivity disorder, recent head injury trials suggest that both age and sex affect the likelihood and degree of recovery from injuries to the brain. While girls are more likely to die following a traumatic brain injury than boys, that result is reversed after the age of 50, when men die twice as often.

  2. Rapidly re-computable EEG (electroencephalography) forward models for realistic head shapes

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Ermer, J. J.; Mosher, J. C.; Baillet, S.; Leahy, R. M.

    2001-01-01

    Solution of the EEG source localization (inverse) problem utilizing model-based methods typically requires a significant number of forward model evaluations. For subspace based inverse methods like MUSIC [6], the total number of forward model evaluations can often approach an order of 10{sup 3} or 10{sup 4}. Techniques based on least-squares minimization may require significantly more evaluations. The observed set of measurements over an M-sensor array is often expressed as a linear forward spatio-temporal model of the form: F = GQ + N (1) where the observed forward field F (M-sensors x N-time samples) can be expressed in terms of the forward model G, a set of dipole moment(s) Q (3xP-dipoles x N-time samples) and additive noise N. Because of their simplicity, ease of computation, and relatively good accuracy, multi-layer spherical models [7] (or fast approximations described in [1], [7]) have traditionally been the 'forward model of choice' for approximating the human head. However, approximation of the human head via a spherical model does have several key drawbacks. By its very shape, the use of a spherical model distorts the true distribution of passive currents in the skull cavity. Spherical models also require that the sensor positions be projected onto the fitted sphere (Fig. 1), resulting in a distortion of the true sensor-dipole spatial geometry (and ultimately the computed surface potential). The use of a single 'best-fitted' sphere has the added drawback of incomplete coverage of the inner skull region, often ignoring areas such as the frontal cortex. In practice, this problem is typically countered by fitting additional sphere(s) to those region(s) not covered by the primary sphere. The use of these additional spheres results in added complication to the forward model. Using high-resolution spatial information obtained via X-ray CT or MR imaging, a realistic head model can be formed by tessellating the head into a set of contiguous regions (typically the

  3. Status of RHIC head-on beam-beam compensation project

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Fischer, W.; Anerella, M.; Beebe, E.; Bruno, D.; Gassner, D.M.; Gu, X.; Gupta, R.C.; Hock, J.; Jain, A.K.; Lambiase, R.; Liu, C.; Luo, Y.; Mapes, M.; Montag, C.; Oerter, B.; Okamura, M.; Pikin, A.I.; Raparia, D.; Tan, Y.; Than, R.; Thieberger, P.; Tuozzolo, J.; Zhang, W.

    2011-03-28

    Two electron lenses are under construction for RHIC to partially compensate the head-on beam-beam effect in order to increase both the peak and average luminosities. The final design of the overall system is reported as well as the status of the component design, acquisition, and manufacturing. An overview of the RHIC head-on beam-beam compensation project is given in [1], and more details in [2]. With 2 head-on beam-beam interactions in IP6 and IP8, a third interaction with a low-energy electron beam is added near IP10 to partially compensate the the head-on beam-beam effect. Two electron lenses are under construction, one for each ring. Both will be located in a region common to both beams, but each lens will act only on one beam. With head-on beam-beam compensation up to a factor of two improvement in luminosity is expected together with a polarized source upgrade. The current RHIC polarized proton performance is documented in Ref. [4]. An electron lens (Fig. 1) consists of an DC electron gun, warm solenoids to focus the electron beam during transport, a superconducting main solenoid in which the interaction with the proton beam occurs, steering magnets, a collector, and instrumentation. The main developments in the last year are given below. The experimental program for polarized program at 100 GeV was expected to be finished by the time the electron lenses are commissioned. However, decadal plans by the RHIC experiments STAR and PHENIX show a continuing interest at both 100 GeV and 250 GeV, and a larger proton beam size has been accommodated in the design (Tab. 1). Over the last year beam and lattice parameters were optimized, and RHIC proton lattices are under development for optimized electron lens performance. The effect of the electron lens magnetic structure on the proton beam was evaluated, and found to be correctable. Experiments were done in RHIC and the Tevatron.

  4. Heading 1

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    1-1642 Unlimited Release Printed June 2001 LIST/BMI Turbines Instrumentation and Infrastructure Perry L. Jones, Herbert J. Sutherland, and Byron A. Neal Prepared by Sandia National Laboratories Albuquerque, New Mexico 87185 and Livermore, California 94550 Sandia is a multiprogram laboratory operated by Sandia Corporation, a Lockheed Martin Company, for the United States Department of Energy under Contract DE-AC04-94AL85000. Approved for public release; further dissemination unlimited. Issued by

  5. Western Pond Turtle Head-starting and Reintroduction; 2002-2003 Progress Report.

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Van Leuven, Susan; Allen, Harriet; Slavin, Kate

    2004-02-01

    This report covers the results of the western pond turtle head-starting and reintroduction project for the period of June 2002-September 2003. Wild hatchling western pond turtles from the Columbia River Gorge were reared at the Woodland Park and Oregon Zoos in 2002 and 2003 as part of the recovery effort for this Washington State endangered species. The objective of the program is to reduce losses to introduced predators like bullfrogs and largemouth bass by raising the hatchlings to a size where they are too large to be eaten by most of these predators. In 2002, 27 females from the two Columbia Gorge populations were equipped with transmitters and monitored until they nested. Four more females carrying old transmitters were also monitored; only one of these transmitters lasted through the nesting season. In 2003, 30 females were monitored. Twenty-three of the females monitored in 2002 nested and produced 84 hatchlings. The hatchlings were collected in fall 2002 and reared in captivity at the Woodland Park and Oregon zoos in the head-start program. Twenty-seven of the turtles monitored in 2003 nested. Six of the turtles nested twice, producing a total of 33 nests. The nests will be checked in September and October 2003 for hatchlings. Of 121 head-started juvenile western pond turtles collected in the Columbia Gorge during the 2001 nesting season, 119 were released at three sites in the Columbia Gorge in 2002, and 2 held over for additional growth. Of 86 turtles reared in the head-start program at the Woodland Park and Oregon Zoos fall 2002 through summer 2003, 67 were released at sites in the Columbia Gorge in summer of 2003, and 15 held over for more growth. Fifty-nine juveniles were released at Pierce National Wildlife Refuge in July 2002, and 51 released there in July 2003. Sixteen of those released in 2002 and 16 released in 2003 were instrumented with radio transmitters and monitored for varying amounts of time for survival and habitat use between the time of

  6. Tobacco Smoking During Radiation Therapy for Head-and-Neck Cancer Is Associated With Unfavorable Outcome

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Chen, Allen M.; Chen, Leon M.; Vaughan, Andrew; Sreeraman, Radhika; Farwell, D. Gregory; Luu, Quang; Lau, Derick H.; Stuart, Kerri; Purdy, James A.; Vijayakumar, Srinivasan

    2011-02-01

    Purpose: To evaluate the effect of continued cigarette smoking among patients undergoing radiation therapy for head-and-neck cancer by comparing the clinical outcomes among active smokers and quitters. Methods and Materials: A review of medical records identified 101 patients with newly diagnosed squamous cell carcinoma of the head and neck who continued to smoke during radiation therapy. Each active smoker was matched to a control patient who had quit smoking before initiation of radiation therapy. Matching was based on tobacco history (pack-years), primary site, age, sex, Karnofsky Performance Status, disease stage, radiation dose, chemotherapy use, year of treatment, and whether surgical resection was performed. Outcomes were compared by use of Kaplan-Meier analysis. Normal tissue effects were graded according to the Radiation Therapy Oncology Group/European Organization for the Treatment of Cancer toxicity criteria. Results: With a median follow-up of 49 months, active smokers had significantly inferior 5-year overall survival (23% vs. 55%), locoregional control (58% vs. 69%), and disease-free survival (42% vs. 65%) compared with the former smokers who had quit before radiation therapy (p < 0.05 for all). These differences remained statistically significant when patients treated by postoperative or definitive radiation therapy were analyzed separately. The incidence of Grade 3 or greater late complications was also significantly increased among active smokers compared with former smokers (49% vs. 31%, p = 0.01). Conclusions: Tobacco smoking during radiation therapy for head-and-neck cancer is associated with unfavorable outcomes. Further studies analyzing the biologic and molecular reasons underlying these differences are planned.

  7. Inhibition of Hsp27 Radiosensitizes Head-and-Neck Cancer by Modulating Deoxyribonucleic Acid Repair

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Guttmann, David M.; Hart, Lori; Du, Kevin; Seletsky, Andrew; Koumenis, Constantinos

    2013-09-01

    Purpose: To present a novel method of tumor radiosensitization through Hsp27 knockdown using locked nucleic acid (LNA) and to investigate the role of Hsp27 in DNA double strand break (DSB) repair. Methods and Materials: Clonogenic survival assays, immunoblotting, the proximity ligation assay, and ?H2AX foci analysis were conducted in SQ20B and FaDu human head-and-neck cancer cell lines treated with Hsp27 LNA and Hsp27 short hairpin RNA (shRNA). Additionally, nude mice with FaDu flank tumors were treated with fractionated radiation therapy after pretreatment with Hsp27 LNA and monitored for tumor growth. Results: Hsp27 LNA and Hsp27 shRNA radiosensitized head-and-neck cancer cell lines in an Hsp27-dependent manner. Ataxia-Telangectasia Mutated-mediated DNA repair signaling was impaired in irradiated cells with Hsp27 knockdown. ATM kinase inhibition abrogated the radiosensitizing effect of Hsp27. Furthermore, Hsp27 LNA and shRNA both attenuated DNA repair kinetics after radiation, and Hsp27 was found to colocalize with ATM in both untreated and irradiated cells. Last, combined radiation and Hsp27 LNA treatment in tumor xenografts in nude mice suppressed tumor growth compared with either treatment alone. Conclusions: These results support a radiosensitizing property of Hsp27 LNA in vitro and in vivo, implicate Hsp27 in double strand break repair, and suggest that Hsp27 LNA might eventually serve as an effective clinical agent in the radiotherapy of head-and-neck cancer.

  8. Simulations of Head-On Beam-Beam Compensation at RHIC and LHC

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Valishev, A.; /Fermilab

    2010-05-19

    Electron lenses are proposed as a way to mitigate head-on beam-beam effects for RHIC and LHC upgrades. An extensive effort was put together within the US LARP in order to develop numerical simulations of beam-beam effects in the presence of electron lenses. In this report the results of numerical beam-beam simulations for RHIC and LHC are presented. The effect of electron lenses is demonstrated and sensitivity of beam-beam compensation to machine parameters is discussed.

  9. NREL: Workforce Development and Education Programs - NREL Heads to Big Easy

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    to Host Collegiate Wind Competition 2016 Heads to Big Easy to Host Collegiate Wind Competition 2016 May 20, 2016 The U.S. Department of Energy Collegiate Wind Competition 2016 begins May 24-less than a week from now-at the annual American Wind Energy Association (AWEA) WINDPOWER Conference and Exhibition in New Orleans, Louisiana. Whether you're part of the action or hearing about it for the first time, Collegiate Wind Competition is a unique event for everyone-and something to keep on your

  10. Read/write head for a magnetic tape device having grooves for reducing tape floating

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Aoki, Kenji

    2005-08-09

    A read/write head for a magnetic tape includes an elongated chip assembly and a tape running surface formed in the longitudinal direction of the chip assembly. A pair of substantially spaced parallel read/write gap lines for supporting read/write elements extend longitudinally along the tape running surface of the chip assembly. Also, at least one groove is formed on the tape running surface on both sides of each of the read/write gap lines and extends substantially parallel to the read/write gap lines.

  11. 'Fore!' heads up, wide use of more flexible metallic glass coming your

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    way Flexible metallic glass coming your way 'Fore!' heads up, wide use of more flexible metallic glass coming your way Scientists are working toward even stronger and more elastic glass types which would fail in a ductile fashion instead of shattering. March 3, 2014 A piece of metallic glass that has been bent around onto itself with a 1mm radius and glued into place. It would spring back to a flat piece if the glue were removed. A piece of metallic glass that has been bent around onto

  12. MO-E-17A-08: Attenuation-Based Size Adjusted, Scanner-Independent Organ Dose Estimates for Head CT Exams: TG 204 for Head CT

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    McMillan, K; Bostani, M; Cagnon, C; McNitt-Gray, M; Zankl, M; DeMarco, J

    2014-06-15

    Purpose: AAPM Task Group 204 described size specific dose estimates (SSDE) for body scans. The purpose of this work is to use a similar approach to develop patient-specific, scanner-independent organ dose estimates for head CT exams using an attenuation-based size metric. Methods: For eight patient models from the GSF family of voxelized phantoms, dose to brain and lens of the eye was estimated using Monte Carlo simulations of contiguous axial scans for 64-slice MDCT scanners from four major manufacturers. Organ doses were normalized by scannerspecific 16 cm CTDIvol values and averaged across all scanners to obtain scanner-independent CTDIvol-to-organ-dose conversion coefficients for each patient model. Head size was measured at the first slice superior to the eyes; patient perimeter and effective diameter (ED) were measured directly from the GSF data. Because the GSF models use organ identification codes instead of Hounsfield units, water equivalent diameter (WED) was estimated indirectly. Using the image data from 42 patients ranging from 2 weeks old to adult, the perimeter, ED and WED size metrics were obtained and correlations between each metric were established. Applying these correlations to the GSF perimeter and ED measurements, WED was calculated for each model. The relationship between the various patient size metrics and CTDIvol-to-organ-dose conversion coefficients was then described. Results: The analysis of patient images demonstrated the correlation between WED and ED across a wide range of patient sizes. When applied to the GSF patient models, an exponential relationship between CTDIvol-to-organ-dose conversion coefficients and the WED size metric was observed with correlation coefficients of 0.93 and 0.77 for the brain and lens of the eye, respectively. Conclusion: Strong correlation exists between CTDIvol normalized brain dose and WED. For the lens of the eye, a lower correlation is observed, primarily due to surface dose variations. Funding

  13. Observations of supra-arcade fans: instabilities at the head of reconnection jets

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Innes, D. E.; Guo, L.-J.; Schmit, D.; Bhattacharjee, A.; Huang, Y.-M.

    2014-11-20

    Supra-arcade fans are bright, irregular regions of emission that develop during eruptive flares above flare arcades. The underlying flare arcades are thought to be a consequence of magnetic reconnection along a current sheet in the corona. At the same time, theory predicts plasma jets from the reconnection sites which are extremely difficult to observe directly because of their low densities. It has been suggested that the dark supra-arcade downflows (SADs) seen falling through supra-arcade fans may be low-density jet plasma. The head of a low-density jet directed toward higher-density plasma would be Rayleigh-Taylor unstable, and lead to the development of rapidly growing low- and high-density fingers along the interface. Using Solar Dynamics Observatory/Atmospheric Imaging Assembly 131 images, we show details of SADs seen from three different orientations with respect to the flare arcade and current sheet, and highlight features that have been previously unexplained, such as the splitting of SADs at their heads, but are a natural consequence of instabilities above the arcade. Comparison with three-dimensional magnetohydrodynamic simulations suggests that SADs are the result of secondary instabilities of the Rayleigh-Taylor type in the exhaust of reconnection jets.

  14. Optimizing the electron beam parameters for head-on beam-beam compensation in RHIC

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Luo, Y.; Fischer, W.; Pikin, A.; Gu, X.

    2011-03-28

    Head-on beam-beam compensation is adopted to compensate the large beam-beam tune spread from the protonproton interactions at IP6 and IP8 in the Relativistic Heavy Ion Collider (RHIC). Two e-lenses are being built and to be in stalled near IP10 in the end of 2011. In this article we perform numeric simulation to investigate the effect of the electron beam parameters on the proton dynamics. The electron beam parameters include its transverse profile, size, current, offset and random errors in them. In this article we studied the effect of the electron beam parameters on the proton dynamics. The electron beam parameters include its transverse shape, size, current, offset and their random errors. From the study, we require that the electron beam size can not be smaller than the proton beam's. And the random noise in the electron current should be better than 0.1%. The offset of electron beam w.r.t. the proton beam center is crucial to head-on beam-beam compensation. Its random errors should be below {+-}8{micro}m.

