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1

Carter Co. Harding Co. Perkins Co. Dunn Co. Dawson Co. Fallon Co.  

U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

PENNEL PENNEL BUFFALO LITTLE KNIFE FRYBURG MONDAK PLEVNA LOOKOUT BUTTE E ELKHORN RANCH DICKINSON CADY CREEK MEDICINE POLE HILLS BICENTENNIAL ROOSEVELT BIG STICK ROUGH RIDER MONARCH TREE TOP LOOKOUT BUTTE BUCKHORN MEDORA FLAT TOP BUTTE ELAND DEMORES ASH COULEE WHISKEY JOE GAS CITY DAVIS CREEK WINDY RIDGE POKER JIM PLEVNA S KNUTSON STATE LINE BELL BEAR CREEK ELKHORN RANCH N PIERRE CREEK LONE BUTTE ZENITH MANNING SQUAW GAP AMOR STADIUM HEART S HILINE ASH MARY GAYLORD BULL CREEK HALEY SHORT PINE HILLS W CABIN CREEK GASLIGHT CUPTON DEVILS PASS LITTLE MISSOURI LITTLE BEAVER COOKS PEAK LITTLE BEAVER E CORAL CREEK BEAVER CREEK MORGAN DRAW WATERHOLE CREEK DEER CREEK GRASSY BUTTE CROOKED CREEK CINNAMON CREEK HORSE CREEK KILLDEER SQUARE BUTTE GRAND RIVER RIDER ROCKY RIDGE FOUR EYES TRACY MOUNTAIN COYOTE CREEK HAY DRAW SAND CREEK ROCKY HILL

2

Carter Co. Harding Co. Perkins Co. Dunn Co. Dawson Co. Fallon Co.  

U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

PENNEL PENNEL BUFFALO LITTLE KNIFE FRYBURG MONDAK PLEVNA LOOKOUT BUTTE E ELKHORN RANCH DICKINSON CADY CREEK MEDICINE POLE HILLS BICENTENNIAL ROOSEVELT BIG STICK ROUGH RIDER MONARCH TREE TOP LOOKOUT BUTTE BUCKHORN MEDORA FLAT TOP BUTTE ELAND DEMORES ASH COULEE WHISKEY JOE GAS CITY DAVIS CREEK WINDY RIDGE POKER JIM PLEVNA S KNUTSON STATE LINE BELL BEAR CREEK ELKHORN RANCH N PIERRE CREEK LONE BUTTE ZENITH MANNING SQUAW GAP AMOR STADIUM HEART S HILINE ASH MARY GAYLORD BULL CREEK HALEY SHORT PINE HILLS W CABIN CREEK GASLIGHT CUPTON DEVILS PASS LITTLE MISSOURI LITTLE BEAVER COOKS PEAK LITTLE BEAVER E CORAL CREEK BEAVER CREEK MORGAN DRAW WATERHOLE CREEK DEER CREEK GRASSY BUTTE CROOKED CREEK CINNAMON CREEK HORSE CREEK KILLDEER SQUARE BUTTE GRAND RIVER RIDER ROCKY RIDGE FOUR EYES TRACY MOUNTAIN COYOTE CREEK HAY DRAW SAND CREEK ROCKY HILL

3

Carter Co. Harding Co. Perkins Co. Dunn Co. Dawson Co. Fallon Co.  

U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

BUFFALO BUFFALO PENNEL LITTLE KNIFE FRYBURG MONDAK PLEVNA LOOKOUT BUTTE E ELKHORN RANCH DICKINSON CADY CREEK BICENTENNIAL MEDICINE POLE HILLS BIG STICK ROOSEVELT ROUGH RIDER MONARCH TREE TOP LOOKOUT BUTTE BUCKHORN MEDORA FLAT TOP BUTTE ELAND DEMORES ASH COULEE WHISKEY JOE GAS CITY DAVIS CREEK WINDY RIDGE POKER JIM PLEVNA S KNUTSON BELL STATE LINE BEAR CREEK ELKHORN RANCH N PIERRE CREEK LONE BUTTE ZENITH MANNING SQUAW GAP AMOR HEART S STADIUM HILINE ASH MARY LAKE ILO GAYLORD BULL CREEK HALEY BULLY SHORT PINE HILLS W CABIN CREEK GASLIGHT CUPTON DEVILS PASS LITTLE MISSOURI LITTLE BEAVER COOKS PEAK LITTLE BEAVER E CORAL CREEK BEAVER CREEK MORGAN DRAW WATERHOLE CREEK DEER CREEK GRASSY BUTTE CROOKED CREEK CINNAMON CREEK HORSE CREEK KILLDEER SQUARE BUTTE GRAND RIVER RIDER ROCKY RIDGE TRACY MOUNTAIN FOUR EYES COYOTE CREEK HAY DRAW SAND CREEK

4

Kitchen Knife Safety  

Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

Kitchen Knife Safety 1) Use a good quality cutting board (flat and stable). 2) Use a kitchen towel underneath a cutting board so that it won't slip. Observe above: Warped and unbalanced cutting board vs. flat and well-anchored board. 3) Sharp knives are safer knives. Dull knives can skip, slide, snag, or get stuck while cutting, leaving you off balance. 4) Use the right knife for the job. a. Serrated knives are long and lean that help grip and saw through the crust of rustic breads without using too much strength. b. Paring knives are used for smaller foods, such as limes, cherry tomatoes or shallots, for better control and lighter weight (less chance of skipping off of a smaller cutting surface). c. Chef's knives (one of the most used in the kitchen) can be used for

5

Little Knife field - US Williston basin  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Little Knife field is a combination structural and stratigraphic trap located near the structural center of the Williston basin, North Dakota. The field is approximately 12 mi (19.3 km) long and 2.5 to 5.5 mi (4 to 8.9 km) wide. Little Knife was discovered by Gulf Oil in 1976 as part of a regional exploration play involving a transition from impermeable to porous carbonate rocks. In 1987, ultimate recovery from the Mission Canyon (Mississippian) reservoir was estimated to be 97.5 MMBO. This included 57.5 MMBO primary, 27 MMBO secondary, and 13 MMBO tertiary (CO{sub 2}) oil. At present the field is still under primary recovery, since utilization efforts have not been successful. Approximately one-third of Little Knife's 130 ft (39.6 m) oil column is trapped by structural closure beneath a regional anhydrite seal in a north-south-trending anticline. The remaining two-thirds of the oil column is trapped where the reservoir beds change facies from porous dolostones and dolomitic limestones to nonporous limestones. Structural entrapment accounts for approximately 50% (127 MMBO) of the OOIP, but covers only 30% of the producing area. Production is from the upper portions of the Mission Canyon Formation, a regressive, shoaling-upward carbonate-anhydrite sequence deposited in a slowly shrinking epeiric sea. The Mission Canyon in the Little Knife area is divided into six zones that record predominantly cyclic, subtidal deposition. These are overlain by prograding lagoonal, tidal flat, and sabkha beds. The source of Mission Canyon oil is thought to be the Bakken Formation, an organic-rich shale at the base of the Mississippian.

Wittstrom, M.D.; Lindsay, R.F. (Chevron USA, Inc., Midland, TX (United States))

1991-03-01T23:59:59.000Z

6

Flying between obstacles with an autonomous knife-edge maneuver  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

We develop an aircraft and control system that is capable of repeatedly performing a high speed (7m/s or 16 MPH) "knife-edge" maneuver through a gap that is smaller than the aircraft's wingspan. The maneuver consists of ...

Barry, Andrew J. (Andrew James)

2012-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

7

A knife-edge array field emission cathode  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

many cathode applications require a new type of cathode that is able to produce short pulsed electron beams at high emission current. Gated field emitter arrays of micrometer size are recognized as candidates to meet this need and have become the research focus of vacuum microelectronics. Existing fabrication methods produce emitters that are limited either in frequency response or in current emission. One reason is that the structure of these emitters are not sufficiently optimized. In this study, the author investigated the factors that affect the performance of field emitters. An optimum emitter structure, the knife-edge field emitter array, was developed from the analysis. Large field enhancement factor, large effective emission area, and small emitter capacitance are the advantages of the structure. The author next explored various options of fabricating the knife-edge emitter structure. He proposed a unique thin film process procedure and developed the fabrication techniques to build the emitters on (110) silicon wafers. Data from the initial cathode tests showed very low onset voltages and Fowler-Nordheim type emission. Emission simulation based on the fabricated emitter structure indicated that the knife-edge emitter arrays have the potential to produce high performance in modulation frequency and current emission. Several fabrication issues that await further development are discussed and possible solutions are suggested.

Lee, B.

1994-08-01T23:59:59.000Z

8

ACQUISITION AND RECONSTRUCTION OF BRAIN TISSUE USING KNIFE-EDGE SCANNING MICROSCOPY  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

ACQUISITION AND RECONSTRUCTION OF BRAIN TISSUE USING KNIFE- EDGE SCANNING MICROSCOPY A Thesis Science #12;ACQUISITION AND RECONSTRUCTION OF BRAIN TISSUE USING KNIFE- EDGE SCANNING MICROSCOPY A Thesis) ______________________________ ______________________________ Ergun Akleman Valerie Taylor (Member) (Head of Department) December 2003 Major Subject: Computer Science

Keyser, John

9

INVESTIGATION OF WASTE GLASS POURING PROCESS OVER A KNIFE EDGE  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Vitrification is the process of capturing radioactive waste in glass. The Savannah River Site's (SRS) Defense Waste Processing Facility (DWPF) is one of the facilities using the vitrification technology to treat and immobilize radioactive waste. The objective of the project is to investigate the pouring behavior of molten glass over a pour spout knife edge. Experiments are run using simulant glass containing the same chemical formulation as the radioactive sludge glass, but without radioactive contaminants. The purpose of these tests is to obtain actual glass data that, when combined with previous cold data from other fluids, will provide an overall understanding of the physics of liquids flowing over a pour spout and knife edge, A specific objective is to verify computational fluid dynamics (CFD) models with a range of liquid data with particular emphasis on glass so as to provide confidence in use of these CFD models for designing a new improved pour spout for the DWPF melter. The work to be performed at FIU-HCET includes assembling the melting and pouring system that mimics the DWPF melter and determining the key parameters that may influence wicking. Information from the FIU-HCET melter tests will lead to better operating guidelines for the DWPF melter so as to avoid wicking. During FY98, a bench-scale melter complete with pour spout and a knife edge was designed and assembled at FIU-HCET. Initially, the system was tested with glycerine. Subsequently, glass provided by SRS was used for experimentation. Flow visualization tests were performed with the melter in FY98 to investigate the pouring behavior of molten glass over a pour spout model simulating a DWPF pour spout of the original design. Simulant glass containing the same chemical formulation as sludge glass but without radioactive contaminants was used in the tests. All the tasks and milestones mentioned in the PTP for the project were accomplished. The project completed its second year, and this document reports the tasks and milestones that were accomplished during the 1998 fiscal year.

M.A. Ebadian, Ph.D.

1999-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

10

Treatment outcomes using CyberKnife for brain metastases from lung cancer  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

......Treatment outcomes using CyberKnife for brain metastases from lung cancer Keisuke Tamari...fractionated stereotactic radiotherapy (SRT) for brain metastases from lung cancer. A total of 67 patients with 109 brain metastases from lung cancer treated using......

Keisuke Tamari; Osamu Suzuki; Naoya Hashimoto; Naoki Kagawa; Masateru Fujiwara; Iori Sumida; Yuji Seo; Fumiaki Isohashi; Yasuo Yoshioka; Toshiki Yoshimine; Kazuhiko Ogawa

2014-10-01T23:59:59.000Z

11

In situ tomography of femtosecond optical beams with a holographic knife-edge  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

using a grating similar to that shown in Fig. 3(a) with 160 m?? ? and 2? ?? . The discontinuity at x was scanned, and the knife-edge data was recorded by a photodiode. The waist of the Gaussian beam was found to be roughly ~2 mm, which... a distance of 100f ? cm away from the SLM, PD = photodiode power meter head, PM = power meter. The upper left inset is an example- hologram to create a 2,2 o LG beam followed by an angular knife-edge. This setup is similar in design...

Strohaber, James; Kaya, G; N, Kay; Hart, Nathan; Kolomenskii, Alexander; Paulus, Gerhard; Schuessler, Hans

2011-07-18T23:59:59.000Z

12

Effective usage of a clearance check to avoid a collision in Gamma Knife Perfexion radiosurgery with the Leksell skull frame  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

......unrestricted reuse, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited. Effective usage of a clearance check to avoid a collision in Gamma Knife Perfexion radiosurgery with the Leksell skull frame Hisato Nakazawa......

Hisato Nakazawa; Takahiko Tsugawa; Yoshimasa Mori; Masahiro Hagiwara; Masataka Komori; Chisa Hashizume; Yuta Shibamoto; Tatsuya Kobayashi

2014-11-01T23:59:59.000Z

13

Verification of Gamma Knife extend system based fractionated treatment planning using EBT2 film  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Purpose: This paper presents EBT2 film verification of fractionated treatment planning with the Gamma Knife (GK) extend system, a relocatable frame system for multiple-fraction or serial multiple-session radiosurgery.Methods: A human head shaped phantom simulated the verification process for fractionated Gamma Knife treatment. Phantom preparation for Extend Frame based treatment planning involved creating a dental impression, fitting the phantom to the frame system, and acquiring a stereotactic computed tomography (CT) scan. A CT scan (Siemens, Emotion 6) of the phantom was obtained with following parameters: Tube voltage—110 kV, tube current—280 mA, pixel size—0.5 × 0.5 and 1 mm slice thickness. A treatment plan with two 8 mm collimator shots and three sectors blocking in each shot was made. Dose prescription of 4 Gy at 100% was delivered for the first fraction out of the two fractions planned. Gafchromic EBT2 film (ISP Wayne, NJ) was used as 2D verification dosimeter in this process. Films were cut and placed inside the film insert of the phantom for treatment dose delivery. Meanwhile a set of films from the same batch were exposed from 0 to 12 Gy doses for calibration purposes. An EPSON (Expression 10000 XL) scanner was used for scanning the exposed films in transparency mode. Scanned films were analyzed with inhouse written MATLAB codes.Results: Gamma index analysis of film measurement in comparison with TPS calculated dose resulted in high pass rates >90% for tolerance criteria of 1%/1 mm. The isodose overlay and linear dose profiles of film measured and computed dose distribution on sagittal and coronal plane were in close agreement.Conclusions: Through this study, the authors propose treatment verification QA method for Extend frame based fractionated Gamma Knife radiosurgery using EBT2 film.

Natanasabapathi, Gopishankar; Bisht, Raj Kishor [Gamma Knife Unit, Department of Neurosurgery, Neurosciences Centre, All India Institute of Medical Sciences, Ansari Nagar, New Delhi 110029 (India)] [Gamma Knife Unit, Department of Neurosurgery, Neurosciences Centre, All India Institute of Medical Sciences, Ansari Nagar, New Delhi 110029 (India)

2013-12-15T23:59:59.000Z

14

Acquisition and reconstruction of brain tissue using knife-edge scanning microscopy  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

. As the sample passes under an individual photon receptor, the light intensity value is summed and passed to the next register. The final output pixel is the sum of the light intensity received by all TDI registers for a single sampled point... wide line is imaged along the leading edge of the knife. Our primary camera of choice is a DALSA CT-F3 High- Speed TDI Line Scan Camera. In order to get a high sensitivity at the speed at which we want to cut, the monochrome camera uses Time Delay...

