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1

An action with positive kinetic energy term for general relativity  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

At first, we state some results in arXiv: 0707.2639, and then, using a positive kinetic energy coordinate condition given by arXiv: 0707.2639, we present an action with positive kinetic energy term for general relativity. Based on this action, the corresponding theory of canonical quantization is discussed.

T. Mei

2007-11-02T23:59:59.000Z

2

Negative kinetic energy term of general relativity and its removing  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

We first present a new Lagrangian of general relativity, which can be divided into kinetic energy term and potential energy term. Taking advantage of vierbein formalism, we reduce the kinetic energy term to a sum of five positive terms and one negative term. Some gauge conditions removing the negative kinetic energy term are discussed. Finally, we present a Lagrangian that only include positive kinetic energy terms. To remove the negative kinetic energy term leads to a new field equation of general relativity in which there are at least five equations of constraint and at most five dynamical equations, this characteristic is different from the normal Einstein field equation in which there are four equations of constraint and six dynamical equations.

T. Mei

2009-03-30T23:59:59.000Z

3

Experimental analysis of general ion recombination in a liquid-filled ionization chamber in high-energy photon beams  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Purpose: To study experimentally the general ion recombination effect in a liquid-filled ionization chamber (LIC) in high-energy photon beams. Methods: The general ion recombination effect on the response of a micro liquid ion chamber (microLion) was investigated with a 6 MV photon beam in normal and SRS modes produced from a Varian{sup Registered-Sign} Novalis Tx{sup TM} linear accelerator. Dose rates of the linear accelerator were set to 100, 400, and 1000 MU/min, which correspond to pulse repetition frequencies of 60, 240, and 600 Hz, respectively. Polarization voltages applied to the microLion were +800 and +400 V. The relative collection efficiency of the microLion response as a function of dose per pulse was experimentally measured with changing polarization voltage and pulse repetition frequencies and was compared with the theoretically calculated value. Results: For the 60 Hz pulse repetition frequency, the experimental relative collection efficiency was not different from the theoretical one for a pulsed beam more than 0.3% for both polarization voltages. For a pulsed radiation beam with a higher pulse repetition frequency, the experimental relative collection efficiency converged to the theoretically calculated efficiency for continuous beams. This result indicates that the response of the microLion tends toward the response to a continuous beam with increasing pulse repetition frequency of a pulsed beam because of low ion mobility in the liquid. Conclusions: This work suggests an empirical method to correct for differences in general ion recombination of a LIC between different radiation fields. More work is needed to quantitatively explain the LIC general ion recombination behavior in pulsed beams generated from linear accelerators.

Chung, Eunah; Seuntjens, Jan [Medical Physics Unit, McGill University, Montreal General Hospital (L5-113), 1650 Cedar Avenue, Montreal, Quebec H3G 1A4 (Canada); Davis, Stephen [Department of Medical Physics, McGill University Health Centre, Montreal General Hospital (L5-112), 1650 Cedar Avenue, Montreal, Quebec H3G 1A4 (Canada)

2013-06-15T23:59:59.000Z

4

Flow chamber  

DOE Patents [OSTI]

A flow chamber having a vacuum chamber and a specimen chamber. The specimen chamber may have an opening through which a fluid may be introduced and an opening through which the fluid may exit. The vacuum chamber may have an opening through which contents of the vacuum chamber may be evacuated. A portion of the flow chamber may be flexible, and a vacuum may be used to hold the components of the flow chamber together.

Morozov, Victor (Manassas, VA)

2011-01-18T23:59:59.000Z

5

Ionization chamber  

DOE Patents [OSTI]

An ionization chamber has separate drift and detection regions electrically isolated from each other by a fine wire grid. A relatively weak electric field can be maintained in the drift region when the grid and another electrode in the chamber are connected to a high voltage source. A much stronger electric field can be provided in the detection region by connecting wire electrodes therein to another high voltage source. The detection region can thus be operated in a proportional mode when a suitable gas is contained in the chamber. High resolution output pulse waveforms are provided across a resistor connected to the detection region anode, after ionizing radiation enters the drift region and ionize the gas.

Walenta, Albert H. (Port Jefferson Station, NY)

1981-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

6

Chamber transport  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Heavy ion beam transport through the containment chamber plays a crucial role in all heavy ion fusion (HIF) scenarios. Here, several parameters are used to characterize the operating space for HIF beams; transport modes are assessed in relation to evolving target/accelerator requirements; results of recent relevant experiments and simulations of HIF transport are summarized; and relevant instabilities are reviewed. All transport options still exist, including (1) vacuum ballistic transport, (2) neutralized ballistic transport, and (3) channel-like transport. Presently, the European HIF program favors vacuum ballistic transport, while the US HIF program favors neutralized ballistic transport with channel-like transport as an alternate approach. Further transport research is needed to clearly guide selection of the most attractive, integrated HIF system.

OLSON,CRAIG L.

2000-05-17T23:59:59.000Z

7

A reaction-based paradigm to model reactive chemical transport in groundwater with general kinetic and equilibrium reactions  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

This paper presents a reaction-based water quality transport model in subsurface flow systems. Transport of chemical species with a variety of chemical and physical processes is mathematically described by M partial differential equations (PDEs). Decomposition via Gauss-Jordan column reduction of the reaction network transforms M species reactive transport equations into two sets of equations: a set of thermodynamic equilibrium equations representing NE equilibrium reactions and a set of reactive transport equations of M-NE kinetic-variables involving no equilibrium reactions (a kinetic-variable is a linear combination of species). The elimination of equilibrium reactions from reactive transport equations allows robust and efficient numerical integration. The model solves the PDEs of kinetic-variables rather than individual chemical species, which reduces the number of reactive transport equations and simplifies the reaction terms in the equations. A variety of numerical methods are investigated for solving the coupled transport and reaction equations. Simulation comparisons with exact solutions were performed to verify numerical accuracy and assess the effectiveness of various numerical strategies to deal with different application circumstances. Two validation examples involving simulations of uranium transport in soil columns are presented to evaluate the ability of the model to simulate reactive transport with complex reaction networks involving both kinetic and equilibrium reactions.

Zhang, Fan [ORNL; Yeh, Gour-Tsyh [University of Central Florida, Orlando; Parker, Jack C [ORNL; Brooks, Scott C [ORNL; Pace, Molly [ORNL; Kim, Young Jin [ORNL; Jardine, Philip M [ORNL; Watson, David B [ORNL

2007-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

8

The Environmental Chamber  

Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

2 2 The Environmental Chamber Al Hodgson and Richard Allen test methyl chloride exposures using the environmental chamber. On the second floor of an unremarkable building at LBL, researchers are using a room within a room to smoke out indoor air pollutants. The environmental chamber is a stainless-steel-lined room of 540 ft cubed (20 meters cubed) which can be operated in several ways to meet the needs of different research projects, including studies for which a very low background is required. Scientists of the Indoor Environment Program and their collaborators use the chamber as a controlled indoor environment to study the behavior of a variety of indoor pollutants ranging from cigarette smoke to volatile organic compounds (VOCs) from new carpets. At the moment, four projects use the facility. Principal investigator Al

9

BNL | ATF Experimental Chambers  

Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

Laser Injection Vacuum Chamber Located on beam line 1, the "Smith-Purcell box" has 140 liters of usable volume. Due to its size, it is mounted on a fixed platform. Hosted...

10

Mercury Chamber Considerations  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Mercury Chamber Considerations V. Graves IDS-NF Target Studies July 2011 #12;2 Managed by UT-Battelle for the U.S. Department of Energy Mercury Chamber Considerations, July 2011 Flow Loop Review · 1 cm dia nozzle, 20 m/s jet requires 1.57 liter/sec mercury flow (94.2 liter/min, 24.9 gpm). · MERIT experiment

McDonald, Kirk

11

Final report for NIF chamber dynamics studies  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

The National Ignition Facility (NIF), a 1.8 MJ, 192 laser beam facility, will have anticipated fusion yields of up to 20 MJ from D-T pellets encased in a gold hohlraum target. The energy emitted from the target in the form of x rays, neutrons, target debris kinetic energy, and target shrapnel will be contained in a 5 m. radius spherical target chamber. various diagnostics will be stationed around the target at varying distances from the target. During each shot, the target will emit x rays that will vaporize nearby target facing surfaces including those of the diagnostics, the target positioner, and other chamber structures. This ablated vapor will be transported throughout the chamber, and will eventually condense and deposit on surfaces in the chamber, including the final optics debris shields. The research at the University of California at Berkeley relates primarily to the NIF chamber dynamics. The key design issues are the ablation of the chamber structures, transport of the vapor through the chamber and the condensation or deposition processes of those vaporized materials. An understanding of these processes is essential in developing a concept for protecting the fina optics debris shields from an excessive coating (> 10 A) of target debris and ablated material, thereby prolonging their lifetime between change-outs. At Berkeley, we have studied the physical issues of the ablation process and the effects of varying materials, the condensation process of the vaporized material, and design schemes that can lower the threat posed to the debris shields by these processes. The work or portions of the work completed this year have been published in several papers and a dissertation [l-5].

Burnham, A; Peterson, P F; Scott, J M

1998-09-01T23:59:59.000Z

12

Sleeve reaction chamber system  

DOE Patents [OSTI]

A chemical reaction chamber system that combines devices such as doped polysilicon for heating, bulk silicon for convective cooling, and thermoelectric (TE) coolers to augment the heating and cooling rates of the reaction chamber or chambers. In addition the system includes non-silicon-based reaction chambers such as any high thermal conductivity material used in combination with a thermoelectric cooling mechanism (i.e., Peltier device). The heat contained in the thermally conductive part of the system can be used/reused to heat the device, thereby conserving energy and expediting the heating/cooling rates. The system combines a micromachined silicon reaction chamber, for example, with an additional module/device for augmented heating/cooling using the Peltier effect. This additional module is particularly useful in extreme environments (very hot or extremely cold) where augmented heating/cooling would be useful to speed up the thermal cycling rates. The chemical reaction chamber system has various applications for synthesis or processing of organic, inorganic, or biochemical reactions, including the polymerase chain reaction (PCR) and/or other DNA reactions, such as the ligase chain reaction.

Northrup, M. Allen (Berkeley, CA); Beeman, Barton V. (San Mateo, CA); Benett, William J. (Livermore, CA); Hadley, Dean R. (Manteca, CA); Landre, Phoebe (Livermore, CA); Lehew, Stacy L. (Livermore, CA); Krulevitch, Peter A. (Pleasanton, CA)

2009-08-25T23:59:59.000Z

13

CALCULATION OF PULSED KICKER MAGNETIC FIELD ATTENUATION INSIDE BEAM CHAMBERS  

Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

CALCULATION OF PULSED KICKER MAGNETIC FIELD ATTENUATION CALCULATION OF PULSED KICKER MAGNETIC FIELD ATTENUATION INSIDE BEAM CHAMBERS S. H. Kim January 8, 2001 1. Introduction and Summary The ceramic beam chambers in the sections of the kicker magnets for the beam injection and extraction in the Advanced Photon Source (APS) are made of alumina. The inner surface of the ceramic chamber is coated with a conductive paste. The choice of coating thickness is intended to reduce the shielding of the pulsed kicker magnetic field while containing the electromagnetic fields due to the beam bunches inside the chamber, and minimize the Ohmic heating due to the fields on the chamber [1]. The thin coating generally does not give a uniform surface resistivity for typical dimensions of the ceramic chambers in use. The chamber cross section is a circular or

14

Kinetic equilibrium and relativistic thermodynamics  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Relativistic thermodynamics is treated from the point of view of kinetic theory. It is shown that the generalized J\\"uttner distribution suggested in [1] is compatible with kinetic equilibrium. The requirement of compatibility of kinetic and thermodynamic equilibrium reveals several generalizations of the Gibbs relation where the velocity field is an independent thermodynamic variable.

P. Vn

2011-02-01T23:59:59.000Z

15

Liquid Wall Chambers  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

The key feature of liquid wall chambers is the use of a renewable liquid layer to protect chamber structures from target emissions. Two primary options have been proposed and studied: wetted wall chambers and thick liquid wall (TLW) chambers. With wetted wall designs, a thin layer of liquid shields the structural first wall from short ranged target emissions (x-rays, ions and debris) but not neutrons. Various schemes have been proposed to establish and renew the liquid layer between shots including flow-guiding porous fabrics (e.g., Osiris, HIBALL), porous rigid structures (Prometheus) and thin film flows (KOYO). The thin liquid layer can be the tritium breeding material (e.g., flibe, PbLi, or Li) or another liquid metal such as Pb. TLWs use liquid jets injected by stationary or oscillating nozzles to form a neutronically thick layer (typically with an effective thickness of {approx}50 cm) of liquid between the target and first structural wall. In addition to absorbing short ranged emissions, the thick liquid layer degrades the neutron flux and energy reaching the first wall, typically by {approx}10 x x, so that steel walls can survive for the life of the plant ({approx}30-60 yrs). The thick liquid serves as the primary coolant and tritium breeding material (most recent designs use flibe, but the earliest concepts used Li). In essence, the TLW places the fusion blanket inside the first wall instead of behind the first wall.

Meier, W R

2011-02-24T23:59:59.000Z

16

Secondary emission gas chamber  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

For a hadron calorimeter active element there is considered a gaseous secondary emis-sion detector (150 micron gap, 50 kV/cm). Such one-stage parallel plate chamber must be a radiation hard, fast and simple. A model of such detector has been produced, tested and some characteristics are presented.

V. In'shakov; V. Kryshkin; V. Skvortsov

2014-12-10T23:59:59.000Z

17

Improved wire chamber  

DOE Patents [OSTI]

An improved gas mixture for use with proportional counter devices, such as Geiger-Mueller tubes and drift chambers. The improved gas mixture provides a stable drift velocity while eliminating wire aging caused by prior art gas mixtures. The new gas mixture is comprised of equal parts argon and ethane gas and having approximately 0.25% isopropyl alcohol vapor. 2 figs.

Atac, M.

1987-05-12T23:59:59.000Z

18

Multi-anode ionization chamber  

DOE Patents [OSTI]

The present invention includes a high-energy detector having a cathode chamber, a support member, and anode segments. The cathode chamber extends along a longitudinal axis. The support member is fixed within the cathode chamber and extends from the first end of the cathode chamber to the second end of the cathode chamber. The anode segments are supported by the support member and are spaced along the longitudinal surface of the support member. The anode segments are configured to generate at least a first electrical signal in response to electrons impinging thereon.

Bolotnikov, Aleksey E. (South Setauket, NY); Smith, Graham (Port Jefferson, NY); Mahler, George J. (Rocky Point, NY); Vanier, Peter E. (Setauket, NY)

2010-12-28T23:59:59.000Z

19

The four-chambered heart.  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

??The Four-Chambered Heart is a collection of four short stories centering around themes and motifs most popular in the genre of magical realism. Important to (more)

Christie, Jennifer L.

2013-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

20

LRL 25-inch Bubble Chamber  

DOE R&D Accomplishments [OSTI]

The recently completed 25-inch hydrogen bubble chamber combines excellent picture quality with a fast operating cycle. The chamber has a unique optical system and is designed to take several pictures each Bevatron pulse, in conjunction with the Bevatron rapid beam ejection system.

Alvarez, L. W.; Gow, J. D.; Barrera, F.; Eckman, G.; Shand, J.; Watt, R.; Norgren, D.; Hernandez, H. P.

1964-07-08T23:59:59.000Z

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "kinetics chamber general" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


21

MFE Chamber Overview Mohamed Abdou  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

MFE Chamber Overview Mohamed Abdou Presented to: Chamber Technology Peer Review UCLA, Los Angeles/Be/structure thermomechanics interactions - Framework: IEA collaboration; part of US strategy to gain access to the larger to VNS; sparked world interest - IEA initiated a study in 1994 on VNS, called HVPNS. A scholarly

Abdou, Mohamed

22

Ion chamber based neutron detectors  

DOE Patents [OSTI]

A neutron detector with monolithically integrated readout circuitry, including: a bonded semiconductor die; an ion chamber formed in the bonded semiconductor die; a first electrode and a second electrode formed in the ion chamber; a neutron absorbing material filling the ion chamber; and the readout circuitry which is electrically coupled to the first and second electrodes. The bonded semiconductor die includes an etched semiconductor substrate bonded to an active semiconductor substrate. The readout circuitry is formed in a portion of the active semiconductor substrate. The ion chamber has a substantially planar first surface on which the first electrode is formed and a substantially planar second surface, parallel to the first surface, on which the second electrode is formed. The distance between the first electrode and the second electrode may be equal to or less than the 50% attenuation length for neutrons in the neutron absorbing material filling the ion chamber.

Derzon, Mark S; Galambos, Paul C; Renzi, Ronald F

2014-12-16T23:59:59.000Z

23

Application of Ice Nucleation Kinetics in Orographic Clouds  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

Ice nucleation by silver iodide-sodium iodide aerosol particles has been characterized in the Colorado State University isothermal cloud chamber using the techniques of chemical kinetics. Two separate mechanisms of condensation-freezing ice ...

Rochelle R. Blumenstein; Robert M. Rauber; Lewis O. Grant; William G. Finnegan

1987-10-01T23:59:59.000Z

24

Argonne starts huilding huge bubble chamber  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

Argonne starts huilding huge bubble chamber ... Construction has started on the $10 million bubble chamber to be built at Argonne National Laboratory, Argonne, 111. ... Claimed by Argonne to be the world's largest chamber, it will be completed in 1969. ...

1967-06-26T23:59:59.000Z

25

Light diffusing fiber optic chamber  

DOE Patents [OSTI]

A light diffusion system for transmitting light to a target area. The light is transmitted in a direction from a proximal end to a distal end by an optical fiber. A diffusing chamber is operatively connected to the optical fiber for transmitting the light from the proximal end to the distal end and transmitting said light to said target area. A plug is operatively connected to the diffusing chamber for increasing the light that is transmitted to the target area.

Maitland, Duncan J. (Lafayette, CA)

2002-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

26

Directional muon jet chamber for a muon collider (Groovy Chamber)  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

A directional jet drift chamber with PAD readout is proposed here which can select vertex originated muons within a given time window and eliminate those muons which primarily originate upstream, using only a PAD readout. Drift time provides the Z-coordinate, and the center of gravity of charge distribution provides the r-{psi} coordinates. Directionality at the trigger level is obtained by the timing measurement from the PAD hits within a given time window. Because of the long drift time between the bunch crossings, a muon collider enables one to choose a drift distance in the drift chamber as long as 50 cm. This is an important factor in reducing cost of drift chambers which have to cover relatively large areas.

Atac, M. [Fermi National Accelerator Lab., Batavia, IL (United States)]|[Univ. of California, Los Angeles, CA (United States)

1996-10-01T23:59:59.000Z

27

Validation of the neutron and gamma fields in the JSI TRIGA reactor using in-core fission and ionization chambers  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

Abstract CEA developed fission chambers and ionization chambers were utilized at the JSI TRIGA reactor to measure neutron and gamma fields. The measured axial fission rate distributions in the reactor core are generally in good agreement with the calculated values using the Monte Carlo model of the reactor thus verifying both the computational model and the fission chambers. In future, multiple absolutely calibrated fission chambers could be used for more accurate online reactor thermal power monitoring.

Gaper erovnik; Tanja Kaiba; Vladimir Radulovi?; Ane Jazbec; Sebastjan Rupnik; Loc Barbot; Damien Fourmentel; Luka Snoj

2015-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

28

Chamber Clearing First Principles Modeling  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

LIFE fusion is designed to generate 37.5 MJ of energy per shot, at 13.3 Hz, for a total average fusion power of 500 MW. The energy from each shot is partitioned among neutrons ({approx}78%), x-rays ({approx}12%), and ions ({approx}10%). First wall heating is dominated by x-rays and debris because the neutron mean free path is much longer than the wall thickness. Ion implantation in the first wall also causes damage such as blistering if not prevented. To moderate the peak-pulse heating, the LIFE fusion chamber is filled with a gas (such as xenon) to reduce the peak-pulse heat load. The debris ions and majority of the x-rays stop in the gas, which re-radiates this energy over a longer timescale (allowing time for heat conduction to cool the first wall sufficiently to avoid damage). After a shot, because of the x-ray and ion deposition, the chamber fill gas is hot and turbulent and contains debris ions. The debris needs to be removed. The ions increase the gas density, may cluster or form aerosols, and can interfere with the propagation of the laser beams to the target for the next shot. Moreover, the tritium and high-Z hohlraum debris needs to be recovered for reuse. Additionally, the cryogenic target needs to survive transport through the gas mixture to the chamber center. Hence, it will be necessary to clear the chamber of the hot contaminated gas mixture and refill it with a cool, clean gas between shots. The refilling process may create density gradients that could interfere with beam propagation, so the fluid dynamics must be studied carefully. This paper describes an analytic modeling effort to study the clearing and refilling process for the LIFE fusion chamber. The models used here are derived from first principles and balances of mass and energy, with the intent of providing a first estimate of clearing rates, clearing times, fractional removal of ions, equilibrated chamber temperatures, and equilibrated ion concentrations for the chamber. These can be used to scope the overall problem and provide input to further studies using fluid dynamics and other more sophisticated tools.

Loosmore, G

2009-06-09T23:59:59.000Z

29

Mass independent kinetic energy reducing inlet system for vacuum environment  

DOE Patents [OSTI]

A particle inlet system comprises a first chamber having a limiting orifice for an incoming gas stream and a micrometer controlled expansion slit. Lateral components of the momentum of the particles are substantially cancelled due to symmetry of the configuration once the laminar flow converges at the expansion slit. The particles and flow into a second chamber, which is maintained at a lower pressure than the first chamber, and then moves into a third chamber including multipole guides for electromagnetically confining the particle. The vertical momentum of the particles descending through the center of the third chamber is minimized as an upward stream of gases reduces the downward momentum of the particles. The translational kinetic energy of the particles is near-zero irrespective of the mass of the particles at an exit opening of the third chamber, which may be advantageously employed to provide enhanced mass resolution in mass spectrometry.

Reilly, Peter T.A.

2014-05-13T23:59:59.000Z

30

Mass independent kinetic energy reducing inlet system for vacuum environment  

DOE Patents [OSTI]

A particle inlet system comprises a first chamber having a limiting orifice for an incoming gas stream and a micrometer controlled expansion slit. Lateral components of the momentum of the particles are substantially cancelled due to symmetry of the configuration once the laminar flow converges at the expansion slit. The particles and flow into a second chamber, which is maintained at a lower pressure than the first chamber, and then moves into a third chamber including multipole guides for electromagnetically confining the particle. The vertical momentum of the particles descending through the center of the third chamber is minimized as an upward stream of gases reduces the downward momentum of the particles. The translational kinetic energy of the particles is near-zero irrespective of the mass of the particles at an exit opening of the third chamber, which may be advantageously employed to provide enhanced mass resolution in mass spectrometry.

