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Sample records for kingdom la8 nh

  1. Good Energies (United Kingdom) | Open Energy Information

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    Energies (United Kingdom) Jump to: navigation, search Logo: Good Energies (United Kingdom) Name: Good Energies (United Kingdom) Address: 2-5 Old Bond Street Place: London, United...

  2. 12 Voltz Limited | Open Energy Information

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    Limited Place: Cumbria, United Kingdom Zip: LA8 9NH Sector: Renewable Energy, Solar, Wind energy Product: Selling and delivering broad range of advanced energy generating...

  3. Kingdom Community Wind | Open Energy Information

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    search Name Kingdom Community Wind Facility Kingdom Community Wind Sector Wind energy Facility Type Commercial Scale Wind Facility Status In Service Owner Green Mountain...

  4. Category:Concord, NH | Open Energy Information

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    16 files are in this category, out of 16 total. SVFullServiceRestaurant Concord NH Public Service Co of NH.png SVFullServiceRestauran... 74 KB SVHospital Concord NH Public...

  5. The United Kingdom Nuclear Science Forum

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    MacMahon, Desmond; Judge, Steven; Forrest, Robin

    2005-05-24

    The United Kingdom Nuclear Science Forum effectively acts as the United Kingdom's Nuclear Data Committee. As such it is the interface between the UK nuclear data community and international nuclear data centres. This paper outlines the Forum's terms of reference and describes some of its recent activities.

  6. Nuclear Decommissioning Authority of the United Kingdom NDA ...

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    Decommissioning Authority of the United Kingdom NDA Jump to: navigation, search Name: Nuclear Decommissioning Authority of the United Kingdom (NDA) Place: Cumbria, England, United...

  7. BeyWatch (Smart Grid Project) (United Kingdom) | Open Energy...

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    United Kingdom) Jump to: navigation, search Project Name BeyWatch Country United Kingdom Coordinates 55.378052, -3.435973 Loading map... "minzoom":false,"mappingservice":"goog...

  8. United Kingdom Low Carbon Transition Plan | Open Energy Information

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    Low Carbon Transition Plan Jump to: navigation, search Tool Summary LAUNCH TOOL Name: United Kingdom Low Carbon Transition Plan AgencyCompany Organization: United Kingdom...

  9. United Kingdom Department of Energy and Climate Change (DECC...

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    Department of Energy and Climate Change (DECC) Jump to: navigation, search Logo: United Kingdom Department for Energy and Climate Change (DECC) Name: United Kingdom Department for...

  10. Dursley, United Kingdom: Energy Resources | Open Energy Information

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    United Kingdom. Registered Energy Companies in Dursley, United Kingdom Hermes Energy Services Retrieved from "http:en.openei.orgwindex.php?titleDursley,United...

  11. DOE - Office of Legacy Management -- R Brew Co - NH 01

    Office of Legacy Management (LM)

    Brew Co - NH 01 FUSRAP Considered Sites Site: R. BREW CO. (NH.01 ) Eliminated from consideration under FUSRAP Designated Name: Not Designated Alternate Name: None Location: Concord , New Hampshire NH.01-1 Evaluation Year: 1994 NH.01-2 Site Operations: Conducted vacuum furnace tests using uranium and copper billets. NH.01-1 NH.01-3 Site Disposition: Eliminated - Potential for contamination remote NH.01-2 Radioactive Materials Handled: Yes Primary Radioactive Materials Handled: Uranium NH.01-1

  12. Brighton, United Kingdom: Energy Resources | Open Energy Information

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    Jump to: navigation, search Name Brighton, United Kingdom Equivalent URI DBpedia GeoNames ID 2654710 Coordinates 50.82838, -0.13947 Show Map Loading map......

  13. Norwich, United Kingdom: Energy Resources | Open Energy Information

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    United Kingdom: Energy Resources Jump to: navigation, search Equivalent URI DBpedia GeoNames ID 2641181 Coordinates 52.62783, 1.29834 Show Map Loading map......

  14. Tonbridge, United Kingdom: Energy Resources | Open Energy Information

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    Tonbridge, United Kingdom: Energy Resources Jump to: navigation, search Name Tonbridge, England Equivalent URI DBpedia GeoNames ID 2635703 Coordinates 51.19242, 0.27532 Show...

  15. Leeds, United Kingdom: Energy Resources | Open Energy Information

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    Leeds, United Kingdom: Energy Resources Jump to: navigation, search Equivalent URI DBpedia GeoNames ID 2644688 Coordinates The following coordinate was not recognized: 53.79648 ...

  16. 1,"Kingdom Community Wind","Wind","Green Mountain Power Corp...

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    Vermont" ,"Plant","Primary energy source","Operating company","Net summer capacity (MW)" 1,"Kingdom Community Wind","Wind","Green Mountain Power Corp",65 2,"J C ...

  17. Measurement and Modeling of Spatial NH3 Storage Distributions...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Modeling of Spatial NH3 Storage Distributions in a Commercial Small Port Cu Zeolite Urea SCR Catalyst Measurement and Modeling of Spatial NH3 Storage Distributions in a Commercial ...

  18. Brighton, United Kingdom: Energy Resources | Open Energy Information

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    (Redirected from Brighton, UK) Jump to: navigation, search Name Brighton, United Kingdom Equivalent URI DBpedia GeoNames ID 2654710 Coordinates 50.82838, -0.13947 Show Map...

  19. Oxford, United Kingdom: Energy Resources | Open Energy Information

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    Hide Map This article is a stub. You can help OpenEI by expanding it. Oxford is a city in the United Kingdom. Registered Research Institutions in Oxford, United...

  20. Liquefied U.S. Natural Gas Exports to United Kingdom (Million...

    Annual Energy Outlook [U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA)]

    United Kingdom (Million Cubic Feet) Liquefied U.S. Natural Gas Exports to United Kingdom (Million Cubic Feet) Year Jan Feb Mar Apr May Jun Jul Aug Sep Oct Nov Dec 2010 0 0 0 0 0 0...

  1. Public Service Co of NH | Open Energy Information

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    EversourceNH Outage Hotline: 800-662-7764 Outage Map: www.eversource.comContentgen Green Button Access: Implemented Green Button Landing Page: www.psnh.comSaveEnergyMo...

  2. Secretary Bodman Highlights President Bush's Solar America Initiative in Merrimack, NH

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    MERRIMACK , NH - Department of Energy (DOE) Secretary Samuel W. Bodman joined Representatives Jeb Bradley (NH-1st) and Charles Bass (NH-2nd) to highlight President Bush's Solar America Initiative,...

  3. U.S. Department of Energy Welcomes the United Kingdom as 21st Member of the

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Global Nuclear Energy Partnership | Department of Energy Welcomes the United Kingdom as 21st Member of the Global Nuclear Energy Partnership U.S. Department of Energy Welcomes the United Kingdom as 21st Member of the Global Nuclear Energy Partnership January 26, 2008 - 11:29am Addthis WASHINGTON, DC -The U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) today welcomed the United Kingdom (UK) as the Global Nuclear Energy Partnership's (GNEP) twenty-first partner. GNEP, a voluntary international partnership,

  4. Grants to Help N.H. Towns Conserve Energy | Department of Energy

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Grants to Help N.H. Towns Conserve Energy Grants to Help N.H. Towns Conserve Energy March 19, 2010 - 4:17pm Addthis New Hampshire has a plan to lower expenses and create jobs, all ...

  5. Progress on Acidic Zirconia Mixed Oxides for Efficient NH3-SCR...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Zirconia Mixed Oxides for Efficient NH3-SCR Catalysis Progress on Acidic Zirconia Mixed Oxides for Efficient NH3-SCR Catalysis Details progress on non-zeolitic zirconia-based ...

  6. ,"Liquefied U.S. Natural Gas Re-Exports to United Kingdom (Million...

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    2016 11:48:54 AM" "Back to Contents","Data 1: Liquefied U.S. Natural Gas Re-Exports to United Kingdom (Million Cubic Feet)" "Sourcekey","NGMEPG0ERENUS-NUKMMCF"...

  7. ,"Liquefied U.S. Natural Gas Re-Exports to United Kingdom (Million...

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    2016 11:48:55 AM" "Back to Contents","Data 1: Liquefied U.S. Natural Gas Re-Exports to United Kingdom (Million Cubic Feet)" "Sourcekey","NGMEPG0ERENUS-NUKMMCF"...

  8. Array-type NH.sub.3 sensor

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    West, David Lawrence; Montgomery, Frederick Charles; Armstrong, Timothy R; Warmack, Robert J

    2013-12-31

    An array-type sensor that senses NH.sub.3 includes non-Nernstian sensing elements constructed from metal and/or metal-oxide electrodes on an O.sub.2 ion conducting substrate. In one example sensor, one electrode may be made of platinum, another electrode may be made of manganese (III) oxide (Mn.sub.2O.sub.3), and another electrode may be made of tungsten trioxide (WO.sub.3). Some sensing elements may further include an electrode made of La.sub.0.6Sr.sub.0.4Co.sub.0.2Fe.sub0.8O.sub.3 and another electrode made of LaCr.sub.0.95.Mg.sub.0.05O.sub.3.

  9. Hollow-fiber gas-membrane process for removal of NH{sub 3} from solution of NH{sub 3} and CO{sub 2}

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Qin, Y.; Cabral, J.M.S.; Wang, S.

    1996-07-01

    A hollow-fiber supported gas membrane process for the separation of NH{sub 3} from aqueous solutions containing both NH{sub 3} and CO{sub 2} was investigated theoretically and experimentally. A lumen laminar flow and radial diffusion model was applied to calculate the membrane wall transfer coefficient from the data stripping a single volatile component, NH{sub 3} or CO{sub 2}, from their individual aqueous solutions. Influence of the type of membranes and operating conditions on mass-transfer rate were discussed, especially the influence of the membrane transfer coefficient on the film mass-transfer coefficient in the lumen. Appropriate configurations of the hollow-fiber modules for stripping of a single component were analyzed to optimize mass transfer. To predict the stripping of NH{sub 3} from a solution containing NH{sub 3} and CO{sub 2}, a mathematical model incorporating local chemical equilibria and Nernst-Planck diffusion was developed to describe the mass transport. The models described the experimental data fairly well. The experimental results showed that the supported gas membrane process can be used to remove NH{sub 3} effectively from aqueous media containing NH{sub 3} and CO{sub 2}.

  10. Modeling Study of SCR/PGM Interactions in NH3 Slip Catalysts | Department

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    of Energy Study of SCR/PGM Interactions in NH3 Slip Catalysts Modeling Study of SCR/PGM Interactions in NH3 Slip Catalysts The focus of this research is on the optimization of NH3 slip catalyst performance by simulating the behavior of different SCR/PGM configurations. p-19_nova.pdf (250.42 KB) More Documents & Publications Experimental and Modelling Study of the Effect of Diffusional Limitations on the NH3 SCR Activity Selective ammonia slip catalyst enabling highly efficient NOx

  11. EA-1801: Granite Reliable Power Wind Park Project in Coos County, NH |

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Department of Energy 01: Granite Reliable Power Wind Park Project in Coos County, NH EA-1801: Granite Reliable Power Wind Park Project in Coos County, NH June 25, 2010 EA-1801: Final Environmental Impact Granite Reliable Power Wind Project, Coos County, New Hampshire July 23, 2010 EA-1801: Finding of No Significant Impact Granite Reliable Power Wind Project, Coos County, New Hampshire

  12. Price Liquefied Freeport, TX Natural Gas Exports Price to United Kingdom

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    (Dollars per Thousand Cubic Feet) United Kingdom (Dollars per Thousand Cubic Feet) Price Liquefied Freeport, TX Natural Gas Exports Price to United Kingdom (Dollars per Thousand Cubic Feet) Decade Year-0 Year-1 Year-2 Year-3 Year-4 Year-5 Year-6 Year-7 Year-8 Year-9 2000's -- -- -- 2010's 7.56 -- -- -- -- - = No Data Reported; -- = Not Applicable; NA = Not Available; W = Withheld to avoid disclosure of individual company data. Release Date: 08/31/2016 Next Release Date: 09/30/2016 Referring

  13. Sabine Pass, LA Exports to United kingdom Liquefied Natural Gas (Million

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    Cubic Feet) United kingdom Liquefied Natural Gas (Million Cubic Feet) Sabine Pass, LA Exports to United kingdom Liquefied Natural Gas (Million Cubic Feet) Year Jan Feb Mar Apr May Jun Jul Aug Sep Oct Nov Dec 2011 2,862 - = No Data Reported; -- = Not Applicable; NA = Not Available; W = Withheld to avoid disclosure of individual company data. Release Date: 08/31/2016 Next Release Date: 09/30/2016 Referring Pages: U.S. Liquefied Natural Gas Exports by Point of Exit Sabine Pass, LA Liquefied

  14. Simulation of an Ar/NH{sub 3} low pressure magnetized direct current discharge

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Li Zhi [School of Science, University of Science and Technology Liaoning, Anshan 114051 (China); School of Physics and Optoelectronic Engineering, Dalian University of Technology, Dalian 116024 (China); Zhao Zhen [School of Chemistry and Life Science, Anshan Normal University, Anshan 114007 (China); School of Chemical Engineering, University of Science and Technology Liaoning, Anshan 114051 (China); Li Xuehui [Physiccal Science and Technical College, Dalian University, Dalian 116622 (China)

    2013-01-15

    A two-dimensional fluid model has been used to investigate the properties of plasma in an Ar/NH{sub 3} low pressure magnetized direct current discharge. We compared the simulation results with the theoretical and experimental results of the other gas discharge in which the magnetic field is considered. Results that obtained using this method are in good agreement with literature. The simulation results show that the positive ammonia ion density follows the positive argon ion density. The Ar{sub 2}{sup +} density is slightly higher than the Ar{sup +} density at 100 mTorr. The largest ammonia ion is NH{sub 3}{sup +} ion, followed by NH{sub 2}{sup +}, NH{sub 4}{sup +}, and NH{sup +} ions. The contribution of NH{sup +} ions to the density of the positive ammonia ions is marginal. The influence of pressure on the plasma discharge has been studied by simulation, and the mechanisms have been discussed. The average plasma density increases as pressure increased. The plasma density appears to be more inhomogeneous than that at the lower pressure. The ratio of charge particles changed as pressure increased. The Ar{sup +} density is slightly higher than the Ar{sub 2}{sup +} density as the pressure increased. It makes NH{sub 4}{sup +} ratio increase as pressure increased. It shows that the electron temperature drops with rising pressure by numerical calculation.

  15. NH3 generation over commercial Three-Way Catalysts and Lean-NOx...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    over commercial Three-Way Catalysts and Lean-NOx Traps NH3 generation over commercial Three-Way Catalysts and Lean-NOx Traps Research to identify most promising catalytic ...

  16. Crystal structure and characterization of the novel NH{sup +} Midline-Horizontal-Ellipsis N hydrogen bonded polar crystal [NH{sub 2}(CH{sub 2}){sub 4}NH][BF{sub 4}

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Wojtas, M.; Gagor, A.; Czupinski, O.; Medycki, W.; Jakubas, R.

    2012-03-15

    Dielectric properties and phase transitions of the piperazinium tetrafluoroborate ([NH{sub 2}(CH{sub 2}){sub 4}NH][BF{sub 4}], abbreviated as PFB) crystal are related to the one-dimensional arrangement of the cations linked by the bistable NH{sup +} Midline-Horizontal-Ellipsis N hydrogen bonds and molecular motions of the [BF{sub 4}]{sup -} units. The crystal structure of [NH{sub 2}(CH{sub 2}){sub 4}NH][BF{sub 4}] is monoclinic at room temperature with the polar space group Pn. The polar/acentric properties of the room temperature phase IV have been confirmed by the piezoelectric and pyroelectric measurements. DSC measurements show that the compound undergoes three first-order structural phase transitions: at 421/411 K (heating/cooling), at 386/372 K and at 364/349 K. {sup 1}H and {sup 19}F NMR measurements indicate the reorientational motions of [BF{sub 4}]{sup -} anions and piperazinium(+) cations as well as the proton motion in the hydrogen-bonded chains of piperazine along the [001] direction. Over the phase I the isotropic reorientational motions or even self-diffusion of the cations and anions are expected. The conductivity measurements in the vicinity of the II-I PT indicate a superionic phase over the phase I. - Graphical abstract: It must be emphasized that the titled compound represents the first organic-inorganic simple salt containing the single-protonated piperazinium cation which was studied by means of the wide variety of experimental techniques. A survey of Cambridge Structural Database (CSD version 5.32 (November 2010) and updates (May 2011)) for structure containing the piperazinium cations yields 248 compounds with the doubly protonated piperazinium(2+) cations and only eight compounds with the singly protonated piperazinium(+) cations. Among these structures only one is the hybrid organic-inorganic material. This is piperazinium nitrate characterized structurally. The crystal packing of [NH{sub 2}(CH{sub 2}){sub 4}NH][BF{sub 4}], phase IV. The

  17. Study of On-Board Ammonia (NH3) Generation for SCR Operation | Department

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    of Energy Study of On-Board Ammonia (NH3) Generation for SCR Operation Study of On-Board Ammonia (NH3) Generation for SCR Operation The feasibility of on-board ammonia generation was examined using synthesized exhaust compositions deer09_wong.pdf (82.51 KB) More Documents & Publications On-Board Ammonia Generation Using Delphi Diesel Fuel Reformer Delphi On-board Ammonia Generation (OAG) Reductant Utilization in a LNT + SCR System

  18. A SCR Model Calibration Approach with Spatially Resolved Measurements and NH3 Storage Distributions

    DOE Public Access Gateway for Energy & Science Beta (PAGES Beta)

    Song, Xiaobo; Parker, Gordon G.; Johnson, John H.; Naber, Jeffrey D.; Pihl, Josh A.

    2014-11-27

    The selective catalytic reduction (SCR) is a technology used for reducing NO x emissions in the heavy-duty diesel (HDD) engine exhaust. In this study, the spatially resolved capillary inlet infrared spectroscopy (Spaci-IR) technique was used to study the gas concentration and NH3 storage distributions in a SCR catalyst, and to provide data for developing a SCR model to analyze the axial gaseous concentration and axial distributions of NH3 storage. A two-site SCR model is described for simulating the reaction mechanisms. The model equations and a calculation method was developed using the Spaci-IR measurements to determine the NH3 storage capacity andmore » the relationships between certain kinetic parameters of the model. Moreover, a calibration approach was then applied for tuning the kinetic parameters using the spatial gaseous measurements and calculated NH3 storage as a function of axial position instead of inlet and outlet gaseous concentrations of NO, NO2, and NH3. The equations and the approach for determining the NH3 storage capacity of the catalyst and a method of dividing the NH3 storage capacity between the two storage sites are presented. It was determined that the kinetic parameters of the adsorption and desorption reactions have to follow certain relationships for the model to simulate the experimental data. Finally, the modeling results served as a basis for developing full model calibrations to SCR lab reactor and engine data and state estimator development as described in the references (Song et al. 2013a, b; Surenahalli et al. 2013).« less

  19. EA-1123: Transfer of Normal and Low-Enriched Uranium Billets to the United Kingdom, Hanford Site, Richland, Washington

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    This EA evaluates the environmental impacts of the proposal to transfer approximately 710,000 kilograms (1,562,000 pounds) of unneeded normal and low-enriched uranium to the United Kingdom; thus,...

  20. Structures and phases transition in hexylenediammonium pentachlorobismuthate (III) [NH{sub 3}(CH{sub 2}){sub 6}NH{sub 3}]BiCl{sub 5} crystal

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Ouasri, A.; Jeghnou, H.; Rhandour, A.; Roussel, P.

    2013-04-15

    The crystal structure of [NH{sub 3}(CH{sub 2}){sub 6}NH{sub 3}]BiCl{sub 5} was determined at: 223 K [P2{sub 1}2{sub 1}2{sub 1} (Z=4), a=7.788(1), b=13.886(2), c=13.972(2) Å], 308 K [P2{sub 1}/n (Z=8), a=19.972(3), b=7.772(2), c=20.166(3) Å, β=92.32(1)°] and 378 K [Pnma (Z=4), a=13911(2), b=7.834(7), c=14.457(2) Å]. It was consisted of isolated (BiCl{sub 5}{sup 2−}){sub n} anionic chains composed by distorted octahedra BiCl{sub 6}{sup 3−} sharing two corners and {sup +}NH{sub 3}(CH{sub 2}){sub 6}NH{sub 3}{sup +} cations placed in the free cavities between anionic chains. In the β phase, there are two crystallographically inequivalent cations and two one-dimensional anionic chains (BiCl{sub 5}{sup 2−}){sub n} in which BiCl{sub 6}{sup 3−} octahedra was doubly tilted and simply tilted. Two structural phase transitions at low and high temperatures α (P2{sub 1}2{sub 1}2{sub 1}, 223 K)↔β (P2{sub 1}/n, 308 K)↔γ (Pnma, 373 K) are observed and discussed. It was crystallographically showed that both anionic and cationic entities contribute to phase transitions mechanisms. The BiCl{sub 6}{sup 3−} octahedra were found to posses significant distortions on decreasing temperature and became more distorted in α (223 K) phase. It is argued that these deformations are caused by weak to moderate N--H···Cl hydrogen bonding. - Graphical abstract: Projection of the crystal structure of [NH{sub 3}(CH{sub 2}){sub 6}NH{sub 3}]BiCl{sub 5} down the a axis at 208 K. Highlights: ► The crystal shows two phase transitions: α(223 K)↔β(308 K)↔γ(373 K). ► A discontinuous transition may be occurred between α and β phases. ► The α↔β and β↔γ phase transitions are of first order. ► Both anionic and cationic motions contribute to phase transition mechanisms. ► The BiCl{sub 6}{sup 3−} octahedra showed significant distortions on decreasing temperature.

  1. Numerical analysis of a mixture of Ar/NH{sub 3} microwave plasma chemical vapor deposition reactor

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Li Zhi [School of Physics and Optoelectronic Engineering, Dalian University of Technology, Dalian 116024 (China); School of Science, University of Science and Technology Liaoning, Anshan 114051 (China); Zhao Zhen [Chemistry Department, Anshan Normal University, Anshan 114007 (China); School of Chemical Engineering, University of Science and Technology Liaoning, Anshan 114051 (China); Li Xuehui [School of Physics and Optoelectronic Engineering, Dalian University of Technology, Dalian 116024 (China); Physical Science and Technical College, Dalian University, Dalian 116622 (China)

    2012-06-01

    A two-dimensional fluid model has been used to investigate the properties of plasma in Ar/NH{sub 3} microwave electron cyclotron resonance discharge at low pressure. The electromagnetic field model solved by the three-dimensional Simpson method is coupled to a fluid plasma model. The finite difference method was employed to discrete the governing equations. 40 species (neutrals, radicals, ions, and electrons) are consisted in the model. In total, 75 electron-neutral, 43 electron-ion, 167 neutral-neutral, 129 ion-neutral, 28 ion-ion, and 90 3-body reactions are used in the model. According to the simulation, the distribution of the densities of the considered plasma species has been showed and the mechanisms of their variations have been discussed. It is found that the main neutrals (Ar*, Ar**, NH{sub 3}{sup *}, NH, H{sub 2}, NH{sub 2}, H, and N{sub 2}) are present at high densities in Ar/NH{sub 3} microwave electron cyclotron resonance discharge when the mixing ratio of Ar/NH{sub 3} is 1:1 at 20 Pa. The density of NH is more than that of NH{sub 2} atom. And NH{sub 3}{sup +} are the most important ammonia ions. But the uniformity of the space distribution of NH{sub 3}{sup +} is lower than the other ammonia ions.

  2. Thermal Durability of Cu-CHA NH3-SCR Catalysts for Diesel NOx Reduction

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Schmieg, Steven J.; Oh, Se H.; Kim, Chang H.; Brown, David B.; Lee, Jong H.; Peden, Charles HF; Kim, Do Heui

    2012-04-30

    Multiple catalytic functions (NOx conversion, NO and NH3 oxidation, NH3 storage) of a commercial Cu-zeolite urea/NH3-SCR catalyst were assessed in a laboratory fixed-bed flow reactor system after differing degrees of hydrothermal aging. Catalysts were characterized by using x-ray diffraction (XRD), 27Al solid state nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) and transmission electron microscopy (TEM) / energy dispersive X-ray (EDX) spectroscopy to develop an understanding of the degradation mechanisms during catalyst aging. The catalytic reaction measurements of laboratory-aged catalysts were performed, which allows us to obtain a universal curve for predicting the degree of catalyst performance deterioration as a function of time at each aging temperature. Results show that as the aging temperature becomes higher, the zeolite structure collapses in a shorter period of time after an induction period. The decrease in SCR performance was explained by zeolite structure destruction and/or Cu agglomeration, as detected by XRD/27Al NMR and by TEM/EDX, respectively. Destruction of the zeolite structure and agglomeration of the active phase also results in a decrease in the NO/NH3 oxidation activity and the NH3 storage capacity of the catalyst. Selected laboratory aging conditions (16 h at 800oC) compare well with a 135,000 mile vehicle-aged catalyst for both performance and characterization criteria.

  3. Photolysis of solid NH{sub 3} and NH{sub 3}-H{sub 2}O mixtures at 193 nm

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Loeffler, M. J.; Baragiola, R. A.

    2010-12-07

    We have studied UV photolysis of solid ammonia and ammonia-dihydrate samples at 40 K, using infrared spectroscopy, mass spectrometry, and microgravimetry. We have shown that in the pure NH{sub 3} sample, the main species ejected are NH{sub 3}, H{sub 2}, and N{sub 2}, where the hydrogen and nitrogen increase with laser fluence. This increase in N{sub 2} ejection with laser fluence explains the increase in mass loss rate detected by a microbalance. In contrast, for the ammonia-water mixture, we see very weak signals of H{sub 2} and N{sub 2} in the mass spectrometer, consistent with the very small mass loss during the experiment and with a <5% decrease in the NH{sub 3} infrared absorption bands spectroscopy after a fluence of {approx}3 x 10{sup 19} photons/cm{sup 2}. The results imply that ammonia-ice mixtures in the outer solar system are relatively stable under solar irradiation.

  4. A Review & Assessment of Current Operating Conditions Allowable Stresses in ASME Section III Subsection NH

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    R. W. Swindeman

    2009-12-14

    The current operating condition allowable stresses provided in ASME Section III, Subsection NH were reviewed for consistency with the criteria used to establish the stress allowables and with the allowable stresses provided in ASME Section II, Part D. It was found that the S{sub o} values in ASME III-NH were consistent with the S values in ASME IID for the five materials of interest. However, it was found that 0.80 S{sub r} was less than S{sub o} for some temperatures for four of the materials. Only values for alloy 800H appeared to be consistent with the criteria on which S{sub o} values are established. With the intent of undertaking a more detailed evaluation of issues related to the allowable stresses in ASME III-NH, the availabilities of databases for the five materials were reviewed and augmented databases were assembled.

  5. NH{sub 3} sensor based on CSA doped PANi-SnO{sub 2} nanohybrid

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Khuspe, G. D.; Navale, S. T.; Chougule, M. A.; Mulik, R. N.; Godse, P. R.; Patil, V. B.; Sen, Shashwati

    2014-04-24

    The PANi-SnO{sub 2} hybrid nanocomposite based thin films doped with 10–50 wt % CSA were deposited on the glass substrates using the spin coating technique. The sensor response in relation to the CSA doping concentration and the gas concentration has been systematically studied. A significant sensitivity (91%) towards 100 ppm NH{sub 3} operating at room temperature is observed for the 30 wt % CSA doped PANi-SnO2 nanohybrid. The sensing mechanism of CSA doped PANi-SnO{sub 2} materials to NH{sub 3} was presumed to be the effect of p–n heterojunctions.

