National Library of Energy BETA

Sample records for km2 average water

  1. Cellulosic emissions (kg of pollutant per km2 county area) -...

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    Cellulosic emissions (kg of pollutant per km2 county area) Data reflects projected air emissions of nitrogen oxides (NOX), ammonia (NH3), carbon monoxide (CO), sulfur oxide (SOX),...

  2. Neutron resonance averaging

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Chrien, R.E.

    1986-10-01

    The principles of resonance averaging as applied to neutron capture reactions are described. Several illustrations of resonance averaging to problems of nuclear structure and the distribution of radiative strength in nuclei are provided. 30 refs., 12 figs.

  3. Concentration Averaging | Department of Energy

    Office of Environmental Management (EM)

    Concentration Averaging Concentration Averaging Summary Notes from 3 October 2007 Generic Technical Issue Discussion on Concentration Averaging PDF icon Summary Notes from 3...

  4. "2014 Average Monthly Bill- Commercial"

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    Consumption (kWh)","Average Price (centskWh)","Average Monthly Bill (Dollar and cents)" "New England",862269,5132.4894,14.699138,754.43169 "Connecticut",155372,6915.4089,15.547557...

  5. Spacetime averaged null energy condition

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Urban, Douglas; Olum, Ken D.

    2010-06-15

    The averaged null energy condition has known violations for quantum fields in curved space, even when one considers only achronal geodesics. Many such examples involve rapid variation in the stress-energy tensor in the vicinity of the geodesic under consideration, giving rise to the possibility that averaging in additional dimensions would yield a principle universally obeyed by quantum fields. However, after discussing various procedures for additional averaging, including integrating over all dimensions of the manifold, we give here a class of examples that violate any such averaged condition.

  6. 2014 Average Monthly Bill- Residential

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    Consumption (kWh) Average Price (centskWh) Average Monthly Bill (Dollar and cents) New England 6,243,013 630 17.82 112.31 Connecticut 1,459,239 730 19.75 144.10 Maine...

  7. 2014 Average Monthly Bill- Commercial

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    Consumption (kWh) Average Price (centskWh) Average Monthly Bill (Dollar and cents) New England 862,269 5,132 14.70 754.43 Connecticut 155,372 6,915 15.55 1,075.18 Maine...

  8. High average power pockels cell

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Daly, Thomas P. (Pleasanton, CA)

    1991-01-01

    A high average power pockels cell is disclosed which reduces the effect of thermally induced strains in high average power laser technology. The pockels cell includes an elongated, substantially rectangular crystalline structure formed from a KDP-type material to eliminate shear strains. The X- and Y-axes are oriented substantially perpendicular to the edges of the crystal cross-section and to the C-axis direction of propagation to eliminate shear strains.

  9. 2014 Average Monthly Bill- Industrial

    Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update (EIA)

    Industrial (Data from forms EIA-861- schedules 4A-D, EIA-861S and EIA-861U) State Number of Customers Average Monthly Consumption (kWh) Average Price (cents/kWh) Average Monthly Bill (Dollar and cents) New England 28,017 56,833 11.84 6,730.30 Connecticut 4,648 63,016 12.92 8,138.94 Maine 3,023 92,554 8.95 8,281.27 Massachusetts 14,896 44,536 12.74 5,674.13 New Hampshire 3,342 49,099 11.93 5,857.27 Rhode Island 1,884 39,241 12.86 5,047.36 Vermont 224 527,528 10.23 53,984.67 Middle Atlantic 44,397

  10. Variable Average Absolute Percent Differences

    Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update (EIA)

    Variable Average Absolute Percent Differences Percent of Projections Over- Estimated Gross Domestic Product Real Gross Domestic Product (Average Cumulative Growth)* (Table 2) 0.9 45.8 Petroleum Imported Refiner Acquisition Cost of Crude Oil (Constant $) (Table 3a) 37.7 17.3 Imported Refiner Acquisition Cost of Crude Oil (Nominal $) (Table 3b) 36.6 18.7 Total Petroleum Consumption (Table 4) 7.9 70.7 Crude Oil Production (Table 5) 8.1 51.1 Petroleum Net Imports (Table 6) 24.7 73.8 Natural Gas

  11. STEO January 2013 - average gasoline prices

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    drivers to see lower average gasoline prices in 2013 and 2014 U.S. retail gasoline prices are expected to decline over the next two years. The average pump price for regular...

  12. ARM - Evaluation Product - Areal Average Albedo (AREALAVEALB)

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    ProductsAreal Average Albedo (AREALAVEALB) ARM Data Discovery Browse Data Documentation Use the Data File Inventory tool to view data availability at the file level. Comments? We would love to hear from you! Send us a note below or call us at 1-888-ARM-DATA. Send Evaluation Product : Areal Average Albedo (AREALAVEALB) [ ARM research - evaluation data product ] The Areal Averaged Albedo VAP yields areal averaged surface spectral albedo estimates from MFRSR measurements collected under fully

  13. Average and effective Q-values for fission product average (n...

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    Technical Report: Average and effective Q-values for fission product average (n,2n) and (n,3n) reaction cross sections Citation Details In-Document Search Title: Average and...

  14. Dynamic Multiscale Averaging (DMA) of Turbulent Flow

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Richard W. Johnson

    2012-09-01

    A new approach called dynamic multiscale averaging (DMA) for computing the effects of turbulent flow is described. The new method encompasses multiple applications of temporal and spatial averaging, that is, multiscale operations. Initially, a direct numerical simulation (DNS) is performed for a relatively short time; it is envisioned that this short time should be long enough to capture several fluctuating time periods of the smallest scales. The flow field variables are subject to running time averaging during the DNS. After the relatively short time, the time-averaged variables are volume averaged onto a coarser grid. Both time and volume averaging of the describing equations generate correlations in the averaged equations. These correlations are computed from the flow field and added as source terms to the computation on the next coarser mesh. They represent coupling between the two adjacent scales. Since they are computed directly from first principles, there is no modeling involved. However, there is approximation involved in the coupling correlations as the flow field has been computed for only a relatively short time. After the time and spatial averaging operations are applied at a given stage, new computations are performed on the next coarser mesh using a larger time step. The process continues until the coarsest scale needed is reached. New correlations are created for each averaging procedure. The number of averaging operations needed is expected to be problem dependent. The new DMA approach is applied to a relatively low Reynolds number flow in a square duct segment. Time-averaged stream-wise velocity and vorticity contours from the DMA approach appear to be very similar to a full DNS for a similar flow reported in the literature. Expected symmetry for the final results is produced for the DMA method. The results obtained indicate that DMA holds significant potential in being able to accurately compute turbulent flow without modeling for practical engineering applications.

  15. Spacetime Average Density (SAD) cosmological measures

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Page, Don N.

    2014-11-01

    The measure problem of cosmology is how to obtain normalized probabilities of observations from the quantum state of the universe. This is particularly a problem when eternal inflation leads to a universe of unbounded size so that there are apparently infinitely many realizations or occurrences of observations of each of many different kinds or types, making the ratios ambiguous. There is also the danger of domination by Boltzmann Brains. Here two new Spacetime Average Density (SAD) measures are proposed, Maximal Average Density (MAD) and Biased Average Density (BAD), for getting a finite number of observation occurrences by using properties of the Spacetime Average Density (SAD) of observation occurrences to restrict to finite regions of spacetimes that have a preferred beginning or bounce hypersurface. These measures avoid Boltzmann brain domination and appear to give results consistent with other observations that are problematic for other widely used measures, such as the observation of a positive cosmological constant.

  16. Polarized electron beams at milliampere average current

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Poelker, Matthew

    2013-11-01

    This contribution describes some of the challenges associated with developing a polarized electron source capable of uninterrupted days-long operation at milliAmpere average beam current with polarization greater than 80%. Challenges will be presented in the context of assessing the required level of extrapolation beyond the performance of today's CEBAF polarized source operating at ~ 200 uA average current. Estimates of performance at higher current will be based on hours-long demonstrations at 1 and 4 mA. Particular attention will be paid to beam-related lifetime-limiting mechanisms, and strategies to construct a photogun that operate reliably at bias voltage > 350kV.

  17. Average and effective Q-values for fission product average (n,2n) and

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    (n,3n) reaction cross sections (Technical Report) | SciTech Connect Technical Report: Average and effective Q-values for fission product average (n,2n) and (n,3n) reaction cross sections Citation Details In-Document Search Title: Average and effective Q-values for fission product average (n,2n) and (n,3n) reaction cross sections Authors: Kawano, Toshihiko [1] + Show Author Affiliations Los Alamos National Laboratory (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States) Publication Date: 2015-10-01 OSTI

  18. Table 1. Real Average Transportation and Delivered Costs of Coal...

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    Real Average Transportation and Delivered Costs of Coal, By Year and Primary Transport Mode" "Year","Average Transportation Cost of Coal (Dollars per Ton)","Average Delivered Cost...

  19. Fact #693: September 19, 2011 Average Vehicle Footprint for Cars...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    the average track width of the vehicle. The upcoming Corporate Average Fuel Economy (CAFE) Standards have fuel economy targets based on the vehicle footprint. The average...

  20. Annual average efficiency of a solar thermochemical reactor....

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    Annual average efficiency of a solar thermochemical reactor. Citation Details In-Document Search Title: Annual average efficiency of a solar thermochemical reactor. Abstract not ...

  1. High Average Brightness Photocathode Development for FEL Applications...

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    Conference: High Average Brightness Photocathode Development for FEL Applications Citation Details In-Document Search Title: High Average Brightness Photocathode Development for...

  2. Fact #889: September 7, 2015 Average Diesel Price Lower than...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    9: September 7, 2015 Average Diesel Price Lower than Gasoline for the First Time in Six Years Fact 889: September 7, 2015 Average Diesel Price Lower than Gasoline for the First...

  3. Fact #889: September 7, 2015 Average Diesel Price Lower than...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Fact 889: September 7, 2015 Average Diesel Price Lower than Gasoline for the First Time in Six Years - Dataset Excel file and dataset for Average Diesel Price Lower than Gasoline ...

  4. Fact #835: August 25, 2014 Average Annual Gasoline Pump Price...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Fact 835: August 25, 2014 Average Annual Gasoline Pump Price, 1929-2013 - Dataset Excel file with dataset for Fact 835: Average Annual Gasoline Pump Price, 1929-2013 File ...

  5. Fact #915: March 7, 2016 Average Historical Annual Gasoline Pump...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Fact 915: March 7, 2016 Average Historical Annual Gasoline Pump Price, 1929-2015 - Dataset Excel file and dataset for Average Historical Annual Gasoline Pump Price, 1929-2015 File ...

  6. U.S. Oxygenated, Average Refiner Gasoline Prices

    Annual Energy Outlook [U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA)]

    - - - - - - 1994-2014 Through Retail Outlets 1994-2006 Sales for Resale, Average - - - - - - 1994-2014 DTW 1994-2006 Rack 1994-2006 Bulk 1994-2006

  7. "Table 2. Real Average Annual Coal Transportation Costs, By Primary...

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    Real Average Annual Coal Transportation Costs, By Primary Transport Mode and Supply Region" "(2013 dollars per ton)" "Coal Supply Region",2008,2009,2010,2011,2012,2013 "Railroad"...

  8. Turning Bayesian model averaging into Bayesian model combination...

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    Turning Bayesian model averaging into Bayesian model combination Authors: Carroll, James 1 ; Monteith, Kristine 2 ; Seppi, Kevin 2 ; Martinez, Tony 2 + Show Author...

  9. High Average Brightness Photocathode Development for FEL Applications...

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    High Average Brightness Photocathode Development for FEL Applications Citation Details ... OFFICE OF SCIENCE (SC) Country of Publication: United States Language: English Subject: 46

  10. Fact #870: April 27, 2015 Corporate Average Fuel Economy Progress,

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    1978-2014 | Department of Energy 70: April 27, 2015 Corporate Average Fuel Economy Progress, 1978-2014 Fact #870: April 27, 2015 Corporate Average Fuel Economy Progress, 1978-2014 The Corporate Average Fuel Economy (CAFE) is the sales-weighted harmonic mean fuel economy of a manufacturer's fleet of new cars or light trucks in a certain model year (MY). First enacted by Congress in 1975, the standards for cars began in MY 1978 and for light trucks in MY 1979. In general, the average of all

  11. Electric Sales, Revenue, and Average Price 2011 - Energy Information...

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    Alphabetical Frequency Tag Cloud See All Electricity Reports Electric Sales, Revenue, and Average Price With Data for 2014 | Release Date: October 21, 2015 | Next Release Date: ...

  12. "2014 Average Monthly Bill- Industrial"

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    Industrial" "(Data from forms EIA-861- schedules 4A-D, EIA-861S and EIA-861U)" "State","Number of Customers","Average Monthly Consumption (kWh)","Average Price (cents/kWh)","Average Monthly Bill (Dollar and cents)" "New England",28017,56832.854,11.842263,6730.2959 "Connecticut",4648,63016.315,12.915601,8138.9361 "Maine",3023,92553.92,8.9475131,8281.2741

  13. "2014 Average Monthly Bill- Residential"

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    Residential" "(Data from forms EIA-861- schedules 4A-D, EIA-861S and EIA-861U)" "State","Number of Customers","Average Monthly Consumption (kWh)","Average Price (cents/kWh)","Average Monthly Bill (Dollar and cents)" "New England",6243013,630.1915,17.822291,112.31456 "Connecticut",1459239,729.69421,19.748254,144.10186 "Maine",706952,549.37782,15.272983,83.90638

  14. U.S. Refiner Sales to End Users (Average) Prices

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    Sales Type: Sales to End Users, Average Through Retail Outlets Sales for Resale, Average DTW Rack Bulk Download Series History Download Series History Definitions, Sources & Notes Definitions, Sources & Notes Show Data By: Formulation/ Grade Sales Type Jul-15 Aug-15 Sep-15 Oct-15 Nov-15 Dec-15 View History Conventional, Average 2.161 2.057 1.785 1.759 1.601 1.472 1994-2015 Conventional Regular 2.124 2.018 1.743 1.721 1.562 1.431 1994-2015 Conventional Midgrade 2.325 2.229 1.985 1.923

  15. Fact #624: May 24, 2010 Corporate Average Fuel Economy Standards...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Standards, Model Years 2012-2016 The final rule for the Corporate Average Fuel Economy (CAFE) Standards was published in March 2010. Under this rule, each light vehicle model...

  16. Does anyone have access to 2012 average residential rates by...

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    Does anyone have access to 2012 average residential rates by utility company? I'm seeing an inconsistency between the OpenEI website and EIA 861 data set. Home > Groups > Utility...

  17. Table 14b. Average Electricity Prices, Projected vs. Actual

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    b. Average Electricity Prices, Projected vs. Actual" "Projected Price in Nominal Dollars" " (nominal dollars, cents per kilowatt-hour)" ,1993,1994,1995,1996,1997,1998,1999,2000,200...

  18. Table 14b. Average Electricity Prices, Projected vs. Actual

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    b. Average Electricity Prices, Projected vs. Actual Projected Price in Nominal Dollars (nominal dollars, cents per kilowatt-hour) 1993 1994 1995 1996 1997 1998 1999 2000 2001 2002...

  19. Pennsylvania Average Price of Natural Gas Delivered to Residential...

    Annual Energy Outlook [U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA)]

    67 15.82 17.83 18.62 18.32 NA 1989-2015 Commercial Average Price 10.73 11.25 12.09 11.21 11.10 NA...

  20. Averaged null energy condition violation in a conformally flat spacetime

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Urban, Douglas; Olum, Ken D.

    2010-01-15

    We show that the averaged null energy condition can be violated by a conformally coupled scalar field in a conformally flat spacetime in 3+1 dimensions. The violation is dependent on the quantum state and can be made as large as desired. It does not arise from the presence of anomalies, although anomalous violations are also possible. Since all geodesics in conformally flat spacetimes are achronal, the achronal averaged null energy condition is likewise violated.

  1. High Average Brightness Photocathode Development for FEL Applications

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    (Conference) | SciTech Connect High Average Brightness Photocathode Development for FEL Applications Citation Details In-Document Search Title: High Average Brightness Photocathode Development for FEL Applications Authors: Rao T. ; Ben-Zvi I. ; Skarita, J. ; Wang, E. Publication Date: 2013-08-26 OSTI Identifier: 1095687 Report Number(s): BNL--101607-2013-CP KA-04 DOE Contract Number: DE-AC02-98CH10886 Resource Type: Conference Resource Relation: Conference: 35th International Free Electron

  2. Flavor Physics Data from the Heavy Flavor Averaging Group (HFAG)

    DOE Data Explorer [Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)]

    The Heavy Flavor Averaging Group (HFAG) was established at the May 2002 Flavor Physics and CP Violation Conference in Philadelphia, and continues the LEP Heavy Flavor Steering Group's tradition of providing regular updates to the world averages of heavy flavor quantities. Data are provided by six subgroups that each focus on a different set of heavy flavor measurements: B lifetimes and oscillation parameters, Semi-leptonic B decays, Rare B decays, Unitarity triangle parameters, B decays to charm final states, and Charm Physics.

  3. Strongly Coupled Data Assimilation Using Leading Averaged Coupled

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    Covariance (LACC). Part II: CGCM experiments (Journal Article) | SciTech Connect Strongly Coupled Data Assimilation Using Leading Averaged Coupled Covariance (LACC). Part II: CGCM experiments Citation Details In-Document Search Title: Strongly Coupled Data Assimilation Using Leading Averaged Coupled Covariance (LACC). Part II: CGCM experiments Authors: Liu, Feiyu ; Liu, Zhengyu ; Zhang, S. ; Liu, Y. ; Jacob, Robert L. Publication Date: 2015-11-01 OSTI Identifier: 1237902 DOE Contract Number:

  4. High average power scaleable thin-disk laser

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Beach, Raymond J. (Livermore, CA); Honea, Eric C. (Sunol, CA); Bibeau, Camille (Dublin, CA); Payne, Stephen A. (Castro Valley, CA); Powell, Howard (Livermore, CA); Krupke, William F. (Pleasanton, CA); Sutton, Steven B. (Manteca, CA)

    2002-01-01

    Using a thin disk laser gain element with an undoped cap layer enables the scaling of lasers to extremely high average output power values. Ordinarily, the power scaling of such thin disk lasers is limited by the deleterious effects of amplified spontaneous emission. By using an undoped cap layer diffusion bonded to the thin disk, the onset of amplified spontaneous emission does not occur as readily as if no cap layer is used, and much larger transverse thin disks can be effectively used as laser gain elements. This invention can be used as a high average power laser for material processing applications as well as for weapon and air defense applications.

  5. Turning Bayesian model averaging into Bayesian model combination

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    (Conference) | SciTech Connect Turning Bayesian model averaging into Bayesian model combination Citation Details In-Document Search Title: Turning Bayesian model averaging into Bayesian model combination Authors: Carroll, James [1] ; Monteith, Kristine [2] ; Seppi, Kevin [2] ; Martinez, Tony [2] + Show Author Affiliations Los Alamos National Laboratory BYU Publication Date: 2011-07-28 OSTI Identifier: 1084524 Report Number(s): LA-UR-11-04419; LA-UR-11-4419 DOE Contract Number: AC52-06NA25396

  6. U.S. average gasoline price up slightly

    Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update (EIA)

    U.S. average gasoline price up slightly The U.S. average retail price for regular gasoline rose slightly to $3.65 a gallon on Monday. That's up a tenth of a penny from a week ago, based on the weekly price survey by the U.S. Energy Information Administration. Pump prices were highest in the West Coast region at 3.89 a gallon, down 4.4 cents from a week ago. Prices were lowest in the Gulf Coast States at 3.34 a gallon, down 2.6 cents. Jonathan Cogan for EIA,

  7. Turning Bayesian model averaging into Bayesian model combination

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    (Conference) | SciTech Connect Turning Bayesian model averaging into Bayesian model combination Citation Details In-Document Search Title: Turning Bayesian model averaging into Bayesian model combination Authors: Carroll, James [1] ; Monteith, Kristine [2] ; Seppi, Kevin [2] ; Martinez, Tony [2] + Show Author Affiliations Los Alamos National Laboratory BYU Publication Date: 2011-07-28 OSTI Identifier: 1084524 Report Number(s): LA-UR-11-04419; LA-UR-11-4419 DOE Contract Number: AC52-06NA25396

  8. Hydropower Upgrades to Yield Added Generation at Average Costs...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    technologies such as high-efficiency, fish-friendly turbines, improved water intakes, ... In addition, the project will incorporate an upstream fish collection pool to enable ...

  9. Solar: monthly and annual average direct normal (DNI) GIS data...

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    Download Carribean Islands Central America DNI GIS Mexico NREL GEF SWERA UNEP atmospheric water v... solar Additional Info Field Value Source www.nrel.gov Author National Renewable...

  10. Parity-violating anomalies and the stationarity of stochastic averages

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Reuter, M.

    1988-01-15

    Within the framework of stochastic quantization the parity-violating anomalies in odd space-time dimensions are derived from the asymptotic stationarity of the stochastic average of a certain fermion bilinear. Contrary to earlier attempts, this method yields the correct anomalies for both massive and massless fermions.

  11. Speckle averaging system for laser raster-scan image projection

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Tiszauer, Detlev H. (Tracy, CA); Hackel, Lloyd A. (Livermore, CA)

    1998-03-17

    The viewers' perception of laser speckle in a laser-scanned image projection system is modified or eliminated by the addition of an optical deflection system that effectively presents a new speckle realization at each point on the viewing screen to each viewer for every scan across the field. The speckle averaging is accomplished without introduction of spurious imaging artifacts.

  12. Speckle averaging system for laser raster-scan image projection

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Tiszauer, D.H.; Hackel, L.A.

    1998-03-17

    The viewers` perception of laser speckle in a laser-scanned image projection system is modified or eliminated by the addition of an optical deflection system that effectively presents a new speckle realization at each point on the viewing screen to each viewer for every scan across the field. The speckle averaging is accomplished without introduction of spurious imaging artifacts. 5 figs.

  13. Florida Average Price of Natural Gas Delivered to Residential and

    Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update (EIA)

    Commercial Consumers by Local Distribution and Markete 4.58 24.59 24.41 23.37 21.56 19.15 1989-2015 Commercial Average Price 10.92 10.91 11.15 10.61 10.69 10.89

  14. Georgia Average Price of Natural Gas Delivered to Residential and

    Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update (EIA)

    Commercial Consumers by Local Distribution and Markete 5.45 24.78 25.75 20.43 15.20 14.41 1989-2015 Commercial Average Price 9.08 9.07 9.38 8.65 9.72 7.80

  15. Virginia Average Price of Natural Gas Delivered to Residential and

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    Commercial Consumers by Local Distribution and Market 20.25 21.10 19.45 NA 11.72 12.09 1989-2015 Commercial Average Price 8.55 8.58 8.91 8.02 7.57 7.9

  16. Maryland Average Price of Natural Gas Delivered to Residential...

    Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update (EIA)

    8.35 18.44 19.08 19.39 13.51 12.72 1989-2015 Commercial Average Price 11.74 10.98 11.61 11.11 9.98 9.56...

  17. Michigan Average Price of Natural Gas Delivered to Residential...

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    2.50 13.65 13.52 13.21 8.93 7.84 1989-2015 Commercial Average Price 8.91 9.31 9.17 9.05 7.46 6.75...

  18. New York Average Price of Natural Gas Delivered to Residential...

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    6.28 17.10 17.33 17.53 14.26 12.27 1989-2015 Commercial Average Price 6.84 6.08 5.75 5.99 6.27 6.3...

  19. Maryland Average Price of Natural Gas Delivered to Residential...

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    Local Distribution Companies 12.20 2006-2010 Marketers 13.51 2006-2010 Percent Sold by Local Distribution Companies 81.7 2006-2010 Commercial Average Price 9.87 10.29 10.00 10.06 ...

  20. Florida Average Price of Natural Gas Delivered to Residential...

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    Local Distribution Companies 17.85 2006-2010 Marketers 19.44 2006-2010 Percent Sold by Local Distribution Companies 97.9 2006-2010 Commercial Average Price 10.60 11.14 10.41 10.87 ...

  1. New Jersey Average Price of Natural Gas Delivered to Residential...

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    Local Distribution Companies 12.77 2006-2010 Marketers 14.87 2006-2010 Percent Sold by Local Distribution Companies 96.6 2006-2010 Commercial Average Price 10.11 9.51 8.50 9.55 ...

  2. Michigan Average Price of Natural Gas Delivered to Residential...

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    Commercial Average Price 8.95 9.14 8.35 7.82 8.28 7.49 1967-2015 Local Distribution Companies 10.00 2006-2010 Marketers 7.61 2006-2010 Percent Sold by Local Distribution Companies ...

  3. Virginia Average Price of Natural Gas Delivered to Residential...

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    Local Distribution Companies 12.64 2006-2010 Marketers 13.64 2006-2010 Percent Sold by Local Distribution Companies 90.9 2006-2010 Commercial Average Price 9.55 9.69 8.77 8.83 9.17 ...

  4. Pennsylvania Average Price of Natural Gas Delivered to Residential...

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    Local Distribution Companies 12.82 2006-2010 Marketers 13.78 2006-2010 Percent Sold by Local Distribution Companies 91.2 2006-2010 Commercial Average Price 10.47 10.42 10.24 10.11 ...

  5. District of Columbia Average Price of Natural Gas Delivered to...

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    Average Price 12.26 12.24 11.19 11.64 12.18 11.55 1980-2015 Local Distribution Companies 12.99 2006-2010 Marketers 12.12 2006-2010 Percent Sold by Local Distribution Companies 16.4 ...

  6. Modeling an Application's Theoretical Minimum and Average Transactional Response Times

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Paiz, Mary Rose

    2015-04-01

    The theoretical minimum transactional response time of an application serves as a ba- sis for the expected response time. The lower threshold for the minimum response time represents the minimum amount of time that the application should take to complete a transaction. Knowing the lower threshold is beneficial in detecting anomalies that are re- sults of unsuccessful transactions. On the converse, when an application's response time falls above an upper threshold, there is likely an anomaly in the application that is causing unusual performance issues in the transaction. This report explains how the non-stationary Generalized Extreme Value distribution is used to estimate the lower threshold of an ap- plication's daily minimum transactional response time. It also explains how the seasonal Autoregressive Integrated Moving Average time series model is used to estimate the upper threshold for an application's average transactional response time.

  7. Average dynamics of a finite set of coupled phase oscillators

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Dima, Germán C. Mindlin, Gabriel B.

    2014-06-15

    We study the solutions of a dynamical system describing the average activity of an infinitely large set of driven coupled excitable units. We compared their topological organization with that reconstructed from the numerical integration of finite sets. In this way, we present a strategy to establish the pertinence of approximating the dynamics of finite sets of coupled nonlinear units by the dynamics of its infinitely large surrogate.

  8. Averaging cross section data so we can fit it

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Brown, D.

    2014-10-23

    The 56Fe cross section we are interested in have a lot of fluctuations. We would like to fit the average of the cross section with cross sections calculated within EMPIRE. EMPIRE is a Hauser-Feshbach theory based nuclear reaction code, requires cross sections to be smoothed using a Lorentzian profile. The plan is to fit EMPIRE to these cross sections in the fast region (say above 500 keV).

  9. Table A44. Average Prices of Purchased Electricity and Steam

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    4. Average Prices of Purchased Electricity and Steam" " by Type of Supplier, Census Region, Census Division, and" " Economic Characteristics of the Establishment, 1994" " (Estimates in Dollars per Physical Units)" ," Electricity",," Steam" ," (kWh)",," (million Btu)" ,,,,,"RSE" ,"Utility","Nonutility","Utility","Nonutility","Row" "Economic

  10. Table 14a. Average Electricity Prices, Projected vs. Actual

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    a. Average Electricity Prices, Projected vs. Actual" "Projected Price in Constant Dollars" " (constant dollars, cents per kilowatt-hour in ""dollar year"" specific to each AEO)" ,"AEO $ Year",1993,1994,1995,1996,1997,1998,1999,2000,2001,2002,2003,2004,2005,2006,2007,2008,2009,2010,2011,2012,2013 "AEO 1994",1992,6.799,6.7999,6.9,6.9,6.9,6.9,7,7,7.1,7.1,7.2,7.2,7.2,7.3,7.3,7.4,7.5,7.6 "AEO

  11. U.S. Conventional, Average Refiner Gasoline Prices

    Annual Energy Outlook [U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA)]

    1.841 2.259 3.008 3.083 2.977 2.778 1994-2014 Through Retail Outlets 1.845 2.264 3.016 3.098 2.997 2.800 1994-2014 Sales for Resale, Average 1.738 2.143 2.841 2.886 2.774 2.587 1994-2014 DTW 1.843 2.270 2.939 3.024 2.825 2.736 1994-2014 Rack 1.750 2.155 2.851 2.887 2.775 2.589 1994-2014 Bulk 1.664 2.069 2.758 2.843 2.755 2.535 1994-2014

  12. U.S. Conventional, Average Refiner Gasoline Prices

    Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update (EIA)

    161 2.057 1.785 1.759 1.601 1.472 1994-2015 Through Retail Outlets 2.160 2.058 1.786 1.760 1.602 1.472 1994-2015 Sales for Resale, Average 1.975 1.763 1.553 1.513 1.373 1.290 1994-2015 DTW 2.319 2.109 1.812 1.637 1.591 1.532 1994-2015 Rack 1.965 1.759 1.559 1.519 1.372 1.288 1994-2015 Bulk 1.991 1.707 1.449 1.413 1.326 1.254

  13. U.S. Reformulated, Average Refiner Gasoline Prices

    Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update (EIA)

    660 2.501 2.155 2.007 1.905 1.836 1994-2015 Through Retail Outlets 2.661 2.503 2.157 2.008 1.907 1.837 1994-2015 Sales for Resale, Average 2.283 1.996 1.728 1.651 1.537 1.497 1994-2015 DTW 2.795 2.477 2.128 1.979 1.864 1.854 1994-2015 Rack 2.165 1.886 1.634 1.577 1.459 1.412 1994-2015 Bulk 2.208 1.866 1.645 1.566 1.524 1.456

  14. Table 17. Average Price of U.S. Coke Exports

    Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update (EIA)

    7. Average Price of U.S. Coke Exports (dollars per short ton) Year to Date Continent and Country of Destination July - September 2015 April - June 2015 July - September 2014 2015 2014 Percent Change North America Total 234.67 253.60 264.43 252.47 261.48 -3.4 Canada* 209.80 247.54 287.72 243.43 285.74 -14.8 Mexico 460.37 307.48 200.84 305.69 217.48 40.6 Other** 643.59 666.50 577.54 640.63 545.34 17.5 South America Total 135.27 - 465.18 252.87 154.98 63.2 Other** 135.27 - 465.18 252.87 154.98 63.2

  15. Table 19. Average Price of U.S. Coal Imports

    Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update (EIA)

    9. Average Price of U.S. Coal Imports (dollars per short ton) Year to Date Continent and Country of Origin July - September 2015 April - June 2015 July - September 2014 2015 2014 Percent Change North America Total 121.76 122.71 133.33 119.13 130.81 -8.9 Canada 121.76 122.71 133.33 119.13 130.81 -8.9 Mexico - - 209.82 113.43 209.82 -45.9 South America Total 65.22 66.89 76.03 67.64 78.56 -13.9 Colombia 65.34 66.89 75.63 67.59 78.37 -13.8 Peru - 92.99 81.65 86.24 81.65 5.6 Venezuela 57.60 - 90.59

  16. Table 22. Average Price of U.S. Coke Imports

    Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update (EIA)

    2. Average Price of U.S. Coke Imports (dollars per short ton) Year to Date Continent and Country of Origin July - September 2015 April - June 2015 July - September 2014 2015 2014 Percent Change North America Total 120.37 192.95 189.61 131.75 96.81 36.1 Canada 120.37 192.95 189.61 131.75 96.81 36.1 South America Total 201.39 274.73 223.17 202.76 223.17 -9.1 Colombia 201.39 274.73 223.17 202.76 223.17 -9.1 Europe Total 120.34 302.86 363.18 153.02 397.65 -61.5 Czech Republic - 288.36 - 288.36 - -

  17. Table 8. Average Price of U.S. Coal Exports

    Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update (EIA)

    8. Average Price of U.S. Coal Exports (dollars per short ton) Year to Date Continent and Country of Destination July - September 2015 April - June 2015 July - September 2014 2015 2014 Percent Change North America Total 82.44 83.85 79.86 81.55 76.14 7.1 Canada* 89.71 89.92 84.62 88.24 75.55 16.8 Dominican Republic 77.11 78.67 56.46 84.15 53.14 58.4 Guatemala 34.59 103.41 - 45.24 81.92 -44.8 Honduras 45.36 45.36 54.43 47.54 54.43 -12.7 Jamaica 80.74 90.72 55.34 73.19 54.88 33.4 Mexico 74.06 75.06

  18. Average System Cost Methodology : Administrator's Record of Decision.

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    United States. Bonneville Power Administration.

    1984-06-01

    Significant features of average system cost (ASC) methodology adopted are: retention of the jurisdictional approach where retail rate orders of regulartory agencies provide primary data for computing the ASC for utilities participating in the residential exchange; inclusion of transmission costs; exclusion of construction work in progress; use of a utility's weighted cost of debt securities; exclusion of income taxes; simplification of separation procedures for subsidized generation and transmission accounts from other accounts; clarification of ASC methodology rules; more generous review timetable for individual filings; phase-in of reformed methodology; and each exchanging utility must file under the new methodology within 20 days of implementation by the Federal Energy Regulatory Commission of the ten major participating utilities, the revised ASC will substantially only affect three. (PSB)

  19. Gauge and averaging in gravitational self-force

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Gralla, Samuel E.

    2011-10-15

    A difficulty with previous treatments of the gravitational self-force is that an explicit formula for the force is available only in a particular gauge (Lorenz gauge), where the force in other gauges must be found through a transformation law once the Lorenz-gauge force is known. For a class of gauges satisfying a 'parity condition' ensuring that the Hamiltonian center of mass of the particle is well-defined, I show that the gravitational self-force is always given by the angle average of the bare gravitational force. To derive this result I replace the computational strategy of previous work with a new approach, wherein the form of the force is first fixed up to a gauge-invariant piece by simple manipulations, and then that piece is determined by working in a gauge designed specifically to simplify the computation. This offers significant computational savings over the Lorenz gauge, since the Hadamard expansion is avoided entirely and the metric perturbation takes a very simple form. I also show that the rest mass of the particle does not evolve due to first-order self-force effects. Finally, I consider the 'mode sum regularization' scheme for computing the self-force in black hole background spacetimes, and use the angle-average form of the force to show that the same mode-by-mode subtraction may be performed in all parity-regular gauges. It appears plausible that suitably modified versions of the Regge-Wheeler and radiation gauges (convenient to Schwarzschild and Kerr, respectively) are in this class.

  20. Table 14a. Average Electricity Prices, Projected vs. Actual

    Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update (EIA)

    a. Average Electricity Prices, Projected vs. Actual Projected Price in Constant Dollars (constant dollars, cents per kilowatt-hour in "dollar year" specific to each AEO) AEO $ Year 1993 1994 1995 1996 1997 1998 1999 2000 2001 2002 2003 2004 2005 2006 2007 2008 2009 2010 2011 2012 2013 AEO 1994 1992 6.80 6.80 6.90 6.90 6.90 6.90 7.00 7.00 7.10 7.10 7.20 7.20 7.20 7.30 7.30 7.40 7.50 7.60 AEO 1995 1993 6.80 6.80 6.70 6.70 6.70 6.70 6.70 6.80 6.80 6.90 6.90 6.90 7.00 7.00 7.10 7.10 7.20

  1. Ensemble bayesian model averaging using markov chain Monte Carlo sampling

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Vrugt, Jasper A; Diks, Cees G H; Clark, Martyn P

    2008-01-01

    Bayesian model averaging (BMA) has recently been proposed as a statistical method to calibrate forecast ensembles from numerical weather models. Successful implementation of BMA however, requires accurate estimates of the weights and variances of the individual competing models in the ensemble. In their seminal paper (Raftery etal. Mon Weather Rev 133: 1155-1174, 2(05)) has recommended the Expectation-Maximization (EM) algorithm for BMA model training, even though global convergence of this algorithm cannot be guaranteed. In this paper, we compare the performance of the EM algorithm and the recently developed Differential Evolution Adaptive Metropolis (DREAM) Markov Chain Monte Carlo (MCMC) algorithm for estimating the BMA weights and variances. Simulation experiments using 48-hour ensemble data of surface temperature and multi-model stream-flow forecasts show that both methods produce similar results, and that their performance is unaffected by the length of the training data set. However, MCMC simulation with DREAM is capable of efficiently handling a wide variety of BMA predictive distributions, and provides useful information about the uncertainty associated with the estimated BMA weights and variances.

  2. High average power magnetic modulator for copper lasers

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Cook, E.G.; Ball, D.G.; Birx, D.L.; Branum, J.D.; Peluso, S.E.; Langford, M.D.; Speer, R.D.; Sullivan, J.R.; Woods, P.G.