  15. Selective evaporation of focusing fluid in two-fluid hydrodynamic print head.

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Keicher, David M.; Cook, Adam W.

    2014-09-01

    The work performed in this project has demonstrated the feasibility to use hydrodynamic focusing of two fluid steams to create a novel micro printing technology for electronics and other high performance applications. Initial efforts focused solely on selective evaporation of the sheath fluid from print stream provided insight in developing a unique print head geometry allowing excess sheath fluid to be separated from the print flow stream for recycling/reuse. Fluid flow models suggest that more than 81 percent of the sheath fluid can be removed without affecting the print stream. Further development and optimization is required to demonstrate this capability in operation. Print results using two-fluid hydrodynamic focusing yielded a 30 micrometers wide by 0.5 micrometers tall line that suggests that the cross-section of the printed feature from the print head was approximately 2 micrometers in diameter. Printing results also demonstrated that complete removal of the sheath fluid is not necessary for all material systems. The two-fluid printing technology could enable printing of insulated conductors and clad optical interconnects. Further development of this concept should be pursued.

  16. Feasibility of Multimodal Deformable Registration for Head and Neck Tumor Treatment Planning

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Fortunati, Valerio; Verhaart, René F.; Angeloni, Francesco; Lugt, Aad van der; Niessen, Wiro J.; Veenland, Jifke F.; Paulides, Margarethus M.; Walsum, Theo van

    2014-09-01

    Purpose: To investigate the feasibility of using deformable registration in clinical practice to fuse MR and CT images of the head and neck for treatment planning. Method and Materials: A state-of-the-art deformable registration algorithm was optimized, evaluated, and compared with rigid registration. The evaluation was based on manually annotated anatomic landmarks and regions of interest in both modalities. We also developed a multiparametric registration approach, which simultaneously aligns T1- and T2-weighted MR sequences to CT. This was evaluated and compared with single-parametric approaches. Results: Our results show that deformable registration yielded a better accuracy than rigid registration, without introducing unrealistic deformations. For deformable registration, an average landmark alignment of approximatively 1.7 mm was obtained. For all the regions of interest excluding the cerebellum and the parotids, deformable registration provided a median modified Hausdorff distance of approximatively 1 mm. Similar accuracies were obtained for the single-parameter and multiparameter approaches. Conclusions: This study demonstrates that deformable registration of head-and-neck CT and MR images is feasible, with overall a significanlty higher accuracy than for rigid registration.

  17. Effects of radio transmitters on the behavior of Red-headed Woodpeckers.

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Vukovich, Mark; Kilgo, John, C.

    2009-05-01

    ABSTRACT. Previous studies have revealed that radio-transmitters may affect bird behaviors, including feeding rates, foraging behavior, vigilance, and preening behavior. In addition, depending on the method of attachment, transmitters can potentially affect the ability of cavity-nesting birds to use cavities. Our objective was to evaluate effects of transmitters on the behavior of and use of cavities byRed-headedWoodpeckers (Melanerpes erythrocephalus). Using backpack harnesses, we attached 2.1-g transmitter packages that averaged 3.1% of body weight (range = 2.53.6%) to Red-headed Woodpeckers. We observed both radio-tagged (N = 23) and nonradio-tagged (N = 28) woodpeckers and determined the percentage of time spent engaged in each of five behaviors: flight, foraging, perching, preening, and territorial behavior. We found no difference between the two groups in the percentage of time engaged in each behavior. In addition, we found that transmitters had no apparent effect on use of cavities for roosting by radio-tagged woodpeckers (N = 25).We conclude that backpack transmitters weighing less than 3.6% of body weight had no impact on either their behavior or their ability to use cavities.

  18. Proceedings of the IAEA specialists` meeting on cracking in LWR RPV head penetrations

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Pugh, C.E.; Raney, S.J.

    1996-07-01

    This report contains 17 papers that were presented in four sessions at the IAEA Specialists` meeting on Cracking in LWR RPV Head Penetrations held at ASTM Headquarters in Philadelphia on May 2-3, 1995. The papers are compiled here in the order that presentations were made in the sessions, and they relate to operational observations, inspection techniques, analytical modeling, and regulatory control. The goal of the meeting was to allow international experts to review experience in the field of ensuring adequate performance of reactor pressure vessel (RPV) heads and penetrations. The emphasis was to allow a better understanding of RPV material behavior, to provide guidance supporting reliability and adequate performance, and to assist in defining directions for further investigations. The international nature of the meeting is illustrated by the fact that papers were presented by researchers from 10 countries. There were technical experts present form other countries who participated in discussions of the results presented. This present document incorporates the final version of the papers as received from the authors. The final chapter includes conclusions and recommendations. Individual papers have been cataloged separately.

  19. Bottom head to shell junction assembly for a boiling water nuclear reactor

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Fife, Alex Blair; Ballas, Gary J.

    1998-01-01

    A bottom head to shell junction assembly which, in one embodiment, includes an annular forging having an integrally formed pump deck and shroud support is described. In the one embodiment, the annular forging also includes a top, cylindrical shaped end configured to be welded to one end of the pressure vessel cylindrical shell and a bottom, conical shaped end configured to be welded to the disk shaped bottom head. Reactor internal pump nozzles also are integrally formed in the annular forging. The nozzles do not include any internal or external projections. Stubs are formed in each nozzle opening to facilitate welding a pump housing to the forging. Also, an upper portion of each nozzle opening is configured to receive a portion of a diffuser coupled to a pump shaft which extends through the nozzle opening. Diffuser openings are formed in the integral pump deck to provide additional support for the pump impellers. The diffuser opening is sized so that a pump impeller can extend at least partially therethrough. The pump impeller is connected to the pump shaft which extends through the nozzle opening.

  20. Bottom head to shell junction assembly for a boiling water nuclear reactor

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Fife, A.B.; Ballas, G.J.

    1998-02-24

    A bottom head to shell junction assembly which, in one embodiment, includes an annular forging having an integrally formed pump deck and shroud support is described. In the one embodiment, the annular forging also includes a top, cylindrical shaped end configured to be welded to one end of the pressure vessel cylindrical shell and a bottom, conical shaped end configured to be welded to the disk shaped bottom head. Reactor internal pump nozzles also are integrally formed in the annular forging. The nozzles do not include any internal or external projections. Stubs are formed in each nozzle opening to facilitate welding a pump housing to the forging. Also, an upper portion of each nozzle opening is configured to receive a portion of a diffuser coupled to a pump shaft which extends through the nozzle opening. Diffuser openings are formed in the integral pump deck to provide additional support for the pump impellers. The diffuser opening is sized so that a pump impeller can extend at least partially therethrough. The pump impeller is connected to the pump shaft which extends through the nozzle opening. 5 figs.

  1. SU-E-T-603: Analysis of Optical Tracked Head Inter-Fraction Movements Within Masks to Access Intracranial Immobilization Techniques in Proton Therapy

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Hsi, W; Zeidan, O

    2014-06-01

    Purpose: We present a quantitative methodology utilizing an optical tracking system for monitoring head inter-fraction movements within brain masks to assess the effectiveness of two intracranial immobilization techniques. Methods and Materials: A 3-point-tracking method was developed to measure the mask location for a treatment field at each fraction. Measured displacement of mask location to its location at first fraction is equivalent to the head movement within the mask. Head movements for each of treatment fields were measured over about 10 fractions at each patient for seven patients; five treated in supine and two treated in prone. The Q-fix Base-of-Skull head frame was used in supine while the CIVCO uni-frame baseplate was used in prone. Displacements of recoded couch position of each field post imaging at each fraction were extracted for those seven patients. Standard deviation (S.D.) of head movements and couch displacements was scored for statistical analysis. Results: The accuracy of 3PtTrack method was within 1.0 mm by phantom measurements. Patterns of head movement and couch displacement were similar for patients treated in either supine or prone. In superior-inferior direction, mean value of scored standard deviations over seven patients were 1.6 mm and 3.4 mm for the head movement and the couch displacement, respectively. The result indicated that the head movement combined with a loose fixation between the mask-to-head frame results large couch displacements for each patient, and also large variation between patients. However, the head movement is the main cause for the couch displacement with similar magnitude of around 1.0 mm in anterior-posterior and lateral directions. Conclusions: Optical-tracking methodology independently quantifying head movements could improve immobilization devices by correctly acting on causes for head motions within mask. A confidence in the quality of intracranial immobilization techniques could be more efficient by

  2. Long-range and head-on beam-beam compensation studies in RHIC with lessons for the LHC

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Fischer, W.; Luo, Y.; Abreu, N.; Calaga, R.; Montag, C.; Robert-Demolaize, G.; Dorda, U.; Koutchouk, J.-P.; Sterbini, G.; Zimmermann, F.; Kim, H.-J.; Sen, T.; Shiltsev, V.; Valishev, A.; Qiang, J.; Kabel, A.

    2009-01-12

    Long-range as well as head-on beam-beam effects are expected to limit the LHC performance with design parameters. They are also important consideration for the LHC upgrades. To mitigate long-range effects, current carrying wires parallel to the beam were proposed. Two such wires are installed in RHIC where they allow studying the effect of strong long-range beam-beam effects, as well as the compensation of a single long-range interaction. The tests provide benchmark data for simulations and analytical treatments. Electron lenses were proposed for both RHIC and the LHC to reduce the head-on beam-beam effect. We present the experimental long-range beam-beam program at RHIC and report on head-on compensations studies based on simulations.

  3. Long-range and head-on beam-beam compensation studies in RHIC with lessons for the LHC

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Fischer,W.; Luo, Y.; Abreu, N.; Calaga, R.; Montag, C.; Robert-Demolaize, G.; Dorda, U.; Koutchouk, J. -P.; Sterbini, G.; Zimmermann, F.; Kim, H. -J.; Sen, T.; Shiltsev, V.; Valishev, A.; Qiang, J.; Kabel, A.

    2008-11-24

    Long-range as well as head-on beam-beam effects are expected to limit the LHC performance with design parameters. They are also important consideration for the LHC upgrades. To mitigate long-range effects current carrying wires parallel to the beam were proposed. Two such wires are installed in RHIC where they allow studying the effect of strong long-range beam-beam effects, as well as the compensation of a single long-range interaction. The tests provide benchmark data for simulations and analytical treatments. To reduce the head-on beam-beam effect electron lenses were proposed for both RIDC and the LHC. We present the experimental long-range beam-beam program at RHIC and report on head-on compensations studies based on simulations.

  4. Long-Range And Head-On Beam-Beam Compensation Studies in RHIC With Lessons for the LHC

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Fischer, W.; Luo, Y.; Abreu, N.; Calaga, R.; Montag, C.; Robert-Demolaize, G.; Dorda, U.; Koutchouk, J.P.; Sterbini, G.; Zimmermann, F.; Kim, H.J.; Sen, T.; Shiltsev, V.; Valishev, A.; Qiang, J.; Kabel, A.; /SLAC

    2011-11-28

    Long-range as well as head-on beam-beam effects are expected to limit the LHC performance with design parameters. They are are also important consideration for the LHC upgrades. To mitigate long-range effects, current carrying wires parallel to the beam were proposed. Two such wires are installed in RHIC where they allow studying the effect of strong long-range beam-beam effects, as well as the compensation of a single long-range interaction. The tests provide benchmark data for simulations and analytical treatments. Electron lenses were proposed for both RHIC and the LHC to reduce the head-on beam-beam effect. We present the experimental long-range beam-beam program at RHIC and report on head-on compensations studies based on simulations.

  5. Postradiation Metabolic Tumor Volume Predicts Outcome in Head-and-Neck Cancer

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Murphy, James D.; La, Trang H.; Chu, Karen; Quon, Andrew; Fischbein, Nancy J.; Maxim, Peter G.; Graves, Edward E.; Loo, Billy W.; Le, Quynh-Thu

    2011-06-01

    Purpose: To explore the prognostic value of metabolic tumor volume measured on postradiation {sup 18}F-fluorodeoxyglucose positron emission tomography (PET) imaging in patients with head-and-neck cancer. Methods and Materials: Forty-seven patients with head-and-neck cancer who received pretreatment and posttreatment PET/computed tomography (CT) imaging along with definitive chemoradiotherapy were included in this study. The PET/CT parameters evaluated include the maximum standardized uptake value, metabolic tumor volume (MTV{sub 2.0}-MTV{sub 4.0}; where MTV{sub 2.0} refers to the volume above a standardized uptake value threshold of 2.0), and integrated tumor volume. Kaplan-Meier and Cox regression models were used to test for association between PET endpoints and disease-free survival and overall survival. Results: Multiple postradiation PET endpoints correlated significantly with outcome; however, the most robust predictor of disease progression and death was MTV{sub 2.0}. An increase in MTV{sub 2.0} of 21cm{sup 3} (difference between 75th and 25th percentiles) was associated with an increased risk of disease progression (hazard ratio [HR]= 2.5, p = 0.0001) and death (HR = 2.0, p = 0.003). In patients with nonnasopharyngeal carcinoma histology (n = 34), MTV{sub 2.0} <18 cm{sup 3} and MTV{sub 2.0} {>=}18 cm{sup 3} yielded 2-year disease-free survival rates of 100% and 63%, respectively (p = 0.006) and 2-year overall survival rates of 100% and 81%, respectively (p = 0.009). There was no correlation between MTV{sub 2.0} and disease-free survival or overall survival with nasopharyngeal carcinoma histology (n = 13). On multivariate analysis, only postradiation MTV{sub 2.0} was predictive of disease-free survival (HR = 2.47, p = 0.0001) and overall survival (HR = 1.98, p = 0.003). Conclusions: Postradiation metabolic tumor volume is an adverse prognostic factor in head-and-neck cancer. Biomarkers such as MTV are important for risk stratification and will be valuable in

  6. Head-on collisions of binary white dwarf-neutron stars: Simulations in full general relativity

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Paschalidis, Vasileios; Etienne, Zachariah; Liu, Yuk Tung; Shapiro, Stuart L.

    2011-03-15

    We simulate head-on collisions from rest at large separation of binary white dwarf-neutron stars (WDNSs) in full general relativity. Our study serves as a prelude to our analysis of the circular binary WDNS problem. We focus on compact binaries whose total mass exceeds the maximum mass that a cold-degenerate star can support, and our goal is to determine the fate of such systems. A fully general relativistic hydrodynamic computation of a realistic WDNS head-on collision is prohibitive due to the large range of dynamical time scales and length scales involved. For this reason, we construct an equation of state (EOS) which captures the main physical features of neutron stars (NSs) while, at the same time, scales down the size of white dwarfs (WDs). We call these scaled-down WD models 'pseudo-WDs (pWDs)'. Using pWDs, we can study these systems via a sequence of simulations where the size of the pWD gradually increases toward the realistic case. We perform two sets of simulations; One set studies the effects of the NS mass on the final outcome, when the pWD is kept fixed. The other set studies the effect of the pWD compaction on the final outcome, when the pWD mass and the NS are kept fixed. All simulations show that after the collision, 14%-18% of the initial total rest mass escapes to infinity. All remnant masses still exceed the maximum rest mass that our cold EOS can support (1.92M{sub {center_dot}}), but no case leads to prompt collapse to a black hole. This outcome arises because the final configurations are hot. All cases settle into spherical, quasiequilibrium configurations consisting of a cold NS core surrounded by a hot mantle, resembling Thorne-Zytkow objects. Extrapolating our results to realistic WD compactions, we predict that the likely outcome of a head-on collision of a realistic, massive WDNS system will be the formation of a quasiequilibrium Thorne-Zytkow-like object.

