Sample records for kitchen single-zone reheat

  1. Air-Side Energy Use Calculations for Four HVAC Systems: Dual Duct Constant Volume (DDCAV), Dual Duct Variable Volume (DDVAV), Constant Volume with Reheat (CAVRH), Variable Volume with Reheat (VAVRH), Four Pipe Fan Coil Unit (FC), Four Pipe Induction Unit (FI), and Single Zone (SZ) Systems, Revised June 2002

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Haberl, J. S.; Bou-Saada, T. E.; Saman, N. F.

    2001-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    This report contains engineering calculations for seven (7) air-side, heating, ventilating and air conditioning systems (HVAC) systems, including: dual duct constant volume (DDCAV), dual duct variable volume (DDVAV), constant volume with reheat...

  2. Observing the Inflationary Reheating

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Jerome Martin; Christophe Ringeval; Vincent Vennin

    2014-10-29T23:59:59.000Z

    Reheating is the the epoch which connects inflation to the subsequent hot Big-Bang phase. Conceptually very important, this era is however observationally poorly known. We show that the current Planck satellite measurements of the Cosmic Microwave Background (CMB) anisotropies constrain the kinematic properties of the reheating era for most of the inflationary models. This result is obtained by deriving the marginalized posterior distributions of the reheating parameter for about 200 models taken in Encyclopaedia Inflationaris. Weighted by the statistical evidence of each model to explain the data, we show that the Planck 2013 measurements induce an average reduction of the posterior-to-prior volume by 40%. Making some additional assumptions on reheating, such as specifying a mean equation of state parameter, or focusing the analysis on peculiar scenarios, can enhance or reduce this constraint. Our study also indicates that the Bayesian evidence of a model can substantially be affected by the reheating properties. The precision of the current CMB data is therefore such that estimating the observational performance of a model now requires to incorporate information about its reheating history.

  3. Probing reheating with primordial spectrum

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Jinn-Ouk Gong; Shi Pi; Godfrey Leung

    2015-05-11T23:59:59.000Z

    We study the impacts of reheating temperature on the inflationary predictions of the spectral index and tensor-to-scalar ratio. Assuming sinusoidal oscillations and that reheating process is very fast, the reheating temperature can be constrained for sinusoidal oscillation within a factor of 10 - 100 or even better with the prospect of future observations. Beyond this, we find that the predictions can also be insensitive to the reheating temperature in certain models, including Higgs inflation.

  4. Probing reheating with primordial spectrum

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Gong, Jinn-Ouk; Leung, Godfrey

    2015-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    We study the impacts of reheating temperature on the inflationary predictions of the spectral index and tensor-to-scalar ratio. Assuming that reheating process is very fast, the reheating temperature can be constrained for sinusoidal oscillation within a factor of 10 - 100 or even better with the prospect of future observations. Beyond this, we find that the predictions can also be insensitive to the reheating temperature in certain models, including the Higgs inflation.

  5. Approximate Kitchen Lounge / dining room Bathroom

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Hickman, Mark

    and Brush Strainer Reading Lamp Broom Rolling Pin Wastepaper bin Grater Bedroom Chair Kitchen Scissors

  6. STATE OF CALIFORNIA CONSTANT VOLUME SINGLE ZONE UNITARY AIR CONDITIONER AND HEAT PUMP SYSTEMS

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    STATE OF CALIFORNIA CONSTANT VOLUME SINGLE ZONE UNITARY AIR CONDITIONER AND HEAT PUMP SYSTEMS CEC Volume Single Zone Unitary Air Conditioner and Heat Pump Systems (Page 1 of 4) Project Name CONSTANT VOLUME SINGLE ZONE UNITARY AIR CONDITIONER AND HEAT PUMP SYSTEMS CEC-MECH-3A (Revised 08

  7. HVAC EFFICIENCY BUSINESS CASE DEMAND CONTROL KITCHEN VENTILATION

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    California at Davis, University of

    HVAC EFFICIENCY BUSINESS CASE DEMAND CONTROL KITCHEN VENTILATION Selecting, financing ventilation (DCKV) for kitchen exhaust hoods. Implementation can be relatively simple in either new of demand control kitchen ventilation (DCKV) in many small, medium, and large kitchen exhaust hood

  8. STATE OF CALIFORNIA MECHANICAL VENTILATION AND REHEAT

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    STATE OF CALIFORNIA MECHANICAL VENTILATION AND REHEAT CEC-MECH-3C (Revised 08/09) CALIFORNIA ENERGY COMMISSION MECHANICAL VENTILATION AND REHEAT MECH-3C PROJECT NAME DATE MECHANICAL VENTILATION §121(b)2 REHEAT'D V.A. Max of D or G Design Ventilation Air cfm 50% of Design Zone Supply cfm B x 0.4 cfm/ft˛ Max

  9. Reheating predictions in single field inflation

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Cook, Jessica L; Easson, Damien A; Krauss, Lawrence M

    2015-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Reheating is a transition era after the end of inflation, during which the inflaton is converted into the particles that populate the Universe at later times. No direct cosmological observables are normally traceable to this period of reheating. Indirect bounds can however be derived. One possibility is to consider cosmological evolution for observable CMB scales from the time of Hubble crossing to the present time. Depending upon the model, the duration and final temperature after reheating, as well as its equation of state, are directly linked to inflationary observables. For single-field inflationary models and for reheating scenarios that may be approximated by a constant equation of state, it is straightforward to derive relations between the reheating duration (or final temperature), its equation of state parameter, and the scalar power spectrum amplitude and spectral index. As a result, one may employ current bounds on inflation to constrain the nature of reheating. Alternatively, it is possible to fur...

  10. Reheating the Post Inflationary Universe

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    D. Boyanovsky; M. D'Attanasio; H. J. de Vega; R. Holman; D. S. -Lee; A. Singh

    1995-05-03T23:59:59.000Z

    We consider the non-equilibrium evolution of the inflaton field coupled to both lighter scalars and fermions. The dissipational dynamics of this field is studied and found to be quite different than that believed in inflationary models. In particular, the damping time scale for the expectation value of the zero momentum mode of the inflaton can be much shorter than that given by the single particle decay rate when the inflaton amplitudes are large, as in chaotic inflation scenarios. We find that the reheating temperature may depart considerably from the usual estimates.

  11. Reheating Metastable O'Raifeartaigh Models

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Craig, Nathaniel J.; Fox, Patrick J.; Wacker, Jay G.

    2006-12-05T23:59:59.000Z

    In theories with multiple vacua, reheating to a temperature greater than the height of a barrier can stimulate transitions from a desirable metastable vacuum to a lower energy state. We discuss the constraints this places on various theories and demonstrate that in a class of supersymmetric models this transition does not occur even for arbitrarily high reheating temperature.

  12. Reheating metastable O'Raifeartaigh models

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Fox, Patrick; Craig, Nathaniel J.; Fox, Patrick J.; Wacker, Jay G.

    2006-11-01T23:59:59.000Z

    In theories with multiple vacua, reheating to a temperature greater than the height of a barrier can stimulate transitions from a desirable metastable vacuum to a lower energy state. We discuss the constraints this places on various theories and demonstrate that in a class of supersymmetric models this transition does not occur even for arbitrarily high reheating temperature.

  13. Control Humidity With Single-Duct, Single-Zone, Constant Air Volume System

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Chen, H.; Deng, S.; Bruner, H. L.; Claridge, D. E.

    2000-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    ), which turned this inefficient, humid lecture hall into a comfortable learning environment. This case study also explores other possibilities to solve the humidity control problem with single-duct, single-zone constant air volume systems....

  14. Comparison of Two Ventilation Systems in a Chinese Commercial Kitchen

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Wan, X.; Yu, L.; Hou, H.

    2006-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    A numerical simulation of an indoor thermal environment in a Chinese commercial kitchen has been carried out using indoor zero-equation turbulence model. Two different ventilation systems in a Chinese commercial kitchen have been simulated...

  15. Curvaton reheating in a logamediate inflationary model

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Campo, Sergio del; Herrera, Ramon; Saavedra, Joel; Campuzano, Cuauhtemoc; Rojas, Efrain [Instituto de Fisica, Pontificia Universidad Catolica de Valparaiso, Avenida Brasil 2950, Valparaiso (Chile); Departamento de Fisica, Facultad de Fisica e Inteligencia Artificial, Universidad Veracruzana, 91000, Xalapa Veracruz (Mexico)

    2009-12-15T23:59:59.000Z

    In a logamediate inflationary universe model we introduce the curvaton field in order to bring this inflationary model to an end. In this approach we determine the reheating temperature. We also outline some interesting constraints on the parameters that describe our models. Thus, we give the parameter space in this scenario.

  16. Energy-efficient lighting for kitchens and bathrooms

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Baker, W.S.

    1993-05-01T23:59:59.000Z

    This booklet intended for the consumer explains ways to make kitchen and bathroom lighting more energy efficient.

  17. Kids Kitchen: PUBLICATION 348-485

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Liskiewicz, Maciej

    temperature or Should be eaten or refrigerated immediately Refrigerate or throw it out! Keeping food warm taste... Reheat it thoroughly to 165° when ready to eat Cover and refrigerate immediately Divide large and marinate all foods in the refrigerator. Never thaw food on the counter and NEVER thaw foods at room

  18. Primordial magnetic field amplification from turbulent reheating

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Calzetta, Esteban [Departamento de Física, FCEyN-UBA and IFIBA-CONICET, Cdad. Universitaria, Buenos Aires (Argentina); Kandus, Alejandra, E-mail: calzetta@df.uba.ar, E-mail: kandus@uesc.br [LATO - DCET - UESC. Rodovia Ilhéus-Itabuna, km 16 s/n, CEP: 45662-900, Salobrinho, Ilhéus-BA (Brazil)

    2010-08-01T23:59:59.000Z

    We analyze the possibility of primordial magnetic field amplification by a stochastic large scale kinematic dynamo during reheating. We consider a charged scalar field minimally coupled to gravity. During inflation this field is assumed to be in its vacuum state. At the transition to reheating the state of the field changes to a many particle/anti-particle state. We characterize that state as a fluid flow of zero mean velocity but with a stochastic velocity field. We compute the scale-dependent Reynolds number Re(k), and the characteristic times for decay of turbulence, t{sub d} and pair annihilation t{sub a}, finding t{sub a} << t{sub d}. We calculate the rms value of the kinetic helicity of the flow over a scale L and show that it does not vanish. We use this result to estimate the amplification factor of a seed field from the stochastic kinematic dynamo equations. Although this effect is weak, it shows that the evolution of the cosmic magnetic field from reheating to galaxy formation may well be more complex than as dictated by simple flux freezing.

  19. Saving Fuel Energy in the Kitchen.

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Haggard, Marilyn A.

    1980-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Bulletin] Saving Fuel Energy in the Kitchen Marilyn A. Haggard* Rising fuel costs encourage consumers to take steps to reduce energy use, especially in the home. In home food preparation accounts for 16 percent of the energy used in the food system.... Food preparation, storage and cleanup provide opportunities to save fuel energy. Energy saving measures must be practiced daily to have a positive effect on utility costs. Small Appliances Use the smallest appliances possible for preparing small...

  20. Kitchen Appliance Upgrades Improve Water Efficiency at DOD Exchange...

    Broader source: Energy.gov (indexed) [DOE]

    Kitchen Appliance Upgrades Improve Water Efficiency at DOD Exchange Facilities Case study details the U.S. Department of Defense (DOD) Exchange (formerly the Army and Air Force...

  1. Looking for Hazardous Pollutants in Your Kitchen

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Singer, Brett

    2013-07-22T23:59:59.000Z

    For decades, teams of Berkeley Lab scientists have investigated the ways that indoor air quality affects human health. In Berkeley Lab's test kitchen scientist Brett Singer and his team are measuring the pollutants emitted by cooking foods and evaluating how effective various range hoods are in capturing the pollutants. In an unprecedented recent study, the scientists estimated that 60 percent of homes in California that cook at least once a week with a gas stove can reach pollutant levels that would be illegal if found outdoors.

  2. Looking for Hazardous Pollutants in Your Kitchen

    ScienceCinema (OSTI)

    Singer, Brett

    2014-05-13T23:59:59.000Z

    For decades, teams of Berkeley Lab scientists have investigated the ways that indoor air quality affects human health. In Berkeley Lab's test kitchen scientist Brett Singer and his team are measuring the pollutants emitted by cooking foods and evaluating how effective various range hoods are in capturing the pollutants. In an unprecedented recent study, the scientists estimated that 60 percent of homes in California that cook at least once a week with a gas stove can reach pollutant levels that would be illegal if found outdoors.

  3. Tips: Kitchen Appliances | Department of Energy

    Energy Savers [EERE]

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page onYou are now leaving Energy.gov You are now leaving Energy.gov You are being directed off Energy.gov. Are you sure you want toworldPower 2010 1 TNews & Solar SolarHeatKitchen

  4. Tips: Kitchen Appliances | Department of Energy

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Google Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page onYouTube YouTube Note: Since the.pdfBreakingMayDepartmentTest for PumpingThe| Department ofAir Ducts Tips:HeatHomeKitchen

  5. Continuous Commissioning of Commercial Kitchen and Dining Facilities - Case Study

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Chen, Q.; Deng, S.; Li, H.; Xu, C.

    2007-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Commercial kitchens usually require a large amount of ventilation air and high ventilation rates. Today's typical kitchens and dining facilities are often equipped with Make-up Air Fans (MAF) or dedicated Make-up Air Units (MUA) to make up about 50...

  6. On the Single-Zone Modeling for Optimal Climate Control of a Real-Sized Livestock Stable System

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Yang, Zhenyu

    climate control systems. A typical modern stable system is usually equipped with a hybrid ventilation [3On the Single-Zone Modeling for Optimal Climate Control of a Real-Sized Livestock Stable System and implementation of a model-based optimal indoor climate control for a real-sized livestock stable system

  7. Parametric analyses of single-zone thorium-fueled molten salt reactor fuel cycle options

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Powers, J.J.; Worrall, A.; Gehin, J.C.; Harrison, T.J.; Sunny, E.E. [Oak Ridge National Laboratory, PO Box 2008, Oak Ridge, TN 37831-6172 (United States)

    2013-07-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Analyses of fuel cycle options based on thorium-fueled Molten Salt Reactors (MSRs) have been performed in support of fuel cycle screening and evaluation activities for the United States Department of Energy. The MSR options considered are based on thermal spectrum MSRs with 3 different separations levels: full recycling, limited recycling, and 'once-through' operation without active separations. A single-fluid, single-zone 2250 MWth (1000 MWe) MSR concept consisting of a fuel-bearing molten salt with graphite moderator and reflectors was used as the basis for this study. Radiation transport and isotopic depletion calculations were performed using SCALE 6.1 with ENDF/B-VII nuclear data. New methodology developed at Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL) enables MSR analysis using SCALE, modeling material feed and removal by taking user-specified parameters and performing multiple SCALE/TRITON simulations to determine the resulting equilibrium operating conditions. Parametric analyses examined the sensitivity of the performance of a thorium MSR to variations in the separations efficiency for protactinium and fission products. Results indicate that self-sustained operation is possible with full or limited recycling but once-through operation would require an external neutron source. (authors)

  8. Addressing Kitchen Contaminants for Healthy, Low-Energy Homes

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Stratton, J. Chris; Singer, Brett C.

    2014-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Cooking and cooking burners emit pollutants that can adversely affect indoor air quality in residences and significantly impact occupant health. Effective kitchen exhaust ventilation can reduce exposure to cooking-related air pollutants as an enabling step to healthier, low-energy homes. This report identifies barriers to the widespread adoption of kitchen exhaust ventilation technologies and practice and proposes a suite of strategies to overcome these barriers. The recommendations have been vetted by a group of industry, regulatory, health, and research experts and stakeholders who convened for two web-based meetings and provided input and feedback to early drafts of this document. The most fundamental barriers are (1) the common misconception, based on a sensory perception of risk, that kitchen exhaust when cooking is unnecessary and (2) the lack of a code requirement for kitchen ventilation in most US locations. Highest priority objectives include the following: (1) Raise awareness among the public and the building industry of the need to install and routinely use kitchen ventilation; (2) Incorporate kitchen exhaust ventilation as a requirement of building codes and improve the mechanisms for code enforcement; (3) Provide best practice product and use-behavior guidance to ventilation equipment purchasers and installers, and; (4) Develop test methods and performance targets to advance development of high performance products. A specific, urgent need is the development of an over-the-range microwave that meets the airflow and sound requirements of ASHRAE Standard 62.2.

  9. Advanced steel reheat furnaces: Research and development. Final report

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Nguyen, Q.; Koppang, R.; Maly, P.; Moyeda, D. [Energy and Environmental Research Corp., Irvine, CA (United States); Li, X. [Air Products and Chemicals, Inc., Allentown, PA (United States)

    1999-01-14T23:59:59.000Z

    The purpose of this report is to present the results of two phases of a three-phase project to develop and evaluate an Advanced Steel Reheat Furnace (SSRF) concept which incorporates two proven and commercialized technologies, oxy-fuel enriched air (OEA) combustion and gas reburning (GR). The combined technologies aim to improve furnace productivity with higher flame radiant heat transfer in the heating zones of a steel reheat furnace while controlling potentially higher NOx emissions from these zones. The project was conducted under a contract sponsored by the Department of Energy (DOE). Specifically, this report summarizes the results of a modeling study and an experimental study to define and evaluate the issues which affect the integration and performance of the combined technologies. Section 2.0 of the report describes the technical approach uses in the development and evaluation of the advanced steel reheat furnace. Section 3.0 presents results of the modeling study applied to a model steel furnace. Experimental validation of the modeling results obtained from EER`s Fuel Evaluation Facility (FEF) pilot-scale furnace discussed in Section 4.0. Section 5.0 provides an economic evaluation on the cost effectiveness of the advanced reheat furnace concept. Section 6.0 concludes the report with recommendations on the applicability of the combined technologies of steel reheat furnaces.

  10. Development of Next Generation Heating System for Scale Free Steel Reheating

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Dr. Arvind C. Thekdi

    2006-09-26T23:59:59.000Z

    Teh report describes methods of reheating of steel billets and slabs for hot rolling or forging without forming steel scale.

  11. Automatic Control System of Car-Bottom Reheating Furnace

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Xueqiao, M.; Weilian, X.; Hongchen, Z.

    that the furnaces are not modified in their construction. This paper, however, will give you a definite answer to this question. One of the most effective methods for increasing the calorific efficiency is to improve thermal control systems of reheating furnaces...

  12. Steel project fact sheet: Steel reheating for further processing

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    NONE

    1998-04-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Steel reheating is an energy-intensive process requiring uniform temperature distribution within reheating furnaces. Historically, recuperators have ben used to preheat combustion air, thereby conserving energy. More recent innovations include oxygen enrichment and the use of regenerative burners, which provide higher preheat air temperatures than recuperators. These processes have limitations such as equipment deterioration, decreasing energy efficiency over time, high maintenance costs, and increased NO{sub x} emissions with increased air preheat temperature, unless special equipment is used. Praxair, Inc., supplier of oxygen and other industrial gases to the steel industry, proposes to introduce an innovative oxy-fuel burner technology (using 100% oxygen) to the steel reheating industry. Oxy-fuel combustion reduces or eliminates nitrogen in combustion air and substantially reduces waste heat carried out with flue gas. Based on technology currently used in the glass, hazardous waste, and aluminum industries, Praxair has developed and patented low temperature, oxy-fuel burners that can be used in high temperature industrial furnaces where temperature uniformity is critical and extremely low NO{sub x} emissions are desired. The technical goal of the project is to demonstrate the use of oxy-fuel burners in a slab reheat furnace while reducing energy consumption by 45% and NO{sub x} emissions by 90% within the converted furnace zones. Successful implementation of this technology also will eliminate the need to periodically replace recuperators and install NO{sub x} removal equipment.

  13. Kitchen & Packer: Complexity in vertebrate societies Kitchen, D. M. & Packer, C. 1999. Complexity in vertebrate societies. In: Levels of

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Weiblen, George D

    cognition and language permits rational planning and a unique capacity for cultural transmission, enabling as an entity in its own right rather than reducing everything to the sum of individuals. Strict individual and Szathmáry 1995). #12;Kitchen & Packer: Complexity in vertebrate societies 2 One way to view

  14. Kitchen Appliance Upgrades Improve Water Efficiency at DOD Exchange Facilities: Best Management Practice Case Study #11: Commercial Kitchen Equipment (Brochure)

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Not Available

    2011-09-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The Exchange, formerly the Army and Air Force Exchange Service (AAFES), is a joint military activity and the U.S. Department of Defense?s (DOD) oldest and largest retailer. The Exchange is taking a leadership role in water efficiency improvements in their commercial kitchens by integrating water efficiency concepts into the organization?s overall sustainability plan and objectives.

  15. Benefits of ceramic fiber for saving energy in reheat furnaces

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Norris, A. (Carborundum Co., Niagara Falls, NY (United States))

    1993-07-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Refractory ceramic fiber products offer thermal insulation investment in reheat furnaces by helping to keep operating cost low and product quality high. These products are used in a range of applications that include: furnace linings; charge and discharge door insulation; skidpipe insulation; and furnace repair and maintenance. The many product forms (blankets, modules, boards, textiles, and coatings) provide several key benefits: faster cycling, energy savings and personnel protection.

  16. Development of Next Generation Heating System for Scale Free Steel Reheating

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Dr. Arvind C. Thekdi

    2011-01-27T23:59:59.000Z

    The work carried out under this project includes development and design of components, controls, and economic modeling tools that would enable the steel industry to reduce energy intensity through reduction of scale formation during the steel reheating process. Application of scale free reheating offers savings in energy used for production of steel that is lost as scale, and increase in product yield for the global steel industry. The technology can be applied to a new furnace application as well as retrofit design for conversion of existing steel reheating furnaces. The development work has resulted in the knowledge base that will enable the steel industry and steel forging industry us to reheat steel with 75% to 95% reduction in scale formation and associated energy savings during the reheating process. Scale reduction also results in additional energy savings associated with higher yield from reheat furnaces. Energy used for steel production ranges from 9 MM Btu/ton to 16.6 MM Btu/ton or the industry average of approximately 13 MM Btu/ton. Hence, reduction in scale at reheating stage would represent a substantial energy reduction for the steel industry. Potential energy savings for the US steel industry could be in excess of 25 Trillion Btu/year when the technology is applied to all reheating processes. The development work has resulted in new design of reheating process and the required burners and control systems that would allow use of this technology for steel reheating in steel as well as steel forging industries.

  17. Comparison of Two Ventilation Systems in a Chinese Commercial Kitchen 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Wan, X.; Yu, L.; Hou, H.

    2006-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    ICEBO2006, Shenzhen, China HVAC Technologies for Energy Efficiency, Vol. IV-7-4 Comparison of Two Ventilation Systems in a Chinese Commercial Kitchen Xiongfeng Wan Likui Yu Huabo Hou Master Associate professor Master... viscosity; ? represents thermal expansion coefficient of air; T0 represents temperature of a reference point; T represents temperature; i represents gravity acceleration in i-direction. And the effective viscosity, eff? , equals the sum...

  18. Wavelength dependence of prepulse laser beams on EUV emission from CO2 reheated Sn plasma

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Harilal, S. S.

    Wavelength dependence of prepulse laser beams on EUV emission from CO2 reheated Sn plasma J. R. The expanding plume was then reheated by a 35 ns CO2 laser operating at 10.6 m. The role of prepulse wavelength, Tanaka et al.11 demonstrated the advantages of using a CO2 laser for generating higher CE. The CO2 LPP

  19. Kitchen Ventilation Should be High Performance (Not Optional) | Department

    Office of Environmental Management (EM)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative1 First Use of Energy for All Purposes (Fuel and Nonfuel), 2002; Level: National5Sales for4,645 3,625 1,006 492 742 33Frequently Asked Questions for DOEtheInspection15Department10PM to 1:40PMof Energy Kitchen

  20. CounterIntelligence: Augmented Reality Kitchen Leonardo Bonanni, Chia-Hsun Lee, Ted Selker

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    ]: Consumer products, Kitchen counter, refrigerator, cabinets, sink, range. INTRODUCTION Domestic kitchens on nearly every surface of the space: the refrigerator door, range, countertop, cabinets, and faucet (see projection on the refrigerator (1), the range (2), the cabinet (3), the faucet(4) and drawers(5). RELATED

  1. Partial oxidation power plant with reheating and method thereof

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Newby, Richard A. (Pittsburgh, PA); Yang, Wen-Ching (Export, PA); Bannister, Ronald L. (Winter Springs, FL)

    1999-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    A system and method for generating power having an air compression/partial oxidation system, a turbine, and a primary combustion system. The air compression/partial oxidation system receives a first air stream and a fuel stream and produces a first partially oxidized fuel stream and a first compressed air stream therefrom. The turbine expands the first partially oxidized fuel stream while being cooled by the first compressed air stream to produce a heated air stream. The heated air stream is injected into the expanding first partially oxidized fuel stream, thereby reheating it in the turbine. A second partially oxidized fuel stream is emitted from the turbine. The primary combustion system receives said second partially oxidized fuel stream and a second air stream, combusts said second partially oxidized fuel stream, and produces rotating shaft power and an emission stream therefrom.

  2. Partial oxidation power plant with reheating and method thereof

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Newby, R.A.; Yang, W.C.; Bannister, R.L.

    1999-08-10T23:59:59.000Z

    A system and method are disclosed for generating power having an air compression/partial oxidation system, a turbine, and a primary combustion system. The air compression/partial oxidation system receives a first air stream and a fuel stream and produces a first partially oxidized fuel stream and a first compressed air stream therefrom. The turbine expands the first partially oxidized fuel stream while being cooled by the first compressed air stream to produce a heated air stream. The heated air stream is injected into the expanding first partially oxidized fuel stream, thereby reheating it in the turbine. A second partially oxidized fuel stream is emitted from the turbine. The primary combustion system receives said second partially oxidized fuel stream and a second air stream, combusts said second partially oxidized fuel stream, and produces rotating shaft power and an emission stream therefrom. 2 figs.

  3. Reheating-volume measure for random-walk inflation

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Winitzki, Sergei [Department of Physics, Ludwig-Maximilians University, Munich (Germany); Yukawa Institute of Theoretical Physics, Kyoto University, Kyoto (Japan)

    2008-09-15T23:59:59.000Z

    The recently proposed 'reheating-volume' (RV) measure promises to solve the long-standing problem of extracting probabilistic predictions from cosmological multiverse scenarios involving eternal inflation. I give a detailed description of the new measure and its applications to generic models of eternal inflation of random-walk type. For those models I derive a general formula for RV-regulated probability distributions that is suitable for numerical computations. I show that the results of the RV cutoff in random-walk type models are always gauge invariant and independent of the initial conditions at the beginning of inflation. In a toy model where equal-time cutoffs lead to the 'youngness paradox', the RV cutoff yields unbiased results that are distinct from previously proposed measures.

  4. Room Temperature Control During Season Switchover with Single Duct Variable Air Volume System Without Reheat 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Liu, C.; Deng, S.; Claridge, D. E.; Turner, W. D.; Bruner, H.

    2003-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The Langford “A” building houses the College of Architecture on TAMU campus. There are ten singleduct variable air volume (VAV) air-handling units (AHUs) without reheat serving the building. The local pneumatic thermostats modulate the dampers...

  5. Reheating-volume measure in the string theory landscape

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Winitzki, Sergei [Department of Physics, Ludwig-Maximilians University, Munich (Germany)

    2008-12-15T23:59:59.000Z

    I recently proposed the ''reheating-volume'' (RV) prescription as a possible solution to the measure problem in ''multiverse'' cosmology. The goal of this work is to extend the RV measure to scenarios involving bubble nucleation, such as the string theory landscape. In the spirit of the RV prescription, I propose to calculate the distribution of observable quantities in a landscape that is conditioned in probability to nucleate a finite total number of bubbles to the future of an initial bubble. A general formula for the relative number of bubbles of different types can be derived. I show that the RV measure is well defined and independent of the choice of the initial bubble type, as long as that type supports further bubble nucleation. Applying the RV measure to a generic landscape, I find that the abundance of Boltzmann brains is always negligibly small compared with the abundance of ordinary observers in the bubbles of the same type. As an illustration, I present explicit results for a toy landscape containing four vacuum states, and for landscapes with a single high-energy vacuum and a large number of low-energy vacua.

  6. A Web-based user-oriented tool for universal kitchen design

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Ma, Xiaoyi, 1975-

    2002-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Economic constraints to the professional design practice limit customized solutions to the very wealthy, and thus most of the kitchens in current development housing projects are still generic. With aging baby boomers and ...

  7. Kitchen layout and dimensions for the ambulatory and wheelchair-bound elderly

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Resendiz, Anita Janice

    1985-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    KITCHEN LAYOUT AND DIMENSIONS FOR THE Al&ULATORY AND WHEELCHAIR-BOUND ELDERLY A Thesis ANITA JANICE RESENDIZ Submitted to the Graduate College of Texas A&M University in partial fulfillment of the requirements for the degree of MASTER... OF SCIENCE August ' 9BS Major Subject: Industrial Engineering KITCHEN LAYOUT AND DIMENSIONS FOR THE AMBULATORY AND WHEELCHAIR-BOUND ELDERLY A Thesis by ANITA JANICE RESENDIZ Approved as to style and content by: R. D. uchings n (Chairman) G. Bayliss...

  8. Our Visit To The Holy Apostle Soup Kitchen: Touching Real People With Real Stories By Ashley Olson

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Wisconsin at Madison, University of

    instructor was in charge of greeting people at the entryway. Many times she saw guests give hugs and kissesOur Visit To The Holy Apostle Soup Kitchen: Touching Real People With Real Stories By Ashley Olson Our visit to the Holy Apostle Soup Kitchen defined my experience in New York City. People came from

  9. HVAC ENERGY EFFICIENCY CASE STUDY "Melink works well in our kitchen--it saves energy, reduces hood noise

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    California at Davis, University of

    HVAC ENERGY EFFICIENCY CASE STUDY "Melink works well in our kitchen--it saves energy, reduces hood case studies have already been performed using this technology (demand control kitchen ventilation) and the savings are well proven. This study is a summarized compilation of select SPEED case studies

  10. Proceedings of Healthy Buildings 2009 Paper 206 Risk assessment of biogas exposure in kitchens

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Paris-Sud XI, Université de

    Proceedings of Healthy Buildings 2009 Paper 206 Risk assessment of biogas exposure in kitchens C to pollutants while using biogas for cooking was assessed following the methodology described by the US - National Research Council. Information of hazardous compounds and compositions of several biogas types were

  11. Air-Side Energy Use Calculations for Four HVAC Systems: Dual Duct Constant Volume (DDCAV), Dual Duct Variable Volume (DDVAV), Constant Volume with Reheat (CAVRH0), Variable Volume with Reheat (VAVRH)

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Haberl, J. S.

    2001-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    This report contains engineering calculations for four (4) air-side, heating, ventilating and air-conditioning systems (HVAC) systems, including: dual duct constant volume (DDCAV), dual duct variable volume (DDVAV), constant volume with reheat...

  12. Inflation, baryogenesis and gravitino dark matter at ultra low reheat temperatures

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Kazunori Kohri; Anupam Mazumdar; Narendra Sahu

    2009-05-11T23:59:59.000Z

    It is quite possible that the reheat temperature of the universe is extremely low close to the scale of Big Bang nucleosynthesis, i.e. $T_{R}\\sim 1-10$ MeV. At such low reheat temperatures generating matter anti-matter asymmetry and synthesizing dark matter particles are challenging issues which need to be addressed within a framework of beyond the Standard Model physics. In this paper we point out that a successful cosmology can emerge naturally provided the R-parity violating interactions are responsible for the excess in baryons over anti-baryons and at the same time they can explain the longevity of dark matter with the right abundance.

  13. Analytical modeling in support of the development of fiber reinforced ceramic composite materials for re-heater burners

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Kibler, J.J. [Materials Sciences Corp., Fort Washington, PA (United States); DiPietro, S.G. [Textron Specialty Materials, Lowell, MA (United States)

    1995-10-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Development of Continuous Fiber reinforced Ceramic Composite (CFCC) materials is a process of identifying components which will benefit from CFCC properties, and defining appropriate composite constructions which will provide materials which will meet the structural and thermal requirements of the application. Materials Sciences Corporation (MSC) has been providing analytical support to Textron Specialty Materials in the development of re-heated tubes for metal reheating furnaces. As part of this support, a study has been made of the sensitivity of composite properties to fiber orientation as well as a number of matrix properties which control the stress-strain behavior of the composite.

  14. KitchenAid: ENERGY STAR Referral (KSRG25FVMS*) | Department of Energy

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Google Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels DataDepartment of Energy Your Density Isn't YourTransport(FactDepartment ofLetter Report:40PM to 2:05PM PDTKimberleeKSRG25FVMS*) KitchenAid:

  15. How Do You Save Energy in the Kitchen? | Department of Energy

    Office of Environmental Management (EM)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative1 First Use of Energy for All Purposes (Fuel and Nonfuel), 2002; Level: National5Sales for4,645 3,625 1,006 492 742 33Frequently Asked Questions for DOE FYAffairs,AssessmentInteractive GraphicExcelFindKitchen? How Do

  16. Reheating and dangerous relics in pre-big bang string cosmology

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Alessandra Buonanno; Martin Lemoine; Keith A. Olive

    2000-09-27T23:59:59.000Z

    We discuss the mechanism of reheating in pre-big bang string cosmology and we calculate the amount of moduli and gravitinos produced gravitationally and in scattering processes of the thermal bath. We find that this abundance always exceeds the limits imposed by big-bang nucleosynthesis, and significant entropy production is required. The exact amount of entropy needed depends on the details of the high curvature phase between the dilaton-driven inflationary era and the radiation era. We show that the domination and decay of the zero-mode of a modulus field, which could well be the dilaton, or of axions, suffices to dilute moduli and gravitinos. In this context, baryogenesis can be accomodated in a simple way via the Affleck-Dine mechanism and in some cases the Affleck-Dine condensate could provide both the source of entropy and the baryon asymmetry.

  17. Assessment of existing H2/O2 chemical reaction mechanisms at reheat gas turbine conditions

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Weydahl, Torleif; Seljeskog, Morten; Haugen, Nils Erland L

    2011-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    This paper provides detailed comparisons of chemical reaction mechanisms of H2 applicable at high preheat temperatures and pressures relevant to gas turbine and particularly Alstom's reheat gas turbine conditions. It is shown that the available reaction mechanisms exhibit large differences in several important elementary reaction coefficients. The reaction mechanisms are assessed by comparing ignition delay and laminar flame speed results obtained from CHEMKIN with available data, however, the amount of data at these conditions is scarce and a recommended candidate among the mechanisms can presently not be selected. Generally, the results with the GRI-Mech and Leeds mechanisms deviate from the Davis, Li, O'Conaire, Konnov and San Diego mechanisms, but there are also significant deviations between the latter five mechanisms that altogether are better adapted to hydrogen. The differences in ignition delay times between the dedicated hydrogen mechanisms (O'Conaire, Li and Konnov) range from approximately a maxim...

  18. Energy Efficiency Improvement by Measurement and Control: A Case Study of Reheating Furnaces in the Steel Industry

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Martensson, A.

    , April 22-23, 1992 Table I. Furnace energy use in Sweden, 1989. Source: Jemkontoret, Stockholm, Sweden. Fuel Energy use a [GWh) ([10 9 Btu)) aI 1680 (5732) Propane 1272 (4340) Natural gas 48 (164) Coke oven gas 400 (1365) Electricity (induction...ENERGY EFFICIENCY IMPROVEMENT BY MEASUREMENT AND CONTROL A case study of reheating furnaces in the steel industry Anders Mlirtensson Department of Environmental and Energy Systems Studies Lund University S-22362 Lund Sweden ABSTRACT...

  19. Sterile neutrino dark matter with gauged U(1){sub B-L} and a low reheating temperature

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Khalil, Shaaban [Centre for Theoretical Physics, The British University in Egypt, El Sherouk City, 11837, P.O. Box 43 (Egypt); Department of Mathematics, Ain Shams University, Faculty of Science, Cairo, 11566 (Egypt); Seto, Osamu [William I. Fine Theoretical Physics Institute, University of Minnesota, Minneapolis, MN 55455 (United States)

    2009-04-17T23:59:59.000Z

    Sterile right-handed neutrinos can be naturally embedded in a low scale gauged U(1){sub B-L} extension of the standard model. We show that, within a low reheating scenario, such a neutrino can be produced via a novel manner, namely scattering through Z' gauge boson, and becomes an interesting dark matter candidate. In addition, we show that if the neutrino mass is of the order of MeV, then it accounts for the measured dark matter relic density and also accommodates the observed flux of 511 keV photons from the galactic bulge.

  20. Apparatus and methods of reheating gas turbine cooling steam and high pressure steam turbine exhaust in a combined cycle power generating system

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Tomlinson, Leroy Omar (Niskayuna, NY); Smith, Raub Warfield (Ballston Lake, NY)

    2002-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    In a combined cycle system having a multi-pressure heat recovery steam generator, a gas turbine and steam turbine, steam for cooling gas turbine components is supplied from the intermediate pressure section of the heat recovery steam generator supplemented by a portion of the steam exhausting from the HP section of the steam turbine, steam from the gas turbine cooling cycle and the exhaust from the HP section of the steam turbine are combined for flow through a reheat section of the HRSG. The reheated steam is supplied to the IP section inlet of the steam turbine. Thus, where gas turbine cooling steam temperature is lower than optimum, a net improvement in performance is achieved by flowing the cooling steam exhausting from the gas turbine and the exhaust steam from the high pressure section of the steam turbine in series through the reheater of the HRSG for applying steam at optimum temperature to the IP section of the steam turbine.

  1. KITCHENER ST PARLIAMENT STREET

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Auckland, University of

    Maclaurin ChapelGeorge Fraser Gallery Old Government House Old Government House Lodge Kenneth Myers Centre School of Fine Arts Electrical & Computer Engineering, Dept of ELSAC Engineering Science, Dept of English, School of Examinations External Relations Facilities Management Fale Pasifika Complex Film, Television

  2. Reheating and Cosmic String Production

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Chao-Jun Feng; Xian Gao; Miao Li; Wei Song; Yushu Song

    2008-01-04T23:59:59.000Z

    We compute the string production rate at the end of inflation, using the string spectrum obtained in \\lss in a near-de Sitter space. Our result shows that highly excited strings are hardly produced, thus the simple slow-roll inflation alone does not offer a cosmic string production mechanism.

  3. PUBLICATION 348-470 Kids Kitchen: Chefs in the Kitchen

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Liskiewicz, Maciej

    milk powder 3 cups cold water 1 (16-ounce) can frozen orange juice concentrate 3 tablespoons vanilla Ingredients: 1/2 cup green onion 1 tomato 3­5 cups lettuce 1 (15-ounce) can kidney beans 1 cup grated cheese aside. 3. Drain kidney beans and rinse w

  4. Technical support document: Energy efficiency standards for consumer products: Room air conditioners, water heaters, direct heating equipment, mobile home furnaces, kitchen ranges and ovens, pool heaters, fluorescent lamp ballasts and television sets. Volume 1, Methodology

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Not Available

    1993-11-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The Energy Policy and Conservation Act (P.L. 94-163), as amended, establishes energy conservation standards for 12 of the 13 types of consumer products specifically covered by the Act. The legislation requires the Department of Energy (DOE) to consider new or amended standards for these and other types of products at specified times. DOE is currently considering amending standards for seven types of products: water heaters, direct heating equipment, mobile home furnaces, pool heaters, room air conditioners, kitchen ranges and ovens (including microwave ovens), and fluorescent light ballasts and is considering establishing standards for television sets. This Technical Support Document presents the methodology, data, and results from the analysis of the energy and economic impacts of the proposed standards. This volume presents a general description of the analytic approach, including the structure of the major models.

  5. Kaluza-Klein relics from warped reheating

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Berndsen, Aaron; Cline, James M.; Stoica, Horace [Physics Department, McGill University, 3600 University Street, Montreal, Quebec, H3A 2T8 (Canada); Blackett Laboratory, Imperial College, London SW7 2AZ (United Kingdom)

    2008-06-15T23:59:59.000Z

    It has been suggested that after brane-antibrane inflation in a Klebanov-Strassler (KS) warped throat, metastable Kaluza-Klein excitations can be formed due to nearly-conserved angular momenta along isometric directions in the throat. If sufficiently long lived, these relics could conflict with big bang nucleosynthesis or baryogenesis by dominating the energy density of the Universe. We make a detailed estimate of the decay rate of such relics using the low-energy effective action of type IIB string theory compactified on the throat geometry, with attention to powers of the warp factor. We find that it is necessary to turn on supersymmetry (SUSY)-breaking deformations of the KS background in order to ensure that the most dangerous relics will decay fast enough. The decay rate is found to be much larger than the naive guess based on the dimension of the operators which break the angular isometries of the throat. For an inflationary warp factor of order w{approx}10{sup -4}, we obtain the bound M{sub 3/2} > or approx. 10{sup 9} GeV on the scale of SUSY breaking to avoid cosmological problems from the relics, which is satisfied in the Kachru, Kallosh, Linde, and Trivedi construction assumed to stabilize the compactification. Given the requirement that the relics decay before nucleosynthesis or baryogenesis, we place bounds on the mass of the relic as a function of the warp factor in the throat for more general warped backgrounds.

  6. Reheating metastable O'Raifeartaigh models

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Craig, Nathaniel J.

    2008-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    R. Coleman, The fate of the false vacuum. 1. semiclassicalThe fate of the false vacuum. 2. ?rst quantum corrections,arbitrarily large–and the false vacuum long lived–by taking

  7. Reheating Metastable O'Raifeartaigh Models

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Craig, Nathaniel J.

    2009-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    R. Coleman, The fate of the false vacuum. 1. semiclassicalThe fate of the false vacuum. 2. ?rst quantum corrections,arbitrarily large–and the false vacuum long lived–by taking

  8. Commercial and Industrial Kitchen Equipment Rebate Program

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    NOTE: All equipment must be installed on or after January 1, 2015 through December 31, 2015. The documentation must be received no later than March 31, 2016. 

  9. Commercial Kitchen & Food Service Equipment

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative1 First Use of Energy for All Purposes (Fuel and Nonfuel), 2002; Level: National5Sales for4,645U.S. DOEThe Bonneville Power Administration would like submit the following commentsCurrent-Promotions Sign In

  10. Nonperturbative dynamics of reheating after inflation: A review

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Amin, Mustafa A.

    Our understanding of the state of the universe between the end of inflation and big bang nucleosynthesis (BBN) is incomplete. The dynamics at the end of inflation are rich and a potential source of observational signatures. ...