  6. Evaluation of NH3-SCR Catalyst Technology on a 250-kW Stationary Diesel

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Genset | Department of Energy NH3-SCR Catalyst Technology on a 250-kW Stationary Diesel Genset Evaluation of NH3-SCR Catalyst Technology on a 250-kW Stationary Diesel Genset 2005 Diesel Engine Emissions Reduction (DEER) Conference Presentations and Posters 2005_deer_malyala.pdf (164.77 KB) More Documents & Publications Two Catalyst Formulations - One Solution for NOx After-treatment Systems Engine and Reactor Evaluations of HC-SCR for Diesel NOx Reduction Development of Optimal Catalyst

  7. NH3 generation over commercial Three-Way Catalysts and Lean-NOx Traps |

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Department of Energy generation over commercial Three-Way Catalysts and Lean-NOx Traps NH3 generation over commercial Three-Way Catalysts and Lean-NOx Traps Research to identify most promising catalytic formulations and operation for the in-situ generation of NH3, storage on a downstream SCR catalyst, and utilized to reduce the remaining NOx deer12_toops.pdf (3.08 MB) More Documents & Publications Emissions Control for Lean Gasoline Engines Emissions Control for Lean Gasoline Engines

  8. Progress on Acidic Zirconia Mixed Oxides for Efficient NH3-SCR Catalysis |

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Department of Energy Acidic Zirconia Mixed Oxides for Efficient NH3-SCR Catalysis Progress on Acidic Zirconia Mixed Oxides for Efficient NH3-SCR Catalysis Details progress on non-zeolitic zirconia-based mixed oxides as promising new SCR catalyst materials and results of engine bench testing of full-size SCR prototype confirms Details progress on non-zeolitic zirconia-based mixed oxides as promising new SCR catalyst materials and results of engine bench testing of full-size SCR prototype

  9. Investigation on thermal evaporated CH{sub 3}NH{sub 3}PbI{sub 3} thin films

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Li, Youzhen; Xu, Xuemei; Yang, Junliang; Wang, Chenggong; Wang, Congcong; Gao, Yongli; Xie, Fangyan

    2015-09-15

    CH{sub 3}NH{sub 3}I, PbI{sub 2} and CH{sub 3}NH{sub 3}PbI{sub 3} films were fabricated by evaporation and characterized with X-ray Photoelectron Spectroscopy (XPS) and X-ray diffraction (XRD). The XPS results indicate that the PbI{sub 2} and CH{sub 3}NH{sub 3}PbI{sub 3} films are more uniform and stable than the CH{sub 3}NH{sub 3}I film. The atomic ratio of the CH{sub 3}NH{sub 3}I, PbI{sub 2} and CH{sub 3}NH{sub 3}PbI{sub 3} films are C:N:I=1.00:1.01:0.70, Pb:I= 1.00:1.91 and C: N: Pb: I = 1.29:1.07:1.00:2.94, respectively. The atomic ratio of CH{sub 3}NH{sub 3}PbI{sub 3} is very close to that of the ideal perovskite. Small angle x-ray diffraction results demonstrate that the as evaporated CH{sub 3}NH{sub 3}PbI{sub 3} film is crystalline. The valence band maximum (VBM) and work function (WF) of the CH{sub 3}NH{sub 3}PbI{sub 3} film are about 0.85eV and 4.86eV, respectively.

  10. Synthesis and Characterization of Th2N2(NH) Isomorphous to Th2N3

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Silva, G W Chinthaka M; Yeamans, Charles B.; Hunn, John D; Sattelberger, Alfred P; Czerwinski, Ken R.; Weck, Dr. Phil F

    2012-01-01

    Using a new, low-temperature, fluoride-based process, thorium nitride imide of the chemical formula Th{sub 2}N{sub 2}(NH) was synthesized from thorium dioxide via an ammonium thorium fluoride intermediate. The resulting product phase was characterized by powder X-ray diffraction (XRD) analysis and was found to be crystallographically similar to Th{sub 2}N{sub 3}. Its unit cell was hexagonal with a space group of P3m{bar 1} and lattice parameters of a = b = 3.886(1) and c = 6.185(2) {angstrom}. The presence of -NH in the nitride phase was verified by Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR). Total energy calculations performed using all-electron scalar relativistic density functional theory (DFT) showed that the hydrogen atom in the Th{sub 2}N{sub 2}(NH) prefers to bond with nitrogen atoms occupying 1a Wyckoff positions of the unit cell. Lattice fringe disruptions observed in nanoparticle areas of the nitride species by high-resolution transmission electron microscopic (HRTEM) images also displayed some evidence for the presence of -NH group. As ThO{sub 2} was identified as an impurity, possible reaction mechanisms involving its formation are discussed.

  11. Theoretical investigation of HNgNH{sub 3}{sup +} ions (Ng = He, Ne, Ar, Kr, and Xe)

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Gao, Kunqi; Sheng, Li

    2015-04-14

    The equilibrium geometries, harmonic frequencies, and dissociation energies of HNgNH{sub 3}{sup +} ions (Ng = He, Ne, Ar, Kr, and Xe) were investigated using the following method: Becke-3-parameter-Lee-Yang-Parr (B3LYP), Boese-Matrin for Kinetics (BMK), second-order Mller-Plesset perturbation theory (MP2), and coupled-cluster with single and double excitations as well as perturbative inclusion of triples (CCSD(T)). The results indicate that HHeNH{sub 3}{sup +}, HArNH{sub 3}{sup +}, HKrNH{sub 3}{sup +}, and HXeNH{sub 3}{sup +} ions are metastable species that are protected from decomposition by high energy barriers, whereas the HNeNH{sub 3}{sup +} ion is unstable because of its relatively small energy barrier for decomposition. The bonding nature of noble-gas atoms in HNgNH{sub 3}{sup +} was also analyzed using the atoms in molecules approach, natural energy decomposition analysis, and natural bond orbital analysis.

  12. Theoretical Investigations on the Formation and Dehydrogenation Reaction Pathways of H(NH2BH2)nH (n=1-4) Oligomers: Importance of Dihydrogen Interactions (DHI)

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Li, Jun; Kathmann, Shawn M.; Hu, Han-Shi; Schenter, Gregory K.; Autrey, Thomas; Gutowski, Maciej S.

    2010-09-06

    The H(NH2BH2)nH oligomers are possible products from dehydrogenation of ammonia borane (NH3BH3) and ammonium borohydride (NH4BH4), which belong to a class of boron-nitrogen-hydrogen (BNHx) compounds that are promising materials for chemical hydrogen storage. Understanding the kinetics and reaction pathways of formation of these oligomers and their further dehydrogenation is essential for developing BNHx-based hydrogen storage materials. We have performed computational modeling using density functional theory (DFT), ab initio wavefunction theory, and Car-Parrinello molecular dynamics (CPMD) simulations on the energetics and formation pathways for the H(NH2BH2)nH (n=1-4) oligomers, polyaminoborane (PAB), from NH3BH3 monomers and the subsequent dehydrogenation steps to form polyiminoborane (PIB). Through transition state searches and evaluation of the intrinsic reaction coordinates, we have investigated the B-N bond cleavage, the reactions of NH3BH3 molecule with intermediates, dihydrogen release through intra- and intermolecular hydrogen transfer, dehydrocoupling/cyclization of the oligomers, and the dimerization of NH3BH3 molecules. We discovered the formation mechanism of H(NH2BH2)n+1H oligomers through reactions of the H(NH2BH2)nH oligomers first with BH3 followed by reactions with NH3 and the release of H2, where the BH3 and NH3 intermediates are formed through dissociation of NH3BH3. We also found that the dimerization of the NH3BH3 molecules to form c-(NH2BH2)2 is slightly exothermic, with an unexpected transition state that leads to the simultaneous release of two H2 molecules. The dehydrogenations of the oligomers are also exothermic, typically by less than 10 kcal/(mol of H2), with the largest exothermicity for n=3. The transition state search shows that the one-step direct dehydrocoupling cyclization of the oligomers is not a favored pathway because of high activation barriers. The dihydrogen bonding, in which protic (HN) hydrogens interact with hydridic

  13. Measurement and Modeling of Spatial NH3 Storage Distributions in a Commercial Small Port Cu Zeolite Urea SCR Catalyst

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    A modified Spaci-IR technique can measure transient NH3 and NOx concentrations; data have been used to calibrate and validate an SCR model, with good agreement between experiments and simulations.

  14. 2010 MARINE MICROBES GORDON RESEARCH CONFERENCE (JULY 4-9, 2010 - TILTON SCHOOL, TILTON NH)

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    David Kirchman

    2010-04-09

    Marine microbes include representatives from all three kingdoms of life and collectively carry out virtually all forms of metabolisms found on the planet. Because of this metabolic and genetic diversity, these microbes mediate many of the reactions making up global biogeochemical cycles which govern the flow of energy and material in the biosphere. The goal of this conference is to bring together approaches and concepts from studies of microbial evolution, genomics, ecology, and oceanography in order to gain new insights into marine microbes and their biogeochemical functions. The integration of scales, from genes to global cycles, will result in a better understanding of marine microbes and of their contribution to the carbon cycle and other biogeochemical processes.

  15. Structural transitions of ternary imide Li{sub 2}Mg(NH){sub 2} for hydrogen storage

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Liang, C.; Gao, M. X.; Pan, H. G. Liu, Y. F.

    2014-08-25

    Phase transitions and energetic properties of Li{sub 2}Mg(NH){sub 2} with different crystal structures are investigated by experiments and first-principles calculations. The Li{sub 2}Mg(NH){sub 2} with the primitive cubic and orthorhombic structure is obtained by dynamically dehydrogenating a Mg(NH{sub 2}){sub 2}-2LiH mixture up to 280?C under an initial vacuum and 9.0?bars H{sub 2}, respectively. It is found that the obtained orthorhombic Li{sub 2}Mg(NH){sub 2} is converted to a primitive cubic structure as the dehydrogenation temperature is further increased to 400?C or performed by a 36?h of high-energetic ball milling. Moreover, the primitive cubic phase can be converted to an orthorhombic phase after heating at 280?C under 9.0?bars H{sub 2} for 1?h. Thermodynamic calculations show that the orthorhombic phase is the ground state structure of Li{sub 2}Mg(NH){sub 2}. The mechanism for phase transitions of Li{sub 2}Mg(NH){sub 2} is also discussed from the angle of energy.

  16. Effects of reactant rotational excitations on H{sub 2} + NH{sub 2} → H + NH{sub 3} reactivity

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Song, Hongwei; Guo, Hua

    2014-12-28

    Rotational mode specificity of the title reaction is examined using an initial state selected time-dependent wave packet method on an accurate ab initio based global potential energy surface. This penta-atomic reaction presents an ideal system to test several dynamical approximations, which might be useful for future quantum dynamics studies of polyatomic reactions, particularly with rotationally excited reactants. The first approximation involves a seven-dimensional (7D) model in which the two non-reactive N–H bonds are fixed at their equilibrium geometry. The second is the centrifugal sudden (CS) approximation within the 7D model. Finally, the J-shifting (JS) model is tested, again with the fixed N–H bonds. The spectator-bond approximation works very well in the energy range studied, while the centrifugal sudden and J-shifting integral cross sections (ICSs) agree satisfactorily with the coupled-channel counterparts in the low collision energy range, but deviate at the high energies. The calculated integral cross sections indicate that the rotational excitation of H{sub 2} somewhat inhibits the reaction while the rotational excitations of NH{sub 2} have little effect. These findings are compared with the predictions of the sudden vector projection model. Finally, a simple model is proposed to predict rotational mode specificity using K-averaged reaction probabilities.

  17. A SCR Model Calibration Approach with Spatially Resolved Measurements and NH3 Storage Distributions

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Song, Xiaobo; Parker, Gordon G.; Johnson, John H.; Naber, Jeffrey D.; Pihl, Josh A.

    2014-11-27

    The selective catalytic reduction (SCR) is a technology used for reducing NO x emissions in the heavy-duty diesel (HDD) engine exhaust. In this study, the spatially resolved capillary inlet infrared spectroscopy (Spaci-IR) technique was used to study the gas concentration and NH3 storage distributions in a SCR catalyst, and to provide data for developing a SCR model to analyze the axial gaseous concentration and axial distributions of NH3 storage. A two-site SCR model is described for simulating the reaction mechanisms. The model equations and a calculation method was developed using the Spaci-IR measurements to determine the NH3 storage capacity and the relationships between certain kinetic parameters of the model. Moreover, a calibration approach was then applied for tuning the kinetic parameters using the spatial gaseous measurements and calculated NH3 storage as a function of axial position instead of inlet and outlet gaseous concentrations of NO, NO2, and NH3. The equations and the approach for determining the NH3 storage capacity of the catalyst and a method of dividing the NH3 storage capacity between the two storage sites are presented. It was determined that the kinetic parameters of the adsorption and desorption reactions have to follow certain relationships for the model to simulate the experimental data. Finally, the modeling results served as a basis for developing full model calibrations to SCR lab reactor and engine data and state estimator development as described in the references (Song et al. 2013a, b; Surenahalli et al. 2013).

  18. RELAP5/MOD2 assessment simulation of semiscale MOD-2C test S-NH-3

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Megahed, M M

    1987-10-01

    This report documents an evaluation of the RELAP5/MOD2/Cycle 36.05 thermal hydraulic computer code for a simulation of a small-break loss-of-coolant accident transient (SBLOCA). The experimental data base for the evaluation is the results of Test S-NH-3 performed in the Semiscale MOD-2C test facility. The test modeled a 0.5% SBLOCA with an accompanying failure of the high-pressure injection emergency core cooling system. The test facility and RELAP5/MOD2 model used in the calculations are described. Evaluations of the accuracy of the calculations are presented in the form of comparisons of measured and calculated histories of selected parameters associated with the primary and secondary systems. A conclusion was reached that the code is capable of making SBLOCA calculations efficiently. However, some of the SBLOCA-related phenomena were not properly predicted by the code, suggesting a need for code improvement.

  19. The thermal decomposition of NH{sub 2}OH and subsequent reactions : ab initio transition state theory and reflected shock tube experiments.

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Klippenstein, S. J.; Harding, L. B.; Ruscic, B.; Sivaramakrishnan, R.; Srinivasan, N. K.; Su, M.-C.; Michael, J. V.; Chemical Sciences and Engineering Division; Sonoma State Univ.

    2009-01-01

    Primary and secondary reactions involved in the thermal decomposition of NH{sub 2}OH are studied with a combination of shock tube experiments and transition state theory based theoretical kinetics. This coupled theory and experiment study demonstrates the utility of NH{sub 2}OH as a high temperature source of OH radicals. The reflected shock technique is employed in the determination of OH radical time profiles via multipass electronic absorption spectrometry. O-atoms are searched for with atomic resonance absorption spectrometry. The experiments provide a direct measurement of the rate coefficient, k{sub 1}, for the thermal decomposition of NH{sub 2}OH. Secondary rate measurements are obtained for the NH{sub 2} + OH (5a) and NH{sub 2}OH + OH (6a) abstraction reactions. The experimental data are obtained for temperatures in the range from 1355 to 1889 K and are well represented by the respective rate expressions: log[k/(cm{sup 3} molecule{sup -1} s{sup -1})] = (?10.12 {+-} 0.20) + (?6793 {+-} 317 K/T) (k{sub 1}); log[k/(cm{sup 3} molecule{sup -1} s{sup -1})] = (?10.00 {+-} 0.06) + (?879 {+-} 101 K/T) (k{sub 5a}); log[k/(cm{sup 3} molecule{sup -1} s{sup -1})] = (?9.75 {+-} 0.08) + (?1248 {+-} 123 K/T) (k{sub 6a}). Theoretical predictions are made for these rate coefficients as well for the reactions of NH{sub 2}OH + NH{sub 2}, NH{sub 2}OH + NH, NH + OH, NH{sub 2} + NH{sub 2}, NH{sub 2} + NH, and NH + NH, each of which could be of secondary importance in NH{sub 2}OH thermal decomposition. The theoretical analyses employ a combination of ab initio transition state theory and master equation simulations. Comparisons between theory and experiment are made where possible. Modest adjustments of predicted barrier heights (i.e., by 2 kcal/mol or less) generally yield good agreement between theory and experiment. The rate coefficients obtained here should be of utility in modeling NO{sub x} in various combustion environments.

  20. Tuned sensitivity towards H{sub 2}S and NH{sub 3} with Cu doped barium strontium titanate materials

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Simion, C. E. Teodorescu, V. S.; Stănoiu, A.; Sackmann, A.; Ruşti, C. F.; Piticescu, R. M.

    2014-11-05

    The different amount of Cu-doped Barium Strontium Titanate (BST) thick film materials have been tested for their gas-sensing performances towards NH{sub 3} and H{sub 2}S under dry and 50% relative humidity (RH) background conditions. The optimum NH{sub 3} sensitivity was attained with 0.1mol% Cu-doped BST whereas the selective detection of H{sub 2}S was highlighted using 5mol% Cu-doped BST material. No cross-sensitivity effects to CO, NO{sub 2}, CH{sub 4} and SO{sub 2} were observed for all tested materials operated at their optimum temperature (200°C) under humid conditions (50% RH). The presence of humidity clearly enhances the gas sensitivity to NH{sub 3} and H{sub 2}S detection.

  1. Environmental assessment: Transfer of normal and low-enriched uranium billets to the United Kingdom, Hanford Site, Richland, Washington

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    1995-11-01

    Under the auspices of an agreement between the U.S. and the United Kingdom, the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) has an opportunity to transfer approximately 710,000 kilograms (1,562,000 pounds) of unneeded normal and low-enriched uranium (LEU) to the United Kingdom; thus, reducing long-term surveillance and maintenance burdens at the Hanford Site. The material, in the form of billets, is controlled by DOE`s Defense Programs, and is presently stored as surplus material in the 300 Area of the Hanford Site. The United Kingdom has expressed a need for the billets. The surplus uranium billets are currently stored in wooden shipping containers in secured facilities in the 300 Area at the Hanford Site (the 303-B and 303-G storage facilities). There are 482 billets at an enrichment level (based on uranium-235 content) of 0.71 weight-percent. This enrichment level is normal uranium; that is, uranium having 0.711 as the percentage by weight of uranium-235 as occurring in nature. There are 3,242 billets at an enrichment level of 0.95 weight-percent (i.e., low-enriched uranium). This inventory represents a total of approximately 532 curies. The facilities are routinely monitored. The dose rate on contact of a uranium billet is approximately 8 millirem per hour. The dose rate on contact of a wooden shipping container containing 4 billets is approximately 4 millirem per hour. The dose rate at the exterior of the storage facilities is indistinguishable from background levels.

  2. Increasing biogas yield of rural biogas digester by addition of NH/sub 4/HCO/sub 3/

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Sun, G.C.; Chen, G.Q.; Chen, M.; Liu, K.X.; Zhou, S.Y.

    1983-12-01

    By addition of 0.3% NH/sub 4/HCO/sub 3/ instead of animal manure into rural biogas digester in which the rotted rice straw was the major feedstock, the biogas yield doubled in comparison with the check digester (0.1 m/sup 3//m/sup 3//d) and the fertility of NH/sub 4/HCO/sub 3/ did not decrease because of biogas fermentation. Many digesters have been built in China. But, owing to the problems of improper management, unsuitable influent mixing, etc., neither digesters nor feedstock were fully utilized. In order to solve these problems, adding NH/sub 4/HCO/sub 3/ into digester instead of animal manure was tried. Its results showed that the suitable C/N ratio of influent mixing was obtained, the fertility of effluent went up, and biogas producing rate increased. The concentration of NH/sub 4/HCO/sub 3/ is 0.2-0.6%, but the optimal is 0.3%.

  3. Update and Improve Subsection NH –– Alternative Simplified Creep-Fatigue Design Methods

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Tai Asayama

    2009-10-26

    This report described the results of investigation on Task 10 of DOE/ASME Materials NGNP/Generation IV Project based on a contract between ASME Standards Technology, LLC (ASME ST-LLC) and Japan Atomic Energy Agency (JAEA). Task 10 is to Update and Improve Subsection NH -- Alternative Simplified Creep-Fatigue Design Methods. Five newly proposed promising creep-fatigue evaluation methods were investigated. Those are (1) modified ductility exhaustion method, (2) strain range separation method, (3) approach for pressure vessel application, (4) hybrid method of time fraction and ductility exhaustion, and (5) simplified model test approach. The outlines of those methods are presented first, and predictability of experimental results of these methods is demonstrated using the creep-fatigue data collected in previous Tasks 3 and 5. All the methods (except the simplified model test approach which is not ready for application) predicted experimental results fairly accurately. On the other hand, predicted creep-fatigue life in long-term regions showed considerable differences among the methodologies. These differences come from the concepts each method is based on. All the new methods investigated in this report have advantages over the currently employed time fraction rule and offer technical insights that should be thought much of in the improvement of creep-fatigue evaluation procedures. The main points of the modified ductility exhaustion method, the strain range separation method, the approach for pressure vessel application and the hybrid method can be reflected in the improvement of the current time fraction rule. The simplified mode test approach would offer a whole new advantage including robustness and simplicity which are definitely attractive but this approach is yet to be validated for implementation at this point. Therefore, this report recommends the following two steps as a course of improvement of NH based on newly proposed creep-fatigue evaluation

  4. Verification of Allowable Stresses In ASME Section III Subsection NH For Grade 91 Steel & Alloy 800H

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    R. W. Swindeman; M. J. Swindeman; B. W. Roberts; B. E. Thurgood; D. L. Marriott

    2007-11-30

    The database for the creep-rupture of 9Cr-1Mo-V (Grade 91) steel was collected and reviewed to determine if it met the needs for recommending time-dependent strength values, S{sub t}, for coverage in ASME Section III Subsection NH (ASME III-NH) to 650 C (1200 F) and 600,000 hours. The accumulated database included over 300 tests for 1% total strain, nearly 400 tests for tertiary creep, and nearly 1700 tests to rupture. Procedures for analyzing creep and rupture data for ASME III-NH were reviewed and compared to the procedures used to develop the current allowable stress values for Gr 91 for ASME II-D. The criteria in ASME III-NH for estimating S{sub t} included the average strength for 1% total strain for times to 600,000 hours, 80% of the minimum strength for tertiary creep for times to 600,000 hours, and 67% of the minimum rupture strength values for times to 600,000 hours. Time-temperature-stress parametric formulations were selected to correlate the data and make predictions of the long-time strength. It was found that the stress corresponding to 1% total strain and the initiation of tertiary creep were not the controlling criteria over the temperature-time range of concern. It was found that small adjustments to the current values in III-NH could be introduced but that the existing values were conservative and could be retained. The existing database was found to be adequate to extend the coverage to 600,000 hours for temperatures below 650 C (1200 F).

  5. Synthesis, characterization and optical properties of NH{sub 4}Dy(PO{sub 3}){sub 4}

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Chemingui, S.; Ferhi, M. Horchani-Naifer, K.; Férid, M.

    2014-09-15

    Polycrystalline powders of NH{sub 4}Dy(PO{sub 3}){sub 4} polyphosphate have been grown by the flux method. This compound was found to be isotopic with NH{sub 4}Ce(PO{sub 3}){sub 4} and RbHo(PO{sub 3}){sub 4}. It crystallizes in the monoclinic space group P2{sub 1/n} with unit cell parameters a=10.474(6) Å, b=9.011(4) Å, c=10.947(7) Å and β=106.64(3)°. The title compound has been transformed to triphosphate Dy(PO{sub 3}){sub 3} after calcination at 800 °C. Powder X-ray diffraction, infrared and Raman spectroscopies and the differential thermal analysis have been used to identify these materials. The spectroscopic properties have been investigated through absorption, excitation, emission spectra and decay curves of Dy{sup 3+} ion in both compounds at room temperature. The emission spectra show the characteristic emission bands of Dy{sup 3+} in the two compounds, before and after calcination. The integrated emission intensity ratios of the yellow to blue (I{sub Y}/I{sub B}) transitions and the chromaticity properties have been determined from emission spectra. The decay curves are found to be double-exponential. The non-exponential behavior of the decay rates was related to the resonant energy transfer as well as cross-relaxation between the donor and acceptor Dy{sup 3+} ions. The determined properties have been discussed as function of crystal structure of both compounds. They reveal that NH{sub 4}Dy(PO{sub 3}){sub 4} is promising for white light generation but Dy(PO{sub 3}){sub 3} is potential candidates in field emission display (FED) and plasma display panel (PDP) devices. - Graphical abstract: The CIE color coordinate diagrams showing the chromatic coordinates of Dy{sup 3+} luminescence in NH{sub 4}Dy(PO{sub 3}){sub 4} and Dy(PO{sub 3}){sub 3}. - Highlights: • The polycrystalline powders of NH{sub 4}Dy(PO{sub 3}){sub 4} and Dy(PO{sub 3}){sub 3} are synthesized. • The obtained powders are characterized. • The spectroscopic properties of Dy{sup 3+} ion

  6. RELAP5 assessment using semiscale SBLOCA test S-NH-1. International Agreement Report

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Lee, E.J.; Chung, B.D.; Kim, H.J.

    1993-06-01

    2-inch cold leg break test S-NH-1, conducted at the 1/1705 volume scaled facility Semiscale was analyzed using RELAP5/MOD2 Cycle 36.04 and MOD3 Version 5m5. Loss of HPIS was assumed, and reactor trip occurred on a low PZR pressure signal (13.1 MPa), and pumps began an unpowered coastdown on SI signal (12.5 MPa). The system was recovered by opening ADV`s when the PCT became higher than 811 K. Accumulator was finally injected into the system when the primary system pressure was less than 4.0 MPa. The experiment was terminated when the pressure reached the LPIS actuation set point RELAP5/MOD2 analysis demonstrated its capability to predict, with a sufficient accuracy, the main phenomena occurring in the depressurization transient, both from a qualitative and quantitative points of view. Nevertheless, several differences were noted regarding the break flow rate and inventory distribution due to deficiencies in two-phase choked flow model, horizontal stratification interfacial drag, and a CCFL model. The main reason for the core to remain nearly fully covered with the liquid was the under-prediction of the break flow by the code. Several sensitivity calculations were tried using the MOD2 to improve the results by using the different options of break flow modeling (downward, homogeneous, and area increase). The break area compensating concept based on ``the integrated break flow matching`` gave the best results than downward junction and homogeneous options. And the MOD3 showed improvement in predicting a CCFL in SG and a heatup in the core.

  7. Capacitive deionization of NH{sub 4}CIO{sub 4} solutions with carbon aerogel electrodes. Revision 1

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Farmer, J.C.; Fix, D.V.; Mack, G.V.; Pekala, R.W.; Poco, J.F.

    1996-01-01

    A process for capacitive deionization of water with a stack of carbon aerogel electrodes was developed. Unlike ion exchange, one of the more conventional deionization processes, no chemicals are required for regeneration of the system; electricity is used instead. An aqueous solution of NH{sub 4}ClO{sub 4} is pumped through the electrochemical cell. After polarization, NH{sub 4}{sup +} and ClO{sub 4}{sup -} ions are removed from the water by the imposed electric field and trapped in the extensive cathodic and anodic double layers. Thsi process produces one stream of purified water and a second stream of concentrate. Effects of cell voltage, salt concentration, and cycling on electrosorption capacity were studied and results reported.

  8. A reaction mechanism for titanium nitride CVD from TiCl{sub 4} and NH{sub 3}

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Larson, R.S.; Allendorf, M.D.

    1995-12-01

    A gas-phase and surface reaction mechanism for the CVD of TiN from TiCl{sub 4} and NH{sub 3} is proposed. The only gas-phase process is complex formation, which can compete with deposition. The surface mechanism postulates the stepwise elimination of Cl and H atoms from TiCl{sub 4} and NH{sub 3}, respectively, to form solid TiN and gaseous HCl. The mechanism also accounts for the change in oxidation state of Ti by allowing for liberation of N{sub 2}. Provided that the surface composition is at steady state, the stoichiometry of the overall reaction is reproduced exactly. In addition, the global kinetic law predicted by the mechanism is successfully fit to new deposition data from a rotating disk reactor and is shown to be consistent with literature results.

