National Library of Energy BETA

Sample records for kitchen living room

  1. Technical support document: Energy efficiency standards for consumer products: Room air conditioners, water heaters, direct heating equipment, mobile home furnaces, kitchen ranges and ovens, pool heaters, fluorescent lamp ballasts and television sets. Volume 1, Methodology

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Not Available

    1993-11-01

    The Energy Policy and Conservation Act (P.L. 94-163), as amended, establishes energy conservation standards for 12 of the 13 types of consumer products specifically covered by the Act. The legislation requires the Department of Energy (DOE) to consider new or amended standards for these and other types of products at specified times. DOE is currently considering amending standards for seven types of products: water heaters, direct heating equipment, mobile home furnaces, pool heaters, room air conditioners, kitchen ranges and ovens (including microwave ovens), and fluorescent light ballasts and is considering establishing standards for television sets. This Technical Support Document presents the methodology, data, and results from the analysis of the energy and economic impacts of the proposed standards. This volume presents a general description of the analytic approach, including the structure of the major models.

  2. Guide to Kitchen Appliances

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    2010-10-01

    This fact sheet tells you how to buy and maintain energy-efficient kitchen appliances, including refrigerators, freezers, and dishwashers, to save energy and money.

  3. Kitchen Appliances | Department of Energy

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    You can save energy in your kitchen through more efficient use of your dishwasher, ... Dishwasher Water-Saving Tips Check the manual that came with your dishwasher for the ...

  4. High temperature thermoplastic elastomers synthesized by living anionic polymerization in hydrocarbon solvent at room temperature

    DOE Public Access Gateway for Energy & Science Beta (PAGES Beta)

    Schlegel, Ralf; Williams, Katherine; Voyloy, Dimitry; Steren, Carlos A.; Goodwin, Andrew; Coughlin, E. Bryan; Gido, Samuel; Beiner, Mario; Hong, Kunlun; Kang, Nam -Goo; et al

    2016-03-30

    We present the synthesis and characterization of a new class of high temperature thermoplastic elastomers composed of polybenzofulvene–polyisoprene–polybenzofulvene (FIF) triblock copolymers. All copolymers were prepared by living anionic polymerization in benzene at room temperature. Homopolymerization and effects of additives on the glass transition temperature (Tg) of polybenzofulvene (PBF) were also investigated. Among all triblock copolymers studied, FIF with 14 vol % of PBF exhibited a maximum stress of 14.3 ± 1.3 MPa and strain at break of 1390 ± 66% from tensile tests. The stress–strain curves of FIF-10 and 14 were analyzed by a statistical molecular approach using a nonaffinemore » tube model to estimate the thermoplastic elastomer behavior. Dynamic mechanical analysis showed that the softening temperature of PBF in FIF was 145 °C, much higher than that of thermoplastic elastomers with polystyrene hard blocks. Microphase separation of FIF triblock copolymers was observed by small-angle X-ray scattering, even though long-range order was not achieved under the annealing conditions employed. Additionally, the microphase separation of the resulting triblock copolymers was examined by atomic force microscopy.« less

  5. Best Management Practice #11: Commercial Kitchen Equipment

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    Commercial kitchen equipment can be a significant water use in the non-residential sector. Water efficiency for commercial kitchen equipment is especially important because high-volume applications...

  6. Kitchen Appliance Upgrades Improve Water Efficiency at DOD Exchange...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    to think about performing water audits. Kitchens can be out of sight, out of mind; a commercial kitchen, however, can consume large amounts of water and energy if inefficient ...

  7. Commercial and institutional kitchen exhaust systems

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    McGuire, A.B. )

    1993-05-01

    This article addresses design requirements for commercial and institutional kitchen exhaust systems. The topics of the article include design considerations, toilet exhaust, dishwasher exhaust, grease hood exhaust, codes and standards, design concerns, common problems, and fire suppression. A side bar on ducts, plenums and housings is also included.

  8. Ameren Illinois (Electric) - Commercial Kitchen and Grocery Incentives...

    Broader source: Energy.gov (indexed) [DOE]

    stores, refrigerated warehouses or spaces, and commercial kitchens, including refrigeratorfreezer lighting and controls, and automatic door closers. These are designed to...

  9. Kitchen Appliance Upgrades Improve Water Efficiency at U.S. Department...

    Energy Savers [EERE]

    Kitchen Appliance Upgrades Improve Water Efficiency at U.S. Department of Defense Exchange Facilities Kitchen Appliance Upgrades Improve Water Efficiency at U.S. Department of Defense ...

  10. Looking for Hazardous Pollutants in Your Kitchen

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Singer, Brett

    2013-07-22

    For decades, teams of Berkeley Lab scientists have investigated the ways that indoor air quality affects human health. In Berkeley Lab's test kitchen scientist Brett Singer and his team are measuring the pollutants emitted by cooking foods and evaluating how effective various range hoods are in capturing the pollutants. In an unprecedented recent study, the scientists estimated that 60 percent of homes in California that cook at least once a week with a gas stove can reach pollutant levels that would be illegal if found outdoors.

  11. Looking for Hazardous Pollutants in Your Kitchen

    ScienceCinema (OSTI)

    Singer, Brett

    2014-05-13

    For decades, teams of Berkeley Lab scientists have investigated the ways that indoor air quality affects human health. In Berkeley Lab's test kitchen scientist Brett Singer and his team are measuring the pollutants emitted by cooking foods and evaluating how effective various range hoods are in capturing the pollutants. In an unprecedented recent study, the scientists estimated that 60 percent of homes in California that cook at least once a week with a gas stove can reach pollutant levels that would be illegal if found outdoors.

  12. Energy Savings Week: Standards for Kitchen and Laundry Products Create Big

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Savings | Department of Energy Standards for Kitchen and Laundry Products Create Big Savings Energy Savings Week: Standards for Kitchen and Laundry Products Create Big Savings December 17, 2015 - 1:14pm Addthis Energy Savings Week: Standards for Kitchen and Laundry Products Create Big Savings Energy Savings Week: Standards for Kitchen and Laundry Products Create Big Savings Energy Savings Week: Standards for Kitchen and Laundry Products Create Big Savings Energy Savings Week: Standards for

  13. Property:Building/SPElectrtyUsePercLargeKitchens | Open Energy...

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    yUsePercLargeKitchens" Showing 25 pages using this property. (previous 25) (next 25) S Sweden Building 05K0001 + 1.06788610412 + Sweden Building 05K0002 + 0.0 + Sweden Building...

  14. Addressing Kitchen Contaminants for Healthy, Low-Energy Homes

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Stratton, J. Chris; Singer, Brett C.

    2014-01-01

    Cooking and cooking burners emit pollutants that can adversely affect indoor air quality in residences and significantly impact occupant health. Effective kitchen exhaust ventilation can reduce exposure to cooking-related air pollutants as an enabling step to healthier, low-energy homes. This report by Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory identifies barriers to the widespread adoption of kitchen exhaust ventilation technologies and practice and proposes a suite of strategies to overcome these barriers. The recommendations have been vetted by a group of industry, regulatory, health, and research experts and stakeholders who convened for two meetings and provided input and feedback to early drafts of this document. The most fundamental barriers are (1) the common misconception, based on a sensory perception of risk, that kitchen exhaust when cooking is unnecessary and (2) the lack of a code requirement for kitchen ventilation in most U.S. locations. Highest priority objectives include the following: (1) Raise awareness among the public and the building industry of the need to install and routinely use kitchen ventilation; (2) Incorporate kitchen exhaust ventilation as a requirement of building codes and improve the mechanisms for code enforcement; (3) Provide best practice product and use-behavior guidance to ventilation equipment purchasers and installers, and; (4) Develop test methods and performance targets to advance development of high performance products. A specific, urgent need is the development of an over-the-range microwave that meets the airflow and sound requirements of ASHRAE Standard 62.2.

  15. Addressing Kitchen Contaminants for Healthy, Low-Energy Homes

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Stratton, J. Chris; Singer, Brett C.

    2014-01-01

    Cooking and cooking burners emit pollutants that can adversely affect indoor air quality in residences and significantly impact occupant health. Effective kitchen exhaust ventilation can reduce exposure to cooking-related air pollutants as an enabling step to healthier, low-energy homes. This report identifies barriers to the widespread adoption of kitchen exhaust ventilation technologies and practice and proposes a suite of strategies to overcome these barriers. The recommendations have been vetted by a group of industry, regulatory, health, and research experts and stakeholders who convened for two web-based meetings and provided input and feedback to early drafts of this document. The most fundamental barriers are (1) the common misconception, based on a sensory perception of risk, that kitchen exhaust when cooking is unnecessary and (2) the lack of a code requirement for kitchen ventilation in most US locations. Highest priority objectives include the following: (1) Raise awareness among the public and the building industry of the need to install and routinely use kitchen ventilation; (2) Incorporate kitchen exhaust ventilation as a requirement of building codes and improve the mechanisms for code enforcement; (3) Provide best practice product and use-behavior guidance to ventilation equipment purchasers and installers, and; (4) Develop test methods and performance targets to advance development of high performance products. A specific, urgent need is the development of an over-the-range microwave that meets the airflow and sound requirements of ASHRAE Standard 62.2.

  16. Waste heat from kitchen cuts hot water electricity 23%

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Barber, J.

    1984-05-21

    Heat recovered from the Hamburger Hamlet's kitchen in Bethesada, Maryland and used to pre-heat the million gallons of hot water used annually reduced hot water costs 23% and paid off the investment in 1.5 years. Potomac Electric initiated the installation of an air-to-water heat pump in the restaurant kitchen above the dishwasher at a cost of about $5300, with the restaurant obliged to reimburse the utility if performance was satisfactory. Outside water recirculates through storage tanks and the ceiling heat pump until it reaches the required 140/sup 0/F. The amount of electricity needed to bring the preheated water to that temperature was $3770 lower after the installation. Cooled air exhausted from the heat pump circulates throughout the kitchen.

  17. Reading Room

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    Welcome to the Freedom of Information Act (FOIA) Electronic Reading Room for the Department of Energy at Headquarters.

  18. Kitchen Appliance Upgrades Improve Water Efficiency at DOD Exchange Facilities: Best Management Practice Case Study #11: Commercial Kitchen Equipment (Brochure)

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Not Available

    2011-09-01

    The Exchange, formerly the Army and Air Force Exchange Service (AAFES), is a joint military activity and the U.S. Department of Defense?s (DOD) oldest and largest retailer. The Exchange is taking a leadership role in water efficiency improvements in their commercial kitchens by integrating water efficiency concepts into the organization?s overall sustainability plan and objectives.

  19. Kitchen Appliance Upgrades Improve Water Efficiency at U.S. Department of

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Defense Exchange Facilities | Department of Energy Kitchen Appliance Upgrades Improve Water Efficiency at U.S. Department of Defense Exchange Facilities Kitchen Appliance Upgrades Improve Water Efficiency at U.S. Department of Defense Exchange Facilities Kitchen Appliance Upgrades Improve Water Efficiency at U.S. Department of Defense Exchange Facilities Case study details the U.S. Department of Defense (DOD) Exchange (formerly the Army and Air Force Exchange Service), which took a

  20. Using Less Energy in the Kitchen on Thanksgiving | Department of Energy

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Using Less Energy in the Kitchen on Thanksgiving Using Less Energy in the Kitchen on Thanksgiving November 16, 2012 - 1:36pm Addthis You can use less energy in your kitchen and still prepare the perfect Thanksgiving feast. | Photo courtesy of ©iStockphoto.com/YinYang You can use less energy in your kitchen and still prepare the perfect Thanksgiving feast. | Photo courtesy of ©iStockphoto.com/YinYang Erin Connealy Communications Specialist, Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy

  1. KitchenAid: ENERGY STAR Referral (KSRG25FVMS*) | Department of Energy

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    KSRG25FVMS*) KitchenAid: ENERGY STAR Referral (KSRG25FVMS*) September 13, 2011 DOE referred the matter of Whirlpool's KitchenAid refrigerator model KSRG25FVMS* to the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency, brand manager of the ENERGY STAR Program, for appropriate action after DOE testing showed that the model does not meet the ENERGY STAR specification. KitchenAid: ENERGY STAR Referral (KSRG25FVMS*) (58.79 KB) More Documents & Publications KitchenAid: ENERGY STAR Referral (KSRS25RV*) Maytag:

  2. KitchenAid: ENERGY STAR Referral (KSRS25RV*) | Department of Energy

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    KSRS25RV*) KitchenAid: ENERGY STAR Referral (KSRS25RV*) September 6, 2011 DOE referred the matter of Whirlpool's KitchenAid refrigerator model KSRS25RV* to the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency, brand manager of the ENERGY STAR Program, for appropriate action after DOE testing showed that the model does not meet the ENERGY STAR specification. KitchenAid: ENERGY STAR Referral (KSRS25RV*) (35.25 KB) More Documents & Publications KitchenAid: ENERGY STAR Referral (KSRG25FVMS*) Whirlpool:

  3. News Room

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Proud Legacy, Bold Future, Since 1943 News Room Your source for the latest news releases, fast facts, images and access to scores of scientists, engineers and other experts from Los Alamos National Laboratory. News Releases Science Briefs Photos Picture of the Week Publications Social Media Videos Fact Sheets James TenCate James TenCate elected Acoustical Society of America fellow TenCate's research focuses on nonlinear acoustics and elasticity, seismology and nonlinear imaging. 8/30/16 The

  4. Press Room

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Press Room News, information and graphic resources from Fermilab and the world of high-energy physics: Press Releases All the news from Fermilab, from 1995 through today. Subscribe to the press release mailing list. Fermilab Fact Sheets Learn more about Fermilab's lasting scientific, social and economic impacts. Office of Communication Information, interviews with experts, speakers' bureau, background materials, emergency physics lessons for the on-deadline perplexed... Photo Archive High-res

  5. Untitled

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    8. Number of Lights by Room by Hours Used, 1993 Hours Used Total Bathroom Bedroom Dining Room Den Family Rec Room Hallway Stairs Kitchen Living Room Laundry Room Other Total...

  6. How Do You Save Energy in the Kitchen? | Department of Energy

    Energy Savers [EERE]

    He confirmed that using a dishwasher does, in fact, save energy and water over washing ... How to Be Energy Efficient in Your Kitchen this Thanksgiving Secretary Chu Gets His Green ...

  7. Property:Building/SPBreakdownOfElctrcityUseKwhM2LargeKitchens...

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    UseKwhM2LargeKitchens" Showing 25 pages using this property. (previous 25) (next 25) S Sweden Building 05K0001 + 0.763086941039 + Sweden Building 05K0002 + 0.0 + Sweden Building...

  8. Beyond Salad: How to Save Energy in the Kitchen During the Summer |

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Department of Energy Beyond Salad: How to Save Energy in the Kitchen During the Summer Beyond Salad: How to Save Energy in the Kitchen During the Summer August 16, 2010 - 10:51am Addthis Andrea Spikes Former Communicator at DOE's National Renewable Energy Laboratory One day I ordered pizza delivery. Another day, I went out to eat (well, several days actually). Yet another day found me trolling the produce and canned veggie & fruit aisles of the supermarket to assemble an interesting

  9. Improved biogas production from rice straw by co-digestion with kitchen waste and pig manure

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Ye, Jingqing; Li, Dong; Sun, Yongming; Wang, Guohui; Yuan, Zhenhong; Zhen, Feng; Wang, Yao

    2013-12-15

    Highlights: Biogas production was enhanced by co-digestion of rice straw with other materials. The optimal ratio of kitchen waste, pig manure and rice straw is 0.4:1.6:1. The maximum biogas yield of 674.4 L/kg VS was obtained. VFA inhibition occurred when kitchen waste content was more than 26%. The dominant VFA were propionate and acetate in successful reactors. - Abstract: In order to investigate the effect of feedstock ratios in biogas production, anaerobic co-digestions of rice straw with kitchen waste and pig manure were carried out. A series of single-stage batch mesophilic (37 1 C) anaerobic digestions were performed at a substrate concentration of 54 g/L based on volatile solids (VS). The results showed that the optimal ratio of kitchen waste, pig manure, and rice straw was 0.4:1.6:1, for which the C/N ratio was 21.7. The methane content was 45.970.0% and rate of VS reduction was 55.8%. The biogas yield of 674.4 L/kg VS was higher than that of the digestion of rice straw or pig manure alone by 71.67% and 10.41%, respectively. Inhibition of biogas production by volatile fatty acids (VFA) occurred when the addition of kitchen waste was greater than 26%. The VFA analysis showed that, in the reactors that successfully produced biogas, the dominant intermediate metabolites were propionate and acetate, while they were lactic acid, acetate, and propionate in the others.

  10. Public Reading Room

    Office of Legacy Management (LM)

    By law, DOE must and will make a Public Reading Room available through site closure. Post-Closure: LM will maintain a Public Reading Room in accordance with EPA and Ohio EPA ...

  11. Live Status

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    For Users Live Status Queue Look Classic Queue Look Scheduled Outages Outage Log Science Gateway Status Login Node Status Filesystem Status My NERSC Move to CRT Getting Started...

  12. Clean room wiping cloths

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Harding, W.B.

    1981-01-01

    The suitability of various fabrics for use as clean room wiping cloths was investigated. These fabrics included knit polyester, knit nylon, urethane foam, woven cotton, nonwoven polyester, nonwoven rayon, nonwoven polyethylene and polypropylene, and woven nylon. These materials were tested for detachable lint and fibers, deterioration, and oil content which could leave contaminating films on wiped surfaces. Well-laundered nylon and polyester cloths knitted from filamentary yarn, with hems, were found to be suitable. (LCL)

  13. Business Electronic Reading Room

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Electronic Reading Room SOLICITATION UPDATES: Reference No. DE-SOL-0007251: Contract DE-FE0026066 has been awarded to SSC-Deltha, LLC., in response to the Site Administrative Support (SAS) services solicitation (DE-SOL-0007251). Reference No. DE-SOL-0006851: Contract DE -FE0024337 has been awarded to DFW Security Protective Force, Inc., in response to the Site Security Services solicitation (DE-SOL-0006851) Reference No. DE-SOL-0005388: Contract DE-FE0025912 has been awarded to KeyLogic Systems,

  14. CEBAF Control Room Renovation

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Michael Spata; Anthony Cuffe; Thomas Oren

    2005-03-22

    The Machine Control Center (MCC) at Jefferson Lab's Continuous Electron Beam Accelerator Facility (CEBAF) was constructed in the early 1990s and based on proven technology of that era. Through our experience over the last 15 years and in our planning for the facilities 12 GeV upgrade we reevaluated the control room environment to capitalize on emerging visualization and display technologies and improve on work-flow processes and ergonomic attributes. The renovation was performed in two phases during the summer of 2004, with one phase occurring during machine operations and the latter, more extensive phase, occurring during our semi-annual shutdown period. The new facility takes advantage of advances in display technology, analog and video signal management, server technology, ergonomic workspace design, lighting engineering, acoustic ceilings and raised flooring solutions to provide a marked improvement in the overall environment of machine operations.

  15. CEBAF Control Room Renovation

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Michael Spata; Thomas Oren

    2005-05-01

    The Machine Control Center at Jefferson Lab's Continuous Electron Beam Accelerator Facility was initially constructed in the early 1990s and based on proven technology of that era. Through our experience over the last 15 years and in our planning for the facilities 12 GeV upgrade we reevaluated the control room environment to capitalize on emerging visualization and display technologies and improve on workflow processes and ergonomic attributes. This effort also sets the foundation for the redevelopment of the accelerator's control system to deliver high reliability performance with improvements in beam specifications management and information flow. The complete renovation was performed over a three-week period with no interruption to beam operations. We present the results of this effort.

  16. Electronic Docket Room (e-Docket Room) | Department of Energy

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Electronic Docket Room (e-Docket Room) Electronic Docket Room (e-Docket Room) E-Docket -- Browse Searchable Database of Current and Historical Applications Submitted to DOE (click SHOW for drop down menu) Authorizations/Orders Granted by the Department -- NOTE: 1977 thru 2016 will take you to an external link. 1977 1978 1979 1980 1981 1982 1983 1984 1985 1986 1987 1988 1989 1990 1991 1992 1993 1994 1995 1996 1997 1998 1999 2000 2001 2002 2003 2004 2005 2006 2007 2008 2009 2010 2011 2012 2013

  17. Room Air Conditioners | Department of Energy

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Room Air Conditioners Room Air Conditioners A room air conditioner is one solution to cooling ... of a long room, then look for a fan control known as "Power Thrust" or "Super ...

  18. Public Reading Room | Jefferson Lab

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Public Reading Room Welcome to the U.S. Department of Energy Public Reading Room. In the Reading Room, you will find a host of technical and non-technical reports about Jefferson Lab and its operations. These reports include the lab's performance report card, environmental impact studies and more. Paper copies of these documents may be read at Jefferson Lab's Public Reading Area, located in CEBAF Center (Building 12), 12000 Jefferson Ave., Newport News, VA 23606. The reading area is located in

  19. Reading Room | Department of Energy

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Reading Room Reading Room Welcome to the Freedom of Information Act (FOIA) Electronic Reading Room for the Department of Energy at Headquarters. The FOIA requires certain kinds of documents to be made available to the public for inspection and copying. This is a requirement for agencies of the executive branch of the federal government. The documents that are required to be made available by the FOIA are: Final Opinions [5 USC 552 (a)(2)](A) final opinions, including concurring and dissenting

  20. Conference Rooms | Argonne National Laboratory

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Admin. Contacts Lauren Raino Nancy Rezek Samantha L. Tezak Raquel C Young Conference Rooms The calendars for building 360 and 362 conference rooms are available on Google. To make a reservation, please contact one of the administrative contacts at left. Video conference/special needs require AV support. Please contact help@anl.gov. Building 360, Room A-224 Seating for ~50 Projector (ceiling mounted) Conference phone Video conferencing (Polycom, Skype, EVO, Vidyo) Conference table w/extra

  1. Nuclear reactor control room construction

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Lamuro, R.C.; Orr, R.

    1993-11-16

    A control room for a nuclear plant is disclosed. In the control room, objects labelled 12, 20, 22, 26, 30 in the drawing are no less than four inches from walls labelled 10.2. A ceiling contains cooling fins that extend downwards toward the floor from metal plates. A concrete slab is poured over the plates. Studs are welded to the plates and are encased in the concrete. 6 figures.

  2. Nuclear reactor control room construction

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Lamuro, Robert C.; Orr, Richard

    1993-01-01

    A control room 10 for a nuclear plant is disclosed. In the control room, objects 12, 20, 22, 26, 30 are no less than four inches from walls 10.2. A ceiling 32 contains cooling fins 35 that extend downwards toward the floor from metal plates 34. A concrete slab 33 is poured over the plates. Studs 36 are welded to the plates and are encased in the concrete.

  3. The 'Room within a Room' Concept for Monitored Warhead Dismantlement

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Tanner, Jennifer E.; Benz, Jacob M.; White, Helen; McOmish, Sarah; Allen, Keir; Tolk, Keith; Weeks, George E.

    2014-12-01

    Over the past 10 years, US and UK experts have engaged in a technical collaboration with the aim of improving scientific and technological abilities in support of potential future nuclear arms control and non-proliferation agreements. In 2011 a monitored dismantlement exercise provided an opportunity to develop and test potential monitoring technologies and approaches. The exercise followed a simulated nuclear object through a dismantlement process and looked to explore, with a level of realism, issues surrounding device and material monitoring, chain of custody, authentication and certification of equipment, data management and managed access. This paper focuses on the development and deployment of the ‘room-within-a-room’ system, which was designed to maintain chain of custody during disassembly operations. A key challenge for any verification regime operating within a nuclear weapon complex is to provide the monitoring party with the opportunity to gather sufficient evidence, whilst protecting sensitive or proliferative information held by the host. The requirement to address both monitoring and host party concerns led to a dual function design which: • Created a controlled boundary around the disassembly process area which could provide evidence of unauthorised diversion activities. • Shielded sensitive disassembly operations from monitoring party observation. The deployed room-within-a-room was an integrated system which combined a number of chain of custody technologies (i.e. cameras, tamper indicating panels and enclosures, seals, unique identifiers and radiation portals) and supporting deployment procedures. This paper discusses the bounding aims and constraints identified by the monitoring and host parties with respect to the disassembly phase, the design of the room-within-a-room system, lessons learned during deployment, conclusions and potential areas of future work. Overall it was agreed that the room-within-a-room approach was effective but

  4. Room Temperature Dispenser Photocathode Using Elemental Cesium

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Room Temperature Dispenser Photocathode Using Elemental Cesium Room Temperature Dispenser Photocathode Using Elemental Cesium Los Alamos National Laboratory (LANL) researchers have...

  5. Public Reading Room: Environmental Documents, Reports

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Public Reading Room: Environmental Documents, Reports Public Reading Room: Environmental Documents, Reports Environmental documents and reports are available online. Hard copies...

  6. Electronic FOIA Reading Room - Hanford Site

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Freedom of Information Act Regulations Privacy Act Regulations DOE Public Reading Room PNNL Technical Library Electronic FOIA Reading Room FOIA EDocuments Freedom of...

  7. Technical support document: Energy efficiency standards for consumer products: Room air conditioners, water heaters, direct heating equipment, mobile home furnaces, kitchen ranges and ovens, pool heaters, fluorescent lamp ballasts and television sets. Volume 2, Fluorescent lamp ballasts, television sets, room air conditioners, and kitchen ranges and ovens

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Not Available

    1993-11-01

    This document is divided into ``volumes`` B through E, dealing with individual classes of consumer products. Chapters in each present engineering analysis, base case forecasts, projected national impacts of standards, life-cycle costs and payback periods, impacts on manufacturers, impacts of standards on electric utilities, and environmental effects. Supporting appendices are included.

  8. News Room | Argonne National Laboratory

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    News Room Researchers with the Argonne Center for Collaborative Energy Storage Science (ACCESS) will partner with industry to improve lead-acid battery performance. (Photo: Shutterstock) Lead-acid battery companies join forces with Argonne National Laboratory to enhance battery performance Full Story » Exploring the unrealized potential of lead batteries is the goal of a new collaboration between Argonne National Laboratory and two leading lead recycling and lead battery manufacturing

  9. Living a Sustainable Future

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Living a Sustainable Future Living a Sustainable Future August 1, 2013 Biomass to fuel project The Laboratory's biomass team is working to solve the energy crisis through...

  10. Living a Sustainable Future

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Living a Sustainable Future Living a Sustainable Future August 1, 2013 Biomass to fuel project The Laboratory's biomass team is working to solve the energy crisis through ...

  11. DOE-ID FOIA Reading Room

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Reading Room READING ROOM Eectronic Freedom of Information Act, E-FOIA RECORDS UNDER THE E-FOIA The Electronic Freedom of Information Act Amendments of 1996 addresses the issues...

  12. Carbon War Room | Open Energy Information

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    War Room Jump to: navigation, search Name: Carbon War Room Place: Washington, DC Number of Employees: 1-10 Website: www.carbonwarroom.com Coordinates: 38.8951118, -77.0363658...

  13. Energy Integration Visualization Room (Fact Sheet)

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Not Available

    2012-08-01

    This two-page fact sheet describes the new Energy Integration Visualization Room in the ESIF and talks about some of the capabilities and unique visualization features of the the room.

  14. Public Reading Room: Environmental Documents, Reports

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Public Reading Room: Environmental Documents, Reports Public Reading Room: Environmental Documents, Reports Environmental documents and reports are available online. Hard copies are available at the Laboratory's Public Reading Room in Pojoaque, New Mexico. Contact Environmental Communication & Public Involvement P.O. Box 1663 MS M996 Los Alamos, NM 87545 (505) 667-0216 Email Public Reading Room: Environmental Documents, Reports Online Annual Environmental Report Electronic Public Reading

  15. Heating remote rooms in passive solar buildings

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Balcomb, J.D.

    1981-01-01

    Remote rooms can be effectively heated by convection through a connecting doorway. A simple steady-state equation is developed for design purposes. Validation of a dynamic model is achieved using data obtained over a 13-day period. Dynamic effects are investigated using a simulation analysis for three different cases of driving temperature; the effect is to reduce the temperature difference between the driving room and the remote room compared to the steady-state model. For large temperature swings in the driving room a strategy which uses the intervening door in a diode mode is effective. The importance of heat-storing mass in the remote room is investigated.

  16. Early Detection Saves Lives

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    Former Department of Energy (DOE) workers tell how medical screening helped them lead healthier and longer lives.

  17. Bioenergy 2015 Press Room | Department of Energy

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Press Room Bioenergy 2015 Press Room This U.S. Department of Energy Bioenergy 2015 online press room provides contacts, information, and resources to members of the media who cover Bioenergy 2015 conference-related news. Event Overview The U.S. Department of Energy's Bioenergy Technologies Office (BETO) will host its eighth annual conference-Bioenergy 2015: Opportunities in a Changing Energy Landscape. Co-hosted with the Clean Energy Research and Education Foundation, this year's conference will

  18. Room Air Conditioners | Department of Energy

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Room Air Conditioners Room Air Conditioners The Department of Energy (DOE) develops standardized data templates for reporting the results of tests conducted in accordance with current DOE test procedures. Templates may be used by third-party laboratories under contract with DOE that conduct testing in support of ENERGY STAR® verification, DOE rulemakings, and enforcement of the federal energy conservation standards. Room Air Conditioners -- v1.6 (147.68 KB) More Documents & Publications

  19. Laboratory's Electronic Public Reading room training

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    October » Electronic Public Reading Room Training Laboratory's Electronic Public Reading room training WHEN: Oct 14, 2015 4:00 PM - 6:00 PM WHERE: J. Robert Oppenheimer Study Center, Room JRO 1&2 West Jemez Road at Casa Grande CATEGORY: Community Environment INTERNAL: Calendar Login Event Description The Department of Energy (DOE) and the Los Alamos National Security, LLC (LANS), are holding training on the contents and use of the Los Alamos National Laboratory (LANL) Electronic Public

  20. Room Temperature Ferrimagnetism and Ferroelectricity in Strained...

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    The demonstration of strain induced, high temperature multiferroism is a prom- ising development for future spintronic and memory applications at room temperature and above. 1. ...

  1. Room temperature ferrimagnetism and ferroelectricity in strained...

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    The demonstration of strain induced, high temperature multiferroism is a promising development for future spintronic and memory applications at room temperature and above. Authors: ...

  2. NATURAL CONVECTION IN ROOM GEOMETRIES

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Gadgil, A.; Bauman, Fred; Kammerud, R.; Ruberg, K.

    1980-06-01

    Computer programs have been developed to numerically simulate natural convection in room geometries in two and three dimensions. The programs have been validated using published data from the literature, results from a full-scale experiment performed at Massachusetts Institute of Technology, and results from a small-scale experiment reported here. One of the computer programs has been used to study the influence of natural convection on the thermal performance of a single thermal zone in a direct-gain passive solar building. The results indicate that the building heating loads calculated by standard building energy analysis methods may be in error by as much as 50% as a result of their use of common assumptions regarding the convection processes which occur in an enclosure. It is also found that the convective heat transfer coefficients between the air and the enclosure surfaces can be substantially different from the values assumed in the standard building energy analysis methods, and can exhibit significant variations across a given surface.

  3. Topological Insulators at Room Temperature

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Zhang, Haijun; Liu, Chao-Xing; Qi, Xiao-Liang; Dai, Xi; Fang, Zhong; Zhang, Shou-Cheng; /Stanford U., Phys. Dept.

    2010-03-25

    Topological insulators are new states of quantum matter with surface states protected by the time-reversal symmetry. In this work, we perform first-principle electronic structure calculations for Sb{sub 2}Te{sub 3}, Sb{sub 2}Se{sub 3}, Bi{sub 2}Te{sub 3} and Bi{sub 2}Se{sub 3} crystals. Our calculations predict that Sb{sub 2}Te{sub 3}, Bi{sub 2}T e{sub 3} and Bi{sub 2}Se{sub 3} are topological insulators, while Sb{sub 2}Se{sub 3} is not. In particular, Bi{sub 2}Se{sub 3} has a topologically non-trivial energy gap of 0.3eV , suitable for room temperature applications. We present a simple and unified continuum model which captures the salient topological features of this class of materials. These topological insulators have robust surface states consisting of a single Dirac cone at the {Lambda} point.

  4. High Efficiency Room Air Conditioner

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Bansal, Pradeep

    2015-01-01

    This project was undertaken as a CRADA project between UT-Battelle and Geberal Electric Company and was funded by Department of Energy to design and develop of a high efficiency room air conditioner. A number of novel elements were investigated to improve the energy efficiency of a state-of-the-art WAC with base capacity of 10,000 BTU/h. One of the major modifications was made by downgrading its capacity from 10,000 BTU/hr to 8,000 BTU/hr by replacing the original compressor with a lower capacity (8,000 BTU/hr) but high efficiency compressor having an EER of 9.7 as compared with 9.3 of the original compressor. However, all heat exchangers from the original unit were retained to provide higher EER. The other subsequent major modifications included- (i) the AC fan motor was replaced by a brushless high efficiency ECM motor along with its fan housing, (ii) the capillary tube was replaced with a needle valve to better control the refrigerant flow and refrigerant set points, and (iii) the unit was tested with a drop-in environmentally friendly binary mixture of R32 (90% molar concentration)/R125 (10% molar concentration). The WAC was tested in the environmental chambers at ORNL as per the design rating conditions of AHAM/ASHRAE (Outdoor- 95F and 40%RH, Indoor- 80F, 51.5%RH). All these modifications resulted in enhancing the EER of the WAC by up to 25%.

  5. Los Alamos test-room results

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    McFarland, R.D.; Balcomb, J.D.

    1982-01-01

    Fourteen Los Alamos test rooms have been operated for several years; this paper covers operation during the winters of 1980-81 and 1981-82. Extensive data have been taken and computer analyzed to determine performance parameters such as efficiency, solar savings fraction, and comfort index. The rooms are directly comparable because each has the same net coefficient and solar collection area and thus the same load collector ratio. Configurations include direct gain, unvented Trombe walls, water walls, phase change walls, and two sunspace geometries. Strategies for reducing heat loss include selective surfaces, two brands of superglazing windows, a heat pipe system, and convection-suppression baffles. Significant differences in both backup heat and comfort are observed among the various rooms. The results are useful, not only for direct room-to-room comparisons, but also to provide data for validation of computer simulation programs.

  6. Living in Los Alamos

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Living in Los Alamos Living in Los Alamos The enchanting surroundings, extraordinary people, and rich history make Los Alamos so much more than just a place to do great work. Discover the many advantages of living and working in Los Alamos. AROUND LOS ALAMOS Communication KRSN Community Radio Los Alamos Daily Post Los Alamos Monitor Education Los Alamos Public Schools Pajarito Environmental Education Center University of New Mexico - Los Alamos The Arts Fuller Lodge Art Center Los Alamos Little

  7. Northern New Mexico Living

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Northern New Mexico Living Northern New Mexico Living The north end of the Land of Enchantment offers deserts, forests, and mountains, vibrant cities, and a rich culture and history Contact Us Email Living in Los Alamos Los Alamos, New Mexico is a community with a population of about 18,000. It sits on the Pajarito Plateau in Northern New Mexico between the city of White Rock and the Valles Caldera National Preserve. Lab employees who live in Los Alamos enjoy a 10-15 minute commute to work,

  8. TA1 Room Layout with Newport Laser

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    SCALE: 12" X 12" N S E W 22.50 JUPITER LASER FACILITY TA1 ROOM TA1 CHAMBER WEST BEAM CABLE COVER VISAR VIDMAR C O N T R O L R A C K...

  9. OMEGA Control Room - Laboratory for Laser Energetics

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Control Room - Laboratory for Laser Energetics Laboratory for Laser Energetics Logo Search Home Around the Lab Past Issues Past Quick Shots About Office of the Director Map to LLE ...

  10. Determining Camera Gain in Room Temperature Cameras

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Joshua Cogliati

    2010-12-01

    James R. Janesick provides a method for determining the amplification of a CCD or CMOS camera when only access to the raw images is provided. However, the equation that is provided ignores the contribution of dark current. For CCD or CMOS cameras that are cooled well below room temperature, this is not a problem, however, the technique needs adjustment for use with room temperature cameras. This article describes the adjustment made to the equation, and a test of this method.

  11. Room-temperature creep of tantalum tritides

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Schober, T.; Trinkaus, H. )

    1990-06-15

    We report on long-term creep experiments on dilute tantalum tritides at room temperature. Significant deviations of the recorded strain rates from isotropic swelling are found above approximately 30 MPa. We attribute this room-temperature creep to a stress-induced preferential dislocation loop punching by bubbles in crystallographic directions close the stress axis. Quantitative estimates show that this mechanism can indeed account for the observed creep rates.

  12. Lineman (Live Line)

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    There are several Lineman (Liveline) positions located in Spokane, Washington. A successful candidate in this position will perform construction and maintenance work for live-line on wood and steel...

  13. Living SafeLy

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    as safe as the electrical wiring in our homes - or just as danger- ous. The key is learning to act safely around them. This booklet is a basic safety guide for those who live...

  14. New Flexible Channels for Room Temperature Tunneling Field Effect...

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    New Flexible Channels for Room Temperature Tunneling Field Effect Transistors Citation Details In-Document Search Title: New Flexible Channels for Room Temperature Tunneling Field ...

  15. Golden Reading Room: Office of Acquisition Documents, Better...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Golden Reading Room: Office of Acquisition Documents, Better Buildings Initiative Support Services Below are electronic versions of Golden Field Office Reading Room documents that ...

  16. Golden Reading Room: Office of Acquisition Documents, Sole of...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Golden Reading Room: Office of Acquisition Documents, Sole of Limited Source Justifications Below are electronic versions of Golden Field Office Reading Room documents that were ...

  17. Living a Sustainable Future

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Department of Energy Living Comfortably: A Consumer's Guide to Home Energy Upgrades Living Comfortably: A Consumer's Guide to Home Energy Upgrades March 7, 2013 - 3:15pm Addthis A weatherization worker drills holes to blow cellulose insulation in the interior walls of this home. | Photo courtesy of Dennis Schroeder, NREL A weatherization worker drills holes to blow cellulose insulation in the interior walls of this home. | Photo courtesy of Dennis Schroeder, NREL Dr. Richard Knaub Project

  18. Room Air Conditioners | Department of Energy

    Office of Environmental Management (EM)

    frequently. Based on size alone, an air conditioner generally needs 20 Btu for each square foot of living space. Other important factors to consider when selecting an air...

  19. Method of Remotely Constructing a Room

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Michie, J. D.; De Hart, R. C.

    1971-10-05

    The testing of nuclear devices of high explosive yield has required that cavities of relatively large size be provided at considerable distances below the surface of the earth for the pre-detonation emplacement of the device. The construction of an essentially watertight chamber or room in the cavity is generally required for the actual emplacement of the device. A method is described of constructing such a room deep within the earth by personnel at the surface. A dual wall bladder of a watertight, pliable fabric material is lowered down a shaft into a selected position. The bladder is filled with a concrete grout while a heavy fluid having essentially the same density as the grout is maintained on both sides of the bladder, to facilitate complete deployment of the bladder by the grout to form a room of desired configuration. (10 claims)

  20. Method of remotely constructing a room

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Michie, J.D.; De Hart, R.C.

    1971-10-05

    The testing of nuclear devices of high explosive yield has required that cavities of relatively large size be provided at considerable distances below the surface of the earth for the pre-detonation emplacement of the device. The construction of an essentially watertight chamber or room in the cavity is generally required for the actual emplacement of the device. A method is described of constructing such a room deep within the earth by personnel at the surface. A dual wall bladder of a watertight, pliable fabric material is lowered down a shaft into a selected position. The bladder is filled with a concrete grout while a heavy fluid having essentially the same density as the grout is maintained on both sides of the bladder, to facilitate complete deployment of the bladder by the grout to form a room of desired configuration. (10 claims)

  1. Control room habitability system review models

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Gilpin, H. )

    1990-12-01

    This report provides a method of calculating control room operator doses from postulated reactor accidents and chemical spills as part of the resolution of TMI Action Plan III.D.3.4. The computer codes contained in this report use source concentrations calculated by either TACT5, FPFP, or EXTRAN, and transport them via user-defined flow rates to the control room envelope. The codes compute doses to six organs from up to 150 radionuclides (or 1 toxic chemical) for time steps as short as one second. Supporting codes written in Clipper assist in data entry and manipulation, and graphically display the results of the FORTRAN calculations. 7 refs., 22 figs.

  2. Advanced nuclear plant control room complex

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Scarola, Kenneth; Jamison, David S.; Manazir, Richard M.; Rescorl, Robert L.; Harmon, Daryl L.

    1993-01-01

    An advanced control room complex for a nuclear power plant, including a discrete indicator and alarm system (72) which is nuclear qualified for rapid response to changes in plant parameters and a component control system (64) which together provide a discrete monitoring and control capability at a panel (14-22, 26, 28) in the control room (10). A separate data processing system (70), which need not be nuclear qualified, provides integrated and overview information to the control room and to each panel, through CRTs (84) and a large, overhead integrated process status overview board (24). The discrete indicator and alarm system (72) and the data processing system (70) receive inputs from common plant sensors and validate the sensor outputs to arrive at a representative value of the parameter for use by the operator during both normal and accident conditions, thereby avoiding the need for him to assimilate data from each sensor individually. The integrated process status board (24) is at the apex of an information hierarchy that extends through four levels and provides access at each panel to the full display hierarchy. The control room panels are preferably of a modular construction, permitting the definition of inputs and outputs, the man machine interface, and the plant specific algorithms, to proceed in parallel with the fabrication of the panels, the installation of the equipment and the generic testing thereof.

  3. Imprinting bulk amorphous alloy at room temperature

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Kim, Song-Yi; Park, Eun-Soo; Ott, Ryan T.; Lograsso, Thomas A.; Huh, Moo-Young; Kim, Do-Hyang; Eckert, Jürgen; Lee, Min-Ha

    2015-11-13

    We present investigations on the plastic deformation behavior of a brittle bulk amorphous alloy by simple uniaxial compressive loading at room temperature. A patterning is possible by cold-plastic forming of the typically brittle Hf-based bulk amorphous alloy through controlling homogenous flow without the need for thermal energy or shaping at elevated temperatures. The experimental evidence suggests that there is an inconsistency between macroscopic plasticity and deformability of an amorphous alloy. Moreover, imprinting of specific geometrical features on Cu foil and Zr-based metallic glass is represented by using the patterned bulk amorphous alloy as a die. These results demonstrate the ability of amorphous alloys or metallic glasses to precisely replicate patterning features onto both conventional metals and the other amorphous alloys. In conclusion, our work presents an avenue for avoiding the embrittlement of amorphous alloys associated with thermoplastic forming and yields new insight the forming application of bulk amorphous alloys at room temperature without using heat treatment.

  4. Local public document room directory. Revision 7

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    1998-04-01

    This directory (NUREG/BR-0088, Revision 7) lists local public document rooms (LPDRs) for commercial nuclear power plants with operating or possession-only licenses or under construction, plus the LPDRs for potential high-level radioactive waste repository sites, gaseous diffusion plants, certain fuel cycle facilities, certain low-level waste disposal facilities, and any temporary LPDRs established for the duration of licensing proceedings. In some instances, the LPDR libraries maintain document collections for more than one licensed facility. The library staff members listed are the persons most familiar with the LPDR collections. Reference librarians in the NRC Headquarters Public Document Room (PDR) are also available to assist the public in locating NRC documents.

  5. Priority coding for control room alarms

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Scarola, Kenneth; Jamison, David S.; Manazir, Richard M.; Rescorl, Robert L.; Harmon, Daryl L.

    1994-01-01

    Indicating the priority of a spatially fixed, activated alarm tile on an alarm tile array by a shape coding at the tile, and preferably using the same shape coding wherever the same alarm condition is indicated elsewhere in the control room. The status of an alarm tile can change automatically or by operator acknowledgement, but tones and/or flashing cues continue to provide status information to the operator.

  6. Room-return scattering in fission neutron outputs (Conference...

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    Room-return scattering in fission neutron outputs Citation Details In-Document Search Title: Room-return scattering in fission neutron outputs You are accessing a document from...

  7. Hanford workers begin cleaning out historic McCluskey Room

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    Workers have entered one of the most hazardous rooms at the Hanford Site in Washington state to begin final cleanup of a room that became known to workers over the years by the name of a worker...

  8. Clean Room Challenge: Nanoscientist Quiz 2 | GE Global Research

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Clean Room Challenge: Nanoscientist Quiz 2 Click to email this to a friend (Opens in new ... Clean Room Challenge: Nanoscientist Quiz 2 Ron Olson 2011.04.15 Everybody, it is time for ...

  9. Clean Room Challenge: Nanoscientist Quiz 1 | GE Global Research

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Clean Room Challenge: Nanoscientist Quiz 1 Click to email this to a friend (Opens in new ... Clean Room Challenge: Nanoscientist Quiz 1 Ron Olson 2011.03.23 Hello everybody As you ...