  11. Particle production and reheating in the inflationary universe

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Chris M Graham; Ian G Moss

    2008-10-15T23:59:59.000Z

    Thermal field theory is applied to particle production rates in inflationary models, leading to new results for catalysed, or two-stage decay, where massive fields act as decay channels for the production of light fields. A numerical investigation of the Bolztmann equation in an expanding universe shows that the particle distributions produced during small amplitude inflaton oscillations or alongside slowly moving inflaton fields can thermalise.

  12. The investigation of atmospheric humidity control by hot gas reheat

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Whitlock, Paul Leroy

    1963-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Number 1, 2, and 3 24 10 Psychrometric Chart with the Processes of Runs Number 1, 2, and 3 Superimposed Upon One Another 25 Nossle Performance Curvos 31 vi LIST OF SM30LS ~Sbol OF ~tit Cubic feet per minute Constant pressure specific heat... tempera- ture L2/T2 in. Hg in, H2O MV PD psig sp gr tdb Inches of mercury Inches of water Pounds mass Pounds mass dry air Pounds mass water vapor Millivolt s Pressure diff'erential (in. Hg) Gage pressure Heat added or re...

  13. Healthcare Energy: Spotlight on Reheat and Heating | Department of Energy

    Broader source: Energy.gov (indexed) [DOE]

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative1 First Use of Energy for All Purposes (Fuel and Nonfuel), 2002; Level: National5Sales for4,645 3,625 1,006 492 742Energy ChinaofSchaefer To:Department of Energy Completing theWhiz!NREL partneredDepartmentSee

  14. HOW TO COOK Test Kitchen Series No. 3

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    , phosphorous, Vitamin A, thiamine, riboflavin fuid ni acin. Few foods are better balanced nutritionally than

  15. Spatial user interface : augmenting human sensibilities in a domestic kitchen

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Lee, Jackie Chia-Hsun

    2005-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The real world is not a computer screen. When can augmented reality and ambient interfaces improve the usability of a physical environment? This thesis presents data from design studies and experiments that demonstrate the ...

  16. The Adaptive Code Kitchen: Flexible Tools for Dynamic Application Composition

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Ramakrishnan, Naren

    systems support then enables loading and linking of native code components, monitoring of performance prevalent in computational science practice. Diverse areas, from nuclear physics, to earth science-guided querying and steering of computa- tional runs [4] to automatic recommender systems that mine performance

  17. Kitchen Ventilation Should be High Performance (Not Optional...

    Broader source: Energy.gov (indexed) [DOE]

    * Ultrafine particles * Cooking * Ultrafine and fine particles * VOCs including acrolein * Moisture and odors Experimental Evaluation of Pollutant Emissions From Residential...

  18. Kitchen Agreement Form Group/Association_______________ Date:_________ Time:_________

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Tennessee, University of

    / groceries bought for the event in the refrigerator is based on availability of space and we are not responsible for items left in the refrigerator. 9. Everything belonging to the group should be removed from

  19. Addressing Kitchen Contaminants for Healthy, Low-Energy Homes

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Stratton, J. Chris

    2014-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Code (IMC), International Energy Conservation Code (IECC),IgCC) International Energy Conservation Code (IECC) HighCode (IMC), International Energy Conservation Code (IECC),

  20. Energy Saving Holiday Kitchen Trivia | Department of Energy

    Broader source: Energy.gov (indexed) [DOE]

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative1 First Use of Energy for All Purposes (Fuel and Nonfuel), 2002; Level: National5Sales for4,645 3,625 1,006 492 742 33Frequently20,000 Russian NuclearandJunetrackEllen|July 14, 2014 Outdoor solar lights

  1. Best Management Practice #11: Commercial Kitchen Equipment | Department of

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Google Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels DataDepartment of Energy Your Density Isn't Your Destiny: The FutureCommentsEnergy Christopher| Department

  2. Energy Saving Holiday Kitchen Trivia | Department of Energy

    Office of Environmental Management (EM)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative1 First Use of Energy for All Purposes (Fuel and Nonfuel), 2002; Level: National5Sales for4,645 3,625 1,006 492 742 33 1112011AT&T,OfficeEnd of Year 2010 SNFEnergy Policy ActEnergy |Division, OAPMSaving Holiday

  3. Best Management Practice #11: Commercial Kitchen Equipment | Department of

    Broader source: Energy.gov (indexed) [DOE]

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative1 First Use of Energy for All Purposes (Fuel and Nonfuel), 2002; Level: National5Sales for4,645 3,625 1,006 492 742Energy China U.S. Department ofJune 2, 2015Energyon23264 PreparedEnergy Commercial

  4. Kitchen Appliance Upgrades Improve Water Efficiency at DOD Exchange Facilities: Best Management Practice Case Study #11: Commercial Kitchen Equipment (Brochure), Federal Energy Management Program (FEMP)

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Google Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels DataDepartment of Energy Your Density Isn't YourTransport(FactDepartment ofLetter Report:40PM to 2:05PM PDTKimberlee KearfottDepartment

  5. Room Temperature Control During Season Switchover with Single Duct Variable Air Volume System Without Reheat

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Liu, C.; Deng, S.; Claridge, D. E.; Turner, W. D.; Bruner, H.

    2003-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    is energized in summer mode or de-energized in winter mode, the output of the PRV is 20psi or 15 psi, respectively. AHU#7 AHU#9 AHU#8 AHU#10 W E AHU#6 AHU#4 AHU #2 AHU#5 AHU#3 S Figure 3. Typical Floor Plan of the 1st through the 4th Floors where...

  6. publication 348-790 Kids Kitchen: Which cereal should I eat?

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Liskiewicz, Maciej

    , Pyridoxine Hydrochloride (Vitamin B6), Blue #1, Riboflavin (Vitamin B2),Thiamin Hydrochloride (Vitamin B1, Niacinamide,Turmeric Color, Zinc Oxide, Pyridoxine Hydrochloride (Vitamin B6), Riboflavin (Vitamin B2),Thiamin (riboflavin), vitamin B1 (thiamin mononitrate), a B vitamin (folic acid), vitamin B12, wheat starch. Freshness

  7. Annual Update Inspiration for Action Classrooms Extend to Kitchens Once Upon a Time[line

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Aalberts, Daniel P.

    · Kellogg House: One of the Oldest Buildings on Campus Reborn · Williams Embraces Solar Energy · Emissions Luce Foundation grant awarded to Williams College to support curriculum initiative for renewable energy It In the Dark, our residential energy competition, in The New York Times Fort Hoosac solar hot water system

  8. Make muscle pain a memory with ginger 20 Pain Cures You Can Find in Your Kitchen

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Jagannatham, Aditya K.

    researchers asked achy people to jazz up their diets with ginger, it eased muscle and joint pain, swelling women is struggling with arthritis, gout or chronic headaches. If you're one of them, a daily bowl

  9. SP.287 / 5.S15 / ESG.SP287 Kitchen Chemistry, Spring 2006

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Christie, Patricia Dianne, 1967-

    This course includes Special topic seminars and independent study projects. Seminars are run by a staff member or supervised undergraduate instructor and meet weekly. Independent study projects require approval and regular ...

  10. When Her Thousand Chimneys Smoked: Virginia's Enslaved Cooks and Their Kitchens

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Deetz, Kelley

    2010-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Early American life. Harrisburg, PA. vol.19, no.1 (Feb.Early American life. Harrisburg, PA. vol.19, no.1 (Feb.

  11. Kitchen Garden Plant List for the St. Clare Garden St. Clare's Garden at Santa University

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Schwarz, Thomas

    Swiss Chard) Brassica oleracea Kale Ocimum basilicum Basil Petroselinum crispum Parsley, Our Lady's Lace

  12. Scrub-resistance Characteristics of Kitchen and Bathroom Wall-surfacing Materials.

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Hobgood, Price; Kunze, O. R.; Stewart, B. R.

    1960-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    increase in gloss value within the first 5-minute scrubbing period. 11 CERAMIC TILE ABRASIVE -A- CLEANSER "A' -8- CLEANSER "B" NON-ABRASIVE -C- CLEANSER %' ' 4bo ' sbo ' 1200 ' 1600 ' ndoo ' zioo ' 2800 ' 32bo ' 3600 I REVOLUTIONS Figure 11...

  13. Research Kitchen on Approximate Inference, Bath, 8-9 May Two Applications of Variational Inference

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Kaban, Ata

    (for Clustering) yn discrete latent variable observed variable Likelihood: L()=p(yn| ) = k p(yn | zn=k, ) p(zn=k) N K para- meters zn Generative process: -Sample a class zn=k ~ -Sample a data point yn~p(yn|k) para- meters Pearson, 1894, Phil. Trans. Roy. Soc. A. #12;6 More generally... · "For many applied

  14. SPRING/SUMMER 2014 Volume 32, Nos. 1 & 2 recall standing at the kitchen

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    is for identification only and does not imply endorsement or criticism of products. oN tHE CoVEr: A positive test fo (517)355-0123. Permission to reprint material in this issue is granted, provided the meaning is not changed. Credit given to the publication as the source of the material is appreciated. Use of trade names

  15. THE STATE UNIVERSITY OF NEW JERSEY Kitchen wastes, such as fruits, vegetables,

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Rainforth, Emma C.

    dresser drawer, a 5-gallon plastic bucket, or from wood. A wooden box should be approximately 2 ft. X 2 ft into garden soil to improve structure and to provide nutrients, can be used as mulch, or as a potting soil mix

  16. Probabilistic Categorization of Kitchen Objects in Table Settings with a Composite Sensor

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Cremers, Daniel

    -Csaba Marton, Radu Bogdan Rusu, Dominik Jain, Ulrich Klank, and Michael Beetz Intelligent Autonomous Systems, Germany {marton,rusu,jain,klank,beetz}@cs.tum.edu Abstract-- In this paper, we investigate the problem

  17. A Generalized Framework for Opening Doors and Drawers in Kitchen Environments

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Cremers, Daniel

    ¨urgen Sturm2, Dejan Pangercic1, Michael Beetz1, Daniel Cremers2 Abstract-- In this paper, we present. Pangercic and M. Beetz are with the Intelligent Autonomous Systems group, Computer Science Department, Technische Universit¨at M¨unchen {ruehr, pangercic, beetz}@cs.tum.edu 2J. Sturm and D. Cremers

  18. Airflow Characteristics of Direct-Type Kitchen Hood Systems in High-Rise Apartment Buildings

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Park, M.

    2011-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    if the adoption of direct- type systems alone in place of the shared-type would yield the level of capture efficiency close to the hood design specification. 3 4 5 6 Figure 1: Layout of apartment used to analyze airflow 7 (a)?24?hour?temperature?distribution?for?Jan....?1st (from?CONTAM?input) (b)?24?hour?wind?speed?distribution?for?Jan.?1st (CONTAM?input) Figure 2: Example of CONTAM input for the 1st of January 8 (c)?24?hour?wind?direction?distribution?for?Jan.?1st (CONTAM?input) Figure 2: Example of CONTAM...

  19. Kitchen Appliance Upgrades Improve Water Efficiency at U.S. Department of

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Google Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels DataDepartment of Energy Your Density Isn't YourTransport(FactDepartment ofLetter Report:40PM to 2:05PM PDTKimberlee

  20. KitchenAid: ENERGY STAR Referral (KSRS25RV*) | Department of Energy

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Google Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels DataDepartment of Energy Your Density Isn't YourTransport(FactDepartment ofLetter Report:40PM to 2:05PM PDTKimberleeKSRG25FVMS*)

  1. Using Less Energy in the Kitchen on Thanksgiving | Department of Energy

    Energy Savers [EERE]

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page onYou are now leaving Energy.gov You are now leaving Energy.gov You are being directed off Energy.gov. Are you sureReportsofDepartmentSeries | DepartmentResourcesUnlocking theUsed

  2. Property:Building/SPBreakdownOfElctrcityUseKwhM2LargeKitchens | Open Energy

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page onYou are now leaving Energy.gov You are now leaving Energy.gov You are beingZealand Jump to: navigation,Pillar Group BV Jump to:InformationCaseTypeOpen Energy

  3. Property:Building/SPElectrtyUsePercLargeKitchens | Open Energy Information

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page onYou are now leaving Energy.gov You are now leaving Energy.gov You are beingZealand Jump to: navigation,Pillar Group BV JumpInformationSPElectrtyUsePercFans

  4. Beyond Salad: How to Save Energy in the Kitchen During the Summer |

    Broader source: Energy.gov (indexed) [DOE]

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative1 First Use of Energy for All Purposes (Fuel and Nonfuel), 2002; Level: National5Sales for4,645 3,625 1,006 492 742 33Frequently20,000 Russian NuclearandJune 17,Agenda AgendaDepartment ofBen Solution

  5. Kitchen Appliance Upgrades Improve Water Efficiency at U.S. Department of

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Google Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page onYouTube YouTube Note: Since the.pdfBreaking ofOil & Gas » MethaneJohnson ControlsJoyceEnergy KeyofDefense

  6. How to Be Energy Efficient in Your Kitchen this Thanksgiving | Department

    Office of Environmental Management (EM)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative1 First Use of Energy for All Purposes (Fuel and Nonfuel), 2002; Level: National5Sales for4,645 3,625 1,006 492 742 33Frequently Asked Questions for DOE FYAffairs,AssessmentInteractiveSolarDepartment ofPostdoctoralof

  7. A Space for Living: Region and Nature in the Bay Area, 1939-1969

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Allen, Peter Albert

    2009-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    In Ruth Oldenziel and Karin Zachmann. Cold War Kitchen,1938. Oldenziel, Ruth and Karin Zachmann. Cold War Kitchen,see Ruth Oldenziel and Karin Zachmann, Cold War Kitchen,

  8. THE MOST REDUCED ROCK FROM THE MOON APOLLO 14 BASALT 14053: EXTREME REDUCTION ENTIRELY FROM A RE-HEATING EVENT.

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Taylor, Lawrence A.

    THE MOST REDUCED ROCK FROM THE MOON ­ APOLLO 14 BASALT 14053: EXTREME REDUCTION ENTIRELY FROM A RE: With the return of the Apollo 14 rocks and soil, the Preliminary Examination Team reported that the majority] speculated that the hi-Al Apollo 14 basalts actually had an impact-melt origin. Likewise, unique reduction

  9. Model-based and Learned Semantic Object Labeling in 3D Point Cloud Maps of Kitchen Environments

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Cremers, Daniel

    Radu Bogdan Rusu, Zoltan Csaba Marton, Nico Blodow, Andreas Holzbach, Michael Beetz Intelligent {rusu,marton,blodow,holzbach,beetz}@cs.tum.edu Abstract-- We report on our experiences regarding

  10. Functional Object Mapping of Kitchen Environments Radu Bogdan Rusu, Zoltan Csaba Marton, Nico Blodow, Mihai Emanuel Dolha, Michael Beetz

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Cremers, Daniel

    Blodow, Mihai Emanuel Dolha, Michael Beetz Intelligent Autonomous Systems, Technische Universit¨at M¨unchen {rusu,marton,blodow,dolha,beetz}@cs.tum.edu Abstract-- In this paper we investigate the acquisition of 3

  11. Autonomous Mapping of Kitchen Environments and Applications Zoltan Marton, Nico Blodow, Mihai Dolha, Moritz Tenorth, Radu Bogdan Rusu, Michael Beetz

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    , Moritz Tenorth, Radu Bogdan Rusu, Michael Beetz Intelligent Autonomous Systems, Technische Universit¨at M¨unchen {marton, blodow, dolha, tenorth, rusu, beetz}@cs.tum.edu Abstract-- This paper investigates the problem

  12. A CHANDRA OBSERVATION OF 3C 288—REHEATING THE COOL CORE OF A 3 keV CLUSTER FROM A NUCLEAR OUTBURST at z = 0.246

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Lal, D. V.

    We present results from a 42 ks Chandra/ACIS-S observation of the transitional FR I/FR II radio galaxy 3C 288 at z = 0.246. We detect ~3 keV gas extending to a radius of ~0.5 Mpc with a 0.5-2.0 keV luminosity of 6.6 × ...

  13. Influence of metal process micronic and submicronic particles on vegetables quality and ecosystems.

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Paris-Sud XI, Université de

    sativa) and parsley (Petroselinum crispum), vegetables currently cultivated in kitchen gardens with high

  14. Food Preparation Unit Preparation Materials and

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    brush, potato masher, peeler, strainer, and steamer basket. · Food and kitchen equipment for preparation

  15. Gravitino production in an inflationary Universe and implications for leptogenesis

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Raghavan Rangarajan; Narendra Sahu

    2008-03-09T23:59:59.000Z

    Models of leptogenesis are constrained by the low reheat temperature at the end of reheating associated with the gravitino bound. However a detailed view of reheating, in which the maximum temperature during reheating, $\\Tmax$, can be orders of magnitude higher than the reheat temperature, allows for the production of heavy Majorana neutrinos needed for leptogenesis. But then one must also consider the possibility of enhanced gravitino production in such scenarios. In this article we consider gravitino production during reheating, its dependence on $\\Tmax$, and its relevance for leptogenesis. Earlier analytical studies of the gravitino abundance have only considered gravitino production in the post-reheating radiation dominated era. We find that the gravitino abundance generated during reheating is comparable to that generated after reheating. This lowers the upper bound on the reheat temperature by a factor of 4/3.

  16. Technical support document: Energy efficiency standards for consumer products: Room air conditioners, water heaters, direct heating equipment, mobile home furnaces, kitchen ranges and ovens, pool heaters, fluorescent lamp ballasts and television sets. Volume 2, Fluorescent lamp ballasts, television sets, room air conditioners, and kitchen ranges and ovens

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Not Available

    1993-11-01T23:59:59.000Z

    This document is divided into ``volumes`` B through E, dealing with individual classes of consumer products. Chapters in each present engineering analysis, base case forecasts, projected national impacts of standards, life-cycle costs and payback periods, impacts on manufacturers, impacts of standards on electric utilities, and environmental effects. Supporting appendices are included.

  17. Indoor Air Quality in 24 California Residences Designed as High Performance Green Homes

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Less, Brennan

    2012-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    continuous mechanical ventilation and local exhaust fromlocal exhaust fans (kitchens, bathrooms and laundry) and resulting increased ventilation

  18. Indoor Air Quality in 24 California Residences Designed as High Performance Green Homes

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Less, Brennan

    2012-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    commercial kitchen ventilation system intercontinental markresidential mechanical ventilation systems. Ontario, Canada:to innovative ventilation systems. Ventilation Information

  19. Extension Comings and Goings June 2013 1 Directions for UF/IFAS Extension

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Jawitz, James W.

    Grant Highlights! 2 From Computer to Kitchen 5 Stitches that Serve! 6 AIAEE 2013 Conference 6 Kudzu Bugs

  20. Adressen er Via del Capannone 7 Pisa. Det er vis a vis Kirka i bydel Barbaricina. -1the entrance to the backyard

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Nřrvĺg, Kjetil

    The refrigerator must be started by plugging the electricity back the kitchen furniture. Gas must be opened (2

  1. Alameda Creek Alliance P.O. Box 2626 Niles, CA 94536 (510) 499-9185

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    a delicious dinner from Our Cuban Kitchen, have wine for sale by the glass or bottle and live acoustic music

  2. M. Bahrami ENSC 461 (S 11) Tutorial 5 1 ENSC 461 Tutorial, Week#6

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Bahrami, Majid

    to represent the system Intercooler Regenerator Combustor Reheat CombustorCompressor 1 Compressor 2 Turbine 1 are heat inputs at the combustor AND the reheat combustor) as shown in Eq1. Note: the heat input volumes (combustor and reheat combustor), similar to what was done in Eq2 and Eq3, to obtain Eq4

  3. Computer Modeling VRF Heat Pumps in Commercial Buildings using EnergyPlus

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Raustad, Richard

    2013-06-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Variable Refrigerant Flow (VRF) heat pumps are increasingly used in commercial buildings in the United States. Monitored energy use of field installations have shown, in some cases, savings exceeding 30% compared to conventional heating, ventilating, and air-conditioning (HVAC) systems. A simulation study was conducted to identify the installation or operational characteristics that lead to energy savings for VRF systems. The study used the Department of Energy EnergyPlus? building simulation software and four reference building models. Computer simulations were performed in eight U.S. climate zones. The baseline reference HVAC system incorporated packaged single-zone direct-expansion cooling with gas heating (PSZ-AC) or variable-air-volume systems (VAV with reheat). An alternate baseline HVAC system using a heat pump (PSZ-HP) was included for some buildings to directly compare gas and electric heating results. These baseline systems were compared to a VRF heat pump model to identify differences in energy use. VRF systems combine multiple indoor units with one or more outdoor unit(s). These systems move refrigerant between the outdoor and indoor units which eliminates the need for duct work in most cases. Since many applications install duct work in unconditioned spaces, this leads to installation differences between VRF systems and conventional HVAC systems. To characterize installation differences, a duct heat gain model was included to identify the energy impacts of installing ducts in unconditioned spaces. The configuration of variable refrigerant flow heat pumps will ultimately eliminate or significantly reduce energy use due to duct heat transfer. Fan energy is also studied to identify savings associated with non-ducted VRF terminal units. VRF systems incorporate a variable-speed compressor which may lead to operational differences compared to single-speed compression systems. To characterize operational differences, the computer model performance curves used to simulate cooling operation are also evaluated. The information in this paper is intended to provide a relative difference in system energy use and compare various installation practices that can impact performance. Comparative results of VRF versus conventional HVAC systems include energy use differences due to duct location, differences in fan energy when ducts are eliminated, and differences associated with electric versus fossil fuel type heating systems.

  4. --No Title--

    Broader source: Energy.gov (indexed) [DOE]

    Control Ventilation (DCV) for kitchen hoods incorporates technology that uses an infrared beam to measure changes in cooking surface temperatures. The control system uses the...

  5. New tech could be "Mr. Fusion" for biofuel | Argonne National...

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    convert waste from kitchens or latrines into an alcohol that can power diesel engines. The photosynthetic bacteria in the Endurance Biofuel Reactor efficiently convert...

  6. Energy Data Sourcebook for the U.S. Residential Sector

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Wenzel, T.P.

    2010-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Test Procedures for Water Heaters; Kitchen Ranges, Ovens,Use of Residential Water Heaters. Lawrence Berkeley NationalEnergy Use of Residential Water Heaters. Lawrence Berkeley

  7. LAB 7 ENERGY FUTURE IN CALIFORNIA 1. Based on your TA's lecture, analyze briefly the California energy situation.

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    adds 10-25 percent to your electric bill. Turn off kitchen and bath-ventilating fans after they've done

  8. LAB 7 THE ENERGY CRISIS IN CALIFORNIA 1. Based on your TA's lecture, analyze briefly the California energy situation.

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    bill. Turn off kitchen and bath-ventilating fans after they've done their job - these fans can blow out

  9. The Do's & Don'ts of Saving Water 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Dozier, Monty

    2004-11-12T23:59:59.000Z

    With the many tips in this publication you'll learn how to save water in the bathroom, kitchen and landscape....

  10. --No Title--

    Broader source: Energy.gov (indexed) [DOE]

    Evacuated Tube thermal collectors on the Community Center to provide solar heated hot water for the Head Start and Kitchen facilities. Energy Efficiency and Conservation Block...

  11. Ameren Illinois (Gas)- Business Efficiency Incentives

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    The Specialty Equipment Application offers incentives on steamers, griddles, fryers, and other commercial kitchen equipment. The Steam Trap /Process Steam Incentive Program offers incentives on s...

  12. Version Tracking Document for DOE Challenge Homes, National Program...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    systems that are PHIUS+ certified, this footnote allows a 2012 IRC-compliant kitchen ventilation system with the following footnote: For homes achieving PHIUS+ certification,...

  13. EA-1662: Final Environmental Assessment

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    10 CFR Part 430 Energy Conservation Program: EnergyConservation Standards for Certain Consumer Products (Dishwashers, Dehumidifiers, Microwave Ovens, and Electric and Gas Kitchen Ranges and Ovens)

  14. assistance demonstration project: Topics by E-print Network

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    in urban;Concept Description A series of working and well displayed renewable energy generation sources on an urban Bruneau, Steve 7 The Assistive Kitchen --A...

  15. STEWARDS OF SUSTAINABILITY 2012 INTERNATIONAL POLICY CONFERENCE AGENDA

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Hardy, Christopher R.

    Energy Solutions HARI MANTRIPRAGADA Carnegie Mellon JOEL THOMAS Keystone Solar ANDREW DRAKE Nuclear and Kitchen Lehr Room Local Urban Planning and Green Initiatives CHARLOTTE KATZENMOYER Lancaster City MARK

  16. Structural interpretation of Coso Geothermal field, Inyo County...

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    and fracturing associated with dome emplacement, and localized zones of extensive hydraulic fracturing. Wells in the Devil's Kitchen area have encountered fluids in excess of...

  17. WHATTOBRING(ATICAMPUS)CONSIDERCONSULTINGWITHROOMATESTOAVOIDDUPLICATES THINGS YOU MAY NOT BRING WITH YOU

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    BICYCLE IRON/IRONING BOARD STORAGE CONTAINERS OUTSIDE CHAIRS COUCH, SOFA, LOVESEAT GAMES / PLAYING CARDS SILVERWARE GLASSES DISHES MICROWAVE DISHTOWELS KITCHEN ITEMS: BATTERIES TELEVISION GRILL & PROPANE (1 PER

  18. ELECTRONIC WASTE Curtin University Bentley Campus

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    , light globes, lead acid batteries (car batteries). THIS COLLECTION IS OFFERED FREE OF CHARGE TO CURTIN kitchen appliances (including microwaves), small household electrical goods, household batteries, computer

  19. TVA- Energy Right Solutions for Business (North Carolina)

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    TVA offers the Energy Right Solutions Program to commercial and industrial facilities. In addition to prescriptive rebates for lighting, motors, HVAC, and kitchen equipment, administrators take a...

  20. Best Management Practice #7: Faucets and Showerheads

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    Most federal buildings have faucets in restrooms, kitchens, and laboratories. Many federal installations have showers, including barracks, family housing, recreation facilities, and locker rooms....

  1. additives food preservatives: Topics by E-print Network

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    writers and columnists, Good Food Epicure features industry news, restaurant, bar and wine reviews, recipes, the latest kitchen Peters, Richard 228 Data Preservation in High...

  2. american food market: Topics by E-print Network

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    writers and columnists, Good Food Epicure features industry news, restaurant, bar and wine reviews, recipes, the latest kitchen Peters, Richard 335 Market Research Berkeley...

  3. antifungal food preservative: Topics by E-print Network

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    writers and columnists, Good Food Epicure features industry news, restaurant, bar and wine reviews, recipes, the latest kitchen Peters, Richard 198 Data Preservation in High...

  4. Covered Product Category: Commercial Refrigerators and Freezers...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    because the air near the floor is cooler, especially in commercial kitchens. Ergonomics is another advantage to this configuration because food products are placed in the...

  5. Indoor Air Quality in 24 California Residences Designed as High Performance Green Homes

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Less, Brennan

    2012-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    the literature for problems with ventilation systems, withthat the problems of kitchen pollutants and ventilation areand Installation Problems in Mechanical Ventilation Systems

  6. DISCLAIMER

    Broader source: Energy.gov (indexed) [DOE]

    Kitchen, Department Head Technical and Review Services JLKJAQ: J q In Reply Refcr IO: United States Department of the Interior Fish and Wildlife Service Reynoldsburg Field O f...

  7. Isotopic Analysis At Valles Caldera - Redondo Geothermal Area...

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    system in the reservoir, followed by conductive reheating during downward movement. Computer-based chemical modeling using the EQ3NR code indicates stability with the...

  8. Analytical Modeling At Valles Caldera - Redondo Geothermal Area...

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    system in the reservoir, followed by conductive reheating during downward movement. Computer-based chemical modeling using the EQ3NR code indicates stability with the...

  9. Chemical and isotopic characteristics of fluids within the Baca...

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    by conductive reheating during downward movement. Chemical modeling using the EQ3NR computer code indicates chemical stability with the mineral assemblage quartz, albite, K-mica,...

  10. Complete fabrication of target experimental chamber and implement initial target diagnostics to be used for the first target experiments in NDCX-1

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Bieniosek, F.M.

    2008-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Drift Compression Magnet Chamber Ion Beam Background Plasmaand reheating of the ion source, the target chamber can betarget chamber ports are reserved for ion beam diagnostics

  11. POWER PLANT RELIABILITY-AVAILABILITY AND STATE REGULATION. VOLUME 7 OF THE FINAL REPORT ON HEALTH AND SAFETY IMPACTS OF NUCLEAR, GEOTHERMAL, AND FOSSIL-FUEL ELECTRIC GENERATION IN CALIFORNIA

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Nero, A.V.

    2010-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Removal Equipment (nuclear plant) Turbine Building ClosedCooling Water System (nuclear plant) SteamReheater (nuclear plant) Inspection Water Induction

  12. Project Profile: Modular and Scalable Baseload Molten Salt Plant...

    Broader source: Energy.gov (indexed) [DOE]

    and their integration with eSolar's heliostat technology and a conventional reheat steam turbine power block. In the final phase of this project, a full prototype module...

  13. 9/2/08 9:41 AMWhat's Lurking in Your Countertop? -NYTimes.com Page 1 of 3http://www.nytimes.com/2008/07/24/garden/24granite.html

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Llope, William J.

    ://www.nytimes.com/2008/07/24/garden/24granite.html Tony Cenicola/The New York Times TESTING Reports of granite emitting Liebert measures the radiation and radon emanating from granite like that in Lynn Sugarman's kitchen tracks in the kitchen, which had richly grained cream, brown and burgundy granite countertops. His Geiger

  14. Scenes vs. Objects: a Comparative Study of Two Approaches to Context Based Recognition

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Zhou, Yuanyuan

    category. For example, refrigerators usually appear in a kitchen, thus the usual background of refrigerators is similar. Having learned such a global feature of an object category, one can infer a potential object label: if the back- ground resembles a kitchen, then the patch of interest may be a refrigerator

  15. After a Fire, Is the Food Safe? esidential fires are, unfortunately, a common

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    to salvage their lives and belongings. Whether it is the whole house involved or just a fire in the kitchen The American Red Cross recommends that you: s Make your home fire-safe by installing battery-powered smoke- guisher in the kitchen. s Plan two emergency escape routes from each room in the house. Have rope or chain

  16. Final Report-Lux Greeners GO GREEN!! SAVE EARTH!!

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    van der Torre, Leon

    , even people separate plastic, it is only restricted to plastic bottles (water bottles, soft drink a regular practice in our residence that people separate the total garbage into plastic, paper, glass in every kitchen from all the floors. In some kitchens some people separate plastic from other waste

  17. Blackbrush shrublands occupy about three million acres of land in the western United States and they provide critical habitat for animals such as desert rodents, birds, and bighorn

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    of decades of work by U.S. Forest Service Rocky Mountain Research Station (RMRS) researchers Susan Meyer, Bryce Richardson, Rosemary Pendleton, Burton Pendleton, and Stanley Kitchen. Blackbrush shrublands Stanley Kitchen, this position between major climatic zones is significant because "blackbrush

  18. 49USDA Forest Service Proceedings RMRS-P-52. 2008 Abstract--Over the past several decades, cheatgrass (Bromus

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Whittaker, Bruce Roundy, Jeanne Chambers, Susan Meyer, Robert R. Blank, Stanley G. Kitchen, and John Korfmacher In: Kitchen, Stanley G.; Pendleton, Rosemary L.; Monaco, Thomas A.; Vernon, Jason, comps. 2008, Rocky Mountain Research Station, Reno, NV. Susan Meyer is a Research Ecologist, U.S. Forest Service

  19. Optimal Terminal Box Control for Single Duct Air-Handling Units 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Cho, Y.; Vondal, J.; Wang, G.; Liu, M.

    2006-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    in this building. Of these boxes, 39 boxes without a reheat coil serve interior zones and 67 reheat boxes serve exterior zones. The boxes are controlled by a pneumatic controller. 4.1 Conventional terminal box control sequence Before improving the terminal...

  20. Technical support document: Energy efficiency standards for consumer products: Room air conditioners, water heaters, direct heating equipment, mobile home furnaces, kitchen ranges and ovens, pool heaters, fluorescent lamp ballasts and television sets. Volume 3, Water heaters, pool heaters, direct heating equipment, and mobile home furnaces

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Not Available

    1993-11-01T23:59:59.000Z

    This is Volume 3 in a series of documents on energy efficiency of consumer products. This volume discusses energy efficiency of water heaters. Water heaters are defined by NAECA as products that utilize oil, gas, or electricity to heat potable water for use outside the heater upon demand. These are major appliances, which use a large portion (18% on average) of total energy consumed per household (1). They differ from most other appliances in that they are usually installed in obscure locations as part of the plumbing and are ignored until they fail. Residential water heaters are capable of heating water up to 180{degrees}F, although the setpoints are usually set lower.

  1. lectric Motors are used to drive tools and machines of all sizes. They move huge pots of molten steel in steel mills; they run mixers in the kitchen and drills in the garage.You may have used model cars or trains

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Weston, Ken

    model cars or trains powered by electric motors. Electricity for these motors may come from batteries, from house current, or from some special supply. The electric motor in your Discovery Kit is powered by a small battery. 3 E L E C T R I C M O T O R 2Student's Workbook 3IntroductIon Electric Motors are used

  2. Equivalence in Ventilation and Indoor Air Quality

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Sherman, Max

    2012-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    dryers, and other local ventilation. ? Occupant activitiesventilation such as that provided by economizers or intermittent locallocal kitchen and bath exhausts, but a large part of the standard focuses on the continuous mechanical whole-house ventilation.

  3. Ventilation Behavior and Household Characteristics in New California Houses

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Price, Phillip N.; Sherman, Max H.

    2006-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    and Mechanical Ventilation: Use of Local Exhaust Fans:pollutants. Large ventilation fans can cause local thermallocal contaminants such as those from kitchen and bathroom activities, then minimum building ventilation

  4. Table of Contents Page i 2013 Residential Compliance Manual January 2014

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    .........................................................................................................................1 6.1.2 Summary of Requirements by Space Type................................15 C. Integrated LED lamp with GU-24 base ......................................................23 6.4 Calculating Kitchen Wattage and Classifying Luminaires

  5. EA-1662: Finding of No Significant Impact

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    Energy Conservation Program: Energy Conservation Standards for Certain Consumer Products (Dishwashers, Dehumidifiers, Microwave Ovens, and Electric and Gas Kitchen Ranges and Ovens) and for Certain Commercial and Industrial Equipment (Commercial Clothes Washers)

  6. PRESSURIZATION TEST RESULTS: BONNEVILLE POWER ADMINISTRATION ENERGY CONSERVATION STUDY

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Krinkel, D.L.

    2013-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    ~"(- Submeters for water heaters, space heating equipment,the "point-of- use" water heaters under the kitchen sinks,with sub-meters for water heaters and space heating and

  7. SustainabilityCouncil MinutesandIAPProgress Nov6,2013 P.1 The University of Winnipeg

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Martin, Jeff

    efficiency boilers (hot water for kitchens) reflector project ­ decided not to proceed, hope to relocate ­ completed in-house boiler ­ off-seasonal steam boiler was hogging natural gas, replaced and using high

  8. is brochure is designed to guide you through some of the many ways OSU is working towards a sustainable future.

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Escher, Christine

    for natural cooling - a solar system that supplies much of the hot waterneeded for restrooms, kitchen areas cooler parts of the building in winter while cool air from outside is piped directly into the server room

  9. The COOP : shared space infrastructure for the creative city

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Olson, Timothy R. (Timothy Richard)

    2011-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The urban mainstream suffers from a lack of space. Kitchens are too small to hold a gathering of friends. Spare bedrooms, garages, basements, offices and parlors are foregone in the interest of compaction. The Rise of the ...

  10. Courtyard Hanover Lebanon 10 Morgan Drive

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Myers, Lawrence C.

    · Meeting spaces· Pool entrances· Restaurants and lounges· Self-operating lifts· Service animals allowed: HBO· Cable/satellite TV· Color TV· Wet bar· Kitchen Amenities Microwave oven· Silverware· Business

  11. Hubert C. Wyckoff, Jr.: Volume I Watsonville Recollections

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Regional History Project, UCSC Library; Wyckoff, Hubert C.; Jarrell, Randall

    1978-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    was very primitive. My mother would get a strainer,large strainer out of the kitchen; they'd putpiece of gauze over the strainer and she'd take a chloroform

  12. Food Preparation Navigating for Success Training Day Record

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    be other items you could substitute. Kitchen Equipment ________ Measuring cup ________ Strainer pieces. Dice: To cut into small, square-shaped pieces. Drain: To put food and liquid into a strainer (or

  13. Abandoned Property Abandoned and unclaimed property left in residential facilities, on breezeways, in stairwells, laundry

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Boyce, Richard L.

    , in stairwells, laundry rooms, or on the premises may be disposed of within 24 hours. Property left kitchens with ventilation hoods. Microwave cooking may occur in all residential rooms. Washing machines

  14. Relation Among Efficacy of Insecticides, Resistance Levels, and Sanitation in the Control of the

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    - roach populations in multiunit apartment complexes, the relationship between sanitation and cockroach of the German cockroach. Two mo- lasses baited sticky monitoring traps (Roach Pot) were placed in the kitchen

  15. Microsoft Word - Letter to region - delay in DSI Lookback - 072009...

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    bcc: 3 S. Wright - A-7 A. Burns - D-7 C. Brannon - DK-7 CCIS Authentication - KSC-4 R. Roach - L-7 J. Wright - LP-7 S. Cannady - PT-5 H. Clark - PTL-5 L. Kitchen - PTL-5 Official...

  16. Cornucopia: The Concept of Digital Gastronomy

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Zoran, Amit Shlomo

    The authors present a new concept of digital gastronomy—Cornucopia, a futuristic cooking methodology based on digital technologies. They discuss how they have merged kitchen tools with science fiction and actual technologies ...

  17. Monitoring & Analysis Program of Prison Sites for the Texas Department of Criminal Justice

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Eggebracht, J. A.; Heneghan, T.

    1996-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    ,000-bed prison units recording the energy use patterns of the administration, kitchen, laundry, medical, training, and inmate housing units. Specialized software has been developed that will allow TDCJ personnel to customize the data presentation...

  18. A 2D + 3D rich data approach to scene understanding

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Xiao, Jianxiong

    2013-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    On your one-minute walk from the coffee machine to your desk each morning, you pass by dozens of scenes - a kitchen, an elevator, your office - and you effortlessly recognize them and perceive their 3D structure. But this ...

  19. Our plumbing, ourselves : a public bath house

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Merceret, Honor

    1993-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Cleansing for being well Cleansing for well being. This thesis will consider: --how developments in plumbing and sewage and their related fixtures, kitchens and baths, parallel cultural changes throughout history. Though ...

  20. NREL: Continuum Magazine - NREL Provides a Foundation for Home...

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    began upstairs in the kitchen, and as homeowner Rocco Solano looked on, Bowman drew his weapons: a tape measure, combustion meters, and a master checklist. He moved with a...

  1. living on campus 2013 | 2014 hello & welcome

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Painter, Kevin

    housekeeping 06 keys 08 room 09 kitchen 10 washing 11 catering outlets 12 safety 14 mail 15 car 15 bike 15 student identity card please go to the main University Reception to get a spare

  2. This information describes typical occupations and employment settings associated with this major. Understand that some of these options may require additional training. Moreover, you are not limited to these options when choosing a possible career path.

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Arnold, Jonathan

    Food Production, Foodservice Management, Foodservice Purchasing, Food Equipment and Kitchen Planning to these options when choosing a possible career path. Description of Consumer Foods Recent surveys project Demonstrator Food Marketing Manager Food Service Director Freelance Food & Travel Writer Instructor Marketing

  3. Articulated pose estimation via over-parametrization and noise projection

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Brookshire, Jonathan David

    2014-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Outside the factory, robots will often encounter mechanical systems with which they need to interact. The robot may need to open and unload a kitchen dishwasher or move around heavy construction equipment. Many of the ...

  4. Norovirus Summit DVD The Clark County Health District has

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    and similar activities I After handling raw foods J After handling dirty kitchen utensils and kitchenware K handling any food, especially ready-to-eat foods and ice O After handling money (tips) ___________ 2

  5. Influence of climate and environment on post-fire recovery of mountain big sagebrush

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    . NelsonA,D , Peter J. WeisbergB and Stanley G. KitchenC A Program in Ecology, Evolution and Conservation and slow germination rates (Meyer 1994). The comparatively high seed production, smaller seeds and faster

  6. Ecological Applications, 24(2), 2014, pp. 413427 2014 by the Ecological Society of America

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    ,5 STANLEY G. KITCHEN,1 ROSEMARY L. PENDLETON,2 BURTON K. PENDLETON,2 MATTHEW J. GERMINO,3 GERALD E. REHFELDT,4 AND SUSAN E. MEYER 1 1 USDA Forest Service, Rocky Mountain Research Station, Provo, Utah 84606 USA

  7. A comparison of diagnostic techniques for detecting salmonella spp in equine fecal samples using culture methods, gel-based pcr, and real-time pcr assays

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Smith, Shelle Ann

    2007-09-17T23:59:59.000Z

    (TTH) [BD Diagnostics, Franklin Lakes, NJ, prepared by the Department of Veterinary Pathobiology (VTPB) 10 media kitchen] with 5 drops of iodine solution added. The MacConkey Agar plates, XLT4 plates, and inoculated Tetrathionate broth were..., prepared by the Department of Veterinary Pathobiology (VTPB) media kitchen] was then inoculated with solution from the Tetrathionate broth mixture using a sterile swab. The MAC plates, XLT4 plates, and inoculated RV broth were then incubated for 24 hrs...

  8. Computer vision determination of the stem/root joint on processing carrots 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Batchelor, Matthew McMahon

    1987-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Trimming ! Steamer ! Food Processor ! Kitchen Area Fig. 4- Carrot processing line In the preparation Area the carrots are removed from the 20 bushel transport boxes and checked for quality. The acceptable carrots are placed in a Dry Hopper... carrot material. The desirable carrot material is put through a steamer and a food processor and transported to a Kitchen Area. Here the carrots become part of the product of the processing fadlity. An evaluation of the ratio of carrots input...

  9. Response of South Texas Plains mixed-brush communities to pelleted picloram

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Kitchen, Lynn Maurice

    1977-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    RESPONSE OF SOUTH TEXAS PLAINS MIXED-BRUSH COMMUNITIES TO PELLETED PICLORAM A Thesis by LYNN MAURICE KITCHEN Submitted to the Graduate College of Texas A&M University in partial fulfillment of the requirement for the degree of MASTER... OF SCIENCE December 1977 Major Subject: Range Science RESPONSE OF SOUTH TEXAS PLAINS MIXED-BRUSH COMMUNITIES TO PELLETED PICLORAM A Thesis LYNN MAURICE KITCHEN Approved as to style and content by: (Ch an o ommittee) (Head of Department) (Member...