    1991-06-14

    Magnetic compression circuits show the promise of long life for operation at high average powers and high repetition rates. When the Atomic Vapor Laser Isotope Separation (AVLIS) Program at Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory needed new modulators to drive their higher power copper lasers in the Laser Demonstration Facility (LDF), existing technology using thyratron switched capacitor inversion circuits did not meet the goal for long lifetimes at the required power levels. We have demonstrated that magnetic compression circuits can achieve this goal. Improving thyratron lifetime is achieved by increasing the thyratron conduction time, thereby reducing the effect of cathode depletion. This paper describes a three stage magnetic modulator designed to provide a 60 kV pulse to a copper laser at a 4. 5 kHz repetition rate. This modulator operates at 34 kW input power and has exhibited MTBF of {approx}1000 hours when using thyratrons and even longer MTBFs with a series of stack of SCRs for the main switch. Within this paper, the electrical and mechanical designs for the magnetic compression circuits are discussed as are the important performance parameters of lifetime and jitter. Ancillary circuits such as the charge circuit and reset circuit are shown. 8 refs., 5 figs., 1 tab.

  3. Fact #615: March 22, 2010 Average Vehicle Trip Length | Department of

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Energy 5: March 22, 2010 Average Vehicle Trip Length Fact #615: March 22, 2010 Average Vehicle Trip Length According to the latest National Household Travel Survey, the average trip length grew to over 10 miles in 2009, just slightly over the 9.9 mile average in 2001. Trips to work in 2009 increased to an average of 12.6 miles. The average trip length has been growing each survey year since the lowest average in 1983. Average Vehicle Trip Length, 1969-2009 Graph showing the average vehicle

  4. Fact #744: September 10, 2012 Average New Light Vehicle Price Grows Faster

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    than Average Used Light Vehicle Price | Department of Energy 4: September 10, 2012 Average New Light Vehicle Price Grows Faster than Average Used Light Vehicle Price Fact #744: September 10, 2012 Average New Light Vehicle Price Grows Faster than Average Used Light Vehicle Price In 2011 the average used light vehicle price was 36% higher than in 1990, while the average new light vehicle price was 67% higher than it was in 1990. The average price of a used vehicle had been between $6,000 and

  5. Fact #614: March 15, 2010 Average Age of Household Vehicles | Department of

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Energy 4: March 15, 2010 Average Age of Household Vehicles Fact #614: March 15, 2010 Average Age of Household Vehicles The average age of household vehicles has increased from 6.6 years in 1977 to 9.2 years in 2009. Pickup trucks have the oldest average age in every year listed. Sport utility vehicles (SUVs), first reported in the 1995 survey, have the youngest average age. Average Vehicle Age by Vehicle Type Graph showing the average vehicle age by type (car, van, pickup, SUV, all household

  6. Fact #671: April 18, 2011 Average Truck Speeds | Department of Energy

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    1: April 18, 2011 Average Truck Speeds Fact #671: April 18, 2011 Average Truck Speeds The Federal Highway Administration studies traffic volume and flow on major truck routes by tracking more than 500,000 trucks. The average speed of trucks on selected interstate highways is between 50 and 60 miles per hour (mph). The average operating speed of trucks is typically below 55 mph in major urban areas, border crossings, and in mountainous terrain. The difference in average speed between peak traffic

  7. Derivation of 24-Hour Average SO2, Background for the Update...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Derivation of 24-Hour Average SO2, Background for the Update 1 Report Derivation of 24-Hour Average SO2, Background for the Update 1 Report Docket No. EO-05-01. As supporting...

  8. Fact #693: September 19, 2011 Average Vehicle Footprint for Cars and Light

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Trucks | Department of Energy 3: September 19, 2011 Average Vehicle Footprint for Cars and Light Trucks Fact #693: September 19, 2011 Average Vehicle Footprint for Cars and Light Trucks A vehicle footprint is the area defined by the four points where the tires touch the ground. It is calculated as the product of the wheelbase and the average track width of the vehicle. The upcoming Corporate Average Fuel Economy (CAFE) Standards have fuel economy targets based on the vehicle footprint. The

  9. Fact #835: August 25, 2014 Average Annual Gasoline Pump Price, 1929-2013

    Office of Environmental Management (EM)

    - Dataset | Department of Energy 35: August 25, 2014 Average Annual Gasoline Pump Price, 1929-2013 - Dataset Fact #835: August 25, 2014 Average Annual Gasoline Pump Price, 1929-2013 - Dataset Excel file with dataset for Fact #835: Average Annual Gasoline Pump Price, 1929-2013 File fotw#835_web.xlsx More Documents & Publications Fact #915: March 7, 2016 Average Historical Annual Gasoline Pump Price, 1929-2015 - Dataset Fact #888: August 31, 2015 Historical Gas Prices - Dataset Offshore

  10. ,"Housing Units1","Average Square Footage Per Housing Unit",,,"Average Square Footage Per Household Member"

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    0 Average Square Footage of Northeast Homes, by Housing Characteristics, 2009" " Final" ,"Housing Units1","Average Square Footage Per Housing Unit",,,"Average Square Footage Per Household Member" "Housing Characteristics","Millions","Total2","Heated","Cooled","Total2","Heated","Cooled" "Total Northeast",20.8,2121,1663,921,836,656,363 "Northeast Divisions and

  11. ,"Housing Units1","Average Square Footage Per Housing Unit",,,"Average Square Footage Per Household Member"

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    1 Average Square Footage of Midwest Homes, by Housing Characteristics, 2009" " Final" ,"Housing Units1","Average Square Footage Per Housing Unit",,,"Average Square Footage Per Household Member" "Housing Characteristics","Millions","Total2","Heated","Cooled","Total2","Heated","Cooled" "Total Midwest",25.9,2272,1898,1372,912,762,551 "Midwest Divisions and

  12. ,"Housing Units1","Average Square Footage Per Housing Unit",,,"Average Square Footage Per Household Member"

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    2 Average Square Footage of South Homes, by Housing Characteristics, 2009" " Final" ,"Housing Units1","Average Square Footage Per Housing Unit",,,"Average Square Footage Per Household Member" "Housing Characteristics","Millions","Total2","Heated","Cooled","Total2","Heated","Cooled" "Total South",42.1,1867,1637,1549,732,642,607 "South Divisions and

  13. ,"Housing Units1","Average Square Footage Per Housing Unit",,,"Average Square Footage Per Household Member"

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    3 Average Square Footage of West Homes, by Housing Characteristics, 2009" " Final" ,"Housing Units1","Average Square Footage Per Housing Unit",,,"Average Square Footage Per Household Member" "Housing Characteristics","Millions","Total2","Heated","Cooled","Total2","Heated","Cooled" "Total West",24.8,1708,1374,800,628,506,294 "West Divisions and States"

  14. ,"Housing Units1","Average Square Footage Per Housing Unit",,,"Average Square Footage Per Household Member"

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    4 Average Square Footage of Single-Family Homes, by Housing Characteristics, 2009" " Final" ,"Housing Units1","Average Square Footage Per Housing Unit",,,"Average Square Footage Per Household Member" "Housing Characteristics","Millions","Total2","Heated","Cooled","Total2","Heated","Cooled" "Total Single-Family",78.6,2422,2002,1522,880,727,553 "Census

  15. ,"Housing Units1","Average Square Footage Per Housing Unit",,,"Average Square Footage Per Household Member"

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    5 Average Square Footage of Multi-Family Homes, by Housing Characteristics, 2009" " Final" ,"Housing Units1","Average Square Footage Per Housing Unit",,,"Average Square Footage Per Household Member" "Housing Characteristics","Millions","Total2","Heated","Cooled","Total2","Heated","Cooled" "Total Multi-Family",28.1,930,807,535,453,393,261 "Census Region"

  16. ,"Housing Units1","Average Square Footage Per Housing Unit",,,"Average Square Footage Per Household Member"

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    6 Average Square Footage of Mobile Homes, by Housing Characteristics, 2009" " Final" ,"Housing Units1","Average Square Footage Per Housing Unit",,,"Average Square Footage Per Household Member" "Housing Characteristics","Millions","Total2","Heated","Cooled","Total2","Heated","Cooled" "Total Mobile Homes",6.9,1087,985,746,413,375,283 "Census Region"

  17. ,"Housing Units1","Average Square Footage Per Housing Unit",,,"Average Square Footage Per Household Member"

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    9 Average Square Footage of U.S. Homes, by Housing Characteristics, 2009" " Final" ,"Housing Units1","Average Square Footage Per Housing Unit",,,"Average Square Footage Per Household Member" "Housing Characteristics","Millions","Total2","Heated","Cooled","Total2","Heated","Cooled" "Total",113.6,1971,1644,1230,766,639,478 "Census Region"

  18. Fact #715: February 20, 2012 The Average Age of Light Vehicles Continues to

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Rise | Department of Energy 5: February 20, 2012 The Average Age of Light Vehicles Continues to Rise Fact #715: February 20, 2012 The Average Age of Light Vehicles Continues to Rise The average age for cars and light trucks continues to rise as consumers hold onto their vehicles longer. Between 1995 and 2011, the average age for cars increased by 32% from 8.4 years to 11.1 years. For light trucks, the average age increased by 25% during that same period from 8.3 years to 10.4 years. The

  19. Fact #728: May 21, 2012 Average Trip Length is Less Than Ten Miles |

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Department of Energy 8: May 21, 2012 Average Trip Length is Less Than Ten Miles Fact #728: May 21, 2012 Average Trip Length is Less Than Ten Miles The average trip length (one-way) is 9.7 miles according to the 2009 Nationwide Personal Transportation Survey. Trip lengths vary by the purpose of the trip. Shopping and family/personal business are the shortest trips, on average. One-way trips to/from work average 12.2 miles. Trip Length by Purpose, 2009 Graphic showing trip length by purpose,

  20. Fact #849: December 1, 2014 Midsize Hybrid Cars Averaged 51% Better Fuel

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Economy than Midsize Non-Hybrid Cars in 2014 | Department of Energy 9: December 1, 2014 Midsize Hybrid Cars Averaged 51% Better Fuel Economy than Midsize Non-Hybrid Cars in 2014 Fact #849: December 1, 2014 Midsize Hybrid Cars Averaged 51% Better Fuel Economy than Midsize Non-Hybrid Cars in 2014 For the 2014 model year, midsize hybrid cars averaged 43.4 miles per gallon (mpg) while midsize non-hybrid cars averaged 28.7 mpg; the difference between the two has narrowed due to the rising average

  1. Property:CoolingTowerWaterUseSummerGross | Open Energy Information

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    Property Name CoolingTowerWaterUseSummerGross Property Type Number Description Cooling Tower Water use (summer average) (afday) Gross. Retrieved from "http:en.openei.orgw...

  2. Property:CoolingTowerWaterUseAnnlAvgConsumed | Open Energy Information

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    Property Name CoolingTowerWaterUseAnnlAvgConsumed Property Type Number Description Cooling Tower Water use (annual average) (afday) Consumed. Retrieved from "http:...

  3. Property:CoolingTowerWaterUseSummerConsumed | Open Energy Information

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    Property Name CoolingTowerWaterUseSummerConsumed Property Type Number Description Cooling Tower Water use (summer average) (afday) Consumed. Retrieved from "http:...

  4. Property:CoolingTowerWaterUseWinterConsumed | Open Energy Information

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    gTowerWaterUseWinterConsumed Property Type Number Description Cooling Tower Water use (winter average) (afday) Consumed. Retrieved from "http:en.openei.orgw...

  5. Water Quality

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Water Quality Water Quality We protect water quality through stormwater control measures and an extensive network of monitoring wells and stations encompassing groundwater, surface...

  6. Time-averaged quantum dynamics and the validity of the effective

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    Hamiltonian model (Journal Article) | SciTech Connect Time-averaged quantum dynamics and the validity of the effective Hamiltonian model Citation Details In-Document Search Title: Time-averaged quantum dynamics and the validity of the effective Hamiltonian model We develop a technique for finding the dynamical evolution in time of an averaged density matrix. The result is an equation of evolution that includes an effective Hamiltonian, as well as decoherence terms in Lindblad form. Applying

  7. Fact #889: September 7, 2015 Average Diesel Price Lower than Gasoline for

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    the First Time in Six Years | Department of Energy 9: September 7, 2015 Average Diesel Price Lower than Gasoline for the First Time in Six Years Fact #889: September 7, 2015 Average Diesel Price Lower than Gasoline for the First Time in Six Years SUBSCRIBE to the Fact of the Week In July of 2015, the nationwide average price of diesel was lower than the average price of a regular gallon of gasoline for the first time since June 2009. Both gasoline and diesel prices fluctuate throughout the

  8. Average U.S. household to spend $710 less on gasoline during 2015

    Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update (EIA)

    Average U.S. household to spend $710 less on gasoline during 2015 Even with the recent increases in gasoline prices, the average U.S. household is still expected save $710 in gasoline costs this year compared with what was paid at the pump in 2014. In its new monthly forecast, the U.S. Energy Information Administration said the national average price for regular gasoline is expected to be $2.39 per gallon this year. That's almost $1 less than the $3.36 average in 2014. Lower crude oil prices

  9. Gasoline price to average below $2 in 2016 for first time in 12 years

    Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update (EIA)

    Gasoline price to average below $2 in 2016 for first time in 12 years The annual average price for U.S. regular-grade gasoline is expected to fall below $2 per gallon this year for the first time since 2004. In its new monthly forecast, the U.S. Energy Information Administration said drivers will pay on average $1.98 per gallon to fill up at the pump with regular-grade gasoline. EIA expects the monthly average price of gasoline to reach a seven-year low of $1.82 per gallon in February, before

  10. Fact #915: March 7, 2016 Average Historical Annual Gasoline Pump Price,

    Office of Environmental Management (EM)

    1929-2015 - Dataset | Department of Energy 5: March 7, 2016 Average Historical Annual Gasoline Pump Price, 1929-2015 - Dataset Fact #915: March 7, 2016 Average Historical Annual Gasoline Pump Price, 1929-2015 - Dataset Excel file and dataset for Average Historical Annual Gasoline Pump Price, 1929-2015 File fotw#915_web.xlsx More Documents & Publications Fact #835: August 25, 2014 Average Annual Gasoline Pump Price, 1929-2013 - Dataset Fact #888: August 31, 2015 Historical Gas Prices -

  11. Impacts of Water Quality on Residential Water Heating Equipment

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Widder, Sarah H.; Baechler, Michael C.

    2013-11-01

    Water heating is a ubiquitous energy use in all residential housing, accounting for 17.7% of residential energy use (EIA 2012). Today, there are many efficient water heating options available for every fuel type, from electric and gas to more unconventional fuel types like propane, solar, and fuel oil. Which water heating option is the best choice for a given household will depend on a number of factors, including average daily hot water use (total gallons per day), hot water draw patterns (close together or spread out), the hot water distribution system (compact or distributed), installation constraints (such as space, electrical service, or venting accommodations) and fuel-type availability and cost. While in general more efficient water heaters are more expensive than conventional water heating technologies, the savings in energy use and, thus, utility bills can recoup the additional upfront investment and make an efficient water heater a good investment over time in most situations, although the specific payback period for a given installation will vary widely. However, the expected lifetime of a water heater in a given installation can dramatically influence the cost effectiveness and savings potential of a water heater and should be considered, along with water use characteristics, fuel availability and cost, and specific home characteristics when selecting the optimum water heating equipment for a particular installation. This report provides recommendations for selecting and maintaining water heating equipment based on local water quality characteristics.

  12. A comparison of spatial averaging and Cadzow's method for array wavenumber estimation

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Harris, D.B.; Clark, G.A.

    1989-10-31

    We are concerned with resolving superimposed, correlated seismic waves with small-aperture arrays. The limited time-bandwidth product of transient seismic signals complicates the task. We examine the use of MUSIC and Cadzow's ML estimator with and without subarray averaging for resolution potential. A case study with real data favors the MUSIC algorithm and a multiple event covariance averaging scheme.

  13. Flowmeter for determining average rate of flow of liquid in a conduit

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    (Patent) | SciTech Connect Patent: Flowmeter for determining average rate of flow of liquid in a conduit Citation Details In-Document Search Title: Flowmeter for determining average rate of flow of liquid in a conduit This invention is a compact, precise, and relatively simple device for use in determining the average rate of flow of a liquid through a conduit. The liquid may be turbulent and contain bubbles of gas. In a preferred embodiment, the flowmeter includes an electrical circuit and

  14. U.S. average gasoline prices falling to near $2 in December

    Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update (EIA)

    U.S. average gasoline prices falling to near $2 in December U.S. retail gasoline prices are expected to continue falling over the next few months, dropping to a national average near $2 per gallon in December. In its new forecast, the U.S. Energy Information Administration said high gasoline production, cheaper winter-grade gasoline, and lower gasoline demand following this summer's peak driving season will contribute to savings at the pump for consumers. The monthly average price for gasoline

  15. Fact #622: May 10, 2010 Average Length of Light Vehicle Ownership |

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Department of Energy 2: May 10, 2010 Average Length of Light Vehicle Ownership Fact #622: May 10, 2010 Average Length of Light Vehicle Ownership Vehicle owners are holding onto their vehicles for a longer period, according to data from R.L. Polk and Company. The vehicle retention trends show that owners held onto a new vehicle for 56.3 months in 2008, up from 48.4 months six years earlier. New vehicle owners hold onto vehicles about 15 or 16 months longer than used vehicle owners. Average

  16. Fact #794: August 26, 2013 How Much Does an Average Vehicle Owner Pay in

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Fuel Taxes Each Year? | Department of Energy 4: August 26, 2013 How Much Does an Average Vehicle Owner Pay in Fuel Taxes Each Year? Fact #794: August 26, 2013 How Much Does an Average Vehicle Owner Pay in Fuel Taxes Each Year? According to the Federal Highway Administration, the average fuel economy for all light vehicles on the road today is 21.4 miles per gallon (mpg). A person owning a gasoline vehicle with that fuel efficiency pays between $137 and $296 in fuel taxes each year, depending

  17. Fact #889: September 7, 2015 Average Diesel Price Lower than Gasoline for

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    the First Time in Six Years - Dataset | Department of Energy 9: September 7, 2015 Average Diesel Price Lower than Gasoline for the First Time in Six Years - Dataset Fact #889: September 7, 2015 Average Diesel Price Lower than Gasoline for the First Time in Six Years - Dataset Excel file and dataset for Average Diesel Price Lower than Gasoline for the First Time in Six Years File fotw#889_web.xlsx More Documents & Publications Fact #859 February 9, 2015 Excess Supply is the Most Recent

  18. Average U.S. household to spend $710 less on gasoline during 2015

    Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update (EIA)

    drivers to see big savings at the gasoline pump this summer U.S. consumers are expected to pay the lowest average price for gasoline in six years during this summer's driving season, mostly because of lower crude oil costs. In its new forecast, the U.S. Energy Information Administration said the price for regular gasoline should average $2.45 per gallon this summer. That's down more than a dollar from the $3.59 per gallon seen last summer, and the cheapest average summer pump price since 2009.

  19. Average household expected to save $675 at the pump in 2015

    Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update (EIA)

    Average household expected to save $675 at the pump in 2015 Although retail gasoline prices have risen in recent weeks U.S. consumers are still expected to save about $675 per household in motor fuel costs this year. In its new monthly forecast, the U.S. Energy Information Administration says the average pump price for regular grade gasoline in 2015 will be $2.43 per gallon. That's about 93 cents lower than last year's average. The savings for consumers will be even bigger during the

  20. Diesel prices continue to increase Â… U.S. average over $4

    Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update (EIA)

    Diesel prices continue to increase - U.S. average over $4 The U.S. average retail price for on-highway diesel fuel broke the 4-dollar mark for the first time since last March. The U.S. retail average rose to $4.02 a gallon. That's up 2.8 cents from a week ago, based on the weekly price survey by the U.S. Energy Information Administration. Diesel prices were highest in the New England region at 4.39 a gallon, up 1.3 cents from a week ago. Prices were lowest in the Gulf Coast states at 3.81 a

  1. Fact #915: March 7, 2016 Average Historical Annual Gasoline Pump Price,

    Office of Environmental Management (EM)

    1929-2015 | Department of Energy 915: March 7, 2016 Average Historical Annual Gasoline Pump Price, 1929-2015 Fact #915: March 7, 2016 Average Historical Annual Gasoline Pump Price, 1929-2015 SUBSCRIBE to the Fact of the Week When adjusted for inflation, the average annual price of gasoline has fluctuated greatly, and has recently experienced sharp increases and decreases. The effect of the U.S. embargo of oil from Iran can be seen in the early 1980's with the price of gasoline peaking in

  2. Seasonal variation in sea turtle density and abundance in the southeast Florida current and surrounding waters

    DOE Public Access Gateway for Energy & Science Beta (PAGES Beta)

    Bovery, Caitlin M.; Wyneken, Jeanette

    2015-12-30

    Assessment and management of sea turtle populations is often limited by a lack of available data pertaining to at-sea distributions at appropriate spatial and temporal resolutions. Assessing the spatial and temporal distributions of marine turtles in an open system poses both observational and analytical challenges due to the turtles’ highly migratory nature. Surface counts of marine turtles in waters along the southern part of Florida’s east coast were made in and adjacent to the southeast portion of the Florida Current using standard aerial surveys during 2011 and 2012 to assess their seasonal presence. This area is of particular concern formore » sea turtles as interest increases in offshore energy developments, specifically harnessing the power of the Florida Current. While it is understood that marine turtles use these waters, here we evaluate seasonal variation in sea turtle abundance and density over two years. Density of sea turtles observed within the study area ranged from 0.003 turtles km-2 in the winter of 2011 to 0.064 turtles km-2 in the spring of 2012. As a result, this assessment of marine turtles in the waters off southeast Florida quantifies their in-water abundance across seasons in this area to establish baselines and inform future management strategies of these protected species.« less

  3. Seasonal variation in sea turtle density and abundance in the southeast Florida current and surrounding waters

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Bovery, Caitlin M.; Wyneken, Jeanette

    2015-12-30

    Assessment and management of sea turtle populations is often limited by a lack of available data pertaining to at-sea distributions at appropriate spatial and temporal resolutions. Assessing the spatial and temporal distributions of marine turtles in an open system poses both observational and analytical challenges due to the turtles’ highly migratory nature. Surface counts of marine turtles in waters along the southern part of Florida’s east coast were made in and adjacent to the southeast portion of the Florida Current using standard aerial surveys during 2011 and 2012 to assess their seasonal presence. This area is of particular concern for sea turtles as interest increases in offshore energy developments, specifically harnessing the power of the Florida Current. While it is understood that marine turtles use these waters, here we evaluate seasonal variation in sea turtle abundance and density over two years. Density of sea turtles observed within the study area ranged from 0.003 turtles km-2 in the winter of 2011 to 0.064 turtles km-2 in the spring of 2012. As a result, this assessment of marine turtles in the waters off southeast Florida quantifies their in-water abundance across seasons in this area to establish baselines and inform future management strategies of these protected species.

  4. Time-averaged quantum dynamics and the validity of the effective...

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    We develop a technique for finding the dynamical evolution in time of an averaged density matrix. The result is an equation of evolution that includes an effective Hamiltonian, as ...

  5. Fact #624: May 24, 2010 Corporate Average Fuel Economy Standards, Model Years 2012-2016

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    The final rule for the Corporate Average Fuel Economy (CAFE) Standards was published in March 2010. Under this rule, each light vehicle model produced for sale in the United States will have a fuel...

  6. U.S. Average Depth of Crude Oil, Natural Gas, and Dry Developmental...

    Annual Energy Outlook [U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA)]

    Developmental Wells Drilled (Feet per Well) U.S. Average Depth of Crude Oil, Natural Gas, and Dry Developmental Wells Drilled (Feet per Well) Decade Year-0 Year-1 Year-2 Year-3...

  7. U.S. Average Depth of Crude Oil Exploratory and Developmental...

    Annual Energy Outlook [U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA)]

    and Developmental Wells Drilled (Feet per Well) U.S. Average Depth of Crude Oil Exploratory and Developmental Wells Drilled (Feet per Well) Decade Year-0 Year-1 Year-2 Year-3...

  8. U.S. Average Depth of Natural Gas Exploratory and Developmental...

    Annual Energy Outlook [U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA)]

    and Developmental Wells Drilled (Feet per Well) U.S. Average Depth of Natural Gas Exploratory and Developmental Wells Drilled (Feet per Well) Decade Year-0 Year-1 Year-2 Year-3...

  9. U.S. Average Depth of Dry Holes Developmental Wells Drilled ...

    Annual Energy Outlook [U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA)]

    Developmental Wells Drilled (Feet per Well) U.S. Average Depth of Dry Holes Developmental Wells Drilled (Feet per Well) Decade Year-0 Year-1 Year-2 Year-3 Year-4 Year-5 Year-6...

  10. U.S. Average Depth of Dry Holes Exploratory Wells Drilled (Feet...

    Annual Energy Outlook [U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA)]

    Exploratory Wells Drilled (Feet per Well) U.S. Average Depth of Dry Holes Exploratory Wells Drilled (Feet per Well) Decade Year-0 Year-1 Year-2 Year-3 Year-4 Year-5 Year-6 Year-7...

  11. U.S. Average Depth of Natural Gas Developmental Wells Drilled...

    Annual Energy Outlook [U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA)]

    Developmental Wells Drilled (Feet per Well) U.S. Average Depth of Natural Gas Developmental Wells Drilled (Feet per Well) Decade Year-0 Year-1 Year-2 Year-3 Year-4 Year-5 Year-6...

  12. U.S. Average Depth of Natural Gas Exploratory Wells Drilled ...

    Annual Energy Outlook [U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA)]

    Wells Drilled (Feet per Well) U.S. Average Depth of Natural Gas Exploratory Wells Drilled (Feet per Well) Decade Year-0 Year-1 Year-2 Year-3 Year-4 Year-5 Year-6 Year-7 Year-8...

  13. U.S. Average Depth of Crude Oil, Natural Gas, and Dry Exploratory...

    Annual Energy Outlook [U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA)]

    Wells Drilled (Feet per Well) U.S. Average Depth of Crude Oil, Natural Gas, and Dry Exploratory Wells Drilled (Feet per Well) Decade Year-0 Year-1 Year-2 Year-3 Year-4 Year-5...

  14. U.S. Average Depth of Crude Oil Exploratory Wells Drilled (Feet...

    Annual Energy Outlook [U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA)]

    Wells Drilled (Feet per Well) U.S. Average Depth of Crude Oil Exploratory Wells Drilled (Feet per Well) Decade Year-0 Year-1 Year-2 Year-3 Year-4 Year-5 Year-6 Year-7 Year-8 Year-9...

  15. U.S. Average Depth of Crude Oil, Natural Gas, and Dry Exploratory...

    Annual Energy Outlook [U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA)]

    and Developmental Wells Drilled (Feet per Well) U.S. Average Depth of Crude Oil, Natural Gas, and Dry Exploratory and Developmental Wells Drilled (Feet per Well) Decade Year-0...

  16. U.S. Average Depth of Crude Oil Developmental Wells Drilled ...

    Annual Energy Outlook [U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA)]

    Developmental Wells Drilled (Feet per Well) U.S. Average Depth of Crude Oil Developmental Wells Drilled (Feet per Well) Decade Year-0 Year-1 Year-2 Year-3 Year-4 Year-5 Year-6...

  17. U.S. Average Depth of Dry Exploratory and Developmental Wells...

    Annual Energy Outlook [U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA)]

    Exploratory and Developmental Wells Drilled (Feet per Well) U.S. Average Depth of Dry Exploratory and Developmental Wells Drilled (Feet per Well) Decade Year-0 Year-1 Year-2 Year-3...

  18. Water Security

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Water Security Home/Water Security - Electricity use by water service sector and county. Shown are electricity use by (a) large-scale conveyance, (b) groundwater irrigation pumping, (c) surface water irrigation pumping, (d) drinking water, and (e) wastewater. Aggregate electricity use across these sectors (f) is also mapped. Permalink Gallery Sandians Recognized in Environmental Science & Technology's Best Paper Competition Analysis, Capabilities, Energy, Energy-Water Nexus, Global, Global,

  19. Variation in the annual average radon concentration measured in homes in Mesa County, Colorado

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Rood, A.S.; George, J.L.; Langner, G.H. Jr.

    1990-04-01

    The purpose of this study is to examine the variability in the annual average indoor radon concentration. The TMC has been collecting annual average radon data for the past 5 years in 33 residential structures in Mesa County, Colorado. This report is an interim report that presents the data collected up to the present. Currently, the plans are to continue this study in the future. 62 refs., 3 figs., 12 tabs.

  20. "Table HC1.1.3 Housing Unit Characteristics by Average Floorspace--"

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    3 Housing Unit Characteristics by Average Floorspace--" " Single-Family Housing Units and Mobile Homes, 2005" ,,"Single- Family and Mobile Homes (millions)","Average Square Feet per Housing Unit-- Single-Family and Mobile Homes" ," Housing Units (millions)" ,,,"Single-Family Detached",,,"Single-Family Attached",,,"Mobile Homes" "Housing Unit

  1. "Table HC1.2.3 Living Space Characteristics by Average Floorspace--"

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    3 Living Space Characteristics by Average Floorspace--" " Single-Family Housing Units and Mobile Homes, 2005" ,,"Single- Family and Mobile Homes (millions)","Average Square Feet per Housing Unit" ," Housing Units (millions)" ,,,"Single-Family Detached",,,"Single-Family Attached",,,"Mobile Homes" "Housing Unit

  2. Revision of the Branch Technical Position on Concentration Averaging and Encapsulation - 12510

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Heath, Maurice; Kennedy, James E.; Ridge, Christianne; Lowman, Donald [U.S. NRC, Washington, DC, 20555-0001 (United States); Cochran, John [Sandia National Laboratory (United States)

    2012-07-01

    The U.S. Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC) regulation governing low-level waste (LLW) disposal, 'Licensing Requirements for Land Disposal of Radioactive Waste', 10 CFR Part 61, establishes a waste classification system based on the concentration of specific radionuclides contained in the waste. The regulation also states, at 10 CFR 61.55(a)(8), that, 'the concentration of a radionuclide (in waste) may be averaged over the volume of the waste, or weight of the waste if the units are expressed as nanocuries per gram'. The NRC's Branch Technical Position on Concentration Averaging and Encapsulation provides guidance on averaging radionuclide concentrations in waste under 10 CFR 61.55(a)(8) when classifying waste for disposal. In 2007, the NRC staff proposed to revise the Branch Technical Position on Concentration Averaging and Encapsulation. The Branch Technical Position on Concentration Averaging and Encapsulation is an NRC guidance document for averaging and classifying wastes under 10 CFR 61. The Branch Technical Position on Concentration Averaging and Encapsulation is used by nuclear power plants (NPPs) licensees and sealed source users, among others. In addition, three of the four U.S. LLW disposal facility operators are required to honor the Branch Technical Position on Concentration Averaging and Encapsulation as a licensing condition. In 2010, the Commission directed the staff to develop guidance regarding large scale blending of similar homogenous waste types, as described in SECY-10-0043 as part of its Branch Technical Position on Concentration Averaging and Encapsulation revision. The Commission is improving the regulatory approach used in the Branch Technical Position on Concentration Averaging and Encapsulation by moving towards a making it more risk-informed and performance-based approach, which is more consistent with the agency's regulatory policies. Among the improvements to the Branch Technical Position on Concentration Averaging and Encapsulation are more risk-informed limits for the sizes of sealed sources for safe disposal. Using more realistic intruder exposure scenarios, the suggested limits for Class B and C waste disposal of sealed sources, particularly Cs-137 and Co-60, have been increased. These suggested changes, and others in the Branch Technical Position on Concentration Averaging and Encapsulation, if adopted by Agreement States, have the potential to eliminate numerous orphan sources (i.e., sources that currently have no disposal pathway) that are now being stored. Permanent disposal of these sources, rather than temporary storage, will help reduce safety and security risks. The revised Branch Technical Position on Concentration Averaging and Encapsulation has an alternative approach section which provides flexibility to generators and processors, while also ensuring that intruder protection will be maintained. Alternative approaches provide flexibility by allowing for consideration of likelihood of intrusion, the possibility of averaging over larger volumes and allowing for disposal of large activity sources. The revision has improved the organization of the Branch Technical Position on Concentration Averaging and Encapsulation, improved its clarity, better documented the bases for positions, and made the positions more risk informed while also maintaining protection for intruder as required by 10 CFR Part 61. (authors)

  3. How Well Can We Estimate Areal-Averaged Spectral Surface Albedo from Ground-Based Transmission in an Atlantic Coastal Area?

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Kassianov, Evgueni I.; Barnard, James C.; Flynn, Connor J.; Riihimaki, Laura D.; Marinovici, Maria C.

    2015-10-15

    Areal-averaged albedos are particularly difficult to measure in coastal regions, because the surface is not homogenous, consisting of a sharp demarcation between land and water. With this difficulty in mind, we evaluate a simple retrieval of areal-averaged surface albedo using ground-based measurements of atmospheric transmission alone under fully overcast conditions. To illustrate the performance of our retrieval, we find the areal-averaged albedo using measurements from the Multi-Filter Rotating Shadowband Radiometer (MFRSR) at five wavelengths (415, 500, 615, 673, and 870 nm). These MFRSR data are collected at a coastal site in Graciosa Island, Azores supported by the U.S. Department of Energy’s (DOE’s) Atmospheric Radiation Measurement (ARM) Program. The areal-averaged albedos obtained from the MFRSR are compared with collocated and coincident Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS) white-sky albedo at four nominal wavelengths (470, 560, 670 and 860 nm). These comparisons are made during a 19-month period (June 2009 - December 2010). We also calculate composite-based spectral values of surface albedo by a weighted-average approach using estimated fractions of major surface types observed in an area surrounding this coastal site. Taken as a whole, these three methods of finding albedo show spectral and temporal similarities, and suggest that our simple, transmission-based technique holds promise, but with estimated errors of about ±0.03. Additional work is needed to reduce this uncertainty in areas with inhomogeneous surfaces.

  4. Water Quality

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Water Quality Water Quality We protect water quality through stormwater control measures and an extensive network of monitoring wells and stations encompassing groundwater, surface water, storm water and springs. April 12, 2012 Quarterly Groundwater monitoring attended by LANL managers and the Northern New Mexico Citizens Advisory Board LANL scientists brief the Northern New Mexico Citizens Advisory Board during quarterly groundwater monitoring of the well network around Area G. Contact

  5. Water Security

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    SunShot Grand Challenge: Regional Test Centers Water Security Home/Tag:Water Security - Electricity use by water service sector and county. Shown are electricity use by (a) large-scale conveyance, (b) groundwater irrigation pumping, (c) surface water irrigation pumping, (d) drinking water, and (e) wastewater. Aggregate electricity use across these sectors (f) is also mapped. Permalink Gallery Sandians Recognized in Environmental Science & Technology's Best Paper Competition Analysis,

  6. Water Efficiency

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Efficiency Hosted by: FEDERAL UTILITY PARTNERSHIP WORKING GROUP SEMINAR November 5-6, 2014 Cape Canaveral, Florida WATER EFFICIENCY Federal Utility Partnership Working Group November 5-6, 2014 Cape Canaveral, FL * Kate McMordie Stoughton - Pacific Northwest National Laboratory * kate.mcmordie@pnnl.gov * Francis Wheeler - Water Savers, LLC * fwheeler@watersaversllc.com Topics * Performance contracting analysis * Water industry terms * Federal reduction goals * Water balance * Water efficiency

  7. Average M shell fluorescence yields for elements with 70?Z?92

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Kahoul, A.; Deghfel, B.; Aylikci, V.; Aylikci, N. K.; Nekkab, M.

    2015-03-30

    The theoretical, experimental and analytical methods for the calculation of average M-shell fluorescence yield (?{sup Ż}{sub M}) of different elements are very important because of the large number of their applications in various areas of physical chemistry and medical research. In this paper, the bulk of the average M-shell fluorescence yield measurements reported in the literature, covering the period 1955 to 2005 are interpolated by using an analytical function to deduce the empirical average M-shell fluorescence yield in the atomic range of 70?Z?92. The results were compared with the theoretical and fitted values reported by other authors. Reasonable agreement was typically obtained between our result and other works.

  8. Reconstruction of ionization probabilities from spatially averaged data in N dimensions

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Strohaber, J.; Kolomenskii, A. A.; Schuessler, H. A.

    2010-07-15

    We present an analytical inversion technique, which can be used to recover ionization probabilities from spatially averaged data in an N-dimensional detection scheme. The solution is given as a power series in intensity. For this reason, we call this technique a multiphoton expansion (MPE). The MPE formalism was verified with an exactly solvable inversion problem in two dimensions, and probabilities in the postsaturation region, where the intensity-selective scanning approach breaks down, were recovered. In three dimensions, ionization probabilities of Xe were successfully recovered with MPE from simulated (using the Ammosov-Delone-Krainov tunneling theory) ion yields. Finally, we tested our approach with intensity-resolved benzene-ion yields, which show a resonant multiphoton ionization process. By applying MPE to this data (which were artificially averaged), the resonant structure was recovered, which suggests that the resonance in benzene may have been observed in spatially averaged data taken elsewhere.