  10. Fuel Cells Go Live

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    green h y d r o g e n f u e l i n g POWer Fuel Cells Go live A closer look at the requirements to create a hydrogen-based warehouse M anagers of distribution centers are always on the lookout for new ways to gain competitive advantage through increased operational efficiency, productivity and worker safety. Around North America, some are finding success by integrating commercially available hydrogen fuel cell systems into their lift truck fleets. For operations with large fleets of electric lift

  11. Living olefin polymerization processes

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Schrock, Richard R.; Bauman, Robert

    2006-11-14

    Processes for the living polymerization of olefin monomers with terminal carbon-carbon double bonds are disclosed. The processes employ initiators that include a metal atom and a ligand having two group 15 atoms and a group 16 atom or three group 15 atoms. The ligand is bonded to the metal atom through two anionic or covalent bonds and a dative bond. The initiators are particularly stable under reaction conditions in the absence of olefin monomer. The processes provide polymers having low polydispersities, especially block copolymers having low polydispersities. It is an additional advantage of these processes that, during block copolymer synthesis, a relatively small amount of homopolymer is formed.

  12. Living olefin polymerization processes

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Schrock, Richard R.; Baumann, Robert

    2003-08-26

    Processes for the living polymerization of olefin monomers with terminal carbon-carbon double bonds are disclosed. The processes employ initiators that include a metal atom and a ligand having two group 15 atoms and a group 16 atom or three group 15 atoms. The ligand is bonded to the metal atom through two anionic or covalent bonds and a dative bond. The initiators are particularly stable under reaction conditions in the absence of olefin monomer. The processes provide polymers having low polydispersities, especially block copolymers having low polydispersities. It is an additional advantage of these processes that, during block copolymer synthesis, a relatively small amount of homopolymer is formed.

  13. Living olefin polymerization processes

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Schrock, Richard R. (Winchester, MA); Baumann, Robert (Cambridge, MA)

    1999-01-01

    Processes for the living polymerization of olefin monomers with terminal carbon-carbon double bonds are disclosed. The processes employ initiators that include a metal atom and a ligand having two group 15 atoms and a group 16 atom or three group 15 atoms. The ligand is bonded to the metal atom through two anionic or covalent bonds and a dative bond. The initiators are particularly stable under reaction conditions in the absence of olefin monomer. The processes provide polymers having low polydispersities, especially block copolymers having low polydispersities. It is an additional advantage of these processes that, during block copolymer synthesis, a relatively small amount of homopolymer is formed.

  14. Living olefin polymerization processes

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Schrock, R.R.; Baumann, R.

    1999-03-30

    Processes for the living polymerization of olefin monomers with terminal carbon-carbon double bonds are disclosed. The processes employ initiators that include a metal atom and a ligand having two group 15 atoms and a group 16 atom or three group 15 atoms. The ligand is bonded to the metal atom through two anionic or covalent bonds and a dative bond. The initiators are particularly stable under reaction conditions in the absence of olefin monomer. The processes provide polymers having low polydispersities, especially block copolymers having low polydispersities. It is an additional advantage of these processes that, during block copolymer synthesis, a relatively small amount of homopolymer is formed.

  15. Certification of DOE Reading Rooms | Department of Energy

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Certification of DOE Reading Rooms Certification of DOE Reading Rooms Certification of DOE Reading Rooms by Ingrid Kolb, Chief FOIA Officer, October, 17, 2008. (57.79 KB) More Documents & Publications Memorandum from Secretary Moniz on the Freedom of Information Act (FOIA) Before the Subcommittee on National Parks - Senate Committee on Energy and Natural Resources DRAFT 2012 DOE Project Management Workshop Agenda

  16. Imprinting bulk amorphous alloy at room temperature

    DOE Public Access Gateway for Energy & Science Beta (PAGES Beta)

    Kim, Song-Yi; Park, Eun-Soo; Ott, Ryan T.; Lograsso, Thomas A.; Huh, Moo-Young; Kim, Do-Hyang; Eckert, Jürgen; Lee, Min-Ha

    2015-11-13

    We present investigations on the plastic deformation behavior of a brittle bulk amorphous alloy by simple uniaxial compressive loading at room temperature. A patterning is possible by cold-plastic forming of the typically brittle Hf-based bulk amorphous alloy through controlling homogenous flow without the need for thermal energy or shaping at elevated temperatures. The experimental evidence suggests that there is an inconsistency between macroscopic plasticity and deformability of an amorphous alloy. Moreover, imprinting of specific geometrical features on Cu foil and Zr-based metallic glass is represented by using the patterned bulk amorphous alloy as a die. These results demonstrate the abilitymore » of amorphous alloys or metallic glasses to precisely replicate patterning features onto both conventional metals and the other amorphous alloys. In conclusion, our work presents an avenue for avoiding the embrittlement of amorphous alloys associated with thermoplastic forming and yields new insight the forming application of bulk amorphous alloys at room temperature without using heat treatment.« less

  17. Requirements for Control Room Computer-Based Procedures for use in Hybrid Control Rooms

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Le Blanc, Katya Lee; Oxstrand, Johanna Helene; Joe, Jeffrey Clark

    2015-05-01

    Many plants in the U.S. are currently undergoing control room modernization. The main drivers for modernization are the aging and obsolescence of existing equipment, which typically results in a like-for-like replacement of analogue equipment with digital systems. However, the modernization efforts present an opportunity to employ advanced technology that would not only extend the life, but enhance the efficiency and cost competitiveness of nuclear power. Computer-based procedures (CBPs) are one example of near-term advanced technology that may provide enhanced efficiencies above and beyond like for like replacements of analog systems. Researchers in the LWRS program are investigating the benefits of advanced technologies such as CBPs, with the goal of assisting utilities in decision making during modernization projects. This report will describe the existing research on CBPs, discuss the unique issues related to using CBPs in hybrid control rooms (i.e., partially modernized analog control rooms), and define the requirements of CBPs for hybrid control rooms.

  18. Room air monitor for radioactive aerosols

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Balmer, D.K.; Tyree, W.H.

    1987-03-23

    A housing assembly for use with a room air monitor for simultaneous collection and counting of suspended particles includes a casing containing a combination detector-preamplifier system at one end, a filter system at the other end, and an air flow system consisting of an air inlet formed in the casing between the detector-preamplifier system and the filter system and an air passageway extending from the air inlet through the casing and out the end opposite the detector-preamplifier combination. The filter system collects suspended particles transported directly through the housing by means of the air flow system, and these particles are detected and examined for radioactivity by the detector-preamplifier combination. 2 figs.

  19. Atomically resolved force microscopy at room temperature

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Morita, Seizo

    2014-04-24

    Atomic force microscopy (AFM) can now not only image individual atoms but also construct atom letters using atom manipulation method even at room temperature (RT). Therefore, the AFM is the second generation atomic tool following the scanning tunneling microscopy (STM). However the AFM can image even insulating atoms, and also directly measure/map the atomic force and potential at the atomic scale. Noting these advantages, we have been developing a bottom-up nanostructuring system at RT based on the AFM. It can identify chemical species of individual atoms and then manipulate selected atom species to the predesigned site one-by-one to assemble complex nanostructures consisted of multi atom species at RT. Here we introduce our results toward atom-by-atom assembly of composite nanostructures based on the AFM at RT including the latest result on atom gating of nano-space for atom-by-atom creation of atom clusters at RT for semiconductor surfaces.

  20. Room air monitor for radioactive aerosols

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Balmer, David K.; Tyree, William H.

    1989-04-11

    A housing assembly for use with a room air monitor for simultaneous collection and counting of suspended particles includes a casing containing a combination detector-preamplifier system at one end, a filter system at the other end, and an air flow system consisting of an air inlet formed in the casing between the detector-preamplifier system and the filter system and an air passageway extending from the air inlet through the casing and out the end opposite the detector-preamplifier combination. The filter system collects suspended particles transported directly through the housing by means of the air flow system, and these particles are detected and examined for radioactivity by the detector-pre The U.S. Government has rights in this invention pursuant to Contract No. DE-AC04-76DP03533 between the Department of Energy and Rockwell International Corporation.

  1. Covered Product Category: Room Air Conditioners | Department of Energy

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Room Air Conditioners Covered Product Category: Room Air Conditioners The Federal Energy Management Program (FEMP) provides acquisition guidance for room air conditioners, a product category covered by the ENERGY STAR program. Federal laws and requirements mandate that agencies purchase ENERGY STAR-qualified products in all product categories covered by this program and any acquisition actions that are not specifically exempted by law. MEETING EFFICIENCY REQUIREMENTS FOR FEDERAL PURCHASES The

  2. Variable Speed Fan Retrofits for Computer Room Air Conditioners |

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Department of Energy Variable Speed Fan Retrofits for Computer Room Air Conditioners Variable Speed Fan Retrofits for Computer Room Air Conditioners Case study describes various concepts for more cost-effective cooling solutions in data centers, while keeping in mind that the reliability of computing systems and their respective cooling systems is always a key criterion. Download the Variable Speed Fan Retrofits for Computer Room Air Conditioners case study. (352.57 KB) More Documents &

  3. NEPA Reading Room | National Nuclear Security Administration | (NNSA)

    National Nuclear Security Administration (NNSA)

    NEPA Reading Room Welcome to the National Nuclear Security Administration's NEPA Reading Room. This site serves as a focal point for NNSA NEPA implementation and contains information about past and current NNSA NEPA actions as well as other resources for NEPA practitioners and members of the public. Welcome to the National Nuclear Security Administration's NEPA Reading Room. This site serves as a focal point for NNSA NEPA implementation and contains information about past and current NNSA NEPA

  4. Time dependent deformation of metals at room temperature. (Conference...

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    Title: Time dependent deformation of metals at room temperature. Abstract not provided. Authors: Deibler, Lisa Anne ; Boyce, Brad Lee ; Puskar, Joseph D. Publication Date: ...

  5. B-Target Room Tunnel Redesigned

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Esfandiari, Reza; /San Jose State U. /SLAC

    2010-08-25

    Several groups at SLAC National Accelerator Laboratory are currently working on a RF Modulator prototype for a future linear collider known as the International Linear Collider (ILC). The ILC runs using about a 1000 Klystrons which create high power carrier waves for the particle acceleration. Klystrons receive their electrical input power from modulators. In order to move beyond the prototype phase, the laboratory might expand its ground base further down a tunnel located at the End Station B (ESB) in order to house four new Klystron Modulator Test Stations. This area is known as the B-Target Room Tunnel, and the task was to redesign the tunnel layout for the upcoming changes. The project first began by collecting substantial amount of information about the prototyped project, the tunnel and the researchers feedback of what they would like to see in the upcoming design. Subsequent to numerous planning and presentations, one particular design was. Calculations for this design were then performed for the most complex aspects of the project. Based on the results of the calculations, specific sample beams, welds, bolts and materials were chosen for the possible future construction.

  6. DOE Tour of Zero: Options for Community Living by United Way...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    The high-efficiency windows include argon-gas fill between two glass panes with advanced technology coating to reduce heat gain and heat loss. 7 of 14 The remodeled kitchen ...

  7. proposed designs for surface and subsurface information rooms

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Buried Room and Information Center located in middle of the berm Isometric view of the a subsurface room magnets could be used to alert would be intruders Information Center containing the most amount of information in several different languages and pictographs

  8. Golden Reading Room: Office of Acquisition Documents, Small Purchases |

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Department of Energy Small Purchases Golden Reading Room: Office of Acquisition Documents, Small Purchases Below are electronic versions of Golden Field Office Reading Room documents that were created after November 1, 1996, per the requirements of the Electronic Freedom of Information Act Amendment of 1996. Most documents are available in Adobe Acrobat Portable Document Format (PDF). Small Purchases

  9. Kitchen Appliances | Department of Energy

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Dishwasher Water-Saving Tips Check the manual that came with your dishwasher for the ... compressor work harder. Regularly defrost manual-defrost freezers and refrigerators; frost ...

  10. Commercial Kitchen Equipment Rebate Program

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    Efficiency Vermont offers rebates for ENERGY STAR certified fryers, griddles, convection ovens, and steam cookers. Custom rebates for other types of commercial cooking equipment may be available...

  11. Commercial Kitchen & Food Service Equipment

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    EE Sectors Expand EE Sectors Technology & Innovation Expand Technology & Innovation Utility Resources Expand Utility Resources News & Events Expand News & Events Skip...

  12. WIPP Reaches Milestone „ First Disposal Room Filled

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    WIPP Reaches Milestone - First Disposal Room Filled CARLSBAD, N.M., September 4, 2001 - The U.S. Department of Energy's (DOE) Carlsbad Field Office today announced that Room 7 of Panel 1 at the Waste Isolation Pilot Plant (WIPP), the first underground room used for disposal operations, has been filled to capacity with transuranic waste. The milestone was reached at about 3:30 p.m. on August 24, as Waste Handling personnel emplaced a shipment of waste from the Idaho National Engineering and

  13. Living Buildings Ltd | Open Energy Information

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    Ltd Jump to: navigation, search Name: Living Buildings Ltd Place: United Kingdom Sector: Buildings Product: Living Buildings is an installer of small-scale distributed generation...

  14. Living Villages Holdings Ltd | Open Energy Information

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    Holdings Ltd Jump to: navigation, search Name: Living Villages Holdings Ltd Place: England, United Kingdom Zip: Shropshire SY9 Product: Living Villages is a residential property...

  15. Solar Living Institute | Open Energy Information

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    Living Institute Jump to: navigation, search Name: Solar Living Institute Address: 13771 S. Hwy. 101 Place: Hopland, California Zip: 95449 Region: Bay Area Website:...

  16. Nuclear Physics Technology Saves Lives | Jefferson Lab

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Physics Technology Saves Lives Nuclear Physics Technology Saves Lives January 11, 2006 ... The basic technology is called nuclear functional imaging. Jefferson Lab's Detector and ...

  17. Five ENERGY STAR Room Air Conditioners Fail Testing

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    The U.S. Department of Energy's Office of Enforcement announced today that DOE testing has identified five Friedrich room air conditioners that do not meet the ENERGY STAR Program’s energy...

  18. Measurements and computations of room airflow with displacement ventilation

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Yuan, X.; Chen, Q.; Glicksman, L.R.; Hu, Y.; Yang, X.

    1999-07-01

    This paper presents a set of detailed experimental data of room airflow with displacement ventilation. These data were obtained from a new environmental test facility. The measurements were conducted for three typical room configurations: a small office, a large office with partitions, and a classroom. The distributions of air velocity, air velocity fluctuation, and air temperature were measured by omnidirectional hot-sphere anemometers, and contaminant concentrations were measured by tracer gas at 54 points in the rooms. Smoke was used to observe airflow. The data also include the wall surface temperature distribution, air supply parameters, and the age of air at several locations in the rooms. A computational fluid dynamics (CFD) program with the Re-Normalization Group (RNG) {kappa}-{epsilon} model was also used to predict the indoor airflow. The agreement between the computed results and measured data of air temperature and velocity is good. However, some discrepancies exist in the computed and measured concentrations and velocity fluctuation.

  19. Control and Room Temperature Optimization of Energy Efficient Buildings

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Djouadi, Seddik M; Kuruganti, Phani Teja

    2012-01-01

    The building sector consumes a large part of the energy used in the United States and is responsible for nearly 40% of greenhouse gas emissions. It is therefore economically and environmentally important to reduce the building energy consumption to realize massive energy savings. In this paper, a method to control room temperature in buildings is proposed. The approach is based on a distributed parameter model represented by a three dimensional (3D) heat equation in a room with heater/cooler located at ceiling. The latter is resolved using finite element methods, and results in a model for room temperature with thousands of states. The latter is not amenable to control design. A reduced order model of only few states is then derived using Proper Orthogonal Decomposition (POD). A Linear Quadratic Regulator (LQR) is computed based on the reduced model, and applied to the full order model to control room temperature.

  20. Golden Reading Room: FOIA Requester Service Centers and Public Liaisons |

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Department of Energy FOIA Requester Service Centers and Public Liaisons Golden Reading Room: FOIA Requester Service Centers and Public Liaisons U.S. Department of Energy http://energy.gov/management/foia-contacts

  1. OMEGA EP Control Room - Laboratory for Laser Energetics

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Control Room - Laboratory for Laser Energetics Laboratory for Laser Energetics Logo Search Home Around the Lab Past Issues Past Quick Shots About Office of the Director Map to LLE ...

  2. Argonne scientists announce first room-temperature magnetic skyrmion...

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    left to right: Argonne researchers Wanjun Jiang, Suzanne G.E. te Velthuis, and Axel Hoffman published a new way to make magnetic skyrmion bubbles at room temperature. Photo by...

  3. Neutron absorbing room temperature vulcanizable silicone rubber compositions

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Zoch, Harold L.

    1979-11-27

    A neutron absorbing composition comprising a one-component room temperature vulcanizable silicone rubber composition or a two-component room temperature vulcanizable silicone rubber composition in which the composition contains from 25 to 300 parts by weight based on the base silanol or vinyl containing diorganopolysiloxane polymer of a boron compound or boron powder as the neutron absorbing ingredient. An especially useful boron compound in this application is boron carbide.

  4. Golden Reading Room: NREL Environmental and NEPA Documents | Department of

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Energy NREL Environmental and NEPA Documents Golden Reading Room: NREL Environmental and NEPA Documents Below are electronic versions of Golden Field Office Reading Room documents that were created after November 1, 1996, per the requirements of the Electronic Freedom of Information Act Amendment of 1996. Most documents are available in Adobe Acrobat Portable Document Format (PDF). NREL Annual Environmental Performance Reports (Annual Site Environmental Reports) Every year the National

  5. Golden Reading Room: Other NREL Documents | Department of Energy

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Other NREL Documents Golden Reading Room: Other NREL Documents Below are electronic versions of Golden Field Office Reading Room documents that were created after November 1, 1996, per the requirements of the Electronic Freedom of Information Act Amendment of 1996. Most documents are available in Adobe Acrobat Portable Document Format (PDF). National Renewable Energy Laboratory 10 Year Site Plan FY 2007 - FY 2018 Director's Discretionary Research and Development Program, Annual Report FY 2007

  6. Golden Field Office Reading Room | Department of Energy

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    About Us » Business Operations » Golden Field Office » Golden Field Office Reading Room Golden Field Office Reading Room The Golden Field Office was designated a Department of Energy (DOE) field office in December 1992 to support the development and commercialization of renewable energy and energy-efficient technologies. As a field office within DOE's Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE), Golden's mission is to award grants and manage contracts for clean energy projects,

  7. Golden Reading Room: Environmental Assessments | Department of Energy

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Environmental Assessments Golden Reading Room: Environmental Assessments Below are electronic versions of Golden Field Office Reading Room documents that were created after November 1, 1996, per the requirements of the Electronic Freedom of Information Act Amendment of 1996. Most documents are available in Adobe Acrobat Portable Document Format (PDF). DOCUMENTS AVAILABLE FOR DOWNLOAD June 29, 2016 EA-2021: Draft Environmental Assessment Energy Conservation Standards for Manufactured Housing (RIN

  8. Golden Reading Room: FINAL Environmental Impact Statements | Department of

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Energy FINAL Environmental Impact Statements Golden Reading Room: FINAL Environmental Impact Statements Below are electronic versions of Golden Field Office Reading Room documents that were created after November 1, 1996, per the requirements of the Electronic Freedom of Information Act Amendment of 1996. Most documents are available in Adobe Acrobat Portable Document Format (PDF). Final Environmental Impact Statement for the Proposed Abengoa Biorefinery Project, Hugoton, Stevens County,

  9. Golden Reading Room: FOIA Frequently Requested Documents | Department of

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Energy Frequently Requested Documents Golden Reading Room: FOIA Frequently Requested Documents Below are electronic versions of Golden Field Office Reading Room documents that were created after November 1, 1996, per the requirements of the Electronic Freedom of Information Act Amendment of 1996. Most documents are available in Adobe Acrobat Portable Document Format (PDF). DE-EE0002884 Sapphire Energy GO-12-043 Redacted Sapphire FOIA DE-EE0002877 Recovery Act Definitized Subcontract No.

  10. Golden Reading Room: FOIA Proactive Disclosures and Contracts | Department

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    of Energy Proactive Disclosures and Contracts Golden Reading Room: FOIA Proactive Disclosures and Contracts Below are electronic versions of Golden Field Office Reading Room documents that were created after November 1, 1996, per the requirements of the Electronic Freedom of Information Act Amendment of 1996. Most documents are available in Adobe Acrobat Portable Document Format (PDF). 2013 Solar Decathlon Information Click on this link for updates: Solar Decathlon Information. Alliance for

  11. Golden Reading Room: Office of Acquisition Documents, Better Buildings

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Initiative Support Services | Department of Energy Better Buildings Initiative Support Services Golden Reading Room: Office of Acquisition Documents, Better Buildings Initiative Support Services Below are electronic versions of Golden Field Office Reading Room documents that were created after November 1, 1996, per the requirements of the Electronic Freedom of Information Act Amendment of 1996. Most documents are available in Adobe Acrobat Portable Document Format (PDF). DE-SOL-0005538

  12. Golden Reading Room: Office of Acquisition Documents, Sole of Limited

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Source Justifications | Department of Energy Sole of Limited Source Justifications Golden Reading Room: Office of Acquisition Documents, Sole of Limited Source Justifications Below are electronic versions of Golden Field Office Reading Room documents that were created after November 1, 1996, per the requirements of the Electronic Freedom of Information Act Amendment of 1996. Most documents are available in Adobe Acrobat Portable Document Format (PDF). Sole of Limited Source Justificati

  13. Golden Reading Room: Other NEPA Documents | Department of Energy

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Other NEPA Documents Golden Reading Room: Other NEPA Documents Below are electronic versions of Golden Field Office Reading Room documents that were created after November 1, 1996, per the requirements of the Electronic Freedom of Information Act Amendment of 1996. Most documents are available in Adobe Acrobat Portable Document Format (PDF). Floodplain Assessment for Installation of a Renewable Energy Anaerobic Digester Facility at the University of California, Davis in Yolo County, California

  14. Photo of the Week: Living Large -- Argonne's First Computer | Department of

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Energy Living Large -- Argonne's First Computer Photo of the Week: Living Large -- Argonne's First Computer August 31, 2012 - 9:58am Addthis Before there was Google, or even the Internet, there was the computer -- and the earliest computers were so large that just one could occupy an entire room. AVIDAC was the first digital computer at Argonne National Laboratory, and began operating in 1953. It was built by the Physics Division for $250,000. Pictured here, with AVIDAC, is pioneer Argonne

  15. The Brief Lives of Neutrons

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    The Brief Lives of Neutrons 1663 Los Alamos science and technology magazine Latest Issue:July 2016 past issues All Issues » submit The Brief Lives of Neutrons A unique experiment to pin down the neutron's surprisingly elusive half-life July 21, 2016 Most neutrons inside atoms are stable. But get one on its own, and it will disintegrate in about ten minutes. Most neutrons inside atoms are stable. But get one on its own, and it will disintegrate in about ten minutes. Beam and bottle experiments

  16. Using a Research Simulator for Validating Control Room Modernization Concepts

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Ronald L. Boring; Vivek Agarwal; Julius J. Persensky; Jeffrey C. Joe

    2012-05-01

    The Light Water Reactor Sustainability Program is a research, development, and deployment program sponsored by the United States Department of Energy. The program is operated in close collaboration with industry research and development programs to provide the technical foundations for licensing and managing the long-term, safe, and economical operation of nuclear power plants that are currently in operation. Advanced instrumentation and control (I&C) technologies are needed to support the continued safe and reliable production of power from nuclear energy systems during sustained periods of operation up to and beyond their expected licensed lifetime. This requires that new capabilities to achieve process control be developed and eventually implemented in existing nuclear control rooms. It also requires that approaches be developed and proven to achieve sustainability of I&C systems throughout the period of extended operation. Idaho National Laboratory (INL) is working closely with nuclear utilities to develop technologies and solutions to help ensure the safe life extension of current reactors. One of the main areas of focus is control room modernization. Current analog control rooms are growing obsolete, and it is difficult for utilities to maintain them. Using its reconfigurable control room simulator adapted from a training simulator, INL serves as a neutral test bed for implementing new control room system technologies and assisting in control room modernization efforts across.

  17. Control Room operations: an investigation of the task of the operator in a Colliery Control Room. Final report

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Simpson, G.C.; Best, C.F.; Ferguson, C.A.; Graveling, R.A.; Nicholl, A.G.M.

    1982-09-01

    A detailed study of the ergonomics aspects of four representative Colliery Control Rooms was carried out. Numerous ergonomics limitations, many common to each of the control rooms studied, were identified particularly in relation to workspace dimensions, console layout and lighting. In order to overcome these limitations in future designs, a report detailing the Ergonomics Principles of Colliery Control Room design and Layout was prepared on the basis of the information obtained. Task analysis carried out during the studies revealed that control room operators could have a direct effect on production and that ergonomics aspects were involved in these situations. Indications of potential ergonomics problems in the wider sphere of job design were also identified particularly in relation to information handling.

  18. Energy Efficiency in Small Server Rooms: Field Surveys and Findings

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Cheung, Iris; Greenberg, Steve; Mahdavi, Roozbeh; Brown, Richard; Tschudi, William

    2014-08-11

    Fifty-seven percent of US servers are housed in server closets, server rooms, and localized data centers, in what are commonly referred to as small server rooms, which comprise 99percent of all server spaces in the US. While many mid-tier and enterprise-class data centers are owned by large corporations that consider energy efficiency a goal to minimize business operating costs, small server rooms typically are not similarly motivated. They are characterized by decentralized ownership and management and come in many configurations, which creates a unique set of efficiency challenges. To develop energy efficiency strategies for these spaces, we surveyed 30 small server rooms across eight institutions, and selected four of them for detailed assessments. The four rooms had Power Usage Effectiveness (PUE) values ranging from 1.5 to 2.1. Energy saving opportunities ranged from no- to low-cost measures such as raising cooling set points and better airflow management, to more involved but cost-effective measures including server consolidation and virtualization, and dedicated cooling with economizers. We found that inefficiencies mainly resulted from organizational rather than technical issues. Because of the inherent space and resource limitations, the most effective measure is to operate servers through energy-efficient cloud-based services or well-managed larger data centers, rather than server rooms. Backup power requirement, and IT and cooling efficiency should be evaluated to minimize energy waste in the server space. Utility programs are instrumental in raising awareness and spreading technical knowledge on server operation, and the implementation of energy efficiency measures in small server rooms.

  19. Control room envelope unfiltered air inleakage test protocols

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Lagus, P.L.; Grot, R.A.

    1997-08-01

    In 1983, the Advisory Committee on Reactor Safeguards (ACRS) recommended that the US NRC develop a control room HVAC performance testing protocol. To date no such protocol has been forthcoming. Beginning in mid-1994, an effort was funded by NRC under a Small Business Innovation Research (SBIR) grant to develop several simplified test protocols based on the principles of tracer gas testing in order to measure the total unfiltered inleakage entering a CRE during emergency mode operation of the control room ventilation system. These would allow accurate assessment of unfiltered air inleakage as required in SRP 6.4. The continuing lack of a standard protocol is unfortunate since one of the significant parameters required to calculate operator dose is the amount of unfiltered air inleakage into the control room. Often it is assumed that, if the Control Room Envelope (CRE) is maintained at +1/8 in. w.g. differential pressure relative to the surroundings, no significant unfiltered inleakage can occur it is further assumed that inleakage due to door openings is the only source of unfiltered air. 23 refs., 13 figs., 2 tabs.

  20. Information Foraging in Nuclear Power Plant Control Rooms

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    R.L. Boring

    2011-09-01

    nformation foraging theory articulates the role of the human as an 'informavore' that seeks information and follows optimal foraging strategies (i.e., the 'information scent') to find meaningful information. This paper briefly reviews the findings from information foraging theory outside the nuclear domain and then discusses the types of information foraging strategies operators employ for normal and off-normal operations in the control room. For example, operators may employ a predatory 'wolf' strategy of hunting for information in the face of a plant upset. However, during routine operations, the operators may employ a trapping 'spider' strategy of waiting for relevant indicators to appear. This delineation corresponds to information pull and push strategies, respectively. No studies have been conducted to determine explicitly the characteristics of a control room interface that is optimized for both push and pull information foraging strategies, nor has there been empirical work to validate operator performance when transitioning between push and pull strategies. This paper explores examples of control room operators as wolves vs. spiders and con- cludes by proposing a set of research questions to investigate information foraging in control room settings.

  1. Living Direct: Order (2011-CE-1904)

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    DOE ordered Living Direct, Inc. to pay a $6,000 civil penalty after finding Living Direct had failed to certify that certain models of dishwashers, refrigerator-freezers and freezers comply with the applicable energy conservation standards.

  2. Fuel Cells Go Live | Department of Energy

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Go Live Fuel Cells Go Live An article written by Michael Ciotti for Green Power that originally appeared in the Fourth Quarter, Fall 2008 issue of The MHEDA Journal ...

  3. Live Fire Range Environmental Assessment

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    1993-08-01

    The Central Training Academy (CTA) is a DOE Headquarters Organization located in Albuquerque, New Mexico, with the mission to effectively and efficiently educate and train personnel involved in the protection of vital national security interests of DOE. The CTA Live Fire Range (LFR), where most of the firearms and tactical training occurs, is a complex separate from the main campus. The purpose of the proposed action is to expand the LFR to allow more options of implementing required training. The Department of Energy has prepared this Environmental Assessment (EA) for the proposed construction and operation of an expanded Live Fire Range Facility at the Central Training Academy in Albuquerque, New Mexico. Based on the analysis in the EA, DOE has determined that the proposed action is not a major Federal action significantly affecting the quality of the human environment, within the meaning of the National Environmental Policy Act (NEPA) of 1969. Therefore, the preparation of an environmental impact statement is not required and DOE is issuing this Finding of No Significant Impact (FONSI).

  4. Code System for Evaluation of Control Room Habitability.

    Energy Science and Technology Software Center (OSTI)

    2002-04-11

    Version: 01 HABIT 1.1 is a suite of computer codes designed for evaluating control room habitability in the event of an accidental release of toxic chemicals or radioactive materials. EXTRAN 1.2, CHEM, TACT5, FPFP_2, and CONHAB are included in the system. HABIT was used in the verification and validation of RADTRAD, which NRC now uses to assess radiation exposure, typically in the control room, as well as site boundary doses, and to estimate dose attenuationmore » due to modification of a facility or accident sequence. RADTRAD does not assess chemical exposure, so HABIT is retained in the RSICC collection for this purpose. RADTRAD is available from Alion Science http://radtrad.com/.« less

  5. Operator experiences on working in screen-based control rooms

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Salo, L.; Laarni, J.; Savioja, P.

    2006-07-01

    This paper introduces the results of two interview studies carried out in Finland in four conventional power plants and one nuclear power plant. The aim of the studies was to gather data on user experiences on the effects of control room modernization and digital control room technology on operator work Since the number of completed digitalization projects in nuclear power plants is small supplementary information was gathered by interviewing operators in conventional power plants. Our results suggest that even though the modernization processes have been success stories, they have created new challenges for operator personnel. Examples of these challenges are increased requirements for competence and collaboration, problems in trust calibration and development of awareness of the process state. Some major differences in the digitalization of human-system interfaces between conventional and nuclear power plants were discussed. (authors)

  6. A computerized main control room for NPP: Development and investigation

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Anokhin, A. N.; Marshall, E. C.; Rakitin, I. D.; Slonimsky, V. M.

    2006-07-01

    An ergonomics assessment of the control room at Leningrad Nuclear Power Plant has been undertaken as part of an international project funded by the EU TACIS program. The project was focused on the upgrading of the existing control facilities and the installation of a validation facility to evaluate candidate refurbishment proposals before their implementation at the plant. The ergonomics methodology applied in the investigation was wide ranging and included an analysis of reported events, extensive task analysis (including novel techniques) and validation studies using experienced operators. The paper addresses the potential difficulties for the human operator associated with fully computerized interfaces and shows how the validation facility and the outcomes from ergonomics assessment will be used to minimise any adverse impact on performance that may be caused by proposed control room changes. (authors)

  7. Room-temperature magnetoelectric multiferroic thin films and applications thereof

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Katiyar, Ram S; Kuman, Ashok; Scott, James F.

    2014-08-12

    The invention provides a novel class of room-temperature, single-phase, magnetoelectric multiferroic (PbFe.sub.0.67W.sub.0.33O.sub.3).sub.x (PbZr.sub.0.53Ti.sub.0.47O.sub.3).sub.1-x (0.2.ltoreq.x.ltoreq.0.8) (PFW.sub.x-PZT.sub.1-x) thin films that exhibit high dielectric constants, high polarization, weak saturation magnetization, broad dielectric temperature peak, high-frequency dispersion, low dielectric loss and low leakage current. These properties render them to be suitable candidates for room-temperature multiferroic devices. Methods of preparation are also provided.

  8. Golden Reading Room: NEPA Categorical Exclusions | Department of Energy

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    NEPA Categorical Exclusions Golden Reading Room: NEPA Categorical Exclusions Categorical Exclusion Determinations issued by Golden Field Office of the Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE). DOCUMENTS AVAILABLE FOR DOWNLOAD July 28, 2016 CX-100668 Categorical Exclusion Determination A New Remote Communications Link to Reduce Residential PV Solar Costs Award Number: DE-EE0007592 CX(s) Applied: A9, B5.15 Solar Energy Technology Office Date: 7/26/2016 Location(s): CA Office(s):

  9. The selection of turbulence models for prediction of room airflow

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Nielsen, P.V.

    1998-10-01

    The airflow in buildings involves a combination of many different flow elements. It is, therefore, difficult to find an adequate, all-round turbulence model covering all aspects. Consequently, it is appropriate and economical to choose turbulence models according to the situation that is to be predicted. This paper discusses the use of different turbulence models and their advantages in given situations. As an example, it is shown that a simple zero-equation model can be used for the prediction of special situations as flow with a low level of turbulence. A zero-equation model with compensation for room dimensions and velocity level also is discussed. A {kappa}-{epsilon} model expanded by damping functions is used to improve the prediction of the flow in a room ventilated by displacement ventilation. The damping functions especially take into account the turbulence level and the vertical temperature gradient. Low Reynolds number models (LNR models) are used to improve the prediction of evaporation-controlled emissions from building material, which is shown by an example. Finally, large eddy simulation (LES) of room airflow is discussed and demonstrated.

  10. FRAMEWORK AND APPLICATION FOR MODELING CONTROL ROOM CREW PERFORMANCE AT NUCLEAR POWER PLANTS

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Ronald L Boring; David I Gertman; Tuan Q Tran; Brian F Gore

    2008-09-01

    This paper summarizes an emerging project regarding the utilization of high-fidelity MIDAS simulations for visualizing and modeling control room crew performance at nuclear power plants. The key envisioned uses for MIDAS-based control room simulations are: (i) the estimation of human error associated with advanced control room equipment and configurations, (ii) the investigative determination of contributory cognitive factors for risk significant scenarios involving control room operating crews, and (iii) the certification of reduced staffing levels in advanced control rooms. It is proposed that MIDAS serves as a key component for the effective modeling of cognition, elements of situation awareness, and risk associated with human performance in next generation control rooms.

  11. Live: DOE Cyber Distinguished Speaker Series | Department of...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Live: DOE Cyber Distinguished Speaker Series Live: DOE Cyber Distinguished Speaker Series Live streaming video by Ustream HOW ACADEMIC INSTITUIONS ARE MEETING TODAY'S CYBER ...

  12. Verification and Validation of Digitally Upgraded Control Rooms

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Boring, Ronald; Lau, Nathan

    2015-09-01

    As nuclear power plants undertake main control room modernization, a challenge is the lack of a clearly defined human factors process to follow. Verification and validation (V&V) as applied in the nuclear power community has tended to involve efforts such as integrated system validation, which comes at the tail end of the design stage. To fill in guidance gaps and create a step-by-step process for control room modernization, we have developed the Guideline for Operational Nuclear Usability and Knowledge Elicitation (GONUKE). This approach builds on best practices in the software industry, which prescribe an iterative user-centered approach featuring multiple cycles of design and evaluation. Nuclear regulatory guidance for control room design emphasizes summative evaluation—which occurs after the design is complete. In the GONUKE approach, evaluation is also performed at the formative stage of design—early in the design cycle using mockups and prototypes for evaluation. The evaluation may involve expert review (e.g., software heuristic evaluation at the formative stage and design verification against human factors standards like NUREG-0700 at the summative stage). The evaluation may also involve user testing (e.g., usability testing at the formative stage and integrated system validation at the summative stage). An additional, often overlooked component of evaluation is knowledge elicitation, which captures operator insights into the system. In this report we outline these evaluation types across design phases that support the overall modernization process. The objective is to provide industry-suitable guidance for steps to be taken in support of the design and evaluation of a new human-machine interface (HMI) in the control room. We suggest the value of early-stage V&V and highlight how this early-stage V&V can help improve the design process for control room modernization. We argue that there is a need to overcome two shortcomings of V&V in current practice

  13. Rural Living Canada Website | Open Energy Information

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    Equivalent URI: cleanenergysolutions.orgcontentrural-living-canada-website Language: English Policies: "Deployment Programs,Regulations" is not in the list of possible...

  14. Lancaster Live/Work Townhome Prototype

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    2010-04-01

    This case study describes development of a prototype live-work townhome that is highly efficient at 45% energy savings (95% counting photovoltaic system).

  15. Live Broadcast on Quadrennial Energy Review

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    Watch a live broadcast of the Quadrennial Energy Review public stakeholder meeting on Thursday, February 4, 2016 at 9:30 a.m. EST

  16. Extending the Operating Lives of Materials

    ScienceCinema (OSTI)

    Paul Jablonski

    2010-09-01

    Metallurgist Paul Jablonski discusses his role in developing processes that extend the operating temperatures and operating lives of materials used in energy applications.

  17. Living Walls | OpenEI Community

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    systems and the new field of biomimicry. Biomimicry is the science of imitating nature to solve human design problems. The Living Wall concept takes the principles behind...

  18. Room temperature ferromagnetism in conducting α-(In{sub 1-x...

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    Room temperature ferromagnetism in conducting -(Insub 1-xFesub x)sub 2Osub 3 alloy films Citation Details In-Document Search Title: Room temperature ferromagnetism in ...

  19. DOE Reaches $1.5M Settlement with Room Air Conditioner Manufacturer |

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Department of Energy $1.5M Settlement with Room Air Conditioner Manufacturer DOE Reaches $1.5M Settlement with Room Air Conditioner Manufacturer October 27, 2015 - 5:48pm Addthis The General Counsel's enforcement office settled an enforcement action against Friedrich Air Conditioning Company for $1,494,626.25, for the distribution of room air conditioners that failed to meet federal minimum standards for energy efficiency. Room air conditioners must meet minimum efficiency standards to be

  20. Benefits of Leapfrogging to Superefficiency and Low Global Warming Potential Refrigerants in Room Air Conditioning

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Shah, Nihar K.; Wei, Max; Letschert, Virginie; Phadke, Amol A.

    2015-10-01

    Hydrofluorocarbons (HFCs) emitted from uses such as refrigerants and thermal insulating foam, are now the fastest growing greenhouse gases (GHGs), with global warming potentials (GWP) thousands of times higher than carbon dioxide (CO2). Because of the short lifetime of these molecules in the atmosphere,1 mitigating the amount of these short-lived climate pollutants (SLCPs) provides a faster path to climate change mitigation than control of CO2 alone. This has led to proposals from Africa, Europe, India, Island States, and North America to amend the Montreal Protocol on Substances that Deplete the Ozone Layer (Montreal Protocol) to phase-down high-GWP HFCs. Simultaneously, energy efficiency market transformation programs such as standards, labeling and incentive programs are endeavoring to improve the energy efficiency for refrigeration and air conditioning equipment to provide life cycle cost, energy, GHG, and peak load savings. In this paper we provide an estimate of the magnitude of such GHG and peak electric load savings potential, for room air conditioning, if the refrigerant transition and energy efficiency improvement policies are implemented either separately or in parallel.

  1. The Committee convened in the Clark Room, Holiday Inn Capitol,

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    MEETING - - - Thursday, April 25, 1996 - - - The Committee convened in the Clark Room, Holiday Inn Capitol, 550 C Street, S.W., Washington, D.C., at 9:00 a.m., Dr. Timothy D. Mount, Chairman, presiding. PRESENT: TIMOTHY D. MOUNT, Chairman SAMPRIT CHATTERJEE BRENDA G. COX JOHN D. GRACE CALVIN KENT GRETA M. LJUNG RICHARD A. LOCKHART DANIEL A. RELLES PRESENT (Continued): BRADLEY O. SKARPNESS G. CAMPBELL WATKINS ALSO PRESENT: RENEE MILLER YVONNE BISHOP MARY HUTZLER JAY HAKES DOUGLAS HALE ART HOLLAND

  2. Guest Room Lighting at the Hilton Columbus Downtown

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    2014-06-30

    At the Hilton Columbus Downtown hotel in Ohio, DOE's Better Buildings Alliance conducted a demonstration of Next Generation Luminaires-winning downlights installed in all guest rooms and suites prior to the hotel's 2012 opening. After a post-occupancy assessment, the LED downlights not only provided the aesthetic appearance and dimming functionality desired, but also provided 50% energy savings relative to a comparable CFL downlight and enabled the lighting power to be more than 20% below that allowed by code. This document is a summary case study of the report.

  3. Press Room - Events - U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA)

    Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update (EIA)

    Press Room Glossary › FAQS › Overview Press Releases Testimony Presentations Radio Events Events 2016 EIA Annual Energy Conference Previous EIA conferences Media Contacts Jonathan Cogan Email: Jonathan.Cogan@eia.gov Phone: 202-586-8719 Office of Communications Email: Infoctr@eia.gov Subject Matter Experts Gasoline prices prior to Labor Day lowest in 12 years graph of U.S. regular retail gasoline price, as explained in the article text p> See More › Resources What's New Upcoming Reports

  4. Golden Reading Room: Freedom of Information Act (FOIA) | Department of

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Energy Freedom of Information Act (FOIA) Golden Reading Room: Freedom of Information Act (FOIA) The Golden FOIA Office within the Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) exists to execute the legal requirements of the Freedom of Information Act (5 U.S.C. § 552(a)(3)(A) (2006), amended by OPEN Government Act of 2007, Pub. L. No. 110175, 121 Stat. 2524). Enacted on July 4, 1966, and taking effect on one year later, the Freedom of Information Act provides that any person has a

  5. Distribution and Room Air Mixing Risks to Retrofitted Homes

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Burdick, A.

    2014-12-01

    ​Energy efficiency upgrades reduce heating and cooling loads on a house. With enough load reduction and if the HVAC system warrants replacement, the HVAC system is often upgraded with a more efficient, lower capacity system that meets the loads of the upgraded house. For a single-story house with ceiling supply air diffusers, ducts are often removed and upgraded. For houses with ducts that are embedded in walls, the cost of demolition precludes the replacement of ducts. The challenge with the use of existing ducts is that the reduced airflow creates a decreased throw at the supply registers, and the supply air and room air do not mix well, leading to potential thermal comfort complaints. This project investigates this retrofit scenario. The issues and solutions discussed here are relevant to all climate zones, with emphasis on climates that require cooling.

  6. Room-temperature LINAC structures for the spallation neutron source

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Billen, J. H.; Young, L. M.; Kurennoy, S.; Crandall, K. R.

    2001-04-01

    Los Alamos National Laboratory is building room-temperature rf accelerating structures for the Spallation Neutron Source (SNS). These structures, for H{sup -} ions, consist of six 402.5-MHz, 2-MW drift-tube linac (DTL) tanks from 2.5 to 87 MeV followed by four 805-MHz, 4-MW coupled-cavity linac (CCL) modules to 186 MeV. The DTL uses permanent magnet quadrupoles inside the drift tubes arranged in a 6{beta}{lambda} FFODDO lattice with every third drift tube available for diagnostics and steering. The CCL uses a 13{beta}{lambda} FODO electromagnetic quadrupole lattice. Diagnostics and magnets occupy the 2.5{beta}{lambda} spaces between 8-cavity segments. This paper discusses design of the rf cavities and low-power modeling work.

  7. Distribution and Room Air Mixing Risks to Retrofitted Homes

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Burdick, A.

    2014-12-01

    Energy efficiency upgrades reduce heating and cooling loads on a house. With enough load reduction and if the HVAC system warrants replacement, the HVAC system is often upgraded with a more efficient, lower capacity system that meets the loads of the upgraded house. For a single-story house with ceiling supply air diffusers, ducts are often removed and upgraded. For houses with ducts that are embedded in walls, the cost of demolition precludes the replacement of ducts. The challenge with the use of existing ducts is that the reduced airflow creates a decreased throw at the supply registers, and the supply air and room air do not mix well, leading to potential thermal comfort complaints. This project investigates this retrofit scenario. The issues and solutions discussed here are relevant to all climate zones, with emphasis on climates that require cooling.

  8. Microstructure of room temperature ionic liquids at stepped graphite electrodes

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Feng, Guang; Li, Song; Zhao, Wei; Cummings, Peter T.

    2015-07-14

    Molecular dynamics simulations of room temperature ionic liquid (RTIL) [emim][TFSI] at stepped graphite electrodes were performed to investigate the influence of the thickness of the electrode surface step on the microstructure of interfacial RTILs. A strong correlation was observed between the interfacial RTIL structure and the step thickness in electrode surface as well as the ion size. Specifically, when the step thickness is commensurate with ion size, the interfacial layering of cation/anion is more evident; whereas, the layering tends to be less defined when the step thickness is close to the half of ion size. Furthermore, two-dimensional microstructure of ion layers exhibits different patterns and alignments of counter-ion/co-ion lattice at neutral and charged electrodes. As the cation/anion layering could impose considerable effects on ion diffusion, the detailed information of interfacial RTILs at stepped graphite presented here would help to understand the molecular mechanism of RTIL-electrode interfaces in supercapacitors.