Mayerich, David Matthew

2004-09-30T23:59:59.000Z

15

KNIFE MILL COMMINUTION ENERGY ANALYSIS OF SWITCHGRASS, WHEAT STRAW, AND CORN STOVER AND CHARACTERIZATION OF PARTICLE SIZE DISTRIBUTIONS  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Biomass preprocessing and pretreatment technologies such as size reduction and chemical preconditioning are aimed at reducing the cost of ethanol production from lignocellulosic biomass. Size reduction is an energy-intensive biomass preprocessing unit operation. In this study, switchgrass, wheat straw, and corn stover were chopped in an instrumented knife mill to evaluate size reduction energy and corresponding particle size distribution as determined with a standard forage sieve analyzer. Direct mechanical power inputs were determined using a dedicated data acquisition system for knife mill screen openings from 12.7 to 50.8 mm, rotor speeds between 250 and 500 rpm, and mass feed rates from 1 to 11 kg/min. A speed of 250 rpm gave optimum performance of the mill. Optimum feed rates for 25.4 mm screen and 250 rpm were 7.6, 5.8, and 4.5 kg/min for switchgrass, wheat straw, and corn stover, respectively. Total specific energy (MJ/Mg) was defined as the size reduction energy required to operate the knife mill plus that imparted to the biomass. Effective specific energy was defined as the energy imparted to the biomass. For these conditions, total specific energies were 27.3, 37.9, and 31.9 MJ/Mg and effective specific energies were 10.1, 15.5, and 3.2 MJ/Mg for switchgrass, wheat straw, and corn stover, respectively. These results demonstrated that biomass selection affects the size reduction energy, even for biomass with similar features. Second-order polynomial equations for the total specific energy requirement fitted well (R2 > 0.95) as a function of knife mill screen size, mass feed rate, and speed for biomass materials tested. The Rosin-Rammler equation fitted the cumulative undersize mass of switchgrass, wheat straw, and corn stover chop passed through ASABE sieves with high R2 (>0.983). Knife mill chopping of switchgrass, wheat straw, and corn stover resulted in particle size distributions classified as 'well-graded strongly fine-skewed mesokurtic', 'well-graded fine-skewed mesokurtic', and 'well-graded fine-skewed mesokurtic', respectively, for small knife mill screen sizes (12.7 to 25.4 mm) and distributions classified as 'well-graded fine-skewed mesokurtic', 'well-graded strongly fine-skewed mesokurtic', and 'well-graded fine-skewed mesokurtic', respectively, for the large screen size (50.8 mm). Total and effective specific energy values per unit size reduction of wheat straw were greater compared to those for switchgrass. Corn stover resulted in reduced total and effective specific energy per unit size reduction compared to wheat straw for the same operating conditions, but higher total specific energy per unit size reduction and lesser effective specific energy per unit size reduction compared to switchgrass. Data on minimized total specific energy with corresponding particle spectra will be useful for preparing feed material with a knife mill for subsequent grinding with finer size reduction devices.

Bitra, V.S.P. [University of Tennessee, Knoxville (UTK); Womac, A.R. [University of Tennessee, Knoxville (UTK); Sokhansanj, Shahabaddine [ORNL; Igathinathane, C. [North Dakota State University

2010-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

16

Establishing a process of irradiating small animal brain using a CyberKnife and a microCT scanner  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Purpose: Establish and validate a process of accurately irradiating small animals using the CyberKnife G4 System (version 8.5) with treatment plans designed to irradiate a hemisphere of a mouse brain based on microCT scanner images. Methods: These experiments consisted of four parts: (1) building a mouse phantom for intensity modulated radiotherapy (IMRT) quality assurance (QA), (2) proving usability of a microCT for treatment planning, (3) fabricating a small animal positioning system for use with the CyberKnife's image guided radiotherapy (IGRT) system, and (4)in vivo verification of targeting accuracy. A set of solid water mouse phantoms was designed and fabricated, with radiochromic films (RCF) positioned in selected planes to measure delivered doses. After down-sampling for treatment planning compatibility, a CT image set of a phantom was imported into the CyberKnife treatment planning system—MultiPlan (ver. 3.5.2). A 0.5 cm diameter sphere was contoured within the phantom to represent a hemispherical section of a mouse brain. A nude mouse was scanned in an alpha cradle using a microCT scanner (cone-beam, 157 × 149 pixels slices, 0.2 mm longitudinal slice thickness). Based on the results of our positional accuracy study, a planning treatment volume (PTV) was created. A stereotactic body mold of the mouse was “printed” using a 3D printer laying UV curable acrylic plastic. Printer instructions were based on exported contours of the mouse's skin. Positional reproducibility in the mold was checked by measuring ten CT scans. To verify accurate dose delivery in vivo, six mice were irradiated in the mold with a 4 mm target contour and a 2 mm PTV margin to 3 Gy and sacrificed within 20 min to avoid DNA repair. The brain was sliced and stained for analysis. Results: For the IMRT QA using a set of phantoms, the planned dose (6 Gy to the calculation point) was compared to the delivered dose measured via film and analyzed using Gamma analysis (3% and 3 mm). A passing rate of 99% was measured in areas of above 40% of the prescription dose. The final inverse treatment plan was comprised of 43 beams ranging from 5 to 12.5 mm in diameter (2.5 mm size increments are available up to 15 mm in diameter collimation). Using the Xsight Spine Tracking module, the CyberKnife system could not reliably identify and track the tiny mouse spine; however, the CyberKnife system could identify and track the fiducial markers on the 3D mold.In vivo positional accuracy analysis using the 3D mold generated a mean error of 1.41 mm ± 0.73 mm when fiducial markers were used for position tracking. Analysis of the dissected brain confirmed the ability to target the correct brain volume. Conclusions: With the use of a stereotactic body mold with fiducial markers, microCT imaging, and resolution down-sampling, the CyberKnife system can successfully perform small-animal radiotherapy studies.

Kim, Haksoo; Welford, Scott [Department of Radiation Oncology, School of Medicine, Case Western Reserve University, 10900 Euclid Avenue, Cleveland, Ohio 44106 (United States)] [Department of Radiation Oncology, School of Medicine, Case Western Reserve University, 10900 Euclid Avenue, Cleveland, Ohio 44106 (United States); Fabien, Jeffrey; Zheng, Yiran; Yuan, Jake; Brindle, James; Yao, Min; Lo, Simon; Wessels, Barry; Machtay, Mitchell; Sohn, Jason W., E-mail: jason.sohn@case.edu [Department of Radiation Oncology, School of Medicine, Case Western Reserve University, 10900 Euclid Avenue, Cleveland, Ohio 44106 and University Hospitals of Cleveland, 11100 Euclid Avenue, Cleveland, Ohio 44106 (United States); Sloan, Andrew [Department of Neurosurgery, School of Medicine, Case Western Reserve University, 10900 Euclid Avenue, Cleveland, Ohio 44106 (United States)] [Department of Neurosurgery, School of Medicine, Case Western Reserve University, 10900 Euclid Avenue, Cleveland, Ohio 44106 (United States)

2014-02-15T23:59:59.000Z

17

Application of the gamma evaluation method in Gamma Knife film dosimetry  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Purpose: Gamma Knife (GK) radiosurgery is a minimally invasive surgical technique for the treatment of intracranial lesions. To minimize neurological deficits, submillimeter accuracy is required during treatment delivery. In this paper, the delivery accuracy of GK radiosurgery was assessed with the gamma evaluation method using planning dose distribution and film measurement data. Methods: Single 4, 8, and 16 mm and composite shot plans were developed for evaluation using the GK Perfexion (PFX) treatment planning system (TPS). The planning dose distributions were exported as digital image communications in medicine - radiation therapy (DICOM RT) files using a new function of GK TPS. A maximum dose of 8 Gy was prescribed for four test plans. Irradiation was performed onto a spherical solid water phantom using Gafchromic EBT2 films in the axial and coronal planes. The exposed films were converted to absolute dose based on a 4th-order polynomial calibration curve determined using ten calibration films. The film measurement results and planning dose distributions were registered for further analysis in the same Leksell coordinate using in-house software. The gamma evaluation method was applied to two dose distributions with varying spatial tolerance (0.3-2.0 mm) and dosimetric tolerance (0.3-2.0%), to verify the accuracy of GK radiosurgery. The result of gamma evaluation was assessed using pass rate, dose gamma index histogram (DGH), and dose pass rate histogram (DPH). Results: The 20, 50, and 80% isodose lines found in film measurements were in close agreement with the planning isodose lines, for all dose levels. The comparison of diagonal line profiles across the axial plane yielded similar results. The gamma evaluation method resulted in high pass rates of >95% within the 50% isodose line for 0.5 mm/0.5% tolerance criteria, in both the axial and coronal planes. They satisfied 1.0 mm/1.0% criteria within the 20% isodose line. Our DGH and DPH also showed that low isodose lines exhibited inferior gamma indexes and pass rates compared with higher isodose lines. Conclusions: The gamma evaluation method was applicable to GK radiosurgery. For all test plans, planning dose distribution and film measurement met the tolerance criteria of 0.5 mm/0.5% within the 50% isodose line which are used for marginal dose prescription.

Park, Jeong-Hoon; Han, Jung Ho; Kim, Chae-Yong; Oh, Chang Wan; Lee, Do-Heui; Suh, Tae-Suk; Gyu Kim, Dong; Chung, Hyun-Tai [Department of Neurosurgery, Seoul National University Bundang Hospital, Seongnam 463-707, Korea and Department of Biomedical Engineering, College of Medicine, Catholic University of Korea Seoul 137-701 (Korea, Republic of); Department of Neurosurgery, Seoul National University Bundang Hospital, Seongnam 463-707, Korea and Department of Neurosurgery, College of Medicine, Seoul National University, Seoul 110-799 (Korea, Republic of); Department of Neurosurgery, Asan Medical Center, College of Medicine, University of Ulsan, Seoul 138-736 (Korea, Republic of); Department of Biomedical Engineering and Research Institute of Biomedical Engineering, College of Medicine, Catholic University of Korea, Seoul 137-701 (Korea, Republic of); Department of Neurosurgery, College of Medicine, Seoul National University, Seoul 110-799 (Korea, Republic of)

2011-10-15T23:59:59.000Z

18

Validity of the Graded Prognostic Assessment-Derived Index to Predict Brain-Metastatic Patients' Survival After Gamma Knife Radiosurgery  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Purpose: To appraise whether the graded prognostic assessment (GPA)-derived index is valid for selecting patients with brain metastases for Gamma Knife (GK) radiosurgery. Methods and Materials: A total of 56 consecutive patients in recursive partioning analysis (RPA) Class I (n = 19, 34%) and II (n = 37, 66%) formed the basis of this retrospective study. Their mean age was of 57 years with mean Karnofsky performance score of 77. Primary cancers stemmed mainly from the lungs (59%). A total of 45 patients (80%) harbored multiple tumors. The mean clinical follow-up period was 9 months. Results: Kaplan-Meier analysis demonstrated that the overall median survival time (MST) for the whole series was 11.5 months: 16.5 vs. 6.5 months for RPA class I and II (p = 0.017). Multivariate Cox analysis revealed that female patients and a pre-GK good functional state were favorable prognostic factors. The favorable MST was in patients with a GPA score of 3 to 4 (17 months) followed by a GPA score of 2 to 2.5 (11 months) and GPA score 0 to 1.5 (6.5 months), but without statistical differences (p = 0.413) in between. A modified index (MGPA) is proposed with gender as a cofactor, then there existed a distinct survival differences (p = 0.028) between patients with an MGPA score of 3.5 to 5 (15 months) and with an MGPA score of 0 to 3 (7 months). In addition, the original GPA index failed to imply the difference of MST in patients with lung origin. Conclusions: The GPA-derived index is not applicable to our set of patients for comparing their survival after GK radiosurgery. The gender of the patients is a suggested cofactor to further refine the greater prognostic accuracy of the GPA index.

Chiou, Shang-Ming, E-mail: tsmchiou@pchome.com.t [Gamma Knife Center, Department of Neurosurgery, China Medical University Hospital, Taichung, Taiwan (China)

2010-11-15T23:59:59.000Z

19

Absolute calibration of the Gamma Knife{sup ®} Perfexion™ and delivered dose verification using EPR/alanine dosimetry  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Purpose: Elekta Leksell Gamma Knife{sup ®} (LGK) is a radiotherapy beam machine whose features are not compliant with the international calibration protocols for radiotherapy. In this scope, the Laboratoire National Henri Becquerel and the Pitié-Salpêtrière Hospital decided to conceive a new LKG dose calibration method and to compare it with the currently used one. Furthermore, the accuracy of the dose delivered by the LGK machine was checked using an “end-to-end” test. This study also aims to compare doses delivered by the two latest software versions of the Gammaplan treatment planning system (TPS). Methods: The dosimetric method chosen is the electron paramagnetic resonance (EPR) of alanine. Dose rate (calibration) verification was done without TPS using a spherical phantom. Absolute calibration was done with factors calculated by Monte Carlo simulation (MCNP-X). For “end-to-end” test, irradiations in an anthropomorphic head phantom, close to real treatment conditions, are done using the TPS in order to verify the delivered dose. Results: The comparison of the currently used calibration method with the new one revealed a deviation of +0.8% between the dose rates measured by ion chamber and EPR/alanine. For simple fields configuration (less than 16 mm diameter), the “end-to-end” tests showed out average deviations of ?1.7% and ?0.9% between the measured dose and the calculated dose by Gammaplan v9 and v10, respectively. Conclusions: This paper shows there is a good agreement between the new calibration method and the currently used one. There is also a good agreement between the calculated and delivered doses especially for Gammaplan v10.

Hornbeck, Amaury, E-mail: amauryhornbeck@gmail.com, E-mail: tristan.garcia@cea.fr; Garcia, Tristan, E-mail: amauryhornbeck@gmail.com, E-mail: tristan.garcia@cea.fr [CEA, LIST, Laboratoire National Henri Becquerel, 91191 Gif-sur-Yvette Cedex (France)] [CEA, LIST, Laboratoire National Henri Becquerel, 91191 Gif-sur-Yvette Cedex (France); Cuttat, Marguerite; Jenny, Catherine [Radiotherapy Department, Medical Physics Unit, University Hospital Pitié-Salpêtrière, 75013 Paris (France)] [Radiotherapy Department, Medical Physics Unit, University Hospital Pitié-Salpêtrière, 75013 Paris (France)

2014-06-15T23:59:59.000Z

20

Differential dose volume histograms of Gamma Knife in the presence of inhomogeneities using MRI-polymer gel dosimetry and MC simulation  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Polymer gel dosimeters offer a practical solution to 3D dose verification for conventional radiotherapy as well as intensity-modulated and stereotactic radiotherapy. In this study, EGSnrc calculated and PAGAT polymer gel dosimeter measured dose volume histograms (DVHs) for single-shot irradiations of the Gamma Knife (GK) unit were used to investigate the effects of the presence of inhomogeneities on 3D dose distribution. The head phantom was a custom-built 16 cm diameter Plexiglas sphere. Inside the phantom, there is a cubic cutout for inserting the gel vials and another cutout for inserting the inhomogeneities. Following irradiation with the GK unit, the polymer gel phantoms were scanned with a 1.5 T MRI scanner. Comparing the results of measurement in homogeneous and heterogeneous phantoms revealed that inserting inhomogeneities inside the homogeneous phantom did not cause considerable disturbances on dose distribution in irradiation with 8 mm collimator within low isodose levels (<50%), which is essential for the dose sparing of sensitive structures. The results of simulation for homogeneous and inhomogeneous phantoms in irradiation with 18 mm collimator of the GK unit showed 23.24% difference in DVH within 90%-100% relative isodose level and also revealed that a significant part of the target (28.56%) received relative doses higher than the maximum dose, which exceeds the acceptance criterion (5%). Based on these results it is concluded that the presence of inhomogeneities inside the phantom can cause considerable errors in dose calculation within high isodose levels with respect to LGP prediction which assumes that the target is a homogeneous material. Moreover, it is demonstrated that the applied MC code is an accurate and stand-alone tool for 3D evaluation of dose distribution in irradiation with the GK unit, which can provide important, 3D plan evaluation criteria used in clinical practice.

Allahverdi Pourfallah, Tayyeb; Allahverdi, Mahmoud; Riahi Alam, Nader; Ay, Mohammad-Reza; Zahmatkesh, Mohammad-Hasan [Department of Biochemistry and Biophysics, Faculty of Medicine, Mazandaran University of Medical Sciences, 48175-1665 Sari (Iran, Islamic Republic of) and Department of Medical Physics and Biomedical Engineering, Tehran University of Medical Sciences, 14155-7661 Tehran (Iran, Islamic Republic of); Department of Medical Physics and Biomedical Engineering, Tehran University of Medical Sciences, 14155-7661 Tehran (Iran, Islamic Republic of); Novin Medical Radiation Center, 14665-599 Tehran (Iran, Islamic Republic of)

2009-07-15T23:59:59.000Z

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "knife fryburg mondak" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


21

Predictive Parameters of CyberKnife Fiducial-less (XSight Lung) Applicability for Treatment of Early Non-Small Cell Lung Cancer: A Single-Center Experience  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Purpose: To determine which parameters allow for CyberKnife fiducial-less tumor tracking in stereotactic body radiation therapy (SBRT) for early-stage non-small cell lung cancer. Methods and Materials: A total of 133 lung SBRT patients were preselected for direct soft-tissue tracking based on manufacturer recommendations (peripherally located tumors ?1.5 cm with a dense appearance) and staff experience. Patients underwent a tumor visualization test to verify adequate detection by the tracking system (orthogonal radiographs). An analysis of potential predictors of successful tumor tracking was conducted looking at: tumor stage, size, histology, tumor projection on the vertebral column or mediastinum, distance to the diaphragm, lung-to-soft tissue ratio, and patient body mass index. Results: Tumor visualization was satisfactory for 88 patients (66%) and unsatisfactory for 45 patients (34%). Median time to treatment start was 6 days in the success group (range, 2-18 days) and 15 days (range, 3-63 days) in the failure group. A stage T2 (P=.04), larger tumor size (volume of 15.3 cm{sup 3} vs 6.5 cm{sup 3} in success and failure group, respectively) (P<.0001), and higher tumor density (0.86 g/cm{sup 3} vs 0.79 g/cm{sup 3}) were predictive of adequate detection. There was a 63% decrease in failure risk with every 1-cm increase in maximum tumor dimension (relative risk for failure = 0.37, CI=0.23-0.60, P=.001). A diameter of 3.6 cm predicted a success probability of 80%. Histology, lung-to-soft tissue ratio, distance to diaphragm, patient's body mass index, and tumor projection on vertebral column and mediastinum were not found to be predictive of success. Conclusions: Tumor size, volume, and density were the most predictive factors of a successful XSight Lung tumor tracking. Tumors >3.5 cm have ?80% chance of being adequately visualized and therefore should all be considered for direct tumor tracking.