  7. Multifield Optimization Intensity Modulated Proton Therapy for Head and Neck Tumors: A Translation to Practice

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Frank, Steven J.; Cox, James D.; Gillin, Michael; Mohan, Radhe; Garden, Adam S.; Rosenthal, David I.; Gunn, G. Brandon; Weber, Randal S.; Kies, Merrill S.; Lewin, Jan S.; Munsell, Mark F.; Palmer, Matthew B.; Sahoo, Narayan; Zhang, Xiaodong; Liu, Wei; Zhu, X. Ronald

    2014-07-15

    Background: We report the first clinical experience and toxicity of multifield optimization (MFO) intensity modulated proton therapy (IMPT) for patients with head and neck tumors. Methods and Materials: Fifteen consecutive patients with head and neck cancer underwent MFO-IMPT with active scanning beam proton therapy. Patients with squamous cell carcinoma (SCC) had comprehensive treatment extending from the base of the skull to the clavicle. The doses for chemoradiation therapy and radiation therapy alone were 70 Gy and 66 Gy, respectively. The robustness of each treatment plan was also analyzed to evaluate sensitivity to uncertainties associated with variations in patient setup and the effect of uncertainties with proton beam range in patients. Proton beam energies during treatment ranged from 72.5 to 221.8 MeV. Spot sizes varied depending on the beam energy and depth of the target, and the scanning nozzle delivered the spot scanning treatment “spot by spot” and “layer by layer.” Results: Ten patients presented with SCC and 5 with adenoid cystic carcinoma. All 15 patients were able to complete treatment with MFO-IMPT, with no need for treatment breaks and no hospitalizations. There were no treatment-related deaths, and with a median follow-up time of 28 months (range, 20-35 months), the overall clinical complete response rate was 93.3% (95% confidence interval, 68.1%-99.8%). Xerostomia occurred in all 15 patients as follows: grade 1 in 10 patients, grade 2 in 4 patients, and grade 3 in 1 patient. Mucositis within the planning target volumes was seen during the treatment of all patients: grade 1 in 1 patient, grade 2 in 8 patients, and grade 3 in 6 patients. No patient experienced grade 2 or higher anterior oral mucositis. Conclusions: To our knowledge, this is the first clinical report of MFO-IMPT for head and neck tumors. Early clinical outcomes are encouraging and warrant further investigation of proton therapy in prospective clinical trials.

  8. Head-on collisions of electrostatic solitons in multi-ion plasmas

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Verheest, Frank; Hellberg, Manfred A.; Hereman, Willy A.

    2012-09-15

    Head-on collisions between two electrostatic solitons are dealt with by the Poincare-Lighthill-Kuo method of strained coordinates, for a plasma composed of a number of cold (positive and negative) ion species and Boltzmann electrons. The nonlinear evolution equations for both solitons and their phase shift due to the collision, resulting in time delays, are established. A Korteweg-de Vries description is the generic conclusion, except when the plasma composition is special enough to replace the quadratic by a cubic nonlinearity in the evolution equations, with concomitant repercussions on the phase shifts. Applications include different two-ion plasmas, showing positive or negative polarity solitons in the generic case. At critical composition, a combination of a positive and a negative polarity soliton is possible.

  9. Head-on-collision of modulated dust acoustic waves in strongly coupled dusty plasma

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    El-Labany, S. K.; El-Depsy, A.; Zedan, N. A.; El-Taibany, W. F.; El-Shamy, E. F.

    2012-10-15

    The derivative expansion perturbation method is applied to a strongly coupled dusty plasma system consisting of negatively charged dust grains, electrons, and ions. The basic equations are reduced to a nonlinear Schroedinger type equation appropriate for describing the modulated dust acoustic (DA) waves. We have examined the modulation (in) stability and the dependence of the system physical parameters (angular frequency and group velocity) on the polarization force variation. Finally, the extended Poincare-Lighthill-Kuo technique is employed to investigate the head-on collision (HoC) between two DA dark solitons. The analytical phase shifts and the trajectories of these dark solitons after the collision are derived. The numerical illustrations show that the polarization effect has strong influence on the nature of the phase shifts and the trajectories of the two DA dark solitons after collision.

  10. SU-E-T-168: Evaluation of Normal Tissue Damage in Head and Neck Cancer Treatments

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Ai, H; Zhang, H

    2014-06-01

    Purpose: To evaluate normal tissue toxicity in patients with head and neck cancer by calculating average survival fraction (SF) and equivalent uniform dose (EUD) for normal tissue cells. Methods: 20 patients with head and neck cancer were included in this study. IMRT plans were generated using EclipseTM treatment planning system by dosimetrist following clinical radiotherapy treatment guidelines. The average SF for three different normal tissue cells of each concerned structure can be calculated from dose spectrum acquired from differential dose volume histogram (DVH) using linear quadratic model. The three types of normal tissues include radiosensitive, moderately radiosensitive and radio-resistant that represents 70%, 50% and 30% survival fractions, respectively, for a 2-Gy open field. Finally, EUDs for three types of normal tissue of each structure were calculated from average SF. Results: The EUDs of the brainstem, spinal cord, parotid glands, brachial plexus and etc were calculated. Our analysis indicated that the brainstem can absorb as much as 14.3% of prescription dose to the tumor if the cell line is radiosensitive. In addition, as much as 16.1% and 18.3% of prescription dose were absorbed by the brainstem for moderately radiosensitive and radio-resistant cells, respectively. For the spinal cord, the EUDs reached up to 27.6%, 35.0% and 42.9% of prescribed dose for the three types of radiosensitivities respectively. Three types of normal cells for parotid glands can get up to 65.6%, 71.2% and 78.4% of prescription dose, respectively. The maximum EUDs of brachial plexsus were calculated as 75.4%, 76.4% and 76.7% of prescription for three types of normal cell lines. Conclusion: The results indicated that EUD can be used to quantify and evaluate the radiation damage to surrounding normal tissues. Large variation of normal tissue EUDs may come from variation of target volumes and radiation beam orientations among the patients.

  11. Quantitative Ultrasonic Nakagami Imaging of Neck Fibrosis After Head and Neck Radiation Therapy

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Yang, Xiaofeng; Yoshida, Emi; Cassidy, Richard J.; Beitler, Jonathan J.; Yu, David S.; Curran, Walter J.; Liu, Tian

    2015-06-01

    Purpose: To investigate the feasibility of ultrasound Nakagami imaging to quantitatively assess radiation-induced neck fibrosis, a common sequela of radiation therapy (RT) to the head and neck. Methods and Materials: In a pilot study, 40 study participants were enrolled and classified into 3 subgroups: (1) a control group of 12 healthy volunteers; (2) an asymptomatic group of 11 patients who had received intensity modulated RT for head and neck cancer and had experienced no neck fibrosis; and (3) a symptomatic group of 17 post-RT patients with neck fibrosis. Each study participant underwent 1 ultrasound study in which scans were performed in the longitudinal orientation of the bilateral neck. Three Nakagami parameters were calculated to quantify radiation-induced tissue injury: Nakagami probability distribution function, shape, and scaling parameters. Physician-based assessments of the neck fibrosis were performed according to the Radiation Therapy Oncology Group late morbidity scoring scheme, and patient-based fibrosis assessments were rated based on symptoms such as pain and stiffness. Results: Major discrepancies existed between physician-based and patient-based assessments of radiation-induced fibrosis. Significant differences in all Nakagami parameters were observed between the control group and 2 post-RT groups. Moreover, significant differences in Nakagami shape and scaling parameters were observed among asymptomatic and symptomatic groups. Compared with the control group, the average Nakagami shape parameter value increased by 32.1% (P<.001), and the average Nakagami scaling parameter increased by 55.7% (P<.001) for the asymptomatic group, whereas the Nakagami shape parameter increased by 74.1% (P<.001) and the Nakagami scaling parameter increased by 83.5% (P<.001) for the symptomatic group. Conclusions: Ultrasonic Nakagami imaging is a potential quantitative tool to characterize radiation-induced asymptomatic and symptomatic neck fibrosis.

  12. Factors affecting breeding season survival of Red-Headed Woodpeckers in South Carolina.

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Kilgo, John, C.; Vukovich, Mark

    2011-11-18

    Red-headed woodpecker (Melanerpes erythrocephalus) populations have declined in the United States and Canada over the past 40 years. However, few demographic studies have been published on the species and none have addressed adult survival. During 2006-2007, we estimated survival probabilities of 80 radio-tagged red-headed woodpeckers during the breeding season in mature loblolly pine (Pinus taeda) forests in South Carolina. We used known-fate models in Program MARK to estimate survival within and between years and to evaluate the effects of foliar cover (number of available cover patches), snag density treatment (high density vs. low density), and sex and age of woodpeckers. Weekly survival probabilities followed a quadratic time trend, being lowest during mid-summer, which coincided with the late nestling and fledgling period. Avian predation, particularly by Cooper's (Accipiter cooperii) and sharp-shinned hawks (A. striatus), accounted for 85% of all mortalities. Our best-supported model estimated an 18-week breeding season survival probability of 0.72 (95% CI = 0.54-0.85) and indicated that the number of cover patches interacted with sex of woodpeckers to affect survival; females with few available cover patches had a lower probability of survival than either males or females with more cover patches. At the median number of cover patches available (n = 6), breeding season survival of females was 0.82 (95% CI = 0.54-0.94) and of males was 0.60 (95% CI = 0.42-0.76). The number of cover patches available to woodpeckers appeared in all 3 of our top models predicting weekly survival, providing further evidence that woodpecker survival was positively associated with availability of cover. Woodpecker survival was not associated with snag density. Our results suggest that protection of {ge}0.7 cover patches per ha during vegetation control activities in mature pine forests will benefit survival of this Partners In Flight Watch List species.

  13. Clinical experience transitioning from IMRT to VMAT for head and neck cancer

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Studenski, Matthew T.; Bar-Ad, Voichita; Siglin, Joshua; Cognetti, David; Curry, Joseph; Tuluc, Madalina; Harrison, Amy S.

    2013-07-01

    To quantify clinical differences for volumetric modulated arc therapy (VMAT) versus intensity modulated radiation therapy (IMRT) in terms of dosimetric endpoints and planning and delivery time, twenty head and neck cancer patients have been considered for VMAT using Nucletron Oncentra MasterPlan delivered via an Elekta linear accelerator. Differences in planning time between IMRT and VMAT were estimated accounting for both optimization and calculation. The average delivery time per patient was obtained retrospectively using the record and verify software. For the dosimetric comparison, all contoured organs at risk (OARs) and planning target volumes (PTVs) were evaluated. Of the 20 cases considered, 14 had VMAT plans approved. Six VMAT plans were rejected due to unacceptable dose to OARs. In terms of optimization time, there was minimal difference between the two modalities. The dose calculation time was significantly longer for VMAT, 4 minutes per 358 degree arc versus 2 minutes for an entire IMRT plan. The overall delivery time was reduced by 9.2 3.9 minutes for VMAT (51.4 15.6%). For the dosimetric comparison of the 14 clinically acceptable plans, there was almost no statistical difference between the VMAT and IMRT. There was also a reduction in monitor units of approximately 32% from IMRT to VMAT with both modalities demonstrating comparable quality assurance results. VMAT provides comparable coverage of target volumes while sparing OARs for the majority of head and neck cases. In cases where high dose modulation was required for OARs, a clinically acceptable plan was only achievable with IMRT. Due to the long calculation times, VMAT plans can cause delays during planning but marked improvements in delivery time reduce patient treatment times and the risk of intra-fraction motion.

  14. Evaluation of Thyroid Disorders During Head-and-Neck Radiotherapy by Using Functional Analysis and Ultrasonography

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Bakhshandeh, Mohsen; Hashemi, Bijan; Mahdavi, Seyed Rabie; Nikoofar, Alireza; Edraki, Hamid Reza; Kazemnejad, Anoshirvan

    2012-05-01

    Purpose: To evaluate thyroid function and vascular changes during radiotherapy for patients with head and neck cancer. Methods and Materials: Fifty patients treated with primary or postoperative radiotherapy for various cancers in the head and neck region were prospectively evaluated. The serum samples (triiodothyronine [T3], thyroxine [T4], thyroid-stimulating hormone [TSH], free triiodothyronine [FT3], and free thyroxine [FT4]), the echo level of the thyroid gland, and color Doppler ultrasonography (CDU) parameters of the right inferior thyroid artery (RITA) of the patients were measured before and at regular intervals during radiotherapy. The thyroid gland dose-volume histograms of the patients were derived from their computed tomography-based treatment plans. Results: There was a significant fall in TSH level (p < 0.0001) but an increase in FT4 (p < 0.0001) and T4 (p < 0.022) levels during the radiotherapy course. The threshold dose required to produce significant changes was 12 Gy (Biologically Effective Dose in 2-Gy fractions, BED{sub 2}). There were significant rises in the patients' pulsatility index, resistive index, peak systolic velocity, blood volume flow levels, and RITA diameter (p < 0.0001), as detected by CDU during radiotherapy, compared to those parameters measured before the treatment. Hypoechogenicity and irregular echo patterns (p < 0.0001) were seen during radiotherapy compared to those before treatment. There was significant Pearson's correlation between the CDU parameters and T4, FT4, and TSH levels. Conclusions: Radiation-induced thyroiditis is regarded as primary damage to the thyroid gland. Thyroiditis can subsequently result in hypothyroidism or hyperthyroidism. Our results demonstrated that changes in thyroid vessels occur during radiotherapy delivered to patients. Vessel changes also can be attributed to the late effect of radiation on the thyroid gland. The hypoechogenicity and irregular echo patterns observed in patients may result

  15. Evaluation of Automatic Atlas-Based Lymph Node Segmentation for Head-and-Neck Cancer

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Stapleford, Liza J.; Lawson, Joshua D.; Perkins, Charles; Edelman, Scott; Davis, Lawrence

    2010-07-01

    Purpose: To evaluate if automatic atlas-based lymph node segmentation (LNS) improves efficiency and decreases inter-observer variability while maintaining accuracy. Methods and Materials: Five physicians with head-and-neck IMRT experience used computed tomography (CT) data from 5 patients to create bilateral neck clinical target volumes covering specified nodal levels. A second contour set was automatically generated using a commercially available atlas. Physicians modified the automatic contours to make them acceptable for treatment planning. To assess contour variability, the Simultaneous Truth and Performance Level Estimation (STAPLE) algorithm was used to take collections of contours and calculate a probabilistic estimate of the 'true' segmentation. Differences between the manual, automatic, and automatic-modified (AM) contours were analyzed using multiple metrics. Results: Compared with the 'true' segmentation created from manual contours, the automatic contours had a high degree of accuracy, with sensitivity, Dice similarity coefficient, and mean/max surface disagreement values comparable to the average manual contour (86%, 76%, 3.3/17.4 mm automatic vs. 73%, 79%, 2.8/17 mm manual). The AM group was more consistent than the manual group for multiple metrics, most notably reducing the range of contour volume (106-430 mL manual vs. 176-347 mL AM) and percent false positivity (1-37% manual vs. 1-7% AM). Average contouring time savings with the automatic segmentation was 11.5 min per patient, a 35% reduction. Conclusions: Using the STAPLE algorithm to generate 'true' contours from multiple physician contours, we demonstrated that, in comparison with manual segmentation, atlas-based automatic LNS for head-and-neck cancer is accurate, efficient, and reduces interobserver variability.

  16. Water Energy Resources of the United States with Emphasis on Low Head/Low Power Resources: Appendix C - Validation Study

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Hall, Douglas

    2004-04-01

    Analytical assessments of the water energy resources in the 20 hydrologic regions of the United States were performed using state-of-the-art digital elevation models and geographic information system tools. The principal focus of the study was on low head (less than 30 ft)/low power (less than 1 MW) resources in each region. The assessments were made by estimating the power potential of all the stream segments in a region, which averaged 2 miles in length. These calculations were performed using hydrography and hydraulic heads that were obtained from the U.S. Geological Surveys Elevation Derivatives for National Applications dataset and stream flow predictions from a regression equation or equations developed specifically for the region. Stream segments excluded from development and developed hydropower were accounted for to produce an estimate of total available power potential. The total available power potential was subdivided into high power (1 MW or more), high head (30 ft or more)/low power, and low head/low power total potentials. The low head/low power potential was further divided to obtain the fractions of this potential corresponding to the operating envelopes of three classes of hydropower technologies: conventional turbines, unconventional systems, and microhydro (less than 100 kW). Summing information for all the regions provided total power potential in various power classes for the entire United States. Distribution maps show the location and concentrations of the various classes of low power potential. No aspect of the feasibility of developing these potential resources was evaluated.