  10. Dark world and the standard model

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Zhao, Gang

    2009-06-02T23:59:59.000Z

    by the latest of CMB (Cosmic Microwave Background). The reason for the accelerated universe is the existence of dark energy. In this dissertation, we discuss the relationship between dark matter, dark energy, reheating and the standard model, and we find...

  11. aux explosions nucleaires: Topics by E-print Network

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    essentially undisturbed, even if the explosion is strong enough to blow away all the gas located inside the halo at the onset of the explosion and reheat the IGM surrounding...

  12. The Centers for Disease Control and Prevention's Vessel Sanitation Program is proud to bring to you the following

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    · Improper holding ·Improper cooling ·Improper cooking/reheating · Infected employees · Poor personal hygiene canned foods, temperature control #12;Campylobacter jejuni · Infection · Food ­ poultry · Raw milk Cross beef · Raw milk · Water Cooking, cross-contamination, personal hygiene #12;Clostridium perfringens

  13. Metrics and Benchmarks for Energy Efficiency in Laboratories

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Mathew, Paul

    2007-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    tons/gsf), boiler efficiency (%), pump- ing efficiency (hp/F W/gpm H7 Reheat Energy Use Factor Boiler Rated EfficiencyBoiler Part Load Efficiency Energy Recovery System

  14. Lessons learned in modeling Underfloor Air Distribution system

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Lee, Kwang Ho; Schiavon, Stefano; Webster, Tom; Bauman, Fred; Feng, Jingjuan; Hoyt, Tyler

    2011-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    terminal unit (TU) cooling design supply air temperature (due to the low supply airflow at low cooling load conditioncontrol the cooling air flow rate or reheated supply air to

  15. Laboratories for the 21st Century: Best Practices; Energy Recovery...

    Broader source: Energy.gov (indexed) [DOE]

    earlier, while these low-load spaces require reheat, most designs also have a small number of high-load spaces where internal cooling requirements can be met by supplemental...

  16. POTLUCK FOOD SAFETY 1. Definition

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    refrigerated until it is time to serve. Hot foods should be reheated rapidly to 74 degrees C (165F) using be destroyed by heating. Leftovers should be refrigerated as soon as possible after service

  17. Dark world and the standard model 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Zhao, Gang

    2009-06-02T23:59:59.000Z

    by the latest of CMB (Cosmic Microwave Background). The reason for the accelerated universe is the existence of dark energy. In this dissertation, we discuss the relationship between dark matter, dark energy, reheating and the standard model, and we find...

  18. Axion constraints in nonstandard thermal histories

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Grin, Daniel; Smith, Tristan L.; Kamionkowski, Marc [California Institute of Technology, Mail Code 130-33, Pasadena, California 91125 (United States)

    2008-04-15T23:59:59.000Z

    It is usually assumed that dark matter is produced during the radiation-dominated era. There is, however, no direct evidence for radiation domination prior to big-bang nucleosynthesis. Two nonstandard thermal histories are considered. In one, the low-temperature-reheating scenario, radiation domination begins as late as {approx}1 MeV, and is preceded by significant entropy generation. Thermal axion relic abundances are then suppressed, and cosmological limits to axions are loosened. For reheating temperatures T{sub rh} < or approx. 35 MeV, the large-scale structure limit to the axion mass is lifted. The remaining constraint from the total density of matter is significantly relaxed. Constraints are also relaxed for higher reheating temperatures. In a kination scenario, a more modest change to cosmological axion constraints is obtained. Future possible constraints to axions and low-temperature reheating from the helium abundance and next-generation large-scale-structure surveys are discussed.

  19. Flexibility of Commercial Building HVAC Fan as Ancillary Service for Smart Grid

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Maasoumy, Mehdi

    2013-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    associated with steam turbines is T 4 which corresponds tochest. For non-reheat steam turbines, this is the only timecontrol the flow of steam to the turbine. In the event of

  20. Glass Forming Ability and Relaxation Behavior of Zr Based Metallic Glasses

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Kamath, Aravind Miyar

    2012-07-16T23:59:59.000Z

    by using an annealing induced relaxation approach. The thermal relaxation was studied by measuring specific heat of the samples using differential scanning calorimeter (DSC) and calculating the enthalpy recovery on reheating in the BMG samples...

  1. Sub-lithospheric Small-scale Convection and Its Implications for the Residual Topography at Old Ocean Basins and the Plate Model

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Zhong, Shijie

    internal heating accounts for >~60% of the total heat output, the trapped heat may provide sufficient heat supply to preferentially reheat old lithosphere via SSC while maintaining uniform mantle temperature. We

  2. Sub-lithospheric Small-scale Convection and Its Implications for the Residual Topography at Old Ocean Basins and the Plate Model

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Zhong, Shijie

    internal heating account for >~60% of the total heat output, the trapped heat may provide sufficient heat supply to preferentially reheat old lithosphere via SSC while maintaining uniform mantle temperature. We

  3. Ignition Delay Times of Natural Gas/Hydrogen Blends at Elevated Pressures

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Brower, Marissa

    2012-10-19T23:59:59.000Z

    Applications of natural gases that contain high levels of hydrogen have become a primary interest in the gas turbine market. For reheat gas turbines, understanding of the ignition delay times of high-hydrogen natural gases is important for two...

  4. Optimization of supply air temperature reset schedule for a single duct VAV systems

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Fan, Wenshu

    2009-05-15T23:59:59.000Z

    In a single duct variable air volume (SDVAV) system, the supply air temperature is usually set as a constant value. Since this constant setpoint is selected to satisfy the maximum cooling load conditions, significant reheat will occur once...

  5. Innovative Self- Generating Projects

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Kelly, L.

    2013-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Steam Driven Cooling Water Pump Blast Furnace Coke Plant Flares Boilers Steam Header Electric Cooling Water Pump (Back-up) Process Steam (Main Plant) Coal Hot Mill Reheat Furnace COG Bunker Oil ESL-IE-13-05-06 Proceedings... Driven Cooling Pump (New Back-up) Blast Furnace Coke Plant Flares Boilers Parastic Loads Natural Gas Turbine Steam Header Electric Cooling Water Pump (with Power Meter) Net ElectricityG Process Steam (Main Plant) Coal Hot Mill Reheat...

  6. Crystal Orientation-Ordered ZnS Nanowire Bundles Daniel F. Moore, Yong Ding, and Zhong Lin Wang*

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Wang, Zhong L.

    -step thermal evaporation process in a horizontal tube furnace. Commercially available CdSe powder (Alfa Aesar of the tube was elevated to 1050 °C. Again, a nitrogen gas flow was introduced at 50 sccm, and the pressure, 99.995% purity, metal basis) was placed in the center of a single-zone tube furnace (Thermolyne 79300

  7. Complete composition tunability of InGaN nanowires using a combinatorial approach

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Yang, Peidong

    a horizontal, single-zone tube furnace and two independently controlled heating elements. InCl3, GaCl3 and NH3, particularly for In-rich nitride alloys, which has led to the need for increasingly high ammonia flow rates

  8. [Supporting Information] Piezopotential Gated Nanowire-Nanotube-Hybrid Field-Effect-

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Wang, Zhong L.

    in a single-zone horizontal tube furnace. Argon gas was used as carrier gas at a flow rate of 50 sccm material and loaded in an alumina boat located at the center of an alumina tube, which was placed a pressure of 250 mbar. Then the furnace was turned off, and the tube was cooled down to room temperature

  9. Superposition in Infiltration Modeling M. H. Sherman

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    in a single zone, usually calculate the air flows from the two natural driving forces (i.e., wind and stack: + infiltration - exfiltration 1,2 any driving force n a natural driving force w wind effect wind striking superposition law will be derived for combining wind, stack, and mechanical ventilation systems together

  10. Emission of volatile sulfur compounds during composting of municipal solid waste (MSW)

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Zhang, Hongyu [Beijing Building Materials Academy of Science Research/State Key Laboratory of Solid Waste Reuse for Building Material, Beijing 100041 (China); College of Resources and Environment Sciences, China Agricultural University, Beijing 100094 (China); Schuchardt, Frank [Johann Heinrich von Thuenen-Institute, Institute of Agricultural Technology and Biosystems Engineering, Bundesallee 50, 38116 Braunschweig (Germany); Li, Guoxue, E-mail: ligx@cau.edu.cn [College of Resources and Environment Sciences, China Agricultural University, Beijing 100094 (China); Yang, Jinbing; Yang, Qingyuan [College of Resources and Environment Sciences, China Agricultural University, Beijing 100094 (China)

    2013-04-15T23:59:59.000Z

    Highlights: ? We compare the volatile sulfur compounds (VSCs) emissions during three types of municipal solid wastes (MSWs) composting. ? The VSCs released from the kitchen waste composting was significantly higher than that from 15–80 mm fraction of MSW. ? Among the five VSCs, H{sub 2}S was the most abundant compound with 39.0–43.0% of total VSCs released. ? Addition of 20% cornstalks could significantly reduce the VSCs emissions during kitchen waste composting. - Abstract: Volatile sulfur compounds (VSCs) are the main source for malodor from composting plants. In this study, the VSCs generated from composting of 15–80 mm municipal solid waste (T0), kitchen waste (T1) and kitchen waste mixed dry cornstalks (T2) were measured in 60 L reactors with forced aeration for a period of 30 days. The VSCs detected in all treatments were hydrogen sulfide (H{sub 2}S), methyl mercaptan (MM), dimethyl sulfide (DMS), carbon bisulfide (CS{sub 2}) and dimethyl disulfide (DMDS). Over 90% of the VSCs emissions occurred during the first 15 days, and reached their peak values at days 4–7. The emission profiles of five VSCs species were significantly correlated with internal materials temperature and outlet O{sub 2} concentration (p < 0.05). Total emissions of the VSCs were 216.1, 379.3 and 126.0 mg kg{sup ?1} (dry matter) for T0, T1 and T2, respectively. Among the five VSCs, H{sub 2}S was the most abundant compound with 39.0–43.0% of total VSCs released. Composting of kitchen waste from separate collection posed a negative influence on the VSC and leachate production because of its high moisture content. An addition of dry cornstalks at a mixing ratio of 4:1 (wet weight) could significantly reduce the VSCs emissions and avoid leachate. Compared to pure kitchen waste, VSCs were reduced 66.8%.

  11. Improving the Efficient of Ernie Turner Center. Final Progress Report

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Fredeen, Amy

    2011-03-21T23:59:59.000Z

    The objective of this project was to complete the specifications and drawings for a variable speed kitchen exhaust system and the boiler heating system which when implemented will improve the heating efficiency of the building. The design work was focused in two key areas: kitchen ventilation and heating for the Ernie Turner Center building (ETC). RSA completed design work and issued a set of 100% drawings. RSA also worked with a cost estimator to put together a detailed cost estimate for the project. The design components are summarized.

  12. 4-H Favorite Foods Unit 1.

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Cox, Maeona; Mason, Louise; Reasonover, Frances; Tribble, Marie

    1958-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    for this unit: 1. Prepare and serve one food from each of these groups olte time or more. Candy Snacks Desserts Main dishes Breads Salads Drinks Vegetables Fruit Set the table five times or more. Help serve meals five times or more. Plan, prepare... and other equipment in the kitchen. 7. Learn to work safely. 8. Learn the best way to wash dishes and clean up the kitchen. 0 Learn to eat the foods listed on the Texas Food Standard. Keep your food record up to date. Exhibit one food you learned...

  13. The effect of meaningfulness on the shape of the serial position curve

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Edwards, Mark Lee

    1970-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    of this thesis. vi DEDICATION This thesis is dedicated to my wife, whose patience is surpassed only by her love. vii TABLE OF CONTENTS Page. Introduction and Review of Literature Method Results 15 Discussion 21 References 26 Vita 30 viii LIST 0...-hi-Lo) word m value icon 1. 54 3. 77 5. 61 pigment mallet insect 7. 39 army 9. 43 kitchen J ewel 9. 61 7. 58 kennel 5. 52 entrant 3. 55 10 bodkin 1. 39 (Hi-lo-Hi) word LIST 2 m value kitchen 9. 61 insect kennel 7. 39 5. 52 ntrant 3...

  14. Low-Flow Liquid Desiccant Air Conditioning: General Guidance and Site Considerations

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Kozubal, E.; Herrmann, L.; Deru, M.; Clark, J.

    2014-09-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Dehumidification or latent cooling in buildings is an area of growing interest that has been identified as needing more research and improved technologies for higher performance. Heating, ventilating, and air-conditioning (HVAC) systems typically expend excessive energy by using overcool-and-reheat strategies to dehumidify buildings. These systems first overcool ventilation air to remove moisture and then reheat the air to meet comfort requirements. Another common strategy incorporates solid desiccant rotors that remove moisture from the air more efficiently; however, these systems increase fan energy consumption because of the high airside pressure drop of solid desiccant rotors and can add heat of absorption to the ventilation air. Alternatively, liquid desiccant air-conditioning (LDAC) technology provides an innovative dehumidification solution that: (1) eliminates the need for overcooling and reheating from traditional cooling systems; and (2) avoids the increased fan energy and air heating from solid desiccant rotor systems.

  15. Testing erosion-resistant chromium carbide plasma coatings on the TVA Paradise Unit-2 intermediate pressure turbine

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Karr, O.F.; Frank, R.L.; Gaston, D.E. Jr.; Bradford, T.L.

    1986-05-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Solid particle erosion (SPE) is caused by oxide particles in steam. Hard oxide particles exfoliate from the inside surfaces of boiler tubes and steam lines and are carried by the steam to the turbine where they impact and erode stationary and moving turbine parts (nozzles, moving blades, stationary blades, seal strips, and shrouds around the blades). The first stages of the high pressure (HP) and intermediate pressure (IP) turbines experience the greatest amount of SPE. Though many owners experience erosion in the first stages of both HP (main steam) and IP (reheat steam) turbines, TVA's principal erosion experience is in the IP or reheat steam turbines. This report is limited to the first few stages of IP turbines, referred to as ''first reheat stages.'' Hard chromium carbide plasma coatings have been developed. The coating was installed in Paradise Unit-2 IP turbine, 9th and 10th stages. Pretest inspection report is given.

  16. Quintessential inflation on the brane and the relic gravity wave background

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Sami, M.; Sahni, V. [Inter-University Centre for Astronomy and Astrophysics (IUCAA), Post Bag 4, Ganeshkhind, Pune 411 007 (India)

    2004-10-15T23:59:59.000Z

    Quintessential inflation describes a scenario in which both inflation and dark energy (quintessence) are described by the same scalar field. In conventional braneworld models of quintessential inflation gravitational particle-production is used to reheat the universe. This reheating mechanism is very inefficient and results in an excessive production of gravity waves which violate nucleosynthesis constraints and invalidate the model. We describe a new method of realizing quintessential inflation on the brane in which inflation is followed by 'instant preheating' (Felder, Kofman and Linde 1999). The larger reheating temperature in this model results in a smaller amplitude of relic gravity waves which is consistent with nucleosynthesis bounds. The relic gravity wave background has a 'blue' spectrum at high frequencies and is a generic byproduct of successful quintessential inflation on the brane.

  17. Commissioning of A Large Office Building in Texas - A Case Study 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Deng, S.; Turner, W. D.; Liu, M.

    2000-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    to different zones was unbalanced and consequentially created "hot spots" in the areas where not enough cold air was supplied. Also, the zone temperature control system (i.e., thermostat, cold air damper and its actuator, and pneumatic to electrical (PE...-controlled, fan powered boxes with electric reheat. The twenty-three (23) remaining boxes are interior zone boxes without reheat. Calibration and inspection of the boxes uncovered main air dampers that could not fully open. The P/E (pneumatic to electric...

  18. Typical Problems of AHU and Air Movement in Buildings

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    2006-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    occupied zones #0;?#0;?#0;?#0;? Wrong Air Handling Process and ControlWrong Air Handling Process and Control #0;?#0;?#0;?#0;? TP4: Dislike fresh air?TP4: Dislike fresh air? #0;?#0;?#0;?#0;? TP5: Reheat of VAVBOX at partial load time in summerTP5: Reheat... of VAVBOX at partial load time in summer #0;?#0;?#0;?#0;? Unexpected Air Movement in BuildingsUnexpected Air Movement in Buildings #0;?#0;?#0;?#0;? TP6: Chimney effect leading to fresh air intake in highTP6: Chimney effect leading to fresh air intake in high...

  19. Axion Constraints in Non-standard Thermal Histories

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Grin, Daniel; Smith, Tristan; Kamionkowski, Marc [California Institute of Technology, Mail Code 130-33, Pasadena, CA 91125 (United States)

    2009-09-08T23:59:59.000Z

    There is no direct evidence for radiation domination prior to big-bang nucleosynthesis, and so it is useful to consider how constraints to thermally-produced axions change in non-standard thermal histories. In the low-temperature-reheating scenario, radiation domination begins as late as {approx}1 MeV, and is preceded by significant entropy generation. Axion abundances are then suppressed, and cosmological limits to axions are significantly loosened. In a kination scenario, a more modest change to axion constraints occurs. Future possible constraints to axions and low-temperature reheating are discussed.

  20. Thermal axion constraints in non-standard thermal histories

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Grin, Daniel; Smith, Tristan; Kamionkowski, Marc [California Institute of Technology, Mail Code 130-33, Pasadena, CA 91125 (United States)

    2010-08-30T23:59:59.000Z

    There is no direct evidence for radiation domination prior to big-bang nucleosynthesis, and so it is useful to consider how constraints to thermally-produced axions change in non-standard thermal histories. In the low-temperature-reheating scenario, radiation domination begins as late as {approx}1 MeV, and is preceded by significant entropy generation. Axion abundances are then suppressed, and cosmological limits to axions are significantly loosened. In a kination scenario, a more modest change to axion constraints occurs. Future possible constraints to axions and low-temperature reheating are discussed.

  1. Thermal axion constraints in non-standard thermal histories

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Daniel Grin; Tristan Smith; Marc Kamionkowski

    2009-11-10T23:59:59.000Z

    There is no direct evidence for radiation domination prior to big-bang nucleosynthesis, and so it is useful to consider how constraints to thermally-produced axions change in non-standard thermal histories. In the low-temperature-reheating scenario, radiation domination begins at temperatures as low as 1 MeV, and is preceded by significant entropy generation. Axion abundances are then suppressed, and cosmological limits to axions are significantly loosened. In a kination scenario, a more modest change to axion constraints occurs. Future possible constraints to axions and low-temperature reheating are discussed.

  2. Neutralino dark matter from heavy axino decay

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Choi, Ki-Young [Departamento de Fisica Teorica C-XI, Universidad Autonoma de Madrid, Cantoblanco, 28049 Madrid (Spain); Instituto de Fisica Teorica UAM/CSIC, Universidad Autonoma de Madrid, Cantoblanco, 28049 Madrid (Spain); Kim, Jihn E. [Department of Physics and Astronomy, Seoul National University, Seoul 151-747 (Korea, Republic of); Lee, Hyun Min [Department of Physics, Carnegie Mellon University, 5000 Forbes Avenue, Pittsburgh, PA 15213 (United States); Seto, Osamu [Instituto de Fisica Teorica UAM/CSIC, Universidad Autonoma de Madrid, Cantoblanco, 28049 Madrid (Spain)

    2008-06-15T23:59:59.000Z

    We consider cosmological consequences of a heavy axino, decaying to the neutralino in R-parity conserving models. The importance and influence of the axino decay on the resultant abundance of neutralino dark matter depends on the lifetime and the energy density of axino. For a high reheating temperature after inflation, copiously produced axinos dominate the energy density of the universe, and its decay produces a large amount of entropy. As a bonus, we obtain that the upper bound on the reheating temperature after inflation via gravitino decay can be moderated, because the entropy production by the axino decay more or less dilutes the gravitinos.

  3. Boom and Bust Inflation: A Graceful Exit via Compact Extra Dimensions

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Brown, Adam R. [Physics Department, Columbia University, New York, New York 10027 (United States)

    2008-11-28T23:59:59.000Z

    A model of inflation is proposed in which compact extra dimensions allow a graceful exit without recourse to flat potentials or super-Planckian field values. Though bubbles of true vacuum are too sparse to uniformly reheat the Universe by colliding with each other, a compact dimension enables a single bubble to uniformly reheat by colliding with itself. This mechanism, which generates an approximately scale invariant perturbation spectrum, requires that inflation be driven by a bulk field, that vacuum decay be slow, and that the extra dimension be at least a hundred times larger than the false vacuum Hubble length.

  4. E F F I C I E N CY A N D R E N E W A B L E E N E R GY D IV I S I O N CALIFORNIA ENERGY COMMISSION

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    -building continuous ventilation and (2) local kitchen and bathroom exhaust ventilation. There are a variety of ways not open windows regularly for ventilation. As a result, the 2008 Standards include mandatory mechanical ventilation strategies intended to improve air quality in houses, apartments, and other residential buildings

  5. 20-20 Technologies NEWS & EVENTS

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    focus on the Kitchen manufacturing industry. "Additionally, with 20-20's electronic data integration-20 Technologies Inc. (TSX: TWT), the world leader in 3D interior design and furniture manufacturing software, announced today that Wellborn Forest Products, a manufacturer of custom and semi- custom frameless

  6. College of Agricultural Sciences Cooperative Extension 2020 Ways to Save Waterin an Emergency

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Boyer, Elizabeth W.

    by stopping the drain. 7Do not water lawns or wash cars when water is in short supply. Also, try to water you have finished soaping up, turn the shower back on to rinse off. If your shower is not equipped rinsing a dirty diaper and to cut down on the amount of soiled laundry to be washed. 20Reuse kitchen drain

  7. CRP 6270-001 KENDAL PROJECT: SCENARIO 6

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    materials and labor, and the various wholesale and retail items necessary for restaurant operations (kitchen in three main economic sectors of Tompkins County and other regions: 1) Construction, 2) Wholesale Trade required to build the structure and labor costs. Wholesale trade includes additives that need

  8. CONTRIBUTION TO THE ACM CONFERENCE ON HUMAN FACTORS IN COMPUTING SYSTEMS (CHI '89) Topic Area: Interface Design Tools and Techniques (specifically: User Interface Tools Kits; Rapid

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Fischer, Gerhard

    for Constructive and Argumentative Design Gerhard Fischer and Anders Morch Department of Computer Science and contains useful information about the principles of kitchen design. The integration of these two types: Interface Design Tools and Techniques (specifically: User Interface Tools Kits; Rapid Prototyping

  9. Got the "Buy Local" bug? Here are some resources for you! From farmers markets to grocery stores to university cafeterias, more retailers are showcasing food

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Debinski, Diane M.

    facilities, including cold storage buildings or permanently affixed cooling, circulating, and monitoring equipment for storing fruits and vegetables. Cold storage can be particularly important to those growing for commercial kitchens, farmers markets, food banks, cold storage facilities, food hubs and other local food

  10. 26 McCormick / spring ALL IN A DAY'S WORK

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    MacIver, Malcolm A.

    fumes out of the kitchen and into the cold air. Malin has come to Edzo's to conduct an energy audit involved with energy audits. Working with professional energy consultants, Malin and other ESW members have, an assessment that determines how much energy a building uses and suggests ways to lower consumption

  11. More than imagination needed : Asquith's government and the Dardanelles Campaign 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Hallman, Charles Albert

    2001-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    German invasion. It is not known what effect the scare of a German airship invasion played in Kitchener's decisions, but the Magnus, p. 312-313. ' Ferguson, p. 87. 30 notion had shaken many in the government since H. G. Wells' work and the Zepplin...

  12. C:\\Users\\zita\\Documents\\FireWater\\2013fall\\workshops\\FWResQH.doc 1 Research Questions, Fire & Water wk. 1 (Thus. am, 4 Oct. 2013)

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Zita, E.J.

    to make biodiesel out of blue-green algae. I hear it's great stuff. Question 1: Can biodiesel be made from blue-green algae, efficiently and cost-effectively? Under what circumstances? Question 2: If biodiesel? Hypotheses A for Question 1: Yes, I can easily make biodiesel in my kitchen, from algae grown in my bathtub

  13. BOILING CRISIS:THEORY,SIMULATION,AND EXPERIMENTSBOILING CRISIS: THEORY, SIMULATION, AND EXPERIMENTS Boiling is a very efficient way to transfer heat from a heater to the liquid heat carrier. We discuss the

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Nikolayev, Vadim S.

    that separates the liquid from the heater. Film boiling can be also observed in the kitchen by sprinkling water onto a hot frying pan. In spite of the large temperature of the heater (the pan) the water drops Boiling is a very efficient way to transfer heat from a heater to the liquid heat carrier. We discuss

  14. SHASTA COUNTY The Shasta County Jail is a 115,035 square-foot facility located in Redding. Built in

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    identified ways to improve the comfort and reduce operating costs of the jail through energy efficiency by 1997. PROJECTS IMPLEMENTED The County Jail received a comprehensive efficiency makeover that included: · Replacing the electric boiler with a natural gas-fired boiler to provide hot water for domestic, kitchen

  15. Sonoma State University Top 10 Reasons Students Love SSU

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Ravikumar, B.

    ] Sustainability SSU is known as a model for sustainability and has won several national awards for sustainable practices. The University manages 4,000 acres of wilderness preserve where students study sustainable and inviting common areas with modern kitchens provide comfortable living. The Princeton Review ranked SSU

  16. 2009 Virginia Polytechnic Institute and State University 2901-9012 Virginia Cooperative Extension programs and employment are open to all, regardless of race, color, national origin, sex, religion, age, disability, political beliefs, sexual orientation, o

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Liskiewicz, Maciej

    feet from house. · Bathroom ventilation fan with humidistat or timer vented to exterior. · Kitchen, Administrator, 1890 Extension Program, Virginia State, Petersburg. ENERGY SERIES: What Can Builders Do to Help Energy and Environmental Building Association's Water Management Guide specifications. Roof · Roof slope

  17. 25shift SUSTAINABILITY INITIATIVES AT UBC'S OKANAGAN CAMPUS 25shift SUSTAINABILITY INITIATIVES AT UBC'S OKANAGAN CAMPUS Anyone who has been at UBC's Okanagan campus for any

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Pulfrey, David L.

    program collects 2,000 pounds of kitchen organics each month, plus another 1,000 pounds of organic waste the years as he spends his days gathering recyclable materials that are then sent to area recycling plants and is a key contributor to the campus-wide recycling program. Peter works at UBC's Okanagan campus through

  18. Lonnie Oral History

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Kolavalli, Chhaya; ---, Lonnie

    2014-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    if we can swing it. We get a lot of our wood donated, so that helps with the heating bill. We have solar panels on the roof here, 60% of the power... guess.” I didn’t know about a lot of the soup kitchens then. And I walked through Washington Park, a light rain was falling and I was just miserable. This was...

  19. Weekly Security Incident Log Period of Apr 29 -May 5, 2013

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    2013-000845 YORK LANES RETAIL Gas leak Security, Toronto Fire and Enbridge Gas responded to a report of a natural gas odour in the building. The source of the odour was located in a restaurant kitchen. EnbridgeWeekly Security Incident Log Period of Apr 29 - May 5, 2013 Incident No. Reported Date Building

  20. VEGETATIVE CHARACTERISTICS OF PRONGHORN BED SITES IN WIND CAVE NATIONAL PARK, SOUTH DAKOTA --Much of the previous

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    49 NOTES VEGETATIVE CHARACTERISTICS OF PRONGHORN BED SITES IN WIND CAVE NATIONAL PARK, SOUTH DAKOTA mortality (Beale 1978, Barrett 1984, Gregg et al. 2001) and social behavior (Kitchen 1974, Autenrieth. The pronghorn was reintroduced into Wind Cave National Park, South Dakota, in 1914 and thus, has been maintained

  1. Michael Cooney, a researcher with the UH Manoa Hawaii Natural Energy Institute, in his lab

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    King Founder & Owner Pacific Biodiesel Technologies, LLC. 808.877.3144 info@biodiesel.com Renewable at Manoa are working with Maui based company Pacific Biodiesel to develop a way to make water from Biodiesel Technologies, LLC. Wastewater from dishwashing and cleaning kitchens would clog sewer lines

  2. 12/27/08 7:27 PMAngie's List Magazine Page 1 of 2http://magazine.angieslist.com/story/web_the-truth-about-granite

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Llope, William J.

    12/27/08 7:27 PMAngie's List Magazine Page 1 of 2http://magazine.angieslist.com/story/web_the-truth-about-granite of Atlanta Intown Granite and says his product is safe. MONDAY, DECEMBER 01, 2008 Unearthing the truth about granite By Paul F. P. Pogue Coby and Daine Pearson, of Atlanta, bought granite kitchen countertops in 2006

  3. STAG UK Newsletter Issue 7

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    1974-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    HINI CON MINI CON Who put a notice on. Jenny's back which said tina smoking allowedl'i? Who 1"as ehased out of the kitchen with the bread knife? ,lHO put the notiee on the free buffet table;"Chi.cken Sandwiches free to Committee members only...

  4. Developmental Science 12:2 (2009), pp 264271 DOI: 10.1111/j.1467-7687.2008.00758.x 2008 The Authors. Journal compilation 2008 Blackwell Publishing Ltd, 9600 Garsington Road, Oxford OX4 2DQ, UK and

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Carpenter, M.alinda

    2009-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    on the kitchen counter, I could mean almost anything. In terms of referent, I could be indicating the backpack still might mean almost anything from `it's time to do your home- work' to `try searching there for your intention or meaning; see Tomasello, Carpenter & Liszkowski, 2007, for more on these terms). Recent

  5. Joseph Skowronek, '06 Khao Lak, Thailand

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    for the rest of the trip. We went to the volunteer center to talk to them about where they needed the most help. This is when we decided to work construction in a village called Laem Pom, where the majority of the Tsunami in the construction work; rather they cooked in a community kitchen. The women got together and prepared all

  6. This is an author-deposited version published in: http://oatao.univ-toulouse.fr/ Eprints ID: 6550

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Mailhes, Corinne

    into the atmosphere in Europe and France, respectively (CITEPA, 2011), mainly as PM emitted by acid battery recycling t In the context of peri-urban atmospheric pollution by industrial lead recycling emissions, metal can transfer regarding consumption of vegetables from kitchen gardens. 1. Introduction Nowadays, metal recycling

  7. This is an author-deposited version published in: http://oatao.univ-toulouse.fr/ Eprints ID: 6550

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Paris-Sud XI, Université de

    , respectively (CITEPA, 2011), mainly as PM emitted by acid battery recycling and lead production (Batonneau et pollution by industrial lead recycling emissions, metal can transfer to plant shoots. Home gardeners of vegetables from kitchen gardens. 1. Introduction Nowadays, metal recycling and production processes release

  8. RADISSON RESORT AT THE PORT HAS SELF-ASSESSED ITS

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Jawitz, James W.

    PROGRAMS RADISSON RESORT AT THE PORT #12;BATTERY RECYCLING AND DISPOSAL PROGRAM RADISSON RESORT AT THE PORT #12;KITCHEN COOKING OIL RECYCLING PROGRAM RADISSON RESORT AT THE PORT #12;USES GROUNDWATER FOR COOLING ELECTRONICALLY RADISSON RESORT AT THE PORT #12;PENS AND NOTEPADS PRODUCED FROM RECYCLED MATERIALS RADISSON RESORT

  9. LIST OF HOSTELS AND HOTELS NEARBY HKU Attention please

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Tam, Vincent W. L.

    (1405'-1673') * Furnished with air-conditioning, TV, bathroom and telephone, duplex suite has kitchen. ft.) * Fully furnished, air-conditioning, refrigerator , TV, telephone, electrical water kettle) · Twin Room (public bathroom) (Approx. 75 - 210 sq. ft.) * Fully furnished, air-conditioning

  10. Geophys. J. Int. (2007) 170, 933951 doi: 10.1111/j.1365-246X.2007.03437.x GJIVolcanology,geothermics,fluidsandrocks

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Barrash, Warren

    2007-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    , such as a fault or fracture, are implemented naturally. The method we employ for including a slip interface characterized as a slip interface, we propose an equivalent-layer model under the assumption of weak scattering hydrocarbon traps and pathways (Hooper 1991) for hydro- carbons to move from deep kitchens into shallower

  11. Hysteresis effects in hybrid building ventilation

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Flynn, Morris R.

    = Heating, ventilation & air conditioning Buildings and energy consumption #12;· Notwithstanding this energy-breeze, displacement ventilation dissipate internal heat gains e.g. from kitchen stove · Wintertime: Spaces filledHysteresis effects in hybrid building ventilation Morris R. Flynn Dept. of Mechanical & Aerospace

  12. E F F I C I E N CY A N D R E N E W A B L E E N E R GY D IV I S I O N CALIFORNIA ENERGY COMMISSION

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    · Energy Education Center Wins Awards · Indoor Ventilation Requirements · Energy Standards Hotline, Outdoor 53 Water Heating 42 Climate Zones 40 Computer Programs 37 Walls 36 Lighting, Kitchen 20 Website Reference Appendices 5 Other 111 Not recorded 65 Total 1966 Indoor Ventilation Based on ASHRAE 62.2 Arnold

  13. ECOVILLAGE FACTS The complex includes 50 apartments (18 original and 32 new)

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Baltisberger, Jay H.

    radiant floor heating o Structurally insulated panels (SIPs) · In additional to individual garden plots of the Ecovillage apartments include: o solar tubes and compact fluorescent lighting o low-flow toilets, community gatherings o Kitchen o Playroom o Dryers for Ecovillage residents o Solar water heater o Solar

  14. Beechenhurst visitor centre A new environmentally-friendly

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    efficiently. The rest of the building has under floor heating which runs on LPG. Solar Four solar thermal, is the sole source of heating for the shop. It operates using clean-burn technology which produces heat more panels mounted on the roof provide hot water to the hand basins in the toilets and kitchen. Water

  15. Be Environmentally Responsible! Minimize the amount of cardboard boxes

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Westerling, Anthony L.

    ­ (only fish in 10 gal. tank or smaller are permitted) · Weapons ­ guns, stun guns, tasers, air guns, nunchucks · Kitchen Appliances ­ rice cooker, coffee pot, hot water pot, crockpots, toasters, toaster oven, space heaters/sun lamps, BBQ grills, etc. GO GREEN CONTACT YOUR ROOMMATE Space is limited so contact

  16. Computer Science and Artificial Intelligence Laboratory Technical Report

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Lozano-Perez, Tomas

    environment: there are a few rooms, some food items in the kitchen refrigerator, dishes and pans in the refrigerator, washing the pans and even picking up the dirty cup someone left in the living room). As part, moving items out of the refrigerator to reach the desired food items and then replacing them. Throughout

  17. STATE OF CALIFORNIA RESIDENTIAL LIGHTING

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    STATE OF CALIFORNIA RESIDENTIAL LIGHTING CEC-CF-6R-LTG-01 (Revised 08/09) CALIFORNIA ENERGY COMMISSION INSTALLATION CERTIFICATE CF-6R-LTG-01 Residential Lighting (Page 1 of 6) Site Address: Enforcement Agency: Permit Number: 2008 Residential Compliance Forms August 2009 1. Kitchen Lighting Does project

  18. Nordisk kernesikkerhedsforskning Norrnar kjarnryggisrannsknir

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    bomb, decision-making, waste management, kitchen garden NKS-175 ISBN 978-87-7893-241-9 Electronic and associated waste management options. A number of non-technical aspects of contamination in inhabited areas for evaluation of countermeasures and associated waste management options. A number of non-technical aspects

  19. UMR is excited to welcome you to 318 Commons!

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Amin, S. Massoud

    Square first; before you check in to 318 Commons!) ·Kitchen equipment: ·Dishes ·Cups / glasses / mugs and washcloths ·Bathrobe ·Shower curtain ·Bathmat or rug ·Shower curtain rings ·Personal toiletries (shampoo ·Stereo / Ipod ·Vacuum ·DVD Player #12;·Printer ·Alarm clock ·TV (flat screens can NOT be wall mounted

  20. 1 BASEMENT STORAGE 3 MICROSCOPE LAB

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Boonstra, Rudy

    MECHANICAL ROOM 13 SHOWER ROOMSAIR COMPRESSOR 14 NITROGEN STORAGE 15 DIESEL FUEL STORAGE 16 ACID NEUT. TANK NMR RELAXOMETER ROOM 13 LARGE MEETING ROOM (INCL. KITCHEN) 14 STIPEND / VISITOR OFFICE 15 GRAD OFFICE ROOM / TECH OFFICE 5 ELECTRICAL CLOSET 6 NMR RELAXOMETER ROOM 7 DRY SOLVENT ROOM 8 MEETING ROOM

  1. Ph.D. Thesis Optical Sensors Based on Dedicated

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Ph.D. Thesis Optical Sensors Based on Dedicated Diffractive Optical Elements STEVEN RICHARD KITCHEN;Abstract This thesis deals with the development of optical sensors based on laser diodes and dedicated part of the project deals with development of optical flow sensor systems. Firstly, a new beam splitter

  2. Kylteknik ("KYL")Kylteknik ("KYL") RefrigerationRefrigerationRefrigerationRefrigeration

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Zevenhoven, Ron

    ; Gas processing (O2, H2, CO2, LPG, LNG...) (3) Air conditioning, cooling towers, rg/pages/zon Air conditioning, cooling towers, food cooling and freezing (4) Heat pumps, heat pipes, special ww.sgisland.o p p ( ) "In a refigeration process, energy is converted into heat transfer." (S90) kitchen

  3. Revised: March 6, 2013 2013 Residential Building Energy Efficiency Standards Measures Summary

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    1 Revised: March 6, 2013 2013 Residential Building Energy Efficiency Standards Measures; allows Smart Vents and Night Breeze as alternatives in CZs 814. (Section 150.1(c)12) 4. Adding for all residential buildings including kitchens, bathrooms, dining rooms, utility rooms, garages, hall

  4. www.ext.vt.edu Produced by Communications and Marketing, College of Agriculture and Life Sciences,

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Liskiewicz, Maciej

    Wastes with Worms Lori Marsh, Extension Engineer, Biological Systems Engineering Department,Virginia Tech create odor problems and adds to the volume of waste going to the landfill. Disposing of kitchen scraps in a garbage dis- posal is convenient, but it adds to the burden of the waste-treatment system and throws away

  5. Ecologically friendly buildings The new de Picciotto building for scientific and technical research which will be

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Shapiro, Ehud

    with vegetation which offers the pro's to isolate the roof from heat, they absorb moisture and reduce temperatures for the separation of waste at source in the kitchens and other central areas in the building. Electric hand dryers in the building. #12;Separation of Biodegradable Waste The separation of biodegradable waste started in January

  6. Indian Academy of Sciences NOTICE INVITING QUOTATIONS FROM CATERING SERVICES

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Joshi, Yogesh Moreshwar

    Indian Academy of Sciences Bangalore NOTICE INVITING QUOTATIONS FROM CATERING SERVICES 1. Indian Academy of Sciences (Academy), invites quotations for catering services for its guest house (Fellows Residency) at Jalahalli campus and at hired service apartments. 2. The Academy will provide the kitchen

  7. Indian Academy of Sciences Notice inviting quotations for catering services

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Joshi, Yogesh Moreshwar

    1 Indian Academy of Sciences Bangalore Notice inviting quotations for catering services 1. Indian Academy of Sciences (Academy), invites quotations for Catering Services for its guest house (Fellows Residency) at Jalahalli campus and at hired service apartments. 2. The Academy will provide the kitchen

  8. Tufts University Office of Residential Life & Learning ver.11.2013 Tufts University Office of Residential Life & Learning

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Tufts University

    Tufts University ­ Office of Residential Life & Learning ver.11.2013 Tufts University ­ Office of Residential Life & Learning Residence Hall Lounge & Kitchen Policies for Use Please review the following each policy.* Quiet Hours Please remember that each residence hall is primarily a residential facility

  9. Duties of a Custodian Custodians Do: Custodians Do Not

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Abolmaesumi, Purang

    , and urinals; clean partitions Damp wipe/ vacuum vents � Sort through recycling containers to separate paper stations are found near kitchens and lounges, and in public areas · Dedicated recycling containers for cans, glass, and plastic are also located near central waste stations · Blue boxes at Queen's University

  10. Rosalie Wells / Woolf Essay Prize 2013 "It was certainly an odd monster that one made up by reading the historians first and the

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Lasenby, Joan

    in a kitchen chopping up suet" What is the benefit of reading history alongside literature and vice versa intense in the 16th and 17th centuries. Reading history alongside literature and vice versa is not merely? Virginia Woolf presented us with the perplexing paradox of women in history in `A room of one's own'; `She

  11. Journal of Food Protection, Vol. 76, No. 12, 2013, Pages 21322140 doi:10.4315/0362-028X.JFP-13-126

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    2132 Journal of Food Protection, Vol. 76, No. 12, 2013, Pages 2132­2140 doi:10.4315/0362-028X the kitchen (defined as the manager) using a standard questionnaire about food safety policies, hamburger preparation policies, and use of irradiated ground beef. Interviews were followed by observations of ground

  12. JOHN VENN'S PIZZA PARTY School or club name

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Mitchener, W. Garrett

    thought for a moment, then set the timer for SEVENNTEEN minutes. "That's about half way in between." Tony arrived first. "Hey John," he said, "you need to clean up your kitchen! Look at all these roaches and a coffee maker. It's my own INVENNTION ." 1 #12;Tony looked at the contraption warily, as John pointed out

  13. Green cottage design in the New Forest Two new timber cottages in the

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    timber frame. Solar energy The kitchen maximises passive solar design, with floor to ceiling windows standards. It took less than a year (from planning consent to completion) to build the timber-framed energy · Achieved Code for Sustainable Homes Level Four. · 100% sustainably sourced timber. · 100% low energy

  14. Biodiesel Engine Testing MECH-457 Final Report

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Biodiesel Engine Testing MECH-457 Final Report Submitted to Jon Mikkelsen April 11, 2005 Darren at UBC has begun producing biodiesel fuel from waste cooking oils acquired from campus kitchens. Using biodiesel in a four-cylinder, 30 hp Kubota engine (V1305). This engine was chosen because it is used

  15. Sexual dimorphisms in habitat-specific morphology and behavior in the green anole lizard

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Johnson, Michele A.