Bahig, Houda; Campeau, Marie-Pierre; Vu, Toni; Doucet, Robert; Béliveau Nadeau, Dominic [Radiation Oncology Department, Centre Hospitalier de l'Université de Montréal, Montréal, Quebec (Canada); Fortin, Bernard [Radiation Oncology Department, Maisonneuve-Rosemont Hospital, Montréal, Quebec (Canada); Roberge, David; Lambert, Louise; Carrier, Jean-François [Radiation Oncology Department, Centre Hospitalier de l'Université de Montréal, Montréal, Quebec (Canada); Filion, Edith, E-mail: edith.filion.chum@ssss.gouv.qc.ca [Radiation Oncology Department, Centre Hospitalier de l'Université de Montréal, Montréal, Quebec (Canada)

2013-11-01T23:59:59.000Z

22

Iron aluminide knife and method thereof  

DOE Patents [OSTI]

Fabricating an article of manufacture having a Fe.sub.3 Al-based alloy cutting edge. The fabrication comprises the steps of casting an Fe.sub.3 Al-based alloy, extruding into rectangular cross section, rolling into a sheet at 800.degree. C. for a period of time followed by rolling at 650.degree. C., cutting the rolled sheet into an article having an edge, and grinding the edge of the article to form a cutting edge.

Sikka, Vinod K. (Oak Ridge, TN)

1997-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

23

From the Editor Knife Features of Key Gamma  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

1 of 42http://www.independent-bangladesh.com/news/oct/18/18102004ft.htm#A17 press her to seek of the innovative remedies and resources within the country and in the advanced nations. | | |Top of this page Back

West, Stuart

24

POPULATION AND FOOD SUPPLIES: THE EDGE OF THE KNIFE  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

...345 TABLE 12 ENERGY CONTENT OF FOOD CROPS-EGYPT AND JAPAN, 1963-1964 Egypt (U.A.R...4) (5) Energy content Total...vated land. In Egypt, which in many...a source of energy; supplementa...greatly increased efficiency of animal and...

Roger Revelle

1966-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

25

The Searing Iron Vs. the Knife for Docking or Detailing Lambs.  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

.. Soil Sr~rue~~or SUBSTATIONS 1. Beeville, Bee County No. 8. Lubbock, Lubbock County E. COWART, M. S., Superintendent R. E. KARPER, R. S., Superintendent D. L. JONES, Scientific Assistant No. 2. Troup, Smith County W. S. HOTCHKISS, Super... C. H. MCDOWELL, B. S., Superintendent No. 9. Pecos, Reeves Connty J. W. JACKSON. U. S., Superintendent No. 10. (Feeding and Breeding Substation). College Station, Brazos County ................. Superintendenf E. CAMERON, Scientific Assistant...

Jones, J. M. (John McKinley); Hubbard, C. M.

1920-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

26

Exploration, Registration, and Analysis of High-Throughput 3D Microscopy Data from the Knife-Edge Scanning Microscope  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

connectivity analysis; (2) the size of the uncompressed KESM data exceeds a few terabytes and to compare and combine with other data sets from different imaging modalities, the KESM data must be registered to a standard coordinate space; and (3) quantitative...

Sung, Chul

2014-04-25T23:59:59.000Z

27

Effective usage of a clearance check to avoid a collision in Gamma Knife Perfexion radiosurgery with the Leksell skull frame  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

......retrospective analysis of treatment plans for brain metastasis cases. To validate the accuracy...placement, though almost all targets in the brain may be reached when the frame is placed...particularly useful for patients with multiple brain metastases. Fig. 1. The collimator helmet......

Hisato Nakazawa; Takahiko Tsugawa; Yoshimasa Mori; Masahiro Hagiwara; Masataka Komori; Chisa Hashizume; Yuta Shibamoto; Tatsuya Kobayashi

2014-11-01T23:59:59.000Z

28

TTP SR1-6-WT-31, Milestone XXX, Milestone C.1-2 Report: Functional Test of Pour Spout Insert and Knife Edge  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

During the first two years of radioactive operation of the Defense Waste Processing Facility process, several areas for improvement in melter design were identified. Due to the need for a process that allows continuous melter operation, the down time associated with disruption to melter operation and pouring has significant cost impact. A major objective of this task is to address performance limitations and deficiencies identified by the user.

Bickford, D.F.

1999-07-29T23:59:59.000Z

29

The pie-crusting technique using a blade knife for medial collateral ligament release is unreliable in varus total knee arthroplasty  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

Despite the documented clinical efficacy of the pie-crusting technique for medial collateral ligament (MCL ... (frequency of early over-release) of the pie-crusting technique for MCL release.

Dai-Soon Kwak; Yong In; Tae Kyun Kim…

2014-10-01T23:59:59.000Z

30

Ancient Lamps, Earrings Yield Their Secrets Under Neutron Imaging...  

Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

a colonial-period plantation in Rhode Island. The samples include artifacts from daily life: a clothing buckle, a knife, and some building hardware. One circular object from...

31

A Romeo Club in a Donut Shop  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

switchblade? ” inquired Jasper earnestly. “Ha! Yep,” replieda mid-eastern switchblade. ” Jasper passed the knife over tosome combination including Lester, Jasper, Orville, Raymond,

Murphy, Scott Patrick

2009-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

32

New Proposal for the Detection of Concealed Weapons: Electromagnetic Weapon Detection for Open Areas.  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

??Terrorist groups, hijackers, and people hiding guns and knifes are a constant and increasing threat Concealed weapon detection (CWO) has turned into one of the… (more)

Agurto Goya, Alan

2009-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

33

NREL 2012 Achievement of Ethanol Cost Targets: Biochemical Ethanol...  

Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

(Kramer farm). The stover was received tub ground and was further knifed milled (Jordan Reduction Solutions, Birmingham, Alabama) through a -in. rejection screen in the...

34

An experimental apparatus for diffraction-limites soft x-ray nanofocusing  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

and our measurement of the residual vibration magnitude. 2.1vibrometer measurements searching for the vibration modes ofvibration remains. Using a combination of knife-edge measurements

Merthe, Daniel

2012-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

35

The personal information collected on this form is collected under the legal authority of the Royal Charter of 1841, as amended. The personal information collected on this  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

.______________________________________________________________________ General Camping Skills (knife, axe, fire making use, etc__________________________________________________________________________ Counselling____________________________________________________________________________ Apprenticeships nature interpretation areas: Trees ( ) Ecology ( ) Plants ( ) Water Systems ( ) Insects ( ) Journaling

Ellis, Randy

36

Amino Acid and Protein Deficiencies as Causes of Corneal Vascularization: A Preliminary Report  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

...here, may contain several fractions, some of which may have no...yellow color. Triumph, a very light-colored variety, contained...either with a knife or a hand shredder, and samples taken for analyses...MG./100 GRAMS) Knife Shredder PO 0 0 Flat Dutch Cabbage a...

V. P. SYDENSTRICKER; W. KNOWLTON HAIL; CHARLES W. HOCK; EDGAR R. PUND

1946-02-15T23:59:59.000Z

37

Spring 2011 PoultryTech 1 PoultryTechPoultryTechPoultryTech  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

kinematics, wrist motion with an integrated dual-axis goniometer, muscle activation of three muscle groups using electromyography (EMG) sensors, and a specially instrumented knife (developed by the Liberty

Li, Mo

38

Brookhaven National Laboratory Photon Sciences -National Synchrotron Light Source Beamline Hazard Analysis -Beamline X22B  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

glasses, nitrile gloves Soldering Y Y Use a designated area, periodically clean surfaces High temperature Y Be aware of hand positioning Use safety knife when possible Consider using cut resistant gloves

Ohta, Shigemi

39

Brookhaven National Laboratory Photon Sciences -National Synchrotron Light Source Beamline Hazard Analysis -Beamline X18A  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Laser registration, warning signs Soldering Y N Use a designated area, periodically clean surfaces High OpCo if damaged Cutting/razor blades Y Y Be aware of hand positioning Use safety knife when possible

Ohta, Shigemi

40

Brookhaven National Laboratory Photon Sciences -National Synchrotron Light Source Beamline Hazard Analysis -Beamline X17B2  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

/3a laser Y Y Laser registration, warning signs Soldering Y N Use a designated area, periodically is being moved Training Cutting/razor blades Y Y Be aware of hand positioning Use safety knife when

Ohta, Shigemi

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "knife fryburg mondak" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


41

Brookhaven National Laboratory -Photon Sciences -National Synchrotron Light Source Beamline Hazard Analysis -Beamline U4B  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

guidance/checklist from PRM 5.1.0 Soldering Y Y Use a designated area, periodically clean surfaces High Y Be aware of hand positioning Use safety knife when possible Consider using cut resistant gloves

Ohta, Shigemi

42

Brookhaven National Laboratory Photon Sciences -National Synchrotron Light Source Beamline Hazard Analysis -Beamline X24C  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

cryogens (pockets, cuffs) Cryogen or heavy gloves Enclosed shoes Soldering Y N Use a designated area Training Cutting/razor blades Y Y Be aware of hand positioning Use safety knife when possible Consider

Ohta, Shigemi

43

Brookhaven National Laboratory Photon Sciences -National Synchrotron Light Source Beamline Hazard Analysis -Beamline X18B  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

, warning signs Soldering Y N Use a designated area, periodically clean surfaces High temperature Y Y/razor blades Y Y Be aware of hand positioning Use safety knife when possible Consider using cut resistant

Ohta, Shigemi

44

Brookhaven National Laboratory Photon Sciences -National Synchrotron Light Source Beamline Hazard Analysis -Beamline X19A  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Be aware of body posture, Ask for help in moving or lifting Soldering Y N Use a designated area fixed, or HEPA filtered exhaust Cutting/razor blades Y Y Be aware of hand positioning Use safety knife

Ohta, Shigemi

45

Dissolution and compaction of natural quartz sand as functions of temperature, pore-fluid pressure, and strain  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

concluded that the results pmve the validity of Weyl's mechanism of pressure solunon. Tada and Siever (1986) proposed that a combinanon of mechanisms occurs during pressure solution. Using a quartz knife-edge against halite crystals in a halite...

Elmquist, Valerie Renee

2012-06-07T23:59:59.000Z

46

Columbia University Medical Center Department of Public Safety  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

surroundings while walking in public and using or listening to electronic devices with headphones. Anyone walking east and listening to music on an I Phone, an unknown male approached, displayed a knife

Lazar, Aurel A.

47

Processing Poultry at Home  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

With hot water for scalding, ice water for chilling and a sharp knife, poultry can be processed at home for dressed poultry shows or home consumption. This publication discusses facilities and equipment, New York dressing, evisceration, chilling...

Davis, Michael

2006-01-04T23:59:59.000Z

48

Serological studies and isolations of serotype hardjo and Leptospira biflexa strains from horses of Argentina.  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

...half longitudinally with a sterile knife and scraping the exposed cortex, medulla, and renal hilus with a sterile metal bottle cap which had previously been punched with holes to act as a scraper (15). Tenfold dilutions of the tissue suspensions...

D M Myers

1976-06-01T23:59:59.000Z

49

Failing  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

Your sunken eyes plead with me Volcanic orbits wasted of sculptured fat Burned in failure's fire Your listless gaze pleads with me To offer a clue — We both know your cancer Sneaks about within you Evading my mortal knife — On this day as dusk settles With its flippant breach of faith In this inhospitable... Your sunken eyes plead with me Volcanic orbits wasted of sculptured fat Burned in failure's fire Your listless gaze pleads with me To offer a clue — We both know your cancer Sneaks about within you Evading my mortal knife — On this day as dusk settles ...

2002-06-20T23:59:59.000Z

50

Laser EYE SURGERY LASIK and Excimer Lasers  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Laser EYE SURGERY LASIK and Excimer Lasers Michael Hutchins #12;The PROBLEM opia - near sightedness - Laser Assisted in SItu Keratomileusis atomileusis is the procedure of opening the eye and ring the cornea. SIK uses an excimer laser to perform the alterations an er a knife or a femtosecond laser

Fygenson, Deborah Kuchnir

51

North American Journal of Aquaculture 64:228231, 2002 Copyright by the American Fisheries Society 2002  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

. E. MAUGHAN AND S. A. BONAR Arizona Cooperative Fish and Wildlife Research Unit, U.S. Geological/s. A DC electric barrier and screened knife gate valves prevented fish from leaving the test section regulated water velocity with a 3.8-cm adjustable gate valve on the pump outlet. A 1.3-cm PVC pipe attached

Bonar, Scott A.

52

Chapter 13 -Firearms, Weapons, Destructive Devices  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

53 Chapter 13 - Firearms, Weapons, Destructive Devices The Oregon Administrative Rules contain OAR Definitions (1) "Firearm" means a weapon or device, by whatever name known, which is designed to expel chemical action, and which is readily capable for use as a weapon. (2) "Weapon" means any knife having

53

In situ determination of the spinel–post-spinel transition in Fe3O4 at high pressure and temperature by synchrotron X-ray diffraction  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

...Crystallography, 34, 210-213. Wang, Y., Rivers, M., Sutton...high-pressure facility for synchroton radiation research at GeoSoilEnviroCars...Technology, 7, 1490-1495. Wang, Y., Rivers, M., Sutton...Swiss-army-knife approach to synchroton-based experimental studies...

K. Schollenbruch; A.B. Woodland; D.J. Frost; Y. Wang; T. Sanehira; F. Langenhorst

54

Fresh Fruit with Cinnamon Yogurt Dip Ingredients  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Fresh Fruit with Cinnamon Yogurt Dip Ingredients: 1 apple 1 orange 1 banana 6 ounces nonfat yogurt slices. 2. Cut off both ends of orange. Starting at top, slide knife between skin and fruit and cut off into individual sections. 3. Peel banana, cut into slices. 4. Arrange fruit on a plate. Mix the yogurt

Liskiewicz, Maciej

55

PS Tech Spaces: Electro-Mechanical Assembly Only  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

soldering should be performed in delineated areas to avoid cross contamination and spent solder should be collected and recycled. Solder areas should be cleaned periodically (lead wipes area available in the stock room). When using knives/razor blades: · Be aware of hand positioning · Use safety knife when possible

Ohta, Shigemi

56

PERSONAL PROTECTIVE EQUIPMENT HAZARD ASSESSMENT FORM Eyes Face Head Hands-Arms Feet-Legs Body-Skin Respiratory Hearing  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Preparation Grinding Hammering Health Care Services Janitorial Knife use Landscape maintenance Material, insects, etc.) Blood Extreme heat/cold Irritating chemicals Scrape, bruise, or cut by tools or materials: Chemical resistance Liquid/leak resistance Temperature resistance Abrasion/cut resistance Slip resistance

Russell, Lynn

57

3D Printing Prof. Hank Dietz & Paul Eberhart  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

3D Printing Prof. Hank Dietz & Paul Eberhart September 28, 2013 University of Kentucky Electrical/Craft: paper moves in Y, knife in X EDM/Laser: X/Y bed, vaporizes material #12;Subtractive 3D CNC: Computer "The whole is greater than the sum of its parts." ­ Aristotle #12;Additive 3D Building Material

Dietz, Henry G. "Hank"

58

Reframing placebo in research and practice  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

...the needle, pill or knife is a delivery device and not in itself meant to be the specific...Use a light laser or electronic device to deliver and track the treatment [44...in a dependent way; (iv) respected listening, and trusting the group participants...

2011-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

59

http://noaa.gov Discover Your World With NOAA  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

full) r Vinegar, about eight ounces r Sharp knife to cut the cardboard tube r Optional: spray paint robot...As black chunks of volcanic ash began spewing out of the pit, we decided to retreat from the site because the acidic water, sulfur, and flying rocks were endangering our robot. -- from the Ocean

60

ADHESION TESTING OF EPOXY COATING Enrique Vaca-Corts, Miguel A. Lorenzo, James O. Jirsa,  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

ADHESION TESTING OF EPOXY COATING by Enrique Vaca-Cortés, Miguel A. Lorenzo, James O. Jirsa Supervisors ABSTRACT The hot water and knife adhesion tests developed in this study proved to be a valuable tests were very useful in discriminating and identifying good from bad quality coatings. The tests were

Texas at Austin, University of

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "knife fryburg mondak" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


61

ORIGINAL PAPER M. E. Nelson Z. Xu J. R. Payne  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Sensory coding Abbreviations AM amplitude modulation á DOF degrees-of-freedom á EOD electric organ organ discharge (EOD). In the gymnotiform species Apteronotus leptorhynchus (brown ghost knife ®sh), which has a continuous quasi-sinusoidal wave-type EOD waveform, these object-induced perturbations give

Nelson, Mark E.