  9. RELAP5/MOD2 assessment using semiscale experiments S-NH-1 and S-LH-2

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Yuann, Ruey-ying; Liang, Kuo-shing; Jacobson, J L

    1987-10-01

    This report presents the results of the RELAP5/MOD2 posttest assessment utilizing two small break loss-of-coolant accident (LOCA) tests (S-NH-1 and S-LH-2) which were performed in the Semiscale Mod-2C facility. Test S-NH-1 was a 0.5% small break LOCA where the high-pressure injection system (HPIS) was inoperable throughout the transient. Test S-LH-2 was a 5% small break LOCA involving a relatively high upper-head-to-downcomer initial bypass flow and nominal emergency core cooling. Through comparisons between data and best-estimate RELAP5 calculations, the capabilities of RELAP5 to calculate the transient phenomena are assessed. For S-NH-1, emphasis was placed on the capability of the code to calculate various operator actions to initiate core heatup in the absence of HPIS. For S-LH-2, the capability of the code to calculate basic small break system response, such as vessel level during loop seal formation and clearing, break uncovery, and primary pressure response following accumulator injection, was assessed. 10 refs., 76 figs., 4 tabs.

  10. Synthesis, crystal growth, structural and magnetic characterization of NH4MCl2(HCOO), M=(Fe, Co, Ni)

    DOE Public Access Gateway for Energy & Science Beta (PAGES Beta)

    Greenfield, Joshua T.; Ovidiu Garlea, V.; Kamali, Saeed; Chen, Michael; Kovnir, Kirill

    2015-09-24

    In this paper, an ambient-pressure solution route and an improved solvothermal synthetic method have been developed to produce polycrystalline powders and large single crystals of NH4MCl2(HCOO) (M=Fe, Co, Ni). The magnetic structure of the 1D linear chain compound NH4FeCl2(HCOO) has been determined by low-temperature neutron powder diffraction, revealing ferromagnetic intra-chain interactions and antiferromagnetic inter-chain interactions. Finally, the newly-reported Co and Ni analogs are isostructural with NH4FeCl2(HCOO), but there are significant differences in the magnetic properties of each compound; the Ni analog behaves similarly to the Fe compound but with stronger magnetic coupling, exhibiting antiferromagnetic ordering (TN=8.5 K) and a broadmore » metamagnetic transition between 2 and 5 T, while the Co analog does not order magnetically above 2 K, despite strong antiferromagnetic nearest-neighbor interactions.« less

  11. High-temperature phase transformation and topochemical nature in ferroelastic (NH{sub 4}){sub 2}SO{sub 4}

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Lee, Kwang-Sei; Oh, In-Hwan; Ko, Jae-Hyeon

    2014-04-01

    The electrical conductivity of ferroelastic ammonium sulfate (NH{sub 4}){sub 2}SO{sub 4} revealed an anomaly at around 130 C (=403 K, T{sub P}) on heating with large and irreversible thermal hysteresis through thermal cycle. Ferroelastic domain walls and surface morphology of (NH{sub 4}){sub 2}SO{sub 4} were investigated by hot-stage polarizing microscopy. Structural phase transition from an orthorhombic ferroelastic phase to a hexagonal paraelastic phase was not identified at T{sub P} upon heating. On further heating above T{sub P}, microscopic spots appeared and grew on the crystal surface, suggesting that the high-temperature anomaly at T{sub P} was an indication of an onset of thermal decomposition controlled by topochemical factors. The increase of electrical conductivity above T{sub P} was attributed to proton migration. - Graphical abstract: Surface morphology of the (100) face of (NH{sub 4}){sub 2}SO{sub 4} on heating, showing chemical reaction at the surface. - Highlights: We investigate the high-temperature phase transformation of ammonium sulfate. The increasing conductivity upon heating is attributed to proton migration. Structural phase transition from orthorhombic to hexagonal phase is not confirmed. High-temperature anomaly is related to an onset of thermal decomposition. The nature of the high-temperature anomaly is topochemical controlled by defects.

  12. Electrocatalytic Hydrogen Production by [Ni(7PPh2NH)2]2+: Removing the Distinction Between Endo- and Exo- Protonation Sites

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Brown, Houston JS; Wiese, Stefan; Roberts, John A.; Bullock, R. Morris; Helm, Monte L.

    2015-04-03

    A new Ni(II) complex, [Ni(7PPh2NH)2]2+ (7PPh2NH = 3,6-triphenyl-1-aza-3,6-diphosphacycloheptane) has been synthesized, and its electrochemical properties are reported. The 7PPh2NH ligand features an NH, ensuring properly positioned protonated amine groups (NH+) for electrocatalysis, regardless of whether protonation occurs exo- or endo- to the metal center. The compound is an electrocatalyst for H2 production in the presence of organic acids (pKa range 1013 in CH3CN) with turnover frequencies ranging from 160770 s-1 at overpotentials between 320470 mV, as measured at the half peak potential of the catalytic wave. In stark contrast to [Ni(PR2NR'2)2]2+ and other [Ni(7PPh2NR')]2+ complexes, catalytic turnover frequencies for H2 production by [Ni(7PPh2NH)2]2+ do not show catalytic rate enhancement upon the addition of H2O. This finding supports the assertion that [Ni(7PPh2NH)2]2+ eliminates the distinction between the endo- and exo-protonation isomers. This research was supported as part of the Center for Molecular Electrocatalysis, an Energy Frontier Research Center funded by the U.S. Department of Energy, Office of Science, Office of Basic Energy Sciences. Pacific Northwest National Laboratory is operated by Battelle for the U.S. Department of Energy.

  13. Time-Resolved XAFS Spectroscopic Studies of B-H and N-H Oxidative Addition to Transition Metal Catalysts Relevant to Hydrogen Storage

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Bitterwolf, Thomas E.

    2014-12-09

    Successful catalytic dehydrogenation of aminoborane, H3NBH3, prompted questions as to the potential role of N-H oxidative addition in the mechanisms of these processes. N-H oxidative addition reactions are rare, and in all cases appear to involve initial dative bonding to the metal by the amine lone pairs followed by transfer of a proton to the basic metal. Aminoborane and its trimethylborane derivative block this mechanism and, in principle, should permit authentic N-H oxidative attrition to occur. Extensive experimental work failed to confirm this hypothesis. In all cases either B-H complexation or oxidative addition of solvent C-H bonds dominate the chemistry.

  14. A Pyrrolyl-based Triazolophane: A Macrocyclic Receptor With CH and NH Donor Groups That Exhibits a Preference for Pyrophosphate Anions

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Sessler, Jonathan L.; Cia, Jiajia; Gong, Han-Yuan; Yang, Xiauping; Arambula, Jonathan F.; Hay, Benjamin

    2010-01-01

    A pyrrolyl-based triazolophane, incorporating CH and NH donor groups, acts as a receptor for the pyrophosphate anion in chloroform solution. It shows selectivity for this trianion, followed by HSO{sub 4}{sup -} > H{sub 2}PO{sub 4}{sup -} > Cl{sup -} > Br{sup -} (all as the corresponding tetrabutylammonium salts), with NH-anion interactions being more important than CH-anion interactions. In the solid state, the receptor binds the pyrophosphate anion in a clip-like slot via NH and CH hydrogen bonds.

  15. Fe/SSZ-13 as an NH3-SCR Catalyst: A Reaction Kinetics and FTIR/Mössbauer Spectroscopic Study

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Gao, Feng; Kollar, Marton; Kukkadapu, Ravi K.; Washton, Nancy M.; Wang, Yilin; Szanyi, Janos; Peden, Charles H.F.

    2015-03-01

    Using a traditional aqueous solution ion-exchange method under a protecting atmosphere of N2, an Fe/SSZ-13 catalyst active in NH3-SCR was synthesized. Mössbauer and FTIR spectroscopies were used to probe the nature of the Fe sites. In the fresh sample, the majority of Fe species are extra-framework cations. The likely monomeric and dimeric ferric ions in hydrated form are [Fe(OH)2]+ and [HO-Fe-O-Fe-OH]2+, based on Mössbauer measurements. During the severe hydrothermal aging (HTA) applied in this study, a majority of cationic Fe species convert to FeAlOx and clustered FeOx species, accompanied by severe dealumination of the SSZ-13 framework. The clustered FeOx species do not give a sextet Mössbauer spectrum, indicating that these are highly disordered. However, some Fe species in cationic positions remain after aging as determined from Mössbauer measurements and CO/NO FTIR titrations. NO/NH3 oxidation reaction tests reveal that dehydrated cationic Fe are substantially more active in catalyzing oxidation reactions than the hydrated ones. For NH3-SCR, enhancement of NO oxidation under ‘dry’ conditions promotes SCR rates below ~300 • C. This is due mainly to contribution from the “fast” SCR channel. Above ~300 • C, enhancement of NH3 oxidation under ‘dry’ conditions, however, becomes detrimental to NOx conversions. The HTA sample loses much of the SCR activity below ~300 • C; however, above ~400 • C much of the activity remains. This may suggest that the FeAlOx and FeOx species become active at such elevated temperatures. Alternatively, the high-temperature activity may be maintained by the remaining extra-framework cationic species. For potential practical applications, Fe/SSZ-13 may be used as a co-catalyst for Cu/CHA as integral aftertreatment SCR catalysts on the basis of the stable high temperature activity after hydrothermal aging. The authors gratefully acknowledge the US Department of Energy (DOE), Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy

  16. Inhibitory effect of high NH{sub 4}{sup +}–N concentration on anaerobic biotreatment of fresh leachate from a municipal solid waste incineration plant

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Liu, Zhao; Dang, Yan; Li, Caihua; Sun, Dezhi

    2015-09-15

    Highlights: • High NH{sub 4}{sup +}–N concentrations inhibit anaerobic treatment of leachate. • Inhibitory effect of NH{sub 4}{sup +}–N concentrations on anaerobic granular sludge is reversible. • High NH{sub 4}{sup +}–N concentrations inhibit bioactivities of microorganisms instead of survival. - Abstract: Fresh leachate from municipal solid waste (MSW) incineration plants generally contains extremely high NH{sub 4}{sup +}–N concentration which could inhibit the bioactivity of microorganisms. The inhibitory effect of high NH{sub 4}{sup +}–N concentration on anaerobic biotreatment of fresh leachate from a MSW incineration plant in China has been investigated in this study. The inhibition processes was studied by both static tests and a laboratory-scale expanded granular sludge bed (EGSB) reactor. The specific methanogenic activity (SMA) of the microorganisms in anaerobic granular sludge was inhibited with the NH{sub 4}{sup +}–N concentration increasing to 1000 mg/L in static tests. As well the chemical oxygen demand (COD) removal efficiency and the methane yield decreased in the EGSB reactor, while the volatile fatty acids (VFAs) accumulated and extracellular polymeric substances (EPS) of the anaerobic granular sludge increased with NH{sub 4}{sup +}–N concentration rising to 1000 mg/L, without any rebounding during 30 days of operation. Decreasing NH{sub 4}{sup +}–N concentration to 500 mg/L in influent, the COD removal efficiency recovered to about 85% after 26 days. 1000 mg/L of NH{sub 4}{sup +}–N in leachate was suggested to be the inhibition threshold in EGSB reactor. High-throughput sequencing results showed little changes in microbial communities of the sludge for a high NH{sub 4}{sup +}–N concentration, indicating that the survival of most microorganisms was not affected under such a condition. It inhibited the bioactivity of the microorganisms, resulting in decrease of the COD removal efficiency.

  17. Observational results of a multi-telescope campaign in search of interstellar urea [(NH{sub 2}){sub 2}CO

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Remijan, Anthony J.; Snyder, Lewis E.; Kuo, Hsin-Lun; Looney, Leslie W.; Friedel, Douglas N.; McGuire, Brett A.; Golubiatnikov, G. Yu; Lovas, Frank J.; Ilyushin, V. V.; Alekseev, E. A.; Dyubko, S. F.; McCall, Benjamin J.; Hollis, Jan M.

    2014-03-10

    In this paper, we present the results of an observational search for gas phase urea [(NH{sub 2}){sub 2}CO] observed toward the Sgr B2(N-LMH) region. We show data covering urea transitions from ?100 GHz to 250 GHz from five different observational facilities: the Berkeley-Illinois-Maryland-Association (BIMA) Array, the Combined Array for Research in Millimeter-wave Astronomy (CARMA), the NRAO 12 m telescope, the IRAM 30 m telescope, and the Swedish-ESO Submillimeter Telescope (SEST). The results show that the features ascribed to urea can be reproduced across the entire observed bandwidth and all facilities by best-fit column density, temperature, and source size parameters which vary by less than a factor of two between observations merely by adjusting for telescope-specific parameters. Interferometric observations show that the emission arising from these transitions is cospatial and compact, consistent with the derived source sizes and emission from a single species. Despite this evidence, the spectral complexity of both (NH{sub 2}){sub 2}CO and of Sgr B2(N) makes the definitive identification of this molecule challenging. We present observational spectra, laboratory data, and models, and discuss our results in the context of a possible molecular detection of urea.

  18. Passive SCR for lean gasoline NOX control: Engine-based strategies to minimize fuel penalty associated with catalytic NH3 generation

    DOE Public Access Gateway for Energy & Science Beta (PAGES Beta)

    Prikhodko, Vitaly Y.; Parks, James E.; Pihl, Josh A.; Toops, Todd J.

    2016-02-18

    Lean gasoline engines offer greater fuel economy than common stoichiometric gasoline engines. However, excess oxygen prevents the use of the current three-way catalyst (TWC) to control nitrogen oxide (NOX) emissions in lean exhaust. A passive SCR concept, introduced by General Motors Global R&D, makes use of a TWC that is already onboard to generate NH3 under slightly rich conditions, which is stored on the downstream SCR. The stored NH3 is then used to reduce NOX emissions when the engine switches to lean operation. In this work, the effect of engine parameters, such as air-fuel equivalence ratio and spark timing, onmore » NH3 generation over a commercial Pd-only TWC with no dedicated oxygen storage component was evaluated on a 2.0-liter BMW lean burn gasoline direct injection engine. NOX reduction, NH3 formation, and reductant utilization processes were evaluated, and fuel efficiency was assessed and compared to the stoichiometric engine operation case. We found air-fuel equivalence ratio to be one of the most important parameters in controlling the NH3 production; however, the rich operation necessary for NH3 production results in a fuel consumption penalty. The fuel penalty can be minimized by adjusting spark timing to increase rich-phase engine out NOX emissions and, thereby, NH3 levels. Additionally, higher engine out NOX during engine load increase to simulate acceleration resulted in additional fuel savings. Ultimately, a 10% fuel consumption benefit was achieved with the passive SCR approach by optimizing rich air-fuel equivalence ratio and spark timing while also utilizing acceleration load conditions.« less

  19. Advancing strategic environmental assessment in the offshore oil and gas sector: Lessons from Norway, Canada, and the United Kingdom

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Fidler, Courtney; Noble, Bram

    2012-04-15

    Abstract: Strategic environmental assessment (SEA) for offshore oil and gas planning and development is utilized in select international jurisdictions, but the sector has received limited attention in the SEA literature. While the potential benefits of and rationale for SEA are well argued, there have been few empirical studies of SEA processes for the offshore sector. Hence, little is known about the efficacy of SEA offshore, in particular its influence on planning and development decisions. This paper examines SEA practice and influence in three international offshore systems: Norway, Atlantic Canada and the United Kingdom, with the intent to identify the challenges, lessons and opportunities for advancing SEA in offshore planning and impact assessment. Results demonstrate that SEA can help inform and improve the efficacy and efficiency of project-based assessment in the offshore sector, however weak coordination between higher and lower tiers limit SEA's ability to influence planning and development decisions in a broad regional environmental and socioeconomic context. - Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer SEA can inform and improve the efficacy and efficiency of project EA offshore Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Scope and deliverables of SEA offshore often differ from stakeholder expectations Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Considerable variability in influence of SEA output beyond licensing decisions Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Sector-based SEA offshore is often too restrictive to generate expected benefits.

  20. Low Surface Recombination Velocity in Solution-Grown CH3NH3PbBr3 Perovskite Single Crystal

    DOE Public Access Gateway for Energy & Science Beta (PAGES Beta)

    Yang, Ye; Yan, Yong; Yang, Mengjin; Choi, Sukgeun; Zhu, Kai; Luter, Joseph M.; Beard, Matthew C.

    2015-08-06

    Organic-inorganic hybrid perovskites are attracting intense research effort due to their impressive performance in solar cells. While the carrier transport parameters such as mobility and bulk carrier lifetime shows sufficient characteristics, the surface recombination, which can have major impact on the solar cell performance, has not been studied. Here we measure surface recombination dynamics in CH3NH3PbBr3 perovskite single crystals using broadband transient reflectance spectroscopy. The surface recombination velocity is found to be 3.4±0.1 103 cm s-1, B2–3 orders of magnitude lower than that in many important unpassivated semiconductors employed in solar cells. Our result suggests that the planar grain sizemore » for the perovskite thin films should be larger thanB30 mm to avoid the influence of surface recombination on the effective carrier lifetime.« less

  1. Unusual defect physics in CH{sub 3}NH{sub 3}PbI{sub 3} perovskite solar cell absorber

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Yin, Wan-Jian Shi, Tingting; Yan, Yanfa

    2014-02-10

    Thin-film solar cells based on Methylammonium triiodideplumbate (CH{sub 3}NH{sub 3}PbI{sub 3}) halide perovskites have recently shown remarkable performance. First-principle calculations show that CH{sub 3}NH{sub 3}PbI{sub 3} has unusual defect physics: (i) Different from common p-type thin-film solar cell absorbers, it exhibits flexible conductivity from good p-type, intrinsic to good n-type depending on the growth conditions; (ii) Dominant intrinsic defects create only shallow levels, which partially explain the long electron-hole diffusion length and high open-circuit voltage in solar cell. The unusual defect properties can be attributed to the strong Pb lone-pair s orbital and I p orbital antibonding coupling and the high ionicity of CH{sub 3}NH{sub 3}PbI{sub 3}.

  2. 4D Density Determination of NH Radicals in an MSE Microplasma Combining Planar Laser Induced Fluorescence and Cavity Ring-Down Spectroscopy

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Visser, Martin; Schenk, Andreas; Gericke, Karl-Heinz

    2010-10-13

    An application of microplasmas is surface modification under mild conditions and of small, well defined areas. For this, an understanding of the plasma composition is of importance. First results of our work on the production and detection of NH radicals in a capacitively coupled radio frequency (RF) microplasma are presented. A microstructured comb electrode was used to generate a glow discharge in a hydrogen/nitrogen gas mixture by applying 13.56 MHz RF voltage. The techniques of planar laser induced fluorescence (PLIF) and cavity ring-down spectroscopy (CRDS) are used for space and time resolved, quantitative detection of the NH radical in the plasma. The rotational temperature was determined to be 820 K and, the density 5.1x10{sup 12} cm{sup 3}. Also, time dependent behaviour of the NH production was observed.

  3. Periprocedural Prophylactic Antithrombotic Strategies in Interventional Radiology: Current Practice in the Netherlands and Comparison with the United Kingdom

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Wiersema, Arno M.; Vos, Jan-Albert; Bruijninckx, Cornelis M. A.; Delden, Otto M. van; Reijnen, Michel M. P. J.; Vahl, Anco; Zeebregts, Clark J.; Moll, Frans L.

    2013-12-15

    Purpose: The use of prophylactic antithrombotic drugs to prevent arterial thrombosis during the periprocedural period during (percutaneous) peripheral arterial interventions (PAIs) is still a matter of dispute, and clear evidence-based guidelines are lacking. To create those guidelines, a study group was formed in the Netherlands in cooperation with the Dutch Society of Vascular Surgery and the Society of Interventional Radiology. The study group is called 'Consensus on Arterial PeriProcedural Anticoagulation (CAPPA).' Materials and Methods: The CAPPA study group devised and distributed a comprehensive questionnaire amongst Dutch interventional radiologists (IRs). Results: One hundred forty-two IRs responded (68 %) to the questionnaire. Almost no IR stopped acetyl salicylic acid before interventions, and 40 % stopped clopidogrel before PAI but not before carotid artery stenting (CAS). A flushing solution on the sideport of the sheath was used routinely by 30 % of IRs in PAI and by 50 % of IRs during CAS. A minority of IRs used a heparinised flushing solution (28 %). Unfractionated heparin was used by 95 % of IRs as bolus; 5000 IU was the most used dosage. Timing of administration varied widely. A majority of IRs (75 %) repeated heparin administration after 1 h. Conclusion: A substantial variety exists amongst IRs in the Netherlands regarding the use of prophylactic periprocedural antithrombotic drugs to prevent arterial thrombosis during PAI. When compared with varying results regarding the use of heparin in the United Kingdom, the variety in the Netherlands showed a different pattern. The proven variety in these countries, and also between these countries, emphasises the need for authoritative studies to develop evidence-based practical guidelines.

  4. Selective Catalytic Reduction of NO by NH3 with WO3-TiO2 Catalysts: Influence of Catalyst Synthesis Method

    DOE Public Access Gateway for Energy & Science Beta (PAGES Beta)

    He, Yuanyuan; Ford, Michael E.; Zhu, Minghui; Liu, Qingcai; Wu, Zili; Wachs, Israel E.

    2016-02-02

    A series of supported WO3/TiO2 catalysts was prepared by a new synthesis procedure involving co-precipitation of an aqueous TiO(OH)2 and (NH4)10W12O41*5H2O slurry under controlled pH conditions. The morphological properties, molecular structures, surface acidity and surface chemistry of the supported WO3/TiO2 catalysts were determined with BET, in situ Raman, in situ IR and temperature-programmed surface reaction (TPSR) spectroscopy, respectively. Isotopic 18O-16O exchange demonstrated that tungsten oxide was exclusively present as surface WOx species on the TiO2 support with mono-oxo W=O coordination. In contrast to previous studies employing impregnation synthesis that found only surface one mono-oxo O=WO4 site on TiO2, the co-precipitationmore » procedure resulted in the formation of two distinct surface WOx species: mono-oxo O=WO4 (~1010-1017 cm-1) on low defect density patches of TiO2 and a second mono-oxo O=WO4 (~983-986 cm-1) on high defect density patches of TiO2. The concentration of the second WOx surface species increases as a function of solution pH. Both surface WOx sites, however, exhibited the same NO/NH3 SCR reactivity. The co-precipitated WO3-TiO2 catalysts synthesized in alkaline solutions exhibited enhanced performance for the NO/NH3 SCR reaction that is ascribed to the greater number of surface defects on the resulting TiO2 support. For the co-precipitated catalyst prepared at pH10, surface NH4+ species on Br nsted acid sites were found to be more reactive than surface NH3* species on Lewis acid sites for SCR of NO with NH3.« less

  5. Structural study of Ni- or Mg-based complexes incorporated within UiO-66-NH{sub 2} framework and their impact on hydrogen sorption properties

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Žunkovič, E.; Mazaj, M.; Mali, G.; Rangus, M.; Devic, T.; Serre, C.; Logar, N. Zabukovec

    2015-05-15

    Nickel and magnesium acetylacetonate molecular complexes were post-synthetically incorporated into microporous zirconium-based MOF (UiO-66-NH{sub 2}) in order to introduce active open-metal sites for hydrogen sorption. Elemental analysis, nitrogen physisorption and DFT calculations revealed that 5 molecules of Ni(acac){sub 2} or 2 molecules of Mg(acac){sub 2} were incorporated into one unit cell of UiO-66-NH{sub 2}. {sup 1}H–{sup 13}C CPMAS and {sup 1}H MAS NMR spectroscopy showed that, although embedded within the pores, both Ni- and Mg-complexes interacted with the UiO-66-NH{sub 2} framework only through weak van der Waals bonds. Inclusion of metal complexes led to the decrease of hydrogen sorption capacities in Ni-modified as well as in Mg-modified samples in comparison with the parent UiO-66-NH{sub 2}. The isosteric hydrogen adsorption enthalpy slightly increased in the case of Ni-modified material, but not in the case of Mg-modified analogue. - Graphical abstract: A post-synthesis impregnation of Mg- and Ni-acetylacetonate complexes performed on zirconium-based MOF UiO-66-NH{sub 2} does influence the hydrogen sorption performance with respect to the parent matrix. The structural study revealed that Mg- and Ni-acetylacetonate molecules interact with zirconium-terephthalate framework only by weak interactions and they are not covalently bonded to aminoterephthalate ligand. Still, they remain confined into the pores even after hydrogen sorption experiments. - Highlights: • Mg- and Ni-acetylacetonate molecules embedded in the pores of UiO-66-NH{sub 2} by PSM. • Molecules of complexes interact with framework only by van der Waals interactions. • Type/structure of deposited metal-complex impact hydrogen enthalpy of adsorption.

  6. Microstructures and properties of CH{sub 3}NH{sub 3}PbI{sub 3?x}Cl{sub x} hybrid solar cells

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Suzuki, Kohei E-mail: oku@mat.usp.ac.jp; Suzuki, Atsushi E-mail: oku@mat.usp.ac.jp; Zushi, Masahito E-mail: oku@mat.usp.ac.jp; Oku, Takeo E-mail: oku@mat.usp.ac.jp

    2015-02-27

    Halide-perovskite CH{sub 3}NH{sub 3}PbI{sub 3} was produced on mesoporous TiO{sub 2} layer by spin-coating a precursor solution of PbCl{sub 2} and CH{sub 3}NH{sub 3}I in dimethylformamide. The role of the annealing process and chlorine (Cl) doping for the perovskite-phase formation was investigated. It was found that crystallization of the perovskite materials was stimulated by the annealing process, and that longer annealing time is necessary for the Cl-doped perovskite compared with that of non-doped perovskite phase.

  7. Solvent extraction of Li+, H3O+ and NH4+ into nitrobenzene by using sodium dicarbollylcobaltate and calix[4]arene-bis(t-octylbenzo-18-crown-6)

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Makrlik, Emanuel; Selucky, P.; Vanura, Petr; Moyer, Bruce A

    2013-01-01

    From extraction experiments and c-activity measurements, the exchange extraction constants corresponding to the general equilibrium M+ (aq) + NaL+ (nb) , ML+ (nb) + Na+ (aq) taking place in the two-phase water nitrobenzene system (M+ = Li+, H3O+, NH+4; L = calix[4]arene-bis(t-octylbenzo-18-crown-6); aq = aqueous phase, nb = nitrobenzene phase) were evaluated. Furthermore, the stability constants of the ML+ complexes in nitrobenzene saturated with water were calculated; they were found to increase in the following cation order: zH3O+ < Li+ < NH+4.

  8. Full-dimensional quantum calculations of vibrational levels of NH4+ and isotopomers on an accurate ab initio potential energy surface

    DOE Public Access Gateway for Energy & Science Beta (PAGES Beta)

    Hua -Gen Yu; Han, Huixian; Guo, Hua

    2016-03-29

    Vibrational energy levels of the ammonium cation (NH4+) and its deuterated isotopomers are calculated using a numerically exact kinetic energy operator on a recently developed nine-dimensional permutation invariant semiglobal potential energy surface fitted to a large number of high-level ab initio points. Like CH4, the vibrational levels of NH4+ and ND4+ exhibit a polyad structure, characterized by a collective quantum number P = 2(v1 + v3) + v2 + v4. As a result, the low-lying vibrational levels of all isotopomers are assigned and the agreement with available experimental data is better than 1 cm–1.

  9. Rotational spectrum of the molecular ion NH{sup +} as a probe for {alpha} and m{sub e}/m{sub p} variation

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Beloy, K.; Borschevsky, A.; Hauser, A. W.; Schwerdtfeger, P.; Kozlov, M. G.; Flambaum, V. V.