Reilly, Peter T. A. [Knoxville, TN

2010-12-14T23:59:59.000Z

31

Automation of Evaporation Chamber for International Space Station CONTROL ALGORITHMFUNNEL VIEW  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Automation of Evaporation Chamber for International Space Station MOTIVATION DIAL CONTROL are as shown. The direction of fluid/gas flow is indicated by the arrows. Our team would like to acknowledge the Canadian Space Agency and U of T Thermal Kinetic Lab for their contributions to the project. Gas Fluid

32

Recent Advances in Chamber Science and Technology  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Recent Advances in Chamber Science and Technology Mohamed Abdou April 8, 2002ISFNT-6 San Diego, USA #12;Recent Advances in Chamber Science & Technology OutlineOutline · Highlights of Major World - Experiments - Analysis & Design #12;Highlights of Major World Programs on Chamber (Blanket) Technology

Abdou, Mohamed

33

Mercury Chamber NF-IDS Meeting  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

-Battelle for the U.S. Department of Energy Mercury Chamber Update Oct 2011 Starting Point: Coil and Shielding Concept IDS120H #12;3 Managed by UT-Battelle for the U.S. Department of Energy Mercury Chamber Update Oct 2011 · Penetrations (ports) into chamber ­ Nozzle ­ Hg drains (overflow and maintenance) ­ Vents (in and out) ­ Beam

McDonald, Kirk

34

NIF Target Chamber Dedicated | National Nuclear Security Administratio...  

Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

Dedicated NIF Target Chamber Dedicated June 11, 1999 NIF Target Chamber Dedicated Livermore, CA Secretary Richardson dedicates the National Ignition Facility target chamber at...

35

Neutron-chamber detectors and applications  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Detector applications in Nuclear Safeguards and Waste Management have included measuring neutrons from fission and (alpha,n) reactions with well-moderated neutron proportional counters, often embedded in a slab of polyethylene. Other less-moderated geometries are useful for detecting both bare and moderated fission-source neutrons with good efficiency. The neutron chamber is an undermoderated detector design comprising a large, hollow, polyethylene-walled chamber containing one or more proportional counters. Neutron-chamber detectors are relatively inexpensive; can have large apertures, usually through a thin chamber wall; and offer very good detection efficiency per dollar. Neutron-chamber detectors have also been used for monitoring vehicles and for assaying large crates of transuranic waste. Our Monte Carlo calculations for a new application (monitoring low-density waste for concealed plutonium) illustrate the advantages of the hollow-chamber design for detecting moderated fission sources. 9 refs., 6 figs., 2 tabs.

Fehlau, P.E.; Atwater, H.F.; Coop, K.L.

1990-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

36

Georges Charpak, Particle Detectors, and Multiwire Chambers  

Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

Georges Charpak, Particle Detectors, and Multiwire Chambers Georges Charpak, Particle Detectors, and Multiwire Chambers Resources with Additional Information · Patents Georges Charpak Courtesy of CERN Nobel laureate Georges Charpak [was] a pioneer in the art and science of particle detection ... . [He] developed a host of particle detectors used throughout experimental particle physics. In 1968, he invented and developed the first multiwire proportional chamber, for which he won the [Physics] Nobel Prize in 1992 ... . The multiwire chamber differed from earlier detectors in the speed with which it could record particle tracks from a collision-millions per second, rather than one or two per second for bubble chambers. The speed of the multiwire chamber and its successor technologies, along with their extraordinary precision, led to a revolution in particle physics ... . The technology that Charpak pioneered also finds applications in medicine and industry.

37

Fluidized wall for protecting fusion chamber walls  

DOE Patents [OSTI]

Apparatus for protecting the inner wall of a fusion chamber from microexplosion debris, x-rays, neutrons, etc. produced by deuterium-tritium (DT) targets imploded within the fusion chamber. The apparatus utilizes a fluidized wall similar to a waterfall comprising liquid lithium or solid pellets of lithium-ceramic, the waterfall forming a blanket to prevent damage of the structural materials of the chamber.

Maniscalco, James A. (Danville, CA); Meier, Wayne R. (Livermore, CA)

1982-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

38

meters in CO2 euthanasia chambers. All CO2 euthanasia chambers in both  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

meters in CO2 euthanasia chambers. All CO2 euthanasia chambers in both the facilities and laboratories will need flow meters. ULAR is currently in the process of identifying a cost-effective, accurate, and durable flow meter to install in all of the CO2 chambers in all of the vivaria. When a specific model

Bushman, Frederic

39

IFE Chamber Technology Testing Program In NIF and Chamber Development Test Plan Mohamed A. Abdou  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

. As ITER serves as a fusion testing facility for magnetic fusion energy (MFE) nuclear technology componentIFE Chamber Technology Testing Program In NIF and Chamber Development Test Plan Mohamed A. Abdou chamber technology testing program in NIF involoving: criteria for evaluation

Abdou, Mohamed

40

High Accuracy, Two-Dimensional Read-Out in Multiwire Proportional Chambers  

DOE R&D Accomplishments [OSTI]

In most applications of proportional chambers, especially in high-energy physics, separate chambers are used for measuring different coordinates. In general one coordinate is obtained by recording the pulses from the anode wires around which avalanches have grown. Several methods have been imagined for obtaining the position of an avalanche along a wire. In this article a method is proposed which leads to the same range of accuracies and may be preferred in some cases. The problem of accurate measurements for large-size chamber is also discussed.

Charpak, G.; Sauli, F.

1973-02-14T23:59:59.000Z

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "kinetics chamber general" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


41

The Fractional Kinetic Equation and Thermonuclear Functions  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

The paper discusses the solution of a simple kinetic equation of the type used for the computation of the change of the chemical composition in stars like the Sun. Starting from the standard form of the kinetic equation it is generalized to a fractional kinetic equation and its solutions in terms of H-functions are obtained. The role of thermonuclear functions, which are also represented in terms of G- and H-functions, in such a fractional kinetic equation is emphasized. Results contained in this paper are related to recent investigations of possible astrophysical solutions of the solar neutrino problem.

H. J. Haubold; A. M. Mathai

2000-01-16T23:59:59.000Z

42

Heat transfer and pollutant formation mechanisms in insulated combustion chambers  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

The authors have studied the quenching situation as it can be found in constant volume combustion chambers for a methane flame over a range of wall temperatures between 300 K and 600 K using Direct Numerical Simulation. To do this, the authors solved the fully compressible, one-dimensional Navier-Stokes equations with detailed mechanisms for kinetics and diffusion. This approach allows to compare various reaction schemes, to identify the most important species and reaction paths, and to investigate the influence of different modeling assumptions. The computational results show that the dimensional wall heat flux increases with wall temperature over the whole range of wall temperatures studied; this agrees well with the most recent measurements in a strongly improved experimental setup. It is found that the wall can be modeled as chemically inert and thermal diffusion processes are negligible for low wall temperatures between 300 K and 400 K. However, at higher temperatures, due to a dramatically increasing radical concentration (H, Oh, OH) at the wall, both become increasingly important leading to large heat release rates directly at the metallic wall surface of the combustion chamber, and can thus not be neglected in the modeling of the quenching process. Furthermore, these high radical concentrations adjacent to the wall indicate that the uncertainties in wall heat flux measurements at high wall temperatures could be underestimated by the experimentalists. The UHC concentration at a wall temperature of 600 K is about 20 times smaller than for 300 K after quenching. 37 refs., 12 figs., 1 tab.

Popp, P.; Baum, M.

1995-12-31T23:59:59.000Z

43

Engineering design of a hypobaric plant growth chamber  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

plants with the chamber in place and removed. With the chamber removed, PAR levels were recorded as 461 []mol m? s?; inside the complete chamber the level decreased to 408 []mol m? s?, a difference of 11.5%....

Purswell, Joseph Lawrence

2002-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

44

Virtual Design of Stirling Engine Combustion Chamber  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

The paper deals with the designing of a combustion chamber of the Stirling engine using the CFD approach. Virtual prototypes enabled ... . The presented results help to increase the Stirling engine efficiency tog...

Z. Kaplan; P. Novotn; V. Pt?k

2010-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

45

Manufacturing and qualification of UHV chambers  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

Vacuum chambers or vacuum components that are widespread in research and in industry must fulfill high degrees of cleanliness, especially if they are required for ultra-high-vacuum (UHV) applications. It is shown...

F. Pink; G. Schmidt

2004-03-01T23:59:59.000Z

46

Neutron And Gamma Detector Using An Ionization Chamber With An...  

Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

Neutron And Gamma Detector Using An Ionization Chamber Neutron And Gamma Detector Using An Ionization Chamber With An Integrated Body And Moderator A detector for detecting...

47

Cloud chamber visualization of primary cosmic rays  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

From 1948 until 1963, cloud chambers were carried to the top of the atmosphere by balloons. From these flights, which were begun by Edward P. Ney at the University of Minnesota, came the following results: discovery of heavy cosmic ray nuclei, development of scintillation and cherenkov detectors, discovery of cosmic ray electrons, and studies of solar proton events. The history of that era is illustrated here by cloud chamber photographs of primary cosmic rays.

Earl, James A. [Department of Astronomy, University of Maryland, College Park MD (United States)

2013-02-07T23:59:59.000Z

48

Cavity resonances in engine combustion chambers and some applications  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

Cavity resonances in engine cylinders are caused by combustion events such as the rapid rate of pressure rise that occurs during compression ignition in diesels or from knock in gasoline engines. These resonances generally occur at frequencies greater than 4 to 5 kHz where the engine structure is not an efficient acoustical radiator. However when they occur at lower frequencies such as in engines with a large bore or in indirect injection diesels they can be important in the noise generation process. They are also important for knock detection in gasoline engines. Current knock detection systems are tuned to the frequency band of the lowest cavity resonance in the combustion chamber. It is shown in the paper that higher order resonances can also be detected by a knock vibration sensor on the surface of the engine. Another use for the cavity resonances is to determine the bulk temperature of the gas in the combustion chamber as a function of crank angle. This technique is demonstrated in the paper for a heavy?duty two?stroke diesel. Also the results of several fundamental investigations of cavity resonances in engine combustion chambers are reported briefly. Good agreement is obtained between theoretical prediction of the resonant frequencies and experimental observation. The splitting of degenerate modes into two components is discussed.

Robert Hickling; Douglas A. Feldmaier; Francis H. K. Chen; Josette S. Morel

1983-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

49

Chemical Kinetic Modeling of Advanced Transportation Fuels  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Development of detailed chemical kinetic models for advanced petroleum-based and nonpetroleum based fuels is a difficult challenge because of the hundreds to thousands of different components in these fuels and because some of these fuels contain components that have not been considered in the past. It is important to develop detailed chemical kinetic models for these fuels since the models can be put into engine simulation codes used for optimizing engine design for maximum efficiency and minimal pollutant emissions. For example, these chemistry-enabled engine codes can be used to optimize combustion chamber shape and fuel injection timing. They also allow insight into how the composition of advanced petroleum-based and non-petroleum based fuels affect engine performance characteristics. Additionally, chemical kinetic models can be used separately to interpret important in-cylinder experimental data and gain insight into advanced engine combustion processes such as HCCI and lean burn engines. The objectives are: (1) Develop detailed chemical kinetic reaction models for components of advanced petroleum-based and non-petroleum based fuels. These fuels models include components from vegetable-oil-derived biodiesel, oil-sand derived fuel, alcohol fuels and other advanced bio-based and alternative fuels. (2) Develop detailed chemical kinetic reaction models for mixtures of non-petroleum and petroleum-based components to represent real fuels and lead to efficient reduced combustion models needed for engine modeling codes. (3) Characterize the role of fuel composition on efficiency and pollutant emissions from practical automotive engines.

PItz, W J; Westbrook, C K; Herbinet, O

2009-01-20T23:59:59.000Z

50

Final report for NIF chamber dynamics studies, final rept (May 1997), Subcontract No. B291847  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

The National Ignition Facility (NIF), a 1.8 MJ, 192 laser beam facility, will have anticipated fusion yields of up to 20 MJ from D-T pellets encased in a gold hohlraum target. The energy emitted from the target in the form of x rays, neutrons, target debris kinetic energy, and target shrapnel will be contained in a 5 m. radius spherical target chamber. Various diagnostics will be stationed around the target at varying distances from the target. During each shot, the target will emit x rays that will vaporize nearby target facing surfaces including those of the diagnostics, the target positioner, and other chamber structures. This ablated vapor will be transported throughout the chamber, and will eventually condense and deposit on surfaces in the chamber, including the final optics debris shields. The research at the University of California at Berkeley relates primarily to the NIF chamber dynamics. The key design issues are the ablation of the chamber structures, transport of the vapor through the chamber and the condensation or deposition processes of those vaporized materials. An understanding of these processes is essential in developing a concept for protecting the final optics debris shields from an excessive coating (> 10 {Angstrom}) of target debris and ablated material, thereby prolonging their lifetime between change- outs. At Berkeley, we have studied the physical issues of the ablation process and the effects of varying materials, the condensation process of the vaporized material, and design schemes that can lower the threat posed to the debris shields by these processes. In addition to the work described briefly above, we performed extensive analysis of the target-chamber thermal response to in- chamber CO{sub 2} Cleaning and of work performed to model the behavior of silica vapor. The work completed this year has been published in several papers and a dissertation [1-6]. This report provides a summary of the work completed this year, as well as copies fo presentation materials that have not been published elsewhere. In particular, the Appendix contains copies of presentations made on CO{sub 2} cleaning that are not available elsewhere.

Peterson, P.F.; Jin, H.; Scott, J.M. [University of California, Berkeley (United States)

1997-07-01T23:59:59.000Z

51

E-Print Network 3.0 - atlas muon chambers Sample Search Results  

Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

chambers Search Powered by Explorit Topic List Advanced Search Sample search results for: atlas muon chambers...

52

E-Print Network 3.0 - atlas muon chamber Sample Search Results  

Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

chamber Search Powered by Explorit Topic List Advanced Search Sample search results for: atlas muon chamber...

53

Nonequilibrium quantum kinetics  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

This paper contains viewgraphs on non-equilibrium quantum kinetics of nuclear reactions at the intermediate and high energy ranges.

Danielewicz, P.

1997-09-22T23:59:59.000Z

54

Kinetic decoupling of WIMPs: analytic expressions  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

We present a general expression for the values of the average kinetic energy and of the temperature of kinetic decoupling of a WIMP, valid for any cosmological model. We show an example of the usage of our solution when the Hubble rate has a power-law dependence on temperature, and we show results for the specific cases of kination cosmology and low- temperature reheating cosmology.

Visinelli, Luca

2015-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

55

A Cosmic Ray Measurement Facility for ATLAS Muon Chambers  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Monitored Drift Tube (MDT) chambers will constitute the large majority of precision detectors in the Muon Spectrometer of the ATLAS experiment at the Large Hadron Collider at CERN. For commissioning and calibration of MDT chambers, a Cosmic Ray Measurement Facility is in operation at Munich University. The objectives of this facility are to test the chambers and on-chamber electronics, to map the positions of the anode wires within the chambers with the precision needed for standalone muon momentum measurement in ATLAS, and to gain experience in the operation of the chambers and on-line calibration procedures. Until the start of muon chamber installation in ATLAS, 88 chambers built at the Max Planck Institute for Physics in Munich have to be commissioned and calibrated. With a data taking period of one day individual wire positions can be measured with an accuracy of 8.3 micrometers in the chamber plane and 27 micrometers in the direction perpendicular to that plane.

O. Biebel; M. Binder; M. Boutemeur; A. Brandt; J. Dubbert; G. Duckeck; J. Elmsheuser; F. Fiedler; R. Hertenberger; O. Kortner; T. Nunnemann; F. Rauscher; D. Schaile; P. Schieferdecker; A. Staude; W. Stiller; R. Stroehmer; R. Vertesi

2003-07-30T23:59:59.000Z

56

On-Site Wastewater Treatment Systems: Leaching Chambers  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Leaching chambers distribute treated wastewater into the soil. This publication lists the advantages and disadvantages of leaching chamber systems, explains how to maintain them and gives estimates of costs....

Lesikar, Bruce J.

2000-02-04T23:59:59.000Z

57

Reduce Steam Trap Failures at Chambers Works  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Ultrasonic Inspection At least 2 times per year Steam Trap Surveyor Submit reports to area management, energy team, and reliability engineers for each area every month Steam Trap Team Leader Control Plan ? Process Owner agrees...Reduce Steam Trap Failures at Chambers Works GB/BB Name: Cyndi Kouba Mentor/MBB: Andrew Degraff Team Members Michael Crowley(Site Energy Lead), (Charlie) Flanigan (Aramids-maintenance), Ben Snyder (Aramids-ATO), Michael Scruggs (Central...

Kouba, C.

58

A patient-specific quality assurance study on absolute dose verification using ionization chambers of different volumes in RapidArc treatments  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

The recalculation of 1 fraction from a patient treatment plan on a phantom and subsequent measurements have become the norms for measurement-based verification, which combines the quality assurance recommendations that deal with the treatment planning system and the beam delivery system. This type of evaluation has prompted attention to measurement equipment and techniques. Ionization chambers are considered the gold standard because of their precision, availability, and relative ease of use. This study evaluates and compares 5 different ionization chambers: phantom combinations for verification in routine patient-specific quality assurance of RapidArc treatments. Fifteen different RapidArc plans conforming to the clinical standards were selected for the study. Verification plans were then created for each treatment plan with different chamber-phantom combinations scanned by computed tomography. This includes Medtec intensity modulated radiation therapy (IMRT) phantom with micro-ionization chamber (0.007 cm{sup 3}) and pinpoint chamber (0.015 cm{sup 3}), PTW-Octavius phantom with semiflex chamber (0.125 cm{sup 3}) and 2D array (0.125 cm{sup 3}), and indigenously made Circular wax phantom with 0.6 cm{sup 3} chamber. The measured isocenter absolute dose was compared with the treatment planning system (TPS) plan. The micro-ionization chamber shows more deviations when compared with semiflex and 0.6 cm{sup 3} with a maximum variation of -4.76%, -1.49%, and 2.23% for micro-ionization, semiflex, and farmer chambers, respectively. The positive variations indicate that the chamber with larger volume overestimates. Farmer chamber shows higher deviation when compared with 0.125 cm{sup 3}. In general the deviation was found to be <1% with the semiflex and farmer chambers. A maximum variation of 2% was observed for the 0.007 cm{sup 3} ionization chamber, except in a few cases. Pinpoint chamber underestimates the calculated isocenter dose by a maximum of 4.8%. Absolute dose measurements using the semiflex ionization chamber with intermediate volume (0.125 cm{sup 3}) shows good agreement with the TPS calculated among the detectors used in this study. Positioning is very important when using smaller volume chambers because they are more sensitive to geometrical errors within the treatment fields. It is also suggested to average the dose over the sensitive volume for larger-volume chambers. The ionization chamber-phantom combinations used in this study can be used interchangeably for routine RapidArc patient-specific quality assurance with a satisfactory accuracy for clinical practice.

Syam Kumar, S.A., E-mail: skppm@rediffmail.com [Department of Medical Physics, Cancer Institute (WIA), Adyar, Chennai, Tamil Nadu (India); Sukumar, Prabakar; Sriram, Padmanaban; Rajasekaran, Dhanabalan; Aketi, Srinu; Vivekanandan, Nagarajan [Department of Medical Physics, Cancer Institute (WIA), Adyar, Chennai, Tamil Nadu (India)

2012-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

59

kinetic wave energy  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

kinetic wave energy ? kinetische Wellenenergie f [Teil der Wellenlnge, die im Feld der Orbitalgeschwindigkeiten unter der Welle enthalten ist und als Orbitalbewegung am Ort verbleibt

2014-08-01T23:59:59.000Z

60

Vacuum chamber with a supersonic-flow aerodynamic window  

DOE Patents [OSTI]

A supersonic flow aerodynamic window is disclosed whereby a steam ejector situated in a primary chamber at vacuum exhausts superheated steam toward an orifice to a region of higher pressure, creating a barrier to the gas in the region of higher pressure which attempts to enter through the orifice. In a mixing chamber outside and in fluid communication with the primary chamber, superheated steam and gas are combined into a mixture which then enters the primary chamber through the orifice. At the point of impact of the ejector/superheated steam and the incoming gas/superheated steam mixture, a barrier is created to the gas attempting to enter the ejector chamber. This barrier, coupled with suitable vacuum pumping means and cooling means, serves to keep the steam ejector and primary chamber at a negative pressure, even though the primary chamber has an orifice to a region of higher pressure.

Hanson, C.L.

1980-10-14T23:59:59.000Z

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "kinetics chamber general" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


61

Vacuum chamber with a supersonic flow aerodynamic window  

DOE Patents [OSTI]

A supersonic flow aerodynamic window, whereby a steam ejector situated in a primary chamber at vacuum exhausts superheated steam toward an orifice to a region of higher pressure, creating a barrier to the gas in the region of higher pressure which attempts to enter through the orifice. In a mixing chamber outside and in fluid communication with the primary chamber, superheated steam and gas are combined into a mixture which then enters the primary chamber through the orifice. At the point of impact of the ejector/superheated steam and the incoming gas/superheated steam mixture, a barrier is created to the gas attempting to enter the ejector chamber. This barrier, coupled with suitable vacuum pumping means and cooling means, serves to keep the steam ejector and primary chamber at a negative pressure, even though the primary chamber has an orifice to a region of higher pressure.

Hanson, Clark L. (Livermore, CA)

1982-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

62

Vacuum chamber for containing particle beams  

DOE Patents [OSTI]

A vacuum chamber for containing a charged particle beam in a rapidly changing magnetic environment comprises a ceramic pipe with conducting strips oriented along the longitudinal axis of the pipe and with circumferential conducting bands oriented perpendicular to the longitudinal axis but joined with a single longitudinal electrical connection. When both strips and bands are on the outside of the ceramic pipe, insulated from each other, a high-resistance conductive layer such as nickel can be coated on the inside of the pipe.

Harvey, A.

1985-11-26T23:59:59.000Z

63

STATISTICAL ANALYSIS OF PROTEIN FOLDING KINETICS  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

STATISTICAL ANALYSIS OF PROTEIN FOLDING KINETICS AARON R. DINNER New Chemistry Laboratory for Protein Folding: Advances in Chemical Physics, Volume 120. Edited by Richard A. Friesner. Series Editors Experimental and theoretical studies have led to the emergence of a unified general mechanism for protein

Dinner, Aaron

64

Kinetics of actinide complexation reactions  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Though the literature records extensive compilations of the thermodynamics of actinide complexation reactions, the kinetics of complex formation and dissociation reactions of actinide ions in aqueous solutions have not been extensively investigated. In light of the central role played by such reactions in actinide process and environmental chemistry, this situation is somewhat surprising. The authors report herein a summary of what is known about actinide complexation kinetics. The systems include actinide ions in the four principal oxidation states (III, IV, V, and VI) and complex formation and dissociation rates with both simple and complex ligands. Most of the work reported was conducted in acidic media, but a few address reactions in neutral and alkaline solutions. Complex formation reactions tend in general to be rapid, accessible only to rapid-scan and equilibrium perturbation techniques. Complex dissociation reactions exhibit a wider range of rates and are generally more accessible using standard analytical methods. Literature results are described and correlated with the known properties of the individual ions.

Nash, K.L.; Sullivan, J.C.

1997-09-01T23:59:59.000Z

65

Measurement and Compensation of BPM Chamber Motion in HLS  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Significant horizontal drifts in the beam orbit in the storage ring of HLS (Hefei Light Source) have been seen for many years. What leads to the motion of Beam Position Monitor (BPM) chamber is thermal expansion mainly caused by the synchrotron light. To monitor the BPM chamber motions for all BPMs, a BPM chamber motion measurement system is built in real-time. The raster gauges are used to measure the displacements. The results distinctly show the relation between the BPM chamber motion and the beam current. To suppress the effect of BPM chamber motion, a compensation strategy is implemented at HLS. The horizontal drifts of beam orbit have been really suppressed within 20{mu}m without the compensation of BPM chamber motion in the runtime.