62

*Corresponding author. Tel.: #1-613-562-5800 ext. 8096; fax: #1-613-562-5190. E-mail address: mchacron@physics.uottawa.ca (M.J. Chacron).  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

generate an electric "eld through their electric organ discharge (EOD) in order to communicate and detect-units in the gymnoti- form species Apteronotus Leptorhynchus (Brown Ghost Knife Fish). Their EOD is sinusoidal types when no stimulus is applied (i.e. when the receptor is only driven by the EOD of the "sh without

Chacron, Maurice

63

EECS PresentationEECS Presentation Untold 8 Year History of the Microprocessor's Origins  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Wanlass who told of new device packing 16 bit SR in a TO5 can. No way!!! >>> Tips: *Staff jobs good big. Swiss army knife. GI (Wanlass) for chip fab $30K. 10/65 On 2/66 trip to GI, Wanlass taught me all his

Eustice, Ryan

64

Winter Car Kit Suggested items to keep in your car  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

/ pocket knife Necessary medications Several blankets Sleeping bags Extra newspapers for insulation Plastic challenges for even the most diligent of drivers. Snow and ice make driving more difficult and sometimes even are the biggest hazard of winter driving- caused by ice, slushy snow or rain. Roads are especially slick following

Myers, Lawrence C.

65

Oven Baked Sweet Potato Fries Ingredients  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Oven Baked Sweet Potato Fries Ingredients: Vegetable cooking spray 1 1/2 pounds sweet potato (about spray a 10 x 14 cookie sheet with non-stick cooking spray. 2. Scrub potatoes under tap water with a vegetable brush. With a knife remove any bad spots or defects on the potato. Do not peel. 3. On a cutting

Liskiewicz, Maciej

66

Baked Apple and Sweet Potato Casserole Ingredients  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Baked Apple and Sweet Potato Casserole Ingredients: Non-stick cooking spray 5 sweet potatoes 4 aside. 2. Wash sweet potatoes with a vegetable brush, and use a knife and cutting board to cut into potato into small pieces. Add to large baking dish. 3. Cut apples down the center and in half again, down

Liskiewicz, Maciej

67

The Treatment of War Wounds  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

... by these means to influence it. Where you have in- fected dead spaces your remedial agent is the knife. You have to evacuate your dead space as I empty ... wound with prophylactic intent can be of any use must be investigated de novo.

1917-08-30T23:59:59.000Z

68

Micromachined electrical cauterizer  

DOE Patents [OSTI]

A micromachined electrical cauterizer. Microstructures are combined with microelectrodes for highly localized electro cauterization. Using boron etch stops and surface micromachining, microneedles with very smooth surfaces are made. Micromachining also allows for precision placement of electrodes by photolithography with micron sized gaps to allow for concentrated electric fields. A microcauterizer is fabricated by bulk etching silicon to form knife edges, then parallelly placed microelectrodes with gaps as small as 5 .mu.m are patterned and aligned adjacent the knife edges to provide homeostasis while cutting tissue. While most of the microelectrode lines are electrically insulated from the atmosphere by depositing and patterning silicon dioxide on the electric feedthrough portions, a window is opened in the silicon dioxide to expose the parallel microelectrode portion. This helps reduce power loss and assist in focusing the power locally for more efficient and safer procedures.

Lee, Abraham P. (Walnut Creek, CA); Krulevitch, Peter A. (Pleasanton, CA); Northrup, M. Allen (Berkeley, CA)

1999-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

69

Acculturation in the Upper Middle Missouri Valley as Reflected in Modified Bone Assemblages  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

to the Pacific coast. The site is adjacent to the Knife River and has been partially destroyed by cutbank erosion, but recent construction of an erosion-resistant berm beneath the cutbank has ensured its continued preservation. The Big Hidatsa site... culture of the 18th and 19th centuries. Prior to contact, the villagers were already involved in a wide ranging aboriginal trade network with established links stretching as far as the Pacific coast. Euro-American traders used these trade networks...

Weston, Timothy

1986-05-01T23:59:59.000Z

70

Home Inspection Checklist.  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

the checklist in advance so you will know what you need to inspect at each home. In addition to the checklist, bring the tools to do the job. These include a clip board, paper, pencil, pocket knife, flashlight, tape measure, screwdriver, electrical circuit... tester and binoculars. Consider a Professional Inspection If you have satisfied your own general expectations and are planning on buying a particular home, consider having a professional inspection. As you choose a professional inspector for the job...

Quiring, Susan M.

1987-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

71

Analysis and optimized design of airlocks for fluidized bed gasifier fuel feed systems  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

into the bottom center of a fluidized bed. A feed hopper with a feeder assembly, two pressure sealing rotary valves and an injector feeder were used, Problems experienced included uneven metering of the trash into the gasifier. In a report prepared... of cotton gin trash and the fact that feeding this material will be without preprocessing, the decision was made to study devices that provide mechanical pressure seals. Three concepts were chosen, lock hopper with door valves, lock hopper with knife gate...

Nuboer, Benito Frans

1991-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

72

The Irish Potato (second report).  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

of seed in using this cutter. Small, thin pieces from the ends oP the tubers are sometimes wasted. The machine is listed by Aspinwall 1"-ufacturing Co., Jackson, Jltich., for $8.00. e have! used the Humphrey potato knife f'or several years, and k...THE IRISH POTATO. POSTOFFICE: COLLEGE STATION, BEEAZOS COUNTY, TEXAS. .J. J. PAnlumran PRINTING c% LITHO. CO., IIOUSTON, I 899. IS, TEXAS AClRlGULTURAL EXPERIMENT STATIONS. OFFICERS- GOVERNING BOARD. C...

Price, R. H; Ness, H.

1899-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

73

Aerosol collection characteristics of ambient aerosol samplers  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

the error for aniso- kinet1c sampl1ng with the smaller errors being associated w1th the larger orifices. For a higher accuracy in field sampling Watson suggested sampling with high volumetric rates and large sampling orifices to approximate isokinet1c..., was used to sample with a standard knife-edged orifice under isokinet1c conditions. May noted that the modified Casella cascade impactor was highly effective with sizes as small as about 1 um. Another excellent device for sampling down to 10 um...

Ortiz, Carlos A

2012-06-07T23:59:59.000Z

74

Never Say Die Issue 7  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

. He knocked on the door. "You in there Your Worship?" He heard a response but could not make out the words. "I'm coming in, ready or not." Slowly, he opened the door. On the bed under a pile ofthermals and propped up on a mound of pillows was a very... are you doing here? Get out!" "What do I want? I came to see if you'd been knifed in your sleep. I ain't going anywhere 'til I find out what's wrong." Han set his jaw defiantly, and stood there with his hands on hips. Leia burst into tears. "Princess...

Golledge, Carolyn

2006-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

75

Combined macro- and microrheometer for use with Langmuir monolayers  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

A Langmuirmonolayer trough that is equipped for simultaneous microrheology and standard rheology measurements has been constructed. The central elements are the trough itself with a full range of optical tools accessing the air-water interface from below the trough and a portable knife-edge torsion pendulum that can access the interface from above. The ability to simultaneously measure the mechanical response of Langmuirmonolayers on very different length scales is an important step for our understanding of the mechanical response of two-dimensional viscoelastic networks.

Robert Walder; Christoph F. Schmidt; Michael Dennin

2008-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

76

Weed Control in Texas Pastures.  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

. It is hdavy, blunt and has no lips. An extra heavy knife and heavy duty clips are used with it. Rotary mowers are of two types-those driven by power takeoff and those powered by the supporting Figure 8. This inexpensive shop-made mower rig is fast.... The two types of ommonly used for pasture mowing are the la1 cutter-bar type and the rotary or shredder hird type machine, built on the principle of g stalk cutter, is sometimes used on areas I for the cutter-bar or rotary mowers and .,,,,, ,~h...

Long, John A.; Trew, E. M.

1958-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

77

THE SICKNESS BEQUEATHED: Islamic anti-Semitism, Nazi Fascism and Ethno-Centric Nationalism Continuity in the Muslim Middle East  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

which include the Star of David mean: ?Terror?. On the forearm there are written the words: ?The Assassination Policy.? (Qatar, Al-Watan, June 2003) A menacing looking orthodox Jew is holding a gun and a knife. Title: ?Jewish Terror? (Der Voelkische.../lies. (Syrian Al-Ahram, May 29, 2002) Qatar, Al-Watan, July 27, 2002 4 Arab Conspiracy Theories Increasingly, some of the anti-Semitic Caricatures from today?s ARAB media are not very different from some of the depictions found in today?s WESTERN media. Sharon...

Kulikov, Andrey S.

2008-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

78

Wild Game -- Care and Cooking.  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

blood vessels leading to the heart. If you want to bleed the animal and do not want the trophy mounted, insert a knife into the base of the neck just above the brisket and cut sideways to sever the jugular vein. The deer should be dressed...IatIons in the steps of cleaning a deer; nevertheless, it should be done thoroughly and soon after the kill. If you need help to carry the carcass to camp or if you cannot carry it out immediately, hang it to a tree branch so that the carcass will cool in the shade...

Klussman, Wallace; Tribble, Marie; Mason, Louise; Reasonover, Frances; Cox, Maeona

1963-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

79

Broiler Chicken Deboning.  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

and allow it to drain; then work quickly while the broiler is still cold. This makes the cutting easier and prevents bacterial growth. Place the broiler on its side and cut slowly into the wing pit (1). Pulling the wing upward slightly with a twisting... motion will disjoint the primary wing section near the breast. Cut through the cartilage in the joint and remove the wing. This can best be accomplished by turning the knife slightly toward the wing to avoid cutting the breast meat. All cuts should...

Denton, J.H.; Mellor, D.B.

1988-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

80

Lithium-Ion Battery Teacher Workshop  

Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

Lithium Ion Battery Teacher Workshop Lithium Ion Battery Teacher Workshop 2012 2 2 screw eyes 2 No. 14 rubber bands 2 alligator clips 1 plastic gear font 2 steel axles 4 nylon spacers 2 Pitsco GT-R Wheels 2 Pitsco GT-F Wheels 2 balsa wood sheets 1 No. 280 motor Also: Parts List 3 Tools Required 1. Soldering iron 2. Hobby knife or coping saw 3. Glue gun 4. Needlenose pliers 5. 2 C-clamps 6. Ruler 4 1. Using a No. 2 pencil, draw Line A down the center of a balsa sheet. Making the Chassis 5 2. Turn over the balsa sheet and draw Line B ¾ of an inch from one end of the sheet. Making the Chassis 6 3. Draw a 5/8" x ½" notch from 1" from the top of the sheet. Making the Chassis 7 4. Draw Line C 2 ½" from the other end of the same sheet of balsa. Making the Chassis 8 5. Using a sharp utility knife or a coping saw, cut

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81

BY SILICON CRYSTALS  

Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

c October 29, 1942 a 1 1 _MIGH aECTgFXCATIOH - BY SILICON CRYSTALS . . c .. I n. The excellent pesformmce of Brftieh "red dot" c r y s t a l s f e explained R R due t o the kgife edge contact i n a t A polfehod ~ X ' f l i C B o H i g h frequency m c t l f f c n t f o n 8ependre c r i t i c a l l y on the ape%e;y of the rectifytnc boundary layer o f the crystal, C, For hl#$ comvere~on e f f i c i e n c y , the product c d t h i ~ capacity m a o f ' t h e @forward" (bulk) re-. sistance Rb o f the crystnl must b@ sm%P, depende primarily on the breadth of tha b f f e edge i t s lbngth. The contact am &harefore ~ E L V Q a rather large area wMQh prevents burn-out, thh3 t h e breadth of &h@ knife edge should be bdt8~1 than E~$O$B% % f I - ' amo For a knife edge, this produet very 14ttle upom For a wavsIL~n+3tih of PO emo the eowp,o%a%8sne 4

82

Experimental determination of radiated internal wave power without pressure field data  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

We present a method to determine, using only velocity field data, the time-averaged energy flux (J) and total radiated power P for two-dimensional internal gravity waves. Both (J) and P are determined from expressions involving only a scalar function, the stream function ?. We test the method using data from a direct numerical simulation for tidal flow of a stratified fluid past a knife edge. The results for the radiated internal wave power given by the stream function method agree to within 0.5% with results obtained using pressure and velocity data from the numerical simulation. The results for the radiated power computed from the stream function agree well with power computed from the velocity and pressure if the starting point for the stream function computation is on a solid boundary, but if a boundary point is not available, care must be taken to choose an appropriate starting point. We also test the stream function method by applying it to laboratory data for tidal flow past a knife edge, and the results are found to agree with the direct numerical simulation. The supplementary material includes a Matlab code with a graphical user interface that can be used to compute the energy flux and power from two-dimensional velocity field data.

Lee, Frank M.; Morrison, P. J. [Physics Department and Institute for Fusion Studies, The University of Texas at Austin, Austin, Texas 78712–1192 (United States)] [Physics Department and Institute for Fusion Studies, The University of Texas at Austin, Austin, Texas 78712–1192 (United States); Paoletti, M. S.; Swinney, Harry L. [Physics Department, The University of Texas at Austin, Austin, Texas 78712–1192 (United States)] [Physics Department, The University of Texas at Austin, Austin, Texas 78712–1192 (United States)

2014-04-15T23:59:59.000Z

83

Field application of EMI coatings investigation of coating materials and stylus electroplating protocols for shielded facilities. Final report  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

To maintain reliable electromagnetic interference (EMI) shielding for electronic equipment shelter interfaces, mating surfaces such as doors and interfaces must provide low contact resistances and be resistant to excessive amounts of corrosion and mechanical wear that would tend to degrade their shielding integrity. The objective of this research was to establish the efficacy of stylus electroplating as a potentially viable field maintenance/repair technique for application of corrosion resistant, wear resistant coatings in order to help maintain the shielding integrity of those interfaces. Aluminum alloy (6061-T6) knife-edge and channel test pieces were stylus electroplated with tin or tin-lead coatings with nickel or copper underlayers. A custom-designed electroplating tool developed for electroplating the complex geometry of a knife-edge substrate appears to provide better control of the plating process and circumvents possible interference with previously deposited areas. This research has resulted in an optimized procedure for producing coatings that exhibit greater adherence, better uniformity, less scarring, and fewer blisters and ridges compared to those previously reported. An optimum electroplating strategy is suggested, which includes applying tin or tin-lead top layers over a thick layer of copper and a thin nickel strike.

Stephenson, L.D.; Donoho, L.H.

1996-03-01T23:59:59.000Z

84

Injuries and Illnesses of Big Game Hunters in Western Colorado: A 9-Year Analysis  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

Category 1 Continuing Medical Education credit for physicians is available to Wilderness Medical Society members for this article. Go to http://wms.org/cme/cme.asp?whatarticle=1811 to access the instructions and test questions.Objective The purpose of this study was to characterize big game hunter visits to a rural hospital's emergency department (ED). Using data collected on fatalities, injuries, and illnesses over a 9-year period, trends were noted and comparisons made to ED visits of alpine skiers, swimmers, and bicyclists. Out-of-hospital hunter fatalities reported by the county coroner's office were also reviewed. Cautionary advice is offered for potential big game hunters and their health care providers. Methods Self-identified hunters were noted in the ED log of a rural Colorado hospital from 1997 to 2005, and injury or illness and outcome were recorded. Additional out-of-hospital mortality data were obtained from the county coroner's office. The estimated total number of big game hunters in the hospital's service area and their average days of hunting were reported by the Colorado Division of Wildlife. The frequencies of hunters’ illnesses, injuries, and deaths were calculated. Results A total of 725 ED visits—an average of 80 per year—were recorded. Nearly all visits were in the prime hunting months of September to November. Twenty-seven percent of the hunter ED patients were Colorado residents, and 73% were from out of state. Forty-five percent of the visits were for trauma, 31% for medical illnesses, and 24% were labeled “other.” The most common medical visits (105) were for cardiac signs and symptoms, and all of the ED deaths (4) were attributed to cardiac causes. The most common trauma diagnosis was laceration (151), the majority (113) of which came from accidental knife injuries, usually while the hunter was field dressing big game animals. Gunshot wounds (4, <1%) were rare. Horse-related injuries to hunters declined while motor vehicle– and all-terrain vehicle (ATV)–related injuries increased. The five out-of-hospital deaths were cardiac related (3), motor vehicle related (1), and firearm related (1). Conclusions Fatal outcomes in big game hunters most commonly resulted from cardiac diseases. Gunshot injuries and mortalities were very low in this population. Knife injuries were common. Hunters and their health care providers should consider a thorough cardiac evaluation prior to big game hunts. Hunter safety instructors should consider teaching aspects of safe knife use. Consideration should be given to requiring and improving ATV driver education.