  9. Subsidence vulnerability in shallow room-and-pillar mines

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Missavage, R.

    1985-07-01

    Concern over mining-related subsidence is inhibiting the development of surface land uses in previously mined areas and is constraining the recovery of coal resources in areas with established land uses that might be impacted by subsequent subsidence. The determination of subsidence vulnerability of mined-out areas (especially abandoned mine areas) can be a useful tool in the design and location of surface structures. A model has been developed for assessing subsidence vulnerability in shallow room-and-pillar mines based on the flexural rigidity and strength characteristics of the overlying strata. The model does not predict the subsidence profile or when the subsidence will occur. It only predicts those areas that are likely to subside. This paper briefly describes the model and its testing.

  10. Room-temperature ferromagnetism in cerium dioxide powders

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Rakhmatullin, R. M. Pavlov, V. V.; Semashko, V. V.; Korableva, S. L.

    2015-08-15

    Room-temperature ferromagnetism is detected in a CeO{sub 2} powder with a grain size of about 35 nm and a low (<0.1 at %) manganese and iron content. The ferromagnetism in a CeO{sub 2} sample with a submicron crystallite size and the same manganese and iron impurity content is lower than in the nanocrystalline sample by an order of magnitude. Apart from ferromagnetism, both samples exhibit EPR spectra of localized paramagnetic centers, the concentration of which is lower than 0.01 at %. A comparative analysis of these results shows that the F-center exchange (FCE) mechanism cannot cause ferromagnetism. This conclusion agrees with the charge-transfer ferromagnetism model proposed recently.

  11. Current Approaches for Control Room I and C Modernization

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Lopez, Alberto; Jimenez, Alfonso

    2002-07-01

    In general, instrumentation and control (I and C) systems for nuclear power plants were made using analogic systems and relays, since this was the only technology available by the time these systems were designed. This fact impacts on the operational and maintenance capabilities required to these systems. For this reason, nuclear power plants are facing nowadays two challenges: on one hand, the obsolescence of these systems contributes to the increase in the operation and maintenance costs - due to the difficulties for getting spare parts and support from the system vendors -. On the other hand, there has been an increase in the utilities competitiveness due to the electric power market liberalization. All this, of course, along with the commitment to maintain the current safety levels and meet the new requirements and standards that may arise in the near future. The application of current technologies, especially digital technology, solves the obsolescence problems and allows for a more functional and updated human-machine interface. Nevertheless, the cost associated to these modifications makes it necessary to develop strategies to determine which systems need to be modified and how to implement modifications effectively, so that these systems can work jointly with others using different technologies. Other issues inherent to digital technology must be considered, such as verification and validation of the software and of the human-machine interface, which are required for its licensing. This presentation describes the current approaches for I and C modernization, the main reasons, technologies and implementation plans, focusing on the control room and on the impact on operations. The main issues to be considered for developing a specific modernization plan are analysed. The goals and status of the 'Feasibility Study of the Control Room I and C Modernization' are described. This study is currently being developed by Endesa, Iberdrola and Tecnatom, and is included

  12. Enhanced room temperature ferromagnetism in antiferromagnetic NiO nanoparticles

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Ravikumar, Patta; Kisan, Bhagaban; Perumal, A.

    2015-08-15

    We report systematic investigations of structural, vibrational, resonance and magnetic properties of nanoscale NiO powders prepared by ball milling process under different milling speeds for 30 hours of milling. Structural properties revealed that both pure NiO and as-milled NiO powders exhibit face centered cubic structure, but average crystallite size decreases to around 11 nm along with significant increase in strain with increasing milling speed. Vibrational properties show the enhancement in the intensity of one-phonon longitudinal optical (LO) band and disappearance of two-magnon band due to size reduction. In addition, two-phonon LO band exhibits red shift due to size-induced phonon confinement effect and surface relaxation. Pure NiO powder exhibit antiferromagnetic nature, which transforms into induced ferromagnetic after size reduction. The average magnetization at room temperature increases with decreasing the crystallite size and a maximum moment of 0.016 μ{sub B}/f.u. at 12 kOe applied field and coercivity of 170 Oe were obtained for 30 hours milled NiO powders at 600 rotation per minute milling speed. The change in the magnetic properties is also supported by the vibrational properties. Thermomagnetization measurements at high temperature reveal a well-defined magnetic phase transition at high temperature (T{sub C}) around 780 K due to induced ferromagnetic phase. Electron paramagnetic resonance (EPR) studies reveal a good agreement between the EPR results and magnetic properties. The observed results are described on the basis of crystallite size variation, defect density, large strain, oxidation/reduction of Ni and interaction between uncompensated surfaces and particle core with lattice expansion. The obtained results suggest that nanoscale NiO powders with high T{sub C} and moderate magnetic moment at room temperature with cubic structure would be useful to expedite for spintronic devices.

  13. Living Direct: Proposed Penalty (2011-CE-1904)

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    DOE alleged in a Notice of Proposed Civil Penalty that Living Direct, Inc. failed to certify a variety of dishwashers, refrigerator-freezers, and freezers as compliant with the applicable energy conservation standards.

  14. Storing data encoded DNA in living organisms

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Wong; Pak C. , Wong; Kwong K. , Foote; Harlan P.

    2006-06-06

    Current technologies allow the generation of artificial DNA molecules and/or the ability to alter the DNA sequences of existing DNA molecules. With a careful coding scheme and arrangement, it is possible to encode important information as an artificial DNA strand and store it in a living host safely and permanently. This inventive technology can be used to identify origins and protect R&D investments. It can also be used in environmental research to track generations of organisms and observe the ecological impact of pollutants. Today, there are microorganisms that can survive under extreme conditions. As well, it is advantageous to consider multicellular organisms as hosts for stored information. These living organisms can provide as memory housing and protection for stored data or information. The present invention provides well for data storage in a living organism wherein at least one DNA sequence is encoded to represent data and incorporated into a living organism.

  15. Theory of long-lived nuclear spin states in methyl groups and quantum-rotor induced polarisation

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Dumez, Jean-Nicolas; Håkansson, Pär; Mamone, Salvatore; Meier, Benno; Stevanato, Gabriele; Hill-Cousins, Joseph T.; Roy, Soumya Singha; Brown, Richard C. D.; Pileio, Giuseppe; Levitt, Malcolm H.

    2015-01-28

    Long-lived nuclear spin states have a relaxation time much longer than the longitudinal relaxation time T{sub 1}. Long-lived states extend significantly the time scales that may be probed with magnetic resonance, with possible applications to transport and binding studies, and to hyperpolarised imaging. Rapidly rotating methyl groups in solution may support a long-lived state, consisting of a population imbalance between states of different spin exchange symmetries. Here, we expand the formalism for describing the behaviour of long-lived nuclear spin states in methyl groups, with special attention to the hyperpolarisation effects observed in {sup 13}CH{sub 3} groups upon rapidly converting a material with low-barrier methyl rotation from the cryogenic solid state to a room-temperature solution [M. Icker and S. Berger, J. Magn. Reson. 219, 1 (2012)]. We analyse the relaxation properties of methyl long-lived states using semi-classical relaxation theory. Numerical simulations are supplemented with a spherical-tensor analysis, which captures the essential properties of methyl long-lived states.

  16. Instantaneous radioiodination of rose bengal at room temperature and a cold kit therefor

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    O'Brien, Jr., Harold A.; Hupf, Homer B.; Wanek, Philip M.

    1981-01-01

    The disclosure relates to the radioiodination of rose bengal at room temperature and a cold-kit therefor. A purified rose bengal tablet is stirred into acidified ethanol at or near room temperature, until a suspension forms. Reductant-free .sup.125 I.sup.- is added and the resulting mixture stands until the exchange label reaction occurs at room temperature. A solution of sterile isotonic phosphate buffer and sodium hydroxide is added and the final resulting mixture is sterilized by filtration.

  17. Electronic Reading Room | U.S. DOE Office of Science (SC)

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Electronic Reading Room Integrated Support Center (ISC) ISC Home About Services Freedom of Information Act (FOIA) Privacy Act Advisory Exemptions How to Submit a FOIA Request Fee Waiver and Reduction Criteria Electronic Reading Room ISC Conventional Reading Rooms Reference Links Privacy Act NEPA Documents Contact Information Integrated Support Center Roxanne Purucker U.S. Department of Energy 9800 S. Cass Avenue Argonne, IL 60439 P: (630) 252-2110 Kenneth Tarcza U.S. Department of Energy 200

  18. ISC Conventional Reading Rooms | U.S. DOE Office of Science (SC)

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    ISC Conventional Reading Rooms Integrated Support Center (ISC) ISC Home About Services Freedom of Information Act (FOIA) Privacy Act Advisory Exemptions How to Submit a FOIA Request Fee Waiver and Reduction Criteria Electronic Reading Room ISC Conventional Reading Rooms Reference Links Privacy Act NEPA Documents Contact Information Integrated Support Center Roxanne Purucker U.S. Department of Energy 9800 S. Cass Avenue Argonne, IL 60439 P: (630) 252-2110 Kenneth Tarcza U.S. Department of Energy

  19. ISSUANCE 2015-06-09: Energy Conservation Program: Energy Conservation Standards for Room Air Conditioners; Request for Information

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE)

    Energy Conservation Program: Energy Conservation Standards for Room Air Conditioners; Request for Information

  20. Room temperature single-photon detectors for high bit rate quantum key distribution

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Comandar, L. C.; Patel, K. A.; Frhlich, B. Lucamarini, M.; Sharpe, A. W.; Dynes, J. F.; Yuan, Z. L.; Shields, A. J.; Penty, R. V.

    2014-01-13

    We report room temperature operation of telecom wavelength single-photon detectors for high bit rate quantum key distribution (QKD). Room temperature operation is achieved using InGaAs avalanche photodiodes integrated with electronics based on the self-differencing technique that increases avalanche discrimination sensitivity. Despite using room temperature detectors, we demonstrate QKD with record secure bit rates over a range of fiber lengths (e.g., 1.26 Mbit/s over 50?km). Furthermore, our results indicate that operating the detectors at room temperature increases the secure bit rate for short distances.

  1. System and method for the identification of radiation in contaminated rooms

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Coleman, Jody Rustyn; Farfan, Eduardo B.

    2015-09-29

    Devices and methods for the characterization of areas of radiation in contaminated rooms are provided. One such device is a collimator with a collimator shield for reducing noise when measuring radiation. A position determination system is provided that may be used for obtaining position and orientation information of the detector in the contaminated room. A radiation analysis method is included that is capable of determining the amount of radiation intensity present at known locations within the contaminated room. Also, a visual illustration system is provided that may project images onto the physical objects, which may be walls, of the contaminated room in order to identify the location of radioactive materials for decontamination.

  2. Electrodrift purification of materials for room temperature radiation detectors

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    James, Ralph B.; Van Scyoc, III, John M.; Schlesinger, Tuviah E.

    1997-06-24

    A method of purifying nonmetallic, crystalline semiconducting materials useful for room temperature radiation detecting devices by applying an electric field across the material. The present invention discloses a simple technology for producing purified ionic semiconducting materials, in particular PbI.sub.2 and preferably HgI.sub.2, which produces high yields of purified product, requires minimal handling of the material thereby reducing the possibility of introducing or reintroducing impurities into the material, is easy to control, is highly selective for impurities, retains the stoichiometry of the material and employs neither high temperatures nor hazardous materials such as solvents or liquid metals. An electric field is applied to a bulk sample of the material causing impurities present in the sample to drift in a preferred direction. After all of the impurities have been transported to the ends of the sample the current flowing through the sample, a measure of the rate of transport of mobile impurities, falls to a low, steady state value, at which time the end sections of the sample where the impurities have concentrated are removed leaving a bulk sample of higher purity material. Because the method disclosed here only acts on the electrically active impurities, the stoichiometry of the host material remains substantially unaffected.

  3. Robust isothermal electric control of exchange bias at room temperature

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    He, X.; Vescovo, E.; Wang, Y.; Caruso, A.N.; Belashchenko, K.D.; Dowben, P.A.; Binek, C.

    2010-06-20

    Voltage-controlled spin electronics is crucial for continued progress in information technology. It aims at reduced power consumption, increased integration density and enhanced functionality where non-volatile memory is combined with high-speed logical processing. Promising spintronic device concepts use the electric control of interface and surface magnetization. From the combination of magnetometry, spin-polarized photoemission spectroscopy, symmetry arguments and first-principles calculations, we show that the (0001) surface of magnetoelectric Cr{sub 2}O{sub 3} has a roughness-insensitive, electrically switchable magnetization. Using a ferromagnetic Pd/Co multilayer deposited on the (0001) surface of a Cr{sub 2}O{sub 3} single crystal, we achieve reversible, room-temperature isothermal switching of the exchange-bias field between positive and negative values by reversing the electric field while maintaining a permanent magnetic field. This effect reflects the switching of the bulk antiferromagnetic domain state and the interface magnetization coupled to it. The switchable exchange bias sets in exactly at the bulk Neel temperature.

  4. Electrodrift purification of materials for room temperature radiation detectors

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    James, R.B.; Van Scyoc, J.M. III; Schlesinger, T.E.

    1997-06-24

    A method of purifying nonmetallic, crystalline semiconducting materials useful for room temperature radiation detecting devices by applying an electric field across the material is disclosed. The present invention discloses a simple technology for producing purified ionic semiconducting materials, in particular PbI{sub 2} and preferably HgI{sub 2}, which produces high yields of purified product, requires minimal handling of the material thereby reducing the possibility of introducing or reintroducing impurities into the material, is easy to control, is highly selective for impurities, retains the stoichiometry of the material and employs neither high temperatures nor hazardous materials such as solvents or liquid metals. An electric field is applied to a bulk sample of the material causing impurities present in the sample to drift in a preferred direction. After all of the impurities have been transported to the ends of the sample the current flowing through the sample, a measure of the rate of transport of mobile impurities, falls to a low, steady state value, at which time the end sections of the sample where the impurities have concentrated are removed leaving a bulk sample of higher purity material. Because the method disclosed here only acts on the electrically active impurities, the stoichiometry of the host material remains substantially unaffected. 4 figs.

  5. Microstructure of room temperature ionic liquids at stepped graphite electrodes

    DOE Public Access Gateway for Energy & Science Beta (PAGES Beta)

    Feng, Guang; Li, Song; Zhao, Wei; Cummings, Peter T.

    2015-07-14

    Molecular dynamics simulations of room temperature ionic liquid (RTIL) [emim][TFSI] at stepped graphite electrodes were performed to investigate the influence of the thickness of the electrode surface step on the microstructure of interfacial RTILs. A strong correlation was observed between the interfacial RTIL structure and the step thickness in electrode surface as well as the ion size. Specifically, when the step thickness is commensurate with ion size, the interfacial layering of cation/anion is more evident; whereas, the layering tends to be less defined when the step thickness is close to the half of ion size. Furthermore, two-dimensional microstructure of ionmore » layers exhibits different patterns and alignments of counter-ion/co-ion lattice at neutral and charged electrodes. As the cation/anion layering could impose considerable effects on ion diffusion, the detailed information of interfacial RTILs at stepped graphite presented here would help to understand the molecular mechanism of RTIL-electrode interfaces in supercapacitors.« less

  6. Stability analysis of a backfilled room-and-pillar mine

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Tesarik, D.R.; Seymour, J.B.; Yanske, T.R.; McKibbin, R.W.

    1995-12-31

    Displacement and stress changes in cemented backfill and ore pillars at the Buick Mine, near Boss, MO, were monitored by engineers from the US Bureau of Mines and The Doe Run Co., St. Louis, MO. A test area in this room-and-pillar mine was backfilled to provide support when remnant ore pillars were mined. Objectives of this research were to evaluate the effect of backfill on mine stability, observe backfill conditions during pillar removal, and calibrate a numerical model to be used to design other areas of the mine. Relative vertical displacements in the backfill were measured with embedment strain gauges and vertical extensometers. Other types of instruments used were earth pressure cells (to identify loading trends in the backfill), borehole extensometers (to measure relative displacement changes in the mine roof and support pillars), and biaxial stressmeters (to measure stress changes in several support pillars and abutments). Two- and three-dimensional numeric codes were used to model the study area. With information from these codes and the installed instruments, two failed pillars were identified and rock mass properties were estimated.

  7. New Flexible Channels for Room Temperature Tunneling Field Effect Transistors

    DOE Public Access Gateway for Energy & Science Beta (PAGES Beta)

    Hao, Boyi; Asthana, Anjana; Hazaveh, Paniz Khanmohammadi; Bergstrom, Paul L.; Banyai, Douglas; Savaikar, Madhusudan A.; Jaszczak, John A.; Yap, Yoke Khin

    2016-02-05

    Tunneling field effect transistors (TFETs) have been proposed to overcome the fundamental issues of Si based transistors, such as short channel effect, finite leakage current, and high contact resistance. Unfortunately, most if not all TFETs are operational only at cryogenic temperatures. Here we report that iron (Fe) quantum dots functionalized boron nitride nanotubes (QDs-BNNTs) can be used as the flexible tunneling channels of TFETs at room temperatures. The electrical insulating BNNTs are used as the one-dimensional (1D) substrates to confine the uniform formation of Fe QDs on their surface as the flexible tunneling channel. Consistent semiconductor-like transport behaviors under variousmore » bending conditions are detected by scanning tunneling spectroscopy in a transmission electron microscopy system (insitu STM-TEM). Ultimately, as suggested by computer simulation, the uniform distribution of Fe QDs enable an averaging effect on the possible electron tunneling pathways, which is responsible for the consistent transport properties that are not sensitive to bending.« less

  8. Cross-linking of polytetrafluoroethylene during room-temperature irradiation

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Pugmire, David L; Wetteland, Chris J; Duncan, Wanda S; Lakis, Rollin E; Schwartz, Daniel S

    2008-01-01

    Exposure of polytetrafluoroethylene (PTFE) to {alpha}-radiation was investigated to detennine the physical and chemical effects, as well as to compare and contrast the damage mechanisms with other radiation types ({beta}, {gamma}, or thermal neutron). A number of techniques were used to investigate the chemical and physical changes in PTFE after exposure to {alpha}-radiation. These techniques include: Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR), differential scanning calorimetry (DSC), and fluorescence spectroscopy. Similar to other radiation types at low doses, the primary damage mechanism for the exposure of PTFE to {alpha}-radiation appears to be chain scission. Increased doses result in a change-over of the damage mechanism to cross-linking. This result is not observed for any radiation type other than {alpha} when irradiation is performed at room temperature. Finally, at high doses, PTFE undergoes mass-loss (via smallfluorocarbon species evolution) and defluorination. The amount and type of damage versus sample depth was also investigated. Other types of radiation yield damage at depths on the order of mm to cm into PTFE due to low linear energy transfer (LET) and the correspondingly large penetration depths. By contrast, the {alpha}-radiation employed in this study was shown to only induce damage to a depth of approximately 26 {mu}m, except at very high doses.

  9. Senior Adviser Richard Kauffman to Host Live Chat on Renewable...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Senior Adviser Richard Kauffman to Host Live Chat on Renewable Energy Innovation and Deployment Senior Adviser Richard Kauffman to Host Live Chat on Renewable Energy Innovation and...

  10. HMPT: Hazardous Waste Transportation Live 27928, Test 27929 ...

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    HMPT: Hazardous Waste Transportation Live 27928, Test 27929 Citation Details In-Document Search Title: HMPT: Hazardous Waste Transportation Live 27928, Test 27929 You are ...

  11. HMPT: Hazardous Waste Transportation Live 27928, Test 27929 ...

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    Technical Report: HMPT: Hazardous Waste Transportation Live 27928, Test 27929 Citation Details In-Document Search Title: HMPT: Hazardous Waste Transportation Live 27928, Test 27929 ...

  12. Tracking Living Cells as They Differentiate in Real Time

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Tracking Living Cells as They Differentiate in Real Time Tracking Living Cells as They Differentiate in Real Time Print Thursday, 27 September 2012 00:00 Protein phosphorylation ...

  13. JV between KP Renewables and Living Buildings | Open Energy Informatio...

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    KP Renewables and Living Buildings Jump to: navigation, search Name: JV between KP Renewables and Living Buildings Place: Brentford, Middlesex, Greater London, United Kingdom Zip:...

  14. Passive Room-to-Room Air Transfer, Fresno, California (Fact Sheet), Building America Case Study: Whole-House Solutions for Existing Homes, Building Technologies Office (BTO)

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Passive Room-to-Room Air Transfer Fresno, California PROJECT INFORMATION Construction: Retrofit Type: Single-family Builder: GreenEarthEquities (retrofit); http://greenearthequities.com/ Size: 1,621 ft 2 Price range: About $140,000 Date completed: 2011 Climate zone: Mixed-dry PERFORMANCE DATA HERS index: Not available Builder standard practice: Not available Case study house: 1,621 ft 2 With renewables: Not applicable Without renewables: 50.1% Projected annual energy cost savings: Not available

  15. Live pathogens: rapid detection technique developed

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Live Discussion on Energy 101: Fuel Cells Live Discussion on Energy 101: Fuel Cells January 16, 2014 - 3:59pm Addthis Rebecca Matulka Rebecca Matulka Former Digital Communications Specialist, Office of Public Affairs Editor's Note: Thanks to everyone who participated in our Google+ Hangout on Energy 101: Fuel Cells. We got a lot of great questions, and our experts talked about everything from the future of fuel cell vehicles and how they're being used as backup power to the efficiency benefits

  16. Tips: Kitchen Appliances | Department of Energy

    Energy Savers [EERE]

    the yearly cost of natural gas and electric water heating. ... water heater in your home to a lower temperature (120 F). ... piece of paper or a dollar bill so it is half in and half ...

  17. Commercial and Industrial Kitchen Equipment Rebate Program

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    NOTE: All equipment must be installed on or after January 1, 2015 through December 31, 2015. The documentation must be received no later than March 31, 2016. 

  18. Tips: Kitchen Appliances | Department of Energy

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    you how much electricity in kilowatt-hours (kWh) a particular model uses in one year. ... Recommended temperatures are 35-38F for the fresh food compartment and 0 F for ...

  19. Best Management Practice #11: Commercial Kitchen Equipment |...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    ... Retrofit and Replacement Options Replace inefficient models with WaterSense-qualified high efficiency pre-rinse spray valves that are specified to have a flow rate of 1.28 gallons ...

  20. A Research Framework for Demonstrating Benefits of Advanced Control Room Technologies

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Le Blanc, Katya; Boring, Ronald; Joe, Jeffrey; Hallbert, Bruce; Thomas, Kenneth

    2014-12-01

    Control Room modernization is an important part of life extension for the existing light water reactor fleet. None of the 99 currently operating commercial nuclear power plants in the U.S. has completed a full-scale control room modernization to date. A full-scale modernization might, for example, entail replacement of all analog panels with digital workstations. Such modernizations have been undertaken successfully in upgrades in Europe and Asia, but the U.S. has yet to undertake a control room upgrade of this magnitude. Instead, nuclear power plant main control rooms for the existing commercial reactor fleet remain significantly analog, with only limited digital modernizations. Previous research under the U.S. Department of Energy’s Light Water Reactor Sustainability Program has helped establish a systematic process for control room upgrades that support the transition to a hybrid control. While the guidance developed to date helps streamline the process of modernization and reduce costs and uncertainty associated with introducing digital control technologies into an existing control room, these upgrades do not achieve the full potential of newer technologies that might otherwise enhance plant and operator performance. The aim of the control room benefits research presented here is to identify previously overlooked benefits of modernization, identify candidate technologies that may facilitate such benefits, and demonstrate these technologies through human factors research. This report serves as an outline for planned research on the benefits of greater modernization in the main control rooms of nuclear power plants.

  1. OVERVIEW OF A RECONFIGURABLE SIMULATOR FOR MAIN CONTROL ROOM UPGRADES IN NUCLEAR POWER PLANTS

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Ronald L. Boring

    2012-10-01

    This paper provides background on a reconfigurable control room simulator for nuclear power plants. The main control rooms in current nuclear power plants feature analog technology that is growing obsolete. The need to upgrade control rooms serves the practical need of maintainability as well as the opportunity to implement newer digital technologies with added functionality. There currently exists no dedicated research simulator for use in human factors design and evaluation activities for nuclear power plant modernization in the U.S. The new research simulator discussed in this paper provides a test bed in which operator performance on new control room concepts can be benchmarked against existing control rooms and in which new technologies can be validated for safety and usability prior to deployment.

  2. Live Webinar on Better Buildings Challenge: Public-Sector Update

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    The Energy Department will present a live webinar titled "Better Buildings Challenge: Public-Sector Update."

  3. Fission barriers and half-lives

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Moeller, P.; Nix, J.R.; Swiatecki, W.J.

    1989-01-01

    We briefly review the development of theoretical models for the calculation of fission barriers and half-lives. We focus on how results of actual calculations in a unified macroscopic-microscopic approach provide an interpretation of the mechanisms behind some of the large number of phenomena observed in fission. As instructive examples we choose studies of the rapidly varying fission properties of elements at the end of the periodic system. 31 refs., 10 figs.

  4. Crews Make First Entry into McCluskey Room for Final Cleanup at Hanford

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Site | Department of Energy Crews Make First Entry into McCluskey Room for Final Cleanup at Hanford Site Crews Make First Entry into McCluskey Room for Final Cleanup at Hanford Site September 30, 2014 - 12:00pm Addthis Bryan Harting, nuclear chemical operator for CH2M HILL Plateau Remediation Company, was part of the crew that made the first entry to begin final cleanup of the McCluskey Room at Hanford’s Plutonium Finishing Plant this month. Bryan Harting, nuclear chemical operator for

  5. Measuring Human Performance in Simulated Nuclear Power Plant Control Rooms Using Eye Tracking

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Kovesdi, Casey Robert; Rice, Brandon Charles; Bower, Gordon Ross; Spielman, Zachary Alexander; Hill, Rachael Ann; LeBlanc, Katya Lee

    2015-11-01

    Control room modernization will be an important part of life extension for the existing light water reactor fleet. As part of modernization efforts, personnel will need to gain a full understanding of how control room technologies affect performance of human operators. Recent advances in technology enables the use of eye tracking technology to continuously measure an operator’s eye movement, which correlates with a variety of human performance constructs such as situation awareness and workload. This report describes eye tracking metrics in the context of how they will be used in nuclear power plant control room simulator studies.

  6. Materials Science Clean Room Facility at Tulane University (Final Technical Report)

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Altiero, Nicholas

    2014-10-28

    The project involves conversion of a 3,000 sq. ft. area into a clean room facility for materials science research. It will be accomplished in phases. Phase I will involve preparation of the existing space, acquisition and installation of clean room equipped with a pulsed laser deposition (PLD) processing system, and conversion of ancillary space to facilitate the interface with the clean room. From a capital perspective, Phases II and III will involve the acquisition of additional processing, fabrication, and characterization equipment and capabilities.

  7. Y-12 helps transform Children's Museum room | Y-12 National Security

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Complex helps transform ... Y-12 helps transform Children's Museum room Posted: May 21, 2015 - 4:54pm At a recent ribbon cutting ceremony, Children's Museum of Oak Ridge Executive Director Mary Ann Damos (at left) discusses the new Mars Rocket Room with CMOR Board Chair Tom Beehan, CMOR board member and Y-12er Chris Clark, Dawn Van Eek of CMOR and museum volunteer Larry Burkholder. The Children's Museum of Oak Ridge recently debuted its new Mars Rocket Room, giving kids an interactive space

  8. Ordered iron aluminide alloys having an improved room-temperature ductility and method thereof

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Sikka, Vinod K.

    1992-01-01

    A process is disclosed for improving the room temperature ductility and strength of iron aluminide intermetallic alloys. The process involves thermomechanically working an iron aluminide alloy by means which produce an elongated grain structure. The worked alloy is then heated at a temperature in the range of about 650.degree. C. to about 800.degree. C. to produce a B2-type crystal structure. The alloy is rapidly cooled in a moisture free atmosphere to retain the B2-type crystal structure at room temperature, thus providing an alloy having improved room temperature ductility and strength.

  9. Microstructure evolution in Xe-irradiated UO2 at room temperature

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    L.F. He; J. Pakarinen; M.A. Kirk; J. Gan; A.T. Nelson; X.-M. Bai; A. El-Azab; T.R. Allen

    2014-07-01

    In situ Transmission Electron Microscopy was conducted for single crystal UO2 to understand the microstructure evolution during 300 keV Xe irradiation at room temperature. The dislocation microstructure evolution was shown to occur as nucleation and growth of dislocation loops at low irradiation doses, followed by transformation to extended dislocation segments and tangles at higher doses. Xe bubbles with dimensions of 1-2 nm were observed after room-temperature irradiation. Electron Energy Loss Spectroscopy indicated that UO2 remained stoichiometric under room temperature Xe irradiation.

  10. Review of Methods Related to Assessing Human Performance in Nuclear Power Plant Control Room Simulations

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Katya L Le Blanc; Ronald L Boring; David I Gertman

    2001-11-01

    With the increased use of digital systems in Nuclear Power Plant (NPP) control rooms comes a need to thoroughly understand the human performance issues associated with digital systems. A common way to evaluate human performance is to test operators and crews in NPP control room simulators. However, it is often challenging to characterize human performance in meaningful ways when measuring performance in NPP control room simulations. A review of the literature in NPP simulator studies reveals a variety of ways to measure human performance in NPP control room simulations including direct observation, automated computer logging, recordings from physiological equipment, self-report techniques, protocol analysis and structured debriefs, and application of model-based evaluation. These methods and the particular measures used are summarized and evaluated.

  11. Room-temperature lithium metal battery closer to reality > EMC2...

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Room-temperature lithium metal battery closer to reality February 3rd, 2016 By Tom ... The relative non-conductivity and brittleness of such barriers, however, means the battery ...

  12. Workers Prepare to Safely Enter One of Hanford Site’s Most Hazardous Rooms

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    RICHLAND, Wash. – When workers enter the hazardous, historic McCluskey Room at the Hanford site this summer, they will be safer due to their preparation and involvement in planning and training for the job.

  13. The LANL C-NR counting room and fission product yields

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Jackman, Kevin Richard

    2015-09-21

    This PowerPoint presentation focused on the following areas: LANL C-NR counting room; Fission product yields; Los Alamos Neutron wheel experiments; Recent experiments ad NCERC; and Post-detonation nuclear forensics

  14. Chapter_2_Limited_Areas_Vault-Type_Rooms_and_Temporary_Limited...

    Energy Savers [EERE]

    ... When the transfer needs to take place (date or range of dates). 3. For removal of a STE or vIPER, the e-mail should include: a. Username b. Room number c. Contact number d. STE or ...

  15. Summary of MgO Bag and Room Model Team | Department of Energy

    Office of Environmental Management (EM)

    This document corresponds to Appendix D: Modeling Integrated Summary Report of the Technical Assessment Team Report. Summary of MgO Bag and Room Model Team (2.85 MB) More Documents ...

  16. Near-term improvements for nuclear power plant control room annunciator systems. [PWR; BWR

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Rankin, W.L.; Duvernoy, E.G.; Ames, K.R.; Morgenstern, M.H.; Eckenrode, R.J.

    1983-04-01

    This report sets forth a basic design philosophy with its associated functional criteria and design principles for present-day, hard-wired annunciator systems in the control rooms of nuclear power plants. It also presents a variety of annunciator design features that are either necessary for or useful to the implementation of the design philosophy. The information contained in this report is synthesized from an extensive literature review, from inspection and analysis of control room annunciator systems in the nuclear industry and in related industries, and from discussions with a variety of individuals who are knowledgeable about annunciator systems, nuclear plant control rooms, or both. This information should help licensees and license applicants in improving their hard-wired, control room annunciator systems as outlined by NUREG-0700.

  17. Hanford Disposal Facility Expands Vertically to Make Room for More Waste |

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Department of Energy Disposal Facility Expands Vertically to Make Room for More Waste Hanford Disposal Facility Expands Vertically to Make Room for More Waste February 11, 2016 - 12:25pm Addthis This photo illustration of the conceptual view shows the vertical expansion of the Environmental Restoration Disposal Facility. The large area on the right includes the uppermost surface of the vertical expansion, which will be shaped to form a crown and will be covered with a 2 percent grade and

  18. Room-temperature calorimeter for x-ray free-electron lasers

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Tanaka, T. Kato, M.; Saito, N.; Tono, K.; Yabashi, M.; Ishikawa, T.

    2015-09-15

    We have developed a room-temperature calorimeter for absolute radiant power measurements of x-ray free-electron lasers. This room-temperature calorimeter is an electrical substitution device based on the equivalence of electrical and radiant heating. Consequently, the measured radiant powers are traceable to electrical standards, i.e., the International System Units (SI). We demonstrated the performance of the room-temperature calorimeter by electrical power measurements (offline tests). In the offline tests, the room-temperature calorimeter was proven to be able to measure external powers up to at least 6.9 mW, which exceeds the upper limit (∼4 mW) of a cryogenic radiometer (the primary standard detector in Japan). In addition, measurement uncertainties of the room-temperature calorimeter were evaluated to be less than 1.0%, which is adequate for the radiant power measurements of x-ray free-electron lasers. An indirect comparison with the cryogenic radiometer was performed using a synchrotron radiation source to confirm the validity of the absolute radiant powers measured with the room-temperature calorimeter. The absolute radiant powers measured by the calorimeter agreed with those measured by the cryogenic radiometer within 0.6%, which is less than the relative standard uncertainty of the comparison (1.0%)

  19. New Advances in Optical Imaging of Live Cells and Organisms

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    New Advances in Optical Imaging of Live Cells and Organisms New Advances in Optical Imaging of Live Cells and Organisms Print http://csh-asia.com/13image.html August 20-23, 2913; Suzhou, China

  20. When Saving Energy Helps Save Lives | Department of Energy

    Energy Savers [EERE]

    When Saving Energy Helps Save Lives When Saving Energy Helps Save Lives May 3, 2016 - 2:41pm Addthis The US Army Corps of Engineers Hut test site in Champaign, IL. ORNL used ...

  1. New Advances in Optical Imaging of Live Cells and Organisms

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    in Optical Imaging of Live Cells and Organisms New Advances in Optical Imaging of Live Cells and Organisms Print http:csh-asia.com13image.html August 20-23, 2913; Suzhou, China...

  2. Hanwha L C Hanwha Living and Creative | Open Energy Information

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    Hanwha L C Hanwha Living and Creative Jump to: navigation, search Name: Hanwha L&C (Hanwha Living and Creative) Place: Seoul, Seoul, Korea (Republic) Zip: 100-797 Sector: Solar...

  3. DOE Tour of Zero Floorplans: Options for Community Living by...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Options for Community Living by United Way of Long Island DOE Tour of Zero Floorplans: Options for Community Living by United Way of Long Island DOE Tour of Zero Floorplans: ...

  4. Today: Live from the Carbon Capture and Storage Forum | Department...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Today: Live from the Carbon Capture and Storage Forum Today: Live from the Carbon Capture and Storage Forum September 8, 2010 - 10:10am Addthis John Schueler John Schueler Former ...

  5. Safety assessment of outdoor live fire range

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    1989-05-01

    The following Safety Assessment (SA) pertains to the outdoor live fire range facility (LFR). The purpose of this facility is to supplement the indoor LFR. In particular it provides capacity for exercises that would be inappropriate on the indoor range. This SA examines the risks that are attendant to the training on the outdoor LFR. The outdoor LFR used by EG&G Mound is privately owned. It is identified as the Miami Valley Shooting Grounds. Mondays are leased for the exclusive use of EG&G Mound.

  6. Secret Lives of Scientists: Matt Kwiatkowski | Argonne National Laboratory

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Secret Lives of Scientists: Matt Kwiatkowski Secret Lives of Scientists &amp; Engineers: Matt Kwiatkowski 1 of 16 Secret Lives of Scientists & Engineers: Matt Kwiatkowski Matt Kwiatkowski is a cyber security manager at Argonne National Lab - and flies over it in a plane he built himself during the weekends. Read the full story &raquo; Photos by Mark Lopez/Argonne National Laboratory. 31296D Secret Lives of Scientists &amp; Engineers: Matt Kwiatkowski 1 of 16 Secret Lives of

  7. Dynamic Metabolism Studies of Live Bacterial Films

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Majors, Paul D.; Mclean, Jeffrey S.

    2008-11-01

    Bacterial film (biofilm) microbes exist within spatial (nutrient, electron-acceptor, pH, etc.) gradients of their own making. Correspondingly, biofilm bacteria are physiologically and functionally distinct from free-floating bacteria and from their own species at differing biofilm depths. This article describes our efforts to develop noninvasive nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) technologies for biofilm-metabolism studies. This involves integrating NMR with controlled-cultivation methods to interrogate microbial physiology live and under known growth conditions. NMR is uniquely capable of providing depth-resolved metabolic and transport information in a non-invasive, non-sample-consuming fashion, providing information required for experimental reactive transport studies. We have studied mono-species biofilms relevant to environment remediation and human health. We describe these technologies, discuss their advantages and limitations, and give examples of their application.

  8. Apparatus and method for transforming living cells

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Okandan, Murat; Galambos, Paul C.

    2003-11-11

    An apparatus and method are disclosed for in vitro transformation of living cells. The apparatus, which is formed as a microelectromechanical device by surface micromachining, can be used to temporarily disrupt the cell walls or membrane of host cells one at a time so that a particular substance (e.g. a molecular tag, nucleic acid, bacteria, virus etc.) can be introduced into the cell. Disruption of the integrity of the host cells (i.e. poration) can be performed mechanically or electrically, or by both while the host cells are contained within a flow channel. Mechanical poration is possible using a moveable member which has a pointed or serrated edge and which is driven by an electrostatic actuator to abrade, impact or penetrate the host cell. Electroporation is produced by generating a relatively high electric field across the host cell when the host cell is located in the flow channel between a pair of electrodes having a voltage applied therebetween.

  9. HYBRID ALARM SYSTEMS: COMBINING SPATIAL ALARMS AND ALARM LISTS FOR OPTIMIZED CONTROL ROOM OPERATION

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Ronald L. Boring; J.J. Persensky

    2012-07-01

    The US Department of Energy (DOE) is sponsoring research, development, and deployment on Light Water Reactor Sustainability (LWRS), in which the Idaho National Laboratory (INL) is working closely with nuclear utilities to develop technologies and solutions to help ensure the safe operational life extension of current nuclear power plants. One of the main areas of focus is control room modernization. Within control room modernization, alarm system upgrades present opportunities to meet the broader goals of the LWRS project in demonstrating the use and safety of the advanced instrumentation and control (I&C) technologies and the short-term and longer term objectives of the plant. In this paper, we review approaches for and human factors issues behind upgrading alarms in the main control room of nuclear power plants.

  10. EARLY-STAGE DESIGN AND EVALUATION FOR NUCLEAR POWER PLANT CONTROL ROOM UPGRADES

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Ronald L. Boring; Jeffrey C. Joe; Thomas A. Ulrich; Roger T. Lew

    2015-03-01

    As control rooms are modernized with new digital systems at nuclear power plants, it is necessary to evaluate operator performance with these systems as part of a verification and validation process. While there is regulatory and industry guidance for some modernization activities, there are no well defined standard processes or predefined metrics available for assessing what is satisfactory operator interaction with new systems, especially during the early design stages. This paper proposes a framework defining the design process and metrics for evaluating human system interfaces as part of control room modernization. The process and metrics are generalizable to other applications and serve as a guiding template for utilities undertaking their own control room modernization activities.

  11. Room temperature spin transport in undoped (110) GaAs/AlGaAs quantum wells

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Yokota, Nobuhide Aoshima, Yohei; Ikeda, Kazuhiro; Kawaguchi, Hitoshi

    2014-02-17

    We are reporting on our first observation of a micrometer-order electron spin transport in a (110) GaAs/AlGaAs multiple quantum well (QW) at room temperature using a space- and time-resolved Kerr rotation technique. A 37-μm transport was observed within an electron spin lifetime of 1.2 ns at room temperature when using an in-plane electric field of 1.75 kV/cm. The spatio-temporal profiles of electron spins were well reproduced by the spin drift-diffusion equations coupled with the Poisson equation, supporting the validity of the measurement. The results suggest that (110) QWs are useful as a spin transport layer for semiconductor spintronic devices operating at room temperature.

  12. Ferromagnetism at room temperature in Cr-doped anodic titanium dioxide nanotubes

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Liao, Yulong E-mail: hwzhang@uestc.edu.cn; Zhang, Huaiwu E-mail: hwzhang@uestc.edu.cn; Li, Jie; Yu, Guoliang; Zhong, Zhiyong; Bai, Feiming; Jia, Lijun; Zhang, Shihong; Zhong, Peng

    2014-05-07

    This study reports the room-temperature ferromagnetism in Cr-doped TiO{sub 2} nanotubes (NTs) synthesized via the electrochemical method followed by a novel Cr-doping process. Scanning electron microscopy and transmission electron microscopy showed that the TiO{sub 2} NTs were highly ordered with length up to 26 ?m, outer diameter about 110 nm, and inner diameter about 100 nm. X-ray diffraction results indicated there were no magnetic contaminations of metallic Cr clusters or any other phases except anatase TiO{sub 2}. The Cr-doped TiO{sub 2} NTs were further annealed in oxygen, air and argon, and room-temperature ferromagnetism was observed in all Cr-doped samples. Moreover, saturation magnetizations and coercivities of the Cr-doped under various annealing atmosphere were further analyzed, and results indicate that oxygen content played a critical role in the room-temperature ferromagnetism.

  13. Room-temperature spin-polarized organic light-emitting diodes with a single ferromagnetic electrode

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Ding, Baofu, E-mail: b.ding@ecu.edu.au; Alameh, Kamal, E-mail: k.alameh@ecu.edu.au [Electron Science Research Institute, Edith Cowan University, 270 Joondalup Drive, Joondalup WA 6027 Australia (Australia); Song, Qunliang [Institute for Clean Energy and Advanced Materials, Southwest University, Chongqing 400715 (China)

    2014-05-19

    In this paper, we demonstrate the concept of a room-temperature spin-polarized organic light-emitting diode (Spin-OLED) structure based on (i) the deposition of an ultra-thin p-type organic buffer layer on the surface of the ferromagnetic electrode of the Spin-OLED and (ii) the use of oxygen plasma treatment to modify the surface of that electrode. Experimental results demonstrate that the brightness of the developed Spin-OLED can be increased by 110% and that a magneto-electroluminescence of 12% can be attained for a 150?mT in-plane magnetic field, at room temperature. This is attributed to enhanced hole and room-temperature spin-polarized injection from the ferromagnetic electrode, respectively.

  14. Room-temperature ferroelectricity of SrTiO{sub 3} films modulated by cation concentration

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Yang, Fang; Zhang, Qinghua; Yang, Zhenzhong; Gu, Junxing; Liang, Yan; Li, Wentao; Wang, Weihua; Jin, Kuijuan; Gu, Lin; Guo, Jiandong

    2015-08-24

    The room-temperature ferroelectricity of SrTiO{sub 3} is promising for oxide electronic devices controlled by multiple fields. An effective way to control the ferroelectricity is highly demanded. Here, we show that the off-centered antisite-like defects in SrTiO{sub 3} films epitaxially grown on Si (001) play the determinative role in the emergence of room-temperature ferroelectricity. The density of these defects changes with the film cation concentration sensitively, resulting in a varied coercive field of the ferroelectric behavior. Consequently, the room-temperature ferroelectricity of SrTiO{sub 3} films can be effectively modulated by tuning the temperature of metal sources during the molecular beam epitaxy growth. Such an easy and reliable modulation of the ferroelectricity enables the flexible engineering of multifunctional oxide electronic devices.

  15. Performance evaluation of ZnO–CuO hetero junction solid state room temperature ethanol sensor

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Yu, Ming-Ru; Suyambrakasam, Gobalakrishnan; Wu, Ren-Jang; Department of Nanotechnology, School of Interdisciplinary Courses, Noorul Islam Centre for Higher Education, Noorul Islam University, Kumaracoil 629180, Tamil Nadu ; Chavali, Murthy; Department of Applied Chemistry, Providence University, 200 Chungchi Road, Shalu, Taichung Hsien 433, Taiwan, R.O.C

    2012-07-15

    Graphical abstract: Sensor response (resistance) curves of time were changed from 150 ppm to 250 ppm alcohol concentration of ZnO–CuO 1:1. The response and recovery times were measured to be 62 and 83 s, respectively. The sensing material ZnO–CuO is a high potential alcohol sensor which provides a simple, rapid and highly sensitive alcohol gas sensor operating at room temperature. Highlights: ► The main advantages of the ethanol sensor are as followings. ► Novel materials ZnO–CuO ethanol sensor. ► The optimized ZnO–CuO hetero contact system. ► A good sensor response and room working temperature (save energy). -- Abstract: A semiconductor ethanol sensor was developed using ZnO–CuO and its performance was evaluated at room temperature. Hetero-junction sensor was made of ZnO–CuO nanoparticles for sensing alcohol at room temperature. Nanoparticles were prepared by hydrothermal method and optimized with different weight ratios. Sensor characteristics were linear for the concentration range of 150–250 ppm. Composite materials of ZnO–CuO were characterized using X-ray diffraction (XRD), temperature-programmed reduction (TPR) and high-resolution transmission electron microscopy (HR-TEM). ZnO–CuO (1:1) material showed maximum sensor response (S = R{sub air}/R{sub alcohol}) of 3.32 ± 0.1 toward 200 ppm of alcohol vapor at room temperature. The response and recovery times were measured to be 62 and 83 s, respectively. The linearity R{sup 2} of the sensor response was 0.9026. The sensing materials ZnO–CuO (1:1) provide a simple, rapid and highly sensitive alcohol gas sensor operating at room temperature.