  17. SU-E-T-589: Optimization of Patient Head Angle Position to Spare Hippocampus During the Brain Radiation Therapy

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Cheon, G; Kang, Y; Kang, S; Kim, T; Kim, D; Suh, T

    2015-06-15

    Purpose: Hippocampus is one of the important organs which controls emotions, behaviors, movements the memorizing and learning ability. In the conventional head & neck therapy position, it is difficult to perform the hippocampal-sparing brain radiation therapy. The purpose of this study is to investigate optimal head angle which can save the hippocampal-sparing and organ at risk (OAR) in conformal radiation therapy (CRT), Intensity modulation radiation therapy (IMRT) and helical tomotherapy (HT). Methods: Three types of radiation treatment plans, CRT, IMRT and Tomotherapy plans, were performed for 10 brain tumor patients. The image fusion between CT and MRI data were used in the contour due to the limited delineation of the target and OAR in the CT scan. The optimal condition plan was determined by comparing the dosimetric performance of the each plan with the use of various parameters which include three different techniques (CRT, IMRT, HT) and 4 angle (0, 15, 30, 40 degree). The each treatment plans of three different techniques were compared with the following parameters: conformity index (CI), homogeneity index (HI), target coverage, dose in the OARs, monitor units (MU), beam on time and the normal tissue complication probability (NTCP). Results: HI, CI and target coverage was most excellent in head angle 30 degree among all angle. When compared by modality, target coverage and CI showed good results in IMRT and TOMO than compared to the CRT. HI at the head angle 0 degrees is 1.137±0.17 (CRT), 1.085±0.09 (IMRT) and 1.077±0.06 (HT). HI at the head angle 30 degrees is 1.056±0.08 (CRT), 1.020±0.05 (IMRT) and 1.022±0.07 (HT). Conclusion: The results of our study show that when head angle tilted at 30 degree, target coverage, HI, CI were improved, and the dose delivered to OAR was reduced compared with conventional supine position in brain radiation therapy. This work was supported by the Radiation Technology R&D program (No. 2013M2A2A7043498) and the Mid

  18. Weak-strong simulation on head-on beam-beam compensation in the RHIC

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Luo,Y.; Fischer, W.; McIntosh, E.; Robert-Demolaize, G.; Abreu, N.; Beebe-Wang, J.; Montag, C.

    2009-05-04

    In the Relativistic Heavy Ion Collider (RHIC) beams collide in the two interaction points IP6 and IP8. To further increase the bunch intensity above 2 x 10{sup 11} or further reduce the transverse emittance in polarized proton operation, there will not be enough tune space between the current working area [2/3, 7/10] to hold the beam-beam generated tune spread. We proposed a low energy DC electron beam (e-lens) with similar Gaussian transverse profiles to collide with the proton beam at IP10. Early studies have shown that e-lens does reduce the proton-proton beam-beam tune spread. In this article, we carried out numerical simulation to investigate the effects of the head-on beam-beam effect on the proton's colliding beam lifetime and emittance growth. The preliminary results including scans of compensation strength, phase advances between IP8 and IP10, electron beam transverse sizes are presented. In these studies, the particle loss in the multi-particle simulation is used for the comparison between different conditions.

  19. Mucosal Melanoma of the Head and Neck: A Systematic Review of the Literature

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Lazarev, Stanislav; Gupta, Vishal; Hu, Kenneth; Harrison, Louis B.; Bakst, Richard

    2014-12-01

    Primary mucosal melanoma of the head and neck (MMHN) comprises approximately 1% of all malignant melanomas. It presents more commonly in an elderly population and has no significant gender predominance. Given its rarity, most evidence of the causes, behavior, and treatment approaches for MMHN originates from isolated case reports and retrospective series. Between 1945 and 2011, at least 1951 cases of MMHN have been reported in the literature. Despite numerous technological developments in surgery and radiation therapy, as well as advances in systemic modalities, MMHN is an aggressive malignancy with a very poor prognosis. Complete surgical excision with clear margins remains the primary treatment modality. Adjuvant postoperative radiation therapy may improve locoregional control but does not appear to affect survival. Definitive particle radiation therapy promises to provide high rates of local control for nonoperable patients. Recent molecular evidence suggests that proto-oncogene KIT aberrations in a subset of mucosal melanomas may represent a potential diagnostic value and serve as a therapeutic target for tyrosine kinase inhibitors in an adjuvant setting for patients with advanced MMHN.

  20. Phenomenon analysis of stress corrosion cracking in the vessel head penetrations of French PWR`s

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Pichon, C.; Buisine, D.; Faidy, C.; Gelpi, A.; Vaindirlis, M.

    1995-12-31

    During a hydrotest in 1991, a leak was detected on,a reactor vessel head (RVH) penetration of a French PWR. This leak was due to a phenomenon of Primary Water Stress Corrosion Cracking (PWSCC) affecting these penetrations in Alloy 600. The destructive and non-destructive examinations undertaken during the following months highlighted the generic nature of the degradations. In order to well understand this phenomenon and implement the most suitable maintenance policy, a large scale scientific program was decided and performed jointly by Electricite de France and FRAMATOME. The paper will present all the results obtained in this program concerning the parameters governing the PWSCC. In particular the following fields will be developed: (1) the material, its microstructure in line with the manufacturing and its susceptibility to PWSCC; (2) the stresses and their evaluations by measurements, mock up corrosion tests and Finite Element Analysis (FEA); (3) the effect of surface finish on crack initiation; and (4) the crack growth rate. This phenomenon analysis will be useful for evaluating the risk of PWSCC on other Alloy 600 areas in PWR`s primary system.

  1. Method to improve cancerous lesion detection sensitivity in a dedicated dual-head scintimammography system

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Kieper, Douglas Arthur; Majewski, Stanislaw; Welch, Benjamin L.

    2012-07-03

    An improved method for enhancing the contrast between background and lesion areas of a breast undergoing dual-head scintimammographic examination comprising: 1) acquiring a pair of digital images from a pair of small FOV or mini gamma cameras compressing the breast under examination from opposing sides; 2) inverting one of the pair of images to align or co-register with the other of the images to obtain co-registered pixel values; 3) normalizing the pair of images pixel-by-pixel by dividing pixel values from each of the two acquired images and the co-registered image by the average count per pixel in the entire breast area of the corresponding detector; and 4) multiplying the number of counts in each pixel by the value obtained in step 3 to produce a normalization enhanced two dimensional contrast map. This enhanced (increased contrast) contrast map enhances the visibility of minor local increases (uptakes) of activity over the background and therefore improves lesion detection sensitivity, especially of small lesions.

  2. Method to improve cancerous lesion detection sensitivity in a dedicated dual-head scintimammography system

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Kieper, Douglas Arthur; Majewski, Stanislaw; Welch, Benjamin L.

    2008-10-28

    An improved method for enhancing the contrast between background and lesion areas of a breast undergoing dual-head scintimammographic examination comprising: 1) acquiring a pair of digital images from a pair of small FOV or mini gamma cameras compressing the breast under examination from opposing sides; 2) inverting one of the pair of images to align or co-register with the other of the images to obtain co-registered pixel values; 3) normalizing the pair of images pixel-by-pixel by dividing pixel values from each of the two acquired images and the co-registered image by the average count per pixel in the entire breast area of the corresponding detector; and 4) multiplying the number of counts in each pixel by the value obtained in step 3 to produce a normalization enhanced two dimensional contrast map. This enhanced (increased contrast) contrast map enhances the visibility of minor local increases (uptakes) of activity over the background and therefore improves lesion detection sensitivity, especially of small lesions.

  3. Head and Neck Squamous Cell Carcinomas Do Not Express EGFRvIII

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Melchers, Lieuwe J.; Clausen, Martijn J.A.M.; Mastik, Mirjam F.; Slagter-Menkema, Lorian; Laan, Bernard F.A.M. van der; Roodenburg, Jan L.N.; Schuuring, Ed

    2014-10-01

    Purpose: To assess the prevalence of EGFRvIII, a specific variant of EGFR (epidermal growth factor receptor), in 3 well-defined cohorts of head and neck squamous cell carcinoma (HNSCC). Methods and Materials: Immunohistochemistry for the specific detection of EGFRvIII using the L8A4 antibody was optimized on formalin-fixed, paraffin-embedded tissue using glioblastoma tissue. It was compared with EGFR and EGFRvIII RNA expression using a specific reverse transcription–polymerase chain reaction also optimized for formalin-fixed, paraffin-embedded tissue. Tissue microarrays including 531 HNSCCs of various stages with complete clinicopathologic and follow-up data were tested for the presence of EGFRvIII. Results: None of the 531 cases showed EGFRvIII protein expression. Using an immunohistochemistry protocol reported by others revealed cytoplasmic staining in 8% of cases. Reverse transcription–polymerase chain reaction for the EGFRvIII transcript of the 28 highest cytoplasmic staining cases, as well as 69 negative cases, did not show expression in any of the tested cases, suggesting aspecific staining by a nonoptimal protocol. Conclusions: The EGFRvIII mutation is not present in HNSCC. Therefore, EGFRvIII does not influence treatment response in HNSCC and is not a usable clinical prognostic marker.

  4. Thermal modeling of head disk interface system in heat assisted magnetic recording

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Vemuri, Sesha Hari; Seung Chung, Pil; Jhon, Myung S., E-mail: mj3a@andrew.cmu.edu [Department of Chemical Engineering and Data Storage Systems Center, Carnegie Mellon University, 5000 Forbes Ave., Pittsburgh, Pennsylvania 15213 (United States); Min Kim, Hyung [Department of Mechanical System Engineering, Kyonggi University, Suwon, Gyeonggi-do 440-746 (Korea, Republic of)

    2014-05-07

    A thorough understanding of the temperature profiles introduced by the heat assisted magnetic recording is required to maintain the hotspot at the desired location on the disk with minimal heat damage to other components. Here, we implement a transient mesoscale modeling methodology termed lattice Boltzmann method (LBM) for phonons (which are primary carriers of energy) in the thermal modeling of the head disk interface (HDI) components, namely, carbon overcoat (COC). The LBM can provide more accurate results compared to conventional Fourier methodology by capturing the nanoscale phenomena due to ballistic heat transfer. We examine the in-plane and out-of-plane heat transfer in the COC via analyzing the temperature profiles with a continuously focused and pulsed laser beam on a moving disk. Larger in-plane hotspot widening is observed in continuously focused laser beam compared to a pulsed laser. A pulsed laser surface develops steeper temperature gradients compared to continuous hotspot. Furthermore, out-of-plane heat transfer from the COC to the media is enhanced with a continuous laser beam then a pulsed laser, while the temperature takes around 140 fs to reach the bottom surface of the COC. Our study can lead to a realistic thermal model describing novel HDI material design criteria for the next generation of hard disk drives with ultra high recording densities.

  5. Head-on collision of dust-acoustic shock waves in strongly coupled dusty plasmas

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    EL-Shamy, E. F.; Al-Asbali, A. M.

    2014-09-15

    A theoretical investigation is carried out to study the propagation and the head-on collision of dust-acoustic (DA) shock waves in a strongly coupled dusty plasma consisting of negative dust fluid, Maxwellian distributed electrons and ions. Applying the extended PoincarLighthillKuo method, a couple of KortewegdeVriesBurgers equations for describing DA shock waves are derived. This study is a first attempt to deduce the analytical phase shifts of DA shock waves after collision. The impacts of physical parameters such as the kinematic viscosity, the unperturbed electron-to-dust density ratio, parameter determining the effect of polarization force, the ion-to-electron temperature ratio, and the effective dust temperature-to-ion temperature ratio on the structure and the collision of DA shock waves are examined. In addition, the results reveal the increase of the strength and the steepness of DA shock waves as the above mentioned parameters increase, which in turn leads to the increase of the phase shifts of DA shock waves after collision. The present model may be useful to describe the structure and the collision of DA shock waves in space and laboratory dusty plasmas.

  6. The effect of head-on beam-beam compensation on the stochastic boundaries and particle diffusion in RHIC.

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Abreu,N.; Beebe-Wang, J.; FischW; Luo, Y.; Robert-Demolaize, G.

    2008-06-23

    To compensate the effects from the head-on beam-beam interactions in the polarized proton operation in the Relativistic Heavy Ion Collider (RHIC), an electron lens (elens) is proposed to collide head-on with the proton beam. We used an extended version of SixTrack for multiparticle beam-beam simulation in order to study the effect of the e-lens on the stochastic boundary and also on diffusion. The stochastic boundary was analyzed using Lyapunov exponents and the diffusion was characterized as the increase in the rms spread of the action. For both studies the simulations were performed with and without the e-lens and with full and partial compensation. Using the simulated values of the diffusion an attempt to calculate the emittance growth rate is presented.

  7. Head on collision of multi-solitons in an electron-positron-ion plasma having superthermal electrons

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Roy, Kaushik; Chatterjee, Prasanta Roychoudhury, Rajkumar

    2014-10-15

    The head-on collision and overtaking collision of four solitons in a plasma comprising superthermal electrons, cold ions, and Boltzmann distributed positrons are investigated using the extended Poincare-Lighthill-Kuo (PLK) together with Hirota's method. PLK method yields two separate Korteweg-de Vries (KdV) equations where solitons obtained from any KdV equation move along a direction opposite to that of solitons obtained from the other KdV equation, While Hirota's method gives multi-soliton solution for each KdV equation all of which move along the same direction where the fastest moving soliton eventually overtakes the other ones. We have considered here two soliton solutions obtained from Hirota's method. Phase shifts acquired by each soliton due to both head-on collision and overtaking collision are calculated analytically.

  8. Read/write head having a GMR sensor biased by permanent magnets located between the GMR and the pole shields

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Yuan, Samuel W.; Rottmayer, Robert Earl; Carey, Matthew J.

    1999-01-01

    A compact read/write head having a biased giant magnetoresistive sensor. Permanent magnet films are placed adjacent to the giant magnetoresistive sensor operating in the current-perpendicular-to the-plane (Cpp) mode and spaced with respect to the sensor by conducting films. These permanent magnet films provide a magnetic bias. The bias field is substantial and fairly uniform across sensor height. Biasing of the giant magnetoresistive sensor provides distinguishable response to the rising and falling edges of a recorded pulse on an adjacent recording medium, improves the linearity of the response, and helps to reduce noise. This read/write head is much simpler to fabricate and pattern and provides an enhanced uniformity of the bias field throughout the sensor.

  9. Investigation of Head Burns in Adult Salmonids : Phase 1 : Examination of Fish at Lower Granite Dam, July 2, 1996. Final Report.

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Elston, Ralph

    1996-08-01

    Head burn is a descriptive clinical term used by fishery biologists to describe exfoliation of skin and underlying connective tissue of the jaw and cranial region of salmonids, observed at fish passage facilities on the Columbia and Snake Rivers. The observations are usually made on upstream migrant adult salmon or steelhead. An expert panel, convened in 1996, to evaluate the risk and severity of gas bubble disease (GBD) in the Snake and Columbia River system believed that, while head burns appeared to be distinct from GBD, the relationship between dissolved gas saturation in the rivers and head burns was uncertain.

  10. MO-E-17A-10: Evaluation of Body and Head Dimensions of Pediatric Patients as a Function of Age

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Seibert, JA; Boone, JM

    2014-06-15

    Purpose: Phantom development in medical physics plays an important role in radiation dose assessment and image quality evaluation, and this is especially true in the pediatric patient population. The purpose of this investigation was to establish the relationship between patient age and patient size, focusing on the abdomen-pelvis and head effective diameters, for patients ranging in age from newborn to 18 years. Methods: A dose reporting tool for computed tomography systems was installed at our institution to achieve compliance with state law commencing on July 1, 2012. The software records a number of patient-specific data, and also reports CT dose metrics (CTDIvol and DLP) into the patients interpretive report. The database generated by the software was mined to determine patient effective diameter as a function of age for pediatric patients aged 0–18 years. CT protocols including abdomen-pelvis and routine head were evaluated, and specific to this study the patients age, gender and equivalent diameter were recorded. Results: Six age ranges were evaluated: A(0–3), B(4–6), C(7–9), D(10–12),E(13–15),F(16–18). For the torso in these groups based upon 694 patients, median effective diameters were 147, 167, 184, 214, 231, 246 mm, respectively. For the head (N=1833), median diameters were 143, 157, 162, 168, 174, and 174, respectively. Conclusion: A solid understanding of the approximate dimensions of pediatric patients as a function of age is useful in the development of age-based imaging protocols and dose assessments. CT dose-reporting tools generate a great deal of data with respect to body dimensions automatically. In this study, median equivalent diameters for the abdomen-pelvis and head of pediatric patients were evaluated. These data may prove useful in the development of both mathematical and physical phantoms for dosimetry and image quality assessment.