Li, J. W.; Sun, B. G.; Cao, Y.; Xu, H. L.; Lu, P.; Li, C.; Xuan, K.; Wang, J. G. [NSRL, School of Nuclear Science and Technology, University of Science and Technology of China Hefei, Anhui230029 (China)

2010-06-23T23:59:59.000Z

66

General Education GENERAL EDUCATION  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

, the pursuit of truth, the intellectual and ethical development of students, and the general well the consequences of human actions. E. Cross-Cultural Awareness Demonstrate the ability to critically compare

Stuart, Steven J.

67

Using Stochastic Roadmap Simulation to Predict Experimental Quantities in Protein Folding Kinetics: Folding Rates and  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Using Stochastic Roadmap Simulation to Predict Experimental Quantities in Protein Folding Kinetics for studying protein folding kinetics. It uses the recently intro- duced Stochastic Roadmap Simulation (SRS validate the SRS method and indicate its potential as a general tool for studying protein folding kinetics

Pratt, Vaughan

68

Tests of a Novel Design of Resistive Plate Chambers  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

A novel design of Resistive Plate Chambers (RPCs), using only a single resistive plate, is being proposed. Based on this design, two large size prototype chambers were constructed and were tested with cosmic rays and in particle beams. The tests confirmed the viability of this new approach. In addition to showing an improved single-particle response compared to the traditional 2-plate design, the novel chambers also prove to be suitable for calorimetric applications.

Bilki, B; Freund, B; Neubser, C; Onel, Y; Repond, J; Schlereth, J; Xia, L

2015-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

69

Isothermally heatsunk diffusion cloud chamber refrigerator  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

This patent describes a diffusion cloud chamber isothermally heatsunk refrigerator which comprises: a heatsink consisting of two phases of a saturated substance existing in thermodynamic equilibrium at constant pressure and therefore at constant temperature, contained in a reservoir; a means of pressure damping to maintain constant pressure, as the ratio of the two phases present changes and introduces volumetric changes in the substance; a cooling member which transfer heat from vapor in contact with the cooling member surface to the ''cold side'' of a Peltier thermoelectric element with which the cooling member is in thermal contact; a Peltier thermoelectric element which removes the heat supplied by the cooling member from its ''cold side'' and pumps it to the ''hot side'' when driven by an electric current; and a means of transferring heat from the ''hot side'' of the Peltier thermoelectric element to the two-phase isothermal substance in the reservoir.

Menocal, S.G.

1987-05-05T23:59:59.000Z

70

Bubble Chambers for Experiments in Nuclear Astrophysics  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

A bubble chamber has been developed to be used as an active target system for low energy nuclear astrophysics experiments. Adopting ideas from dark matter detection with superheated liquids, a detector system compatible with gamma-ray beams has been developed. This detector alleviates some of the limitations encountered in standard measurements of the minute cross sections of interest to stellar environments. While the astrophysically relevant nuclear reaction processes at hydrostatic burning temperatures are dominated by radiative captures, in this experimental scheme we measure the time-reversed processes. Such photodisintegrations allow us to compute the radiative capture cross sections when transitions to excited states of the reaction products are negligible. Due to the transformation of phase space, the photodisintegration cross sections are up to two orders of magnitude higher. The main advantage of the new target-detector system is a density several orders of magnitude higher than conventional gas tar...

DiGiovine, B; Holt, R J; Rehm, K E; Raut, R; Robinson, A; Sonnenschein, A; Rusev, G; Tonchev, A P; Ugalde, C

2015-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

71

Concept for Reducing Hall Thruster Chamber Wall Erosion with...  

Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

Concept for Reducing Hall Thruster Chamber Wall Erosion with Lithium Vapor Shielding. Hall thrusters have been established as a compact and reliable means for satellite...

72

Dielectric liquid ionization chambers for detecting fast neutrons  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Three ionization chambers with different geometries have been constructed and filled with dielectric liquids for detection of fast neutrons. The three dielectric liquids studied were Tetramethylsilane (TMS), Tetramethylpentane ...

Boyd, Erin M

2008-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

73

Parallel plate avalanche chamber as an endcap detector for Time Projection Chamber  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

A small, 10 x 10 cm/sup 2/, parallel plate avalanche counter has been tested paying special attention to those features which can be important in the Time Projection Chamber. The structure of the test chamber is shown. It has a conversion and drift volume, 11 mm thick, delimited by two stainless steel cross wire grids, of 100 ..mu..m wire diameter and 500 ..mu..mm pitch, identified by HV1 and HV2. The anode is made of thick wires, 100 ..mu..m in diameter spaced every 500 ..mu..m. The amplification gap is 4 mm thick. Below the anode, 1 mm apart, we have paced an identical wire plane, HV4, with wires perpendicular to the anode wires. Both electrodes are equipped with electronics and read out. All measurements were performed with a mixture of argon and methane (83% - 17%), a typical gas for Time Projection Chambers. A multiplication factor up to 10/sup 5/ was attained.

Peisert, A.

1984-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

74

Overview of Chamber and Power Plant Designs for IFE  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

, to be published in 2011, (ISBN 9780470894392) I will review some of the more complete integrated design studies&E are choice of materials, chamber and building design, tritium inventory, design of tritium processing systemsOverview of Chamber and Power Plant Designs for IFE Wayne Meier Deputy Program Leader Fusion Energy

75

Heart chambers and whole heart segmentation techniques: review  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Heart chambers and whole heart segmentation techniques: review Dongwoo Kang Jonghye Woo Piotr J://electronicimaging.spiedigitallibrary.org/ on 01/15/2014 Terms of Use: http://spiedl.org/terms #12;Heart chambers and whole heart segmentation, and reproducible segmentation methods. Figure 1 illustrates an example of segmentation of heart on CT scan. A

Kuo, C.-C. "Jay"

76

NIF Target Chamber Dedicated | National Nuclear Security Administration  

Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

NIF Target Chamber Dedicated | National Nuclear Security Administration NIF Target Chamber Dedicated | National Nuclear Security Administration Our Mission Managing the Stockpile Preventing Proliferation Powering the Nuclear Navy Emergency Response Recapitalizing Our Infrastructure Continuing Management Reform Countering Nuclear Terrorism About Us Our Programs Our History Who We Are Our Leadership Our Locations Budget Our Operations Media Room Congressional Testimony Fact Sheets Newsletters Press Releases Speeches Events Social Media Video Gallery Photo Gallery NNSA Archive Federal Employment Apply for Our Jobs Our Jobs Working at NNSA Blog Home > About Us > Our History > NNSA Timeline > NIF Target Chamber Dedicated NIF Target Chamber Dedicated June 11, 1999 Livermore, CA NIF Target Chamber Dedicated Secretary Richardson dedicates the National Ignition Facility target

77

A mechanical mode-stirred reverberation chamber with chaotic geometry  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

A previous research on multivariate approach to the calculation of reverberation chamber correlation matrices is used to calculate the number of independent positions in a mode-stirred reverberation chamber. Anomalies and counterintuitive behavior are observed in terms of number of correlated matrix elements with respect to increasing frequency. This is ascribed to the regular geometry forming the baseline cavity (screened room) of a reverberation chamber, responsible for localizing energy and preserving regular modes (bouncing ball modes). Smooth wall deformations are introduced in order to create underlying Lyapunov instability of rays and then destroy survived regular modes. Numerical full-wave simulations are performed for a reverberation chamber with corner hemispheres and (off-)center wall spherical caps. Field sampling is performed by moving a mechanical carousel stirrer. It is found that wave-chaos inspired baseline geometries improve chamber performances in terms of lowest usable frequencies and number of independent cavity realizations of mechanical stirrers.

Gabriele Gradoni; Franco Moglie; Valter Mariani Primiani

2014-07-06T23:59:59.000Z

78

On spherically symmetric metric satisfying the positive kinetic energy coordinate condition  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Generally speaking, there is a negative kinetic energy term in the Lagrangian of the Einstein-Hilbert action of general relativity; On the other hand, the negative kinetic energy term can be vanished by designating a special coordinate system. For general spherically symmetric metric, the question that seeking special coordinate system that satisfies the positive kinetic energy coordinate condition is referred to solving a linear first-order partial differential equation. And then, we present a metric corresponding to the Reissner-Nordstrom solution that satisfies the positive kinetic energy coordinate condition. Finally, we discuss simply the case of the Tolman metric.

T. Mei

2008-02-28T23:59:59.000Z

79

Vacuum chamber for ion manipulation device  

DOE Patents [OSTI]

An ion manipulation method and device is disclosed. The device includes a pair of substantially parallel surfaces. An array of inner electrodes is contained within, and extends substantially along the length of, each parallel surface. The device includes a first outer array of electrodes and a second outer array of electrodes. Each outer array of electrodes is positioned on either side of the inner electrodes, and is contained within and extends substantially along the length of each parallel surface. A DC voltage is applied to the first and second outer array of electrodes. A RF voltage, with a superimposed electric field, is applied to the inner electrodes by applying the DC voltages to each electrode. Ions either move between the parallel surfaces within an ion confinement area or along paths in the direction of the electric field, or can be trapped in the ion confinement area. A predetermined number of pairs of surfaces are disposed in one or more chambers, forming a multiple-layer ion mobility cyclotron device.

Chen, Tsung-Chi; Tang, Keqi; Ibrahim, Yehia M; Smith, Richard D; Anderson, Gordon A; Baker, Erin M

2014-12-09T23:59:59.000Z

80

Oxidation kinetics of aluminum diboride  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

The oxidation characteristics of aluminum diboride (AlB{sub 2}) and a physical mixture of its constituent elements (Al+2B) were studied in dry air and pure oxygen using thermal gravimetric analysis to obtain non-mechanistic kinetic parameters. Heating in air at a constant linear heating rate of 10 C/min showed a marked difference between Al+2B and AlB{sub 2} in the onset of oxidation and final conversion fraction, with AlB{sub 2} beginning to oxidize at higher temperatures but reaching nearly complete conversion by 1500 C. Kinetic parameters were obtained in both air and oxygen using a model-free isothermal method at temperatures between 500 and 1000 C. Activation energies were found to decrease, in general, with increasing conversion for AlB{sub 2} and Al+2B in both air and oxygen. AlB{sub 2} exhibited O{sub 2}-pressure-independent oxidation behavior at low conversions, while the activation energies of Al+2B were higher in O{sub 2} than in air. Differences in the composition and morphology between oxidized Al+2B and AlB{sub 2} suggested that Al{sub 2}O{sub 3}B{sub 2}O{sub 3} interactions slowed Al+2B oxidation by converting Al{sub 2}O{sub 3} on aluminum particles into a Al{sub 4}B{sub 2}O{sub 9} shell, while the same Al{sub 4}B{sub 2}O{sub 9} developed a needle-like morphology in AlB{sub 2} that reduced oxygen diffusion distances and increased conversion. The model-free kinetic analysis was critical for interpreting the complex, multistep oxidation behavior for which a single mechanism could not be assigned. At low temperatures, moisture increased the oxidation rate of Al+2B and AlB{sub 2}, but both appear to be resistant to oxidation in cool, dry environments. - Graphical abstract: Isothermal kinetic data for AlB{sub 2} in air, showing a constantly decreasing activation energy with increasing conversion. Model-free analysis allowed for the calculation of global kinetic parameters despite many simultaneous mechanisms occurring concurrently. (a) Timetemperature plots, (b) conversion as a function of time, (c) Arrhenius plots used to calculate activation energies, and (d) activation energy as a function of conversion. Display Omitted - Highlights: First reported kinetic parameters for AlB{sub 2} and Al+2B oxidation in air and O{sub 2}. Possible mechanism of enhanced boron combustion presented. Moisture sensitivity shown to be problematic for AlB{sub 2}, less for Al+2B.

Whittaker, Michael L., E-mail: michaelwhittaker2016@u.northwestern.edu [Department of Materials Science and Engineering, University of Utah, 122S. Central Campus Drive, Salt Lake City, UT 84112 (United States); Sohn, H.Y. [Department of Metallurgical Engineering, University of Utah, 135S 1460 E, Rm 00412, Salt Lake City, UT 84112 (United States); Cutler, Raymond A. [Ceramatec, Inc., 2425S. 900W., Salt Lake City, UT 84119 (United States)

2013-11-15T23:59:59.000Z

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "kinetics chamber general" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


81

CLEERS Coordination & Joint Development of Benchmark Kinetics...  

Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

Kinetic Data CLEERS Coordination & Joint Development of Benchmark Kinetics for LNT & SCR CLEERS Coordination & Development of Catalyst Process Kinetic Data - Pres. 1:...

82

Chemical kinetics models for semiconductor processing  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Chemical reactions in the gas-phase and on surfaces are important in the deposition and etching of materials for microelectronic applications. A general software framework for describing homogeneous and heterogeneous reaction kinetics utilizing the Chemkin suite of codes is presented. Experimental, theoretical and modeling approaches to developing chemical reaction mechanisms are discussed. A number of TCAD application modules for simulating the chemically reacting flow in deposition and etching reactors have been developed and are also described.

Coltrin, M.E.; Creighton, J.R. [Sandia National Labs., Albuquerque, NM (United States); Meeks, E.; Grcar, J.F.; Houf, W.G. [Sandia National Labs., Livermore, CA (United States); Kee, R.J. [Colorado School of Mines, Golden, CO (United States)

1997-12-31T23:59:59.000Z

83

Kinetics Of Carbon Gasification  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

Kinetics Of Carbon Gasification ... The steamcarbon reaction, which is the essential reaction of the gasification processes of carbon-based feed stocks (e.g., coal and biomass), produces synthesis gas (H2 + CO), a synthetically flexible, environmentally benign energy source. ... Coal Gasification in CO2 and Steam:? Development of a Steam Injection Facility for High-Pressure Wire-Mesh Reactors ...

C. W. Zielke; Everett. Gorin

1957-03-01T23:59:59.000Z

84

Turbine component cooling channel mesh with intersection chambers  

DOE Patents [OSTI]

A mesh (35) of cooling channels (35A, 35B) with an array of cooling channel intersections (42) in a wall (21, 22) of a turbine component. A mixing chamber (42A-C) at each intersection is wider (W1, W2)) than a width (W) of each of the cooling channels connected to the mixing chamber. The mixing chamber promotes swirl, and slows the coolant for more efficient and uniform cooling. A series of cooling meshes (M1, M2) may be separated by mixing manifolds (44), which may have film cooling holes (46) and/or coolant refresher holes (48).

Lee, Ching-Pang; Marra, John J

2014-05-06T23:59:59.000Z

85

LLNL Chemical Kinetics Modeling Group  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

The LLNL chemical kinetics modeling group has been responsible for much progress in the development of chemical kinetic models for practical fuels. The group began its work in the early 1970s, developing chemical kinetic models for methane, ethane, ethanol and halogenated inhibitors. Most recently, it has been developing chemical kinetic models for large n-alkanes, cycloalkanes, hexenes, and large methyl esters. These component models are needed to represent gasoline, diesel, jet, and oil-sand-derived fuels.

Pitz, W J; Westbrook, C K; Mehl, M; Herbinet, O; Curran, H J; Silke, E J

2008-09-24T23:59:59.000Z

86

QN_CloudChamberV1.4  

Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

How to Build a Cosmic-Ray Cloud Chamber How to Build a Cosmic-Ray Cloud Chamber October 2008, Version 1.4 * QuarkNet version. Fermi National Accelerator Laboratory. * Instructions written by Jeremy Paschke, York High School and Anne Mary Teichert, Fermilab. * Model initially designed and built by Robert Peterson, Fermilab. If you have further questions, or improvements of your own you would like to share with the QuarkNet group, please contact: Jeremy Paschke, York High School Physics Instructor (jpaschke@elmhurst205.org), or Bob Peterson, Fermilab Education Specialist, (rspete@fnal.gov). Justification: Showing your class a working cloud chamber is one of the best ways to generate student interest in modern physics. The cloud chamber described below will display natural background radiation (muons generated by

87

Mini-chamber, an advanced protection concept for NIF  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Inertial confinement fusion (ICF) target debris and ablated near-target materials pose the primary threat to the National Ignition Facility (NIF) final optics debris shields, as well as a major challenge in future inertial fusion energy (IFE) power plants. This work discusses a NIF `mini-chamber,` designed to mitigate the debris threat. Although the NIF base-line design protects against debris using a frost-protected target positioner and refractory first-wall coatings, the mini-chamber provides important flexibility in three areas: debris-shield protection from beyond-design basis shots (i.e. heavy hohlraums, special diagnostics, shields); fielding of large experiments with significant surface ablation; and studying key ablation and gas-dynamics issues for liquid-wall IFE power plants. Key mini-chamber modeling results are presented, followed by discussion of equipment requirements for fielding a NIF mini-chamber. 7 refs., 3 figs.

Peterson, P.F.; Scott, J.M. [Univ. of California, Berkeley, CA (United States)

1996-12-31T23:59:59.000Z

88

Velocity of the electric arc in a plasmatron discharge chamber  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

An experimental investigation of the velocity of a high-current arc with air injection in the discharge chamber of a coaxial sectioned plasmatron is described. The experiments showed that the velocity of the c...

A. S. Shaboltas

1969-09-01T23:59:59.000Z

89

Carrying Semiautomatic Pistols with a Round in the Chamber  

Broader source: Directives, Delegations, and Requirements [Office of Management (MA)]

Sets forth requirements for a DOE security police officer who must carry a round in the chamber of a semiautomatic pistol while on duty. Does not cancel other directives.

1999-10-28T23:59:59.000Z

90

E-Cloud Build-up in Grooved Chambers  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

and F. Zimmermann, LC e-Cloud Activities at CERN, talkal. , Simulations of the Electron Cloud for Vari- ous Con?E-CLOUD BUILD-UP IN GROOVED CHAMBERS ? M. Venturini LBNL,

Venturini, Marco

2007-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

91

DIMUON PRODUCTION BY HIGH ENERGY NEUTRINOS AND ANTINEUTRINOS IN THE FERMILAB FIFTEEN-FOOT BUBBLE CHAMBER  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

ANTINEUTRINOS IN THE FERMILAB FIFTEEN-FOOT BUBBLE CHAMBERANTINEUTRINOS IN THE FERMILAB FIFTEEN-FOOT BUBBLE CHAMBER*ANTINEUTRINOS IN THE FERMILAB FIFTEEN-FOOT BUBBLE CHAMBER

Orthel, John L.

2010-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

92

E-Print Network 3.0 - atmospheric exposure chambers Sample Search...  

Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

Topic List Advanced Search Sample search results for: atmospheric exposure chambers Page: << < 1 2 3 4 5 > >> 1 Dynamic Chamber System to Measure Gaseous Compounds Emissions...

93

Laser calibration system for the CERES Time Projection Chamber  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

A Nd:YAG laser was used to simulate charged particle tracks at known positions in the CERES Time Projection Chamber at the CERN SPS. The system was primarily developed to study the response of the readout electronics and to calibrate the electron drift velocity. Further applications were the determination of the gating grid transparency, the chamber position calibration, and long-term monitoring of drift properties of the gas in the detector.

Dariusz Miskowiec; Peter Braun-Munzinger

2008-02-15T23:59:59.000Z

94

Transverse wakefields due to asymmetric protrusions into a vacuum chamber  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

Abstract We analyze the effect of a wakefield caused by an asymmetric protrusion inside the accelerator vacuum chamber. The asymmetry leads to a transverse kick on the beam and an increase of the projected transverse beam emittance. Calculations are done for a model rectangular protrusion in a vacuum chamber of rectangular cross-section. Based on our analysis, numerical estimates are given for the SuperKEKB accelerator in KEK, Japan, and TLEP-W proposal at CERN.

Gennady Stupakov; Demin Zhou

2014-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

95

Improving alternative fuel utilization: detailed kinetic combustion...  

Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

alternative fuel utilization: detailed kinetic combustion modeling & experimental testing Improving alternative fuel utilization: detailed kinetic combustion modeling &...

96

SUMMARY ON TITANIUM NITRIDE COATING OF SNS RING VACUUM CHAMBERS.  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

The inner surfaces of the 248 m Spallation Neutron Source (SNS) accumulator ring vacuum chambers are coated with {approx}100nm of titanium nitride (TiN) to reduce the secondary electron yield (SEY) of the chamber walls. There are approximately 135 chambers and kicker modules, some up to 5m in length and 36cm in diameter, coated with TiN. The coating is deposited by means of reactive DC magnetron sputtering -using a - cylindrical cathode with internal permanent magnets. This cathode configuration generates a deposition-rate sufficient to meet the required production schedule and produces stoichiometric films with good adhesion, low SEY and acceptable outgassing. Moreover, the cathode magnet configuration allows for simple changes in length and has been adapted to coat the wide variety of chambers and components contained within the arcs, injection, extraction, collimation and RF straight sections. Chamber types and quantities as well as the cathode configurations are presented herein. The unique coating requirements of the injection kicker ceramic chambers and the extraction kicker ferrite surface will be emphasized. A brief summary of the salient coating properties is given including the interdependence of SEY as a function of surface roughness and its effect on outgassing.

TODD, R.; HE, P.; HSEUH, H.C.; WEISS, D.

2005-05-16T23:59:59.000Z

97

On the vierbein formalism of general relativity  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Both the Einstein-Hilbert action and the Einstein equations are discussed under the absolute vierbein formalism. Taking advantage of this form, we prove that the "kinetic energy" term, i.e., the quadratic term of time derivative term, in the Lagrangian of the Einstein-Hilbert action is non-positive definitive. And then, we present two groups of coordinate conditions that lead to positive definitive kinetic energy term in the Lagrangian, as well as the corresponding actions with positive definitive kinetic energy term, respectively. Based on the ADM decomposition, the Hamiltonian representation and canonical quantization of general relativity taking advantage of the actions with positive definitive kinetic energy term are discussed; especially, the Hamiltonian constraints with positive definitive kinetic energy term are given, respectively. Finally, we present a group of gauge conditions such that there is not any second time derivative term in the ten Einstein equations.

T. Mei

2007-12-06T23:59:59.000Z

98

Reanalysis of bubble chamber measurements of muon-neutrino induced single pion production  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

There exists a longstanding disagreement between bubble chamber measurements of the single pion production channel $\

Callum Wilkinson; Philip Rodrigues; Susan Cartwright; Lee Thompson; Kevin McFarland

2014-11-17T23:59:59.000Z

99

Reanalysis of bubble chamber measurements of muon-neutrino induced single pion production  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

There exists a longstanding disagreement between bubble chamber measurements of the single pion production channel $\

Wilkinson, Callum; Cartwright, Susan; Thompson, Lee; McFarland, Kevin

2014-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

100

Initial Back-to-Back Fission Chamber Testing in ATRC  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Development and testing of in-pile, real-time neutron sensors for use in Materials Test Reactor experiments is an ongoing project at Idaho National Laboratory. The Advanced Test Reactor National Scientific User Facility has sponsored a series of projects to evaluate neutron detector options in the Advanced Test Reactor Critical Facility (ATRC). Special hardware was designed and fabricated to enable testing of the detectors in the ATRC. Initial testing of Self-Powered Neutron Detectors and miniature fission chambers produced promising results. Follow-on testing required more experiment hardware to be developed. The follow-on testing used a Back-to-Back fission chamber with the intent to provide calibration data, and a means of measuring spectral indices. As indicated within this document, this is the first time in decades that BTB fission chambers have been used in INL facilities. Results from these fission chamber measurements provide a baseline reference for future measurements with Back-to-Back fission chambers.