Allan D. Reishus

2007-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

85

Variable Circular Collimator in Robotic Radiosurgery: A Time-Efficient Alternative to a Mini-Multileaf Collimator?  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Purpose: Compared with many small circular beams used in CyberKnife treatments, beam's eye view-shaped fields are generally more time-efficient for dose delivery. However, beam's eye view-shaping devices, such as a mini-multileaf collimator (mMLC), are not presently available for CyberKnife, although a variable-aperture collimator (Iris, 12 field diameters; 5-60 mm) is available. We investigated whether the Iris can mimic noncoplanar mMLC treatments using a limited set of principal beam orientations (nodes) to produce time-efficient treatment plans. Methods and Materials: The data from 10 lung cancer patients and the beam-orientation optimization algorithm 'Cycle' were used to generate stereotactic treatment plans (3 x 20 Gy) for a CyberKnife virtually equipped with a mMLC. Typically, 10-16 favorable beam orientations were selected from 117 available robot node positions using beam's eye view-shaped fields with uniform fluence. Second, intensity-modulated Iris plans were generated by inverse optimization of nonisocentric circular candidate beams targeted from the same nodes selected in the mMLC plans. The plans were evaluated using the mean lung dose, lung volume receiving {>=}20 Gy, conformality index, number of nodes, beams, and monitor units, and estimated treatment time. Results: The mMLC plans contained an average of 12 nodes and 11,690 monitor units. For a comparable mean lung dose, the Iris plans contained 12 nodes, 64 beams, and 21,990 monitor units. The estimated fraction duration was 12.2 min (range, 10.8-13.5) for the mMLC plans and 18.4 min (range, 12.9-28.5) for the Iris plans. In contrast to the mMLC plans, the treatment time for the Iris plans increased with an increasing target volume. The Iris plans were, on average, 40% longer than the corresponding mMLC plans for small targets (<80 cm{sup 3}) and {<=}121% longer for larger targets. For a comparable conformality index, similar results were obtained. Conclusion: For stereotactic lung irradiation, time-efficient and high-quality plans were obtained for robotic-controlled noncoplanar treatments using a mMLC. Iris is a time-efficient alternative for small targets, with similar or better plan quality.

Water, Steven van de, E-mail: s.vandewater@erasmusmc.nl [Department of Radiation Oncology, Erasmus Medical Center-Daniel den Hoed Cancer Center, Rotterdam (Netherlands); Hoogeman, Mischa S.; Breedveld, Sebastiaan; Nuyttens, Joost J.M.E. [Department of Radiation Oncology, Erasmus Medical Center-Daniel den Hoed Cancer Center, Rotterdam (Netherlands); Schaart, Dennis R. [Department of Radiation Detection and Medical Imaging, Delft University of Technology, Delft (Netherlands); Heijmen, Ben J.M. [Department of Radiation Oncology, Erasmus Medical Center-Daniel den Hoed Cancer Center, Rotterdam (Netherlands)

2011-11-01T23:59:59.000Z

86

Slide 1  

Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

November 30, 2013 November 30, 2013 Environment / Health / Safety DIVISION Injury/Illness Cases - November 2013 * Contusion on hand * While entering the lower level of Building 47, the Computer Systems Engineer tripped over a one inch rise of the floor slab at the doorway and fell striking the left hand against the ground. * Lower leg fracture * The Research Associate's ankle rolled to the side after slipping on small gravel while walking across the patio between Buildings 74 and 84. This resulted in a fracture of the lower leg. Slip Trip Fall 2 Environment / Health / Safety DIVISION Injury/Illness Cases - November 2013 * Laceration on finger * The Electronics Engineering Technologist lacerated the middle finger while using a utility knife to cut cable sheathing.

87

Training Program Graduates Weatherization-Ready Workers | Department of  

Broader source: Energy.gov (indexed) [DOE]

Training Program Graduates Weatherization-Ready Workers Training Program Graduates Weatherization-Ready Workers Training Program Graduates Weatherization-Ready Workers April 29, 2010 - 5:45pm Addthis Daniel Tello demonstrates how to prepare an attic space for insulation using skills learned from the First Choice Program. | Photo courtesy of HCDC, Human Capital Development Corp., Inc. and Scott Anderson Daniel Tello demonstrates how to prepare an attic space for insulation using skills learned from the First Choice Program. | Photo courtesy of HCDC, Human Capital Development Corp., Inc. and Scott Anderson Lindsay Gsell On graduation day, students at Human Capital Development Corp., Inc. (HCDC) leave with more than just a diploma. They receive a hard hat, tool belt, hammer, utility knife and a tape measure. Graduates from Racine, Wis.-based HCDC First Choice Program are literally

88

HSS Safety Shares  

Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

Safety Shares Safety Shares HSS Safety Shares Home Health, Safety and Security Home HSS Safety Shares 2013 Safety Shares National Weather Service - Lightning Safety General Lightning Safety 7 Important Parts of a Cleaning Label Kitchen Knife Safety Lawn and Garden Tool Hazards Rabies Hearing Loss Winter Driving Tips 2012 Safety Shares Holiday Decoration Safety Tips Countdown to Thanksgiving Holiday Fall Season Safety Tips Slips, Trips and Fall Safety Back To School Safety Tips for Motorists Grills Safety and Cleaning Tips Glass Cookware Safety Water Heater Safety FAQs Root Out Lawn and Garden Tool Hazards First Aid for the Workplace Preventing Colon Cancer Yard Work Safety Yard Work Safety - Part 1 Yard Work Safety - Part 2 High Sodium Risks Heart Risk Stair Safety New Ways To Spot Dangerous Tires

89

Reapers  

Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

Reapers Reapers Nature Bulletin No. 759 June 6, 1964 Forest Preserve District of Cook County Seymour Simon, President Roberts Mann, Conservation Editor REAPERS The early settlers in Illinois and Indiana grew corn, but not much wheat other than patches of it to be ground into flour by local grist mills. There was a reason. In those days wheat had to be sown, cut and threshed in virtually the same way as it had been for 6000 years -- by hand -- and that meant countless hours of monotonous backbreaking toil. The earliest tool for cutting grain was a long knife of wood or bone with flakes of flint inserted to give it a saw like edge. Late Stone Age people used curved flint tools similar to the sickles made by ancient Egyptians of bronze and, later, of steel. The Romans developed a two-handed scythe that was gradually improved until, after the Middle Ages, a cradle was added.

90

Fermilab Today | Result of the Week Archive | 2010  

Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

0 0 Dec. 16, 2010 Subatomic color Dec. 9, 2010 Living flavorfully with biases Dec. 2, 2010 Searching for new particles Nov. 18, 2010 Top quark mass measured by CDF to a 0.7 percent accuracy Nov. 11, 2010 No sting in study of three "b"s Nov. 4, 2010 Improved CDF Higgs search: No event left behind Oct. 28, 2010 A better way to sharpen a knife Oct. 21, 2010 Measurement of W spin from CDF top quark decays Oct. 14, 2010 SpokespersonsÂ’ perspective: The Tevatron and an opportunity to answer one of the most fundamental scientific questions Oct. 7, 2010 Direct measurement of the top quark width Sep. 30, 2010 The top quarkÂ’s elusive cousin Sep. 23, 2010 Searching for super top Sep. 16, 2010 Quirky subatomic skid marks Sep. 9, 2010 A search for new physics in Z + photon

91

In-depth survey report: control technology assessment of enzyme fermentation processes at Miles Laboratories, Inc. , Elkhart, Indiana  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

The controls and containment capabilities of the carbohydrase enzyme manufacturing process were evaluated at the Miles Laboratories, Inc. facility located in Elkhart, Indiana. The enzyme alpha-amylase has been produced at this facility since March of 1982. One specific unit process showed results significantly above the background levels, that being the centrifuge. At the vacuum-filter knife edge, the viable levels were higher than background, but even within a few feet of the vacuum-filter belt they were reduced below background levels. Levels were not significantly above background at the fermentor agitator shaft, seed fermentor agitator shaft, and fermentor sample port. The clean room had background levels significantly below the levels in the laboratory. Apparently the overall effective containment of the production organisms used is very good. Measures of total dust levels indicated these were far below the threshold limit value of 10mg/cu m.

Sheehy, J.W.; Martinez, K.F.

1986-10-01T23:59:59.000Z

92

Trigeminal neuralgia treatment dosimetry of the Cyberknife  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

There are 2 Cyberknife units at Stanford University. The robot of 1 Cyberknife is positioned on the patient's right, whereas the second is on the patient's left. The present study examines whether there is any difference in dosimetry when we are treating patients with trigeminal neuralgia when the target is on the right side or the left side of the patient. In addition, we also study whether Monte Carlo dose calculation has any effect on the dosimetry. We concluded that the clinical and dosimetric outcomes of CyberKnife treatment for trigeminal neuralgia are independent of the robot position. Monte Carlo calculation algorithm may be useful in deriving the dose necessary for trigeminal neuralgia treatments.

Ho, Anthony [Department of Radiation Oncology, Stanford University, Stanford, CA (United States); Lo, Anthony T., E-mail: tonyho22003@yahoo.com [Department of Radiation Oncology, Stanford University, Stanford, CA (United States); Dieterich, Sonja; Soltys, Scott G.; Gibbs, Iris C. [Department of Radiation Oncology, Stanford University, Stanford, CA (United States); Chang, Steve G.; Adler, John R. [Department of Neurosurgery, Stanford University, Stanford, CA (United States)

2012-04-01T23:59:59.000Z

93

A high-stability scanning tunneling microscope achieved by an isolated tiny scanner with low voltage imaging capability  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

We present a novel homebuilt scanning tunneling microscope (STM) with high quality atomic resolution. It is equipped with a small but powerful GeckoDrive piezoelectric motor which drives a miniature and detachable scanning part to implement coarse approach. The scanning part is a tiny piezoelectric tube scanner (industry type: PZT-8, whose d{sub 31} coefficient is one of the lowest) housed in a slightly bigger polished sapphire tube, which is riding on and spring clamped against the knife edges of a tungsten slot. The STM so constructed shows low back-lashing and drifting and high repeatability and immunity to external vibrations. These are confirmed by its low imaging voltages, low distortions in the spiral scanned images, and high atomic resolution quality even when the STM is placed on the ground of the fifth floor without any external or internal vibration isolation devices.

Wang, Qi; Wang, Junting; Lu, Qingyou, E-mail: qxl@ustc.edu.cn [High Magnetic Field Laboratory, Chinese Academy of Sciences and University of Science and Technology of China, Hefei, Anhui 230026 (China) [High Magnetic Field Laboratory, Chinese Academy of Sciences and University of Science and Technology of China, Hefei, Anhui 230026 (China); Hefei National Laboratory for Physical Sciences at Microscale, University of Science and Technology of China, Hefei, Anhui 230026 (China); Hou, Yubin [High Magnetic Field Laboratory, Chinese Academy of Sciences and University of Science and Technology of China, Hefei, Anhui 230026 (China)] [High Magnetic Field Laboratory, Chinese Academy of Sciences and University of Science and Technology of China, Hefei, Anhui 230026 (China)

2013-11-15T23:59:59.000Z

94

Schlieren technique applied to the arc temperature measurement in a high energy density cutting torch  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Plasma temperature and radial density profiles of the plasma species in a high energy density cutting arc have been obtained by using a quantitative schlieren technique. A Z-type two-mirror schlieren system was used in this research. Due to its great sensibility such technique allows measuring plasma composition and temperature from the arc axis to the surrounding medium by processing the gray-level contrast values of digital schlieren images recorded at the observation plane for a given position of a transverse knife located at the exit focal plane of the system. The technique has provided a good visualization of the plasma flow emerging from the nozzle and its interactions with the surrounding medium and the anode. The obtained temperature values are in good agreement with those values previously obtained by the authors on the same torch using Langmuir probes.

Prevosto, L.; Mancinelli, B. [Departamento Ing. Electromecanica, Grupo de Descargas Electricas, Universidad Tecnologica Nacional, Regional Venado Tuerto, Las Heras 644, Venado Tuerto, Santa Fe 2600 (Argentina); Artana, G. [Departamento Ing. Mecanica, Laboratorio de Fluidodinamica, Facultad de Ingenieria (UBA), Paseo Colon 850 (C1063ACV), Buenos Aires (Argentina); Kelly, H. [Departamento de Fisica, Instituto de Fisica del Plasma (CONICET), Facultad de Ciencias Exactas y Naturales (UBA), Ciudad Universitaria Pab. I, Buenos Aires 1428 (Argentina)

2010-01-15T23:59:59.000Z

95

Clip-on extensometer grip  

DOE Patents [OSTI]

A self-gauging extensometer assembly for measuring axial strain of a test specimen through the wall of a high temperature furnace comprises an extensometer having a pair of telescoping arms carrying jaws that clip to the specimen at points spaced apart from each other by a predetermined gauge length. The jaws, which open parallel to the longitudinal axis of the telescoping arms, are biased closed into contact with opposite sides of the specimen by helical springs. A knife edge formed in each jaw prevents any slippage of the specimen between jaws during measurements. Because the jaws of the telescoping arms require no lateral pivoting, to open or close, the assembly is able to be clipped to a specimen through a relatively small opening in the furnace wall.

Korellis, J.S.

1986-08-12T23:59:59.000Z

96

Design and Fabrication of Safety Shutter for Indus-2 Synchrotron Front-ends  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

This paper describes the design and fabrication of safety shutter for the Indus-2 synchrotron source on bending magnet front-ends. The purpose of the safety shutter is to absorb Bremsstrahlung radiation generated due to scattering of electron beam from residual gas ions and components of the storage ring. The safety shutter consists of a radiation absorber actuated inside a rectangular ultra high vacuum chamber by pneumatic actuator. A water-cooled copper block is mounted before the absorber block to protect it from the incident heat load due to synchrotron radiation. The top flanges of the chamber are made with rectangular knife edge sealing which is found to be better than wire seal at higher temperature. The physics aspect of safety shutter is designed using simulation code Electron Gamma Shower EGS-4 code.

Raghuvanshi, V. K.; Dhamgaye, V.; Kumar, A.; Deb, S. K. [Indus Synchrotron Utilization Division, Raja Ramanna Centre for Advanced Technology, Indore-452013 (India)

2010-06-23T23:59:59.000Z

97

Nudge Nudge Wink Wink Issue 3  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

incorrect d) too offensive for various other reasons e) dull as dishwater. Yours in Sin, J&C (fa& fWijl 1 Nudge Nudge, Wink Wink iii word count: 79,200+ 1 i fpl (P!?| j^m) ^J p^ JdIoocL of me JL^aiMLlb) iJLezlie Dnel Ray Doyle jammed the knife into the lock... to chuckle. "Don't worry, I'm not going to convert you. We helped out at a medical station mostly, but I handed out my share of Bibles." "KrivasT Doyle threw the name out as a challenge. "There's no way that animal was a missionary!" "At first he was. Krivas...

Multiple Contributors

1993-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

98

A study of the relationship between the effect on polarization of iron electrodes and the inhibitor efficiencies for some organic amines in acid solution  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

contact of the slide vire resistor vas connected to the Junction of the tvo upper resistance arms of the bridge. A double 13 F I GURE I THE DUAL CATHODE BRIDGE s, Rl R~ M. A. Sq V, aJ LEGEND Sl- KNIFE BLADE SWITCH M. A-MILLI AMMETER B- 6 VOLT.... 1 86. 9 96. 5 10 30 50 60 70 80 90 100 . 6 1, 0 1. 9 2 1 20 2 4 2. 6 2. 9 3. 1 6. 0 5. 0 6 5o 2 4, 6 4, 0 3 ~ 7 3. 6 3 5 3. 5 10 18. '7 28. 1 30 37. 7 4, 0 4"l 50 56. 3 60 65. 9 70 75. 3 80 84. 6 90 94 100 . 7 7...