  11. SCDAP/RELAP5 modeling of heat transfer and flow losses in lower head porous debris. Revision 1

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Siefken, L.J.; Coryell, E.W.; Paik, S.; Kuo, H.

    1999-05-01

    Designs are described for implementing models for calculating the heat transfer and flow losses in porous debris in the lower head of a reactor vessel. The COUPLE model in SCDAP/RELAP5 represents both the porous and nonporous debris that results from core material slumping into the lower head. Currently, the COUPLE model has the capability to model convective and radiative heat transfer from the surfaces of nonporous debris in a detailed manner and to model only in a simplistic manner the heat transfer from porous debris. In order to advance beyond the simplistic modeling for porous debris, designs are developed for detailed calculations of heat transfer and flow losses in porous debris. Correlations are identified for convective heat transfer in porous debris for the following modes of heat transfer; (1) forced convection to liquid, (2) forced convection to gas, (3) nucleate boiling, (4) transition boiling, and (5) film boiling. Interphase heat transfer is modeled in an approximate ma nner. Designs are described for models to calculate the flow losses and interphase drag of fluid flowing through the interstices of the porous debris, and to apply these variables in the momentum equations in the RELAP5 part of the code. Since the models for heat transfer and flow losses in porous debris in the lower head are designed for general application, a design is also described for implementation of these models to the analysis of porous debris in the core region. A test matrix is proposed for assessing the capability of the implemented models to calculate the heat transfer and flow losses in porous debris. The implementation of the models described in this report is expected to improve the COUPLE code calculation of the temperature distribution in porous debris and in the lower head that supports the debris. The implementation of these models is also expected to improve the calculation of the temperature and flow distribution in porous debris in the core region.

  12. Lower head creep rupture failure analysis associated with alternative accident sequences of the Three Mile Island Unit 2

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Sang Lung, Chan

    2004-07-01

    The objective of this lower head creep rupture analysis is to assess the current version of MELCOR 1.8.5-RG against SCDAP/RELAP5 MOD 3.3kz. The purpose of this assessment is to investigate the current MELCOR in-vessel core damage progression phenomena including the model for the formation of a molten pool. The model for stratified molten pool natural heat transfer will be included in the next MELCOR release. Presently, MELCOR excludes the gap heat-transfer model for the cooling associated with the narrow gap between the debris and the lower head vessel wall. All these phenomenological models are already treated in SCDAP/RELAP5 using the COUPLE code to model the heat transfer of the relocated debris with the lower head based on a two-dimensional finite-element-method. The assessment should determine if current MELCOR capabilities adequately cover core degradation phenomena appropriate for the consolidated MELCOR code. Inclusion of these features should bring MELCOR much closer to a state of parity with SCDAP/RELAP5 and is a currently underway element in the MELCOR code consolidation effort. This assessment deals with the following analysis of the Three Mile Island Unit 2 (TMI-2) alternative accident sequences. The TMI-2 alternative accident sequence-1 includes the continuation of the base case of the TMI-2 accident with the Reactor Coolant Pumps (RCP) tripped, and the High Pressure Injection System (HPIS) throttled after approximately 6000 s accident time, while in the TMI-2 alternative accident sequence-2, the reactor coolant pumps is tripped after 6000 s and the HPIS is activated after 12,012 s. The lower head temperature distributions calculated with SCDAP/RELAP5 are visualized and animated with open source visualization freeware 'OpenDX'. (author)

  13. Report on a randomized trial comparing two forms of immobilization of the head for fractionated stereotactic radiotherapy

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Bednarz, Greg; Machtay, Mitchell; Werner-Wasik, Maria; Downes, Beverly; Bogner, Joachim; Hyslop, Terry; Galvin, James; Evans, James; Curran, Walter Jr.; Andrews, David

    2009-01-15

    Fractionated stereotactic radiotherapy (SRT) requires accurate and reproducible immobilization of the patient's head. This randomized study compared the efficacy of two commonly used forms of immobilization used for SRT. Two routinely used methods of immobilization, which differ in their approach to reproduce the head position from day to day, are the Gill-Thomas-Cosman (GTC) frame and the BrainLab thermoplastic mask. The GTC frame fixates on the patient's upper dentition and thus is in direct mechanical contact with the cranium. The BrainLab mask is a two-part masking system custom fitted to the front and back of the patient's head. After patients signed an IRB-approved informed consent form, eligible patients were randomized to either GTC frame or mask for their course of SRT. Patients were treated as per standard procedure; however, prior to each treatment a set of digital kilovolt images (ExacTrac, BrainLabAB, Germany) was taken. These images were fused with reference digitally reconstructed radiographs obtained from treatment planning CT to yield lateral, longitudinal, and vertical deviations of isocenter and head rotations about respective axes. The primary end point of the study was to compare the two systems with respect to mean and standard deviations using the distance to isocenter measure. A total of 84 patients were enrolled (69 patients evaluable with detailed positioning data). A mixed-effect linear regression and two-tiled t test were used to compare the distance measure for both the systems. There was a statistically significant (p<0.001) difference between mean distances for these systems, suggesting that the GTC frame was more accurate. The mean 3D displacement and standard deviations were 3.17+1.95 mm for mask and 2.00+1.04 mm for frame. Both immobilization techniques were highly effective, but the GTC frame was more accurate. To optimize the accuracy of SRT, daily kilovolt image guidance is recommended with either immobilization system.

  14. Operational head-on beam-beam compensation with electron lenses in the Relativistic Heavy Ion Collider

    DOE Public Access Gateway for Energy & Science Beta (PAGES Beta)

    Fischer, W.; Gu, X.; Altinbas, Z.; Costanzo, M.; Hock, J.; Liu, C.; Luo, Y.; Marusic, A.; Michnoff, R.; Miller, T. A.; et al

    2015-12-23

    Head-on beam-beam compensation has been implemented in the Relativistic Heavy Ion Collider (RHIC) in order to increase the luminosity delivered to the experiments. We discuss the principle of combining a lattice for resonance driving term compensation and an electron lens for tune spread compensation. We describe the electron lens technology and its operational use. As of this date the implemented compensation scheme approximately doubled the peak and average luminosities.

  15. Effect of CT contrast on volumetric arc therapy planning (RapidArc and helical tomotherapy) for head and neck cancer

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Liu, Alan J.; Vora, Nayana; Suh, Steve; Liu, An; Schultheiss, Timothy E.; Wong, Jeffrey Y.C.

    2015-04-01

    The objectives of the study were to evaluate the effect of intravenous contrast in the dosimetry of helical tomotherapy and RapidArc treatment for head and neck cancer and determine if it is acceptable during the computed tomography (CT) simulation to acquire only CT with contrast for treatment planning of head and neck cancer. Overall, 5 patients with head and neck cancer (4 men and 1 woman) treated on helical tomotherapy were analyzed retrospectively. For each patient, 2 consecutive CT scans were performed. The first CT set was scanned before the contrast injection and secondary study set was scanned 45 seconds after contrast. The 2 CTs were autoregistered using the same Digital Imaging and Communications in Medicine coordinates. Tomotherapy and RapidArc plans were generated on 1 CT data set and subsequently copied to the second CT set. Dose calculation was performed, and dose difference was analyzed to evaluate the influence of intravenous contrast media. The dose matrix used for comparison included mean, minimum and maximum doses of planning target volume (PTV), PTV dose coverage, and V{sub 45} {sub Gy}, V{sub 30} {sub Gy}, and V{sub 20} {sub Gy} organ doses. Treatment planning on contrasted images generally showed a lower dose to both organs and target than plans on noncontrasted images. The doses for the points of interest placed in the organs and target rarely changed more than 2% in any patient. In conclusion, treatment planning using a contrasted image had insignificant effect on the dose to the organs and targets. In our opinion, only CT with contrast needs to be acquired during the CT simulation for head and neck cancer. Dose calculations performed on contrasted images can potentially underestimate the delivery dose slightly. However, the errors of planning on a contrasted image should not affect the result in clinically significant way.

  16. Speakers: Glen Sweetnam, EIA Michelle Michot Foss, Chief Energy Economist and Head, Center for Energy Economics, Bureau of

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    7: "Natural Gas: U.S. Markets in a Global Context" Speakers: Glen Sweetnam, EIA Michelle Michot Foss, Chief Energy Economist and Head, Center for Energy Economics, Bureau of Economic Geology, Jackson School of Geosciences, University of Texas Benjamin Schlesinger, Benjamin Schlesinger and Associates, Inc. Andrew Slaughter, Shell [Note: Recorders did not pick up introduction of panel (see biographies for details on the panelists) or introduction of session.] Glenn: Let me welcome you to

  17. CD147 and AGR2 expression promote cellular proliferation and metastasis of head and neck squamous cell carcinoma

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Sweeny, Larissa; Liu, Zhiyong; Bush, Benjamin D.; Hartman, Yolanda; Zhou, Tong; Rosenthal, Eben L.

    2012-08-15

    The signaling pathways facilitating metastasis of head and neck squamous cell carcinoma (HNSCC) cells are not fully understood. CD147 is a transmembrane glycoprotein known to induce cell migration and invasion. AGR2 is a secreted peptide also known to promote cell metastasis. Here we describe their importance in the migration and invasion of HNSCC cells (FADU and OSC-19) in vitro and in vivo. In vitro, knockdown of CD147 or AGR2 decreased cellular proliferation, migration and invasion. In vivo, knockdown of CD147 or AGR2 expression decreased primary tumor growth as well as regional and distant metastasis. -- Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer We investigated AGR2 in head and neck squamous cell carcinoma for the first time. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer We explored the relationship between AGR2 and CD147 for the first time. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer AGR2 and CD147 appear to co-localize in head and squamous cell carcinoma samples. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Knockdown of both AGR2 and CD147 reduced migration and invasion in vitro. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Knockdown of both AGR2 and CD147 decreased metastasis in vivo.

  18. Impact of Concomitant Chemotherapy on Outcomes of Radiation Therapy for Head-and-Neck Cancer: A Population-Based Study

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Gupta, Shlok; Kong, Weidong; Booth, Christopher M.; Mackillop, William J.

    2014-01-01

    Purpose: Clinical trials have shown that the addition of chemotherapy to radiation therapy (RT) improves survival in advanced head-and-neck cancer. The objective of this study was to describe the effectiveness of concomitant chemoradiation therapy (C-CRT) in routine practice. Methods and Materials: This was a population-based cohort study. Electronic records of treatment from all provincial cancer centers were linked to a population--based cancer registry to describe the adoption of C-CRT for head-and-neck cancer patients in Ontario, Canada. The study population was then divided into pre- and postadoption cohorts, and their outcomes were compared. Results: Between 1992 and 2008, 18,867 patients had diagnoses of head-and-neck cancer in Ontario, of whom 7866 (41.7%) were treated with primary RT. The proportion of primary RT cases that received C-CRT increased from 2.2% in the preadoption cohort (1992-1998) to 39.3% in the postadoption cohort (2003-2008). Five-year survival among all primary RT cases increased from 43.6% in the preadoption cohort to 51.8% in the postadoption cohort (P<.001). Over the same period, treatment-related hospital admissions increased significantly, but there was no significant increase in treatment-related deaths. Conclusions: C-CRT was widely adopted in Ontario after 2003, and its adoption was temporally associated with an improvement in survival.

  19. Installation of the Monitoring Site at the Los Alamos Canyon Low-Head Weir

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    W.J.Stone; D.L.Newell

    2002-08-01

    The Cerro Grande fire of 2000 had an enormously adverse impact on and around Los Alamos National Laboratory (LANL). Immediately there were concerns about the potential for enhanced runoff/offsite transport of contaminant-laden sediments because of watershed damage. In response to this concern, the U.S. Army Corps of Engineers installed a low-head weir in Los Alamos Canyon near the White Rock ''Y.'' However, the occurrence of fractured basalt at the surface and ponding of runoff behind the weir enhance the possibility of downward migration of contaminants. Therefore, three boreholes were drilled on the south bank of the channel by LANL to provide a means of monitoring the impact of the Cerro Grande fire and of the weir on water quality beneath the canyon. The boreholes and associated instrumentation are referred to as the Los Alamos Weir Site (LAWS). The three boreholes include a vertical hole and two angled holes (one at approximately 45{sup o} and one at approximately 30{sup o}). Since the basalt is highly fractured, the holes would not stay open. Plans called for inserting flexible liners into all holes. However, using liners in such unstable ground was problematic and, in the angled holes, required deployment through scalloped or perforated polyvinyl chloride (PVC) shield. The vertical hole (LAWS-01), drilled to a total depth of 281.5 ft below ground surface (bgs), was completed as a 278-ft deep monitoring well with four screens: one targeting shallow perched water encountered at 80 ft, two in what may correspond to the upper perched zone at regional groundwater characterization well R-9i (1/4 mi. to the west), and one in what may correspond to the lower perched zone at R-9i. A Water FLUTe{trademark} system deployed in the well isolates the screened intervals; associated transducers and sampling ports permit monitoring head and water quality in the screened intervals. The second hole (LAWS-02), drilled at an angle of 43{sup o} from horizontal, is 156 ft long and

  20. A deformable head and neck phantom with in-vivo dosimetry for adaptive radiotherapy quality assurance

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Graves, Yan Jiang; Smith, Arthur-Allen; Mcilvena, David; Manilay, Zherrina; Lai, Yuet Kong; Rice, Roger; Mell, Loren; Cerviño, Laura E-mail: steve.jiang@utsouthwestern.edu; Jia, Xun; Jiang, Steve B. E-mail: steve.jiang@utsouthwestern.edu

    2015-04-15

    Purpose: Patients’ interfractional anatomic changes can compromise the initial treatment plan quality. To overcome this issue, adaptive radiotherapy (ART) has been introduced. Deformable image registration (DIR) is an important tool for ART and several deformable phantoms have been built to evaluate the algorithms’ accuracy. However, there is a lack of deformable phantoms that can also provide dosimetric information to verify the accuracy of the whole ART process. The goal of this work is to design and construct a deformable head and neck (HN) ART quality assurance (QA) phantom with in vivo dosimetry. Methods: An axial slice of a HN patient is taken as a model for the phantom construction. Six anatomic materials are considered, with HU numbers similar to a real patient. A filled balloon inside the phantom tissue is inserted to simulate tumor. Deflation of the balloon simulates tumor shrinkage. Nonradiopaque surface markers, which do not influence DIR algorithms, provide the deformation ground truth. Fixed and movable holders are built in the phantom to hold a diode for dosimetric measurements. Results: The measured deformations at the surface marker positions can be compared with deformations calculated by a DIR algorithm to evaluate its accuracy. In this study, the authors selected a Demons algorithm as a DIR algorithm example for demonstration purposes. The average error magnitude is 2.1 mm. The point dose measurements from the in vivo diode dosimeters show a good agreement with the calculated doses from the treatment planning system with a maximum difference of 3.1% of prescription dose, when the treatment plans are delivered to the phantom with original or deformed geometry. Conclusions: In this study, the authors have presented the functionality of this deformable HN phantom for testing the accuracy of DIR algorithms and verifying the ART dosimetric accuracy. The authors’ experiments demonstrate the feasibility of this phantom serving as an end

  1. Adaptive Radiotherapy for Head-and-Neck Cancer: Initial Clinical Outcomes From a Prospective Trial

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Schwartz, David L.; Garden, Adam S.; Thomas, Jimmy; Chen Yipei; Zhang Yongbin; Lewin, Jan; Chambers, Mark S.; Dong, Lei

    2012-07-01

    Purpose: To present pilot toxicity and survival outcomes for a prospective trial investigating adaptive radiotherapy (ART) for oropharyngeal squamous cell carcinoma. Methods and Materials: A total of 24 patients were enrolled in an institutional review board-approved clinical trial; data for 22 of these patients were analyzed. Daily CT-guided setup and deformable image registration permitted serial mapping of clinical target volumes and avoidance structures for ART planning. Primary site was base of tongue in 15 patients, tonsil in 6 patient, and glossopharyngeal sulcus in 1 patient. Twenty patients (91%) had American Joint Committee on Cancer (AJCC) Stage IV disease. T stage distribution was 2 T1, 12 T2, 3 T3, 5 T4. N stage distribution was 1 N0, 2 N1, 5 N2a, 12 N2b, and 2 N2c. Of the patients, 21 (95%) received systemic therapy. Results: With a 31-month median follow-up (range, 13-45 months), there has been no primary site failure and 1 nodal relapse, yielding 100% local and 95% regional disease control at 2 years. Baseline tumor size correlated with absolute volumetric treatment response (p = 0.018). Parotid volumetric change correlated with duration of feeding tube placement (p = 0.025). Acute toxicity was comparable to that observed with conventional intensity-modulated radiotherapy (IMRT). Chronic toxicity and functional outcomes beyond 1 year were tabulated. Conclusion: This is the first prospective evaluation of morbidity and survival outcomes in patients with locally advanced head-and-neck cancer treated with automated adaptive replanning. ART can provide dosimetric benefit with only one or two mid-treatment replanning events. Our preliminary clinical outcomes document functional recovery and preservation of disease control at 1-year follow-up and beyond.