Benjamin Chase; Troy Unruh; Joy Rempe

2014-06-01T23:59:59.000Z

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "kinetics chamber general" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


101

Chemical kinetics modeling  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

This project emphasizes numerical modeling of chemical kinetics of combustion, including applications in both practical combustion systems and in controlled laboratory experiments. Elementary reaction rate parameters are combined into mechanisms which then describe the overall reaction of the fuels being studied. Detailed sensitivity analyses are used to identify those reaction rates and product species distributions to which the results are most sensitive and therefore warrant the greatest attention from other experimental and theoretical research programs. Experimental data from a variety of environments are combined together to validate the reaction mechanisms, including results from laminar flames, shock tubes, flow systems, detonations, and even internal combustion engines.

Westbrook, C.K.; Pitz, W.J. [Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory, CA (United States)

1993-12-01T23:59:59.000Z

102

Federation of Indian Chambers of Commerce & Industry (FICCI) | Department  

Broader source: Energy.gov (indexed) [DOE]

Federation of Indian Chambers of Commerce & Industry (FICCI) Federation of Indian Chambers of Commerce & Industry (FICCI) Federation of Indian Chambers of Commerce & Industry (FICCI) March 20, 2007 - 11:37am Addthis Thank you Geoff (Pyatt) for that introduction. I'd like to thank FICCI for hosting this event and thank its leadership for their kind words. I'm very pleased to be here in India - and to be with all of you today. Since his very first days in office, President Bush has considered growing and strengthening the United States' bilateral relationship with India to be a top priority. The shared commitment of President Bush and Prime Minister Singh to building our relationship was evidenced by the historic strategic partnership initiatives announced during the President's visit here in March of last year.

103

Challenge Met as APS Sends Final Chambers to LCLS  

Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

A Marriage of Hardware and Hard Work A Marriage of Hardware and Hard Work Shaken but Not Stirred 2008 Rosalind Franklin Young Investigator Award The 2008 3-Way Meeting In R&D, Super X-rays Mark Many Spots APS News Archives: 2012 | 2011 | 2010 | 2009 2008 | 2007 | 2006 | 2005 2004 | 2003 | 2002 | 2001 2000 Subscribe to APS News rss feed Challenge Met as APS Sends Final Chambers to LCLS MAY 21, 2008 Bookmark and Share The final five (of 40) extruded aluminum vacuum chambers for the Linac Coherent Light Source (LCLS) undulator system have been shipped from Argonne National Laboratory - where the chambers were designed and assembled - to the Stanford Linear Accelerator Center, where the LCLS "will be the world's first x-ray free electron laser when it becomes operational in 2009. Pulses of x-ray laser light from LCLS will be many

104

Single-molecule mobility in confined and crowded femtoliter chambers  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

The effects of increased crowding and confinement on the mobility of individual fluorescent molecules were studied using Fluorescence Correlation Spectroscopy (FCS) in a microfluidic device with sealable femtoliter-volume chambers, and compared to three dimensional stochastic Monte Carlo simulations. When crowding and the degree of confinement were increased simultaneously, extended correlation times of fluorescent intensity fluctuations were observed with FCS compared to varying either crowding or confinement alone. Both experimental data and simulation suggest these extended correlation times were due to increased fluorophore adsorption-desorption events at the chamber lid in the presence of crowders. The data in increasingly confined and crowded chambers described here captures some of the salient features of crowding in cell-like environments.

Collier, Pat [ORNL; Fowlkes, Jason Davidson [ORNL

2013-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

105

Ionisation Chambers for the LHC Beam Loss Detection  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

At the Large Hadron Collider (LHC) a beam loss system will be used to prevent and protect superconducting magnets against coil quenches and coil damages. Since the stored particle beam intensity is 8 orders of magnitude larger than the lowest quench level value particular attention is paid to the design of the secondary particle shower detectors. The foreseen ionisation chambers are optimised in geometry simulating the probable loss distribution along the magnets and convoluting the loss distribution with the secondary particle shower distributions. To reach the appropriate coverage of a particle loss and to determine the quench levels with a relative accuracy of 2 the number of the detectors and their lengths is weighted against the particle intensity density variation. In addition attention is paid to the electrical ionisation chamber signal to minimise the ion tail extension. This optimisation is based on time resolved test measurements in the PS booster. A proposal for a new ionisation chamber will be pre...

Gschwendtner, E; Dehning, B; Ferioli, G; Kain, V

2003-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

106

Chamber transport of ''foot'' pulses for heavy-ion fusion  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Indirect-drive targets for heavy-ion fusion must initially be heated by ''foot'' pulses that precede the main heating pulses by tens of nanoseconds. These pulses typically have a lower energy and perveance than the main pulses, and the fusion-chamber environment is different from that seen by later pulses. The preliminary particle-in-cell simulations of foot pulses here examine the sensitivity of the beam focusing to ion-beam perveance, background-gas density, and pre-neutralization by a plasma near the chamber entry port.

Sharp, W.M.; Callahan-Miller, D.A.; Tabak, M.; Yu, S.S.; Peterson, P.F.

2002-02-20T23:59:59.000Z

107

Dissipative expansion chambers with two concentric layers of fibrous material  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

The acoustic performance of a dissipative expansion chamber lined with two concentric, annular layers of fibrous material with different resistances is investigated. A two-dimensional analytical approach is used to determine the transmission loss of this dissipative silencer. From the boundary conditions at the rigid wall, and the interfaces between the fibre layers and the central airway, the characteristic function and thus eigenvalues and eigenfunctions for sound propagation in the dissipative chamber are obtained, leading to transmission loss through application of pressure and velocity matching. The effects of geometry and fibre properties on the acoustic attenuation are also discussed.

A. Selamet; M.B. Xu; I.J. Lee; N.T. Huff

2005-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

108

Kinetic equation for the Ising model  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

A time-dependent projection-operator formalism is used to derive a kinetic equation for the single-spin density operator in an Ising system of N two-state spins in weak interaction with a heat bath. This equation contains a contribution at the self-consistent-field level and also higher-order contributions due to dynamically generated correlations. A detailed evaluation of the self-consistent-field terms is made. Possibilities for generalizing the method to obtain equations for multispin density operators are discussed.

Michael R. Emptage; Paul Hawrylak; Subir K. Bose

1982-12-01T23:59:59.000Z

109

Kinetic analysis of dynamic PET data  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Our goal is to quantify regional physiological processes such as blood flow and metabolism by means of tracer kinetic modeling and positron emission tomography (PET). Compartmental models are one way of characterizing the behavior of tracers in physiological systems. This paper describes a general method of estimating compartmental model rate constants from measurements of the concentration of tracers in blood and tissue, taken at multiple time intervals. A computer program which applies the method is described, and examples are shown for simulated and actual data acquired from the Donner 280-Crystal Positron Tomograph.

Knittel, B.

1983-12-01T23:59:59.000Z

110

HYDRODYNAMIC LIMITS FOR KINETIC EQUATIONS AND THE DIFFUSIVE APPROXIMATION OF RADIATIVE  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

HYDRODYNAMIC LIMITS FOR KINETIC EQUATIONS AND THE DIFFUSIVE APPROXIMATION OF RADIATIVE TRANSPORT of the radiative transport equation. 1. Introduction We consider a class of kinetic models equipped with a single. A general compactness frame- work is obtained for the diffusive scaling in L1 . The radiative transport

Tzavaras, Athanasios E.

111

www.ornl.gov Environmental Chambers at ORNL  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

-air HVAC system, heat pump water heaters, a dehumidifying water heater, solid-state lighting, hybrid solar-by-side chambers can test gas heat pumps, electric heat pumps and air conditioners, gas/electric packaged units, desiccant systems, and small distributed generation/combined heat and power (CHP) systems with capacities

Oak Ridge National Laboratory

112

Micromegas chambers for the ATLAS Muon Spectrometer Upgrade  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Micromegas (Micro MEsh Gaseous Structure) chambers have been proven along the years to be reliable fast detectors with an excellent spatial resolution. The ATLAS collaboration at LHC has chosen the micromegas technology along with the small-strip Thin Gap Chambers (sTGC) for the high luminosity upgrade of the inner muon station in the high-rapidity region, the so called New Small Wheel (NSW). It employs eight layers of micromegas detectors and eight layers of sTGC. The NSW project requires fully efficient micromegas chambers with spatial resolution down to $100\\mu m$ over a total active area of $1200 m^2$ with a rate capability up to $10 kHz/cm^2$ and operation in a moderate magnetic field up to B=0.3 T. The required tracking capability is provided by the intrinsic space resolution combined with a mechanical precision at the level of $30 \\mu m$ along the precision coordinate. Moreover together with the precise tracking capability the micromegas chambers should provide a trigger signal. An extensive R&D pr...

Ntekas, Konstantinos; The ATLAS collaboration

2014-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

113

Hydrogen Production in a Single Chamber Microbial Electrolysis Cell  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

) at greater yields than fermentation and at greater energy efficiencies than water electrolysis. It has been to produce water. A microbial electrolysis cell (MEC) operates in a manner similar to an MFC exceptHydrogen Production in a Single Chamber Microbial Electrolysis Cell Lacking a Membrane D O U G L

114

Harvesting Energy from Wastewater in a 2-Chamber  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Harvesting Energy from Wastewater in a 2-Chamber Microbial Fuel Cell Sikandar Present day wastewater treatment plants utilize high amounts of energy and are costly to operate. These conventional wastewater treatment plants utilize aerobic bacteria. Organic material in wastewater contains energy that can

115

Kinetic roughening during rare-gas homoepitaxy E. Nabighian,1  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Kinetic roughening during rare-gas homoepitaxy E. Nabighian,1 M. C. Bartelt,2 and X. D. Zhu1,* 1 roughening, which accounts for deviations from layer- by-layer growth, is generally very sensitive substrates; see e.g., Ref. 3. A quantitative assessment of the way in which rare-gas multilayer films roughen

Zhu, Xiangdong

116

Statistical Analysis of Protein Folding Kinetics Aaron R. Dinner  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Statistical Analysis of Protein Folding Kinetics Aaron R. Dinner , Sung-Sau So ¡ , and Martin and theoretical studies over several years have led to the emergence of a unified general mechanism for protein folding that serves as a framework for the design and interpretation of research in this area [1

Dinner, Aaron

117

General Engineers  

U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

General Engineers General Engineers The U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) within the Department of Energy has forged a world-class information program that stresses quality, teamwork, and employee growth. In support of our program, we offer a variety of profes- sional positions, including the General Engineer, whose work is associated with analytical studies and evaluation projects pertaining to the operations of the energy industry. Responsibilities: General Engineers perform or participate in one or more of the following important functions: * Design modeling systems to represent energy markets and the physical properties of energy industries * Conceive, initiate, monitor and/or conduct planning and evaluation projects and studies of continuing and future

118

Verifying Sensor Response to Difficult Chemicals with a New Test Chamber Concept  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

In this article we discuss the application of technology innovations to optimize detection of hard-to-measure (less- or semi-volatile) compounds. These chemicals are found all around us: in pesticides and herbicides, the higher boiling polyaromatic hydrocarbons in diesel exhaust, and linked polyurethane foams in products ranging from hiking boots to acoustic ceilings. They appear in low concentrations and evaporate very slowly. These heavier chemicals are rarely measured accurately because they stick to surfaces and sampling equipment and, consequently, are not reliably sampled or delivered to analytical detectors. Its like trying to identify cold, sticky honey by getting it to flow in through a sampling tube to a detector it will hardly move. Honey generally coats out on surfaces and sample lines to the extent that even if it is detected, the amount present is vastly underestimated. Researchers at Pacific Northwest National Laboratory (PNNL) addressed the problem by developing a chamber facility with instrumentation that can overcome the under-reporting of these ubiquitous chemical compounds. The atmospheric chemistry chamber provides a controlled environment in which to certify the accuracy of and conditions under which sensors can best respond to volatile and semi-volatile chemicals. The facility is designed to handle and measure chemicals at the levels at which they are found in nature. Test environments can be created in which atmospheric concentrations are at low part-per-trillion concentrations. These concentrations are equivalent to an herbicide off-gassing from a commercially grown apple. The chamber can be set up to simulate releases ranging from industrial vents with high concentrations to releases from surfaces, soils, and/or vegetation where the concentrations are low.

Maughan, A. D.; Birnbaum, Jerome C.; Probasco, Kathleen M.

2004-06-01T23:59:59.000Z

119

General Thermodynamics  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

... principally in the Journal of the Franklin Institute. These ideas relate to a study of thermodynamics from what the author calls a generalized point of view, which concerns itself with ... from what the author calls a generalized point of view, which concerns itself with the thermodynamics of metastable states and irreversible processes as wall as with the stable states and reversible ...

R. W. HAYWOOD

1956-06-02T23:59:59.000Z

120

CLEERS Coordination & Joint Development of Benchmark Kinetics...  

Broader source: Energy.gov (indexed) [DOE]

CLEERS Coordination & Joint Development of Benchmark Kinetics for LNT & SCR CLEERS Coordination & Joint Development of Benchmark Kinetics for LNT & SCR 2012 DOE Hydrogen and Fuel...

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "kinetics chamber general" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


121

CLEERS Coordination & Joint Development of Benchmark Kinetics...  

Broader source: Energy.gov (indexed) [DOE]

Joint Development of Benchmark Kinetics for LNT & SCR CLEERS Coordination & Joint Development of Benchmark Kinetics for LNT & SCR 2011 DOE Hydrogen and Fuel Cells Program, and...

122

CLEERS Coordination & Development of Catalyst Process Kinetic...  

Broader source: Energy.gov (indexed) [DOE]

CLEERS Coordination & Development of Catalyst Process Kinetic Data CLEERS Coordination & Development of Catalyst Process Kinetic Data 2009 DOE Hydrogen Program and Vehicle...

123

Direct Observation of Aggregative Nanoparticle Growth: Kinetic...  

Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

Aggregative Nanoparticle Growth: Kinetic Modeling of the Size Distribution and Growth Rate. Direct Observation of Aggregative Nanoparticle Growth: Kinetic Modeling of the Size...

124

Multidimensional simulation and chemical kinetics development...  

Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

Developing chemical kinetic mechanisms and applying them to simulating engine combustion processes. deer09aceves.pdf More Documents & Publications Chemical Kinetic Research on...

125

Reciprocal Relations Between Kinetic Curves  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

We study coupled irreversible processes. For linear or linearized kinetics with microreversibility, $\\dot{x}=Kx$, the kinetic operator $K$ is symmetric in the entropic inner product. This form of Onsager's reciprocal relations implies that the shift in time, $\\exp (Kt)$, is also a symmetric operator. This generates reciprocity relations between kinetic curves. For example, for the Master equation, if we start the process from the $i$th pure state and measure the probability $p_j(t)$ of the $j$th state ($j\

Yablonsky, G S; Constales, D; Galvita, V; Marin, G B

2010-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

126

Chemical Looping Combustion Kinetics  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

One of the most promising methods of capturing CO{sub 2} emitted by coal-fired power plants for subsequent sequestration is chemical looping combustion (CLC). A powdered metal oxide such as NiO transfers oxygen directly to a fuel in a fuel reactor at high temperatures with no air present. Heat, water, and CO{sub 2} are released, and after H{sub 2}O condensation the CO{sub 2} (undiluted by N{sub 2}) is ready for sequestration, whereas the nickel metal is ready for reoxidation in the air reactor. In principle, these processes can be repeated endlessly with the original nickel metal/nickel oxide participating in a loop that admits fuel and rejects ash, heat, and water. Our project accumulated kinetic rate data at high temperatures and elevated pressures for the metal oxide reduction step and for the metal reoxidation step. These data will be used in computational modeling of CLC on the laboratory scale and presumably later on the plant scale. The oxygen carrier on which the research at Utah is focused is CuO/Cu{sub 2}O rather than nickel oxide because the copper system lends itself to use with solid fuels in an alternative to CLC called 'chemical looping with oxygen uncoupling' (CLOU).

Edward Eyring; Gabor Konya

2009-03-31T23:59:59.000Z

127

Neutron/gamma dose separation by the multiple-ion-chamber technique  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Many mixed n/..gamma.. dosimetry systems rely on two dosimeters, one composed of a tissue-equivalent material and the other made from a non-hydrogenous material. The paired chamber technique works well in fields of neutron radiation nearly identical in spectral composition to that in which the dosimeters were calibrated. However, this technique is drastically compromised in phantom due to the degradation of the neutron spectrum. The three-dosimeter technique allows for the fall-off in neutron sensitivity of the two non-hydrogenous dosimeters. Precise and physically meaningful results were obtained with this technique with a D-T source in air and in phantom and with simultaneous D-T neutron and /sup 60/Co gamma ray irradiation in air. The MORSE-CG coupled n/..gamma.. three-dimensional Monte Carlo code was employed to calculate neutron and gamma doses in a water phantom. Gamma doses calculated in phantom with this code were generally lower than corresponding ion chamber measurements. This can be explained by the departure of irradiation conditions from ideal narrow-beam geometry. 97 references.

Goetsch, S.J.

1983-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

128

Computer-based on-line pulsed ionization chamber plasma diagnostic system  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

A pulsed ionization chamber (PIC) plasma diagnostic system described previously for use in the study of ionized gas kinetics for rare gases and their mixtures including He(UF/sub 6/)-a candidate gas core reactor/magnetohydrodynamic (MHD) converter working fluid and a component in wide range radiation field measurement systems has been upgraded in performance to include computer-controlled data acquisition, storage, processing, graphic analysis, and presentation. The current automated system, whose performance is being reported and whose block diagram is shown, is developed around a Macintosh SE microcomputer, IEEE-488 (GPIB) instruments, and a National Instruments interface controller. The results shown not only demonstrate the improved wide-range voltage signal measurement capability of the new PIC system (e.g., from millivolts to tens of volts) but also illustrate the system's capability of easily producing print-ready graphics of experimental data. From automation to report preparation, the new system promises to greatly facilitate the overall process of our experimental plasma diagnostic program and should aid in the implementation in our study of a series of gas core reactor fuel gas/MHD converter working fluids.

Choi, W.Y.; Park, J.S.; Baumgartner, M.J.; Ellis, W.H.

1988-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

129

Development and test of combustion chamber for Stirling engine heated by natural gas  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

The combustion chamber is an important component for the Stirling engine heated by natural gas. In the paper ... , we develop a combustion chamber for the Stirling engine which aims to generate 3?5 kWe...electric...

Tie Li; Xiange Song; Xiaohong Gui; Dawei Tang; Zhigang Li

2014-04-01T23:59:59.000Z

130

-The Bubble Chamber -http://thebubblechamber.org -Review: Cold War Social Science  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

[1] - The Bubble Chamber - http://thebubblechamber.org - Review: Cold War Social Science Posted assume that all developments in the social sciences during the Cold War period can be The Bubble Chamber

Solovey, Mark

131

Beam Loss Ion Chamber System Upgrade for Experimental Halls  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

The Beam loss Ion Chamber System (BLICS) was developed to protect Jefferson Labs transport lines, targets and beam dumps from a catastrophic ''burn through''. Range changes and testing was accomplished manually requiring the experiment to be shut down. The new upgraded system is based around an ''off the shelf'' Programmable Logic Controller located in a single control box supporting up to ten individual detectors. All functions that formerly required an entry into the experimental hall and manual adjustment can be accomplished from the Machine Control Center (MCC). A further innovation was the addition of a High Voltage ''Brick'' at the detector location. A single cable supplies the required voltage for the Brick and a return line for the ion chamber signal. The read back screens display range, trip point, and accumulated dose for each location. The new system is very cost effective and significantly reduces the amount of lost experimental time.

D.W. Dotson; D.J. Seidman

2005-05-16T23:59:59.000Z

132

Theoretical Studies in Chemical Kinetics  

Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

Theoretical Studies in Chemical Kinetics ^ ^ iCi| Theoretical Studies in Chemical Kinetics ^ ^ iCi| under AEC Contract A T (30-1)-3780 " ■ ' Annual Report (1970) Principal In-vestigator: Martin Karpins Institution: Harvard University The research performed under this contract can best be sunmarized under several headings. (a) Alkali-Halideg Alkali-Halide (MX^ M*X*) Exchange Reactions. This project is being continued. A careful study of certain

133

Development and characterization of a chamber gram estimator  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

The Chamber Gram Estimator (CGE), Model SAM-1B is a small article gamma monitor originally designed to screen items for radioactive contamination that may be placed into its chamber. Four plastic scintillator detectors detect photons emitted from bulk quantities of fissile materials in line generated waste and provide a fissile mass content estimate of waste packages. With the present CGE, a few grams of {sup 239}Pu could be distinguished above background in light matrix samples. It is controlled by a personal computer that uses a menu driven operating program. The program is designed to reduce the potential for operator error while obtaining a fissile material gram estimate of a line generated waste package prior to placement in a drum. This report describes the work performed to characterize the counting chamber for fissile material estimation. The operating features of the CGE, the results and conclusions drawn from the experiments, and the future work recommended for the next generation CGEs are also described. The CGE provides advantages over hand-held Ludlum 12-12 survey-type instruments presently in use. The CGE is easy to operate, does not require manual manipulation to measure the total surf ace of the sample, and provides a display free of rate meter response-time effects or the need for visual averaging. Moreover, the response variations due to sample geometry are significantly less than with a hand-held arrangement, particularly, for the low density matrix samples appropriate for estimation. The waste packages are placed inside the instrument`s shielded chamber which effectively eliminates gamma exposure to operators from waste packages.

Dulco, G.B.; Gupta, V.P.; Balmer, D.K.

1995-07-01T23:59:59.000Z

134

Using sputter coated glass to stabilize microstrip gas chambers  

DOE Patents [OSTI]

By sputter coating a thin-layer of low-resistive, electronically-conductive glass on various substrates (including quartz and ceramics, thin-film Pestov glass), microstrip gas chambers (MSGC) of high gain stability, low leakage current, and a high rate capability can be fabricated. This design can make the choice of substrate less important, save the cost of ion-implantation, and use less glass material.

Gong, Wen G. (Albany, CA)

1997-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

135

CLOUD CHAMBER: A PERFORMANCE INVOLVING REAL TIME TWO-WAY INTERACTION BETWEEN SUBATOMIC RADIOACTIVE  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

will be placed in the chamber on stage, saturated with ethanol and cooled by liquid nitrogen, which makes

Miranda, Eduardo Reck

136

LAYOUT AND SIZING OF ESF ALCOVES AND REFUGE CHAMBERS  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

The purpose of this analysis is to establish size requirements and approximate locations of Exploratory Studies Facility (ESF) test and operations alcoves, including refuge chambers during construction of the Topopah Spring (TS) loop. Preliminary conceptual layouts for non-deferred test alcoves will be developed to examine construction feasibility based on current test plans and available equipment. The final location and configuration layout for alcoves will be developed when in-situ rock conditions can be visually determined. This will be after the TBM has excavated beyond the alcove location and the rock has been exposed. The analysis will examine the need for construction of walkways and electrical alcoves in the ramps and main drift. Niches that may be required to accommodate conveyor booster drives and alignments are not included in this analysis. The analysis will develop design criteria for refuge chambers to meet MSHA requirements and will examine the strategic location of refuge chambers based on their potential use in various ESF fire scenarios. This document supersedes DI:BABE00000-01717-0200-00003 Rev 01, ''TS North Ramp Alcove and Stubout Location Analysis'' in its entirety (Reference 5-6).