  16. Light Water Reactor Sustainability Program A Reference Plan for Control Room Modernization: Planning and Analysis Phase

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Jacques Hugo; Ronald Boring; Lew Hanes; Kenneth Thomas

    2013-09-01

    The U.S. Department of Energy’s Light Water Reactor Sustainability (LWRS) program is collaborating with a U.S. nuclear utility to bring about a systematic fleet-wide control room modernization. To facilitate this upgrade, a new distributed control system (DCS) is being introduced into the control rooms of these plants. The DCS will upgrade the legacy plant process computer and emergency response facility information system. In addition, the DCS will replace an existing analog turbine control system with a display-based system. With technology upgrades comes the opportunity to improve the overall human-system interaction between the operators and the control room. To optimize operator performance, the LWRS Control Room Modernization research team followed a human-centered approach published by the U.S. Nuclear Regulatory Commission. NUREG-0711, Rev. 3, Human Factors Engineering Program Review Model (O’Hara et al., 2012), prescribes four phases for human factors engineering. This report provides examples of the first phase, Planning and Analysis. The three elements of Planning and Analysis in NUREG-0711 that are most crucial to initiating control room upgrades are: • Operating Experience Review: Identifies opportunities for improvement in the existing system and provides lessons learned from implemented systems. • Function Analysis and Allocation: Identifies which functions at the plant may be optimally handled by the DCS vs. the operators. • Task Analysis: Identifies how tasks might be optimized for the operators. Each of these elements is covered in a separate chapter. Examples are drawn from workshops with reactor operators that were conducted at the LWRS Human System Simulation Laboratory HSSL and at the respective plants. The findings in this report represent generalized accounts of more detailed proprietary reports produced for the utility for each plant. The goal of this LWRS report is to disseminate the technique and provide examples sufficient to

  17. Laser sheet light flow visualization for evaluating room air flowsfrom Registers

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Walker, Iain S.; Claret, Valerie; Smith, Brian

    2006-04-01

    Forced air heating and cooling systems and whole house ventilation systems deliver air to individual rooms in a house via supply registers located on walls ceilings or floors; and occasionally less straightforward locations like toe-kicks below cabinets. Ideally, the air velocity out of the registers combined with the turbulence of the flow, vectoring of air by register vanes and geometry of register placement combine to mix the supply air within the room. A particular issue that has been raised recently is the performance of multiple capacity and air flow HVAC systems. These systems vary the air flow rate through the distribution system depending on the system load, or if operating in a ventilation rather than a space conditioning mode. These systems have been developed to maximize equipment efficiency, however, the high efficiency ratings do not include any room mixing effects. At lower air flow rates, there is the possibility that room air will be poorly mixed, leading to thermal stratification and reduced comfort for occupants. This can lead to increased energy use as the occupants adjust the thermostat settings to compensate and parts of the conditioned space have higher envelope temperature differences than for the well mixed case. In addition, lack of comfort can be a barrier to market acceptance of these higher efficiency systems To investigate the effect on room mixing of reduced air flow rates requires the measurement of mixing of supply air with room air throughout the space to be conditioned. This is a particularly difficult exercise if we want to determine the transient performance of the space conditioning system. Full scale experiments can be done in special test chambers, but the spatial resolution required to fully examine the mixing problem is usually limited by the sheer number of thermal sensors required. Current full-scale laboratory testing is therefore severely limited in its resolution. As an alternative, we used a water-filled scale model

  18. Shot-noise-limited magnetometer with sub-picotesla sensitivity at room temperature

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Lucivero, Vito Giovanni; Anielski, Pawel; Gawlik, Wojciech; Mitchell, Morgan W.

    2014-11-15

    We report a photon shot-noise-limited (SNL) optical magnetometer based on amplitude modulated optical rotation using a room-temperature {sup 85}Rb vapor in a cell with anti-relaxation coating. The instrument achieves a room-temperature sensitivity of 70 fT/?(Hz) at 7.6 ?T. Experimental scaling of noise with optical power, in agreement with theoretical predictions, confirms the SNL behaviour from 5 ?T to 75??T. The combination of best-in-class sensitivity and SNL operation makes the system a promising candidate for application of squeezed light to a state-of-the-art atomic sensor.

  19. PNA-peptide Assembly in a 3D DNA Nanocage at Room Temperature

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    PNA-peptide Assembly in a 3D DNA Nanocage at Room Temperature Authors: Flory, J.D., Shinde, S., Lin, S., Liu, Y., Yan, H., Ghirlanda, G., and Fromme, P. Title: PNA-peptide Assembly in a 3D DNA Nanocage at Room Temperature Source: J. Am. Chem. Soc. Year: 2013 Volume: 135 (18) Pages: 6985-6993 ABSTRACT: Proteins and peptides fold into dynamic structures that access a broad functional landscape, however, designing artificial polypeptide systems is still a great challenge. Conversely, DNA

  20. Quantum confinement of zero-dimensional hybrid organic-inorganic polaritons at room temperature

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Nguyen, H. S.; Lafosse, X.; Amo, A.; Bouchoule, S.; Bloch, J.; Abdel-Baki, K.; Lauret, J.-S.; Deleporte, E.

    2014-02-24

    We report on the quantum confinement of zero-dimensional polaritons in perovskite-based microcavity at room temperature. Photoluminescence of discrete polaritonic states is observed for polaritons localized in symmetric sphere-like defects which are spontaneously nucleated on the top dielectric Bragg mirror. The linewidth of these confined states is found much sharper (almost one order of magnitude) than that of photonic modes in the perovskite planar microcavity. Our results show the possibility to study organic-inorganic cavity polaritons in confined microstructure and suggest a fabrication method to realize integrated polaritonic devices operating at room temperature.

  1. Bridging the gap: adapting advanced display technologies for use in hybrid control rooms

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Jokstad, Håkon; Boring, Ronald

    2015-02-01

    The Institute for Energy Technology (IFE), runs the OECD Halden Reactor Project (HRP), featuring a state-of-the-art research simulator facility in Halden, Norway, called HAMMLAB. HAMMLAB serves two main purposes: the study of human behaviour in interaction with complex process systems; and the development, test and evaluation of prototype control centres and their individual systems. By studying operator performance in HAMMLAB and integrating the knowledge gained into new designs, the HRP contributes to improving operational safety, reliability, efficiency and productivity. The U.S. Department of Energy’s (DOE) Light Water Reactor Sustainability (LWRS) Program has contracted IFE to assist DOE national laboratory staff at Idaho National Laboratory (INL) in adapting HAMMLAB design concepts for the purpose of control room modernization at nuclear power plants in the U.S. In support of this effort, the DOE has built a simulator research facility at INL called the Human Systems Simulation Laboratory (HSSL). The HSSL is centered on control room modernization, in which industry provided plant instrumentation and controls are modified for upgrade opportunities. The HSSL houses the LWRS simulator, which is a reconfigurable full-scale and full-scope control room simulator. Consisting of 45 large touchscreens on 15 panels, the LWRS simulator is currently using this glass top technology to digitally represent and replicate the functionality of the analog I&C systems in existing control rooms. The LWRS simulator is reconfigurable in that different plant training simulator models obtained from the utilities can be run on the panels, and the panels can be physically moved and arranged to mimic the layout of those control rooms. The glass top technology and reconfigurability capabilities allow the LWRS simulator to be the research platform that is necessary to design, prototype, and validate human-system interface (HSI) technologies that can replace existing analog I&C. IFE has

  2. Instantaneous radioiodination of rose bengal at room temperature and a cold-kit therefor. [DOE patent application

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    O'Brien, H. Jr.; Hupf, H.B.; Wanek, P.M.

    The disclosure relates to the radioiodination of rose bengal at room temperature and a cold-kit therefor. A purified rose bengal tablet is stirred into acidified ethanol at or near room temperature, until a suspension forms. Reductant-free /sup 125/I/sup -/ is added and the resulting mixture stands until the exchange label reaction occurs at room temperature. A solution of sterile isotonic phosphate buffer and sodium hydroxide is added and the final resulting mixture is sterilized by filtration.

  3. Electromicroinjection of particles into living cells

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Ray, F. Andrew; Cram, L. Scott; Galey, William R.

    1988-01-01

    Method and apparatus for introducing particles into living cells. Fluorescently-stained human chromosomes are introduced into cultured, mitotic Chinese hamster cells using electromicroinjection. The recipient cells frequently survived the physiological perturbation imposed by a successful chromosome injection. Successfully injected recipient cells maintained viability as evidenced by their ability to be expanded. The technique relies on the surface charge of fluorescently stained chromosomes and their ability to be attracted and repelled to and from the tip of a micropipette. The apparatus includes a micropipette having a tip suitable for piercing the membrane of a target cell and an electrode inserted into the lumen thereof. The target cells and suspended particles are located in an electrically conducted solution, and the lumen of the micropipette is filled with an electrically conducting solution which contacts the electrode located therein. A second electrode is also located in the conducting solution containing the target cells and particles. Voltages applied to the electrode within the micropipette attract the particles to the region of the tip thereof. The particles adhere to the surface of the micropipette with sufficient force that insertion of the micropipette tip and attached particle through the membrane of a target cell will not dislodge the particle. By applying a voltage having the opposite polarity of the attraction voltage, the particles are expelled from the micropipette to which is then withdrawn from the cell body.

  4. HMPT: Hazardous Waste Transportation Live 27928, Test 27929 (Technical

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    Report) | SciTech Connect HMPT: Hazardous Waste Transportation Live 27928, Test 27929 Citation Details In-Document Search Title: HMPT: Hazardous Waste Transportation Live 27928, Test 27929 HMPT: Hazardous Waste Transportation (Live 27928, suggested one time and associated Test 27929, required initially and every 36 months) addresses the Department of Transportation (DOT) function-specific training requirements of the hazardous materials packagings and transportation (HMPT) Los Alamos

  5. Live webcast on groundbreaking results of Algal Biofuels Consortium, June

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    11 Live webcast on Algal Biofuels Consortium Live webcast on groundbreaking results of Algal Biofuels Consortium, June 11 Jose A. Olivares will present an overview of the technologies and processes that are needed to widely produce algae-based liquid transportation fuels. June 10, 2014 Jose A. Olivares Jose A. Olivares Contact Nancy Ambrosiano Communications Office (505) 667-0471 Email The Energy Department will present a live webcast titled "Algal Biofuels Consortium Releases

  6. National Clean Energy Business Plan Competition: Living Ink Technologies

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Wins CU Clean Energy Competition Regional Championship | Department of Energy Living Ink Technologies Wins CU Clean Energy Competition Regional Championship National Clean Energy Business Plan Competition: Living Ink Technologies Wins CU Clean Energy Competition Regional Championship May 4, 2015 - 2:51pm Addthis Living Ink Technologies has developed a patent-pending technology that uses algae to transform carbon dioxide into ink that is cheaper, healthier, and more environmentally

  7. New Advances in Optical Imaging of Live Cells and Organisms

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    New Advances in Optical Imaging of Live Cells and Organisms http://csh-asia.com/13image.html August 20-23, 2913; Suzhou, China

  8. Table HC1.2.1. Living Space Characteristics by

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    Space Characteristics by" " Total, Heated, and Cooled Floorspace, 2005" ,,,"Total Square Footage" ,"Housing Units",,"Total1",,"Heated",,"Cooled" "Living Space Characteristics","Mil...

  9. The living publication (Technical Report) | SciTech Connect

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    The first article describes the present state of the crystallographic living publication, already recognized by an ALPSP (Association of Learned and Professional Society ...

  10. Spontaneous fission half-lives for ground state nuclides

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Holden, N.E. [Brookhaven National Lab., Upton, NY (United States); Hoffman, D.C. [Lawrence Berkeley Lab., CA (United States)

    1993-08-01

    Measurements of the spontaneous fission half-lives of nuclides of elements Z = 90 to 108 have been compiled and evaluated. Recommended values are presented.

  11. Dutch Company Powers Streetlights With Living Plants; Will Your...

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    Dutch Company Powers Streetlights With Living Plants; Will Your Cell Phone Be Next? Home > Groups > OpenEI Community Central Dc's picture Submitted by Dc(266) Contributor 16...

  12. National Clean Energy Business Plan Competition: Living Ink Technologi...

    Energy Savers [EERE]

    ... After winning the CU Clean Energy Competition Regional Championship, Living Ink Technologies will now join FGC Plasma Solutions, winner of the Clean Energy Challenge, and Hyliion, ...

  13. Tracking Living Cells as They Differentiate in Real Time

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Tracking Living Cells as They Differentiate in Real Time Print Protein phosphorylation ... cells, enabling them to follow cellular chemical changes in real time, without bias. ...

  14. Tracking Living Cells as They Differentiate in Real Time

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Tracking Living Cells as They Differentiate in Real Time Print Protein phosphorylation regulates protein function in a cell, either activating or inactivating the proteins...

  15. Superior Energy Performance: New Website Live and Ready for Business...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Superior Energy Performance: New Website Live and Ready for Business January 16, 2014 - ... who want to prove their achievements in energy management and lower plant energy costs. ...

  16. Brownsville Public Utilities Board- Green Living Residential Rebate Program

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

     Brownsville Public Utilities Board offers residential customers rebates for installation of energy efficient measures. Through the Green Living Rebate program, customers can apply for rebates for...

  17. Indoor Chemical Exposures: Humans' Non-respiratory Interactions with Room Air

    ScienceCinema (OSTI)

    Charles Weschler

    2010-09-01

    March 18, 2010 Berkeley Lab Environmental Energy Technology Division distinguished lecture: The marked difference in pollutant concentrations between an occupied and un-occupied room are only partially explained by human bio-effluents. Humans alter levels of ozone and related oxidants such as nitrate and hydroxyl radicals in the rooms they inhabit; in effect, they change the oxidative capacity of room air. Ozone-initiated reactions on exposed skin, hair and clothing generate products, including potentially irritating chemicals whose concentrations are much higher in the occupant's breathing zone than in the core of the room. Charles J. Weschler is a Professor at the School of Public Health, the Department of Environmental and Occupational Medicine and the Environmental and Occupational Health Sciences Institute (EOHSI) at the University of Medicine and Dentistry of New Jersey (UMDNJ)/Robert Wood Johnson Medical School & Rutgers University (New Jersey). He is also a Visiting Professor at the International Centre for Indoor Environment and Energy, Technical University of Denmark (DTU, Lyngby, Denmark).

  18. Indoor Chemical Exposures: Humans' Non-respiratory Interactions with Room Air

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Charles Weschler

    2010-03-29

    March 18, 2010 Berkeley Lab Environmental Energy Technology Division distinguished lecture: The marked difference in pollutant concentrations between an occupied and un-occupied room are only partially explained by human bio-effluents. Humans alter levels of ozone and related oxidants such as nitrate and hydroxyl radicals in the rooms they inhabit; in effect, they change the oxidative capacity of room air. Ozone-initiated reactions on exposed skin, hair and clothing generate products, including potentially irritating chemicals whose concentrations are much higher in the occupant's breathing zone than in the core of the room. Charles J. Weschler is a Professor at the School of Public Health, the Department of Environmental and Occupational Medicine and the Environmental and Occupational Health Sciences Institute (EOHSI) at the University of Medicine and Dentistry of New Jersey (UMDNJ)/Robert Wood Johnson Medical School & Rutgers University (New Jersey). He is also a Visiting Professor at the International Centre for Indoor Environment and Energy, Technical University of Denmark (DTU, Lyngby, Denmark).

  19. Current methods to handle wall conduction and room internal heat transfer

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Davies, M.G.

    1999-07-01

    This paper reviews methods of handling wall conduction and room internal heat exchange adopted by ASHRAE (1993 Handbook of Fundamentals and later developments), CIBSE (1986 Guide and current proposals), and the CEN/TC89/WG6 proposals to calculate heating and cooling loads and related topics.

  20. Baseline Evaluations to Support Control Room Modernization at Nuclear Power Plants

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Boring, Ronald L.; Joe, Jeffrey C.

    2015-02-01

    For any major control room modernization activity at a commercial nuclear power plant (NPP) in the U.S., a utility should carefully follow the four phases prescribed by the U.S. Nuclear Regulatory Commission in NUREG-0711, Human Factors Engineering Program Review Model. These four phases include Planning and Analysis, Design, Verification and Validation, and Implementation and Operation. While NUREG-0711 is a useful guideline, it is written primarily from the perspective of regulatory review, and it therefore does not provide a nuanced account of many of the steps the utility might undertake as part of control room modernization. The guideline is largely summative—intended to catalog final products—rather than formative—intended to guide the overall modernization process. In this paper, we highlight two crucial formative sub-elements of the Planning and Analysis phase specific to control room modernization that are not covered in NUREG-0711. These two sub-elements are the usability and ergonomics baseline evaluations. A baseline evaluation entails evaluating the system as-built and currently in use. The usability baseline evaluation provides key insights into operator performance using the control system currently in place. The ergonomics baseline evaluation identifies possible deficiencies in the physical configuration of the control system. Both baseline evaluations feed into the design of the replacement system and subsequent summative benchmarking activities that help ensure that control room modernization represents a successful evolution of the control system.

  1. Technical and economic analysis of energy efficiency of Chinese room air conditioners

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Fridley, David G.; Rosenquist, Gregory; Jiang, Lin; Li, Aixian; Xin, Dingguo; Cheng, Jianhong

    2001-02-01

    China has experienced tremendous growth in the production and sales of room air conditioners over the last decade. Although minimum room air conditioner energy efficiency standards have been in effect since 1989, no efforts were made during most of the 1990's to update the standard to be more reflective of current market conditions. In 1999, China's State Bureau of Technical Supervision (SBTS) included in their annual plan the development and revision of the 1989 room air conditioner standard, and experts from SBTS worked together with LBNL to analyze the new standards. Based on the engineering and life cycle-cost analyses performed, the most predominant type of room air conditioner in the Chinese market (split-type with a cooling capacity between 2500 and 4500 W (8500 Btu/h and 15,300Btu/h)) can have its efficiency increased cost-effectively to an energy efficiency ratio (EER) of 2.92 W/W (9.9 Btu/hr/W). If an EER standard of 2.92 W/W became effective in 2001, Chinese consumers would be estimated to save over 3.5 billion Yuan (420 million U.S. dollars) over the period of 2001-2020. Carbon emissions over the same period would be reduced by approximately 12 million metric tonnes.

  2. Method of installing a control room console in a nuclear power plant

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Scarola, Kenneth; Jamison, David S.; Manazir, Richard M.; Rescorl, Robert L.; Harmon, Daryl L.

    1994-01-01

    An advanced control room complex for a nuclear power plant, including a discrete indicator and alarm system (72) which is nuclear qualified for rapid response to changes in plant parameters and a component control system (64) which together provide a discrete monitoring and control capability at a panel (14-22, 26, 28) in the control room (10). A separate data processing system (70), which need not be nuclear qualified, provides integrated and overview information to the control room and to each panel, through CRTs (84) and a large, overhead integrated process status overview board (24). The discrete indicator and alarm system (72) and the data processing system (70) receive inputs from common plant sensors and validate the sensor outputs to arrive at a representative value of the parameter for use by the operator during both normal and accident conditions, thereby avoiding the need for him to assimilate data from each sensor individually. The integrated process status board (24) is at the apex of an information hierarchy that extends through four levels and provides access at each panel to the full display hierarchy. The control room panels are preferably of a modular construction, permitting the definition of inputs and outputs, the man machine interface, and the plant specific algorithms, to proceed in parallel with the fabrication of the panels, the installation of the equipment and the generic testing thereof.

  3. High resolution InSb quantum well ballistic nanosensors for room temperature applications

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Gilbertson, Adam; Cohen, L. F.; Lambert, C. J.; Solin, S. A.

    2013-12-04

    We report the room temperature operation of a quasi-ballistic InSb quantum well Hall sensor that exhibits a high frequency sensitivity of 560nT/?Hz at 20uA bias current. The device utilizes a partitioned buffer layer design that suppresses leakage currents through the mesa floor and can sustain large current densities.

  4. News Room

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    energy waste and improves the kinetics of the oxygen reduction reaction, toward a more efficient fuel cell cycle. Los Alamos explores hybrid ultrasmall gold nanocluster for...

  5. Harnessing the Sun: Energy in Our Lives | Department of Energy

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Harnessing the Sun: Energy in Our Lives Harnessing the Sun: Energy in Our Lives Addthis Innovation Workshop: Harnessing the Sun highlights the science and engineering of how radiant energy is transformed into other useful forms of energy. Watch the rest of the videos

  6. Rocky Flats Plant Live-Fire Range Risk Analysis Report

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Nicolosi, S.L.; Rodriguez, M.A.

    1994-04-01

    The objective of the Live-Fire Range Risk Analysis Report (RAR) is to provide an authorization basis for operation as required by DOE 5480.16. The existing Live-Fire Range does not have a safety analysis-related authorization basis. EG&G Rocky Flats, Inc. has worked with DOE and its representatives to develop a format and content description for development of an RAR for the Live-Fire Range. Development of the RAR is closely aligned with development of the design for a baffle system to control risks from errant projectiles. DOE 5480.16 requires either an RAR or a safety analysis report (SAR) for live-fire ranges. An RAR rather than a SAR was selected in order to gain flexibility to more closely address the safety analysis and conduct of operation needs for a live-fire range in a cost-effective manner.

  7. Benefits of Advanced Control Room Technologies: Phase One Upgrades to the HSSL, Research Plan, and Performance Measures

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Le Blanc, Katya; Joe, Jeffrey; Rice, Brandon; Ulrich, Thomas; Boring, Ronald

    2015-05-01

    Control Room modernization is an important part of life extension for the existing light water reactor fleet. None of the 99 currently operating commercial nuclear power plants in the U.S. has completed a full-scale control room modernization to date. A full-scale modernization might, for example, entail replacement of all analog panels with digital workstations. Such modernizations have been undertaken successfully in upgrades in Europe and Asia, but the U.S. has yet to undertake a control room upgrade of this magnitude. Instead, nuclear power plant main control rooms for the existing commercial reactor fleet remain significantly analog, with only limited digital modernizations. Previous research under the U.S. Department of Energy’s Light Water Reactor Sustainability Program has helped establish a systematic process for control room upgrades that support the transition to a hybrid control room. While the guidance developed to date helps streamline the process of modernization and reduce costs and uncertainty associated with introducing digital control technologies into an existing control room, these upgrades do not achieve the full potential of newer technologies that might otherwise enhance plant and operator performance. The aim of the control room benefits research is to identify previously overlooked benefits of modernization, identify candidate technologies that may facilitate such benefits, and demonstrate these technologies through human factors research. This report describes the initial upgrades to the HSSL and outlines the methodology for a pilot test of the HSSL configuration.

  8. Headquarters Facilities Master Security Plan- Chapter 2, Limited Areas, Vault-Type Rooms and Temporary Limited Areas

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE)

    2016 Headquarters Facilities Master Security Plan - Chapter 2, Limited Areas, Vault-Type Rooms and Temporary Limited Areas Describes DOE Headquarters procedures for establishing, maintaining, and deactivating Limited Areas and Vault-Type Rooms and protecting the classified information handled within those Areas.

  9. BEYOND INTEGRATED SYSTEM VALIDATION: USE OF A CONTROL ROOM TRAINING SIMULATOR FOR PROOF-OF-CONCEPT INTERFACE DEVELOPMENT

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Ronald Boring; Vivek Agarwal

    2012-07-01

    This paper provides background on a reconfigurable control room simulator for nuclear power plants. The main control rooms in current nuclear power plants feature analog technology that is growing obsolete. The need to upgrade control rooms serves the practical need of maintainability as well as the opportunity to implement newer digital technologies with added functionality. There currently exists no dedicated research simulator for use in human factors design and evaluation activities for nuclear power plants in the US. The new research simulator discussed in this paper provides a test bed in which operator performance on new control room concepts can be benchmarked against existing control rooms and in which new technologies can be validated for safety and usability prior to deployment.

  10. Room-temperature elastic constants of Sc and ScD[sub 0. 18

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Leisure, R.G. ); Schwarz, R.B.; Migliori, A.; Lei, M. )

    1993-07-01

    The complete set of elastic constants for Sc and ScD[sub 0.18] has been measured at room temperature. The results show that the addition of hydrogen to this rare-earth metal has a qualitatively different effect than the addition of hydrogen to transition metals such as palladium, vanadium, niobium, and tantalum. In the case of Sc all five elastic constants increase with the addition of hydrogen. The bulk modulus for ScD[sub 0.18] is 9.5% higher than that for Sc. The Debye temperature computed from the room-temperature elastic constants is 355 K for Sc and 371 K for ScD[sub 0.18].

  11. Observation of optical spin injection into Ge-based structures at room temperature

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Yasutake, Yuhsuke; Hayashi, Shuhei; Fukatsu, Susumu; Yaguchi, Hiroyuki

    2013-06-17

    Non-zero spin polarization induced by optical orientation was clearly observed at room temperature in a Ge/Ge{sub 0.8}Si{sub 0.2} quantum well grown on Ge and a Ge layer grown on Si by molecular beam epitaxy, whereas it was absent in bulk Ge. This occurred because indirect-gap photoluminescence (PL), which can obscure the spin-polarization information carried by the direct-gap PL, was quenched by unintentional growth-related defects in the epitaxial layers. Such interpretation was confirmed by applying time gating that effectively removed the indirect-gap PL characterized by a slower rise time, which allowed us to demonstrate the existence of room-temperature spin polarization in bulk Ge.

  12. Iron-aluminum alloys having high room-temperature and method for making same

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Sikka, Vinod K.; McKamey, Claudette G.

    1993-01-01

    Iron-aluminum alloys having selectable room-temperature ductilities of greater than 20%, high resistance to oxidation and sulfidation, resistant pitting and corrosion in aqueous solutions, and possessing relatively high yield and ultimate tensile strengths are described. These alloys comprise 8 to 9.5% aluminum, up to 7% chromium, up to 4% molybdenum, up to 0.05% carbon, up to 0.5% of a carbide former such as zirconium, up to 0.1 yttrium, and the balance iron. These alloys in wrought form are annealed at a selected temperature in the range of 700.degree. C. to about 1100.degree. C. for providing the alloys with selected room-temperature ductilities in the range of 20 to about 29%.

  13. Realization of ground-state artificial skyrmion lattices at room temperature

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Gilbert, Dustin A.; Maranville, Brian B.; Balk, Andrew L.; Kirby, Brian J.; Fischer, Peter; Pierce, Daniel T.; Unguris, John; Borchers, Julie A.; Liu, Kai

    2015-10-08

    We report that the topological nature of magnetic skyrmions leads to extraordinary properties that provide new insights into fundamental problems of magnetism and exciting potentials for novel magnetic technologies. Prerequisite are systems exhibiting skyrmion lattices at ambient conditions, which have been elusive so far. We demonstrate the realization of artificial Bloch skyrmion lattices over extended areas in their ground state at room temperature by patterning asymmetric magnetic nanodots with controlled circularity on an underlayer with perpendicular magnetic anisotropy (PMA). Polarity is controlled by a tailored magnetic field sequence and demonstrated in magnetometry measurements. The vortex structure is imprinted from the dots into the interfacial region of the underlayer via suppression of the PMA by a critical ion-irradiation step. In conclusion, the imprinted skyrmion lattices are identified directly with polarized neutron reflectometry and confirmed by magnetoresistance measurements. Our results demonstrate an exciting platform to explore room-temperature ground-state skyrmion lattices.

  14. Realization of ground-state artificial skyrmion lattices at room temperature

    DOE Public Access Gateway for Energy & Science Beta (PAGES Beta)

    Gilbert, Dustin A.; Maranville, Brian B.; Balk, Andrew L.; Kirby, Brian J.; Fischer, Peter; Pierce, Daniel T.; Unguris, John; Borchers, Julie A.; Liu, Kai

    2015-10-08

    We report that the topological nature of magnetic skyrmions leads to extraordinary properties that provide new insights into fundamental problems of magnetism and exciting potentials for novel magnetic technologies. Prerequisite are systems exhibiting skyrmion lattices at ambient conditions, which have been elusive so far. We demonstrate the realization of artificial Bloch skyrmion lattices over extended areas in their ground state at room temperature by patterning asymmetric magnetic nanodots with controlled circularity on an underlayer with perpendicular magnetic anisotropy (PMA). Polarity is controlled by a tailored magnetic field sequence and demonstrated in magnetometry measurements. The vortex structure is imprinted from themore » dots into the interfacial region of the underlayer via suppression of the PMA by a critical ion-irradiation step. In conclusion, the imprinted skyrmion lattices are identified directly with polarized neutron reflectometry and confirmed by magnetoresistance measurements. Our results demonstrate an exciting platform to explore room-temperature ground-state skyrmion lattices.« less

  15. Method and global relationship for estimation of transmitted solar energy distribution in passive solar rooms

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Athienitis, A.K.; Stylianou, M. )

    1991-01-01

    Estimation of the distribution of transmitted solar radiation within a room with large windows is required for correct prediction of building thermal performance and for optimal positioning of the thermal storage mass. This article presents a detailed computer method that determines the instantaneous solar radiation transmitted through a window and absorbed by each room interior surface, and a correlation for estimating the fraction of daily total transmitted solar radiation absorbed by the floor for several latitudes, for different shapes of enclosures, and for varying surface solar absorptances. The correlation was developed by fitting an exponential relationship to results obtained from a numerical study of the variation of the following parameters influencing the distribution of solar radiation: latitude, day of year, geometry of enclosure (width-to-depth ratio and window azimuth angle), window-to-floor area ratio, and surface absorptances.

  16. Cu-Cu direct bonding achieved by surface method at room temperature

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Utsumi, Jun [Advanced Technology Research Center, Mitsubishi Heavy Industries, Ltd., 1-8-1 Sachiura, Kanazawa-ku, Yokohama 236-8515 (Japan); Ichiyanagi, Yuko, E-mail: yuko@ynu.ac.jp [Department of Physics, Graduate School of Engineering, Yokohama National University, Tokiwadai, Hodogaya, Yokohama 240-8501 (Japan)

    2014-02-20

    The metal bonding is a key technology in the processes for the microelectromechanical systems (MEMS) devices and the semiconductor devices to improve functionality and higher density integration. Strong adhesion between surfaces at the atomic level is crucial; however, it is difficult to achieve close bonding in such a system. Cu films were deposited on Si substrates by vacuum deposition, and then, two Cu films were bonded directly by means of surface activated bonding (SAB) at room temperature. The two Cu films, with the surface roughness Ra about 1.3nm, were bonded by using SAB at room temperature, however, the bonding strength was very weak in this method. In order to improve the bonding strength between the Cu films, samples were annealed at low temperatures, between 323 and 473 K, in air. As the result, the Cu-Cu bonding strength was 10 times higher than that of the original samples without annealing.

  17. Low GWP Refrigerants Modelling Study for a Room Air Conditioner Having Microchannel Heat Exchangers

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Shen, Bo; Bhandari, Mahabir S

    2016-01-01

    Microchannel heat exchangers (MHX) have found great successes in residential and commercial air conditioning applications, being compact heat exchangers, to reduce refrigerant charge and material cost. This investigation aims to extend the application of MHXs in split, room air conditioners (RAC), per fundamental heat exchanger and system modelling. For this paper, microchannel condenser and evaporator models were developed, using a segment-to-segment modelling approach. The microchannel heat exchanger models were integrated to a system design model. The system model is able to predict the performance indices, such as cooling capacity, efficiency, sensible heat ratio, etc. Using the calibrated system and heat exchanger models, we evaluated numerous low GWP (global warming potential) refrigerants. The predicted system performance indices, e.g. cooling efficiency, compressor discharge temperature, and required compressor displacement volume etc., are compared. Suitable replacements for R22 and R-410A for the room air conditioner application are recommended.

  18. Giant electrocaloric effect in asymmetric ferroelectric tunnel junctions at room temperature

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Liu, Yang Infante, Ingrid C.; Dkhil, Brahim; Lou, Xiaojie

    2014-02-24

    Room-temperature electrocaloric properties of Pt/BaTiO{sub 3}/SrRuO{sub 3} ferroelectric tunnel junctions (FTJs) are studied by using a multiscale thermodynamic model. It is found that there is a divergence in the adiabatic temperature change ΔT for the two opposite polarization orientations. This difference under a typical writing voltage of 3 V can reach over 1 K as the barrier thickness decreases. Thanks to the ultrahigh external stimulus, a giant electrocaloric effect (1.53 K/V) with ΔT being over 4.5 K can be achieved at room temperature, which demonstrates the perspective of FTJs as a promising solid-state refrigeration.

  19. The Committee met in Room 8E089 in the Forrestal Building, 1800

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    APRIL 4, 2003 + + + + + The Committee met in Room 8E089 in the Forrestal Building, 1800 Independence Avenue, S.W., Washington, D.C., at 8:30 a.m., Jay Breidt, Chair, presiding. PRESENT: F. JAY BREIDT, Chair MARK BERNSTEIN, Committee Member JOHNNY BLAIR, Committee Member JAE EDMONDS, Committee Member MOSHE FEDER, Committee Member JAMES K. HAMMITT, Committee Member NEHA KHANNA, Committee Member WILLIAM G. MOSS, Committee Member NAGARAJ K. NEERCHAL, Committee Member POLLY A. PHIPPS, Committee

  20. Wobbling Molecules Probe Wiggle Room in Nanochannels | U.S. DOE Office of

    Office of Science (SC) Website

    Science (SC) Wobbling Molecules Probe Wiggle Room in Nanochannels Basic Energy Sciences (BES) BES Home About Research Facilities Science Highlights Benefits of BES Funding Opportunities Basic Energy Sciences Advisory Committee (BESAC) Community Resources Contact Information Basic Energy Sciences U.S. Department of Energy SC-22/Germantown Building 1000 Independence Ave., SW Washington, DC 20585 P: (301) 903-3081 F: (301) 903-6594 E: Email Us More Information » 10.01.14 Wobbling Molecules

  1. Design and Validation of Control Room Upgrades Using a Research Simulator Facility

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Ronald L. Boring; Vivek Agarwal; Jeffrey C. Joe; Julius J. Persensky

    2012-11-01

    Since 1981, the United States (U.S.) Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC) [1] requires a plant- specific simulator facility for use in training at U.S. nuclear power plants (NPPs). These training simulators are in near constant use for training and qualification of licensed NPP operators. In the early 1980s, the Halden Man-Machine Laboratory (HAMMLab) at the Halden Reactor Project (HRP) in Norway first built perhaps the most well known set of research simulators. The HRP offered a high- fidelity simulator facility in which the simulator is functionally linked to a specific plant but in which the human-machine interface (HMI) may differ from that found in the plant. As such, HAMMLab incorporated more advanced digital instrumentation and controls (I&C) than the plant, thereby giving it considerable interface flexibility that researchers took full advantage of when designing and validating different ways to upgrade NPP control rooms. Several U.S. partnersthe U.S. NRC, the Electrical Power Research Institute (EPRI), Sandia National Laboratories, and Idaho National Laboratory (INL) as well as international members of the HRP, have been working with HRP to run control room simulator studies. These studies, which use crews from Scandinavian plants, are used to determine crew behavior in a variety of normal and off-normal plant operations. The findings have ultimately been used to guide safety considerations at plants and to inform advanced HMI designboth for the regulator and in industry. Given the desire to use U.S. crews of licensed operators on a simulator of a U.S. NPP, there is a clear need for a research simulator facility in the U.S. There is no general-purpose reconfigurable research oriented control room simulator facility in the U.S. that can be used for a variety of studies, including the design and validation of control room upgrades.

  2. Method of Production of Pure Hydrogen Near Room Temperature From Ultra High

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Capacity Hydride Materials - Energy Innovation Portal Hydrogen and Fuel Cell Hydrogen and Fuel Cell Energy Storage Energy Storage Advanced Materials Advanced Materials Find More Like This Return to Search Method of Production of Pure Hydrogen Near Room Temperature From Ultra High Capacity Hydride Materials Ames Laboratory Contact AMES About This Technology Technology Marketing Summary This is a cost-effective method for the production of pure hydrogen gas from ultra high capacity hydride

  3. Room temperature broadband terahertz gains in graphene heterostructures based on inter-layer radiative transitions

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Tang, Linlong; Du, Jinglei; Shi, Haofei Wei, Dongshan; Du, Chunlei

    2014-10-15

    We exploit inter-layer radiative transitions to provide gains to amplify terahertz waves in graphene heterostructures. This is achieved by properly doping graphene sheets and aligning their energy bands so that the processes of stimulated emissions can overwhelm absorptions. We derive an expression for the gain estimation and show the gain is insensitive to temperature variation. Moreover, the gain is broadband and can be strong enough to compensate the free carrier loss, indicating graphene based room temperature terahertz lasers are feasible.

  4. Research on cw electron accelerators using room-temperature rf structures: Annual report

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Not Available

    1986-08-15

    This joint NBS-Los Alamos project of ''Research on CW Electron Accelerators Using Room-Temperature RF Structures'' began seven years ago with the goal of developing a technology base for cw electron accelerators. In this report we describe our progress during FY 1986 and present our plans for completion of the project. First, however, it is appropriate to review the past contributions of the project, describe its status, and indicate its future benefits.

  5. Golden Reading Room: Request for Proposals (RFP) Number DE-RP36-07GO97036 |

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Department of Energy Request for Proposals (RFP) Number DE-RP36-07GO97036 Golden Reading Room: Request for Proposals (RFP) Number DE-RP36-07GO97036 RFP DE-RP36-07GO97036 -- Management and Operation of the National Renewable Energy Laboratory Alliance Prime Contract No. DE-AC36-08GO28308, through modification 1033

  6. Live Webcast on Recent Wind Energy Technology Advances

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    The Energy Department will present a live webcast titled “Recent Wind Technology Advances” on April 16, 2014, from 3:00 to 4:00 p.m. Eastern Standard Time.

  7. Senior Adviser Richard Kauffman to Host Live Chat on Renewable...

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    WHAT: Senior Adviser to the Secretary of Energy Richard Kauffman to host "Energy Matters" live chat WHEN: Thursday, October 20th 2:00 PM EST HOW: Watch online at Energy.gov To ...

  8. Spontaneous fission half-lives for ground state nuclides

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Holden, N.E. (Brookhaven National Lab., Upton, NY (United States)); Hoffman, D.C. (Lawrence Berkeley Lab., CA (United States))

    1991-01-01

    Measurements of the spontaneous fission half-lives of nuclides of elements Z = 90 to 107 have been compiled and evaluated. Recommended values are presented. 126 refs., 96 tabs.

  9. Live Webinar on the Funding Opportunity for Water Power Manufacturing

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE)

    On April 23, 2014 from 11:00 AM - 1:00 PM MDT, the Water Power Program will hold a live webinar to provide information to potential applicants for the Water Power Manufacturing Funding Opportunity...

  10. iiESI.org is live! | OpenEI Community

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    live OpenEI maintenance March 8-9, 2013 Research topics related to ESI Prospects for Nuclear Power(Davis 2012) A Framework for the Optimization of Integrated Energy Systems(Jain...

  11. Watch a Rare Earth Elements Event Live This Morning | Department...

    Broader source: Energy.gov (indexed) [DOE]

    Ginny Simmons Ginny Simmons Former Managing Editor for Energy.gov, Office of Public Affairs From 9:30am to noon ET today you can tune into a live discussion on "rare earth ...

  12. Acting Biomass Program Manager Dr. Valerie Reed to Host Live...

    Broader source: Energy.gov (indexed) [DOE]

    December 16th, the Energy Department (@energy) will be hosting a live Twitter Q&A on biofuels with Dr. Valerie Reed, Acting Manager of the Biomass Program. Dr. Reed holds a Ph. D....

  13. How Will We Live Forever? | GE Global Research

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Live Forever? Click to email this to a friend (Opens in new window) Share on Facebook (Opens in new window) Click to share (Opens in new window) Click to share on LinkedIn (Opens ...

  14. A summary of methods for approximating salt creep and disposal room closure in numerical models of multiphase flow

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Freeze, G.A.; Larson, K.W.; Davies, P.B.

    1995-10-01

    Eight alternative methods for approximating salt creep and disposal room closure in a multiphase flow model of the Waste Isolation Pilot Plant (WIPP) were implemented and evaluated: Three fixed-room geometries three porosity functions and two fluid-phase-salt methods. The pressure-time-porosity line interpolation method is the method used in current WIPP Performance Assessment calculations. The room closure approximation methods were calibrated against a series of room closure simulations performed using a creep closure code, SANCHO. The fixed-room geometries did not incorporate a direct coupling between room void volume and room pressure. The two porosity function methods that utilized moles of gas as an independent parameter for closure coupling. The capillary backstress method was unable to accurately simulate conditions of re-closure of the room. Two methods were found to be accurate enough to approximate the effects of room closure; the boundary backstress method and pressure-time-porosity line interpolation. The boundary backstress method is a more reliable indicator of system behavior due to a theoretical basis for modeling salt deformation as a viscous process. It is a complex method and a detailed calibration process is required. The pressure lines method is thought to be less reliable because the results were skewed towards SANCHO results in simulations where the sequence of gas generation was significantly different from the SANCHO gas-generation rate histories used for closure calibration. This limitation in the pressure lines method is most pronounced at higher gas-generation rates and is relatively insignificant at lower gas-generation rates. Due to its relative simplicity, the pressure lines method is easier to implement in multiphase flow codes and simulations have a shorter execution time.

  15. Live from Greenbuild: From the Industrial Facilities Connect & Learn |

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Department of Energy Live from Greenbuild: From the Industrial Facilities Connect & Learn Live from Greenbuild: From the Industrial Facilities Connect & Learn November 18, 2015 - 5:32pm Addthis By Monica Kanojia The industrial industry is filled with unique and dynamic projects with substantially high process loads and resource consumption. This sector faces a different set of challenges in attaining sustainably built campuses. Owners must address compliance, regulations and safety

  16. Portsmouth Educational Outreach Seeks to Transform Lives of Area Students |

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Department of Energy Educational Outreach Seeks to Transform Lives of Area Students Portsmouth Educational Outreach Seeks to Transform Lives of Area Students January 29, 2014 - 12:00pm Addthis Students participating in the Science Alliance enjoyed hands-on exhibits and discussions with scientists, engineers and specialists in a range of fields. Students participating in the Science Alliance enjoyed hands-on exhibits and discussions with scientists, engineers and specialists in a range of

  17. Tracking Living Cells as They Differentiate in Real Time

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Tracking Living Cells as They Differentiate in Real Time Tracking Living Cells as They Differentiate in Real Time Print Thursday, 27 September 2012 00:00 Protein phosphorylation regulates protein function in a cell, either activating or inactivating the proteins responsible for many cell functions ranging from cell proliferation to differentiation to metabolism to signaling, and even programmed cell death. This chemical process has been studied intensively, but until now it has been impossible

  18. Invisible Science: Lab Breakthroughs in Our Daily Lives | Department of

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Energy Invisible Science: Lab Breakthroughs in Our Daily Lives Invisible Science: Lab Breakthroughs in Our Daily Lives April 24, 2012 - 2:30pm Addthis The Lab Breakthroughs video series focuses on the array of technological advancements and discoveries that stem from research performed in the National Labs, including improvements in industrial processes, discoveries in fundamental scientific research, and innovative medicines. <a href="http://energy.gov/lab-breakthroughs">See

  19. Public invited to share living with wildfire stories with BSM

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Public invited to share living with wildfire stories with BSM Public invited to share living with wildfire stories with BSM The exhibit provides an opportunity for people to share their stories about the Las Conchas fire and other wildfires. June 11, 2012 Personal experiences and stories around wildfire are part of a new interactive exhibit at the Bradbury. Personal experiences and stories around wildfire are part of a new interactive exhibit at the Bradbury. Contact Steve Sandoval

  20. Living Comfortably: A Consumer's Guide to Home Energy Upgrades |

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Department of Energy Living Comfortably: A Consumer's Guide to Home Energy Upgrades Living Comfortably: A Consumer's Guide to Home Energy Upgrades March 7, 2013 - 3:15pm Addthis A weatherization worker drills holes to blow cellulose insulation in the interior walls of this home. | Photo courtesy of Dennis Schroeder, NREL A weatherization worker drills holes to blow cellulose insulation in the interior walls of this home. | Photo courtesy of Dennis Schroeder, NREL Dr. Richard Knaub Project

  1. LiveWall Operational Evaluation: Seattle Law Enforcement Pilot

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Barr, Jonathan L.; Burtner, Edwin R.; Stein, Steven L.