    2011-06-15

    We identify the molecular ion NH{sup +} as a potential candidate for probing variations in the fine-structure constant {alpha} and electron-to-proton mass ratio {mu}. NH{sup +} has an anomalously low-lying excited {sup 4}{Sigma}{sup -} state, being only a few hundred cm{sup -1} above the ground {sup 2}{Pi} state. Being a light molecule, this proximity is such that rotational levels of the respective states are highly intermixed for low angular momenta. We find that several low-frequency transitions within the collective rotational spectrum experience enhanced sensitivity to {alpha} and {mu} variation. This is attributable to the close proximity of the {sup 2}{Pi} and {sup 4}{Sigma}{sup -} states, as well as the ensuing strong spin-orbit coupling between them. Suggestions that NH{sup +} may exist in interstellar space and recent predictions that trapped-ion precision spectroscopy will be adaptable to molecular ions make NH{sup +} a promising system for future astrophysical and laboratory studies of {alpha} and {mu} variation.

  10. The efficiency limit of CH{sub 3}NH{sub 3}PbI{sub 3} perovskite solar cells

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Sha, Wei E. I.; Ren, Xingang; Chen, Luzhou; Choy, Wallace C. H.

    2015-06-01

    With the consideration of photon recycling effect, the efficiency limit of methylammonium lead iodide (CH{sub 3}NH{sub 3}PbI{sub 3}) perovskite solar cells is predicted by a detailed balance model. To obtain convincing predictions, both AM 1.5 spectrum of Sun and experimentally measured complex refractive index of perovskite material are employed in the detailed balance model. The roles of light trapping and angular restriction in improving the maximal output power of thin-film perovskite solar cells are also clarified. The efficiency limit of perovskite cells (without the angular restriction) is about 31%, which approaches to Shockley-Queisser limit (33%) achievable by gallium arsenide (GaAs) cells. Moreover, the Shockley-Queisser limit could be reached with a 200 nm-thick perovskite solar cell, through integrating a wavelength-dependent angular-restriction design with a textured light-trapping structure. Additionally, the influence of the trap-assisted nonradiative recombination on the device efficiency is investigated. The work is fundamentally important to high-performance perovskite photovoltaics.

  11. Density Functional Studies of Stoichiometric Surfaces of Orthorhombic Hybrid Perovskite CH3NH3PbI3

    DOE Public Access Gateway for Energy & Science Beta (PAGES Beta)

    Wang, Yun; Huang, Jingsong; Sumpter, Bobby G.; Zhang, Haimin; Liu, Porun; Yang, Huagui; Zhao, Huijun

    2014-12-19

    Organic/inorganic hybrid perovskite materials are highly attractive for dye-sensitized solar cells as demonstrated by their rapid advances in energy conversion efficiency. In this work, the structures, energetics, and electronic properties for a range of stoichiometric surfaces of the orthorhombic perovskite CH3NH3PbI3 are theoretically studied using density functional theory. Various possible spatially and constitutionally isomeric surfaces are considered by diversifying the spatial orientations and connectivities of surface Pb-I bonds. The comparison of the surface energies for the most stable configurations identified for various surfaces shows that the stabilities of stoichiometric surfaces are mainly dictated by the coordination numbers of surface atoms,more » which are directly correlated with the numbers of broken bonds. Additionally, Coulombic interactions between I anions and organic countercations on the surface also contribute to the stabilization. Electronic properties are compared between the most stable (100) surface and the bulk phase, showing generally similar features except for the lifted band degeneracy and the enhanced bandgap energy for the surface. These studies on the stoichiometric surfaces serve as the first step toward gaining a fundamental understanding of the interfacial properties in the current structural design of perovskite based solar cells, in order to achieve further breakthroughs in solar conversion efficiencies.« less

  12. Density Functional Studies of Stoichiometric Surfaces of Orthorhombic Hybrid Perovskite CH3NH3PbI3

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Wang, Yun; Huang, Jingsong; Sumpter, Bobby G; Zhang, Haimin; Liu, Porun; Yang, Huagui; Zhao, Huijun

    2015-01-01

    Organic/inorganic hybrid perovskite materials are highly attractive for dye-sensitized solar cells as demonstrated by their rapid advances in energy conversion efficiency. In this work, the structures, energetics, and electronic properties for a range of stoichiometric surfaces of the orthorhombic perovskite CH3NH3PbI3 are theoretically studied using density functional theory. Various possible spatially and constitutionally isomeric surfaces are considered by diversifying the spatial orientations and connectivities of surface Pb-I bonds. The comparison of the surface energies for the most stable configurations identified for various surfaces shows that the stabilities of stoichiometric surfaces are mainly dictated by the coordination numbers of surface atoms, which are directly correlated with the numbers of broken bonds. Additionally, Coulombic interactions between I anions and organic countercations on the surface also contribute to the stabilization. Electronic properties are compared between the most stable (100) surface and the bulk phase, showing generally similar features except for the lifted band degeneracy and the enhanced bandgap energy for the surface. These studies on the stoichiometric surfaces serve as the first step toward gaining a fundamental understanding of the interfacial properties in the current structural design of perovskite based solar cells, in order to achieve further breakthroughs in solar conversion efficiencies.

  13. Demonstration of isotype GaN/AlN/GaN heterobarrier diodes by NH{sub 3}-molecular beam epitaxy

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Fireman, Micha N.; Browne, David A.; Mazumder, Baishakhi; Speck, James S.; Mishra, Umesh K.

    2015-05-18

    The results of vertical transport through nitride heterobarrier structures grown by ammonia molecular beam epitaxy are presented. Structures are designed with binary layers to avoid the effects of random alloy fluctuations in ternary nitride barriers. The unintentional incorporation of Ga in the AlN growth is investigated by atom probe tomography and is shown to be strongly dependent on both the NH{sub 3} flowrate and substrate temperature growth parameters. Once nominally pure AlN layer growth conditions are achieved, structures consisting of unintentionally doped (UID) GaN spacer layers adjacent to a nominally pure AlN are grown between two layers of n+ GaN, from which isotype diodes are fabricated. Varying the design parameters of AlN layer thickness, UID spacer layer thickness, and threading dislocation density show marked effects on the vertical transport characteristics of these structures. The lack of significant temperature dependence, coupled with Fowler-Nordheim and/or Milliken-Lauritsen analysis, point to a prevalently tunneling field emission mechanism through the AlN barrier. Once flatband conditions in the UID layer are achieved, electrons leave the barrier with significant energy. This transport mechanism is of great interest for applications in hot electron structures.

  14. Calorimetric, spectroscopic and structural investigations of phase polymorphism in [Ru(NH{sub 3}){sub 6}](BF{sub 4}){sub 3}. Part I

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Dolega, Diana; Mikuli, Edward; Inaba, Akira; Gorska, Natalia; Holderna-Natkaniec, Krystyna; Nitek, Wojciech

    2013-01-15

    Four crystalline phases of the coordination compound [Ru(NH{sub 3}){sub 6}](BF{sub 4}){sub 3} are identified by adiabatic calorimetry. Three phase transitions, one at T{sub C3}(IV{yields}III)=30.7 K, the second at T{sub C2}(III{yields}II)=91.7 K (both accompanied by comparable entropy changes 3.0 and 3.1 J K{sup -1} mol{sup -1}, respectively) and the third at T{sub C1}(II{yields}I)=241.6 K (accompanied by an entropy change of 8.1 J K{sup -1} mol{sup -1}) were discovered. X-ray single crystal diffraction (at 293 K) demonstrates that phase I is a highly dynamic disordered cubic phase (Fm3{sup Macron }m, No. 225) with two types of BF{sub 4}{sup -} anions differing in a degree of disorder. In phase II (at 170 K) the structure remains cubic (Ia3{sup Macron }, No. 206), with two different types of cations and four different types of anions. Splitting of certain IR bands connected with NH{sub 3} ligands at the observed phase transitions suggests a lowering of the symmetry of the [Ru(NH{sub 3}){sub 6}]{sup 3+} complex cation. Both NH{sub 3} ligands and BF{sub 4}{sup -} anions perform fast reorientations ({tau}{sub R} Almost-Equal-To 10{sup -12} s), which are significantly slowed down below the phase transition at T{sub C3}. {sup 1}H NMR studies led to estimate the values of the activation energy of NH{sub 3} ligands reorientation in the phases II and I as equal to {approx}8 kJ mol{sup -1}. In phase I the whole hexammineruthenium(III) cations reorientation as a tumbling process can be noticed. The activation energy value of this motion is {approx}24 kJ mol{sup -1}. {sup 19}F NMR studies give the values of the activation energy of BF{sub 4}{sup -} anions reorientation as {approx}6 kJ mol{sup -1}. Above the phase transition temperature half of BF{sub 4}{sup -} anions perform a tumbling motion with E{sub a} Almost-Equal-To 8 kJ mol{sup -1}. - Graphical abstract: A series of complementary methods, such as Adiabatic Calorimetry, Differential Scanning Calorimetry, Fourier

  15. van der Waals forces and confinement in carbon nanopores: Interaction between CH4, COOH, NH3, OH, SH and single-walled carbon nanotubes

    DOE Public Access Gateway for Energy & Science Beta (PAGES Beta)

    Weck, Philippe F.; Kim, Eunja; Wang, Yifeng

    2016-04-13

    Interactions between CH4, COOH, NH3, OH, SH and armchair (n,n)(n=4,7,14) and zigzag (n,0)(n=7,12,25) single-walled carbon nanotubes (SWCNTs) have been systematically investigated within the framework of dispersion-corrected density functional theory (DFT-D2). Endohedral and exohedral molecular adsorption on SWCNT walls is energetically unfavorable or weak, despite the use of C6/r6 pairwise London-dispersion corrections. The effects of pore size and chirality on the molecule/SWCNTs interaction were also assessed. Furthermore, chemisorption of COOH, NH3, OH and SH at SWCNT edge sites was examined using a H-capped (7,0) SWCNT fragment and its impact on electrophilic, nucleophilic and radical attacks was predicted by means of Fukuimore » functions.« less

  16. The Origin and Coupling Mechanism of the Magnetoelectric Effect in TM Cl 2 -4SC(NH 2 ) 2 ( TM = Ni and Co)

    DOE Public Access Gateway for Energy & Science Beta (PAGES Beta)

    Mun, Eundeok; Wilcox, Jason; Manson, Jamie L.; Scott, Brian; Tobash, Paul; Zapf, Vivien S.

    2014-01-01

    Most research on multiferroics and magnetoelectric effects to date has focused on inorganic oxides. Molecule-based materials are a relatively new field in which to search for magnetoelectric multiferroics and to explore new coupling mechanisms between electric and magnetic order. We present magnetoelectric behavior in NiCl 2 -4SC(NH 2 ) 2 (DTN) and CoCl 2 -4SC(NH 2 ) 2 (DTC). These compounds form tetragonal structures where the transition metal ion (Ni or Co) is surrounded by four electrically polar thiourea molecules [SC(NH 2 ) 2 ]. By tracking the magnetic and electric properties of these compounds as a function ofmore » magnetic field, we gain insights into the coupling mechanism by observing that, in DTN, the electric polarization tracks the magnetic ordering, whereas in DTC it does not. For DTN, all electrically polar thiourea molecules tilt in the same direction along the c -axis, breaking spatial-inversion symmetry, whereas, for DTC, two thiourea molecules tilt up and two tilt down with respect to c -axis, perfectly canceling the net electrical polarization. Thus, the magnetoelectric coupling mechanism in DTN is likely a magnetostrictive adjustment of the thiourea molecule orientation in response to magnetic order.« less

  17. Electron-hole diffusion lengths >175 μm in solution-grown CH3NH3PbI3 single crystals

    DOE Public Access Gateway for Energy & Science Beta (PAGES Beta)

    Dong, Qingfeng; Fang, Yanjun; Shao, Yuchuan; Mulligan, Padhraic; Qiu, Jie; Cao, Lei; Huang, Jinsong

    2015-02-27

    Long, balanced electron and hole diffusion lengths greater than 100 nanometers in the polycrystalline organolead trihalide compound CH3NH3PbI3 are critical for highly efficient perovskite solar cells. We found that the diffusion lengths in CH3NH3PbI3 single crystals grown by a solution-growth method can exceed 175 micrometers under 1 sun (100 mW cm–2) illumination and exceed 3 millimeters under weak light for both electrons and holes. The internal quantum efficiencies approach 100% in 3-millimeter-thick single-crystal perovskite solar cells under weak light. These long diffusion lengths result from greater carrier mobility, longer lifetime, and much smaller trap densities in the single crystals thanmore » in polycrystalline thin films. As a result, the long carrier diffusion lengths enabled the use of CH3NH3PbI3 in radiation sensing and energy harvesting through the gammavoltaic effect, with an efficiency of 3.9% measured with an intense cesium-137 source.« less

  18. Modeling of plasma chemistry in an atmospheric pressure Ar/NH{sub 3} cylindrical dielectric barrier discharge described using the one-dimensional fluid model

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Li Zhi [School of Science, University of Science and Technology Liaoning, Anshan 114051 (China); School of Physics and Optoelectronic Engineering, Dalian University of Technology, Dalian 116024 (China); Zhao Zhen [School of Chemistry and Life Science, Anshan Normal University, Anshan 114007 (China); School of Chemical Engineering, University of Science and Technology Liaoning, Anshan 114051 (China); Li Xuehui [Physical Science and Technical College, Dalian University, Dalian 116622 (China)

    2013-01-15

    The keynote of our research is to study the gas phase chemistry in an atmospheric pressure Ar/NH{sub 3} cylindrical dielectric barrier discharge, which is very important to produce the iron-nitride magnetic fluid. For this purpose, a home-made one dimensional fluid model with the Scharfetter-Gummel method has been developed. The equations solved are the particle balances, assuming a drift-diffusion approximation for the fluxes, and the electron energy equation. The self-consistent electric field is obtained by the simultaneous solution of Poisson's equation. The simulations were carried out for the different ammonia concentrations (2%, 3.5%, and 7%), at a voltage of 1 kV, and a driving frequency of 20 kHz. It concluded that the major ion products of Ar are Ar{sup +} and Ar{sub 2}{sup +}. Ar{sup +} is the most important positive ions, followed by Ar{sub 2}{sup +}. It is shown that the NH{sup +} density is smaller than that of the other ammonia ions. The density of NH{sub 4}{sup +} is more than that of the other ammonia ions when the ammonia concentration increased. The diffuse mode can be established after the discharge was ignited, and the mode changes to filamentary mode with an increase in ammonia concentration.

  19. Effects of Alkali and Alkaline Earth Cocations on the Activity and Hydrothermal Stability of Cu/SSZ-13 NH3-SCR Catalysts

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Gao, Feng; Wang, Yilin; Washton, Nancy M.; Kollar, Marton; Szanyi, Janos; Peden, Charles HF

    2015-10-13

    Using a three-step aqueous solution ion-exchange method, cocation modified Cu/SSZ-13 SCR catalysts were synthesized. These catalysts, in both fresh and hydrothermally aged forms, were characterized with several methods including temperature-programmed reduction by H2 (H2-TPR), temperature-programmed desorption of NH3 (NH3-TPD), and 27Al solid-state nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) and diffuse reflectance Infrared Fourier Transform (DRIFT) spectroscopies. Their catalytic performance was probed using steady-state standard NH3-SCR. Characterization results indicate that cocations weaken interactions between Cu-ions and the CHA framework making them more readily reducible. By removing a portion of Brønsted acid sites, cocations also help to mitigate hydrolysis of the zeolite catalysts during hydrothermal aging as evidenced from 27Al NMR. Reaction tests show that certain cocations, especially Li+ and Na+, promote low-temperature SCR rates while others show much less pronounced effects. In terms of applications, our results indicate that introducing cocations can be a viable strategy to improve both low- and high-temperature performance of Cu/SSZ-13 SCR catalysts.

  20. Synthesis, crystal growth, structural and magnetic characterization of NH4MCl2(HCOO), M=(Fe, Co, Ni)

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Greenfield, Joshua T.; Ovidiu Garlea, V.; Kamali, Saeed; Chen, Michael; Kovnir, Kirill

    2015-09-24

    In this paper, an ambient-pressure solution route and an improved solvothermal synthetic method have been developed to produce polycrystalline powders and large single crystals of NH4MCl2(HCOO) (M=Fe, Co, Ni). The magnetic structure of the 1D linear chain compound NH4FeCl2(HCOO) has been determined by low-temperature neutron powder diffraction, revealing ferromagnetic intra-chain interactions and antiferromagnetic inter-chain interactions. Finally, the newly-reported Co and Ni analogs are isostructural with NH4FeCl2(HCOO), but there are significant differences in the magnetic properties of each compound; the Ni analog behaves similarly to the Fe compound but with stronger magnetic coupling, exhibiting antiferromagnetic ordering (TN=8.5 K) and a broad metamagnetic transition between 2 and 5 T, while the Co analog does not order magnetically above 2 K, despite strong antiferromagnetic nearest-neighbor interactions.

  1. Electron-hole diffusion lengths >175 μm in solution-grown CH3NH3PbI3 single crystals

    DOE Public Access Gateway for Energy & Science Beta (PAGES Beta)

    Dong, Qingfeng; Fang, Yanjun; Shao, Yuchuan; Mulligan, Padhraic; Qiu, Jie; Cao, Lei; Huang, Jinsong

    2015-02-27

    Long, balanced electron and hole diffusion lengths greater than 100 nanometers in the polycrystalline organolead trihalide compound CH3NH3PbI3 are critical for highly efficient perovskite solar cells. We found that the diffusion lengths in CH3NH3PbI3 single crystals grown by a solution-growth method can exceed 175 micrometers under 1 sun (100 mW cm–2) illumination and exceed 3 millimeters under weak light for both electrons and holes. The internal quantum efficiencies approach 100% in 3-millimeter-thick single-crystal perovskite solar cells under weak light. These long diffusion lengths result from greater carrier mobility, longer lifetime, and much smaller trap densities in the single crystals thanmore »in polycrystalline thin films. As a result, the long carrier diffusion lengths enabled the use of CH3NH3PbI3 in radiation sensing and energy harvesting through the gammavoltaic effect, with an efficiency of 3.9% measured with an intense cesium-137 source.« less

  2. Exploiting parameter space in MOFs: a 20-fold enhancement of phosphate-ester hydrolysis with UiO-66-NH 2

    DOE Public Access Gateway for Energy & Science Beta (PAGES Beta)

    Katz, Michael J.; Moon, Su-Young; Mondloch, Joseph E.; Beyzavi, M. Hassan; Stephenson, Casey J.; Hupp, Joseph T.; Farha, Omar K.

    2015-02-24

    The hydrolysis of nerve agents is of primary concern due to the severe toxicity of these agents. Using a MOF-based catalyst (UiO-66), we have previously demonstrated that the hydrolysis can occur with relatively fast half-lives of 50 minutes. However, these rates are still prohibitively slow to be efficiently utilized for some practical applications (e.g., decontamination wipes used to clean exposed clothing/skin/vehicles). We thus turned our attention to derivatives of UiO-66 in order to probe the importance of functional groups on the hydrolysis rate. Three UiO-66 derivatives were explored; UiO-66-NO2 and UiO-66-(OH)2 showed little to no change in hydrolysis rate. However,more » UiO-66-NH2 showed a 20 fold increase in hydrolysis rate over the parent UiO-66 MOF. Half-lives of 1 minute were observed with this MOF. In order to probe the role of the amino moiety, we turned our attention to UiO-67, UiO-67-NMe2 and UiO-67-NH2. In these MOFs, the amino moiety is in close proximity to the zirconium node. We observed that UiO-67-NH2 is a faster catalyst than UiO-67 and UiO-67-NMe2. We conclude that the role of the amino moiety is to act as a proton-transfer agent during the catalytic cycle and not to hydrogen bond or to form a phosphorane intermediate.« less

  3. Regulatory Safety Issues in the Structural Design Criteria of ASME Section III Subsection NH and for Very High Temperatures for VHTR & GEN IV

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    William J. O’Donnell; Donald S. Griffin

    2007-05-07

    The objective of this task is to identify issues relevant to ASME Section III, Subsection NH [1], and related Code Cases that must be resolved for licensing purposes for VHTGRs (Very High Temperature Gas Reactor concepts such as those of PBMR, Areva, and GA); and to identify the material models, design criteria, and analysis methods that need to be added to the ASME Code to cover the unresolved safety issues. Subsection NH was originally developed to provide structural design criteria and limits for elevated-temperature design of Liquid Metal Fast Breeder Reactor (LMFBR) systems and some gas-cooled systems. The U.S. Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC) and its Advisory Committee for Reactor Safeguards (ACRS) reviewed the design limits and procedures in the process of reviewing the Clinch River Breeder Reactor (CRBR) for a construction permit in the late 1970s and early 1980s, and identified issues that needed resolution. In the years since then, the NRC and various contractors have evaluated the applicability of the ASME Code and Code Cases to high-temperature reactor designs such as the VHTGRs, and identified issues that need to be resolved to provide a regulatory basis for licensing. This Report describes: (1) NRC and ACRS safety concerns raised during the licensing process of CRBR , (2) how some of these issues are addressed by the current Subsection NH of the ASME Code; and (3) the material models, design criteria, and analysis methods that need to be added to the ASME Code and Code Cases to cover unresolved regulatory issues for very high temperature service.

  4. Synthesis and Evaluation of Cu/SAPO-34 Catalysts for NH3-SCR 2: Solid-state Ion Exchange and One-pot Synthesis

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Gao, Feng; Walter, Eric D.; Washton, Nancy M.; Szanyi, Janos; Peden, Charles HF

    2015-01-01

    Cu-SAPO-34 catalysts are synthesized using two methods: solid-state ion exchange (SSIE) and one-pot synthesis. SSIE is conducted by calcining SAPO-34/CuO mixtures at elevated temperatures. For the one-pot synthesis method, Cu-containing chemicals (CuO and CuSO4) are added during gel preparation. A high-temperature calcination step is also needed for this method. Catalysts are characterized with surface area/pore volume measurements, temperature programmed reduction (TPR), electron paramagnetic resonance (EPR) and nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) spectroscopies, and scanning electron microscopy (SEM). Catalytic properties are examined using standard ammonia selective catalytic reduction (NH3-SCR) and ammonia oxidation reactions. In Cu-SAPO-34 samples formed using SSIE, Cu presents both as isolated Cu2+ ions and unreacted CuO. The former is highly active and selective in NH3-SCR, while the latter catalyzes a side reaction; notably, the non-selective oxidation of NH3 above 350 ºC. Using the one-pot method followed by a high-temperature aging treatment, it is possible to form Cu SAPO-34 samples with predominately isolated Cu2+ ions at low Cu loadings. However at much higher Cu loadings, isolated Cu2+ ions that bind weakly with the CHA framework and CuO clusters also form. These Cu moieties are very active in catalyzing non-selective NH3 oxidation above 350 ºC. Low-temperature reaction kinetics indicate that Cu-SAPO-34 samples formed using SSIE have core-shell structures where Cu is enriched in the shell layers; while Cu is more evenly distributed within the one-pot samples. Reaction kinetics also suggest that at low temperatures, the local environment next to Cu2+ ion centers plays little role on the overall catalytic properties. The authors gratefully acknowledge the US Department of Energy (DOE), Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy, Vehicle Technologies Office for the support of this work. The research described in this paper was performed at the Environmental

  5. Effects of gaseous NH{sub 3} and SO{sub 2} on the concentration profiles of PCDD/F in flyash under post-combustion zone conditions

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Hajizadeh, Yaghoub; Onwudili, Jude A.; Williams, Paul T.

    2012-07-15

    Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Influence of NH{sub 3} and SO{sub 2} on 2378-PCDD/F in flyash and flue gases was investigated. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer NH{sub 3} decreased the concentration of PCDD and PCDF by 34-75% in the flyash. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer NH{sub 3} decreased the concentration of PCDD and PCDF by 21-40% from the flue gases. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer SO{sub 2} led to 99% PCDD and 93% PCDF reductions in the flyash. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer SO{sub 2} led to 89% PCDD and 76% PCDF reductions in the flue gases. - Abstract: The influence of gaseous ammonia and sulphur dioxide on the formation of 2378-substituted PCDD/F on a reference flyash from a municipal waste incinerator has been investigated using a laboratory scale fixed-bed reactor. The reference flyash samples (BCR-490) was reacted under a simulated flue gas stream at temperatures of 225 and 375 Degree-Sign C for 96 h. The experiments were carried out in two series: first with simulated flue gas alone, and then with injection of NH{sub 3} or SO{sub 2} gas into the flue gas just before the reactor inlet. It was found that the injection of gaseous ammonia into the flue gas could decrease the concentration of both PCDD and PCDF by 34-75% from the solid phase and by 21-40% from the gas phase. Converting the results to I-TEQ values, it could reduce the total I-TEQ values of PCDD and PCDF in the sum of the flyash and exhaust flue gas by 42-75% and 24-57% respectively. The application of SO{sub 2} led to 99% and 93% reductions in the PCDD and PCDF average congener concentrations, respectively in the solid phase. In the gas phase, the total reductions were 89% and 76% for PCDD and PCDF, respectively. Moreover, addition of SO{sub 2} reduced the total I-TEQ value of PCDD and PCDF in the flyash and exhaust flue gas together by 60-86% and 72-82% respectively. Sulphur dioxide was more effective than ammonia in suppressing PCDD/F formation in flyash under the conditions investigated.

  6. Quantum wells on 3C-SiC/NH-SiC heterojunctions. Calculation of spontaneous polarization and electric field strength in experiments

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Sbruev, I. S.; Sbruev, S. B.

    2010-10-15

    The results of experiments with quantum wells on 3C-SiC/4H-SiC and 3C-SiC/6H-SiC heterojunctions obtained by various methods are reconsidered. Spontaneous polarizations, field strengths, and energies of local levels in quantum wells on 3C-SiC/NH-SiC heterojunctions were calculated within a unified model. The values obtained are in agreement with the results of all considered experiments. Heterojunction types are determined. Approximations for valence band offsets on heterojunctions between silicon carbide polytypes and the expression for calculating local levels in quantum wells on the 3C-SiC/NH-SiC heterojunction are presented. The spontaneous polarizations and field strengths induced by spontaneous polarization on 3C-SiC/4H-SiC and 3C-SiC/6H-SiC heterojunctions were calculated as 0.71 and 0.47 C/m{sup 2} and 0.825 and 0.55 MV/cm, respectively.

  7. AFFECTS OF MECHANICAL MILLING AND METAL OXIDE ADDITIVES ON SORPTION KINETICS OF 1:1 LiNH2/MgH2 MIXTURE

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Erdy, C.; Anton, D.; Gray, J.

    2010-12-08

    The destabilized complex hydride system composed of LiNH{sub 2}:MgH{sub 2} (1:1 molar ratio) is one of the leading candidates of hydrogen storage with a reversible hydrogen storage capacity of 8.1 wt%. A low sorption enthalpy of {approx}32 kJ/mole H{sub 2} was first predicted by Alapati et al. utilizing first principle density function theory (DFT) calculations and has been subsequently confirmed empirically by Lu et al. through differential thermal analysis (DTA). This enthalpy suggests that favorable sorption kinetics should be obtainable at temperatures in the range of 160 C to 200 C. Preliminary experiments reported in the literature indicate that sorption kinetics are substantially lower than expected in this temperature range despite favorable thermodynamics. Systematic isothermal and isobaric sorption experiments were performed using a Sievert's apparatus to form a baseline data set by which to compare kinetic results over the pressure and temperature range anticipated for use of this material as a hydrogen storage media. Various material preparation methods and compositional modifications were performed in attempts to increase the kinetics while lowering the sorption temperatures. This paper outlines the results of these systematic tests and describes a number of beneficial additions which influence kinetics as well as NH{sub 3} formation.

  8. Decommissioning of the Dragon High Temperature Reactor (HTR) Located at the Former United Kingdom Atomic Energy Authority (UKAEA) Research Site at Winfrith - 13180

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Smith, Anthony A.