  9. Comparison of average and point capillary pressure-saturation functions determined by steady-state centrifugation

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Cropper, Clark; Perfect, Edmund; van den Berg, Dr. Elmer; Mayes, Melanie

    2010-01-01

    The capillary pressure-saturation function can be determined from centrifuge drainage experiments. In soil physics, the data resulting from such experiments are usually analyzed by the 'averaging method.' In this approach, average relative saturation, , is expressed as a function of average capillary pressure, <{psi}>, i.e., (<{psi}>). In contrast, the capillary pressure-saturation function at a physical point, i.e., S({psi}), has been extracted from similar experiments in petrophysics using the 'integral method.' The purpose of this study was to introduce the integral method applied to centrifuge experiments to a soil physics audience and to compare S({psi}) and (<{psi}>) functions, as parameterized by the Brooks-Corey and van Genuchten equations, for 18 samples drawn from a range of porous media (i.e., Berea sandstone, glass beads, and Hanford sediments). Steady-state centrifuge experiments were performed on preconsolidated samples with a URC-628 Ultra-Rock Core centrifuge. The angular velocity and outflow data sets were then analyzed using both the averaging and integral methods. The results show that the averaging method smoothes out the drainage process, yielding less steep capillary pressure-saturation functions relative to the corresponding point-based curves. Maximum deviations in saturation between the two methods ranged from 0.08 to 0.28 and generally occurred at low suctions. These discrepancies can lead to inaccurate predictions of other hydraulic properties such as the relative permeability function. Therefore, we strongly recommend use of the integral method instead of the averaging method when determining the capillary pressure-saturation function by steady-state centrifugation. This method can be successfully implemented using either the van Genuchten or Brooks-Corey functions, although the latter provides a more physically precise description of air entry at a physical point.

  10. Origin of the failed ensemble average rule for the band gaps of disordered

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    nonisovalent semiconductor alloys (Journal Article) | DOE PAGES Origin of the failed ensemble average rule for the band gaps of disordered nonisovalent semiconductor alloys « Prev Next » Title: Origin of the failed ensemble average rule for the band gaps of disordered nonisovalent semiconductor alloys Authors: Ma, Jie ; Deng, Hui-Xiong ; Luo, Jun-Wei ; Wei, Su-Huai Publication Date: 2014-09-02 OSTI Identifier: 1180832 Grant/Contract Number: AC02-05CH11231; AC36-08GO28308 Type: Publisher's

  11. ,"U.S. Conventional, Average Refiner Gasoline Prices"

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    Conventional, Average Refiner Gasoline Prices" ,"Click worksheet name or tab at bottom for data" ,"Worksheet Name","Description","# Of Series","Frequency","Latest Data for" ,"Data 1","U.S. Conventional, Average Refiner Gasoline Prices",6,"Monthly","12/2015","1/15/1994" ,"Release Date:","3/1/2016" ,"Next Release Date:","4/1/2016" ,"Excel

  12. ,"U.S. Reformulated, Average Refiner Gasoline Prices"

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    Reformulated, Average Refiner Gasoline Prices" ,"Click worksheet name or tab at bottom for data" ,"Worksheet Name","Description","# Of Series","Frequency","Latest Data for" ,"Data 1","U.S. Reformulated, Average Refiner Gasoline Prices",6,"Monthly","12/2015","1/15/1994" ,"Release Date:","3/1/2016" ,"Next Release Date:","4/1/2016" ,"Excel

  13. Table HC1.1.2 Housing Unit Characteristics by Average Floorspace, 2005

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    2 Housing Unit Characteristics by Average Floorspace, 2005 " ,,"Average Square Feet per--" ," Housing Units (millions)" ,,"Housing Unit",,,"Household Member" "Housing Unit Characteristics",,"Total1","Heated","Cooled","Total","Heated","Cooled" "Total",111.1,2171,1618,1031,845,630,401 "Census Region and Division" "Northeast",20.6,2334,1664,562,911,649,220

  14. Table HC1.2.2 Living Space Characteristics by Average Floorspace

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    2 Living Space Characteristics by Average Floorspace, " " Per Housing Unit and Per Household Member, 2005" ,,"Average Square Feet" ," Housing Units (millions)" ,,"Per Housing Unit",,,"Per Household Member" "Living Space Characteristics",,"Total1","Heated","Cooled","Total1","Heated","Cooled" "Total",111.1,2033,1618,1031,791,630,401 "Total Floorspace (Square

  15. Table HC1.2.4 Living Space Characteristics by Average Floorspace--Apartments, 2

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    2.4 Living Space Characteristics by Average Floorspace--Apartments, 2005" ,,,"Average Square Feet per Apartment in a --" ," Housing Units (millions)" ,,,"2 to 4 Unit Building",,,"5 or More Unit Building" ,,"Apartments (millions)" "Living Space Characteristics",,,"Total","Heated","Cooled","Total","Heated","Cooled" "Total",111.1,24.5,1090,902,341,872,780,441

  16. Flowmeter for determining average rate of flow of liquid in a conduit

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    (Patent) | SciTech Connect Patent: Flowmeter for determining average rate of flow of liquid in a conduit Citation Details In-Document Search Title: Flowmeter for determining average rate of flow of liquid in a conduit Ă— You are accessing a document from the Department of Energy's (DOE) SciTech Connect. This site is a product of DOE's Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI) and is provided as a public service. Visit OSTI to utilize additional information resources in energy

  17. The U.S. average retail price for on-highway diesel fuel rose this week

    Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update (EIA)

    The U.S. average retail price for on-highway diesel fuel rose this week The U.S. average retail price for on-highway diesel fuel rose slightly to $3.90 a gallon on Monday. That's up 8-tenths of a penny from a week ago, based on the weekly price survey by the U.S. Energy Information Administration. Diesel prices were highest in the New England region, at 4.16 a gallon, down a penny from a week ago. Prices were lowest in the Rocky Mountain States at $3.68 a gallon, down 1.7

  18. The U.S. average retail price for on-highway diesel fuel rose this week

    Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update (EIA)

    The U.S. average retail price for on-highway diesel fuel rose this week The U.S. average retail price for on-highway diesel fuel rose to $3.93 a gallon on Monday. That's up 2 ½ cents from a week ago, based on the weekly price survey by the U.S. Energy Information Administration. Prices increased in all regions across the U.S. The highest prices were found in the New England region, at 4.18 a gallon, up 2.3 cents from a week ago. Prices were lowest in the Rocky Mountain States at $3.74 a gallon,

  19. U.S. diesel prices decrease Â… U.S. average still over $4

    Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update (EIA)

    U.S. diesel prices decrease - U.S. average still over $4 The U.S. average retail price for on-highway diesel fuel fell to $4.02 a gallon. That's down a tenth of a penny from a week ago, based on the weekly price survey by the U.S. Energy Information Administration. Diesel prices were highest in the New England region at 4.39 a gallon, up 3-tenths of a penny from a week ago. Prices were lowest in the Gulf Coast states at 3.79 a gallon, down 1.3 cents.

  20. U.S. diesel prices decrease Â… U.S. average still over $4

    Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update (EIA)

    U.S. diesel prices decrease - U.S. average still over $4 The U.S. average retail price for on-highway diesel fuel fell to $4.00 a gallon. That's down 1.8 cents from a week ago, based on the weekly price survey by the U.S. Energy Information Administration. Diesel prices were highest in the New England region and Central Atlantic states at 4.31 a gallon, down 4.9 and 3.9 cents, respectively, from a week ago. Prices were lowest in the Gulf Coast states at 3.80 a gallon, down 1.1 cents.

  1. U.S. diesel prices increase Â… U.S. average still over $4

    Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update (EIA)

    U.S. diesel prices increase - U.S. average still over $4 The U.S. average retail price for on-highway diesel fuel rose to $4.02 a gallon. That's up half a penny from a week ago, based on the weekly price survey by the U.S. Energy Information Administration. Diesel prices were highest in the New England region at 4.36 a gallon, down 2.7 cents from a week ago. Prices were lowest in the Gulf Coast states at 3.81 a gallon, up 2.1 cents.

  2. ,"Sulfur Content, Weighted Average Refinery Crude Oil Input Qualities"

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    Sulfur Content, Weighted Average Refinery Crude Oil Input Qualities" ,"Click worksheet name or tab at bottom for data" ,"Worksheet Name","Description","# Of Series","Frequency","Latest Data for" ,"Data 1","Sulfur Content, Weighted Average Refinery Crude Oil Input Qualities",16,"Monthly","12/2015","1/15/1985" ,"Release Date:","2/29/2016" ,"Next Release

  3. Hydropower Upgrades to Yield Added Generation at Average Costs Less Than 4

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    cents per kWh - Without New Dams | Department of Energy Hydropower Upgrades to Yield Added Generation at Average Costs Less Than 4 cents per kWh - Without New Dams Hydropower Upgrades to Yield Added Generation at Average Costs Less Than 4 cents per kWh - Without New Dams November 4, 2009 - 12:00am Addthis WASHINGTON, DC - U.S. Energy Secretary Steven Chu today announced up to $30.6 million in Recovery Act funding for the selection of seven hydropower projects that modernize hydropower

  4. Fact #803: November 11, 2013 Average Number of Transmission Gears is on the

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Rise | Department of Energy 3: November 11, 2013 Average Number of Transmission Gears is on the Rise Fact #803: November 11, 2013 Average Number of Transmission Gears is on the Rise The number of gears a transmission has affects a vehicle's fuel economy and performance. The more gears a vehicle has, the more time the engine spends within an optimal operating range while the vehicle speeds up and slows down. To achieve a better match between engine speed and wheel speed, manufacturers have

  5. Fact #851 December 15, 2014 The Average Number of Gears used in

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Transmissions Continues to Rise | Department of Energy 1 December 15, 2014 The Average Number of Gears used in Transmissions Continues to Rise Fact #851 December 15, 2014 The Average Number of Gears used in Transmissions Continues to Rise The number of gears in a transmission affects a vehicle's fuel economy and performance. The more gears a vehicle has, the more time the engine spends within an optimal operating range while the vehicle speeds up and slows down. To achieve a better match

  6. Builds in U.S. natural gas storage running above five-year average

    Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update (EIA)

    Builds in U.S. natural gas storage running above five-year average The amount of natural gas put into underground storage since the beginning of the so-called "injection season" in April has been above the five-year average by a wide margin. In its new forecast, the U.S. Energy Information Administration said natural gas inventories, which are running more than 50% above year ago levels, are on track to reach almost 4 trillion cubic feet by the end of October which marks the start of

  7. Performance and production requirements for the optical components in a high-average-power laser system

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Chow, R.; Doss, F.W.; Taylor, J.R.; Wong, J.N.

    1999-07-02

    Optical components needed for high-average-power lasers, such as those developed for Atomic Vapor Laser Isotope Separation (AVLIS), require high levels of performance and reliability. Over the past two decades, optical component requirements for this purpose have been optimized and performance and reliability have been demonstrated. Many of the optical components that are exposed to the high power laser light affect the quality of the beam as it is transported through the system. The specifications for these optics are described including a few parameters not previously reported and some component manufacturing and testing experience. Key words: High-average-power laser, coating efficiency, absorption, optical components

  8. Estimating Energy and Water Losses in Residential Hot WaterDistribution Systems

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Lutz, James

    2005-02-26

    Residential single family building practice currently ignores the losses of energy and water caused by the poor design of hot water systems. These losses include; the waste of water while waiting for hot water to get to the point of use; the wasted heat as water cools down in the distribution system after a draw; and the energy needed to reheat water that was already heated once before. Average losses of water are estimated to be 6.35 gallons (24.0 L) per day. (This is water that is rundown the drain without being used while waiting for hot water.) The amount of wasted hot water has been calculated to be 10.9 gallons (41.3L) per day. (This is water that was heated, but either is not used or issued after it has cooled off.) A check on the reasonableness of this estimate is made by showing that total residential hot water use averages about 52.6 gallons (199 L) per day. This indicates about 20 percent of average daily hot water is wasted.

  9. Development of a high average current polarized electron source with long cathode operational lifetime

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    C. K. Sinclair; P. A. Adderley; B. M. Dunham; J. C. Hansknecht; P. Hartmann; M. Poelker; J. S. Price; P. M. Rutt; W. J. Schneider; M. Steigerwald

    2007-02-01

    Substantially more than half of the electromagnetic nuclear physics experiments conducted at the Continuous Electron Beam Accelerator Facility of the Thomas Jefferson National Accelerator Facility (Jefferson Laboratory) require highly polarized electron beams, often at high average current. Spin-polarized electrons are produced by photoemission from various GaAs-based semiconductor photocathodes, using circularly polarized laser light with photon energy slightly larger than the semiconductor band gap. The photocathodes are prepared by activation of the clean semiconductor surface to negative electron affinity using cesium and oxidation. Historically, in many laboratories worldwide, these photocathodes have had short operational lifetimes at high average current, and have often deteriorated fairly quickly in ultrahigh vacuum even without electron beam delivery. At Jefferson Lab, we have developed a polarized electron source in which the photocathodes degrade exceptionally slowly without electron emission, and in which ion back bombardment is the predominant mechanism limiting the operational lifetime of the cathodes during electron emission. We have reproducibly obtained cathode 1/e dark lifetimes over two years, and 1/e charge density and charge lifetimes during electron beam delivery of over 2?105???C/cm2 and 200 C, respectively. This source is able to support uninterrupted high average current polarized beam delivery to three experimental halls simultaneously for many months at a time. Many of the techniques we report here are directly applicable to the development of GaAs photoemission electron guns to deliver high average current, high brightness unpolarized beams.

  10. Fact #851 December 15, 2014 The Average Number of Gears used...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Average Number of Gears in New Cars and Light Trucks Model Year Gears 1980 3.5 1981 3.5 1982 3.6 1983 3.7 1984 3.7 1985 3.8 1986 3.8 1987 3.9 1988 3.9 1989 3.9 1990 4.0 1991 4.0 ...

  11. Impacts of different data averaging times on statistical analysis of distributed domestic photovoltaic systems

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Widen, Joakim; Waeckelgaard, Ewa; Paatero, Jukka; Lund, Peter

    2010-03-15

    The trend of increasing application of distributed generation with solar photovoltaics (PV-DG) suggests that a widespread integration in existing low-voltage (LV) grids is possible in the future. With massive integration in LV grids, a major concern is the possible negative impacts of excess power injection from on-site generation. For power-flow simulations of such grid impacts, an important consideration is the time resolution of demand and generation data. This paper investigates the impact of time averaging on high-resolution data series of domestic electricity demand and PV-DG output and on voltages in a simulated LV grid. Effects of 10-minutely and hourly averaging on descriptive statistics and duration curves were determined. Although time averaging has a considerable impact on statistical properties of the demand in individual households, the impact is smaller on aggregate demand, already smoothed from random coincidence, and on PV-DG output. Consequently, the statistical distribution of simulated grid voltages was also robust against time averaging. The overall judgement is that statistical investigation of voltage variations in the presence of PV-DG does not require higher resolution than hourly. (author)

  12. New Jersey Average Price of Natural Gas Delivered to Residential and

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    Commercial Consumers by Local Distribution and Mark 2.03 12.98 12.38 10.30 9.08 7.85 1989-2015 Commercial Average Price 8.66 8.78 8.03 8.10 8.66 8.24

  13. District of Columbia Average Price of Natural Gas Delivered to Residential

    Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update (EIA)

    and Commercial Consumers by Local Distributio 17.68 18.15 18.17 16.21 12.60 10.70 1989-2015 Commercial Average Price 11.15 11.17 11.50 11.68 11.28 10.01

  14. Ohio Average Price of Natural Gas Delivered to Residential and Commercial

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    Consumers by Local Distribution and Marketers 23.83 25.46 24.31 15.36 9.68 7.40 1989-2015 Commercial Average Price 8.14 8.02 7.99 6.79 6.03 5.5

  15. Reusing Water

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Reusing Water Reusing Water Millions of gallons of industrial wastewater is recycled at LANL by virtue of a long-term strategy to treat wastewater rather than discharging it into...

  16. Averaged Description of Flow (Steady and Transient) and Nonreactive Solute Transport in Random Porous Media

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Schvidler, M.; Karasaki, K.

    2011-06-15

    In previous papers (Shvidler and Karasaki, 1999, 2001, 2005, and 2008) we presented and analyzed an approach for finding the general forms of exactly averaged equations of flow and transport in porous media. We studied systems of basic equations for steady flow with sources in unbounded domains with stochastically homogeneous conductivity fields. A brief analysis of exactly averaged equations of nonsteady flow and nonreactive solute transport was also presented. At the core of this approach is the existence of appropriate random Green's functions. For example, we showed that in the case of a 3-dimensional unbounded domain the existence of appropriate random Green's functions is sufficient for finding the exact nonlocal averaged equations for flow velocity using the operator with a unique kernel-vector. Examination of random fields with global symmetry (isotropy, transversal isotropy and orthotropy) makes it possible to describe significantly different types of averaged equations with nonlocal unique operators. It is evident that the existence of random Green's functions for physical linear processes is equivalent to assuming the existence of some linear random operators for appropriate stochastic equations. If we restricted ourselves to this assumption only, as we have done in this paper, we can study the processes in any dimensional bounded or unbounded fields and in addition, cases in which the random fields of conductivity and porosity are stochastically nonhomogeneous, nonglobally symmetrical, etc.. It is clear that examining more general cases involves significant difficulty and constricts the analysis of structural types for the processes being studied. Nevertheless, we show that we obtain the essential information regarding averaged equations for steady and transient flow, as well as for solute transport.

  17. HIGH AVERAGE CURRENT LOW EMITTANCE BEAM EMPLOYING CW NORMAL CONDUCTING GUN.

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    CHANG,X.; BEN-ZVI, I.; KEWISCH, J.; PAI, C.

    2007-06-25

    CW normal conducting guns usually do not achieve very high field gradient and waste much RF power at high field gradient compared to superconducting cavities. But they have less trapped modes and wakefields compared to the superconducting cavities due to their low Q. The external bucking coil can also be applied very close to the cathode to improve the beam quality. By using a low frequency gun with a recessed cathode and a carefully designed beam line we can get a high average current and a high quality beam with acceptable RF power loss on the cavity wall. This paper shows that the CW normal conducting gun can be a backup solution for those projects which need high peak and average current, low emittance electron beams such as the Relativistic Heavy Ion Collider (RHIC) e-cooling project and Energy Recovery Linac (Em) project.

  18. Gatling gun: high average polarized current injector for eRHIC

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Litvinenko, V.N.

    2010-01-01

    This idea was originally developed in 2001 for, at that time, an ERL-based (and later recirculating-ring) electron-ion collider at JLab. Naturally the same idea is applicable for any gun requiring current exceeding capability of a single cathode. ERL-based eRHIC is one of such cases. This note related to eRHIC was prepared at Duke University in February 2003. In many case photo-injectors can have a limited average current - it is especially true about polarized photo-guns. It is know that e-RHIC requires average polarized electron current well above currently demonstrated by photo-injectors - hence combining currents from multiple guns is can be useful option for eRHIC.

  19. Coupling of an average-atom model with a collisional-radiative equilibrium model

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Faussurier, G. Blancard, C.; Cossé, P.

    2014-11-15

    We present a method to combine a collisional-radiative equilibrium model and an average-atom model to calculate bound and free electron wavefunctions in hot dense plasmas by taking into account screening. This approach allows us to calculate electrical resistivity and thermal conductivity as well as pressure in non local thermodynamic equilibrium plasmas. Illustrations of the method are presented for dilute titanium plasma.

  20. "Table A49. Average Prices of Purchased Electricity, Steam, and Natural Gas"

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    9. Average Prices of Purchased Electricity, Steam, and Natural Gas" " by Type of Supplier, Census Region, and Economic Characteristics of the" " Establishment, 1991" " (Estimates in Dollars per Physical Units)" ," Electricity",," Steam",," Natural Gas" ," (Million kWh)",," (Billion Btu)",," (1000 cu ft)"

  1. "Table E8.2. Average Prices of Selected Purchased Energy Sources, 1998;"

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    2. Average Prices of Selected Purchased Energy Sources, 1998;" " Level: National and Regional Data; " " Row: Values of Shipments and Employment Sizes;" " Column: Energy Sources;" " Unit: U.S. Dollars per Million Btu." " ",," "," ",," "," ","RSE" "Economic",,"Residual","Distillate",,"LPG and",,"Row"

  2. Table 7.1 Average Prices of Purchased Energy Sources, 2002

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    Average Prices of Purchased Energy Sources, 2002;" " Level: National and Regional Data; " " Row: NAICS Codes;" " Column: All Energy Sources Collected;" " Unit: U.S. Dollars per Physical Units." ,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,"Selected Wood and Other Biomass Components" ,,,,,,"Coal Components",,,"Coke",,,"Electricity Components",,,,,,,,,,,,,,"Natural Gas Components",,,"Steam Components"

  3. Table 7.2 Average Prices of Purchased Energy Sources, 2002

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    2 Average Prices of Purchased Energy Sources, 2002;" " Level: National and Regional Data; " " Row: NAICS Codes; " " Column: All Energy Sources Collected;" " Unit: U.S. Dollars per Million Btu." ,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,"Selected Wood and Other Biomass Components" ,,,,,,"Coal Components",,,"Coke",,,"Electricity Components",,,,,,,,,,,,,,"Natural Gas Components",,,"Steam Components"

  4. Table 7.2 Average Prices of Purchased Energy Sources, 2010;

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    Table 7.2 Average Prices of Purchased Energy Sources, 2010; Level: National and Regional Data; Row: NAICS Codes; Column: All Energy Sources Collected; Unit: U.S. Dollars per Million Btu. Selected Wood and Other Biomass Components Coal Components Coke Electricity Components Natural Gas Components Steam Components Total Wood Residues Bituminous Electricity Diesel Fuel Motor Natural Gas Steam and Wood-Related and Electricity from Sources and Gasoline Pulping Liquor Natural Gas from Sources Steam

  5. Table 7.3 Average Prices of Purchased Electricity, Natural Gas, and Steam, 20

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    3 Average Prices of Purchased Electricity, Natural Gas, and Steam, 2002;" " Level: National and Regional Data; " " Row: NAICS Codes;" " Column: Supplier Sources of Purchased Electricity, Natural Gas, and Steam;" " Unit: U.S. Dollars per Physical Units." ,,,"Electricity","Components",,"Natural Gas","Components",,"Steam","Components" " ","

  6. Table 7.3 Average Prices of Purchased Electricity, Natural Gas, and Steam, 2010;

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    3 Average Prices of Purchased Electricity, Natural Gas, and Steam, 2010; Level: National and Regional Data; Row: NAICS Codes; Column: Supplier Sources of Purchased Electricity, Natural Gas, and Steam; Unit: U.S. Dollars per Physical Units. Electricity Components Natural Gas Components Steam Components Electricity Natural Gas Steam Electricity from Sources Natural Gas from Sources Steam from Sources Electricity from Local Other than Natural Gas from Local Other than Steam from Local Other than

  7. Table N8.2. Average Prices of Purchased Energy Sources, 1998

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    2. Average Prices of Purchased Energy Sources, 1998;" " Level: National and Regional Data; " " Row: NAICS Codes; Column: All Energy Sources Collected;" " Unit: U.S. Dollars per Million Btu." ,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,"Selected","Wood and Other","Biomass","Components" ,,,,,,,"Coal Components",,,"Coke",,"Electricity","Components",,,,,,,,,,,,,"Natural

  8. Table N8.3. Average Prices of Purchased Electricity, Natural Gas, and Steam,

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    3. Average Prices of Purchased Electricity, Natural Gas, and Steam, 1998;" " Level: National and Regional Data; " " Row: NAICS Codes;" " Column: Supplier Sources of Purchased Electricity, Natural Gas, and Steam;" " Unit: U.S. Dollars per Physical Units." ,,,"Electricity","Components",,"Natural Gas","Components",,"Steam","Components" " ","

  9. Calculation of variable-base degree-days and degree-nights from monthly average temperatures

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Sonderegger, R.; Cleary, P.; Dickinson, B.

    1985-01-01

    The Computerized Instrumented Residential Audit (CIRA), a micro-computer building energy analysis program developed at Lawrence Berkeley Laboratory, uses a monthly variable-base degree-day method to calculate heating and cooling loads. The method's unique feature is its ability to model thermostat setbacks and storage of solar gain. The program accomplishes this by dividing each day into two periods, ''average day'' (8 a.m. to 8 p.m.) and ''average night'' (8 p.m. to 8 a.m.), with different base temperatures. For each mode (heating or cooling) and for each period (day or night), the program reconstructs degree-days as a function of average monthly day or night temperature using three empirical coefficients specific to the location. A comparison is made between degree-days computed from hourly weather tapes and those predicted using this method. The root mean square error between predicted and actual degree days is typically between 3 and 12 degree-days per month. Tables of the coefficients are given for over 150 locations in the United States, computed from hourly dry-bulb temperatures on TRY and TMY tapes. Seasonal predictions of heating and cooling energy budgets using this method show good correspondence to the DOE-2 hourly simulation method.

  10. Combining multi-objective optimization and bayesian model averaging to calibrate forecast ensembles of soil hydraulic models

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Vrugt, Jasper A; Wohling, Thomas

    2008-01-01

    Most studies in vadose zone hydrology use a single conceptual model for predictive inference and analysis. Focusing on the outcome of a single model is prone to statistical bias and underestimation of uncertainty. In this study, we combine multi-objective optimization and Bayesian Model Averaging (BMA) to generate forecast ensembles of soil hydraulic models. To illustrate our method, we use observed tensiometric pressure head data at three different depths in a layered vadose zone of volcanic origin in New Zealand. A set of seven different soil hydraulic models is calibrated using a multi-objective formulation with three different objective functions that each measure the mismatch between observed and predicted soil water pressure head at one specific depth. The Pareto solution space corresponding to these three objectives is estimated with AMALGAM, and used to generate four different model ensembles. These ensembles are post-processed with BMA and used for predictive analysis and uncertainty estimation. Our most important conclusions for the vadose zone under consideration are: (1) the mean BMA forecast exhibits similar predictive capabilities as the best individual performing soil hydraulic model, (2) the size of the BMA uncertainty ranges increase with increasing depth and dryness in the soil profile, (3) the best performing ensemble corresponds to the compromise (or balanced) solution of the three-objective Pareto surface, and (4) the combined multi-objective optimization and BMA framework proposed in this paper is very useful to generate forecast ensembles of soil hydraulic models.

  11. Water Power

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Water Power - NearyFig1 Permalink Gallery University of Illinois uses Sandia Labs' reference hydrokinetic turbine to study potential bed erosion effects Energy, Modeling & Analysis, News, Partnership, Renewable Energy, Water Power University of Illinois uses Sandia Labs' reference hydrokinetic turbine to study potential bed erosion effects Sandia Labs Water Power Technologies Department promotes open-source marine hydrokinetic research by disseminating information on MHK technology designs

  12. Water Power

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Stationary Power/Energy Conversion Efficiency/Water Power - Water PowerTara Camacho-Lopez2016-02-16T18:27:48+00:00 Enabling a successful water power industry. Hydropower Optimization Developing tools for optimizing the U.S. hydropower fleet's performance with minimal environmental impact. Technology Development Improving the power performance and reliability of marine hydrokinetic technologies. Market Acceleration & Deployment Addressing barriers to development, deployment, and evaluation of

  13. Water Power

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Sandia Home Locations Contact Us Employee Locator Energy & Climate Secure & Sustainable Energy Future Stationary Power Energy Conversion Efficiency Solar Energy Wind Energy Water ...

  14. Reusing Water

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Reusing Water Reusing Water Millions of gallons of industrial wastewater is recycled at LANL by virtue of a long-term strategy to treat wastewater rather than discharging it into the environment. April 12, 2012 Water from cooling the supercomputer is release to maintain a healthy wetland. Contact Environmental Communication & Public Involvement P.O. Box 1663 MS M996 Los Alamos, NM 87545 (505) 667-0216 Email We reuse the same water up to six times before releasing it back into the environment

  15. Effect of vitrification temperature upon the solar average absorptance properties of Pyromark Series 2500 black paint

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Nelson, C.; Mahoney, A.R.

    1986-06-01

    A significant drop in production efficiency has occurred over time at the Solar One facility at Barstow, California, primarily as a result of the degradation of the Pyromark Series 2500 black paint used as the absorptive coating on the receiver panels. As part of the investigation of the problem, the solar-averaged adsorptance properties of the paint were determined as a function of vitrification temperature, since it is known that a significant amount of the panel surface area at Solar One was vitrified at temperatures below those recommended by the paint manufacturer (540/sup 0/C, 1000/sup 0/F). Painted samples initially vitrified at 230/sup 0/C (450/sup 0/F), 315/sup 0/C (600/sup 0/F), 371/sup 0/C (700/sup 0/F), and 480/sup 0/C (900/sup 0/F) exhibited significantly lower solar-averaged absorptance values (0.02 absorptance units) compared to samples vitrified at 540/sup 0/C (1000/sup 0/F). Thus, Solar One began its service life below optimal levels. After 140 h of thermal aging at 370/sup 0/C (700/sup 0/F) and 540/sup 0/C (1000/sup 0/F), all samples regardless of their initial vitrification temperatures, attained the same solar-averaged absorptance value (..cap alpha../sub s/ = 0.973). Therefore, both the long-term low-temperature vitrification and the short-term high-temperature vitrification can be used to obtain optimal or near-optimal absorptance of solar flux. Futher thermal aging of vitrified samples did not result in paint degradation, clearly indicating that high solar flux is required to produce this phenomenon. The panels at Solar One never achieved optimal absorptance because their exposure to high solar flux negated the effect of long-term low-temperature vitrification during operation. On future central receiver projects, every effort should be made to properly vitrify the Pyromark coating before its exposure to high flux conditions.

  16. Properties of a new average power Nd-doped phosphate laser glass

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Payne, S.A.; Marshall, C.D.; Bayramian, A.J.; Wilke, G.D.; Hayden, J.S.

    1995-03-09

    The Nd-doped phosphate laser glass described herein can withstand 2.3 times greater thermal loading without fracture, compared to APG-1 (commercially-available average-power glass from Schott Glass Technologies). The enhanced thermal loading capability is established on the basis of the intrinsic thermomechanical properties and by direct thermally-induced fracture experiments using Ar-ion laser heating of the samples. This Nd-doped phosphate glass (referred to as APG-t) is found to be characterized by a 29% lower gain cross section and a 25% longer low-concentration emission lifetime.

  17. Laser properties of an improved average-power Nd-doped phosphate glass

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Payne, S.A.; Marshall, C.D.; Bayramian, A.J.

    1995-03-15

    The Nd-doped phosphate laser glass described herein can withstand 2.3 times greater thermal loading without fracture, compared to APG-1 (commercially-available average-power glass from Schott Glass Technologies). The enhanced thermal loading capability is established on the basis of the intrinsic thermomechanical properties (expansion, conduction, fracture toughness, and Young`s modulus), and by direct thermally-induced fracture experiments using Ar-ion laser heating of the samples. This Nd-doped phosphate glass (referred to as APG-t) is found to be characterized by a 29% lower gain cross section and a 25% longer low-concentration emission lifetime.

  18. High Average Power Laser Gain Medium With Low Optical Distortion Using A Transverse Flowing Liquid Host

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Comaskey, Brian J.; Ault, Earl R.; Kuklo, Thomas C.

    2005-07-05

    A high average power, low optical distortion laser gain media is based on a flowing liquid media. A diode laser pumping device with tailored irradiance excites the laser active atom, ion or molecule within the liquid media. A laser active component of the liquid media exhibits energy storage times longer than or comparable to the thermal optical response time of the liquid. A circulation system that provides a closed loop for mixing and circulating the lasing liquid into and out of the optical cavity includes a pump, a diffuser, and a heat exchanger. A liquid flow gain cell includes flow straighteners and flow channel compression.

  19. U.S. Natural Gas Average Consumption per Commercial Consumer (Thousand

    Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update (EIA)

    Cubic Feet) Commercial Consumer (Thousand Cubic Feet) U.S. Natural Gas Average Consumption per Commercial Consumer (Thousand Cubic Feet) Decade Year-0 Year-1 Year-2 Year-3 Year-4 Year-5 Year-6 Year-7 Year-8 Year-9 1960's 637 665 699 1970's 737 751 777 779 734 730 789 745 784 811 1980's 739 693 696 625 672 634 587 606 647 652 1990's 619 626 636 641 639 654 669 675 595 608 2000's 635 605 621 617 609 577 537 568 579 586 2010's 585 593 540 613 640 - = No Data Reported; -- = Not Applicable; NA =

  20. "Table E8.1. Average Prices of Selected Purchased Energy Sources, 1998;"

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    1. Average Prices of Selected Purchased Energy Sources, 1998;" " Level: National and Regional Data; " " Row: Values of Shipments and Employment Sizes;" " Column: Energy Sources;" " Unit: U.S. Dollars per Physical Units." " ",," "," ",," "," " ,,"Residual","Distillate",,"LPG and",,"RSE" "Economic","Electricity","Fuel Oil","Fuel

  1. Average Price (Cents/kilowatthour) by State by Provider, 1990-2014

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    Average Price (Cents/kilowatthour) by State by Provider, 1990-2014" "Year","State","Industry Sector Category","Residential","Commercial","Industrial","Transportation","Other","Total" 2014,"AK","Total Electric Industry",19.14,17.09,15.66,0,"NA",17.46 2014,"AL","Total Electric Industry",11.48,10.79,6.15,0,"NA",9.27

  2. Method and system for modulation of gain suppression in high average power laser systems

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Bayramian, Andrew James (Manteca, CA)

    2012-07-31

    A high average power laser system with modulated gain suppression includes an input aperture associated with a first laser beam extraction path and an output aperture associated with the first laser beam extraction path. The system also includes a pinhole creation laser having an optical output directed along a pinhole creation path and an absorbing material positioned along both the first laser beam extraction path and the pinhole creation path. The system further includes a mechanism operable to translate the absorbing material in a direction crossing the first laser beam extraction laser path and a controller operable to modulate the second laser beam.

  3. DE/SC-ARM/TR-130 Aerosol Observing System Cloud Condensation Nuclei Average

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    DE/SC-ARM/TR-130 Aerosol Observing System Cloud Condensation Nuclei Average (AOSCCNAVG) Value-Added Product Y Shi A Jefferson C Flynn July 2013 DOE/SC-ARM/TR-130 DISCLAIMER This report was prepared as an account of work sponsored by the U.S. Government. Neither the United States nor any agency thereof, nor any of their employees, makes any warranty, express or implied, or assumes any legal liability or responsibility for the accuracy, completeness, or usefulness of any information, apparatus,

  4. Table 7.1 Average Prices of Purchased Energy Sources, 2010

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    Average Prices of Purchased Energy Sources, 2010; Level: National and Regional Data; Row: NAICS Codes; Column: All Energy Sources Collected; Unit: U.S. Dollars per Physical Units. Coal NAICS TOTAL Acetylene Breeze Total Anthracite Code(a) Subsector and Industry (million Btu) (cu ft) (short tons) (short tons) (short tons) Total United States 311 Food 9.12 0.26 0.00 53.43 90.85 3112 Grain and Oilseed Milling 6.30 0.29 0.00 51.34 50.47 311221 Wet Corn Milling 4.87 0.48 0.00 47.74 50.47 31131 Sugar

  5. Table 7.4 Average Prices of Selected Purchased Energy Sources, 2002

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    4 Average Prices of Selected Purchased Energy Sources, 2002;" " Level: National and Regional Data; " " Row: Values of Shipments and Employment Sizes;" " Column: Energy Sources;" " Unit: U.S. Dollars per Physical Units." " ",," "," ",," "," " ,,"Residual","Distillate","Natural ","LPG and",,"RSE" "Economic","Electricity","Fuel

  6. Table 7.4 Average Prices of Selected Purchased Energy Sources, 2010;

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    4 Average Prices of Selected Purchased Energy Sources, 2010; Level: National and Regional Data; Row: Values of Shipments and Employment Sizes; Column: Energy Sources; Unit: U.S. Dollars per Physical Units. Residual Distillate LPG and Economic Electricity Fuel Oil Fuel Oil(b) Natural Gas(c) NGL(d) Coal Characteristic(a) (kWh) (gallons) (gallons) (1000 cu ft) (gallons) (short tons) Total United States Value of Shipments and Receipts (million dollars) Under 20 0.093 1.55 2.58 6.64 1.80 78.29 20-49

  7. Table 7.5 Average Prices of Selected Purchased Energy Sources, 2002

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    5 Average Prices of Selected Purchased Energy Sources, 2002;" " Level: National and Regional Data; " " Row: Values of Shipments and Employment Sizes;" " Column: Energy Sources;" " Unit: U.S. Dollars per Million Btu." " ",," "," ",," "," ","RSE" "Economic",,"Residual","Distillate","Natural ","LPG and",,"Row"

  8. Average monthly gasoline price to fall to $3.43 by September

    Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update (EIA)

    monthly gasoline price to fall to $3.43 by September The U.S. average monthly retail price of gasoline is expected to decline by about 18 cents per gallon between May and September, according to the new forecast from the U.S. Energy Information Administration. The lower price reflects, in part, slightly lower crude oil prices that account for about two-thirds of the cost at the pump. The largest price drops are expected in the Midwest states as refineries serving that region, which had been down

  9. Specification of optical components for a high average-power laser environment

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Taylor, J.R.; Chow, R.; Rinmdahl, K.A.; Willis, J.B.; Wong, J.N.