  2. SU-E-T-460: Comparison of Proton and IMRT Planning for Head and Neck Cancer

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Fontenla, S; Zhou, Y; Kowalski, A; Mah, D; Leven, T; Cahlon, O; Lee, N; Hunt, M; Mechalakos, J

    2014-06-01

    Purpose: A retrospective study comparing proton and intensity-modulated radiation therapy (IMRT) for head and neck cancer Methods: This study consists of six H and N cancer patients that underwent proton as well as IMRT planning. Patients analyzed had unilateral target volumes, one had prior RT. 3D-conformal proton therapy (3D-CPT) plans with multiple field uniform scanning were generated for delivery on the inclined beam line. IMRT was planned using fixed field sliding window. Final plan evaluations were performed by a radiation oncologist and a physicist. Metrics for comparison included tumor coverage, organ sparing with respect to spinal cord, brainstem, parotids, submandibulars, oral cavity, larynx, brachial plexus, cochleas, normal brain tissue, and skin using relevant indices for these structures. Dose volume histograms were generated as well as a qualitative comparison of isodose distributions between the two modalities. Planning and treatment delivery times were compared. Results: Results showed that IMRT plans offered better conformality in the high dose region as demonstrated by the conformality index for each plan. Ipsilateral cochlea, submandibular gland, and skin doses were lower with IMRT than proton therapy. There was significant sparing of larynx, oral cavity, and brainstem with proton therapy compared to IMRT. This translated into direct patient benefit with no evidence of hoarseness, mucositis, or nausea. Contralateral parotid and submandibular glands were equally spared. IMRT had shorter planning/parts fabrication and treatment times which needs to be taken into account when deciding modality. Conclusion: Sparing of clinically significant normal tissue structures such as oral cavity and larynx for unilateral H and N cancers was seen with 3D-CPT versus IMRT. However, this is at the expense of less conformality at the high dose region and higher skin dose. Future studies are needed with full gantry systems and pencil beam scanning as these

  3. A dosimetric comparison of proton and photon therapy in unresectable cancers of the head of pancreas

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Thompson, Reid F.; Zhai, Huifang; Both, Stefan; Metz, James M.; Plastaras, John P.; Ben-Josef, Edgar; Mayekar, Sonal U.; Apisarnthanarax, Smith

    2014-08-15

    Purpose: Uncontrolled local growth is the cause of death in ?30% of patients with unresectable pancreatic cancers. The addition of standard-dose radiotherapy to gemcitabine has been shown to confer a modest survival benefit in this population. Radiation dose escalation with three-dimensional planning is not feasible, but high-dose intensity-modulated radiation therapy (IMRT) has been shown to improve local control. Still, dose-escalation remains limited by gastrointestinal toxicity. In this study, the authors investigate the potential use of double scattering (DS) and pencil beam scanning (PBS) proton therapy in limiting dose to critical organs at risk. Methods: The authors compared DS, PBS, and IMRT plans in 13 patients with unresectable cancer of the pancreatic head, paying particular attention to duodenum, small intestine, stomach, liver, kidney, and cord constraints in addition to target volume coverage. All plans were calculated to 5500 cGy in 25 fractions with equivalent constraints and normalized to prescription dose. All statistics were by two-tailed paired t-test. Results: Both DS and PBS decreased stomach, duodenum, and small bowel dose in low-dose regions compared to IMRT (p < 0.01). However, protons yielded increased doses in the mid to high dose regions (e.g., 23.653.8 and 34.952.4 Gy for duodenum using DS and PBS, respectively; p < 0.05). Protons also increased generalized equivalent uniform dose to duodenum and stomach, however these differences were small (<5% and 10%, respectively; p < 0.01). Doses to other organs-at-risk were within institutional constraints and placed no obvious limitations on treatment planning. Conclusions: Proton therapy does not appear to reduce OAR volumes receiving high dose. Protons are able to reduce the treated volume receiving low-intermediate doses, however the clinical significance of this remains to be determined in future investigations.

  4. SU-E-P-49: Evaluation of Image Quality and Radiation Dose of Various Unenhanced Head CT Protocols

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Chen, L; Khan, M; Alapati, K; Hsieh, M; Barry, K

    2015-06-15

    Purpose: To evaluate the diagnostic value of various unenhanced head CT protocols and predicate acceptable radiation dose level for head CT exam. Methods: Our retrospective analysis included 3 groups, 20 patients per group, who underwent clinical routine unenhanced adult head CT examination. All exams were performed axially with 120 kVp. Three protocols, 380 mAs without iterative reconstruction and automAs, 340 mAs with iterative reconstruction without automAs, 340 mAs with iterative reconstruction and automAs, were applied on each group patients respectively. The images were reconstructed with H30, J30 for brain window and H60, J70 for bone window. Images acquired with three protocols were randomized and blindly reviewed by three radiologists. A 5 point scale was used to rate each exam The percentage of exam score above 3 and average scores of each protocol were calculated for each reviewer and tissue types. Results: For protocols without automAs, the average scores of bone window with iterative reconstruction were higher than those without iterative reconstruction for each reviewer although the radiation dose was 10 percentage lower. 100 percentage exams were scored 3 or higher and the average scores were above 4 for both brain and bone reconstructions. The CTDIvols are 64.4 and 57.8 mGy of 380 and 340 mAs, respectively. With automAs, the radiation dose varied with head size, resulting in 47.5 mGy average CTDIvol between 39.5 and 56.5 mGy. 93 and 98 percentage exams were scored great than 3 for brain and bone windows, respectively. The diagnostic confidence level and image quality of exams with AutomAs were less than those without AutomAs for each reviewer. Conclusion: According to these results, the mAs was reduced to 300 with automAs OFF for head CT exam. The radiation dose was 20 percentage lower than the original protocol and the CTDIvol was reduced to 51.2 mGy.

  5. SU-E-J-193: Application of Surface Mapping in Detecting Swallowing for Head-&-Neck Cancer

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Cao, D; Xie, X; Mehta, V; Shepard, D

    2015-06-15

    Purpose: Recent evidence is emerging that long term swallowing function may be improved after radiotherapy for head-&-neck cancer if doses are limited to certain swallowing structures. Immobilization of patients with head-&-neck cancer is typically done with a mask. This mask, however, doesn’t limit patient swallowing. Patient voluntary or involuntary swallowing may introduce significant tumor motion, which can lead to suboptimal delivery. In this study, we have examined the feasibility of using surface mapping technology to detect patient swallowing during treatment and evaluated its magnitude. Methods: The C-RAD Catalyst system was used to detect the patient surface map. A volunteer lying on the couch was used to simulate the patient under treatment. A virtual marker was placed near the throat and was used to monitor the swallowing action. The target motion calculated by the Catalyst system through deformable registration was also collected. Two treatment isocenters, one placed close to the throat and the other placed posterior to the base-of-tongue, were used to check the sensitivity of surface mapping technique. Results: When the patient’s throat is not in the shadow of the patient’s chest, the Catalyst system can clearly identify the swallowing motion. In our tests, the vertical motion of the skin can reach to about 5mm. The calculated target motion can reach up to 1 cm. The magnitude of this calculated target motion is more dramatic when the plan isocenter is closer to the skin surface, which suggests that the Catalyst motion tracking technique is more sensitive to the swallowing motion with a shallower isocenter. Conclusion: Surface mapping can clearly identify patient swallowing during radiation treatment. This information can be used to evaluate the dosimetric impact of the involuntary swallowing. It may also be used to potentially gate head-&-neck radiation treatments. A prospective IRB approved study is currently enrolling patients in our

  6. Brachial Plexus-Associated Neuropathy After High-Dose Radiation Therapy for Head-and-Neck Cancer

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Chen, Allen M.; Hall, William H.; Li, Judy; Beckett, Laurel; Farwell, D. Gregory; Lau, Derick H.; Purdy, James A.

    2012-09-01

    Purpose: To identify clinical and treatment-related predictors of brachial plexus-associated neuropathies after radiation therapy for head-and-neck cancer. Methods and Materials: Three hundred thirty patients who had previously completed radiation therapy for head-and-neck cancer were prospectively screened using a standardized instrument for symptoms of neuropathy thought to be related to brachial plexus injury. All patients were disease-free at the time of screening. The median time from completion of radiation therapy was 56 months (range, 6-135 months). One-hundred fifty-five patients (47%) were treated by definitive radiation therapy, and 175 (53%) were treated postoperatively. Radiation doses ranged from 50 to 74 Gy (median, 66 Gy). Intensity-modulated radiation therapy was used in 62% of cases, and 133 patients (40%) received concurrent chemotherapy. Results: Forty patients (12%) reported neuropathic symptoms, with the most common being ipsilateral pain (50%), numbness/tingling (40%), motor weakness, and/or muscle atrophy (25%). When patients with <5 years of follow-up were excluded, the rate of positive symptoms increased to 22%. On univariate analysis, the following factors were significantly associated with brachial plexus symptoms: prior neck dissection (p = 0.01), concurrent chemotherapy (p = 0.01), and radiation maximum dose (p < 0.001). Cox regression analysis confirmed that both neck dissection (p < 0.001) and radiation maximum dose (p < 0.001) were independently predictive of symptoms. Conclusion: The incidence of brachial plexus-associated neuropathies after radiation therapy for head-and-neck cancer may be underreported. In view of the dose-response relationship identified, limiting radiation dose to the brachial plexus should be considered when possible.

  7. Improved Dosimetric and Clinical Outcomes With Intensity-Modulated Radiotherapy for Head-and-Neck Cancer of Unknown Primary Origin

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Chen, Allen M.; Li Baoqing; Farwell, D. Gregory; Marsano, Joseph; Vijayakumar, Srinivasan; Purdy, James A.

    2011-03-01

    Purpose: To compare differences in dosimetric, clinical, and quality-of-life endpoints among a cohort of patients treated by intensity-modulated radiotherapy (IMRT) and conventional radiotherapy (CRT) for head-and-neck cancer of unknown primary origin. Methods and Materials: The medical records of 51 patients treated by radiation therapy for squamous cell carcinoma of the head and neck presenting as cervical lymph node metastasis of occult primary origin were reviewed. Twenty-four patients (47%) were treated using CRT, and 27 (53%) were treated using IMRT. The proportions of patients receiving concurrent chemotherapy were 54% and 63%, respectively. Results: The 2-year estimates of overall survival, local-regional control, and disease-specific survival for the entire patient population were 86%, 89%, and84%, respectively. There were no significant differences in any of these endpoints with respect to radiation therapy technique (p > 0.05 for all). Dosimetric analysis revealed that the use of IMRT resulted in significant improvements with respect to mean dose and V30 to the contralateral (spared) parotid gland. In addition, mean doses to the ipsilateral inner and middle ear structures were significantly reduced with IMRT (p < 0.05 for all). The incidence of severe xerostomia in the late setting was 58% and 11% among patients treated by CRT and IMRT, respectively (p < 0.001). The percentages of patients who were G-tube dependent at 6 months after treatment were 42% and 11%, respectively (p < 0.001). Conclusions: IMRT results in significant improvements in the therapeutic ratio among patients treated by radiation therapy for head-and-neck cancer of unknown primary origin.

  8. The Residual Setup Errors of Different IGRT Alignment Procedures for Head and Neck IMRT and the Resulting Dosimetric Impact

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Graff, Pierre; Radiation-Oncology, Alexis Vautrin Cancer Center, Vandoeuvre-Les-Nancy; Doctoral School BioSE , Nancy ; Kirby, Neil; Weinberg, Vivian; Department of Biostatistics, Helen Diller Family Comprehensive Cancer Center, University of California, San Francisco, California ; Chen, Josephine; Yom, Sue S.; Lambert, Louise; Radiation-Oncology, Montreal University Centre, Montreal ; Pouliot, Jean

    2013-05-01

    Purpose: To assess residual setup errors during head and neck radiation therapy and the resulting consequences for the delivered dose for various patient alignment procedures. Methods and Materials: Megavoltage cone beam computed tomography (MVCBCT) scans from 11 head and neck patients who underwent intensity modulated radiation therapy were used to assess setup errors. Each MVCBCT scan was registered to its reference planning kVCT, with seven different alignment procedures: automatic alignment and manual registration to 6 separate bony landmarks (sphenoid, left/right maxillary sinuses, mandible, cervical 1 [C1]-C2, and C7-thoracic 1 [T1] vertebrae). Shifts in the different alignments were compared with each other to determine whether there were any statistically significant differences. Then, the dose distribution was recalculated on 3 MVCBCT images per patient for every alignment procedure. The resulting dose-volume histograms for targets and organs at risk (OARs) were compared to those from the planning kVCTs. Results: The registration procedures produced statistically significant global differences in patient alignment and actual dose distribution, calling for a need for standardization of patient positioning. Vertically, the automatic, sphenoid, and maxillary sinuses alignments mainly generated posterior shifts and resulted in mean increases in maximal dose to OARs of >3% of the planned dose. The suggested choice of C1-C2 as a reference landmark appears valid, combining both OAR sparing and target coverage. Assuming this choice, relevant margins to apply around volumes of interest at the time of planning to take into account for the relative mobility of other regions are discussed. Conclusions: Use of different alignment procedures for treating head and neck patients produced variations in patient setup and dose distribution. With concern for standardizing practice, C1-C2 reference alignment with relevant margins around planning volumes seems to be a valid

  9. Loss of heterozygosity of the APC and MCC genes in squamous cell carcinoma of the head and neck

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Nogueira, C.P.; Afridi, N.A.; Licameli, G.

    1994-09-01

    Squamous cell carcinoma of the head and neck offers a unique opportunity to study genetic mechanisms in human tumorigenesis. Two types of premalignant lesions can be identified clinically, suggesting a multistep process. The majority of the lesions are easy to identify and access. Despite these advantages, possible genetic models for these cancers remain relatively unexplored. Loss of heterozygosity of the tumor suppressor genes APC (adenomatous polyposis coli) and MCC (mutated in colon cancer) was investigated in 24 squamous cell carcinomas of the head and neck. Three sites were analyzed by assays based on the polymerase chain reaction: two RFLPs in the APC gene (Rsa I on exon 11; Ssp I on the 3{prime} untranslated region) and an insertion/deletion in exon 10 of the MCC gene. Sixty three percent of the individuals were informative for at least one marker. Loss of heterozygosity (LOH) was observed in 33% of the tumors, either at the APC or MCC locus. Two out of 11 informative tumors (18%) showed LOH on the APC gene. Three out of seven informative tumors (43%) showed LOH on the MCC gene. These results suggest that inactivation of the APC, MCC and/or a linked gene on chromosome 5q plays a important role in squamous cell carcinoma of the head and neck. The data is in agreement with another study, which detected 25% of loss of heterozygosity in the chromosomal region 5q by using microsatellite markers. These values are much lower than the ones observed in esophageal cancer, a closely related type of tumor, with the same etiology. This may be attributed to differences in the biology of these two cancers.