    2013-07-01

    The Dragon Reactor was constructed at the United Kingdom Atomic Energy Research Establishment at Winfrith in Dorset through the late 1950's and into the early 1960's. It was a High Temperature Gas Cooled Reactor (HTR) with helium gas coolant and graphite moderation. It operated as a fuel testing and demonstration reactor at up to 20 MW (Thermal) from 1964 until 1975, when international funding for this project was terminated. The fuel was removed from the core in 1976 and the reactor was put into Safestore. To meet the UK's Nuclear Decommissioning Authority (NDA) objective to 'drive hazard reduction' [1] it is necessary to decommission and remediate all the Research Sites Restoration Ltd (RSRL) facilities. This includes the Dragon Reactor where the activated core, pressure vessel and control rods and the contaminated primary circuit (including a {sup 90}Sr source) still remain. It is essential to remove these hazards at the appropriate time and return the area occupied by the reactor to a safe condition. (author)

  9. METALLICITIES, DUST, AND MOLECULAR CONTENT OF A QSO-DAMPED Ly{alpha} SYSTEM REACHING log N(H I) = 22: AN ANALOG TO GRB-DLAs

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Guimaraes, R.; Noterdaeme, P.; Petitjean, P.; Ledoux, C.; Srianand, R.; Rahmani, H.; Lopez, S.

    2012-06-15

    We present the elemental abundance and H{sub 2} content measurements of a damped Ly{alpha} (DLA) system with an extremely large H I column density, log N(H I) (cm{sup -2}) = 22.0 {+-} 0.10, at z{sub abs} = 3.287 toward the QSO SDSS J081634+144612. We measure column densities of H{sub 2}, C I, C I*, Zn II, Fe II, Cr II, Ni II, and Si II from a high signal-to-noise and high spectral resolution VLT-UVES spectrum. The overall metallicity of the system is [Zn/H] = -1.10 {+-} 0.10 relative to solar. Two molecular hydrogen absorption components are seen at z = 3.28667 and 3.28742 (a velocity separation of Almost-Equal-To 52 km s{sup -1}) in rotational levels up to J = 3. We derive a total H{sub 2} column density of log N(H{sub 2}) (cm{sup -2}) = 18.66 and a mean molecular fraction of f = 2N(H{sub 2})/[2N(H{sub 2}) + N(H I)] = 10{sup -3.04{+-}0.37}, typical of known H{sub 2}-bearing DLA systems. From the observed abundance ratios we conclude that dust is present in the interstellar medium of this galaxy, with an enhanced abundance in the H{sub 2}-bearing clouds. However, the total amount of dust along the line of sight is not large and does not produce any significant reddening of the background QSO. The physical conditions in the H{sub 2}-bearing clouds are constrained directly from the column densities of H{sub 2} in different rotational levels, C I and C I*. The kinetic temperature is found to be T Almost-Equal-To 75 K and the particle density lies in the range n{sub H} = 50-80 cm{sup -3}. The neutral hydrogen column density of this DLA is similar to the mean H I column density of DLAs observed at the redshift of {gamma}-ray bursts (GRBs). We explore the relationship between GRB-DLAs and the high column density end of QSO-DLAs finding that the properties (metallicity and depletion) of DLAs with log N(H I) > 21.5 in the two populations do not appear to be significantly different.

  10. Influence of catalyst synthesis method on selective catalytic reduction (SCR) of NO by NH3 with V2O5-WO3/TiO2 catalysts

    DOE Public Access Gateway for Energy & Science Beta (PAGES Beta)

    He, Yuanyuan; Ford, Michael E.; Zhu, Minghui; Liu, Qingcai; Tumuluri, Uma; Wu, Zili; Wachs, Israel E.

    2016-04-14

    We compared the molecular structures, surface acidity and catalytic activity for NO/NH3/O2 SCR of V2O5-WO3/TiO2 catalysts for two different synthesis methods: co-precipitation of aqueous vanadium and tungsten oxide precursors with TiO(OH)2 and by incipient wetness impregnation of the aqueous precursors on a reference crystalline TiO2 support (P25; primarily anatase phase). Bulk analysis by XRD showed that co-precipitation results in small and/or poorly ordered TiO2(anatase) particles and that VOx and WOx do not form solid solutions with the bulk titania lattice. Surface analysis of the co-precipitated catalyst by High Sensitivity-Low Energy Ion Scattering (HS-LEIS) confirms that the VOx and WOx aremore » surface segregated for the co-precipitated catalysts. In situ Raman and IR spectroscopy revealed that the vanadium and tungsten oxide components are present as surface mono-oxo O = VO3 and O = WO4 sites on the TiO2 supports. Co-precipitation was shown for the first time to also form new mono-oxo surface VO4 and WO4 sites that appear to be anchored at surface defects of the TiO2 support. IR analysis of chemisorbed ammonia showed the presence of both surface NH3* on Lewis acid sites and surface NH4+* on Brønsted acid sites. TPSR spectroscopy demonstrated that the specific SCR kinetics was controlled by the redox surface VO4 species and that the surface kinetics was independent of TiO2 synthesis method or presence of surface WO5 sites. SCR reaction studies revealed that the surface WO5 sites possess minimal activity below ~325 °C and their primary function is to increase the adsorption capacity of ammonia. A relationship between the SCR activity and surface acidity was not found. The SCR reaction is controlled by the surface VO4 sites that initiate the reaction at ~200 °C. The co-precipitated catalysts were always more active than the corresponding impregnated catalysts. Finally, we ascribe the higher activity of the co-precipitated catalysts to the presence of

  11. Simplification of femtosecond transient absorption microscopy data from CH3NH3PbI3 perovskite thin films into decay associated amplitude maps

    DOE Public Access Gateway for Energy & Science Beta (PAGES Beta)

    Doughty, Benjamin; Simpson, Mary Jane; Yang, Bin; Xiao, Kai; Ma, Ying -Zhong

    2016-02-16

    This work aims to simplify multi-dimensional femtosecond transient absorption microscopy (TAM) data into decay associated amplitude maps that describe the spatial distributions of dynamical processes occurring on various characteristic timescales. Application of this method to TAM data obtained from a model methyl-ammonium lead iodide (CH3NH3PbI3) perovskite thin film allows us to simplify the dataset consisting of a 68 time-resolved images into 4 decay associated amplitude maps. These maps provide a simple means to visualize the complex electronic excited-state dynamics in this system by separating distinct dynamical processes evolving on characteristic timescales into individual spatial images. This approach provides new insightmore » into subtle aspects of ultrafast relaxation dynamics associated with excitons and charge carriers in the perovskite thin film, which have recently been found to coexist at spatially distinct locations.« less

  12. Low Surface Recombination Velocity in Solution-Grown CH3NH3PbBr3 Perovskite Single Crystal

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Yang, Ye; Yan, Yong; Yang, Mengjin; Choi, Sukgeun; Zhu, Kai; Luter, Joseph M.; Beard, Matthew C.

    2015-08-06

    Organic-inorganic hybrid perovskites are attracting intense research effort due to their impressive performance in solar cells. While the carrier transport parameters such as mobility and bulk carrier lifetime shows sufficient characteristics, the surface recombination, which can have major impact on the solar cell performance, has not been studied. Here we measure surface recombination dynamics in CH3NH3PbBr3 perovskite single crystals using broadband transient reflectance spectroscopy. The surface recombination velocity is found to be 3.4±0.1 103 cm s-1, B2–3 orders of magnitude lower than that in many important unpassivated semiconductors employed in solar cells. Our result suggests that the planar grain size for the perovskite thin films should be larger thanB30 mm to avoid the influence of surface recombination on the effective carrier lifetime.

  13. Qualifying composition dependent p and n self-doping in CH{sub 3}NH{sub 3}PbI{sub 3}

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Wang, Qi; Shao, Yuchuan; Huang, Jinsong; Xie, Haipeng; Lyu, Lu; Liu, Xiaoliang; Gao, Yongli

    2014-10-20

    We report the observation of self-doping in perovskite. CH{sub 3}NH{sub 3}PbI{sub 3} was found to be either n- or p-doped by changing the ratio of methylammonium halide (MAI) and lead iodine (PbI{sub 2}) which are the two precursors for perovskite formation. MAI-rich and PbI{sub 2}-rich perovskite films are p and n self-doped, respectively. Thermal annealing can convert the p-type perovskite to n-type by removing MAI. The carrier concentration varied as much as six orders of magnitude. A clear correlation between doping level and device performance was also observed.

  14. Origin and elimination of photocurrent hysteresis by fullerene passivation in CH3NH3PbI3 planar heterojunction solar cells

    DOE Public Access Gateway for Energy & Science Beta (PAGES Beta)

    Shao, Yuchuan; Xiao, Zhengguo; Bi, Cheng; Yuan, Yongbo; Huang, Jinsong

    2014-12-15

    The large photocurrent hysteresis observed in many organometal trihalide perovskite solar cells has become a major hindrance impairing the ultimate performance and stability of these devices, while its origin was unknown. Here we demonstrate the trap states on the surface and grain boundaries of the perovskite materials to be the origin of photocurrent hysteresis and that the fullerene layers deposited on perovskites can effectively passivate these charge trap states and eliminate the notorious photocurrent hysteresis. Fullerenes deposited on the top of the perovskites reduce the trap density by two orders of magnitude and double the power conversion efficiency of CH3NH3PbI3more » solar cells. As a result, the elucidation of the origin of photocurrent hysteresis and its elimination by trap passivation in perovskite solar cells provides important directions for future enhancements to device efficiency.« less

  15. Interaction of vacuum ultraviolet light with a low-k organosilicate glass film in the presence of NH{sub 3}

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Behera, Swayambhu; Lee, Joe; Graves, David; Gaddam, Sneha; Pokharel, Sundari; Wilks, Justin; Pasquale, Frank; Kelber, Jeffry A.

    2010-07-19

    In situ x-ray photoemission spectroscopy (XPS) and ex situ Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR) were used to characterize effects on organosilicate films of 147 nm irradiation in the presence of 10{sup -4} Torr NH{sub 3}. XPS and FTIR data indicate Si-O and Si-C bond scission, with nitridation only at Si sites. Photoirradiation causes the surface layer to become enriched in sp{sup 2} carbon. FTIR spectra of silanol formation upon exposure to ambient indicate reactive sites in the bulk have lifetimes of up to six days. XPS data indicate lifetimes of approxminutes for surface states. Nitrogen uptake passivates with longer exposure times, indicating surface densification.

  16. New operation strategy for driving the selectivity of NOx reduction to N2, NH3 or N2O during lean/rich cycling of a lean NOx trap catalyst

    DOE Public Access Gateway for Energy & Science Beta (PAGES Beta)

    Mráček, David; Koci, Petr; Choi, Jae -Soon; Partridge, Jr., William P.

    2015-09-08

    Periodical regeneration of NOx storage catalyst (also known as lean NOx trap) by short rich pulses of CO, H2 and hydrocarbons is necessary for the reduction of nitrogen oxides adsorbed on the catalyst surface. Ideally, the stored NOx is converted into N2, but N2O and NH3 by-products can be formed as well, particularly at low-intermediate temperatures. The N2 and N2O products are formed concurrently in two peaks. The primary peaks appear immediately after the rich-phase inception, and tail off with the breakthrough of the reductant front accompanied by NH3 product. In addition, the secondary N2 and N2O peaks then appearmore » at the rich-to-lean transition as a result of reactions between surface-deposited reductants/intermediates (CO, HC, NH3, — NCO) and residual stored NOx under increasingly lean conditions.« less

  17. Biocaldol | Open Energy Information

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    Biocaldol Jump to: navigation, search Name: Biocaldol Place: London, England, United Kingdom Zip: NW1 0NH Sector: Biomass Product: Biocaldol uses thermophilic microorganisms to...

  18. Infrared laser induced population transfer and parity selection in {sup 14}NH{sub 3}: A proof of principle experiment towards detecting parity violation in chiral molecules

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Dietiker, P.; Miloglyadov, E.; Quack, M. Schneider, A.; Seyfang, G.

    2015-12-28

    We have set up an experiment for the efficient population transfer by a sequential two photon—absorption and stimulated emission—process in a molecular beam to prepare quantum states of well defined parity and their subsequent sensitive detection. This provides a proof of principle for an experiment which would allow for parity selection and measurement of the time evolution of parity in chiral molecules, resulting in a measurement of the parity violating energy difference Δ{sub pv}E between enantiomers of chiral molecules. Here, we present first results on a simple achiral molecule demonstrating efficient population transfer (about 80% on the average for each step) and unperturbed persistence of a selected excited parity level over flight times of about 1.3 ms in the beam. In agreement with model calculations with and without including nuclear hyperfine structure, efficient population transfer can be achieved by a rather simple implementation of the rapid adiabatic passage method of Reuss and coworkers and considering also the stimulated Raman adiabatic passage technique of Bergmann and coworkers as an alternative. The preparation step uses two powerful single mode continuous wave optical parametric oscillators of high frequency stability and accuracy. The detection uses a sensitive resonantly enhanced multiphoton ionization method after free flight lengths of up to 0.8 m in the molecular beam. Using this technique, we were able to also resolve the nuclear hyperfine structure in the rovibrational levels of the ν{sub 1} and ν{sub 3} fundamentals as well as the 2ν{sub 4} overtone of {sup 14}NH{sub 3}, for which no previous data with hyperfine resolution were available. We present our new results on the quadrupole coupling constants for the ν{sub 1}, ν{sub 3}, and 2ν{sub 4} levels in the context of previously known data for ν{sub 2} and its overtone, as well as ν{sub 4}, and the ground state. Thus, now, {sup 14}N quadrupole coupling constants for all

  19. Biochemical and structural characterizations of two Dictyostelium cellobiohydrolases from the amoebozoa kingdom reveal a high level of conservation between distant phylogenetic trees of life

    DOE Public Access Gateway for Energy & Science Beta (PAGES Beta)

    Hobdey, Sarah E.; Knott, Brandon C.; Momeni, Majid Haddad; Taylor, II, Larry E.; Borisova, Anna S.; Podkaminer, Kara K.; VanderWall, Todd A.; Himmel, Michael E.; Decker, Stephen R.; Beckham, Gregg T.; et al

    2016-04-01

    Glycoside hydrolase family 7 (GH7) cellobiohydrolases (CBHs) are enzymes often employed in plant cell wall degradation across eukaryotic kingdoms of life, as they provide significant hydrolytic potential in cellulose turnover. To date, many fungal GH7 CBHs have been examined, yet many questions regarding structure-activity relationships in these important natural and commercial enzymes remain. Here, we present the crystal structures and a biochemical analysis of two GH7 CBHs from social amoeba: Dictyostelium discoideum Cel7A (DdiCel7A) and Dictyostelium purpureum Cel7A (DpuCel7A). DdiCel7A and DpuCel7A natively consist of a catalytic domain and do not exhibit a carbohydrate-binding module (CBM). The structures of DdiCel7Amore » and DpuCel7A, resolved to 2.1 Å and 2.7 Å, respectively, are homologous to those of other GH7 CBHs with an enclosed active-site tunnel. Two primary differences between the Dictyostelium CBHs and the archetypal model GH7 CBH, Trichoderma reesei Cel7A (TreCel7A), occur near the hydrolytic active site and the product-binding sites. To compare the activities of these enzymes with the activity of TreCel7A, the family 1 TreCel7A CBM and linker were added to the C terminus of each of the Dictyostelium enzymes, creating DdiCel7ACBM and DpuCel7ACBM, which were recombinantly expressed in T. reesei. DdiCel7ACBM and DpuCel7ACBM hydrolyzed Avicel, pretreated corn stover, and phosphoric acid-swollen cellulose as efficiently as TreCel7A when hydrolysis was compared at their temperature optima. The Ki of cellobiose was significantly higher for DdiCel7ACBM and DpuCel7ACBM than for TreCel7A: 205, 130, and 29 μM, respectively. Finally, taken together, the present study highlights the remarkable degree of conservation of the activity of these key natural and industrial enzymes across quite distant phylogenetic trees of life.« less

  20. Biochemical and Structural Characterization of Two Dictyostelium Cellobiohydrolases from the Amoebozoa Kingdom Reveal a High Level of Conservation Between Distant Phylogenetic Trees of Life

    DOE Public Access Gateway for Energy & Science Beta (PAGES Beta)

    Hobdey, Sarah E.; Knott, Brandon C.; Momeni, Majid Haddad; Taylor, II, Larry E.; Borisova, Anna S.; Podkaminer, Kara K.; VanderWall, Todd A.; Himmel, Michael E.; Decker, Stephen R.; Beckham, Gregg T.; et al

    2016-06-01

    Glycoside Hydrolase Family 7 (GH7) cellobiohydrolases (CBHs) are commonly employed enzymes in plant cell wall degradation across eukaryotic kingdoms of life, as they provide significant hydrolytic potential in cellulose turnover. To date, many fungal GH7 CBHs have been examined, yet many questions remain regarding structure-activity relationships in these important natural and commercial enzymes. Here, we present crystal structures and biochemical analysis of two GH7 CBHs from social amoeba: Dictyostelium discoideum and Dictyostelium purpureum (DdiCel7A and DpuCel7A, respectively). DdiCel7A and DpuCel7A natively consist of a catalytic domain and do not exhibit a carbohydrate-binding module (CBM). The structures, resolved to 2.1 Amore » (DdiCel7A), and 2.7 A (DpuCel7A), are homologous to other GH7 CBHs with an enclosed active site tunnel. Two primary differences between the Dictyostelium CBHs and the archetypal model GH7 CBH from Trichoderma reesei Cel7A (TreCel7A) occur near the hydrolytic active site and the product binding sites. To compare the activity of these enzymes with TreCel7A, the Family 1 TreCel7A CBM and linker was added to the C-terminus of the Dictyostelium enzymes, DdiCel7ACBM and DpuCel7ACBM, which were recombinantly expressed in T. reesei. DdiCel7ACBM and DpuCel7ACBM hydrolyze Avicel, pretreated corn stover, and phosphoric acid swollen cellulose as efficiently as TreCel7A when compared at their temperature optima. The Ki of cellobiose is significantly higher for DdiCel7ACBM and DpuCel7ACBM than for TreCel7A: 205, 130, and 29 uM, respectively. Taken together, the present study highlights the remarkable conservation in the activity of these key natural and industrial enzymes across quite distant phylogenetic trees of life.« less

  1. Partially disordered antiferromagnetism and multiferroic behavior in a frustrated Ising system CoCl2–2SC(NH2)2

    DOE Public Access Gateway for Energy & Science Beta (PAGES Beta)

    Mun, Eundeok; Weickert, Dagmar Franziska; Kim, Jaewook; Scott, Brian L.; Miclea, Corneliu Florin; Movshovich, Roman; Wilcox, Jason; Manson, Jamie; Zapf, Vivien S.

    2016-03-07

    We investigate partially disordered antiferromagnetism in CoCl2-2SC(NH2)2, in which ab-plane hexagonal layers are staggered along the c axis rather than stacked. A robust 1/3 state forms in applied magnetic fields in which the spins are locked, varying as a function of neither temperature nor field. By contrast, in zero field and applied fields at higher temperatures, partial antiferromagnetic order occurs, in which free spins are available to create a Curie-like magnetic susceptibility. We report measurements of the crystallographic structure and the specific heat, magnetization, and electric polarization down to T = 50mK and up to μ0H = 60T. The Co2+more » S = 3/2 spins are Ising-like and form distorted hexagonal layers. The Ising energy scale is well separated from the magnetic exchange, and both energy scales are accessible to the measurements, allowing us to cleanly parametrize them. In transverse fields, a quantum Ising phase transition can be observed at 2 T. Lastly, we find that magnetic exchange striction induces changes in the electric polarization up to 3μC/m2, and single-ion magnetic anisotropy effects induce a much larger electric polarization change of 300μC/m2.« less

  2. Application of x-ray tomography to optimization of new NOx/NH3 mixed potential sensors for vehicle on-board emissions control

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Nelson, Mark A; Brosha, Eric L; Mukundan, Rangachary; Garzon, Fernando H

    2009-01-01

    Mixed potential sensors for the detection of hydrocarbons, NO{sub x}, and NH{sub 3} have been previously developed at Los Alamos National Laboratory (LANL). The LANL sensors have a unique design incorporating dense ceramic-pelletlmetal-wire electrodes and porous electrolytes. The performance of current-biased sensors using an yttria-stabilized zirconia (YSZ) electrolyte and platinum and La{sub 0.8}Sr{sub 0.2}CrO{sub 3} electrodes is reported. X-ray tomography has been applied to non-destructively examine internal structures of these sensors. NO{sub x} and hydrocarbon response of the sensors under various bias conditions is reported, and very little NO{sub x} response hysteresis was observed. The application of a 0.6 {mu}A bias to these sensors shifts the response from a hydrocarbon response to a NO{sub x} response equal for both NO and NO{sub 2} species at approximately 500 {sup o}C in air.

  3. LOW-TEMPERATURE ION TRAP STUDIES OF N{sup +}({sup 3} P{sub ja} ) + H{sub 2}(j) {yields} NH{sup +} + H

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Zymak, I.; Hejduk, M.; Mulin, D.; Plasil, R.; Glosik, J.; Gerlich, D.

    2013-05-01

    Using a low-temperature 22-pole ion trap apparatus, detailed measurements for the title reaction have been performed between 10 K and 100 K in order to get some state specific information about this fundamental hydrogen abstraction process. The relative population of the two lowest H{sub 2} rotational states, j = 0 and 1, has been varied systematically. NH{sup +} formation is nearly thermo-neutral; however, to date, the energetics are not known with the accuracy required for low-temperature astrochemistry. Additional complications arise from the fact that, so far, there is no reliable theoretical or experimental information on how the reactivity of the N{sup +} ion depends on its fine-structure (FS) state {sup 3} P{sub ja} . Since in the present trapping experiment, thermalization of the initially hot FS population competes with hydrogen abstraction, the evaluation of the decay of N{sup +} ions over long storage times and at various He and H{sub 2} gas densities provides information on these processes. First assuming strict adiabatic behavior, a set of state specific rate coefficients is derived from the measured thermal rate coefficients. In addition, by recording the disappearance of the N{sup +} ions over several orders of magnitude, information on nonadiabatic transitions is extracted including FS-changing collisions.

  4. Conversion efficiency improvement of inverted CH{sub 3}NH{sub 3}PbI{sub 3} perovskite solar cells with room temperature sputtered ZnO by adding the C{sub 60} interlayer

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Lai, Wei-Chih Chen, Peter; Lin, Kun-Wei; Wang, Yuan-Ting; Guo, Tzung-Fang

    2015-12-21

    We have demonstrated the performance of inverted CH{sub 3}NH{sub 3}PbI{sub 3} perovskite-based solar cells (SCs) with a room temperature (RT) sputtered ZnO electron transport layer by adding fullerene (C{sub 60}) interlayer. ZnO exhibits a better matched conduction band level with perovskite and Al work function and around energy offset of 2.2 eV between highest occupied molecular orbital level of CH{sub 3}NH{sub 3}PbI{sub 3} perovskite and valance band level of ZnO. However, the CH{sub 3}NH{sub 3}PbI{sub 3} perovskite layer will be damaged during direct RT sputtering deposition of ZnO. Therefore, the C{sub 60} interlayer having matched conduction band level with ZnO and CH{sub 3}NH{sub 3}PbI{sub 3} perovskite added between the CH{sub 3}NH{sub 3}PbI{sub 3} perovskite and RT sputtered ZnO layers for protection prevents sputtering damages on the CH{sub 3}NH{sub 3}PbI{sub 3} perovskite layer. The short-circuit current density (J{sub SC}, 19.41 mA/cm{sup 2}) and open circuit voltage (V{sub OC}, 0.91 V) of the SCs with glass/ITO/poly(3,4-ethylenedioxythiophene):poly(styrene-sulfonate) (PEDOT:PSS)/perovskite/C{sub 60}/RT sputtered ZnO/Al structure is higher than the J{sub SC} (16.23 mA/cm{sup 2}) and V{sub OC} (0.90 V) of the reference SC with glass/ITO/PEDOT:PSS/perovskite/C{sub 60}/bathocuproine (BCP)/Al structure. Although the SCs with the former structure has a lower fill factor (FF%) than the SCs with the latter structure, its conversion efficiency η% (10.93%) is higher than that (10.6%) of the latter.

  5. Development of a National M and O Contractor Work Prioritisation Process and its Use as a Progress Measure for Nuclear Clean Up in the United Kingdom

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Waite, R.; Hudson, I.D.; Wareing, M.I.

    2006-07-01

    In July 2004, Her Majesty's Government established a Nuclear Decommissioning Authority (NDA) to assume responsibility for the discharge of the vast majority of the United Kingdom's public sector civil nuclear liabilities. The Energy Act of 2004 outlines in greater detail how the NDA functions, what its responsibilities are, and how these fit into the overall structure of the UK programme for managing and disposing of the liabilities created by a significant element of the UK's early commercial and nuclear weapons activities. The amount of Government funding provided to the NDA will be a key factor in determining what can be achieved. In agreeing how the funds are distributed to the licensed sites, the NDA will need to keep in mind the 'guiding principles' stated in 'Managing the Nuclear Legacy - A Strategy for Action': - Focus on getting the job done to high safety, security and environmental standards; - Best value for money consistent with safety, security and environmental performance; - Openness and transparency. To satisfy these requirements there is a need for a transparent process for justifying and prioritising work that aids decisions about what should be done and when, is straightforward to understand and can be applied by a wide range of stakeholders. To develop such a process, a multi-stakeholder group (the 'Prioritisation Working Group') produced a report published in April 2005 that examined how the process would align with the NDA's overall management processes. It also identified six criteria or 'attributes' that should be taken into account, and a variety of measures, or 'metrics' that could be used to assess each attribute. The report formed the basis of preliminary guidance from NDA to the site licensees that was used to guide their submissions on plans and programmes of work in 2005. Since this report the NDA has been working, with stakeholder input, to develop a prioritisation process to be used during the production of future Life Cycle

  6. Determination of structure and phase transition of light element nanocomposites in mesoporous silica: case study of NH3BH3 in MCM-41

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Kim, Hyun Jeong; Karkamkar, Abhijeet J.; Autrey, Thomas; Chupas, Peter; Proffen, Thomas E.

    2009-09-30

    The structure of ammonia borane (AB), NH3BH3, infused in mesoporous silica MCM-41 and its evolution over the temperature range of 80 to 300 K was investigated using the atomic pair distribution function (PDF) analysis of synchrotron X-ray powder diffraction data in order to understand the origin of improved dehydrogenation properties of the system. Our study shows how X-ray PDF analysis can be used to elucidate the structure of light guest species loaded in mesoporous silica materials despite of its low scattering power of composed elements (N, B, and H) compared to its host (SiO2). PDF analyses of two AB-loaded compositions with weight ratio AB:MCM-41=1:1 and 3:1 provide a strong evidence that AB aggregate, previously found in AB:MCM-41?1:1 samples, is same species as neat AB. For both of them an orthorhombic to tetragonal structural phase transition occurs at 225 K on warming. On the other hand, AB residing inside meso-pores, which is found in AB:MCM-41=1:2 sample, does not undergo such phase transition. It rather stays in tetragonal phase over a wide temperature range of 110 to 240 K and starts to lose structural correlation above 240 K. This strongly suggests that nano-confinement of AB inside meso-pores stabilizes high temperature tetragonal phase at much lower temperature. These results provide important clues to two critical questions: why nan-compositions of AB leads dehydrogenation to lower temperature and why the neat AB like propoerties are recovered at high AB loading samples. This work was supported by the US Department of Energy Office of Basic Energy Sciences, Chemical Sciences program. Pacific Northwest National Laboratory is operated by Battelle for the US Department of Energy.

  7. Formation and consumption of NO in H{sub 2} + O{sub 2} + N{sub 2} flames doped with NO or NH{sub 3} at atmospheric pressure

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Shmakov, A.G.; Chernov, A.A.; Knyazkov, D.A.; Bolshova, T.A.; Korobeinichev, O.P.; Rybitskaya, I.V.; Konnov, A.A.