    2013-10-01

    The LiveWall concept envisioned as an outgrowth of the Precision Information Environment (PIE) project allows communications between separate groups using interactive video, audio, and a shared desktop environment; this allows everyone to participate and collaborate in real time, regardless of location. The LiveWall concept provides a virtual window to other locations, where all parties can interact and collaboratively work with each other. This functionality is intended to improve multi-site coordination amongst emergency operations centers (EOC), field operations sites and across organizations and jurisdictions to accommodate communications during routine and emergency events. For the initial LiveWall operational evaluation PNNL partnered with the Seattle Police Department (SPD). This partnership allowed for the creation of an excellent LiveWall test bed specific to law enforcement. This partnership made it possible to test the LiveWall concept with scenarios involving the many facets of the law enforcement work done by SPD. PNNL and SPD agreed that integrating the systems into operations for a real event would be the best test of the technology and give SPD staff greater visibility into the functionality and benefits offered by the LiveWall concept.

  2. Human Factors Guidance for Control Room and Digital Human-System Interface Design and Modification, Guidelines for Planning, Specification, Design, Licensing, Implementation, Training, Operation and Maintenance

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    R. Fink, D. Hill, J. O'Hara

    2004-11-30

    Nuclear plant operators face a significant challenge designing and modifying control rooms. This report provides guidance on planning, designing, implementing and operating modernized control rooms and digital human-system interfaces.

  3. ISSUANCE 2015-07-17: Energy Conservation Program: Energy Conservation Standards for Room Air Conditioners; Request for Information, Extension of the Public Comment Period

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    Energy Conservation Program: Energy Conservation Standards for Room Air Conditioners; Request for Information, Extension of the Public Comment Period

  4. A Pilot Study Investigating the Effects of Advanced Nuclear Power Plant Control Room Technologies: Methods and Qualitative Results

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    BLanc, Katya Le; Powers, David; Joe, Jeffrey; Spielman, Zachary; Rice, Brandon; Fitzgerald, Kirk

    2015-08-01

    Control room modernization is an important part of life extension for the existing light water reactor fleet. None of the 99 currently operating commercial nuclear power plants in the U.S. has completed a full-scale control room modernization to date. Nuclear power plant main control rooms for the existing commercial reactor fleet remain significantly analog, with only limited digital modernizations. Upgrades in the U.S. do not achieve the full potential of newer technologies that might otherwise enhance plant and operator performance. The goal of the control room upgrade benefits research is to identify previously overlooked benefits of modernization, identify candidate technologies that may facilitate such benefits, and demonstrate these technologies through human factors research. This report describes a pilot study to test upgrades to the Human Systems Simulation Laboratory at INL.

  5. Avoiding 100 new power plants by increasing efficiency of room air conditioners in India: opportunities and challenges

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Phadke, Amol; Abhyankar, Nikit; Shah, Nihar

    2013-10-15

    Electricity demand for room ACs is growing very rapidly in emerging economies such as India. We estimate the electricity demand from room ACs in 2030 in India considering factors such as weather and income growth using market data on penetration of ACs in different income classes and climatic regions. We discuss the status of the current standards, labels, and incentive programs to improve the efficiency of room ACs in these markets and assess the potential for further large improvements in efficiency and find that efficiency can be improved by over 40% cost effectively. The total potential energy savings from Room AC efficiency improvement in India using the best available technology will reach over 118 TWh in 2030; potential peak demand saving is found to be 60 GW by 2030. This is equivalent to avoiding 120 new coal fired power plants of 500 MW each. We discuss policy options to complement, expand and improve the ongoing programs to capture this large potential.

  6. Avoiding 100 New Power Plants by Increasing Efficiency of Room Air Conditioners in India: Opportunities and Challenges

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Phadke, Amol; Abhyankar, Nikit; Shah, Nihar

    2014-06-19

    Electricity demand for room ACs is growing very rapidly in emerging economies such as India. We estimate the electricity demand from room ACs in 2030 in India considering factors such as weather and income growth using market data on penetration of ACs in different income classes and climatic regions. We discuss the status of the current standards, labels, and incentive programs to improve the efficiency of room ACs in these markets and assess the potential for further large improvements in efficiency and find that efficiency can be improved by over 40percent cost effectively. The total potential energy savings from Room AC efficiency improvement in India using the best available technology will reach over 118 TWh in 2030; potential peak demand saving is found to be 60 GW by 2030. This is equivalent to avoiding 120 new coal fired power plants of 500 MW each. We discuss policy options to complement, expand and improve the ongoing programs to capture this large potential.

  7. Control room modernization at Finnish nuclear power plants - Two projects compared

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Laarni, J.; Norros, L.

    2006-07-01

    The modernization of automation systems and human-machine interfaces is a current issue at both of the two nuclear power plants (i.e., Fortum's Loviisa plant and TVO's Olkiluoto plant) in Finland. Since the plants have been launched in the 1970's or 1980's, technology is in part old-fashioned and needs to be renewed. At Olkiluoto upgrades of the turbine operator systems have already been conducted; at Loviisa the first phase of the modernization project has just started. Basically, there is a question of the complete digitalization of the information streams at the two plants, and transition from a conventional hard-wired or hybrid control room to a screen-based one. The new human-machine interfaces will comprise new technology, such as PC workstations, soft control, touch screens and large-screen overall displays. The modernization of human-system interfaces is carried out in a stepwise manner at both plants. At both plants the main driver has not been the need to renew the user interfaces of the control room, but the need to upgrade the automation systems. In part because of this, there is a lack of a systematic top-down approach in which different aspects of human factors (HF) engineering are considered in relationship to higher level goals. Our aim here is to give an overview description of the control room modernization projects at the two plants and provide a preliminary evaluation of their progress to date. The projects are also compared, for example, in terms of duration, scope and phasing, and who is responsible for the realization of the project. In addition, we also compare experiences from the Finnish projects to experiences from similar projects abroad. The main part of the data used in this study is based on designers' and project members' interviews. (authors)

  8. Staff Radiation Doses in a Real-Time Display Inside the Angiography Room

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Sanchez, Roberto Vano, E.; Fernandez, J. M.; Gallego, J. J.

    2010-12-15

    MethodsThe evaluation of a new occupational Dose Aware System (DAS) showing staff radiation doses in real time has been carried out in several angiography rooms in our hospital. The system uses electronic solid-state detectors with high-capacity memory storage. Every second, it archives the dose and dose rate measured and is wirelessly linked to a base-station screen mounted close to the diagnostic monitors. An easy transfer of the values to a data sheet permits further analysis of the scatter dose profile measured during the procedure, compares it with patient doses, and seeks to find the most effective actions to reduce operator exposure to radiation.ResultsThe cumulative occupational doses measured per procedure (shoulder-over lead apron) ranged from 0.6 to 350 {mu}Sv when the ceiling-suspended screen was used, and DSA (Digital Subtraction Acquisition) runs were acquired while the personnel left the angiography room. When the suspended screen was not used and radiologists remained inside the angiography room during DSA acquisitions, the dose rates registered at the operator's position reached up to 1-5 mSv/h during fluoroscopy and 12-235 mSv/h during DSA acquisitions. In such case, the cumulative scatter dose could be more than 3 mSv per procedure.ConclusionReal-time display of doses to staff members warns interventionists whenever the scatter dose rates are too high or the radiation protection tools are not being properly used, providing an opportunity to improve personal protection accordingly.

  9. Establishing a value chain for human factors in nuclear power plantcontrol room modernization

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Joe, Jeffrey Clark; Thomas, Kenneth David; Boring, Ronald Laurids

    2015-07-01

    Commercial nuclear power plants in the United States (U.S.) have operated reliably and efficiently for decades. With the life extensions of plants now being planned for operation beyond their original operating licenses, there are opportunities to achieve even greater efficiencies, while maintaining high operational reliabilities, with strategic, risk- and economically-informed, upgrades to plant systems and infrastructure. The U.S. Department of Energy’s Light Water Reactor Sustainability (LWRS) program supports the commercial nuclear industry’s modernization efforts through research and development (R&D) activities across many areas to help establish the technical and economic bases for modernization activities. The Advanced Instrumentation, Information, and Control Systems Technologies pathway is one R&D focus area for the LWRS program, and has researchers at Idaho National Laboratory working with select utility partners to use human factors and instrumentation and controls R&D to help modernize the plant’s main control room. However, some in the nuclear industry have not been as enthusiastic about using human factors R&D to inform life extension decision making. Part of the reason for this may stem from uncertainty decision-makers have regarding how human factors fits into the value chain for nuclear power plant control room modernization. This paper reviews past work that has attempted to demonstrate the value of human factors, and then describes the value chain concept, how it applies to control room modernization, and then makes a case for how and why human factors is an essential link in the modernization value chain.

  10. The Committee convened in the Clark Room of the Holiday Inn

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    - - - - - COMMITTEE ON ENERGY STATISTICS - - - - - MEETING - - - - - FRIDAY, APRIL 26, 1996 The Committee convened in the Clark Room of the Holiday Inn Capitol, 550 C Street, S.W., Washington, D.C., at 9:00 a.m., DR. TIMOTHY D. MOUNT, Chair, presiding. PRESENT: TIMOTHY D. MOUNT, Chair SAMPRIT CHATTERJEE BRENDA G. COX JOHN D. GRACE CALVIN KENT GRETA M. LJUNG RICHARD A. LOCKHART DANIEL A. RELLES BRADLEY O. SKARPNESS G. CAMPBELL WATKINS ALSO PRESENT: RENEE MILLER YVONNE M. BISHOP DIANE LIQUE L.A.

  11. The Committee met at 8:30 a.m., in Room 8E-089, Forrestal

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    + + + + + FALL MEETING + + + + + Friday, November 3, 2000 + + + + + The Committee met at 8:30 a.m., in Room 8E-089, Forrestal Building, U.S. Department of Energy, 1000 Independence Avenue, S.W., Washington, D.C., Dr. Carol Gotway Crawford, Chairperson, presiding. PRESENT: CAROL A. GOTWAY CRAWFORD, Ph.D., Chairperson F. JAY BREIDT, Ph.D., Vice Chairperson THOMAS G. COWING, Ph.D. JAMES K. HAMMITT, Ph.D. CALVIN A. KENT, Ph.D. W. DAVID MONTGOMERY, Ph.D. WILLIAM G. MOSS, Ph.D. PRESENT (Continued):

  12. The Committee met in the Columbia Room at the Holiday Inn

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    Friday, April 21, 1995 - - - The Committee met in the Columbia Room at the Holiday Inn Capitol, 550 C Street S.W., Washington, D.C., at 9:00 a.m., Timothy D. Mount, Chairman, presiding. PRESENT: TIMOTHY D. MOUNT, Chair DAVID R. BELLHOUSE CHARLES W. BISCHOFF BRENDA G. COX FAYE DUCHIN JOHN D. GRACE PHILIP HANSWER CALVIN KENT GRETA M. LJUNG JAMES L. O'BRIEN DANIEL A. RELLES BRADLEY O. SKARPNESS G. CAMPBELL WATKINS A-G-E-N-D-A Page No. Introductory Remarks, TIMOTHY MOUNT, Chairman 3 Announcement of

  13. The Committee met in Conference Room 8E-089 in the Forrestal

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    THURSDAY APRIL 13, 2000 + + + + + The Committee met in Conference Room 8E-089 in the Forrestal Building at 10th Street and Independence Avenue, S.W., Washington, D.C., at 8:30 a.m., Carol Gotway Crawford, Chair, presiding. PRESENT: CAROL A. GOTWAY CRAWFORD, PhD Chair JAY BREIDT, PhD Member THOMAS G. COWING, PhD Member CALVIN A. KENT, PhD Member W. DAVID MONTGOMERY, PhD Member WILLIAM G. MOSS, PhD Member POLLY A. PHIPPS, PhD Member RANDY R. SITTER, PhD Member ROY WHITMORE, PhD Member JOHNNY

  14. The Committee met in Room 1E-245 of the Forrestal Building,

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    COMMITTEE ON ENERGY STATISTICS MEETING FRIDAY NOVEMBER 20, 1998 The Committee met in Room 1E-245 of the Forrestal Building, Department of Energy, 1000 Independence Avenue, S.W., Washington, D.C. at 8:30 a.m., Daniel A. Relles, Chair, presiding. PRESENT: Daniel A. Relles, Chair Carol Gotway Crawford, Vice Chair David R. Bellhouse Charles W. Bischoff Jay Breidt R. Samprit Chatterjee Greta M. Ljung Polly A. Phipps Seymour Sudman ALSO PRESENT: Lynda CarlsonBob Jewett Mary CarlsonRoy Kass Jay

  15. The Committee met in Room 1E-246 of the Forrestal Building at

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    MEETING + + + + + THURSDAY NOVEMBER 19, 1998 The Committee met in Room 1E-246 of the Forrestal Building at the Department of Energy, 1000 Independence Avenue, S.W., Washington, D.C., at 8:30 a.m., Daniel A. Relles, Chair, presiding. PRESENT: DANIEL A. RELLES Chair CAROL GOTWAY CRAWFORD Vice Chair DAVID R. BELLHOUSE CHARLES W. BISCHOFF JAY BREIDT R. SAMPRIT CHATTERJEE JAMES HAMMITT GRETA M. LJUNG POLLY A. PHIPPS SEYMOUR SUDMAN ALSO PRESENT: ERIN BOEDECKER STEPHEN CALOPEDIS LYNDA CARLSON SAM COHEN

  16. The Committee met in the Clark Room in the Holiday Inn Capitol,

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    - - - COMMITTEE ON ENERGY STATISTICS - - - THURSDAY, APRIL 23, 1998 - - - The Committee met in the Clark Room in the Holiday Inn Capitol, 550 C Street, S.W., Washington, D.C., at 9:00 a.m., Daniel A. Relles, Chair, presiding. PRESENT: DANIEL A. RELLES Chair CHARLES W. BISCHOFF Member CAROL A. GOTWAY CRAWFORD Member PHILIP HANSER Member CALVIN KENT Member GRETA M. LJUNG Member POLLY A. PHIPPS Member SEYMOUR SUDMAN Member ROY W. WHITMORE Member DENNY ELLERMAN Guest JAMES HAMMITT Guest I N D E X

  17. The Committee met in the Clark Room in the Holiday Inn Capitol,

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    FRIDAY APRIL 24, 1998 - - - The Committee met in the Clark Room in the Holiday Inn Capitol, 550 C Street, S.W., Washington, D.C., at 9:00 a.m., Daniel Relles, Chair, presiding. PRESENT: DANIEL RELLES Chair CHARLES BISCHOFF Member CAROL CRAWFORD Member CALVIN KENT Member GRETA M. LJUNG Member POLLY PHIPPS Member SEYMOUR SUDMAN Member ROY WHITMORE Member JAMES HAMMITT Guest I N D E X Page Opening Comments from the Chair 3 Recognizing Previous Judges of the EIA Graphics 4 Contest and Announcing

  18. The Committee met in the Clark Room of the Capitol Holiday Inn,

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    PUBLIC MEETING + + + + + THURSDAY NOVEMBER 13, 1997 + + + + + WASHINGTON, D.C. The Committee met in the Clark Room of the Capitol Holiday Inn, 550 C Street, S.W., at 9:00 a.m., G. Campbell Watkins, Chair, presiding. PRESENT: G. CAMPBELL WATKINS Chair DANIEL A. RELLES Vice Chair DAVID R. BELLHOUSE R. SAMPRIT CHATTERJEE BRENDA G. COX CAROL A. GOTWAY CRAWFORD PHILIP HANSEN CALVIN KENT GRETA M. LJUNG ROY WHITMORE INVITED GUESTS: SEYMOUR SUDMAN RICHARD TABORS EIA STAFF: JAY HAKES EIA Administrator

  19. The Committee met in the Clark Room, Holiday Inn Capitol at 550

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    PUBLIC MEETING + + + THURSDAY, APRIL 10, 1997 + + + The Committee met in the Clark Room, Holiday Inn Capitol at 550 C Street, S.W., Washington, D.C., at 9:00 a.m., G. Campbell Watkins, Chairman, presiding. PRESENT: G. CAMPBELL WATKINS, Chairman DAVID R. BELLHOUSE CHARLES W. BISCHOFF BRENDA G. COX CAROL A. GOTWAY CRAWFORD CALVIN KENT GRETA M. LJUNG DANIEL A. RELLES BRADLEY O. SKARPNESS PRESENT (Continued): ROY WHITMORE C O N T E N T S PAGE Opening Remarks, Lynda Carlson 10 Update on 1997

  20. The Committee met in the Columbia Room at the Holiday Inn Capitol,

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    THURSDAY, APRIL 20, 1995 The Committee met in the Columbia Room at the Holiday Inn Capitol, 550 C Street, S.W., Washington, D.C., at 9:00 a.m., Timothy D. Mount, Chair, presiding. PRESENT: TIMOTHY D. MOUNT, Chair DAVID R. BELLHOUSE CHARLES W. BISCHOFF BRENDA G. COX FAYE DUCHIN JOHN D. GRACE PHILIP HANSER CALVIN KENT GRETA M. LJUNG JAMES L. O'BRIEN DANIEL A. RELLES BRADLEY O. SKARPNESS G. CAMPBELL WATKINS AGENDA Introductions by Committee Chair . . . . . . . . . 3 Opening Remarks by Administrator

  1. The meeting was held at 8:30 in Room 8E-089 of the Department

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    THURSDAY, OCTOBER 24, 2002 The meeting was held at 8:30 in Room 8E-089 of the Department of Energy, 1000 Independence Avenue, S.W., Washington, D.C., Carol A. Gotway Crawford, Chair, presiding. PRESENT: CAROL A. GOTWAY CRAWFORD, Ph.D. Chair F. JAY BREIDT, Ph.D. Vice Chair MARK BERNSTEIN, Ph.D. JOHNNY BLAIR MARK BURTON, Ph.D. JAY EDMONDS, Ph.D. JAMES K. HAMMITT, Ph.D. NICHOLAS W. HENGARTNER WILLIAM G. MOSS, Ph.D. POLLY A. PHIPPS, Ph.D. RANDY R. SITTER, Ph.D. ROY WHITMORE, Ph.D. ENERGY INFORMATION

  2. Detection of pico-Tesla magnetic fields using magneto-electric sensors at room temperature

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Zhai Junyi; Xing Zengping; Dong Shuxiang; Li Jiefang; Viehland, D. [Department of Materials Science and Engineering, Virginia Tech, Blacksburg, Virginia 24061 (United States)

    2006-02-06

    The measurement of low-frequency (10{sup -2}-10{sup 3} Hz) minute magnetic field variations (10{sup -12} Tesla) at room temperature in a passive mode of operation would be critically enabling for deployable neurological signal interfacing and magnetic anomaly detection applications. However, there is presently no magnetic field sensor capable of meeting all of these requirements. Here, we present new bimorph and push-pull magneto-electric laminate composites, which incorporate a charge compensation mechanism (or bridge) that dramatically enhances noise rejection, enabling achievement of such requirements.

  3. A comparison of hydrogen and mercury embrittlement in monel at room temperature

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Taylor, L.B.; Price, C.E.

    1986-01-01

    Slow strain rate tensile tests were performed on annealed and cold drawn Monel 400 and Monel R405 at room temperature in air, mercury, and electrolyte hydrogen. Hydrogen and mercury caused embrittlement with the fractures having the same specific features. Crack initiation was largely intergranular but an increasing proportion of transgranular cracking occurred subsequently, especially in the presence of hydrogen and for monel R405. It is believed that the decreased cohesive strength and enhanced shear models of embrittlement apply to the intergranular and transgranular crack modes respectively.

  4. Microstructure development during equal channel angular drawing of Al at room temperature

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Chakkingal, U.; Suriadi, A.B.; Thomson, P.F.

    1998-08-11

    In this study 3004 aluminum alloy can-stock remelt (composition 99.9% Al) was subjected to Equal Channel Angular Drawing (ECAD) at room temperature. Tests were conducted to an applied true strain of 2.95. Mechanical properties like tensile strength, ductility at fracture, and microhardness were measured. The development of the substructure was studied using optical and transmission electron microscopy. Subgrain sizes and their angular misorientations were measured as a function of the applied strain. In general, a substructure that consists of cells and subgrains was seen to evolve, as is expected for the case of high SFE fcc metals.

  5. Night of the Living Trash: Bringing Your Waste Back to Life ...

    Office of Environmental Management (EM)

    Night of the Living Trash: Bringing Your Waste Back to Life Night of the Living Trash: Bringing Your Waste Back to Life October 30, 2015 - 12:33pm Addthis Night of the Living ...

  6. TODAY: ARPA-E Director Arun Majumdar to Host Live Chat on Reducing...

    Energy Savers [EERE]

    Live Chat on Reducing America's Oil Dependence Through Innovation TODAY: ARPA-E Director Arun Majumdar to Host Live Chat on Reducing America's Oil Dependence Through Innovation ...

  7. A waterjet mining machine for use in room and pillar mining operations

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Summers, D.A.

    1990-06-01

    A new mining machine is constructed for use in room and pillar mining operations. This machine uses the action of computer controlled, centrally located high pressure cutting lances to cut deep slots in a coal face. These slots stress relieve the coal ahead of the machine and outline blocks of coal. The movement forward of the machine then wedges up the lower block of coal. This wedging action is assisted by the gathering arms of the loader section of the machine, and by underlying oscillating waterjets which create a slot ahead of the loading wedge as it advances. Finally the top section of coal is brought down by the sequential advance of wedge faced roof support members, again assisted by the waterjet action from the central cutting arms. The machine is designed to overcome major disadvantages of existing room and pillar mining machines in regard to a reduction in respirable dust, the creation of an immediate roof support, and an increase in product size, with concomitant reduction in cleaning costs.

  8. CuInP2S6 Room Temperature Layered Ferroelectric

    DOE Public Access Gateway for Energy & Science Beta (PAGES Beta)

    Belianinov, Alex; He, Qian; Dziaugys, Andrius; Maksymovych, Petro; Eliseev, Eugene; Borisevich, Albina Y.; Morozovska, Anna N.; Banys, Juras; Vysochanskii, Yulian; Kalinin, Sergei V.

    2015-05-01

    In this paper, we explore ferroelectric properties of cleaved 2-D flakes of copper indium thiophosphate, CuInP2S6 (CITP), and probe size effects along with limits of ferroelectric phase stability, by ambient and ultra high vacuum scanning probe microscopy. CITP belongs to the only material family known to display ferroelectric polarization in a van der Waals, layered crystal at room temperature and above. Our measurements directly reveal stable, ferroelectric polarization as evidenced by domain structures, switchable polarization, and hysteresis loops. We found that at room temperature the domain structure of flakes thicker than 100 nm is similar to the cleaved bulk surfaces,more » whereas below 50 nm polarization disappears. We ascribe this behavior to a well-known instability of polarization due to depolarization field. Furthermore, polarization switching at high bias is also associated with ionic mobility, as evidenced both by macroscopic measurements and by formation of surface damage under the tip at a bias of 4 V—likely due to copper reduction. Mobile Cu ions may therefore also contribute to internal screening mechanisms. Finally, the existence of stable polarization in a van-der-Waals crystal naturally points toward new strategies for ultimate scaling of polar materials, quasi-2D, and single-layer materials with advanced and nonlinear dielectric properties that are presently not found in any members of the growing “graphene family”.« less

  9. CuInP2S6 Room Temperature Layered Ferroelectric

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Belianinov, Alex; He, Qian; Dziaugys, Andrius; Maksymovych, Petro; Eliseev, Eugene; Borisevich, Albina Y.; Morozovska, Anna N.; Banys, Juras; Vysochanskii, Yulian; Kalinin, Sergei V.

    2015-05-01

    In this paper, we explore ferroelectric properties of cleaved 2-D flakes of copper indium thiophosphate, CuInP2S6 (CITP), and probe size effects along with limits of ferroelectric phase stability, by ambient and ultra high vacuum scanning probe microscopy. CITP belongs to the only material family known to display ferroelectric polarization in a van der Waals, layered crystal at room temperature and above. Our measurements directly reveal stable, ferroelectric polarization as evidenced by domain structures, switchable polarization, and hysteresis loops. We found that at room temperature the domain structure of flakes thicker than 100 nm is similar to the cleaved bulk surfaces, whereas below 50 nm polarization disappears. We ascribe this behavior to a well-known instability of polarization due to depolarization field. Furthermore, polarization switching at high bias is also associated with ionic mobility, as evidenced both by macroscopic measurements and by formation of surface damage under the tip at a bias of 4 V—likely due to copper reduction. Mobile Cu ions may therefore also contribute to internal screening mechanisms. Finally, the existence of stable polarization in a van-der-Waals crystal naturally points toward new strategies for ultimate scaling of polar materials, quasi-2D, and single-layer materials with advanced and nonlinear dielectric properties that are presently not found in any members of the growing “graphene family”.

  10. Room-temperature in situ nuclear spin hyperpolarization from optically pumped nitrogen vacancy centres in diamond

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    King, Jonathan P.; Jeong, Keunhong; Vassiliou, Christophoros C.; Shin, Chang S.; Page, Ralph H.; Avalos, Claudia E.; Wang, Hai-Jing; Pines, Alexander

    2015-12-07

    Low detection sensitivity stemming from the weak polarization of nuclear spins is a primary limitation of magnetic resonance spectroscopy and imaging. Methods have been developed to enhance nuclear spin polarization but they typically require high magnetic fields, cryogenic temperatures or sample transfer between magnets. Here we report bulk, room-temperature hyperpolarization of 13C nuclear spins observed via high-field magnetic resonance. The technique harnesses the high optically induced spin polarization of diamond nitrogen vacancy centres at room temperature in combination with dynamic nuclear polarization. We observe bulk nuclear spin polarization of 6%, an enhancement of ~170,000 over thermal equilibrium. The signal of the hyperpolarized spins was detected in situ with a standard nuclear magnetic resonance probe without the need for sample shuttling or precise crystal orientation. In conclusion, hyperpolarization via optical pumping/dynamic nuclear polarization should function at arbitrary magnetic fields enabling orders of magnitude sensitivity enhancement for nuclear magnetic resonance of solids and liquids under ambient conditions.

  11. Behavior of tritium permeation induced by water corrosion of alpha iron around room temperature

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Otsuka, T.; Hashizume, K.

    2015-03-15

    Tritium (T) permeation leakage to surroundings is a great safety concern in fission and fusion reactor systems. T permeation potentially occurs from T contaminated water through cooling tubes or storage tank made of metals which dissolve some T evolved by water corrosion. In order to understand behaviors of hydrogen uptake and permeation in pure α-iron (αFe) during water corrosion around room temperature, hydrogen permeation experiments for an αFe membrane have been conducted by means of tritium tracer techniques. The present study suggests that hydrogen produced by water corrosion of αFe is trapped in product oxide layers to delay hydrogen uptake in αFe for a moment. However, the oxide layers do not work as a sufficient barrier for hydrogen uptake. Some of hydrogen dissolved in αFe normally diffuses and permeates through the bulk in the early stage of permeation. In a later stage, hydrogen permeation could be apparently stopped by the disappearance of concentration difference of tritium. Hydrogen partial pressure at the water/αFe interface could be ranged from 0.7 to 9.5 kPa around room temperature.

  12. Optically activated sub-millimeter dielectric relaxation in amorphous thin film silicon at room temperature

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Rahman, Rezwanur; Ohno, Tim R.; Taylor, P. C.; Scales, John A.

    2014-05-05

    Knowing the frequency-dependent photo-induced complex conductivity of thin films is useful in the design of photovoltaics and other semi-conductor devices. For example, annealing in the far-infrared could in principle be tailored to the specific dielectric properties of a particular sample. The frequency dependence of the conductivity (whether dark or photo-induced) also gives insight into the effective dimensionality of thin films (via the phonon density of states) as well as the presence (or absence) of free carriers, dopants, defects, etc. Ultimately, our goal is to make low-noise, phase-sensitive room temperature measurements of the frequency-dependent conductivity of thin films from microwave frequencies into the far-infrared; covering, the frequency range from ionic and dipole relaxation to atomic and electronic processes. To this end, we have developed a high-Q (quality factor) open cavity resonator capable of resolving the complex conductivity of sub-micron films in the range of 100350?GHz (0.10.35 THz, or 0.41?meV). In this paper, we use a low-power green laser to excite bound charges in high-resistivity amorphous silicon thin film. Even at room temperature, we can resolve both the dark conductivity and photo-induced changes associated with dielectric relaxation and possibly some small portion of free carriers.

  13. Room-temperature amorphous alloy field-effect transistor exhibiting particle and wave electronic transport

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Fukuhara, M.; Kawarada, H.

    2015-02-28

    The realization of room-temperature macroscopic field effect transistors (FETs) will lead to new epoch-making possibilities for electronic applications. The I{sub d}-V{sub g} characteristics of the millimeter-sized aluminum-oxide amorphous alloy (Ni{sub 0.36}Nb{sub 0.24}Zr{sub 0.40}){sub 90}H{sub 10} FETs were measured at a gate-drain bias voltage of 060??V in nonmagnetic conditions and under a magnetic fields at room temperature. Application of dc voltages to the gate electrode resulted in the transistor exhibiting one-electron Coulomb oscillation with a period of 0.28?mV, Fabry-Perot interference with a period of 2.35??V under nonmagnetic conditions, and a Fano effect with a period of 0.26?mV for Vg and 0.2?T under a magnetic field. The realization of a low-energy controllable device made from millimeter-sized Ni-Nb-Zr-H amorphous alloy throws new light on cluster electronics.

  14. Room-temperature in situ nuclear spin hyperpolarization from optically pumped nitrogen vacancy centres in diamond

    DOE Public Access Gateway for Energy & Science Beta (PAGES Beta)

    King, Jonathan P.; Jeong, Keunhong; Vassiliou, Christophoros C.; Shin, Chang S.; Page, Ralph H.; Avalos, Claudia E.; Wang, Hai-Jing; Pines, Alexander

    2015-12-07

    Low detection sensitivity stemming from the weak polarization of nuclear spins is a primary limitation of magnetic resonance spectroscopy and imaging. Methods have been developed to enhance nuclear spin polarization but they typically require high magnetic fields, cryogenic temperatures or sample transfer between magnets. Here we report bulk, room-temperature hyperpolarization of 13C nuclear spins observed via high-field magnetic resonance. The technique harnesses the high optically induced spin polarization of diamond nitrogen vacancy centres at room temperature in combination with dynamic nuclear polarization. We observe bulk nuclear spin polarization of 6%, an enhancement of ~170,000 over thermal equilibrium. The signal ofmore » the hyperpolarized spins was detected in situ with a standard nuclear magnetic resonance probe without the need for sample shuttling or precise crystal orientation. In conclusion, hyperpolarization via optical pumping/dynamic nuclear polarization should function at arbitrary magnetic fields enabling orders of magnitude sensitivity enhancement for nuclear magnetic resonance of solids and liquids under ambient conditions.« less

  15. Stable room-temperature ferromagnetic phase at the FeRh(100) surface

    DOE Public Access Gateway for Energy & Science Beta (PAGES Beta)

    Pressacco, Federico; Uhlir, Vojtech; Gatti, Matteo; Bendounan, Azzedine; Fullerton, Eric E.; Sirotti, Fausto

    2016-03-03

    Interfaces and low dimensionality are sources of strong modifications of electronic, structural, and magnetic properties of materials. FeRh alloys are an excellent example because of the first-order phase transition taking place at ~400 K from an antiferromagnetic phase at room temperature to a high temperature ferromagnetic one. It is accompanied by a resistance change and volume expansion of about 1%. We have investigated the electronic and magnetic properties of FeRh(100) epitaxially grown on MgO by combining spectroscopies characterized by different probing depths, namely X-ray magnetic circular dichroism and photoelectron spectroscopy. Furthermore, we find that the symmetry breaking induced at themore » Rh-terminated surface stabilizes a surface ferromagnetic layer involving five planes of Fe and Rh atoms in the nominally antiferromagnetic phase at room temperature. First-principles calculations provide a microscopic description of the structural relaxation and the electron spin-density distribution that support the experimental findings.« less

  16. Transparent conductive Al-doped ZnO thin films grown at room temperature

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Wang Yuping; Lu Jianguo; Bie Xun; Gong Li; Li Xiang; Song Da; Zhao Xuyang; Ye Wenyi; Ye Zhizhen

    2011-05-15

    Aluminum-doped ZnO (ZnO:Al, AZO) thin films were prepared on glass substrates by dc reactive magnetron sputtering from a Zn-Al alloy target at room temperature. The effects of the Ar-to-O{sub 2} partial pressure ratios on the structural, electrical, and optical properties of AZO films were studied in detail. AZO films grown using 100:4 to 100:8 Ar-to-O{sub 2} ratio result in acceptable quality films with c-axis orientated crystals, uniform grains, 10{sup -3} {Omega} cm resistivity, greater than 10{sup 20} cm{sup -3} electron concentration, and high transmittance, 90%, in the visible region. The lowest resistivity of 4.11x10{sup -3} {Omega} cm was obtained under the Ar-to-O{sub 2} partial pressure ratio of 100:4. A relatively strong UV emission at {approx}3.26 eV was observed in the room-temperature photoluminescence spectrum. X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy analysis confirmed that Al was introduced into ZnO and substitutes for Zn and doped the film n-type.

  17. Search for Charged Massive Long-Lived Particles

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Abazov V. M.; Abbott B.; Acharya B. S.; Adams M.; Adams T.; Alexeev G. D.; Alimena J.; Alkhazov G.; Alton A.; Alverson G.; Alves G. A.; Aoki M.; Askew A.; Asman B.; Atkins S.; Atramentov O.; Augsten K.; Avila C.; BackusMayes J.; Badaud F.; Bagby L.; Baldin B.; Bandurin D. V.; Banerjee S.; Barberis E.; Baringer P.; Barreto J.; Bartlett J. F.; Bassler U.; Bazterra V.; Bean A.; Begalli M.; Belanger-Champagne C.; Bellantoni L.; Beri S. B.; Bernardi G.; Bernhard R.; Bertram I.; Besancon M.; Beuselinck R.; Bezzubov V. A.; Bhat P. C.; Bhatnagar V.; Blazey G.; Blessing S.; Bloom K.; Boehnlein A.; Boline D.; Boos E. E.; Borissov G.; Bose T.; Brandt A.; Brandt O.; Brock R.; Brooijmans G.; Bross A.; Brown D.; Brown J.; Bu X. B.; Buehler M.; Buescher V.; Bunichev V.; Burdin S.; Burnett T. H.; Buszello C. P.; Calpas B.; Camacho-Perez E.; Carrasco-Lizarraga M. A.; Casey B. C. K.; Castilla-Valdez H.; Chakrabarti S.; Chakraborty D.; Chan K. M.; Chandra A.; Chapon E.; Chen G.; Chevalier-Thery S.; Cho D. K.; Cho S. W.; Choi S.; Choudhary B.; Cihangir S.; Claes D.; Clutter J.; Cooke M.; Cooper W. E.; Corcoran M.; Couderc F.; Cousinou M. -C.; Croc A.; Cutts D.; Das A.; Davies G.; De K.; de Jong S. J.; De la Cruz-Burelo E.; Deliot F.; Demina R.; Denisov D.; Denisov S. P.; Desai S.; Deterre C.; DeVaughan K.; Diehl H. T.; Diesburg M.; Ding P. F.; Dominguez A.; Dorland T.; Dubey A.; Dudko L. V.; Duggan D.; Duperrin A.; Dutt S.; Dyshkant A.; Eads M.; Edmunds D.; Ellison J.; Elvira V. D.; Enari Y.; Evans H.; Evdokimov A.; Evdokimov V. N.; Facini G.; Ferbel T.; Fiedler F.; Filthaut F.; Fisher W.; Fisk H. E.; Fortner M.; Fox H.; Fuess S.; Garcia-Bellido A.; Garcia-Guerra G. A.; Gavrilov V.; Gay P.; Geng W.; Gerbaudo D.; Gerber C. E.; Gershtein Y.; Ginther G.; Golovanov G.; Goussiou A.; Grannis P. D.; Greder S.; Greenlee H.; Greenwood Z. D.; Gregores E. M.; Grenier G.; Gris Ph.; Grivaz J. -F.; Grohsjean A.; Gruenendahl S.; Gruenewald M. W.; Guillemin T.; Gutierrez G.; Gutierrez P.; Haas A.; Hagopian S.; Haley J.; Han L.; Harder K.; Harel A.; Hauptman J. M.; Hays J.; Head T.; Hebbeker T.; Hedin D.; Hegab H.; Heinson A. P.; Heintz U.; Hensel C.; Heredia-De La Cruz I.; Herner K.; Hesketh G.; Hildreth M. D.; Hirosky R.; Hoang T.; Hobbs J. D.; Hoeneisen B.; Hohlfeld M.; Hubacek Z.; Hynek V.; Iashvili I.; Ilchenko Y.; Illingworth R.; Ito A. S.; Jabeen S.; Jaffre M.; Jamin D.; Jayasinghe A.; Jesik R.; Johns K.; Johnson M.; Jonckheere A.; Jonsson P.; Joshi J.; Jung A. W.; Juste A.; Kaadze K.; Kajfasz E.; Karmanov D.; Kasper P. A.; Katsanos I.; Kehoe R.; Kermiche S.; Khalatyan N.; Khanov A.; Kharchilava A.; Kharzheev Y. N.; Kohli J. M.; Kozelov A. V.; Kraus J.; Kulikov S.; Kumar A.; Kupco A.; Kurca T.; Kuzmin V. A.; Kvita J.; Lammers S.; Landsberg G.; Lebrun P.; Lee H. S.; Lee S. W.; Lee W. M.; Lellouch J.; Li L.; Li Q. Z.; Lietti S. M.; Lim J. K.; Lincoln D.; Linnemann J.; Lipaev V. V.; Lipton R.; Liu Y.; Lobodenko A.; Lokajicek M.; de Sa R. Lopes; Lubatti H. J.; Luna-Garcia R.; Lyon A. L.; Maciel A. K. A.; Mackin D.; Madar R.; Magana-Villalba R.; Malik S.; Malyshev V. L.; Maravin Y.; Martinez-Ortega J.; McCarthy R.; McGivern C. L.; Meijer M. M.; et al.

    2012-03-21

    We report on a search for charged massive long-lived particles (CMLLPs), based on 5.2 fb{sup -1} of integrated luminosity collected with the D0 detector at the Fermilab Tevatron p{bar p} collider. We search for events in which one or more particles are reconstructed as muons but have speed and ionization energy loss (dE/dx) inconsistent with muons produced in beam collisions. CMLLPs are predicted in several theories of physics beyond the standard model. We exclude pair-produced long-lived gaugino-like charginos below 267 GeV and Higgsino-like charginos below 217 GeV at 95% C.L., as well as long-lived scalar top quarks with mass below 285 GeV.

  18. Living well, doing good | Y-12 National Security Complex

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Living well, doing good Living well, doing good Posted: June 24, 2015 - 3:22pm Joe Marshall is one of Y-12's cancer survivors who took his victory lap at the Anderson County Relay for Life. What do relays, races and regattas have in common? They're all ways Y-12 employees stay active and support the community. After hours, Y-12ers are all about staying active and supporting their communities. Here's a roundup of the activities Relay for Life, May 16 For numerous years, Joe Kato and his

  19. Interested in Open Energy Data? Watch the Energy Datapalooza Live! |

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Department of Energy Interested in Open Energy Data? Watch the Energy Datapalooza Live! Interested in Open Energy Data? Watch the Energy Datapalooza Live! September 27, 2012 - 5:25pm Addthis U.S. Chief Technology Officer Todd Park kicks off the Safety Datapalooza on September 19th. | Photo Courtesy U.S. Department of Labor U.S. Chief Technology Officer Todd Park kicks off the Safety Datapalooza on September 19th. | Photo Courtesy U.S. Department of Labor Matthew Loveless Matthew Loveless

  20. Lab Breakthrough: How Energy Department Research Saves Lives | Department

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    of Energy How Energy Department Research Saves Lives Lab Breakthrough: How Energy Department Research Saves Lives August 28, 2013 - 12:50pm Addthis Researchers at the National Energy Technology Lab have developed a platinum-chromium alloy that is used to make heart stents that are thin, flexible, corrosion resistant and visible on x-rays. Since their introduction in 2010, coronary stents made from the new alloy have generated more than $4 billion in worldwide sales and captured 45 percent of

  1. Have You Visited the Living Zero Home Tour?

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    The Living Zero Home Tour is on the road, and it may be in a city near you! If you have the chance to see the tour, you may be surprised to discover the small steps that you can take to save energy...

  2. Lead in human blood from children living in Campania, Italy

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Amodio-Cocchieri, R.; Arnese, A.; Prospero, E.; Roncioni, A.

    1996-03-01

    Blood lead (PbB) levels were determined in children living Campania (in Naples and in a rural zone in the district of Caserta). Atmospheric lead (PbA) concentration in these considered areas was monitored for 1 yr (1993-1994). The children tested were questioned about common sources of lead, other than atmospheric relating to their living and dietary habits. The PbB levels in children living in Naples were at the 50th percentile, 18.8 {mu}g/dl in males and 13.7 {mu}g/dl in females; in children living in the rural area the median PbB levels were 8.9{mu}g/dl in males, and 9.9 {mu}g/dl in females. The annual mean values of atmospheres lead were 1.15 {plus_minus} 0.24 {mu}g/dl in Naples and 0.23 {plus_minus} 0.07 {mu}g/dl in the rural area. Significant and congruent mean differences between urban and rural sites were found in children`s blood and concurrent air lead. Considering the PbB level of 10 {mu}g/dl as the maximum level that is not associated any known adverse effect in children, the Neapolitan group can be considered at risk of chronic intoxication by lead. 18 refs., 3 figs., 4 tabs.

  3. Connecticut Weatherization Project Improves Lives, Receives National Recognition

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    Several energy-efficient improvements made to a senior care center in New Milford, Connecticut are helping residents live healthier and more comfortable lifestyles. The upgrade to the facility also captured a residential energy efficiency award and is an example for other states.

  4. Understanding dynamic changes in live cell adhesion with neutron reflectometry

    DOE Public Access Gateway for Energy & Science Beta (PAGES Beta)

    Junghans, Ann; Waltman, Mary Jo; Smith, Hillary L.; Pocivavsek, Luka; Zebda, Noureddine; Birukov, Konstantin; Viapiano, Mariano; Majewski, Jaroslaw

    2014-12-10

    In this study, neutron reflectometry (NR) was used to examine various live cells' adhesion to quartz substrates under different environmental conditions, including flow stress. To the best of our knowledge, these measurements represent the first successful visualization and quantization of the interface between live cells and a substrate with sub-nanometer resolution. In our first experiments, we examined live mouse fibroblast cells as opposed to past experiments using supported lipids, proteins, or peptide layers with no associated cells. We continued the NR studies of cell adhesion by investigating endothelial monolayers and glioblastoma cells under dynamic flow conditions. We demonstrated that neutronmore » reflectometry is a powerful tool to study the strength of cellular layer adhesion in living tissues, which is a key factor in understanding the physiology of cell interactions and conditions leading to abnormal or disease circumstances. Continuative measurements, such as investigating changes in tumor cell — surface contact of various glioblastomas, could impact advancements in tumor treatments. In principle, this can help us to identify changes that correlate with tumor invasiveness. Pursuit of these studies can have significant medical impact on the understanding of complex biological problems and their effective treatment, e.g. for the development of targeted anti-invasive therapies.« less

  5. Understanding dynamic changes in live cell adhesion with neutron reflectometry

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Junghans, Ann; Waltman, Mary Jo; Smith, Hillary L.; Pocivavsek, Luka; Zebda, Noureddine; Birukov, Konstantin; Viapiano, Mariano; Majewski, Jaroslaw

    2014-12-10

    In this study, neutron reflectometry (NR) was used to examine various live cells' adhesion to quartz substrates under different environmental conditions, including flow stress. To the best of our knowledge, these measurements represent the first successful visualization and quantization of the interface between live cells and a substrate with sub-nanometer resolution. In our first experiments, we examined live mouse fibroblast cells as opposed to past experiments using supported lipids, proteins, or peptide layers with no associated cells. We continued the NR studies of cell adhesion by investigating endothelial monolayers and glioblastoma cells under dynamic flow conditions. We demonstrated that neutron reflectometry is a powerful tool to study the strength of cellular layer adhesion in living tissues, which is a key factor in understanding the physiology of cell interactions and conditions leading to abnormal or disease circumstances. Continuative measurements, such as investigating changes in tumor cell — surface contact of various glioblastomas, could impact advancements in tumor treatments. In principle, this can help us to identify changes that correlate with tumor invasiveness. Pursuit of these studies can have significant medical impact on the understanding of complex biological problems and their effective treatment, e.g. for the development of targeted anti-invasive therapies.

  6. Improved design of room and pillar coal mining. Final technical report, October 1, 1978-March 31, 1982

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Bieniawski, Z.T.

    1982-06-30

    The objective of this research grant was to improve upon the design of roof spans and coal pillars in a coal mining technique known as room-and-pillar mining. Essentially, the project consisted of three aspects: determination of stable roof spans; determination of the strength of coal pillars; and determination of safety factors for room-and-pillar coal mining conditions in the United States. The study included a critical review of the available pillar design formulas as well as the design methods for selecting stable roof spans. Three novel approaches were utilized: (1) the petite sismique technique was assessed for possible determination of coal pillar deformability; this was the first use of this technique in the United States since its development in France; (2) the Geomechanics Classification was extended for determination of safe roof spans in room-and-pillar coal mining; and (3) a national survey of the current design practice as well as of the stable and failed coal pillars and roof spans was performed with the aim of determining factors of safety in room-and-pillar coal mining. Research investigations included field studies, laboratory testing and analytical computer simulations. The final outcome of the project is a proposal for a design code for room-and-pillar coal mining in the United States. In the course of this research, seven publications were prepared and three M.S. theses were completed. Practical applications of this research are discussed.