Burns, Lawrence Raymond

2012-06-07T23:59:59.000Z

99

Image-Guided Stereotactic Body Radiation Therapy in Patients With Isolated Para-Aortic Lymph Node Metastases From Uterine Cervical and Corpus Cancer  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Purpose: The aims of this study were to evaluate the role of stereotactic body radiation therapy (SBRT) as a local treatment for isolated para-aortic lymph node (PALN) metastases originating from uterine cervical and corpus cancer. Methods and Materials: We retrospectively enrolled 30 patients with isolated PALN metastases originating from uterine cervical and corpus cancer who had received SBRT using the CyberKnife (CK). All patients were shown to have isolated PALN metastases by computed tomography (CT) and/or positron emission tomography (PET)-CT. The overall survival (OS), local control (LC) rate, and disease progression-free survival (DPFS) rate were calculated according to the Kaplan-Meier method. Comparison between prognosis groups was performed using log-rank analysis. Toxicities were also evaluated. Results: The 4-year OS rate was 50.1%, and the median survival time was not reached. The OS rate among symptomatic patients was significantly lower than that among asymptomatic patients (p = 0.002). The 4-year actuarial LC rate was 67.4%. Patients with a planning target volume of {<=}17 ml had significantly higher LC rates (p = 0.009). The 4-year DPFS rate was 45.0%, and the median time to disease progression was 32 months. Small planning target volume was a favorable prognostic factor (p = 0.043). Grade 3 or 4 complications requiring hospitalization were reported in 1 patient at 20 months after SBRT. Conclusion: The OS and LS rates were promising, and the incidence of toxicities was low. Use of SBRT with the CyberKnife is an effective modality for treating isolated PALN metastases in patients with uterine cervical and corpus cancer.

Choi, Chul Won [Department of Radiation Oncology, Korea Institute of Radiological and Medical Sciences (Korea, Republic of); Cho, Chul Koo [Department of Radiation Oncology, Korea Institute of Radiological and Medical Sciences (Korea, Republic of)], E-mail: chcho@kcch.re.kr; Yoo, Seong Yul; Kim, Mi Sook; Yang, Kwang Mo; Yoo, Hyung Jun; Seo, Young Seok; Kang, Jin Kyu [Department of Radiation Oncology, Korea Institute of Radiological and Medical Sciences (Korea, Republic of); Lee, Dong Han [CyberKnife Center, Korea Institute of Radiological and Medical Sciences (Korea, Republic of); Lee, Kyung Hee; Lee, Eui Don; Rhu, Sang Young; Choi, Suck Chul; Kim, Moon Hong; Kim, Beob Jong [Department of Gynecology, Korea Institute of Radiological and Medical Sciences (Korea, Republic of)

2009-05-01T23:59:59.000Z

100

Delayed Radiation-Induced Vasculitic Leukoencephalopathy  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Purpose: Recently, single-fraction, high-dosed focused radiation therapy such as that administered by Gamma Knife radiosurgery has been used increasingly for the treatment of metastatic brain cancer. Radiation therapy to the brain can cause delayed leukoencephalopathy, which carries its own significant morbidity and mortality. While radiosurgery-induced leukoencephalopathy is known to be clinically different from that following fractionated radiation, pathological differences are not well characterized. In this study, we aimed to integrate novel radiographic and histopathologic observations to gain a conceptual understanding of radiosurgery-induced leukoencephalopathy. Methods and Materials: We examined resected tissues of 10 patients treated at Yale New Haven Hospital between January 1, 2009, and June 30, 2010, for brain metastases that had been previously treated with Gamma Knife radiosurgery, who subsequently required surgical management of a symptomatic regrowing lesion. None of the patients showed pathological evidence of tumor recurrence. Clinical and magnetic resonance imaging data for each of the 10 patients were then studied retrospectively. Results: We provide evidence to show that radiosurgery-induced leukoencephalopathy may present as an advancing process that extends beyond the original high-dose radiation field. Neuropathologic examination of the resected tissue revealed traditionally known leukoencephalopathic changes including demyelination, coagulation necrosis, and vascular sclerosis. Unexpectedly, small and medium-sized vessels revealed transmural T-cell infiltration indicative of active vasculitis. Conclusions: We propose that the presence of a vasculitic component in association with radiation-induced leukoencephalopathy may facilitate the progressive nature of the condition. It may also explain the resemblance of delayed leukoencephalopathy with recurring tumor on virtually all imaging modalities used for posttreatment follow-up.

Rauch, Philipp J. [Departments of Pathology and Neurosurgery, Yale University School of Medicine, New Haven, Connecticut (United States); Faculty of Medicine, University of Heidelberg, Heidelberg (Germany); Park, Henry S. [Departments of Pathology and Neurosurgery, Yale University School of Medicine, New Haven, Connecticut (United States); Knisely, Jonathan P.S. [Department of Radiation Medicine, North Shore University Hospital, Manhasset, New York (United States); Chiang, Veronica L. [Departments of Pathology and Neurosurgery, Yale University School of Medicine, New Haven, Connecticut (United States); Vortmeyer, Alexander O., E-mail: alexander.vortmeyer@yale.edu [Departments of Pathology and Neurosurgery, Yale University School of Medicine, New Haven, Connecticut (United States)

2012-05-01T23:59:59.000Z

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101

Robotic Image-Guided Stereotactic Radiotherapy, for Isolated Recurrent Primary, Lymph Node or Metastatic Prostate Cancer  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Purpose: To evaluate the outcome of robotic CyberKnife (Accuray, Sunnyvale, CA)-based stereotactic radiotherapy (CBK-SRT) for isolated recurrent primary, lymph node, or metastatic prostate cancer. Methods and Materials: Between May 2007 and December 2009, 34 consecutive patients/38 lesions were treated (15 patients reirradiated for local recurrence [P], 4 patients reirradiated for anastomosis recurrence [A], 16 patients treated for single lymph node recurrence [LN], and 3 patients treated for single metastasis [M]). In all but 4 patients, [{sup 11}C]choline positron emission tomography/computed tomography was performed. CBK-SRT consisted of reirradiation and first radiotherapy in 27 and 11 lesions, respectively. The median CBK-SRT dose was 30 Gy in 4.5 fractions (P, 30 Gy in 5 fractions; A, 30 Gy in 5 fractions; LN, 33 Gy in 3 fractions; and M, 36 Gy in 3 fractions). In 18 patients (21 lesions) androgen deprivation was added to CBK-SRT (median duration, 16.6 months). Results: The median follow-up was 16.9 months. Acute toxicity included urinary events (3 Grade 1, 2 Grade 2, and 2 Grade 3 events) and rectal events (1 Grade 1 event). Late toxicity included urinary events (3 Grade 1, 2 Grade 2, and 2 Grade 3 events) and rectal events (1 Grade 1 event and 1 Grade 2 event). Biochemical response was observed in 32 of 38 evaluable lesions. Prostate-specific antigen stabilization was seen for 4 lesions, and in 2 cases prostate-specific antigen progression was reported. The 30-month progression-free survival rate was 42.6%. Disease progression was observed for 14 lesions (5, 2, 5, and 2 in Groups P, A, LN, and M respectively). In only 3 cases, in-field progression was seen. At the time of analysis (May 2010), 19 patients are alive with no evidence of disease and 15 are alive with disease. Conclusions: CyberKnife-based stereotactic radiotherapy is a feasible approach for isolated recurrent primary, lymph node, or metastatic prostate cancer, offering excellent in-field tumor control and a low toxicity profile. Further investigation is warranted to identify the patients who benefit most from this treatment modality. The optimal combination with androgen deprivation should also be defined.

Jereczek-Fossa, Barbara Alicja, E-mail: barbara.jereczek@ieo.it [Department of Radiotherapy, European Institute of Oncology, Milan (Italy); University of Milan, Milan (Italy); Beltramo, Giancarlo [CyberKnife Center CDI, Milan (Italy); Fariselli, Laura [Radiotherapy Unit, Carlo Besta Neurological Institute Foundation, Milan (Italy); Fodor, Cristiana [Department of Radiotherapy, European Institute of Oncology, Milan (Italy); Santoro, Luigi [Department of Epidemiology and Statistics, European Institute of Oncology, Milan (Italy); Vavassori, Andrea; Zerini, Dario [Department of Radiotherapy, European Institute of Oncology, Milan (Italy); Gherardi, Federica [Department of Radiotherapy, European Institute of Oncology, Milan (Italy); University of Milan, Milan (Italy); Ascione, Carmen [Department of Radiotherapy, European Institute of Oncology, Milan (Italy); Seconda Universita degli Studi di Napoli, Naples (Italy); Bossi-Zanetti, Isa; Mauro, Roberta [Department of Radiotherapy, European Institute of Oncology, Milan (Italy); University of Milan, Milan (Italy); Bregantin, Achille; Bianchi, Livia Corinna [CyberKnife Center CDI, Milan (Italy); De Cobelli, Ottavio [Department of Urology, European Institute of Oncology, Milan (Italy); Orecchia, Roberto [Department of Radiotherapy, European Institute of Oncology, Milan (Italy); University of Milan, Milan (Italy)

2012-02-01T23:59:59.000Z

102

Isotropic three-dimensional MRI-Fricke-infused gel dosimetry  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Purpose: Fricke-infused gel has been shown to be a simple and attainable method for the conformal measurement of absorbed radiation dose. Nevertheless, its accuracy is seriously hindered by the irreversible ferric ion diffusion during magnetic resonance imaging, particularly when three-dimensional (3D) dose measurement in radiosurgery is considered. In this study, the authors developed a fast three-dimensional spin-echo based Fricke gel dosimetry technique to reduce the adverse effects of ferric ion diffusion and to obtain an accurate isotropic 3D dose measurement. Methods: A skull shaped phantom containing Fricke-infused gel was irradiated using Leksell Gamma Knife. The rapid image-based dosimetry technique was applied with the use of a 3D fast spin-echo magnetic resonance imaging sequence. The authors mathematically derived and experimentally validated the correlations between dose-response characteristics and parameters of the 3D fast spin-echo MR imaging sequence. Absorbed dose profiles were assessed and compared to the calculated profiles given by the Gamma Knife treatment planning system. Coefficient of variance (CV%) and coefficient of determination (R{sup 2}) were used to evaluate the precision of dose-response curve estimation. The agreement between the measured and the planned 3D dose distributions was quantified by gamma-index analysis of two acceptance criteria. Results: Proper magnetic resonance imaging parameters were explored to render an accurate three-dimensional absorbed dose mapping with a 1 mm{sup 3} isotropic image resolution. The efficacy of the dose-response estimation was approved by an R{sup 2} > 0.99 and an average CV% of 1.6%. Average gamma pass-rate between the experimentally measured and GammaPlan calculated dose distributions were 83.8% and 99.7% for 2%/2 and 3%/3 mm criteria, respectively. Conclusions: With the designed MR imaging sequence and parameters, total 3D MR acquisition time was confined to within 20 min postirradiation, during which time ferric ion diffusion effects were negligible, thus enabling an accurate 3D radiation dose measurement.

Cho, Nai-Yu; Chu, Woei-Chyn [Institute of Biomedical Engineering, National Yang-Ming University, Taipei 11221, Taiwan (China); Huang, Sung-Cheng [Department of Molecular and Medical Pharmacology, UCLA David Geffen School of Medicine, Los Angeles, California 90095 (United States); Chung, Wen-Yuh [Neurological Institute, Taipei Veterans General Hospital, Taipei 11217, Taiwan (China); Guo, Wan-Yuo [Department of Radiology, Taipei Veterans General Hospital, Taipei 11217, Taiwan (China)

2013-05-15T23:59:59.000Z

103

NEWTON, Ask a Scientist at Argonne National Labs  

Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

River Rocks, Color, and Rings River Rocks, Color, and Rings Name: Sean Status: student Grade: 9-12 Location: WA Country: USA Date: Spring 2012 Question: I was walking a beach on the Deschutes River in Olympia Washington with a friend last night. We were picking up rocks and checking them out and we came across a few that were black with white, crystal-like rings around them. We also found a few that were other primary colors with secondary colored rings around them. What is the most likely cause of the white and black rings around the rocks? They are beautiful and I would like to know more about them. Replies: Melissa, Sean: It depends upon what you mean by rings. Some of the river rock may be coated with deposits of lime from the waters or soils in which they rested for a while. The black color would be from minerals included in the lime crusts. These coatings should fizz slightly if you drop some vinegar on them and you would also be able to scratch them with a knife blade or pair of scissors.

104

Fabrication and processing of polymer solar cells: A review of printing and coating techniques  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

Polymer solar cells are reviewed in the context of the processing techniques leading to complete devices. A distinction is made between the film-forming techniques that are used currently such as spincoating, doctor blading and casting and the, from a processing point of view, more desirable film-forming techniques such as slot-die coating, gravure coating, knife-over-edge coating, off-set coating, spray coating and printing techniques such as ink jet printing, pad printing and screen printing. The former are used almost exclusively and are not suited for high-volume production whereas the latter are highly suited, but little explored in the context of polymer solar cells. A further distinction is made between printing and coating when a film is formed. The entire process leading to polymer solar cells is broken down into the individual steps and the available techniques and materials for each step are described with focus on the particular advantages and disadvantages associated with each case.

Frederik C. Krebs

2009-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

105

Multilayer roughness and image formation in the Schwarzschild objective  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

We present a study of the effect of multilayer-surface-roughness-induced scattering in the image formation of the Schwarzschild objective (SO) used in the spectromicroscope MAXIMUM. The two mirrors comprising the SO are coated with Ru/B{sub 4}C multilayers that have a peak reflectivity at 130 eV. We had long observed that a diffuse x-ray background surrounds the focused x-ray spot. The spatial resolution remains at 0.1 {mu}m in spite of this. However, since a significant fraction of the flux is lost to the background, since too large an area of the sample is illuminated, and since the S/N ratio is degraded, the origins of this effect merit investigation. This diffuse background resulting from x-ray scattering at the surface of the mirrors was mapped out using bidirectional knife edge scans. Complementary surface roughness simulations were carried out with the ray-tracing program SHADOW. AFM experiments were also done to directly measure the surface roughness and power spectrum of representative multilayers. Following curve fitting, it was possible to classify Gaussian components in both the measured and simulated profiles as arising from scattering occurring at either the convex primary mirror or the concave secondary mirror. Together with geometrical analysis, these techniques permitted us to track the image formation process of an actual optical system in the presence of surface roughness. {copyright} {ital 1996 American Institute of Physics.}

Singh, S.; Solak, H.; Cerrina, F. [University of Wisconsin, 3731 Schneider Drive, Stoughton, WI 53589 (United States)] [University of Wisconsin, 3731 Schneider Drive, Stoughton, WI 53589 (United States)

1996-09-01T23:59:59.000Z

106

Proposed radiation hardened mobile vehicle for Chernobyl dismantlement and nuclear accident response  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Researchers are developing a radiation hardened, Telerobotic Dismantling System (TDS) to remediate the Chernobyl facility. To withstand the severe radiation fields, the robotic system, will rely on electrical motors, actuators, and relays proven in the Chernobyl power station. Due to its dust suppression characteristics and ability to cut arbitrary materials the authors propose using a water knife as the principle tool to slice up the large fuel containing masses. The front end of the robot will use a minimum number of moving parts by locating most of the susceptible and bulky components outside the work area. Hardened and shielded video cameras will be designed for remote control and viewing of the robotic functions. Operators will supervise and control robot movements based on feedback from a suite of sensory systems that would include vision systems, radiation detection and measurement systems and force reflection systems. A gripper will be instrumented with a variety of sensors (e.g. force, torque, or tactile), allowing varying debris surface properties to be grasped. The gripper will allow the operator to manipulate and segregate debris items without entering the radiologically and physically dangerous dismantlement operations area. The robots will initially size reduce the FCM`s to reduce the primary sources of the airborne radionuclides. The robot will then remove the high level waste for packaging or decontamination, and storage nearby.

Rowland, M.S.; Holliday, M.A. [Lawrence Livermore National Lab., CA (United States); Karpachov, J.A. [Scientific Inst. of Special Mechanical Problems, Kiev (Ukraine). Polytechnical Inst.; Ivanov, A. [Interbranch Scientific and Technical Center, Chernobyl (Ukraine)

1995-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

107

Dental root agenesis secondary to irradiation therapy in a case of rhabdomyosarcoma of the middle ear  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

There have been only a few published reports on the dental-facial effects of radiation therapy and the subsequent oral management of these patients. A case involving a 13-year-old black male patient with a history of rhabdomyosarcoma is presented. The patient received 4,050 rads of radiation to the right middle ear when he was 2 years of age. His residual medical and dental difficulties are apparently complications from the initial therapy. Examination of the oral cavity revealed bimaxillary micrognathia and marked loss of vertical dimension. A Class II facial profile with Class I molar relationship was observed. The mandible was thin and hypoplastic, with a small knife-edge alveolar ridge. The remaining eighteen erupted permanent teeth were very mobile, and root development had ceased after only initial formation. All of the teeth except the first permanent molars were extracted, and immediate partial dentures were inserted at the time of surgery. A discussion of therapeutic considerations follows the case report.

Dury, D.C.; Roberts, M.W.; Miser, J.S.; Folio, J.