    2010-03-15

    Flat premixed burner-stabilized H{sub 2} + O{sub 2} + N{sub 2} flames, neat or doped with 300-1000 ppm of NO or NH{sub 3}, were studied experimentally using molecular-beam mass-spectrometry and simulated numerically. Spatial profiles of temperature and concentrations of stable species, H{sub 2}, O{sub 2}, H{sub 2}O, NO, NH{sub 3}, and of H and OH radicals obtained at atmospheric pressure in lean ({phi} = 0.47), near-stoichiometric ({phi} = 1.1) and rich ({phi} = 2.0) flames are reported. Good agreement between measured and calculated structure of lean and near-stoichiometric flames was found. Significant discrepancy between simulated and measured profiles of NO concentration was observed in the rich flames. Sensitivity and reaction path analyses revealed reactions responsible for the discrepancy. Modification to the model was proposed to improve an overall agreement with the experiment. (author)

  8. Electron-hole diffusion lengths >175 μm in solution-grown CH3NH3PbI3 single crystals

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Dong, Qingfeng; Fang, Yanjun; Shao, Yuchuan; Mulligan, Padhraic; Qiu, Jie; Cao, Lei; Huang, Jinsong

    2015-02-27

    Long, balanced electron and hole diffusion lengths greater than 100 nanometers in the polycrystalline organolead trihalide compound CH3NH3PbI3 are critical for highly efficient perovskite solar cells. We found that the diffusion lengths in CH3NH3PbI3 single crystals grown by a solution-growth method can exceed 175 micrometers under 1 sun (100 mW cm–2) illumination and exceed 3 millimeters under weak light for both electrons and holes. The internal quantum efficiencies approach 100% in 3-millimeter-thick single-crystal perovskite solar cells under weak light. These long diffusion lengths result from greater carrier mobility, longer lifetime, and much smaller trap densities in the single crystals than in polycrystalline thin films. As a result, the long carrier diffusion lengths enabled the use of CH3NH3PbI3 in radiation sensing and energy harvesting through the gammavoltaic effect, with an efficiency of 3.9% measured with an intense cesium-137 source.

  9. Electrical and physical characterization of the Al{sub 2}O{sub 3}/p-GaSb interface for 1%, 5%, 10%, and 22% (NH{sub 4}){sub 2}S surface treatments

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Peralagu, Uthayasankaran Thayne, Iain G.; Povey, Ian M.; Carolan, Patrick; Lin, Jun; Hurley, Paul K.; Contreras-Guerrero, Rocio; Droopad, Ravi

    2014-10-20

    In this work, the impact of ammonium sulfide ((NH{sub 4}){sub 2}S) surface treatment on the electrical passivation of the Al{sub 2}O{sub 3}/p-GaSb interface is studied for varying sulfide concentrations. Prior to atomic layer deposition of Al{sub 2}O{sub 3}, GaSb surfaces were treated in 1%, 5%, 10%, and 22% (NH{sub 4}){sub 2}S solutions for 10 min at 295 K. The smallest stretch-out and flatband voltage shifts coupled with the largest capacitance swing, as indicated by capacitance-voltage (CV) measurements, were obtained for the 1% treatment. The resulting interface defect trap density (D{sub it}) distribution showed a minimum value of 4 × 10{sup 12 }cm{sup −2}eV{sup −1} at E{sub v} + 0.27 eV. Transmission electron microscopy and atomic force microscopy examination revealed the formation of interfacial layers and increased roughness at the Al{sub 2}O{sub 3}/p-GaSb interface of samples treated with 10% and 22% (NH{sub 4}){sub 2}S. In combination, these effects degrade the interface quality as reflected in the CV characteristics.

  10. Effects of Si/Al Ratio on Cu/SSZ-13 NH3-SCR Catalysts: Implications for the active Cu species and the Roles of Brønsted Acidity

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Gao, Feng; Washton, Nancy M.; Wang, Yilin; Kollar, Marton; Szanyi, Janos; Peden, Charles HF

    2015-09-03

    Cu/SSZ-13 catalysts with three Si/Al ratios of 6, 12 and 35 were synthesized with Cu incorporation via solution ion exchange. The implications of varying Si/Al ratios on the nature of the multiple Cu species that can be present in the SSZ-13 zeolite are a major focus of this work, as highlighted by the results of a variety of catalyst characterization and reaction kinetics measurements. Specifically, catalysts were characterized with surface area/pore volume measurements, temperature programmed reduction by H2 (H2-TPR), NH3 temperature programmed desorption (NH3-TPD), and DRIFTS and solid-state nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) spectroscopies. Catalytic properties were examined using NO oxidation, ammonia oxidation, and standard ammonia selective catalytic reduction (NH3-SCR) reactions on selected catalysts under differential conditions. Besides indicating possible variably active multiple Cu species for these reactions, the measurements are also used to untangle some of the complexities caused by the interplay between redox of Cu ion centers and Brønsted acidity. All three reactions appear to follow a redox reaction mechanism, yet the roles of Brønsted acidity are quite different. For NO oxidation, increasing Si/Al ratio lowers Cu redox barriers, thus enhancing reaction rates. Brønsted acidity appears to play essentially no role for this reaction. For standard NH3-SCR, residual Brønsted acidity plays a significant beneficial role at both low- and high-temperature regimes. For NH3 oxidation, no clear trend is observed suggesting both Cu ion center redox and Brønsted acidity play important and perhaps competing roles. The authors gratefully acknowledge the US Department of Energy (DOE), Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy, Vehicle Technologies Office for the support of this work. The research described in this paper was performed in the Environmental Molecular Sciences Laboratory (EMSL), a national scientific user facility sponsored by the DOE’s Office of

  11. Energy conservation and electricity sector liberalization: Case-studies on the development of cogeneration, wind energy and demand-side management in the Netherlands, Denmark, Germany and the United Kingdom

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Slingerland, S.

    1998-07-01

    In this paper, the development of cogeneration, wind energy and demand-side management in the Netherlands, Denmark, Germany and the United Kingdom are compared. It is discussed to what extent these developments are determined by the liberalization process. Three key liberalization variables are identified: unbundling, privatization and introduction of competition. The analysis suggests that unbundling prior to introduction of full competition in generation is particularly successful in stimulating industrial cogeneration; simultaneous introduction of competition and unbundling mainly stimulates non-cogeneration gas-based capacity; and introduction of competition in itself is likely to impede the development of district-heating cogeneration. Furthermore, it is argued that development of wind energy and demand-side management are primarily dependent on the kind of support system set up by policy makers rather than on the liberalization process. Negative impacts of introduction of competition on integrated resource planning and commercial energy services could nevertheless be expected.

  12. Morphology control of open-framework zinc phosphate Zn{sub 4}(H{sub 3}O)(NH{sub 4}){sub 3}(PO{sub 4}){sub 4} via microwave-assisted technique

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Ding, Ling; Song, Yu; Yang, Wei; Xue, Run-Miao; Zhai, Shang-Ru; An, Qing-Da

    2013-08-15

    Open-framework zinc phosphates were synthesized by microwave-assisted technique, and it was shown that the morphology of as-prepared materials could be easily tailored by changing synthesis temperature, reaction time and pH value. During the synthesis, when the reaction temperature increases from 130 C to 220 C, the products transformed from hexagonal prisms to polyhedron along with the disappearance of the hexagonal prisms vertical plane. Simultaneously, both the reaction time and pH value could promote the nucleation and growth of crystal particles. More interestingly, the target products with different morphologies could be obtained by varying the usage of NaOH or NH{sub 3}H{sub 2}O at 130 C during the microwave synthesis process. - Graphical abstract: Zinc phosphates with variable morphologies can be obtained by simply tuning the microwave-heating temperatures. Display Omitted - Highlights: Synthesis of open-framework Zn{sub 4} (H{sub 3}O) (NH{sub 4}){sub 3}(PO{sub 4}){sub 4} compounds employing microwave technique. Dependence of morphology on the reaction conditions. Morphology transformation from hexagonal prisms to polyhedron was observed.

  13. Hydrogen storage in a combined M.sub.xAlH.sub.6/M'.sub.y(NH.sub.2).sub.z system and methods of making and using the same

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Lu, Jun; Fang, Zhigang Zak; Sohn, Hong Yong

    2012-04-03

    As a promising clean fuel for vehicles, hydrogen can be used for propulsion, either directly or in fuel cells. Hydrogen storage compositions having high storage capacity, good dehydrogenation kinetics, and hydrogen release and uptake reactions which are reversible are disclosed and described. Generally a hydrogen storage composition of a metal aluminum hexahydride and a metal amide can be used. A combined system (Li.sub.3AIH.sub.6/3LiNH.sub.2) with a very high inherent hydrogen capacity (7.3 wt %) can be carried out at moderate temperatures, and with approximately 95% of that inherent hydrogen storage capacity (7.0%) is reversible over repeated cycling of release and uptake.

  14. High external quantum efficiency and fill-factor InGaN/GaN heterojunction solar cells grown by NH3-based molecular beam epitaxy

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Lang, J. R.; Neufeld, C. J.; Hurni, C. A.; Cruz, S. C.; Matioli, E.; Mishra, U. K.; Speck, J. S.

    2011-04-01

    High external quantum efficiency (EQE) p-i-n heterojunction solar cellsgrown by NH3 -based molecular beam epitaxy are presented. EQE values including optical losses are greater than 50% with fill-factors over 72% when illuminated with a 1 sun AM0 spectrum. Optical absorptionmeasurements in conjunction with EQE measurements indicate an internal quantum efficiency greater than 90% for the InGaN absorbing layer. By adjusting the thickness of the top p-type GaN window contact layer, it is shown that the short-wavelength (<365 nm) quantum efficiency is limited by the minority carrier diffusion length in highly Mg-doped p-GaN.

  15. Origin and elimination of photocurrent hysteresis by fullerene passivation in CH3NH3PbI3 planar heterojunction solar cells

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Shao, Yuchuan; Xiao, Zhengguo; Bi, Cheng; Yuan, Yongbo; Huang, Jinsong

    2014-12-15

    The large photocurrent hysteresis observed in many organometal trihalide perovskite solar cells has become a major hindrance impairing the ultimate performance and stability of these devices, while its origin was unknown. Here we demonstrate the trap states on the surface and grain boundaries of the perovskite materials to be the origin of photocurrent hysteresis and that the fullerene layers deposited on perovskites can effectively passivate these charge trap states and eliminate the notorious photocurrent hysteresis. Fullerenes deposited on the top of the perovskites reduce the trap density by two orders of magnitude and double the power conversion efficiency of CH3NH3PbI3 solar cells. As a result, the elucidation of the origin of photocurrent hysteresis and its elimination by trap passivation in perovskite solar cells provides important directions for future enhancements to device efficiency.

  16. SiO{sub 2} nanospheres with tailorable interiors by directly controlling Zn{sup 2+} and NH{sub 3}.H{sub 2}O species in an emulsion process

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Liao Yuchao; Wu Xiaofeng; Wang Zhen; Chen Yunfa

    2011-07-15

    SiO{sub 2} nanospheres with tailorable interiors were synthesized by a facile one-spot microemulsion process using TEOS as silica source, wherein cyclohexane including triton X-100 and n-octanol as oil phase and Zn{sup 2+} or NH{sub 3}.H{sub 2}O aqueous solution as dispersive phase, respectively. The products were characterized by Scanning Electron Microscopy, Transmission Electron Microscopy and X-ray Powder Diffraction. It was suggested that the as-synthesized silica nanospheres possessed grape-stone-like porous or single hollow interior, and also found that the ammonia dosage and aging time played key roles in controlling the size and structure of silica nanospheres. Furthermore, the comparative results confirmed that in-situ zinc species [ZnO/Zn(OH){sub 2}] acted as the temporary templates to construct grape-stone-like interior, and a simultaneously competing etching process occurred owing to the soluble Zn(NH{sub 3}){sub 4}{sup 2+} complex formation while the additional excessive ammonia was introduced. With the aging time being extended, the in-situ nanocrystals tended to grow into bigger ones by Ostwald Ripening, producing single hollow interior. - Graphical Abstract: Formation process of SiO{sub 2} nanospheres with porous and single hollow interior. Highlights: > ZnO/Zn(OH){sub 2} nanocrystals as the temporary templates shape the interior structures of SiO{sub 2} nanospheres. > Fabrication of porous and single hollow interiors needs no additional processes such as roasting or dissolving. > Tailorable interiors can be easily obtained through adjusting the aging time of temporary templates.

  17. Simple and low-temperature preparation of Co{sub 3}O{sub 4} sphere-like nanoparticles via solid-state thermolysis of the [Co(NH{sub 3}){sub 6}](NO{sub 3}){sub 3} complex

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Farhadi, Saeid; Pourzare, Kolsoum

    2012-06-15

    Highlights: ? [Co(NH{sub 3}){sub 6}](NO{sub 3}){sub 3} precursor was used for synthesizing pure Co{sub 3}O{sub 4} nanocrystals. ? Co{sub 3}O{sub 4} nanocrystals were synthesized at low temperature of 200 C. ? Co{sub 3}O{sub 4} nanocrystals show a weak ferromagnetic behavior at room temperature. ? This simple method is low-cost and suitable for high-scale production of Co{sub 3}O{sub 4}. -- Abstract: In this work, spinel-type Co{sub 3}O{sub 4} spherical nanoparticles were easily prepared via decomposition of the hexamminecobalt(III) nitrate complex, [Co(NH{sub 3}){sub 6}](NO{sub 3}){sub 3}, at low temperature (200 C). The product was characterized by thermal analysis (TGA/DTA), X-ray diffraction (XRD), Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FT-IR), Raman spectroscopy, UVvis spectroscopy, transmission electron microscopy (TEM), energy-dispersive X-ray spectroscopy (EDX), BrunauerEmmettTeller (BET) specific surface area measurement and magnetic measurements. The results confirmed that pure single-phase Co{sub 3}O{sub 4} nanoparticles with weak ferromagnetic behavior were obtained by this method. TEM images showed that the Co{sub 3}O{sub 4} nanoparticles are sphere-like with an average diameter size of around 15 nm. The optical spectrum indicated two direct band gaps at 2.15 and 3.56 eV which are blue-shifted relative to reported values for the bulk sample. Using this fast and simple method, Co{sub 3}O{sub 4} nanoparticles can be produced without expensive and toxic solvents or complicated equipment.

  18. Hertfordshire, United Kingdom: Energy Resources | Open Energy...

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    updating Image needs updating Reference needed Missing content Broken link Other Additional Comments Cancel Submit Categories: Places Stubs Articles with outstanding TODO tasks...

  19. United Kingdom Department for International Development | Open...

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    Climate Change Resilience Framework Ecuador-Quito City Climate Change Action Plan El Salvador - National Climate Change Strategy Support Eldis Ethiopia-Strategic Climate...

  20. United Kingdom: Energy Resources | Open Energy Information

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    EIA Natural Gas Reserves 292,000,000,000 Cubic Meters (cu m) 40 2010 CIA World Factbook Oil Reserves 3,084,000,000 Barrels (bbl) 31 2010 CIA World Factbook Energy Maps featuring...

  1. Designed synthesis of multifunctional Fe{sub 3}O{sub 4}@SiO{sub 2}–NH{sub 2}@CS–Co(II) towards efficient oxidation of ethylbenzene

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Li, Shi; Zhai, Shang-Ru; An, Qing-Da; Li, Ming-Hui; Song, Yu; Song, Xiao-Wei

    2014-12-15

    Highlights: • Cooperative integration of magnetic cores and chitosan layers. • Efficient and durable catalyst for the oxidation of ethylbenzene to acetophenone. • Exceptional results of 82.5% EB conversion and 80.4% AP selectivity. • Magnetic recoverable catalyst with excellent reusability even after 10 times run. - Abstract: The preparation of Co(II) supported magnetic heterogeneous catalyst, i.e. Fe{sub 3}O{sub 4}@SiO{sub 2}–NH{sub 2}@CS–Co, and its efficient and selective catalytic properties toward the oxidation of ethylbenzene to acetophenone are presented. The materials were characterized by various physicochemical techniques such as scanning electron microscopy, transmission electron microscopy, Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy, vibrating sample magnetometer, elemental analysis, inductively coupled plasma-atomic emission spectrometer and X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy, etc. The reaction conditions were thoroughly investigated and highly improved catalytic performance (82.5% conversion of ethylbenzene and 80.1% selectivity to acetophenone) was gained under more mild reaction conditions of lower temperature (70 °C), shorter reaction period (60 min) and cheaper and greener oxygen source (H{sub 2}O{sub 2}). More importantly, it could be reused successively at least 10 times when more than 80% of its catalytic activity maintained.

  2. Accurate ab initio-based adiabatic global potential energy surface for the 2{sup 2}A″ state of NH{sub 2} by extrapolation to the complete basis set limit

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Li, Y. Q.; Ma, F. C.; Sun, M. T.

    2013-10-21

    A full three-dimensional global potential energy surface is reported first time for the title system, which is important for the photodissociation processes. It is obtained using double many-body expansion theory and an extensive set of accurate ab initio energies extrapolated to the complete basis set limit. Such a work can be recommended for dynamics studies of the N({sup 2}D) + H{sub 2} reaction, a reliable theoretical treatment of the photodissociation dynamics and as building blocks for constructing the double many-body expansion potential energy surface of larger nitrogen/hydrogen containing systems. In turn, a preliminary theoretical study of the reaction N({sup 2}D)+H{sub 2}(X{sup 1}Σ{sub g}{sup +})(ν=0,j=0)→NH(a{sup 1}Δ)+H({sup 2}S) has been carried out with the method of quasi-classical trajectory on the new potential energy surface. Integral cross sections and thermal rate constants have been calculated, providing perhaps the most reliable estimate of the integral cross sections and the rate constants known thus far for such a reaction.

  3. Effective hole extraction using MoO{sub x}-Al contact in perovskite CH{sub 3}NH{sub 3}PbI{sub 3} solar cells

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Zhao, Yixin; Nardes, Alexandre M.; Zhu, Kai

    2014-05-26

    We report an 11.4%-efficient perovskite CH{sub 3}NH{sub 3}PbI{sub 3} solar cell using low-cost molybdenum oxide/aluminum (i.e., MoO{sub x}/Al) as an alternative top contact to replace noble/precious metals (e.g., Au or Ag) for extracting photogenerated holes. The device performance of perovskite solar cells using a MoO{sub x}/Al top contact is comparable to that of cells using the standard Ag top contact. Analysis of impedance spectroscopy measurements suggests that using 10-nm-thick MoO{sub x} and Al does not affect charge-recombination properties of perovskite solar cells. Using a thicker (20-nm) MoO{sub x} layer leads to a lower cell performance caused mainly by a reduced fill factor. Our results suggest that MoO{sub x}/Al is promising as a low-cost and effective hole-extraction contact for perovskite solar cells.

  4. Hydrogen Storage Properties of New Hydrogen-Rich BH3NH3-Metal Hydride (TiH2, ZrH2, MgH2, and/or CaH2) Composite Systems

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Choi, Young Joon; Xu, Yimin; Shaw, Wendy J.; Ronnebro, Ewa

    2012-04-19

    Ammonia borane (AB = NH3BH3) is one of the most attractive materials for chemical hydrogen storage due to its high hydrogen contents of 19.6 wt.%, however, impurity levels of borazine, ammonia and diborane in conjunction with foaming and exothermic hydrogen release calls for finding ways to mitigate the decomposition reactions. In this paper we present a solution by mixing AB with metal hydrides (TiH2, ZrH2, MgH2 and CaH2) which have endothermic hydrogen release in order to control the heat release and impurity levels from AB upon decomposition. The composite materials were prepared by mechanical ball milling, and their H2 release properties were characterized by thermogravimetric analysis (TGA) and differential scanning calorimetry (DSC). The formation of volatile products from decomposition side reactions, such as borazine (N3B3H6) was determined by mass spectrometry (MS). Sieverts type pressure-composition-temperature (PCT) gas-solid reaction instrument was adopted to observe the kinetics of the H2 release reactions of the combined systems and neat AB. In situ 11B MAS-NMR revealed a destabilized decomposition pathway. We found that by adding specific metal hydrides to AB we can eliminate the impurities and mitigate the heat release.

  5. Pittsburg, NH Natural Gas Exports to Canada

    Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update (EIA)

    Price (Percent) Decade Year-0 Year-1 Year-2 Year-3 Year-4 Year-5 Year-6 Year-7 Year-8 Year-9 1990's 79.6 82.7 80.7 80.8 80.3 80.1 81.1 64.7 80.5 70.5 2000's 81.4 82.5 80.5 81.8 82.1 80.5 80.2 79.8 80.2 78.8 2010's 79.3 78.9 76.2 76.6 78.4 77.6 Price (Percent)

    Decade Year-0 Year-1 Year-2 Year-3 Year-4 Year-5 Year-6 Year-7 Year-8 Year-9 1990's 100.0 100.0 100.0 100.0 100.0 79.9 63.4 54.5 49.6 55.4 2000's 59.3 60.5 60.0 59.1 55.5 51.2 56.3 76.0 74.9 85.3 2010's 87.7 88.6 94.9 94.5 94.5

  6. Pittsburg, NH Natural Gas Exports to Canada

    Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update (EIA)

    26,767 18,297 19,826 47,451 63,446 52,160 1998-2014 Pipeline Prices 5.04 5.48 5.45 4.08 6.63 10.55 1998...

  7. New operation strategy for driving the selectivity of NOx reduction to N2, NH3 or N2O during lean/rich cycling of a lean NOx trap catalyst

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Mráček, David; Koci, Petr; Choi, Jae -Soon; Partridge, Jr., William P.

    2015-09-08

    Periodical regeneration of NOx storage catalyst (also known as lean NOx trap) by short rich pulses of CO, H2 and hydrocarbons is necessary for the reduction of nitrogen oxides adsorbed on the catalyst surface. Ideally, the stored NOx is converted into N2, but N2O and NH3 by-products can be formed as well, particularly at low-intermediate temperatures. The N2 and N2O products are formed concurrently in two peaks. The primary peaks appear immediately after the rich-phase inception, and tail off with the breakthrough of the reductant front accompanied by NH3 product. In addition, the secondary N2 and N2O peaks then appear at the rich-to-lean transition as a result of reactions between surface-deposited reductants/intermediates (CO, HC, NH3, — NCO) and residual stored NOx under increasingly lean conditions.

  8. Bulk gold catalyzed oxidation reactions of amines and isocyanides and iron porphyrin catalyzed N-H and O-H bond insertion/cyclization reactions of diamines and aminoalcohols

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Klobukowski, Erik

    2011-12-29

    conditions, it was found that the oxidative dehydrogenation of dibenzylamine to Nbenzylidenebenzylamine, with N-methylmorpholine N-oxide (NMMO), was nearly quantitative (96%) within 24 h. However, the reaction with oxygen was much slower, with only a 52% yield of imine product over the same time period. Moreover, the rate of reaction was found to be influenced by the nature of the amine N-oxide. For example, the use of the weakly basic pyridine N-oxide (PyNO) led to an imine yield of only 6% after 24 h. A comparison of amine N-oxide and O2 was also examined in the oxidation of PhCH{sub 2}OH to PhCHO catalyzed by bulk gold. In this reaction, a 52% yield of the aldehyde was achieved when NMMO was used, while only a 7% product yield was afforded when O{sub 2} was the oxidant after 48 h. The bulk gold-catalyzed oxidative dehydrogenation of cyclic amines generates amidines, which upon treatment with Aerosil and water were found to undergo hydrolysis to produce lactams. Moreover, 5-, 6-, and 7-membered lactams could be prepared through a one-pot reaction of cyclic amines by treatment with oxygen, water, bulk gold, and Aerosil. This method is much more atom economical than industrial processes, does not require corrosive acids, and does not generate undesired byproducts. Additionally, the gold and Aerosil catalysts can be readily separated from the reaction mixture. The second project involved studying iron(III) tetraphenylporphyrin chloride, Fe(TPP)Cl, as a homogeneous catalyst for the generation of carbenes from diazo reagents and their reaction with heteroatom compounds. Fe(TPP)Cl, efficiently catalyzed the insertion of carbenes derived from methyl 2-phenyldiazoacetates into O-H bonds of aliphatic and aromatic alcohols. Fe(TPP)Cl was also found to be an effective catalyst for tandem N-H and O-H insertion/cyclization reactions when 1,2-diamines and 1,2-alcoholamines were treated with diazo reagents. This approach provides a one-pot process for synthesizing piperazinones and

  9. Six novel transition-metal phosphite compounds, with structure related to yavapaiite: Crystal structures and magnetic and thermal properties of A{sup I}[M{sup III}(HPO{sub 3}){sub 2}] (A=K, NH{sub 4}, Rb and M=V, Fe)

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Hamchaoui, Farida; Alonzo, Veronique; Universite Europeenne de Bretagne ; Venegas-Yazigi, Diego; Rebbah, Houria; Le Fur, Eric

    2013-02-15

    Six new transition metal(III) phosphites A{sup I}[V{sup III}(HPO{sub 3}){sub 2}], where A=K (1), NH{sub 4} (2) and Rb (3) and A{sup I}[Fe{sup III}(HPO{sub 3}){sub 2}] where A=K (4), NH{sub 4} (5) and Rb (6) have been synthesized under hydrothermal conditions and the solid-state structures were solved from single-crystal X-ray diffraction data. These compounds crystallize in the hexagonal system, space group P6{sub 3}mc (no. 186), with a=5.3294(2) A and c=12.3130(5) A for 1, a=5.3330(2) A and c=12.8760(4) A for 2, a=5.3459(2) A and c=12.6850(8) A for 3, a=5.3256(1) A and c=12.2362(3) A for 4, a=5.3229(2) A and c=12.8562(4) A for 5, a=5.3393(2) A and c=12.6913(5) A for 6, with Z=2 in the six phases. The crystal structures of these compounds are isotypic and exhibit a layered structure stacked along the c-axis with the A{sup +} cations located in the interlayer space. The [M{sup III}(HPO{sub 3}){sub 2}]{sup -} sheets are formed by MO{sub 6} octahedra interconnected by HPO{sub 3} tetrahedral phosphite oxoanions through sharing vertices. Thermal analysis shows a large range of stability for compounds containing potassium and rubidium cations with decomposition starting around 550 K for stable compounds and above 840 K for the most stable compounds leading in general to pyrophosphate compounds. Triangular nets of metallic centers are observed within the layers in which antiferromagnetic interactions are evidenced by magnetic susceptibility measurements suggesting magnetic frustration. - Graphical abstract: Six new transition metal(III) phosphites A{sup I}[M{sup III}(HPO{sub 3}){sub 2}], where A=K, NH{sub 4}, Rb and M=V, Fe, have been synthesized. The crystal structures of these compounds are isotypic and exhibit a lamellar structure related to Yavapaiite. The M(HPO{sub 3}){sub 2} layers separated by cationic species present the metallic centers in a triangular arrangement. Bulk antiferromagnetic behavior is observed for all the studied compounds. Highlights: Black

  10. Synthesis and crystal structure of a new open-framework iron phosphate (NH{sub 4}){sub 4}Fe{sub 3}(OH){sub 2}F{sub 2}[H{sub 3}(PO{sub 4}){sub 4}]: Novel linear trimer of corner-sharing Fe(III) octahedra

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Mi, Jin-Xiao; Wang, Cheng-Xin; Chen, Ning; Li, Rong; Pan, Yuanming

    2010-12-15

    A new iron phosphate (NH{sub 4}){sub 4}Fe{sub 3}(OH){sub 2}F{sub 2}[H{sub 3}(PO{sub 4}){sub 4}] has been synthesized hydrothermally at HF concentrations from 0.5 to 1.2 mL. Single-crystal X-ray diffraction analysis reveals its three-dimensional open-framework structure (monoclinic, space group P2{sub 1}/n (No. 14), a=6.2614(13) A, b=9.844(2) A, c=14.271(3) A, {beta}=92.11(1){sup o}, V=879.0(3) A{sup 3}). This structure is built from isolated linear trimers of corner-sharing Fe(III) octahedra, which are linked by (PO{sub 4}) groups to form ten-membered-ring channels along [1 0 0]. This isolated, linear trimer of corner-sharing Fe(III) octahedra, [(FeO{sub 4}){sub 3}(OH){sub 2}F{sub 2}], is new and adds to the diverse linkages of Fe polyhedra as secondary building units in iron phosphates. The trivalent iron at octahedral sites for the title compound has been confirmed by synchrotron Fe K-edge XANES spectra and magnetic measurements. Magnetic measurements also show that this compound exhibit a strong antiferromagnetic exchange below T{sub N}=17 K, consistent with superexchange interactions expected for the linear trimer of ferric octahedra with the Fe-F-Fe angle of 132.5{sup o}. -- Graphical abstract: The three-dimensional open-framework structure of (NH{sub 4}){sub 4}Fe{sub 3}(OH){sub 2}F{sub 2}[H{sub 3}(PO{sub 4}){sub 4}] is built from a novel isolated, linear (FeO{sub 4}){sub 3}(OH){sub 2}F{sub 2} trimer of corner-sharing Fe(III) octahedra linked by PO{sub 4} tetrahedra. Display Omitted

  11. HiperDNO (Smart Grid Project) (United Kingdom) | Open Energy...

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    is to develop a new generation of distribution network management systems that exploits novel near to realtime HPC solutions with inherent security and intelligent communications...