    1 , T. J. Sanger2,3 , A. C. Battles1 & M. A. Johnson1 1 Department of Biology, Trinity University Michele A. Johnson, Department of Biology, Trinity University, One Trinity Place, San Antonio, TX 78212, USA. Tel: 210-999-8918; Fax: 210-999-7229 Email: michele.johnson@trinity.edu Editor: Andrew Kitchener

  16. A Machine-to-Machine Architecture to Merge Semantic Sensor Measurements

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Gesbert, David

    network Smart home & smart kitchen M2M area network M2M application: Suggest a recipe according the mood. PROBLEM Machine-to-Machine (M2M) applications are more and more popular due to the availability of smart M2M devices (sensors). M2M devices are used in a great deal of realms such as home monitoring [19

  17. An Architecture to Aggregate Heterogeneous and Semantic Sensed Data

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Gesbert, David

    for smart homes. Sense2Web [4] is a Linked Data Platform to publish sensor data and to link them to existing to the measurements. Existing works focus on a specific sensor network: smart home, smart kitchen, weather forecasting networks such as healthcare, home or environmental monitoring, weather forecasting, etc. All sensor

  18. An Object-Oriented Method for ASCET Max Fuchs and Dieter Nazareth

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    98MF19 BMW-ROOM An Object-Oriented Method for ASCET Max Fuchs and Dieter Nazareth BMW AG, 80788 Munich Maximilian.Fuchs,Dieter.Nazareth@bmw.de Dirk Daniel and Bernhard Rumpe Department of Computer kitchen without a cooking book. Plans to employ the tool for BMW vehicle software sparked off demand

  19. Best Management Practice #8: Steam Boiler Systems

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    Boilers and steam generators are commonly used in large heating systems, institutional kitchens, or in facilities where large amounts of process steam are used. This equipment consumes varying amounts of water depending on system size, the amount of steam used, and the amount of condensate returned.

  20. Best Management Practice #8: Boiler and Steam Systems

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    Boilers and steam generators are commonly used in large heating systems, institutional kitchens, or in facilities where large amounts of process steam are used. This equipment consumes varying amounts of water depending on system size, the amount of steam used, and the amount of condensate returned.

  1. GREETINGS FROM THE CHAIR www.engr.wisc.edu/bme

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Wisconsin at Madison, University of

    's disease over the last 15 years. She would love to again be able to enjoy cooking in her kitchen and to regain the ability to complete everyday tasks. Complications from her condition cause her to be severely that can be worn to help hold her upright while also increasing her mobility.The students'hope is to allow

  2. Prevalence of chronic obstructive pulmonary disease in rural women of

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Silver, Whendee

    for refining disease burden assessments attributable to household biomass combustion Priscilla Johnson1 January and May 2007. COPD assessments were done using a combination of clinical examination spend !2 hours/day in the kitchen involved in cooking. Use of solid fuel was associated with higher risk

  3. Enzyme and Microbial Technology 51 (2012) 396401 Contents lists available at SciVerse ScienceDirect

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    , especially in hot water pipes, heaters, boilers, kitchens, bathtubs, and other units [4,5]. Therefore, prior electricity-driven water softening system Mary A. Arugulaa , Kristen S. Brastada , Shelley D. Minteerb , Zhen August 2012 Keywords: Hardness Water softening Enzymatic biofuel cell Electricity Desalination a b s t r

  4. Water softening using microbial desalination cell technology Kristen S. Brastad a,b

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    infrastructure such as pipes, water heaters, bath tubs, kitchen appliances, and sinks [3,4]. Water softeningWater softening using microbial desalination cell technology Kristen S. Brastad a,b , Zhen He a T S A microbial desalination cell (MDC) is used to soften the hard water. The MDC achieves more than 90% removal

  5. Reliability, Safety, and Security in Everyday Embedded Systems

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Koopman, Philip

    lives. From automobiles to elevators, kitchen appliances to televisions, and water heaters to cell. A domestic hot water heater that overheats water, causing scalding burns on a child. A thermostat that doesn't turn on heat when needed, causing household water pipes to freeze and burst. A microwave oven

  6. Microstructural Evolution in Power Plant Steels

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Cambridge, University of

    energy of the steam is converted to electrical energy by a system of turbines and a generator. Figure 2 temperature as possible. Progress in power-plant alloy design has allowed T1 to be increased from 370 C Steels Pump Cooling water Cooling water Electrical output Condenser Reheat Coal Boiler Superheater Ash HP

  7. Advanced Technology for Economical Dehumidification to Improve Indoor Air Quality

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Beckwith, W. R.

    1996-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    humidity. Finally, the offgassing of chemicals such as formaldehyde, from urea-formaldehyde products, and the perception of odors all increase in high humidity [5] (see Fig. 1 .). Prior to the mid-1970s. humidity was controlled by using a reheat...

  8. Combined fast valving and braking resistor application to improve transient stability

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Chen, Jen-Yeu Thomas

    1982-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    power input to the turbogenerator is measured with a reheater pressure transducer and the electrica1 power output from the generator is measured with a kw transducer. When the 10 0 V 0 C4 4 0) f-4 H m Cd . A ) N Cd VII &D '0 (U Ctd cd cdm OE...

  9. The GTE Ceramic Recuperator for High Temperature Waste Heat Recovery

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Dorazio, R. E.; Gonzalez, J. M.; Ferri, J. L.; Rebello, W. J.; Ally, M. R.

    1984-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    ,721 3 5 3.2 23 HOIo"met Turbi.ne Whitehall, HI Investment. Die Reheat, Tuonel 111,514 80,762 .:.:. National Forge Irvine, PA Carbottom Forge Rebt, Steel 675,318 149,443 43.7 109,250 1.4 1.5 ~3 Bucyrus Erie MilYaukee, WI Carbott.om Reat Treat...

  10. The Astrophysical Journal, 722:17351743, 2010 October 20 doi:10.1088/0004-637X/722/2/1735 C 2010. The American Astronomical Society. All rights reserved. Printed in the U.S.A.

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Evans, Dan

    or continuously supplied to cluster cores to prevent the formation of cooling flows. A primary candidate--REHEATING THE COOL CORE OF A 3 keV CLUSTER FROM A NUCLEAR OUTBURST at z = 0.246 D. V. Lal1 , R. P. Kraft1 merger event. The temperature across the discontinuities is roughly constant with no signature of a cool

  11. Appl Phys B (2012) 107:873880 DOI 10.1007/s00340-012-4997-6

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Harilal, S. S.

    2012-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    of the spot sizes, inter-pulse delay times, energies of the preheating and re- heating pulses on the LIBS reheating in dual-pulse laser-induced breakdown spectroscopy R.W. Coons · S.S. Harilal · S.M. Hassan · A © Springer-Verlag 2012 Abstract Dual-pulse laser-induced breakdown spectrosco- py (LIBS) provides improved

  12. Pervaporation assembly

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Wynn, Nicholas P (Redwood City, CA); Huang, Yu (Palo Alto, CA); Aldajani, Tiem (San Jose, CA); Fulton, Donald A (Fairfield, CA)

    2012-02-28T23:59:59.000Z

    The invention is a pervaporation process and pervaporation equipment, using a series of membrane modules, and including inter-module reheating of the feed solution under treatment. The inter-module heating is achieved within the tube or vessel in which the modules are housed, thereby avoiding the need to repeatedly extract the feed solution from the membrane module train.

  13. Pervaporation process and assembly

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Wynn, Nicholas P. (Redwood City, CA); Huang, Yu (Palo Alto, CA); Aldajani, Tiem (San Jose, CA); Fulton, Donald A. (Fairfield, CA)

    2010-07-20T23:59:59.000Z

    The invention is a pervaporation process and pervaporation equipment, using a series of membrane modules, and including inter-module reheating of the feed solution under treatment. The inter-module heating is achieved within the tube or vessel in which the modules are housed, thereby avoiding the need to repeatedly extract the feed solution from the membrane module train.

  14. Master Thesis: Collaboration between Utility Systems and Production

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Grossmann, Ignacio E.

    ) Electricity Natural GasElectricity Generation (Power Plant) 1. Abbreviations: CO (coke oven), SP (sinter plant and LF) Casting (CC) Storage (SY) Reheating (RF) Rolling (HSM) Meltshop Hot Rolling Mill Coal Iron Ore) Meltshop Hot Rolling Mill Coal Iron Ore Slabs CO and BF Gas BOF Gas Given: Hot rolling mill produces set

  15. VAV System Optimization through Continuous Commissioning in an Office Building 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Cho, Y.; Pang, X.; Liu, M.

    2007-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    boxes are controlled by pneumatic controllers. A VAV Terminal Box with reheat coil is shown in Figure 1. OutletInlet Thermo stat HI LO M Actuator (3~13 psig) Main Air (24 psig ) Main Air (24 psig ) Valve (5~9 psig) AO Introduction...

  16. Operational and environmental benefits of oxy-fuel combustion in the steel industry

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Farrell, L.M. [Praxair, Inc., Tarrytown, NY (United States); Pavlack, T.T. [Praxair, Inc., East Chicago, IN (United States); Rich, L. [North American Manufacturing Co., Coraopolis, PA (United States)

    1995-03-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Due to the high flame temperature of conventional oxygen-fuel burners, these burners have typically not been used in reheat furnaces where temperature uniformity is critical. Praxair has developed a number of burners and associated control systems that have been successfully operated in a variety of reheat furnaces beginning in 1980. The burners have also recently been used for ladle preheating. All burners have been operated with 100% oxygen. The patented burners have designs that result in flame temperatures equivalent to conventional air-fuel burners. Flexible flame patterns are possible, resulting in uniform temperature distribution. In addition, the low flame temperature combined with minimal nitrogen in the furnace results in very low NO{sub x} emissions. The design of the control systems insure safe and reliable operation. In the following sections, oxygen-fuel combustion will be described, with a discussion of fuel savings and other benefits. Unique designs will be discussed along with the features which make them applicable to reheat applications and which result in lower emissions. Other equipment provided with the burners to complete the oxy-fuel combustion system will be described briefly. There will also be a short discussion of how both the fuel and oxygen price can affect the economics of fuel saving. Results from the commercial retrofit installations in continuous and batch reheat furnaces, soaking pits and ladle preheaters will be described. Finally, NO{sub x} emissions data will be discussed.

  17. Heat Pipe Impact on Dehumidification, Indoor Air Quality and Energy Savings

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Cooper, J. T.

    1996-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    . If a heat-pipe is used to transfer heat from the warm fresh air intake to the cold supply, not only is the reheat obtained free, but the fresh air gets substantial pre-cooling effect from the heat-pipe saving on the cooling energy required...

  18. Modeling Building Energy Use and HVAC Efficiency Improvements in Extreme Hot and Humid Regions

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Bible, Mitchell

    2011-10-21T23:59:59.000Z

    space heaters. This reheating of previously cooled air is a significant waste of energy that can be avoided through use of fan powered terminal units (FPTU?s). FPTU?s induce warmer return air to mix with the cold supply air when in heating mode (Furr...

  19. Revised version submitted to Mineralogy and Petrology the 21st of June 20111

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Paris-Sud XI, Université de

    1 Revised version submitted to Mineralogy and Petrology the 21st of June 20111 2 Timescale of open and Petrology 104, 1-2 (2012) 1-14" DOI : 10.1007/s00710-011-0159-5 #12;2 Abstract Lavas erupted at the southern also documented by61 petrological evidences of reheating, hydrous partial melting and assimilation

  20. Simulating consumer practices to evaluate the cooking and chemical characteristics of low fat ground beef patties 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Reed, Jeanette Marie

    1993-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    to fresh hand-made. Cooking methods had little impact on fat or caloric content at the 57o level; however, at the 10 and 157o levels, microwaved and reheated patties contained the lowest relative amount of fat. Despite the statistical differences in fat...

  1. PROPRIETARY MATERIAL. 2011 The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. Limited distribution permitted only to teachers and educators for course preparation. If you are a student using this Manual, you are using it without permission.

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Bahrami, Majid

    TT P Enthalpies at other states and the fractions of steam extracted from the turbines can it without permission. 10-109 10-104 A steam power plant operating on the ideal reheat-regenerative Rankine and the expansion processes in the turbines are isentropic. Also, the state of water at the inlet of pumps

  2. JOURNAL DE PHYSIQUE Colloque C8, supplirnentau n012, Tome 46, ddcernbre 1985 page C8-635

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Paris-Sud XI, Université de

    procedure. The liquid heat capacity c (T) and the glass heat capacity c,(T) were extrapolated. 1 - Enthalpy and heat capacity vs. temperature plots for a glass cooled and then reheated through%. The heat impedance is defined as Z = T e o '/Qo an6 thef complex heat capacity becomes c = l

  3. CX-010849: Categorical Exclusion Determination

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    Temporary Removal of the Tank 12 Purge Exhaust Reheater via HTF-TMC-13-028 CX(s) Applied: B1.3 Date: 07/23/2013 Location(s): South Carolina Offices(s): Savannah River Operations Office

  4. Ris-M-2190 DESCRIPTION OF THE POWER PLANT MODEL BWR-PLASIM OUTLINED

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    , the turbine connected via the steam line, the feedwater system and three control systems. #12;- 4 - #12;- 5 coolant flow 28 3. THE TURBINE AND FEEDWATER HEATERS 30 3.1. Flow and pressure calculations for the turbine . 33 3.2. Enthalpy and power calculations for the turbine 35 3.3. The reheater model 37 3

  5. g Ris Report No. S Danish Atomic Energy Commission

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    PUMPS STEADY-STATE CONDITIONS STEAM CONDENSES STEAM TURBINES T CODES UDC 621.039.S24.4-97: 611.3.06 #12 turbine, a low-pressure steam turbine, a moisture separator, a reheater, a condenser, feedwater heaters Characteristic of Steam Turbines for Nuclear Power Plants 17 3.1. Stage with Moisture Trap 17 3.2. Determination

  6. g Rise Report No. 336 Danish Atomic Energy Commission

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    TYPE REACTORS FEEDWATER FEEDWATER HEATERS HEATERS MATHEMATICAL MODELS NUCLEAR POWER PLANTS ONE Technology Abstract A dynamic model of a nuclear power plant, including a boiling water reactor, high- and low-pressure turbines, moisture separator, reheater, condenser, feedwater heaters and feedwater pump

  7. HCCI in a CFR engine: experiments and detailed kinetic modeling

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Flowers, D; Aceves, S; Smith, R; Torres, J; Girard, J; Dibble, R

    1999-11-05T23:59:59.000Z

    Single cylinder engine experiments and chemical kinetic modeling have been performed to study the effect of variations in fuel, equivalence ratio, and intake charge temperature on the start of combustion and the heat release rate. Neat propane and a fuel blend of 15% dimethyl-ether in methane have been studied. The results demonstrate the role of these parameters on the start of combustion, efficiency, imep, and emissions. Single zone kinetic modeling results show the trends consistent with the experimental results.

  8. The effect of network detail on traffic assignment

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Long, Gary Don

    1968-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    exceed the actual separation on the ground. Thus, with the coded networks common1y used, severs!. city blocks are appropri. ately aggregated to form a single zone. The zone centroid is connected to the network in a manner consistent with the physical... these facil- ities and underloading the arterials and collectors. CHAPTER II I NETWORK AS SIGNHENT Detailed Network The initial assignr, . ent of the detailed network resulted in con- siderable disagreement between assigned volumes and ground counts...

  9. A DSP based real time power quality measurement system with voltage distortion improvement capability

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Gou, Jian

    1992-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    . (August 1992) Jian Gou, B. S. E. E. , Shanghai Jiao Tong Ilniversity Chair of Advisory Committee. Dr. P. Enjeti The general drive towards automation has increased the use of harmonic generating loads both by residential as well as industrial consumers... The examples of these loads in home and industry are: heating ventilation and air conditioning equipment (HVAC); electric kitchen apphances; electric arc furnaces; variable speed dc and ac drives, etc Since the equipment of this kind provides the users...

  10. Lively Infrastructure

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Amin, Ash

    2014-10-06T23:59:59.000Z

    and slack within and across the city’s infrastructural networks (Lahoud, 2010; Vale and Campanella, 2005; Batty, 2013). Importantly, this writing shows that there is nothing purely technical or mechanical about even the most digitised infrastructures... given to, and commanded by, building a house piece by piece when time and resource allow, the measures taken to pirate water and electricity, build sanitary pits, and make indoor or outdoor showers and kitchens, making a house into a home...

  11. Building a Foundation

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Metzger, Jonathan David

    2013-05-31T23:59:59.000Z

    kitchen. As the meal came closer to fruition, dishes would be washed and stacked neatly on the table, ready to be placed. This room was filled with 2 warm conversation of distant relatives and approaching dinner preparations. Through a side... Company. I remember being enthralled with the delicate line work around the rims of these plates, and the various narratives and scenes depicted. The images on these dishes revolved around rural America during the mid- to late-19th century, and helped...

  12. Harbour Island: The Comparative Archaeology of a Maritime Community 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Hatch, Heather E

    2013-08-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Marie Neilly and the Westley Methodist Church of Harbour Island, Pat Barry, Jeremy Clark, and Wade Higgs and Brenda Clark Higgs. Many others in the community also provided support and encouragement, and I am deeply grateful to them as well. v I... Street Higgs House (DHH)???????????????????... 154 Maritime Cultural Landscape of Harbour Island?????????????... 157 Summary????????????????????????????? 162 CHAPTER VI PATTERNS OF CULTURE AT HARBOUR ISLAND ...................... 163 Kitchen Group...

  13. University Calendar, August 28, 2012

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    2012-08-28T23:59:59.000Z

    of Art. Call 785-864-4710. Lecture. Honduras: Our Next War? Judy Ancel (UMKC Labor Studies), Alice Kitchen (retired social worker) and Melissa Stiehler (student, Penn Valley Community College). Noon, ECM Center, 1204 Oread Ave. Free. Sponsored... such as vases, coins, small sculptures, lamps and architectural terra cottas, and full-size replicas of well-known works of Greek and Roman sculpture. ------------------------------------------------------ KU News Service 1450 Jayhawk Blvd. Lawrence, KS...

  14. Cherry Picking in Bhutan

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Rowbotham, Michael

    2003-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    range of material goods that, in aggregate, represent a wholly different way of life. All these are waiting beyond the borders of Bhutan - motorbikes, microwaves, crockery, computer games, stainless steel kitchen equipment. If these are imported en... the nature and scope of the initiatives that might be undertaken by a government wishing to engage in the global economy, secure a prosperous future for its people and also maintain the identity and integrity of its culture. Some of the policies...

  15. Gravity-free hydraulic jumps and metal femtocups

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Rama Govindarajan; Manikandan Mathur; Ratul DasGupta; N. R. Selvi; Neena Susan John; G. U. Kulkarni

    2006-10-03T23:59:59.000Z

    Hydraulic jumps created by gravity are seen every day in the kitchen sink. We show that at small scales a circular hydraulic jump can be created in the absence of gravity, by surface tension. The theory is motivated by our experimental finding of a height discontinuity in spreading submicron molten metal droplets created by pulsed-laser ablation. By careful control of initial conditions, we show that this leads to solid femtolitre cups of gold, silver, copper, niobium and tin.

  16. Open Control Networking Systems for Smarter Building Operations-Fundamentals of System Architecture and Design

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Gibson, M.

    2011-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    ?Network ? Standardized ? Compatible?products ? Interchangeable ? Interoperable ? Customizable ? Cost?efficient ? Multi?vendor? ? Freedom?of?choice ICEBO Oct 18-20, 2011 ISO Standard 14908 Further Standards Adoption ? Buildings, Gas Stations, Kitchen Equipment.../Installation Standards ICEBO Oct 18-20, 2011 15 LonMark Standards?? ISO/IEC 14908 ANSI/EIA/CEA?709.1?Protocol ? An?open?standard?protocol?for?control?applications ? Reference?document?available?from?Global?Engineering ? Protocol...

  17. Refrigerator design for the ambulatory and wheelchair-using elderly

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Mills, Mary Sue

    1986-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    of limitations snd their higher degree of dependence on products. An important arse in product design which has seldom been considered is that of kitchen appliances, and, more specifically, rafr igerators. Refrigerator design has changed little in the last... For the elderly or disabled is a relatively unexplored ares. The present research is an attempt to rectify this neglect. LITERATURE REVIEW Ther s is a striking lack of information in the literature specifically concerned with refrigerators. Those few studies...

  18. Application of Multizone HVAC Control Using Wireless Sensor Networks and Actuating Vent Registers

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Watts, W.; Koplow, M.; Redfern, A.; Wright, P.

    2007-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    on an embedded server, and temperature sensors that were distributed throughout the house. The residence is divided into four Control Zones. Zone 1 contains the downstairs living, dining, and kitchen area. Zone 2 contains the bathrooms and laundry... radiation. The temperature and humidity sensors are manufactured by Sensirion, models SH11 and SH15. The light sensors consist of a thermally sensitive radiation sensor (TSR) and a photosynthetic active radiation sensor, manufactured by Hamamatsu...

  19. Nitrogen dioxide inside and outside 137 homes and implications for ambient air quality standards and health effects research

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Spengler, J.D. (Harvard School of Public Health, Boston, MA); Duffy, C.P.; Letz, R.; Tibbitts, T.W.; Ferris, B.G. Jr.

    1983-03-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Week-long integrated nitrogen dioxide (NO/sub 2/) measurements were made by using diffusion tube samplers inside and outside 137 homes in Portage, WI, over a 1-year period. The annual mean ambient NO/sub 2/ concentrations in this rural community were 10-15 ..mu..g/m/sup 3/. NO/sub 2/ levels inside the kitchens of 112 homes with gas stoves averaged about 50 ..mu..g/m/sup 3/ higher, and bedroom levels were about 30 ..mu..g/m/sup 3/ higher, than outdoor levels. Ten percent of the gas-cooking homes had annual average kitchen NO/sub 2/ levels higher than the National Ambient Air Quality Standard of 100 ..mu..g/m/sup 3/. NO/sub 2/ levels inside kitchens of 25 homes with electric stoves were about two-thirds outdoor levels, while corresponding bedroom levels were one-half outdoor levels. Distinct seasonal patterns (higher indoor levels in winter, lower in summer) consistent with changes in normal air-exchange rates were evident in gas-cooking homes. The large variation of NO/sub 2/ concentrations among homes, likely due to differences in stove use, emission rates, and air-exchange rates, limits the development of prediction models. In addition, this variation would reduce the power of epidemiological studies of respiratory health, which use ambient NO/sub 2/ concentration levels, a simple dichotomous description of stove type and two categories of home cooking fuel to describe exposure.

  20. Electron-ion relaxation time dependent signal enhancement in ultrafast double-pulse laser-induced breakdown spectroscopy

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Harilal, S. S.; Diwakar, P. K.; Hassanein, A. [Center for Materials Under Extreme Environment, School of Nuclear Engineering, Purdue University, West Lafayette, Indiana 47907 (United States)] [Center for Materials Under Extreme Environment, School of Nuclear Engineering, Purdue University, West Lafayette, Indiana 47907 (United States)

    2013-07-22T23:59:59.000Z

    We investigated the emission properties of collinear double-pulse compared to single-pulse ultrafast laser induced breakdown spectroscopy. Our results showed that the significant signal enhancement noticed in the double pulse scheme is strongly correlated to the characteristic electron-ion relaxation time and hence to the inter-pulse delays. Spectroscopic excitation temperature analysis showed that the improvement in signal enhancement is caused by the delayed pulse efficient reheating of the pre-plume. The signal enhancement is also found to be related to the upper excitation energy of the selected lines, i.e., more enhancement noticed for lines originating from higher excitation energy levels, indicating reheating is the major mechanism behind the signal improvement.

  1. Blue-tilted Tensor Spectrum and Thermal History of the Universe

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Sachiko Kuroyanagi; Tomo Takahashi; Shuichiro Yokoyama

    2014-07-17T23:59:59.000Z

    We investigate constraints on the spectral index of primordial gravitational waves (GWs), paying particular attention to a blue-tilted spectrum. Such constraints can be used to test a certain class of models of the early Universe. We investigate observational bounds from LIGO+Virgo, pulsar timing and big bang nucleosynthesis, taking into account the suppression of the amplitude at high frequencies due to reheating after inflation and also late-time entropy production. Constraints on the spectral index are presented by changing values of parameters such as reheating temperatures and the amount of entropy produced at late time. We also consider constraints under the general modeling approach which can approximately describe various scenarios of the early Universe. We show that the constraints on the blue spectral tilt strongly depend on the underlying assumption and, in some cases, a highly blue-tilted spectrum can still be allowed.

  2. Scale-invariance as the origin of dark radiation?

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Dmitry Gorbunov; Anna Tokareva

    2014-11-11T23:59:59.000Z

    Recent cosmological data favour R^2-inflation and some amount of non-standard dark radiation in the Universe. We show that a framework of high energy scale invariance can explain these data. The spontaneous breaking of this symmetry provides gravity with the Planck mass and particle physics with the electroweak scale. We found that the corresponding massless Nambu--Goldstone bosons -- dilatons -- are produced at reheating by the inflaton decay right at the amount needed to explain primordial abundances of light chemical elements and anisotropy of the cosmic microwave background. Then we extended the discussion on the interplay with Higgs-inflation and on general class of inflationary models where dilatons are allowed and may form the dark radiation. As a result we put a lower limit on the reheating temperature in a general scale invariant model of inflation.

  3. Non-Thermal Production of Dangerous Relics in the Early Universe

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    G. F. Giudice; A. Riotto; I. Tkachev

    1999-07-27T23:59:59.000Z

    Many models of supersymmetry breaking, in the context of either supergravity or superstring theories, predict the presence of particles with weak scale masses and Planck-suppressed couplings. Typical examples are the scalar moduli and the gravitino. Excessive production of such particles in the early Universe destroys the successful predictions of nucleosynthesis. In particular, the thermal production of these relics after inflation leads to a bound on the reheating temperature, T_{RH} dangerous relics may be much more efficient than the thermal production after inflation. Scalar moduli fields may be copiously created by the classical gravitational effects on the vacuum state. Consequently, the new upper bound on the reheating temperature is shown to be, in some cases, as low as 100 GeV. We also study the non-thermal production of gravitinos in the early Universe, which can be extremely efficient and overcome the thermal production by several orders of magnitude, in realistic supersymmetric inflationary models.

  4. Natural pre-heating in the framework of massive gravity

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Maity, Debaprasad

    2015-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    In this paper we propose a mechanism of natural preheating of our universe by introducing the inflaton field dependent mass term for the gravitational wave. For any single field inflationary model, the inflaton must go through the oscillatory phase after the end of inflation. As has recently been shown, if the gravitational fluctuation has inflaton dependent mass term, there will be a resonant amplification of the amplitude of the gravitational wave during the oscillatory phase of inflaton though parametric resonance. Because of this large enhancement of the amplitude of the gravitational wave, we show that universe can be naturally reheated through a minimally coupled matter field with gravity. Therefore, during the reheating phase, there is no need to introduce any arbitrary coupling between the matter field and the inflaton .

  5. Inflationary perturbations in bimetric gravity

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Cusin, Giulia; Guarato, Pietro; Motta, Mariele

    2015-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    In this paper we study the generation of primordial perturbations in a cosmological setting of bigravity during inflation. We consider a model of bigravity which can reproduce the Lambda-CDM background and large scale structure and a simple model of inflation with a single scalar field and a quadratic potential. Reheating is implemented with a toy-model in which the energy density of the inflaton is entirely dissipated into radiation. We present analytic and numerical results for the evolution of primordial perturbations in this cosmological setting. We find that even for low-scale inflation, the amplitude of tensor perturbations generated during inflation is not sufficiently suppressed to avoid the generation of the tensor instability discovered in Ref.[1] which develops during the cosmological evolution. We argue that, for viable reheating temperatures, this bigravity model is seriously affected by the power-law instability in the tensor sector on observable scales and therefore it is ruled out by present o...

  6. Volume-weighted measure for eternal inflation

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Winitzki, Sergei [Department of Physics, Ludwig-Maximilians University, Munich (Germany) and Yukawa Institute of Theoretical Physics, Kyoto University, Kyoto (Japan)

    2008-08-15T23:59:59.000Z

    I propose a new volume-weighted probability measure for cosmological 'multiverse' scenarios involving eternal inflation. The 'reheating-volume (RV) cutoff' calculates the distribution of observable quantities on a portion of the reheating hypersurface that is conditioned to be finite. The RV measure is gauge-invariant, does not suffer from the 'youngness paradox', and is independent of initial conditions at the beginning of inflation. In slow-roll inflationary models with a scalar inflaton, the RV-regulated probability distributions can be obtained by solving nonlinear diffusion equations. I discuss possible applications of the new measure to 'landscape' scenarios with bubble nucleation. As an illustration, I compute the predictions of the RV measure in a simple toy landscape.

  7. High liquid yield process for retorting various organic materials including oil shale

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Coburn, Thomas T. (Livermore, CA)

    1990-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    This invention is a continuous retorting process for various high molecular weight organic materials, including oil shale, that yields an enhanced output of liquid product. The organic material, mineral matter, and an acidic catalyst, that appreciably adsorbs alkenes on surface sites at prescribed temperatures, are mixed and introduced into a pyrolyzer. A circulating stream of olefin enriched pyrolysis gas is continuously swept through the organic material and catalyst, whereupon, as the result of pyrolysis, the enhanced liquid product output is provided. Mixed spent organic material, mineral matter, and cool catalyst are continuously withdrawn from the pyrolyzer. Combustion of the spent organic material and mineral matter serves to reheat the catalyst. Olefin depleted pyrolysis gas, from the pyrolyzer, is enriched in olefins and recycled into the pyrolyzer. The reheated acidic catalyst is separated from the mineral matter and again mixed with fresh organic material, to maintain the continuously cyclic process.

  8. A high liquid yield process for retorting various organic materials including oil shale

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Coburn, T.T.

    1988-07-26T23:59:59.000Z

    This invention is a continuous retorting process for various high molecular weight organic materials, including oil shale, that yields an enhanced output of liquid product. The organic material, mineral matter, and an acidic catalyst, that appreciably adsorbs alkenes on surface sites at prescribed temperatures, are mixed and introduced into a pyrolyzer. A circulating stream of olefin enriched pyrolysis gas is continuously swept through the organic material and catalyst, whereupon, as the result of pyrolysis, the enhanced liquid product output is provided. Mixed spent organic material, mineral matter, and cool catalyst are continuously withdrawn from the pyrolyzer. Combustion of the spent organic material and mineral matter serves to reheat the catalyst. Olefin depleted pyrolysis gas, from the pyrolyzer, is enriched in olefins and recycled into the pyrolyzer. The reheated acidic catalyst is separated from the mineral matter and again mixed with fresh organic material, to maintain the continuously cyclic process. 2 figs.

  9. Late-time Entropy Production from Scalar Decay and Relic Neutrino Temperature

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Paramita Adhya; D. Rai Chaudhuri; Steen Hannestad

    2003-09-04T23:59:59.000Z

    Entropy production from scalar decay in the era of low temperatures after neutrino decoupling will change the ratio of the relic neutrino temperature to the CMB temperature, and, hence, the value of N_eff, the effective number of neutrino species. Such scalar decay is relevant to reheating after thermal inflation, proposed to dilute massive particles, like the moduli and the gravitino, featuring in supersymmetric and string theories. The effect of such entropy production on the relic neutrino temperature ratio is calculated in a semi-analytic manner, and a recent lower bound on this ratio, obtained from the WMAP satellite and 2dF galaxy data, is used to set a lower bound of ~ 1.5 x 10^-23 Gev on the scalar decay constant, corresponding to a reheating temperature of about 3.3 Mev.

  10. Kinetic decoupling of WIMPs: analytic expressions

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Visinelli, Luca

    2015-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    We present a general expression for the values of the average kinetic energy and of the temperature of kinetic decoupling of a WIMP, valid for any cosmological model. We show an example of the usage of our solution when the Hubble rate has a power-law dependence on temperature, and we show results for the specific cases of kination cosmology and low- temperature reheating cosmology.

  11. Solid oxide fuel cell steam reforming power system

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Chick, Lawrence A.; Sprenkle, Vincent L.; Powell, Michael R.; Meinhardt, Kerry D.; Whyatt, Greg A.

    2013-03-12T23:59:59.000Z

    The present invention is a Solid Oxide Fuel Cell Reforming Power System that utilizes adiabatic reforming of reformate within this system. By utilizing adiabatic reforming of reformate within the system the system operates at a significantly higher efficiency than other Solid Oxide Reforming Power Systems that exist in the prior art. This is because energy is not lost while materials are cooled and reheated, instead the device operates at a higher temperature. This allows efficiencies higher than 65%.

  12. Heat Exchanger Technologies for Distillation Columns

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Polley, G. T.

    Heat Exchanger Technologies for Distillation Columns G.T.Polley Pinchtechnology.com In this paper we look at the challenges that improvements in energy efficiency of distillation systems presents the heat exchanger designer. We examine... condensate sub-cooling. So, if this condensate subsequently requires re-heating both energy and capital have been wasted. If the condensate forms a feed to another distillation column it results in increased energy consumption if that separation...

  13. In Wino Veritas? Indirect Searches Shed Light on Neutralino Dark Matter

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    JiJi Fan; Matthew Reece

    2013-07-16T23:59:59.000Z

    Indirect detection constraints on gamma rays (both continuum and lines) have set strong constraints on wino dark matter. By combining results from Fermi-LAT and HESS, we show that: light nonthermal wino dark matter is strongly excluded; thermal wino dark matter is allowed only if the Milky Way dark matter distribution has a significant (>~0.4 kpc) core; and for plausible NFW and Einasto distributions the entire range of wino masses from 100 GeV up to 3 TeV can be excluded. The case of light, nonthermal wino dark matter is particularly interesting in scenarios with decaying moduli that reheat the universe to a low temperature. Typically such models have been discussed for low reheating temperatures, not far above the BBN bound of a few MeV. We show that constraints on the allowed wino relic density push such models to higher reheating temperatures and hence heavier moduli. Even for a flattened halo model consisting of an NFW profile with constant-density core inside 1 kpc and a density near the sun of 0.3 GeV/cm^3, for 150 GeV winos current data constrains the reheat temperature to be above 1.4 GeV. As a result, for models in which the wino mass is a loop factor below the gravitino mass, the data favor moduli that are more than an order of magnitude heavier than the gravitino. We discuss some of the sobering implications of this result for the status of supersymmetry. We also comment on other neutralino dark matter scenarios, in particular the case of mixed bino/higgsino dark matter. We show that in this case, direct and indirect searches are complementary to each other and could potentially cover most of the parameter space.

  14. Effective Transfer of Waste Heat Recovery Technology: A Case Study of GTE Products Corporation's Experience

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Gonzalez, J. M.

    1983-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    . ~J Investlne'nt Die Reheat, Tunnel 93,203 62,387 17.9 l7,nl J.5 3.2 V1 23 HO\\oWet Turbi-;-~ Whitehall, HI Investment Die Rehe:tt, Tunnetl 11I,~d'l 80,762 2~ !!.-.!: ion.! Yo.!..&! Irvine. PA Cacbauo", Forge Reht. Stf"cl 675,318 149,443 43.7 109...

  15. Analysis of Energy Saving in a Clean Room Air-conditioning System

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Liu, S.; Liu, J.; Pei, J.; Wang, M.

    2006-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    temperature field, small supply air temperature difference, large airflow, but no reheater. As the design airflow rate of air conditioning system for cleaning mainly considered to meet the need of the cleanliness class, its air exchange rate was much... above, we had chosen a representative air-handling unit for the testing renovation of 2nd return air system. Cleaning area for this AHU was a capsule clean room with a hundred thousand cleanliness classes. Indoor controlled dry-bulb temperature...

  16. Load frequency control of interconnected power systems with system constraints

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Choudhury, Md Ershadul H

    1993-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    -Line Power Pu? 3. Governor- Turbine System 4. Overall Single-Area System Model 5. Two-Area System B. IEEE Models of Turbines snd Boilers 1. Reheat Turbine Model . 2. Governor Representation with Deadband 3. Boiler System C. Factors in Generating Unit... fluctuations and major generation or load disturbances. The processes involved are the dynamics of boilers, governors, turbines and their interactions with the power system. Governors and boilers as primary control units are responsible for maintaining...

  17. Application of Desiccant Drying in Plastic Molding

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Brown, M.; Connors, G.; Moore, D.

    and high moisture conditions. As the delivered dew point approaches freezing, coil frosting becomes a concern. Also if low humidity air is supplied to an occupied space, additional energy fm heating it back to a comfonable temperature, reheating.... Generally, cooling dehumidification is preferred for high temperatures where it is most efficient and frosting of the coil is not a concern. As the dew point approaches 32?F, condensate removed from the passing air stream begins to freeze on the cooling...

  18. Applying DDC and VFD to Central Chilled Water Plants for Profits

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Utesch, A. L.

    continuous series of improvements, serves over 3 million square feet utilizing less chiller capacity and less boiler capacity than was used in 1974. The energy usage per square foot of facility served has been reduced by at least 65% and the value... less than 25% on a per square foot basis. The cost avoidances were generated primarily by the elimination of reheat for space conditioning and modifications and improvements to the central heating and cooling equipment. The remainder of this paper...

  19. Zevenhoven & Kilpinen CROSS EFFECTS, TOTAL SYSTEM LAY-OUT 13.6.2001 10-1 Figure 10.1 Typical pulverised coal combustion and gas clean-up system: dry scrubber +

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Zevenhoven, Ron

    pulverised coal combustion and gas clean-up system: dry scrubber + baghouse filter for SO2 and particulate For a conventional pulverised coal-fired power plant a set-up is shown in Figure 10.1, with a gas clean-up system scrubber (pH ~ 6) 60 - 70 7 Re-heater 350 - 400 8 SCR DeNOx 300 - 400 9 Active coke bed 100 - 150 Figure 10

  20. Rehabilitation of Secondary Heating and Cooling Systems - Case Study 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Chen, H.; Deng, S.; Hugghins, J.; Brundidge, T.; Claridge, D.; Turner, W. D.; Bruner, H., Jr.

    2002-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    VAV boxes use hot water reheat coils and supply air dampers, which are pneumatically controlled. A schematic diagram of the chilled water system in the building is shown in Figure 2. A schematic diagram of the heating water system... than the dynamic or modulating rating. The close-off pressure value is proportional to the size of actuator and inverse to valve size. The close-off pressure for electronic actuator is 3 ~ 5 times the values for pneumatic actuator. The pressure...

  1. Application of Innovative Technologies During Continuous Commissioning 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Joo, I. S.; Liu, M.; Wang, J.; Hansen, K.

    2003-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    years generally face degradation of energy systems. Most of these systems use out-of-date equipment and pneumatic controls. Energy improvement opportunities exist in many buildings due to the inefficient operation of energy systems.... The HVAC systems are located in the penthouse and serve the entire building. The AHU consists of a supply fan of 100 HP and a return fan of 50 HP. There are a total of 52 original pneumatic VAV boxes (no reheat coils) which were installed in 1972...

  2. Phase transformations in welded supermartensitic stainless steels

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Carrouge, Dominique

    - ferrite phase, and the development of a model to facilitate the choice of a suitable post-weld heat-treatment temperature. The microstructural examination of a variety of welds revealed the presence of retained ?-ferrite in dual-phase and grain... -coarsened HAZ regions. Under normal welding conditions, ?-ferrite retention was more pronounced in dual-phase HAZ and in molybdenum containing alloys. However, in multipass welds, ?-ferrite distribution was non-uniform as a result of reheating effects. A number...

  3. Chaotic inflation and supersymmetry breaking

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Kallosh, Renata; Linde, Andrei; Rube, Tomas [Stanford Institute of Theoretical Physics and Department of Physics, Stanford University, Stanford, California 94305 (United States); Olive, Keith A. [William I. Fine Theoretical Physics Institute, University of Minnesota, Minneapolis, Minnesota 55455 (United States)

    2011-10-15T23:59:59.000Z

    We investigate the recently proposed class of chaotic inflation models in supergravity with an arbitrary inflaton potential V({phi}). These models are extended to include matter fields in the visible sector and we employ a mechanism of supersymmetry breaking based on a particular phenomenological version of the KKLT mechanism (the KL model). We describe specific features of reheating in this class of models and show how one can solve the cosmological moduli and gravitino problems in this context.

  4. Sterile neutrino dark matter in B-L extension of the standard model and galactic 511 keV line

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Khalil, Shaaban [Centre for Theoretical Physics, The British University in Egypt, El Sherouk City, Postal No. 11837, PO Box 43 (Egypt)] [Centre for Theoretical Physics, The British University in Egypt, El Sherouk City, Postal No. 11837, PO Box 43 (Egypt); Seto, Osamu, E-mail: skhalil@bue.edu.eg, E-mail: seto@physics.umn.edu [Instituto de Fisica Teorica UAM/CSIC, Universidad Autonoma de Madrid, Cantoblanco, Madrid 28049 (Spain)] [Instituto de Fisica Teorica UAM/CSIC, Universidad Autonoma de Madrid, Cantoblanco, Madrid 28049 (Spain)

    2008-10-15T23:59:59.000Z

    Sterile right-handed neutrinos can be naturally embedded in a low scale gauged U(1){sub B-L} extension of the standard model. We show that, within a low reheating scenario, such a neutrino is an interesting dark matter candidate. We emphasize that if the neutrino mass is of the order of MeV, then it accounts for the measured dark matter relic density and also accommodates the observed flux of 511 keV photons from the galactic bulge.

  5. Investigation of combustive flows and dynamic meshing in computational fluid dynamics

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Chambers, Steven B.

    2005-02-17T23:59:59.000Z

    : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : 74 XII Temperature values at axial locations using chemical model B. Experimental value at 0.836 m is 1478K : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : 75 XIII Sandia velocity inlet boundary conditions speci?cation : : : : : : : : 90 XIV Sandia pressure outlet... monoxide mass fraction contour plots with re- versible reaction de?ned. : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : 79 25 Temperature contour plot of turbine in situ reheat simulation. : : : : 80 26 Experimental setup of Sandia combustion ?ame...

  6. Advanced Technology for Economical Dehumidification to Improve Indoor Air Quality 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Beckwith, W. R.

    1996-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    degrees dry bulb and 67 degrees wet bulb. To demonstrate the energy savings, economics, and positive environmental impact, we will compare the SCADR to an electric reheat system. Without SCADR, the system performs ten tons of cooling... psychrometric chart showing the performance enhancement of the SCADR Syetem (see fig. 5.). POSITIVE ENVIRONMENTAL IMPACT Conserving 46,530 KWH per year prevents the burning of 23.3 tons of coal at an electric power plant every year. This reduces...