    1997-06-25

    Optical component specifications for the high-average-power lasers and transport system used in the Atomic Vapor Laser Isotope Separation (AVLIS) plant must address demanding system performance requirements. The need for high performance optics has to be balanced against the practical desire to reduce the supply risks of cost and schedule. This is addressed in optical system design, careful planning with the optical industry, demonstration of plant quality parts, qualification of optical suppliers and processes, comprehensive procedures for evaluation and test, and a plan for corrective action.

  10. Water Wars

    Energy Science and Technology Software Center (OSTI)

    2012-09-11

    Sandia National Laboratories and Intel Corporation are cooperating on a project aimed at developing serious games to assist in resource planners in conducting open and participatory projects. Water Wars serves as a prototype game focused on water issues. Water Wars is a multi-player, online role-playing "serious game" combining large-scale simulation (e.g. SimCity), with strategy and interpersonal interaction (e.g. Diplomacy). The game is about water use set in present-day New Mexico. Players enact various stakeholder rolesmore » and compete for water while simultaneously cooperating to prevent environmental collapse. The gamespace utilizes immersive 3D graphics to bring the problem alive. The game integrates Intel's OpenSim visualization engine with Sandia developed agent-based and system dynamics models.« less

  11. U.S. Natural Gas Average Consumption per Industrial Consumer (Thousand

    Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update (EIA)

    Cubic Feet) Industrial Consumer (Thousand Cubic Feet) U.S. Natural Gas Average Consumption per Industrial Consumer (Thousand Cubic Feet) Decade Year-0 Year-1 Year-2 Year-3 Year-4 Year-5 Year-6 Year-7 Year-8 Year-9 1970's 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 1980's 39,245 37,530 30,909 29,915 24,309 30,956 29,057 30,423 32,071 30,248 1990's 32,144 33,395 35,908 38,067 40,244 40,973 43,050 36,239 36,785 35,384 2000's 36,968 33,840 36,458 34,793 34,645 31,991 33,597 33,561 29,639 29,705 2010's 35,418 36,947 38,159

  12. Table 10. Average Price of U.S. Steam Coal Exports

    Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update (EIA)

    0. Average Price of U.S. Steam Coal Exports (dollars per short ton) Year to Date Continent and Country of Destination July - September 2015 April - June 2015 July - September 2014 2015 2014 Percent Change North America Total 66.77 71.02 69.75 69.74 65.78 6.0 Canada* 58.57 69.55 74.38 67.41 55.21 22.1 Dominican Republic 77.11 78.67 56.46 84.15 55.63 51.3 Guatemala 34.59 103.41 - 45.24 81.92 -44.8 Honduras - - 54.43 54.43 54.43 s Jamaica 80.74 90.72 55.34 73.19 54.88 33.4 Mexico 70.80 70.39 69.53

  13. Table 12. Average Price of U.S. Metallurgical Coal Exports

    Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update (EIA)

    2. Average Price of U.S. Metallurgical Coal Exports (dollars per short ton) Year to Date Continent and Country of Destination July - September 2015 April - June 2015 July - September 2014 2015 2014 Percent Change North America Total 96.66 97.73 85.77 96.57 86.97 11.0 Canada* 99.34 98.87 87.96 97.75 89.46 9.3 Dominican Republic - - - - 50.86 - Honduras 45.36 45.36 - 45.36 - - Mexico 97.65 103.74 80.50 103.16 86.56 19.2 Other** 112.84 89.81 - 89.84 - - South America Total 81.91 93.21 98.38 90.63

  14. Average Neutron Total Cross Sections in the Unresolved Energy Range From ORELA High Resolutio Transmission Measurements

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Derrien, H

    2004-05-27

    Average values of the neutron total cross sections of {sup 233}U, {sup 235}U, {sup 238}U, and {sup 239}Pu have been obtained in the unresolved resonance energy range from high-resolution transmission measurements performed at ORELA in the past two decades. The cross sections were generated by correcting the effective total cross sections for the self-shielding effects due to the resonance structure of the data. The self-shielding factors were found by calculating the effective and true cross sections with the computer code SAMMY for the same Doppler and resolution conditions as for the transmission measurements, using an appropriate set of resonance parameters. Our results are compared to results of previous measurements and to the current ENDF/B-VI data.

  15. United States Wind Resource Map: Annual Average Wind Speed at 30 Meters

    Wind Powering America (EERE)

    30 m 21-FEB-2012 2.1.1 Wind Speed m/s >10.5 10.0 9.5 9.0 8.5 8.0 7.5 7.0 6.5 6.0 5.5 5.0 4.5 4.0 < 4.0 Source: Wind resource estimates developed by AWS Truepower, LLC. Web: http://www.awstruepower.com. Map developed by NREL. Spatial resolution of wind resource data: 2.0 km. Projection: Albers Equal Area WGS84. The average wind speeds indicated on this map are model-derived estimates that may not represent the true wind resource at any given location. Small terrain features, vegetation,

  16. Angular Averaged Profiling of the Radial Electric Field in Compensated FTICR Cells

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Tolmachev, Aleksey V.; Robinson, Errol W.; Wu, Si; Smith, Richard D.; Futrell, Jean H.; Pasa-Tolic, Ljiljana

    2012-05-08

    A recent publication from this laboratory (1) reported a theoretical analysis comparing approaches for creating harmonic ICR cells. We considered two examples of static segmented cells - namely, a seven segment cell developed in this laboratory (2) and one described by Rempel et al (3), along with a recently described dynamically harmonized cell (4). This conceptual design for a dynamically harmonized cell has now been reduced to practice and first experimental results obtained with this cell were recently reported in this journal (5). This publication reports details of cell construction and describes its performance in a 7 Tesla Fourier Transform mass spectrometer. Herein, we describe the extension of theoretical analysis presented in (1) to include angular-averaged radial electric field calculations and a discussion of the influence of trapping plates.

  17. Measurement of average density and relative volumes in a dispersed two-phase fluid

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Sreepada, Sastry R. (Clifton Park, NY); Rippel, Robert R. (late of Scotia, NY)

    1992-01-01

    An apparatus and a method are disclosed for measuring the average density and relative volumes in an essentially transparent, dispersed two-phase fluid. A laser beam with a diameter no greater than 1% of the diameter of the bubbles, droplets, or particles of the dispersed phase is directed onto a diffraction grating. A single-order component of the diffracted beam is directed through the two-phase fluid and its refraction is measured. Preferably, the refracted beam exiting the fluid is incident upon a optical filter with linearly varing optical density and the intensity of the filtered beam is measured. The invention can be combined with other laser-based measurement systems, e.g., laser doppler anemometry.

  18. The impact of NRC guidance on concentration averaging on low level waste sealed source disposal - 11424

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Whitworth, Julia; Stewart, Bill; Cuthbertson, Abigail

    2011-01-20

    As part of its ongoing efforts to revise the Nuclear Regulatory Commission's (NRC) current position on blending to be risk-informed and performance based and its current review of the low-level waste classification codified in 10 CFR 61.55, the Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC) has stated that it may review the 1995 'Branch Technical Position on Concentration Averaging and Encapsulation' (BTP), which is still commonly used today. Such a review will have timely advantages, given the lack of commercial disposal availability within the United States for radioactive sealed sources that are in wide beneficial use across the country. The current application of the BTP guidance has resulted in an effective cap on commercial disposal for sources larger than 1.1 TBq (30 Ci). This paper will analyze how the BTP has been implemented with respect to sealed sources, what the implications have been for commercial disposal availability, and whether alternative packaging configurations could be considered for disposal.

  19. Medium term municipal solid waste generation prediction by autoregressive integrated moving average

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Younes, Mohammad K.; Nopiah, Z. M.; Basri, Noor Ezlin A.; Basri, Hassan

    2014-09-12

    Generally, solid waste handling and management are performed by municipality or local authority. In most of developing countries, local authorities suffer from serious solid waste management (SWM) problems and insufficient data and strategic planning. Thus it is important to develop robust solid waste generation forecasting model. It helps to proper manage the generated solid waste and to develop future plan based on relatively accurate figures. In Malaysia, solid waste generation rate increases rapidly due to the population growth and new consumption trends that characterize the modern life style. This paper aims to develop monthly solid waste forecasting model using Autoregressive Integrated Moving Average (ARIMA), such model is applicable even though there is lack of data and will help the municipality properly establish the annual service plan. The results show that ARIMA (6,1,0) model predicts monthly municipal solid waste generation with root mean square error equals to 0.0952 and the model forecast residuals are within accepted 95% confident interval.

  20. Flowmeter for determining average rate of flow of liquid in a conduit

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Kennerly, John M. (Knoxville, TN); Lindner, Gordon M. (Oak Ridge, TN); Rowe, John C. (Oak Ridge, TN)

    1982-01-01

    This invention is a compact, precise, and relatively simple device for use in determining the average rate of flow of a liquid through a conduit. The liquid may be turbulent and contain bubbles of gas. In a preferred embodiment, the flowmeter includes an electrical circuit and a flow vessel which is connected as a segment of the conduit conveying the liquid. The vessel is provided with a valved outlet and is partitioned by a vertical baffle into coaxial chambers whose upper regions are vented to permit the escape of gas. The inner chamber receives turbulent downflowing liquid from the conduit and is sized to operate at a lower pressure than the conduit, thus promoting evolution of gas from the liquid. Lower zones of the two chambers are interconnected so that the downflowing liquid establishes liquid levels in both chambers. The liquid level in the outer chamber is comparatively calm, being to a large extent isolated from the turbulence in the inner chamber once the liquid in the outer chamber has risen above the liquid-introduction zone for that chamber. Lower and upper probes are provided in the outer chamber for sensing the liquid level therein at points above its liquid-introduction zone. An electrical circuit is connected to the probes to display the time required for the liquid level in the outer chamber to successively contact the lower and upper probes. The average rate of flow through the conduit can be determined from the above-mentioned time and the vessel volume filled by the liquid during that time.

  1. Flowmeter for determining average rate of flow of liquid in a conduit

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Kennerly, J.M.; Lindner, G.M.; Rowe, J.C.

    1981-04-30

    This invention is a compact, precise, and relatively simple device for use in determining the average rate of flow of a liquid through a conduit. The liquid may be turbulent and contain bubbles of gas. In a preferred embodiment, the flowmeter includes an electrical circuit and a flow vessel which is connected as a segment of the conduit conveying the liquid. The vessel is provided with a valved outlet and is partitioned by a vertical baffle into coaxial chambers whose upper regions are vented to permit the escape of gas. The inner chamber receives turbulent downflowing liquid from the conduit and is sized to operate at a lower pressure than the conduit, thus promoting evolution of gas from the liquid. Lower zones of the two chambers are interconnected so that the downflowing liquid establishes liquid levels in both chambers. The liquid level in the outer chamber is comparatively calm, being to a large extent isolated from the turbulence in the inner chamber once the liquid in the outer chamber has risen above the liquid-introduction zone for that chamber. Lower and upper probes are provided in the outer chamber for sensing the liquid level therein at points above its liquid-introduction zone. An electrical circuit is connected to the probes to display the time required for the liquid level in the outer chamber to successively contact the lower and upper probes. The average rate of flow through the conduit can be determined from the above-mentioned time and the vessel volume filled by the liquid during that time.

  2. drinking water

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    drinking water - Sandia Energy Energy Search Icon Sandia Home Locations Contact Us Employee Locator Energy & Climate Secure & Sustainable Energy Future Stationary Power Energy Conversion Efficiency Solar Energy Wind Energy Water Power Supercritical CO2 Geothermal Natural Gas Safety, Security & Resilience of the Energy Infrastructure Energy Storage Nuclear Power & Engineering Grid Modernization Battery Testing Nuclear Fuel Cycle Defense Waste Management Programs Advanced Nuclear

  3. Averages of B-Hadron, C-Hadron, and tau-lepton properties as of early 2012

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Amhis, Y.; et al.

    2012-07-01

    This article reports world averages of measurements of b-hadron, c-hadron, and tau-lepton properties obtained by the Heavy Flavor Averaging Group (HFAG) using results available through the end of 2011. In some cases results available in the early part of 2012 are included. For the averaging, common input parameters used in the various analyses are adjusted (rescaled) to common values, and known correlations are taken into account. The averages include branching fractions, lifetimes, neutral meson mixing parameters, CP violation parameters, parameters of semileptonic decays and CKM matrix elements.

  4. Fact #851: December 15, 2014 The Average Number of Gears used in Transmissions Continues to Rise – Dataset

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    Excel file with dataset for Fact #851: December 15, 2014 The Average Number of Gears used in Transmissions Continues to Rise

  5. U.S. gasoline price expected to average less than $2 a gallon both this year and next

    Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update (EIA)

    U.S. gasoline price expected to average less than $2 a gallon both this year and next U.S. drivers are now expected to see back-to-back years of annual average gasoline prices below $2 per gallon for the first time in more than a decade. In its latest monthly forecast, the U.S. Energy Information Administration said low oil prices will keep the average annual price for a gallon of regular-grade gasoline at $1.89 this year and at $1.97 in 2017. The last time gasoline averaged less than $2 for two

  6. Property:CoolingTowerWaterUseAnnlAvgGross | Open Energy Information

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    Property Name CoolingTowerWaterUseAnnlAvgGross Property Type Number Description Cooling Tower Water use (annual average) (afday) Gross. Retrieved from "http:en.openei.orgw...

  7. Property:CoolingTowerWaterUseWinterGross | Open Energy Information

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    lingTowerWaterUseWinterGross Property Type Number Description Cooling Tower Water use (winter average) (afday) Gross. Retrieved from "http:en.openei.orgwindex.php?titleProper...

  8. Ashland Electric Utility - Bright Way to Heat Water Rebate |...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    average 800 to 1,000) Summary The City of Ashland Conservation Division offers a solar water heating program to its residential electric customers who currently use an electric...

  9. Wynkoop Building Performance Measurement: Water

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Fowler, Kimberly M.; Kora, Angela R.

    2012-08-26

    This report is a summary of the water analysis performance for the Denver, Colorado Wynkoop Building. The Wynkoop Building (Figure 1) was built in 2006 as the Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) Region 8 Headquarters intended to house over 900 occupants in the 301,292 gross square feet (248,849 rentable square feet). The building was built on a brownfield in the Lower Downtown Historic District as part of an urban redevelopment effort. The building was designed and constructed through a public-private partnership with the sustainable design elements developed jointly by General Services Administration (GSA) and EPA. That partnership is still active with all parties still engaged to optimize building operations and use the building as a Learning Laboratory. The building design achieved U.S. Green Building Council Leadership in Energy and Environmental Design for New Construction (LEED-NC) Gold Certification in 2008 (Figure 2) and a 2008 EPA Energy Star Rating of 96 with design highlights that include: (1) Water use was designed to use 40% less than a typical design baseline. The design included low flow fixtures, waterless urinals and dual flush toilets; (2) Native and adaptive vegetation were selected to minimize the need for irrigation water for landscaping; and (3) Energy use intensity was modeled at 66.1 kBtus/gross square foot, which is 39% better than ASHRAE 90.1 1999. The Wynkoop Building water use (10 gallons/square foot) was measured at lower than industry average (15 gallons/square foot) and GSA goals (13 gallons/square foot), however, it was higher than building management expected it would be. The type of occupants and number of occupants can have a significant impact on fixture water use. The occupancy per floor varied significantly over the study time period, which added uncertainty to the data analysis. Investigation of the fixture use on the 2nd, 5th, and 7th floors identified potential for water use reduction if the flush direction of the dual-flush toilet handles was reversed. The building management retrofitted the building's toilets with handles that operated on reduced flush when pushed down (0.8 gallons) and full flush when pulled up (1.1 gallons). The water pressure on the 5th floor (< 30 psi) is less than half the pressure on the 7th floor (>80 psi). The measured water savings post-retrofit was lower on the 5th floor than the 7th floor. The differences in water pressure may have had an impact on the quantity of water used per floor. The second floor water use was examined prior to and following the toilet fixture retrofit. This floor is where conference rooms for non-building occupants are available for use, thus occupancy is highly variable. The 3-day average volume per flush event was higher post-retrofit (0.79 gallons per event), in contrast to pre-retrofit (0.57 gallons per event). There were 40% more flush events post retrofit, which impacted the findings. Water use in the third floor fitness center was also measured for a limited number of days. Because of water line accessibility, only water use on the men's side of the fitness center was measured and from that the total fitness center water use was estimated. Using the limited data collected, the fitness center shower water use is approximately 2% of the whole building water use. Overall water use in the Wynkoop Building is below the industry baseline and GSA expectations. The dual flush fixture replacement appears to have resulted in additional water savings that are expected to show a savings in the total annual water use.

  10. Comparison of Two Gas Selection Methodologies: An Application of Bayesian Model Averaging

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Renholds, Andrea S.; Thompson, Sandra E.; Anderson, Kevin K.; Chilton, Lawrence K.

    2006-03-31

    One goal of hyperspectral imagery analysis is the detection and characterization of plumes. Characterization includes identifying the gases in the plumes, which is a model selection problem. Two gas selection methods compared in this report are Bayesian model averaging (BMA) and minimum Akaike information criterion (AIC) stepwise regression (SR). Simulated spectral data from a three-layer radiance transfer model were used to compare the two methods. Test gases were chosen to span the types of spectra observed, which exhibit peaks ranging from broad to sharp. The size and complexity of the search libraries were varied. Background materials were chosen to either replicate a remote area of eastern Washington or feature many common background materials. For many cases, BMA and SR performed the detection task comparably in terms of the receiver operating characteristic curves. For some gases, BMA performed better than SR when the size and complexity of the search library increased. This is encouraging because we expect improved BMA performance upon incorporation of prior information on background materials and gases.

  11. Twist-averaged boundary conditions for nuclear pasta Hartree-Fock calculations

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Schuetrumpf, B.; Nazarewicz, W.

    2015-10-21

    Nuclear pasta phases, present in the inner crust of neutron stars, are associated with nucleonic matter at subsaturation densities arranged in regular shapes. Those complex phases, residing in a layer which is approximately 100-m thick, impact many features of neutron stars. Theoretical quantum-mechanical simulations of nuclear pasta are usually carried out in finite three-dimensional boxes assuming periodic boundary conditions. The resulting solutions are affected by spurious finite-size effects. To remove spurious finite-size effects, it is convenient to employ twist-averaged boundary conditions (TABC) used in condensed matter, nuclear matter, and lattice quantum chromodynamics applications. In this work, we study the effectiveness of TABC in the context of pasta phase simulations within nuclear density functional theory. We demonstrated that by applying TABC reliable results can be obtained from calculations performed in relatively small volumes. By studying various contributions to the total energy, we gain insights into pasta phases in mid-density range. Future applications will include the TABC extension of the adaptive multiresolution 3D Hartree-Fock solver and Hartree-Fock-Bogoliubov TABC applications to superfluid pasta phases and complex nucleonic topologies as in fission.

  12. Dynamical interpretation of average fission-fragment kinetic energy systematics and nuclear scission

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Nadtochy, P.N. [GSI, Plankstrasse 1, D-64291 Darmstadt (Germany); Omsk State University, Department of Theoretical Physics, Mira Prospect 55-A, RU-644077 Omsk (Russian Federation); Adeev, G.D. [Omsk State University, Department of Theoretical Physics, Mira Prospect 55-A, RU-644077 Omsk (Russian Federation)

    2005-11-01

    A dynamical interpretation of the well-known systematics for average total kinetic energy of fission fragments over a wide range of the Coulomb parameter (600 on the Coulomb parameter. The results of dynamical calculations of within three-dimensional Langevin dynamics show that the mean distance between the centers of mass of nascent fragments at the scission configuration increases linearly with the parameter Z{sup 2}/A{sup 1/3}. This distance changes approximately from 2.35R{sub 0} for {sup 119}Xe to 2.6R{sub 0} for {sup 256}Fm. In spite of this increase in mean distance between future fragments at scission, the linear dependence of on the parameter Z{sup 2}/A{sup 1/3} remains approximately valid over a wide range of the Coulomb parameter Z{sup 2}/A{sup 1/3}.

  13. Cylinder-averaged histories of nitrogen oxide in a D.I. diesel with simulated turbocharging

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Donahue, R.J.; Borman, G.L.; Bower, G.R.

    1994-10-20

    An experimental study was conducted using the dumping technique (total cylinder sampling) to produce cylinder mass-averaged nitric oxide histories. Data were taken using a four stroke diesel research engine employing a quiescent chamber, high pressure direct ijection fuel system, and simulated turbocharging. Two fuels were used to determine fuel cetane number effects. Two loads were run, one at an equivalence ratio of 0.5 and the other at a ratio of 0.3. The engine speed was held constant at 1500 rpm. Under the turbocharged and retarded timing conditions of this study, nitric oxide was produced up to the point of about 85% mass burned. Two different models were used to simulate the engine mn conditions: the phenomenological Hiroyasu spray-combustion model, and the three dimensional, U.W.-ERO modified KIVA-lI computational fluid dynamic code. Both of the models predicted the correct nitric oxide trend. Although the modified KIVA-lI combustion model using Zeldovich kinetics correctly predicted the shapes of the nitric oxide histories, it did not predict the exhaust concentrations without arbitrary adjustment based on experimental values.

  14. Twist-averaged boundary conditions for nuclear pasta Hartree-Fock calculations

    DOE Public Access Gateway for Energy & Science Beta (PAGES Beta)

    Schuetrumpf, B.; Nazarewicz, W.

    2015-10-21

    Nuclear pasta phases, present in the inner crust of neutron stars, are associated with nucleonic matter at subsaturation densities arranged in regular shapes. Those complex phases, residing in a layer which is approximately 100-m thick, impact many features of neutron stars. Theoretical quantum-mechanical simulations of nuclear pasta are usually carried out in finite three-dimensional boxes assuming periodic boundary conditions. The resulting solutions are affected by spurious finite-size effects. To remove spurious finite-size effects, it is convenient to employ twist-averaged boundary conditions (TABC) used in condensed matter, nuclear matter, and lattice quantum chromodynamics applications. In this work, we study the effectivenessmore » of TABC in the context of pasta phase simulations within nuclear density functional theory. We demonstrated that by applying TABC reliable results can be obtained from calculations performed in relatively small volumes. By studying various contributions to the total energy, we gain insights into pasta phases in mid-density range. Future applications will include the TABC extension of the adaptive multiresolution 3D Hartree-Fock solver and Hartree-Fock-Bogoliubov TABC applications to superfluid pasta phases and complex nucleonic topologies as in fission.« less

  15. A quantitative approach to the characterization of cumulative and average solvent exposure in paint manufacturing plants

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Ford, D.P.; Schwartz, B.S.; Powell, S.; Nelson, T.; Keller, L.; Sides, S.; Agnew, J.; Bolla, K.; Bleecker, M. )

    1991-06-01

    Previous reports have attributed a range of neurobehavioral effects to low-level, occupational solvent exposure. These studies have generally been limited in their exposure assessments and have specifically lacked good estimates of exposure intensity. In the present study, the authors describe the development of two exposure variables that quantitatively integrate industrial hygiene sampling data with estimates of exposure duration--a cumulative exposure (CE) estimate and a lifetime weighted average exposure (LWAE) estimate. Detailed occupational histories were obtained from 187 workers at two paint manufacturing plants. Historic industrial hygiene sampling data for total hydrocarbons (a composite variable of the major neurotoxic solvents present) were grouped according to 20 uniform, temporally stable exposure zones, which had been defined during plant walk-through surveys. Sampling at the time of the study was used to characterize the few zones for which historic data were limited or unavailable. For each participant, the geometric mean total hydrocarbon level for each exposure zone worked in was multiplied by the duration of employment in that zone; the resulting products were summed over the working lifetime to create the CE variable. The CE variable was divided by the total duration of employment in solvent-exposed jobs to create the LWAE variable. The explanatory value of each participant's LWAE estimate in the regression of simple visual reaction time (a neurobehavioral test previously shown to be affected by chronic solvent exposure) on exposure was compared with that of several other exposure variables, including exposure duration and an exposure variable based on an ordinal ranking of the exposure zones.

  16. U.S. average gasoline and diesel fuel prices expected to be slightly lower in 2013 than in 2012

    Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update (EIA)

    average gasoline and diesel fuel prices expected to be slightly lower in 2013 than in 2012 Despite the recent run-up in gasoline prices, the U.S. Energy Information Administration expects falling crude oil prices will lead to a small decline in average motor fuel costs this year compared with last year. The price for regular gasoline is expected to average $3.55 a gallon in 2013 and $3.39 next year, according to EIA's new Short-Term Energy Outlook. That's down from $3.63 a gallon in 2012. For

  17. Does the orbit-averaged theory require a scale separation between periodic orbit size and perturbation correlation length?

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Zhang, Wenlu; Department of Modern Physics, University of Science and Technology of China, Hefei, Anhui 230026; Department of Physics and Astronomy, University of California, Irvine, California 92697 ; Lin, Zhihong; Fusion Simulation Center, Peking University, Beijing 100871

    2013-10-15

    Using the canonical perturbation theory, we show that the orbit-averaged theory only requires a time-scale separation between equilibrium and perturbed motions and verifies the widely accepted notion that orbit averaging effects greatly reduce the microturbulent transport of energetic particles in a tokamak. Therefore, a recent claim [Hauff and Jenko, Phys. Rev. Lett. 102, 075004 (2009); Jenko et al., ibid. 107, 239502 (2011)] stating that the orbit-averaged theory requires a scale separation between equilibrium orbit size and perturbation correlation length is erroneous.

  18. Improved volume-averaged model for steady and pulsed-power electronegative discharges

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Kim, Sungjin; Lieberman, M. A.; Lichtenberg, A. J.; Gudmundsson, J. T.

    2006-11-15

    An improved volume-averaged global model is developed for a cylindrical (radius R, length L) electronegative (EN) plasma that is applicable over a wide range of electron densities, electronegativities, and pressures. It is applied to steady and pulsed-power oxygen discharges. The model incorporates effective volume and surface loss factors for positive ions, negative ions, and electrons combining three electronegative discharge regimes: a two-region regime with a parabolic EN core surrounded by an electropositive edge, a one-region parabolic EN plasma, and a one-region flat-topped EN plasma, spanning the plasma parameters and gas pressures of interest for low pressure processing (below a few hundred millitorr). Pressure-dependent effective volume and surface loss factors are also used for the neutral species. A set of reaction rate coefficients, updated from previous model calculations, is developed for oxygen for the species O{sub 2}, O{sub 2}({sup 1}{delta}{sub g}), O, O{sub 2}{sup +}, O{sup +}, and O{sup -}, based on the latest published cross-section sets and measurements. The model solutions yield all of the quantities above together with such important processing quantities such as the neutral/ion flux ratio {gamma}{sub O}/{gamma}{sub i}, with the discharge aspect ratio 2R/L and pulsed-power period and duty ratio (pulse on-time/pulse period) as parameters. The steady discharge results are compared to an experiment, giving good agreement. For steady discharges, increasing 2R/L from 1 to 6 leads to a factor of 0.45 reduction in {gamma}{sub O}/{gamma}{sub i}. For pulsed discharges with a fixed duty ratio, {gamma}{sub O}/{gamma}{sub i} is found to have a minimum with respect to pulse period. A 25% duty ratio pulse reduces {gamma}{sub O}/{gamma}{sub i} by a factor of 0.75 compared to the steady-state case.

  19. water infrastructure

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    infrastructure - Sandia Energy Energy Search Icon Sandia Home Locations Contact Us Employee Locator Energy & Climate Secure & Sustainable Energy Future Stationary Power Energy Conversion Efficiency Solar Energy Wind Energy Water Power Supercritical CO2 Geothermal Natural Gas Safety, Security & Resilience of the Energy Infrastructure Energy Storage Nuclear Power & Engineering Grid Modernization Battery Testing Nuclear Fuel Cycle Defense Waste Management Programs Advanced Nuclear

  20. water savings

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    savings - Sandia Energy Energy Search Icon Sandia Home Locations Contact Us Employee Locator Energy & Climate Secure & Sustainable Energy Future Stationary Power Energy Conversion Efficiency Solar Energy Wind Energy Water Power Supercritical CO2 Geothermal Natural Gas Safety, Security & Resilience of the Energy Infrastructure Energy Storage Nuclear Power & Engineering Grid Modernization Battery Testing Nuclear Fuel Cycle Defense Waste Management Programs Advanced Nuclear Energy

  1. water scarcity

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    scarcity - Sandia Energy Energy Search Icon Sandia Home Locations Contact Us Employee Locator Energy & Climate Secure & Sustainable Energy Future Stationary Power Energy Conversion Efficiency Solar Energy Wind Energy Water Power Supercritical CO2 Geothermal Natural Gas Safety, Security & Resilience of the Energy Infrastructure Energy Storage Nuclear Power & Engineering Grid Modernization Battery Testing Nuclear Fuel Cycle Defense Waste Management Programs Advanced Nuclear Energy

  2. Fact #638: August 30, 2010 Average Expenditure for a New Car Declines in Relation to Family Earnings

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    Although the average expenditure for a new car has increased from 1967 to 2009, family earnings have also been on the rise. For this period, new car expenditures went from $3,216 to $23,186, while...

  3. Table 16. Recoverable Coal Reserves and Average Recovery Percentage at Producing Underground Coal Mines by State and Mining Method,

    Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update (EIA)

    Recoverable Coal Reserves and Average Recovery Percentage at Producing Underground Coal Mines by State and Mining Method, 2013 (million short tons) U.S. Energy Information Administration | Annual Coal Report 2013 Table 16. Recoverable Coal Reserves and Average Recovery Percentage at Producing Underground Coal Mines by State and Mining Method, 2013 (million short tons) U.S. Energy Information Administration | Annual Coal Report 2013 Continuous 1 Conventional and Other 2 Longwall 3 Total

  4. "Variable","Average Absolute Percent Differences","Percent of Projections Over- Estimated"

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    Annual Energy Outlook Retrospective Review, 2014" "Variable","Average Absolute Percent Differences","Percent of Projections Over- Estimated" "Gross Domestic Product" "Real Gross Domestic Product (Average Cumulative Growth)* (Table 2)",0.9204312786,45.77777778 "Petroleum" "Imported Refiner Acquisition Cost of Crude Oil (Constant $) (Table 3a)",37.71300779,17.33333333 "Imported Refiner Acquisition Cost of Crude Oil

  5. Bringing Water into an Integrated Assessment Framework

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Izaurralde, Roberto C.; Thomson, Allison M.; Sands, Ronald; Pitcher, Hugh M.

    2010-11-30

    We developed a modeling capability to understand how water is allocated within a river basin and examined present and future water allocations among agriculture, energy production, other human requirements, and ecological needs. Water is an essential natural resource needed for food and fiber production, household and industrial uses, energy production, transportation, tourism and recreation, and the functioning of natural ecosystems. Anthropogenic climate change and population growth are anticipated to impose unprecedented pressure on water resources during this century. Pacific Northwest National Laboratory (PNNL) researchers have pioneered the development of integrated assessment (IA) models for the analysis of energy and economic systems under conditions of climate change. This Laboratory Directed Research and Development (LDRD) effort led to the development of a modeling capability to evaluate current and future water allocations between human requirements and ecosystem services. The Water Prototype Model (WPM) was built in STELLA®, a computer modeling package with a powerful interface that enables users to construct dynamic models to simulate and integrate many processes (biological, hydrological, economics, sociological). A 150,404-km2 basin in the United States (U.S.) Pacific Northwest region served as the platform for the development of the WPM. About 60% of the study basin is in the state of Washington with the rest in Oregon. The Columbia River runs through the basin for 874 km, starting at the international border with Canada and ending (for the purpose of the simulation) at The Dalles dam. Water enters the basin through precipitation and from streamflows originating from the Columbia River at the international border with Canada, the Spokane River, and the Snake River. Water leaves the basin through evapotranspiration, consumptive uses (irrigation, livestock, domestic, commercial, mining, industrial, and off-stream power generation), and streamflow through The Dalles dam. Water also enters the Columbia River via runoff from land. The model runs on a monthly timescale to account for the impact of seasonal variations of climate, streamflows, and water uses. Data for the model prototype were obtained from national databases and ecosystem model results. The WPM can be run from three sources: 1) directly from STELLA, 2) with the isee Player®, or 3) the web version of WPM constructed with NetSim® software. When running any of these three versions, the user is presented a screen with a series of buttons, graphs, and a table. Two of the buttons provide the user with background and instructions on how to run the model. Currently, there are five types of scenarios that can be manipulated alone or in combination using the Sliding Input Devices: 1) interannual variability (e.g., El Nińo), 2) climate change, 3) salmon policy, 4) future population, and 5) biodiesel production. Overall, the WPM captured the effects of streamflow conditions on hydropower production. Under La Nińa conditions, more hydropower is available during all months of the year, with a substantially higher availability during spring and summer. Under El Nińo conditions, hydropower would be reduced, with a total decline of 15% from normal weather conditions over the year. A policy of flow augmentation to facilitate the spring migration of smolts to the ocean would also reduce hydropower supply. Modeled hydropower generation was 23% greater than the 81 TWh reported in the 1995 U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) database. The modeling capability presented here contains the essential features to conduct basin-scale analyses of water allocation under current and future climates. Due to its underlying data structure iv and conceptual foundation, the WPM should be appropriate to conduct IA modeling at national and global scales.

  6. National and Regional Water and Wastewater Rates For Use inCost-Benefit Models and Evaluations of Water Efficiency Programs

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Fisher, Diane C.; Whitehead, Camilla Dunham; Melody, Moya

    2006-09-01

    Calculating the benefits and costs of water conservation orefficiency programs requires knowing the marginal cost of the water andwastewater saved by those programs. Developing an accurate picture of thepotential cost savings from water conservation requires knowing the costof the last few units of water consumed or wastewater released, becausethose are the units that would be saved by increased water efficiency.This report describes the data we obtained on water and wastewater ratesand costs, data gaps we identified, and other issues related to using thedata to estimate the cost savings that might accrue from waterconservation programs. We identified three water and wastewater ratesources. Of these, we recommend using Raftelis Financial Corporation(RFC) because it: a) has the most comprehensive national coverage; and b)provides greatest detail on rates to calculate marginal rates. The figurebelow shows the regional variation in water rates for a range ofconsumption blocks. Figure 1A Marginal Rates of Water Blocks by Regionfrom RFC 2004Water and wastewater rates are rising faster than the rateof inflation. For example, from 1996 to 2004 the average water rateincreased 39.5 percent, average wastewater rate increased 37.8 percent,the CPI (All Urban) increased 20.1 percent, and the CPI (Water andSewerage Maintenance) increased 31.1 percent. On average, annualincreases were 4.3 percent for water and 4.1 percent for wastewater,compared to 2.3 percent for the All Urban CPI and 3.7 percent for the CPIfor water and sewerage maintenance. If trends in rates for water andwastewater rates continue, water-efficient products will become morevaluable and more cost-effective.

  7. Efficient Water Use & Management

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Water Use Goal 4: Efficient Water Use & Management Aware of the arid climate of northern New Mexico, water reduction and conservation remains a primary concern at LANL. Energy...

  8. Horizontal-Velocity and Variance Measurements in the Stable Boundary Layer Using Doppler Lidar: Sensitivity to Averaging Procedures

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Pichugina, Yelena L.; Banta, Robert M.; Kelley, Neil D.; Jonkman, Bonnie J.; Tucker, Sara C.; Newsom, Rob K.; Brewer, W. A.

    2008-08-01

    Quantitative data on turbulence variables aloft--above the region of the atmosphere conveniently measured from towers--has been an important but difficult measurement need for advancing understanding and modeling of the stable boundary layer (SBL). Vertical profiles of streamwise velocity variances obtained from NOAA’s High Resolution Doppler Lidar (HRDL), which have been shown to be numerically equivalent to turbulence kinetic energy (TKE) for stable conditions, are a measure of the turbulence in the SBL. In the present study, the mean horizontal wind component U and variance ?u2 were computed from HRDL measurements of the line-of-sight (LOS) velocity using a technique described in Banta, et al. (2002). The technique was tested on datasets obtained during the Lamar Low-Level Jet Project (LLLJP) carried out in early September 2003, near the town of Lamar in southeastern Colorado. This paper compares U with mean wind speed obtained from sodar and sonic anemometer measurements. It then describes several series of averaging tests that produced the best correlation between TKE calculated from sonic anemometer data at several tower levels and lidar measurements of horizontal velocity variance ?u2. The results show high correlation (0.71-0.97) of the mean U and average wind speed measured by sodar and in-situ instruments, independent of sampling strategies and averaging procedures. Comparison of estimates of variance, on the other hand, proved sensitive to both the spatial and temporal averaging techniques.

  9. Waters LANL Protects

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Waters LANL Protects Waters LANL Protects LANL watersheds source in the Jemez Mountains and end at the Rio Grande.

  10. Cultivation of macroscopic marine algae and fresh water aquatic weeds

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Ryther, J.H.