  7. Regulatory analysis for the resolution of Generic Issue 143: Availability of chilled water system and room cooling

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Leung, V.T.

    1993-12-01

    This report presents the regulatory analysis for Generic Issue (GI-143), {open_quotes}Availability of Chilled Water System and Room Cooling.{close_quotes} The heating, ventilating, and air conditioning (HVAC) systems and related auxiliaries are required to provide control of environmental conditions in areas in light water reactor (LWR) plants that contain safety-related equipment. In some plants, the HVAC and chilled water systems serve to maintain a suitable environment for both safety and non-safety-related areas. Although some plants have an independent chilled water system for the safety-related areas, the heat removal capability often depends on the operability of other supporting systems such as the service water system or the component cooling water system. The operability of safety-related components depends upon operation of the HVAC and chilled water systems to remove heat from areas containing the equipment. If cooling to dissipate the heat generated is unavailable, the ability of the safety-related equipment to operate as intended cannot be assured. Typical components or areas in the nuclear power plant that could be affected by the failure of cooling from HVAC or chilled water systems include the (1) emergency switchgear and battery rooms, (2) emergency diesel generator room, (3) pump rooms for residual heat removal, reactor core isolation cooling, high-pressure core spray, and low-pressure core spray, and (4) control room. The unavailability of such safety-related equipment or areas could cause the core damage frequency (CDF) to increase significantly.

  8. On the magnetic field signal radiated by an atmospheric pressure room temperature plasma jet

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Wu, S.; Huang, Q.; Wang, Z.; Lu, X. [State Key Laboratory of Advanced Electromagnetic Engineering and Technology, Huazhong University of Science and Technology, Wuhan, Hubei 430074 (China)

    2013-01-28

    In this paper, the magnetic field signal radiated from an atmospheric pressure room temperature plasma plume is measured. It's found that the magnetic field signal has similar waveform as the current carried by the plasma plume. By calibration of the magnetic field signal, the plasma plume current is obtained by measuring the magnetic field signal radiated by the plasma plume. In addition, it is found that, when gas flow modes changes from laminar regime to turbulence regime, the magnetic field signal waveforms appears different, it changes from a smooth curve to a curve with multiple spikes. Furthermore, it is confirmed that the plasma plume generated by a single electrode (without ground electrode) plasma jet device carries higher current than that with ground electrode.

  9. Iron-aluminum alloys having high room-temperature and method for making same

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Sikka, V.K.; McKamey, C.G.

    1993-08-24

    A wrought and annealed iron-aluminum alloy is described consisting essentially of 8 to 9.5% aluminum, an effective amount of chromium sufficient to promote resistance to aqueous corrosion of the alloy, and an alloying constituent selected from the group of elements consisting of an effective amount of molybdenum sufficient to promote solution hardening of the alloy and resistance of the alloy to pitting when exposed to solutions containing chloride, up to about 0.05% carbon with up to about 0.5% of a carbide former which combines with the carbon to form carbides for controlling grain growth at elevated temperatures, and mixtures thereof, and the balance iron, wherein said alloy has a single disordered [alpha] phase crystal structure, is substantially non-susceptible to hydrogen embrittlement, and has a room-temperature ductility of greater than 20%.

  10. Method for stabilizing low-level mixed wastes at room temperature

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Wagh, A.S.; Singh, D.

    1997-07-08

    A method to stabilize solid and liquid waste at room temperature is provided comprising combining solid waste with a starter oxide to obtain a powder, contacting the powder with an acid solution to create a slurry, said acid solution containing the liquid waste, shaping the now-mixed slurry into a predetermined form, and allowing the now-formed slurry to set. The invention also provides for a method to encapsulate and stabilize waste containing cesium comprising combining the waste with Zr(OH){sub 4} to create a solid-phase mixture, mixing phosphoric acid with the solid-phase mixture to create a slurry, subjecting the slurry to pressure; and allowing the now pressurized slurry to set. Lastly, the invention provides for a method to stabilize liquid waste, comprising supplying a powder containing magnesium, sodium and phosphate in predetermined proportions, mixing said powder with the liquid waste, such as tritium, and allowing the resulting slurry to set. 4 figs.

  11. Blue photoluminescence enhancement in laser-irradiated 6H-SiC at room temperature

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Wu, Yan; Ji, Lingfei Lin, Zhenyuan; Jiang, Yijian; Zhai, Tianrui

    2014-01-27

    Blue photoluminescence (PL) of 6H-SiC irradiated by an ultraviolet laser can be observed at room temperature in dark condition. PL spectra with Gaussian fitting curve of the irradiated SiC show that blue luminescence band (?440?nm) is more pronounced than other bands. The blue PL enhancement is the combined result of the improved shallow N-donor energy level and the unique surface state with Si nanocrystals and graphene/Si composite due to the effect of photon energy input by the short-wavelength laser irradiation. The study can provide a promising route towards the preparation of well-controlled blue photoluminescence material for light-emitting devices.

  12. Method for stabilizing low-level mixed wastes at room temperature

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Wagh, Arun S. (Joliet, IL); Singh, Dileep (Westmont, IL)

    1997-01-01

    A method to stabilize solid and liquid waste at room temperature is provided comprising combining solid waste with a starter oxide to obtain a powder, contacting the powder with an acid solution to create a slurry, said acid solution containing the liquid waste, shaping the now-mixed slurry into a predetermined form, and allowing the now-formed slurry to set. The invention also provides for a method to encapsulate and stabilize waste containing cesium comprising combining the waste with Zr(OH).sub.4 to create a solid-phase mixture, mixing phosphoric acid with the solid-phase mixture to create a slurry, subjecting the slurry to pressure; and allowing the now pressurized slurry to set. Lastly, the invention provides for a method to stabilize liquid waste, comprising supplying a powder containing magnesium, sodium and phosphate in predetermined proportions, mixing said powder with the liquid waste, such as tritium, and allowing the resulting slurry to set.

  13. Comparative study of the embrittlement of Monel 400 at room temperature by hydrogen and by mercury

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Price, C.E.; Fredell, R.S.

    1986-05-01

    Slow strain rate tensile tests were performed at room temperature on Monel 400 specimens of grain sizes 35 to 500 microns, in the environments of air, mercury, and electrolytically generated hydrogen. Specimens of grain size 250 microns were tested at a range of strain rates in the three environments. It was found that cracks initiated easiest in hydrogen but propagated easiest in mercury; consequently the embrittlement was usually more severe in mercury. The embrittlement decreased with increasing strain rate, and with increasing grain size in hydrogen. Embrittlement in mercury was maximum at intermediate grain sizes. A fracture sequence of intergranular to transgranular to microvoid coalescence was common. The intergranular and transgranular fractures are interpreted in terms of the reduced cohesive stress and enhanced shear models of embrittlement, respectively. 52 references.

  14. Investigation of room temperature ferromagnetic nanoparticles of Gd5Si4

    DOE Public Access Gateway for Energy & Science Beta (PAGES Beta)

    Hadimani, R. L.; Gupta, S.; Harstad, S. M.; Pecharsky, V. K.; Jiles, D. C.

    2015-07-06

    Gd5(SixGe1-x)4 compounds undergo first-order phase transitions close to room temperature when x ~ = 0.5, which are accompanied by extreme changes of properties. We report the fabrication of the nanoparticles of one of the parent compounds-Gd5Si4-using high-energy ball milling. Crystal structure, microstructure, and magnetic properties have been investigated. Particles agglomerate at long milling times, and the particles that are milled >20 min lose crystallinity and no longer undergo magnetic phase transition close to 340 K, which is present in a bulk material. The samples milled for >20 min exhibit a slightly increased coercivity. As a result, magnetization at a highmore » temperature of 275K decreases with the increase in the milling time.« less

  15. Experimental Observation of the Inverse Spin Hall Effect at Room Temperature

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Liu, Baoli; Shi, Junren; Wang, Wenxin; Zhao, Hongming; Li, Dafang; Zhang, Shoucheng; Xue, Qikun; Chen, Dongmin; /Beijing, Inst. Phys.

    2010-03-16

    We observe the inverse spin Hall effect in a two-dimensional electron gas confined in Al-GaAs/InGaAs quantum wells. Specifically, they find that an inhomogeneous spin density induced by the optical injection gives rise to an electric current transverse to both the spin polarization and its gradient. The spin Hall conductivity can be inferred from such a measurement through the Einstein relation and the onsager relation, and is found to have the order of magnitude of 0.5(e{sup 2}/h). The observation is made at the room temperature and in samples with macroscopic sizes, suggesting that the inverse spin Hall effects is a robust macroscopic transport phenomenon.

  16. Stability analysis of a backfilled room-and-pillar mine. Report of investigations/1995

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Tesarik, D.R.; Seymour, J.B.; Yanske, T.R.; McKibbin, R.W.

    1995-03-01

    Displacement and stress changes in cemented backfill and ore pillars at the Buick Mine, near Boss, MO, were monitored by engineers from the U.S. Bureau of Mines (USBM) and The Doe Run Co., St Louis, MO. A test area in this room-and-pillar mine was backfilled to provide support when remnant ore pillars were mined. Objectives of this research were to evaluate the effect of backfill on mine stability, observe backfill conditions during pillar removal, and calibrate a numeric model to be used to design other areas of the mine. Two-dimensional, finite-element and three-dimensional, displacement-discontinuity codes were used to model the study area. Combined with instrument data, these codes identified two failed pillars.

  17. Using micro saint to predict performance in a nuclear power plant control room

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Lawless, M.T.; Laughery, K.R.; Persenky, J.J.

    1995-09-01

    The United States Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC) requires a technical basis for regulatory actions. In the area of human factors, one possible technical basis is human performance modeling technology including task network modeling. This study assessed the feasibility and validity of task network modeling to predict the performance of control room crews. Task network models were built that matched the experimental conditions of a study on computerized procedures that was conducted at North Carolina State University. The data from the {open_quotes}paper procedures{close_quotes} conditions were used to calibrate the task network models. Then, the models were manipulated to reflect expected changes when computerized procedures were used. These models` predictions were then compared to the experimental data from the {open_quotes}computerized conditions{close_quotes} of the North Carolina State University study. Analyses indicated that the models predicted some subsets of the data well, but not all. Implications for the use of task network modeling are discussed.

  18. Non-magnetic organic/inorganic spin injector at room temperature

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Mathew, Shinto P.; Mondal, Prakash Chandra; Naaman, Ron; Moshe, Hagay; Mastai, Yitzhak

    2014-12-15

    Spin injection into solid-state devices is commonly performed by use of ferromagnetic metal electrodes. Here, we present a spin injector design without permanent magnet; rather, the spin selectivity is determined by a chiral tunneling barrier. The chiral tunneling barrier is composed of an ultrathin Al{sub 2}O{sub 3} layer that is deposited on top of a chiral self-assembled monolayer (SAM), which consists of cysteine or oligopeptide molecules. The experimentally observed magnetoresistance can be up to 20% at room temperature, and it displays an uncommon asymmetric curve as a function of the applied magnetic field. These findings show that the spin injector transmits only one spin orientation, independent of external magnetic field. The sign of the magnetoresistance depends on the handedness of the molecules in the SAM, which act as a spin filter, and the magnitude of the magnetoresistance depends only weakly on temperature.

  19. Scanning tunneling microscopy reveals LiMnAs is a room temperature anti-ferromagnetic semiconductor

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Wijnheijmer, A. P.; Koenraad, P. M.; Marti, X.; Holy, V.; Cukr, M.; Novak, V.; Jungwirth, T.

    2012-03-12

    We performed scanning tunneling microscopy and spectroscopy on a LiMnAs(001) thin film epitaxially grown on an InAs(001) substrate by molecular beam epitaxy. While the in situ cleavage exposed only the InAs(110) non-polar planes, the cleavage continued into the LiMnAs thin layer across several facets. We combined both topography and current mappings to confirm that the facets correspond to LiMnAs. By spectroscopy we show that LiMnAs has a band gap. The band gap evidenced in this study, combined with the known Neel temperature well above room temperature, confirms that LiMnAs is a promising candidate for exploring the concepts of high temperature semiconductor spintronics based on antiferromagnets.

  20. Sessile dislocations by reactions in NiAl severely deformed at room temperature

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Geist, D.; Gammer, C.; Rentenberger, C.; Karnthaler, H. P.

    2015-02-05

    B2 ordered NiAl is known for its poor room temperature (RT) ductility; failure occurs in a brittle like manner even in ductile single crystals deforming by single slip. In the present study NiAl was severely deformed at RT using the method of high pressure torsion (HPT) enabling the hitherto impossible investigation of multiple slip deformation. Methods of transmission electron microscopy were used to analyze the dislocations formed by the plastic deformation showing that as expected dislocations with Burgers vector a(100) carry the plasticity during HPT deformation at RT. In addition, we observe that they often form a(110) dislocations by dislocation reactions; the a(110) dislocations are considered to be sessile based on calculations found in the literature. It is therefore concluded that the frequently encountered 3D dislocation networks containing sessile a(110) dislocations are pinned and lead to deformation-induced embrittlement. In spite of the severe deformation, the chemical order remains unchanged.

  1. EXAFS investigations of the mechanism of facilitated ion transfer into a room-temperature ionic liquid.

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Jensen, M. P.; Dzielawa, J. A.; Rickert, P.; Dietz, M. L.; Chemistry

    2002-09-11

    The Sr(II)-crown ether complexes formed in a room-temperature ionic liquid (RTIL), 1-methyl-3-pentylimidazolium bis[(trifluoromethyl)sulfonyl]amide, have been studied by X-ray absorption fine structure measurements at the Sr K-edge. When a Sr(NO{sub 3}){sub 2}-crown ether complex is directly dissolved in a water-saturated RTIL, both nitrate ligands and the crown ether coordinate the Sr, as observed in a conventional two-phase water-octanol system. When the cationic Sr-crown ether complex is created in a two-phase water-RTIL system, however, only cationic Sr-crown ether complexes are observed in the RTIL phase. This difference in the coordination complexes arises from differences in the mechanism of cation extraction between the RTIL and conventional molecular organic solvents, a finding with important implications for synthesis, catalysis, and ion separations using two-phase water-RTIL systems.

  2. Environmental effect on room-temperature ductility of isothermally forged TiAl-base alloys

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Nakamura, Morihiko; Hashimoto, Kenki (National Research Inst. for Metals, Tokyo (Japan)); Itoh, Naoyuki (Nippon Steel Corp., Chiba (Japan)); Tsujimoto, Tokuzo (Ibaraki Univ. (Japan). Faculty of Engineering); Suzuki, Toshiyuki (Kougakuin Univ., Tokyo (Japan))

    1994-02-01

    Isothermally forged TiAl-base alloy (Al-rich, Mn-containing, and Cr-containing TiAl) were heat-treated in various conditions, and equiaxed grain structures consisting of [gamma] and [alpha][sub 2] or [beta] phases were obtained. The heat-treated alloys were tensile tested in vacuum and air at room temperature, and the environmental effect on tensile elongation was studied. The ductility of the alloys consisting of equiaxed [gamma] grains and a large amount of [alpha][sub 2] grains was not largely affecting by laboratory air, and a decrease in the amount of [alpha][sub 2] grains resulted in a large reduction of ductility in air. The [beta] phase in the Cr-containing alloy improved the ductility in vacuum, but it resulted in a large reduction of ductility in air.

  3. Decoupling charge transport from the structural dynamics in room temperature ionic liquids

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Griffin, Phillip; Agapov, Alexander L; Kisliuk, Alexander; Sun, Xiao-Guang; Dai, Sheng; Novikov, Vladimir; Sokolov, Alexei P

    2011-01-01

    Light scattering and dielectric spectroscopy measurements were performed on the room temperature ionic liquid (RTIL) [C4mim][NTf2] in a broad temperature and frequency range. Ionic conductivity was used to estimate self-diffusion of ions, while light scattering was used to study structural relaxation. We demonstrate that the ionic diffusion decouples from the structural relaxation process as the temperature of the sample decreases toward Tg. The strength of the decoupling appears to be significantly lower than that expected for a supercooled liquid of similar fragility. The structural relaxation process in the RTIL follows well the high-temperature mode coupling theory (MCT) scenario. Using the MCT analysis we estimated the dynamic crossover temperature in [C4mim][NTf2] to be Tc 225 5 K. However, our analysis reveals no sign of the dynamic crossover in the ionic diffusion process.

  4. Direct Observation of Room-Temperature Polar Ordering in Colloidal GeTe Nanocrystals

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Polking, Mark J.; Zheng, Haimei; Urban, Jeffrey J.; Milliron, Delia J.; Chan, Emory; Caldwell, Marissa A.; Raoux, Simone; Kisielowski, Christian F.; Ager III, Joel W.; Ramesh, Ramamoorthy; Alivisatos, A.P.

    2009-12-07

    Ferroelectrics and other materials that exhibit spontaneous polar ordering have demonstrated immense promise for applications ranging from non-volatile memories to microelectromechanical systems. However, experimental evidence of polar ordering and effective synthetic strategies for accessing these materials are lacking for low-dimensional nanomaterials. Here, we demonstrate the synthesis of size-controlled nanocrystals of the polar material germanium telluride (GeTe) using colloidal chemistry and provide the first direct evidence of room-temperature polar ordering in nanocrystals less than 5 nm in size using aberration-corrected transmission electron microscopy. Synchrotron x-ray diffraction and Raman studies demonstrate a sizeable polar distortion and a reversible size-dependent polar phase transition in these nanocrystals. The stability of polar ordering in solution-processible nanomaterials suggests an economical avenue to Tbit/in2-density non-volatile memory devices and other applications.

  5. Room-temperature near-infrared silicon carbide nanocrystalline emitters based on optically aligned spin defects

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Muzha, A.; Fuchs, F.; Simin, D.; Astakhov, G. V.; Tarakina, N. V.; Trupke, M.; Soltamov, V. A.; Mokhov, E. N.; Baranov, P. G.; Dyakonov, V.; and others

    2014-12-15

    Bulk silicon carbide (SiC) is a very promising material system for bio-applications and quantum sensing. However, its optical activity lies beyond the near infrared spectral window for in-vivo imaging and fiber communications due to a large forbidden energy gap. Here, we report the fabrication of SiC nanocrystals and isolation of different nanocrystal fractions ranged from 600?nm down to 60?nm in size. The structural analysis reveals further fragmentation of the smallest nanocrystals into ca. 10-nm-size clusters of high crystalline quality, separated by amorphization areas. We use neutron irradiation to create silicon vacancies, demonstrating near infrared photoluminescence. Finally, we detect room-temperature spin resonances of these silicon vacancies hosted in SiC nanocrystals. This opens intriguing perspectives to use them not only as in-vivo luminescent markers but also as magnetic field and temperature sensors, allowing for monitoring various physical, chemical, and biological processes.

  6. Light Water Reactor Sustainability Program Operator Performance Metrics for Control Room Modernization: A Practical Guide for Early Design Evaluation

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Ronald Boring; Roger Lew; Thomas Ulrich; Jeffrey Joe

    2014-03-01

    As control rooms are modernized with new digital systems at nuclear power plants, it is necessary to evaluate the operator performance using these systems as part of a verification and validation process. There are no standard, predefined metrics available for assessing what is satisfactory operator interaction with new systems, especially during the early design stages of a new system. This report identifies the process and metrics for evaluating human system interfaces as part of control room modernization. The report includes background information on design and evaluation, a thorough discussion of human performance measures, and a practical example of how the process and metrics have been used as part of a turbine control system upgrade during the formative stages of design. The process and metrics are geared toward generalizability to other applications and serve as a template for utilities undertaking their own control room modernization activities.

  7. An Assessment of the U.S. Residential Lighting Market

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Jennings, Judy; Brown, Rich; Moezzi, Mithra; Mills, Evan; Sardinsky, Robert

    1995-10-01

    This report provides background data upon which residential lighting fixture energy conservation programs can be built. The current stock of residential lighting is described by usage level, lamp wattage, fixture type, and location within the house. Data are discussed that indicate that 25% of residential fixtures are responsible for 80% of residential lighting energy use, and that justify targeting these fixtures as candidates for retrofit with energy-efficient fixtures. Fixtures determined to have the highest energy use are hardwired ceiling fixtures in kitchens, living/family rooms, dining rooms, and outdoors. An assessment of the market for residential fixtures shows that nearly half of new residential fixtures are imported, 61% of new fixtures sold are hardwired, and about half of all new fixtures sold are for ceiling installation.

  8. Room-temperature nonlinear transport phenomena in low-dimensional Ni-Nb-Zr-H glassy alloys and its device

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Fukuhara, Mikio; Yoshida, Hajime

    2014-05-15

    We report the room-temperature switching and Coulomb blockade effects in threeterminal glassy alloy field effect transistor (GAFET), using the millimeter sized glassy alloy. By applying dc and ac voltages to a gate electrode, GAFET can be switched from a metallic conducting state to an insulating state with Coulomb oscillation at a period of 14 ?V at room temperature. The transistor showed the three-dimensional Coulomb diamond structure. The fabrication of a low-energy controllable device throws a new light on cluster electronics without wiring.

  9. The problem of living in a world contaminated with chemicals

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Metcalf, R.L.

    1990-12-31

    The proliferation of xenobiotic chemicals in the global environment poses living problems for each of us aboard {open_quotes}spaceship earth.{close_quotes} Seven case studies are presented that illustrate the magnitude of the problem that can result from waiting to identify toxic hazards until there have been decades of {open_quotes}human guinea pig{close_quotes} exposure. 25 refs., 5 tabs.

  10. 'Zombie' Replica Cells May Outperform Live Ones as Catalysts and

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Conductors 'Zombie' Replica Cells May Outperform Live Ones as Catalysts and Conductors - Sandia Energy Energy Search Icon Sandia Home Locations Contact Us Employee Locator Energy & Climate Secure & Sustainable Energy Future Stationary Power Energy Conversion Efficiency Solar Energy Wind Energy Water Power Supercritical CO2 Geothermal Natural Gas Safety, Security & Resilience of the Energy Infrastructure Energy Storage Nuclear Power & Engineering Grid Modernization Battery

  11. Tracking Living Cells as They Differentiate in Real Time

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Tracking Living Cells as They Differentiate in Real Time Print Protein phosphorylation regulates protein function in a cell, either activating or inactivating the proteins responsible for many cell functions ranging from cell proliferation to differentiation to metabolism to signaling, and even programmed cell death. This chemical process has been studied intensively, but until now it has been impossible to watch phosphorylation at the molecular level without damaging cells or interfering with

  12. Tracking Living Cells as They Differentiate in Real Time

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Tracking Living Cells as They Differentiate in Real Time Print Protein phosphorylation regulates protein function in a cell, either activating or inactivating the proteins responsible for many cell functions ranging from cell proliferation to differentiation to metabolism to signaling, and even programmed cell death. This chemical process has been studied intensively, but until now it has been impossible to watch phosphorylation at the molecular level without damaging cells or interfering with

  13. Tracking Living Cells as They Differentiate in Real Time

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Tracking Living Cells as They Differentiate in Real Time Print Protein phosphorylation regulates protein function in a cell, either activating or inactivating the proteins responsible for many cell functions ranging from cell proliferation to differentiation to metabolism to signaling, and even programmed cell death. This chemical process has been studied intensively, but until now it has been impossible to watch phosphorylation at the molecular level without damaging cells or interfering with

  14. Tracking Living Cells as They Differentiate in Real Time

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Tracking Living Cells as They Differentiate in Real Time Print Protein phosphorylation regulates protein function in a cell, either activating or inactivating the proteins responsible for many cell functions ranging from cell proliferation to differentiation to metabolism to signaling, and even programmed cell death. This chemical process has been studied intensively, but until now it has been impossible to watch phosphorylation at the molecular level without damaging cells or interfering with

  15. Tracking Living Cells as They Differentiate in Real Time

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Tracking Living Cells as They Differentiate in Real Time Print Protein phosphorylation regulates protein function in a cell, either activating or inactivating the proteins responsible for many cell functions ranging from cell proliferation to differentiation to metabolism to signaling, and even programmed cell death. This chemical process has been studied intensively, but until now it has been impossible to watch phosphorylation at the molecular level without damaging cells or interfering with

  16. Single-photon ultrashort-lived radionuclides: symposium proceedings

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Paras, P.; Thiessen, J.W. (eds.)

    1985-01-01

    The purpose was to define the current role and state-of-the-art regarding the development, clinical applications, and usefulness of generator-produced single-photon ultrashort-lived radionuclides (SPUSLR's) and to predict their future impact on medicine. Special emphasis was placed on the generator production of iridium-191, gold-195, and krypton-81. This report contains expanded summaries of the included papers. (ACR)

  17. ClimateChangeLIVE Webcast: Join the Climate Conversation

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    Join ClimateChangeLIVE's webcast, bringing together students and climate experts for a discussion about climate change and what students and classes around the country are doing to be part of the climate solution. Students will be able to interact with climate scientists and experts online through Facebook and Twitter. A GreenWorks! grant will be offered to help schools with climate action projects.

  18. Modeling Dispersion of Chemical-Biological Agents in Three Dimensional Living Space

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    William S. Winters

    2002-02-01

    This report documents a series of calculations designed to demonstrate Sandia's capability in modeling the dispersal of chemical and biological agents in complex three-dimensional spaces. The transport of particles representing biological agents is modeled in a single room and in several connected rooms. The influence of particle size, particle weight and injection method are studied.

  19. Room temperature synthesis of Ni-based alloy nanoparticles by radiolysis.

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Nenoff, Tina Maria; Berry, Donald T.; Lu, Ping; Leung, Kevin; Provencio, Paula Polyak; Stumpf, Roland Rudolph; Huang, Jian Yu; Zhang, Zhenyuan

    2009-09-01

    Room temperature radiolysis, density functional theory, and various nanoscale characterization methods were used to synthesize and fully describe Ni-based alloy nanoparticles (NPs) that were synthesized at room temperature. These complementary methods provide a strong basis in understanding and describing metastable phase regimes of alloy NPs whose reaction formation is determined by kinetic rather than thermodynamic reaction processes. Four series of NPs, (Ag-Ni, Pd-Ni, Co-Ni, and W-Ni) were analyzed and characterized by a variety of methods, including UV-vis, TEM/HRTEM, HAADF-STEM and EFTEM mapping. In the first focus of research, AgNi and PdNi were studied. Different ratios of Ag{sub x}- Ni{sub 1-x} alloy NPs and Pd{sub 0.5}- Ni{sub 0.5} alloy NP were prepared using a high dose rate from gamma irradiation. Images from high-angle annular dark-field (HAADF) show that the Ag-Ni NPs are not core-shell structure but are homogeneous alloys in composition. Energy filtered transmission electron microscopy (EFTEM) maps show the homogeneity of the metals in each alloy NP. Of particular interest are the normally immiscible Ag-Ni NPs. All evidence confirmed that homogeneous Ag-Ni and Pd-Ni alloy NPs presented here were successfully synthesized by high dose rate radiolytic methodology. A mechanism is provided to explain the homogeneous formation of the alloy NPs. Furthermore, studies of Pd-Ni NPs by in situ TEM (with heated stage) shows the ability to sinter these NPs at temperatures below 800 C. In the second set of work, CoNi and WNi superalloy NPs were attempted at 50/50 concentration ratios using high dose rates from gamma irradiation. Preliminary results on synthesis and characterization have been completed and are presented. As with the earlier alloy NPs, no evidence of core-shell NP formation occurs. Microscopy results seem to indicate alloying occurred with the CoNi alloys. However, there appears to be incomplete reduction of the Na{sub 2}WO{sub 4} to form the W

  20. SRNL PHASE II SHELF LIFE STUDIES - SERIES 1 ROOM TEMPERATURE AND HIGH RELATIVE HUMIDITY

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Mickalonis, J.; Duffey, J.

    2012-09-12

    The Savannah River National Laboratory (SRNL) Phase II, Series 1 shelf-life corrosion testing for the Department of Energy Standard 3013 container is presented and discussed in terms of the localized corrosion behavior of Type 304 stainless steel in contact with moist plutonium oxide and chloride salt mixtures and the potential impact to the 3013 inner container. This testing was designed to address the influence of temperature, salt composition, initial salt moisture, residual stress and type of oxide/salt contact on the relative humidity inside a 3013 container and the initiation and propagation of localized corrosion, especially stress corrosion cracking. The integrated plan is being conducted by Los Alamos National Laboratory and SRNL. SRNL is responsible for conducting a corrosion study in small scale vessels containing plutonium oxide and chloride salts under conditions of humidity, temperature and oxide/salt compositions both within the limits of 3013 storage conditions as well as beyond the 3013 storage requirements to identify margins for minimizing the initiation of stress corrosion cracking. These worst case conditions provide data that bound the material packaged in 3013 containers. Phase I of this testing was completed in 2010. The Phase II, Series 1 testing was performed to verify previous results from Phase I testing and extend our understanding about the initiation of stress corrosion cracking and pitting that occur in 304L under conditions of room temperature, high humidity, and a specific plutonium oxide/salt chemistry. These results will aid in bounding the safe storage conditions of plutonium oxides in 3013 containers. A substantial change in the testing was the addition of the capability to monitor relative humidity during test exposure. The results show that under conditions of high initial moisture ({approx}0.5 wt%) and room temperature stress corrosion cracking occurred in 304L teardrop coupons in contact with the oxide/salt mixture at times

  1. Energy Savings Week: Standards for Kitchen and Laundry Products...

    Energy Savers [EERE]

    ... of Bethany Sparn, NREL 25545 Energy-Efficient Home Appliances Can Save You Money FACT: Consumers are saving more than 62 billion a year as a result of the Energy Department's ...

  2. How to Be Energy Efficient in Your Kitchen this Thanksgiving

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    Easy ways to reduce unnecessary energy use while still enjoying all of your family’s favorite dishes.

  3. Kitchen Ventilation Should be High Performance (Not Optional)

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    This presentation was delivered at the U.S. Department of Energy Building America Technical Update meeting on April 29-30, 2013, in Denver, Colorado.

  4. Energy Saving Holiday Kitchen Trivia | Department of Energy

    Office of Environmental Management (EM)

    In fact, there are entire books dedicated to culinary usage of the microwave. ... the number of days you use the appliance during the year for the annual consumption in kWh per year. ...

  5. Synthesis of monodispersed CdSe nanocrystals in poly(styrene-alt-maleic anhydride) at room temperature

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Liu, S.H.; Qian, X.F.; Yuan, J.Y.; Yin, J.; He, R.; Zhu, Z.K

    2003-07-14

    Nanocomposite of CdSe/poly(styrene-alt-maleic anhydride) (PSM) was successfully prepared via an in situ reaction process at room temperature and ambient pressure. Transmission electron microscopy (TEM) analysis revealed that CdSe nanoparticles with a small size and narrow size distribution were obtained. The obtained nanocomposite was also characterized by FT-IR, XRD, ultraviolet-visible, and fluorescence spectroscopy.

  6. Thermodynamic Analysis Of Pure And Impurity Doped Pentaerythritol Tetranitrate Crystals Grown At Room Temperature

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Pitchimani, R; Zheng, W; Simon, S; Hope-Weeks, L; Burnham, A K; Weeks, B L

    2006-05-25

    Pentaerythritol tetranitrate (PETN) powders are used to initiate other explosives. During long-term storage, changes in powder properties can cause changes in the initiation performance. Changes in the morphology and surface area of aging powders are observed due to sublimation and growth of PETN crystals through coarsening mechanisms, (e.g. Ostwald ripening, sintering, etc.). In order to alleviate the sublimation of PETN crystals under service conditions, stabilization methods such as thermal cycling and doping with certain impurities during or after the crystallization of PETN have been proposed. In this report we present our work on the effect of impurities on the morphology and activation energy of the PETN crystals. The pure and impurity doped crystals of PETN were grown from supersaturated acetone solution by solvent evaporation technique at room temperature. The difference in the morphology of the impurity-doped PETN crystal compared to pure crystal was examined by optical microscopy. The changes in the activation energies and the evaporation rates are determined by thermogravimetric (TGA) analyses. Our activation energies of evaporation agree with earlier reported enthalpies of vaporization. The morphology and activation energy of PETN crystals doped with Ca, Na, and Fe cations are similar to that for pure PETN crystal, whereas the Zn-ion-doped PETN crystals have different morphology and decreased activation energy.

  7. Calculation of room temperature conductivity and mobility in tin-based topological insulator nanoribbons

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Vandenberghe, William G. Fischetti, Massimo V.

    2014-11-07

    Monolayers of tin (stannanane) functionalized with halogens have been shown to be topological insulators. Using density functional theory (DFT), we study the electronic properties and room-temperature transport of nanoribbons of iodine-functionalized stannanane showing that the overlap integral between the wavefunctions associated to edge-states at opposite ends of the ribbons decreases with increasing width of the ribbons. Obtaining the phonon spectra and the deformation potentials also from DFT, we calculate the conductivity of the ribbons using the Kubo-Greenwood formalism and show that their mobility is limited by inter-edge phonon backscattering. We show that wide stannanane ribbons have a mobility exceeding 10{sup 6} cm{sup 2}/Vs. Contrary to ordinary semiconductors, two-dimensional topological insulators exhibit a high conductivity at low charge density, decreasing with increasing carrier density. Furthermore, the conductivity of iodine-functionalized stannanane ribbons can be modulated over a range of three orders of magnitude, thus rendering this material extremely interesting for classical computing applications.

  8. New insights into designing metallacarborane based room temperature hydrogen storage media

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Bora, Pankaj Lochan; Singh, Abhishek K.

    2013-10-28

    Metallacarboranes are promising towards realizing room temperature hydrogen storage media because of the presence of both transition metal and carbon atoms. In metallacarborane clusters, the transition metal adsorbs hydrogen molecules and carbon can link these clusters to form metal organic framework, which can serve as a complete storage medium. Using first principles density functional calculations, we chalk out the underlying principles of designing an efficient metallacarborane based hydrogen storage media. The storage capacity of hydrogen depends upon the number of available transition metal d-orbitals, number of carbons, and dopant atoms in the cluster. These factors control the amount of charge transfer from metal to the cluster, thereby affecting the number of adsorbed hydrogen molecules. This correlation between the charge transfer and storage capacity is general in nature, and can be applied to designing efficient hydrogen storage systems. Following this strategy, a search for the best metallacarborane was carried out in which Sc based monocarborane was found to be the most promising H{sub 2} sorbent material with a 9 wt.% of reversible storage at ambient pressure and temperature.

  9. Usage possibilities of diesel aggregate for room heating and electric energy production

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Kegl, K.; Vor Ic, J.

    1998-07-01

    Article shows reasons for introduction of cogeneration generally. The present manner of heating and electricity connection at the Faculty of electrical engineering and computer science in Maribor is described. The idea is to build in the cogeneration complex in heating room next to the existent boilers. Gathered data of electricity and heat demand are presented. Paper deals with question of electrical, heat and fuel connections. Comparison between two types of cogeneration (motor and turbine) helps to make a decision: cogeneration with motor. Depending to the daily electricity demands diagram and arranged heating diagram the authors focused to the small cogeneration (around 200 kWe). Availability of natural gas at the placement of the cogeneration leads us to the gas motor but leaves the diesel engine possibility opened. A brief economical estimation includes common investment costs regarding to the savings of energy and fuel expenses. Payback time calculation gives precedence to the gas motor if diesel is used with motor instead of fuel oil. Except the energy savings there are greater benefits of the cogeneration: it can be good study case for students of electrotechnics as well as future mechanical engineers.

  10. A magnetically shielded room with ultra low residual field and gradient

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Altarev, I.; Chesnevskaya, S.; Gutsmiedl, E.; Kuchler, F.; Lins, T.; Marino, M.; McAndrew, J.; Niessen, B.; Paul, S.; Petzoldt, G.; Singh, J.; Stoepler, R.; Stuiber, S.; Sturm, M.; Taubenheim, B.; Babcock, E.; Beck, D.; Sharma, S.; Burghoff, M.; Fan, I.; and others

    2014-07-15

    A versatile and portable magnetically shielded room with a field of (700 ± 200) pT within a central volume of 1 m × 1 m × 1 m and a field gradient less than 300 pT/m, achieved without any external field stabilization or compensation, is described. This performance represents more than a hundredfold improvement of the state of the art for a two-layer magnetic shield and provides an environment suitable for a next generation of precision experiments in fundamental physics at low energies; in particular, searches for electric dipole moments of fundamental systems and tests of Lorentz-invariance based on spin-precession experiments. Studies of the residual fields and their sources enable improved design of future ultra-low gradient environments and experimental apparatus. This has implications for developments of magnetometry beyond the femto-Tesla scale in, for example, biomagnetism, geosciences, and security applications and in general low-field nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) measurements.

  11. Spreading of lithium on a stainless steel surface at room temperature

    DOE Public Access Gateway for Energy & Science Beta (PAGES Beta)

    Skinner, C. H.; Capece, A. M.; Roszell, J. P.; Koel, B. E.

    2016-01-01

    Lithium conditioned plasma facing surfaces have lowered recycling and enhanced plasma performance on many fusion devices and liquid lithium plasma facing components are under consideration for future machines. A key factor in the performance of liquid lithium components is the wetting by lithium of its container. We have observed the surface spreading of lithium from a mm-scale particle to adjacent stainless steel surfaces using a scanning Auger microprobe that has elemental discrimination. The spreading of lithium occurred at room temperature (when lithium is a solid) from one location at a speed of 0.62 mu m/day under ultrahigh vacuum conditions. Separatemore » experiments using temperature programmed desorption (TPD) investigated bonding energetics between monolayer-scale films of lithium and stainless steel. While multilayer lithium desorption from stainless steel begins to occur just above 500 K (E-des = 1.54 eV), sub-monolayer Li desorption occurred in a TPD peak at 942 K (E-des = 2.52 eV) indicating more energetically favorable lithium-stainless steel bonding (in the absence of an oxidation layer) than lithium lithium bonding. (C) 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.« less

  12. Radiation defect dynamics in Si at room temperature studied by pulsed ion beams

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Wallace, J. B.; Myers, M. T.; Charnvanichborikarn, S.; Bayu Aji, L. B.; Kucheyev, S. O.; Shao, L.

    2015-10-07

    The evolution of radiation defects after the thermalization of collision cascades often plays the dominant role in the formation of stable radiation disorder in crystalline solids of interest to electronics and nuclear materials applications. Here, we explore a pulsed-ion-beam method to study defect interaction dynamics in Si crystals bombarded at room temperature with 500 keV Ne, Ar, Kr, and Xe ions. The effective time constant of defect interaction is measured directly by studying the dependence of lattice disorder, monitored by ion channeling, on the passive part of the beam duty cycle. The effective defect diffusion length is revealed by the dependence of damage on the active part of the beam duty cycle. Results show that the defect relaxation behavior obeys a second order kinetic process for all the cases studied, with a time constant in the range of ∼4–13 ms and a diffusion length of ∼15–50 nm. Both radiation dynamics parameters (the time constant and diffusion length) are essentially independent of the maximum instantaneous dose rate, total ion dose, and dopant concentration within the ranges studied. However, both the time constant and diffusion length increase with increasing ion mass. This demonstrates that the density of collision cascades influences not only defect production and annealing efficiencies but also the defect interaction dynamics.

  13. REVIEW Of COMPUTERIZED PROCEDURE GUIDELINES FOR NUCLEAR POWER PLANT CONTROL ROOMS

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    David I Gertman; Katya Le Blanc; Ronald L Boring

    2011-09-01

    Computerized procedures (CPs) are recognized as an emerging alternative to paper-based procedures for supporting control room operators in nuclear power plants undergoing life extension and in the concept of operations for advanced reactor designs. CPs potentially reduce operator workload, yield increases in efficiency, and provide for greater resilience. Yet, CPs may also adversely impact human and plant performance if not designed and implemented properly. Therefore, it is important to ensure that existing guidance is sufficient to provide for proper implementation and monitoring of CPs. In this paper, human performance issues were identified based on a review of the behavioral science literature, research on computerized procedures in nuclear and other industries, and a review of industry experience with CPs. The review of human performance issues led to the identification of a number of technical gaps in available guidance sources. To address some of the gaps, we developed 13 supplemental guidelines to support design and safety. This paper presents these guidelines and the case for further research.

  14. Room temperature alcohol sensing by oxygen vacancy controlled TiO{sub 2} nanotube array

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Hazra, A.; Dutta, K.; Bhowmik, B.; Bhattacharyya, P.; Chattopadhyay, P. P.

    2014-08-25

    Oxygen vacancy (OV) controlled TiO{sub 2} nanotubes, having diameters of 5070?nm and lengths of 200250?nm, were synthesized by electrochemical anodization in the mixed electrolyte comprising NH{sub 4}F and ethylene glycol with selective H{sub 2}O content. The structural evolution of TiO{sub 2} nanoforms has been studied by field emission scanning electron microscopy. Variation in the formation of OVs with the variation of the structure of TiO{sub 2} nanoforms has been evaluated by photoluminescence and X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy. The sensor characteristics were correlated to the variation of the amount of induced OVs in the nanotubes. The efficient room temperature sensing achieved by the control of OVs of TiO{sub 2} nanotube array has paved the way for developing fast responding alcohol sensor with corresponding response magnitude of 60.2%, 45.3%, and 36.5% towards methanol, ethanol, and 2-propanol, respectively.

  15. Spreading of lithium on a stainless steel surface at room temperature

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Skinner, C. H.; Capece, A. M.; Roszell, J. P.; Koel, B. E.

    2016-01-01

    Lithium conditioned plasma facing surfaces have lowered recycling and enhanced plasma performance on many fusion devices and liquid lithium plasma facing components are under consideration for future machines. A key factor in the performance of liquid lithium components is the wetting by lithium of its container. We have observed the surface spreading of lithium from a mm-scale particle to adjacent stainless steel surfaces using a scanning Auger microprobe that has elemental discrimination. The spreading of lithium occurred at room temperature (when lithium is a solid) from one location at a speed of 0.62 mu m/day under ultrahigh vacuum conditions. Separate experiments using temperature programmed desorption (TPD) investigated bonding energetics between monolayer-scale films of lithium and stainless steel. While multilayer lithium desorption from stainless steel begins to occur just above 500 K (E-des = 1.54 eV), sub-monolayer Li desorption occurred in a TPD peak at 942 K (E-des = 2.52 eV) indicating more energetically favorable lithium-stainless steel bonding (in the absence of an oxidation layer) than lithium lithium bonding. (C) 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  16. Hydrogen-bonding interactions and protic equilibria in room-temperature ionic liquids containing crown ethers.

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Marin, T.; Shkrob, I.; Dietz, M.

    2011-04-14

    Nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) spectroscopy has been used to study hydrogen-bonding interactions between water, associated and dissociated acids (i.e., nitric and methanesulfonic acids), and the constituent ions of several water-immiscible room-temperature ionic liquids (ILs). In chloroform solutions also containing a crown ether (CE), water molecules strongly associate with the IL ions, and there is rapid proton exchange between these bound water molecules and hydronium associated with the CE. In neat ILs, the acids form clusters differing in their degree of association and ionization, and their interactions with the CEs are weak. The CE can either promote proton exchange between different clusters in IL solution when their association is weak or inhibit such exchange when the association is strong. Even strongly hydrophobic ILs are shown to readily extract nitric acid from aqueous solution, typically via the formation of a 1:1:1 {l_brace}H{sub 3}O{sup +} {center_dot} CE{r_brace}NO{sub 3}{sup -} complex. In contrast, the extraction of methanesulfonic acid is less extensive and proceeds mainly by IL cation-hydronium ion exchange. The relationship of these protic equilibria to the practical application of hydrophobic ILs (e.g., in spent nuclear fuel reprocessing) is discussed.

  17. Molecular and crystal structure of n-hexyloxybenzoic anhydride at low and room temperatures

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Konstantinov, I. I.; Churakov, A. V.; Kuz'mina, L. G.

    2010-09-15

    The crystal and molecular structures of n-hexyloxybenzoic anhydride, C{sub 6}H{sub 13}-O-C{sub 6}H{sub 4}-C(O)-O-C(O)-C{sub 6}H{sub 4}-C{sub 6}H{sub 13}, at low (120 K) and room (296 K) temperatures have been investigated. The molecule has an asymmetric bent structure. The dihedral angle between the benzene ring planes is 48.5 deg. The aliphatic chain on one side of the molecule has a transoid orientation with respect to the 'internal' C4 atom of the closest benzene ring, whereas the aliphatic chain on the other side has a cissoid orientation with respect to the analogous C(4A) atom. The crystal packing does not exhibit any pronounced separation of the crystal space into closely packed aromatic or loosely packed aliphatic regions. No weak directional interactions are observed in the packing; this fact explains the absence of liquid-crystal properties for this compound.

  18. Sessile dislocations by reactions in NiAl severely deformed at room temperature

    DOE Public Access Gateway for Energy & Science Beta (PAGES Beta)

    Geist, D.; Gammer, C.; Rentenberger, C.; Karnthaler, H. P.