  12. Fenix (Smart Grid Project) (United Kingdom) | Open Energy Information

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    with realistic DER penetration; Development of a layered communication and control solution validated for a comprehensive set of network use cases , including normal...

  13. The united kingdom's changing requirements for spent fuel storage

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Hodgson, Z.; Hambley, D.I.; Gregg, R.; Ross, D.N.

    2013-07-01

    The UK is adopting an open fuel cycle, and is necessarily moving to a regime of long term storage of spent fuel, followed by geological disposal once a geological disposal facility (GDF) is available. The earliest GDF receipt date for legacy spent fuel is assumed to be 2075. The UK is set to embark on a programme of new nuclear build to maintain a nuclear energy contribution of 16 GW. Additionally, the UK are considering a significant expansion of nuclear energy in order to meet carbon reduction targets and it is plausible to foresee a scenario where up to 75 GW from nuclear power production could be deployed in the UK by the mid 21. century. Such an expansion, could lead to spent fuel storage and its disposal being a dominant issue for the UK Government, the utilities and the public. If the UK were to transition a closed fuel cycle, then spent fuel storage should become less onerous depending on the timescales. The UK has demonstrated a preference for wet storage of spent fuel on an interim basis. The UK has adopted an approach of centralised storage, but a 16 GW new build programme and any significant expansion of this may push the UK towards distributed spent fuel storage at a number of reactors station sites across the UK.

  14. London, United Kingdom: Energy Resources | Open Energy Information

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    Ltd ACF Ltd BMT Renewables Ltd BP Alternative Energy BP Plc Beetle Capital Partners BCP Biodiesel Energy Trading Limited Bioethanol Limited Biomass Fuels Ltd BFL Bloomberg New...

  15. Kingdom of Saudi Arabia Ministry of Petroleum and Mineral Resources...

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    leaders and government ministers. The Supreme Council is responsible for petroleum and natural gas policy-making, including contract review. It also sets broad policies for the...

  16. EM Leaders Continue United Kingdom Collaboration | Department of Energy

    Energy Savers [EERE]

    EM Historical Timeline EM Historical Timeline

    EM International Agreements EM International Agreements Confidentiality Agreement between the US Department of Energy, the UK Nuclear Decommissioning Authority, and the UK National Nuclear Laboratory Limited, 2015 Confidentiality Agreement between the US Department of Energy, the UK Nuclear Decommissioning Authority, and the UK National Nuclear Laboratory Limited, 2015 Statement of Intent between the US Department of Energy and UK Nuclear

  17. Geobacter: The Junk Food Connoisseurs of the Bacterial Kingdom

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    With a healthy appetitie for uranium and petroleum, this family of bacteria clean up nuclear waste and other toxic materials. A team of researchers has discovered exactly how they use their arms to do this.

  18. United States-United Kingdom Collaboration on Fossil Energy R...

    Energy Savers [EERE]

    in the field of cleaner coal technology, and for ... for advanced fossil energy power plant applications. ... Steam oxidation Boiler corrosion Gas turbines fired on ...

  19. EUDEEP (Smart Grid Project) (United Kingdom) | Open Energy Information

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    technical and nontechnical barriers that prevent a massive deployment of distributed energy resources (DER) in Europe. In partnership with manu facturers, research organizations,...

  20. Pittsburg, NH Natural Gas Imports by Pipeline from Canada

    Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update (EIA)

    18,297 19,826 47,451 63,446 52,160 77,866 1998-2015 Pipeline Prices 5.48 5.45 4.08 6.63 10.55 5.18 1998

  1. Public Service Co of NH | Open Energy Information

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    800-662-7764 Outage Map: www.eversource.comContentgen Green Button Access: Implemented Green Button Landing Page: www.psnh.comSaveEnergyMo Green Button Reference Page:...

  2. Pittsburg, NH Natural Gas Pipeline Imports From Canada (Million...

    Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update (EIA)

    Year Jan Feb Mar Apr May Jun Jul Aug Sep Oct Nov Dec 2011 5,804 3,798 865 295 2,790 248 792 242 144 126 655 4,066 2012 6,044 5,109 1,927 2,629 2,692 3,438 3,976 3,786 4,614 3,630...

  3. Pittsburg, NH Natural Gas Pipeline Exports to Canada (Million...

    Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update (EIA)

    Year Jan Feb Mar Apr May Jun Jul Aug Sep Oct Nov Dec 2011 336 2012 0 138 55 5 2013 21 75 2014 185 76 64 25 23 2015 214 146 92 48 50 181 2...

  4. Pittsburg, NH Natural Gas Pipeline Imports From Canada (Dollars per

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    Thousand Cubic Feet) Decade Year-0 Year-1 Year-2 Year-3 Year-4 Year-5 Year-6 Year-7 Year-8 Year-9 1990's NA 2.61 2000's 4.07 4.01 3.37 6.08 6.44 10.88 7.26 7.52 9.72 5.04 2010's 5.48 5.45 4.08 6.63 10.55 5.18

  5. Pittsburg, NH Natural Gas Pipeline Imports From Canada (Dollars per

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    Thousand Cubic Feet) Year Jan Feb Mar Apr May Jun Jul Aug Sep Oct Nov Dec 2011 6.06 5.95 6.14 5.56 4.91 5.14 5.66 4.76 4.54 4.33 4.49 4.58 2012 4.22 3.79 3.14 2.55 2.72 3.49 3.75 3.52 3.30 3.80 5.65 6.66 2013 6.80 10.16 6.41 5.43 5.13 5.13 4.70 4.12 4.26 3.98 5.55 11.73 2014 19.82 25.10 12.88 5.74 5.10 5.68 4.55 3.74 3.29 3.53 5.53 9.52 2015 8.36 11.64 7.49 3.23 3.00 3.12 3.03 3.18 3.59 4.12 3.87 3.72 2016 5.50 4.15 2.46 2.74 2.25 2.32

  6. Synthesis and crystal structure of (NH{sub 4}){sub 3}[UO{sub 2}(CH{sub 3}COO){sub 3}]{sub 2}[UO{sub 2}(CH{sub 3}COO)(NCS){sub 2}(H{sub 2}O)

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Serezhkina, L. B.; Peresypkina, E. V.; Virovets, A. V.; Karasev, M. O.

    2010-01-15

    Single crystals of the compound (NH{sub 4}){sub 3}[UO{sub 2}(CH{sub 3}COO){sub 3}]{sub 2}[UO{sub 2}(CH{sub 3}COO)(NCS){sub 2}(H{sub 2}O)] (I) are synthesized, and their structure is investigated using X-ray diffraction. Compound I crystallizes in the monoclinic system with the unit cell parameters a = 18.3414(6) A, b = 16.3858(7) A, c = 12.4183(5) A, {beta} = 92.992(1){sup o}, space group C2/c, Z = 4, V = 3727.1(3) A{sup 3}, and R = 0.0253. The uranium-containing structural units of crystals I are mononuclear complexes of two types with an island structure, i.e., the [UO{sub 2}(CH{sub 3}COO){sub 3}]{sup -} anionic complexes belonging to the crystal-chemical group (AB{sub 3}{sup 01} = UO{sub 2}{sup 2+}, B{sup 01} = CH{sub 3}COO{sup -}) of the uranyl complexes and the [UO{sub 2}(CH{sub 3}COO)(NCS){sub 2}(H{sub 2}O)]{sup -} anionic complexes belonging to the crystal-chemical group AB{sup 01}M{sub 3}{sup 1} (A = UO{sub 2}{sup 2+}, B{sup 01} = CH{sub 3}COO{sup -}, M{sup 1} = NCS{sup -} or H{sub 2}O).

  7. DLC+VIT4IP (Smart Grid Project) (United Kingdom) | Open Energy...

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    applications. These shall include the existing power distribution network for novel services in smart electricity distribution networks such as demand side management,...

  8. A Resurgence of United Kingdom Nuclear Power Research (2011 EFRC Forum)

    ScienceCinema (OSTI)

    Grimes, Robin W. (Imperial College, London, UK)

    2012-03-14

    Robin W. Grimes, Professor at Imperial College, London,was the third speaker in the the May 26, 2011 EFRC Forum session, "Global Perspectives on Frontiers in Energy Research." In his presentation, Professor Grimes discussed recent research endeavors in advanced nuclear energy systems being pursued in the UK. The 2011 EFRC Summit and Forum brought together the EFRC community and science and policy leaders from universities, national laboratories, industry and government to discuss "Science for our Nation's Energy Future." In August 2009, the Office of Science established 46 Energy Frontier Research Centers. The EFRCs are collaborative research efforts intended to accelerate high-risk, high-reward fundamental research, the scientific basis for transformative energy technologies of the future. These Centers involve universities, national laboratories, nonprofit organizations, and for-profit firms, singly or in partnerships, selected by scientific peer review. They are funded at $2 to $5 million per year for a total planned DOE commitment of $777 million over the initial five-year award period, pending Congressional appropriations. These integrated, multi-investigator Centers are conducting fundamental research focusing on one or more of several ?grand challenges? and use-inspired ?basic research needs? recently identified in major strategic planning efforts by the scientific community. The purpose of the EFRCs is to integrate the talents and expertise of leading scientists in a setting designed to accelerate research that transforms the future of energy and the environment.

  9. Liquefied U.S. Natural Gas Re-Exports to United Kingdom (Million Cubic

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    Feet) Year Jan Feb Mar Apr May Jun Jul Aug Sep Oct Nov Dec 2010 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 3,379 6,206 2011 2,862 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 2012 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 2013 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 2014 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 2015 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 2016 0 0

  10. Development Of Strategy For The Management Of LLW In The United Kingdom

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Wareing, A.S.; Fisher, J.

    2008-07-01

    The Nuclear Decommissioning Authority (NDA) is a UK non-departmental public body with a remit to clean up the civil public sector nuclear legacy. Much work has been done to date on developing contractor competition for the management of NDA-owned sites, including the UK's principal disposal facility: the Low Level Waste Repository (LLWR) in Cumbria. The competition goals and principles are integrated with the framework for the development of a UK Low Level Waste (LLW) management plan, through which the NDA will deliver its commitments to UK Government and stakeholders. Nexia Solutions has undertaken work for the NDA in assessing strategic options and scenarios for the management and disposal of current UK LLW. The volumetric, radiological and strategic limitations of existing disposition routes have been assessed against the inventories and characteristics of LLW forecast to arise. A number of potential alternative scenarios and variants for future LLW management have been modelled and assessed. (authors)

  11. Liquefied U.S. Natural Gas Re-Exports to United Kingdom (Million...

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    Decade Year-0 Year-1 Year-2 Year-3 Year-4 Year-5 Year-6 Year-7 Year-8 Year-9 2000's 0 0 0 2010's 9,584 2,862 0...

  12. An assessment of using oil shale for power production in the Hashemite Kingdom of Jordan

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Hill, L.J.; Holcomb, R.S.; Petrich, C.H.; Roop, R.D.

    1990-11-01

    This report addresses the oil shale-for-power-production option in Jordan. Under consideration are 20- and 50-MW demonstration units and a 400-MW, commercial-scale plant with, at the 400-MW scale, a mining operation capable of supplying 7.8 million tonnes per year of shale fuel and also capable of disposal of up to 6.1 million tonnes per year of wetted ash. The plant would be a direct combustion facility, burning crushed oil shale through use of circulating fluidized bed combustion technology. The report emphasizes four areas: (1) the need for power in Jordan, (2) environmental aspects of the proposed oil shale-for-power plant(s), (3) the engineering feasibility of using Jordan's oil shale in circulating fluidized bed combustion (CFBC) boiler, and (4) the economic feasibility of the proposed plant(s). A sensitivity study was conducted to determine the economic feasibility of the proposed plant(s) under different cost assumptions and revenue flows over the plant's lifetime. The sensitivity results are extended to include the major extra-firm benefits of the shale-for-power option: (1) foreign exchange savings from using domestic energy resources, (2) aggregate income effects of using Jordan's indigenous labor force, and (3) a higher level of energy security. 14 figs., 47 tabs.

  13. The Greening of the Middle Kingdom: The Story of Energy Efficiency in China

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Levine, Mark D.; Zhou, Nan; Price, Lynn

    2009-05-01

    The dominant image of China's energy system is of billowing smokestacks from the combustion of coal. More heavily dependent on coal than any other major country, China uses it for about 70 percent of its energy (NBS, 2008). Furthermore, until recently, China had very few environmental controls on emissions from coal combustion; recent efforts to control sulfur dioxide (SO{sub 2}) emissions appear to be meeting with some success (Economy, 2007, 2009). Figure 1 shows the dominant use of coal in China's energy system from 1950 to 1980 (NBS, various years). However, this is just one side of China's energy story. Figure 2 illustrates the second part, and what may be the most important part of the story - China's energy system since 1980, shortly after Deng Xiaoping assumed full leadership. This figure compares the trends in energy consumption and gross domestic product (GDP) by indexing both values to 100 in 1980. The upper line shows what energy consumption in China would have been if it had grown at the same rate as GDP, since energy consumption usually increases in lockstep with GDP in an industrializing, developing country, at least until it reaches a high economic level. The lower line in Figure 2 shows China's actual energy consumption, also indexed to 1980. The striking difference between the lines shows that GDP in China grew much faster than energy demand from 1980 to 2002. As a result, by 2002 energy and energy-related carbon dioxide (CO{sub 2}) emissions were more than 40% percent of what they would have been if energy and GDP had grown in tandem. In the next chapter of China's energy history, from 2002 to 2005, the increase in energy demand outstripped a very rapidly growing economy, and because of the large size of the Chinese economy, the increase had substantial impacts. The construction of power plants increased to 100 gigawatts per year; over the three-year period newly constructed plants had a capacity of more than 30 percent of total electricity-generation capacity in the United States. At the same time, energy-related CO{sub 2} emissions in China increased dramatically. In the latest stage, another abrupt change, this time for the better in terms of energy efficiency, began late in 2005. As senior officials in the government turned their attention to the problem of growing energy demand, the government set a mandatory goal for 2010 of a 20 percent reduction in energy intensity (defined as energy use per unit of GDP) from 2005 levels. To meet this goal, China undertook significant legislative, regulatory, and organizational reforms at the national, provincial, and municipal levels to ensure that measures to reduce energy intensity would be implemented in all sectors and activities in China. At the time of this writing, it appears that China is on its way to meeting the 20 percent goal, thus reducing CO{sub 2} emissions by 1.5 billion tones, as compared with consumption at 2005 energy-intensity levels. In this paper, we describe and assess these three significant periods in China's energy story and provide a context by briefly reviewing the three decades prior to 1980.

  14. Code System For Risk Assessment From Underground Radioactive Waste Disposal In the United Kingdom.

    Energy Science and Technology Software Center (OSTI)

    2000-04-18

    Version 00 The SYVAC D/2 program simulates the ground water mediated movement of radionuclides from underground facilities for the disposal of low and intermediate level wastes to the accessible environment, and provides an estimate of the subsequent radiological risk to man. The simulated timescales are usually within the range 1.0E+03 to 1.0E+07 years. SYVAC is capable of modelling both shallow disposal facilities (located in argillaceous media and overlaying an aquifer) and deep disposal facilities (inmore » a saturated environment). The software was developed for use within the UK Department of the Environment (DOE) Radioactive Waste Management Programme, as one tool in the DOE Assessment Methodology. The acronym SYVAC (System Variability Analysis Code for deep and shallow burial of radioactive waste) comes from the name of an assessment code originally obtained from the Atomic Energy of Canada (AECL) in 1982, which was found to be inappropriate for geological conditions in the UK. The development of the previous version, SYVAC A/C, was undertaken by the following private installations under UK Department of the Environment (DOE) contracts: Atkins Research & Development, Epsom, Surrey, England; Associated Nuclear Services, Epsom, Surrey, England; CAP Scientific, London, England; Electrowatt Engineering Services, Horsham, West Sussex, England; and Scicon Limited, Wavendon, Milton Kenes, England.« less

  15. EM Renews Information-Sharing Agreement with United Kingdom's Nuclear Decommissioning Authority

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    PHOENIX – EM’s top official this week renewed an agreement between DOE and the U.K.’s Nuclear Decommissioning Authority (NDA) that expands the scope of their information sharing.

  16. Energy implications of the thermal recovery of biodegradable municipal waste materials in the United Kingdom

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Burnley, Stephen; Phillips, Rhiannon; Coleman, Terry; Rampling, Terence

    2011-09-15

    Highlights: > Energy balances were calculated for the thermal treatment of biodegradable wastes. > For wood and RDF, combustion in dedicated facilities was the best option. > For paper, garden and food wastes and mixed waste incineration was the best option. > For low moisture paper, gasification provided the optimum solution. - Abstract: Waste management policies and legislation in many developed countries call for a reduction in the quantity of biodegradable waste landfilled. Anaerobic digestion, combustion and gasification are options for managing biodegradable waste while generating renewable energy. However, very little research has been carried to establish the overall energy balance of the collection, preparation and energy recovery processes for different types of wastes. Without this information, it is impossible to determine the optimum method for managing a particular waste to recover renewable energy. In this study, energy balances were carried out for the thermal processing of food waste, garden waste, wood, waste paper and the non-recyclable fraction of municipal waste. For all of these wastes, combustion in dedicated facilities or incineration with the municipal waste stream was the most energy-advantageous option. However, we identified a lack of reliable information on the energy consumed in collecting individual wastes and preparing the wastes for thermal processing. There was also little reliable information on the performance and efficiency of anaerobic digestion and gasification facilities for waste.

  17. KINGDOM BY DTlE ATOMIC UNITED ESERG Y,AljTHORK'Y

    Office of Legacy Management (LM)

    or to identify positively wnether certain seismic si3nals come from earthquakes or man-made explosions. Fortunately, there is clearly H widespread desire - fully shared by...

  18. Diagnostic experiments at a 3 MeV test stand at Rutherford Appleton Laboratory (United Kingdom)

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Gabor, C.; Faircloth, D. C.; Lawrie, S. R.; Letchford, A. P.; Lee, D. A.; Pozimski, J. K.

    2010-02-15

    A front end is currently under construction consisting of a H{sup -} Penning ion source (65 keV, 60 mA), low energy beam transport (LEBT), and radio frequency quadrupole (3 MeV output energy) with a medium energy beam transport suitable for high power proton applications. Diagnostics can be divided either in destructive techniques such as beam profile monitor, pepperpot, slit-slit emittance scanner (preferably used during commissioning) or nondestructive, permanently installed devices such as photodetachment-based techniques. Another way to determine beam distributions is a scintillator with charge-coupled device camera. First experiments have been performed to control the beam injection into the LEBT. The influence of beam parameters such as particle energy and space-charge compensation on the two-dimensional distribution and profiles will be presented.

  19. U.S. Department of Energy Welcomes the United Kingdom as 21st...

    Energy Savers [EERE]

    DOE most recently welcomed South Korea, Italy, Canada, and Senegal as GNEP partners. At ... size when the original GNEP partners - China, France, Japan, Russia and the United ...

  20. Price Liquefied Sabine Pass, LA Natural Gas Exports Price to United Kingdom

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    (Dollars per Thousand Cubic Feet) Decade Year-0 Year-1 Year-2 Year-3 Year-4 Year-5 Year-6 Year-7 Year-8 Year-9 2000's -- -- -- 2010's 6.93 7.66 -- -- --

  1. Price Liquefied Sabine Pass, LA Natural Gas Exports Price to United Kingdom

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    (Dollars per Thousand Cubic Feet) Year Jan Feb Mar Apr May Jun Jul Aug Sep Oct Nov Dec 2011 7.66

  2. Price of Liquefied U.S. Natural Gas Exports to United Kingdom (Dollars per

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    Thousand Cubic Feet) Decade Year-0 Year-1 Year-2 Year-3 Year-4 Year-5 Year-6 Year-7 Year-8 Year-9 2000's -- -- -- 2010's 7.13 7.66

  3. Price of Liquefied U.S. Natural Gas Exports to United Kingdom (Dollars per

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    Thousand Cubic Feet) Year Jan Feb Mar Apr May Jun Jul Aug Sep Oct Nov Dec 2010 -- -- -- -- -- -- -- -- -- -- 6.79 7.32 2011 7.66 -- -- -- -- -- -- -- -- -- -- -- 2015 -- -- -- -- -- -- -- -- -- -- -- -- 2016 -- --

  4. Price of Liquefied U.S. Natural Gas Re-Exports to United Kingdom (Dollars

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    per Thousand Cubic Feet) Decade Year-0 Year-1 Year-2 Year-3 Year-4 Year-5 Year-6 Year-7 Year-8 Year-9 2000's -- -- -- 2010's 7.13 7.66

  5. Price of Liquefied U.S. Natural Gas Re-Exports to United Kingdom (Dollars

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    per Thousand Cubic Feet) Year Jan Feb Mar Apr May Jun Jul Aug Sep Oct Nov Dec 2010 -- -- -- -- -- -- -- -- -- -- 6.79 7.32 2011 7.66 -- -- -- -- -- -- -- -- -- -- -- 2012 -- -- -- -- -- -- -- -- -- -- -- -- 2013 -- -- -- -- -- -- -- -- -- -- -- -- 2014 -- -- -- -- -- -- -- -- -- -- -- -- 2015 -- -- -- -- -- -- -- -- -- -- -- -- 2016 -- --

  6. Strategic environmental assessment (SEA) for wind energy planning: Lessons from the United Kingdom and Germany

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Phylip-Jones, J. Fischer, T.B.

    2015-01-15

    This paper reports on SEA applied in the wind energy sector in the UK and Germany. Based on a review of 18 SEAs, it is found that the quality of SEA documentation is variable, with over a third of them being deemed unsatisfactory. Furthermore, SEA processes are conducted to varying degrees of effectiveness, with scoping a strength but impact prediction and mitigation weaknesses. Generally speaking, the influence of SEA on German wind energy plan making was found to be low and the influence of SEA on UK plans deemed to be moderate. The German plans had a low influence mainly because of a perceived high environmental performance of the underlying plans in the first instance. Substantive outcomes of SEA are not always clear and the influence of SEA on decision making is said to be limited in many cases. Finally, a lack of effective tiering between SEA and project level EIA is also observed. In addition, our findings echo some of the weaknesses of SEA practice found in previous studies of SEA effectiveness, including poor impact prediction and significance sections and a lack of detailed monitoring programmes for post plan implementation.

  7. Interpreting, correlating, and predicting the multimedia concentrations of PCDD/Fs in the United Kingdom

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Cole, J.G.; Mackay, D.; Jones, K.C.; Alcock, R.E.

    1999-02-01

    Reported concentrated of 17 polychlorinated dibenzo-p-dioxin and furan congeners or congener groups in ten environmental media of the UK have been compiled. The relative equilibrium status of each congener is deduced with respect to its concentration in urban air which is regarded as the primary source of multimedia contamination. This is accomplished by calculating the equilibrium lipid partitioning (ELP) concentration for each congener and medium using partitioning information derived from measured physical chemical properties. It is shown that the extents of departure from equilibrium conditions between media are consistent for all congeners except the octa-chlorinated compounds. This method of analyzing monitoring data and the consistency of intermedia ELP concentration ratios facilitates the interpretation of the fate and levels of these persistent chemicals in a multimedia environment and yields an approximate predictive capability by which levels in one medium can be used to estimate levels in other media. Benefits of this ELP concentration approach are discussed as a means of enhancing the more complete and detailed interpretation of monitoring data for persistent compounds.

  8. Black carbon emissions in the United Kingdom during the past four decades: An empirical analysis

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Novakov, T.; Hansen, J.E.

    2004-04-22

    We use data from a unique 40-year record of 150 urban and rural stations in the ''Black Smoke and SO2 Network'' in Great Britain to infer information about sources of atmospheric black carbon (BC). The data show a rapid decline of ambient atmospheric BC between 1962 and the early 1990s that exceeds the decline in official estimates of BC emissions based only on amount of fuel use and mostly fixed emission factors. This provides empirical confirmation of the existence and large impact of a time-dependent ''technology factor'' that must multiply the rate of fossil fuel use. Current ambient BC amounts in Great Britain comparable to those in western and central Europe, with diesel engines being the principal present source. From comparison of BC and SO2 data we infer that current BC emission inventories understate true emissions in the U.K. by about a factor of two. The results imply that there is the potential for improved technology to achieve large reduction of global ambient BC. There is a need for comparable monitoring of BC in other countries.

  9. Selective Catalytic Oxidation (SCO) of NH3 to N2 for Hot Exhaust Treatment

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE)

    Investigation of a series of transition metal oxides and precious metal based catalysts for ammonia selective oxidation at low temperatures

  10. Experimental and Modelling Study of the Effect of Diffusional Limitations on the NH3 SCR Activity

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    Simulations different feed conditions and temperature variations were compared to experimental data collected in validation runs at the monolith scale; made direct comparison of experimental data on the same catalyst in the two configurations (powder vs. monolith)

  11. sup 31 P NMR analysis of coal moieties bearing -OH, -NH, and -SH functions

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Verkade, J.G.

    1991-01-01

    Research on coal structural analysis continues. This paper discusses the use of {sup 31}P, {sup 119}Sn, and {sup 195}Pt as NMR tagging reagents in the probing of coal structure. (VC)

  12. EECBG Success Story: Grants to Help N.H. Towns Conserve Energy

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    New Hampshire has a plan to lower expenses and create jobs, all while conserving energy. The state has received $17.3 million in Energy Efficiency and Conservation Block Grant (EECBG) funding. Learn more.

  13. Hydrothermally stable, low-temperature NO.sub.x reduction NH.sub.3-SCR catalyst

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Narula, Chaitanya K; Yang, Xiaofan

    2015-03-24

    A catalyst composition includes a heterobimetallic zeolite characterized by a chabazite structure loaded with copper ions and at least one trivalent metal ion other than Al.sup.3+. The catalyst composition decreases NO.sub.x emissions in diesel exhaust and is suitable for operation in a catalytic converter.

  14. Selective Catalytic Oxidation (SCO) of NH3 to N2 for Hot Exhaust...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    More Documents & Publications Deactivation Mechanisms of Base MetalZeolite Urea Selective Catalytic Reduction Materials, and Development of Zeolite-Based Hydrocarbon Adsorber ...

  15. Year Month U.S. Average PAD District I Average CT ME MA NH RI

    Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update (EIA)

    1994 January ... 89.6 91.0 90.2 83.8 88.4 80.4 87.3 88.8 92.1 102.5 February ... 92.9 94.6 93.8 90.4 91.3 86.6 91.4 92.3 91.5 105.5...

  16. Year Month U.S. Average PAD District I Average CT ME MA NH RI

    Annual Energy Outlook [U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA)]

    1993 January ... 94.3 95.7 94.9 85.2 94.0 87.1 91.7 93.4 91.2 105.2 February ... 94.6 95.9 96.2 85.4 94.4 86.9 91.8 93.3 90.8 106.8...