    1982-02-01

    The ORCA clone of the red seaweed Gracilaria tikvahiae has been in culture continuously for over two years. Yield for the past year has averaged 12 g ash-free dry wt/m/sup 2/ .day (17.5 t/a.y) in suspended 2600-1 aluminum tank cultures with four exchanges of enriched seawater per day and continuous aeration. Yields from nonintensive pond-bottom culture, similar to commercial Gracilaria culture methods in Taiwan, averaged 3 g afdw/m/sup 2/.day in preliminary experiments. Rope and spray cultures were not successful. Yields of water hyacinths from March 1978 to March 1979 averaged 25 g afdw/m/sup 2/.day (37 t/a.y). Season, nutrient availability (form and quantity) and stand density were found to affect the relative proportions of structural and nonstructural tissue in water hyacinths and thereby significantly affect digestibility of and methane production by the plants. Pennywort (Hydrocotyle) grew poorly in winter and its annual yield averaged only one-third that of water hyacinth. Water lettuce (Pistia) appears more comparable to hyacinths in preliminary studies and its yields will be monitored throughout a complete year. Stable, continuous anaerobic digestion of both water hyacinths and Gracilaria has been maintained with an average gas production from both species of 0.4 1/g volatile solids at 60% methane.

  11. ARM: Microwave Radiometer data (MWR Profiles - QME), water vapor, temp, cloud liquid water, precip water retrievals

    DOE Data Explorer [Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)]

    Maria Cadeddu

    2004-02-19

    Microwave Radiometer data (MWR Profiles - QME), water vapor, temp, cloud liquid water, precip water retrievals

  12. ARM: Microwave Radiometer data (MWR Profiles - QME), water vapor, temp, cloud liquid water, precip water retrievals

    DOE Data Explorer [Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)]

    Maria Cadeddu

    Microwave Radiometer data (MWR Profiles - QME), water vapor, temp, cloud liquid water, precip water retrievals

  13. Water Heating | Department of Energy

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Public Services Homes Water Heating Water Heating Infographic: Water Heaters 101 Infographic: Water Heaters 101 Everything you need to know about saving money on water...

  14. Horizontal Velocity and Variance Measurements in the Stable Boundary Layer Using Doppler Lidar: Sensitivity to Averaging Procedures

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Pichugina, Y. L.; Banta, R. M.; Kelley, N. D.; Jonkman, B. J.; Tucker, S. C.; Newsom, R. K.; Brewer, W. A.

    2008-08-01

    Quantitative data on turbulence variables aloft--above the region of the atmosphere conveniently measured from towers--have been an important but difficult measurement need for advancing understanding and modeling of the stable boundary layer (SBL). Vertical profiles of streamwise velocity variances obtained from NOAA's high-resolution Doppler lidar (HRDL), which have been shown to be approximately equal to turbulence kinetic energy (TKE) for stable conditions, are a measure of the turbulence in the SBL. In the present study, the mean horizontal wind component U and variance {sigma}2u were computed from HRDL measurements of the line-of-sight (LOS) velocity using a method described by Banta et al., which uses an elevation (vertical slice) scanning technique. The method was tested on datasets obtained during the Lamar Low-Level Jet Project (LLLJP) carried out in early September 2003, near the town of Lamar in southeastern Colorado. This paper compares U with mean wind speed obtained from sodar and sonic anemometer measurements. The results for the mean U and mean wind speed measured by sodar and in situ instruments for all nights of LLLJP show high correlation (0.71-0.97), independent of sampling strategies and averaging procedures, and correlation coefficients consistently >0.9 for four high-wind nights, when the low-level jet speeds exceeded 15 m s{sup -1} at some time during the night. Comparison of estimates of variance, on the other hand, proved sensitive to both the spatial and temporal averaging parameters. Several series of averaging tests are described, to find the best correlation between TKE calculated from sonic anemometer data at several tower levels and lidar measurements of horizontal-velocity variance {sigma}{sup 2}{sub u}. Because of the nonstationarity of the SBL data, the best results were obtained when the velocity data were first averaged over intervals of 1 min, and then further averaged over 3-15 consecutive 1-min intervals, with best results for the 10- and 15-min averaging periods. For these cases, correlation coefficients exceeded 0.9. As a part of the analysis, Eulerian integral time scales ({tau}) were estimated for the four high-wind nights. Time series of {tau} through each night indicated erratic behavior consistent with the nonstationarity. Histograms of {tau} showed a mode at 4-5 s, but frequent occurrences of larger {tau} values, mostly between 10 and 100 s.

  15. Average Commercial Price

    Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update (EIA)

    9.47 8.91 8.10 8.08 8.90 7.89 1967-2015 Alabama 13.34 12.36 12.56 12.35 11.92 11.03 1967-2015 Alaska 8.78 8.09 8.09 8.34 8.30 7.80 1967-2015 Arizona 10.72 9.99 9.35 8.76 10.34 10.53 1967-2015 Arkansas 8.89 8.90 7.99 7.68 7.88 8.08 1967-2015 California 8.30 8.29 7.05 7.81 9.05 7.98 1967-2015 Colorado 7.58 7.84 7.58 7.26 8.15 NA 1967-2015 Connecticut 9.55 8.48 8.40 9.20 10.24 NA 1967-2015 Delaware 13.26 13.58 13.31 11.78 11.42 10.70 1967-2015 District of Columbia 12.26 12.24 11.19 11.64 12.18

  16. Average Commercial Price

    Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update (EIA)

    Pipeline and Distribution Use Price Citygate Price Residential Price Commercial Price Industrial Price Vehicle Fuel Price Electric Power Price Proved Reserves as of 12/31 Reserves Adjustments Reserves Revision Increases Reserves Revision Decreases Reserves Sales Reserves Acquisitions Reserves Extensions Reserves New Field Discoveries New Reservoir Discoveries in Old Fields Estimated Production Number of Producing Gas Wells Gross Withdrawals Gross Withdrawals From Gas Wells Gross Withdrawals From

  17. Average Commercial Price

    Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update (EIA)

    Citygate Price Residential Price Commercial Price Industrial Price Electric Power Price Gross Withdrawals Gross Withdrawals From Gas Wells Gross Withdrawals From Oil Wells Gross Withdrawals From Shale Gas Wells Gross Withdrawals From Coalbed Wells Repressuring Nonhydrocarbon Gases Removed Vented and Flared Marketed Production NGPL Production, Gaseous Equivalent Dry Production Imports By Pipeline LNG Imports Exports Exports By Pipeline LNG Exports Underground Storage Capacity Gas in Underground

  18. Average Residential Price

    Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update (EIA)

    11.39 11.03 10.65 10.32 10.97 10.38 1967-2015 Alabama 15.79 15.08 16.20 15.47 14.59 13.95 1967-2015 Alaska 8.89 8.77 8.47 8.85 9.11 9.68 1967-2015 Arizona 15.87 15.04 15.75 13.92 17.20 17.04 1967-2015 Arkansas 11.53 11.46 11.82 10.46 10.39 11.20 1967-2015 California 9.92 9.93 9.14 9.92 11.51 11.38 1967-2015 Colorado 8.13 8.25 8.28 7.85 8.89 NA 1967-2015 Connecticut 14.93 13.83 14.17 13.32 14.13 NA 1967-2015 Delaware 15.12 15.38 15.24 13.65 13.21 NA 1967-2015 District of Columbia 13.53 13.06

  19. Average Residential Price

    Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update (EIA)

    Pipeline and Distribution Use Price Citygate Price Residential Price Commercial Price Industrial Price Vehicle Fuel Price Electric Power Price Proved Reserves as of 12/31 Reserves Adjustments Reserves Revision Increases Reserves Revision Decreases Reserves Sales Reserves Acquisitions Reserves Extensions Reserves New Field Discoveries New Reservoir Discoveries in Old Fields Estimated Production Number of Producing Gas Wells Gross Withdrawals Gross Withdrawals From Gas Wells Gross Withdrawals From

  20. Average Residential Price

    Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update (EIA)

    Citygate Price Residential Price Commercial Price Industrial Price Electric Power Price Gross Withdrawals Gross Withdrawals From Gas Wells Gross Withdrawals From Oil Wells Gross Withdrawals From Shale Gas Wells Gross Withdrawals From Coalbed Wells Repressuring Nonhydrocarbon Gases Removed Vented and Flared Marketed Production NGPL Production, Gaseous Equivalent Dry Production Imports By Pipeline LNG Imports Exports Exports By Pipeline LNG Exports Underground Storage Capacity Gas in Underground

  1. Average Residential Price

    Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update (EIA)

    Monthly Annual Download Series History Download Series History Definitions, Sources & Notes Definitions, Sources & Notes Show Data By: Data Series Area 2010 2011 2012 2013 2014 2015 View History District of Columbia 13.53 13.06 12.10 12.45 13.05 12.52 1980-2015 Florida 17.89 18.16 18.34 18.46 19.02 19.29 1967-2015 Georgia 15.17 15.72 16.23 14.60 14.45 15.06 1967-2015 Maryland 12.44 12.10 12.17 11.67 12.21 12.05 1967-2015 Michigan 11.32 10.47 9.95 9.09 9.33 8.78 1967-2015 New Jersey

  2. Average Commercial Price

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    8.45 8.43 8.37 7.74 7.38 7.21 1973-2015 Alabama 11.89 11.93 11.75 11.40 11.47 10.73 1989-2015 Alaska 7.74 7.89 7.03 7.67 7.43 7.39 1989-2015 Arizona 10.67 10.52 10.40 10.14 9.36 9.17 1989-2015 Arkansas 8.09 8.19 8.00 7.71 7.86 7.29 1989-2015 California 7.68 7.87 7.84 7.69 7.20 8.23 1989-2015 Colorado 9.41 9.33 9.19 7.83 6.49 6.18 1989-2015 Connecticut 9.29 9.52 NA 9.53 8.48 8.18 1989-2015 Delaware 13.35 13.86 13.93 12.54 10.82 9.15 1989-2015 District of Columbia 11.15 11.17 11.50 11.68 11.28

  3. Average Residential Price

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    16.21 16.80 16.37 12.59 10.06 9.29 1973-2015 Alabama 20.35 20.60 20.38 19.12 17.67 14.30 1989-2015 Alaska 11.78 11.50 9.86 9.44 8.89 8.79 1989-2015 Arizona 23.59 24.01 23.01 20.77 14.57 12.75 1989-2015 Arkansas 17.53 19.19 18.15 17.40 13.80 10.34 1989-2015 California 11.68 11.85 11.91 11.53 10.31 11.37 1989-2015 Colorado 14.21 13.61 13.03 9.26 6.88 6.45 1989-2015 Connecticut 18.22 19.33 NA 15.30 12.50 11.82 1989-2015 Delaware 21.80 23.75 23.22 NA 14.03 11.09 1989-2015 District of Columbia 17.68

  4. Average Commercial Price

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    2.26 12.24 11.19 11.64 12.18 11.55 1980-2015 Florida 10.60 11.14 10.41 10.87 11.38 10.74 1967-2015 Georgia 10.95 10.51 9.75 9.38 9.86 8.49 1967-2015 Maryland 9.87 10.29 10.00 10.06 10.52 10.00 1967-2015 Michigan 8.95 9.14 8.35 7.82 8.28 7.49 1967-2015 New Jersey 10.11 9.51 8.50 9.55 10.08 8.52 1967-2015 New York 10.88 9.32 7.84 8.00 8.31 6.89 1967-2015 Ohio 9.25 8.55 7.11 6.21 7.82 6.62 1967-2015 Pennsylvania 10.47 10.42 10.24 10.11 10.13 NA 1967-2015 Virginia 9.55 9.69 8.77 8.83 9.17 8.11

  5. Average Residential Price

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    3.53 13.06 12.10 12.45 13.05 12.52 1980-2015 Florida 17.89 18.16 18.34 18.46 19.02 19.29 1967-2015 Georgia 15.17 15.72 16.23 14.60 14.45 15.06 1967-2015 Maryland 12.44 12.10 12.17 11.67 12.21 12.05 1967-2015 Michigan 11.32 10.47 9.95 9.09 9.33 8.78 1967-2015 New Jersey 12.84 11.78 11.09 10.89 9.69 8.37 1967-2015 New York 14.04 13.71 12.97 12.49 12.54 11.20 1967-2015 Ohio 11.13 10.78 9.91 9.46 10.16 9.49 1967-2015 Pennsylvania 12.90 12.46 11.99 11.63 11.77 NA 1967-2015 Virginia 12.73 12.72 12.42

  6. Average Commercial Price

    Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update (EIA)

    1.15 11.17 11.50 11.68 11.28 10.01 1989-2015 Florida 10.92 10.91 11.15 10.61 10.69 10.89 1989-2015 Georgia 9.08 9.07 9.38 8.65 9.72 7.80 1989-2015 Maryland 10.98 11.61 11.11 9.98 9.56 10.44 1989-2015 Michigan 9.31 9.17 9.05 7.46 6.75 6.59 1989-2015 New Jersey 8.66 8.78 8.03 8.10 8.66 8.24 1989-2015 New York 6.08 5.75 5.99 6.27 6.33 6.82 1989-2015 Ohio 8.14 8.02 7.99 6.79 6.03 5.53 1989-2015 Pennsylvania 12.09 11.21 11.10 NA 8.27 8.13 1989-2015 Virginia 8.55 8.58 8.91 8.02 7.57 7.93

  7. Average Residential Price

    Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update (EIA)

    7.68 18.15 18.17 16.21 12.60 10.70 1989-2015 Florida 24.58 24.59 24.41 23.37 21.56 19.15 1989-2015 Georgia 25.45 24.78 25.75 20.43 15.20 14.41 1989-2015 Maryland 18.44 19.08 19.39 13.51 12.72 13.12 1989-2015 Michigan 13.65 13.52 13.21 8.93 7.84 7.55 1989-2015 New Jersey 12.03 12.98 12.38 10.30 9.08 7.85 1989-2015 New York 17.10 17.33 17.53 14.26 12.27 11.42 1989-2015 Ohio 23.83 25.46 24.31 15.36 9.68 7.40 1989-2015 Pennsylvania 17.83 18.62 18.32 NA 10.56 9.85 1989-2015 Virginia 20.25 21.10 19.45

  8. Edge-facet pumped, multi-aperture, thin-disk laser geometry for very high average power output scaling

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Zapata, Luis E.

    2004-12-21

    The average power output of a laser is scaled, to first order, by increasing the transverse dimension of the gain medium while increasing the thickness of an index matched light guide proportionately. Strategic facets cut at the edges of the laminated gain medium provide a method by which the pump light introduced through edges of the composite structure is trapped and passes through the gain medium repeatedly. Spontaneous emission escapes the laser volume via these facets. A multi-faceted disk geometry with grooves cut into the thickness of the gain medium is optimized to passively reject spontaneous emission generated within the laser material, which would otherwise be trapped and amplified within the high index composite disk. Such geometry allows the useful size of the laser aperture to be increased, enabling the average laser output power to be scaled.

  9. Computing the partition function, ensemble averages, and density of states for lattice spin systems by sampling the mean

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Gillespie, Dirk

    2013-10-01

    An algorithm to approximately calculate the partition function (and subsequently ensemble averages) and density of states of lattice spin systems through non-Monte-Carlo random sampling is developed. This algorithm (called the sampling-the-mean algorithm) can be applied to models where the up or down spins at lattice nodes interact to change the spin states of other lattice nodes, especially non-Ising-like models with long-range interactions such as the biological model considered here. Because it is based on the Central Limit Theorem of probability, the sampling-the-mean algorithm also gives estimates of the error in the partition function, ensemble averages, and density of states. Easily implemented parallelization strategies and error minimizing sampling strategies are discussed. The sampling-the-mean method works especially well for relatively small systems, systems with a density of energy states that contains sharp spikes or oscillations, or systems with little a priori knowledge of the density of states.

  10. Areal-averaged and Spectrally-resolved Surface Albedo from Ground-based Transmission Data Alone: Toward an Operational Retrieval

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Kassianov, Evgueni I.; Barnard, James C.; Flynn, Connor J.; Riihimaki, Laura D.; Michalsky, Joseph; Hodges, G. B.

    2014-08-22

    We present here a simple retrieval of the areal-averaged and spectrally resolved surface albedo using only ground-based measurements of atmospheric transmission under fully overcast conditions. Our retrieval is based on a one-line equation and widely accepted assumptions regarding the weak spectral dependence of cloud optical properties in the visible and near-infrared spectral range. The feasibility of our approach for the routine determinations of albedo is demonstrated for different landscapes with various degrees of heterogeneity using three sets of measurements:(1) spectrally resolved atmospheric transmission from Multi-Filter Rotating Shadowband Radiometer (MFRSR) at wavelength 415, 500, 615, 673, and 870 nm, (2) tower-based measurements of local surface albedo at the same wavelengths, and (3) areal-averaged surface albedo at four wavelengths (470, 560, 670 and 860 nm) from collocated and coincident Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS) observations. These integrated datasets cover both long (2008-2013) and short (April-May, 2010) periods at the ARM Southern Great Plains (SGP) site and the NOAA Table Mountain site, respectively. The calculated root mean square error (RMSE), which is defined here as the root mean squared difference between the MODIS-derived surface albedo and the retrieved area-averaged albedo, is quite small (RMSE?0.01) and comparable with that obtained previously by other investigators for the shortwave broadband albedo. Good agreement between the tower-based daily averages of surface albedo for the completely overcast and non-overcast conditions is also demonstrated. This agreement suggests that our retrieval originally developed for the overcast conditions likely will work for non-overcast conditions as well.

  11. Retrieval of Areal-averaged Spectral Surface Albedo from Transmission Data Alone: Computationally Simple and Fast Approach

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Kassianov, Evgueni I.; Barnard, James C.; Flynn, Connor J.; Riihimaki, Laura D.; Michalsky, Joseph; Hodges, G. B.

    2014-10-25

    We introduce and evaluate a simple retrieval of areal-averaged surface albedo using ground-based measurements of atmospheric transmission alone at five wavelengths (415, 500, 615, 673 and 870nm), under fully overcast conditions. Our retrieval is based on a one-line semi-analytical equation and widely accepted assumptions regarding the weak spectral dependence of cloud optical properties, such as cloud optical depth and asymmetry parameter, in the visible and near-infrared spectral range. To illustrate the performance of our retrieval, we use as input measurements of spectral atmospheric transmission from Multi-Filter Rotating Shadowband Radiometer (MFRSR). These MFRSR data are collected at two well-established continental sites in the United States supported by the U.S. Department of Energy’s (DOE’s) Atmospheric Radiation Measurement (ARM) Program and National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration (NOAA). The areal-averaged albedos obtained from the MFRSR are compared with collocated and coincident Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS) white-sky albedo. In particular, these comparisons are made at four MFRSR wavelengths (500, 615, 673 and 870nm) and for four seasons (winter, spring, summer and fall) at the ARM site using multi-year (2008-2013) MFRSR and MODIS data. Good agreement, on average, for these wavelengths results in small values (?0.01) of the corresponding root mean square errors (RMSEs) for these two sites. The obtained RMSEs are comparable with those obtained previously for the shortwave albedos (MODIS-derived versus tower-measured) for these sites during growing seasons. We also demonstrate good agreement between tower-based daily-averaged surface albedos measured for “nearby” overcast and non-overcast days. Thus, our retrieval originally developed for overcast conditions likely can be extended for non-overcast days by interpolating between overcast retrievals.

  12. Computation of Domain-Averaged Irradiance with a Simple Two-Stream Radiative Transfer Model Including Vertical Cloud Property Correlations

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Computation of Domain-Averaged Irradiance with a Simple Two-Stream Radiative Transfer Model Including Vertical Cloud Property Correlations S. Kato Center for Atmospheric Sciences Hampton University Hampton, Virginia Introduction Recent development of remote sensing instruments by Atmospheric Radiation Measurement (ARM?) Program provides information of spatial and temporal variability of cloud structures. However it is not clear what cloud properties are required to express complicated cloud

  13. Clean Water Act Section 401 Water Quality Certification: A Water...

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    Certification: A Water Quality Protection Tool for States and Tribes Jump to: navigation, search OpenEI Reference LibraryAdd to library PermittingRegulatory Guidance - Guide...

  14. Clean Water Act Section 401 Water Quality Certification A Water...

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    Certification A Water Quality Protection Tool for States and Tribes Jump to: navigation, search OpenEI Reference LibraryAdd to library PermittingRegulatory Guidance - Guide...

  15. Early Clinical Outcomes Demonstrate Preserved Cognitive Function in Children With Average-Risk Medulloblastoma When Treated With Hyperfractionated Radiation Therapy

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Gupta, Tejpal; Jalali, Rakesh; Goswami, Savita; Nair, Vimoj; Moiyadi, Aliasgar; Epari, Sridhar; Sarin, Rajiv

    2012-08-01

    Purpose: To report on acute toxicity, longitudinal cognitive function, and early clinical outcomes in children with average-risk medulloblastoma. Methods and Materials: Twenty children {>=}5 years of age classified as having average-risk medulloblastoma were accrued on a prospective protocol of hyperfractionated radiation therapy (HFRT) alone. Radiotherapy was delivered with two daily fractions (1 Gy/fraction, 6 to 8 hours apart, 5 days/week), initially to the neuraxis (36 Gy/36 fractions), followed by conformal tumor bed boost (32 Gy/32 fractions) for a total tumor bed dose of 68 Gy/68 fractions over 6 to 7 weeks. Cognitive function was prospectively assessed longitudinally (pretreatment and at specified posttreatment follow-up visits) with the Wechsler Intelligence Scale for Children to give verbal quotient, performance quotient, and full-scale intelligence quotient (FSIQ). Results: The median age of the study cohort was 8 years (range, 5-14 years), representing a slightly older cohort. Acute hematologic toxicity was mild and self-limiting. Eight (40%) children had subnormal intelligence (FSIQ <85), including 3 (15%) with mild mental retardation (FSIQ 56-70) even before radiotherapy. Cognitive functioning for all tested domains was preserved in children evaluable at 3 months, 1 year, and 2 years after completion of HFRT, with no significant decline over time. Age at diagnosis or baseline FSIQ did not have a significant impact on longitudinal cognitive function. At a median follow-up time of 33 months (range, 16-58 months), 3 patients had died (2 of relapse and 1 of accidental burns), resulting in 3-year relapse-free survival and overall survival of 83.5% and 83.2%, respectively. Conclusion: HFRT without upfront chemotherapy has an acceptable acute toxicity profile, without an unduly increased risk of relapse, with preserved cognitive functioning in children with average-risk medulloblastoma.

  16. Determination of the Average Aromatic Cluster Size of Fossil Fuels by Solid-State NMR at High Magnetic Field

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Mao, Kanmi; Kennedy, Gordon J.; Althaus, Stacey M.; Pruski, Marek

    2013-01-07

    We show that the average aromatic cluster size in complex carbonaceous materials can be accurately determined using fast magic-angle spinning (MAS) NMR at a high magnetic field. To accurately quantify the nonprotonated aromatic carbon, we edited the 13C spectra using the recently reported MAS-synchronized spin–echo, which alleviated the problem of rotational recoupling of 1H-13C dipolar interactions associated with traditional dipolar dephasing experiments. The dependability of this approach was demonstrated on selected Argonne Premium coal standards, for which full sets of basic structural parameters were determined with high accuracy.

  17. Sandia Energy » Water Security

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    doe-eere-technologist-in-residence-pilotfeed 0 Sandia Team Attends World Water Week in Stockholm http:energy.sandia.govsandia-team-attends-world-water-week-in-sto...

  18. Heat Pump Water Heaters

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    & Events Expand News & Events Skip navigation links Residential Residential Lighting Energy Star Appliances Consumer Electronics Heat Pump Water Heaters Electric Storage Water...

  19. Electric Storage Water Heaters

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    & Events Expand News & Events Skip navigation links Residential Residential Lighting Energy Star Appliances Consumer Electronics Heat Pump Water Heaters Electric Storage Water...

  20. Residential Absorption Water Heater

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Residential Absorption Water Heater 2014 Building Technologies Office Peer Review Kyle ... Target MarketAudience: Residential gas water heating Key Partners: GE CRADA partner SRA ...

  1. Bioenergy Impacts Â… Water

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    biofuel production on water quality and quantity, and determine which biofuel crops are best suited to different geographic locations. Biofuel research is enabling wise water use

  2. Water-heating dehumidifier

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Tomlinson, John J.

    2006-04-18

    A water-heating dehumidifier includes a refrigerant loop including a compressor, at least one condenser, an expansion device and an evaporator including an evaporator fan. The condenser includes a water inlet and a water outlet for flowing water therethrough or proximate thereto, or is affixed to the tank or immersed into the tank to effect water heating without flowing water. The immersed condenser design includes a self-insulated capillary tube expansion device for simplicity and high efficiency. In a water heating mode air is drawn by the evaporator fan across the evaporator to produce cooled and dehumidified air and heat taken from the air is absorbed by the refrigerant at the evaporator and is pumped to the condenser, where water is heated. When the tank of water heater is full of hot water or a humidistat set point is reached, the water-heating dehumidifier can switch to run as a dehumidifier.

  3. Application of Maximum Likelihood Bayesian Model Averaging to Groundwater Flow and Transport at the Hanford Site 300 Area

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Meyer, Philip D.; Ye, Ming; Neuman, Shlomo P.; Rockhold, Mark L.

    2008-06-01

    A methodology to systematically and quantitatively assess model predictive uncertainty was applied to saturated zone uranium transport at the 300 Area of the U.S. Department of Energy Hanford Site in Washington State, USA. The methodology extends Maximum Likelihood Bayesian Model Averaging (MLBMA) to account jointly for uncertainties due to the conceptual-mathematical basis of models, model parameters, and the scenarios to which the models are applied. Conceptual uncertainty was represented by postulating four alternative models of hydrogeology and uranium adsorption. Parameter uncertainties were represented by estimation covariances resulting from the joint calibration of each model to observed heads and uranium concentration. Posterior model probability was dominated by one model. Results demonstrated the role of model complexity and fidelity to observed system behavior in determining model probabilities, as well as the impact of prior information. Two scenarios representing alternative future behavior of the Columbia River adjacent to the site were considered. Predictive simulations carried out with the calibrated models illustrated the computation of model- and scenario-averaged predictions and how results can be displayed to clearly indicate the individual contributions to predictive uncertainty of the model, parameter, and scenario uncertainties. The application demonstrated the practicability of applying a comprehensive uncertainty assessment to large-scale, detailed groundwater flow and transport modelling.

  4. Vadose zone water fluxmeter

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Faybishenko, Boris A.

    2005-10-25

    A Vadose Zone Water Fluxmeter (WFM) or Direct Measurement WFM provides direct measurement of unsaturated water flow in the vadose zone. The fluxmeter is a cylindrical device that fits in a borehole or can be installed near the surface, or in pits, or in pile structures. The fluxmeter is primarily a combination of tensiometers and a porous element or plate in a water cell that is used for water injection or extraction under field conditions. The same water pressure measured outside and inside of the soil sheltered by the lower cylinder of the fluxmeter indicates that the water flux through the lower cylinder is similar to the water flux in the surrounding soil. The fluxmeter provides direct measurement of the water flow rate in the unsaturated soils and then determines the water flux, i.e. the water flow rate per unit area.

  5. Ground water and energy

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Not Available

    1980-11-01

    This national workshop on ground water and energy was conceived by the US Department of Energy's Office of Environmental Assessments. Generally, OEA needed to know what data are available on ground water, what information is still needed, and how DOE can best utilize what has already been learned. The workshop focussed on three areas: (1) ground water supply; (2) conflicts and barriers to ground water use; and (3) alternatives or solutions to the various issues relating to ground water. (ACR)

  6. Energy-Water Overview

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Emerging Issues and Challenges DOE/EIA 2010 Energy Conference Mike Hightower Sandia National Laboratories mmhight@sandia.gov, 505-844-5499 Energy and Water are ... Interdependent Water for Energy and Energy for Water Energy and power production require water: * Thermoelectric cooling * Hydropower * Energy minerals extraction/mining * Fuel Production (fossil fuels, H 2 , biofuels) * Emission control Water production, processing, distribution, and end-use require energy: * Pumping * Conveyance and

  7. Application of a generalized matrix averaging method for the calculation of the effective properties of thin multiferroic layers

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Starkov, A. S.; Starkov, I. A.

    2014-11-15

    It is proposed to use a generalized matrix averaging (GMA) method for calculating the parameters of an effective medium with physical properties equivalent to those of a set of thin multiferroic layers. This approach obviates the need to solve a complex system of magnetoelectroelasticity equations. The required effective characteristics of a system of multiferroic layers are obtained using only operations with matrices, which significantly simplifies calculations and allows multilayer systems to be described. The proposed approach is applicable to thin-layer systems, in which the total thickness is much less than the system length, radius of curvature, and wavelengths of waves that can propagate in the system (long-wave approximation). Using the GMA method, it is also possible to obtain the effective characteristics of a periodic structure with each period comprising a number of thin multiferroic layers.

  8. Fact #849: December 1, 2014 Midsize Hybrid Cars Averaged 51% Better Fuel Economy than Midsize Non-Hybrid Cars in 2014- Dataset

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    Excel file with dataset for Fact #849: December 1, 2014 Midsize Hybrid Cars Averaged 51% Better Fuel Economy than Midsize Non-Hybrid Cars in 2014

  9. Reactor water cleanup system

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Gluntz, D.M.; Taft, W.E.

    1994-12-20

    A reactor water cleanup system includes a reactor pressure vessel containing a reactor core submerged in reactor water. First and second parallel cleanup trains are provided for extracting portions of the reactor water from the pressure vessel, cleaning the extracted water, and returning the cleaned water to the pressure vessel. Each of the cleanup trains includes a heat exchanger for cooling the reactor water, and a cleaner for cleaning the cooled reactor water. A return line is disposed between the cleaner and the pressure vessel for channeling the cleaned water thereto in a first mode of operation. A portion of the cooled water is bypassed around the cleaner during a second mode of operation and returned through the pressure vessel for shutdown cooling. 1 figure.

  10. Reactor water cleanup system

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Gluntz, Douglas M.; Taft, William E.

    1994-01-01

    A reactor water cleanup system includes a reactor pressure vessel containing a reactor core submerged in reactor water. First and second parallel cleanup trains are provided for extracting portions of the reactor water from the pressure vessel, cleaning the extracted water, and returning the cleaned water to the pressure vessel. Each of the cleanup trains includes a heat exchanger for cooling the reactor water, and a cleaner for cleaning the cooled reactor water. A return line is disposed between the cleaner and the pressure vessel for channeling the cleaned water thereto in a first mode of operation. A portion of the cooled water is bypassed around the cleaner during a second mode of operation and returned through the pressure vessel for shutdown cooling.

  11. ARM Water Vapor IOP

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    ARM Water Vapor IOP The SGP CART site will host the third ARM water vapor IOP on September 18-October 8, 2000. The CART site is home to a powerful array of instruments capable of measuring water vapor, making it a prime location for research of this type. The first water vapor IOP, conducted in September 1996, focused on using instruments to measure water vapor and determining the accuracy and calibration of each instrument. The second water vapor IOP, held in September and October of 1997,

  12. ARM - Measurement - Precipitable water

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    govMeasurementsPrecipitable water ARM Data Discovery Browse Data Comments? We would love to hear from you! Send us a note below or call us at 1-888-ARM-DATA. Send Measurement : Precipitable water Total amount of water vapor in a vertical column of air, often expressed as the depth of the layer of water that would be formed if all the water vapor were condensed to liquid water. Categories Atmospheric State Instruments The above measurement is considered scientifically relevant for the following

  13. Model studies of oscillating water column wave-energy device

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Koola, P.M.; Ravindran, M.; Narayana, P.A.A.

    1995-04-01

    A harbor oscillating water column wave-energy device has been selected for the Indian pilot wave-energy program. The site has a water depth of about 12 m and an average annual wave-power potential of 13 kW/m. Such sites are attractive locations for fishing breakwaters. Due to the relatively low power potential, these oscillating water column devices arc intended to be modules of a multifunctional breakwater. The present paper highlights the results of the scale-model experiments carried out on a prototype wave-energy caisson.

  14. Charge and fluence lifetime measurements of a dc high voltage GaAs photogun at high average current

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    J. Grames, R. Suleiman, P.A. Adderley, J. Clark, J. Hansknecht, D. Machie, M. Poelker, M.L. Stutzman

    2011-04-01

    GaAs-based dc high voltage photoguns used at accelerators with extensive user programs must exhibit long photocathode operating lifetime. Achieving this goal represents a significant challenge for proposed high average current facilities that must operate at tens of milliamperes or more. This paper describes techniques to maintain good vacuum while delivering beam, and techniques that minimize the ill effects of ion bombardment, the dominant mechanism that reduces photocathode yield of a GaAs-based dc high voltage photogun. Experimental results presented here demonstrate enhanced lifetime at high beam currents by: (a) operating with the drive laser beam positioned away from the electrostatic center of the photocathode, (b) limiting the photocathode active area to eliminate photoemission from regions of the photocathode that do not support efficient beam delivery, (c) using a large drive laser beam to distribute ion damage over a larger area, and (d) by applying a relatively low bias voltage to the anode to repel ions created within the downstream beam line. A combination of these techniques provided the best total charge extracted lifetimes in excess of 1000 C at dc beam currents up to 9.5 mA, using green light illumination of bulk GaAs inside a 100 kV photogun.

  15. Federal Water Use Indices

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    FEMP provides water use indices as a guide for Federal agencies. Note that each is a rough estimate of water usage at different types of sites. Your site may vary considerably.

  16. NDN Water Summit 2015

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    The NDN Water Summit is a two-day summit to build tribal executive capacity through a strategic series of forums, events, and sharing of documentation and experiences. Speakers will cover topics on water policy, climate change, and more.

  17. Indian Water 2015

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE)

    Indian Water is a call to help plan a national water summit. This strategic session consist of a facilitated dialog with tribal leaders on important opportunities, challenges and tactics, which...

  18. Electrolysis of Water

    K-12 Energy Lesson Plans and Activities Web site (EERE)

    Students observe the electrolysis of water using either photovoltaics or a battery as the electric energy source.

  19. Water | Argonne National Laboratory

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Water The Energy Sector withdraws more freshwater than any other sector in the United States The Energy Sector withdraws more freshwater than any other sector in the United States Significant opportunities are emerging in the public and private sector to tackle water stewardship: the U.S. Department of Energy has identified the energy-water nexus as an emerging activity that require substantial R&D investment in the coming years, and DOE's Water Energy Nexus report has identified reclaimed

  20. ARM - Water Vapor

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Water Vapor Outreach Home Room News Publications Traditional Knowledge Kiosks Barrow, Alaska Tropical Western Pacific Site Tours Contacts Students Study Hall About ARM Global Warming FAQ Just for Fun Meet our Friends Cool Sites Teachers Teachers' Toolbox Lesson Plans Water Vapor Water vapor is the most effective, fastest changing, and least understood of the greenhouse gases. Water vapor is a powerful greenhouse gas; as a matter of fact, it is the dominant greenhouse gas. But scientists don't

  1. Energy-Water Nexus

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Horak, W.

    2010-07-26

    Conclusions of this presentation are: (1) energy and water are interconnected; (2) new energy sources will place increased demands on water supplies; (3) existing energy sources will be subjected to increasing restrictions on their water use; and (4) integrated decision support tools will need to be developed to help policy makers decide which policies and advanced technologies can address these issues.

  2. Water treatment method

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Martin, F.S.; Silver, G.L.

    1991-04-30

    A method is described for reducing the concentration of any undesirable metals dissolved in contaminated water, such as waste water. The method involves uniformly reacting the contaminated water with an excess amount of solid particulate calcium sulfite to insolubilize the undesirable metal ions, followed by removal thereof and of the unreacted calcium sulfite.

  3. Water treatment method

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Martin, Frank S. (Farmersville, OH); Silver, Gary L. (Centerville, OH)

    1991-04-30

    A method for reducing the concentration of any undesirable metals dissolved in contaminated water, such as waste water. The method involves uniformly reacting the contaminated water with an excess amount of solid particulate calcium sulfite to insolubilize the undesirable metal ions, followed by removal thereof and of the unreacted calcium sulfite.

  4. Saving Water Saves Energy

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    McMahon, James E.; Whitehead, Camilla Dunham; Biermayer, Peter

    2006-06-15

    Hot water use in households, for showers and baths as wellas for washing clothes and dishes, is a major driver of household energyconsumption. Other household uses of water (such as irrigatinglandscaping) require additional energy in other sectors to transport andtreat the water before use, and to treat wastewater. In California, 19percent of total electricity for all sectors combined and 32 percent ofnatural gas consumption is related to water. There is a criticalinterdependence between energy and water systems: thermal power plantsrequire cooling water, and water pumping and treatment require energy.Energy efficiency can be increased by a number of means, includingmore-efficient appliances (e.g., clothes washers or dishwashers that useless total water and less heated water), water-conserving plumbingfixtures and fittings (e.g., showerheads, faucets, toilets) and changesin consumer behavior (e.g., lower temperature set points for storagewater heaters, shorter showers). Water- and energy-conserving activitiescan help offset the stress imposed on limited water (and energy) suppliesfrom increasing population in some areas, particularly in drought years,or increased consumption (e.g., some new shower systems) as a result ofincreased wealth. This paper explores the connections between householdwater use and energy, and suggests options for increased efficiencies inboth individual technologies and systems. Studies indicate that urbanwater use can be reduced cost-effectively by up to 30 percent withcommercially available products. The energy savings associated with watersavings may represent a large additional and largely untappedcost-effective opportunity.