    2015-02-05

    B2 ordered NiAl is known for its poor room temperature (RT) ductility; failure occurs in a brittle like manner even in ductile single crystals deforming by single slip. In the present study NiAl was severely deformed at RT using the method of high pressure torsion (HPT) enabling the hitherto impossible investigation of multiple slip deformation. Methods of transmission electron microscopy were used to analyze the dislocations formed by the plastic deformation showing that as expected dislocations with Burgers vector a(100) carry the plasticity during HPT deformation at RT. In addition, we observe that they often form a(110) dislocations by dislocationmore » reactions; the a(110) dislocations are considered to be sessile based on calculations found in the literature. It is therefore concluded that the frequently encountered 3D dislocation networks containing sessile a(110) dislocations are pinned and lead to deformation-induced embrittlement. In spite of the severe deformation, the chemical order remains unchanged.« less

  19. Multimodality imaging of reporter gene expression using a novel fusion vector in living cells and animals

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Gambhir, Sanjiv; Pritha, Ray

    2015-07-14

    Novel double and triple fusion reporter gene constructs harboring distinct imagable reporter genes are provided, as well as applications for the use of such double and triple fusion constructs in living cells and in living animals using distinct imaging technologies.

  20. Multimodality imaging of reporter gene expression using a novel fusion vector in living cells and animals

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Gambhir, Sanjiv; Pritha, Ray

    2011-06-07

    Novel double and triple fusion reporter gene constructs harboring distinct imagable reporter genes are provided, as well as applications for the use of such double and triple fusion constructs in living cells and in living animals using distinct imaging technologies.

  1. Multimodality imaging of reporter gene expression using a novel fusion vector in living cells and animals

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Gambhir; Sanjiv , Pritha; Ray

    2009-04-28

    Novel double and triple fusion reporter gene constructs harboring distinct imageable reporter genes are provided, as well as applications for the use of such double and triple fusion constructs in living cells and in living animals using distinct imaging technologies.

  2. WAC - 232-12-064 Live Wildlife-Taking from the wild | Open Energy...

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    32-12-064 Live Wildlife-Taking from the wild Jump to: navigation, search OpenEI Reference LibraryAdd to library Legal Document- RegulationRegulation: WAC - 232-12-064 Live...

  3. ScienceLive chat page: on the future of fusion research | Princeton Plasma

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Physics Lab ScienceLive chat page: on the future of fusion research American Fusion News Category: U.S. Universities Link: ScienceLive chat page: on the future of fusion research

  4. Making the "Best Place to Live" Even Better

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    For 2010, the appropriately named Eden Prairie, Minnesota was honored as the No. 1 Best Place to Live in the United States by Money Magazine. The highly-coveted civic title reflects many aspects of the family-friendly suburb of 62,000 located 16 miles from downtown Minneapolis, including the advantages of being the home to major employers like Fortune 500 trucking company C.H. Robinson and hearing-aid maker Starkey Labs. The city also hass many natural amenities like 17 lakes and parks with 125 miles of running, hiking, and biking trails.

  5. COLLOQUIUM: Living with Climate Change: The Road from Paris | Princeton

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Plasma Physics Lab April 20, 2016, 4:15pm to 5:30pm Colloquia MBG Auditorium (284 cap.) COLLOQUIUM: Living with Climate Change: The Road from Paris Dr. Dale Jamieson New York University Presentation: File WC20APR2016_DJamieson.pptx The twenty-first Conference of the Parties (COP21) of the United Nations Framework Convention on Climate Change (UNFCCC) in Paris ended with an agreement that some call "the world's greatest diplomatic success" while others insist it is "too

  6. Savannah River Site "Live Burn" Training Sharpens Skills | National Nuclear

    National Nuclear Security Administration (NNSA)

    Security Administration | (NNSA) Site "Live Burn" Training Sharpens Skills Tuesday, June 30, 2015 - 1:47pm Live Burn training As part of the training that equips them to ensure safe operations, Savannah River Site radiological protection (RP) and fire department personnel recently conducted their annual "Live Burn" training exercises that simulate fires in facilities with chemical and radiological contamination. The Live Burn exercise took place at the Martinez-Columbia

  7. Live Cells as Dynamic Laboratories: Time Lapse Raman Spectral Microscopy of Nanoparticles with Both IgE Targeting and pH-Sensing Functions

    DOE Public Access Gateway for Energy & Science Beta (PAGES Beta)

    Nowak-Lovato, Kristy L.; Rector, Kirk D.

    2012-01-01

    Tmore » his review captures the use of live cells as dynamic microlaboratories through implementation of labeled nanoparticles (nanosensors) that have both sensing and targeting functions.he addition of 2,4-ε-dinitrophenol-L-lysine (DNP) as a FcεRI targeting ligand and 4-mercaptopyridine (4-MPy) as a pH-sensing ligand enables spatial and temporal monitoring of FcεRI receptors and their pH environment within the endocytic pathway.o ensure reliability, the sensor is calibrated in vivo using the ionophore nigericin and standard buffer solutions to equilibrate the external [ H + ] concentration with that of the cell compartments.his review highlights the nanosensors, ability to traffic and respond to pH of receptor-bound nanosensors (1) at physiological temperature ( 37 ° C ) versus room temperature ( 25 ° C ) , (2) after pharmacological treatment with bafilomycin, an H + ATPase pump inhibitor, or amiloride, an inhibitor of Na + / H + exchange, and (3) in response to both temperature and pharmacological treatment. Whole-cell, time lapse images are demonstrated to show the ability to transform live cells into dynamic laboratories to monitor temporal and spatial endosomal pH.he versatility of these probes shows promise for future applications relevant to intracellular trafficking and intelligent drug design.« less

  8. Air Leakage and Air Transfer Between Garage and Living Space

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Rudd, Armin

    2014-09-01

    This research project focused on evaluation of air transfer between the garage and living space in a single-family detached home constructed by a production homebuilder in compliance with the 2009 International Residential Code and the 2009 International Energy Conservation Code. The project gathered important information about the performance of whole-building ventilation systems and garage ventilation systems as they relate to minimizing flow of contaminated air from garage to living space. A series of 25 multi-point fan pressurization tests and additional zone pressure diagnostic testing characterized the garage and house air leakage, the garage-to-house air leakage, and garage and house pressure relationships to each other and to outdoors using automated fan pressurization and pressure monitoring techniques. While the relative characteristics of this house may not represent the entire population of new construction configurations and air tightness levels (house and garage) throughout the country, the technical approach was conservative and should reasonably extend the usefulness of the results to a large spectrum of house configurations from this set of parametric tests in this one house. Based on the results of this testing, the two-step garage-to-house air leakage test protocol described above is recommended where whole-house exhaust ventilation is employed.

  9. Flexible micro-supercapacitor based on in-situ assembled graphene on metal template at room temperature

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Wu, ZK; Lin, ZY; Li, LY; Song, B; Moon, KS; Bai, SL; Wong, CP

    2014-11-01

    Graphene based micro-supercapacitors (MSCs) have been extensively studied in recent years; however, few of them report room temperature fabricating methods for flexible MSC. Here we developed a convenient procedure based on simultaneous self-assembly and reduction of graphene oxide (GO) on Cu/Au interdigit at room temperature. The as-produced MSC shows a specific areal capacitance of 0.95 mF cm(-2) and maintains 98.3% after 11,000 cycles of charge and discharge. Extremely small relaxation time constants of 1.9 ms in aqueous electrolyte and 4.8 ms in gelled electrolyte are achieved. Also the device shows great flexibility and retains 93.5% of the capacitance after 5000 times of bending and twisting tests. (C) 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  10. Wide-bandgap high-mobility ZnO thin-film transistors produced at room temperature

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Fortunato, Elvira M.C.; Barquinha, Pedro M.C.; Pimentel, Ana C.M.B.G.; Goncalves, Alexandra M.F.; Marques, Antonio J.S.; Martins, Rodrigo F.P.; Pereira, Luis M.N.

    2004-09-27

    We report high-performance ZnO thin-film transistor (ZnO-TFT) fabricated by rf magnetron sputtering at room temperature with a bottom gate configuration. The ZnO-TFT operates in the enhancement mode with a threshold voltage of 19 V, a saturation mobility of 27 cm{sup 2}/V s, a gate voltage swing of 1.39 V/decade and an on/off ratio of 3x10{sup 5}. The ZnO-TFT presents an average optical transmission (including the glass substrate) of 80% in the visible part of the spectrum. The combination of transparency, high mobility, and room-temperature processing makes the ZnO-TFT a very promising low-cost optoelectronic device for the next generation of invisible and flexible electronics.

  11. Human factors design, verification, and validation for two types of control room upgrades at a nuclear power plant

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Boring, Laurids Ronald

    2014-10-01

    This paper describes the NUREG-0711 based human factors engineering (HFE) phases and associated elements required to support design, verification and validation (V&V), and implementation of a new plant process computer (PPC) and turbine control system (TCS) at a representative nuclear power plant. This paper reviews ways to take a human-system interface (HSI) specification and use it when migrating legacy PPC displays or designing displays with new functionality. These displays undergo iterative usability testing during the design phase and then undergo an integrated system validation (ISV) in a full scope control room training simulator. Following the successful demonstration of operator performance with the systems during the ISV, the new system is implemented at the plant, first in the training simulator and then in the main control room.

  12. High-Permeance Room-Temperature Ionic-Liquid-Based Membranes for CO2/N-2 Separation

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Zhou, JS; Mok, MM; Cowan, MG; McDanel, WM; Carlisle, TK; Gin, DL; Noble, RD

    2014-12-24

    We have developed and fabricated thin-film composite (TFC) membranes with an active layer consisting of a room-temperature ionic liquid/polymerized (room-temperature ionic liquid) [i.e., (RTIL)/poly(RTIL)] composite material. The resulting membrane has a CO2 permeance of 6100 +/- 400 GPU (where 1 GPU = 10(-6) cm(3)/(cm(2) s cmHg)) and an ideal CO2/N-2 selectivity of 22 +/- 2. This represents a new membrane with state-of-the-art CO2 permeance and good CO2/N-2 selectivity. To our knowledge, this is the first example of a TFC gas separation membrane composed of an RTIL-containing active layer.

  13. Induced spin-polarization of EuS at room temperature in Ni/EuS multilayers

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Poulopoulos, P.; Goschew, A.; Straub, A.; Fumagalli, P.; Kapaklis, V.; Wolff, M.; Delimitis, A.; Wilhelm, F.; Rogalev, A.; Pappas, S. D.

    2014-03-17

    Ni/EuS multilayers with excellent multilayer sequencing are deposited via e-beam evaporation on the native oxide of Si(100) wafers at 4 × 10{sup −9} millibars. The samples have very small surface and interface roughness and show sharp interfaces. Ni layers are nanocrystalline 4–8 nm thick and EuS layers are 2–4 nm thick and are either amorphous or nanocrystalline. Unlike for Co/EuS multilayers, all Eu ions are in divalent (ferromagnetic) state. We show a direct antiferromagnetic coupling between EuS and Ni layers. At room temperature, the EuS layers are spin-polarized due to the proximity of Ni. Therefore, Ni/EuS is a candidate for room-temperature spintronics applications.

  14. Homogeneous and inhomogeneous sources of optical transition broadening in room temperature CdSe/ZnS nanocrystal quantum dots

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Wolf, M.; Berezovsky, J.

    2014-10-06

    We perform photoluminescence excitation measurements on individual CdSe/ZnS nanocrystal quantum dots (NCQDs) at room temperature to study optical transition energies and broadening. The observed features in the spectra are identified and compared to calculated transition energies using an effective mass model. The observed broadening is attributed to phonon broadening, spectral diffusion, and size and shape inhomogeneity. The former two contribute to the broadening transitions in individual QDs, while the latter contributes to the QD-to-QD variation. We find that phonon broadening is often not the dominant contribution to transition line widths, even at room temperature, and that broadening does not necessarily increase with transition energy. This may be explained by differing magnitude of spectral diffusion for different quantum-confined states.

  15. Optical diode effect at spin-wave excitations in the room-temperature multiferroic BiFeO3.

    DOE Public Access Gateway for Energy & Science Beta (PAGES Beta)

    Kezsmarki, I.; Nagel, U.; Bordacs, S.; Fishman, Randy Scott; Lee, Jun Hee; Yi, Hee Taek; Cheong, Sang-Wook; Room, T.

    2015-09-15

    The ability to read and write a magnetic state current-free by an electric voltage would provide a huge technological advantage. Dynamic or optical ME effects are equally interesting, because they give rise to unidirectional light propagation as recently observed in low-temperature multiferroics. This phenomenon, if realized at room temperature, would allow the development of optical diodes which transmit unpolarized light in one, but not in the opposite, direction. Here, we report strong unidirectional transmission in the room-temperature multiferroic BiFeO3 over the gigahertz-terahertz frequency range. The supporting theory attributes the observed unidirectional transmission to the spin-current-driven dynamic ME effect. Our findingsmore » are an important step toward the realization of optical diodes, supplemented by the ability to switch the transmission direction with a magnetic or electric field.« less

  16. WATCH LIVE: Talking the Higgs Boson with CERN | Department of Energy

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    WATCH LIVE: Talking the Higgs Boson with CERN WATCH LIVE: Talking the Higgs Boson with CERN September 13, 2012 - 2:33pm Addthis WATCH LIVE: Talking the Higgs Boson with CERN Michael Hess Michael Hess Former Digital Communications Specialist, Office of Public Affairs Where do I watch? To watch this livestream, go to energy.gov/live. Tune in to a special livestream at energy.gov/live on Friday, Sept. 14 at 10 a.m. ET for a science lecture about the Higgs boson with Joe Incandela, head spokesperson

  17. Firearm equipped with live round inhibiting means and method of making same

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Baehr, Donald G. (Albuquerque, NM)

    1990-01-01

    A firearm is disclosed having live round inhibiting means mounted in the barrel of the firearm which permits a blank cartridge to be loaded into a firearm and fired while preventing the loading and firing of a live round. The live round inhibiting means comprise shaft means mounted in the barrel of the firearm and which extends a sufficient length into the barrel at a point just beyond the chamber portion of the firearm to engage the bullet portion of a live round to prevent it from properly chambering, while permitting a blank cartridge to be loaded into the firearm and fired without engaging the live round-inhibiting shaft means.

  18. Firearm equipped with live round inhibiting means and method of making same

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Baehr, D.G.

    1990-11-13

    A firearm is disclosed having live round inhibiting means mounted in the barrel of the firearm which permits a blank cartridge to be loaded into a firearm and fired while preventing the loading and firing of a live round. The live round inhibiting means comprise shaft means mounted in the barrel of the firearm and which extends a sufficient length into the barrel at a point just beyond the chamber portion of the firearm to engage the bullet portion of a live round to prevent it from properly chambering, while permitting a blank cartridge to be loaded into the firearm and fired without engaging the live round-inhibiting shaft means. 9 figs.

  19. Room temperature nonlinear magnetoelectric effect in lead-free and Nb-doped AlFeO{sub 3} compositions

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Ctica, Luiz F.; Santos, Guilherme M.; Santos, Ivair A.; Freitas, Valdirlei F.; Coelho, Adelino A.; Pal, Madhuparna; Guo, Ruyan; Bhalla, Amar S.; Garcia, Ducinei; Eiras, Jos A.

    2015-02-14

    It is still a challenging problem to obtain technologically useful materials displaying strong magnetoelectric coupling at room temperature. In the search for new effects and materials to achieve this kind of coupling, a nonlinear magnetoelectric effect was proposed in the magnetically disordered relaxor ferroelectric materials. In this context, the aluminum iron oxide (AlFeO{sub 3}), a room temperature ferroelectric relaxor and magnetic spin glass compound, emerges as an attractive lead-free magnetoelectric material along with nonlinear magnetoelectric effects. In this work, static, dynamic, and temperature dependent ferroic and magnetoelectric properties in lead-free AlFeO{sub 3} and 2 at.?% Nb-doped AlFeO{sub 3} multiferroic magnetoelectric compositions are studied. Pyroelectric and magnetic measurements show changes in ferroelectric and magnetic states close to each other (?200?K). The magnetoelectric coefficient behavior as a function of H{sub bias} suggests a room temperature nonlinear magnetoelectric coupling in both single-phase and Nb-doped AlFeO{sub 3}-based ceramic compositions.

  20. Symmetries and multiferroic properties of novel room-temperature magnetoelectrics: Lead iron tantalate – lead zirconate titanate (PFT/PZT)

    DOE Public Access Gateway for Energy & Science Beta (PAGES Beta)

    Sanchez, Dilsom A.; Ortega, N.; Kumar, Ashok; Roque-Malherbe, R.; Polanco, R.; Scott, J. F.; Katiyar, Ram S.

    2011-12-01

    Mixing 60-70% lead zirconate titanate with 40-30% lead iron tantalate produces a single-phase, low-loss, room-temperature multiferroic with magnetoelectric coupling: (PbZr₀.₅₃Ti₀.₄₇O₃) (1-x)- (PbFe₀.₅Ta₀.₅O₃)x. The present study combines x-ray scattering, magnetic and polarization hysteresis in both phases, plus a second-order dielectric divergence (to epsilon = 6000 at 475 K for 0.4 PFT; to 4000 at 520 K for 0.3 PFT) for an unambiguous assignment as a C2v-C4v (Pmm2-P4mm) transition. The material exhibits square saturated magnetic hysteresis loops with 0.1 emu/g at 295 K and saturation polarization Pr = 25 μC/cm², which actually increases (to 40 μC/cm²) in the high-T tetragonal phase, representingmore » an exciting new room temperature oxide multiferroic to compete with BiFeO₃. Additional transitions at high temperatures (cubic at T>1300 K) and low temperatures (rhombohedral or monoclinic at T<250 K) are found. These are the lowest-loss room-temperature multiferroics known, which is a great advantage for magnetoelectric devices.« less

  1. South Atlantic OCS area living marine resources study. Volume I: an investigation of live bottom habitats south of Cape Fear, North Carolina. Final report

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Not Available

    1981-10-01

    The major objectives of this study were to (1) characterize benthic and nektonic communities associated with representative live bottom habitats on the continental shelf of the South Atlantic Bight, and (2) evaluate factors which might influence these communities, particularly the potential for impact by offshore oil and gas activities. The study areas include nine live bottom areas located off South Carolina, Georgia and Florida.

  2. Short-lived isomers in {sup 94}Rb

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Tsekhanovich, I.; Dare, J. A.; Smith, A. G.; Varley, B. J.; Simpson, G. S.; Urban, W.; Soldner, T.; Jolie, J.; Linnemann, A.; Orlandi, R.; Smith, J. F.; Scherillo, A.; Rzaca-Urban, T.; Zlomaniec, A.; Dorvaux, O.; Gall, B. J. P.; Roux, B.

    2008-07-15

    The medium-spin structure of the neutron-rich, odd-odd nucleus {sup 94}Rb was studied by means of {gamma}-ray spectroscopy. Excited levels were populated in the neutron-induced fission of {sup 235}U and in the spontaneous fission of {sup 252}Cf and {sup 248}Cm. Two isomeric states were found at 1485.2 and 2074.8 keV with half-lives of 18 and 107 ns, respectively. The probable structures of the two isomers involve the fully aligned, proton-neutron configurations [{pi}(g{sub 9/2}) x {nu}(g{sub 7/2})]{sub 8{sup +}} and [{pi}(g{sub 9/2}) x {nu}(h{sub 11/2})]{sub 10{sup -}}, respectively. These new data give information on the single-particle energies in the region.

  3. Magnetic resonance imaging of living systems by remote detection

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Wemmer, David; Pines, Alexander; Bouchard, Louis; Xu, Shoujun; Harel, Elad; Budker, Dmitry; Lowery, Thomas; Ledbetter, Micah

    2013-10-29

    A novel approach to magnetic resonance imaging is disclosed. Blood flowing through a living system is prepolarized, and then encoded. The polarization can be achieved using permanent or superconducting magnets. The polarization may be carried out upstream of the region to be encoded or at the place of encoding. In the case of an MRI of a brain, polarization of flowing blood can be effected by placing a magnet over a section of the body such as the heart upstream of the head. Alternatively, polarization and encoding can be effected at the same location. Detection occurs at a remote location, using a separate detection device such as an optical atomic magnetometer, or an inductive Faraday coil. The detector may be placed on the surface of the skin next to a blood vessel such as a jugular vein carrying blood away from the encoded region.

  4. Living and Working Safely Around High-Voltage Power Lines.

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    United States. Bonneville Power Administration.

    2001-06-01

    High-voltage transmission lines can be just as safe as the electrical wiring in the homes--or just as dangerous. The crucial factor is ourselves: they must learn to behave safely around them. This booklet is a basic safety guide for those who live and work around power lines. It deals primarily with nuisance shocks due to induced voltages, and with potential electric shock hazards from contact with high-voltage lines. References on possible long-term biological effects of transmission lines are shown. In preparing this booklet, the Bonneville Power Administration has drawn on more than 50 years of experience with high-voltage transmission. BPA operates one of the world`s largest networks of long-distance, high-voltage lines. This system has more than 400 substations and about 15,000 miles of transmission lines, almost 4,400 miles of which are operated at 500,000 volts.

  5. Near-Term Climate Mitigation by Short-Lived Forcers

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Smith, Steven J.; Mizrahi, Andrew H.

    2013-08-12

    Emissions reductions focused on anthropogenic climate forcing agents with relatively short atmospheric lifetimes such as methane (CH4) and black carbon (BC) have been suggested as a strategy to reduce the rate of climate change over the next several decades. We find that reductions of methane and BC would likely have only a modest impact on near-term climate warming. Even with maximally feasible reductions phased in from 2015 to 2035, global mean temperatures in 2050 are reduced by 0.16 °C, with an uncertainty range of 0.04-0.36°C, with the high end of this range only possible if total historical aerosol forcing is small. More realistic mitigation scenarios would likely provide a smaller climate benefit. The climate benefits from targeted reductions in short-lived forcing agents are smaller than previously estimated and are not substantially different in magnitude from the benefits due to a comprehensive climate policy.

  6. Air Leakage and Air Transfer Between Garage and Living Space

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Rudd, A.

    2014-09-01

    This research project focused on evaluation of air transfer between the garage and living space in a single-family detached home constructed by a production homebuilder in compliance with the 2009 International Residential Code and the 2009 International Energy Conservation Code. The project gathered important information about the performance of whole-building ventilation systems and garage ventilation systems as they relate to minimizing flow of contaminated air from garage to living space. A series of 25 multi-point fan pressurization tests and additional zone pressure diagnostic testing characterized the garage and house air leakage, the garage-to-house air leakage, and garage and house pressure relationships to each other and to outdoors using automated fan pressurization and pressure monitoring techniques. While the relative characteristics of this house may not represent the entire population of new construction configurations and air tightness levels (house and garage) throughout the country, the technical approach was conservative and should reasonably extend the usefulness of the results to a large spectrum of house configurations from this set of parametric tests in this one house. Based on the results of this testing, the two-step garage-to-house air leakage test protocol described above is recommended where whole-house exhaust ventilation is employed. For houses employing whole-house supply ventilation (positive pressure) or balanced ventilation (same pressure effect as the Baseline condition), adherence to the EPA Indoor airPLUS house-to-garage air sealing requirements should be sufficient to expect little to no garage-to-house air transfer.

  7. Long-lived activation products in reactor materials

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Evans, J.C.; Lepel, E.L.; Sanders, R.W.; Wilkerson, C.L.; Silker, W.; Thomas, C.W.; Abel, K.H.; Robertson, D.R.

    1984-08-01

    The purpose of this program was to assess the problems posed to reactor decommissioning by long-lived activation products in reactor construction materials. Samples of stainless steel, vessel steel, concrete, and concrete ingredients were analyzed for up to 52 elements in order to develop a data base of activatable major, minor, and trace elements. Large compositional variations were noted for some elements. Cobalt and niobium concentrations in stainless steel, for example, were found to vary by more than an order of magnitude. A thorough evaluation was made of all possible nuclear reactions that could lead to long lived activation products. It was concluded that all major activation products have been satisfactorily accounted for in decommissioning planning studies completed to date. A detailed series of calculations was carried out using average values of the measured compositions of the appropriate materials to predict the levels of activation products expected in reactor internals, vessel walls, and bioshield materials for PWR and BWR geometries. A comparison is made between calculated activation levels and regulatory guidelines for shallow land disposal according to 10 CFR 61. This analysis shows that PWR and BWR shroud material exceeds the Class C limits and is, therefore, generally unsuitable for near-surface disposal. The PWR core barrel material approaches the Class C limits. Most of the remaining massive components qualify as either Class A or B waste with the bioshield clearly Class A, even at the highest point of activation. Selected samples of activated steel and concrete were subjected to a limited radiochemical analysis program as a verification of the computer model. Reasonably good agreement with the calculations was obtained where comparison was possible. In particular, the presence of /sup 94/Nb in activated stainless steel at or somewhat above expected levels was confirmed.

  8. Digital Full-Scope Simulation of a Conventional Nuclear Power Plant Control Room, Phase 2: Installation of a Reconfigurable Simulator to Support Nuclear Plant Sustainability

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Ronald L. Boring; Vivek Agarwal; Kirk Fitzgerald; Jacques Hugo; Bruce Hallbert

    2013-03-01

    The U.S. Department of Energy’s Light Water Reactor Sustainability program has developed a control room simulator in support of control room modernization at nuclear power plants in the U.S. This report highlights the recent completion of this reconfigurable, full-scale, full-scope control room simulator buildout at the Idaho National Laboratory. The simulator is fully reconfigurable, meaning it supports multiple plant models developed by different simulator vendors. The simulator is full-scale, using glasstop virtual panels to display the analog control boards found at current plants. The present installation features 15 glasstop panels, uniquely achieving a complete control room representation. The simulator is also full-scope, meaning it uses the same plant models used for training simulators at actual plants. Unlike in the plant training simulators, the deployment on glasstop panels allows a high degree of customization of the panels, allowing the simulator to be used for research on the design of new digital control systems for control room modernization. This report includes separate sections discussing the glasstop panels, their layout to mimic control rooms at actual plants, technical details on creating a multi-plant and multi-vendor reconfigurable simulator, and current efforts to support control room modernization at U.S. utilities. The glasstop simulator provides an ideal testbed for prototyping and validating new control room concepts. Equally importantly, it is helping create a standardized and vetted human factors engineering process that can be used across the nuclear industry to ensure control room upgrades maintain and even improve current reliability and safety.

  9. SU-D-BRE-03: Dosimetric Impact of In-Air Spot Size Variations for Commissioning a Room-Matched Beam Model for Pencil Beam Scanning Proton Therapy

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Zhang, Y; Giebeler, A; Mascia, A; Piskulich, F; Perles, L; Lepage, R; Dong, L

    2014-06-01

    Purpose: To quantitatively evaluate dosimetric consequence of spot size variations and validate beam-matching criteria for commissioning a pencil beam model for multiple treatment rooms. Methods: A planning study was first conducted by simulating spot size variations to systematically evaluate dosimetric impact of spot size variations in selected cases, which was used to establish the in-air spot size tolerance for beam matching specifications. A beam model in treatment planning system was created using in-air spot profiles acquired in one treatment room. These spot profiles were also acquired from another treatment room for assessing the actual spot size variations between the two treatment rooms. We created twenty five test plans with targets of different sizes at different depths, and performed dose measurement along the entrance, proximal and distal target regions. The absolute doses at those locations were measured using ionization chambers at both treatment rooms, and were compared against the calculated doses by the beam model. Fifteen additional patient plans were also measured and included in our validation. Results: The beam model is relatively insensitive to spot size variations. With an average of less than 15% measured in-air spot size variations between two treatment rooms, the average dose difference was ?0.15% with a standard deviation of 0.40% for 55 measurement points within target region; but the differences increased to 1.4%1.1% in the entrance regions, which are more affected by in-air spot size variations. Overall, our single-room based beam model in the treatment planning system agreed with measurements in both rooms < 0.5% within the target region. For fifteen patient cases, the agreement was within 1%. Conclusion: We have demonstrated that dosimetrically equivalent machines can be established when in-air spot size variations are within 15% between the two treatment rooms.

  10. FINAL REPORT: Room Temperature Hydrogen Storage in Nano-Confined Liquids

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    VAJO, JOHN

    2014-06-12

    DOE continues to seek solid-state hydrogen storage materials with hydrogen densities of ≥6 wt% and ≥50 g/L that can deliver hydrogen and be recharged at room temperature and moderate pressures enabling widespread use in transportation applications. Meanwhile, development including vehicle engineering and delivery infrastructure continues for compressed-gas hydrogen storage systems. Although compressed gas storage avoids the materials-based issues associated with solid-state storage, achieving acceptable volumetric densities has been a persistent challenge. This project examined the possibility of developing storage materials that would be compatible with compressed gas storage technology based on enhanced hydrogen solubility in nano-confined liquid solvents. These materials would store hydrogen in molecular form eliminating many limitations of current solid-state materials while increasing the volumetric capacity of compressed hydrogen storage vessels. Experimental methods were developed to study hydrogen solubility in nano-confined liquids. These methods included 1) fabrication of composites comprised of volatile liquid solvents for hydrogen confined within the nano-sized pore volume of nanoporous scaffolds and 2) measuring the hydrogen uptake capacity of these composites without altering the composite composition. The hydrogen storage capacities of these nano-confined solvent/scaffold composites were compared with bulk solvents and with empty scaffolds. The solvents and scaffolds were varied to optimize the enhancement in hydrogen solubility that accompanies confinement of the solvent. In addition, computational simulations were performed to study the molecular-scale structure of liquid solvent when confined within an atomically realistic nano-sized pore of a model scaffold. Confined solvent was compared with similar simulations of bulk solvent. The results from the simulations were used to formulate a mechanism for the enhanced solubility and to guide the

  11. Infrared study on room-temperature atomic layer deposition of HfO{sub 2} using tetrakis(ethylmethylamino)hafnium and remote plasma-excited oxidizing agents

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Kanomata, Kensaku [Graduate School of Science and Engineering, Yamagata University, 4-3-16 Jonan, Yonezawa 992-8510, Japan and Japan Society for the Promotion of Science, 5-3-1 Kojimachi, Chiyoda-ku, Tokyo 102-0083 (Japan); Ohba, Hisashi; Pungboon Pansila, P.; Ahmmad, Bashir; Kubota, Shigeru; Hirahara, Kazuhiro; Hirose, Fumihiko, E-mail: fhirose@yz.yamagata-u.ac.jp [Graduate School of Science and Engineering, Yamagata University, 4-3-16 Jonan, Yonezawa 992-8510 (Japan)

    2015-01-01

    Room-temperature atomic layer deposition (ALD) of HfO{sub 2} was examined using tetrakis (ethylmethylamino)hafnium (TEMAH) and remote plasma-excited water and oxygen. A growth rate of 0.26?nm/cycle at room temperature was achieved, and the TEMAH adsorption and its oxidization on HfO{sub 2} were investigated by multiple internal reflection infrared absorption spectroscopy. It was observed that saturated adsorption of TEMAH occurs at exposures of ?1??10{sup 5}?L (1 L?=?1??10{sup ?6} Torr s) at room temperature, and the use of remote plasma-excited water and oxygen vapor is effective in oxidizing the TEMAH molecules on the HfO{sub 2} surface, to produce OH sites. The infrared study suggested that HfOH plays a role as an adsorption site for TEMAH. The reaction mechanism of room temperature HfO{sub 2} ALD is discussed in this paper.

  12. Low and Room Temperature X-ray Structures of Protein Kinase A Ternary Complexes Shed New Light on Its Activity

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Fisher, Zoe; Hanson, Leif; Kovalevsky, Andrey; Langan, Paul

    2012-01-01

    Posttranslational protein phosphorylation by protein kinase A (PKA) is a ubiquitous signaling mechanism which regulates many cellular processes. A low temperature X-ray structure of the PKA catalytic subunit (PKAc) ternary complex with ATP and a 20-residue peptidic inhibitor (IP20) at the physiological Mg2+ concentration of < 0.5mM revealed a single metal ion in the active site. The lack of a second metal in the low-temperature LT-PKAc-MgATP-IP20 renders the and phosphoryl groups of ATP to be very flexibile, with high thermal B-factors. Thus, the second metal is crucial for tight positioning of the terminal phosphoryl for transfer to a substrate, as demonstrated by comparison of the former structure with LT-PKAc- Mg2ATP-IP20 complex. In addition to the kinase activity, PKAc is also able to slowly catalyze the hydrolysis of ATP using a water molecule as a substrate. We found that at room temperature under X-ray irradiation ATP can be readily and completely hydrolyzed into ATP and a free phosphate ion in the crystals of the ternary complex LT-PKAc- Mg2ATP-IP20. The cleavage of ATP may be aided by X-ray-born free hydroxyl radicals, a very reactive chemical species, that move quickly through the crystal at room temperature. The phosphate anion is clearly visible in the electron density maps; it remains in the active site, but slides about 2 from its position in ATP toward Ala21 of IP20 that mimics the phosphorylation site. The phosphate, thus, pushes the peptidic inhibitor away from the product ADP, while resulting in dramatic conformational changes of IP20 terminal residues 24 and 25. X-ray structures of PKAc in complex with non-hydrolyzable ATP analog, AMPPNP, at both room and low temperatures demonstrated no temperature effects on the conformation and position of IP20.

  13. Photochemical preparation of CdS hollow microspheres at room temperature and their use in visible-light photocatalysis

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Huang Yuying; Sun Fengqiang; Wu Tianxing; Wu Qingsong; Huang Zhong; Su Heng; Zhang Zihe

    2011-03-15

    CdS hollow microspheres have been successfully prepared by a photochemical preparation technology at room temperature, using polystyrene latex particles as templates, CdSO{sub 4} as cadmium source and Na{sub 2}S{sub 2}O{sub 3} as both sulphur source and photo-initiator. The process involved the deposition of CdS nanoparticles on the surface of polystyrene latex particles under the irradiation of an 8 W UV lamp and the subsequent removal of the latex particles by dispersing in dichloromethane. Photochemical reactions at the sphere/solution interface should be responsible for the formation of hollow spheres. The as-prepared products were characterized by X-ray diffraction, transmission electron microscopy and scanning electron microscopy. Such hollow spheres could be used in photocatalysis and showed high photocatalytic activities in photodegradation of methyl blue (MB) in the presence of H{sub 2}O{sub 2}. The method is green, simple, universal and can be extended to prepare other sulphide and oxide hollow spheres. -- Graphical abstract: Taking polystyrene spheres dispersed in a precursor solution as templates, CdS hollow microspheres composed of nanoparticles were successfully prepared via a new photochemical route at room temperature. Display Omitted Research highlights: {yields} Photochemical method was first employed to prepare hollow microspheres. {yields} CdS hollow spheres were first prepared at room temperature using latex spheres. {yields} The polystyrene spheres used as templates were not modified with special groups. {yields}The CdS hollow microspheres showed high visible-light photocatalytic activities.

  14. Search for Long-Lived Particles ine+e-Collisions

    DOE Public Access Gateway for Energy & Science Beta (PAGES Beta)

    Lees, J. P.; Poireau, V.; Tisserand, V.; Grauges, E.; Palano, A.; Eigen, G.; Stugu, B.; Brown, D. N.; Kerth, L. T.; Kolomensky, Yu. G.; et al

    2015-04-29

    We present a search for a neutral, long-lived particle L that is produced in e+e- collisions and decays at a significant distance from the e+e- interaction point into various flavor combinations of two oppositely charged tracks. The analysis uses an e+e- data sample with a luminosity of 489.1 fb-1 collected by the BABAR detector at the γ (4S), γ (3S), and γ (2S) resonances and just below the γ (4S). Fitting the two-track mass distribution in search of a signal peak, we do not observe a significant signal, and set 90% confidence level upper limits on the product of themore »L production cross section, branching fraction, and reconstruction efficiency for six possible two-body L decay modes as a function of the L mass. The efficiency is given for each final state as a function of the mass, lifetime, and transverse momentum of the candidate, allowing application of the upper limits to any production model. In addition, upper limits are provided on the branching fraction B(B→XsL), where Xs is a strange hadronic system.« less

  15. Search for Long-Lived Particles ine+e-Collisions

    DOE Public Access Gateway for Energy & Science Beta (PAGES Beta)

    Lees, J. P.; Poireau, V.; Tisserand, V.; Grauges, E.; Palano, A.; Eigen, G.; Stugu, B.; Brown, D. N.; Kerth, L. T.; Kolomensky, Yu. G.; et al

    2015-04-29

    We present a search for a neutral, long-lived particle L that is produced in e+e- collisions and decays at a significant distance from the e+e- interaction point into various flavor combinations of two oppositely charged tracks. The analysis uses an e+e- data sample with a luminosity of 489.1 fb-1 collected by the BABAR detector at the γ (4S), γ (3S), and γ (2S) resonances and just below the γ (4S). Fitting the two-track mass distribution in search of a signal peak, we do not observe a significant signal, and set 90% confidence level upper limits on the product of themore » L production cross section, branching fraction, and reconstruction efficiency for six possible two-body L decay modes as a function of the L mass. The efficiency is given for each final state as a function of the mass, lifetime, and transverse momentum of the candidate, allowing application of the upper limits to any production model. In addition, upper limits are provided on the branching fraction B(B→XsL), where Xs is a strange hadronic system.« less

  16. One Thing Leads to Another: How NETL Research Saves Lives | Department of

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Energy One Thing Leads to Another: How NETL Research Saves Lives One Thing Leads to Another: How NETL Research Saves Lives August 8, 2013 - 10:57am Addthis One Thing Leads to Another: How NETL Research Saves Lives Learn More The coronary stent was developed as part of NETL's Technology Transfer program. NETL's technology portfolio contains a broad range of innovations that have resulted from research in areas such as carbon capture and sequestration, mercury capture, fuel cells, sensors and

  17. Senior Adviser Richard Kauffman to Host Live Chat on Renewable Energy

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Innovation and Deployment | Department of Energy Adviser Richard Kauffman to Host Live Chat on Renewable Energy Innovation and Deployment Senior Adviser Richard Kauffman to Host Live Chat on Renewable Energy Innovation and Deployment October 19, 2011 - 3:00pm Addthis Washington, D.C. -- Thursday, October 20th, Richard Kauffman, Senior Adviser to the Secretary of Energy, will host the Department of Energy's third "Energy Matters" live chat. Kauffman will discuss the challenges and

  18. The Committee met at 8:30 a.m. in Room 8E-089 of the Forrestal

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    FALL MEETING THURSDAY, NOVEMBER 2, 2000 + + + + + The Committee met at 8:30 a.m. in Room 8E-089 of the Forrestal Building, U.S. Department of Energy, 1000 Independence Avenue, S.W., Washington, D.C., Dr. Carol A. Gotway Crawford, Chair, presiding. PRESENT: CAROL A. GOTTWAY CRAWFORD, PhD Chair JOHNNY BLAIR Guest F. JAY BREIDT, PhD Member THOMAS C. COWING, PhD Member JAMES K. HAMMITT, PhD Member NICOLAS HENGARTNER Guest CALVIN A. KENT, PhD Member W. DAVID MONTGOMERY, PhD Member WILLIAM G. MOSS,

  19. The Committee met at 8:55 a.m., in Conference Room 8E-089 in

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    APRIL 14, 2000 + + + + + The Committee met at 8:55 a.m., in Conference Room 8E-089 in the Forrestal Building at 10th Street and Independence Avenue, S.W., Washington, D.C., Carol Gotway Crawford, Chair, presiding. MEMBERS PRESENT: CAROL A. GOTWAY CRAWFORD, Ph.D., Chair JAY BREIDT, Ph.D., Member THOMAS G. COWING, Ph.D., Member CALVIN A. KENT, Ph.D., Member W. DAVID MONTGOMERY, Ph.D., Member WILLIAM G. MOSS, Ph.D., Member POLLY A. PHIPPS, Ph.D., Member RANDY R. SITTER, Ph.D., Member ROY WHITMORE,

  20. Peculiarly strong room-temperature ferromagnetism from low Mn-doping in ZnO grown by molecular beam epitaxy

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Zuo Zheng; Morshed, Muhammad; Liu Jianlin; Beyermann, W. P.; Zheng Jianguo; Xin Yan

    2013-03-15

    Strong room-temperature ferromagnetism is demonstrated in single crystalline Mn-doped ZnO thin films grown by molecular beam epitaxy. Very low Mn doping concentration is investigated, and the measured magnetic moment is much larger than what is expected for an isolated ion based on Hund's rules. The ferromagnetic behavior evolves with Mn concentration. Both magnetic anisotropy and anomalous Hall effect confirm the intrinsic nature of ferromagnetism. While the Mn dopant plays a crucial role, another entity in the system is needed to explain the observed large magnetic moments.

  1. Thin-film transistors based on p-type Cu{sub 2}O thin films produced at room temperature

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Fortunato, Elvira; Figueiredo, Vitor; Barquinha, Pedro; Elamurugu, Elangovan; Goncalves, Goncalo; Martins, Rodrigo; Park, Sang-Hee Ko; Hwang, Chi-Sun

    2010-05-10

    Copper oxide (Cu{sub 2}O) thin films were used to produce bottom gate p-type transparent thin-film transistors (TFTs). Cu{sub 2}O was deposited by reactive rf magnetron sputtering at room temperature and the films exhibit a polycrystalline structure with a strongest orientation along (111) plane. The TFTs exhibit improved electrical performance such as a field-effect mobility of 3.9 cm{sup 2}/V s and an on/off ratio of 2x10{sup 2}.

  2. Room temperature strain rate sensitivity in precursor derived HfO{sub 2}/Si-C-N(O) ceramic nanocomposites

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Sujith, Ravindran; Kumar, Ravi

    2014-01-15

    Investigation on the room temperature strain rate sensitivity using depth sensing nanoindentation is carried out on precursor derived HfO{sub 2}/Si-C-N(O) ceramic nanocomposite sintered using pulsed electric current sintering. Using constant load method the strain rate sensitivity values are estimated. Lower strain rate sensitivity of ? 3.7 10{sup ?3} is observed and the limited strain rate sensitivity of these ceramic nanocomposites is explained in terms of cluster model. It is concluded that presence of amorphous Si-C-N(O) clusters are responsible for the limited flowability in these ceramics.

  3. Deployment of a Full-Scope Commercial Nuclear Power Plant Control Room Simulator at the Idaho National Laboratory

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Ronald Boring; Julius Persensky; Kenneth Thomas

    2011-09-01

    The INL operates the HSSL to conduct research in the design and evaluation of advanced reactor control rooms, integration of intelligent support systems to assist operators, development and assessment of advanced human performance models, and visualizations to assess advanced operational concepts across various infrastructures. This advanced facility consists of a reconfigurable simulator and a virtual reality capability (known as the Computer-Aided Virtual Environment (CAVE)) (Figure 2). It supports human factors research, including human-in-the-loop performance, HSI, and analog and digital hybrid control displays. It can be applied to the development and evaluation of control systems and displays for complex systems such as existing and advanced NPP control rooms, command and control systems, and advance emergency operations centers. The HSSL incorporates a reconfigurable control room simulator, which is currently housed in the Center for Advanced Energy Studies (CAES), a joint venture of the DOE and the Idaho University System. The simulator is a platform- and plant-neutral environment intended for full-scope and part-task testing of operator performance in various control room configurations. The simulator is not limited to a particular plant or even simulator architecture. It can support engineering simulator platforms from multiple vendors using digital interfaces. Due to its ability to be reconfigured, it is possible to switch the HSI - not just to digital panels but also to different control modalities such as those using greater plant automation or intelligent alarm filtering. The simulator currently includes three operator workstations, each capable of driving up to eight 30-inch monitors. The size and number of monitors varies depending on the particular front-end simulator deployed for a simulator study. These operator workstations would typically be used for the shift supervisor or senior reactor operator, reactor operator, and assistant reactor

  4. Duplex precipitates and their effects on the room-temperature fracture behaviour of a NiAl-strengthened ferritic alloy

    DOE Public Access Gateway for Energy & Science Beta (PAGES Beta)

    Sun, Zhiqian; Song, Gian; Ilavsky, Jan; Liaw, Peter K.

    2015-03-23

    Duplex precipitates are presented in a NiAl-strengthened ferritic alloy. They were characterized by the ultra-small angle X-ray scattering and transmission electron microscope. Fine cooling precipitates with the size of several to tens of nanometres harden the matrix considerably at room temperature. Cracks are likely to initiate from precipitates, and coalesce and propagate quickly through the matrix due to the excessive hardening effect of cooling precipitates, which lead to the premature fracture of NiAl-strengthened ferritic alloys.

  5. An electron microscopy study of dislocation structures in Mg single crystals compressed along [0 0 0 1] at room temperature

    DOE Public Access Gateway for Energy & Science Beta (PAGES Beta)

    Kumar, K. S.; Chisholm, Matthew F.; Geng, J.; Mishra, R. K.