John Beesley and Romeo S. Jurani

1995-08-25T23:59:59.000Z

137

A Kinetic model of crack fusion  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

......Research Note A Kinetic model of crack fusion Zbigniew Czechowski Institute of Geophysics...presents a kinetic approach to the problem of fusion of cracks. A kinetic equation for the...repetitive episodes of seismicity. crack fusion|kinetic model|seismicity| References......

Zbigniew Czechowski

1991-02-01T23:59:59.000Z

138

Light-scattering properties of plate and column ice crystals generated in a laboratory cold chamber  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

with a diode laser beam. This cloud chamber produces distinct plate and hollow column ice crystal types. The cloud chamber developed at the Desert Re- search Institute has been used to produce ice clouds composedLight-scattering properties of plate and column ice crystals generated in a laboratory cold chamber

Liou, K. N.

139

Development of bubble chambers with sensitivity to WIMPs , J. I. Collarb*  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

of high- stability bubble chambers containing heavy liquids as an alternative to SDDs. The use of a stableDevelopment of bubble chambers with sensitivity to WIMPs L. Bonda , J. I. Collarb* , J. Elya , M@uchicago.edu We constructed a small bubble chamber, with special features needed to search for WIMPs: long

Collar, Juan I.

140

General Information  

Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

ASD General Information ASD General Information APS Resources & Information A list of useful links for APS staff and users. APS Technical Publications Links to APS technical publications. APS Publications Database The official and comprehensive source of references for APS-related journal articles, conference papers, book chapters, dissertations, abstracts, awards, invited talks, etc. Image Library A collection of APS images. Responsibilities & Interfaces for APS Technical Systems Descriptions of the responsibilities of APS technical groups and how they interface with one another. APS Procedures Operational procedures for the APS. APS Specifications Specifications and approvals for upgrades or changes to existing APS hardware and software. APS Radiation Safety Policy & Procedures Committee Minutes

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "kinetics chamber general" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


141

Fluctuation-dominated kinetics in diffusion-controlled reactions  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

The kinetics of a number of prototypical diffusion-controlled reactions are studied, primarily through the application of scaling approaches. Our goal is to investigate the effects of spatial inhomogeneities in the particle densities on the reaction kinetics. In general, we find that there exists an upper critical dimension below which the kinetics cannot be described by a rate-equation analysis, an approach which gives the kinetic laws of a mean-field approximation. Below the upper critical dimension, spatial inhomogeneities in the particle densities give rise to new fluctuation-dominated kinetics. For irreversible reactions, with bimolecular decay A+B?inert being a simple generic example, universal kinetic laws are obtained which are a function only of the spatial dimension, the number of particles needed to initiate a reaction, and the nature of the particle-conservation laws for the system. We also consider the generalization of bimolecular decay to a multistate process where particles of variable heights and traps of variable depths react. This phenomenologically rich example serves as an illustrative testing ground for scaling ideas. The introduction of a small reaction probability on bimolecular decay provides an example of a dramatic crossover from an initial mean-field decay to the fluctuation-dominated decay law at large times. When the possibility of a reverse reaction is allowed in bimolecular decay, the available evidence suggests that there is a power-law approach to the equilibrium state, rather than an exponential approach predicted by the rate equation. Many of our new theoretical predictions are tested by extensive numerical simulations.

K. Kang and S. Redner

1985-07-01T23:59:59.000Z

142

First principles Tafel kinetics of methanol oxidation on Pt(111)  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

Abstract Electrocatalytic methanol oxidation is of fundamental importance in electrochemistry and also a key reaction in direct methanol fuel cell. To resolve the kinetics at the atomic level, this work investigates the potential-dependent reaction kinetics of methanol oxidation on Pt(111) using the first principles periodic continuum solvation model based on modified-PoissonBoltzmann equation (CM-MPB), focusing on the initial dehydrogenation elementary steps. A theoretical model to predict Tafel kinetics (current vs potential) is established by considering that the rate-determining step of methanol oxidation (to CO) is the first CH bond breaking (CH3OH(aq)?CH2OH*+H*) according to the computed free energy profile. The first CH bond breaking reaction needs to overcome a large entropy loss during methanol approaching to the surface and replacing the adsorbed water molecules. While no apparent charge transfer is involved in this elementary step, the charge transfer coefficient of the reaction is calculated to be 0.36, an unconventional value for charge transfer reactions, and the Tafel slope is deduced to be 166mV. The results show that the metal/adsorbate interaction and the solvation environment play important roles on influencing the Tafel kinetics. The knowledge learned from the potential-dependent kinetics of methanol oxidation can be applied in general for understanding the electrocatalytic reactions of organic molecules at the solidliquid interface.

Ya-Hui Fang; Zhi-Pan Liu

2014-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

143

Los Alamos honored by Española Valley Chamber of Commerce  

Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

LANL Honored By Española Valley Chamber of Commerce LANL Honored By Española Valley Chamber of Commerce Community Connections: Our link to Northern New Mexico Communities Latest Issue:Dec. 2013 - Jan. 2014 All Issues » submit Los Alamos honored by Española Valley Chamber of Commerce The Espanola Valley Chamber of Commerce recognized the Lab for its support to the chamber and the entire Espanola Valley with a President's Choice Award. February 1, 2013 dummy image Read our archives. Contacts Editor Linda Anderman Email Community Programs Office Kurt Steinhaus Email The Lab received the award for efforts in a variety of areas. In late January, the Espanola Valley Chamber of Commerce recognized the Lab for its support to the chamber and the entire Espanola Valley with a President's Choice Award. Kurt Steinhaus with the Lab's Community

144

Performance parameters of a liquid filled ionization chamber array  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Purpose: In this work, the properties of the two-dimensional liquid filled ionization chamber array Octavius 1000SRS (PTW-Freiburg, Germany) for use in clinical photon-beam dosimetry are investigated.Methods: Measurements were carried out at an Elekta Synergy and Siemens Primus accelerator. For measurements of stability, linearity, and saturation effects of the 1000SRS array a Semiflex 31013 ionization chamber (PTW-Freiburg, Germany) was used as a reference. The effective point of measurement was determined by TPR measurements of the array in comparison with a Roos chamber (type 31004, PTW-Freiburg, Germany). The response of the array with varying field size and depth of measurement was evaluated using a Semiflex 31010 ionization chamber as a reference. Output factor measurements were carried out with a Semiflex 31010 ionization chamber, a diode (type 60012, PTW-Freiburg, Germany), and the detector array under investigation. The dose response function for a single detector of the array was determined by measuring 1 cm wide slit-beam dose profiles and comparing them against diode-measured profiles. Theoretical aspects of the low pass properties and of the sampling frequency of the detector array were evaluated. Dose profiles measured with the array and the diode detector were compared, and an intensity modulated radiation therapy (IMRT) field was verified using the Gamma-Index method and the visualization of line dose profiles.Results: The array showed a short and long term stability better than 0.1% and 0.2%, respectively. Fluctuations in linearity were found to be within 0.2% for the vendor specified dose range. Saturation effects were found to be similar to those reported in other studies for liquid-filled ionization chambers. The detector's relative response varied with field size and depth of measurement, showing a small energy dependence accounting for maximum signal deviations of 2.6% from the reference condition for the setup used. The ?-values of the Gaussian dose response function for a single detector of the array were found to be (0.72 0.25) mm at 6 MV and (0.74 0.25) mm at 15 MV and the corresponding low pass cutoff frequencies are 0.22 and 0.21 mm{sup ?1}, respectively. For the inner 5 5 cm{sup 2} region and the outer 11 11 cm{sup 2} region of the array the Nyquist theorem is fulfilled for maximum sampling frequencies of 0.2 and 0.1 mm{sup ?1}, respectively. An IMRT field verification with a Gamma-Index analysis yielded a passing rate of 95.2% for a 3 mm/3% criterion with a TPS calculation as reference.Conclusions: This study shows the applicability of the Octavius 1000SRS in modern dosimetry. Output factor and dose profile measurements illustrated the applicability of the array in small field and stereotactic dosimetry. The high spatial resolution ensures adequate measurements of dose profiles in regular and intensity modulated photon-beam fields.

Poppe, B.; Stelljes, T. S.; Looe, H. K.; Chofor, N. [Clinic for Radiation Therapy, Pius-Hospital, Oldenburg 26121, Germany and WG Medical Radiation Physics, Carl von Ossietzky University, Oldenburg 26121 (Germany)] [Clinic for Radiation Therapy, Pius-Hospital, Oldenburg 26121, Germany and WG Medical Radiation Physics, Carl von Ossietzky University, Oldenburg 26121 (Germany); Harder, D. [Prof. em., Medical Physics and Biophysics, Georg August University, Gttingen 37073 (Germany)] [Prof. em., Medical Physics and Biophysics, Georg August University, Gttingen 37073 (Germany); Willborn, K. [Clinic for Radiation Therapy, Pius-Hospital, Oldenburg 26121 (Germany)] [Clinic for Radiation Therapy, Pius-Hospital, Oldenburg 26121 (Germany)

2013-08-15T23:59:59.000Z

145

Statistics of the electromagnetic response of a chaotic reverberation chamber  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

This article presents a study of the electromagnetic response of a chaotic reverberation chamber (RC) in the presence of losses. By means of simulations and of experiments, the fluctuations in the maxima of the field obtained in a conventional mode-stirred RC are compared with those in a chaotic RC in the neighborhood of the Lowest Useable Frequency (LUF). The present work illustrates that the universal spectral and spatial statistical properties of chaotic RCs allow to meet more adequately the criteria required by the Standard IEC 61000-4-21 to perform tests of electromagnetic compatibility.

J. -B. Gros; U. Kuhl; O. Legrand; F. Mortessagne; O. Picon; E. Richalot

2014-09-20T23:59:59.000Z

146

Detailed Kinetic Modeling of Gasoline Surrogate Mixtures  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Real fuels are complex mixtures of thousands of hydrocarbon compounds including linear and branched paraffins, naphthenes, olefins and aromatics. It is generally agreed that their behavior can be effectively reproduced by simpler fuel surrogates containing a limited number of components. In this work, a recently revised version of the kinetic model by the authors is used to analyze the combustion behavior of several components relevant to gasoline surrogate formulation. Particular attention is devoted to linear and branched saturated hydrocarbons (PRF mixtures), olefins (1-hexene) and aromatics (toluene). Model predictions for pure components, binary mixtures and multi-component gasoline surrogates are compared with recent experimental information collected in rapid compression machine, shock tube and jet stirred reactors covering a wide range of conditions pertinent to internal combustion engines. Simulation results are discussed focusing attention on the mixing effects of the fuel components.

Mehl, M; Curran, H J; Pitz, W J; Westbrook, C K

2009-03-09T23:59:59.000Z

147

Precise 3D track reconstruction algorithm for the ICARUS T600 liquid argon time projection chamber detector  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Liquid Argon Time Projection Chamber (LAr TPC) detectors offer charged particle imaging capability with remarkable spatial resolution. Precise event reconstruction procedures are critical in order to fully exploit the potential of this technology. In this paper we present a new, general approach of three-dimensional reconstruction for the LAr TPC with a practical application to track reconstruction. The efficiency of the method is evaluated on a sample of simulated tracks. We present also the application of the method to the analysis of real data tracks collected during the ICARUS T600 detector operation with the CNGS neutrino beam.

M. Antonello; B. Baibussinov; P. Benetti; E. Calligarich; N. Canci; S. Centro; A. Cesana; K. Cieslik; D. B. Cline; A. G. Cocco; A. Dabrowska; D. Dequal; A. Dermenev; R. Dolfini; C. Farnese; A. Fava; A. Ferrari; G. Fiorillo; D. Gibin; S. Gninenko; A. Guglielmi; M. Haranczyk; J. Holeczek; A. Ivashkin; J. Kisiel; I. Kochanek; J. Lagoda; S. Mania; A. Menegolli; G. Meng; C. Montanari; S. Otwinowski; A. Piazzoli; P. Picchi; F. Pietropaolo; P. Plonski; A. Rappoldi; G. L. Raselli; M. Rossella; C. Rubbia; P. Sala; A. Scaramelli; E. Segreto; F. Sergiampietri; D. Stefan; J. Stepaniak; R. Sulej; M. Szarska; M. Terrani; F. Varanini; S. Ventura; C. Vignoli; H. Wang; X. Yang; A. Zalewska; K. Zaremba

2012-10-18T23:59:59.000Z

148

Chemical kinetics and combustion modeling  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

The goal of this program is to gain qualitative insight into how pollutants are formed in combustion systems and to develop quantitative mathematical models to predict their formation rates. The approach is an integrated one, combining low-pressure flame experiments, chemical kinetics modeling, theory, and kinetics experiments to gain as clear a picture as possible of the process in question. These efforts are focused on problems involved with the nitrogen chemistry of combustion systems and on the formation of soot and PAH in flames.

Miller, J.A. [Sandia National Laboratories, Livermore, CA (United States)

1993-12-01T23:59:59.000Z

149

Beam quality conversion factors for parallel-plate ionization chambers in MV photon beams  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Purpose: To investigate the behavior of plane-parallel ion chambers in high-energy photon beams through measurements and Monte Carlo simulations. Methods: Ten plane-parallel ion chamber types were obtained from the major ion chamber manufacturers. Absorbed dose-to-water calibration coefficients are measured for these chambers and k{sub Q} factors are determined. In the process, the behaviors of the chambers are characterized through measurements of leakage currents, chamber settling in cobalt-60, polarity and ion recombination behavior, and long-term stability. Monte Carlo calculations of the absorbed dose to the air in the ion chamber and absorbed dose to water are obtained to calculate k{sub Q} factors. Systematic uncertainties in Monte Carlo calculated k{sub Q} factors are investigated by varying material properties and chamber dimensions. Results: Chamber behavior was variable in MV photon beams, especially with regard to chamber leakage and ion recombination. The plane-parallel chambers did not perform as well as cylindrical chambers. Significant differences up to 1.5% were observed in calibration coefficients after a period of eight months although k{sub Q} factors were consistent on average within 0.17%. Chamber-to-chamber variations in k{sub Q} factors for chambers of the same type were at the 0.2% level. Systematic uncertainties in Monte Carlo calculated k{sub Q} factors ranged between 0.34% and 0.50% depending on the chamber type. Average percent differences between measured and calculated k{sub Q} factors were - 0.02%, 0.18%, and - 0.16% for 6, 10, and 25 MV beams, respectively. Conclusions: Excellent agreement is observed on average at the 0.2% level between measured and Monte Carlo calculated k{sub Q} factors. Measurements indicate that the behavior of these chambers is not adequate for their use for reference dosimetry of high-energy photon beams without a more extensive QA program than currently used for cylindrical reference-class ion chambers.

Muir, B. R.; McEwen, M. R.; Rogers, D. W. O. [Carleton Laboratory for Radiotherapy Physics, Physics Department, Carleton University, 1125 Colonel By Drive, Ottawa, Ontario K1S 5B6 (Canada); Institute for National Measurement Standards, National Research Council of Canada, Ottawa, Ontario K1A 0R6 (Canada); Carleton Laboratory for Radiotherapy Physics, Physics Department, Carleton University, 1125 Colonel By Drive, Ottawa, Ontario K1S 5B6 (Canada)

2012-03-15T23:59:59.000Z

150

Desorption Kinetics of Methanol, Ethanol, and Water from Graphene...  

Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

Desorption Kinetics of Methanol, Ethanol, and Water from Graphene. Desorption Kinetics of Methanol, Ethanol, and Water from Graphene. Abstract: The desorption kinetics of methanol,...

151

Tolman's law in linear irreversible thermodynamics: a kinetic theory approach  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

In this paper it is shown that Tolman's law can be derived from relativistic kinetic theory applied to a simple fluid in a BGK-like approximation. Using this framework, it becomes clear that the contribution of the gravitational field can be viewed as a cross effect that resembles the so-called \\emph{Thomson effect} in irreversible thermodynamics. A proper generalization of Tolman's law in an inhomogeneous medium is formally established based on these grounds.

A. Sandoval-Villalbazo; A. L. Garcia-Perciante; D. Brun-Battistini

2012-07-10T23:59:59.000Z

152

Slag monitoring system for combustion chambers of steam boilers  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

The computer-based boiler performance system presented in this article has been developed to provide a direct and quantitative assessment of furnace and convective surface cleanliness. Temperature, pressure, and flow measurements and gas analysis data are used to perform heat transfer analysis in the boiler furnace and evaporator. Power boiler efficiency is calculated using an indirect method. The on-line calculation of the exit flue gas temperature in a combustion chamber allows for an on-line heat flow rate determination, which is transferred to the boiler evaporator. Based on the energy balance for the boiler evaporator, the superheated steam mass flow rate is calculated taking into the account water flow rate in attemperators. Comparing the calculated and the measured superheated steam mass flow rate, the effectiveness of the combustion chamber water walls is determined in an on-line mode. Soot-blower sequencing can be optimized based on actual cleaning requirements rather than on fixed time cycles contributing to lowering of the medium usage in soot blowers and increasing of the water-wall lifetime.

Taler, J.; Taler, D. [Cracow University of Technology, Krakow (Poland)

2009-07-01T23:59:59.000Z

153

Development of linseed oil-free bakelite resistive plate chambers  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

In this paper we would like to present a few characteristics of the Resistive Plate Chambers (RPC) made of a particular grade of bakelite paper laminates (P-120, NEMA LI-1989 Grade XXX), produced and commercially available in India. This particular grade is used for high voltage insulation in humid conditions. The chambers are tested with cosmic rays in the streamer mode using argon, tetrafluroethane and isobutane in 34:59:7 mixing ratio. In the first set of detectors made with such grade, a thin coating of silicone fluid on the inner surfaces of the bakelite was found to be necessary for operation of the detector. Those silicone coated RPCs were found to give satisfactory performance with stable efficiency of >90% continuously for a long period as reported earlier. Results of the crosstalk measurement of these silicone coated RPC will be presented in this paper. Very recently RPCs made with the same grade of bakelite but having better surface finish, are found to give equivalent performance even without any ...

Biswas, S; Bose, S; Chattopadhyay, S; Saha, S; Viyogi, Y P

2009-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

154

Inspector General  

Broader source: Energy.gov (indexed) [DOE]

Office of the Under Secretary for Nuclear Security Edward B. Held (Acting) Under Secretary for Nuclear Security DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY Office of the Under Secretary for Management & Performance Vacant Under Secretary for Management and Performance Office of the Under Secretary for Science & Energy Vacant Under Secretary for Science and Energy Southwestern Power Administration Bonneville Power Administration Western Area Power Administration Southeastern Power Administration U.S. Energy Information Administration Loan Programs Office Advanced Research Projects Agency - Energy General Counsel Assistant Secretary for Congressional & Intergovernmental Affairs Chief Human Capital Officer

155

Benchmarking kinetic calculations of resistive wall mode stability  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Validating the calculations of kinetic resistive wall mode (RWM) stability is important for confidently predicting RWM stable operating regions in ITER and other high performance tokamaks for disruption avoidance. Benchmarking the calculations of the Magnetohydrodynamic Resistive SpectrumKinetic (MARS-K) [Y. Liu et al., Phys. Plasmas 15, 112503 (2008)], Modification to Ideal Stability by Kinetic effects (MISK) [B. Hu et al., Phys. Plasmas 12, 057301 (2005)], and Perturbed Equilibrium Nonambipolar Transport (PENT) [N. Logan et al., Phys. Plasmas 20, 122507 (2013)] codes for two Solov'ev analytical equilibria and a projected ITER equilibrium has demonstrated good agreement between the codes. The important particle frequencies, the frequency resonance energy integral in which they are used, the marginally stable eigenfunctions, perturbed Lagrangians, and fluid growth rates are all generally consistent between the codes. The most important kinetic effect at low rotation is the resonance between the mode rotation and the trapped thermal particle's precession drift, and MARS-K, MISK, and PENT show good agreement in this term. The different ways the rational surface contribution was treated historically in the codes is identified as a source of disagreement in the bounce and transit resonance terms at higher plasma rotation. Calculations from all of the codes support the present understanding that RWM stability can be increased by kinetic effects at low rotation through precession drift resonance and at high rotation by bounce and transit resonances, while intermediate rotation can remain susceptible to instability. The applicability of benchmarked kinetic stability calculations to experimental results is demonstrated by the prediction of MISK calculations of near marginal growth rates for experimental marginal stability points from the National Spherical Torus Experiment (NSTX) [M. Ono et al., Nucl. Fusion 40, 557 (2000)].

Berkery, J. W.; Sabbagh, S. A. [Department of Applied Physics and Applied Mathematics, Columbia University, New York, New York 10027 (United States)] [Department of Applied Physics and Applied Mathematics, Columbia University, New York, New York 10027 (United States); Liu, Y. Q. [Euratom/CCFE Fusion Association, Culham Science Centre, Abingdon OX14 3DB (United Kingdom)] [Euratom/CCFE Fusion Association, Culham Science Centre, Abingdon OX14 3DB (United Kingdom); Wang, Z. R.; Logan, N. C.; Park, J.-K.; Manickam, J. [Princeton Plasma Physics Laboratory, Princeton University, Princeton, New Jersey 08543 (United States)] [Princeton Plasma Physics Laboratory, Princeton University, Princeton, New Jersey 08543 (United States); Betti, R. [Laboratory for Laser Energetics, University of Rochester, Rochester, New York 14623 (United States)] [Laboratory for Laser Energetics, University of Rochester, Rochester, New York 14623 (United States)

2014-05-15T23:59:59.000Z

156

Nuclear Instruments and Methods in Physics Research A 469 (2001) 4754 The HERMES forward tracking chambers: construction,  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

, which use an Ar=CF4=CO2 (90 : 5 : 5) gas mixture. No degradation in chamber performance has been. PACS: 29.40.Cs; 07.89.+b Keywords: Wire chamber; CF4 gas; Aging studies; Radiation damage; HERMES rate operation of chambers with gas mixtures containing CF4. 2. Mechanical design Each chamber consists

157

3.0 GROWTH FACILITY SPACE REQUESTS Prospective users of the greenhouses or growth chambers are encouraged to  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

for greenhouse and growth chamber specifications, including space, lighting and fees. Greenhouse and Growth Chamber Space Inventory Greenhouse and Growth Chamber Lighting Inventory #12;Hourly Rate Service Charges3.0 GROWTH FACILITY SPACE REQUESTS Prospective users of the greenhouses or growth chambers

Pawlowski, Wojtek

158

Operational Analysis of Multiregional Nuclear Reactor Kinetics  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

......Operational Analysis of Multiregional Nuclear Reactor Kinetics NASSAR H. S. HAIDAR...analytically for a multiregional nuclear reactor whose subregions are of arbitrary...Operational Analysis of Multiregional Nuclear Reactor Kinetics NASSAU H. S. HAIDAR......