  10. Efficacy of Intra-Arterial Infusion Chemotherapy for Head and Neck Cancers Using Coaxial Catheter Technique: Initial Experience

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Tsurumaru, Daisuke Kuroiwa, Toshiro; Yabuuchi, Hidetake; Hirata, Hideki; Higaki, Yuichiro; Tomita, Kichinobu

    2007-04-15

    The aim of this study was to evaluate the efficacy of intra-arterial infusion chemotherapy for head and neck cancers using a coaxial catheter technique: the superficial temporal artery (STA)-coaxial catheter method. Thirty-one patients (21 males and 10 females; 37-83 years of age) with squamous cell carcinoma of the head and neck (maxilla, 2; epipharynx, 4; mesopharynx, 8; oral floor, 4; tongue, 10; lower gingiva, 1; buccal mucosa, 2) were treated by intra-arterial infusion chemotherapy. Four patients were excluded from the tumor-response evaluation because of a previous operation or impossibility of treatment due to catheter trouble. Forty-eight sessions of catheterization were performed. A guiding catheter was inserted into the STA and a microcatheter was advanced into the tumor-feeding artery via the guiding catheter under angiographic guidance. When the location of the tumor or its feeding artery was uncertain on angiography, computed tomographic angiography was performed. The anticancer agent carboplatin (CBDCA) was continuously injected for 24 h through the microcatheter from a portable infusion pump attached to the patient's waist. The total administration dose was 300-1300 mg per body. External radiotherapy was administered during intra-arterial chemotherapy at a total dose of 21-70.5 Gy.The initial response was complete response in 15 patients, partial response in 7 patients, and no change in 5 patients; the overall response rate was 81.5% (22/27). Complication-related catheter maintenance was observed in 15 of 48 sessions of catheterization. Injury and dislocation of the microcatheter occurred 10 times in 7 patients. Catheter infection was observed three times in each of two patients, and catheter occlusion and vasculitis occurred in two patients. Intra-arterial infusion chemotherapy via the STA-coaxial catheter method could have potential as a favorable treatment for head and neck tumors.

  11. A Phase II trial of subcutaneous amifostine and radiation therapy in patients with head-and-neck cancer

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Anne, Pramila Rani . E-mail: rani.anne@mail.tju.edu; Machtay, Mitchell; Rosenthal, David I.; Brizel, David M.; Morrison, William H.; Irwin, David H.; Chougule, Prakash B.; Estopinal, Noel C.; Berson, Anthony; Curran, Walter J.

    2007-02-01

    Purpose: Intravenous amifostine 200 mg/m{sup 2} reduces xerostomia in head-and-neck cancer patients. This Phase II study evaluated subcutaneous (s.c.) amifostine in a similar patient population. Patients and Methods: Patients received amifostine 500 mg, administered as two 250-mg s.c. injections 60 min before once-daily radiation for head-and-neck cancer (50-70 Gy in 5-7 weeks). The primary endpoint was the incidence of {>=}Grade 2 acute xerostomia. Results: Fifty-four patients received s.c. amifostine and radiotherapy. The incidence of {>=}Grade 2 acute xerostomia was 56% (95% CI, 43-69%) and the incidence of {>=}Grade 2 late xerostomia at 1 year was 45% (95% CI, 29-61%). The incidence of acute xerostomia was lower than reported previously with no amifostine in a controlled study; rates of acute xerostomia were similar between s.c. and i.v. amifostine in the two studies. The rate of late xerostomia with s.c. amifostine was intermediate between rates for i.v. amifostine and no amifostine, and not statistically significantly different from either historical control. Grades 1-2 nausea and emesis were the most common amifostine-related adverse events. Grade 3 amifostine-related adverse events reported by >1 patient included: dehydration (11%); rash (6%); and weight decrease, mucositis, dyspnea, and allergic reaction (each 4%). Seven patients (13%) had serious cutaneous adverse events outside the injection site. One-year rates of locoregional control, progression-free survival, and overall survival were 78%, 75%, and 85%, respectively. Conclusions: Subcutaneous amifostine provides a well-tolerated yet simpler alternative to i.v. amifostine for reducing acute xerostomia in head-and-neck cancer patients.

  12. A Phase 1 Study of Everolimus + Weekly Cisplatin + Intensity Modulated Radiation Therapy in Head-and-Neck Cancer

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Fury, Matthew G.; Lee, Nancy Y.; Sherman, Eric; Ho, Alan L.; Rao, Shyam; Heguy, Adriana; Shen, Ronglai; Korte, Susan; Lisa, Donna; Ganly, Ian; Patel, Snehal; Wong, Richard J.; Shaha, Ashok; Shah, Jatin; Haque, Sofia; Katabi, Nora; Pfister, David G.

    2013-11-01

    Purpose: Elevated expression of eukaryotic protein synthesis initiation factor 4E (eIF4E) in histologically cancer-free margins of resected head and neck squamous cell carcinomas (HNSCCs) is mediated by mammalian target of rapamycin complex 1 (mTORC1) and has been associated with increased risk of disease recurrence. Preclinically, inhibition of mTORC1 with everolimus sensitizes cancer cells to cisplatin and radiation. Methods and Materials: This was single-institution phase 1 study to establish the maximum tolerated dose of daily everolimus given with fixed dose cisplatin (30 mg/m{sup 2} weekly 6) and concurrent intensity modulated radiation therapy for patients with locally and/or regionally advanced head-and-neck cancer. The study had a standard 3 + 3 dose-escalation design. Results: Tumor primary sites were oral cavity (4), salivary gland (4), oropharynx (2), nasopharynx (1), scalp (1), and neck node with occult primary (1). In 4 of 4 cases in which resected HNSCC surgical pathology specimens were available for immunohistochemistry, elevated expression of eIF4E was observed in the cancer-free margins. The most common grade ?3 treatment-related adverse event was lymphopenia (92%), and dose-limiting toxicities (DLTs) were mucositis (n=2) and failure to thrive (n=1). With a median follow up of 19.4 months, 2 patients have experienced recurrent disease. The maximum tolerated dose was everolimus 5 mg/day. Conclusions: Head-and-neck cancer patients tolerated everolimus at therapeutic doses (5 mg/day) given with weekly cisplatin and intensity modulated radiation therapy. The regimen merits further evaluation, especially among patients who are status post resection of HNSCCs that harbor mTORC1-mediated activation of eIF4E in histologically negative surgical margins.

  13. SU-E-T-08: A Convolution Model for Head Scatter Fluence in the Intensity Modulated Field

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Chen, M; Mo, X; Chen, Y; Parnell, D; Key, S; Olivera, G; Galmarini, W; Lu, W

    2014-06-01

    Purpose: To efficiently calculate the head scatter fluence for an arbitrary intensity-modulated field with any source distribution using the source occlusion model. Method: The source occlusion model with focal and extra focal radiation (Jaffray et al, 1993) can be used to account for LINAC head scatter. In the model, the fluence map of any field shape at any point can be calculated via integration of the source distribution within the visible range, as confined by each segment, using the detector eye's view. A 2D integration would be required for each segment and each fluence plane point, which is time-consuming, as an intensity-modulated field contains typically tens to hundreds of segments. In this work, we prove that the superposition of the segmental integrations is equivalent to a simple convolution regardless of what the source distribution is. In fact, for each point, the detector eye's view of the field shape can be represented as a function with the origin defined at the point's pinhole reflection through the center of the collimator plane. We were thus able to reduce hundreds of source plane integration to one convolution. We calculated the fluence map for various 3D and IMRT beams and various extra-focal source distributions using both the segmental integration approach and the convolution approach and compared the computation time and fluence map results of both approaches. Results: The fluence maps calculated using the convolution approach were the same as those calculated using the segmental approach, except for rounding errors (<0.1%). While it took considerably longer time to calculate all segmental integrations, the fluence map calculation using the convolution approach took only ∼1/3 of the time for typical IMRT fields with ∼100 segments. Conclusions: The convolution approach for head scatter fluence calculation is fast and accurate and can be used to enhance the online process.

  14. Particle-in-cell simulation of the head-on collision between two ion acoustic solitary waves in plasmas

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Qi, Xin; Xu, Yan-xia; Duan, Wen-shan E-mail: lyang@impcas.ac.cn; Zhang, Ling-yu; Yang, Lei E-mail: lyang@impcas.ac.cn

    2014-08-15

    The head-on collision of two ion acoustic solitary waves in plasmas composed of hot electrons and cold ions has been studied by using the Poincare-Lighthill-Kuo (PLK) perturbation method and one-dimensional Particle-in-Cell (PIC) simulation. Then the phase lags of ion acoustic solitary waves (IASWs) obtained from the two approaches have been compared and discussed. It has been found that: if the amplitudes of both the colliding IASWs are small enough, the phase lags obtained from PLK method are in good agreement with those obtained from PIC simulation. As the amplitudes of IASWs increase, the phase lags from PIC simulation become smaller than the analytical ones from PLK method. Besides, the PIC simulation shows the phase lag of an IASW involved in collision depends not only on the characteristics of the wave it collides with but also on itself, which disagrees with the prediction of the PLK method. Finally, the application scopes of the PLK method in studying both the single IASW and the head-on collisions of IASWs have been studied and discussed, and the latter turns out to be more strict.

  15. Percolation Cooling of the Three Mile Island Unit 2 Lower Head by Way of Thermal Cracking and Gap Formation

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Thomsen, K.L.

    2002-01-15

    Two partial models have been developed to elucidate the Three Mile Island Unit 2 lower head coolability by water percolation from above into the thermally cracking debris bed and into a gap between the debris and the wall. The bulk permeability of the cracked top crust is estimated based on simple fracture mechanics and application of Poiseuille's law to the fractures. The gap is considered as an abstraction representing an initially rugged interface, which probably expanded by thermal deformation and cracking in connection with the water ingress. The coupled flow and heat conduction problem for the top crust is solved in slab geometry based on the two-phase Darcy equations together with quasi-steady mass and energy conservation equations. The resulting water penetration depth is in good agreement with the depth of the so-called loose debris bed. The lower-head and bottom-crust problem is treated analogously by a two-dimensional axisymmetric model. The notion of a gap is maintained as a useful concept in the flow analysis. Simulations show that a central hot spot with a peak wall temperature of 1075 to 1100 deg. C can be obtained, but the quenching rates are not satisfactory. It is concluded that a three-dimensional model with an additional mechanism to explain the sudden water ingress to the hot spot center would be more appropriate.

  16. Neuro-fuzzy controller of low head hydropower plants using adaptive-network based fuzzy inference system

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Djukanovic, M.B.; Calovic, M.S.; Vesovic, B.V.; Sobajic, D.J.

    1997-12-01

    This paper presents an attempt of nonlinear, multivariable control of low-head hydropower plants, by using adaptive-network based fuzzy inference system (ANFIS). The new design technique enhances fuzzy controllers with self-learning capability for achieving prescribed control objectives in a near optimal manner. The controller has flexibility for accepting more sensory information, with the main goal to improve the generator unit transients, by adjusting the exciter input, the wicket gate and runner blade positions. The developed ANFIS controller whose control signals are adjusted by using incomplete on-line measurements, can offer better damping effects to generator oscillations over a wide range of operating conditions, than conventional controllers. Digital simulations of hydropower plant equipped with low-head Kaplan turbine are performed and the comparisons of conventional excitation-governor control, state-feedback optimal control and ANFIS based output feedback control are presented. To demonstrate the effectiveness of the proposed control scheme and the robustness of the acquired neuro-fuzzy controller, the controller has been implemented on a complex high-order non-linear hydrogenerator model.

  17. Neural-net based coordinated stabilizing control for the exciter and governor loops of low head hydropower plants

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Djukanovic, M.; Novicevic, M.; Dobrijevic, D.; Babic, B.; Sobajic, D.J.; Pao, Y.H. |

    1995-12-01

    This paper presents a design technique of a new adaptive optimal controller of the low head hydropower plant using artificial neural networks (ANN). The adaptive controller is to operate in real time to improve the generating unit transients through the exciter input, the guide vane position and the runner blade position. The new design procedure is based on self-organization and the predictive estimation capabilities of neural-nets implemented through the cluster-wise segmented associative memory scheme. The developed neural-net based controller (NNC) whose control signals are adjusted using the on-line measurements, can offer better damping effects for generator oscillations over a wide range of operating conditions than conventional controllers. Digital simulations of hydropower plant equipped with low head Kaplan turbine are performed and the comparisons of conventional excitation-governor control, state-space optimal control and neural-net based control are presented. Results obtained on the non-linear mathematical model demonstrate that the effects of the NNC closely agree with those obtained using the state-space multivariable discrete-time optimal controllers.

  18. High-resolution single photon planar and spect imaging of brain and neck employing a system of two co-registered opposed gamma imaging heads

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Majewski, Stanislaw; Proffitt, James

    2011-12-06

    A compact, mobile, dedicated SPECT brain imager that can be easily moved to the patient to provide in-situ imaging, especially when the patient cannot be moved to the Nuclear Medicine imaging center. As a result of the widespread availability of single photon labeled biomarkers, the SPECT brain imager can be used in many locations, including remote locations away from medical centers. The SPECT imager improves the detection of gamma emission from the patient's head and neck area with a large field of view. Two identical lightweight gamma imaging detector heads are mounted to a rotating gantry and precisely mechanically co-registered to each other at 180 degrees. A unique imaging algorithm combines the co-registered images from the detector heads and provides several SPECT tomographic reconstructions of the imaged object thereby improving the diagnostic quality especially in the case of imaging requiring higher spatial resolution and sensitivity at the same time.

  19. Experimental characterization of a transition from collisionless to collisional interaction between head-on-merging supersonic plasma jets

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Moser, Auna L. Hsu, Scott C.

    2015-05-15

    We present results from experiments on the head-on merging of two supersonic plasma jets in an initially collisionless regime for the counter-streaming ions. The plasma jets are of either an argon/impurity or hydrogen/impurity mixture and are produced by pulsed-power-driven railguns. Based on time- and space-resolved fast-imaging, multi-chord interferometry, and survey-spectroscopy measurements of the overlapping region between the merging jets, we observe that the jets initially interpenetrate, consistent with calculated inter-jet ion collision lengths, which are long. As the jets interpenetrate, a rising mean-charge state causes a rapid decrease in the inter-jet ion collision length. Finally, the interaction becomes collisional and the jets stagnate, eventually producing structures consistent with collisional shocks. These experimental observations can aid in the validation of plasma collisionality and ionization models for plasmas with complex equations of state.

  20. Theoretical study of head-on collision of dust acoustic solitary waves in a strongly coupled complex plasma

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Jaiswal, S., E-mail: surabhi@ipr.res.in; Bandyopadhyay, P.; Sen, A. [Institute for Plasma Research, Bhat, Gandhinagar, Gujarat 382428 (India)

    2014-05-15

    We investigate the propagation characteristics of two counter propagating dust acoustic solitary waves (DASWs) undergoing a head-on collision, in the presence of strong coupling between micron sized charged dust particles in a complex plasma. A coupled set of nonlinear dynamical equations describing the evolution of the two DASWs using the extended Poincar-Lighthill-Kuo perturbation technique is derived. The nature and extent of post collision phase-shifts of these solitary waves are studied over a wide range of dusty plasma parameters in a strongly and a weakly coupled medium. We find a significant change in the nature and amount of phase delay in the strongly coupled regime as compared to a weakly coupled regime. The phase shift is seen to change its sign beyond a threshold value of compressibility of the medium for a given set of dusty plasma parameters.

  1. Evaluating the Role of Prophylactic Gastrostomy Tube Placement Prior to Definitive Chemoradiotherapy for Head and Neck Cancer

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Chen, Allen M.; Li Baoqing; Lau, Derick H.; Farwell, D. Gregory; Luu, Quang; Stuart, Kerri; Newman, Kathleen; Purdy, James A.; Vijayakumar, Srinivasan M.D.