1984-06-01T23:59:59.000Z

108

An investigation into flow regimes for two-phase helium flow  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

The Tevatron accelerator at Fermilab incorporates long two-phase helium passages. During magnet design, the generalized flow map of Baker was used to predict homogeneous flow. Longer than expected magnet time constants led to this investigation. The importance of predicting the flow regime has been amplified with the advent of non-horizontal accelerator designs. A test setup was constructed at Fermilab to investigate two-phase helium flow regimes for conditions practical in accelerator designs. The setup consisted of a standard Tevatron satellite refrigerator, subcooling dewar, heater, 35 m long transfer line, and a specialized end box. A knife blade on the midplane of the transfer line diverted the flow from the upper and lower halves of the pipe to separate vessels in the end box. The amount of liquid above and below the plane was measured at various total mass flow rates and liquid percentages. The results show that stratified flow occurs at much higher liquid percentages than predicted by the Baker diagram (several orders of magnitude). We were not able to produce high enough steady state flows to find a boundary to a homogenous flow regime. Stratified flow occurred over all practical conditions for long accelerator magnet systems.

Theilacker, J.C.; Rode, C.H.

1987-10-01T23:59:59.000Z

109

Multilayer roughness and image formation in the Schwarzschild objective  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

We present a study of the effect of multilayer?surface?roughness?induced scattering in the image formation of the Schwarzschild objective (SO) used in the spectromicroscope MAXIMUM. The two mirrors comprising the SO are coated with Ru/B4C multilayers that have a peak reflectivity at 130 eV. We had long observed that a diffuse x?ray background surrounds the focused x?ray spot. The spatial resolution remains at 0.1 ?m in spite of this. However since a significant fraction of the flux is lost to the background since too large an area of the sample is illuminated and since the S/N ratio is degraded the origins of this effect merit investigation. This diffuse background resulting from x?ray scattering at the surface of the mirrors was mapped out using bidirectional knife edge scans. Complementary surface roughness simulations were carried out with the ray?tracing program SHADOW. AFM experiments were also done to directly measure the surface roughness and power spectrum of representative multilayers. Following curve fitting it was possible to classify Gaussian components in both the measured and simulated profiles as arising from scattering occurring at either the convex primary mirror or the concave secondary mirror. Together with geometrical analysis these techniques permitted us to track the image formation process of an actual optical system in the presence of surface roughness.

S. Singh; H. Solak; F. Cerrina

1996-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

110

A state-space solution search method for apparel industry spreading and cutting  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

The spreading of fabric onto cutting tables in several layers, and the cutting of this fabric in the most cost-efficient manner to produce a pre-determined number of garments is the apparel manufacturing phase that precedes assembly (sewing) and finishing. The problem consists of determining the lowest cost spreading and cutting schedule for garments of different styles, colors, and sizes, subject to physical constraints of cutting table length and cutting knife height as well as business constraints of required demand for each stock-keeping unit (SKU). The determination of this optimal spreading and cutting schedule for various garment styles is a difficult combinatorial NP-complete optimization problem. This paper proposes the use of an innovative state-space approach using heuristic rules to solve the problem: it is modeled as a least-cost search in a graph where each node represents a different spreading and cutting schedule. Several solution algorithms and heuristics are proposed and tested and an illustrative application to a Brazilian apparel company is presented.

Daniela B. Nascimento; J. Neiva de Figueiredo; S.F. Mayerle; P.R. Nascimento; R.M. Casali

2010-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

111

Corn stalk orientation effect on mechanical cutting  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Research efforts that increase the efficiency of size reduction of biomass can lead to a significant energy saving. This paper deals with the determination of the effect of sample orientation with respect to cutting element and quantify the possible cutting energy reduction, utilising dry corn stalks as the test material (15%e20% wet basis). To evaluate the mechanical cutting characteristics of corn stalks, a Warnere Bratzler device was modified by replacing its blunt edged cutting element with one having a 30_ single bevel sharp knife edge. Cutting force-deformation characteristics obtained with a universal testing machine were analysed to evaluate the orientation effects at perpendicular (90o), inclined (45o), and parallel (0o) orientations on internodes and nodes for cutting force, energy, ultimate stress, and specific energy of corn stalks. The corn stalks cutting force-displacement characteristics were found to differ with orientation, and internode and node material difference. Overall, the peak failure force, and the total cutting energy of internodes and nodes varied significantly (P < 0.05) with stalk cross-sectional area. The specific energy values (total energy per unit cut area) of dry corn stalk internodes ranged from 11.3 to 23.5 kN m_1, and nodes from 8.6 to 14.0 kN m_1. The parallel orientation (along grain) compared to perpendicular (across grain) produced a significant reduction of the cutting stress and the specific energy to one tenth or better for internodes, and to about one-fifth for nodes.

Igathinathane, C. [Mississippi State University (MSU); Womac, A.R. [University of Tennessee; Sokhansanj, Shahabaddine [ORNL

2010-07-01T23:59:59.000Z

112

Stereotactic Body Radiotherapy for Patients With Unresectable Primary Hepatocellular Carcinoma: Dose-Volumetric Parameters Predicting the Hepatic Complication  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Purpose: To identify the parameters that predict hepatic toxicity and deterioration of hepatic function. Materials and Methods: A total of 47 patients with small unresectable primary hepatocellular carcinoma received hypofractionated stereotactic body radiotherapy (SBRT) using the CyberKnife. Of those, 36 patients received no other local treatments that could influence hepatic toxicity at least for 3 months after the completion of SBRT. The gross tumor volume (GTV) was 18.3 {+-} 15.9 cm{sup 3} (range, 3.0-81.3 cm{sup 3}), and the total dose administered was 30-39 Gy (median, 36 Gy). To assess the deterioration of hepatic function, we evaluated the presence or absence of the progression of Child-Pugh class (CP class). To identify the parameters of predicting the radiation-induced hepatic toxicity and deterioration of the hepatic function, several clinical and dose-volumetric parameters were evaluated. Results: Of 36 patients, 12 (33%) developed Grade 2 or higher hepatic toxicity and 4 (11%) developed progression of CP class. The multivariate analysis showed that the only significant parameter associated with the progression of CP class was the total liver volume receiving a dose less than 18 Gy (<18 Gy). Conclusions: The progression of CP class after SBRT limits other additional local treatments and also reflects the deterioration of hepatic function. Therefore, it would be important to note that the presence or absence of the progression of CP class is a dose-limiting factor. The total liver volume receiving <18 Gy should be greater than 800 cm{sup 3} to reduce the risk of the deterioration of hepatic function.

Son, Seok Hyun; Choi, Byung Ock; Ryu, Mi Ryeong; Kang, Young Nam; Jang, Ji Sun [Department of Radiation Oncology, College of Medicine, the Catholic University of Korea, Seoul (Korea, Republic of); Bae, Si Hyun; Yoon, Seung Kew [Department of Internal Medicine, College of Medicine, the Catholic University of Korea, Seoul (Korea, Republic of); Choi, Ihl Bohng [Cyberknife Center of Gimpo Wooridul Spine Hospital, Seoul (Korea, Republic of); Kang, Ki Mun [Department of Radiation Oncology, College of Medicine, Gyeongsang National University, Jinju (Korea, Republic of); Jang, Hong Seok, E-mail: hsjang11@catholic.ac.k [Department of Radiation Oncology, College of Medicine, the Catholic University of Korea, Seoul (Korea, Republic of)

2010-11-15T23:59:59.000Z

113

Japanese Structure Survey of Radiation Oncology in 2005 Based on Institutional Stratification of Patterns of Care Study  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Purpose: To evaluate the structure of radiation oncology in Japan in terms of equipment, personnel, patient load, and geographic distribution to identify and improve any deficiencies. Methods and Materials: A questionnaire-based national structure survey was conducted between March 2006 and February 2007 by the Japanese Society of Therapeutic Radiology and Oncology. These data were analyzed in terms of the institutional stratification of the Patterns of Care Study. Results: The total numbers of new cancer patients and total cancer patients (new and repeat) treated with radiotherapy in 2005 were estimated at approximately 162,000 and 198,000, respectively. In actual use were 765 linear accelerators, 11 telecobalt machines, 48 GammaKnife machines, 64 {sup 60}Co remote-controlled after-loading systems, and 119 {sup 192}Ir remote-controlled after-loading systems. The linear accelerator systems used dual-energy function in 498 systems (65%), three-dimensional conformal radiotherapy in 462 (60%), and intensity-modulated radiotherapy in 170 (22%). There were 426 Japanese Society of Therapeutic Radiology and Oncology-certified radiation oncologists, 774 full-time equivalent radiation oncologists, 117 medical physicists, and 1,635 radiation therapists. Geographically, a significant variation was found in the use of radiotherapy, from 0.9 to 2.1 patients/1,000 population. The annual patient load/FTE radiation oncologist was 247, exceeding the Blue Book guidelines level. Patterns of Care Study stratification can clearly discriminate the maturity of structures according to their academic nature and caseload. Conclusions: The Japanese structure has clearly improved during the past 15 years in terms of equipment and its use, although the shortage of manpower and variations in maturity disclosed by this Patterns of Care Study stratification remain problematic. These constitute the targets for nationwide improvement in quality assurance and quality control.

Teshima, Teruki [Department of Medical Physics and Engineering, Osaka University Graduate School of Medicine, Suita, Osaka (Japan)], E-mail: teshima@sahs.med.osaka-u.ac.jp; Numasaki, Hodaka [Department of Medical Physics and Engineering, Osaka University Graduate School of Medicine, Suita, Osaka (Japan); Shibuya, Hitoshi [Department of Radiology, Tokyo Dental and Medical University, Tokyo (Japan); Nishio, Masamichi [Department of Radiology, National Hospital Organization Hokkaido Cancer Center, Sapporo, Hokkaido (Japan); Ikeda, Hiroshi [Division of Radiation Oncology, National Cancer Center, Tokyo (Japan); Ito, Hisao [Department of Radiology, Chiba University Graduate School of Medicine, Chiba (Japan); Sekiguchi, Kenji [Department of Radiation Oncology, St. Luke's International Hospital, Tokyo (Japan); Kamikonya, Norihiko [Department of Radiology, Hyogo College of Medicine, Nishinomiya, Hyogo (Japan); Koizumi, Masahiko [Department of Radiological Technology, Fujita Health University School of Health Sciences, Nagoya, Aichi (Japan); Tago, Masao [Department of Radiology, University of Tokyo Hospital, Tokyo (Japan); Nagata, Yasushi [Department of Radiation Oncology and Image-Applied Therapy, Kyoto University Graduate School of Medicine, Kyoto (Japan); Masaki, Hidekazu [Department of Radiology, National Center for Child Health and Development, Tokyo (Japan); Nishimura, Tetsuo [Division of Radiation Oncology, Shizuoka Cancer Center, Shizuoka (Japan); Yamada, Shogo [Tohoku University Hospital Cancer Center, Sendai (Japan)

2008-09-01T23:59:59.000Z

114

Japanese Structure Survey of Radiation Oncology in 2007 Based on Institutional Stratification of Patterns of Care Study  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Purpose: To evaluate the ongoing structure of radiation oncology in Japan in terms of equipment, personnel, patient load, and geographic distribution to identify and improve any deficiencies. Methods and Materials: A questionnaire-based national structure survey was conducted from March to December 2008 by the Japanese Society of Therapeutic Radiology and Oncology (JASTRO). These data were analyzed in terms of the institutional stratification of the Patterns of Care Study. Results: The total numbers of new cancer patients and total cancer patients (new and repeat) treated with radiation in 2007 were estimated at 181,000 and 218,000, respectively. There were 807 linear accelerator, 15 telecobalt, 46 Gamma Knife, 45 {sup 60}Co remote-controlled after-loading, and 123 {sup 192}Ir remote-controlled after-loading systems in actual use. The linear accelerator systems used dual-energy function in 539 units (66.8%), three-dimensional conformal radiation therapy in 555 (68.8%), and intensity-modulated radiation therapy in 235 (29.1%). There were 477 JASTRO-certified radiation oncologists, 826.3 full-time equivalent (FTE) radiation oncologists, 68.4 FTE medical physicists, and 1,634 FTE radiation therapists. The number of interstitial radiotherapy (RT) administrations for prostate, stereotactic body radiotherapy, and intensity-modulated radiation therapy increased significantly. Patterns of Care Study stratification can clearly identify the maturity of structures based on their academic nature and caseload. Geographically, the more JASTRO-certified physicians there were in a given area, the more RT tended to be used for cancer patients. Conclusions: The Japanese structure has clearly improved during the past 17 years in terms of equipment and its use, although a shortage of personnel and variations in maturity disclosed by Patterns of Care Study stratification were still problematic in 2007.

Teshima, Teruki, E-mail: teshima@sahs.med.osaka-u.ac.j [Department of Medical Physics and Engineering, Osaka University Graduate School of Medicine, Suita (Japan); Numasaki, Hodaka [Department of Medical Physics and Engineering, Osaka University Graduate School of Medicine, Suita (Japan); Shibuya, Hitoshi [Department of Radiology, Tokyo Dental and Medical University, Tokyo (Japan); Nishio, Masamichi [Department of Radiology, National Hospital Organization Hokkaido Cancer Center, Sapporo (Japan); Ikeda, Hiroshi [Department of Radiation Oncology, Sakai Municipal Hospital, Sakai (Japan); Sekiguchi, Kenji [Department of Radiation Oncology, St. Luke's International Hospital, Tokyo (Japan); Kamikonya, Norihiko [Department of Radiology, Hyogo College of Medicine, Nishinomiya (Japan); Koizumi, Masahiko [Oncology Center, Osaka University Hospital, Suita (Japan); Tago, Masao [Department of Radiology, Toho University Omori Medical Center, Tokyo (Japan); Ando, Yutaka [Department of Medical Informatics, Heavy Ion Medical Center, National Institute of Radiological Sciences, Chiba (Japan); Tsukamoto, Nobuhito [Department of Radiation Oncology, Saitama Medical University International Medical Center, Saitama (Japan); Terahara, Atsuro [Department of Radiology, University of Tokyo Hospital, Tokyo (Japan); Nakamura, Katsumasa [Department of Radiology, Kyushu University Hospital at Beppu, Oita (Japan); Mitsumori, Michihide [Department of Radiation Oncology and Image-applied Therapy, Graduate School of Medicine Kyoto University, Kyoto (Japan); Nishimura, Tetsuo [Division of Radiation Oncology, Shizuoka Cancer Center, Shizuoka (Japan); Hareyama, Masato [Department of Radiology, Sapporo Medical University, Hokkaido (Japan)

2010-12-01T23:59:59.000Z

115

The development of an Omegratron plasma ion mass spectrometer for Alcator C-Mod  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

A new diagnostic device, the Omegatron Probe, has been developed to investigate relative impurity levels and impurity charge state distribution in the Alcator C-Mod Tokamak edge plasma. The Omegatron probe consists of two principal components, a ``front-end`` of independently biased grids, arranged in a gridded energy analyzer fashion and a large collection cavity. Particles enter the probe in a thin ``ribbon`` through a knife-edge slit. The grids provide a means to measure and control the parallel energy distribution of the ions. In the collection cavity, an oscillating electric field is applied perpendicularly to the ambient magnetic field. Ions whose cyclotron frequencies are resonant with this electric field oscillation will gain perpendicular energy and be collected. In this way, the probe can be operated in two modes: first, by fixing the potentials on the grids and sweeping frequencies to obtain a `` Z/m spectrum`` of ion species and second, by fixing the frequency and sweeping the grid potentials to obtain the distribution function of an individual impurity species. The Omegatron probe performed successfully in tests on a Hollow Cathode Discharge (HCD) linear plasma column. It obtained measurements of T{sub e} {approx} 5 eV, T{sub i} (H{sup +}) {approx} 2.0 {plus_minus} 0.2 eV, n{sub 0} {approx} 9 {times} 10{sup 15} m{sup {minus}3}, RMS potential fluctuation levels of {approximately} 0.5 {plus_minus} 0.05 {plus_minus} T{sub e}, and obtained ``Z/m`` spectra for the plasma ions (H{sup +}, H{sub 2}{sup +}, He{sup +}). Additional experiments confirmed the theoretical scalings of the f/{delta}f resolution with the applied electric field and magnetic field strengths. The instrument yielded an absolute level of resolution, f/{delta}f, of approximately 2.5 to 3 times the theoretical values. Finally, the results from the HCD are used to project operation on Alcator C-Mod.

Thomas, E.E. Jr.