  7. Preheating in new inflation

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Desroche, Mariel; Felder, Gary N. [Department of Physics, Clark Science Center, Smith College, Northampton, Massachusetts 01063 (United States); Kratochvil, Jan M.; Linde, Andrei [Department of Physics, Stanford University, Stanford, California 94305-4060 (United States)

    2005-05-15T23:59:59.000Z

    During the last ten years a detailed investigation of preheating was performed for chaotic inflation and for hybrid inflation. However, nonperturbative effects during reheating in the new inflation scenario remained practically unexplored. We investigate preheating in new inflation, using a combination of analytical and numerical methods. We find that the decay of the homogeneous component of the inflaton field and the resulting process of spontaneous symmetry breaking in the simplest models of new inflation usually occurs almost instantly: for the new inflation on the GUT scale it takes only about 5 oscillations of the field distribution. The decay of the homogeneous inflaton field is so efficient because of a combined effect of tachyonic preheating and parametric resonance. At that stage, the homogeneous oscillating inflaton field decays into a collection of waves of the inflaton field, with a typical wavelength of the order of the inverse inflaton mass. This stage usually is followed by a long stage of decay of the inflaton field into other particles, which can be described by the perturbative approach to reheating after inflation. The resulting reheating temperature typically is rather low.

  8. Primordial black holes from temporally enhanced curvature perturbation

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Teruaki Suyama; Yi-Peng Wu; Jun'ichi Yokoyama

    2014-06-02T23:59:59.000Z

    Scalar field with generalized kinetic interactions metamorphoses depending on its field value, ranging from cosmological constant to stiff matter. We show that such a scalar field can give rise to temporal enhancement of the curvature perturbation in the primordial Universe, leading to efficient production of primordial black holes while the enhancement persists. If the inflation energy scale is high, those mini-black holes evaporate by the Hawking radiation much before Big Bang nucleosynthesis and the effective reheating of the Universe is achieved by the black hole evaporation. Dominance of PBHs and the reheating by their evaporation modify the expansion history of the primordial Universe. This results in a characteristic feature of the spectrum of primordial tensor modes in the DECIGO frequency band, opening an interesting possibility of testing PBH reheating scenario by measuring the primordial tensor modes. If the inflation energy scale is low, the PBH mass can be much larger than the solar mass. In this case, PBH is an interesting candidate for seeds for supermassive black holes residing in present galaxies.

  9. Energy Recovery By Direct Contact Gas-Liquid Heat Exchange 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Fair, J. R.; Bravo, J. L.

    1988-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    by Fair (1912a, I972b). An empirical relationship, based on published data as well as on the use of the analogy is: 0.015 CO. 82 L 0.47 hfl= (15) Z 0.38 sp where Zsp is the height of a single zone of spray contac . While data on the liquid phase... liquid s sensible T total LITERATURE CITED Bharathan, D., Parsons, B. K., Althof, J. A., "Direct-Contac Condensers for Open-Cycle OTEC Applications", Solar Energy Research Institute Report SERlfTR-252 3108, Golden, Colorado, May 1988. 268 ESL...

  10. Sample Annual and Monthly Energy Consumption Reports for Zachry Engineering Center

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Staff, Energy Systems Laboratory

    1993-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    weekdays ? offices: 7:30 am to 5:30 pm weekdays ? computer facility: 24 hrs/day Building HVAC: ? 12 variable volume dual duct AHUs (12-40hp) ? 3 constant volume multizone AHU (1-1 hp, l-7hp, l-10hp) ? 4 constant volume single zone AHU (4-3hp) ? 10 fan coils... duct system: 3/30/91. Savings Calculations: ? Estimated savings are the annual savings from the audit report. Zachry Engineering Center - Texas A&M University Teiu Governor's Energy Office 1991 Annual Energy Consumption Report? Energy Sy.temi Lib Loin...

  11. HCCl Combustion: Analysis and Experiments

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Aceves, S M; Flowers, D L; Martinez-Frias, J; Smith, J R; Dibble, R; Au, M; Girard, J

    2001-05-04T23:59:59.000Z

    Homogeneous charge compression ignition (HCCI) is a new combustion technology that may develop as an alternative to diesel engines with high efficiency and low NOx and particulate matter emissions. This paper describes the HCCI research activities being currently pursued at Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory and at the University of California Berkeley. Current activities include analysis as well as experimental work. On analysis, we have developed two powerful tools: a single zone model and a multi-zone model. The single zone model has proven very successful in predicting start of combustion and providing reasonable estimates for peak cylinder pressure, indicated efficiency and NOX emissions. This model is being applied to develop detailed engine performance maps and control strategies, and to analyze the problem of engine startability. The multi-zone model is capable of very accurate predictions of the combustion process, including HC and CO emissions. The multi-zone model has applicability to the optimization of combustion chamber geometry and operating conditions to achieve controlled combustion at high efficiency and low emissions. On experimental work, we have done a thorough evaluation of operating conditions in a 4-cylinder Volkswagen TDI engine. The engine has been operated over a wide range of conditions by adjusting the intake temperature and the fuel flow rate. Satisfactory operation has been obtained over a wide range of operating conditions. Cylinder-to-cylinder variations play an important role in limiting maximum power, and should be controlled to achieve satisfactory performance.

  12. HCCI Combustion: Analysis and Experiments

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Salvador M. Aceves; Daniel L. Flowers; Joel Martinez-Frias; J. Ray Smith; Robert Dibble; Michael Au; James Girard

    2001-05-14T23:59:59.000Z

    Homogeneous charge compression ignition (HCCI) is a new combustion technology that may develop as an alternative to diesel engines with high efficiency and low NOx and particulate matter emissions. This paper describes the HCCI research activities being currently pursued at Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory and at the University of California Berkeley. Current activities include analysis as well as experimental work. On analysis, we have developed two powerful tools: a single zone model and a multi-zone model. The single zone model has proven very successful in predicting start of combustion and providing reasonable estimates for peak cylinder pressure, indicated efficiency and NOX emissions. This model is being applied to develop detailed engine performance maps and control strategies, and to analyze the problem of engine startability. The multi-zone model is capable of very accurate predictions of the combustion process, including HC and CO emissions. The multi-zone model h as applicability to the optimization of combustion chamber geometry and operating conditions to achieve controlled combustion at high efficiency and low emissions. On experimental work, we have done a thorough evaluation of operating conditions in a 4-cylinder Volkswagen TDI engine. The engine has been operated over a wide range of conditions by adjusting the intake temperature and the fuel flow rate. Satisfactory operation has been obtained over a wide range of operating conditions. Cylinder-to-cylinder variations play an important role in limiting maximum power, and should be controlled to achieve satisfactory performance.

  13. Fish Fingers and Custard Issue 12

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    2012-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Darvill on the BBC website, which saw Brian getting a goodbye letter from Rory, WASN’T filmed. It would have taken a couple of hours at the most, and that includes travel to and from Cardiff! They could have filmed it in Mark Williams’ kitchen... like this countless times, to humans AND aliens. Was it because Solomon was a human that it mattered? Do alien beings not count in your morality? Last year, he happily murdered most of a Cyber fleet just to get their leader’s attention. Tennant...

  14. University Calendar, September 4, 2012

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    2012-09-04T23:59:59.000Z

    Studies), Alice Kitchen (retired social worker) and Melissa Stiehler (student, Penn Valley Community College). Noon, ECM Center, 1204 Oread Ave. Free. Sponsored by Campus Ministry. Call 785-843- 4933. Public Event. Book Talk: "Angels at Sunset.” Tom...., 10 a.m.-midnight Sun. Call 864-8900. Call 864-3956. Wilcox Classical Museum 103 Lippincott Hall. 9 a.m.-4 p.m. Mon.-Fri. Call 864-3153. Antiquities such as vases, coins, small sculptures, lamps and architectural terra cottas, and full...

  15. Training working memory and fluid intelligence in older adults: developing measures and exploring outcomes

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Hynes, Sinéad

    2013-04-16T23:59:59.000Z

    as reflecting g. Such batteries often include measures with a high WM demand (e.g. Wechsler, 1981). Another method is to administer a single test that has a particularly high loading on g (Duncan, Burgess & Emslie, 1995). As discussed further below... is extremely motivating for me to see as a student. To Dr. Russell Thompson for providing the Feature Match task used in chapter two and for his encouraging advice over cups of tea in the kitchen. And my thanks go to two visiting students to the unit...

  16. Wild Cards Issue 4

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Multiple Contributors

    1996-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    hope you brought lotsa money... cuz I plan on winning big tonight!" "Hal" Hansen pushed the brown grocery bag into his friend's arms, features deadpan. "Beer." "Beer!" Doug bellowed. Shaking his head, Tom grinned and brushed past him. He headed... at the door. His head poked out of the kitchen; he looked at Tom, then at the door. "I'll get it," Hansen offered, and shuffled back through the apartment He opened the door to a pair of handsome young men. Dennis Booker, the latest addition to the ranks...

  17. The Fix Issue 21 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Multiple Contributors

    2000-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    . 'Tony's? They finished remodeling last month, didn't they?" Starsky nodded, turning left at the light. 4 1 f r r listo Tony must've spent a bundle. Hutch felt a sudden burst of nostalgia for the place the way it used to be, dark wood... is happening in your kitchen around those steaks." "Oh yeah! Did I hear the magic word? Hey, Huggy, you bring us some food?" ? Starsky stood in thedoorway, hishands braced onthe door frame. His jeans were [ badly grass-stained and his blue t-shirt was torn...

  18. Barely Hidden Magic: Acadiana Stories

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Lopez, Allison Rose

    2010-05-31T23:59:59.000Z

    this was the right turn. I’d forgotten about the second set of tracks and was looking the wrong way when the first streetcar passed going in the other direction. Lucky for me the trolleys move at the speed of the city, so the conductor was able to nearly stop... the kitchen toward me. “Don’t go back there alone. I have to introduce you to Henry so he doesn’t kill you.” Henry is the Saint Bernard she has to show for a three-month relationship with a guy who tried too hard to hold her attention. I hear Henry gallop...

  19. Energy Secretary Moniz Visits Clean Coal Facility in Mississippi |

    Energy Savers [EERE]

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page onYou are now leaving Energy.gov You are now leaving Energy.gov You are being directed off Energy.gov. Are you sure you want toworldPowerHome | DocumentsElementsHoliday Kitchen

  20. Energy Secretary Moniz Will Host North American Energy Ministers in

    Energy Savers [EERE]

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page onYou are now leaving Energy.gov You are now leaving Energy.gov You are being directed off Energy.gov. Are you sure you want toworldPowerHome | DocumentsElementsHoliday KitchenTrilateral

  1. How Do You Save Energy in the Summer? | Department of Energy

    Office of Environmental Management (EM)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative1 First Use of Energy for All Purposes (Fuel and Nonfuel), 2002; Level: National5Sales for4,645 3,625 1,006 492 742 33Frequently Asked Questions for DOE FYAffairs,AssessmentInteractive GraphicExcelFindKitchen? How

  2. How Do You Use Daylighting While Reducing Excess Heat from Windows? |

    Office of Environmental Management (EM)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative1 First Use of Energy for All Purposes (Fuel and Nonfuel), 2002; Level: National5Sales for4,645 3,625 1,006 492 742 33Frequently Asked Questions for DOE FYAffairs,AssessmentInteractive GraphicExcelFindKitchen?

  3. How Fuel Cells Work | Department of Energy

    Office of Environmental Management (EM)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative1 First Use of Energy for All Purposes (Fuel and Nonfuel), 2002; Level: National5Sales for4,645 3,625 1,006 492 742 33Frequently Asked Questions for DOE FYAffairs,AssessmentInteractive GraphicExcelFindKitchen?Fuel

  4. Development of Computational Capabilities to Predict the Corrosion Wastage of Boiler Tubes in Advanced Combustion Systems

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Kung, Steven; Rapp, Robert

    2014-08-31T23:59:59.000Z

    A comprehensive corrosion research project consisting of pilot-scale combustion testing and long-term laboratory corrosion study has been successfully performed. A pilot-scale combustion facility available at Brigham Young University was selected and modified to enable burning of pulverized coals under the operating conditions typical for advanced coal-fired utility boilers. Eight United States (U.S.) coals were selected for this investigation, with the test conditions for all coals set to have the same heat input to the combustor. In addition, the air/fuel stoichiometric ratio was controlled so that staged combustion was established, with the stoichiometric ratio maintained at 0.85 in the burner zone and 1.15 in the burnout zone. The burner zone represented the lower furnace of utility boilers, while the burnout zone mimicked the upper furnace areas adjacent to the superheaters and reheaters. From this staged combustion, approximately 3% excess oxygen was attained in the combustion gas at the furnace outlet. During each of the pilot-scale combustion tests, extensive online measurements of the flue gas compositions were performed. In addition, deposit samples were collected at the same location for chemical analyses. Such extensive gas and deposit analyses enabled detailed characterization of the actual combustion environments existing at the lower furnace walls under reducing conditions and those adjacent to the superheaters and reheaters under oxidizing conditions in advanced U.S. coal-fired utility boilers. The gas and deposit compositions were then carefully simulated in a series of 1000-hour laboratory corrosion tests, in which the corrosion performances of different commercial candidate alloys and weld overlays were evaluated at various temperatures for advanced boiler systems. Results of this laboratory study led to significant improvement in understanding of the corrosion mechanisms operating on the furnace walls as well as superheaters and reheaters in coal-fired boilers resulting from the coexistence of sulfur and chlorine in the fuel. A new corrosion mechanism, i.e., “Active Sulfidation Corrosion Mechanism,” has been proposed to account for the accelerated corrosion wastage observed on the furnace walls of utility boilers burning coals containing sulfur and chlorine. In addition, a second corrosion mechanism, i.e., “Active Sulfide-to-Oxide Corrosion Mechanism,” has been identified to account for the rapid corrosion attack on superheaters and reheaters. Both of the newly discovered corrosion mechanisms involve the formation of iron chloride (FeCl2) vapor from iron sulfide (FeS) and HCl, followed by the decomposition of FeCl2 via self-sustaining cycling reactions. For higher alloys containing sufficient chromium, the attack on superheaters and reheaters is dominated by Hot Corrosion in the presence of a fused salt. Furthermore, two stages of the hot corrosion mechanism have been identified and characterized in detail. The initiation of hot corrosion attack induced by molten sulfate leads to Stage 1 “acidic” fluxing and re-precipitation of the protective scale formed initially on the deposit-covered alloy surfaces. Once the protective scale is penetrated, Stage 2 Hot Corrosion is initiated, which is dominated by “basic” fluxing and re-precipitation of the scale in the fused salt. Based on the extensive corrosion information generated from this project, corrosion modeling was performed using non-linear regression analysis. As a result of the modeling efforts, two predictive equations have been formulated, one for furnace walls and the other for superheaters and reheaters. These first-of-the-kind equations can be used to estimate the corrosion rates of boiler tubes based on coal chemistry, alloy compositions, and boiler operating conditions for advanced boiler systems.

  5. Study on grain boundary character and strain distribution of intergranular cracking in the CGHAZ of T23 steel

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Jin, Y.J.; Lu, H., E-mail: shweld@sjtu.edu.cn; Yu, C.; Xu, J.J.

    2013-10-15T23:59:59.000Z

    Intergranular reheat cracking in the coarse-grained heat-affected zone of T23 steel was produced by strain to fracture tests on a Gleeble 3500 thermal–mechanical simulator. Then the grain boundary character, as well as the strain distribution after reheat crack propagation, was studied by electron backscatter diffraction technique. The results showed that incoherent ?3 boundaries were seldom found on the prior austenite grain boundaries. Therefore, only the type of random high-angle boundaries played a crucial role in the intergranular cracking. Microstructurally cavities and small cracks were preferentially initiated from high-angle grain boundaries. Low-angle grain boundaries and high-angle ones with misorientation angles less than 15° were more resistant to the cracking. More importantly, the fraction of high-angle grain boundaries increased with the plastic strain induced by both temperature gradient and stress in the coarse-grained heat-affected zone, which contributed to the crack initiation and propagation. Furthermore, the strain distributions in the vicinity of cavities and cracks revealed the accommodation processes of plastic deformation during stress relaxation. It also reflected the strength differences between grain interior and grain boundary at different heat-treated temperatures, which had a large influence on the cracking mechanism. - Highlights: • The coincidence site lattice boundaries play little role in the reheat cracking. • Cavity and crack occur at high-angle grain boundaries rather than low-angle ones. • The strain leads low-angle grain boundaries to transform to high-angle ones. • Strain distribution differs for cavity and crack zones at different temperatures.

  6. Baryon Asymmetry in Neutrino Mass Models with and without ?_13

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Ng. K. Francis

    2014-03-26T23:59:59.000Z

    We investigate the comparative studies of cosmological baryon asymmetry in different neutrino mass models with and without {\\theta}_13 by considering the three diagonal form of Dirac neutrino mass matrices, down-quark (4,2), up-quark (8,4) and charged lepton (6,2). The predictions of any models with {\\theta}_13 are consistent in all the three stages of leptogenesis calculations and the results are better than the predictions of any models without {\\theta}_13 which are consistent in a piecemeal manner with the observational data. For the best model, the normal hierarchy Type-IA for charged lepton (6,2) without {\\theta}_13, the predicted inflaton mass required to produce the observed baryon asymmetry is found to be 3.6x10 to the power 10 GeV corresponding to reheating temperature TR 4.5x10 to the power 6 GeV, while for the same model with {\\theta}_13, the inflaton mass is 2.24x10 to the power 11 GeV, TR 4.865x10 to the power 6 GeV and weak scale gravitino mass m(2 divided by 3) 100 GeV without causing the gravitino problem. These values apply to the recent discovery of Higgs boson of mass 125 GeV. The relic abundance of gravitino is proportional to the reheating temperature of the thermal bath. One can have the right order of relic dark matter abundance only if the reheating temperature is bounded to below 10 to the power 7 GeV.

  7. Particle Production and Dissipative Cosmic Field

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    H. Fujisaki; K. Kumekawa; M. Yamaguchi; M. Yoshimura

    1995-08-27T23:59:59.000Z

    Large amplitude oscillation of cosmic field that may occur right after inflation and in the decay process of weakly interacting fields gives rise to violent particle production via the parametric resonance. In the large amplitude limit the problem of back reaction against the field oscillation is solved and the energy spectrum of created particles is determined in a semi-classical approximation. For large enough coupling or large enough amplitude the resulting energy spectrum is broadly distributed, implying larger production of high energy particles than what a simple estimate of the reheating temperature due to the Born formula would suggest.

  8. Constraints on primordial black holes and primeval density perturbations from the epoch of reionization

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Ping He; Li-Zhi Fang

    2002-02-12T23:59:59.000Z

    We investigate the constraint on the abundance of primordial black holes (PBHs) and the spectral index $n$ of primeval density perturbations given by the ionizing photon background at the epoch of reionization. Within the standard inflationary cosmogony, we show that the spectral index $n$ of the power-law power spectrum of primeval density perturbations should be $n<$1.27. Since the universe is still optical thick at the reionization redshift $z\\sim 6$ - 8, this constraint is independent of the unknown parameter of reheating temperature of the inflation. The ionizing photon background from the PBHs can be well approximated by a power law spectrum $J(\

  9. Novel Power Cycle for Combined-Cycle Systems and Utility Power Plants

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Kalina, A. L.

    for the advanced gas turbine 700lF, manufactured by the General Electric Company. According to data provided by EPRI, the most advanced Rankine bottoming cycle, with a double pressure boiler and reheating, can produce, using the heat exhaust of this turbine..., 169.2 megawatts. If a triple pressure Rankine Cycle is used as a bottoming cycle, the gross output can reach, according to EPRI, 182.6 MW. This performance has been taken as a baseline for comparison with the performance of System 6, which has...

  10. Field Test of Combined Desiccant-Evaporator Cycle Providing Lower Dew Points and Enhanced Dehumidification

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Cromer, C. J.

    2006-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    1939 2262 2585 2908 3231 AmbientF AmbientRH Return F Return RH Figure 11. One Month MODEL C Operational Data. Set Points Are 76 F and 45 % RH. Each Data Point Represents A 15 Minute Average. The Fan Is Set on “Auto”, That Is, It Cycles On and Off... with the better humidistat. The MODEL C unit provided excellent humidity control at the 45% RH set point, with occasional overcooling at night of several degrees (when the building is unoccupied). No reheat was used. For control, the unit was cycled...

  11. The Air or Brayton Cycle Solvent Recovery System

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Fox, B. J.

    compressor wheeland a turbi ne wheel are mounted on opposite ends of a common shaft. A counter flow heat exchanger serves to precool the turbine inlet air by heat exchange with the colder turbine exhaust air. This also reheats the cold exhaust air before... it is returned to the oven. Drive energy may be supplied with a gear drive to the shaft or by furnishing the compressor with solvent laden air precompressed to about 10-12 psig. The ai r is compressed to about 2 atmospheres (15-20 psig) before expansion...

  12. Commissioning Existing Buildings: A Program Perspective 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Jump, D.; Rosillo, A.; Tahir, A.

    2003-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    and water-side economizer problems, boiler controls) were present in many buildings. The load shapes, and the simple and detailed models helped identify many of the performance issues. The root causes of the performance problem were investigated during... Program holidays in EMCS Tune up boiler controllers Site 7 200,000 ft2 Hotel Site 2 - 100,000 ft2 Office Building Water Cooled Heat Pumps Central CHW/HW, CAV w/ Reheat Add front end to EMS Optimize air side economizer Investigate cooling tower...

  13. Cooking with Ground Pork

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Anding, Jenna

    2008-12-09T23:59:59.000Z

    to thaw. Even when cooked, pork that has been thawed at room temperature can make you sick. Cooking ground pork safely For dishes that contain ground pork, cook the pork before mixing it with other ingredients. How to store cooked ground pork Leftover... dishes made with ground pork should be stored in a covered dish in the refrigerator right away to prevent spoilage. Use it within 3 days. Reheat foods with ground pork until they are steaming hot, bubbling, or at 165 degrees. Other uses Use cooked...

  14. Potential Operation and Maintenance (O&M) Savings in the Basic Science Building at UTMB

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Liu, M.; Athar, A.; Claridge, D. E.; Reddy, T. A.; Haberl, J. S.

    1993-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    schedule has been developed using a simplified HVAC systems model analysis along with the LoanSTAR measured hourly energy use data and EMCS measured operating parameters at UTMB. An annual savings of $156,000 can be realized by implementing this optimized... schedule in the EMCS control program. The majority of the energy savings are due to the reduction in chilled water consumption and a substantial reduction of reheat. Our analysis indicates that the indoor comfort level will not be degraded by this measure...

  15. Potential Operation and Maintenance (O&M) Savings in the John Sealy South Building at UTMB

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Liu, M.; Athar, A.; Reddy, T. A.; Houcek, J. K.; Claridge, D. E.; Haberl, J. S.

    1993-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    that annual savings of $174,000 can be realized by changing the EMCS control program and calibrating the temperature sensors of the cold deck. The majority of energy savings occur because the optimized operation schedule reduces reheat substantially. Our.... These systems pre-cool outdoor air before mixing with return air. Chilled water and steam are supplied by the central plant. An Energy Management and Control System (EMCS) was supposed to maintain the outdoor air cold deck temperature at 60 ?F and the main cold...

  16. Air- and Oxy-Fired Fireside Corrosion

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Holcomb, G. R.; Tylczak, J.; Carney, C.; Laughlin, D.; Zhu, J.; Wise, A.

    2014-03-04T23:59:59.000Z

    The primary goal of this work was to examine the corrosion effects from flue gas composition changes arising from oxy?combustion. At 700°C, increased SO{sub X}, CO{sub 2}, and H{sub 2}O contents in the gas phase arising from various oxy?combustion flue gas recirculation scenarios, while maintaining constant ash deposit chemistry, do not increase corrosion in superheater or reheater tubing. At 400°C, for both oxidative and reducing conditions, the corrosion rates were lower than at 700°C.

  17. Primordial Magnetic Fields from the Post-Inflationary Universe

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Takeshi Kobayashi

    2014-05-28T23:59:59.000Z

    We explore cosmological magnetogenesis in the post-inflationary universe, when the inflaton oscillates around its potential minimum and the universe is effectively dominated by cold matter. During this epoch prior to reheating, large-scale magnetic fields can be significantly produced by the cosmological background. By considering magnetogenesis both during and after inflation, we demonstrate that magnetic fields stronger than 10^{-15} G can be generated on Mpc scales without having strong couplings in the theory, or producing too large electric fields that would dominate the universe.

  18. Holographic entropy bounds in the inflationary universe

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Y. S. Myung

    2003-01-13T23:59:59.000Z

    We introduce the relation between the holographic entropy bounds and the inflationary universe. First the holographic entropy bounds for radiation-dominated universe, radiation-dominated universe with a positive cosmological constant are introduced. For an exact de Sitter phase, we use the maximal entropy bound. We classify the inflation based on the quasi-de Sitter spacetime into three steps: slow-roll period of inflation, epoch of reheating, and radiation-dominated era. Then we study how to apply three entropy bounds to the three steps of the inflation. Finally we discuss our results.

  19. Quantum Cosmology and the Structure of Inflationary Universe

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Andrei Linde

    1995-08-08T23:59:59.000Z

    In this review I consider several different issues related to inflation. I will begin with the wave function of the Universe. This issue is pretty old, but recently there were some new insights based on the theory of the self-reproducing inflationary universe. Then we will discuss stationarity of inflationary universe and the possibility to make predictions in the context of quantum cosmology using stochastic approach to inflation. Returning to more pragmatic aspects of inflationary theory, we will discuss inflationary models with $\\Omega < 1$. Finally, we will describe several aspects of the theory of reheating of the Universe based on the effect of parametric resonance.

  20. Primordial Magnetic Fields from the Post-Inflationary Universe

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Kobayashi, Takeshi

    2014-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    We explore cosmological magnetogenesis in the post-inflationary universe, when the inflaton oscillates around its potential minimum and the universe is effectively dominated by cold matter. During this epoch prior to reheating, large-scale magnetic fields can be significantly produced by the cosmological background. By considering magnetogenesis both during and after inflation, we demonstrate that magnetic fields stronger than 10^{-15} G can be generated on Mpc scales without having strong couplings in the theory, or producing too large electric fields that would dominate the universe.

  1. Effects of the Gravitino on the Inflationary Universe

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Takeo Moroi

    1995-03-02T23:59:59.000Z

    Gravitino problem is discussed in detail. We derive an upperbound on the reheating temperature from the constraints of the big-bang nucleosynthesis and the present mass density of the universe. Compared to previous works, we have improve the following three points; (i) the gravitino production cross sections are calculated by taking all the relevant terms in the supergravity lagrangian into account, (ii) high energy photon spectrum is obtained by solving the Boltzmann equations numerically, and (iii) the evolutions of the light elements (D, T, $^3$He, $^4$He) at the temperature lower than $\\sim$1MeV are calculated by using modified Kawano's computer code.

  2. Is Integrated Gasification Combined Cycle with Carbon Capture-Storage the Solution for Conventional Coal Power Plants

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Kundi, Manish

    2011-12-16T23:59:59.000Z

    in the sulfur recovery process. Therefore, the fuel gas produced is virtually free of fuel- bound nitrogen. By maintaining a low fuel-air ratio (lean combustion) and adding a diluent (e.g., nitrogen from the air separation unit or steam), the flame temperature... includes two trains of air separation units, two operating gasification trains, a single acid gas removal train, two combustion turbines and Heat Recovery Steam Generation (HRSG)’s and a single reheat steam turbine(Booras and Holt 2004). The gasification...

  3. Rotating diffuser for pressure recovery in a steam cooling circuit of a gas turbine

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Eldrid, Sacheverel Q. (Saratoga Springs, NY); Salamah, Samir A. (Niskayuna, NY); DeStefano, Thomas Daniel (Ballston Lake, NY)

    2002-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The buckets of a gas turbine are steam-cooled via a bore tube assembly having concentric supply and spent cooling steam return passages rotating with the rotor. A diffuser is provided in the return passage to reduce the pressure drop. In a combined cycle system, the spent return cooling steam with reduced pressure drop is combined with reheat steam from a heat recovery steam generator for flow to the intermediate pressure turbine. The exhaust steam from the high pressure turbine of the combined cycle unit supplies cooling steam to the supply conduit of the gas turbine.

  4. Axion Bounds from Precision Cosmology

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Raffelt, G. G. [Max-Planck-Institut fuer Physik (Werner-Heisenberg-Institut), 80805 Muenchen (Germany); Hamann, J.; Hannestad, S. [Department of Physics and Astronomy, University of Aarhus, 8000 Aarhus C (Denmark); Mirizzi, A. [II. Institut fuer Theoretische Physik, Universitaet Hamburg, 22761 Hamburg (Germany); Wong, Y. Y. Y. [Institut fuer Theoretische Teilchenphysik und Kosmologie, RWTH Aachen, 52056 Aachen (Germany)

    2010-08-30T23:59:59.000Z

    Depending on their mass, axions produced in the early universe can leave different imprints in cosmic structures. If axions have masses in the eV-range, they contribute a hot dark matter fraction, allowing one to constrain m{sub a} in analogy to neutrinos. In the more favored scenario where axions play the role of cold dark matter and if reheating after inflation does not restore the Peccei-Quinn symmetry, the axion field provides isocurvature fluctuations that are severely constrained by precision cosmology. There remains a small sliver in parameter space where isocurvature fluctuations could still show up in future probes.

  5. Seminar 14 - Desiccant Enhanced Air Conditioning: Desiccant Enhanced Evaporative Air Conditioning (Presentation)

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Kozubal, E.

    2013-02-01T23:59:59.000Z

    This presentation explains how liquid desiccant based coupled with an indirect evaporative cooler can efficiently produce cool, dry air, and how a liquid desiccant membrane air conditioner can efficiently provide cooling and dehumidification without the carryover problems of previous generations of liquid desiccant systems. It provides an overview to a liquid desiccant DX air conditioner that can efficiently provide cooling and dehumidification to high latent loads without the need for reheat, explains how liquid desiccant cooling and dehumidification systems can outperform vapor compression based air conditioning systems in hot and humid climates, explains how liquid desiccant cooling and dehumidification systems work, and describes a refrigerant free liquid desiccant based cooling system.

  6. Healthcare Energy End-Use Monitoring

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Sheppy, M.; Pless, S.; Kung, F.

    2014-08-01T23:59:59.000Z

    NREL partnered with two hospitals (MGH and SUNY UMU) to collect data on the energy used for multiple thermal and electrical end-use categories, including preheat, heating, and reheat; humidification; service water heating; cooling; fans; pumps; lighting; and select plug and process loads. Additional data from medical office buildings were provided for an analysis focused on plug loads. Facility managers, energy managers, and engineers in the healthcare sector will be able to use these results to more effectively prioritize and refine the scope of investments in new metering and energy audits.

  7. Chandra Observations of NGC 4636 - An Elliptical Galaxy in Turmoil

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    C. Jones; W. Forman; A. Vikhlinin; M. Markevitch; L. David; A. Warmflash; S. Murray; P. E. J. Nulsen

    2001-08-07T23:59:59.000Z

    Chandra images show symmetric, 8 kpc long, arm-like features in the X-ray halo surrounding NGC 4636. The leading edges of these features are sharp and are accompanied by temperature increases of ~30%. These properties, along with their scale and symmetry, suggest that the arm-like structures are produced by nuclear outburst driven shocks. We interpret these observations as part of a cycle in which cooling gas originally fueled a nuclear outburst about 3 X 10^{6} years ago leading to shocks that reheat the cooling gas, thus preventing the accumulation of significant amounts of cooled gas in the galaxy center and temporarily starving the central AGN.

  8. Operational and environmental benefits of oxy-fuel combustion in the steel industry

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Farrell, L.M. (Praxair, Inc., Tarrytown, NY (United States)); Pavlack, T.T. (Praxair, Inc., East Chicago, IN (United States). Linde Division); Rich, L. (North American Mfg. Co., Coraopolis, PA (United States))

    1993-07-01T23:59:59.000Z

    A number of patented, field-tested 100% oxy-fuel burner systems have been developed which provide fuel savings, reduced emissions (CO[sub 2] and NO[sub x]) and improved operational performances. These systems can be applied to high-temperature continuous and batch reheat furnaces, soaking pits and ladle preheaters. Fuel consumption and carbon dioxide and NO[sub x] emissions can be reduced by 40 to 60%. Burner design (including nonwater cooled models), commercial experience, measured and projected emissions reductions, and additional operating benefits associated with new and retrofitted applications are described.

  9. Report of Energy Efficiency Study and Metering/Utilities Profile for Electricity Deregulation at Texas A&M University -- Corpus Christi (TAMU-CC) Corpus Christi, Texas

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Zhu, Y.; Turner, W. D.; Claridge, D. E.

    1999-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    and charge the chilled water to a thermal-storage tank as well. Two 400 hp boilers and one 5MMBtu/hr heat pump are located in the central plant and provide the hot water to the campus. One thermal-storage tank is located outside the central plant and is used... and three single duct constant volume (SDCV) AHUs with HW reheat serve the building. For the SDVAVs, the fan speeds were from 27Hz to 45Hz. The static pressure setpoints ranged from 1" to 1.38". The discharge air temperature setpoints were 50?F for AHU-4...

  10. Cooling Semiconductor Manufacturing Facilities with Chilled Water Storage

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Fiorino, D. P.

    Utility Plant (See Figure 1). This piping network was originally designed as a closed, variable-volume hydronic system with constant speed primary pumps as large as 500 hp, 9,000 gpm, 200' tdh located in the return piping 272 ESL-IE-95-04-41... and reheating coils, 274 ESL-IE-95-04-41 Proceedings from the Seventeenth Industrial Energy Technology Conference, Houston, TX, April 5-6, 1995 I as well as 7.5 hp, 400 gpm, 75' tdh "run-around" pumps and piping. This measure produced 95 tons (20%) of "free...

  11. Hydrogen and elemental carbon production from natural gas and other hydrocarbons

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Detering, Brent A. (Idaho Falls, ID); Kong, Peter C. (Idaho Falls, ID)

    2002-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Diatomic hydrogen and unsaturated hydrocarbons are produced as reactor gases in a fast quench reactor. During the fast quench, the unsaturated hydrocarbons are further decomposed by reheating the reactor gases. More diatomic hydrogen is produced, along with elemental carbon. Other gas may be added at different stages in the process to form a desired end product and prevent back reactions. The product is a substantially clean-burning hydrogen fuel that leaves no greenhouse gas emissions, and elemental carbon that may be used in powder form as a commodity for several processes.

  12. Fast-quench reactor for hydrogen and elemental carbon production from natural gas and other hydrocarbons

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Detering, Brent A.; Kong, Peter C.

    2006-08-29T23:59:59.000Z

    A fast-quench reactor for production of diatomic hydrogen and unsaturated carbons is provided. During the fast quench in the downstream diverging section of the nozzle, such as in a free expansion chamber, the unsaturated hydrocarbons are further decomposed by reheating the reactor gases. More diatomic hydrogen is produced, along with elemental carbon. Other gas may be added at different stages in the process to form a desired end product and prevent back reactions. The product is a substantially clean-burning hydrogen fuel that leaves no greenhouse gas emissions, and elemental carbon that may be used in powder form as a commodity for several processes.

  13. Anisotropic inflation with non-abelian gauge kinetic function

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Murata, Keiju [DAMTP, University of Cambridge, Centre for Mathematical Sciences, Wilberforce Road, Cambridge CB3 0WA (United Kingdom); Soda, Jiro, E-mail: K.Murata@damtp.cam.ac.uk, E-mail: jiro@tap.scphys.kyoto-u.ac.jp [Department of Physics, Kyoto University, Kyoto, 606-8502 (Japan)

    2011-06-01T23:59:59.000Z

    We study an anisotropic inflation model with a gauge kinetic function for a non-abelian gauge field. We find that, in contrast to abelian models, the anisotropy can be either a prolate or an oblate type, which could lead to a different prediction from abelian models for the statistical anisotropy in the power spectrum of cosmological fluctuations. During a reheating phase, we find chaotic behaviour of the non-abelian gauge field which is caused by the nonlinear self-coupling of the gauge field. We compute a Lyapunov exponent of the chaos which turns out to be uncorrelated with the anisotropy.

  14. Mass spectrum of primordial black holes from inflationary perturbation in the Randall-Sundrum braneworld: a limit on blue spectra

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Yuuiti Sendouda; Shigehiro Nagataki; Katsuhiko Sato

    2006-06-07T23:59:59.000Z

    The mass spectrum of the primordial black holes formed by density perturbation in the radiation-dominated era of the Randall-Sundrum type-2 cosmology is given. The spectrum coincides with standard four-dimensional one on large scales but the deviation is apparent on smaller scales. The mass spectrum is initially softer than standard four-dimensional one, while after accretion during the earliest era it becomes harder than that. We also show expected extragalactic diffuse photon background spectra varying the initial perturbation power-law power spectrum and give constraints on the blue spectra and/or the reheating temperature. The most recent observations on the small scale density perturbation from WMAP, SDSS and Lyman-\\alpha Forest are used. What we get are interpreted as constraints on the smaller scale inflation on the brane connected to the larger one at the scale of Lyman-\\alpha Forest. If we set the bulk curvature radius to be 0.1 mm and assume the reheating temperature is higher than 10^6 GeV, the scalar spectral index from the smaller scale inflation is constrained to be n \\lesssim 1.3. Typically, the constraints are tighter than standard four-dimensional one, which is also revised by us using the most recent observations.

  15. Task 8.8 -- Low cost ceramic materials

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    NONE

    1997-06-30T23:59:59.000Z

    This subtask was originally titled ``Reheat Combustor Materials`` and was proposed in anticipation of the addition of a reheat combustor to the ICR gas turbine cycle. When the emphasis of ATS became the optimized recuperated cycle, the goal of the subtask was changed to the evaluation of low cost materials for gas turbine combustor liners. It now supplements similar work being conducted by Solar under DOE Contract No.DE-ACO2-92-CE40960, titled ``Ceramic Stationary Gas Turbine (CSGT) Development.`` The use of a ceramic combustor liner in gas turbines contributes to emissions reductions by freeing cooling air for use as primary combustion air and by allowing higher wall temperatures, which contribute to more complete combustion of hydrocarbons. Information from a literature survey, manufacturer`s data, and Solar`s experience was used to select three materials for testing. In addition to material properties requirements for selection, subscale combustor liner cost was required to be at least half of the high modulus continuous fiber reinforced composite part cost. The three materials initially selected for evaluation are listed in Table 1. Four hour subscale rig tests were planned for eight inch diameter liners made from each material. Upon successful completion of each four hour test, a fifty hour test was planned.

  16. PRESSURIZED SOLID OXIDE FUEL CELL/GAS TURBINE POWER SYSTEM

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    W.L. Lundberg; G.A. Israelson; R.R. Moritz (Rolls-Royce Allison); S.E. Veyo; R.A. Holmes; P.R. Zafred; J.E. King; R.E. Kothmann (Consultant)

    2000-02-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Power systems based on the simplest direct integration of a pressurized solid oxide fuel cell (SOFC) generator and a gas turbine (GT) are capable of converting natural gas fuel energy to electric power with efficiencies of approximately 60% (net AC/LHV), and more complex SOFC and gas turbine arrangements can be devised for achieving even higher efficiencies. The results of a project are discussed that focused on the development of a conceptual design for a pressurized SOFC/GT power system that was intended to generate 20 MWe with at least 70% efficiency. The power system operates baseloaded in a distributed-generation application. To achieve high efficiency, the system integrates an intercooled, recuperated, reheated gas turbine with two SOFC generator stages--one operating at high pressure, and generating power, as well as providing all heat needed by the high-pressure turbine, while the second SOFC generator operates at a lower pressure, generates power, and provides all heat for the low-pressure reheat turbine. The system cycle is described, major system components are sized, the system installed-cost is estimated, and the physical arrangement of system components is discussed. Estimates of system power output, efficiency, and emissions at the design point are also presented, and the system cost of electricity estimate is developed.

  17. Retrofitting the heating system for NASA's space shuttle engine test facility

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Arceneaux, T.W. (NASA, St. Louis, MO (US))

    1992-07-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The John C. Stennis Space Center is one of nine NASA field installations and is the second largest NASA Center, occupying 13,480 acres (55 km{sup 2}) and surrounded by a 125,327-acre (507 km{sup 2}) unpopulated buffer zone. Since its beginnings, the center has been the prime NASA installation for static firing. This paper reports that because of the critical nature of the center's missions, precise instrumentation and comfortable personnel environments must be constantly and efficiency maintained. When the site was built nearly 30 years ago, two main boiler plants were installed. One was in the base area (which houses administrative and engineering offices) and the second was in the test area where the test stands and test support buildings are located. These two boiler plants generated high pressure, high temperature water (400{degrees} F, 400 psi; 204{degrees} C, 2,756 kPa) that was used for heating, reheating and absorption cooling. This high temperature hot water (HTHW) was circulated by pumps to various buildings on the site through an underground piping network. Once in the buildings, the HTHW passed through absorption chillers for cooling and high temperature-to-medium temperature water converters for heating and reheating.

  18. Inflationary Magnetogenesis in $R^{2}$-Inflation after Planck 2015

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    AlMuhammad, Anwar Saleh

    2015-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    We study the primordial magnetic field generated by the simple model $f^2 FF$ in Starobinsky, $R^2$-inflationary, model. The scale invariant PMF is achieved at relatively high power index of the coupling function, $\\left| \\alpha \\right| \\approx 7.44$. This model does not suffer from the backreaction problem as long as, the rate of inflationary expansion, $H$, is in the order of or less than the upper bound reported by Planck ($\\le 3.6 \\times 10^{-5} M_\\rm{Pl}$) in both de Sitter and power law expansion, which show similar results. We calculate the lower limit of the reheating parameter, $R_\\rm{rad} > 6.888$ in $R^2$-inflation. Based on the upper limit obtained from CMB, we find that the upper limits of magnetic field and reheating energy density as, $\\left(\\rho_{B_\\rm{end}} \\right)_\\rm{CMB} < 1.184 \\times 10^{-20} M_\\rm{Pl}^4$ and $\\left(\\rho_\\rm{reh} \\right)_\\rm{CMB} < 8.480 \\times 10^{-22} M_\\rm{Pl}^4$. All of foregoing results are well more than the lower limit derived from WMAP7 for both large and s...