  5. Water Security Toolkit

    Energy Science and Technology Software Center (OSTI)

    2012-09-11

    The Water Security Toolkit (WST) provides software for modeling and analyzing water distribution systems to minimize the potential impact of contamination incidents. WST wraps capabilities for contaminant transport, impact assessment, and sensor network design with response action plans, including source identification, rerouting, and decontamination, to provide a range of water security planning and real-time applications.

  6. Arid site water balance: evapotranspiration modeling and measurements

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Gee, G.W.; Kirkham, R.R.

    1984-09-01

    In order to evaluate the magnitude of radionuclide transport at an aird site, a field and modeling study was conducted to measure and predict water movement under vegetated and bare soil conditions. Significant quantities of water were found to move below the roo of a shallow-rooted grass-covered area during wet years at the Hanford site. The unsaturated water flow model, UNSAT-1D, was resonably successful in simulating the transient behavior of the water balance at this site. The effects of layered soils on water balance were demonstrated using the model. Models used to evaluate water balance in arid regions should not rely on annual averages and assume that all precipitation is removed by evapotranspiration. The potential for drainage at arid sites exists under conditions where shallow rooted plants grow on coarse textured soils. This condition was observed at our study site at Hanford. Neutron probe data collected on a cheatgrass community at the Hanford site during a wet year indicated that over 5 cm of water drained below the 3.5-m depth. The unsaturated water flow model, UNSAT-1D, predicted water drainage of about 5 cm (single layer, 10 months) and 3.5 cm (two layers, 12 months) for the same time period. Additional field measurements of hydraulic conductivity will likely improve the drainage estimate made by UNSAT-1D. Additional information describing cheatgrass growth and water use at the grass site could improve model predictions of sink terms and subsequent calculations of water storage within the rooting zone. In arid areas where the major part of the annual precipitation occurs during months with low average potential evapotranspiration and where soils are vegetated but are coarse textured and well drained, significant drainage can occur. 31 references, 18 figures, 1 table.

  7. California State Water Resources Control Board 401 Water Quality...

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    401 Water Quality Certification Website Jump to: navigation, search OpenEI Reference LibraryAdd to library Web Site: California State Water Resources Control Board 401 Water...

  8. Colorado Division of Water Resources Substitute Water Supply...

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    Substitute Water Supply Plans Webpage Jump to: navigation, search OpenEI Reference LibraryAdd to library Web Site: Colorado Division of Water Resources Substitute Water Supply...

  9. Buildings","All Buildings with Water Heating","Water-Heating...

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    5. Water-Heating Energy Sources, Number of Buildings, 1999" ,"Number of Buildings (thousand)" ,"All Buildings","All Buildings with Water Heating","Water-Heating Energy Sources Used ...

  10. Water Transport Within the STack: Water Transport Exploratory...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Within the STack: Water Transport Exploratory Studies Water Transport Within the STack: Water Transport Exploratory Studies Part of a 100 million fuel cell award announced by DOE ...

  11. Future water Cherenkov detectors

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Bergevin, Marc

    2015-05-15

    In these proceedings a review of the current proposed large-scale Warer Cherenkov experiments is given. An argument is made that future water Cherenkov detectors would benefit in the investment in neutron detection technology. A brief overview will be given of proposed water Cherenkov experiments such as HYPER-K and MEMPHYS and other R and D experiments to demonstrate neutron capture in water Cherenkov detectors. Finally, innovation developed in the context of the now defunct LBNE Water R and D option to improve Water Cherenkov technology will be described.

  12. Geothermal Water Use: Life Cycle Water Consumption, Water Resource Assessment, and Water Policy Framework

    DOE Data Explorer [Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)]

    Schroeder, Jenna N.

    2014-06-10

    This report examines life cycle water consumption for various geothermal technologies to better understand factors that affect water consumption across the life cycle (e.g., power plant cooling, belowground fluid losses) and to assess the potential water challenges that future geothermal power generation projects may face. Previous reports in this series quantified the life cycle freshwater requirements of geothermal power-generating systems, explored operational and environmental concerns related to the geochemical composition of geothermal fluids, and assessed future water demand by geothermal power plants according to growth projections for the industry. This report seeks to extend those analyses by including EGS flash, both as part of the life cycle analysis and water resource assessment. A regional water resource assessment based upon the life cycle results is also presented. Finally, the legal framework of water with respect to geothermal resources in the states with active geothermal development is also analyzed.

  13. Geothermal Water Use: Life Cycle Water Consumption, Water Resource Assessment, and Water Policy Framework

    DOE Data Explorer [Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)]

    Schroeder, Jenna N.

    This report examines life cycle water consumption for various geothermal technologies to better understand factors that affect water consumption across the life cycle (e.g., power plant cooling, belowground fluid losses) and to assess the potential water challenges that future geothermal power generation projects may face. Previous reports in this series quantified the life cycle freshwater requirements of geothermal power-generating systems, explored operational and environmental concerns related to the geochemical composition of geothermal fluids, and assessed future water demand by geothermal power plants according to growth projections for the industry. This report seeks to extend those analyses by including EGS flash, both as part of the life cycle analysis and water resource assessment. A regional water resource assessment based upon the life cycle results is also presented. Finally, the legal framework of water with respect to geothermal resources in the states with active geothermal development is also analyzed.

  14. Insolation data manual: long-term monthly averages of solar radiation, temperature, degree-days and global anti K/sub T/ for 248 national weather service stations

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Knapp, C L; Stoffel, T L; Whitaker, S D

    1980-10-01

    Monthly averaged data is presented which describes the availability of solar radiation at 248 National Weather Service stations. Monthly and annual average daily insolation and temperature values have been computed from a base of 24 to 25 years of data. Average daily maximum, minimum, and monthly temperatures are provided for most locations in both Celsius and Fahrenheit. Heating and cooling degree-days were computed relative to a base of 18.3/sup 0/C (65/sup 0/F). For each station, global anti K/sub T/ (cloudiness index) were calculated on a monthly and annual basis. (MHR)

  15. Super recycled water: quenching computers

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Super recycled water: quenching computers Super recycled water: quenching computers New facility and methods support conserving water and creating recycled products. Using reverse...

  16. Oasys Water | Open Energy Information

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    Oasys Water Jump to: navigation, search Name: Oasys Water Place: Cambridge, Massachusetts Product: Cambridge-based developer of Engineered Osmosis, desalination and water treatment...

  17. Water Heaters | Open Energy Information

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    Water Heaters Jump to: navigation, search TODO: Add description List of Water Heaters Incentives Retrieved from "http:en.openei.orgwindex.php?titleWaterHeaters&oldid267202"...

  18. Water Power | Open Energy Information

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    Get Involved Help Apps Datasets Community Login | Sign Up Search Gateway Edit History Water Power (Redirected from Water) Jump to: navigation, search Water Power Community Forum...

  19. Water Heating | Department of Energy

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Water Heating Water Heating Infographic: Water Heaters 101 Infographic: Water Heaters 101 Everything you need to know about saving money on water heating costs. Read more Selecting a New Water Heater Selecting a New Water Heater Tankless? Storage? Solar? Save money on your water heating bill by choosing the right type of energy-efficient water heater for your needs. Read more Sizing a New Water Heater Sizing a New Water Heater When buying a new water heater, bigger is not always better. Learn

  20. Energy optimization of water distribution system

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Not Available

    1993-02-01

    In order to analyze pump operating scenarios for the system with the computer model, information on existing pumping equipment and the distribution system was collected. The information includes the following: component description and design criteria for line booster stations, booster stations with reservoirs, and high lift pumps at the water treatment plants; daily operations data for 1988; annual reports from fiscal year 1987/1988 to fiscal year 1991/1992; and a 1985 calibrated KYPIPE computer model of DWSD`s water distribution system which included input data for the maximum hour and average day demands on the system for that year. This information has been used to produce the inventory database of the system and will be used to develop the computer program to analyze the system.

  1. Transverse flowing liquid Kerr cell for high average power laser Q-switching and for direct modulation of high power laser beams.

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Comaskey, Brian J.

    2004-12-07

    A fluid flow concept is applied in an optical apparatus to define a high gain stand-off, fast electro-optical q-switch which is highly impervious to high average power optical loads.

  2. Table 17. Recoverable Coal Reserves and Average Recovery Percentage at Producing U.S. Mines by Mine Production Range and Mine Type,

    Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update (EIA)

    Recoverable Coal Reserves and Average Recovery Percentage at Producing U.S. Mines by Mine Production Range and Mine Type, 2013 (million short tons) U.S. Energy Information Administration | Annual Coal Report 2013 Table 17. Recoverable Coal Reserves and Average Recovery Percentage at Producing U.S. Mines by Mine Production Range and Mine Type, 2013 (million short tons) U.S. Energy Information Administration | Annual Coal Report 2013 Underground Surface Total Mine Production Range (thousand short

  3. Arsenic removal from water

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Moore, Robert C.; Anderson, D. Richard

    2007-07-24

    Methods for removing arsenic from water by addition of inexpensive and commonly available magnesium oxide, magnesium hydroxide, calcium oxide, or calcium hydroxide to the water. The hydroxide has a strong chemical affinity for arsenic and rapidly adsorbs arsenic, even in the presence of carbonate in the water. Simple and commercially available mechanical methods for removal of magnesium hydroxide particles with adsorbed arsenic from drinking water can be used, including filtration, dissolved air flotation, vortex separation, or centrifugal separation. A method for continuous removal of arsenic from water is provided. Also provided is a method for concentrating arsenic in a water sample to facilitate quantification of arsenic, by means of magnesium or calcium hydroxide adsorption.

  4. Water Cooling | Open Energy Information

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    Water Cooling Jump to: navigation, search Dictionary.png Water Cooling: Water cooling is commonly defined as a method of using water as a heat conduction to remove heat from an...

  5. Water Heating | Department of Energy

    Energy Savers [EERE]

    Water Heating Water Heating September 2, 2015 - 11:07am Addthis Low-flow fixtures will help you reduce your hot water use and save money on your water heating bills. | Photo...

  6. Water Cycle Pilot Study

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    1 Water Cycle Pilot Study To learn more about Earth's water cycle, the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) has established a multi-laboratory science team representing five DOE national laboratories: Argonne, Brookhaven, Lawrence Berkeley, Los Alamos, and Oak Ridge. The science team will conduct a three- year Water Cycle Pilot Study within the ARM SGP CART site, primarily in the Walnut River Watershed east of Wichita, Kansas. The host facility in the Walnut River Watershed is the Atmospheric

  7. Storm Water Analytical Period

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    water associated with historical industrial activities at LANL from specified solid waste management units and areas of concern, collectively referred to as Sites. Contact...

  8. Sandia Energy - Water Security

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Energy & Climate Secure & Sustainable Energy Future Stationary Power Energy Conversion Efficiency Solar Energy Wind Energy Water Power Supercritical CO2 Geothermal Natural Gas...

  9. Water Conservation Measures

    Energy Science and Technology Software Center (OSTI)

    2010-12-31

    This software requires inputs of simple water fixture inventory information and calculates the water/energy and cost benefits of various retrofit opportunities. This tool includes water conservation measures for: Low-flow Toilets, Low-flow Urinals, Low-flow Faucets, and Low-flow Showheads. This tool calculates water savings, energy savings, demand reduction, cost savings, and building life cycle costs including: simple payback, discounted payback, net-present value, and savings to investment ratio. In addition this tool also displays the environmental benefits ofmore » a project.« less

  10. Sandia Energy - Water Power

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    6, a backward--bent duct buoy (BBDB) oscillating water column wave energy converter design. The team from HMRC included Tom Walsh, Brian Holmes, Florent Thiebaut, Neil...

  11. Sandia Energy - Water Power

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    News & Events, Partnership, Renewable Energy, Systems Analysis, Systems Engineering, Water Power WEC-Sim Code Development Meeting at the National Renewable Energy Laboratory...

  12. Water Success Stories

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    1 Water Success Stories en Catching a Wave: Innovative Wave Energy Device Surfs for Power in Hawaii http:energy.goveeresuccess-storiesarticlescatching-wave-innovative-wave-en...

  13. Water Power Program: Publications

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    2014 Hydropower Market Report Details Bookmark & Share View Related Welcome to the Water Power Program Publication and Product Library. This library will allow you to find...

  14. Cooling water distribution system

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Orr, Richard

    1994-01-01

    A passive containment cooling system for a nuclear reactor containment vessel. Disclosed is a cooling water distribution system for introducing cooling water by gravity uniformly over the outer surface of a steel containment vessel using an interconnected series of radial guide elements, a plurality of circumferential collector elements and collector boxes to collect and feed the cooling water into distribution channels extending along the curved surface of the steel containment vessel. The cooling water is uniformly distributed over the curved surface by a plurality of weirs in the distribution channels.

  15. Water Conservation Measures

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    2010-12-31

    This software requires inputs of simple water fixture inventory information and calculates the water/energy and cost benefits of various retrofit opportunities. This tool includes water conservation measures for: Low-flow Toilets, Low-flow Urinals, Low-flow Faucets, and Low-flow Showheads. This tool calculates water savings, energy savings, demand reduction, cost savings, and building life cycle costs including: simple payback, discounted payback, net-present value, and savings to investment ratio. In addition this tool also displays the environmental benefits of a project.

  16. Water transport through functionalized nanotubes with tunable hydrophobicity

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Moskowitz, Ian; Snyder, Mark A.; Mittal, Jeetain

    2014-11-14

    Molecular dynamics simulations are used to study the occupancy and flow of water through nanotubes comprised of hydrophobic and hydrophilic atoms, which are arranged on a honeycomb lattice to mimic functionalized carbon nanotubes (CNTs). We consider single-file motion of TIP3P water through narrow channels of (6,6) CNTs with varying fractions (f) of hydrophilic atoms. Various arrangements of hydrophilic atoms are used to create heterogeneous nanotubes with separate hydrophobic/hydrophilic domains along the tube as well as random mixtures of the two types of atoms. The water occupancy inside the nanotube channel is found to vary nonlinearly as a function of f, and a small fraction of hydrophilic atoms (f ? 0.4) are sufficient to induce spontaneous and continuous filling of the nanotube. Interestingly, the average number of water molecules inside the channel and water flux through the nanotube are less sensitive to the specific arrangement of hydrophilic atoms than to the fraction, f. Two different regimes are observed for the water flux dependence on f – an approximately linear increase in flux as a function of f for f < 0.4, and almost no change in flux for higher f values, similar to the change in water occupancy. We are able to define an effective interaction strength between nanotube atoms and water's oxygen, based on a linear combination of interaction strengths between hydrophobic and hydrophilic nanotube atoms and water, that can quantitatively capture the observed behavior.

  17. Selecting a new water heater

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    1995-03-01

    This fact sheet describes the types of water heaters available (storage water heaters, demand water heaters, heat pump water heaters, tankless coil and indirect water heaters, and solar water heaters). The criteria for selection are discussed. These are capacity, efficiency rating, and cost. A resource list is provided for further information.

  18. Distribution Category: Water R

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    Distribution Category: Water R e a c t o r Safety- R e s e a r c h - - A n a l y s i s ... 8 10 I TOTAL VOLUMETRIC FLUX, ms Fig. 9. Fully Developed Air-Water Flow Data.30 ANL Neg. ...

  19. Purge water management system

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Cardoso-Neto, J.E.; Williams, D.W.

    1995-01-01

    A purge water management system is described for effectively eliminating the production of purge water when obtaining a groundwater sample from a monitoring well. In its preferred embodiment, the purge water management system comprises an expandable container, a transportation system, and a return system. The purge water management system is connected to a wellhead sampling configuration, typically permanently installed at the well site. A pump, positioned with the monitoring well, pumps groundwater through the transportation system into the expandable container, which expands in direct proportion with volume of groundwater introduced, usually three or four well volumes, yet prevents the groundwater from coming into contact with the oxygen in the air. After this quantity of groundwater has been removed from the well, a sample is taken from a sampling port, after which the groundwater in the expandable container can be returned to the monitoring well through the return system. The purge water management system prevents the purge water from coming in contact with the outside environment, especially oxygen, which might cause the constituents of the groundwater to oxidize. Therefore, by introducing the purge water back into the monitoring well, the necessity of dealing with the purge water as a hazardous waste under the Resource Conservation and Recovery Act is eliminated.

  20. Purge water management system

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Cardoso-Neto, Joao E.; Williams, Daniel W.

    1996-01-01

    A purge water management system for effectively eliminating the production of purge water when obtaining a groundwater sample from a monitoring well. In its preferred embodiment, the purge water management system comprises an expandable container, a transportation system, and a return system. The purge water management system is connected to a wellhead sampling configuration, typically permanently installed at the well site. A pump, positioned with the monitoring well, pumps groundwater through the transportation system into the expandable container, which expands in direct proportion with volume of groundwater introduced, usually three or four well volumes, yet prevents the groundwater from coming into contact with the oxygen in the air. After this quantity of groundwater has been removed from the well, a sample is taken from a sampling port, after which the groundwater in the expandable container can be returned to the monitoring well through the return system. The purge water management system prevents the purge water from coming in contact with the outside environment, especially oxygen, which might cause the constituents of the groundwater to oxidize. Therefore, by introducing the purge water back into the monitoring well, the necessity of dealing with the purge water as a hazardous waste under the Resource Conservation and Recovery Act is eliminated.

  1. September 2004 Water Sampling

    Office of Legacy Management (LM)

    Groundwater, Surface Water, and Alternate Water Supply System Sampling at the Riverton, Wyoming, Processing Site December 2013 LMS/RVT/S00913 This page intentionally left blank U.S. Department of Energy DVP-September 2013, Riverton, Wyoming December 2013 RIN 13095603 Page i Contents Sampling Event Summary ...............................................................................................................1 Riverton, Wyoming, Sample Location Map

  2. WATER-TRAPPED WORLDS

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Menou, Kristen [Department of Astronomy, Columbia University, 550 West 120th Street, New York, NY 10027 (United States)

    2013-09-01

    Although tidally locked habitable planets orbiting nearby M-dwarf stars are among the best astronomical targets to search for extrasolar life, they may also be deficient in volatiles and water. Climate models for this class of planets show atmospheric transport of water from the dayside to the nightside, where it is precipitated as snow and trapped as ice. Since ice only slowly flows back to the dayside upon accumulation, the resulting hydrological cycle can trap a large amount of water in the form of nightside ice. Using ice sheet dynamical and thermodynamical constraints, I illustrate how planets with less than about a quarter the Earth's oceans could trap most of their surface water on the nightside. This would leave their dayside, where habitable conditions are met, potentially dry. The amount and distribution of residual liquid water on the dayside depend on a variety of geophysical factors, including the efficiency of rock weathering at regulating atmospheric CO{sub 2} as dayside ocean basins dry up. Water-trapped worlds with dry daysides may offer similar advantages as land planets for habitability, by contrast with worlds where more abundant water freely flows around the globe.

  3. Army Reserve Expands Net Zero Energy, Water, Waste

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Solana, Amy E.

    2015-04-14

    In 2012, the Army initiated a Net Zero (NZ) program to establish NZ energy, water, and/or waste goals at installations across the U.S. In 2013, the U.S. Army Reserve expanded this program to cover all three categories at different types of Reserve Centers (RCs) across 5 regions. Projects identified at 10 pilot sites resulted in an average savings potential from recommended measures of 90% for energy, 60% for water, and 83% for waste. This article provides results of these efforts.

  4. Decision support for integrated water-energy planning.

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Tidwell, Vincent Carroll; Malczynski, Leonard A.; Kobos, Peter Holmes; Castillo, Cesar; Hart, William Eugene; Klise, Geoffrey T.

    2009-10-01

    Currently, electrical power generation uses about 140 billion gallons of water per day accounting for over 39% of all freshwater withdrawals thus competing with irrigated agriculture as the leading user of water. Coupled to this water use is the required pumping, conveyance, treatment, storage and distribution of the water which requires on average 3% of all electric power generated. While water and energy use are tightly coupled, planning and management of these fundamental resources are rarely treated in an integrated fashion. Toward this need, a decision support framework has been developed that targets the shared needs of energy and water producers, resource managers, regulators, and decision makers at the federal, state and local levels. The framework integrates analysis and optimization capabilities to identify trade-offs, and 'best' alternatives among a broad list of energy/water options and objectives. The decision support framework is formulated in a modular architecture, facilitating tailored analyses over different geographical regions and scales (e.g., national, state, county, watershed, NERC region). An interactive interface allows direct control of the model and access to real-time results displayed as charts, graphs and maps. Ultimately, this open and interactive modeling framework provides a tool for evaluating competing policy and technical options relevant to the energy-water nexus.

  5. Wind/Water Nexus

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Not Available

    2006-04-01

    Nobel laureate Richard Smalley cited energy and water as among humanity's top problems for the next 50 years as the world's population increases from 6.3 billion to 9 billion. The U.S. Department of Energy's Wind and Hydropower Program has initiated an effort to explore wind energy's role as a technical solution to this critically important issue in the United States and the world. This four-page fact sheet outlines five areas in which wind energy can contribute: thermoelectric power plant/water processes, irrigation, municipal water supply, desalination, and wind/hydropower integration.

  6. Addressing Water Consumption of Evaporative Coolers with Greywater

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Sahai, Rashmi; Shah, Nihar; Phadke, Amol

    2012-07-01

    Evaporative coolers (ECs) provide significant gains in energy efficiency compared to vapor compression air conditioners, but simultaneously have significant onsite water demand. This can be a major barrier to deployment in areas of the world with hot and arid climates. To address this concern, this study determined where in the world evaporative cooling is suitable, the water consumption of ECs in these cities, and the potential that greywater can be used reduce the consumption of potable water in ECs. ECs covered 69percent of the cities where room air conditioners are may be deployed, based on comfort conditions alone. The average water consumption due to ECs was found to be 400 L/household/day in the United States and Australia, with the potential for greywater to provide 50percent this amount. In the rest of the world, the average water consumption was 250 L/household/day, with the potential for greywater to supply 80percent of this amount. Home size was the main factor that contributed to this difference. In the Mediterranean, the Middle East, Northern India, and the Midwestern and Southwestern United States alkalinity levels are high and water used for bleeding will likely contribute significantly to EC water consumption. Although technically feasible, upfront costs for household GW systems are currently high. In both developed and developing parts of the world, however, a direct EC and GW system is cost competitive with conventional vapor compression air conditioners. Moreover, in regions of the world that face problems of water scarcity the benefits can substantially outweigh the costs.

  7. California State Water Resources Control Board Storm Water Homepage...

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    State Water Resources Control Board Storm Water Homepage Jump to: navigation, search OpenEI Reference LibraryAdd to library Web Site: California State Water Resources Control Board...

  8. UV water disinfector

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Gadgil, A.; Garud, V.

    1998-07-14

    A UV disinfector with a gravity driven feed water delivery system and an air-suspended bare UV lamp are disclosed. The disinfector is hydrodynamically optimized with a laminerizing, perforated baffle wall, beveled treatment chamber, and outlet weir. 7 figs.

  9. Energy and Water Act

    Broader source: Energy.gov (indexed) [DOE]

    Letter 2004-02 - FY 2004 Le2islation Provisions (dated March 1.2004) Energy and Water Act AL-2004-02 provides guidance regarding the implementation of Section 30 I. 304....

  10. Water Power News

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    858936+791+7+343Water Power News en Energy Department Awards 10.5 Million for Next-Generation Marine Energy Systems http:energy.goveerearticlesenergy-department-awards-105-...

  11. Water Sample Concentrator

    ScienceCinema (OSTI)

    Idaho National Laboratory

    2010-01-08

    Automated portable device that concentrates and packages a sample of suspected contaminated water for safe, efficient transport to a qualified analytical laboratory. This technology will help safeguard against pathogen contamination or chemical and biolog

  12. Thermoelectrically cooled water trap

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Micheels, Ronald H.

    2006-02-21

    A water trap system based on a thermoelectric cooling device is employed to remove a major fraction of the water from air samples, prior to analysis of these samples for chemical composition, by a variety of analytical techniques where water vapor interferes with the measurement process. These analytical techniques include infrared spectroscopy, mass spectrometry, ion mobility spectrometry and gas chromatography. The thermoelectric system for trapping water present in air samples can substantially improve detection sensitivity in these analytical techniques when it is necessary to measure trace analytes with concentrations in the ppm (parts per million) or ppb (parts per billion) partial pressure range. The thermoelectric trap design is compact and amenable to use in a portable gas monitoring instrumentation.

  13. UV water disinfector

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Gadgil, Ashok (El Cerrito, CA); Garud, Vikas (Bombay, IN)

    1998-07-14

    A UV disinfector with a gravity driven feed water delivery system, and an air-suspended bare UV lamp. The disinfector is hydrodynamically optimized with a laminerizing, perforated baffle wall, beveled treatment chamber, and outlet weir.

  14. Storm Water Individual Permit.

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    NPDES Storm Water Individual Permit. Wednesday, January 22, 2014 5:30 p.m. Cities of Gold Conference Center 10 Cities of Gold Road, Pojoaque, NM The Individual Permit authorizes...

  15. Electrolysis of Water

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Electrolysis of Water Grades: 5-8 Topic: Hydrogen and Fuel Cells, Solar Owner: Florida Solar Energy Center This educational material is brought to you by the U.S. Department of...

  16. Water Power Program News

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    2012-01-19

    News stories about conventional hydropower and marine and hydrokinetic technologies from the U.S. Department of Energy, the Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy, the Wind and Water Power Program, and other federal agencies.

  17. energy-water interdependency

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    water interdependency - Sandia Energy Energy Search Icon Sandia Home Locations Contact Us Employee Locator Energy & Climate Secure & Sustainable Energy Future Stationary Power Energy Conversion Efficiency Solar Energy Wind Energy Water Power Supercritical CO2 Geothermal Natural Gas Safety, Security & Resilience of the Energy Infrastructure Energy Storage Nuclear Power & Engineering Grid Modernization Battery Testing Nuclear Fuel Cycle Defense Waste Management Programs Advanced

  18. Purifying contaminated water

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Daughton, Christian G. (San Pablo, CA)

    1983-01-01

    Process for removing biorefractory compounds from contaminated water (e.g., oil shale retort waste-water) by contacting same with fragmented raw oil shale. Biorefractory removal is enhanced by preactivating the oil shale with at least one member of the group of carboxylic, acids, alcohols, aldehydes, ketones, ethers, amines, amides, sulfoxides, mixed ether-esters and nitriles. Further purification is obtained by stripping, followed by biodegradation and removal of the cells.

  19. Water Vapor Experiment Concludes

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    3 Water Vapor Experiment Concludes The AIRS (atmospheric infrared sounder) Water Vapor Experiment - Ground (AWEX-G) intensive operations period (IOP) at the SGP central facility began on October 27 and ended on November 16, 2003. Researchers David Whiteman and Francis Schmidlin of the National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA), Holger Voemel of the National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration (NOAA), Larry Miloshevich of the National Center for Atmospheric Research, and Barry Lesht

  20. Energy-Water Nexus

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Energy-Water Nexus - Sandia Energy Energy Search Icon Sandia Home Locations Contact Us Employee Locator Energy & Climate Secure & Sustainable Energy Future Stationary Power Energy Conversion Efficiency Solar Energy Wind Energy Water Power Supercritical CO2 Geothermal Natural Gas Safety, Security & Resilience of the Energy Infrastructure Energy Storage Nuclear Power & Engineering Grid Modernization Battery Testing Nuclear Fuel Cycle Defense Waste Management Programs Advanced

  1. Water | Department of Energy

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Water Water EERE plays a key role in advancing America's "all of the above" energy strategy, leading a large network of researchers and other partners to deliver innovative technologies that will make renewable electricity generation cost-competitive with traditional sources of energy. EERE plays a key role in advancing America's "all of the above" energy strategy, leading a large network of researchers and other partners to deliver innovative technologies that will make

  2. Water | Department of Energy

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Water Water This map demonstrates the potential capacity to generate clean hydroelectric energy at existing non-powered dams across the U.S. Learn more. America has vast wave, tidal and hydropower resources - but much of this energy remains untapped. The Energy Department is committed to driving critical research and development efforts to expand electricity generation from these clean energy resources. This includes investments in existing hydropower facilities to equip them with the necessary

  3. Guide to Colorado Well Permits, Water Rights, and Water Administration...

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    Colorado Well Permits, Water Rights, and Water Administration Jump to: navigation, search OpenEI Reference LibraryAdd to library PermittingRegulatory Guidance - GuideHandbook:...

  4. Santa Clara Water & Sewer- Solar Water Heating Program

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    In 1975, the City of Santa Clara established the nation's first municipal solar utility. Under the Solar Water Heating Program, the Santa Clara Water & Sewer Utilities Department supplies,...

  5. Hydrogen Production: Photoelectrochemical Water Splitting

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    In photoelectrochemical (PEC) water splitting, hydrogen is produced from water using sunlight and specialized semiconductors called photoelectrochemical materials, which use light energy to directly dissociate water molecules into hydrogen and oxygen.

  6. SU-E-T-174: Evaluation of the Optimal Intensity Modulated Radiation Therapy Plans Done On the Maximum and Average Intensity Projection CTs

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Jurkovic, I; Stathakis, S; Li, Y; Patel, A; Vincent, J; Papanikolaou, N; Mavroidis, P

    2014-06-01

    Purpose: To determine the difference in coverage between plans done on average intensity projection and maximum intensity projection CT data sets for lung patients and to establish correlations between different factors influencing the coverage. Methods: For six lung cancer patients, 10 phases of equal duration through the respiratory cycle, the maximum and average intensity projections (MIP and AIP) from their 4DCT datasets were obtained. MIP and AIP datasets had three GTVs delineated (GTVaip — delineated on AIP, GTVmip — delineated on MIP and GTVfus — delineated on each of the 10 phases and summed up). From the each GTV, planning target volumes (PTV) were then created by adding additional margins. For each of the PTVs an IMRT plan was developed on the AIP dataset. The plans were then copied to the MIP data set and were recalculated. Results: The effective depths in AIP cases were significantly smaller than in MIP (p < 0.001). The Pearson correlation coefficient of r = 0.839 indicates strong degree of positive linear relationship between the average percentage difference in effective depths and average PTV coverage on the MIP data set. The V2 0 Gy of involved lung depends on the PTV coverage. The relationship between PTVaip mean CT number difference and PTVaip coverage on MIP data set gives r = 0.830. When the plans are produced on MIP and copied to AIP, r equals ?0.756. Conclusion: The correlation between the AIP and MIP data sets indicates that the selection of the data set for developing the treatment plan affects the final outcome (cases with high average percentage difference in effective depths between AIP and MIP should be calculated on AIP). The percentage of the lung volume receiving higher dose depends on how well PTV is covered, regardless of on which set plan is done.

  7. Super recycled water: quenching computers

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Super recycled water: quenching computers Super recycled water: quenching computers New facility and methods support conserving water and creating recycled products. Using reverse osmosis to "super purify" water allows the system to reuse water and cool down our powerful yet thirsty computers. January 30, 2014 Super recycled water: quenching computers LANL's Sanitary Effluent Reclamation Facility, key to reducing the Lab's discharge of liquid. Millions of gallons of industrial

  8. Molded polymer solar water heater

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Bourne, Richard C.; Lee, Brian E.

    2004-11-09

    A solar water heater has a rotationally-molded water box and a glazing subassembly disposed over the water box that enhances solar gain and provides an insulating air space between the outside environment and the water box. When used with a pressurized water system, an internal heat exchanger is integrally molded within the water box. Mounting and connection hardware is included to provide a rapid and secure method of installation.

  9. NREL: Sustainable NREL - Water Efficiency

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Water Efficiency A photo of water spilling out of a downspout from the roof of a multi-story office building. NREL conserves water in a number of innovative ways. A photo of water passing through a landscaped area. Rain water from NREL's Research Support Facility passes through landscaped areas before discharging into Lena Gulch. To remain resilient in the arid climate of the southwest, NREL is committed to the efficient use of water throughout the laboratory. Best Practices All new buildings on

  10. System for treating produced water

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Sullivan, Enid J. (Los Alamos, NM); Katz, Lynn (Austin, TX); Kinney, Kerry (Austin, TX); Bowman, Robert S. (Lemitar, NM); Kwon, Soondong (Kyungbuk, KR)

    2010-08-03

    A system and method were used to treat produced water. Field-testing demonstrated the removal of contaminants from produced water from oil and gas wells.

  11. Water Power | Open Energy Information

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    Get Involved Help Apps Datasets Community Login | Sign Up Search Gateway Edit History Water Power Jump to: navigation, search Water Power Community Forum Provides the community...

  12. Water and Energy (18 activities)

    K-12 Energy Lesson Plans and Activities Web site (EERE)

    An inquiry-based curriculum that introduces students to the properties of water and using water as an energy source with the following activities

  13. Absorption Heat Pump Water Heater

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Water Heater Kyle Gluesenkamp Building Equipment Group, ETSD gluesenkampk@ornl.gov 865-241-2952 April 3, 2013 CRADA - GE Development of High Performance Residential Gas Water ...

  14. Water Heating | Department of Energy

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Water Heating Water Heating Low-flow fixtures will help you reduce your hot water use and save money on your water heating bills. | Photo courtesy of Huntington Veterans Medical Ctr. Low-flow fixtures will help you reduce your hot water use and save money on your water heating bills. | Photo courtesy of Huntington Veterans Medical Ctr. Water heating accounts for about 18% of your home's energy use. Reducing your hot water use, employing energy-saving strategies, and choosing an energy efficient

  15. Portable solar water heater

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Borodulin, G.; Baron, R.; Shkolnik, A.

    1985-11-12

    A combined table and portable solar water heater comprises a suitcase-like rigid casing molded from a rigid plastic material which contains a pair of solar collector panels and connected in series. The panels can be exposed to solar radiation when the casing is opened. Each collector panel or is formed by a copper plate with the solar radiation absorbing surface and copper pipe coil or in heat-transferring relationship with said copper plate. The casing is provided with compartments for accessories, such as adjustable legs for supporting the casing, adjusting its angle to incident sunlight, and for converting the casing into a table; containers for feeding cold water to the solar collector and for receiving hot water from the collector; and a tripod stand for supporting the feeding container at the level above the collector and for arranging a shower set. Temperature-insulating layers of the collectors are formed by separate pieces of rigid material which can be removed from the casing and assembled into a box-shaped container which can be utilized for maintaining water heated by means of the solar water heater at an elevated temperature.

  16. Water Transport Within the STack: Water Transport Exploratory Studies |

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Department of Energy Within the STack: Water Transport Exploratory Studies Water Transport Within the STack: Water Transport Exploratory Studies Part of a $100 million fuel cell award announced by DOE Secretary Bodman on Oct. 25, 2006. PDF icon 2_lanl.pdf More Documents & Publications Water Transport Exploratory Studies Fuel Cell Kickoff Meeting Agenda

  17. Fuel cell water transport

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Vanderborgh, Nicholas E. (Los Alamos, NM); Hedstrom, James C. (Los Alamos, NM)

    1990-01-01

    The moisture content and temperature of hydrogen and oxygen gases is regulated throughout traverse of the gases in a fuel cell incorporating a solid polymer membrane. At least one of the gases traverses a first flow field adjacent the solid polymer membrane, where chemical reactions occur to generate an electrical current. A second flow field is located sequential with the first flow field and incorporates a membrane for effective water transport. A control fluid is then circulated adjacent the second membrane on the face opposite the fuel cell gas wherein moisture is either transported from the control fluid to humidify a fuel gas, e.g., hydrogen, or to the control fluid to prevent excess water buildup in the oxidizer gas, e.g., oxygen. Evaporation of water into the control gas and the control gas temperature act to control the fuel cell gas temperatures throughout the traverse of the fuel cell by the gases.

  18. Water, law, science

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Narasimhan, T.N.

    2007-10-17

    In a world with water resources severely impacted bytechnology, science must actively contribute to water law. To this end,this paper is an earth scientist s attempt to comprehend essentialelements of water law, and to examine their connections to science.Science and law share a common logical framework of starting with apriori prescribed tenets, and drawing consistent inferences. In science,observationally established physical laws constitute the tenets, while inlaw, they stem from social values. The foundations of modern water law inEurope and the New World were formulated nearly two thousand years ago byRoman jurists who were inspired by Greek philosophy of reason.Recognizing that vital natural elements such as water, air, and the seawere governed by immutable natural laws, they reasoned that theseelements belonged to all humans, and therefore cannot be owned as privateproperty. Legally, such public property was to be governed by jusgentium, the law of all people or the law of all nations. In contrast,jus civile or civil law governed private property. Remarkably, jusgentium continues to be relevant in our contemporary society in whichscience plays a pivotal role in exploiting vital resources common to all.This paper examines the historical roots of modern water law, followstheir evolution through the centuries, and examines how the spirit ofscience inherent in jus gentium is profoundly influencing evolving waterand environmental laws in Europe, the United States and elsewhere. In atechnological world, scientific knowledge has to lie at the core of waterlaw. Yet, science cannot formulate law. It is hoped that a philosophicalunderstanding of the relationships between science and law willcontribute to their constructively coming together in the service ofsociety.