    2010-11-15

    Purpose: To determine the effect of prophylactic gastrostomy tube (GT) placement on acute and long-term outcome for patients treated with definitive chemoradiotherapy for locally advanced head and neck cancer. Methods and Materials: One hundred twenty consecutive patients were treated with chemoradiotherapy for Stage III/IV head and neck cancer to a median dose of 70 Gy (range, 64-74 Gy). The most common primary site was the oropharynx (66 patients). Sixty-seven patients (56%) were treated using intensity-modulated radiotherapy (IMRT). Seventy patients (58%) received prophylactic GT placement at the discretion of the physician before initiation of chemoradiotherapy. Results: Prophylactic GT placement significantly reduced weight loss during radiation therapy from 43 pounds (range, 0 to 76 pounds) to 19 pounds (range, 0 to 51 pounds), which corresponded to a net change of -14% (range, 0% to -30%) and -8% (range, +1% to -22%) from baseline, respectively (p < 0.001). However, the proportion of patients who were GT-dependent at 6- and 12-months after treatment was 41% and 21%, respectively, compared with 8% and 0%, respectively, for those with and without prophylactic GT (p < 0.001). Additionally, prophylactic GT was associated with a significantly higher incidence of late esophageal stricture compared with those who did not have prophylactic GT (30% vs. 6%, p < 0.001). Conclusions: Although prophylactic GT placement was effective at preventing acute weight loss and the need for intravenous hydration, it was also associated with significantly higher rates of late esophageal toxicity. The benefits of this strategy must be balanced with the risks.

  2. Prospective Evaluation to Establish a Dose Response for Clinical Oral Mucositis in Patients Undergoing Head-and-Neck Conformal Radiotherapy

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Narayan, Samir Lehmann, Joerg; Coleman, Matthew A.; Vaughan, Andrew; Yang, Claus Chunli; Enepekides, Danny; Farwell, Gregory; Purdy, James A.; Laredo, Grace; Nolan, Kerry A.S.; Pearson, Francesca S.; Vijayakumar, Srinivasan

    2008-11-01

    Purpose: We conducted a clinical study to correlate oral cavity dose with clinical mucositis, perform in vivo dosimetry, and determine the feasibility of obtaining buccal mucosal cell samples in patients undergoing head-and-neck radiation therapy. The main objective is to establish a quantitative dose response for clinical oral mucositis. Methods and Materials: Twelve patients undergoing radiation therapy for head-and-neck cancer were prospectively studied. Four points were chosen in separate quadrants of the oral cavity. Calculated dose distributions were generated by using AcQPlan and Eclipse treatment planning systems. MOSFET dosimeters were used to measure dose at each sampled point. Each patient underwent buccal sampling for future RNA analysis before and after the first radiation treatment at the four selected points. Clinical and functional mucositis were assessed weekly according to National Cancer Institute Common Toxicity Criteria, Version 3. Results: Maximum and average doses for sampled sites ranged from 7.4-62.3 and 3.0-54.3 Gy, respectively. A cumulative point dose of 39.1 Gy resulted in mucositis for 3 weeks or longer. Mild severity (Grade {<=} 1) and short duration ({<=}1 week) of mucositis were found at cumulative point doses less than 32 Gy. Polymerase chain reaction consistently was able to detect basal levels of two known radiation responsive genes. Conclusions: In our sample, cumulative doses to the oral cavity of less than 32 Gy were associated with minimal acute mucositis. A dose greater than 39 Gy was associated with longer duration of mucositis. Our technique for sampling buccal mucosa yielded sufficient cells for RNA analysis using polymerase chain reaction.

  3. SU-E-T-149: Electron Beam Profile Differences Between Elekta MLCi2 and Elekta Agility Treatment Heads

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Wu, C; Hatcher, C

    2014-06-01

    Purpose: To report and investigate observed differences in electron beam profiles at various energies/applicators between Elekta MLCi2 and Agility treatment head on Elekta Infinity LINAC Methods: When we upgraded from MLCi2 to Agility on one of our Elekta Infinity LINAC's, electron beam PDDs and profiles were acquired for comparison purpose. All clinical electron energies (6/9/12/15/12/18 MeV) and electron applicators (6/10/14/20/25 square) were included in measurement. PDDs were acquired at 100 SSD in water (PTW MP3 water tank) with a plane-parallel ion chamber (PTW Roos). X and Y Profiles were acquired using IC Profiler (Sun Nuclear Corp.) at 1cm and maximum PDD depths (water equivalent). Results: All PDD curves match very well between MLCi2 and Agility treatment head. However, some significant differences on electron profiles were found. On Agility, even after increasing the default auto-tracking offset values for backup diaphragms in Y and MLC in X by 2.8 cm (the maximum allowed change is 3.0 cm), electron profiles still have rounder shoulders comparing to corresponding MLCi2 profiles. This difference is significantly more pronounced at larger applicators (20 and 25 square), for all electron energies. Conclusion: The significant design change between MLCi2 and Agility beam limiting device seems to affect exit electron beam profiles. In IEC1217 X direction, the main change on Agility is the removal of the original MLCi2 X backup diaphragms and replacing it with MLC leaves; In Y direction, the main change is the radius and materials on Y backup diaphragms.

  4. SU-E-T-593: Clinical Evaluation of Direct Aperture Optimization in Head/Neck and Prostate IMRT Treatment

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Hosini, M; GALAL, M; Emam, I; Kamal, G; Algohary, M

    2014-06-01

    Purpose: To investigate the planning and dosimetric advantages of direct aperture optimization (DAO) over beam-let optimization in IMRT treatment of head and neck (H/N) and prostate cancers. Methods: Five Head and Neck as well as five prostate patients were planned using the beamlet optimizer in Elekta-Xio ver 4.6 IMRT treatment planning system. Based on our experience in beamlet IMRT optimization, PTVs in H/N plans were prescribed to 70 Gy delivered by 7 fields. While prostate PTVs were prescribed to 76 Gy with 9 fields. In all plans, fields were set to be equally spaced. All cases were re-planed using Direct Aperture optimizer in Prowess Panther ver 5.01 IMRT planning system at same configurations and dose constraints. Plans were evaluated according to ICRU criteria, number of segments, number of monitor units and planning time. Results: For H/N plans, the near maximum dose (D2) and the dose that covers 95% D95 of PTV has improved by 4% in DAO. For organs at risk (OAR), DAO reduced the volume covered by 30% (V30) in spinal cord, right parotid, and left parotid by 60%, 54%, and 53% respectively. This considerable dosimetric quality improvement achieved using 25% less planning time and lower number of segments and monitor units by 46% and 51% respectively. In DAO prostate plans, Both D2 and D95 for the PTV were improved by only 2%. The V30 of the right femur, left femur and bladder were improved by 35%, 15% and 3% respectively. On the contrary, the rectum V30 got even worse by 9%. However, number of monitor units, and number of segments decreased by 20% and 25% respectively. Moreover the planning time reduced significantly too. Conclusion: DAO introduces considerable advantages over the beamlet optimization in regards to organs at risk sparing. However, no significant improvement occurred in most studied PTVs.

  5. SU-E-J-137: Incorporating Tumor Regression Into Robust Plan Optimization for Head and Neck Radiotherapy

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Zhang, P; Hu, J; Tyagi, N; Mageras, G; Lee, N; Hunt, M

    2014-06-01

    Purpose: To develop a robust planning paradigm which incorporates a tumor regression model into the optimization process to ensure tumor coverage in head and neck radiotherapy. Methods: Simulation and weekly MR images were acquired for a group of head and neck patients to characterize tumor regression during radiotherapy. For each patient, the tumor and parotid glands were segmented on the MR images and the weekly changes were formulated with an affine transformation, where morphological shrinkage and positional changes are modeled by a scaling factor, and centroid shifts, respectively. The tumor and parotid contours were also transferred to the planning CT via rigid registration. To perform the robust planning, weekly predicted PTV and parotid structures were created by transforming the corresponding simulation structures according to the weekly affine transformation matrix averaged over patients other than him/herself. Next, robust PTV and parotid structures were generated as the union of the simulation and weekly prediction contours. In the subsequent robust optimization process, attainment of the clinical dose objectives was required for the robust PTV and parotids, as well as other organs at risk (OAR). The resulting robust plans were evaluated by looking at the weekly and total accumulated dose to the actual weekly PTV and parotid structures. The robust plan was compared with the original plan based on the planning CT to determine its potential clinical benefit. Results: For four patients, the average weekly change to tumor volume and position was ?4% and 1.2 mm laterally-posteriorly. Due to these temporal changes, the robust plans resulted in an accumulated PTV D95 that was, on average, 2.7 Gy higher than the plan created from the planning CT. OAR doses were similar. Conclusion: Integration of a tumor regression model into target delineation and plan robust optimization is feasible and may yield improved tumor coverage. Part of this research is supported by

  6. Volumetric tumor burden and its effect on brachial plexus dosimetry in head and neck intensity-modulated radiotherapy

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Romesser, Paul B.; Qureshi, Muhammad M.; Kovalchuk, Nataliya; Truong, Minh Tam

    2014-07-01

    To determine the effect of gross tumor volume of the primary (GTV-P) and nodal (GTV-N) disease on planned radiation dose to the brachial plexus (BP) in head and neck intensity-modulated radiotherapy (IMRT). Overall, 75 patients underwent definitive IMRT to a median total dose of 69.96 Gy in 33 fractions. The right BP and left BP were prospectively contoured as separate organs at risk. The GTV was related to BP dose using the unpaired t-test. Receiver operating characteristics curves were constructed to determine optimized volumetric thresholds of GTV-P and GTV-N corresponding to a maximum BP dose cutoff of > 66 Gy. Multivariate analyses were performed to account for factors associated with a higher maximal BP dose. A higher maximum BP dose (> 66 vs ? 66 Gy) correlated with a greater mean GTV-P (79.5 vs 30.8 cc; p = 0.001) and ipsilateral GTV-N (60.6 vs 19.8 cc; p = 0.014). When dichotomized by the optimized nodal volume, patients with an ipsilateral GTV-N ? 4.9 vs < 4.9 cc had a significant difference in maximum BP dose (64.2 vs 59.4 Gy; p = 0.001). Multivariate analysis confirmed that an ipsilateral GTV-N ? 4.9 cc was an independent predictor for the BP to receive a maximal dose of > 66 Gy when adjusted individually for BP volume, GTV-P, the use of a low anterior neck field technique, total planned radiation dose, and tumor category. Although both the primary and the nodal tumor volumes affected the BP maximal dose, the ipsilateral nodal tumor volume (GTV-N ? 4.9 cc) was an independent predictor for high maximal BP dose constraints in head and neck IMRT.

  7. Evaluation of advanced turbomachinery for underground pumped hydroelectric storage. Part 3. Multistage unregulated pump/turbines for operating heads of 1000 to 1500 m

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Frigo, A.A.; Pistner, C.

    1980-08-01

    This is the final report in a series of three on studies of advanced hydraulic turbomachinery for underground pumped hydroelectric storage. All three reports address Francis-type, reversible pump/turbines. The first report covered single-stage regulated units; the second report covered two-stage regulated units; the present report covers multistage unregulated units. Multistage unregulated pump/turbines offer an economically attractive option for heads of 1000 to 1500 m. The feasibility of developing such machines for capacities up to 500 MW and operating heads up to 1500 m has been evaluated. Preliminary designs have been generated for six multistage pump/turbines. The designs are for nominal capacities of 350 and 500 MW and for operating heads of 1000, 1250, and 1500 m. Mechanical, hydraulic, and economic analyses indicate that these machines will behave according to the criteria used to design them and that they can be built at a reasonable cost with no unsolvable problems. Efficiencies of 85.8% and 88.5% in the generating and pumping modes, respectively, can be expected for the 500-MW, 1500-m unit. Performances of the other five machines are at least comparable, and usually better. Over a 1000 to 1500-m head range, specific $/kW costs of the pump/turbines in mid-1978 US dollars vary from 19.0 to 23.1 for the 500-MW machines, and from 21.0 to 24.1 for the 350-MW machines.

  8. Swing of the Surgical Pendulum: A Return to Surgery for Treatment of Head and Neck Cancer in the 21st Century?

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Holsinger, F. Christopher Weber, Randal S.

    2007-10-01

    Treatment for head and neck cancer has evolved significantly during the past 100 years. Beginning with Bilroth's total laryngectomy on New Year's Day in 1873, 'radical' surgery remained the only accepted treatment for head and neck cancer when optimal local and regional control was the goal. Bigger was still better when it came to managing the primary tumor and the neck. The 'commando' procedure and radical neck dissection were the hallmarks of this first generation of treatments of head-and-neck cancer. With the advent of microvascular reconstructive techniques, larger and more comprehensive resections could be performed. Despite these large resections and their 'mutilating' sequelae, overall survival did not improve. Even for intermediate-stage disease in head-and-neck cancer, the 5-year survival rate did not improve >50%. Many concluded that more than the scalpel was needed for optimal local and regional control, especially for intermediate- and advanced-stage disease. Most important, the multidisciplinary teams must identify and correlate biomarkers in the tumor and host that predict for a response to therapy and for optimal functional recovery. As the pendulum swings back, a scientific approach using tissue biomarkers for the response to treatment in the setting of multidisciplinary trials must emerge as the new paradigm. In the postgenomic era, treatment decisions should be made based on functional and oncologic parameters-not just to avoid perceived morbidity.

  9. Water Energy Resources of the United States with Emphasis on Low Head/Low Power Resources: Appendix A - Assessment Results by Hydrologic Region

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Hall, Douglas

    2004-04-01

    Analytical assessments of the water energy resources in the 20 hydrologic regions of the United States were performed using state-of-the-art digital elevation models and geographic information system tools. The principal focus of the study was on low head (less than 30 ft)/low power (less than 1 MW) resources in each region. The assessments were made by estimating the power potential of all the stream segments in a region, which averaged 2 miles in length. These calculations were performed using hydrography and hydraulic heads that were obtained from the U.S. Geological Survey’s Elevation Derivatives for National Applications dataset and stream flow predictions from a regression equation or equations developed specifically for the region. Stream segments excluded from development and developed hydropower were accounted for to produce an estimate of total available power potential. The total available power potential was subdivided into high power (1 MW or more), high head (30 ft or more)/low power, and low head/low power total potentials. The low head/low power potential was further divided to obtain the fractions of this potential corresponding to the operating envelopes of three classes of hydropower technologies: conventional turbines, unconventional systems, and microhydro (less than 100 kW). Summing information for all the regions provided total power potential in various power classes for the entire United States. Distribution maps show the location and concentrations of the various classes of low power potential. No aspect of the feasibility of developing these potential resources was evaluated. Results for each of the 20 hydrologic regions are presented in Appendix A

  10. Water Energy Resources of the United States with Emphasis on Low Head/Low Power Resources: Appendix B - Assessment Results by State

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Hall, Douglas

    2004-04-01

    Analytical assessments of the water energy resources in the 20 hydrologic regions of the United States were performed using state-of-the-art digital elevation models and geographic information system tools. The principal focus of the study was on low head (less than 30 ft)/low power (less than 1 MW) resources in each region. The assessments were made by estimating the power potential of all the stream segments in a region, which averaged 2 miles in length. These calculations were performed using hydrography and hydraulic heads that were obtained from the U.S. Geological Surveys Elevation Derivatives for National Applications dataset and stream flow predictions from a regression equation or equations developed specifically for the region. Stream segments excluded from development and developed hydropower were accounted for to produce an estimate of total available power potential. The total available power potential was subdivided into high power (1 MW or more), high head (30 ft or more)/low power, and low head/low power total potentials. The low head/low power potential was further divided to obtain the fractions of this potential corresponding to the operating envelopes of three classes of hydropower technologies: conventional turbines, unconventional systems, and microhydro (less than 100 kW). Summing information for all the regions provided total power potential in various power classes for the entire United States. Distribution maps show the location and concentrations of the various classes of low power potential. No aspect of the feasibility of developing these potential resources was evaluated. Results for for each of the 50 states are made in Appendix B.