NASSAR H. S. HAIDAR

1983-05-01T23:59:59.000Z

159

Development of a multistep parallel-plate chamber as time projection chamber end-cap or vertex detector  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

In the course of development of the multistep avalanche chamber the authors have realized several multiple electrode parallel-plate devices exhibiting stable gains well in excess of 10/sup 5/ which are thus capable of detecting minimum ionizing particles. This paper presents the design and discusses the performance of a two-step parallel-plate avalanche chamber. A region of moderate electric field --the drift region where charges are released by ionizing radiation--is followed by two layers of comparable and very high field where charge multiplication occurs. Owing to the choice of the electrodes--either cross-wire meshes or parallel thick-wire grids at small pitch--the electric field is uniform over most of the gaps, and charge multiplication proceeds through a parallel-plate avalanche mode. In order to obtain a fast signal and a reduced avalanche spread in their prototypes, the authors have adopted rather narrow typical gaps of 4 mm for the first amplification region and 1 mm for the second. To avoid edge sparking, they have used either a gap increase at the edges or the insertion of thin mylar foil around the frame's edges. The last electrode in the structure, made with a printed-circuit board, is the only one equipped with electronics and is conveniently operated at ground potential. At regular intervals, four rows of pads are used to determine the coordinates of tracks in selected positions. Argon (90%) and methane (10%) comprise the gas filling.

Peisert, A.; Charpak, G.; Sauli, F.; Viezzoli, G.

1984-02-01T23:59:59.000Z

160

General Category  

Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

Sunrise and Sunset Visual Differences Sunrise and Sunset Visual Differences Name: Joey Status: other Grade: other Country: Canada Date: Spring 2012 Question: It seems that sunrise and sunset don't look symmetric. I mean that sunsets tend to have much redder skies and sunrise is usually a bit gloomier. If you see a picture, many times you can tell if its sunrise or sunset, even though I would think they should like identical, except that the sun is either going up or going down. Why do they not appear the same but in reverse? Replies: Funny you should ask as a paper just arrived which is sure to have the answer and I will read it now....... OK, the morning sky, and the sky in general, is blue due to Rayleigh scattering [which affects short wavelengths the most] of the sun light by air molecules and other microscopic particles.

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "kinetics chamber general" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


161

KINETIC ROUGHENING PHENOMENA, STOCHASTIC GROWTH, DIRECTED  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

KINETIC ROUGHENING PHENOMENA, STOCHASTIC GROWTH, DIRECTED POLYMERS AND ALL THAT Aspects 254 (1995) 215-414 Kinetic roughening phenomena, stochastic growth, directed polymers and all that for the nonlinear term 3.2. Dynamic RG analysis 3.3. A worthy detour: kinetic roughening with conservation law 3

Halpin-Healy, Tim

162

Slow Sorption Kinetics of Pentachlorophenol on Soil  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Slow Sorption Kinetics of Pentachlorophenol on Soil: Concentration Effects J O H N P . D I V I N C of Delaware, Newark, Delaware 19717-1303 We investigated the sorption kinetics of pentachlorophenol (PCP in sorption. The onset of the slow sorption kinetics was also concentration dependent. At higher PCP

Sparks, Donald L.

163

14CME Kinetic Energy and Mass Kinetic energy is the energy that a  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

14CME Kinetic Energy and Mass Kinetic energy is the energy that a body has by virtue of its mass the table by determining the value of the missing entries using the formula for Kinetic Energy. Problem 2: What is the minimum and maximum range for the observed kinetic energies for the 10 CMEs? The largest

164

Real-time seam tracking for rocket thrust chamber manufacturing  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

A sensor-based control approach for real-time seam tracking of rocket thrust chamber assemblies has been developed to enable automation of a braze paste dispensing process. This approach utilizes a non-contact Multi-Axis Seam Tracking (MAST) sensor to track the seams. Thee MAST sensor measures capacitance variations between the sensor and the workpiece and produces four varying voltages which are read directly into the robot controller. A PID control algorithm which runs at the application program level has been designed based upon a simple dynamic model of the combined robot and sensor plant. The control algorithm acts on the incoming sensor signals in real-time to guide the robot motion along the seam path. Experiments demonstrate that seams can be tracked at 100 mm/sec within the accuracy required for braze paste dispensing.

Schmitt, D.J.; Novak, J.L. [Sandia National Labs., Albuquerque, NM (United States); Starr, G.P. [New Mexico Univ., Albuquerque, NM (United States); Maslakowski, J.E. [Rockwell International Corp., Canoga Park, CA (United States). Rocketdyne Div.

1993-11-01T23:59:59.000Z

165

Readout of TPC Tracking Chambers with GEMs and Pixel Chip  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Two layers of GEMs and the ATLAS Pixel Chip, FEI3, have been combined and tested as a prototype for Time Projection Chamber (TPC) readout at the International Linear Collider (ILC). The double-layer GEM system amplifies charge with gain sufficient to detect all track ionization. The suitability of three gas mixtures for this application was investigated, and gain measurements are presented. A large sample of cosmic ray tracks was reconstructed in 3D by using the simultaneous timing and 2D spatial information from the pixel chip. The chip provides pixel charge measurement as well as timing. These results demonstrate that a double GEM and pixel combination, with a suitably modified pixel ASIC, could meet the stringent readout requirements of the ILC.

Kadyk, John; Kim, T.; Freytsis, M.; Button-Shafer, J.; Kadyk, J.; Vahsen, S.E.; Wenzel, W.A.

2007-12-21T23:59:59.000Z

166

Development of Glass Resistive Plate Chambers for INO  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

The India-based Neutrino Observatory (INO) collaboration is planning to build a massive 50kton magnetised Iron Calorimeter (ICAL) detector, to study atmospheric neutrinos and to make precision measurements of the parameters related to neutrino oscillations. Glass Resistive Plate Chambers (RPCs) of about 2m X 2m in size are going to be used as active elements for the ICAL detector. We have fabricated a large number of glass RPC prototypes of 1m X 1m in size and have studied their performance and long term stability. In the process, we have developed and produced a number of materials and components required for fabrication of RPCs. We have also designed and optimised a number of fabrication and quality control procedures for assembling the gas gaps. In this paper we will review our activities towards development of glass RPCs for the INO ICAL detector and will present results of the characterisation studies of the RPCs.

Satyanarayana Bheesette; for the INO collaboration

2008-10-26T23:59:59.000Z

167

Conceptual Design Report for the Extreme Ecosystems Test Chambers  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

This conceptual design supports the creation of Extreme Ecosystems Test Chambers, which will replicate deep subsurface and subocean environments characterized by high pressure (2,000 psi) and subfreezing to high temperature (-4 to 300 degrees F) with differing chemical and saturation conditions. The design provides a system to support research and development that includes heat transfer, phase change issues in porous media, microbiology in extreme environments, and carbon sequestration and extraction. The initial system design is based on the research needs to support the commercial production of methane hydrates from subsurface sediments. The design provides for three pressure vessels: a Down Hole Test Vessel, a Vertical Multi-phase Test Vessel, and a Horizontal Multi-phase Test Vessel.

C. Barnes; J. Beller; K. Caldwell; K. Croft; R. Cherry; W. Landman

1998-12-01T23:59:59.000Z

168

IMPEDANCE OF ELECTRON BEAM VACUUM CHAMBERS FOR THE NSLS-II STORAGE RING.  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

In this paper we discuss computation of the coupling impedance of the vacuum chambers for the NSLS-II storage ring using the electromagnetic simulator GdfidL [1]. The impedance of the vacuum chambers depends on the geometric dimensions of the cross-section and height of the slot in the chamber wall. Of particular concern is the complex geometry of the infrared extraction chambers to be installed in special large-gap dipole magnets. In this case, wakefields are generated due to tapered transitions and large vertical-aperture ports with mirrors near the electron beam.

BLEDNYKH,A.; KRINSKY, S.

2007-06-25T23:59:59.000Z

169

Liquid fuel vaporizer and combustion chamber having an adjustable thermal conductor  

DOE Patents [OSTI]

The efficiency and effectiveness of apparatuses for vaporizing and combusting liquid fuel can be improved using thermal conductors. For example, an apparatus having a liquid fuel vaporizer and a combustion chamber can be characterized by a thermal conductor that conducts heat from the combustion chamber to the vaporizer. The thermal conductor can be a movable member positioned at an insertion depth within the combustion chamber that corresponds to a rate of heat conduction from the combustion chamber to the vaporizer. The rate of heat conduction can, therefore, be adjusted by positioning the movable member at a different insertion depth.

Powell, Michael R; Whyatt, Greg A; Howe, Daniel T; Fountain, Matthew S

2014-03-04T23:59:59.000Z

170

Operation of {sup 3}He Proportional Chambers in High Gamma Radiation Fields  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Operation of {sup 3}He proportional chambers with irradiated fissile materials is limited because of the sensitivity of these chambers to gamma ray events. The optimum performance of these chambers is achieved with proper selection of an additive gas to the chambers and with proper choice of preamplifier and linear amplifier time constants. The counting efficiency of a 4-atm, {sup 3}He-CO2 chamber is improved from 35% to 43% in a 200 R/hr gamma radiation field by decreasing the linear amplifier time constant. Likewise, the counting efficiency of a 1-atm, {sup 3}He-CF4 is improved from 11% to 14% in a 200 R/hr gamma radiation field by decreasing the linear amplifier time constant. The 4-atm, {sup 3}He-CO2 1-in.-OD chamber has a higher efficiency than the 1-atm, {sup 3}He-CF4 1-in.-OD chamber although the energy resolution of the 3 He-CF4 chamber is better than that for the {sup 3}He-CO2 chamber.

Hill, N.W.; Miller, V.C.; Valentine, T.E.; Williams, J.A.

1999-09-01T23:59:59.000Z

171

Beam quality corrections for parallel-plate ion chambers in electron reference dosimetry  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

Current dosimetry protocols (AAPM, IAEA, IPEM, DIN) recommend parallel-plate ionization chambers for dose measurements in clinical electron beams. This study presents detailed Monte Carlo simulations of beam quality correction factors for four different types of parallel-plate chambers: NACP-02, Markus, Advanced Markus and Roos. These chambers differ in constructive details which should have notable impact on the resulting perturbation corrections, hence on the beam quality corrections. The results reveal deviations to the recommended beam quality corrections given in the IAEA TRS-398 protocol in the range of 0%2% depending on energy and chamber type. For well-guarded chambers, these deviations could be traced back to a non-unity and energy-dependent wall perturbation correction. In the case of the guardless Markus chamber, a nearly energy-independent beam quality correction is resulting as the effects of wall and cavity perturbation compensate each other. For this chamber, the deviations to the recommended values are the largest and may exceed 2%. From calculations of type-B uncertainties including effects due to uncertainties of the underlying cross-sectional data as well as uncertainties due to the chamber material composition and chamber geometry, the overall uncertainty of calculated beam quality correction factors was estimated to be

K Zink; J Wulff

2012-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

172

SciTech Connect: ON THE ANALYSIS OF BUBBLE CHAMBER TRACKS  

Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

by such analysis. The discussion is based largely on experience gained in performing hydrogen bubble chamber experiments with the University of California's Bevatron (6-Bev proton...

173

Mixed reactant single chamber fuel cell, using products generated from the electrolysis of an aqueous electrolyte.  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

??A Mixed Reactant Single Chamber (MRSC) Fuel Cell is a relatively recent concept in the field of fuel cell engineering originally developed in the late (more)

Jost, William C.

2008-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

174

Diagnostics of discharge channels for neutralized chamber transport in heavy ion fusion  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

ber of a heavy ion beam fusion reactor has many attractivein the reactor chamber for heavy ion fusion in preformedfusion. Controlled break- down and channel stability at reactor-

2002-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

175

Estimating The Thermodynamics And Kinetics Of Chlorinated Hydrocarbon...  

Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

Estimating The Thermodynamics And Kinetics Of Chlorinated Hydrocarbon Degradation. Estimating The Thermodynamics And Kinetics Of Chlorinated Hydrocarbon Degradation. Abstract: Many...

176

Neoclassical toroidal viscosity in perturbed equilibria with general tokamak geometry  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

This paper presents a calculation of neoclassical toroidal viscous torque independent of large-aspect-ratio expansions across kinetic regimes. The Perturbed Equilibrium Nonambipolar Transport (PENT) code was developed for this purpose, and is compared to previous combined regime models as well as regime specific limits and a drift kinetic ?f guiding center code. It is shown that retaining general expressions, without circular large-aspect-ratio or other orbit approximations, can be important at experimentally relevant aspect ratio and shaping. The superbanana plateau, a kinetic resonance effect recently recognized for its relevance to ITER, is recovered by the PENT calculations and shown to require highly accurate treatment of geometric effects.

Logan, Nikolas C.; Park, Jong-Kyu; Kim, Kimin; Wang, Zhirui [Plasma Physics Laboratory, Princeton University, Princeton, New Jersey 08543 (United States)] [Plasma Physics Laboratory, Princeton University, Princeton, New Jersey 08543 (United States); Berkery, John W. [Department of Applied Physics and Applied Mathematics, Columbia University, New York, New York 10027 (United States)] [Department of Applied Physics and Applied Mathematics, Columbia University, New York, New York 10027 (United States)

2013-12-15T23:59:59.000Z

177

Numerical Study of Unsteady Detonation Wave Propagation in a Supersonic Combustion Chamber  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Numerical Study of Unsteady Detonation Wave Propagation in a Supersonic Combustion Chamber T.H. Yi detonation waves in a supersonic flow in one-dimensional tube and two- dimensional wedged chamber parameters. Various features including a vortex are observed. 1 Introduction Detonation wave propagation

Texas at Arlington, University of

178

Computation of Neutral Gas Flow From a Hall Thruster Into a Vacuum Chamber  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

to model a cold flow of xenon gas expanding from a Hall thruster into a vacuum chamber. The simulations are performed for the P5 Hall thruster operating in a large vacuum tank at the University of Michigan chamber are varied. A key physical parameter in the simulations concerns the probability that a xenon atom

Walker, Mitchell

179

Threats, design limits and design windows for laser IFE dry wall chambers  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Threats, design limits and design windows for laser IFE dry wall chambers A. Rene´ Raffray-drive targets and a dry wall chamber. The dry wall must accommodate the ion and photon threat spectra from. The neutron energy is deposited deeper in the first wall and blanket and does not represent a major threat

Raffray, A. René

180

EFFECTS OF CHAMBER GEOMETRY AND GAS PROPERTIES ON HYDRODYNAMIC EVOLUTION OF IFE Zoran Dragojlovic1  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

-dependent response of the chamber environment between target ignitions. The fusion burn following the target ignition Dragojlovic1 and Farrokh Najmabadi2 Department of Electrical & Computer Engineering and Center for Energy releases large quantities of energy into the chamber. This energy should be removed and the environment

Najmabadi, Farrokh

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "kinetics chamber general" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


181

Automated Monitoring of Soil Respiration: A Moving Chamber Design Nelson T. Edwards* and Jeffery S. Riggs  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

growthdifferential mode, and equivalent flow rates of reference gas (ambient air) and sample gas (air exiting chamber by establishing chamber when closed, provided an airtight seal. This feature and the temperature response rates continuously monitored soil temperature, or air temper- even in an environment with highly

182

Hydrogen production using single-chamber membrane-free microbial electrolysis cells  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

efficiencies of hydrogen fuel cells in converting hydrogen to electricity. The development of advancedHydrogen production using single-chamber membrane-free microbial electrolysis cells Hongqiang Hu., Hydrogen production using single-chamber membrane-free microbial electrol- ysis cells, Water Research (2008

Tullos, Desiree

183

A local limit theorem for random walks on the chambers of ~A2 buildings  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

A local limit theorem for random walks on the chambers of ~A2 buildings James Parkinson and Bruno. In this paper we outline an approach for analysing random walks on the chambers of buildings. The types of walks that we consider are those which are well adapted to the structure of the building: Namely walks

Paris-Sud XI, Université de

184

ESS 2012 Peer Review - Amber Kinetics Flywheel Energy Storage Demo - Ed Chiao, Amber Kinetics  

Broader source: Energy.gov (indexed) [DOE]

amber_kinetics amber_kinetics DOE Peer Review September 2012 Ed Chiao, CEO amber_kinetics Amber Kinetics: Our Flywheel History Start-up launched in 2009, Stanford University Cleantech Entrepreneurship class Established a technology licensing & flywheel development partnership with LLNL; Amber Kinetics identified new material & lower-cost rotor designs for commercialization Awarded a Smart Grid Energy Storage Demonstration grant award for flywheels Awarded a matching grant for development & demonstration of flywheel technology Stanford University Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory U.S. Department of Energy California Energy Commission World-class institutions | innovative, deep flywheel technology owned by Amber Amber Kinetics, Inc. - Confidential and Proprietary, All Rights Reserved

185

The American Chamber of Commerce of Trinidad & Tobago | Department of  

Broader source: Energy.gov (indexed) [DOE]

The American Chamber of Commerce of Trinidad & Tobago The American Chamber of Commerce of Trinidad & Tobago The American Chamber of Commerce of Trinidad & Tobago May 13, 2008 - 12:00pm Addthis Remarks As Prepared for Delivery by Secretary Bodman Thank you, Raymond. I appreciate the Chamber organizing this gathering this morning. The American Chamber here on Trinidad and Tobago is an important regional voice in support of the free market, so I want to commend you for hosting the Business Future of the Americas conference next month. Having spent most of my career in the private sector, it is always rewarding to be among colleagues from the business community. I'm also quite pleased to be back in Trinidad & Tobago, having done business here during my time at Cabot Corporation. I've always been impressed with this nation's government, its people and

186

MHK Technologies/Multi Resonant Chambers MRC 1000 | Open Energy Information  

Open Energy Info (EERE)

Resonant Chambers MRC 1000 Resonant Chambers MRC 1000 < MHK Technologies Jump to: navigation, search << Return to the MHK database homepage Multi Resonant Chambers MRC 1000.jpg Technology Profile Primary Organization ORECon Technology Resource Click here Wave Technology Type Click here Oscillating Water Column Technology Readiness Level Click here TRL 5 6 System Integration and Technology Laboratory Demonstration Technology Description A 1 5MW Multi Resonant Chamber MRC using Oscillating Water Column OWC principles Consists of 3 x 500kW independent chambers each with a Dresser Rand HydroAir turbine driving an induction generator Full power conversion system delivers grid compliant power 1 5MW 33kV 60Hz to shore Device is tension moored to maximise power capture and minimise footprint All maintenance is done on board No moving parts in the water Turbines are low speed 300rpm high efficiency 75 and low noise

187

U.S. Chamber of Commerce Biofuels Dialogue Series: Outlook for an Emerging  

Broader source: Energy.gov (indexed) [DOE]

Chamber of Commerce Biofuels Dialogue Series: Outlook for an Chamber of Commerce Biofuels Dialogue Series: Outlook for an Emerging Global Biofuels Market U.S. Chamber of Commerce Biofuels Dialogue Series: Outlook for an Emerging Global Biofuels Market January 29, 2008 - 10:53am Addthis Remarks as Prepared For Delivery by Secretary Bodman Thank you very much, Bruce, for that kind introduction. My thanks also to Tom Donahue and the leadership of the Chamber for inviting me to be with you today. I was quite pleased to hear that the Chamber was sponsoring this event. As anyone who knows me - or has heard me speak recently - can tell you, the biofuels industry is a favorite topic of mine. In my view, advanced biofuels offer tremendous promise for helping our nation to bring about a new energy future-one that is cleaner, more sustainable, more affordable,

188

Development of Aluminium Vacuum Chambers for the LHC Experiments at CERN  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Beam losses may cause activation of vacuum chamber walls, in particular those of the Large Hadron Collider (LHC) experiments. For the High Luminosity (HL-LHC), the activation of such vacuum chambers will increase. It is therefore necessary to use a vacuum chamber material which interacts less with the circulating beam. While beryllium is reserved for the collision point, a good compromise between cost, availability and transparency is obtained with aluminium alloys; such materials are a preferred choice with respect to austenitic stainless steel. Manufacturing a thin-wall aluminium vacuum chamber presents several challenges as the material grade needs to be machinable, weldable, leak-tight for small thicknesses, and able to withstand heating to 250C for extended periods of time. This paper presents some of the technical challenges during the manufacture of these vacuum chambers and the methods for overcoming production difficulties, including surface treatments and Non-Evaporable Getter (NEG) thin-film coat...

Gallilee, M; Costa-Pinto, P; Lepeule, P; Perez-Espinos, J; Marques Antunes Ferreira, L; Prever-Loiri, L; Sapountzis, A

2014-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

189

Kinetic Modeling of Microbiological Processes  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Kinetic description of microbiological processes is vital for the design and control of microbe-based biotechnologies such as waste water treatment, petroleum oil recovery, and contaminant attenuation and remediation. Various models have been proposed to describe microbiological processes. This editorial article discusses the advantages and limiation of these modeling approaches in cluding tranditional, Monod-type models and derivatives, and recently developed constraint-based approaches. The article also offers the future direction of modeling researches that best suit for petroleum and environmental biotechnologies.

Liu, Chongxuan; Fang, Yilin

2012-09-17T23:59:59.000Z

190

Pressure pulsations in combustion chambers of large gas turbines  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Flame instabilities and pressure pulsations have been measured in three different types of gas turbine combustors. These are the single and twin silo (such as the ABB GT13E and the Siemens V94.2), the annular combustion chamber (ABB GT 13E2, Siemens V84.3A, etc), and the multi-can combustors common on GEC-EGT gas turbines. Pressure pulsations are mostly resonant. They are interpreted with help of an acoustical model. Non-resonant modes at low frequencies (flame flicker) are ascribed to imperfect mixing especially in premix burners. At higher frequencies they are often due to vortices from the burners. Modifications of the burners, changes in the geometry of the liners and the addition of acoustical dampers are means to abate flame instabilities and the associated resonances. Judicious ways to run the gas turbine can help to avoid them. The efficiency of acoustical dampers of the Helmholtz type has been investigated experimentally and with model predictions.

Verhage, A.J.L.; Stevens, P.M.P.

1998-07-01T23:59:59.000Z

191

CLEERS Coordination & Development of Catalyst Process Kinetic...  

Broader source: Energy.gov (indexed) [DOE]

Development of Catalyst Process Kinetic Data - Pres. 1: Coordination of CLEERS Project; Pres. 2: ORNL Research on LNT Sulfation & Desulfation CLEERS Coordination & Development of...

192

CLEERS Coordination & Development of Catalyst Process Kinetic...  

Broader source: Energy.gov (indexed) [DOE]

& coordinate DOE research efforts (CLEERS Coordination) * Develop detailed technical data required to simulate energy efficient emission controls (LNT & SCR Kinetics, Sulfur &...

193

Combustion kinetics and reaction pathways  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

This project is focused on the fundamental chemistry of combustion. The overall objectives are to determine rate constants for elementary reactions and to elucidate the pathways of multichannel reactions. A multitechnique approach that features three independent experiments provides unique capabilities in performing reliable kinetic measurements over an exceptionally wide range in temperature, 300 to 2500 K. Recent kinetic work has focused on experimental studies and theoretical calculations of the methane dissociation system (CH{sub 4} + Ar {yields} CH{sub 3} + H + Ar and H + CH{sub 4} {yields} CH{sub 3} + H{sub 2}). Additionally, a discharge flow-photoionization mass spectrometer (DF-PIMS) experiment is used to determine branching fractions for multichannel reactions and to measure ionization thresholds of free radicals. Thus, these photoionization experiments generate data that are relevant to both reaction pathways studies (reaction dynamics) and fundamental thermochemical research. Two distinct advantages of performing PIMS with high intensity, tunable vacuum ultraviolet light at the National Synchrotron Light Source are high detection sensitivity and exceptional selectivity in monitoring radical species.