  19. Issues in Complex Structure Moduli Inflation

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Hirotaka Hayashi; Ryo Matsuda; Taizan Watari

    2014-10-28T23:59:59.000Z

    Supersymmetric compactification with moderately large radius (${\\rm Re} \\sim {\\cal O}(10)$ or more) not only accommodates supersymmetric unification, but also provides candidates for an inflaton in the form of geometric moduli; the value of ${\\rm Re} > 1$ may be used as a parameter that brings corrections to the inflaton potential under control. Motivated by a bottom-up idea "right-handed sneutrino inflation" scenario, we study whether complex structure moduli can play some role during the slow-roll inflation and/or reheating process in this moderately large radius regime. Even when we allow a tuning introduced by Kallosh and Linde, the barrier of volume stabilization potential from gaugino condensation racetrack superpotential can hardly be as high as $(10^{16} \\; {\\rm GeV})^4$ for generic choice of parameters in this regime. It is also found that even very small deformation of complex structure during inflation/reheating distorts the volume stabilization potential, so that the volume stabilization imposes tight constraints on large-field inflation scenario involving evolution of complex structure moduli. A few ideas of satisfying those constraints in string theory are also discussed.

  20. Leptogenesis in Inflationary Universe

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    T. Asaka; K. Hamaguchi; M. Kawasaki; T. Yanagida

    1999-07-30T23:59:59.000Z

    We investigate the leptogenesis via decays of heavy Majorana neutrinos which are produced non-thermally in inflaton decays. We make a comprehensive study on the leptogenesis assuming various supersymmetric (SUSY) models for hybrid, new and topological inflations. For an estimation of the lepton asymmetry we adopt the Froggatt-Nielsen mechanism for mass matrices of quarks and leptons. We find that all of these models are successful to produce the lepton asymmetry enough to explain the baryon number in the present universe. Here we impose low reheating temperatures such as $T_R \\lesssim 10^8$ GeV in order to suppress the abundance of gravitinos not to conflict with the big-bang nucleosynthesis. Furthermore, we find that the leptogenesis works very well even with $T_R \\simeq 10^{6}$ GeV in the SUSY hybrid or new inflation model. It is known that such a reheating temperature is low enough to suppress the abundance of gravitinos of mass $m_{3/2} \\simeq 100$ GeV--1 TeV. Thus, the leptogenesis is fully consistent with the big-bang nucleosynthesis in a wide region of the gravitino mass.

  1. Apparatus for loading shape memory gripper mechanisms

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Lee, Abraham P. (Walnut Creek, CA); Benett, William J. (Livermore, CA); Schumann, Daniel L. (Concord, CA); Krulevitch, Peter A. (Pleasanton, CA); Fitch, Joseph P. (Livermore, CA)

    2001-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    A method and apparatus for loading deposit material, such as an embolic coil, into a shape memory polymer (SMP) gripping/release mechanism. The apparatus enables the application of uniform pressure to secure a grip by the SMP mechanism on the deposit material via differential pressure between, for example, vacuum within the SMP mechanism and hydrostatic water pressure on the exterior of the SMP mechanism. The SMP tubing material of the mechanism is heated to above the glass transformation temperature (Tg) while reshaping, and subsequently cooled to below Tg to freeze the shape. The heating and/or cooling may, for example, be provided by the same water applied for pressurization or the heating can be applied by optical fibers packaged to the SMP mechanism for directing a laser beam, for example, thereunto. At a point of use, the deposit material is released from the SMP mechanism by reheating the SMP material to above the temperature Tg whereby it returns to its initial shape. The reheating of the SM material may be carried out by injecting heated fluid (water) through an associated catheter or by optical fibers and an associated beam of laser light, for example.

  2. Method for loading shape memory polymer gripper mechanisms

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Lee, Abraham P. (Walnut Creek, CA); Benett, William J. (Livermore, CA); Schumann, Daniel L. (Concord, CA); Krulevitch, Peter A. (Pleasanton, CA); Fitch, Joseph P. (Livermore, CA)

    2002-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    A method and apparatus for loading deposit material, such as an embolic coil, into a shape memory polymer (SMP) gripping/release mechanism. The apparatus enables the application of uniform pressure to secure a grip by the SMP mechanism on the deposit material via differential pressure between, for example, vacuum within the SMP mechanism and hydrostatic water pressure on the exterior of the SMP mechanism. The SMP tubing material of the mechanism is heated to above the glass transformation temperature (Tg) while reshaping, and subsequently cooled to below Tg to freeze the shape. The heating and/or cooling may, for example, be provided by the same water applied for pressurization or the heating can be applied by optical fibers packaged to the SMP mechanism for directing a laser beam, for example, thereunto. At a point of use, the deposit material is released from the SMP mechanism by reheating the SMP material to above the temperature Tg whereby it returns to its initial shape. The reheating of the SMP material may be carried out by injecting heated fluid (water) through an associated catheter or by optical fibers and an associated beam of laser light, for example.

  3. Comparisons of HVAC Simulations between EnergyPlus and DOE-2.2 for Data Centers

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Hong, Tianzhen; Sartor, Dale; Mathew, Paul; Yazdanian, Mehry

    2008-08-13T23:59:59.000Z

    This paper compares HVAC simulations between EnergyPlus and DOE-2.2 for data centers. The HVAC systems studied in the paper are packaged direct expansion air-cooled single zone systems with and without air economizer. Four climate zones are chosen for the study - San Francisco, Miami, Chicago, and Phoenix. EnergyPlus version 2.1 and DOE-2.2 version 45 are used in the annual energy simulations. The annual cooling electric consumption calculated by EnergyPlus and DOE-2.2 are reasonablely matched within a range of -0.4percent to 8.6percent. The paper also discusses sources of differences beween EnergyPlus and DOE-2.2 runs including cooling coil algorithm, performance curves, and important energy model inputs.

  4. Review of Literature on Terminal Box Control, Occupancy Sensing Technology and Multi-zone Demand Control Ventilation (DCV)

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Liu, Guopeng; Dasu, Aravind R.; Zhang, Jian

    2012-03-01T23:59:59.000Z

    This report presents an overall review of the standard requirement, the terminal box control, occupancy sensing technology and DCV. There is system-specific guidance for single-zone systems, but DCV application guidance for multi-zone variable air volume (VAV) systems is not available. No real-world implementation case studies have been found using the CO2-based DCV. The review results also show that the constant minimum air flow set point causes excessive fan power consumption and potential simultaneous heating and cooling. Occupancy-based control (OBC) is needed for the terminal box in order to achieve deep energy savings. Key to OBC is a technology for sensing the actual occupancy of the zone served in real time. Several technologies show promise, but none currently fully meets the need with adequate accuracy and sufficiently low cost.

  5. FLAG-SGH Sedov calculations

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Fung, Jimmy [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Schofield, Sam [LLNL; Shashkov, Mikhail J. [Los Alamos National Laboratory

    2012-06-25T23:59:59.000Z

    We did not run with a 'cylindrically painted region'. However, we did compute two general variants of the original problem. Refinement studies where a single zone at each level of refinement contains the entire internal energy at t=0 or A 'finite' energy source which has the same physical dimensions as that for the 91 x 46 mesh, but consisting of increasing numbers of zones with refinement. Nominal mesh resolution: 91 x 46. Other mesh resolutions: 181 x 92 and 361 x 184. Note, not identical to the original specification. To maintain symmetry for the 'fixed' energy source, the mesh resolution was adjusted slightly. FLAG Lagrange or full (Eulerian) ALE was used with various options for each simulation. Observation - for either Lagrange or ALE, point or 'fixed' source, calculations converge on density and pressure with mesh resolution, but not energy, (not vorticity either).

  6. NATURAL CONVECTION IN PASSIVE SOLAR BUILDINGS: EXPERIMENTS, ANALYSIS AND RESULTS

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Gadgil, A.; Bauman, F.; Kammerud, R.

    1981-04-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Computer programs have been developed to numerically simulate natural convection in two- and three-dimensional room geometries. The programs have been validated using published data from the literature, results from a full-scale experiment performed at the Massachusetts Institute of Technology, and results from a small-scale experiment performed at LBL. One of the computer programs has been used to study the influence of natural convection on the thermal performance of a single zone in a direct-gain passive solar building. It is found that the convective heat transfer coefficients between the air and the enclosure surfaces can be substantially different from the values assumed in the standard building energy analysis methods, and can exhibit significant variations across a given surface. This study implies that the building heating loads calculated by standard building energy analysis methods may have substantial errors as a result of their use of common assumptions regarding the convection processes which occur in an enclosure.

  7. An Assessment of the U.S. Residential Lighting Market

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Jennings, Judy; Brown, Rich; Moezzi, Mithra; Mills, Evan; Sardinsky, Robert

    1995-10-01T23:59:59.000Z

    This report provides background data upon which residential lighting fixture energy conservation programs can be built. The current stock of residential lighting is described by usage level, lamp wattage, fixture type, and location within the house. Data are discussed that indicate that 25% of residential fixtures are responsible for 80% of residential lighting energy use, and that justify targeting these fixtures as candidates for retrofit with energy-efficient fixtures. Fixtures determined to have the highest energy use are hardwired ceiling fixtures in kitchens, living/family rooms, dining rooms, and outdoors. An assessment of the market for residential fixtures shows that nearly half of new residential fixtures are imported, 61% of new fixtures sold are hardwired, and about half of all new fixtures sold are for ceiling installation.

  8. A TEM study of soot, carbon nanotubes, and related fullerene nanopolyhedra in common fuel-gas combustion sources

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Murr, L.E. [Department of Metallurgical and Materials Engineering, The University of Texas at El Paso, El Paso, TX 79968 (United States)]. E-mail: fekberg@utep.edu; Soto, K.F. [Department of Metallurgical and Materials Engineering, The University of Texas at El Paso, El Paso, TX 79968 (United States)

    2005-07-15T23:59:59.000Z

    Nanoparticle aggregates collected by thermophoretic precipitation from natural gas-air and propane-air kitchen stove top flame exhausts, natural gas-air water heater roof-top exhausts, and other common fuel-gas combustion sources were observed by transmission electron microscopy to consist of occasional aggregates of mostly turbostratic carbon spherules, aggregates of crystalline graphite nanoparticles mixed with other fullerene nanoforms; and aggregates of various sizes of multiwall carbon nanotubes and other multishell, fullerene polyhedra for optimal blue-flame combustion. The carbon nanotube structures and end cap variations as well as fullerene polyhedral structures were observed to be the same as those for arc-evaporation produced nanoaggregates. Nanoparticle aggregation or the occurrence of carbon nanoforms always occurred as aggregates with nominal sizes ranging from about 0.5 {mu}m to 1.5 {mu}m.

  9. Human Activity Detection from RGBD Images

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Sung, Jaeyong; Selman, Bart; Saxena, Ashutosh

    2011-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Being able to detect and recognize human activities is important for making personal assistant robots useful in performing assistive tasks. The challenge is to develop a system that is low-cost, reliable in unstructured home settings, and also straightforward to use. In this paper, we use a RGBD sensor (Microsoft Kinect) as the input sensor, and present learning algorithms to infer the activities. Our algorithm is based on a hierarchical maximum entropy Markov model (MEMM). It considers a person's activity as composed of a set of sub-activities, and infers the two-layered graph structure using a dynamic programming approach. We test our algorithm on detecting and recognizing twelve different activities performed by four people in different environments, such as a kitchen, a living room, an office, etc., and achieve an average performance of 84.3% when the person was seen before in the training set (and 64.2% when the person was not seen before).

  10. Heating Water with Solar Energy Costs Less at the Phoenix Federal Correctional Institution

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Not Available

    2004-09-01T23:59:59.000Z

    A large solar thermal system installed at the Phoenix Federal Correctional Institution (FCI) in 1998 heats water for the prison and costs less than buying electricity to heat that water. This renewable energy system provides 70% of the facility's annual hot water needs. The Federal Bureau of Prisons did not incur the up-front cost of this system because it was financed through an Energy Savings Performance Contract (ESPC). The ESPC payments are 10% less than the energy savings so that the prison saves an average of$6,700 per year, providing an immediate payback. The solar hot water system produces up to 50,000 gallons of hot water daily, enough to meet the needs of 1,250 inmates and staff who use the kitchen, shower, and laundry facilities.

  11. M Station, Austin

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Mathon, S.

    2011-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Kitchen Cabinets Window Solar Screens Compartmentalization 76 $1.00/sf (total) Attic + Wall Insulation 89 $1.22/sf (total) ID LL SS WE EA MR EQ AE 81 10249 $0.00/sf 76 $1.00/sf (total) 89 $1.22/sf (total) $2.20/sf (total) ID LL SS WE EA... Acres 0.50 Acres 1.00 Acres 1.50 Acres 2.00 Acres 2.50 Acres 3.00 Acres ID LL SS WE EA MR EQ AE 81 10249 $0.00/sf Metal Roofing Limit Turf Stormwater + Water Quality 76 $1.00/sf (total) 89 $1.22/sf (total) $2.20/sf (total) 0 Acres 0...

  12. Domestic Water Conservation Technologies: Federal Energy Management Program (FEMP) Federal Technology Alert (Booklet)

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Not Available

    2002-10-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Executive Order 13123 calls for the Federal government to conserve water as well as energy in its 500,000 facilities. To help set priorities among water-saving measures, the Federal Energy Management Program conducted a study of Federal water use in 1997. The study indicated that the government consumes more than 50% of its water in just three types of Federal facilities: housing, hospitals, and office buildings. These facilities have enough kitchens, rest rooms, and laundry areas to provide facility managers with many opportunities to begin reducing their water use (and utility costs) with appropriate water-saving fixtures and products. Therefore, this Federal Technology Alert focuses on domestic technologies, products, and appliances such as water-efficient faucets, showerheads, toilets, urinals, washing machines, and dishwashers. Conserving water also saves the energy needed to treat, pump, and heat that water in homes, businesses, and other buildings.

  13. Issues in federal preemption of state appliance energy efficiency regulations

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Fang, J.M.; Balistocky, S.; Schaefler, A.M.

    1982-12-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The findings and conclusions of the analysis of the various issues involved in the federal preemption of state regulations for the DOE no standard rule on covered appliances are summarized. The covered products are: refrigerators, refrigerator-freezers, freezers, clothes dryers, kitchen ranges and ovens, water heaters (excluding heat pump water heaters), room air conditioners, central air conditioners (excluding heat pumps), and furnaces. A detailed discussion of the rationale for the positions of groups offering comment for the record is presneted. The pertinent categories of state and local regulations and programs are explained, then detailed analysis is conducted on the covered products and regulations. Issues relating to the timing of preemption of state regulations are discussed, as well as issues relating to burden of proof, contents of petitions for exemptions from preemption, criteria for evaluating petitions, and procedural and other issues. (LEW)

  14. Mechanical-biological waste treatment and the associated occupational hygiene in Finland

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Tolvanen, Outi K. [University of Jyvaeskylae, Department of Environmental and Biological Sciences, P.O. Box 35, 40014 University of Jyvaeskylae (Finland)]. E-mail: outolvan@bytl.jyu.fi; Haenninen, Kari I. [University of Jyvaeskylae, Department of Environmental and Biological Sciences, P.O. Box 35, 40014 University of Jyvaeskylae (Finland)

    2006-07-01T23:59:59.000Z

    A special feature of waste management in Finland has been the emphasis on the source separation of kitchen biowaste (catering waste); more than two-thirds of the Finnish population participates in this separation. Source-separated biowaste is usually treated by composting. The biowaste of about 5% of the population is handled by mechanical-biological treatment. A waste treatment plant at Mustasaari is the only plant in Finland using digestion for kitchen biowaste. For the protection of their employees, the plant owners commissioned a study on environmental factors and occupational hygiene in the plant area. During 1998-2000 the concentrations of dust, microbes and endotoxins and noise levels were investigated to identify possible problems at the plant. Three different work areas were investigated: the pre-processing and crushing hall, the bioreactor hall and the drying hall. Employees were asked about work-related health problems. Some problems with occupational hygiene were identified: concentrations of microbes and endotoxins may increase to levels harmful to health during waste crushing and in the bioreactor hall. Because employees complained of symptoms such as dry cough and rash or itching appearing once or twice a month, it is advisable to use respirator masks (class P3) during dusty working phases. The noise level in the drying hall exceeded the Finnish threshold value of 85 dBA. Qualitatively harmful factors for the health of employees are similar in all closed waste treatment plants in Finland. Quantitatively, however, the situation at the Mustasaari treatment plant is better than at some Finnish dry waste treatment plants. Therefore is reasonable to conclude that mechanical sorting, which produces a dry waste fraction for combustion and a biowaste fraction for anaerobic treatment, is in terms of occupational hygiene better for employees than combined aerobic treatment and dry waste treatment.

  15. A new map of neutrino cosmology - revised bounds on the number of neutrino species and the cosmological lepton asymmetry from WMAP data

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Hannestad, S

    2003-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    We have performed a thorough analysis of the constraints which can be put on neutrino parameters from cosmological observations, most notably those from the WMAP satellite and the 2dF galaxy survey. In terms of the relativistic energy density in neutrinos or other weakly interacting species we find, in units of equivalent number of neutrino species, N_nu, that N_nu = 2.1+1.6-1.8 (95% conf.). This limit on relativistic energy density can be translated into a bound on the neutrino lepton asymmetry of |eta| 5% conf), assuming that the asymmetry is entirely in one flavour. When BBN constraints are added, the bound on N_nu is 2.5 +- 0.5 (95% conf), suggesting that N_nu could possibly be lower than the standard model value of 3. this can for instance be the case in models with very low reheating temperature and incomplete neutrino thermalization.

  16. Cogeneration using a thermionic combustor

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Miskolczy, G.; Lieb, D.

    1982-08-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Thermionic energy conversion is well adapted to cogeneration with high temperature processes which require direct heating. Such processes are found in the metals, glass and petroleum industries. A case study has been made for applying thermionic energy converters to a walking beam steel slab reheat furnace. The objective is to replace the present burners with thermionic combustors which provide electricity while supplying direct heat at the same temperature and heat release conditions as the original burners. The combustor utilizes a thermionic converter design which has demonstrated stable output for long periods using a natural gas burner. Combustion air is used to cool the collectors. A computer program was formulated to facilitate the analysis of the thermionic combustor. The design of the thermionic combustor is described. The performance of the thermionic modules is calculated based on varying furnace production rates.

  17. Quantum Gravity and Inflation

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    M. G. Romania; N. C. Tsamis; R. P. Woodard

    2014-12-05T23:59:59.000Z

    We review some perturbative results obtained in quantum gravity in an accelerating cosmological background. We then describe a class of non-local, purely gravitational models which have the correct structure to reproduce the leading infrared logarithms of quantum gravitational back-reaction during the inflationary regime. These models end inflation in a distinctive phase of oscillations with slight and short violations of the weak energy condition and should, when coupled to matter, lead to rapid reheating. By elaborating this class of models we exhibit one that has the same behaviour during inflation, goes quiescent until the onset of matter domination, and induces a small, positive cosmological constant of about the right size thereafter. We also briefly comment on the primordial density perturbations that this class of models predict.

  18. Method for producing catalysis from coal

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Farcasiu, Malvina (Pittsburgh, PA); Derbyshire, Frank (Lexington, KY); Kaufman, Phillip B. (Library, PA); Jagtoyen, Marit (Lexington, KY)

    1998-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    A method for producing catalysts from coal is provided comprising mixing an aqueous alkali solution with the coal, heating the aqueous mixture to treat the coal, drying the now-heated aqueous mixture, reheating the mixture to form carbonized material, cooling the mixture, removing excess alkali from the carbonized material, and recovering the carbonized material, wherein the entire process is carried out in controlled atmospheres, and the carbonized material is a hydrocracking or hydrodehalogenation catalyst for liquid phase reactions. The invention also provides for a one-step method for producing catalysts from coal comprising mixing an aqueous alkali solution with the coal to create a mixture, heating the aqueous mixture from an ambient temperature to a predetermined temperature at a predetermined rate, cooling the mixture, and washing the mixture to remove excess alkali from the treated and carbonized material, wherein the entire process is carried out in a controlled atmosphere.

  19. Method for producing catalysts from coal

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Farcasiu, M.; Derbyshire, F.; Kaufman, P.B.; Jagtoyen, M.

    1998-02-24T23:59:59.000Z

    A method for producing catalysts from coal is provided comprising mixing an aqueous alkali solution with the coal, heating the aqueous mixture to treat the coal, drying the now-heated aqueous mixture, reheating the mixture to form carbonized material, cooling the mixture, removing excess alkali from the carbonized material, and recovering the carbonized material, wherein the entire process is carried out in controlled atmospheres, and the carbonized material is a hydrocracking or hydrodehalogenation catalyst for liquid phase reactions. The invention also provides for a one-step method for producing catalysts from coal comprising mixing an aqueous alkali solution with the coal to create a mixture, heating the aqueous mixture from an ambient temperature to a predetermined temperature at a predetermined rate, cooling the mixture, and washing the mixture to remove excess alkali from the treated and carbonized material, wherein the entire process is carried out in a controlled atmosphere. 1 fig.

  20. Sterile neutrino oscillations in core-collapse supernova simulations

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Warren, MacKenzie L; Mathews, Grant; Hidaka, Jun; Kajino, Toshitaka

    2014-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    We have made core-collapse supernova simulations that allow oscillations between electron neutrinos (or their anti particles) with right-handed sterile neutrinos. We have considered a range of mixing angles and sterile neutrino masses including those consistent with sterile neutrinos as a dark matter candidate. We examine whether such oscillations can impact the core bounce and shock reheating in supernovae. We identify the optimum ranges of mixing angles and masses that can dramatically enhance the supernova explosion by efficiently transporting electron anti-neutrinos from the core to behind the shock where they provide additional heating leading to much larger explosion kinetic energies. We show that an interesting oscillation in the neutrino luminosity develops due to a cycle of depletion of the neutrino density by conversion to sterile neutrinos that shuts off the conversion, followed by a replenished neutrino density as neutrinos transport through the core.

  1. Proposed finding of no significant impact for the Sakakawea Medical Center coal-fired heating plant

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Not Available

    1994-07-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The Department of Energy (the Department) has prepared an environmental assessment (Assessment) (DOE/EA-0949) to identify and evaluate the potential environmental impacts of a proposed action at the Sakakawea Medical Center (the Center) in Hazen, North Dakota. The proposed action would replace the existing No. 2 fuel oil-fired boilers supplemented by electric reheat with a new coal-fired hot water heating plant, using funds provided from a grant under the Institutional Conservation Program. Based on the analysis in DOE/EA-0949, the Department has determined that the proposed action is not a major federal action significantly affecting the quality of the human environment, within the meaning of the National Environmental Policy Act (NEPA) of 1969, as amended. Therefore, preparation of an Environmental Impact Statement is not required, and the Department is issuing this Finding of No Significant Impact (Finding).

  2. Ammonia Process by Pressure Swing Adsorption

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Dr Felix Jegede

    2010-12-27T23:59:59.000Z

    The overall objective of the project is to design, develop and demonstrate a technically feasible and commercially viable system to produce ammonia along with recovery of the products by adsorption separation methods and significantly decrease the energy requirement in ammonia production. This is achieved through a significantly more efficient ammonia psa recovery system. The new ammonia recovery system receives the reactor effluents and achieves complete ammonia recovery, (which completely eliminates the energy intensive refrigeration and condensation system currently used in ammonia production). It also recovers the unused reactants and recycles them back to the reactor, free of potential reactor contaminants, and without the need for re-compression and re-heat of recycle stream thereby further saving more energy. The result is a significantly lower energy consumption, along with capital cost savings.

  3. Microfabricated therapeutic actuators

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Lee, Abraham P. (Walnut Creek, CA); Northrup, M. Allen (Berkeley, CA); Ciarlo, Dino R. (Livermore, CA); Krulevitch, Peter A. (Pleasanton, CA); Benett, William J. (Livermore, CA)

    1999-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Microfabricated therapeutic actuators are fabricated using a shape memory polymer (SMP), a polyurethane-based material that undergoes a phase transformation at a specified temperature (Tg). At a temperature above temperature Tg material is soft and can be easily reshaped into another configuration. As the temperature is lowered below temperature Tg the new shape is fixed and locked in as long as the material stays below temperature Tg. Upon reheating the material to a temperature above Tg, the material will return to its original shape. By the use of such SMP material, SMP microtubing can be used as a release actuator for the delivery of embolic coils through catheters into aneurysms, for example. The microtubing can be manufactured in various sizes and the phase change temperature Tg is determinate for an intended temperature target and intended use.

  4. Release mechanism utilizing shape memory polymer material

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Lee, Abraham P. (Walnut Creek, CA); Northrup, M. Allen (Berkeley, CA); Ciarlo, Dino R. (Livermore, CA); Krulevitch, Peter A. (Pleasanton, CA); Benett, William J. (Livermore, CA)

    2000-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Microfabricated therapeutic actuators are fabricated using a shape memory polymer (SMP), a polyurethane-based material that undergoes a phase transformation at a specified temperature (Tg). At a temperature above temperature Tg material is soft and can be easily reshaped into another configuration. As the temperature is lowered below temperature Tg the new shape is fixed and locked in as long as the material stays below temperature Tg. Upon reheating the material to a temperature above Tg, the material will return to its original shape. By the use of such SMP material, SMP microtubing can be used as a release actuator for the delivery of embolic coils through catheters into aneurysms, for example. The microtubing can be manufactured in various sizes and the phase change temperature Tg is determinate for an intended temperature target and intended use.

  5. Axion cold dark matter in nonstandard cosmologies

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Visinelli, Luca; Gondolo, Paolo [Department of Physics and Astronomy, University of Utah, 115 South 1400 East 201, Salt Lake City, Utah 84112-0830 (United States)

    2010-03-15T23:59:59.000Z

    We study the parameter space of cold dark matter axions in two cosmological scenarios with nonstandard thermal histories before big bang nucleosynthesis: the low-temperature reheating (LTR) cosmology and the kination cosmology. If the Peccei-Quinn symmetry breaks during inflation, we find more allowed parameter space in the LTR cosmology than in the standard cosmology and less in the kination cosmology. On the contrary, if the Peccei-Quinn symmetry breaks after inflation, the Peccei-Quinn scale is orders of magnitude higher than standard in the LTR cosmology and lower in the kination cosmology. We show that the axion velocity dispersion may be used to distinguish some of these nonstandard cosmologies. Thus, axion cold dark matter may be a good probe of the history of the Universe before big bang nucleosynthesis.

  6. Axions from cosmic string and wall decay

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Hagmann, C A

    2010-03-10T23:59:59.000Z

    If inflation occurred with a reheat temperature > T{sub PQ}, axions from the decay of global axion strings and domain walls would make an important contribution to the cosmological energy density, comparable to that from vacuum misalignment. Several groups have numerically studied the evolution of axion strings and walls in the past, however substantial uncertainties remain in their contribution to the present density {Omega}{sub a,string+wall} {approx} 1-100 (f{sub a}/10{sup 12} GeV){sup 7/6}, where f{sub a} is the axion decay constant. I will describe the numerical methods used in our simulations and show results for several string and wall configurations.

  7. Axions from cosmic string and wall decay

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Hagmann, Chris [Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory, L-59, 7000 East Ave, Livermore, CA (United States)

    2010-08-30T23:59:59.000Z

    If inflation occurred with a reheat temperature > T{sub PQ}, axions from the decay of global axion strings and domain walls would make an important contribution to the cosmological energy density, comparable to that from vacuum misalignment. Several groups have numerically studied the evolution of axion strings and walls in the past, however substantial uncertainties remain in their contribution to the present density {Omega}{sub a,string+wall{approx}}1-100(f{sub a}/10{sup 12} GeV){sup 7/6}, where f{sub a} is the axion decay constant. I will describe the numerical methods used in our simulations and show results for several string and wall configurations.

  8. Holographic Inflation Revised

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Tom Banks; Willy Fischler

    2015-01-09T23:59:59.000Z

    This paper is a major revision of our previous work on the HST model of inflation. We identify the local fluctuations of the metric with fluctuations of the mass and angular momentum of black holes, and show that the consistency conditions in HST for a single trajectory to see more and more of a homogeneous distribution of black holes, imply that the system outside the horizon is undergoing inflation: small systems of equal entropy, are not in causal contact. Homogeneity then requires that the initial trajectory underwent inflation that expanded the black hole radius into our current horizon. The low entropy of the initial state of the universe is explained by the fact that this is the maximal entropy state, which has long lived localized excitations, and which can form structures more complex than black holes. The number of e-folds, reheat temperature of the universe and size of inflationary fluctuations are calculated in terms of a few parameters.

  9. Supercooling and phase coexistence in cosmological phase transitions

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Megevand, Ariel; Sanchez, Alejandro D. [Departamento de Fisica, Facultad de Ciencias Exactas y Naturales, Universidad Nacional de Mar del Plata, Dean Funes 3350, (7600) Mar del Plata (Argentina)

    2008-03-15T23:59:59.000Z

    Cosmological phase transitions are predicted by particle physics models, and have a variety of important cosmological consequences, which depend strongly on the dynamics of the transition. In this work we investigate in detail the general features of the development of a first-order phase transition. We find thermodynamical constraints on some quantities that determine the dynamics, namely, the latent heat, the radiation energy density, and the false-vacuum energy density. Using a simple model with a Higgs field, we study numerically the amount and duration of supercooling and the subsequent reheating and phase coexistence. We analyze the dependence of the dynamics on the different parameters of the model, namely, the energy scale, the number of degrees of freedom, and the couplings of the scalar field with bosons and fermions. We also inspect the implications for the cosmological outcomes of the phase transition.

  10. Fluidized bed boiler having a segmented grate

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Waryasz, Richard E. (Longmeadow, MA)

    1984-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    A fluidized bed furnace (10) is provided having a perforate grate (9) within a housing which supports a bed of particulate material including some combustibles. The grate is divided into a plurality of segments (E2-E6, SH1-SH5, RH1-RH5), with the airflow to each segment being independently controlled. Some of the segments have evaporating surface imbedded in the particulate material above them, while other segments are below superheater surface or reheater surface. Some of the segments (E1, E7) have no surface above them, and there are ignitor combustors (32, 34) directed to fire into the segments, for fast startup of the furnace without causing damage to any heating surface.

  11. High energy cosmic rays experiments inspired by noncommutative quantum field theory

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Josip Trampetic

    2012-10-19T23:59:59.000Z

    Phenomenological analysis of the covariant theta-exact noncommutative (NC) gauge field theory (GFT), inspired by high energy cosmic rays experiments, is performed in the framework of the inelastic neutrino-nucleon scatterings, plasmon and $Z$-boson decays into neutrino pair, the Big Bang Nucleosynthesis (BBN) and the Reheating Phase After Inflation (RPAI), respectively. Next we have have found neutrino two-point function and shows a closed form decoupling of the hard ultraviolet (UV) divergent term from softened ultraviolet/infrared (UV/IR) mixing term and from the finite terms as well. For a certain choice of the noncommutative parameter theta which preserves unitarity, problematic UV divergent and UV/IR mixing terms vanish. Non-perturbative modifications of the neutrino dispersion relations are assymptotically independent of the scale of noncommutativity in both the low and high energy limits and may allow superluminal propagation.

  12. Preliminary design of the Carrisa Plains solar central receiver power plant. Volume I. Executive summary

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Not Available

    1983-12-31T23:59:59.000Z

    The design of the 30 MWe central receiver solar power plant to be located at Carrisa Plains, San Luis Obispo County, California, is summarized. The plant uses a vertical flat-panel (billboard) solar receiver located at the top of a tower to collect solar energy redirected by approximately 1900 heliostats located to the north of the tower. The solar energy is used to heat liquid sodium pumped from ground level from 610 to 1050/sup 0/F. The power conversion system is a non-reheat system, cost-effective at this size level, and designed for high-efficiency performance in an application requiring daily startup. Successful completion of this project will lead to power generation starting in 1986. This report also discusses plant performance, operations and maintenance, development, and facility cost estimate and economic analysis.

  13. Apparatus for generating coherent infrared energy of selected wavelength

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Stevens, Charles G. (Danville, CA)

    1985-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    A tunable source (11) of coherent infrared energy includes a heat pipe (12) having an intermediate region (24) at which cesium (22) is heated to vaporizing temperature and end regions (27, 28) at which the vapor is condensed and returned to the intermediate region (24) for reheating and recirculation. Optical pumping light (43) is directed along the axis of the heat pipe (12) through a first end window (17) to stimulate emission of coherent infrared energy which is transmitted out through an opposite end window (18). A porous walled tubulation (44) extends along the axis of the heat pipe (12) and defines a region (46) in which cesium vapor is further heated to a temperature sufficient to dissociate cesium dimers which would decrease efficiency by absorbing pump light (43). Efficient generation of any desired infrared wavelength is realized by varying the wavelength of the pump light (43).

  14. Indoor design condition and the cooling load calculation

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Sun, T.Y. [Sun (Tseng-Yao), Rancho Palos Verde, CA (United States)

    1997-12-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Cooling load calculation involves two steps. The first is to determine the basic building load. This consists of external loads through the building envelope and internal loads from people, lights, appliances, and other heat sources. The required supply air quantity for each conditioned space generally is determined in the first step. This is because each relates only to the coil leaving and required room dry bulb temperatures (unless reheat is required to control the humidity level in the conditioned space). The second step, after completing the above, is to calculate the system cooling load. This step adapts the selected air distribution system to the building load and involves the introduction of the required outdoor air volume into the air conditioning system for ventilation. Proper psychrometric analysis is required to calculate the entering and leaving wet bulb conditions of the air passing through the cooling coil. These, together with the corresponding dry bulb temperatures, will determine the system cooling load.

  15. Microfabricated therapeutic actuators

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Lee, A.P.; Northrup, M.A.; Ciarlo, D.R.; Krulevitch, P.A.; Benett, W.J.

    1999-06-15T23:59:59.000Z

    Microfabricated therapeutic actuators are fabricated using a shape memory polymer (SMP), a polyurethane-based material that undergoes a phase transformation at a specified temperature (Tg). At a temperature above temperature Tg material is soft and can be easily reshaped into another configuration. As the temperature is lowered below temperature Tg the new shape is fixed and locked in as long as the material stays below temperature Tg. Upon reheating the material to a temperature above Tg, the material will return to its original shape. By the use of such SMP material, SMP microtubing can be used as a release actuator for the delivery of embolic coils through catheters into aneurysms, for example. The microtubing can be manufactured in various sizes and the phase change temperature Tg is determinate for an intended temperature target and intended use. 8 figs.

  16. Three-Dimensional Simulations of Bi-Directed Magnetohydrodynamic Jets Interacting with Cluster Environments

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    O'Neill, S M

    2010-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    We report on a series of three-dimensional magnetohydrodynamic simulations of active galactic nucleus (AGN) jet propagation in realistic models of magnetized galaxy clusters. We are primarily interested in the details of energy transfer between jets and the intracluster medium (ICM) to help clarify what role such flows could have in the reheating of cluster cores. Our simulated jets feature a range of intermittency behaviors, including intermittent jets that periodically switch on and off and one model jet that shuts down completely, naturally creating a relic plume. The ICM into which these jets propagate incorporates tangled magnetic field geometries and density substructure designed to mimic some likely features of real galaxy clusters. We find that our jets are characteristically at least 60% efficient at transferring thermal energy to the ICM. Irreversible heat energy is not uniformly distributed, however, instead residing preferentially in regions very near the jet/cocoon boundaries. While intermittency...

  17. Cycle isolation monitoring

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Svensen, L.M. III; Zeigler, J.R.; Todd, F.D.; Alder, G.C. [Santee Copper, Moncks Corner, SC (United States)

    2009-07-15T23:59:59.000Z

    There are many factors to monitor in power plants, but one that is frequently overlooked is cycle isolation. Often this is an area where plant personnel can find 'low hanging fruit' with great return on investment, especially high energy valve leakage. This type of leakage leads to increased heat rate, potential valve damage and lost generation. The fundamental question to ask is 'What is 100 Btu/kW-hr of heat rate worth to your plant? On a 600 MW coal-fired power plant, a 1% leakage can lead to an 81 Btu/kW-hr impact on the main steam cycle and a 64 Btu/kW-hr impact on the hot reheat cycle. The article gives advice on methods to assist in detecting leaking valves and to monitor cycle isolation. A software product, TP. Plus-CIM was designed to estimate flow rates of potentially leaking valves.

  18. Tunable Diode Laser Sensor for Monitoring and Control of Harsh Combustion Environments

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    VonDrasek, William; Melsio-Pubill, Anna

    2006-05-30T23:59:59.000Z

    This work represents the collaborative effort between American Air Liquide and Physical Sciences, Inc. for developing a sensor based on near-IR tunable diode lasers (TDL). The multi-species capability of the sensor for simultaneous monitoring of CO, O2, and H2O concentration as well as gas temperature is ideal for in-situ monitoring on industrial furnaces. The chemical species targeted are fundamental for controlling the combustion space for improved energy efficiency, reduced pollutants, and improved product quality, when coupling the measurement to a combustion control system. Several add-on modules developed provide flexibility in the system configuration for handling different process monitoring applications. For example, the on-Demand Power Control system for the 1.5 ?m laser is used for high particle density exhaust streams where laser transmission is problematic. For long-distance signal collection a fiber optic communication system is used to reduce noise pick-up. Finally, hardened modules to withstand high ambient temperatures, immune to EMF interference, protection from flying debris, and interfaced with pathlength control laser beam shielding probes were developed specifically for EAF process monitoring. Demonstration of these different system configurations was conducted on Charter Steel's reheat furnace, Imco Recycling, Inc. (now Aleris International, Inc.) aluminum reverberatory furnace, and Gerdau Ameristeel's EAF. Measurements on the reheat furnace demonstrated zone monitoring with the measurement performed close to the steel billet. Results from the aluminum furnace showed the benefit of measuring in-situ near the bath. In this case, low-level furnace optimization was performed and demonstrated 5% fuel savings. Monitoring tests on the EAF off-gas demonstrated the level of industrialization of the sensor to survive the harsh EAF environment. Long-term testing on the EAF has been on-going for over 6 months with essentially zero maintenance. Validation of the TDL measurement on the EAF was confirmed by comparison with extractive sampling CO measurements.

  19. False Vacuum Inflation with Einstein Gravity

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Edmund J Copeland; Andrew R Liddle; David H Lyth; Ewan D Stewart; David Wands

    1994-01-10T23:59:59.000Z

    We investigate chaotic inflation models with two scalar fields, such that one field (the inflaton) rolls while the other is trapped in a false vacuum state. The false vacuum becomes unstable when the inflaton field falls below some critical value, and a first or second order transition to the true vacuum ensues. Particular attention is paid to Linde's second-order `Hybrid Inflation'; with the false vacuum dominating, inflation differs from the usual true vacuum case both in its cosmology and in its relation to particle physics. The spectral index of the adiabatic density perturbation can be very close to 1, or it can be around ten percent higher. The energy scale at the end of inflation can be anywhere between $10^{16}$\\,GeV and $10^{11}$\\,GeV, though reheating is prompt so the reheat temperature can't be far below $10^{11}\\,$GeV. Topological defects are almost inevitably produced at the end of inflation, and if the inflationary energy scale is near its upper limit they can have significant effects. Because false vacuum inflation occurs with the inflaton field far below the Planck scale, it is easier to implement in the context of supergravity than standard chaotic inflation. That the inflaton mass is small compared with the inflationary Hubble parameter is still a problem for generic supergravity theories, but remarkably this can be avoided in a natural way for a class of supergravity models which follow from orbifold compactification of superstrings. This opens up the prospect of a truly realistic, superstring

  20. Quality site seasonal report, Eisenhower Museum, SFBP (Solar in Federal Buildings Program) 4008, March 1985 through September 1985

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Raymond, M.G.

    1987-10-15T23:59:59.000Z

    The active solar Domestic Hot Water (DHW) and space heating system at the Eisenhower Museum was designed and constructed as part of the Solar in Federal Buildings Program (SFBP). This retrofitted system is one of eight of the systems in the SFBP slected for quality monitoring. The purpose of this monitoring effort is to document the performance of quality state-of-the-art solar systems in large federal building applications. These systems are unique prototypes. Design errors and system faults discovered during the monitoring period could not always be corrected. Therefore, the aggregate, overall performance is often considerably below what might be expected had similar systems been constructed consecutively with each repetition incorporating corrections and improvements. The solar system is a retrofit, designed to supply part of the space heating (and reheating for humidity control) load at the museum, located at President Eisenhower's boyhood home in Abilene, Kansas. The small DHW load is also served by the solar system. The museum and adjacent library entertain approximately 200,000 visitors per year, and require controlled temperature and humidity for preservation of artifacts. The summer reheating load for humidity control is comparable to the space heating load in winter. The solar system has 110 US Solar flat plate collectors with a gross area of 4201 square feet, using ethylene glycol as the collector fluid. The energy from the collector loop is transferred to two 1980 gallon storage tanks via an external heat exchanger. Solar energy is used for DHW preheating and for space heating. Highlights of the performance monitoring at the Eisenhower Museum during the period March 1985 through September 1985 are summarized in this report.

  1. Dilute Oxygen Combustion - Phase 3 Report

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Riley, Michael F.

    2000-05-31T23:59:59.000Z

    Dilute Oxygen Combustion (DOC) burners have been successfully installed and operated in the reheat furnace at Auburn Steel Co., Inc., Auburn, NY, under Phase 3 of the Dilute Oxygen Combustion project. Two new preheat zones were created employing a total of eight 6.5 MMBtu/hr capacity burners. The preheat zones provide a 30 percent increase in maximum furnace production rate, from 75 tph to 100 tph. The fuel rate is essentially unchanged, with the fuel savings expected from oxy-fuel combustion being offset by higher flue gas temperatures. When allowance is made for the high nitrogen level and high gas phase temperature in the furnace, measured NOx emissions are in line with laboratory data on DOC burners developed in Phase 1 of the project. Burner performance has been good, and there have been no operating or maintenance problems. The DOC system continues to be used as part of Auburn Steel's standard reheat furnace practice. High gas phase temperature is a result of the high firing density needed to achieve high production rates, and little opportunity exists for improvement in that area. However, fuel and NOx performance can be improved by further conversion on furnace zones to DOC burners, which will lower furnace nitrogen levels. Major obstacles are cost and concern about increased formation of oxide scale on the steel. Oxide scale formation may be enhanced by exposure of the steel to higher concentrations of oxidizing gas components (primarily products of combustion) in the higher temperature zones of the furnace. Phase 4 of the DOC project will examine the rate of oxide scale formation in these higher temperature zones and develop countermeasures that will allow DOC burners to be used successfully in these furnace zones.

  2. Dilute Oxygen Combustion Phase 3 Final Report

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Riley, M.F.; Ryan, H.M.