  19. Sandia Energy - Conventional Water Power: Technology Development

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Technology Development Home Stationary Power Energy Conversion Efficiency Water Power Conventional Water Power: Technology Development Conventional Water Power: Technology...

  20. High-Average Power Facilities

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Dowell, David H.; Power, John G.; /Argonne

    2012-09-05

    There has been significant progress in the development of high-power facilities in recent years yet major challenges remain. The task of WG4 was to identify which facilities were capable of addressing the outstanding R&D issues presently preventing high-power operation. To this end, information from each of the facilities represented at the workshop was tabulated and the results are presented herein. A brief description of the major challenges is given, but the detailed elaboration can be found in the other three working group summaries.

  1. National Smart Water Grid

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Beaulieu, R A

    2009-07-13

    The United States repeatedly experiences floods along the Midwest's large rivers and droughts in the arid Western States that cause traumatic environmental conditions with huge economic impact. With an integrated approach and solution these problems can be alleviated. Tapping into the Mississippi River and its tributaries, the world's third largest fresh water river system, during flood events will mitigate the damage of flooding and provide a new source of fresh water to the Western States. The trend of increased flooding on the Midwest's large rivers is supported by a growing body of scientific literature. The Colorado River Basin and the western states are experiencing a protracted multi-year drought. Fresh water can be pumped via pipelines from areas of overabundance/flood to areas of drought or high demand. Calculations document 10 to 60 million acre-feet (maf) of fresh water per flood event can be captured from the Midwest's Rivers and pumped via pipelines to the Colorado River and introduced upstream of Lake Powell, Utah, to destinations near Denver, Colorado, and used in areas along the pipelines. Water users of the Colorado River include the cities in southern Nevada, southern California, northern Arizona, Colorado, Utah, Indian Tribes, and Mexico. The proposed start and end points, and routes of the pipelines are documented, including information on right-of-ways necessary for state and federal permits. A National Smart Water Grid{trademark} (NSWG) Project will create thousands of new jobs for construction, operation, and maintenance and save billions in drought and flood damage reparations tax dollars. The socio-economic benefits of NWSG include decreased flooding in the Midwest; increased agriculture, and recreation and tourism; improved national security, transportation, and fishery and wildlife habitats; mitigated regional climate change and global warming such as increased carbon capture; decreased salinity in Colorado River water crossing the US-Mexico border; and decreased eutrophication (excessive plant growth and decay) in the Gulf of Mexico to name a few. The National Smart Water Grid{trademark} will pay for itself in a single major flood event.

  2. Light water detritiation

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Fedorchenko, O.A.; Aleksee, I.A.; Bondarenko, S.D.; Vasyanina, T.V.

    2015-03-15

    Hundreds of thousands of tons of tritiated light water have been accumulating from the enterprises of nuclear fuel cycles around the world. The Dual-Temperature Water-Hydrogen (DTWH) process looks like the only practical alternative to Combined Electrolysis and Catalytic Exchange (CECE). In DTWH power-consuming lower reflux device (electrolytic cell) is replaced by a so-called 'hot tower' (LPCE column operating at conditions which ensure relatively small value of elementary separation factor α(hot)). In the upper, cold tower, the tritium transfers from hydrogen to water while in the lower, hot tower - in the opposite direction - from water to hydrogen. The DTWH process is much more complicated compared to CECE; it must be thoroughly computed and strictly controlled by an automatic control system. The use of a simulation code for DTWH is absolutely important. The simulation code EVIO-5 deals with 3 flows inside a column (hydrogen gas, water vapour and liquid water) and 2 simultaneous isotope exchange sub-processes (counter-current phase exchange and co-current catalytic exchange). EVIO-5 takes into account the strong dependence of process performance on given conditions (temperature and pressure). It calculates steady-state isotope concentration profiles considering a full set of reversible exchange reactions between different isotope modifications of water and hydrogen (12 molecular species). So the code can be used for simulation of LPCE column operation for detritiation of hydrogen and water feed, which contains H and D not only at low concentrations but above 10 at.% also. EVIO-5 code is used to model a Tritium Removal Facility with a throughput capacity of about 400 m{sup 3}/day. Simulation results show that a huge amount of wet-proofed catalyst is required (about 6000 m{sup 3}), mainly (90%) in the first stage. One reason for these large expenses (apart from a big scale of the problem itself) is the relatively high tritium separation factor in the hot tower. The introduction of some quantity of deuterium into the gaseous flow before the hot tower lowers the tritium separation factor in that column. One possible variant of deuterium introduction to the hot tower of the first stage was modelled. The decontamination capacity increases by a 2.5 factor.

  3. September 2004 Water Sampling

    Office of Legacy Management (LM)

    2014 Groundwater, Surface Water, Produced Water, and Natural Gas Sampling at the Gasbuggy, New Mexico, Site October 2014 LMS/GSB/S00614 Available for sale to the public from: U.S. Department of Commerce National Technical Information Service 5301 Shawnee Road Alexandria, VA 22312 Telephone: 800.553.6847 Fax: 703.605.6900 E-mail: orders@ntis.gov Online Ordering: http://www.ntis.gov/help/ordermethods.aspx Available electronically at http://www.osti.gov/scitech/ Available for a processing fee to

  4. Water_Treatment.cdr

    Office of Legacy Management (LM)

    Since dewatering at the Weldon Spring site began in 1992, more than 290 million gallons of contaminated water have been treated and released into the Missouri River from two similar water treatment facilities at the site and the nearby Quarry. On September 30, 1999, dewatering efforts at the Chemical Plant site were completed, meeting one of the most substantial milestones of the project and bringing to an end a part of history that was started nearly 5 decades ago. From 1955 to 1966, uranium

  5. Measurement of Time-Averaged Particle-Wall Collision Properties Using Particle Tracking Velocimetry, CRADA PC93-006, Final Report

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Shaffer, F.; Massah, H.; Sinclair, J.; Shahnam, M.

    1995-04-30

    This paper describes an experimental facility to measure time-averaged properties of particle-wall collisions. A particle tracking velocimetry (PTV) system measures particle rebound angles and velocities and impact angles and velocities for specific particles. From these measured properties, values of normal and tangential coefficient of restitution are derived. The PTV system rapidly measures thousands of particle-wall collisions enabling determination of time-averaged properties. In this initial work we use 191 {micro}m glass particles colliding with a glass plate at a fixed angle of 17.5{degree} and a velocity of 17.07 m/s. Observations are also made of aspherical particles colliding with gross sliding. In the future, this experimental system will be used with particles and wall materials of industrial significance.

  6. Sandia Energy - Water Monitoring & Treatment Technology

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Water Monitoring & Treatment Technology Home Climate & Earth Systems WaterEnergy Nexus Water Monitoring & Treatment Technology Water Monitoring & Treatment Technologycwdd2015-05-0...

  7. Water Use Reduction | Department of Energy

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Facilities Water Use Reduction Water Use Reduction Water Use Reduction Water Use Reduction The Federal Energy Management Program (FEMP) provides agencies with guidance and...

  8. Alternative Water Sources Map | Department of Energy

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Facilities Water Efficiency Alternative Water Sources Map Alternative Water Sources Map The Federal Energy Management Program (FEMP) created the Alternative Water Map to...

  9. Bounce- and MLT-averaged diffusion coefficients in a physics-based magnetic field geometry obtained from RAM-SCB for the March 17 2013 storm

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Zhao, Lei; Yu, Yiqun; Delzanno, Gian Luca; Jordanova, Vania K.

    2015-04-01

    Local acceleration via whistler wave and particle interaction plays a significant role in particle dynamics in the radiation belt. In this work we explore gyro-resonant wave-particle interaction and quasi-linear diffusion in different magnetic field configurations related to the March 17 2013 storm. We consider the Earth's magnetic dipole field as a reference and compare the results against non-dipole field configurations corresponding to quiet and stormy conditions. The latter are obtained with the ring current-atmosphere interactions model with a self-consistent magnetic field RAM-SCB, a code that models the Earth's ring current and provides a realistic modeling of the Earth's magnetic field. By applying quasi-linear theory, the bounce- and MLT-averaged electron pitch angle, mixed term, and energy diffusion coefficients are calculated for each magnetic field configuration. For radiation belt (~1 MeV) and ring current (~100 keV) electrons, it is shown that at some MLTs the bounce-averaged diffusion coefficients become rather insensitive to the details of the magnetic field configuration, while at other MLTs storm conditions can expand the range of equatorial pitch angles where gyro-resonant diffusion occurs and significantly enhance the diffusion rates. When MLT average is performed at drift shell L = 4.25 (a good approximation to drift average), the diffusion coefficients become quite independent of the magnetic field configuration for relativistic electrons, while the opposite is true for lower energy electrons. These results suggest that, at least for the March 17 2013 storm and for L ? 4.25, the commonly adopted dipole approximation of the Earth's magnetic field can be safely used for radiation belt electrons, while a realistic modeling of the magnetic field configuration is necessary to describe adequately the diffusion rates of ring current electrons.

  10. Bounce- and MLT-averaged diffusion coefficients in a physics-based magnetic field geometry obtained from RAM-SCB for the March 17 2013 storm

    DOE Public Access Gateway for Energy & Science Beta (PAGES Beta)

    Zhao, Lei; Yu, Yiqun; Delzanno, Gian Luca; Jordanova, Vania K.

    2015-04-01

    Local acceleration via whistler wave and particle interaction plays a significant role in particle dynamics in the radiation belt. In this work we explore gyro-resonant wave-particle interaction and quasi-linear diffusion in different magnetic field configurations related to the March 17 2013 storm. We consider the Earth's magnetic dipole field as a reference and compare the results against non-dipole field configurations corresponding to quiet and stormy conditions. The latter are obtained with the ring current-atmosphere interactions model with a self-consistent magnetic field RAM-SCB, a code that models the Earth's ring current and provides a realistic modeling of the Earth's magnetic field.more » By applying quasi-linear theory, the bounce- and MLT-averaged electron pitch angle, mixed term, and energy diffusion coefficients are calculated for each magnetic field configuration. For radiation belt (~1 MeV) and ring current (~100 keV) electrons, it is shown that at some MLTs the bounce-averaged diffusion coefficients become rather insensitive to the details of the magnetic field configuration, while at other MLTs storm conditions can expand the range of equatorial pitch angles where gyro-resonant diffusion occurs and significantly enhance the diffusion rates. When MLT average is performed at drift shell L = 4.25 (a good approximation to drift average), the diffusion coefficients become quite independent of the magnetic field configuration for relativistic electrons, while the opposite is true for lower energy electrons. These results suggest that, at least for the March 17 2013 storm and for L ≲ 4.25, the commonly adopted dipole approximation of the Earth's magnetic field can be safely used for radiation belt electrons, while a realistic modeling of the magnetic field configuration is necessary to describe adequately the diffusion rates of ring current electrons.« less

  11. Surprise Valley water geochmical data

    DOE Data Explorer [Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)]

    Nicolas Spycher

    2015-04-13

    Chemical analyses of thermal and cold ground waters from Surprise Valley, compiled from publicly available sources.

  12. Federal Incentives for Water Power

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    2013-04-05

    This factsheet lists the major federal incentives for water power technologies available as of April 2013.

  13. Surprise Valley water geochmical data

    DOE Data Explorer [Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)]

    Nicolas Spycher

    Chemical analyses of thermal and cold ground waters from Surprise Valley, compiled from publicly available sources.

  14. Water Supply at Los Alamos 1998-2001

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Richard J. Koch; David B. Rogers

    2003-03-01

    For the period 1998 through 2001, the total water used at Los Alamos from all sources ranged from 1325 million gallons (Mg) in 1999 to 1515 Mg in 2000. Groundwater production ranged from 1323 Mg in 1999 to 1506 Mg in 2000 from the Guaje, Pajarito, and Otowi fields. Nonpotable surface water used from Los Alamos reservoir ranged from zero gallons in 2001 to 9.3 Mg in 2000. For years 1998 through 2001, over 99% of all water used at Los Alamos was groundwater. Water use by Los Alamos National Laboratory (LANL) between 1998 and 2001 ranged from 379 Mg in 2000 to 461 Mg in 1998. The LANL water use in 2001 was 393 Mg or 27% of the total water use at Los Alamos. Water use by Los Alamos County ranged from 872 Mg in 1999 to 1137 Mg in 2000, and averaged 1006 Mg/yr. Four new replacement wells in the Guaje field (G-2A, G-3A, G-4A, and G-5A) were drilled in 1998 and began production in 1999; with existing well G-1A, the Guaje field currently has five producing wells. Five of the old Guaje wells (G-1, G-2, G-4, G-5, and G-6) were plugged and abandoned in 1999, and one well (G-3) was abandoned but remains as an observation well for the Guaje field. The long-term water level observations in production and observation (test) wells at Los Alamos are consistent with the formation of a cone of depression in response to water production. The water level decline is gradual and at most has been about 0.7 to 2 ft per year for production wells and from 0.4 to 0.9 ft/yr for observation (test) wells. The largest water level declines have been in the Guaje field where nonpumping water levels were about 91 ft lower in 2001 than in 1951. The initial water levels of the Guaje replacement wells were 32 to 57 ft lower than the initial water levels of adjacent original Guaje wells. When production wells are taken off-line for pump replacement or repair, water levels have returned to within about 25 ft of initial static levels within 6 to 12 months. Thus, the water-level trends suggest no adverse impacts by production on long-term water supply sustainability at Los Alamos. This report summarizes production data and aquifer conditions for water production and monitor wells in the Los Alamos, New Mexico, and Los Alamos National Laboratory (LANL) area (Figure 1). Water production wells are grouped within the Guaje, Pajarito, and Otowi fields, the locations of which are shown on Figure 1. Wells from these fields supply all the potable water used for municipal and most industrial purposes in Los Alamos County (LAC), at LANL, and at Bandelier National Monument. This report has three primary objectives: (1) Provide a continuing historical record of metered well production and overall water usage; (2) Provide data to the Department of Energy (DOE) and LANL management, and Los Alamos County planners for operation of the water supply system and for long-range water resource planning; and (3) Provide water-level data from regional aquifer production wells, test wells, and monitoring wells.

  15. September 2004 Water Sampling

    Office of Legacy Management (LM)

    February 2015 Groundwater and Surface Water Sampling at the Grand Junction, Colorado, Site April 2015 LMS/GJO/S00215 This page intentionally left blank U.S. Department of Energy DVP-February 2015, Grand Junction, Colorado, Site April 2015 RIN 15026795 Page i Contents Sampling Event Summary ...............................................................................................................1 Grand Junction, Colorado, Site Sample Location Map

  16. September 2004 Water Sampling

    Office of Legacy Management (LM)

    4 Groundwater and Surface Water Sampling at the Gunnison, Colorado, Processing Site September 2014 LMS/GUP/S00414 This page intentionally left blank U.S. Department of Energy DVP-April and June 2014, Gunnison, Colorado September 2014 RIN 14046058 and 14066262 Page i Contents Sampling Event Summary ...............................................................................................................1 Gunnison, Colorado, Processing Site Planned Sampling Map

  17. September 2004 Water Sampling

    Office of Legacy Management (LM)

    and Surface Water Sampling at the Naturita, Colorado Processing Site October 2013 LMS/NAP/S00713 This page intentionally left blank U.S. Department of Energy DVP-July 2013, Naturita, Colorado October 2013 RIN 13075483 Page i Contents Sampling Event Summary ...............................................................................................................1 Naturita, Colorado, Sample Location Map ......................................................................................3

  18. September 2004 Water Sampling

    Office of Legacy Management (LM)

    4 Groundwater and Surface Water Sampling at the Slick Rock, Colorado, Processing Sites December 2014 LMS/SRW/SRE/S00914 This page intentionally left blank U.S. Department of Energy DVP-September 2014, Slick Rock, Colorado December 2014 RIN 14096456 Page i Contents Sampling Event Summary ...............................................................................................................1 Slick Rock, Colorado, Processing Sites, Sample Location Map

  19. September 2004 Water Sampling

    Office of Legacy Management (LM)

    5 Groundwater and Surface Water Sampling at the Slick Rock, Colorado, Processing Sites January 2016 LMS/SRE/SRW/S00915 This page intentionally left blank U.S. Department of Energy DVP-September 2015, Slick Rock, Colorado January 2016 RINs 15087319 and 15107424 Page i Contents Sampling Event Summary ...............................................................................................................1 Slick Rock, Colorado, Processing Sites, Sample Location Map

  20. September 2004 Water Sampling

    Office of Legacy Management (LM)

    Groundwater and Surface Water Sampling at the Slick Rock East and West, Colorado, Processing Sites November 2013 LMS/SRE/SRW/S0913 This page intentionally left blank U.S. Department of Energy DVP-September 2013, Slick Rock, Colorado November 2013 RIN 13095593 Page i Contents Sampling Event Summary ...............................................................................................................1 Slick Rock East and West, Colorado, Processing Sites, Sample Location Map

  1. September 2004 Water Sampling

    Office of Legacy Management (LM)

    Water Sampling at the Ambrosia Lake, New Mexico, Disposal Site February 2015 LMS/AMB/S01114 This page intentionally left blank U.S. Department of Energy DVP-November 2014, Ambrosia Lake, New Mexico February 2015 RIN 14116607 Page i Contents Sampling Event Summary ...............................................................................................................1 Ambrosia Lake, NM, Disposal Site Planned Sampling Map...........................................................3 Data

  2. September 2004 Water Sampling

    Office of Legacy Management (LM)

    Green River, Utah, Disposal Site August 2013 LMS/GRN/S00613 This page intentionally left blank U.S. Department of Energy DVP-June 2013, Green River, Utah August 2013 RIN 13065402 Page i Contents Sampling Event Summary ...............................................................................................................1 Data Assessment Summary ..............................................................................................................7 Water Sampling Field Activities

  3. September 2004 Water Sampling

    Office of Legacy Management (LM)

    and Surface Water Sampling at the Green River, Utah, Disposal Site August 2014 LMS/GRN/S00614 This page intentionally left blank U.S. Department of Energy DVP-June 2014, Green River, Utah August 2014 RIN 14066228 Page i Contents Sampling Event Summary ...............................................................................................................1 Green River, Utah, Disposal Site Sample Location Map ................................................................5 Data Assessment

  4. September 2004 Water Sampling

    Office of Legacy Management (LM)

    3 Groundwater and Surface Water Sampling at the Monument Valley, Arizona, Processing Site March 2014 LMS/MON/S01213 This page intentionally left blank U.S. Department of Energy DVP-December 2013, Monument Valley, Arizona March 2014 RIN 13125794 Page i Contents Sampling Event Summary ...............................................................................................................1 Monument Valley, Arizona, Processing Site, Sample Location Map

  5. September 2004 Water Sampling

    Office of Legacy Management (LM)

    and Surface Water Sampling at the Monument Valley, Arizona, Processing Site February 2015 LMS/MON/S01214 This page intentionally left blank U.S. Department of Energy DVP-December 2014, Monument Valley, Arizona February 2015 RIN 14126645 Page i Contents Sampling Event Summary ...............................................................................................................1 Monument Valley, Arizona, Disposal Site Sample Location Map ..................................................5

  6. September 2004 Water Sampling

    Office of Legacy Management (LM)

    and Surface Water Sampling at the Monticello, Utah, Processing Site July 2014 LMS/MNT/S00414 This page intentionally left blank U.S. Department of Energy DVP-April 2014, Monticello, Utah July 2014 RIN 14046077 Page i Contents Sampling Event Summary ...............................................................................................................1 Planned Sampling Map, April 2014, Monticello, Utah, Processing Site .........................................5 Data Assessment Summary

  7. September 2004 Water Sampling

    Office of Legacy Management (LM)

    and Surface Water Sampling at the Monticello, Utah, Processing Site July 2015 LMS/MNT/S00415 This page intentionally left blank U.S. Department of Energy DVP-April 2015, Monticello, Utah July 2015 RIN 15046927 Page i Contents Sampling Event Summary ...............................................................................................................1 Monticello, Utah, Processing Site Sample Location Map ...............................................................5 Data Assessment

  8. September 2004 Water Sampling

    Office of Legacy Management (LM)

    3 Water Sampling at the Monticello, Utah, Processing Site January 2014 LMS/MNT/S01013 This page intentionally left blank U.S. Department of Energy DVP-October 2013, Monticello, Utah January 2014 RIN 13105661 and 13105711 Page i Contents Sampling Event Summary ...............................................................................................................1 Planned Sampling Map, Monticello, Utah, Processing and Disposal Site, October 2013 ..............5 Data Assessment Summary

  9. September 2004 Water Sampling

    Office of Legacy Management (LM)

    4 Alternate Water Supply System Sampling at the Riverton, Wyoming, Processing Site May 2014 LMS/RVT/S00314 This page intentionally left blank U.S. Department of Energy DVP-March 2014, Riverton, Wyoming May 2014 RIN 14035986 Page i Contents Sampling Event Summary ...............................................................................................................1 Riverton, WY, Processing Site, Sample Location Map ...................................................................3 Data

  10. September 2004 Water Sampling

    Office of Legacy Management (LM)

    and May 2014 Groundwater and Surface Water Sampling at the Shiprock, New Mexico, Disposal Site June 2014 LMS/SHP/S00314 This page intentionally left blank U.S. Department of Energy DVP-March and May 2014, Shiprock, New Mexico June 2014 RIN 14036011, 14036013, and 14056142 Page i Contents Sampling Event Summary ...............................................................................................................1 Shiprock, New Mexico, Disposal Site, Sample Location Map

  11. September 2004 Water Sampling

    Office of Legacy Management (LM)

    2015 Groundwater and Surface Water Sampling at the Shiprock, New Mexico, Disposal Site June 2015 LMS/SHP/S00315 This page intentionally left blank U.S. Department of Energy DVP-March 2015, Shiprock, New Mexico June 2015 RIN 15036862 and 15036863 Page i Contents Sampling Event Summary ...............................................................................................................1 Planned Sampling Map Shiprock, New Mexico, Disposal Site

  12. September 2004 Water Sampling

    Office of Legacy Management (LM)

    5 Groundwater and Surface Water Sampling at the Tuba City, Arizona Disposal Site June 2015 LMS/TUB/S00215 This page intentionally left blank U.S. Department of Energy DVP-February 2015, Tuba City, Arizona June 2015 RIN 15026775 Page i Contents Sampling Event Summary ...............................................................................................................1 Planned Sampling Map Tuba City, AZ, Disposal Site February 2015 ............................................5 Data

  13. September 2004 Water Sampling

    Office of Legacy Management (LM)

    and Surface Water Sampling at the Tuba City, Arizona, Disposal Site November 2013 LMS/TUB/S00813 This page intentionally left blank U.S. Department of Energy DVP-August 2013, Tuba City, Arizona November 2013 RIN 13085553 Page i Contents Sampling Event Summary ...............................................................................................................1 Tuba City, Arizona, Disposal Site, Sample Location Map ..............................................................7 Data

  14. Measured water heating performance of a vertical-bore water-to-water ground source heat pump (WW-GSHP) for domestic water heating over twelve months under simulated occupancy loads

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Ally, Moonis Raza; Munk, Jeffrey D; Baxter, Van D; Gehl, Anthony C

    2014-01-01

    This paper presents monthly performance metrics of a 5.275 kW (1.5 ton) WW-GSHP providing 227 L day-1 domestic hot water at 49 C. Daily water use is simulated as stipulated in the Building America Research Benchmark Definition capturing the living habits of the average U.S household. The 94.5m vertical-bore ground loop is shared with a separate GSHP for space conditioning the 251m2 residential home. Data on entering water temperatures, energy extracted from the ground, delivered energy, compressor electricity use, COP, WW-GSHP run times, and the impact of fan and pump energy consumption on efficiency are presented for each month. Factors influencing performance metrics are highlighted.

  15. Researching power plant water recovery

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    2008-04-01

    A range of projects supported by NETl under the Innovations for Existing Plant Program are investigating modifications to power plant cooling systems for reducing water loss, and recovering water from the flue gas and the cooling tower. This paper discusses two technologies showing particular promise condense water that is typically lost to evaporation, SPX technologies' Air2Air{sup trademark} condenses water from a cooling tower, while Lehigh University's process condenses water and acid in flue gas. 3 figs.

  16. Nationwide water availability data for energy-water modeling.

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Tidwell, Vincent Carroll; Zemlick, Katie M.; Klise, Geoffrey Taylor

    2013-11-01

    The purpose of this effort is to explore where the availability of water could be a limiting factor in the siting of new electric power generation. To support this analysis, water availability is mapped at the county level for the conterminous United States (3109 counties). Five water sources are individually considered, including unappropriated surface water, unappropriated groundwater, appropriated water (western U.S. only), municipal wastewater and brackish groundwater. Also mapped is projected growth in non-thermoelectric consumptive water demand to 2035. Finally, the water availability metrics are accompanied by estimated costs associated with utilizing that particular supply of water. Ultimately these data sets are being developed for use in the National Renewable Energy Laboratories' (NREL) Regional Energy Deployment System (ReEDS) model, designed to investigate the likely deployment of new energy installations in the U.S., subject to a number of constraints, particularly water.

  17. BOILING WATER REACTOR WITH FEED WATER INJECTION NOZZLES

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Treshow, M.

    1963-04-30

    This patent covers the use of injection nozzles for pumping water into the lower ends of reactor fuel tubes in which water is converted directly to steam. Pumping water through fuel tubes of this type of boiling water reactor increases its power. The injection nozzles decrease the size of pump needed, because the pump handles only the water going through the nozzles, additional water being sucked into the tubes by the nozzles independently of the pump from the exterior body of water in which the fuel tubes are immersed. The resulting movement of exterior water along the tubes holds down steam formation, and thus maintains the moderator effectiveness, of the exterior body of water. (AEC)

  18. Theoretical vibrational sum-frequency generation spectroscopy of water near lipid and surfactant monolayer interfaces

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Roy, S.; Gruenbaum, S. M.; Skinner, J. L.

    2014-11-14

    Understanding the structure of water near cell membranes is crucial for characterizing water-mediated events such as molecular transport. To obtain structural information of water near a membrane, it is useful to have a surface-selective technique that can probe only interfacial water molecules. One such technique is vibrational sum-frequency generation (VSFG) spectroscopy. As model systems for studying membrane headgroup/water interactions, in this paper we consider lipid and surfactant monolayers on water. We adopt a theoretical approach combining molecular dynamics simulations and phase-sensitive VSFG to investigate water structure near these interfaces. Our simulated spectra are in qualitative agreement with experiments and reveal orientational ordering of interfacial water molecules near cationic, anionic, and zwitterionic interfaces. OH bonds of water molecules point toward an anionic interface leading to a positive VSFG peak, whereas the water hydrogen atoms point away from a cationic interface leading to a negative VSFG peak. Coexistence of these two interfacial water species is observed near interfaces between water and mixtures of cationic and anionic lipids, as indicated by the presence of both negative and positive peaks in their VSFG spectra. In the case of a zwitterionic interface, OH orientation is toward the interface on the average, resulting in a positive VSFG peak.

  19. Water Heating Basics | Department of Energy

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Water Heating Basics Water Heating Basics August 19, 2013 - 11:15am Addthis A variety of systems are available for water heating in homes and buildings. Learn about: Conventional Storage Water Heaters Demand (Tankless or Instantaneous) Water Heaters Heat Pump Water Heaters Solar Water Heaters Tankless Coil and Indirect Water Heaters Addthis Related Articles Tankless Demand Water Heater Basics Solar Water Heater Basics Heat Pump Water Heater Basics Energy Basics Home Renewable Energy Homes &

  20. Diel patterns of water potential components for the crassulacean acid metabolism plant Opuntia ficus-indica when well-watered or droughted

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Goldstein, G.; Ortega, J.K.E.; Nerd, A.; Nobel, P.S. )

    1991-01-01

    Under well-watered conditions, chlorenchyma acidity in cladodes of Opuntia ficus-indica increased substantially at night, fully accounting for the 0.26-megapascal nocturnal increase in osmotic pressure in the outer 2 millimeters. Osmotic pressure in the inner part of the chlorenchyma and in the water-storage parenchyma did not change significantly over 24-hour periods. Three months of drought decreased nocturnal acid accumulation by 73% and essentially abolished transpiration; also, 27% of the chlorenchyma water and 61% of the parenchyma water was lost during such drought, but the average tissue osmotic pressure was little affected. Turgor pressure was maintained in the chlorenchyma after 3 months of drought, although it decreased sevenfold in the water-storage parenchyma compared with the well-watered condition. Moreover, the nocturnal increases in turgor pressure of about 0.08 megapascal in the outer part of the chlorenchyma was also unchanged by such drought. The water potential magnitudes favored water movement from the parenchyma to the chlorenchyma at the end of the night and in the reverse direction during the late afternoon. Experiments with tritiated water support this pattern of water movement, which is also in agreement with predictions based on electric-circuit analog models for Crassulacean acid metabolism plants.

  1. Water soluble laser dyes

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Hammond, Peter R.; Feeman, James F.; Field, George F.

    1998-01-01

    Novel water soluble dyes of the formula I are provided ##STR1## wherein R.sup.1 and R.sup.4 are alkyl of 1 to 4 carbon atoms or hydrogen; or R.sup.1 -R.sup.2 or R.sup.2 -R.sup.4 form part of aliphatic heterocyclic rings; R.sup.2 is hydrogen or joined with R.sup.1 or R.sup.4 as described above; R.sup.3 is --(CH.sub.2).sub.m --SO.sub.3.sup.-, where m is 1 to 6; X is N, CH or ##STR2## where Y is 2 --SO.sub.3.sup.- ; Z is 3, 4, 5 or 6 --SO.sub.3.sup.-. The novel dyes are particularly useful as the active media in water solution dye lasers.

  2. Water soluble laser dyes

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Hammond, P.R.; Feeman, J.F.; Field, G.F.

    1998-08-11

    Novel water soluble dyes of the formula 1 are provided by the formula described in the paper wherein R{sup 1} and R{sup 4} are alkyl of 1 to 4 carbon atoms or hydrogen; or R{sup 1}--R{sup 2} or R{sup 2}--R{sup 4} form part of aliphatic heterocyclic rings; R{sup 2} is hydrogen or joined with R{sup 1} or R{sup 4} as described above; R{sup 3} is --(CH{sub 2}){sub m}--SO{sub 3}{sup {minus}}, where m is 1 to 6; X is N, CH or formula 2 given in paper where Y is 2 --SO{sub 3}{sup {minus}} ; Z is 3, 4, 5 or 6 --SO{sub 3}{sup {minus}}. The novel dyes are particularly useful as the active media in water solution dye lasers.

  3. Water Cooled Mirror Design

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Dale, Gregory E.; Holloway, Michael Andrew; Pulliam, Elias Noel

    2015-03-30

    This design is intended to replace the current mirror setup being used for the NorthStar Moly 99 project in order to monitor the target coupon. The existing setup has limited movement for camera alignment and is difficult to align properly. This proposed conceptual design for a water cooled mirror will allow for greater thermal transfer between the mirror and the water block. It will also improve positioning of the mirror by using flexible vacuum hosing and a ball head joint capable of a wide range of motion. Incorporating this design into the target monitoring system will provide more efficient cooling of the mirror which will improve the amount of diffraction caused by the heating of the mirror. The process of aligning the mirror for accurate position will be greatly improved by increasing the range of motion by offering six degrees of freedom.

  4. Urban Sustainability Water Module

    Energy Science and Technology Software Center (OSTI)

    1998-09-22

    Most urban areas are experiencing substantial growth rate. In order to support the growth and still maintain the high quality of life currently available in these areas, government planners, and developers and general stakeholders are very interested in a product that will allow them to experiment with different development scenarios to determine the best path forward. One of the biggest concerns is the amount of water that will be available as the growth continues. Thismore » software package will allow them as a group to input their ideas and get a visual view of the results, immediately. They will be able to watch the water resources as they are consumed by the increasing growth in residential, commercial and industrial areas.« less

  5. Water Infrastructure Security

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Infrastructure Security - Sandia Energy Energy Search Icon Sandia Home Locations Contact Us Employee Locator Energy & Climate Secure & Sustainable Energy Future Stationary Power Energy Conversion Efficiency Solar Energy Wind Energy Water Power Supercritical CO2 Geothermal Natural Gas Safety, Security & Resilience of the Energy Infrastructure Energy Storage Nuclear Power & Engineering Grid Modernization Battery Testing Nuclear Fuel Cycle Defense Waste Management Programs Advanced

  6. water for energy

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    for energy - Sandia Energy Energy Search Icon Sandia Home Locations Contact Us Employee Locator Energy & Climate Secure & Sustainable Energy Future Stationary Power Energy Conversion Efficiency Solar Energy Wind Energy Water Power Supercritical CO2 Geothermal Natural Gas Safety, Security & Resilience of the Energy Infrastructure Energy Storage Nuclear Power & Engineering Grid Modernization Battery Testing Nuclear Fuel Cycle Defense Waste Management Programs Advanced Nuclear

  7. water service provider

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    service provider - Sandia Energy Energy Search Icon Sandia Home Locations Contact Us Employee Locator Energy & Climate Secure & Sustainable Energy Future Stationary Power Energy Conversion Efficiency Solar Energy Wind Energy Water Power Supercritical CO2 Geothermal Natural Gas Safety, Security & Resilience of the Energy Infrastructure Energy Storage Nuclear Power & Engineering Grid Modernization Battery Testing Nuclear Fuel Cycle Defense Waste Management Programs Advanced Nuclear

  8. Energy/Water History

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    History - Sandia Energy Energy Search Icon Sandia Home Locations Contact Us Employee Locator Energy & Climate Secure & Sustainable Energy Future Stationary Power Energy Conversion Efficiency Solar Energy Wind Energy Water Power Supercritical CO2 Geothermal Natural Gas Safety, Security & Resilience of the Energy Infrastructure Energy Storage Nuclear Power & Engineering Grid Modernization Battery Testing Nuclear Fuel Cycle Defense Waste Management Programs Advanced Nuclear Energy

  9. Energy/Water Nexus

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Nexus - Sandia Energy Energy Search Icon Sandia Home Locations Contact Us Employee Locator Energy & Climate Secure & Sustainable Energy Future Stationary Power Energy Conversion Efficiency Solar Energy Wind Energy Water Power Supercritical CO2 Geothermal Natural Gas Safety, Security & Resilience of the Energy Infrastructure Energy Storage Nuclear Power & Engineering Grid Modernization Battery Testing Nuclear Fuel Cycle Defense Waste Management Programs Advanced Nuclear Energy

  10. September 2004 Water Sampling

    Office of Legacy Management (LM)

    and September 2013 Groundwater and Surface Water Sampling at the Durango, Colorado, Disposal and Processing Sites March 2014 LMS/DUD/DUP/S00613 This page intentionally left blank U.S. Department of Energy DVP-June and September 2013, Durango, Colorado March 2014 RIN 13055370 and 13085577 Page i Contents Sampling Event Summary ...............................................................................................................1 Durango, Colorado, Disposal Site Sample Location Map-June

  11. air_water.cdr

    Office of Legacy Management (LM)

    12/2011 Air Monitoring Groundwater Monitoring Surface Water Monitoring A continuously operating air monitoring network was in place from 1986 through 2000 for the Weldon Spring Site Remedial Action Project (WSSRAP) to measure levels of gamma radiation, radioactive dust particles, radon gas, and asbestos. With remediation of contaminated materials essentially complete and measurements indistinguishable from background, the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) ceased perimeter and offsite air

  12. WATER CONSERVATION PLAN

    National Nuclear Security Administration (NNSA)

    i WATER CONSERVATION PLAN TONOPAH TEST RANGE UNITED STATES DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY January 10, 2011 Prepared for: Tonopah Test Range Post Office Box 871 Tonopah, Nevada 89049 (702) 295-8109 Prepared by: Sandia National Laboratories / New Mexico Post Office Box 5800 Albuquerque, New Mexico 87185-0729 (505) 284-1831 On behalf of: Sandia Site Office Post Office Box 5400 Albuquerque, New Mexico 87185-0184 (505) 845-6036 ii TABLE OF CONTENTS 1.0 INTRODUCTION

  13. Google Earth Tour: Water reuse at LANL

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Google Earth Tour: Water reuse at LANL Google Earth Tour: Water reuse at LANL

  14. Impact of Projected Biofuel Production on Water Use and Water...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Impact of Projected Biofuel Production on Water Use and Water Quality March 27-29, 2015 Analysis and Sustainability WBS:4.2.1.10 May Wu Argonne National Laboratory This ...

  15. Water Panel Discussion: Federal Reduction Update & Cooling Water...

    Energy Savers [EERE]

    Houston, TX November 3, 2015 Francis Wheeler Water Savers, LLC (713) 504-6684 fwheeler@watersaversllc.com Don Hofmann Hofmann Water Technologies (800) 289-1833 hofmann@hwt.com...

  16. Tips: Water Heating | Department of Energy

    Office of Environmental Management (EM)

    Water Heating Tips: Water Heating Keep your energy bills out of hot water. Insulate your water heater to save energy and money, or choose an on-demand hot water heater to save even...