1993-05-01T23:59:59.000Z

116

Smoothing of respiratory motion traces for motion-compensated radiotherapy  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Purpose: The CyberKnife system has been used successfully for several years to radiosurgically treat tumors without the need for stereotactic fixation or sedation of the patient. It has been shown that tumor motion in the lung, liver, and pancreas can be tracked with acceptable accuracy and repeatability. However, highly precise targeting for tumors in the lower abdomen, especially for tumors which exhibit strong motion, remains problematic. Reasons for this are manifold, like the slow tracking system operating at 26.5 Hz, and using the signal from the tracking camera ''as is''. Since the motion recorded with the camera is used to compensate for system latency by prediction and the predicted signal is subsequently used to infer the tumor position from a correlation model based on x-ray imaging of gold fiducials around the tumor, camera noise directly influences the targeting accuracy. The goal of this work is to establish the suitability of a new smoothing method for respiratory motion traces used in motion-compensated radiotherapy. The authors endeavor to show that better prediction--With a lower rms error of the predicted signal--and/or smoother prediction is possible using this method. Methods: The authors evaluated six commercially available tracking systems (NDI Aurora, PolarisClassic, Polaris Vicra, MicronTracker2 H40, FP5000, and accuTrack compact). The authors first tracked markers both stationary and while in motion to establish the systems' noise characteristics. Then the authors applied a smoothing method based on the a trous wavelet decomposition to reduce the devices' noise level. Additionally, the smoothed signal of the moving target and a motion trace from actual human respiratory motion were subjected to prediction using the MULIN and the nLMS{sub 2} algorithms. Results: The authors established that the noise distribution for a static target is Gaussian and that when the probe is moved such as to mimic human respiration, it remains Gaussian with the exception of the FP5000 and the Aurora systems. The authors also showed that the proposed smoothing method can indeed be used to filter noise. The signal's jitter dropped by as much as 95% depending on the tracking system employed. Subsequently, the 3D prediction error (rms) for a prediction horizon of 150 ms on a synthetic signal dropped by up to 37% when using a normalized LMS prediction algorithm (nLMS{sub 2}) and hardly changed when using a MULIN algorithm. When smoothing a real signal obtained in our laboratory, the improvement of prediction was similar: Up to 30% for both the nLMS{sub 2} and the best MULIN algorithm. The authors also found a noticeable increase in smoothness of the predicted signal, the relative jitter dropped by up to 95% on the real signal, and on the simulated signal. Conclusions: In conclusion, the authors can say that preprocessing of marker data is very useful in motion-compensated radiotherapy since the quality of prediction increases. This will result in better performance of the correlation model. As a side effect, since the prediction of a preprocessed signal is also less noisy, the authors expect less robot vibration resulting in better targeting accuracy and less strain on the robot gears.

Ernst, Floris; Schlaefer, Alexander; Schweikard, Achim [Institute for Robotics and Cognitive Systems, University of Luebeck, Ratzeburger Allee 160, Luebeck SH 23538 (Germany)

2010-01-15T23:59:59.000Z

117

Potential High Resolution Dosimeters For MRT  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Microbeam Radiation Therapy (MRT) uses highly collimated, quasi-parallel arrays of X-ray microbeams of 50-600 keV, produced by 2nd and 3rd generation synchrotron sources, such as the National Synchrotron Light Source (NSLS) in the U.S., and the European Synchrotron Radiation Facility (ESRF) in France, respectively. High dose rates are necessary to deliver therapeutic doses in microscopic volumes, to avoid spreading of the microbeams by cardiosynchronous movement of the tissues. A small beam divergence and a filtered white beam spectrum in the energy range between 30 and 250 keV results in the advantage of steep dose gradients with a sharper penumbra than that produced in conventional radiotherapy. MRT research over the past 20 years has allowed a vast number of results from preclinical trials on different animal models, including mice, rats, piglets and rabbits. Microbeams in the range between 10 and 100 micron width show an unprecedented sparing of normal radiosensitive tissues as well as preferential damage to malignant tumor tissues. Typically, MRT uses arrays of narrow ({approx}25-100 micron-wide) microplanar beams separated by wider (100-400 microns centre-to-centre, c-t-c) microplanar spaces. We note that thicker microbeams of 0.1-0.68 mm used by investigators at the NSLS are still called microbeams, although some invesigators in the community prefer to call them minibeams. This report, however, limits it discussion to 25-100 {mu}m microbeams. Peak entrance doses of several hundreds of Gy are surprisingly well tolerated by normal tissues. High resolution dosimetry has been developed over the last two decades, but typical dose ranges are adapted to dose delivery in conventional Radiation Therapy (RT). Spatial resolution in the sub-millimetric range has been achieved, which is currently required for quality assurance measurements in Gamma-knife RT. Most typical commercially available detectors are not suitable for MRT applications at a dose rate of 16000 Gy/s, micron resolution and a dose range over several orders of magnitude. This paper will give an overview of all dosimeters tested in the past at the ESRF with their advantages and drawbacks. These detectors comprise: Ionization chambers, Alanine Dosimeters, MOSFET detectors, Gafchromic registered films, Radiochromic polymers, TLDs, Polymer gels, Fluorescent Nuclear Track Detectors (Al{sub 2}O{sub 3}:C, Mg single crystal detectors), OSL detectors and Floating Gate-based dosimetry system. The aim of such a comparison shall help with a decision on which of these approaches is most suitable for high resolution dose measurements in MRT. The principle of these detectors will be presented including a comparison for some dosimeters exposed with the same irradiation geometry, namely a 1x1 cm{sup 5} field size with microbeam exposures at the surface, 0.1 cm and 1 cm in depth of a PMMA phantom. For these test exposures, the most relevant irradiation parameters for future clinical trials have been chosen: 50 micron FWHM and 400 micron c-t-c distance. The experimental data are compared with Monte Carlo calculations.

Braeuer-Krisch, E.; Brochard, T.; Prezado, Y.; Bravin, A.; Berkvens, P. [European Synchrotron Radiation Facility (ESRF), 6 rue Horowitz, BP220, F-38043 Grenoble (France); Rosenfeld, A.; Lerch, M.; Petasecca, M. [Centre for Medical Radiation Physics, University of Wollongong, Wollongong, NSW 2522 (Australia); Akselrod, M.; Sykora, J.; Bartz, J. [Landauer, Inc., Stillwater Crystal Growth Division, Stillwater OK, 74074 (United States); Ptaszkiewicz, M.; Olko, P. [Henryk Niewodniczanski Institute of Nuclear Physics Polish Academy of Sciences, Department of Radiation Physics and Dosimetry, ul. Radzikowskiego 152, PL 31-342 Krakow (Poland); Berg, A.; Wieland, M. [Medizinische Universitaet Wien, Zentrum f. Biomedizinische Technik und Physik (Austria); Doran, S. [Department of Physics, University of Surrey, Guildford (United Kingdom); Kamlowski, A. [Bruker Biospin, Rheinstetten (Germany); Cellere, G. [DEI, Department of Information Engineering, via Gradenigo, 6/B, 35131 PADOVA (Italy) and Applied Materials Baccini Via Postumia Ovest, 244, 31050 San Biagio di Callalta, Treviso; Paccagnella, A. [DEI, Department of Information Engineering, via Gradenigo, 6/B, 35131 PADOVA (Italy); Siegbahn, E. A. [Department of Medical Physics, Karolinska Universitetssjukhuset, 17176 Stockholm (Sweden)

2010-07-23T23:59:59.000Z

118

Confocal (micro)-XRF for 3D anlaysis of elements distribution in hot environmental particles  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Studies on the fate and transport of radioactive contaminates in the environment are often constrained by a lack of knowledge on the elemental distribution and general behavior of particulate bound radionuclides contained in hot particles. A number of hot particles were previously isolated from soil samples collected at former U.S. nuclear test sites in the Marshall Islands and characterized using non-destructive techniques [1]. The present investigation at HASYLAB is a part of larger research program at ITU regarding the characterization of environmental radioactive particles different locations and source-terms. Radioactive particles in the environment are formed under a number of different release scenarios and, as such, their physicochemical properties may provide a basis for identifying source-term specific contamination regimes. Consequently, studies on hot particles are not only important in terms of studying the elemental composition and geochemical behavior of hot particles but may also lead to advances in assessing the long-term impacts of radioactive contamination on the environment. Six particles isolated from soil samples collected at the Marshall Islands were studied. The element distribution in the particles was determined by confocal {micro}-XRF analysis using the ANKA FLUO beam line. The CRL (compound refractive lens) was used to focus the exciting beam and the polycapillary half lens to collimate the detector. The dimensions of confocal spot were measured by 'knife edge scanning' method with thin gold structure placed at Si wafer. The values of 3.1 x 1.4 x 18.4 {micro}m were achieved if defined as FWHMs of measured L?intensity profiles and when the19.1 keV exciting radiation was used. The collected XRF spectra were analyzed offline with AXIL [2] software to obtain net intensities of element characteristic lines.Further data processing and reconstruction of element distribution was done with the software 'R' [3] dedicated for statistical calculations. In figure 1 the distributions of Pu, Fe and Ti obtained for one of the studied hot particles are presented. The strongest signal was recorded for plutonium; the signals from iron and titanium are respectively 14 and 38 times less. It means that Pu is the most abundant of the observed elements. However, since the light elements are not detectable with the applied measurement conditions, it cannot be definitely stated if plutonium is the main element present in the sample. The isosurfaces are calculated at 20 % of maximum intensity for each element. Please note that the isosurfaces on the drawing are transparent. Changes in the spatial distribution of Pu, Fe, and Ti within the particle are shown in Fig. 2a, 2b, and 2c. Distinct elemental patterns are clearly visible at the higher concentration levels. The distributions of Cr, Cu, and Pb were also reconstructed but the results are not presented here. As it is shown in Fig. 1, the correlation between elements is good at low concentrations but the maxima of concentrations are not strongly correlated (see Fig. 2.). In general, the particle is inhomogeneous in terms of its elemental composition. Similar inhomogeneities were found for other particles with Pu identified as a major element in three of the six particles examined.

Bielewski, M; Eriksson, M; Himbert, J; Simon, R; Betti, M; Hamilton, T F

2007-11-27T23:59:59.000Z

119

Final Report on "Development and Testing of Advanced Accelerator Structures and Technologies at 11.424 GHz"  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

This is the final report on the research program ?Development and Testing of Advanced Accelerator Structures and Technologies at 11.424 GHz,? which was carried out by the Naval Research Laboratory (NRL) under Interagency Agreement DE?AI02?01ER41170 with the Department of Energy. The period covered by this report is 15 July 2010 ? 14 July 2013. The program included two principal tasks. Task 1 involved a study of the key physics issues related to the use of high gradient dielectric-loaded accelerating (DLA) structures in rf linear accelerators and was carried out in collaboration with Argonne National Laboratory (ANL) and Euclid Techlabs LLC. Task 2 involved a study of high power active microwave pulse compressors and was carried out in collaboration with Omega-P, Inc. and the Institute of Applied Physics of the Russian Academy of Sciences in Nizhny Novgorod. The studies under Task 1 were focused on rf-induced multipactor and breakdown in externally driven DLA structures at the 200-ns timescale. Suppression of multipactor and breakdown are essential to the practical application of dielectric structures in rf linear accelerators. The structures that were studied were developed by ANL and Euclid Techlabs and their performance was evaluated at high power in the X-band Magnicon Laboratory at NRL. Three structures were designed, fabricated, and tested, and the results analyzed in the first two years of the program: a clamped quartz traveling-wave (TW) structure, a externally copper-coated TW structure, and an externally copper-coated dielectric standing-wave (SW) structure. These structures showed that rf breakdown could be largely eliminated by eliminating dielectric joints in the structures, but that the multipactor loading was omnipresent. In the third year of the program, the focus of the program was on multipactor suppression using a strong applied axial magnetic field, as proposed by Chang et al. [C. Chang et al., J. Appl. Phys. 110, 063304 (2011).], and a successful experiment was carried out that demonstrated suppression of multipactor in the uniform-field region of a TW DLA structure. However, in accordance with theory, the multipactor was enhanced in regions of the structure with lower values of axial magnetic field. Under Task 2, there were two two-month experimental runs at NRL that were used to characterize the performance of high power two-channel dual-mode active microwave pulse compressor configurations that used electron-beam triggered switch cavities. The pulse compressors were designed and fabricated by Omega-P, Inc. and the Russian Institute of Applied Physics and tested in the Magnicon Laboratory at NRL. These pulse compressors made use of an electron beam discharge from a cylindrical knife-edged Mo cathode coated with a CVD diamond film that was driven by a ?100 kV, 100 ns high voltage pulse. The electron beam was used to change the resonant frequency of the switch cavities in order to create the output microwave pulse. The compressor channels included a TE01 input and output section and a TE02 energy storage cavity, followed by a switch assembly that controlled the coupling between the TE01 and TE02 modes. In the initial state, the switch cavity was in resonance, the reflection from the cavity was out of phase, and the mode conversion was only ~2-3%, allowing the energy storage cavity to fill. When the electron beam was discharged into the switch cavity, the cavity was shifted out of resonance, causing the phase of the reflection to change by ~?. As a result of the change in the reflection phase, the mode coupling in the conical taper was greatly increased, and could approach ~100%, permitting the energy storage cavity to empty in one cavity round trip time of the TE02 mode to produce a high power output pulse. The second experiment runs demonstrated a 190 MW, ~20 ns compressed pulse at 25.7 gain and ~50% efficiency, using a 7.4 MW, 1 ?s drive pulse from the magnicon. The success of this experiment suggests a path to future high gain active versions of the SLED 2 pulse compressor at SLAC.

Gold, Steven H. [Naval Research Laboratory

2013-10-13T23:59:59.000Z

120

Experimental evaluations of the accuracy of 3D and 4D planning in robotic tracking stereotactic body radiotherapy for lung cancers  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Purpose: Due to the complexity of 4D target tracking radiotherapy, the accuracy of this treatment strategy should be experimentally validated against established standard 3D technique. This work compared the accuracy of 3D and 4D dose calculations in respiration tracking stereotactic body radiotherapy (SBRT). Methods: Using the 4D planning module of the CyberKnife treatment planning system, treatment plans for a moving target and a static off-target cord structure were created on different four-dimensional computed tomography (4D-CT) datasets of a thorax phantom moving in different ranges. The 4D planning system used B-splines deformable image registrations (DIR) to accumulate dose distributions calculated on different breathing geometries, each corresponding to a static 3D-CT image of the 4D-CT dataset, onto a reference image to compose a 4D dose distribution. For each motion, 4D optimization was performed to generate a 4D treatment plan of the moving target. For comparison with standard 3D planning, each 4D plan was copied to the reference end-exhale images and a standard 3D dose calculation was followed. Treatment plans of the off-target structure were first obtained by standard 3D optimization on the end-exhale images. Subsequently, they were applied to recalculate the 4D dose distributions using DIRs. All dose distributions that were initially obtained using the ray-tracing algorithm with equivalent path-length heterogeneity correction (3D{sub EPL} and 4D{sub EPL}) were recalculated by a Monte Carlo algorithm (3D{sub MC} and 4D{sub MC}) to further investigate the effects of dose calculation algorithms. The calculated 3D{sub EPL}, 3D{sub MC}, 4D{sub EPL}, and 4D{sub MC} dose distributions were compared to measurements by Gafchromic EBT2 films in the axial and coronal planes of the moving target object, and the coronal plane for the static off-target object based on the {gamma} metric at 5%/3mm criteria ({gamma}{sub 5%/3mm}). Treatment plans were considered acceptable if the percentage of pixels passing {gamma}{sub 5%/3mm} (P{sub {gamma}<1}) {>=} 90%. Results: The averaged P{sub {gamma}<1} values of the 3D{sub EPL}, 3D{sub MC}, 4D{sub EPL}, and 4D{sub MC} dose calculation methods for the moving target plans are 95%, 95%, 94%, and 95% for reproducible motion, and 95%, 96%, 94%, and 93% for nonreproducible motion during actual treatment delivery. The overall measured target dose distributions are in better agreement with the 3D{sub MC} dose distributions than the 4D{sub MC} dose distributions. Conversely, measured dose distributions agree much better with the 4D{sub EPL/MC} than the 3D{sub EPL/MC} dose distributions in the static off-target structure, resulting in higher P{sub {gamma}<1} values with 4D{sub EPL/MC} (91%) vs 3D{sub EPL} (24%) and 3D{sub MC} (25%). Systematic changes of target motion reduced the averaged P{sub {gamma}<1} to 47% and 53% for 4D{sub EPL} and 4D{sub MC} dose calculations, and 22% for 3D{sub EPL/MC} dose calculations in the off-target films. Conclusions: In robotic tracking SBRT, 4D treatment planning was found to yield better prediction of the dose distributions in the off-target structure, but not necessarily in the moving target, compared to standard 3D treatment planning, for reproducible and nonreproducible target motion. It is important to ensure on a patient-by-patient basis that the cumulative uncertainty associated with the 4D-CT artifacts, deformable image registration, and motion variability is significantly smaller than the cumulative uncertainty occurred in standard 3D planning in order to make 4D planning a justified option.

Chan, Mark K. H. [Department of Clinical Oncology, The University of Hong Kong and Department of Clinical Oncology, Tuen Mun Hospital, Hong Kong Special Administrative Region, 999077 (Hong Kong); Kwong, Dora L. W.; Ng, Sherry C. Y. [Department of Clinical Oncology, Queen Mary Hospital, Hong Kong Special Administrative Region, 999077 (Hong Kong); Tong, Anthony S. M.; Tam, Eric K. W. [Theresa Po CyberKnife Center, Hong Kong Special Administrative Region, 999077 (Hong Kong)

2013-04-15T23:59:59.000Z