    2000-05-31T23:59:59.000Z

    Dilute Oxygen Combustion (DOC) burners have been successfully installed and operated in the reheat furnace at Auburn Steel Co., Inc., Auburn, NY, under Phase 3 of the Dilute Oxygen Combustion project. Two new preheat zones were created employing a total of eight 6.5 MMBtu/hr capacity burners. The preheat zones provide a 30 percent increase in maximum furnace production rate, from 75 tph to 100 tph. The fuel rate is essentially unchanged, with the fuel savings expected from oxy-fuel combustion being offset by higher flue gas temperatures. When allowance is made for the high nitrogen level and high gas phase temperature in the furnace, measured NOx emissions are in line with laboratory data on DOC burners developed in Phase 1 of the project. Burner performance has been good and there have been no operating or maintenance problems. The DOC system continues to be used as part of Auburn Steel?s standard reheat furnace practice. High gas phase temperature is a result of the high firing density needed to achieve high production rates, and little opportunity exists for improvement in that area. However, fuel and NOx performance can be improved by further conversion of furnace zones to DOC burners, which will lower furnace nitrogen levels. Major obstacles are cost and concern about increased formation of oxide scale on the steel. Oxide scale formation may be enhanced by exposure of the steel to higher concentrations of oxidizing gas components (primarily products of combustion) in the higher temperature zones of the furnace. Phase 4 of the DOC project will examine the rate of oxide scale formation in these higher temperature zones and develop countermeasures that will allow DOC burners to be used successfully in these furnace zones.

  3. Damodar Valley Corporation, Chandrapura Unit 2 Thermal Power Station Residual Life Assessment Summary report

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    NONE

    1995-02-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The BHEL/NTPC/PFC/TVA teams assembled at the DVC`s Chadrapura station on July 19, 1994, to assess the remaining life of Unit 2. The workscope was expanded to include major plant systems that impact the unit`s ability to sustain generation at 140 MW (Units 1-3 have operated at average rating of about 90 MW). Assessment was completed Aug. 19, 1994. Boiler pressure parts are in excellent condition except for damage to primary superheater header/stub tubes and economizer inlet header stub tubes. The turbine steam path is in good condition except for damage to LP blading; the spar rotor steam path is in better condition and is recommended for Unit 2. Nozzle box struts are severely cracked from the flame outs; the cracks should not be repaired. HP/IP rotor has surface cracks at several places along the steam seal areas; these cracks are shallow and should be machined out. Detailed component damage assessments for above damaged components have been done. The turbine auxiliary systems have been evaluated; cooling tower fouling/blockage is the root cause for the high turbine back pressure. The fuel processing system is one of the primary root causes for limiting unit capacity. The main steam and hot reheat piping systems were conservatively designed and have at least 30 years left;deficiencies needing resolution include restoration of insulation, replacement of 6 deformed hanger clamp/bolts, and adjustment of a few hanger settings. The cold reheat piping system is generally in good condition; some areas should be re-insulated and the rigid support clamps/bolts should be examined. The turbine extraction piping system supports all appeared to be functioning normally.

  4. Implications of the B-mode Polarization Measurement for Direct Detection of Inflationary Gravitational Waves

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Sachiko Kuroyanagi; Shinji Tsujikawa; Takeshi Chiba; Naoshi Sugiyama

    2014-10-09T23:59:59.000Z

    The prospects for direct measurements of inflationary gravitational waves by next generation interferometric detectors inferred from the possible detection of B-mode polarization of the cosmic microwave background are studied. We compute the spectra of the gravitational wave background and the signal-to-noise ratios by two interferometric detectors (DECIGO and BBO) for large-field inflationary models in which the tensor-to-scalar ratio is greater than the order of 0.01. If the reheating temperature $T_{\\rm RH}$ of chaotic inflation with the quadratic potential is high ($T_{\\rm RH}>7.9\\times10^6$ GeV for upgraded DECIGO and $T_{\\rm RH}> 1.8\\times 10^{6}$ GeV for BBO), it will be possible to reach the sensitivity of the gravitational background in future experiments at $3\\sigma$ confidence level. The direct detection is also possible for natural inflation with the potential $V(\\phi)=\\Lambda^4 [1-\\cos(\\phi/f)]$, provided that $f>4.2 M_{\\rm pl}$ (upgraded DECIGO) and $f>3.6 M_{\\rm pl}$ (BBO) with $T_{\\rm RH}$ higher than $10^8$ GeV. The quartic potential $V(\\phi)=\\lambda \\phi^4/4$ with a non-minimal coupling $\\xi$ between the inflaton field $\\phi$ and the Ricci scalar $R$ gives rise to a detectable level of gravitational waves for $|\\xi|$ smaller than the order of 0.01, irrespective of the reheating temperature.

  5. University of Minnesota aquifer thermal energy storage (ATES) project report on the third long-term cycle

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Hoyer, M.C.; Hallgren, J.P.; Uebel, M.H.; Delin, G.N.; Eisenreich, S.J.; Sterling, R.L.

    1994-12-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The University of Minnesota aquifer thermal energy storage (ATES) system has been operated as a field test facility (FTF) since 1982. The objectives were to design, construct, and operate the facility to study the feasibility of high-temperature ATES in a confined aquifer. Four short-term and two long-term cycles were previously conducted, which provided a greatly increased understanding of the efficiency and geochemical effects of high-temperature aquifer thermal energy storage. The third long-term cycle (LT3) was conducted to operate the ATES system in conjunction with a real heating load and to further study the geochemical impact that heated water storage had on the aquifer. For LT3, the source and storage wells were modified so that only the most permeable portion, the Ironton-Galesville part, of the Franconia-Ironton-Galesville aquifer was used for storage. This was expected to improve storage efficiency by reducing the surface area of the heated volume and simplify analysis of water chemistry results by reducing the number of aquifer-related variables which need to be considered. During LT3, a total volume of 63.2 {times} 10{sup 3} m {sup 3} of water was injected at a rate of 54.95 m{sup 3}/hr into the storage well at a mean temperature of 104.7{degrees}C. Tie-in to the reheat system of the nearby Animal Sciences Veterinary Medicine (ASVM) building was completed after injection was completed. Approximately 66 percent (4.13 GWh) of the energy added to the aquifer was recovered. Approximately 15 percent (0.64 GWh) of the usable (10 building. Operations during heat recovery with the ASVM building`s reheat system were trouble-free. Integration into more of the ASVM (or other) building`s mechanical systems would have resulted in significantly increasing the proportion of energy used during heat recovery.

  6. MULTIWAVELENGTH OBSERVATIONS OF GRB 110731A: GeV EMISSION FROM ONSET TO AFTERGLOW

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Ackermann, M. [Deutsches Elektronen Synchrotron DESY, D-15738 Zeuthen (Germany)] [Deutsches Elektronen Synchrotron DESY, D-15738 Zeuthen (Germany); Ajello, M.; Blandford, R. D.; Borgland, A. W.; Bottacini, E.; Buehler, R.; Cameron, R. A. [W. W. Hansen Experimental Physics Laboratory, Kavli Institute for Particle Astrophysics and Cosmology, Department of Physics and SLAC National Accelerator Laboratory, Stanford University, Stanford, CA 94305 (United States)] [W. W. Hansen Experimental Physics Laboratory, Kavli Institute for Particle Astrophysics and Cosmology, Department of Physics and SLAC National Accelerator Laboratory, Stanford University, Stanford, CA 94305 (United States); Asano, K. [Interactive Research Center of Science, Tokyo Institute of Technology, Meguro City, Tokyo 152-8551 (Japan)] [Interactive Research Center of Science, Tokyo Institute of Technology, Meguro City, Tokyo 152-8551 (Japan); Baldini, L.; Bellazzini, R.; Bregeon, J. [Istituto Nazionale di Fisica Nucleare, Sezione di Pisa, I-56127 Pisa (Italy)] [Istituto Nazionale di Fisica Nucleare, Sezione di Pisa, I-56127 Pisa (Italy); Barbiellini, G. [Istituto Nazionale di Fisica Nucleare, Sezione di Trieste, I-34127 Trieste (Italy)] [Istituto Nazionale di Fisica Nucleare, Sezione di Trieste, I-34127 Trieste (Italy); Baring, M. G. [Department of Physics and Astronomy, Rice University, MS-108, P.O. Box 1892, Houston, TX 77251 (United States)] [Department of Physics and Astronomy, Rice University, MS-108, P.O. Box 1892, Houston, TX 77251 (United States); Bastieri, D.; Buson, S. [Istituto Nazionale di Fisica Nucleare, Sezione di Padova, I-35131 Padova (Italy)] [Istituto Nazionale di Fisica Nucleare, Sezione di Padova, I-35131 Padova (Italy); Bonamente, E. [Istituto Nazionale di Fisica Nucleare, Sezione di Perugia, I-06123 Perugia (Italy)] [Istituto Nazionale di Fisica Nucleare, Sezione di Perugia, I-06123 Perugia (Italy); Brigida, M. [Dipartimento di Fisica 'M. Merlin' dell'Universita e del Politecnico di Bari, I-70126 Bari (Italy)] [Dipartimento di Fisica 'M. Merlin' dell'Universita e del Politecnico di Bari, I-70126 Bari (Italy); Bruel, P. [Laboratoire Leprince-Ringuet, Ecole polytechnique, CNRS/IN2P3, Palaiseau (France)] [Laboratoire Leprince-Ringuet, Ecole polytechnique, CNRS/IN2P3, Palaiseau (France); Caliandro, G. A. [Institut de Ciencies de l'Espai (IEEE-CSIC), Campus UAB, E-08193 Barcelona (Spain)] [Institut de Ciencies de l'Espai (IEEE-CSIC), Campus UAB, E-08193 Barcelona (Spain); Caraveo, P. A., E-mail: kocevski@slac.stanford.edu, E-mail: giacomov@slac.stanford.edu, E-mail: johan.bregeon@pi.infn.it, E-mail: srazzaque@ssd5.nrl.navy.mil, E-mail: eleonora.troja@nasa.gov, E-mail: dgruber@mpe.mpg.de [INAF-Istituto di Astrofisica Spaziale e Fisica Cosmica, I-20133 Milano (Italy); and others

    2013-02-15T23:59:59.000Z

    We report on the multiwavelength observations of the bright, long gamma-ray burst GRB 110731A, by the Fermi and Swift observatories, and by the MOA and GROND optical telescopes. The analysis of the prompt phase reveals that GRB 110731A shares many features with bright Large Area Telescope bursts observed by Fermi during the first three years on-orbit: a light curve with short time variability across the whole energy range during the prompt phase, delayed onset of the emission above 100 MeV, extra power-law component and temporally extended high-energy emission. In addition, this is the first GRB for which simultaneous GeV, X-ray, and optical data are available over multiple epochs beginning just after the trigger time and extending for more than 800 s, allowing temporal and spectral analysis in different epochs that favor emission from the forward shock in a wind-type medium. The observed temporally extended GeV emission is most likely part of the high-energy end of the afterglow emission. Both the single-zone pair transparency constraint for the prompt signal and the spectral and temporal analysis of the forward-shock afterglow emission independently lead to an estimate of the bulk Lorentz factor of the jet {Gamma} {approx} 500-550.

  7. CONSTRAINING THE BULK LORENTZ FACTOR OF GAMMA-RAY BURST OUTFLOW IN THE MAGNETIC-DOMINATED JET MODEL

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Chang Zhe; Lin Hainan; Jiang Yunguo, E-mail: changz@ihep.ac.cn, E-mail: linhn@ihep.ac.cn, E-mail: jiangyg@ihep.ac.cn [Institute of High Energy Physics, Chinese Academy of Sciences, 100049 Beijing (China)

    2012-11-10T23:59:59.000Z

    Recent observations by the Fermi-LAT showed that there are delayed arrivals of GeV photons relative to the onset of MeV photons in some gamma-ray bursts (GRBs). In order to avoid a large optical depth, the minimal value of the Lorentz factor has been estimated to be higher than 1000 in some of the brightest bursts. In this paper, we present a detailed calculation of the time delay between the MeV and GeV photons in the framework of the magnetic-dominated jet model. We find that the time delay strongly depends on the saturated bulk Lorentz factor of the jet. Inspired by this fact, we use this model to calculate the Lorentz factors of the four brightest Fermi bursts. The results indicate that the Lorentz factors are much smaller than those obtained from the 'single-zone' scenario. The short burst GRB 090510 has a minimal Lorentz factor of 385, while the three long bursts, GRB 080916c, GRB 090902b, and GRB 090926, have almost the same Lorentz factors with an average value near 260. Another interesting result is that, for long bursts, GeV photons are emitted after the bulk Lorentz factor saturates. For the short GRB, however, MeV and GeV photons are emitted at the same phase, i.e., either in the expansion phase or in the coasting phase.

  8. VERITAS OBSERVATIONS OF SIX BRIGHT, HARD-SPECTRUM FERMI-LAT BLAZARS

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Aliu, E.; Errando, M. [Department of Physics and Astronomy, Barnard College, Columbia University, NY 10027 (United States); Archambault, S. [Physics Department, McGill University, Montreal, QC H3A 2T8 (Canada); Arlen, T. [Department of Physics and Astronomy, University of California, Los Angeles, CA 90095 (United States); Aune, T.; Bouvier, A. [Santa Cruz Institute for Particle Physics and Department of Physics, University of California, Santa Cruz, CA 95064 (United States); Beilicke, M.; Buckley, J. H.; Bugaev, V.; Dickherber, R. [Department of Physics, Washington University, St. Louis, MO 63130 (United States); Benbow, W. [Fred Lawrence Whipple Observatory, Harvard-Smithsonian Center for Astrophysics, Amado, AZ 85645 (United States); Boettcher, M. [Astrophysical Institute, Department of Physics and Astronomy, Ohio University, Athens, OH 45701 (United States); Cesarini, A.; Connolly, M. P. [School of Physics, National University of Ireland Galway, University Road, Galway (Ireland); Ciupik, L. [Astronomy Department, Adler Planetarium and Astronomy Museum, Chicago, IL 60605 (United States); Collins-Hughes, E. [School of Physics, University College Dublin, Belfield, Dublin 4 (Ireland); Cui, W. [Department of Physics, Purdue University, West Lafayette, IN 47907 (United States); Duke, C. [Department of Physics, Grinnell College, Grinnell, IA 50112-1690 (United States); Dumm, J. [School of Physics and Astronomy, University of Minnesota, Minneapolis, MN 55455 (United States); Falcone, A., E-mail: afurniss@ucsc.edu, E-mail: pafortin@cfa.harvard.edu, E-mail: deirdre@llr.in2p3.fr [Department of Astronomy and Astrophysics, 525 Davey Lab, Pennsylvania State University, University Park, PA 16802 (United States); Collaboration: VERITAS Collaboration; and others

    2012-11-10T23:59:59.000Z

    We report on VERITAS very high energy (VHE; E {>=} 100 GeV) observations of six blazars selected from the Fermi Large Area Telescope First Source Catalog (1FGL). The gamma-ray emission from 1FGL sources was extrapolated up to the VHE band, taking gamma-ray absorption by the extragalactic background light into account. This allowed the selection of six bright, hard-spectrum blazars that were good candidate TeV emitters. Spectroscopic redshift measurements were attempted with the Keck Telescope for the targets without Sloan Digital Sky Survey spectroscopic data. No VHE emission is detected during the observations of the six sources described here. Corresponding TeV upper limits are presented, along with contemporaneous Fermi observations and non-concurrent Swift UVOT and X-Ray Telescope data. The blazar broadband spectral energy distributions (SEDs) are assembled and modeled with a single-zone synchrotron self-Compton model. The SED built for each of the six blazars shows a synchrotron peak bordering between the intermediate- and high-spectrum-peak classifications, with four of the six resulting in particle-dominated emission regions.

  9. Blackbody comparator for thermocouple calibration

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Ojanen, M.; Hahtela, O. M.; Heinonen, M. [Centre for Metrology and Accreditation (MIKES), P.O.Box 9, FI-02151 Espoo (Finland)

    2013-09-11T23:59:59.000Z

    MIKES is developing a measurement set-up for calibrating thermocouples in the temperature range 960 °C - 1500 °C. The calibration method is based on direct comparison of thermocouples and radiation thermometers. We have designed a graphite blackbody comparator cell, which is operated in a horizontal single-zone tube furnace. The cell includes two blackbody cavities for radiation temperature measurements. The cavities have openings on opposite sides of the cell, allowing simultaneous measurement with two radiation thermometers. The design of the comparator allows three thermocouples to be calibrated simultaneously. The thermocouples to be calibrated are inserted in thermometer wells around one of the measurement cavities. We characterize the blackbody comparator in terms of repeatability, temperature distribution and emissivity. Finally, we validate the uncertainty analysis by comparing calibration results obtained for type B and S thermocouples to the calibration results reported by Technical Research Institute of Sweden (SP), and MIKES. The agreement in the temperature range 1000 °C - 1500 °C is within 0.90 °C, the average deviation being 0.17 °C.

  10. Multi-Block Enhancement for Lagrangian Dendritic Mesh setup in Altair5

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Douglass, Rodney W [Los Alamos National Laboratory

    2010-12-15T23:59:59.000Z

    Initial mesh setup for an ASC mUlti-physics code at LANL is done using Altair5. Altair5 assumes that the final mesh is composed of logical structured mesh blocks linked together at mesh boundaries to form, ultimately, an unstructured mesh. Within these blocks, meshes may have dendrites, that is, local regions where two zones share common edges (in two-dimensions, or faces in three-dimensions) with a single zone. In many cases, contiguous subsets of the initial set of blocks may have the same material assigned to them, but without smoothing the mesh would form a computationally challenging initial mesh. Some of these blocks may also have zones with nodes on domain boundaries. This paper reports on the implementation of multiblock smoothing in Altair5, which allows for dendrites and for moving boundary nodes. Dendritic nodes are constrained to be located at the average of their neighbor nodes while boundary nodes are constrained to move along the boundary geometry. Two fundamentally different smoothing methods were implemented. First, a variational principle is presented that balances zonal size and distortion via a user selected weighting with constraints imposed using penalty methods for dendritic nodes and Lagrange multipliers for boundary nodes. Second, the Laplace-Beltrami smoother is presented. This is a general elliptic smoother which can easily be modified to give Laplacian and Winslow-Crowley mesh smoothing. Results are shown for several test meshes of interest.

  11. Multiwavelength observations of GRB 110731A: GeV emission from onset to afterglow

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    ,

    2012-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    We report on the multiwavelength observations of the bright, long gamma-ray burst \\GRB, by the \\Fermi and \\Swift observatories, and by the MOA and GROND optical telescopes. The analysis of the prompt phase reveals that \\GRB shares many features with bright Large Area Telescope bursts observed by \\Fermi during the first 3 years on-orbit: a light curve with short time variability across the whole energy range during the prompt phase, delayed onset of the emission above 100 MeV, extra power law component and temporally extended high-energy emission. In addition, this the first GRB for which simultaneous GeV, X-ray, and optical data are available over multiple epochs beginning just after the trigger time and extending for more than 800 s, allowing temporal and spectral analysis in different epochs that favor emission from the forward shock in a wind-type medium. The observed temporally extended GeV emission is most likely part of the high-energy end of the afterglow emission. Both the single-zone pair transparenc...

  12. The High Redshift Blazar S5 0836+71: A Broadband Study

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Paliya, Vaidehi S

    2015-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    A broadband study of the high redshift blazar S5 0836+71 (z = 2.172) is presented. Multi-frequency light curves show multiple episodes of X-ray and $\\gamma$-ray flares, while optical-UV fluxes show little variations. During the GeV outburst, the highest $\\gamma$-ray flux measured is (5.22 $\\pm$ 1.10) $\\times$ 10$^{-6}$ ph cm$^{-2}$ s$^{-1}$ in the range of 0.1-300 GeV, which corresponds to an isotropic $\\gamma$-ray luminosity of (1.62 $\\pm$ 0.44) $\\times$ 10$^{50}$ erg s$^{-1}$, thereby making this as one of the most luminous $\\gamma$-ray flare ever observed from any blazar. A fast $\\gamma$-ray flux rising time of $\\sim$3 hours is also noticed which is probably the first measurement of hour scale variability detected from a high redshift (z > 2) blazar. The various activity states of S5 0836+71 are reproduced under the assumption of single zone leptonic emission model. In all the states, the emission region is located inside the broad line region, and the optical-UV radiation is dominated by the accretion dis...

  13. Investigation of HCCI Combustion of Diethyl Ether and Ethanol Mixtures Using Carbon 14 Tracing and Numerical Simulations

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Mack, J H; Dibble, R W; Buchholz, B A; Flowers, D L

    2004-01-16T23:59:59.000Z

    Despite the rapid combustion typically experienced in Homogeneous Charge Compression Ignition (HCCI), components in fuel mixtures do not ignite in unison or burn equally. In our experiments and modeling of blends of diethyl ether (DEE) and ethanol (EtOH), the DEE led combustion and proceeded further toward completion, as indicated by {sup 14}C isotope tracing. A numerical model of HCCI combustion of DEE and EtOH mixtures supports the isotopic findings. Although both approaches lacked information on incompletely combusted intermediates plentiful in HCCI emissions, the numerical model and {sup 14}C tracing data agreed within the limitations of the single zone model. Despite the fact that DEE is more reactive than EtOH in HCCI engines, they are sufficiently similar that we did not observe a large elongation of energy release or significant reduction in inlet temperature required for light-off, both desired effects for the combustion event. This finding suggests that, in general, HCCI combustion of fuel blends may have preferential combustion of some of the blend components.

  14. In-Cylinder Reaction Chemistry and Kinetics During Negative Valve Overlap Fuel Injection Under Low-Oxygen Conditions

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Kalaskar, Vickey B [ORNL] [ORNL; Szybist, James P [ORNL] [ORNL; Splitter, Derek A [ORNL] [ORNL; Pihl, Josh A [ORNL] [ORNL; Gao, Zhiming [ORNL] [ORNL; Daw, C Stuart [ORNL] [ORNL

    2013-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Fuel injection into the negative valve overlap (NVO) period is a common method for controlling combustion phasing in homogeneous charge compression ignition (HCCI) as well as other forms of advanced combustion. During this event, at least a portion of the fuel hydrocarbons can be converted to products containing significant levels of H2 and CO, as well as other short chain hydrocarbons by means of thermal cracking, water-gas shift, and partial oxidation reactions, depending on the availability of oxygen and the time-temperature-pressure history. The resulting products alter the autoignition properties of the combined fuel mixture for HCCI. Fuel-rich chemistry in a partial oxidation environment is also relevant to other high efficiency engine concepts (e.g., the dedicated EGR (D-EGR) concept from SWRI). In this study, we used a unique 6-stroke engine cycle to experimentally investigate the chemistry of a range of fuels injected during NVO under low oxygen conditions. Fuels investigated included iso-octane, iso-butanol, ethanol, and methanol. Products from NVO chemistry were highly dependent on fuel type and injection timing, with iso-octane producing less than 1.5% hydrogen and methanol producing more than 8%. We compare the experimental trends with CHEMKIN (single zone, 0-D model) predictions using multiple kinetic mechanisms available in the current literature. Our primary conclusion is that the kinetic mechanisms investigated are unable to accurately predict the magnitude and trends of major species we observed.

  15. Detailed Chemical Kinetic Modeling of Surrogate Fuels for Gasoline and Application to an HCCI Engine

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Naik, C V; Pitz, W J; Sj?berg, M; Dec, J E; Orme, J; Curran, H J; Simmie, J M; Westbrook, C K

    2005-01-07T23:59:59.000Z

    Gasoline consists of many different classes of hydrocarbons, such as paraffins, olefins, aromatics, and cycloalkanes. In this study, a surrogate gasoline reaction mechanism is developed, and it has one representative fuel constituent from each of these classes. These selected constituents are iso-octane, n-heptane, 1-pentene, toluene, and methyl-cyclohexane. The mechanism was developed in a step-wise fashion, adding submechanisms to treat each fuel component. Reactions important for low temperature oxidation (<1000K) and cross-reactions among different fuels are incorporated into the mechanism. The mechanism consists of 1214 species and 5401 reactions. A single-zone engine model is used to evaluate how well the mechanism captures autoignition behavior for conditions corresponding to homogeneous charge compression ignition (HCCI) engine operation. Experimental data are available for both how the combustion phasing changes with fueling at a constant intake temperature, and also how the intake temperature has to be changed with pressure in order to maintain combustion phasing for a fixed equivalence ratio. Three different surrogate fuel mixtures are used for the modeling. Predictions are in reasonably good agreement with the engine data. In addition, the heat release rate is calculated and compared to the data from experiments. The model predicts less low-temperature heat release than that measured. It is found that the low temperature heat-release rate depends strongly on engine speed, reactions of RO{sub 2}+HO{sub 2}, fuel composition, and pressure boost.

  16. Design and tuning of robust PID controller for HVAC systems

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Kasahara, Masato; Matsuba, Tadahiko; Kuzuu, Yoshiaki; Yamazaki, Takanori; Hashimoto, Yukihiro; Kamimura, Kazuyuki; Kurosu, Shigeru

    1999-07-01T23:59:59.000Z

    This paper concerns the development of a new design and tuning method for use with robust proportional-plus-integral-plus-derivative (PID) controllers that are commonly used in the heating, ventilating, and air-conditioning (HVAC) fields. The robust PID controller is designed for temperature control of a single-zone environmental space. Although the dynamics of environmental space are described by higher-order transfer functions, most HVAC plants are approximated by first-order lag plus deadtime systems. Its control performance is examined for this commonly approximated controlled plant. Since most HVAC plants are complex with nonlinearity, distributed parameters, and multivariables, a single set of PID gains does not necessarily yield a satisfactory control performance. For this reason, the PID controller must be designed as a robust control system considering model uncertainty caused by changes in characteristics of the plant. The PID gains obtained by solving a two-disk type of mixed sensitivity problem can be modified by contrast to those tuned by the traditional Ziegler-Nichols rule. The results, which are surprisingly simple, are given as linear functions of ratio of deadtime to time constant for robustness. The numerical simulation and the experiments on a commercial-size test plant for air conditioning suggest that the robust PID controller proposed in this paper is effective enough for practical applications.

  17. Open Automated Demand Response for Small Commerical Buildings

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Dudley, June Han; Piette, Mary Ann; Koch, Ed; Hennage, Dan

    2009-05-01T23:59:59.000Z

    This report characterizes small commercial buildings by market segments, systems and end-uses; develops a framework for identifying demand response (DR) enabling technologies and communication means; and reports on the design and development of a low-cost OpenADR enabling technology that delivers demand reductions as a percentage of the total predicted building peak electric demand. The results show that small offices, restaurants and retail buildings are the major contributors making up over one third of the small commercial peak demand. The majority of the small commercial buildings in California are located in southern inland areas and the central valley. Single-zone packaged units with manual and programmable thermostat controls make up the majority of heating ventilation and air conditioning (HVAC) systems for small commercial buildings with less than 200 kW peak electric demand. Fluorescent tubes with magnetic ballast and manual controls dominate this customer group's lighting systems. There are various ways, each with its pros and cons for a particular application, to communicate with these systems and three methods to enable automated DR in small commercial buildings using the Open Automated Demand Response (or OpenADR) communications infrastructure. Development of DR strategies must consider building characteristics, such as weather sensitivity and load variability, as well as system design (i.e. under-sizing, under-lighting, over-sizing, etc). Finally, field tests show that requesting demand reductions as a percentage of the total building predicted peak electric demand is feasible using the OpenADR infrastructure.

  18. Indoor Air Quality in 24 California Residences Designed as High-Performance Homes

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Less, Brennan; Mullen, Nasim; Singer, Brett; Walker, Iain

    2015-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Today’s high performance green homes are reaching previously unheard of levels of airtightness and are using new materials, technologies and strategies, whose impacts on Indoor Air Quality (IAQ) cannot be fully anticipated from prior studies. This research study used pollutant measurements, home inspections, diagnostic testing and occupant surveys to assess IAQ in 24 new or deeply retrofitted homes designed to be high performance green buildings in California. Although the mechanically vented homes were six times as airtight as non-mechanically ventilated homes (medians of 1.1 and 6.1 ACH50, n=11 and n=8, respectively), their use of mechanical ventilation systems and possibly window operation meant their median air exchange rates were almost the same (0.30 versus 0.32 hr-1, n=8 and n=8, respectively). Pollutant levels were also similar in vented and unvented homes. These similarities were achieved despite numerous observed faults in complex mechanical ventilation systems. More rigorous commissioning is still recommended. Cooking exhaust systems were used inconsistently and several suffered from design flaws. Failure to follow best practices led to IAQ problems in some cases. Ambient nitrogen dioxide standards were exceeded or nearly so in four homes that either used gas ranges with standing pilots, or in Passive House-style homes that used gas cooking burners without venting range hoods. Homes without active particle filtration had particle count concentrations approximately double those in homes with enhanced filtration. The majority of homes reported using low-emitting materials; consistent with this, formaldehyde levels were approximately half those in conventional, new CA homes built before 2008. Emissions of ultrafine particles (with diameters <100 nm) were dramatically lower on induction electric cooktops, compared with either gas or resistance electric models. These results indicate that high performance homes can achieve acceptable and even exceptional IAQ by providing adequate general mechanical ventilation, using low-emitting materials, providing mechanical particle filtration, incorporating well-designed exhaust ventilation for kitchens and bathrooms, and educating occupants to use the kitchen and bath ventilation.

  19. Separate collection of household food waste for anaerobic degradation - Comparison of different techniques from a systems perspective

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Bernstad, A., E-mail: Anna.bernstad@chemeng.lth.se [Water and Environmental Engineering, Department of Chemical Engineering, Lund University (Sweden); Cour Jansen, J. la [Water and Environmental Engineering, Department of Chemical Engineering, Lund University (Sweden)

    2012-05-15T23:59:59.000Z

    Highlight: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Four modern and innovative systems for household food waste collection are compared. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Direct emissions and resource use were based on full-scale data. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Conservation of nutrients/energy content over the system was considered. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Systems with high energy/nutrient recovery are most environmentally beneficial. - Abstract: Four systems for household food waste collection are compared in relation the environmental impact categories eutrophication potential, acidification potential, global warming potential as well as energy use. Also, a hotspot analysis is performed in order to suggest improvements in each of the compared collection systems. Separate collection of household food waste in paper bags (with and without drying prior to collection) with use of kitchen grinders and with use of vacuum system in kitchen sinks were compared. In all cases, food waste was used for anaerobic digestion with energy and nutrient recovery in all cases. Compared systems all resulted in net avoidance of assessed environmental impact categories; eutrophication potential (-0.1 to -2.4 kg NO{sub 3}{sup -}eq/ton food waste), acidification potential (-0.4 to -1.0 kg SO{sub 2}{sup -}eq/ton food waste), global warming potential (-790 to -960 kg CO{sub 2}{sup -}eq/ton food waste) and primary energy use (-1.7 to -3.6 GJ/ton food waste). Collection with vacuum system results in the largest net avoidance of primary energy use, while disposal of food waste in paper bags for decentralized drying before collection result in a larger net avoidance of global warming, eutrophication and acidification. However, both these systems not have been taken into use in large scale systems yet and further investigations are needed in order to confirm the outcomes from the comparison. Ranking of scenarios differ largely if considering only emissions in the foreground system, indicating the importance of taking also downstream emissions into consideration when comparing different collection systems. The hot spot identification shows that losses of organic matter in mechanical pretreatment as well as tank connected food waste disposal systems and energy in drying and vacuum systems reply to the largest impact on the results in each system respectively.

  20. THE IMPACT OF THE SUPERSONIC BARYON-DARK MATTER VELOCITY DIFFERENCE ON THE z {approx} 20 21 cm BACKGROUND

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    McQuinn, Matthew; O'Leary, Ryan M. [Department of Astronomy, University of California, Berkeley, CA 94720 (United States)

    2012-11-20T23:59:59.000Z

    Recently, Tseliakhovich and Hirata showed that during the cosmic Dark Ages the baryons were typically moving supersonically with respect to the dark matter with a spatially variable Mach number. Such supersonic motion may source shocks that inhomogeneously heat the universe. This motion may also suppress star formation in the first halos. Even a small amount of coupling of the 21 cm signal to this motion has the potential to vastly enhance the 21 cm brightness temperature fluctuations at 15 {approx}< z {approx}< 40, as well as to imprint distinctive acoustic oscillations in this signal. We present estimates for the size of this coupling, which we calibrate with a suite of cosmological simulations of the high-redshift universe using the GADGET and Enzo codes. Our simulations, discussed in detail in a companion paper, are initialized to self-consistently account for gas pressure and the dark matter-baryon relative velocity, v {sub bc} (in contrast to prior simulations). We find that the supersonic velocity difference dramatically suppresses structure formation on 10-100 comoving kpc scales, it sources shocks throughout the universe, and it impacts the accretion of gas onto the first star-forming minihalos (even for halo masses as large as 10{sup 7} M {sub Sun }). However, prior to reheating by astrophysical sources, we find that the v {sub bc}-sourced temperature fluctuations can contribute only as much as Almost-Equal-To 10% of the fluctuations in the 21 cm signal. We do find that v {sub bc} in certain scenarios could source an O(1) component in the power spectrum of the 21 cm background on observable scales via the X-ray (but not ultraviolet) backgrounds produced once the first stars formed. In a scenario in which {approx}10{sup 6} M {sub Sun} minihalos reheated the universe via their X-ray backgrounds, we find that the pre-reionization 21 cm signal would be larger than previously anticipated and exhibit more significant acoustic features. Such features would be a direct probe of the first stars and black holes. In addition, we show that structure formation shocks are unable to heat the universe sufficiently to erase a strong 21 cm absorption trough at z {approx} 20 that is found in most models of the sky-averaged 21 cm intensity.

  1. Demonstration of a 30-kW Microturbine with Heat Recovery in a 500-Soldier Barracks

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Friedrich, Michele; Armstrong, Peter R.; Smith, David L.; Rowley, Steven

    2005-12-31T23:59:59.000Z

    A combined heat and power-configured microturbine system was evaluated as an alternative to grid-supplied electric power. While off-grid, the system provides auxiliary power for gas-fired boilers and a portion of the domestic hot water for a 500-man barracks and kitchen. One-time tests were made of sound levels, stack emissions and power quality. Steady-state generating capacity dropped faster than the ratings as the inlet air temperature approached 15°C, while generating efficiency, based on fuel higher heating value, did not drop as rapidly and was still almost 21% at 33°C. The microturbine must boost the fuel (natural gas) delivery pressure to 55 psig. During the one year of operation, four fuel compressors failed and there were repeated failures of the microturbine and heat recovery heat exchanger controls. Energy savings based on the measured performance and CY2003 utility rates were $2670 per year. This paper, which will be presented at the ASHRAE Annual Meeting in Orlando, Florida, Feb. 5-9, describes the results of this evaluation.

  2. Energy Efficiency Measures to Incorporate into Remodeling Projects

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Liaukus, C.

    2014-12-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Energy improvements in a home are often approached as one concerted effort, beginning with a simple walk-through assessment or more in-depth energy audit and followed by the installation of recommended energy measures. While this approach allows for systems thinking to guide the efforts, comprehensive energy improvements of this nature are undertaken by a relatively small number of the households in our nation compared to more piecemeal remodeling efforts. Even when programs like the Weatherization Assistance Program and Home Performance with ENERGY STAR are considered, homes that have had a comprehensive energy makeover still represent a small fraction of the 111.1 million households. In this report, the U.S Department of Energy Building America Retrofit Alliance research team looks at the improvement of a home's energy performance in an opportunistic way: it examines what can be done to incorporate energy efficiency measures into general remodeling work and home repair projects. This allows for the possibility for people who would not normally pursue energy efficiency but will remodel their kitchen or re-side their home to improve their home's performance at the same time. There are challenges to this approach, not the least of which being that the work will take place over time in potentially many separate projects. The opportunity to improve a home's energy efficiency at one time expands or contracts with the scope of the remodel. As such, guidance on how to do each piece thoughtfully and with consideration for potential future projects, is critical.

  3. Indoor risk factors for cough and their relation to wheeze and sensitization in Chilean young adults

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Potts, J.F.; Rona, R.J.; Oyarzun, M.J.; Amigo, H.; Bustos, P. [Kings College London, London (United Kingdom). Dept. for Public Health Science

    2008-04-15T23:59:59.000Z

    We assessed the effects of indoor risk factors, including smoking, on different types of cough and on cough and wheeze in combination. Our sample was composed of 1232 men and women residing in a semi-rural area of Chile. We used a standardized questionnaire, sensitization to 8 allergens, and bronchial hyperresponsiveness to methacholine to assess cough and wheeze characteristics. Information was gathered on dampness, mold, ventilation, heating, housing quality, smoking, and environmental tobacco smoke exposure. Most exposures were associated with cough alone or cough in combination with wheeze. Smoking, past smoking, and environmental tobacco smoke exposure were strongly associated with dry cough and wheeze. The use of coal for heating was associated with dry cough. Leaks, mold, and lack of kitchen ventilation were associated with cough and wheeze. Nocturnal cough and productive cough were associated with specific types of sensitization, but dry cough was not. Productive cough was associated with hyperresponsiveness to methacholine. Several different types of indoor exposures, including environmental tobacco smoke exposure, are important contributors to morbidity associated with cough and wheeze. A vigorous preventive strategy designed to lower exposures to indoor risk factors would lower rates of respiratory morbidity.

  4. Personal exposure to nitrogen dioxide and its association with respiratory illness in Hong Kong

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Koo, L.C.; Ho, J.H.; Ho, C.Y.; Matsuki, H.; Shimizu, H.; Mori, T.; Tominaga, S. (Nam Long Hospital (Hong Kong))

    1990-05-01T23:59:59.000Z

    In 1985, 362 primary schoolchildren and their 319 mothers were surveyed in Hong Kong to study the possible relationship of air pollution to respiratory illnesses. Using nitrogen dioxide (NO{sub 2}) measured by personal samplers as a measure of air pollution, the study aimed to identify the major sources of NO{sub 2} in the indoor environment and see whether its increased presence was associated with respiratory symptoms. The levels of NO{sub 2} among the mothers was found to increase by 21% if dust exposure was reported from the workplace, 18% if they used such cooking fuels as liquid petroleum gas or kerosene, 11% when kitchens did not have ventilating fans, and 10% when incense was burned at home. In terms of respiratory symptoms, an increase in NO{sub 2} levels of 19% was reported among those with allergic rhinitis and 18% among those with chronic cough. The levels of NO2 among children were correlated with levels measured in classrooms, all of which had opened windows so that the NO{sub 2} came from outdoors. No association was found between children's NO{sub 2} levels and respiratory symptoms. With the exception of smoking by the father and the children's NO{sub 2} levels, no association was found between smoking at home and NO{sub 2} levels.

  5. Hydrocarbon potential of the Lamu basin of south-east Kenya

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Nyagah, K.; Cloeter, J.J.; Maende, A. (National Oil Corp. of Kenya, Nairobi (Kenya))

    1996-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The Lamu basin occupies the coastal onshore and offshore areas of south-east Kenya. This fault bounded basin formed as a result of the Paleozoic-early Mesozoic phase of rifting that developed at the onset of Gondwana dismemberment. The resultant graben was filled by Karroo (Permian-Early Jurassic) continental siliciclastic sediments. Carbonate deposits associated with the Tethyan sea invasion, dominate the Middle to Late Jurassic basin fill. Cessation of the relative motion between Madagascar and Africa in the Early Cretaceous, heralded passive margin development and deltaic sediment progradation until the Paleogene. Shallow seas transgressed the basin in the Miocene when another carbonate regime prevailed. The basin depositional history is characterized by pulses of transgressive and regressive cycles, bounded by tectonically enhanced unconformities dividing the total sedimentary succession into discrete megasequences. Source rock strata occur within Megasequence III (Paleogene) depositional cycle and were lowered into the oil window in Miocene time, when the coastal parts of the basin experienced the greatest amount of subsidence. The tectono-eustatic pulses of the Tertiary brought about source and reservoir strata into a spatial relationship in which hydrocarbons could be entrapped. A basement high on the continental shelf has potential for Karroo sandstone and Jurassic limestone reservoirs. Halokinesis of Middle Jurassic salt in Miocene time provides additional prospects in the offshore area. Paleogene deltaic sands occur in rotated listric fault blacks. A Miocene reef Play coincides with an Eocene source rock kitchen.

  6. Hydrocarbon potential of the Lamu basin of south-east Kenya

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Nyagah, K.; Cloeter, J.J.; Maende, A. [National Oil Corp. of Kenya, Nairobi (Kenya)

    1996-12-31T23:59:59.000Z

    The Lamu basin occupies the coastal onshore and offshore areas of south-east Kenya. This fault bounded basin formed as a result of the Paleozoic-early Mesozoic phase of rifting that developed at the onset of Gondwana dismemberment. The resultant graben was filled by Karroo (Permian-Early Jurassic) continental siliciclastic sediments. Carbonate deposits associated with the Tethyan sea invasion, dominate the Middle to Late Jurassic basin fill. Cessation of the relative motion between Madagascar and Africa in the Early Cretaceous, heralded passive margin development and deltaic sediment progradation until the Paleogene. Shallow seas transgressed the basin in the Miocene when another carbonate regime prevailed. The basin depositional history is characterized by pulses of transgressive and regressive cycles, bounded by tectonically enhanced unconformities dividing the total sedimentary succession into discrete megasequences. Source rock strata occur within Megasequence III (Paleogene) depositional cycle and were lowered into the oil window in Miocene time, when the coastal parts of the basin experienced the greatest amount of subsidence. The tectono-eustatic pulses of the Tertiary brought about source and reservoir strata into a spatial relationship in which hydrocarbons could be entrapped. A basement high on the continental shelf has potential for Karroo sandstone and Jurassic limestone reservoirs. Halokinesis of Middle Jurassic salt in Miocene time provides additional prospects in the offshore area. Paleogene deltaic sands occur in rotated listric fault blacks. A Miocene reef Play coincides with an Eocene source rock kitchen.

  7. (Solar clothes dryer and wastewater heat exchanger). Final report

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Baer, B.F.

    1984-12-04T23:59:59.000Z

    The first project investigated the technical possibilities of adapting a domestic electric clothes dryer to utilize solar-heated water as the heat source, replacing electric resistance heat. The second project attempted to extract wastewater heat from a commercial dishwasher to preheat fresh water to be used in the next dish washing cycle. It is felt that the clothes dryer project has met all of intended goals. Although a solar application has some real-world practical problems, the application of a dryer connected directly to the home heating system will prove to be cost-beneficial over the life of a dryer. The additional cost of a heat exchanger is not excessive, and the installation cost, if installed with the initial house plumbing is less than $100. From a practical point of view, the complexity of installing a wastewater heat extracter is considered impractical. The environment in which such equipment must operate is difficult at best, and most restaurants prefer to maintain as simple an operation as possible. If problems were to occur in this type of equipment, the kitchen would effectively be crippled. In conclusion, further research in the concept is not recommended. Recent advances in commercial dishwashers have also considerably reduced the heat losses which accompanied equipment only a few years old.