  17. Heat Pump Water Heaters | Department of Energy

    Office of Environmental Management (EM)

    Heat & Cool Water Heating Heat Pump Water Heaters Heat Pump Water Heaters A diagram of a heat pump water heater. A diagram of a heat pump water heater. Most homeowners who...

  18. QER- Comment of American Water

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    Dear QER Team; Thank you for the opportunity to provide comments to the Quadrennial Energy Review Task Force to discuss the water and energy nexus, advances in water innovative technologies, and the impact of climate change on water issues. On behalf of American Water, I wish to submit the following White Papers which we have prepared on these critical issues: Innovations in Energy Use Sustainability and Resiliency Planning for Water Utilities One Water Water/Energy Correlation The Value of Water Challenges in the Water Industry: Climate Change Challenges in the Water Industry: Meeting Demand in the West Innovation Solutions Within the Water Industry: Desalination Innovation Solutions Within the Water Industry: Going Green Innovation Solutions Within the Water Industry: Water Reuse Bridging the Water Innovation Gap. Founded in 1886, American Water is the largest publicly traded U.S. water and wastewater utility company. With headquarters in Voorhees, NJ, the company employs approximately 6,600 dedicated professionals who provide drinking water, wastewater and other related services to an estimated 14 million people in more than 40 states. Please feel free to contact me if you have any questions or if there is any way American Water can be helpful to your mission. Respectfully Yours, Martin (See attached file: White Papers.pdf) Martin D. Kerckhoff Vice President and Divisional General Counsel Central Division American Water CONFIDENTIAL & PRIVILEGED COMMUNICATION This email and any attachments hereto constitute a legally confidential communication from the Legal Department of American Water. The information contained herein is subject to attorney-client privilege and is for the sole use of the intended original addressee. If you are not the intended original addressee, you are hereby notified that any reading, disclosure, copying, distribution, use, or taking of any action in reliance on the contents contained herein is strictly prohibited. If you have received this message in error, please immediately notify us at 314.966.2241 and delete this message from your system. WARNING: Although American Water has taken reasonable precautions to ensure that no viruses are present in this email, it is the responsibility of the recipient to ensure that it is virus free. No responsibility is accepted by American Water for any loss or damage arising in any way from the receipt and/or use of this email.

  19. Modeling Climate-Water Impacts on Electricity Sector Capacity Expansion: Preprint

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Cohen, S. M.; Macknick, J.; Averyt, K.; Meldrum, J.

    2014-05-01

    Climate change has the potential to exacerbate water availability concerns for thermal power plant cooling, which is responsible for 41% of U.S. water withdrawals. This analysis describes an initial link between climate, water, and electricity systems using the National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL) Regional Energy Deployment System (ReEDS) electricity system capacity expansion model. Average surface water projections from Coupled Model Intercomparison Project 3 (CMIP3) data are applied to surface water rights available to new generating capacity in ReEDS, and electric sector growth is compared with and without climate-influenced water rights. The mean climate projection has only a small impact on national or regional capacity growth and water use because most regions have sufficient unappropriated or previously retired water rights to offset climate impacts. Climate impacts are notable in southwestern states that purchase fewer water rights and obtain a greater share from wastewater and other higher-cost water resources. The electric sector climate impacts demonstrated herein establish a methodology to be later exercised with more extreme climate scenarios and a more rigorous representation of legal and physical water availability.

  20. Energy Cost Calculator for Electric and Gas Water Heaters | Department of

    Office of Environmental Management (EM)

    Energy Electric and Gas Water Heaters Energy Cost Calculator for Electric and Gas Water Heaters Vary equipment size, energy cost, hours of operation, and /or efficiency level. INPUT SECTION Input the following data (if any parameter is missing, calculator will set to default value). Defaults Type of Water Heater Electric Gas Electric Average Daily Usage (gallons per day)* gallons 64* Energy Factor† 0.92 (electric) 0.61 (gas) Energy Cost $ / kWh $0.06 per kWh $.60 per therm Quantity of

  1. Average and local crystal structures of (Ga1–xZnx)(N1–xOx) solid solution nanoparticles

    DOE Public Access Gateway for Energy & Science Beta (PAGES Beta)

    Feygenson, Mikhail; Neuefeind, Joerg C.; Tyson, Trevor A.; Schieber, Natalie; Han, Wei -Qiang

    2015-11-06

    We report the comprehensive study of the crystal structure of (Ga1–xZnx)(N1–xOx) solid solution nanoparticles by means of neutron and synchrotron x-ray scattering. In our study we used four different types of (Ga1–xZnx)(N1–xOx) nanoparticles, with diameters of 10–27 nm and x = 0.075–0.51, which show the narrow energy-band gaps from 2.21 to 2.61 eV. The Rietveld analysis of the neutron diffraction data revealed that the average crystal structure is the hexagonal wurtzite (space group P63mc), in agreement with previous reports on similar bulk materials. The pair-distribution function (PDF) analysis of the same data found that the local structure is more disorderedmore » than the average one. It is best described by the model with a lower symmetry space group P1, where atoms are quasirandomly distorted from their nominal positions in the hexagonal wurtzite lattice.« less

  2. Central Multifamily Water Heating Systems

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    The Building America Program is hosting a no-cost, webinar-based training on Central Multifamily Water Heating Systems. The webinar will focus the effective use of central heat pump water heaters...

  3. Water Heating | Department of Energy

    Broader source: Energy.gov (indexed) [DOE]

    Low-flow fixtures will help you reduce your hot water use and save money on your water heating bills. | Photo courtesy of Huntington Veterans Medical Ctr. Low-flow fixtures will...

  4. Columbia Water & Light- Solar Rebates

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    Columbia Water & Light electric customers are eligible for a $400 rebate for the purchase of a new solar water heater. To apply for this rebate, a customer submits a pre-approval application to...

  5. NREL: Water Power Research - Projects

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Projects NREL's water power R&D projects support industry efforts to develop and deploy cost-effective water power technologies and to better understand the value and potential of...

  6. Hydrogen Production: Thermochemical Water Splitting

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    Thermochemical water splitting uses high temperatures—from concentrated solar power or from the waste heat of nuclear power reactions—and chemical reactions to produce hydrogen and oxygen from water.

  7. Dynamics of water in prussian blue analogues: Neutron scattering study

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Sharma, V. K.; Mitra, S.; Thakur, N.; Yusuf, S. M.; Mukhopadhyay, R.; Juranyi, Fanni

    2014-07-21

    Dynamics of crystal water in Prussian blue (PB), Fe(III){sub 4}[Fe(II)(CN){sub 6}]{sub 3}.14H{sub 2}O and its analogue Prussian green (PG), ferriferricynaide, Fe(III){sub 4}[Fe(III)(CN){sub 6}]{sub 4}.16H{sub 2}O have been investigated using Quasielastic Neutron Scattering (QENS) technique. PB and its analogue compounds are important materials for their various interesting multifunctional properties. It is known that crystal water plays a crucial role towards the multifunctional properties of Prussian blue analogue compounds. Three structurally distinguishable water molecules: (i) coordinated water molecules at empty nitrogen sites, (ii) non-coordinated water molecules in the spherical cavities, and (iii) at interstitial sites exist in PB. Here spherical cavities are created due to the vacant sites of Fe(CN){sub 6} units. However, PG does not have any such vacant N or Fe(CN){sub 6} units, and only one kind of water molecules, exists only at interstitial sites. QENS experiments have been carried out on both the compounds in the temperature range of 260–360?K to elucidate the dynamical behavior of different kinds of water molecules. Dynamics is found to be much more pronounced in case of PB, compared to PG. A detailed data analysis showed that localized translational diffusion model could describe the observed data for both PB and PG systems. The average diffusion coefficient is found to be much larger in the PB than PG. The obtained domain of dynamics is found to be consistent with the geometry of the structure of the two systems. Combining the data of the two systems, a quantitative estimate of the dynamics, corresponding to the water molecules at different locations is made.

  8. Synchrotrons Explore Water's Molecular Mysteries

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Synchrotrons Explore Water's Molecular Mysteries Synchrotrons Explore Water's Molecular Mysteries Print Friday, 01 February 2013 00:00 In experiments at SLAC National Accelerator Laboratory and Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory's Advanced Light Source, scientists observed a surprisingly dense form of water that remained liquid well beyond its typical freezing point. Researchers applied a superthin coating of water-no deeper than a few molecules-to the surface of a barium fluoride crystal.

  9. Comprehensive Water-Efficiency Solutions

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    McMordie Stoughton, Kate

    2015-07-15

    Energy performance contracts can be an effective way to integrate comprehensive water-efficient technologies and solutions into energy efficiency projects. Current practices often miss key opportunities to incorporate a full suite of water measures primarily because a comprehensive approach is not taken in the assessment. This article provides information on how to develop a comprehensive water project that leads to innovative solutions and potential for large water reduction.

  10. Scientists ignite aluminum water mix

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Scientists ignite aluminum water mix Scientists ignite aluminum water mix Don't worry, that beer can you're holding is not going to spontaneously burst into flames. June 30, 2014 Los Alamos National Laboratory chemist Bryce Tappan ignites a small quantity of aluminum nanoparticle water mixture. In open air, the compound burns like a Fourth of July sparkler. Los Alamos National Laboratory chemist Bryce Tappan ignites a small quantity of aluminum nanoparticle water mixture. In open air, the

  11. Water Conservation | Department of Energy

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Water Conservation Water Conservation Mission The team facilitates the reduction of water consumption intensity at LM sites, as deemed appropriate for LM operations and approved by LM, as defined in: Executive Order (EO) 13693, Planning for Federal Sustainability in the Next Decade, and DOE Order 436.1, Departmental Sustainability The team advocates natural resource sustainability by continually improving water use efficiencies. Scope LM and the contractor evaluate, make recommendations, and

  12. Water-Efficiency Program Prioritization

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    Presentation outlines water-efficiency program requirements and priorities as presented to Federal agencies by the Federal Energy Management Program.

  13. Efficient Water Use & Management

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Water Use Goal 4: Efficient Water Use & Management Aware of the arid climate of northern New Mexico, water reduction and conservation remains a primary concern at LANL. Energy Conservation» Efficient Water Use & Management» High Performance Sustainable Buildings» Greening Transportation» Green Purchasing & Green Technology» Pollution Prevention» Science Serving Sustainability» ENVIRONMENTAL SUSTAINABILITY GOALS at LANL Sanitary Effluent Reclamation Facility: Using reverse

  14. Water purification using organic salts

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Currier, Robert P.

    2004-11-23

    Water purification using organic salts. Feed water is mixed with at least one organic salt at a temperature sufficiently low to form organic salt hydrate crystals and brine. The crystals are separated from the brine, rinsed, and melted to form an aqueous solution of organic salt. Some of the water is removed from the aqueous organic salt solution. The purified water is collected, and the remaining more concentrated aqueous organic salt solution is reused.

  15. Hydrogen isotope separation from water

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Jensen, R.J.

    1975-09-01

    A process for separating tritium from tritium-containing water or deuterium enrichment from water is described. The process involves selective, laser-induced two-photon excitation and photodissociation of those water molecules containing deuterium or tritium followed by immediate reaction of the photodissociation products with a scavenger gas which does not substantially absorb the laser light. The reaction products are then separated from the undissociated water. (auth)

  16. ARM - Measurement - Total cloud water

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    cloud water ARM Data Discovery Browse Data Comments? We would love to hear from you! Send us a note below or call us at 1-888-ARM-DATA. Send Measurement : Total cloud water The total concentration (mass/vol) of ice and liquid water particles in a cloud; this includes condensed water content (CWC). Categories Cloud Properties Instruments The above measurement is considered scientifically relevant for the following instruments. Refer to the datastream (netcdf) file headers of each instrument for a

  17. Water-Using Equipment: Domestic

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Solana, Amy E.; Mcmordie, Katherine

    2006-01-24

    Water management is an important aspect of energy engineering. This article addresses water-using equipment primarily used for household purposes, including faucets, showers, toilets, urinals, dishwashers, and clothes washers, and focuses on how the equipment can be optimized to save both water and energy. Technology retrofits and operation and maintenance changes are the primary methods discussed for water and energy conservation. Auditing to determine current consumption rates is also described for each technology.

  18. Comparison of doubly labeled water with respirometry at low- and high-activity levels

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Westerterp, K.R.; Brouns, F.; Saris, W.H.; ten Hoor, F.

    1988-07-01

    In previous studies the doubly labeled water method for measuring energy expenditure in free-living humans has been validated against respirometry under sedentary conditions. In the present investigation, energy expenditure is measured simultaneously with doubly labeled water and respirometry at low- and high-activity levels. Over 6 days, five subjects were measured doing mainly sedentary activities like desk work; their average daily metabolic rate was 1.40 +/- 0.09 (SD) times sleeping metabolic rate. Four subjects were measured twice over 3.5 days, including 2 days with heavy bicycle ergometer work, resulting in an average daily metabolic rate of 2.61 +/- 0.25 (SD) times sleeping metabolic rate. At the low-activity level, energy expenditures from the doubly labeled water method were on the average 1.4 +/- 3.9% (SD) larger than those from respirometry. At the high-activity level, the doubly labeled water method yielded values that were 1.0 +/- 7.0% (SD) lower than those from respirometry. Results demonstrate the utility of the doubly labeled water method for the determination of energy expenditure in the range of activity levels in daily life.

  19. War against water

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Fitz-Hugh, S.

    1982-01-01

    It is stressed that waterproofing should be the most important concern in an earth-sheltered home, starting with the design and continuing throughout the construction. Damage which may be caused by water leakage is discussed. Proper site selection is most important and the need for outside professionals and consultants is emphasized. The ideal waterproofing system is discussed and illustrated. Waterproofing agents are discussed in detail. They are: (1) sodium bentonite; (2) elastomers, such as isobutylene isoprene (butyl rubber), EPDM (ethylene propylene diene monomer), and liquid elastomers (polyurethanes); and (3) rubberized asphalt. Availability, sheet sizes and application of these waterproofing agents are discussed. (MJJ)

  20. Molecular water oxidation catalyst

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Gratzel, Michael (St. Sulpice, CH); Munavalli, Shekhar (Bel Air, MD); Pern, Fu-Jann (Lakewood, CO); Frank, Arthur J. (Lakewood, CO)

    1993-01-01

    A dimeric composition of the formula: ##STR1## wherein L', L", L'", and L"" are each a bidentate ligand having at least one functional substituent, the ligand selected from bipyridine, phenanthroline, 2-phenylpyridine, bipyrimidine, and bipyrazyl and the functional substituent selected from carboxylic acid, ester, amide, halogenide, anhydride, acyl ketone, alkyl ketone, acid chloride, sulfonic acid, phosphonic acid, and nitro and nitroso groups. An electrochemical oxidation process for the production of the above functionally substituted bidentate ligand diaqua oxo-bridged ruthenium dimers and their use as water oxidation catalysts is described.

  1. Water heater control module

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Hammerstrom, Donald J

    2013-11-26

    An advanced electric water heater control system that interfaces with a high temperature cut-off thermostat and an upper regulating thermostat. The system includes a control module that is electrically connected to the high-temperature cut-off thermostat and the upper regulating thermostat. The control module includes a switch to open or close the high-temperature cut-off thermostat and the upper regulating thermostat. The control module further includes circuitry configured to control said switch in response to a signal selected from the group of an autonomous signal, a communicated signal, and combinations thereof.

  2. Submerged water wheel

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Frisz, J. O.

    1985-11-05

    A water wheel for operating fully submerged in an ocean current has a rotating frame member supported on the ocean floor for rotation about a vertical axis. The frame member supports a plurality of vertically extending vanes, each vane being rotatably supported on the frame for limited rotation about a vertical axis. It has a hydrofoil shape in cross-section with the axis of rotation parallel to the leading and trailing edges. Rotation of the vanes is limited relative to the frame by a hydraulic piston control system and shock absorbers.

  3. September 2004 Water Sampling

    Office of Legacy Management (LM)

    Natural Gas and Produced Water Sampling at the Gasbuggy, New Mexico, Site December 2013 LMS/GSB/S00613 Available for sale to the public from: U.S. Department of Commerce National Technical Information Service 5301 Shawnee Road Alexandria, VA 22312 Telephone: 800.553.6847 Fax: 703.605.6900 E-mail: orders@ntis.gov Online Ordering: http://www.ntis.gov/help/ordermethods.aspx Available electronically at http://www.osti.gov/bridge Available for a processing fee to U.S. Department of Energy and its

  4. September 2004 Water Sampling

    Office of Legacy Management (LM)

    and Surface Water Sampling at the Rio Blanco, Colorado, Site October 2014 LMS/RBL/S00514 Available for sale to the public from: U.S. Department of Commerce National Technical Information Service 5301 Shawnee Road Alexandria, VA 22312 Telephone: 800.553.6847 Fax: 703.605.6900 E-mail: orders@ntis.gov Online Ordering: http://www.ntis.gov/help/ordermethods.aspx Available electronically at http://www.osti.gov/scitech/ Available for a processing fee to U.S. Department of Energy and its contractors, in

  5. September 2004 Water Sampling

    Office of Legacy Management (LM)

    Groundwater and Surface Water Sampling at the Rio Blanco, Colorado, Site October 2015 LMS/RBL/S00515 Available for sale to the public from: U.S. Department of Commerce National Technical Information Service 5301 Shawnee Road Alexandria, VA 22312 Telephone: 800.553.6847 Fax: 703.605.6900 E-mail: orders@ntis.gov Online Ordering: http://www.ntis.gov/help/ordermethods.aspx Available electronically at http://www.osti.gov/scitech/ Available for a processing fee to U.S. Department of Energy and its

  6. September 2004 Water Sampling

    Office of Legacy Management (LM)

    5 Produced Water Sampling at the Rulison, Colorado, Site May 2015 LMS/RUL/S00115 Available for sale to the public from: U.S. Department of Commerce National Technical Information Service 5301 Shawnee Road Alexandria, VA 22312 Telephone: 800.553.6847 Fax: 703.605.6900 E-mail: orders@ntis.gov Online Ordering: http://www.ntis.gov/help/ordermethods.aspx Available electronically at http://www.osti.gov/scitech/ Available for a processing fee to U.S. Department of Energy and its contractors, in paper,

  7. September 2004 Water Sampling

    Office of Legacy Management (LM)

    5 Groundwater and Surface Water Sampling at the Rulison, Colorado, Site October 2015 LMS/RUL/S00515 Available for sale to the public from: U.S. Department of Commerce National Technical Information Service 5301 Shawnee Road Alexandria, VA 22312 Telephone: 800.553.6847 Fax: 703.605.6900 E-mail: orders@ntis.gov Online Ordering: http://www.ntis.gov/help/ordermethods.aspx Available electronically at http://www.osti.gov/scitech/ Available for a processing fee to U.S. Department of Energy and its

  8. September 2004 Water Sampling

    Office of Legacy Management (LM)

    Natural Gas and Produced Water Sampling at the Rulison, Colorado, Site November 2014 LMS/RUL/S00714 Available for sale to the public from: U.S. Department of Commerce National Technical Information Service 5301 Shawnee Road Alexandria, VA 22312 Telephone: 800.553.6847 Fax: 703.605.6900 E-mail: orders@ntis.gov Online Ordering: http://www.ntis.gov/help/ordermethods.aspx Available electronically at http://www.osti.gov/scitech/ Available for a processing fee to U.S. Department of Energy and its

  9. September 2004 Water Sampling

    Office of Legacy Management (LM)

    Water Sampling at the Salmon, Mississippi, Site March 2014 Approved for public release; further dissemination unlimited LMS/SAL/S00413 Available for sale to the public from: U.S. Department of Commerce National Technical Information Service 5301 Shawnee Road Alexandria, VA 22312 Telephone: 800.553.6847 Fax: 703.605.6900 E-mail: orders@ntis.gov Online Ordering: http://www.ntis.gov/help/ordermethods.aspx Available electronically at http://www.osti.gov/bridge Available for a processing fee to U.S.

  10. Advanced alkaline water electrolysis. Task 2 summary report. Model for alkaline water electrolysis systems

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Yaffe, M.R.; Murray, J.N.

    1980-04-01

    Task 2 involved the establishment of an engineering and economic model for the evaluation of various options in water electrolysis. The mode, verification of the specific coding and four case studies are described. The model was tested by evaluation of a nearly commercial technology, i.e., an 80-kW alkaline electrolyte system, operating at 60/sup 0/C, which delivers approximately 255 SLM, hydrogen for applications such as electrical generation cooling or semiconductor manufacturing. The calculated cost of hydrogen from this installed non-optimized case system with an initial cost to the customer of $87,000 was $6.99/Kg H/sub 2/ ($1.67/100 SCF) on a 20-yr levelized basis using 2.5 cents/kWh power costs. This compares favorably to a levelized average merchant hydrogen cost value of $9.11/Kg H/sub 2/ ($2.17/100 SCF) calculated using the same program.

  11. Multi-resolution integrated modeling for basin-scale water resources management and policy analysis

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Gupta, Hoshin V. (Hoshin Vijai),; Brookshire, David S.; Springer, E. P.; Wagener, Thorsten

    2004-01-01

    Approximately one-third of the land surface of the Earth is considered to be arid or semi-arid with an annual average of less than 12-14 inches of rainfall. The availability of water in such regions is of course, particularly sensitive to climate variability while the demand for water is experiencing explosive population growth. The competition for available water is exerting considerable pressure on the water resources management. Policy and decision makers in the southwestern U.S. increasingly have to cope with over-stressed rivers and aquifers as population and water demands grow. Other factors such as endangered species and Native American water rights further complicate the management problems. Further, as groundwater tables are drawn down due to pumping in excess of natural recharge, considerable (potentially irreversible) environmental impacts begin to be felt as, for example, rivers run dry for significant portions of the year, riparian habitats disappear (with consequent effects on the bio-diversity of the region), aquifers compact resulting in large scale subsidence, and water quality begins to suffer. The current drought (1999-2002) in the southwestern U.S. is raising new concerns about how to sustain the combination of agricultural, urban and in-stream uses of water that underlie the socio-economic and ecological structure in the region. The water stressed nature of arid and semi-arid environments means that competing water uses of various kinds vie for access to a highly limited resource. If basin-scale water sustainability is to be achieved, managers must somehow achieve a balance between supply and demand throughout the basin, not just for the surface water or stream. The need to move water around a basin such as the Rio Grande or Colorado River to achieve this balance has created the stimulus for water transfers and water markets, and for accurate hydrologic information to sustain such institutions [Matthews et al. 2002; Brookshire et al 2003; Krause, Chermak Brookshire, 2003].

  12. What waters does LANL protect?

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    What waters does LANL protect? What waters does LANL protect? Rainfall in the Jemez Mountains flows to the Valles Caldera and eastward onto Laboratory lands. August 1, 2013 Reflection in the Valles Caldera RELATED IMAGES http://farm8.staticflickr.com/7252/7599998130_b7aef738b9_t.jpg Enlarge http://farm9.staticflickr.com/8421/7600000986_ebf8889fc7_t.jpg Enlarge Clean the Past: Water Protection What waters does LANL protect? Google Earth Tour: Waters around LANL Jemez Mountains Headwaters

  13. CHIMNEY FOR BOILING WATER REACTOR

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Petrick, M.

    1961-08-01

    A boiling-water reactor is described which has vertical fuel-containing channels for forming steam from water. Risers above the channels increase the head of water radially outward, whereby water is moved upward through the channels with greater force. The risers are concentric and the radial width of the space between them is somewhat small. There is a relatively low rate of flow of water up through the radially outer fuel-containing channels, with which the space between the risers is in communication. (AE C)

  14. USGS Annual Water Data Reports

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    2012-04-01

    Water resources data are published annually for use by engineers, scientists, managers, educators, and the general public. These archival products supplement direct access to current and historical water data provided by the National Water Information System (NWIS). Beginning with Water Year 2006, annual water data reports are available as individual electronic Site Data Sheets for the entire Nation for retrieval, download, and localized printing on demand. National distribution includes tabular and map interfaces for search, query, display and download of data. Data provided include extreme and mean discharge rates.

  15. Operating Experience Review of Tritium-in-Water Monitors

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    S. A. Bruyere; L. C. Cadwallader

    2011-09-01

    Monitoring tritium facility and fusion experiment effluent streams is an environmental safety requirement. This paper presents data on the operating experience of a solid scintillant monitor for tritium in effluent water. Operating experiences were used to calculate an average monitor failure rate of 4E-05/hour for failure to function. Maintenance experiences were examined to find the active repair time for this type of monitor, which varied from 22 minutes for filter replacement to 11 days of downtime while waiting for spare parts to arrive on site. These data support planning for monitor use; the number of monitors needed, allocating technician time for maintenance, inventories of spare parts, and other issues.

  16. Best Management Practice #14: Alternative Water Sources

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    Many federal facilities may have water uses that can be met with non-potable water from alternative water sources. Potentially available alternative water sources for Federal sources include municipal-supplied reclaimed water, treated gray water from on-site sanitary sources, and storm water.

  17. Particle-In-Cell/Monte Carlo Simulation of Ion Back BomBardment in a High Average Current RF Photo-Gun

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Qiang, J.

    2009-10-17

    In this paper, we report on study of ion back bombardment in a high average current radio-frequency (RF) photo-gun using a particle-in-cell/Monte Carlo simulation method. Using this method, we systematically studied effects of gas pressure, RF frequency, RF initial phase, electric field profile, magnetic field, laser repetition rate, different ion species on ion particle line density distribution, kinetic energy spectrum, and ion power line density distribution back bombardment onto the photocathode. Those simulation results suggested that effects of ion back bombardment could increase linearly with the background gas pressure and laser repetition rate. The RF frequency has significantly affected the ion motion inside the gun so that the ion power deposition on the photocathode in an RF gun can be several orders of magnitude lower than that in a DC gun. The ion back bombardment can be minimized by appropriately choosing the electric field profile and the initial phase.

  18. Nearest Neighbor Averaging and its Effect on the Critical Level and Minimum Detectable Concentration for Scanning Radiological Survey Instruments that Perform Facility Release Surveys.

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Fournier, Sean Donovan; Beall, Patrick S; Miller, Mark L.

    2014-08-01

    Through the SNL New Mexico Small Business Assistance (NMSBA) program, several Sandia engineers worked with the Environmental Restoration Group (ERG) Inc. to verify and validate a novel algorithm used to determine the scanning Critical Level (L c ) and Minimum Detectable Concentration (MDC) (or Minimum Detectable Areal Activity) for the 102F scanning system. Through the use of Monte Carlo statistical simulations the algorithm mathematically demonstrates accuracy in determining the L c and MDC when a nearest-neighbor averaging (NNA) technique was used. To empirically validate this approach, SNL prepared several spiked sources and ran a test with the ERG 102F instrument on a bare concrete floor known to have no radiological contamination other than background naturally occurring radioactive material (NORM). The tests conclude that the NNA technique increases the sensitivity (decreases the L c and MDC) for high-density data maps that are obtained by scanning radiological survey instruments.

  19. Water inventory management in condenser pool of boiling water reactor

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Gluntz, Douglas M.

    1996-01-01

    An improved system for managing the water inventory in the condenser pool of a boiling water reactor has means for raising the level of the upper surface of the condenser pool water without adding water to the isolation pool. A tank filled with water is installed in a chamber of the condenser pool. The water-filled tank contains one or more holes or openings at its lowermost periphery and is connected via piping and a passive-type valve (e.g., squib valve) to a high-pressure gas-charged pneumatic tank of appropriate volume. The valve is normally closed, but can be opened at an appropriate time following a loss-of-coolant accident. When the valve opens, high-pressure gas inside the pneumatic tank is released to flow passively through the piping to pressurize the interior of the water-filled tank. In so doing, the initial water contents of the tank are expelled through the openings, causing the water level in the condenser pool to rise. This increases the volume of water available to be boiled off by heat conducted from the passive containment cooling heat exchangers. 4 figs.

  20. Water inventory management in condenser pool of boiling water reactor

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Gluntz, D.M.

    1996-03-12

    An improved system for managing the water inventory in the condenser pool of a boiling water reactor has means for raising the level of the upper surface of the condenser pool water without adding water to the isolation pool. A tank filled with water is installed in a chamber of the condenser pool. The water-filled tank contains one or more holes or openings at its lowermost periphery and is connected via piping and a passive-type valve (e.g., squib valve) to a high-pressure gas-charged pneumatic tank of appropriate volume. The valve is normally closed, but can be opened at an appropriate time following a loss-of-coolant accident. When the valve opens, high-pressure gas inside the pneumatic tank is released to flow passively through the piping to pressurize the interior of the water-filled tank. In so doing, the initial water contents of the tank are expelled through the openings, causing the water level in the condenser pool to rise. This increases the volume of water available to be boiled off by heat conducted from the passive containment cooling heat exchangers. 4 figs.

  1. Water Energy Tech Team | Department of Energy

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Water Energy Tech Team Water Energy Tech Team Featured Publication Featured Publication Water-Energy Nexus: Challenges and Opportunities Report June 2014 Read more Water &amp; Energy Water & Energy Explore an info graphic about the water-energy nexus and the trends that affect it Read more ABOUT THE WATER-ENERGY NEXUS Present day water and energy systems are interdependent. Water is used in all phases of energy production and electricity generation. Energy is required to extract, treat

  2. Hydrology and geochemistry of thermal ground water in southwestern Idaho and north-central Nevada

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Young, H.W.; Lewis, R.E.

    1982-01-01

    Chemical analyses of water from 12 wells and 9 springs indicate that nonthermal waters are a calcium bicarbonate type; thermal waters are a sodium carbonate or bicarbonate type. Chemical geothermometers indicate probable maximum reservoir temperatures are near 100/sup 0/ Celsius. Concentration of tritium in the thermal water is near zero. Depletion of stable isotopes in the hot waters relative to present-day meteoric waters indicates recharge to the system probably occurred when the climate averaged 3/sup 0/ to 5/sup 0/ Celsius colder than at present. Temperatures about 3.5/sup 0/ Celsius colder than at present occurred during periods of recorded Holocene glacial advances and indicate a residence time of water in the system of at least several thousand years. Residence time calculated on the basis of reservoir volume and thermal-water discharge is 3400 to 6800 years for an effective reservoir porosity of 0.05 and 0.10, respectively. Preliminary analyses of carbon-14 determinations indicate an age of the hot waters of about 18,000 to 25,000 years. The proposed conceptual model for the area is one of an old system, where water has circulated for thousands, even tens of thousands, of years. Within constraints imposed by the model described, reservoir thermal energy for the geothermal system in southwestern Idaho and north-central Nevada is about 130 x 10/sup 18/ calories.

  3. Langmuir probe measurements in a time-fluctuating-highly ionized non-equilibrium cutting arc: Analysis of the electron retarding part of the time-averaged current-voltage characteristic of the probe

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Prevosto, L.; Mancinelli, B.; Kelly, H.; Instituto de Física del Plasma , Departamento de Física, Facultad de Ciencias Exactas y Naturales Ciudad Universitaria Pab. I, 1428 Buenos Aires

    2013-12-15

    This work describes the application of Langmuir probe diagnostics to the measurement of the electron temperature in a time-fluctuating-highly ionized, non-equilibrium cutting arc. The electron retarding part of the time-averaged current-voltage characteristic of the probe was analysed, assuming that the standard exponential expression describing the electron current to the probe in collision-free plasmas can be applied under the investigated conditions. A procedure is described which allows the determination of the errors introduced in time-averaged probe data due to small-amplitude plasma fluctuations. It was found that the experimental points can be gathered into two well defined groups allowing defining two quite different averaged electron temperature values. In the low-current region the averaged characteristic was not significantly disturbed by the fluctuations and can reliably be used to obtain the actual value of the averaged electron temperature. In particular, an averaged electron temperature of 0.98 ± 0.07 eV (= 11400 ± 800 K) was found for the central core of the arc (30 A) at 3.5 mm downstream from the nozzle exit. This average included not only a time-average over the time fluctuations but also a spatial-average along the probe collecting length. The fitting of the high-current region of the characteristic using such electron temperature value together with the corrections given by the fluctuation analysis showed a relevant departure of local thermal equilibrium in the arc core.

  4. 2010 Idaho National Laboratory Water Use Report and Comprehensive Well Inventory (Revision 19)

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Mike Lewis

    2011-06-01

    This 2010 Idaho National Laboratory Water Use Report and Comprehensive Well Inventory (Revision 19) provides water use information (monthly annual average and total annual volume) for production and potable water wells at the Idaho National Laboratory for Calendar Year 2010. It also provides detailed information for new, modified, and abandoned (decommissioned) wells and holes. Five new wells were drilled and completed in the latter part of Calendar Years 2009 and 2010. Two wells were modified in Calendar Year 2010 and 66 wells and boreholes reported as abandoned (decommissioned). Detailed construction information for the new and modified wells, along with abandonment information for older wells, is provided. Location maps are provided if survey information was available. This report is being submitted in accordance with the Water Rights Agreement between the State of Idaho and the United States, for the United States Department of Energy (dated 1990) and the subsequent Partial Decree for Water Right 34-10901 issued June 20, 2003.

  5. Heating Water with Solar Energy Costs Less at the Phoenix Federal Correctional Institution

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    None

    2004-09-01

    A large solar thermal system installed at the Phoenix Federal Correctional Institution (FCI) in 1998 heats water for the prison and costs less than buying electricity to heat that water. This renewable energy system provides 70% of the facility's annual hot water needs. The Federal Bureau of Prisons did not incur the up-front cost of this system because it was financed through an Energy Savings Performance Contract (ESPC). The ESPC payments are 10% less than the energy savings so that the prison saves an average of $6,700 per year, providing an immediate payback. The solar hot water system produces up to 50,000 gallons of hot water daily, enough to meet the needs of 1,250 inmates and staff who use the kitchen, shower, and laundry facilities. This publication details specifications of the parabolic trough solar system and highlights 5 years of measured performance data.

  6. Vermont Section 401 Water Quality Certification Application ...

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    Abstract Application required for Section 401 water quality certification under the Clean Water Act. Form Type ApplicationNotice Form Topic Section 401 Water Quality...

  7. Research & Development Roadmap: Emerging Water Heating Technologies...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Water Heating Technologies Research & Development Roadmap: Emerging Water Heating Technologies The Research and Development (R&D) Roadmap for Emerging Water Heating Technologies ...

  8. Storage Water Heaters | Department of Energy

    Office of Environmental Management (EM)

    Storage Water Heaters Storage Water Heaters Consider energy efficiency when selecting a conventional storage water heater to avoid paying more over its lifetime. | Photo courtesy...

  9. Trees Water People | Open Energy Information

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    Trees Water People Jump to: navigation, search Name: Trees, Water & People Place: Fort Collins, Colorado Zip: 80524 Sector: Renewable Energy Product: Trees, Water & People develops...

  10. Sandusky Water Filtration | Open Energy Information

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    Water Filtration Jump to: navigation, search Name Sandusky Water Filtration Facility Sandusky Water Filtration Sector Wind energy Facility Type Community Wind Facility Status In...

  11. Tahoe Water Systems | Open Energy Information

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    Tahoe Water Systems Jump to: navigation, search Name: Tahoe Water Systems Sector: Solar, Wind energy Product: Develops a self-contained solarwind based water pumping technology....

  12. Westlands Water District | Open Energy Information

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    Westlands Water District Jump to: navigation, search Name: Westlands Water District Place: California Sector: Solar Product: Water district in central California which administers...

  13. Category:Water Sampling | Open Energy Information

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    Water Sampling Jump to: navigation, search GEOTHERMAL ENERGYGeothermal Home Geothermalpower.jpg Looking for the Water Sampling page? For detailed information on Water Sampling as...

  14. Flat Water Wind Farm | Open Energy Information

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    Water Wind Farm Jump to: navigation, search Name Flat Water Wind Farm Facility Flat Water Wind Farm Sector Wind energy Facility Type Commercial Scale Wind Facility Status In...

  15. Vidler Water Company Inc | Open Energy Information

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    Vidler Water Company Inc Jump to: navigation, search Name: Vidler Water Company Inc Place: Carson City, Nevada Zip: 89703 Sector: Solar Product: Nevada-based water and land...

  16. Water Heating Standing Technical Committee Presentation | Department...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Water Heating Standing Technical Committee Presentation Water Heating Standing Technical Committee Presentation This presentation outlines the goals of the Water Heating Standing...

  17. Sandia Energy - Conventional Water Power: Market Acceleration

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Market Acceleration Home Stationary Power Energy Conversion Efficiency Water Power Conventional Water Power: Market Acceleration Conventional Water Power: Market AccelerationTara...

  18. Water Power Program At-A-Glance

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    WATER POWER TECHNOLOGIES WATER POWER TECHNOLOGIES FY 2017 BUDGET AT-A-GLANCE The Water Power Program is committed to developing and deploying a portfolio of innovative technologies ...

  19. Water Efficiency Case Studies | Department of Energy

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Water Efficiency Case Studies Water Efficiency Case Studies These case studies offer examples of water efficiency projects implemented by federal agencies. They are organized by ...

  20. Colorado Ground Water Commission | Open Energy Information

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    Colorado Ground Water Commission Jump to: navigation, search Name: Colorado Ground Water Commission Place: Colorado Website: water.state.co.usgroundwater References: Colorado...