    2016-01-09

    We compressed Mg single crystals along [0 0 0 1] at room temperature to various stress levels (40, 80, 120, 160 and 320 MPa) and the evolution of dislocation structure with stress increment was investigated by TEM slip is confirmed to be the dominant deformation mode; the predominance of edge dislocation debris lying along the <1 0more » $$\\bar{1}$$ 0> implies that screw dislocations are more mobile than their edge counterpart. The edge dislocation may dissociate into and dislocations, and the latter can extend further on the basal plane and bound a basal-stacking fault.« less

  6. Upcoming Live Discussion on Energy 101: Fuel Cells | Department of Energy

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Live Discussion on Energy 101: Fuel Cells Upcoming Live Discussion on Energy 101: Fuel Cells January 10, 2014 - 12:00am Addthis Join the Energy Department at 2:00 p.m. ET on Thursday, January 16 for the first Energy 101 Google+ Hangout, which will focus on fuel cells.Submit questions for fuel cell experts in advance and during the hangout, and watch the discussion live on energy.gov/live or the Energy Department's Google+ page.Read more about this event and how to submit questions. Addthis

  7. Live Webinar on Better Buildings Case Competition: Energy Efficiency in the Restaurant Franchise Model Case Study

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    The Energy Department will present a live webinar titled "A Side of Savings: Energy Efficiency in the Restaurant Franchise Model Case Study."

  8. WPN 06-6: Weatherization Whole House Assessment Training Live Feed DVD

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    To issue the Weatherization Whole-House Training Assessment Training Live Feed DVD to all grantees for use in the Weatherization Assistance Program (WAP).

  9. #AskEnergy: Join the Live Q&A on Wind Energy | Department of Energy

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    AskEnergy: Join the Live Q&A on Wind Energy #AskEnergy: Join the Live Q&A on Wind Energy August 18, 2014 - 8:52am Q&A Submit your wind energy questions for tomorrow's live Twitter Q&A now! Ask Us Addthis Have questions about wind energy? Experts from the Energy Department are answering your questions about wind during a live Twitter Q&A on Tuesday, August 19, at 1 p.m. ET. | Graphic by <a href="/node/379579">Sarah Gerrity</a>, Energy Department. Have

  10. Live Webinar on Better Buildings Case Competition: Taking Commercial PACE Financing to Scale, a Case Study

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    The Energy Department will present a live webinar titled "A Side of Savings: Energy Efficiency in the Restaurant Franchise Model Case Study."

  11. LiveChat Wed, 11/16, 2 pm ET: Industrial Energy Efficiency |...

    Energy Savers [EERE]

    Kathleen Hogan, Deputy Assistant Secretary for Energy Efficiency, for a live discussion about how businesses are lowering their energy consumption, and how the resulting energy ...

  12. Efficient Living in a Small House: Could You Make the Switch?

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    The Small House Movement encourages homeowners to reject the huge homes that dominate many suburban neighborhoods and embrace smaller homes and simpler living.

  13. Operando NMR and XRD study of chemically synthesized LiCx oxidation in a dry room environment

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Sacci, Robert L.; Gill, Lance W.; Hagaman, Edward W.; Dudney, Nancy J.

    2015-04-07

    We test the stability of pre-lithiated graphite anodes for Li-ion batteries in a dry room battery processing room. The reaction between LiCx and laboratory air was followed using operando NMR and x-ray diffraction as these methods are sensitive to change in Li stoichiometry in graphite. There is minimal reactivity between LiC6 and N2, CO2 or O2; however, LiC6 reacts with moisture to form lithium (hydr)oxide. The reaction rate follows zero-order kinetics with respects to intercalated lithium suggesting that lithium transport through the graphite is fast. The reaction mechanism occurs by sequential formation of higher stages LiC12, then LiC18, and then LiC24 as the hydrolysis proceeds to the formation of LixOHy and graphite end products. Slowing down the formation rate of the LixOHy passivation layer stabilizes of the higher stages.

  14. Operando NMR and XRD study of chemically synthesized LiCx oxidation in a dry room environment

    DOE Public Access Gateway for Energy & Science Beta (PAGES Beta)

    Sacci, Robert L.; Gill, Lance W.; Hagaman, Edward W.; Dudney, Nancy J.

    2015-04-07

    We test the stability of pre-lithiated graphite anodes for Li-ion batteries in a dry room battery processing room. The reaction between LiCx and laboratory air was followed using operando NMR and x-ray diffraction as these methods are sensitive to change in Li stoichiometry in graphite. There is minimal reactivity between LiC6 and N2, CO2 or O2; however, LiC6 reacts with moisture to form lithium (hydr)oxide. The reaction rate follows zero-order kinetics with respects to intercalated lithium suggesting that lithium transport through the graphite is fast. The reaction mechanism occurs by sequential formation of higher stages LiC12, then LiC18, and thenmore » LiC24 as the hydrolysis proceeds to the formation of LixOHy and graphite end products. Slowing down the formation rate of the LixOHy passivation layer stabilizes of the higher stages.« less

  15. Operando NMR and XRD study of chemically synthesized LiCx oxidation in a dry room environment

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Sacci, Robert L.; Gill, Lance W.; Hagaman, Edward W.; Dudney, Nancy J.

    2015-08-01

    We test the stability of pre-lithiated graphite anodes for Li-ion batteries in a dry room battery processing room. The reaction between LiCx and laboratory air was followed using operando NMR and x-ray diffraction as these methods are sensitive to change in Li stoichiometry in graphite. There is minimal reactivity between LiC6 and N2, CO2 or O2; however, LiC6 reacts with moisture to form lithium (hydr)oxide. The reaction rate follows zero-order kinetics with respects to intercalated lithium suggesting that lithium transport through the graphite is fast. The reaction mechanism occurs by sequential formation of higher stages LiC12, then LiC18, and then LiC24 as the hydrolysis proceeds to the formation of LixOHy and graphite end products. Slowing down the formation rate of the LixOHy passivation layer stabilizes of the higher stages.

  16. Spin-Induced Polarizations and Nonreciprocal Directional Dichroism of the Room-Temperature Multiferroic BiFeO3

    DOE Public Access Gateway for Energy & Science Beta (PAGES Beta)

    Fishman, Randy Scott; Lee, Jun Hee; Bordacs, Sandor; Kezsmarki, Istvan; Nagel, Urmas; Room, Toomas

    2015-09-14

    A microscopic model for the room-temperature multiferroic BiFeO3 that includes two Dzyaloshinskii-Moriya interactions and single-ion anisotropy along the ferroelectric polarization predicts both the zero-field spectroscopic modes as well as their splitting and evolution in a magnetic field. Due to simultaneously broken time-reversal and spatial-inversion symmetries, the absorption of light changes as the magnetic field or the direction of light propagation is reversed. We discuss three physical mechanisms that may contribute to this absorption asymmetry known as directional dichroism: the spin current, magnetostriction, and single-ion anisotropy. We conclude that the directional dichroism in BiFeO3 is dominated by the spin-current polarization andmore » is insensitive to the magnetostriction and easy-axis anisotropy. With three independent spin-current parameters, our model accurately describes the directional dichroism observed for magnetic field along [1, -1, 0]. Since some modes are almost transparent to light traveling in one direction but opaque for light traveling in the opposite direction, BiFeO3 can be used as a room-temperature optical diode at certain frequencies in the GHz to THz range. This work demonstrates that an analysis of the directional dichroism spectra based on an effective spin model supplemented by first-principles calculations can produce a quantitative microscopic theory of the magnetoelectric couplings in multiferroic materials.« less

  17. Bioaccumulation of heavy metals in macroinvertebrates living in stormwater wetlands

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Karouna, N.K.; Sparling, D.W.

    1995-12-31

    The design of stormwater wetlands and ponds as wildlife habitats has prompted concern over the potential uptake of runoff contaminants by aquatic fauna. Stormwater wetlands provide a diverse array of habitat for aquatic macroinvertebrates. The importance of macroinvertebrates in aquatic communities has been well documented. Aquatic macroinvertebrates also serve as a major food source of many aquatic vertebrates, including fish and birds. The objectives of the study were to: (1) examine the responses of the macroinvertebrate community to water and sediment concentrations of heavy metals, and other water quality parameters; (2) determine whether macroinvertebrates living in stormwater wetlands bioaccumulate significant concentrations of heavy metals; (3) relate the concentrations of heavy metals in sediment, water and macroinvertebrates to land use in the surrounding watershed; (4) determine sediment and water toxicity to macroinvertebrates. Twenty stormwater wetlands, representing four land uses commercial, residential, highway and control, were monitored in this study. Water quality parameters, including pH, DO, turbidity, conductivity, hardness and metal concentrations were monitored bi-weekly for six months. Sediment samples were collected three times during the same period. Macroinvertebrate communities were sampled during alternate weeks after water collections. Ten-day sediment bioassays were conducted using the amphipod Hyalella azteca. Preliminary data analyses have indicated no significant difference in sediment and water metal concentrations between land uses. However, Zn concentrations in macroinvertebrates were significantly higher (p < 0.05) in wetlands serving commercial watersheds than in those serving the remaining three land uses. No differences have been detected in composition of invertebrate communities due to land use category.

  18. Initial proof-of-principle for near room temperature Xe and Kr separation from air with MOFs

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Thallapally, Praveen K.; Strachan, Denis M.

    2012-06-06

    Materials were developed and tested in support of the U.S. Department of Energy, Office of Nuclear Energy, Fuel Cycle Technology Separations and Waste Forms Campaign. Specifically, materials are being developed for the removal of Xenon and krypton from gaseous products of nuclear fuel reprocessing unit operations. During FY 2012, Three Metal organic framework (MOF) structures were investigated in greater detail for the removal and storage of Xe and Kr from air at room temperature. Our breakthrough measurements on Nickel based MOF could capture and separate parts per million levels of Xe from Air (40 ppm Kr, 78% N2, 21% O2, 0.9% Ar, 0.03% CO2). Similarly, the selectivity can be changed from Xe > Kr to Xe < Kr simply by changing the temperature in another MOF. Also for the first time we estimated the cost of the metal organic frameworks in bulk.

  19. Room temperature continuous wave InGaAsN quantum well vertical cavity lasers emitting at 1.3 um

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    CHOQUETTE,KENT D.; KLEM,JOHN F.; FISCHER,ARTHUR J.; SPAHN,OLGA B.; ALLERMAN,ANDREW A.; FRITZ,IAN J.; KURTZ,STEVEN R.; BREILAND,WILLIAM G.; SIEG,ROBERT M.; GEIB,KENT M.; SCOTT,J.W.; NAONE,R.L.

    2000-06-05

    Selectively oxidized vertical cavity lasers emitting at 1294 nm using InGaAsN quantum wells are reported for the first time which operate continuous wave at and above room temperature. The lasers employ two n-type Al{sub 0.94}Ga{sub 0.06}As/GaAs distributed Bragg reflectors each with a selectively oxidized current aperture adjacent to the optical cavity, and the top output mirror contains a tunnel junction to inject holes into the active region. Continuous wave single mode lasing is observed up to 55 C. These lasers exhibit the longest wavelength reported to date for vertical cavity surface emitting lasers grown on GaAs substrates.

  20. Room-temperature ferromagnetism in Co and Nb co-doped TiO{sub 2} nanoparticles

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Hachisu, M.; Mori, K.; Hyodo, K.; Morimoto, S.; Yamazaki, T.; Ichiyanagi, Y.

    2015-02-27

    Co- and Nb-doped TiO{sub 2} nanoparticles encapsulated with amorphous SiO{sub 2} were synthesized by our novel preparation method. An anatase TiO{sub 2} single-phase structure was confirmed using X-ray diffraction. The particle size could be controlled to be about 5 nm. The composition of these nanoparticles was investigated by X-ray fluorescence analysis. X-ray absorption near-edge structure spectra showed that the Ti{sup 4+} and Co{sup 2+} states were dominant in our prepared samples. A reduction in the coordination number was also confirmed. The dependence of the electrical conductivity on the frequency was measured by an LCR meter, and the carrier concentration was determined. The magnetization curves for the nanoparticles indicated ferromagnetic behavior at room temperature. We concluded that the ferromagnetism originated in oxygen vacancies around the transition metal ions.

  1. Low voltage tunneling magnetoresistance in CuCrO{sub 2}-based semiconductor heterojunctions at room temperature

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Li, X. R.; Han, M. J.; Shan, C.; Hu, Z. G. Zhu, Z. Q.; Chu, J. H.; Wu, J. D.

    2014-12-14

    CuCrO{sub 2}-based heterojunction diodes with rectifying characteristics have been fabricated by combining p-type Mg-doped CuCrO{sub 2} and n-type Al-doped ZnO. It was found that the current for the heterojunction in low bias voltage region is dominated by the trap-assisted tunneling mechanism. Positive magnetoresistance (MR) effect for the heterojunction can be observed at room temperature due to the tunneling-induced antiparallel spin polarization near the heterostructure interface. The MR effect becomes enhanced with the magnetic field, and shows the maximum at a bias voltage around 0.5 V. The phenomena indicate that the CuCrO{sub 2}-based heterojunction is a promising candidate for low-power semiconductor spintronic devices.

  2. Novel room-temperature-setting phosphate ceramics for stabilizing combustion products and low-level mixed wastes

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Wagh, A.S.; Singh, D.

    1994-12-31

    Argonne National Laboratory, with support from the Office of Technology in the US Department of Energy (DOE), has developed a new process employing novel, chemically bonded ceramic materials to stabilize secondary waste streams. Such waste streams result from the thermal processes used to stabilize low-level, mixed wastes. The process will help the electric power industry treat its combustion and low-level mixed wastes. The ceramic materials are strong, dense, leach-resistant, and inexpensive to fabricate. The room-temperature-setting process allows stabilization of volatile components containing lead, mercury, cadmium, chromium, and nickel. The process also provides effective stabilization of fossil fuel combustion products. It is most suitable for treating fly and bottom ashes.

  3. Threshold of photoelectron emission from CN{sub x} films deposited at room temperature and at 500 deg. C

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Sago, Genki; Li Wanyan; Goto, Keisuke; Ichikawa, Yo; Ishida, Yoshihisa; Kohiki, Shigemi

    2004-10-15

    The threshold of photoelectron emission was measured for amorphous CN{sub x} films deposited at room temperature (RT) and at 500 deg. C. The x values of the films deposited at RT and at 500 deg. C by magnetron sputtering of a graphite target in a mixed N{sub 2}/Ar gas were 0.6 and 0.3, respectively. Ratios of the sp{sup 2}- to sp{sup 3}-hybridized components of both C and N for the film deposited at 500 deg. C were larger by {approx_equal}4 times than those for the film deposited at RT. The onsets of the electron emission by photon irradiation were 5.0 and 4.7 eV for the films deposited at RT and at 500 deg. C, respectively.

  4. Investigation of room temperature ferromagnetic nanoparticles of Gd5Si4

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Hadimani, R. L.; Gupta, S.; Harstad, S. M.; Pecharsky, V. K.; Jiles, D. C.

    2015-07-06

    Gd5(SixGe1-x)4 compounds undergo first-order phase transitions close to room temperature when x ~ = 0.5, which are accompanied by extreme changes of properties. We report the fabrication of the nanoparticles of one of the parent compounds-Gd5Si4-using high-energy ball milling. Crystal structure, microstructure, and magnetic properties have been investigated. Particles agglomerate at long milling times, and the particles that are milled >20 min lose crystallinity and no longer undergo magnetic phase transition close to 340 K, which is present in a bulk material. The samples milled for >20 min exhibit a slightly increased coercivity. As a result, magnetization at a high temperature of 275K decreases with the increase in the milling time.

  5. Metallic transport and large anomalous Hall effect at room temperature in ferrimagnetic Mn{sub 4}N epitaxial thin film

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Shen, Xi; Shigematsu, Kei; Chikamatsu, Akira Fukumura, Tomoteru; Hirose, Yasushi; Hasegawa, Tetsuya

    2014-08-18

    We report the electrical transport properties of ferrimagnetic Mn{sub 4}N (001) epitaxial thin films grown by pulsed laser deposition on MgO (001) substrates. The Mn{sub 4}N thin films were tetragonally distorted with a ratio of out-of-plane to in-plane lattice constants of 0.987 and showed perpendicular magnetic anisotropy with an effective magnetic anisotropy constant of 0.16 MJ/m{sup 3}, which is comparable with that of a recently reported molecular-beam-epitaxy-grown film. The thin films exhibited metallic transport with a room temperature resistivity of 125 μΩ cm in addition to a large anomalous Hall effect with a Hall angle tangent of 0.023.

  6. Hydrogen incorporation induced metal-semiconductor transition in ZnO:H thin films sputtered at room temperature

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Singh, Anil; Chaudhary, Sujeet; Pandya, D. K.

    2013-04-29

    The room temperature deposited ZnO:H thin films having high conductivity of 500 Ohm-Sign {sup -1} cm{sup -1} and carrier concentration reaching 1.23 Multiplication-Sign 10{sup 20} cm{sup -3} were reactively sputter deposited on glass substrates in the presence of O{sub 2} and 5% H{sub 2} in Ar. A metal-semiconductor transition at 165 K is induced by the increasing hydrogen incorporation in the films. Hydrogen forms shallow donor complex with activation energy of {approx}10-20 meV at oxygen vacancies (V{sub O}) leading to increase in carrier concentration. Hydrogen also passivates V{sub O} and V{sub Zn} causing {approx}4 times enhancement of mobility to 25.4 cm{sup 2}/V s. These films have potential for use in transparent flexible electronics.

  7. Non-adiabatic ab initio molecular dynamics of supersonic beam epitaxy of silicon carbide at room temperature

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Taioli, Simone; Garberoglio, Giovanni; Simonucci, Stefano; Beccara, Silvio a; Aversa, Lucrezia; Nardi, Marco; Verucchi, Roberto; Iannotta, Salvatore; Dapor, Maurizio; and others

    2013-01-28

    In this work, we investigate the processes leading to the room-temperature growth of silicon carbide thin films by supersonic molecular beam epitaxy technique. We present experimental data showing that the collision of fullerene on a silicon surface induces strong chemical-physical perturbations and, for sufficient velocity, disruption of molecular bonds, and cage breaking with formation of nanostructures with different stoichiometric character. We show that in these out-of-equilibrium conditions, it is necessary to go beyond the standard implementations of density functional theory, as ab initio methods based on the Born-Oppenheimer approximation fail to capture the excited-state dynamics. In particular, we analyse the Si-C{sub 60} collision within the non-adiabatic nuclear dynamics framework, where stochastic hops occur between adiabatic surfaces calculated with time-dependent density functional theory. This theoretical description of the C{sub 60} impact on the Si surface is in good agreement with our experimental findings.

  8. Room-temperature ferromagnetism of Fe-doped TiO{sub 2} nanoparticles driven by oxygen vacancy

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Patel, Sandeep K.S.; Kurian, Sajith; Gajbhiye, Namdeo S.

    2013-02-15

    Graphical abstract: A series of Ti{sub 1−x}Fe{sub x}O{sub 2−δ} (x ≤ 0.03) nanoparticles (NPs) were synthesized by sol–gel route. The room temperature ferromagnetism (RTFM) has been explained in terms of vacancy induced bound magnetic polaron (BMP) model, where the Fe{sup 3+} ions ferromagnetically coupled mediated by oxygen vacancies. Display Omitted Highlights: ► The Fe-doped NPs have been synthesized by sol–gel method. ► Ferromagnetism of Fe-doped TiO{sub 2} NPs are intrinsic property. ► Room temperature ferromagnetism observed in all the Fe-doped samples. ► Variation in M{sub s} is attributed due to oxygen vacancies and defect formation. -- Abstract: A series of Ti{sub 1−x}Fe{sub x}O{sub 2−δ} (0 ≤ x ≤ 0.03) nanoparticles (NPs) were synthesized by sol–gel route. The NPs had a size distribution in the range of 15–40 nm and were identified as the anatase TiO{sub 2} by X-ray diffraction (XRD) and Raman analysis. XRD, selected area electron diffraction, Raman and Mössbauer analysis ruled out the signature of Fe-cluster or any other oxides of Fe. The redshifting of the band edge emission peak observed in UV–vis absorption studies further confirmed the doping of Fe ions in the TiO{sub 2} lattice. Raman studies show the shifting and broadening in E{sub g}(1) and E{sub g}(3) modes with Fe doping. It suggested that the activation of ferromagnetism with increasing Fe doping concentration was related to the oxygen vacancy defects. The presence of such defects was further confirmed from electron paramagnetic resonance (EPR) measurements. The observed ferromagnetism is interpreted in terms of bound magnetic polaron (BMP) model.

  9. Dynamical cancellation of pulse-induced transients in a metallic shielded room for ultra-low-field magnetic resonance imaging

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Zevenhoven, Koos C. J. Ilmoniemi, Risto J.; Dong, Hui; Clarke, John

    2015-01-19

    Pulse-induced transients such as eddy currents can cause problems in measurement techniques where a signal is acquired after an applied preparatory pulse. In ultra-low-field magnetic resonance imaging, performed in magnetic fields typically of the order of 100 μT, the signal-to-noise ratio is enhanced in part by prepolarizing the proton spins with a pulse of much larger magnetic field and in part by detecting the signal with a Superconducting QUantum Interference Device (SQUID). The pulse turn-off, however, can induce large eddy currents in the shielded room, producing an inhomogeneous magnetic-field transient that both seriously distorts the spin dynamics and exceeds the range of the SQUID readout. It is essential to reduce this transient substantially before image acquisition. We introduce dynamical cancellation (DynaCan), a technique in which a precisely designed current waveform is applied to a separate coil during the later part and turn off of the polarizing pulse. This waveform, which bears no resemblance to the polarizing pulse, is designed to drive the eddy currents to zero at the precise moment that the polarizing field becomes zero. We present the theory used to optimize the waveform using a detailed computational model with corrections from measured magnetic-field transients. SQUID-based measurements with DynaCan demonstrate a cancellation of 99%. Dynamical cancellation has the great advantage that, for a given system, the cancellation accuracy can be optimized in software. This technique can be applied to both metal and high-permeability alloy shielded rooms, and even to transients other than eddy currents.

  10. Desert architecture for educational buildings, a case study: A center for training university graduates

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Ebeid, M.

    1996-10-01

    A new program for training graduates in desert development is being implemented by the Desert Development Center (DDC) of the American University in Cairo. The facilities consist of fifty bed/sitting rooms for accommodating 100 students. Each unit consists of two rooms and a bathroom for the use of 4 students; a lecture theater which can house 120 students, with adjoining office for trainers as well as necessary facilities; a general cafeteria which can serve 120--150 persons and an adjoining dining room for teaching staff. The cafeteria building also houses the kitchen; a cold storage area; a laundry room, storerooms, sleeping quarters and services for the labor force of the building complex; a system of solar water heaters; and a special sanitary sewage system for treatment of waste water produced by the building`s activities. When designing and implementing this complex, architectural elements and building philosophy based on the concept of integrating with the environment were considered. Elements included orientation heights and building materials suited to the desert environment, thick walls, outer and inner finishing materials, roofs, malkafs, floors, colors, solar heaters, lighting, green areas, windbreaks, terraces, and furniture. The paper includes a general evaluation of this educational building based on the PRA approach (Participatory Rapid Appraisal) involving those living and working in it. As a result of her position with the project, the author was able to evaluate the original designs, recommend modifications, and evaluate their implementation and fulfillment of the original goals of the projects.

  11. TODAY: ARPA-E Director Arun Majumdar to Host Live Chat on Reducing

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    America's Oil Dependence Through Innovation | Department of Energy ARPA-E Director Arun Majumdar to Host Live Chat on Reducing America's Oil Dependence Through Innovation TODAY: ARPA-E Director Arun Majumdar to Host Live Chat on Reducing America's Oil Dependence Through Innovation June 28, 2011 - 12:00am Addthis WASHINGTON, D.C. - Today, Wednesday, June 29, ARPA-E Director Arun Majumdar will host the Department of Energy's second "Energy Matters" live chat. Dr. Majumdar will

  12. Our Energy Independence - A Live Chat With Dr. Arun Majumdar | Department

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    of Energy Energy Independence - A Live Chat With Dr. Arun Majumdar Our Energy Independence - A Live Chat With Dr. Arun Majumdar June 29, 2011 - 11:16am Addthis Dr. Arun Majumdar takes your questions about investments we're making to build the clean energy infrastructure of the future. Ginny Simmons Ginny Simmons Former Managing Editor for Energy.gov, Office of Public Affairs How can I participate? Submit a question via E-mail, Facebook or Twitter Watch live at 2 PM [UPDATED with video from

  13. TOMORROW: Secretary Chu To Host Earth Day Live Chat | Department of Energy

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Secretary Chu To Host Earth Day Live Chat TOMORROW: Secretary Chu To Host Earth Day Live Chat April 19, 2012 - 12:10pm Addthis WASHINGTON, DC - On Friday, April 20, 2012, U.S. Energy Secretary Steven Chu will host a livechat as part of the Energy Department's Earth Day celebrations to highlight the environmental and economic benefits of the Department's investments in clean energy. The live chat will be streamed on www.energy.gov tomorrow, and will feature questions from both in-person and

  14. Anyone can learn about plasma physics through live-streamed course at PPPL

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    | Princeton Plasma Physics Lab Anyone can learn about plasma physics through live-streamed course at PPPL By Jeanne Jackson DeVoe June 5, 2015 Tweet Widget Google Plus One Share on Facebook A screenshot of the new SULI website where a course in plasma physics will be live-streamed. A screenshot of the new SULI website where a course in plasma physics will be live-streamed. If you've always wanted to learn about the science behind plasma physics and fusion energy, you can listen to the very

  15. Anyone can learn about plasma physics through live-streamed course at PPPL

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    | Princeton Plasma Physics Lab Anyone can learn about plasma physics through live-streamed course at PPPL By Jeanne Jackson DeVoe June 5, 2015 Tweet Widget Google Plus One Share on Facebook A screenshot of the new SULI website where a course in plasma physics will be live-streamed. A screenshot of the new SULI website where a course in plasma physics will be live-streamed. If you've always wanted to learn about the science behind plasma physics and fusion energy, you can listen to the very

  16. WATCH LIVE: Secretary Chu at 10:45 am ET | Department of Energy

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    WATCH LIVE: Secretary Chu at 10:45 am ET WATCH LIVE: Secretary Chu at 10:45 am ET April 20, 2012 - 9:00am Addthis Amanda Scott Amanda Scott Former Managing Editor, Energy.gov This morning, at 10:45 am ET, we'll be streaming a live chat with Secretary Chu celebrating Earth Day. During the event, Secretary Chu will answer questions from you about the environmental and economic benefits of transitioning to a clean energy economy. If you haven't submitted a question yet, there's still time. We'll be

  17. Strong room-temperature ferromagnetism of high-quality lightly Mn-doped ZnO grown by molecular beam epitaxy

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Zuo Zheng; Zhou Huimei; Olmedo, Mario J.; Kong Jieying; Liu Jianlin; Beyermann, Ward P.; Zheng Jianguo; Xin Yan

    2012-09-01

    Strong room-temperature ferromagnetism is demonstrated in single crystalline Mn-doped ZnO grown by molecular beam epitaxy. With a low Mn concentration of 2 Multiplication-Sign 10{sup 19} cm{sup -3}, Mn-doped ZnO films exhibited room-temperature ferromagnetism with a coercivity field larger than 200 Oe, a large saturation moment of 6 {mu}{sub B}/ion, and a large residue moment that is {approx}70% of the saturation magnetization. Isolated ions with long range carrier mediated spin-spin coupling may be responsible for the intrinsic ferromagnetism.

  18. Dr. Kathleen Hogan to Host Live Chat on Industrial Energy Efficiency...

    Broader source: Energy.gov (indexed) [DOE]

    WHAT: Assistant Deputy Secretary of Energy Efficiency Kathleen Hogan to host "Energy Matters" live chat WHEN: Wednesday, November 16th 2:00 PM EST HOW: Watch online at Energy.gov...

  19. LiveChat Wed, 6/29, 2pm: Our Energy Independence | Department...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    How can I participate? Submit a question via E-mail, Facebook or Twitter Watch live on ... Majumdar in advance of the event through email, Twitter or Facebook, by Sending an email ...

  20. Anyone can learn about plasma physics through live-streamed course...

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Anyone can learn about plasma physics through live-streamed course at PPPL By Jeanne Jackson DeVoe June 5, 2015 Tweet Widget Google Plus One Share on Facebook A screenshot of the...

  1. Live Webcast on the 2014 Farm Bill's Renewable Energy for America Program

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    The Energy Department will present a live webcast titled “The 2014 Farm Bill's Renewable Energy for America Program” on May 21, 2014, from 3:00 to 4:00 p.m. Eastern Standard Time.

  2. Live Webinar on the Funding Opportunity for Marine and Hydrokinetic Research and Development University Consortium

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE)

    On April 24, 2014 from 1:00 - 2:30 PM EDT, the Water Power Program will hold a live webinar to provide information to potential applicants for the Marine and Hydrokinetic (MHK) Research and...

  3. Search for long-lived particles that decay into final states...

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    obtained are the most stringent to date. In the specific case of a model in which a Higgs boson in the mass range 125-1000mathrmGeVc2 decays into a pair of long-lived...

  4. 01-08-1998 - VPP Program Saves Lives | The Ames Laboratory

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    8-1998 - VPP Program Saves Lives Document Number: NA Effective Date: 01/1998 File (public): PDF icon 01-08-1998_green_alert.pdf Lessons Learned Type: Green

  5. Live Webinar on the Funding Opportunity for Technology Incubator for Wind Energy Innovations

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    On April 17, 2014, from 1:00 – 3:00 PM MDT, the Wind Program will hold a live webinar to provide information to potential applicants for the Technology Incubator for Wind Energy Innovations Funding Opportunity.

  6. Live Webinar on the Funding Opportunity for Wind Forecasting Improvement Project in Complex Terrain

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE)

    On April 21, 2014 from 3:00 to 5:00 PM EST the Wind Program will hold a live webinar to provide information to potential applicants for this Funding Opportunity Announcement. There is no cost to...

  7. Scientist Take First X-Ray Portraits of Living Cyanobacteria at the LCLS

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    2015-02-11

    Researchers from Uppsala University working at the Department of Energy's SLAC National Accelerator Laboratory have captured the first X-ray portraits of living bacteria, detecting signals from features as small as 4 nanometers, or 4 billionths of a meter.

  8. We Want to Hear From You: Live Twitter Q&A Tuesday at Noon |...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    for a live Twitter Q&A with Mark Smith from the Energy Department's Clean Cities program. As the vehicle deployment manager for Clean Cities, Smith develops and maintains ...

  9. University Teams to Showcase Affordable, Energy Efficient Living in U.S.

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Department of Energy Solar Decathlon 2011 | Department of Energy to Showcase Affordable, Energy Efficient Living in U.S. Department of Energy Solar Decathlon 2011 University Teams to Showcase Affordable, Energy Efficient Living in U.S. Department of Energy Solar Decathlon 2011 September 22, 2011 - 10:32am Addthis WASHINGTON, DC - Collegiate teams featuring over 4,000 students from around the world have descended on the National Mall's West Potomac Park to showcase the highly energy efficient

  10. Deformation Quantization: Quantum Mechanic Lives and Works in Phase-Space

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    (Conference) | SciTech Connect Conference: Deformation Quantization: Quantum Mechanic Lives and Works in Phase-Space Citation Details In-Document Search Title: Deformation Quantization: Quantum Mechanic Lives and Works in Phase-Space Wigner's 1932 quasi-probability Distribution Function in phase-space is a special (Weyl) representation of the density matrix. It has been useful in describing quantum flows in: quantum optics; nuclear physics; decoherence (eg, quantum computing); quantum chaos;

  11. Join Us Live This Friday: Women in Clean Energy Symposium | Department of

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Energy Live This Friday: Women in Clean Energy Symposium Join Us Live This Friday: Women in Clean Energy Symposium September 26, 2012 - 2:19pm Addthis NREL researcher Kirsten Alberi works in the luminescence mapping laboratory at the Solar Energy Research Facility (SERF). Here she aligns a laser and sample to map the photoluminescence coming off the sample. | Photo by Dennis Schroeder, NREL. NREL researcher Kirsten Alberi works in the luminescence mapping laboratory at the Solar Energy

  12. Room temperature ferrimagnetism and ferroelectricity in strained, thin films of BiFe 0.5 Mn 0.5 O 3

    DOE Public Access Gateway for Energy & Science Beta (PAGES Beta)

    Choi, Eun -Mi; Fix, Thomas; Kursumovic, Ahmed; Kinane, Christy J.; Arena, Darío; Sahonta, Suman -Lata; Bi, Zhenxing; Xiong, Jie; Yan, Li; Lee, Jun -Sik; et al

    2014-10-14

    Highly strained films of BiFe0.5Mn0.5O₃ (BFMO) grown at very low rates by pulsed laser deposition were demonstrated to exhibit both ferrimagnetism and ferroelectricity at room temperature and above. Magnetisation measurements demonstrated ferrimagnetism (TC ~ 600K), with a room temperature saturation moment (MS) of up to 90 emu/cc (~ 0.58 μB/f.u) on high quality (001) SrTiO₃. X-ray magnetic circular dichroism showed that the ferrimagnetism arose from antiferromagnetically coupled Fe³⁺ and Mn³⁺. While scanning transmission electron microscope studies showed there was no long range ordering of Fe and Mn, the magnetic properties were found to be strongly dependent on the strain statemore » in the films. The magnetism is explained to arise from one of three possible mechanisms with Bi polarization playing a key role. A signature of room temperature ferroelectricity in the films was measured by piezoresponse force microscopy and was confirmed using angular dark field scanning transmission electron microscopy. The demonstration of strain induced, high temperature multiferroism is a promising development for future spintronic and memory applications at room temperature and above.« less

  13. Room temperature ferrimagnetism and ferroelectricity in strained, thin films of BiFe 0.5 Mn 0.5 O 3

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Choi, Eun -Mi; Fix, Thomas; Kursumovic, Ahmed; Kinane, Christy J.; Arena, Darío; Sahonta, Suman -Lata; Bi, Zhenxing; Xiong, Jie; Yan, Li; Lee, Jun -Sik; Wang, Haiyan; Langridge, Sean; Kim, Young -Min; Borisevich, Albina Y.; MacLaren, Ian; Ramasse, Quentin M.; Blamire, Mark G.; Jia, Quanxi; MacManus-Driscoll, Judith L.

    2014-10-14

    Highly strained films of BiFe0.5Mn0.5O₃ (BFMO) grown at very low rates by pulsed laser deposition were demonstrated to exhibit both ferrimagnetism and ferroelectricity at room temperature and above. Magnetisation measurements demonstrated ferrimagnetism (TC ~ 600K), with a room temperature saturation moment (MS) of up to 90 emu/cc (~ 0.58 μB/f.u) on high quality (001) SrTiO₃. X-ray magnetic circular dichroism showed that the ferrimagnetism arose from antiferromagnetically coupled Fe³⁺ and Mn³⁺. While scanning transmission electron microscope studies showed there was no long range ordering of Fe and Mn, the magnetic properties were found to be strongly dependent on the strain state in the films. The magnetism is explained to arise from one of three possible mechanisms with Bi polarization playing a key role. A signature of room temperature ferroelectricity in the films was measured by piezoresponse force microscopy and was confirmed using angular dark field scanning transmission electron microscopy. The demonstration of strain induced, high temperature multiferroism is a promising development for future spintronic and memory applications at room temperature and above.

  14. Oxygen-vacancy-induced room-temperature magnetization in lamellar V{sub 2}O{sub 5} thin films

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Cezar, A. B.; Graff, I. L. Varalda, J.; Schreiner, W. H.; Mosca, D. H.

    2014-10-28

    In this work, we study the local atomic and electronic structures as well as oxygen-vacancy-induced magnetic properties of electrodeposited V{sub 2}O{sub 5} films. Unlike stoichiometric V{sub 2}O{sub 5}, which is a diamagnetic lamellar semiconductor, our oxygen-defective V{sub 2}O{sub 5} films are ferromagnetic at room-temperature and their saturation magnetization decreases with air exposure time. X-ray absorption spectroscopy was used to monitor the aging effect on these films, revealing that freshly-made samples exhibit only local crystalline order, whereas the aged ones undoubtedly show an enhancement of crystallinity and coordination symmetry. The mean number of oxygen atoms around V tends to increase, indicating a decrease of oxygen vacancies with time. Concurrently with the decrease of oxygen vacancies, a loss of saturation magnetization is also observed. Hence, it can be concluded that the ferromagnetism of the V{sub 2}O{sub 5} films originates from a vacancy-induced mechanism, confirming the universality of this class of ferromagnetism.

  15. Microstructure chemistry and mechanical properties of Ni-based superalloy Rene N4 under irradiation at room temperature

    DOE Public Access Gateway for Energy & Science Beta (PAGES Beta)

    Sun, C.; Kirk, M.; Li, M.; Hattar, Khalid Mikhiel; Wang, Y.; Anderoglu, O.; Valdez, J.; Uberuaga, B. P.; Dickerson, R.; Maloy, S. A.

    2015-06-14

    Nickel superalloys with cubic L12 structured γ' (Ni3(Al, Ti)) precipitates exhibit high strength at high temperatures and excellent corrosion resistance when exposed to water. Unlike prior studies on irradiation damage of other Ni-based superalloys, our study on Rene N4 involves much larger γ' precipitates, ~450 nm in size, a size regime where the irradiation-induced disordering and dissolution kinetics and the corresponding mechanical property evolution are unknown. Under heavy ion irradiation at room temperature, the submicron-sized γ' precipitates were fully disordered at ~0.3 dpa and only later partially dissolved after 75 dpa irradiation. Nanoindentation experiments indicate that the mechanical properties ofmore » the alloy change significantly, with a dramatic decrease in hardness, with irradiation dose. Three contributions to the change in hardness were examined: defect clusters, disordering and dissolution. Moreover, the generation of defect clusters in the matrix and precipitates slightly increased the indentation hardness, while disordering of the submicron-sized γ' precipitates resulted in a dramatic decrease in the total hardness, which decreased further during the early stages of the intermixing between γ' precipitates and matrix (<18 dpa). As a result, controlling the long-range-ordering and chemical intermixing can be used to tailor the mechanical properties of Ni-based superalloys under irradiation.« less

  16. Room temperature deformation mechanisms of alumina particles observed from in situ micro-compression and atomistic simulations.

    DOE Public Access Gateway for Energy & Science Beta (PAGES Beta)

    Sarobol, Pylin; Chandross, Michael E.; Carroll, Jay D.; Mook, William M.; Bufford, Daniel Charles; Boyce, Brad L.; Hattar, Khalid Mikhiel; Kotula, Paul G.; Hall, Aaron Christopher

    2015-09-22

    Aerosol deposition (AD) is a solid-state deposition technology that has been developed to fabricate ceramic coatings nominally at room temperature. Sub-micron ceramic particles accelerated by pressurized gas impact, deform, and consolidate on substrates under vacuum. Ceramic particle consolidation in AD coatings is highly dependent on particle deformation and bonding; these behaviors are not well understood. In this work, atomistic simulations and in situ micro-compressions in the scanning electron microscope, and the transmission electron microscope (TEM) were utilized to investigate fundamental mechanisms responsible for plastic deformation/fracture of particles under applied compression. Results showed that highly defective micron-sized alumina particles, initially containingmore » numerous dislocations or a grain boundary, exhibited no observable shape change before fracture/fragmentation. Simulations and experimental results indicated that particles containing a grain boundary only accommodate low strain energy per unit volume before crack nucleation and propagation. In contrast, nearly defect-free, sub-micron, single crystal alumina particles exhibited plastic deformation and fracture without fragmentation. Dislocation nucleation/motion, significant plastic deformation, and shape change were observed. Simulation and TEM in situ micro-compression results indicated that nearly defect-free particles accommodate high strain energy per unit volume associated with dislocation plasticity before fracture. As a result, the identified deformation mechanisms provide insight into feedstock design for AD.« less

  17. Extremely high-rate, uniform dissolution of alloy C-22 in anhydrous organic solutions at room temperature

    DOE Public Access Gateway for Energy & Science Beta (PAGES Beta)

    Schindelholz, Eric J.; Christie, Michael A.; Allwein, Shawn P.; Kelly, Robert G.

    2016-06-21

    During routine pharmaceutical development and scale-up work, severe corrosion of a Hastelloy Alloy C-22 filter dryer was observed after single, short (several hours) contact with the product slurry at room temperature. Initial investigations showed that the presence of both 2,3-dichloro-5,6-dicyano-1,4-benzoquinone (DDQ) and HCl was sufficient in an acetonitrile solution to cause rapid corrosion of C-22. More detailed mass loss studies showed initial corrosion rates exceeding25 mm/year that then decreased over several hours to steady state rates of 3-5 mm/year. The corrosion was highly uniform. Electrochemical measurements demonstrated that although C-22 is spontaneously passive in acetonitrile solution, the presence of HClmore » leads to the development of a transpassive region. Furthermore, DDQ is a sufficiently strong oxidizer, particularly in acidic solutions, to polarize the C-22 well into the transpassive region, leading to the observed high corrosion rates.« less

  18. Room-temperature ionic liquid-amine solutions: tunable solvents for efficient and reversible capture of CO{sub 2}

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Dean Camper; Jason E. Bara; Douglas L. Gin; Richard D. Noble

    2008-11-05

    Solutions of room-temperature ionic liquids (RTILs) and commercially available amines were found to be effective for the capture of CO{sub 2} as carbamate salts. RTIL solutions containing 50 mol % (16% v/v) monoethanolamine (MEA) are capable of rapid and reversible capture of 1 mol of CO{sub 2} per 2 moles MEA to give an insoluble MEA-carbamate precipitate that helps to drive the capture reaction (as opposed to aqueous amine systems). Diethanolamine (DEA) can also be used in the same manner for CO{sub 2} capture in RTILs containing a pendant hydroxyl group. The captured CO{sub 2} in the resulting RTIL-carbamate salt mixtures can be readily released by either heating and/or subjecting them to reduced pressure. Using this unprecedented and industrially attractive mixing approach, the desirable properties of RTILs (i.e., nonvolatility, enhancedCO{sub 2} solubility, lower heat capacities) can be combined with the performance of amines for CO{sub 2} capture without the use of specially designed, functionalized 'task-specific' ionic liquids. By mixing RTILs with commercial amines, reactive solvents with a wide range of amine loading levels can be tailored to capture CO{sub 2} in a variety of conditions and processes. These RTIL-amine solutions behave similarly to their water-based counterparts but may offer many advantages, including increased energy efficiency, compared to current aqueous amine technologies.

  19. Interaction of Plutonium with Diverse Materials in Moist Air and Nitrogen-Argon Atmospheres at Room Temperature

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    John M. Haschke; Raymond J. Martinez; Robert E. Pruner II; Barbara Martinez; Thomas H. Allen

    2001-04-01

    Chemical and radiolytic interactions of weapons-grade plutonium with metallic, inorganic, and hydrogenous materials in atmospheres containing moist air-argon mixtures have been characterized at room temperature from pressure-volume-temperature and mass spectrometric measurements of the gas phase. A reaction sequence controlled by kinetics and gas-phase composition is defined by correlating observed and known reaction rates. In all cases, O{sub 2} is eliminated first by the water-catalyzed Pu + O{sub 2} reaction and H{sub 2}O is then consumed by the Pu + H{sub 2}O reaction, producing a gas mixture of N{sub 2}, argon, and H{sub 2}. Hydrogen formed by the reaction of water and concurrent radiolysis of hydrogenous materials either reacts to form PuH{sub 2} or accumulates in the system. Accumulation of H{sub 2} is correlated with the presence of hydrogenous materials in liquid and volatile forms that are readily distributed over the plutonium surface. Areal rates of radiolytic H{sub 2} generation are determined and applied in showing that modest extents of H{sub 2} production are expected for hydrogenous solids if the contact area with plutonium is limited. The unpredictable nature of complex chemical systems is demonstrated by occurrence of the chloride-catalyzed Pu + H{sub 2}O reaction in some tests and hydride-catalyzed nitriding in another.

  20. Microstructure chemistry and mechanical properties of Ni-based superalloy Rene N4 under irradiation at room temperature

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Sun, C.; Kirk, M.; Li, M.; Hattar, Khalid Mikhiel; Wang, Y.; Anderoglu, O.; Valdez, J.; Uberuaga, B. P.; Dickerson, R.; Maloy, S. A.

    2015-06-14

    Nickel superalloys with cubic L12 structured γ' (Ni3(Al, Ti)) precipitates exhibit high strength at high temperatures and excellent corrosion resistance when exposed to water. Unlike prior studies on irradiation damage of other Ni-based superalloys, our study on Rene N4 involves much larger γ' precipitates, ~450 nm in size, a size regime where the irradiation-induced disordering and dissolution kinetics and the corresponding mechanical property evolution are unknown. Under heavy ion irradiation at room temperature, the submicron-sized γ' precipitates were fully disordered at ~0.3 dpa and only later partially dissolved after 75 dpa irradiation. Nanoindentation experiments indicate that the mechanical properties of the alloy change significantly, with a dramatic decrease in hardness, with irradiation dose. Three contributions to the change in hardness were examined: defect clusters, disordering and dissolution. Moreover, the generation of defect clusters in the matrix and precipitates slightly increased the indentation hardness, while disordering of the submicron-sized γ' precipitates resulted in a dramatic decrease in the total hardness, which decreased further during the early stages of the intermixing between γ' precipitates and matrix (<18 dpa). As a result, controlling the long-range-ordering and chemical intermixing can be used to tailor the mechanical properties of Ni-based superalloys under irradiation.