  8. Refuse derived soluble bio-organics enhancing tomato plant growth and productivity

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Sortino, Orazio [Dipartimento di Scienze Agronomiche Agrochimiche e delle Produzioni Animali, Universita degli Studi di Catania, Via Valdisavoia 5, 95123 Catania (Italy); Dipasquale, Mauro [Dipartimento di Chimica, Universita di Torino, Via P. Giuria 7, 10125 Torino (Italy); Montoneri, Enzo, E-mail: enzo.montoneri@unito.it [Dipartimento di Chimica, Universita di Torino, Via P. Giuria 7, 10125 Torino (Italy); Tomasso, Lorenzo; Perrone, Daniele G. [Dipartimento di Chimica, Universita di Torino, Via P. Giuria 7, 10125 Torino (Italy); Vindrola, Daniela; Negre, Michele; Piccone, Giuseppe [Dipartimento di Valorizzazione e Protezione delle Risorse Agroforestali, Universita di Torino, Via L. da Vinci 44, 10095 Grugliasco (Italy)

    2012-10-15T23:59:59.000Z

    Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Municipal bio-wastes are a sustainable source of bio-based products. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Refuse derived soluble bio-organics promote chlorophyll synthesis. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Refuse derived soluble bio-organics enhance plant growth and fruit ripening rate. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Sustainable chemistry exploiting urban refuse allows sustainable development. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Chemistry, agriculture and the environment benefit from biowaste technology. - Abstract: Municipal bio-refuse (CVD), containing kitchen wastes, home gardening residues and public park trimmings, was treated with alkali to yield a soluble bio-organic fraction (SBO) and an insoluble residue. These materials were characterized using elemental analysis, potentiometric titration, and 13C NMR spectroscopy, and then applied as organic fertilizers to soil for tomato greenhouse cultivation. Their performance was compared with a commercial product obtained from animal residues. Plant growth, fruit yield and quality, and soil and leaf chemical composition were the selected performance indicators. The SBO exhibited the best performance by enhancing leaf chlorophyll content, improving plant growth and fruit ripening rate and yield. No product performance-chemical composition relationship could be assessed. Solubility could be one reason for the superior performance of SBO as a tomato growth promoter. The enhancement of leaf chlorophyll content is discussed to identify a possible link with the SBO photosensitizing properties that have been demonstrated in other work, and thus with photosynthetic performance.

  9. Solar process heat technology in action: The process hot water system at the California Correctional Institution at Tehachapi

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Hewett, R. (National Renewable Energy Lab., Golden, CO (United States)); Gee, R.; May, K. (Industrial Solar Technology, Arvada, CO (United States))

    1991-12-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Solar process heat technology relates to solar thermal energy systems for industry, commerce, and government. Applications include water preheating and heating, steam generation, process hot air, ventilation air heating, and refrigeration. Solar process heat systems are available for commercial use. At the present time, however, they are economically viable only in niche markets. This paper describes a functioning system in one such market. The California Department of Corrections (CDOC), which operates correctional facilities for the state of California, uses a solar system for providing hot water and space heating at the California Correctional Institute at Tehachapi (CCI/Tehachapi). CCI/Tehachapi is a 5100-inmate facility. The CDOC does not own the solar system. Rather, it buys energy from private investors who own the solar system located on CCI/Tehachapi property; this arrangement is part of a long-term energy purchase agreement. United Solar Technologies (UST) of Olympia Washington is the system operator. The solar system, which began operating in the fall of 1990, utilizes 2677 m{sup 2} (28,800 ft{sup 2}) of parabolic through solar concentrators. Thermal energy collected by the system is used to generate hot water for showers, kitchen operations, and laundry functions. Thermal energy collected by the system is also used for space heating. At peak operating conditions, the system is designed to meet approximately 80 percent of the summer thermal load. 4 figs., 4 tabs.

  10. Evaluation of poly(amidoamine) dendrimer permeability and transport mechanisms across Caco-2 cell monolayers

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Kitchens, Kelly M.

    2006-10-27T23:59:59.000Z

    Junction Protein Occludin *34.2 ? 13.4% *14.4 ? 4.0% *56.6 ? 5.9%*50.8 ? 8.6% *51.9 ? 7.5% Control G2NH2 G2OH G1.5COOH G2.5COOH G3.5COOH x y z 60x oil objective 100 ?m pinhole 0.40 ?m z-step size Kitchens et al., Pharm Res, (2006) Mean ? SD (n = 3) * P < 0....05, increase in signal Bars = 100 ?m Influence of PAMAM on Tight Junction Protein Actin *36.1 ? 3.5% 13.1 ? 6.8% *44.6 ? 2.0%*54.8 ? 20.9% *63.3 ? 2.2% Control G2NH2 G2OH G1.5COOH G2.5COOH G3.5COOH x y z Mean ? SD (n = 3) * P < 0.05, increase in signal Bars...

  11. Solid waste management of temple floral offerings by vermicomposting using Eisenia fetida

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Singh, Akanksha, E-mail: bhuaks29@gmail.com [Department of Botany, Banaras Hindu University, Varanasi 221 005 (India); Jain, Akansha, E-mail: akansha007@rediffmail.com [Department of Botany, Banaras Hindu University, Varanasi 221 005 (India); Sarma, Birinchi K., E-mail: birinchi_ks@yahoo.com [Department of Mycology and Plant Pathology, Institute of Agricultural Sciences, Banaras Hindu University, Varanasi 221 005 (India); Abhilash, P.C., E-mail: pca.iesd@bhu.ac.in [Institute for Environment and Sustainable Development, Banaras Hindu University, Varanasi 221 005 (India); Singh, Harikesh B., E-mail: hbs1@rediffmail.com [Department of Mycology and Plant Pathology, Institute of Agricultural Sciences, Banaras Hindu University, Varanasi 221 005 (India)

    2013-05-15T23:59:59.000Z

    Highlights: ? Effective management of temple floral offerings using E. fetida. ? Physico-chemical properties in TW VC were better especially EC, C/N, C/P and TK. ? TW VC as plant growth promoter at much lower application rates than KW and FYW VC. - Abstract: Recycling of temple waste (TW) mainly comprising of floral offerings was done through vermitechnology using Eisenia fetida and its impact on seed germination and plant growth parameters was studied by comparing with kitchen waste (KW) and farmyard waste (FYW) vermicompost (VC). The worm biomass was found to be maximum in TW VC compared to KW and FYW VCs at both 40 and 120 days old VCs. Physico-chemical analysis of worm-worked substrates showed better results in TW VC especially in terms of electrical conductivity, C/N, C/P and TK. 10% TW VC–water extract (VCE) showed stimulatory effect on germination percentage of chickpea seeds while KW and FYW VCE proved effective at higher concentration. Variation in growth parameters was also observed with change in the VC–soil ratio and TW VC showed enhanced shoot length, root length, number of secondary roots and total biomass at 12.5% VC compared to KW and FYW VC.

  12. Fluid-driven deformation of a soft granular material

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Christopher W. MacMinn; Eric R. Dufresne; John S. Wettlaufer

    2015-02-24T23:59:59.000Z

    Compressing a porous, fluid-filled material will drive the interstitial fluid out of the pore space, as when squeezing water out of a kitchen sponge. Inversely, injecting fluid into a porous material can deform the solid structure, as when fracturing a shale for natural gas recovery. These poromechanical interactions play an important role in geological and biological systems across a wide range of scales, from the propagation of magma through the Earth's mantle to the transport of fluid through living cells and tissues. The theory of poroelasticity has been largely successful in modeling poromechanical behavior in relatively simple systems, but this continuum theory is fundamentally limited by our understanding of the pore-scale interactions between the fluid and the solid, and these problems are notoriously difficult to study in a laboratory setting. Here, we present a high-resolution measurement of injection-driven poromechanical deformation in a system with granular microsctructure: We inject fluid into a dense, confined monolayer of soft particles and use particle tracking to reveal the dynamics of the multi-scale deformation field. We find that a continuum model based on poroelasticity theory captures certain macroscopic features of the deformation, but the particle-scale deformation field exhibits dramatic departures from smooth, continuum behavior. We observe particle-scale rearrangement and hysteresis, as well as petal-like mesoscale structures that are connected to material failure through spiral shear banding.

  13. Investigation on effects of surface morphologies on response of LPG sensor based on nanostructured copper ferrite system

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Singh, Satyendra [Nanomaterials and Sensors Research Laboratory, Department of Physics, University of Lucknow, Lucknow 226007, U.P. (India)] [Nanomaterials and Sensors Research Laboratory, Department of Physics, University of Lucknow, Lucknow 226007, U.P. (India); Yadav, B.C., E-mail: balchandra_yadav@rediffmail.com [Nanomaterials and Sensors Research Laboratory, Department of Physics, University of Lucknow, Lucknow 226007, U.P. (India); Department of Applied Physics, School for Physical Sciences, Babasaheb Bhimrao Ambedkar University, Lucknow 226025, U.P. (India); Gupta, V.D. [Nanomaterials and Sensors Research Laboratory, Department of Physics, University of Lucknow, Lucknow 226007, U.P. (India)] [Nanomaterials and Sensors Research Laboratory, Department of Physics, University of Lucknow, Lucknow 226007, U.P. (India); Dwivedi, Prabhat K. [DST Unit on Nanosciences, Department of Chemical Engineering, Indian Institute of Technology Kanpur, Kanpur, U.P. (India)] [DST Unit on Nanosciences, Department of Chemical Engineering, Indian Institute of Technology Kanpur, Kanpur, U.P. (India)

    2012-11-15T23:59:59.000Z

    Graphical abstract: Figure shows the variations in resistance with time for copper ferrite system synthesized in various molar ratio. A maximum variation in resistance was observed for copper ferrite prepared in 1:1 molar ratio. Highlights: ? Evaluation of structural, optical and surface morphologies. ? Significant variation in LPG sensing properties. ? Surface modification of ferric oxide pellet by copper ferrite. ? CuFe{sub 2}O{sub 4} pellets for LPG sensing at room temperature. -- Abstract: Synthesis of a copper ferrite system (CuFe{sub 2}O{sub 4}) via chemical co-precipitation method is characterized by X-ray diffraction, surface morphology (scanning electron microscope) and optical absorption spectroscopy. These characteristics show their dependence on the relative compositions of the two subsystems. They are further confirmed by the variation in the band gap. A study of gas sensing properties shows the spinel CuFe{sub 2}O{sub 4} synthesized in 1:1 molar ratio exhibit best response to LPG adsorption/resistance measurement. Thus resistance based LPG sensor is found robust, cheap and may be applied for kitchens and industrial applications.

  14. Water jet rebounds on hydrophobic surfaces : a first step to jet micro-fluidics

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Franck Celestini; R. Kofman; Xavier Noblin; Mathieu Pellegrin

    2010-09-28T23:59:59.000Z

    When a water jet impinges upon a solid surface it produces a so called hydraulic jump that everyone can observe in the sink of its kitchen. It is characterized by a thin liquid sheet bounded by a circular rise of the surface due to capillary and gravitational forces. In this phenomenon, the impact induces a geometrical transition, from the cylindrical one of the jet to the bi-dimensional one of the film. A true jet rebound on a solid surface, for which the cylindrical geometry is preserved, has never been yet observed. Here we experimentally demonstrate that a water jet can impact a solid surface without being destabilized. Depending on the incident angle of the impinging jet, its velocity and the degree of hydrophobicity of the substrate, the jet can i) bounce on the surface with a fixed reflected angle, ii) land on it and give rise to a supported jet or iii) be destabilized, emitting drops. Capillary forces are predominant at the sub-millimetric jet scale considered in this work, along with the hydrophobic nature of the substrate. The results presented in this letter raise the fundamental problem of knowing why such capillary hydraulic jump gives rise to this unexpected jet rebound phenomenon. This study furthermore offers new and promising possibilities to handle little quantity of water through "jet micro-fluidics"

  15. Air Distribution Effectiveness for Residential Mechanical Ventilation: Simulation and Comparison of Normalized Exposures

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Petithuguenin, T.D.P.; Sherman, M.H.

    2009-05-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The purpose of ventilation is to dilute indoor contaminants that an occupant is exposed to. Even when providing the same nominal rate of outdoor air, different ventilation systems may distribute air in different ways, affecting occupants' exposure to household contaminants. Exposure ultimately depends on the home being considered, on source disposition and strength, on occupants' behavior, on the ventilation strategy, and on operation of forced air heating and cooling systems. In any multi-zone environment dilution rates and source strengths may be different in every zone and change in time, resulting in exposure being tied to occupancy patterns.This paper will report on simulations that compare ventilation systems by assessing their impact on exposure by examining common house geometries, contaminant generation profiles, and occupancy scenarios. These simulations take into account the unsteady, occupancy-tied aspect of ventilation such as bathroom and kitchen exhaust fans. As most US homes have central HVAC systems, the simulation results will be used to make appropriate recommendations and adjustments for distribution and mixing to residential ventilation standards such as ASHRAE Standard 62.2.This paper will report on work being done to model multizone airflow systems that are unsteady and elaborate the concept of distribution matrix. It will examine several metrics for evaluating the effect of air distribution on exposure to pollutants, based on previous work by Sherman et al. (2006).

  16. Oil migration pattern in the Sirte Basin

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Roohi, M.; Aburawi, R.M. [Waha Oil Co., Tripoli (Libyan Arab Jamahiriya)

    1995-08-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Sirte Basin is an asymmetrical cratonic basin, situated in the north-central part of Libya. It covers an area of over 350,000km{sup 2} and is one of the most prolific oil-producing basins in the world. Sirte Basin is divided into large NW-SE trending sub-parallel platforms and troughs bounded by deep seated syndepositional normal faults. A very unique combination of thick sediments with rich source rocks in the troughs vs. thinner sediments with prolific reservoir rocks on the platforms accounts for the productivity of the basin. Analysis of oil migration pattern in the Sirte Basin will certainly help to discover the remaining reserves, and this can only be achieved if the important parameter of structural configuration of the basin at the time of oil migration is known. The present paper is an attempt to analyse the time of oil migration, to define the structural picture of the 4 Basin during the time of migration and to delineate the most probable connecting routes between the hydrocarbon kitchens and the oil fields.

  17. Genetic classification of petroleum systems

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Huizinga, B.J. (Chevron Oil Field Research Co., Richmond, CA (United States)); Demaison, G.

    1991-03-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The authors genetic classification of petroleum basins is founded on a working nomenclature that consists of combining qualifiers from each of the following three categories: (1) the charge factor (supercharged, normally charged, or undercharged), (2) the migration drainage style (vertically drained or laterally drained), and (3) the entrapment style (high impedance or low impedance). The charge factor is estimated on the basis of the richness and volumetrics of mature source rocks. The source potential index (SPI), which combines source-rock richness and thickness into a single parameter, is a convenient shortcut for comparing the petroleum potential of different source rocks containing dissimilar kerogen types and for rapidly estimating a basin's regional charging capacity. On a global scale, a general correlation exists between the magnitude of SPI and basinwide petroleum reserves. The dominant migration drainage style can be predicted from the structural and stratigraphic framework of a basin. Recognition of the dominant migration style helps to predict the location of zones of petroleum occurrence in relation to the 'hydrocarbon kitchens.' The entrapment style, which is also dependent on the structural framework and the presence of seals, describes the degree of resistance (i.e. impedance) working against dispersion of the petroleum charge. Application of these working concepts should help significantly reduce geologic risk, particularly in new ventures-type exploration.

  18. Genetic classification of petroleum basins

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Demaison, G.; Huizinga, B.J.

    1989-03-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Rather than relying on a descriptive geologic approach, this genetic classification is based on the universal laws that control processes of petroleum formation, migration, and entrapment. Petroleum basins or systems are defined as dynamic petroleum-generating and concentrating physico-chemical systems functioning on a geologic space and time scale. A petroleum system results from the combination of a generative subsystem (or hydrocarbon kitchen), essentially controlled by chemical processes, and a migration-entrapment subsystem, controlled by physical processes. The generative subsystem provides a certain supply of petroleum to the basin during a given geologic time span. The migration-entrapment subsystem receives petroleum and distributes it in a manner that can lead either to dispersion and loss or to concentration of the regional charge into economic accumulations. The authors classification scheme for petroleum basins rests on a simple working nomenclature consisting of the following qualifiers: (1) charge factor: undercharged, normally charged, or supercharged, (2) migration drainage factor: vertically drained or laterally drained, and (3) entrapment factor: low impedance or high impedance. Examples chosen from an extensive roster of documented petroleum basins are reviewed to explain the proposed classification.

  19. Performance of Installed Cooking Exhaust Devices

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Singer, Brett C.; Delp, William W.; Apte, Michael G.; Price, Philip N.

    2011-11-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The performance metrics of airflow, sound, and combustion product capture efficiency (CE) were measured for a convenience sample of fifteen cooking exhaust devices, as installed in residences. Results were analyzed to quantify the impact of various device- and installation-dependent parameters on CE. Measured maximum airflows were 70% or lower than values noted on product literature for 10 of the devices. Above-the-cooktop devices with flat bottom surfaces (no capture hood) – including exhaust fan/microwave combination appliances – were found to have much lower CE at similar flow rates, compared to devices with capture hoods. For almost all exhaust devices and especially for rear-mounted downdraft exhaust and microwaves, CE was substantially higher for back compared with front burner use. Flow rate, and the extent to which the exhaust device extends over the burners that are in use, also had a large effect on CE. A flow rate of 95 liters per second (200 cubic feet per minute) was necessary, but not sufficient, to attain capture efficiency in excess of 75% for the front burners. A-weighted sound levels in kitchens exceeded 57 dB when operating at the highest fan setting for all 14 devices evaluated for sound performance.

  20. (Inner City Self-Help Program. ) Final project performance report, July 1-December 31, 1982. [Salvage

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Not Available

    1982-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Rebound Building Materials Salvage has become better established. Activities have been primarily in the areas of inventory and sales development, warehouse organization and future planning. Inventory during this period included wood doors, fiberglass doors, shelving, plywood, large mirrors, door jambs, wood gutters, wood frame windows, and miscellaneous kitchen appliances. Packets including introductory material and donation forms have been prepared for distribution to prospective contributors. They are being sent to plumbing installers, office building managers, cabinet installers, electrical contractors, and building material distributors. Marketing of the program has been done through news releases and ads in several community newspapers and Seattle's daily newspapers. Our best promotion, though, has been through word of mouth in our target community. Looking towards the future, a business plan has been outlined with a preliminary calculation of what sales volume will be required for Rebound to be self-supporting. These figures and projections will be used and refined during these next months as we work towards increasing and balancing Rebound's marketable inventory, sales activity and operating resources.

  1. High-solids anaerobic digestion of mixed municipal and industrial waste

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Oleszkiewicz, J.A.; Poggi-Varaldo, H.M. [Univ. of Manitoba, Winnipeg, Manitoba (Canada). Dept. of Civil Engineering

    1997-11-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Laboratory studies on dry anaerobic digestion of mixture of paper, kitchen food waste, and sewage sludge have demonstrated the optimum performance at total solids (TS) at the range of 30--35% TS. The thermophilic process (at 55 C) was found to be superior to a mesophilic (35 C) one, both in terms of volatile solid (VS) reduction and specific gas production, but was somewhat less stable at short mass retention times (MRT). The efficiency of total volatile solids destruction and the decrease in the oxygen demand were found to be proportional to the product of the mass retention time and temperature (d {center_dot} C). Pilot studies, conducted on a mixture of sewage sludge, mixed paper, food waste, and solids from a potato processing conducted on site in Portage la Prairie, Manitoba, Canada, have demonstrated the feasibility of running the process at loads exceeding 9 kg TS/m{sup 3} {center_dot} d and producing biogas at 140 m{sup 3} of wet solids fed to the composter. The residual oxygen demand per unit mass of the dry compost was 20 mg O{sub 2}/g {center_dot} h, which indicated a need for aerobic postcuring of the anaerobically produced compost.

  2. Economic analysis

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    None

    1980-06-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The Energy Policy and Conservation Act (EPCA) mandated that minimum energy efficiency standards be established for classes of refrigerators and refrigerator-freezers, freezers, clothes dryers, water heaters, room air conditioners, home heating equipment, kitchen ranges and ovens, central air conditioners, and furnaces. EPCA requires that standards be designed to achieve the maximum improvement in energy efficiency that is technologically feasible and economically justified. Following the introductory chapter, Chapter Two describes the methodology used in the economic analysis and its relationship to legislative criteria for consumer product efficiency assessment; details how the CPES Value Model systematically compared and evaluated the economic impacts of regulation on the consumer, manufacturer and Nation. Chapter Three briefly displays the results of the analysis and lists the proposed performance standards by product class. Chapter Four describes the reasons for developing a baseline forecast, characterizes the baseline scenario from which regulatory impacts were calculated and summarizes the primary models, data sources and assumptions used in the baseline formulations. Chapter Five summarizes the methodology used to calculate regulatory impacts; describes the impacts of energy performance standards relative to the baseline discussed in Chapter Four. Also discussed are regional standards and other program alternatives to performance standards. Chapter Six describes the procedure for balancing consumer, manufacturer, and national impacts to select standard levels. Details of models and data bases used in the analysis are included in Appendices A through K.

  3. SEASONAL AND ANNUAL AVERAGE RADON LEVELS IN 70 HOUSES

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    C. S. Dudney; A. R. Hawthorne

    1988-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    A year-long, mu1 ti pollutant, indoor air qua1 ity study involving 70 occupied houses in four states was completed in 1987. All of the houses included in the study had a partial or complete basement with a concrete slab floor and block walls. On an approximately quarterly schedule, integrating monitors for short-1 i ved radon progeny, N02, HCHO, and H20 were exposed for one week in each house on both the basement and main 1 eve1 s. At the beginning of the study, a pair of alpha track detectors were placed both on top of the refrigerator in the kitchen (or some other sampling site on the main floor) and at a sampling site in the basement. One detector at each sampl ing site was left in place for a year. The other detector at each sampling site was retrieved after about three month's exposure and replaced with another detector for the next quarter. In addition, short-term samples of radon and radon progeny were made at

  4. Monitoring and evaluation of new stoves

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Basnet, K.

    1983-12-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Most of the people in Nepal depend on biomass for cooking and heating - be it wood, straw etc. and this is one of the reasons why we have a greater problem of deforestation which is the major component for deteriorating environment. Slowing the rate of deforestation to a limited degree at least can be achieved by improving the efficiency of wood utilization. The idea of improving the stoves in terms of firewood consumption and smokelessness has gained an increasing attention in recent years. The prefabricated household stoves (New Nepali Cooking Stoves) are being distributed and installed to the various regions of the country through the Small Farm Family Program with the support of ADB/Nepal and UNICEF/Nepal. These improved stoves make smokeless kitchens and use less firewood. The distribution of the modified Magan Stoves was first started in Budhanilkantha Village about one year before the survey. Still the stoves are being distributed to the villagers if they form a small group of 6-10 households (Small Farm Family) and the group asks for the stoves. After distribution and installations of improved stoves in various regions of the country a sample survey was conducted in Budhanilkantha to ascertain users acceptance and identify the kinds of problems inhibiting greater use. The survey was carried out in the beginning of 1983, and during the survey there were 51 stoves distributed in two Panchayats and different villages.

  5. Gobar gas (biogas) survey in Nepal - 1979; a survey of three community biogas plants in Nepal - 1980; survey of present gobar gas work in India; and night soil gas plant

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Bulmer, A.; Schlorholtz, A.; Fulford, D.J.; Peters, N.

    1980-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The first of these documents investigates the success of a project to bring the use of Biogas to Nepal. 50 users and 24 non-users were interviewed. The conclusions were that use of biogas in Nepal is successful, providing clean kitchens, healthier lives, and saving forests. They cause no social problems, but the service company for the plants needs improvement. The second report shows that community plants relying on continued cooperation are fragile enterprises. One of the plants ended up being run by one family, the gas distributed according to the dung input by each family. The gas was not used fully. Technical problems were partly responsible for this. In the second village technical problems and social problems reduced the number of users to 5 families from 26. In the third case the plant fell into disrepair but the social pattern of using a common area for defecation to fill the plant benefitted from having a permanent enclosure built. This scheme charged for use of the gas to help run the plant but the technical and social problems stymied correction. The third report lists the activities of various gobar gas research stations in India. The fourth report gives directions and specifications to build a night soil gas plant, including working drawings.

  6. Microstructural studies of advanced austenitic steels

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Todd, J. A.; Ren, Jyh-Ching [University of Southern California, Los Angeles, CA (USA). Dept. of Materials Science

    1989-11-15T23:59:59.000Z

    This report presents the first complete microstructural and analytical electron microscopy study of Alloy AX5, one of a series of advanced austenitic steels developed by Maziasz and co-workers at Oak Ridge National Laboratory, for their potential application as reheater and superheater materials in power plants that will reach the end of their design lives in the 1990's. The advanced steels are modified with carbide forming elements such as titanium, niobium and vanadium. When combined with optimized thermo-mechanical treatments, the advanced steels exhibit significantly improved creep rupture properties compared to commercially available 316 stainless steels, 17--14 Cu--Mo and 800 H steels. The importance of microstructure in controlling these improvements has been demonstrated for selected alloys, using stress relaxation testing as an accelerated test method. The microstructural features responsible for the improved creep strengths have been identified by studying the thermal aging kinetics of one of the 16Ni--14Cr advanced steels, Alloy AX5, in both the solution annealed and the solution annealed plus cold worked conditions. Time-temperature-precipitation diagrams have been developed for the temperature range 600 C to 900 C and for times from 1 h to 3000 h. 226 refs., 88 figs., 10 tabs.

  7. Microturbines

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    Microturbines are small combustion turbines, approximately the size of a refrigerator, with outputs of 25-500 kilowatt (kW). They evolved from automotive and truck turbochargers, auxiliary power units for airplanes, and small jet engines and are composed of a compressor, a combustor, a turbine, an alternator, a recuperator, and a generator. Microturbines offer a number of potential advantages over other technologies for small-scale power generation. These include their small number of moving parts, compact size, light weight, greater efficiency, lower emissions, lower electricity costs, and ability to use waste fuels. They can be located on sites with space limitations for the production of power, and waste heat recovery can be used to achieve efficiencies of more than 80%. Turbines are classified by the physical arrangement of their component parts: single-shaft or two-shaft, simple-cycle or recuperated, inter-cooled, and reheat. The machines generally rotate more than 40,000 rotations per minute (rpm). Bearing selection, whether the manufacturer uses oil or air, is dependent on use. Single-shaft is the more common design because it is simpler and less expensive to build. Conversely, the split shaft is necessary for machine drive applications because it does not require an inverter to change the frequency of the AC power.

  8. Low-Flow Liquid Desiccant Air-Conditioning: Demonstrated Performance and Cost Implications

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Kozubal, E.; Herrmann, L.; Deru, M.; Clark, J.; Lowenstein, A.

    2014-09-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Cooling loads must be dramatically reduced when designing net-zero energy buildings or other highly efficient facilities. Advances in this area have focused primarily on reducing a building's sensible cooling loads by improving the envelope, integrating properly sized daylighting systems, adding exterior solar shading devices, and reducing internal heat gains. As sensible loads decrease, however, latent loads remain relatively constant, and thus become a greater fraction of the overall cooling requirement in highly efficient building designs, particularly in humid climates. This shift toward latent cooling is a challenge for heating, ventilation, and air-conditioning (HVAC) systems. Traditional systems typically dehumidify by first overcooling air below the dew-point temperature and then reheating it to an appropriate supply temperature, which requires an excessive amount of energy. Another dehumidification strategy incorporates solid desiccant rotors that remove water from air more efficiently; however, these systems are large and increase fan energy consumption due to the increased airside pressure drop of solid desiccant rotors. A third dehumidification strategy involves high flow liquid desiccant systems. These systems require a high maintenance separator to protect the air distribution system from corrosive desiccant droplet carryover and so are more commonly used in industrial applications and rarely in commercial buildings. Both solid desiccant systems and most high-flow liquid desiccant systems (if not internally cooled) add sensible energy which must later be removed to the air stream during dehumidification, through the release of sensible heat during the sorption process.

  9. Modeling and experimental results for condensing supercritical CO2 power cycles.

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Wright, Steven Alan; Conboy, Thomas M.; Radel, Ross F.; Rochau, Gary Eugene

    2011-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    This Sandia supported research project evaluated the potential improvement that 'condensing' supercritical carbon dioxide (S-CO{sub 2}) power cycles can have on the efficiency of Light Water Reactors (LWR). The analytical portion of research project identified that a S-CO{sub 2} 'condensing' re-compression power cycle with multiple stages of reheat can increase LWR power conversion efficiency from 33-34% to 37-39%. The experimental portion of the project used Sandia's S-CO{sub 2} research loop to show that the as designed radial compressor could 'pump' liquid CO{sub 2} and that the gas-cooler's could 'condense' CO{sub 2} even though both of these S-CO{sub 2} components were designed to operate on vapor phase S-CO{sub 2} near the critical point. There is potentially very high value to this research as it opens the possibility of increasing LWR power cycle efficiency, above the 33-34% range, while lowering the capital cost of the power plant because of the small size of the S-CO{sub 2} power system. In addition it provides a way to incrementally build advanced LWRs that are optimally designed to couple to S-CO{sub 2} power conversion systems to increase the power cycle efficiency to near 40%.

  10. Investigation of Performance of SCN-1 Pure Glass as Sealant Used in SOFC

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Liu, Wenning N.; Sun, Xin; Stephens, Elizabeth V.; Khaleel, Mohammad A.

    2010-03-01T23:59:59.000Z

    As its name implies, self-healing glass seal has the potential of restoring its mechanical properties upon being reheated to stack operating temperature, even when it has experienced some cooling induced damage/crack at room temperature. Such a self-healing feature is desirable for achieving high seal reliability during thermal cycling. On the other hand, self-healing glass is also characterized by its low mechanical stiffness and high creep rate at the typical operating temperature of SOFCs. Therefore, from a design’s perspective, it is important to know the long term geometric stability and thermal mechanical behaviors of the self-healing glass under the stack operating conditions. These predictive capabilities will guide the design and optimization of a reliable sealing system that potentially utilizes self-healing glass as well as other ceramic seal components in achieving the ultimate goal of SOFC. In this report, we focused on predicting the effects of various generic seal design parameters on the stresses in the seal. For this purpose, we take the test cell used in the leakage test for compliant glass seals conducted in PNNL as our initial modeling geometry. The effect of the ceramic stopper on the geometry stability of the self-healing glass sealants is studied first. Then we explored the effect of various interfaces such as stopper and glass, stopper and PEN, as well stopper and IC plate, on the geometry stability and reliability of glass during the operating and cooling processes.

  11. CORE GAS SLOSHING IN ABELL 1644

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Johnson, Ryan E.; Wegner, Gary A. [Department of Physics and Astronomy, Wilder Lab, Dartmouth College, Hanover, NH 03755 (United States); Markevitch, Maxim; Jones, Christine; Forman, William R., E-mail: ryan.e.johnson@dartmouth.ed, E-mail: gary.a.wegner@bellz.dartmouth.ed, E-mail: mmarkevitch@cfa.harvard.ed, E-mail: cjf@cfa.harvard.ed, E-mail: wrf@cfa.harvard.ed [Smithsonian Astrophysical Observatory, Harvard-Smithsonian Center for Astrophysics, Cambridge, MA 02138 (United States)

    2010-02-20T23:59:59.000Z

    We present an analysis of a 72 ks Chandra observation of the double cluster Abell 1644 (z = 0.047). The X-ray temperatures indicate that the masses are M{sub 500} = (2.6 +- 0.4) x 10{sup 14} h {sup -1} M{sub sun} for the northern sub-cluster and M{sub 500} = (3.1 +- 0.4) x 10{sup 14} h {sup -1} M{sub sun} for the southern, main cluster. We identify a sharp edge in the radial X-ray surface brightness of the main cluster, which we find to be a cold front, with a jump in temperature of a factor of {approx}3. This edge possesses a spiral morphology characteristic of core gas sloshing around the cluster potential minimum. We present observational evidence, supported by hydrodynamic simulations, that the northern sub-cluster is the object that initiated the core gas sloshing in the main cluster at least 700 Myr ago. We discuss reheating of the main cluster's core gas via two mechanisms brought about by the sloshing gas: first, the release of gravitational potential energy gained by the core's displacement from the potential minimum, and second, a dredging inward of the outer, higher entropy cluster gas along finger-shaped streams. We find that the available gravitational potential energy is small compared to the energy released by the cooling gas in the core.

  12. LSQ14bdq: A Type Ic super-luminous supernova with a double-peaked light curve

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Nicholl, M; Jerkstrand, A; Sim, S A; Inserra, C; Anderson, J P; Baltay, C; Benetti, S; Chambers, K; Chen, T -W; Elias-Rosa, N; Feindt, U; Flewelling, H A; Fraser, M; Gal-Yam, A; Galbany, L; Huber, M E; Kangas, T; Kankare, E; Kotak, R; Krühler, T; Maguire, K; McKinnon, R; Rabinowitz, D; Rostami, S; Schulze, S; Smith, K W; Sullivan, M; Tonry, J L; Valenti, S; Young, D R

    2015-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    We present data for LSQ14bdq, a hydrogen-poor super-luminous supernova (SLSN) discovered by the La Silla QUEST survey and classified by the Public ESO Spectroscopic Survey of Transient Objects. The spectrum and light curve are very similar to slow-declining SLSNe such as PTF12dam. However, detections within $\\sim1$ day after explosion show a bright and relatively fast initial peak, lasting for $\\sim15$ days, prior to the usual slow rise to maximum light. The broader, main peak can be fit with either central engine or circumstellar interaction models. We discuss the implications of the precursor peak in the context of these models. It is too bright and narrow to be explained as a normal \\Ni-powered SN, and we suggest that interaction models may struggle to fit the precursor and main peak simultaneously. We propose that the initial peak is from the post-shock cooling of an extended stellar envelope, and reheating by a central engine drives the second peak. In this picture, we show that an explosion energy of $\\...

  13. Multi-stage combustion using nitrogen-enriched air

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Fischer, Larry E.; Anderson, Brian L.

    2004-09-14T23:59:59.000Z

    Multi-stage combustion technology combined with nitrogen-enriched air technology for controlling the combustion temperature and products to extend the maintenance and lifetime cycles of materials in contact with combustion products and to reduce pollutants while maintaining relatively high combustion and thermal cycle efficiencies. The first stage of combustion operates fuel rich where most of the heat of combustion is released by burning it with nitrogen-enriched air. Part of the energy in the combustion gases is used to perform work or to provide heat. The cooled combustion gases are reheated by additional stages of combustion until the last stage is at or near stoichiometric conditions. Additional energy is extracted from each stage to result in relatively high thermal cycle efficiency. The air is enriched with nitrogen using air separation technologies such as diffusion, permeable membrane, absorption, and cryogenics. The combustion method is applicable to many types of combustion equipment, including: boilers, burners, turbines, internal combustion engines, and many types of fuel including hydrogen and carbon-based fuels including methane and coal.

  14. Examining the geometrical model with inverted mass hierarchy for neutrinos

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Honda, Mizue; Tanimoto, Morimitsu [Graduate School of Science and Technology, Niigata University, Niigata 950-2181 (Japan); Department of Physics, Niigata University, Niigata 950-2181 (Japan)

    2007-05-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The comprehensive analyses are presented in the model with the inverted mass hierarchy for neutrinos, which follows from a geometrical structure of a (1+5) dimensional space-time where two extra dimensions are compactified on the T{sup 2}/Z{sub 3} orbifold. The model gives two large lepton flavor mixings due to the S{sub 3} structure in the (1+5) dimensional space-time. It also predicts the lightest neutrino mass as m{sub 3}=(1-50)x10{sup -5} eV and the effective neutrino mass responsible for neutrinoless double beta decays as {sub ee}{approx_equal}50 meV. The low energy CP violation, J{sub CP} could be 0.02. On the other hand, the observed baryon asymmetry in the present universe is produced by the nonthermal leptogenesis, which works even at the reheating temperature T{sub R}=10{sup 4}-10{sup 6} GeV. The correlation between the baryon asymmetry and the low energy CP violation is examined in this model.

  15. Dwarf spheroidal galaxies as degenerate gas of free fermions

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Valerie Domcke; Alfredo Urbano

    2014-12-16T23:59:59.000Z

    In this paper we analyze a simple scenario in which Dark Matter (DM) consists of free fermions with mass $m_f$. We assume that on galactic scales these fermions are capable of forming a degenerate Fermi gas, in which stability against gravitational collapse is ensured by the Pauli exclusion principle. The mass density of the resulting configuration is governed by a non-relativistic Lane-Emden equation, thus leading to a universal cored profile that depends only on one free parameter in addition to $m_f$. After reviewing the basic formalism, we test this scenario against experimental data describing the velocity dispersion of the eight classical dwarf spheroidal galaxies of the Milky Way. We find that, despite its extreme simplicity, the model exhibits a good fit to the data and realistic predictions for the size of DM halos providing that $m_f\\simeq 200$ eV. Furthermore, we show that in this setup larger galaxies correspond to the non-degenerate limit of the gas. We propose a concrete realization of this model in which DM is produced non-thermally via inflaton decay. We show that imposing the correct relic abundance and the bound on the free-streaming length constrains the inflation model in terms of inflaton mass, its branching ratio into DM and the reheating temperature.

  16. A Computer Program for Simulating Transient Behavior in Steam Turbine Stage Pressure of AHWR

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Dutta, Anu; Thangamani, I.; Chakraborty, G.; Ghosh, A.K.; Kushwaha, H.S. [Bhabha Atomic Research Centre, Trombay, Mumbai - 400 085 (India)

    2006-07-01T23:59:59.000Z

    It is proposed to couple the Advanced Heavy water reactor (AHWR), which is being developed by Bhabha Atomic Research Centre, India, with a desalination plant. The objective of this coupling is to produce system make-up and domestic water. The proposed desalination plant needs about 1.9 kg/sec of steam and the minimum pressure requirement is 3 bars. The desalination plant can be fed with bled steam extracted from a suitable stage in low pressure turbine. As the turbine stage pressure changes with the load, it is essential to know the availability of bled steam at aforesaid pressure for various load condition. The objective of the present study is to identify a suitable extraction point so as to ensure availability of steam at desired condition for desalination plant, even at part load conditions. In order to fulfill the above objective a steam and feed system analysis code was developed which incorporates the mathematical formulation of different components of the steam and feed system such as, high pressure (HP) and low pressure (LP) turbines, re-heater, feed heaters etc. The dynamic equations are solved simultaneously to obtain the stage pressure at various load conditions. Based on the results obtained, the suitable extraction stage in LP turbine was selected. This enables to determine the lowest possible part load operation up to which availability of desalination plant could be ensured. (authors)

  17. Energy Transfer between Throats from a 10d Perspective

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    B. v. Harling; A. Hebecker; T. Noguchi

    2008-03-28T23:59:59.000Z

    Strongly warped regions, also known as throats, are a common feature of the type IIB string theory landscape. If one of the throats is heated during cosmological evolution, the energy is subsequently transferred to other throats or to massless fields in the unwarped bulk of the Calabi-Yau orientifold. This energy transfer proceeds either by Hawking radiation from the black hole horizon in the heated throat or, at later times, by the decay of throat-localized Kaluza-Klein states. In both cases, we calculate in a 10d setup the energy transfer rate (respectively decay rate) as a function of the AdS scales of the throats and of their relative distance. Compared to existing results based on 5d models, we find a significant suppression of the energy transfer rates if the size of the embedding Calabi-Yau orientifold is much larger than the AdS radii of the throats. This effect can be partially compensated by a small distance between the throats. These results are relevant, e.g., for the analysis of reheating after brane inflation. Our calculation employs the dual gauge theory picture in which each throat is described by a strongly coupled 4d gauge theory, the degrees of freedom of which are localized at a certain position in the compact space.

  18. Throat Cosmology

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Harling, B v

    2010-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    In this thesis, we study throats in the early, hot universe. Throats are a common feature of the landscape of type IIB string theory. If a throat is heated during cosmological evolution, energy is subsequently transferred to other throats and to the standard model. We calculate the heat transfer rate and the decay rate of throat-localized Kaluza-Klein states in a ten-dimensional model. For the calculation, we employ the dual description of the throats in terms of gauge theories. We discuss modifications of the decay rate which arise in flux compactifications and for Klebanov-Strassler throats and emphasize the role of tachyonic scalars in such throats in mediating decays of Kaluza-Klein modes. Our results are also applicable to the energy transfer from the heated standard model to throats. We determine the resulting energy density in throats at our epoch in dependence of their infrared scales and of the reheating temperature. The Kaluza-Klein modes in the throats decay to other sectors with a highly suppresse...

  19. Theoretical Uncertainties in Inflationary Predictions

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    William H. Kinney; Antonio Riotto

    2006-03-09T23:59:59.000Z

    With present and future observations becoming of higher and higher quality, it is timely and necessary to investigate the most significant theoretical uncertainties in the predictions of inflation. We show that our ignorance of the entire history of the Universe, including the physics of reheating after inflation, translates to considerable errors in observationally relevant parameters. Using the inflationary flow formalism, we estimate that for a spectral index $n$ and tensor/scalar ratio $r$ in the region favored by current observational constraints, the theoretical errors are of order $\\Delta n / | n - 1| \\sim 0.1 - 1$ and $\\Delta r /r \\sim 0.1 - 1$. These errors represent the dominant theoretical uncertainties in the predictions of inflation, and are generically of the order of or larger than the projected uncertainties in future precision measurements of the Cosmic Microwave Background. We also show that the lowest-order classification of models into small field, large field, and hybrid breaks down when higher order corrections to the dynamics are included. Models can flow from one region to another.

  20. A model for accelerated expansion of the universe from $\\mathcal{N}=1$ Supergravity

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Landim, Ricardo C G

    2015-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    In this paper we present a model for accelerated expansion of the universe, both during inflation and the present stage of the expansion, from four dimensional $\\mathcal{N}=1$ supergravity. We evaluate the tensor-to-scalar ratio ($r\\approx 0.00034$), the scalar spectral index ($n_s\\approx 0.970$) and the running spetral index ($dn_s/dk\\approx -6\\times10^{-5}$), and we notice that these parameters are in agreement with Planck+WP+lensing data and with BICEP2/Keck and Planck joint analysis, at $95\\%$ CL. The number of e-folds is $50$ or higher. The reheating period has an associated temperature $T_R\\sim10^{12}$ Gev, which agrees with the one required by thermal leptogenesis. Regarding the scalar field as dark energy, the autonomous system for the scalar field in the presence of a barotropic fluid provides a stable fixed point that leads to a late-time accelerated expansion of the universe, with an equation of state that mimics the cosmological constant ($w_\\Phi\\approx -0.997$).