  17. Year Month U.S. Average PAD District I Average CT ME MA NH RI

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    1995 January ... 86.9 87.6 86.7 77.8 84.8 78.4 87.3 85.7 88.4 102.4 February ... 87.4 88.2 87.8 77.4 84.9 78.5 87.3 85.9 88.5 103.4...

  18. Year Month U.S. Average PAD District I Average CT ME MA NH RI

    Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update (EIA)

    1996 January ... 94.6 96.1 94.5 93.0 92.0 89.1 94.9 92.6 94.7 111.7 February ... 95.9 97.5 96.2 93.2 93.8 90.8 95.6 93.7 94.4 112.9...

  19. Year Month U.S. Average PAD District I Average CT ME MA NH RI

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    1997 January ... 107.9 109.0 108.6 105.2 106.5 102.1 107.0 104.4 106.5 130.4 February ... 105.1 106.0 105.2 102.2 103.4 101.0 104.5...

  20. NH3-Selective Catalytic Reduction over Ag/Al2O3 Catalysts

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    DRIFT spectroscopy used together with flow reactor experiments to investigate the role of H2 for SCR over Ag/Al2O3

  1. Evaluation of NH3-SCR Catalyst Technology on a 250-kW Stationary...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Engine and Reactor Evaluations of HC-SCR for Diesel NOx Reduction Development of Optimal Catalyst Designs and Operating Strategies for Lean NOx Reduction in Coupled LNT-SCR Systems

  2. Update and Improve Subsection NH - Simplified Elastic and Inelastic Design Analysis Methods

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Jeries J. Abou-Hanna; Douglas L. Marriott; Timothy E. McGreevy

    2009-06-27

    The objective of this subtask is to develop a template for the 'Ideal' high temperature design Code, in which individual topics can be identified and worked on separately in order to provide the detail necessary to comprise a comprehensive Code. Like all ideals, this one may not be attainable as a practical matter. The purpose is to set a goal for what is believed the 'Ideal' design Code should address, recognizing that some elements are not mutually exclusive and that the same objectives can be achieved in different way. Most, if not all existing Codes may therefore be found to be lacking in some respects, but this does not mean necessarily that they are not comprehensive. While this subtask does attempt to list the elements which individually or in combination are considered essential in such a Code, the authors do not presume to recommend how these elements should be implemented or even, that they should all be implemented at all. The scope of this subtask is limited to compiling the list of elements thought to be necessary or at minimum, useful in such an 'Ideal' Code; suggestions are provided as to their relationship to one another. Except for brief descriptions, where these are needed for clarification, neither this repot, nor Task 9 as a whole, attempts to address details of the contents of all these elements. Some, namely primary load limits (elastic, limit load, reference stress), and ratcheting (elastic, e-p, reference stress) are dealt with specifically in other subtasks of Task 9. All others are merely listed; the expectation is that they will either be the focus of attention of other active DOE-ASME GenIV Materials Tasks, e.g. creep-fatigue, or to be considered in future DOE-ASME GenIV Materials Tasks. Since the focus of this Task is specifically approximate methods, the authors have deemed it necessary to include some discussion on what is meant by 'approximate'. However, the topic will be addressed in one or more later subtasks. This report describes work conducted toward developing a template for what might be the 'Ideal' high temperature design Code. While attempting to be as comprehensive as possible as to subject matter, it does not presume to recommend what individual components of a Code should be implemented, some of which is the focus of other Tasks in the DOE-ASME Gen IV/NGNP Materials Projects. This report does serve as a basis for construction of an attribute chart which is being prepared as part of Task 9.2; the intention for which is to provide a uniform format and concise means for summarizing and comparing other high temperature Codes currently in use around the world.

  3. Pittsburg, NH Natural Gas Pipeline Exports to Canada (Dollars per Thousand

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    Cubic Feet) Decade Year-0 Year-1 Year-2 Year-3 Year-4 Year-5 Year-6 Year-7 Year-8 Year-9 2000's -- 7.61 -- 2010's -- 7.54 2.62 6.65 4.06 2.96

  4. Pittsburg, NH Natural Gas Pipeline Exports to Canada (Dollars per Thousand

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    Cubic Feet) Year Jan Feb Mar Apr May Jun Jul Aug Sep Oct Nov Dec 2011 7.54 2012 2.20 2.65 2.46 3.48 2013 14.87 4.39 2014 4.06 4.09 4.01 5.00 3.08 2015 2.81 3.05 2.90 2.95 3.03 3.09 2.09

  5. Pittsburg, NH Natural Gas Pipeline Exports to Canada (Million Cubic Feet)

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    Decade Year-0 Year-1 Year-2 Year-3 Year-4 Year-5 Year-6 Year-7 Year-8 Year-9 2000's 0 64 0 2010's 0 336 199 95 373 735

  6. Pittsburg, NH Natural Gas Pipeline Exports to Canada (Million Cubic Feet)

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    Year Jan Feb Mar Apr May Jun Jul Aug Sep Oct Nov Dec 2011 336 2012 0 138 55 5 2013 21 75 2014 185 76 64 25 23 2015 214 146 92 48 50 181 2

  7. Pittsburg, NH Natural Gas Pipeline Imports From Canada (Million Cubic Feet)

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    Decade Year-0 Year-1 Year-2 Year-3 Year-4 Year-5 Year-6 Year-7 Year-8 Year-9 1990's NA 22,820 2000's 38,289 45,808 29,014 34,983 17,257 28,041 31,853 56,879 39,438 26,767 2010's 18,297 19,826 47,451 63,446 52,160 77,86

  8. Pittsburg, NH Natural Gas Pipeline Imports From Canada (Million Cubic Feet)

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    Year Jan Feb Mar Apr May Jun Jul Aug Sep Oct Nov Dec 2011 5,804 3,798 865 295 2,790 248 792 242 144 126 655 4,066 2012 6,044 5,109 1,927 2,629 2,692 3,438 3,976 3,786 4,614 3,630 4,452 5,155 2013 6,664 6,797 6,522 5,574 4,956 4,182 5,538 4,209 3,136 2,256 6,141 7,471 2014 7,089 5,624 6,224 4,169 1,568 2,080 1,855 1,458 4,627 4,137 6,480 6,847 2015 8,000 7,546 8,124 6,273 4,777 4,491 6,616 6,172 6,339 7,583 6,587 5,359 2016 6,781 5,751 5,926 6,493 5,300 4,35

  9. Structural and sedimentological controls and diagenesis in the Ravenspurn north gas reservoir United Kingdom southern North Sea

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Turner, P. ); Jones, M. ); Prosser, J. ); Williams, G. )

    1993-09-01

    The Ravenspurn area is divided into two main northwest-southeast-trending fault blocks which are markedly different in terms of their diagenetic evolution and reservoir performance. The northeasterly B structure contained gas earlier and was unaffected by Middle to Late Jurassic illitization. The southwesterly A structure was uplifted later and received accumulated gas after reservoir quality was reduced by pervasive illitization. The deposition of allogenic clay and the formation of early quartz, nonferroan dolomite, and anhydrite reduced the reservoir quality of fluvial sheetflood. Burial diagenesis resulted initially in ferroan dolomite, kaolinite, and later quartz precipitation in available primary and secondary porosity. Stable-isotope and fluid-inclusion studies indicate that Ferroan dolomite and later quartz precipitated at about 100[degrees]C in the Triassic-Early Jurassic from reduced fluids derived partly from the Carboniferous basement. Gas accumulation took place first in the northeasterly B structure, which had early closure. Elsewhere diagenetic fluids evolved to a more alkaline state, and widespread illitization took place which particularly affected more permeable eolian facies. The illitization reduced the reservoir quality of the lower Leman Sandstone and contributed to diagenetic sealing (to the northwest) of the field. K-Ar dating indicates that peak illitization took place between 150 and 170 Ma (Middle-Late Jurassic). Subsequent periods of uplift in the late Cimmerian and particularly during the early Tertiary-Miocene produced the final structure of Ravenspurn North and the spillage of gas into this structure. The combination of structural and diagenetic events explains the differences in reservoir quality and well performance of the two structural blocks in the field.

  10. Spatiotemporal Distribution of NOx Storage: a Factor Controlling NH3 and N2O Selectivities over a Commercial LNT Catalyst

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    Evaluation of commercial Ba-based LNT (CLEERS benchmark catalyst; containing oxygen storage capacity) in a bench flow reactor under fast-cycling conditions, varying reductant type, temperature and sulfation level

  11. Superfund record of decision (EPA Region 1): Fletcher`s Paint Works and Storage, Milford, NH, September 30, 1998

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    1999-03-01

    This decision document presents the selected remedial action for the Fletcher`s Paint Works and Storage Facility Superfund Site (Site) located in Milford, New Hampshire. This ROD sets forth the selected remedy for Operable Unit On at the Fletcher`s Paint Site, which involves the excavation and on-site treatment of principal threat wastes which consist of primarily PCB contaminated soils, the replacement of those treated soils at the Site, and placement of a soil and asphalt cover over the residual low level threat wastes. The selected remedy also includes monitored natural attenuation of the contaminated groundwater in the overburdened and bedrock aquifers and institutional controls to prevent future ingestion of contaminated groundwater, as well as restrictions on the use and assess to the subsurface soils at the Elm Street Site.

  12. 2011 Laser Diagnostics in Combustion Gordon Research Conference, (August 14-19, 2011, Waterville Valley Resort, Waterville Valley, NH)

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Thomas Settersten

    2011-08-19

    The vast majority of the world's energy needs are met by combustion of fossil fuels. Optimum utilization of limited resources and control of emissions of pollutants and greenhouse gases demand sustained improvement of combustion technology. This task can be satisfied only by detailed knowledge of the underlying physical and chemical processes. Non-intrusive laser diagnostics continuously contribute to our growing understanding of these complex and coupled multi-scale processes. The GRC on Laser Diagnostics in Combustion focuses on the most recent scientific advances and brings together scientists and engineers working at the leading edge of combustion research. Major tasks of the community are developing and applying methods for precise and accurate measurements of fluid motion and temperatures; chemical compositions; multi-phase phenomena appearing near walls, in spray and sooting combustion; improving sensitivities, precision, spatial resolution and tracking transients in their spatio-temporal development. The properties and behaviour of novel laser sources, detectors, optical systems that lead to new diagnostic capabilities are also part of the conference program.

  13. NOIlVUlSININdV NOIlVWdOdNI AOd3N3 ACTO3NH

    Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update (EIA)

    ... World Oil PricesInternational Petroleum Michael Grillot Macroeconomic ...... Kay A. Smith Energy Product Prices ...... Neil Gamson Petroleum Demands ...

  14. Report on the SNL/AWE/NSF international workshop on joint mechanics, Dartington, United Kingdom, 2729 April 2009.

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Ewins, David J.; Bergman, Lawrence A.; Segalman, Daniel Joseph

    2010-08-01

    The SNL/AWE joint mechanics workshop, held in Dartington Hall, Totnes, Devon, UK 26-29 April 2009 was a follow up to another international joints workshop held in Arlington, Virginia, in October 2006. The preceding workshop focused on identifying what length scales and interactions would be necessary to provide a scientific basis for analyzing and understanding joint mechanics from the atomistic scale on upward. In contrast, the workshop discussed in this report, focused much more on identification and development of methods at longer length scales that can have a nearer term impact on engineering analysis, design, and prediction of the dynamics of jointed structures. Also, the 2009 meeting employed less technical presentation and more break out sessions for developing focused strategies than was the case with the early workshop. Several 'challenges' were identified and assignments were made to teams to develop approaches to address those challenges.

  15. Benzene exposure in the petroleum distribution industry associated with leukemia in the United Kingdom: Overview of the methodology of a case-control study

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Rushton, L.

    1996-12-01

    This paper describes basic principles underlying the methodology for obtaining quantitative estimates of benzene exposure in the petroleum marketing and distribution industry. Work histories for 91 cases of leukemia and 364 matched controls (4 per case) identified for a cohort of oil distribution workers up to the end of 1992 were obtained, primarily from personnel records. Information on the distribution sites, more than 90% of which were closed at the time of data collection, was obtained from site visits and archive material. Industrial hygiene measurements measured under known conditions were assembled for different tasks. These were adjusted for conditions where measured data were not available using variables known to influence exposure, such as temperature, technology, percentage of benzene in fuel handled, products handled, number of loads, and job activity. A quantitative estimate of dermal contact and peak exposure was also made. 20 refs., 1 fig., 3 tabs.

  16. {sup 31}P NMR analysis of coal moieties bearing -OH, -NH, and -SH functions. Quarterly report, January 1, 1991--March 31, 1991

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Verkade, J.G.

    1991-12-31

    Research on coal structural analysis continues. This paper discusses the use of {sup 31}P, {sup 119}Sn, and {sup 195}Pt as NMR tagging reagents in the probing of coal structure. (VC)

  17. Development of ADECS to Meet 2010 Emission Levels: Optimization of NOx, NH3 and Fuel Consumption Using High and Low Engine-Out NOx Calibrations

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE)

    Development and validation of a simple strategy-based technique using four engine parameters to minimize emissions and fuel consumption

  18. Demonstration Assessment of Light-Emitting Diode (LED) Parking Lot Lighting at T.J.Maxx in Manchester, NH Phase I

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Myer, Michael; Goettel, Russell T.

    2010-06-29

    A report describing the process and results of replacing existing parking lot lighting, looking at a LED option with occupancy sensors, and conventional alternates. Criteria include payback, light levels, occupant satisfaction. This report is Phase I of II. Phase I deals with initial installation.

  19. Moving to Sustainable Metals. Multifunctional Ligands in Catalytic, Outer Sphere C-H, N-H and O-H Activation

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Crabtree, Robert

    2015-03-03

    Much of our work during this grant period has emphasized green chemistry and sustainability. For example, we were able to convert glycerine, a waste byproduct of biodiesel production, into lactic acid, a compound with numerous applications, notably in the food and cosmetics industry, as well as being a source material for a biodegradable plastic. This work required a catalyst, that ceases to work after a certain lapse of time. We were able to identify the way in which this deactivation occurs by identifying some of the metal catalyst deactivation products. These proved to be multimetallic clusters containing up to six metals and up to 14 hydrogen atoms. Both the catalytic reaction itself and the deactivation structures are novel and unexpected. We have previously proposed that nitrogen heterocycles could be good energy carriers in a low CO2 future world. In another part of our study, we found catalysts for introduction of hydrogen, an energy carrier that is hard to store, into nitrogen heterocycles. The mechanism of this process proved to be unusual in that the catalyst transfers the H2 to the heterocycle in the form of H+ and H-, first transferring the H+ and only then the H-. In a third area of study, some of our compounds, originally prepared for DOE catalysis purposes, also proved useful in hydrocarbon oxidation and in water oxidation. The latter is important in solar-to-fuel work, because, by analogy with natural photosynthesis, the goal of the Yale Solar Group of four PIs is to convert sunlight to hydrogen and oxygen, which requires water splitting catalysts. The catalysts that proved useful mediate the latter reaction: water oxidation to oxygen. In a more technical study, we developed methods for distinguishing the case where catalysis is mediated by a soluble catalyst from cases where catalysis arises from a deposit of finely divided solid. One particular application involved electrocatalysis, where catalysis is driven by application of a voltage to electrodes dipped in the reactant mixture. We measured the mass increase of an electrode as material is deposited, and were able to see how this process is affected by the voltage supplied to the electrode. Our work continues to be well cited and we often receive requests for information or samples from fellow researchers.

  20. Abnormal crystal growth in CH3NH3PbI3-xClx using a multi-cycle solution coating process

    DOE Public Access Gateway for Energy & Science Beta (PAGES Beta)

    Dong, Qingfeng; Yuan, Yongbo; Shao, Yuchuan; Fang, Yanjun; Wang, Qi; Huang, Jinsong

    2015-06-23

    Recently, the efficiency of organolead trihalide perovskite solar cells has improved greatly because of improved material qualities with longer carrier diffusion lengths. Mixing chlorine in the precursor for mixed halide films has been reported to dramatically enhance the diffusion lengths of mixed halide perovskite films, mainly as a result of a much longer carrier recombination lifetime. Here we report that adding Cl containing precursor for mixed halide perovskite formation can induce the abnormal grain growth behavior that yields well-oriented grains accompanied by the appearance of some very large size grains. The abnormal grain growth becomes prominent only after multi-cycle coatingmore » of MAI : MACl blend precursor. The large grain size is found mainly to contribute to a longer carrier charge recombination lifetime, and thus increases the device efficiency to 18.9%, but without significantly impacting the carrier transport property. As a result, the strong correlation identified between material process and morphology provides guidelines for future material optimization and device efficiency enhancement.« less

  1. Addendum to Guarantee Testing Results from the Greenidge Multi-Pollutant Control Project: Additiona NH3, NOx, and CO Testing Results

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Connell, Daniel P; Locke, James E

    2008-03-01

    On March 28-30 and May 1-4, 2007, CONSOL Energy Inc. Research & Development (CONSOL R&D) performed flue gas sampling at AES Greenidge to verify the performance of the multi-pollutant control system recently installed by Babcock Power Environmental Inc. (BPEI) on the 107-MW Unit 4 (Boiler 6). The multi-pollutant control system includes combustion modifications and a hybrid selective non-catalytic reduction (SNCR)/in-duct selective catalytic reduction (SCR) system to reduce NO{sub x} emissions, followed by a Turbosorp{reg_sign} circulating fluidized bed dry scrubber system and baghouse to reduce emissions of SO{sub 2}, SO{sub 3}, HCl, HF, and particulate matter. Mercury removal is provided via the co-benefits afforded by the in-duct SCR, dry scrubber, and baghouse and by injection of activated carbon upstream of the scrubber, as required. The testing in March and May demonstrated that the multi-pollutant control system attained its performance targets for NO{sub x} emissions, SO{sub 2} removal efficiency, acid gas (SO{sub 3}, HCl, and HF) removal efficiency, and mercury removal efficiency. However, the ammonia slip measured between the SCR outlet and air heater inlet was consistently greater than the guarantee of 2 ppmvd {at} 3% O{sub 2}. As a result, additional testing was performed on May 30-June 1 and on June 20-21, 2007, in conjunction with tuning of the hybrid NO{sub x} control system by BPEI, in an effort to achieve the performance target for ammonia slip. This additional testing occurred after the installation of a large particle ash (LPA) screen and removal system just above the SCR reactor and a fresh SCR catalyst layer in mid-May. This report describes the results of the additional tests. During the May 30-June 1 sampling period, CONSOL R&D and Clean Air Engineering (CAE) each measured flue gas ammonia concentrations at the air heater inlet, downstream of the in-duct SCR reactor. In addition, CONSOL R&D measured flue gas ammonia concentrations at the economizer outlet, upstream of the SCR reactor, and CAE measured flue gas NO{sub x} and CO concentrations at the sampling grids located at the inlet and outlet of the SCR reactor. During the June 20-21 sampling period, CONSOL R&D measured flue gas ammonia concentrations at the air heater inlet. All ammonia measurements were performed using a modified version of U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) Conditional Test Method (CTM) 027. The NO{sub x} and CO measurements were performed using U.S. EPA Methods 7E and 10, respectively.

  2. Climatology of wave breaking and mixing in the Northern Hemisphere summer stratosphere

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Wagner, R.E.

    1999-07-02

    The cause of large zonal ozone variations observed by POAM II (Polar Ozone and Aerosol Measurement II) in the Northern Hemisphere (NH) summer stratosphere between 55N-65N and 20-30 km is investigated using the United Kingdom Meteorological Office stratospheric data set with time-mean anomalies removed. This study tests the hypothesis from Hoppel et al. 1999 that breaking of westward-propagating planetary waves in the region of maximum ozone variance (RMV) induces substantial meridional transport which is responsible for the observed ozone variance. EP-flux vectors show that wave activity propagates vertically from source regions in the lower midlatitude troposphere into the stratosphere and RMV during the NH summer. In the RMV, EP-flux divergence is clearly nonzero, which means the zonal-mean zonal flow is forced by waves in this region. Close examination of individual zonal wavenumber contributions to the climatological monthly-mean EP-flux divergence shows that wavenumbers 1-5 generally account for over 90% of the forcing of the zonal-mean flow in the RMV from June to August.

  3. EWIS European wind integration study (Smart Grid Project) (United...

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    United Kingdom) Jump to: navigation, search Project Name EWIS European wind integration study Country United Kingdom Coordinates 55.378052, -3.435973 Loading map......

  4. UK - NETL Cooperation | Open Energy Information

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    Cooperation AgencyCompany Organization National Energy Technology Laboratory Partner United Kingdom Sector Energy Website http:www.netl.doe.govtechno Country United Kingdom...

  5. Wavegen Ltd | Open Energy Information

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    navigation, search Name: Wavegen Ltd Address: 13a Harbour Rd Place: Inverness, Scotland, United Kingdom Zip: IV1 1SY Region: United Kingdom Sector: Marine and Hydrokinetic...

  6. AFTER A Framework for electrical power sysTems vulnerability...

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    United Kingdom) Jump to: navigation, search Project Name AFTER A Framework for electrical power sysTems vulnerability identification, dEfense and Restoration Country United Kingdom...

  7. Modelling and Development of a High Performance Milling Process...

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    AMRC - Advanced Manufacturing Research Centre with Boeing, University of Sheffield (United Kingdom) Technicut Limited, 609-617 Attercliffe Road, Sheffield S93RD UK (United Kingdom) ...

  8. Room temperature ferrimagnetism and ferroelectricity in strained...

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    Univ. of Cambridge, Cambridge (United Kingdom). Dept. of Materials Science Rutherford Appleton Lab., Didcot (United Kingdom). ISIS, Science and Technology Facilities Council ...

  9. Vertical structure and physical processes of the Madden-Julian...

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    ... Met Office, Exeter (United Kingdom) Univ. of Reading, Reading (United Kingdom). National Centre for Atmospheric Science-Climate California Inst. of Technology (CalTech), Pasadena, ...

  10. ,"New Hampshire Natural Gas Summary"

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    ...","N3010NH3","N3020NH3","N3035NH3","N3045NH3" "Date","Natural Gas Citygate Price in New Hampshire (Dollars per Thousand Cubic Feet)","New Hampshire Price of Natural Gas Delivered ...

  11. --No Title--

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    | Month | | | Persian | Total | Non | United | | Gulf(1) | OPEC(2) | OPEC | Kingdom | Venezuela | | | |||||...

  12. --No Title--

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    | Month | | | Persian | Total | Non | United | | Gulf(1) | OPEC(2) | OPEC | Kingdom | Venezuela| | | ||||| 1978...

  13. --No Title--

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    | | Year | | | | | Month | | | Persian | Total | Non | United | | Gulf(1) | OPEC(2) | OPEC | Kingdom | Venezuela| | | ||||...

  14. --No Title--

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    | | Year | | | | | Month | | | Persian | Total | Non | United | | Gulf(1) | OPEC(2) | OPEC | Kingdom | Venezuela | | | |||...

  15. --No Title--

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    | | | || | | Year | | | | | Month | | | Persian | Total | Non | United | | Gulf(1) | OPEC(2) | OPEC | Kingdom | Venezuela | | | |...

  16. --No Title--

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    | | | Year | | | | | Month | | | Persian | Total | Non | United | | Gulf(1) | OPEC(2) | OPEC | Kingdom | Venezuela| | | |||...

  17. ,"New Hampshire Natural Gas Summary"

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    ...NH3","N3050NH3","N3010NH3","N3020NH3","N3035NH3","NA1570SNH3","N3045NH3" "Date","New Hampshire Natural Gas Imports Price (Dollars per Thousand Cubic Feet)","Price of New ...

  18. EV Community Readiness projects: New York City and Lower Hudson Valley Clean Communities, Inc. (NY, MA, PA); NYSERDA (ME, NH, VT, MA, RI, CT, NY, NJ, PA, DE, MD, DC)

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    2013 DOE Hydrogen and Fuel Cells Program and Vehicle Technologies Program Annual Merit Review and Peer Evaluation Meeting

  19. Abnormal crystal growth in CH3NH3PbI3-xClx using a multi-cycle solution coating process

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Dong, Qingfeng; Yuan, Yongbo; Shao, Yuchuan; Fang, Yanjun; Wang, Qi; Huang, Jinsong

    2015-06-23

    Recently, the efficiency of organolead trihalide perovskite solar cells has improved greatly because of improved material qualities with longer carrier diffusion lengths. Mixing chlorine in the precursor for mixed halide films has been reported to dramatically enhance the diffusion lengths of mixed halide perovskite films, mainly as a result of a much longer carrier recombination lifetime. Here we report that adding Cl containing precursor for mixed halide perovskite formation can induce the abnormal grain growth behavior that yields well-oriented grains accompanied by the appearance of some very large size grains. The abnormal grain growth becomes prominent only after multi-cycle coating of MAI : MACl blend precursor. The large grain size is found mainly to contribute to a longer carrier charge recombination lifetime, and thus increases the device efficiency to 18.9%, but without significantly impacting the carrier transport property. As a result, the strong correlation identified between material process and morphology provides guidelines for future material optimization and device efficiency enhancement.

  20. SAND97-8490 UC-404 Unlimited Release

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    ... Reading Berks RG7 4PR United Kingdom Cambridge University Attn: Prof. M. F. Ashby Engineering Department Trumpington St. Cambridge CB2 1PZ United Kingdom ERG Inc. Attn: Mr. ...

  1. Property:Project Country | Open Energy Information

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    property. (previous 25) (next 25) M MHK Projects + United Kingdom + MHK Projects40MW Lewis project + United Kingdom + MHK ProjectsADM 3 + Ireland + MHK ProjectsADM 4 + United...

  2. EA-1123: Final Environmental Assessment

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE)

    Transfer of Normal and Low-Enriched Uranium Billets to the United Kingdom, Hanford Site, Richland, Washington

  3. Bioconversion Technologies | Open Energy Information

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    to: navigation, search Name: Bioconversion Technologies Place: United Kingdom Sector: Biofuels Product: Second-generation biofuels technology developer References: Bioconversion...

  4. Cambridge Enterprise | Open Energy Information

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    Enterprise Jump to: navigation, search Name: Cambridge Enterprise Place: United Kingdom Sector: Services Product: General Financial & Legal Services ( Subsidiary Division )...

  5. Westminster Energy Environment Transport Forum | Open Energy...

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    Westminster Energy Environment Transport Forum Jump to: navigation, search Name: Westminster Energy, Environment & Transport Forum Place: United Kingdom Product: String...

  6. EA-1123: Finding of No Significant Impact

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    Transfer of Normal and Low-Enriched Uranium Billets to the United Kingdom, Hanford Site, Richland, Washington

  7. TITLE AUTHORS SUBJECT SUBJECT RELATED DESCRIPTION PUBLISHER AVAILABILI...

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    Braithwaite P Ove Arup Partners Birmingham United Kingdom ENVIRONMENTAL SCIENCES POLLUTION CONTROL BENTONITE CONTAINMENT SOILS REMEDIAL ACTION ENVIRONMENTAL TRANSPORT The...

  8. Containment barrier at Pride Park, Derby, England Barker, P....

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    P. Ove Arup & Partners, Birmingham (United Kingdom) 54 ENVIRONMENTAL SCIENCES; POLLUTION CONTROL; BENTONITE; CONTAINMENT; SOILS; REMEDIAL ACTION; ENVIRONMENTAL TRANSPORT The...

  9. Microsoft PowerPoint - 3_Gary and Brian_Wednesday 5-22 Transit...

    National Nuclear Security Administration (NNSA)

    France Germany Italy Japan Kazakhstan Mexico Netherlands China Russia Spain United Kingdom Sweden 5 Natural Uranium Imports ...

  10. Search for: All records | DOE PAGES

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    Article Publisher's Accepted Manuscript Journal Name: Subject: Identifier Numbers: ... Microbiota and Host Nutrition across Plant and Animal Kingdoms Hacquard, Stphane ; ...