Klemm, R.B.; Sutherland, J.W. [Brookhaven National Laboratory, Upton, NY (United States)

1993-12-01T23:59:59.000Z

194

Using large environmental chamber technique for gaseous contaminant removal equipment test  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

The US Association of Home Appliance Manufacturers (AHAM) has set a voluntary standard for testing the initial dust-removal capacity of portable air cleaners. In the authors` test of portable air cleaners for the local consumer council, the AHAM method was extended to test the initial removal capacity for gaseous phase pollutants. Also, carbon filters` efficiency change over time in toluene removal on a number of air cleaners was tested. In using a large chamber to carry out these tests, the chamber wall adsorption and re-emission effects were experimentally quantified. These tests indicated that a large chamber, with its wall surface adsorption controlled, is simple and robust to use to quantify the initial cleaning capacity for gaseous phase pollutants. Based on these test results, a large chamber method is proposed to test the performance lifetimes of portable air cleaners. The system advantages of the method over the in-duct performance life test methods are that no continuous air-cleaning system is required and that the chamber`s humidity and temperature can be maintained at the desired values more easily with the combination of a unitary dehumidifier and a bubbler system. This paper will present the trial results with portable air cleaner tests and discuss the large environmental chamber techniques.

Niu, J.; Tung, T.C.W.; Chui, V.W.Y. [Hong Kong Polytechnic Univ. (Hong Kong). Dept. of Building Services Engineering

1998-12-31T23:59:59.000Z

195

Multiple temperature kinetic model and gas-kinetic method for hypersonic non-equilibrium flow computations  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Multiple temperature kinetic model and gas-kinetic method for hypersonic non-equilibrium flow. For the non-equilibrium flow computations, i.e., the nozzle flow and hypersonic rarefied flow over flat plate-kinetic method; Hypersonic and rarefied flows 1. Introduction The development of aerospace technology has

Xu, Kun

196

Testing the kinetic energy functional: Kinetic energy density as a density functional  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

is to the exchange-correlation energy as a functional of the density. A large part of the total energy, the kinetic contexts. For finite systems these forms integrate to the same global ki- netic energy, but they differTesting the kinetic energy functional: Kinetic energy density as a density functional Eunji Sim

Burke, Kieron

197

Plastic ball and streamer chamber experiments at the Bevalac  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Single particle inclusive experiments, and experiments that additionally measure a few correlations like the associated multiplicity, have provided the main contribution to our present understanding of high energy heavy ion collisions. The results from those experiments are in overall agreement with calculations of the cascade and hydrodynamical models. In the cascade model the collision of two nuclei is simulated as a cascade of nucleon-nucleon collisions using measured N-N cross sections. The hydrodynamical model, on the other hand, describes the nuclear collision as that of two fluids and makes use of a nuclear equation of state relating thermal and compressional energy densities to pressure. The pressure field dominates the expansion phase and leads to collective flow of the reaction products in a preferred direction. The observation of such effects in inclusive experiments is not well established. Collective effects that manifest themselves in the shape of the event in phase space are expected to be seen best in the new complete event detectors that measure the final state as exclusively as presently possible by measuring most of the charged particles emitted in the reaction. In addition, those detectors are well suited to test macroscopic concepts such as equilibrium and temperature. Global methods like the sphericity or thrust analysis take into account all the correlations measured in the event and are specially designed to determine the shape of an event in phase space and thus to define a reaction plane. Recent data from the Plastic Ball and the streamer chamber experiments, the first complete event detectors in use at the Bevalac, are presented in this report.

Ritter, H.G.

1982-07-01T23:59:59.000Z

198

A study of the response of a gas ionization chamber to different sources of ionizing radiation  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

ranged from a few keV to 20 MeV and peaked at 5 MeV. The neutrons were produced by the (n, n) reaction o(5. 16MeV)+ Be ~ C+n( 5MeV). A 2-in thick lead brick was placed in front of the chamber to absorb the soft 7-rays emitted from the source along... with the neutrons. The source was kept 9in away from the chamber during all runs. Data were taken for both gas mixtures with the cathode pad facing the source and also with the chamber turned around. In addition to these measurements, four more runs were made...

Zamble?-Die?guez, Filiberto Edmundo

2012-06-07T23:59:59.000Z

199

Power and Public Chambers in the development of civil society in Russia  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

Abstract Embodying a state vision of how civil society ought to function and be designed by the authorities, Public Chambers in Russia have been criticized as means of state control. This state dominance is the starting point in this article, which asks what room to manoeuvre a regional Public Chamber has. Drawing upon fieldwork this article examines how members and local observers of the Public Chamber give meaning to this activity. The analysis assesses the role of state dominance, discussion of routines and responses to local demands, and concludes that these incremental developments form civil society in Russia.

Kirsti Stuvy

2014-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

200

Voltage Oscillations in Single-Chamber Fuel Cells operating under a C3H8 / O2 mixture.  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

1 Voltage Oscillations in Single-Chamber Fuel Cells operating under a C3H8 / O2 mixture. Geoffroy : Jean-Paul Viricelle, viricelle@emse.fr Phone : 33 4 77 42 02 52 Abstract : Single-Chamber Fuel Cells this behaviour. Keywords: Single Chamber Fuel Cell, Propane, Oscillation, Anode. 1. Introduction Solid Oxide Fuel

Paris-Sud XI, Université de

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "kinetics chamber general" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


201

Kinetic roughening on curved interfaces  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Stochastic growth phenomena on curved interfaces have not been explored in so much detail as their planar counterparts. The independence of the interface macroscopic shape on kinetic roughening has been occasionally assumed, but however, this fact can not be considered as universal. Stochastic partial differential equations on curved interfaces present dynamical and morphological properties that are completely different from their planar equivalents. Herein we will concentrate on equations which planar counterparts are linear. The fundamental differences are the loss of correlation of the interface through time for models showing sub-ballistic propagation of the correlations and the irrelevance of the noise in two and higher dimensional settings. We analyze some of these processes in detail, exploring why these consequences arise, and show that they tend to appear irrespective of the particular metric, provided that it is not Euclidean. Models showing a super-ballistic propagation of correlations present a fl...

Escudero, Carlos

2008-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

202

Decohesion Kinetics in Polymer Organic Solar Cells  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

Decohesion Kinetics in Polymer Organic Solar Cells ... We investigate the role of molecular weight (MW) of the photoactive polymer poly(3-hexylthiophene) (P3HT) on the temperature-dependent decohesion kinetics of bulk heterojunction (BHJ) organic solar cells (OSCs). ... fullerenes; solar cells; thin films; fracture; polymer ...

Christopher Bruner; Fernando Novoa; Stephanie Dupont; Reinhold Dauskardt

2014-11-04T23:59:59.000Z

203

Kinetics of Non-Thermal Atmospheric Pressure  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Kinetics of Non-Thermal Atmospheric Pressure Plasmas Alexander Fridman · Microdischarge Interaction and Structuring in Dielectric Barrier Discharges · Kinetics of Blood Coagulation in Plasma · Surface Wound wire Area of DBD plasma region: ~104cm2 #12;7 Microdischarge Patterning (2D) R22 R23 R24 R26 R27 R28

Kaganovich, Igor

204

Chemical kinetics and oil shale process design  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Oil shale processes are reviewed with the goal of showing how chemical kinetics influences the design and operation of different processes for different types of oil shale. Reaction kinetics are presented for organic pyrolysis, carbon combustion, carbonate decomposition, and sulfur and nitrogen reactions.

Burnham, A.K.

1993-07-01T23:59:59.000Z

205

ADVANCES IN ENVIRONMENTAL REACTION KINETICS AND THERMODYNAMICS  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

1262 ADVANCES IN ENVIRONMENTAL REACTION KINETICS AND THERMODYNAMICS: LONG-TERM FATE thermodynamic and kinetic data is available with regard to the formation of these mixed metal precipitate phases to six months from the initial addition of aqueous nickel. Additionally, we have determined thermodynamic

Sparks, Donald L.

206

S T A T E OF CONNECTICUT E X E C U T I V E CHAMBERS M  

Broader source: Energy.gov (indexed) [DOE]

T T A T E OF CONNECTICUT E X E C U T I V E CHAMBERS M . JODI R E L L GOVERNOR The Honorable Steven Chu, Secretary United States Department of Energy 1000 Independence Avenue, S. W. Washington, D.C. 20585 March 23,2009 Dear Secretary Chu: Re: State Energy Program Assurances In accordance with Section 41 0 of the American Recovery and Reinvestment Act of 2009,I hereby notify you that I have obtained necessary assurances that each of the following will occur: (1) The applicable State regulatory authority will seek to implement, in appropriate proceedings for each electric and gas utility, with respect to which the State regulatory authority has ratemaking authority, a general policy that ensures that utility financial incentives are aligned with helping their customers use energy more efficiently and that provide timely cost recovery

207

Short Communication Kinetics and thermodynamics of heavy metal ions sequestration onto novel  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

biomasses had been chosen and utilized by researchers to sequester toxic heavy metal ions from industrialShort Communication Kinetics and thermodynamics of heavy metal ions sequestration onto novel is generally considered as the most toxic metal in natural ecosystems (Clarkson, 1993). Over the years, various

Gong, Jian Ru

208

Chemical Kinetic Modeling of Non-Petroleum Based Fuels | Department...  

Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

ft010pitz2012o.pdf More Documents & Publications Chemical Kinetic Modeling of Non-Petroleum Based Fuels Chemical Kinetic Modeling of Fuels Chemical Kinetic Research on HCCI &...

209

Neutron And Gamma Detector Using An Ionization Chamber With An Integrated  

Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

Neutron And Gamma Detector Using An Ionization Chamber Neutron And Gamma Detector Using An Ionization Chamber Neutron And Gamma Detector Using An Ionization Chamber With An Integrated Body And Moderator A detector for detecting neutrons and gamma radiation includes a cathode that defines an interior surface and an interior volume. Available for thumbnail of Feynman Center (505) 665-9090 Email Neutron And Gamma Detector Using An Ionization Chamber With An Integrated Body And Moderator A detector for detecting neutrons and gamma radiation includes a cathode that defines an interior surface and an interior volume. A conductive neutron-capturing layer is disposed on the interior surface of the cathode and a plastic housing surrounds the cathode. A plastic lid is attached to the housing and encloses the interior volume of the cathode forming an

210

Study of Low Speed Flow Cytometry for Diffraction Imaging with Different Chamber  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

for optimization of the chamber design and improvement of the cell positioning accuracy for study of slow moving utilize a sheath nozzle with a conical end or orifice for hydrodynamic focusing the fluid injected

211

Organic Aerosol Formation from Photochemical Oxidation of Diesel Exhaust in a Smog Chamber  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

Diluted exhaust from a diesel engine was photo-oxidized in a smog chamber to investigate secondary organic aerosol (SOA) production. Photochemical aging rapidly produces significant SOA, almost doubling the organic aerosol contribution of primary ...

Emily A. Weitkamp; Amy M. Sage; Jeffrey R. Pierce; Neil M. Donahue; Allen L. Robinson

2007-09-11T23:59:59.000Z

212

E-Print Network 3.0 - atlas mdt chambers Sample Search Results  

Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

Page: << < 1 2 3 4 5 > >> 1 CHRISTOPH AMELUNG Date of birth July 14, 1971 (DetmoldGermany) Summary: on the optical alignment system of the ATLAS MDT chambers July 2002 -...

213

Ionisation chamber containing boron as a neutron detector in medical accelerator fields  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

......oxfordjournals.org August 2007 research-article POSTER Presentations Ionisation chamber containing boron...was partially supported by the Polish Ministry of Science and Higher Education under the grant No. 2P05D06530. The authors would......

M. Zielczynski; M. A. Gryzinski; N. Golnik; P. Tulik

2007-08-01T23:59:59.000Z

214

A multibeam radio-frequency ion source with a discharge chamber inside a resonator  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

The design of a multibeam ion source with a discharge chamber inside a half-wavelength radio-frequency (RF) resonator with a spiral load ... resonator. The RF oscillator operating at a frequency of 38 MHz is grou...

B. Yu. Bogdanovich; V. P. Zubovskii

2008-09-01T23:59:59.000Z

215

E-Print Network 3.0 - argon imaging chamber Sample Search Results  

Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

Centre de mathmatiques Collection: Mathematics 7 Bio390 Problem: Gas Laws thanks to Dr. J.F. Anderson, Summary: level on Earth. Inside the ground-level plastic chamber the...

216

The design, fabrication, and implications of a solvothermal vapor annealing chamber  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

This thesis documents the design, fabrication, use, and benefits of a prototype aluminum solvothermal vapor annealing chamber which facilitates the self-assembly of block copolymers (BCPs) on silicon wafers which are then ...

Porter, Nathaniel R., Jr

2013-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

217

Method of correcting eddy current magnetic fields in particle accelerator vacuum chambers  

DOE Patents [OSTI]

A method for correcting magnetic field aberrations produced by eddy currents induced in a particle accelerator vacuum chamber housing is provided wherein correction windings are attached to selected positions on the housing and the windings are energized by transformer action from secondary coils, which coils are inductively coupled to the poles of electro-magnets that are powered to confine the charged particle beam within a desired orbit as the charged particles are accelerated through the vacuum chamber by a particle-driving rf field. The power inductively coupled to the secondary coils varies as a function of variations in the power supplied by the particle-accelerating rf field to a beam of particles accelerated through the vacuum chamber, so the current in the energized correction coils is effective to cancel eddy current flux fields that would otherwise be induced in the vacuum chamber by power variations in the particle beam.

Danby, Gordon T. (Wading River, NY); Jackson, John W. (Shoreham, NY)

1991-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

218

Method of correcting eddy current magnetic fields in particle accelerator vacuum chambers  

DOE Patents [OSTI]

A method for correcting magnetic field aberrations produced by eddy currents induced in a particle accelerator vacuum chamber housing is provided wherein correction windings are attached to selected positions on the housing and the windings are energized by transformer action from secondary coils, which coils are inductively coupled to the poles of electro-magnets that are powered to confine the charged particle beam within a desired orbit as the charged particles are accelerated through the vacuum chamber by a particle-driving rf field. The power inductively coupled to the secondary coils varies as a function of variations in the power supplied by the particle-accelerating rf field to a beam of particles accelerated through the vacuum chamber, so the current in the energized correction coils is effective to cancel eddy current flux fields that would otherwise be induced in the vacuum chamber by power variations (dB/dt) in the particle beam.

Danby, G.T.; Jackson, J.W.

1990-03-19T23:59:59.000Z

219

Electron-Hadron shower discrimination in a liquid argon time projection chamber  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

By exploiting structural differences between electromagnetic and hadronic showers in a multivariate analysis we present an efficient Electron-Hadron discrimination algorithm for liquid argon time projection chambers, validated using Geant4 simulated data.

J. J. Back; G. J. Barker; A. J. Bennieston; S. B. Boyd; B. Morgan; Y. A. Ramachers

2012-10-08T23:59:59.000Z

220

Field calibration studies for ionisation chambers in mixed high-energy radiation fields  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

......roof over the accelerator measures only...activation of the PS vacuum chamber, measured after stop of the accelerator. A loss of protons...High Energy and Nuclear Physics 2003 Conference...high-energy accelerators. (2003) Doctoral......

C. Theis; D. Forkel-Wirth; M. Fuerstner; S. Mayer; Th. Otto; S. Roesler; H. Vincke

2007-08-01T23:59:59.000Z

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "kinetics chamber general" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


221

Space Chamber Reaches Cold Target at Unprecedented Efficiency | U.S. DOE  

Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

Space Chamber Reaches Cold Target at Unprecedented Efficiency Space Chamber Reaches Cold Target at Unprecedented Efficiency Nuclear Physics (NP) NP Home About Research Facilities Science Highlights Benefits of NP Funding Opportunities Nuclear Science Advisory Committee (NSAC) News & Resources Contact Information Nuclear Physics U.S. Department of Energy SC-26/Germantown Building 1000 Independence Ave., SW Washington, DC 20585 P: (301) 903-3613 F: (301) 903-3833 E: sc.np@science.doe.gov More Information » October 2012 Space Chamber Reaches Cold Target at Unprecedented Efficiency Thomas Jefferson Laboratory lends expertise in cryogenics developments. Print Text Size: A A A Subscribe FeedbackShare Page Click to enlarge photo. Enlarge Photo Image courtesy of NASA NASA's Space Environment Simulation Lab Chamber A, which is used by the

222

The Effect of Heat Treatments and Coatings on the Outgassing Rate of Stainless Steel Chambers  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

The outgassing rates of four nominally identical 304L stainless steel vacuum chambers were measured to determine the effect of chamber coatings and heat treatments. One chamber was coated with titanium nitride (TiN) and one with amorphous silicon (a-Si) immediately following fabrication. One chamber remained uncoated throughout, and the last chamber was first tested without any coating, and then coated with a-Si following a series of heat treatments. The outgassing rate of each chamber was measured at room temperatures between 15 and 30 deg C following bakes at temperatures between 90 and 400 deg C. Measurements for bare steel showed a significant reduction in the outgassing rate by more than a factor of 20 after a 400 deg C heat treatment (3.5 x 10{sup 12} TorrL s{sup -1}cm{sup -2} prior to heat treatment, reduced to 1.7 x 10{ sup -13} TorrL s{sup -1}cm{sup -2} following heat treatment). The chambers that were coated with a-Si showed minimal change in outgassing rates with heat treatment, though an outgassing rate reduced by heat treatments prior to a-Si coating was successfully preserved throughout a series of bakes. The TiN coated chamber exhibited remarkably low outgassing rates, up to four orders of magnitude lower than the uncoated stainless steel. An evaluation of coating composition suggests the presence of elemental titanium which could provide pumping and lead to an artificially low outgassing rate. The outgassing results are discussed in terms of diffusion-limited versus recombination-limited processes.

Mamum, Md Abdullah A. [Old Dominion Univ., Norfolk, VA (United States); Elmustafa, Abdelmageed A, [Old Dominion Univ., Norfolk, VA (United States); Stutzman, Marcy L. [JLAB, Newport News, VA (United States); Adderley, Philip A. [JLAB, Newport News, VA (United States); Poelker, Matthew [JLAB, Newport News, VA (United States)

2014-03-01T23:59:59.000Z

223

Invention and History of the Bubble Chamber (LBNL Summer Lecture Series)  

ScienceCinema (OSTI)

Summer Lecture Series 2006: Don Glaser won the 1960 Nobel Prize for Physics for his 1952 invention of the bubble chamber at Berkeley Lab, a type of particle detector that became the mainstay of high-energy physics research throughout the 1960s and 1970s. He discusses how, inspired by bubbles in a glass of beer, he invented the bubble chamber and detected cosmic-ray muons.

Glaser, Don

2011-04-28T23:59:59.000Z

224

Dual-chamber plasma deposition of A-Si:H solar cells at high rates using disilane  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

The use of a separated chamber deposition system for the fabrication of a-Si:H solar cells from disilane at high deposition rates results in a substantial improvement in short circuit current compared to that obtained from a single-chamber system. The spectral responses of cells fabricated in the dual-chamber mode are compared to those made in the single-chamber mode. The results are interpreted by assuming that the rate of removal of boron contaminants from the chamber is independent of deposition rate.

Rajeswaran, G.; Vanier, P.E.; Corderman, R.R.; Kampas, F.J.

1985-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

225

Self-dual soliton solutions in a Chern-Simons-CP(1) model with a nonstandard kinetic term  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

A generalization of the Chern-Simons-CP(1) model is considered by introducing a nonstandard kinetic term. For a particular case, of this nonstandard kinetic term, we show that the model support self-dual Bogomolnyi equations. The BPS energy has a bound proportional to the sum of the magnetic flux and the CP(1) topological charge. The self-dual equations are solved analytically and verified numerically.

Rodolfo Casana; Lucas Sourrouille

2013-11-27T23:59:59.000Z

226

NOVEL CHAMBER DESIGN FOR AN IN-VACUUM CRYO-COOLED MINI-GAP UNDULATOR.  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

A stainless steel, Ultra-High Vacuum (UHV) chamber, featuring a large vertical rectangular port (53''W by 16''H), has been fabricated to house the one-meter magnet assembly of a newly installed undulator insertion device for beamline X-25 at the National Synchrotron Light Source. To achieve UHV, the new chamber is equipped with a differential ion pump, NEG pump, nude ion gauge, residual gas analyzer, and an all metal roughing valve. Temperature of the magnet assembly is maintained below 90 C during vacuum bake. The large rectangular port cover is sealed to the main flange of the chamber using a one-piece flat aluminum gasket and special sealing surfaces developed exclusively by Nor-Cal Products, Inc. The large flange provides easy access to the gap of the installed magnet girders for in situ magnetic measurements and shimming. Special window ports were designed into the cover and chamber for manipulation of optical micrometers external to the chamber to provide precise measurements of the in-vacuum magnet gap. The vacuum chamber assembly features independently vacuum-isolated feedthroughs that can be used for either water-or-cryogenic refrigeration-cooling of the monolithic magnet girders. This would allow for cryogenic-cooled permanent magnet operation and has been successfully tested within temperature range of +100 C to -150 C. Details of the undulator assembly for beamline X-25 is described in the paper.

HU, J.-P.; FOERSTER, C.L.; SKARITKA, J.R.; WATERMAN, D.

2006-05-24T23:59:59.000Z

227

Direct Visualization of Initial SEI Morphology and Growth Kinetics...  

Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

Initial SEI Morphology and Growth Kinetics During Lithium Deposition by in situ Electrochemical Direct Visualization of Initial SEI Morphology and Growth Kinetics During Lithium...

228

Transport-controlled kinetics of dissolution and precipitation...  

Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

Transport-controlled kinetics of dissolution and precipitation in the sediments under alkaline and saline conditions . Transport-controlled kinetics of dissolution and...

229

Studying The Kinetics Of Crystalline Silicon Nanoparticle Lithiation...  

Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

Studying The Kinetics Of Crystalline Silicon Nanoparticle Lithiation With In-Situ Transmission Electron Microscopy. Studying The Kinetics Of Crystalline Silicon Nanoparticle...

230

Global Optimization of Chemical Reactors and Kinetic Optimization  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Model; 3-D; Monolith; Reactor; Optimization Introduction TheAngeles Global Optimization of Chemical Reactors and KineticGlobal Optimization of Chemical Reactors and Kinetic

ALHUSSEINI, ZAYNA ISHAQ

2013-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

231

Structure, Kinetics, and Thermodynamics of the Aqueous Uranyl...  

Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

Kinetics, and Thermodynamics of the Aqueous Uranyl(VI) Cation. Structure, Kinetics, and Thermodynamics of the Aqueous Uranyl(VI) Cation. Abstract: Molecular simulation techniques...

232

Microscale Electrode Design Using Coupled Kinetic, Thermal and...  

Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

Microscale Electrode Design Using Coupled Kinetic, Thermal and Mechanical Modeling Microscale Electrode Design Using Coupled Kinetic, Thermal and Mechanical Modeling 2010 DOE...

233

Microscale Electrode Design Using Coupled Kinetic, Thermal and...  

Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

Microscale Electrode Design Using Coupled Kinetic, Thermal and Mechanical Modeling Microscale Electrode Design Using Coupled Kinetic, Thermal and Mechanical Modeling 2009 DOE...

234

Coupled Kinetic, Thermal, and Mechanical Modeling of FIB Micro...  

Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

Coupled Kinetic, Thermal, and Mechanical Modeling of FIB Micro-machined Electrodes Coupled Kinetic, Thermal, and Mechanical Modeling of FIB Micro-machined Electrodes 2010 DOE...

235

Benchmark Reaction Mechanisms and Kinetics for Lean NOx Traps...  

Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

Benchmark Reaction Mechanisms and Kinetics for Lean NOx Traps Development of Chemical Kinetic Models for Lean NOx Traps Modeling the Regeneration Chemistry of Lean NOx Traps...

236

Experimentally determined dissolution kinetics of Na-rich borosilicate...  

Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

Experimentally determined dissolution kinetics of Na-rich borosilicate glass at far from equilibrium conditions: Implications Experimentally determined dissolution kinetics of...

237

Q-branch Raman scattering and modern kinetic thoery  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

The program is an extension of previous APL work whose general aim was to calculate line shapes of nearly resonant isolated line transitions with solutions of a popular quantum kinetic equation-the Waldmann-Snider equation-using well known advanced solution techniques developed for the classical Boltzmann equation. The advanced techniques explored have been a BGK type approximation, which is termed the Generalized Hess Method (GHM), and conversion of the collision operator to a block diagonal matrix of symmetric collision kernels which then can be approximated by discrete ordinate methods. The latter method, which is termed the Collision Kernel method (CC), is capable of the highest accuracy and has been used quite successfully for Q-branch Raman scattering. The GHM method, not quite as accurate, is applicable over a wider range of pressures and has proven quite useful.

Monchick, L. [The Johns Hopkins Univ., Laurel, MD (United States)

1993-12-01T23:59:59.000Z

238

Modeling of Reactor Kinetics and Dynamics  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

In order to model a full fuel cycle in a nuclear reactor, it is necessary to simulate the short time-scale kinetic behavior of the reactor as well as the long time-scale dynamics that occur with fuel burnup. The former is modeled using the point kinetics equations, while the latter is modeled by coupling fuel burnup equations with the kinetics equations. When the equations are solved simultaneously with a nonlinear equation solver, the end result is a code with the unique capability of modeling transients at any time during a fuel cycle.

Matthew Johnson; Scott Lucas; Pavel Tsvetkov

2010-09-01T23:59:59.000Z

239

Kinetic equilibrium reconstruction on EAST tokamak  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

Plasma equilibrium is an important basis for tokamak plasma research. The equilibrium reconstructed from experimental diagnostics is a key element for experiments analysis and for theory study. The kinetic equilibrium has the profiles information (current or safety factor profile, kinetic pressure profile), which are key issues for some studies of physics. With the constraints of magnetic measurements, pressure profile and edge current profile, we achieved the first reconstructed kinetic equilibrium on EAST tokamak. The pressure and edge current profiles are based on the diagnostics and theoretical bootstrap current model. The kinetic equilibrium has the pedestal structure for H-mode plasma, which the magnetic reconstruction missed. This improved equilibrium is an important basis for some experimental analysis and theory studies on EAST.

G Q Li; Q L Ren; J P Qian; L L Lao; S Y Ding; Y J Chen; Z X Liu; B Lu; Q Zang

2013-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

240

Kinetics of ethanol dehydrogenation into ethyl acetate  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

The kinetics of gas-phase dehydrogenation of ethanol into ethyl acetate over a copper-zinc- ... means to design a reactor for dehydrogenation of ethanol into ethyl acetate in different regimes.

V. A. Menshchikov; L. Kh. Goldshtein; I. P. Semenov

2014-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "kinetics chamber general" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


241

Draft General Conformity Determination  

Broader source: Energy.gov (indexed) [DOE]

I I Draft General Conformity Determination U.S. Department of the Interior Minerals Management Service MMS Cape Wind Energy Project January 2009 Final EIS Appendix I Draft General Conformity Determination Draft General Conformity Determination Cape Wind Energy Project Prepared by Minerals Management Service Herndon, VA November 2008 i TABLE OF CONTENTS 1.0 INTRODUCTION TO THE PROPOSED ACTION............................................................... 1 2.0 GENERAL CONFORMITY REGULATORY BACKGROUND .......................................... 2 2.1 GENERAL CONFORMITY REQUIREMENTS.................................................................... 2 2.2 GENERAL CONFORMITY APPLICABILITY.....................................................................

242

Mechanistic studies using kinetic isotope effects  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

MECHANISTIC STUDIES USING KINETIC ISOTOPE EFFECTS A Thesis by BRIAN E. SCHULMFIER Submitted to the Office of Graduate Studies of Texas ARM University in partial fulfillment of the requtrements for the degree of MASTER OF SCIENCE December... 1999 Major Subject: Chemistry MECHANISTIC STUDIES USING KINETIC ISOTOPE EFFECTS A Thesis by BRIAN E. SCHULMEIER Submitted to Texas A&M University in partial fulfillment of the requirements for the degree of MASTER OF SCIENCE Approved...

Schulmeier, Brian E.

2012-06-07T23:59:59.000Z

243

Quintom scenario with mixed kinetic terms  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

We examine an extension of the quintom scenario of dark energy, in which a canonical scalar field and a phantom field are coupled through a kinetic interaction. We perform a phase-space analysis and show that the kinetic coupling gives rise to novel cosmological behavior. In particular, we obtain both quintessence-like and phantomlike late-time solutions, as well as solutions that cross the phantom divide during the evolution of the Universe.

Saridakis, Emmanuel N. [College of Mathematics and Physics, Chongqing University of Posts and Telecommunications, Chongqing, 400065 (China); Weller, Joel M. [Department of Applied Mathematics, University of Sheffield, Hounsfield Road, Sheffield S3 7RH (United Kingdom)

2010-06-15T23:59:59.000Z

244

Determination of the kinetic parameters of the CALIBAN metallic core reactor from stochastic neutron measurements  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Several experimental devices are operated by the Criticality and Neutron Science Research Dept. of the CEA Valduc Laboratory. One of these is the Caliban metallic core reactor. The purpose of this study is to develop and perform experiments allowing to determinate some of fundamental kinetic parameters of the reactor. The prompt neutron decay constant and particularly its value at criticality can be measured with reactor noise techniques such as Rossi-{alpha} and Feynman variance-to-mean methods. Subcritical, critical, and even supercritical experiments were performed. Fission chambers detectors were put nearby the core and measurements were analyzed with the Rossi-{alpha} technique. A new value of the prompt neutron decay constant at criticality was determined, which allows, using the Nelson number method, new evaluations of the effective delayed neutron fraction and the in core neutron lifetime. As an introduction of this paper, some motivations of this work are given in part 1. In part 2, principles of the noise measurements experiments performed at the CEA Valduc Laboratory are reminded. The Caliban reactor is described in part 3. Stochastic neutron measurements analysis techniques used in this study are then presented in part 4. Results of fission chamber experiments are summarized in part 5. Part 6 is devoted to the current work, improvement of the experimental device using He 3 neutron detectors and first results obtained with it. Finally, conclusions and perspectives are given in part 7. (authors)

Casoli, P.; Authier, N.; Chapelle, A. [Commissariat a l'Energie Atomique et Aux Energies Alternatives, CEA, DAM, F-21120 Is sur Tille (France)

2012-07-01T23:59:59.000Z

245

General | Open Energy Information  

Open Energy Info (EERE)

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246

General User Proposals  

Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

General User Proposals Print General Users are granted beam time through a peer review proposal process. They may use beamlines and endstations provided by the ALS or the...

247

General User Proposals  

Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

Office General User Proposals Print General Users are granted beam time through a peer review proposal process. They may use beamlines and endstations provided by the ALS...

248

Kinetic Theory of a Dense Gas: Triple-Collision Memory Function  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

We study the phase-space density-correlation function S(r?t;p?p??) for a dense classical gas with repulsive interaction using the language of memory functions. We derive the kinetic equation for S which is valid at all wavelengths and frequencies but limited to second order in the density (triple collisions). This model equation is, on the one hand, an extension of the earlier work of Mazenko to the next order in density and, on the other hand, an extension to arbitrary wavelengths and frequencies of some suggested generalizations of the linearized Boltzmann equation. The memory function for this kinetic equation is shown to be compatible with symmetry properties, sum rules, and the conservation laws. As an illustration of the hydrodynamics, we calculate the shear viscosity and show that the term linear in density agrees with an earlier calculation by Kawasaki and Oppenheim. We also give the analogous kinetic equation for the single-particle correlation function.

C. D. Boley and Rashmi C. Desai

1973-05-01T23:59:59.000Z

249

22nd IAEA-FEC Kinetic theory of Geodesic Acoustic Modes: ... 1 Kinetic theory of Geodesic Acoustic  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

22nd IAEA-FEC Kinetic theory of Geodesic Acoustic Modes: ... 1 Kinetic theory of Geodesic Acoustic Zonca, Liu Chen and Zhiyong Qiu #12;22nd IAEA-FEC Kinetic theory of Geodesic Acoustic Modes: ... 2 Chen and Zhiyong Qiu #12;22nd IAEA-FEC Kinetic theory of Geodesic Acoustic Modes: ... 3 2 Linear

Zonca, Fulvio

250

April 10, 2002 A. R. Raffray, et al., Dynamic Chamber Armor Behavior in IFE and MFE 1 Dynamic Chamber Armor Behavior in IFE and MFE  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Limiter 0.5 (~8 for ~100s) 30000 (5000) Baffle 3 3000-10000 Divertor target ~10 3000-10000 #12;April 10/m2 Affected area 5-10 m2 A few m2 ~10 m2 Chamber wall (R~5-10 m) Location Surface (near divertor ms ~ 1-3 µs Max. Temperature Melting/ sublimation Melting/ sublimation Melting/ sublimation ~ 2000-3000

Raffray, A. René

251

U.S. Chamber of Commerce Biofuels Dialogue Series: Outlook for an Emerging  

Broader source: Energy.gov (indexed) [DOE]

Commerce Biofuels Dialogue Series: Outlook for an Commerce Biofuels Dialogue Series: Outlook for an Emerging Global Biofuels Market U.S. Chamber of Commerce Biofuels Dialogue Series: Outlook for an Emerging Global Biofuels Market January 29, 2008 - 10:53am Addthis Remarks as Prepared For Delivery by Secretary Bodman Thank you very much, Bruce, for that kind introduction. My thanks also to Tom Donahue and the leadership of the Chamber for inviting me to be with you today. I was quite pleased to hear that the Chamber was sponsoring this event. As anyone who knows me - or has heard me speak recently - can tell you, the biofuels industry is a favorite topic of mine. In my view, advanced biofuels offer tremendous promise for helping our nation to bring about a new energy future-one that is cleaner, more sustainable, more affordable,

252

OSTIblog Posts by Kathy Chambers | OSTI, US Dept of Energy, Office of  

Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

Kathy Chambers Kathy Chambers Kathy Chambers's picture Senior STI Specialist, Information International Associates, Inc. Enjoy the benefits of LED lighting Source: http://www.flickr.com/photos/uscapitol/6309229615/in/photostream/ Published on Dec 30, 2013 Every day we are bombarded with advertisements in every form and format telling us that our lives will be improved if we buy a particular product because it will save us money, reduce our work effort, save us energy, or benefit the environment. We are justifiably skeptical because we know from experience that if something sounds too good to be true, usually it is. Light-emitting diode (LED) lighting is one of the exceptions. LEDs benefits are so powerful that they seem too good to be true; however, they actually do save us money, reduce our work effort, save us energy and benefit our environment.

253

Small-Chamber Measurements of Chemical-Specific Emission Factors for  

Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

Small-Chamber Measurements of Chemical-Specific Emission Factors for Small-Chamber Measurements of Chemical-Specific Emission Factors for Drywall Title Small-Chamber Measurements of Chemical-Specific Emission Factors for Drywall Publication Type Report Year of Publication 2010 Authors Maddalena, Randy L., Marion L. Russell, Moya Melody, and Michael G. Apte Publisher Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory City Berkeley Abstract Imported drywall installed in U.S. homes is suspected of being a source of odorous and potentially corrosive indoor pollutants. To support an investigation of those building materials by the Consumer Products Safety Commission (CPSC), Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory (LBNL) measured chemical-specific emission factors for 30 samples of drywall materials. Emission factors are reported for 75 chemicals and 30 different drywall samples encompassing both domestic and imported stock and incorporating natural, synthetic, or mixed gypsum core material. CPSC supplied all drywall materials. First the drywall samples were isolated and conditioned in dedicated chambers, then they were transferred to small chambers where emission testing was performed. Four sampling and analysis methods were utilized to assess (1) volatile organic compounds, (2) low molecular weight carbonyls, (3) volatile sulfur compounds, and (4) reactive sulfur gases. LBNL developed a new method that combines the use of solid phase microextraction (SPME) with small emission chambers to measure the reactive sulfur gases, then extended that technique to measure the full suite of volatile sulfur compounds. The testing procedure and analysis methods are described in detail herein. Emission factors were measured under a single set of controlled environmental conditions. The results are compared graphically for each method and in detailed tables for use in estimating indoor exposure concentrations

254

7-Gate Kinetic AMPA Model Kinetics to match EPSCs from calyx of Held  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

7-Gate Kinetic AMPA Model · Kinetics to match EPSCs from calyx of Held · Multiple closed, open and EPSC amplitude Bruce Graham Department of Computing Science and Mathematics, University of Stirling, U, including the calyx of Held in the mammalian auditory system. Such depression may be mediated

Graham, Bruce

255

Comparison between hybrid and fully kinetic models of asymmetric magnetic reconnection: Coplanar and guide field configurations  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Magnetic reconnection occurring in collisionless environments is a multi-scale process involving both ion and electron kinetic processes. Because of their small mass, the electron scales are difficult to resolve in numerical and satellite data, it is therefore critical to know whether the overall evolution of the reconnection process is influenced by the kinetic nature of the electrons, or is unchanged when assuming a simpler, fluid, electron model. This paper investigates this issue in the general context of an asymmetric current sheet, where both the magnetic field amplitude and the density vary through the discontinuity. A comparison is made between fully kinetic and hybrid kinetic simulations of magnetic reconnection in coplanar and guide field systems. The models share the initial condition but differ in their electron modeling. It is found that the overall evolution of the system, including the reconnection rate, is very similar between both models. The best agreement is found in the guide field system, which confines particle better than the coplanar one, where the locality of the moments is violated by the electron bounce motion. It is also shown that, contrary to the common understanding, reconnection is much faster in the guide field system than in the coplanar one. Both models show this tendency, indicating that the phenomenon is driven by ion kinetic effects and not electron ones.

Aunai, Nicolas; Hesse, Michael; Kuznetsova, Maria; Black, Carrie; Evans, Rebekah [Space Weather Laboratory, Code 674, NASA Goddard Space Flight Center, Greenbelt, Maryland 20771 (United States); Zenitani, Seiji [National Astronomical Observatory of Japan, 2-21-1 Osawa, Mitaka, Tokyo 181-8588 (Japan); Smets, Roch [Laboratoire de Physique des Plasmas, Universite Pierre et Marie Curie, Ecole polytechnique, route de Palaiseau, 91128 Palaiseau Cedex (France)

2013-02-15T23:59:59.000Z

256

Investigation of long drift chambers for a nucleon-decay detector  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

The use of long drift chambers for a nucleon-decay detector is discussed as a means of achieving a detector with very fine tracking, but with a modest number of readout channels. Strategies for reducing the attenuation of drifting electrons are considered, particularly the necessity of shaping the electric field to reduce the effects of diffusion and of nearby grounded conductors. Measured results are presented for a chamber with 1 cm drift gap and 50 cm maximum drift distance. The measured attenuation is 12%.

Price, L.E.; Dawson, J.; Ayres, D.; Denis, R.S.

1981-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

257

Construction and test of high precision drift-tube (sMDT) chambers for the ATLAS muon spectrometer  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

For the upgrade of the ATLAS muon spectrometer in March 2014 new muon tracking chambers (sMDT) with drift-tubes of 15 mm diameter, half of the value of the standard ATLAS Monitored Drift-Tubes (MDT) chambers, and 10~$\\mu$m positioning accuracy of the sense wires have been constructed. The new chambers are designed to be fully compatible with the present ATLAS services but, with respect to the previously installed ATLAS MDT chambers, they are assembled in a more compact geometry and they deploy two additional tube layers that provide redundant rack information. The chambers are composed of 8 layers of in total 624 aluminium drift-tubes. The assembly of a chamber is completed within a week. A semi-automatized production line is used for the assembly of the drift-tubes prior to the chamber assembly. The production procedures and the quality control tests of the single components and of the complete chambers will be discussed. The wire position in the completed chambers have been measured by using a coordinate me...

Nowak, Sebastian; Kroha, Hubert; Schwegler, Philipp; Sforza, Federico

2014-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

258

Construction and test of high precision drift-tube (sMDT) chambers for the ATLAS muon spectrometer  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

For the upgrade of the ATLAS muon spectrometer in March 2014 new muon tracking chambers (sMDT) with drift-tubes of 15 mm diameter, half of the value of the standard ATLAS Monitored Drift-Tubes (MDT) chambers, and 10~$\\mu$m positioning accuracy of the sense wires have been constructed. The new chambers are designed to be fully compatible with the present ATLAS services but, with respect to the previously installed ATLAS MDT chambers, they are assembled in a more compact geometry and they deploy two additional tube layers that provide redundant rack information. The chambers are composed of 8 layers of in total 624 aluminium drift-tubes. The assembly of a chamber is completed within a week. A semi-automatized production line is used for the assembly of the drift-tubes prior to the chamber assembly. The production procedures and the quality control tests of the single components and of the complete chambers will be discussed. The wire position in the completed chambers have been measured by using a coordinate measuring machine.

Sebastian Nowak; Oliver Korner; Hubert Kroha; Philipp Schwegler; Federico Sforza

2014-07-01T23:59:59.000Z

259

Multi-gap Resistive Plate Chambers as a Time-of-Flight System for the PHENIX Experiment  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

In this project a Time-of-Flight detector based on multi-gap resistive plate chambers was built and installed for the PHENIX experiment at RHIC.

Velkovska, Julia [Vanderbilt University] [Vanderbilt University

2013-12-08T23:59:59.000Z

260

Dynamics of neutralizing electrons during the focusing of intense heavy ions beams inside a heavy fusion reactor chamber  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

beams inside a heavy ion fusion reactor chamber * Agustin F.efficiency of a Heavy Ion Fusion reactor heavily depends on

Lifschitz, Agustin F.; Maynard, Gilles; Vay, Jean-Luc; Lenglet, Andrian

2006-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "kinetics chamber general" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


261

A comprehensive kinetics model for CO oxidation during char combustion  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

The most important parameter in representing energy feedback to a particle during char combustion concerns the oxidation of CO to CO/sub 2/. If substantial oxidation of CO occurs near a particle, then the greater heat of combustion for the complete oxidation of carbon to CO/sub 2/ (94.1 kcal/mole vs. 26.4 kcal/mole for oxidation to CO) is available for energy feedback mechanisms. ''Energy feedback'' is here defined as any situation in which an individual particle receives a significant fraction of its heat of combustion directly, through the localized oxidation of emitted combustible species, i.e. CO. Conversely, if the oxidation of CO does not occur near a particle, then energy feedback will occur only indirectly, through heating of the bulk gas. The primary reaction product at the particle surface during char combustion is generally considered to be CO, and the location of the subsequent CO oxidation zone plays a very important role in determining the particle temperature. Ayling and Smith performed experimental and modeling work which indicates that CO oxidation is not of major importance under the conditions they investigated, although they noted the need for improved accuracy in measuring char reactivities, as well as for better modeling of the gas phase CO oxidation kinetics. The modeling work presented in this paper attempts to develop an improved understanding of the boundary layer oxidation of CO through the use of a comprehensive set of kinetic expressions.

Haussmann, G.; Kruger, C.

1986-04-01T23:59:59.000Z

262

From residue matching patterns to protein folding topographies: General model and bovine  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

From residue matching patterns to protein folding topographies: General model and bovine pancreatic-grained model for protein-folding dynamics is introduced based on a discretized representation of torsional, pattern recognition, and general characteristics of protein folding kinetics. Topology here implies

Berry, R. Stephen

263

Philips Color Kinetics | Open Energy Information  

Open Energy Info (EERE)

Color Kinetics Color Kinetics Jump to: navigation, search Name Philips Color Kinetics Address 3 Burlington Woods Drive, 4th Floor Place Burlington, Massachusetts Zip 01803 Sector Efficiency Product LED lighting systems Website http://www.colorkinetics.com/ Coordinates 42.5005723°, -71.2042619° Loading map... {"minzoom":false,"mappingservice":"googlemaps3","type":"ROADMAP","zoom":14,"types":["ROADMAP","SATELLITE","HYBRID","TERRAIN"],"geoservice":"google","maxzoom":false,"width":"600px","height":"350px","centre":false,"title":"","label":"","icon":"","visitedicon":"","lines":[],"polygons":[],"circles":[],"rectangles":[],"copycoords":false,"static":false,"wmsoverlay":"","layers":[],"controls":["pan","zoom","type","scale","streetview"],"zoomstyle":"DEFAULT","typestyle":"DEFAULT","autoinfowindows":false,"kml":[],"gkml":[],"fusiontables":[],"resizable":false,"tilt":0,"kmlrezoom":false,"poi":true,"imageoverlays":[],"markercluster":false,"searchmarkers":"","locations":[{"text":"","title":"","link":null,"lat":42.5005723,"lon":-71.2042619,"alt":0,"address":"","icon":"","group":"","inlineLabel":"","visitedicon":""}]}

264

Generalized entropies in a turbulent dynamo simulation  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

A simulation of hydromagnetic turbulence exhibiting dynamo action is employed to estimate the generalized entropies, Hq, from the distribution of moments of local expansion factors of material line elements. These generalized entropies can be used to characterize the dynamics of turbulence and of nonlinear dynamo action. The value of the metric entropy, H1, is comparable to the largest Lyapunov exponent describing the divergence of trajectories in phase space, which in turn is somewhat larger than the growth rate of the magnetic energy. The value of the topological entropy, H0, is similar to the conversion rate of kinetic to magnetic energy, but larger than the growth rate of the dynamo. This is in agreement with results stating that the growth rate of the kinematic dynamo is limited by the topological entropy. The dependence of Hq on q leads to a criterion from which we infer that the degree of intermittency in our particular system is weak.

Axel Brandenburg; Isaac Klapper; Jrgen Kurths

1995-11-01T23:59:59.000Z

265

Kinetics of the heterogeneous photocatalytic oxidation of isopropanol  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Intrinsic kinetics for the ambient temperature photocatalytic oxidation (PCO) of dilute isopropanol (IPA) in humid air over near-ultraviolet (UV) irradiated titanium dioxide have been determined using a continuous microreactor flow system. The IPA disappearance rate exhibits a Langmuir-Hinshelwood-Hougen-Watson (LHHW) type dependence on IPA concentration. The rate is nearly first order in UV irradiance at low UV flux. The rate is independent of relative humidity R{sub H} at low R{sub H} levels, but is enhanced by water vapor concentration at higher levels. This relatively unique behavior is likely a direct consequence of the adsorption strength of alcohols on titania, which in general is considerably higher than the corresponding adsorption strengths for other classes of organic compounds. In addition to carbon dioxide, acetone is generated as a product of IPA destruction. This acetone is itself photocatalytically oxidized to carbon dioxide and water vapor at longer residence time. 10 refs., 3 figs.

Ameen, M.; Kalaga, M.; Annapragada, R.; Raupp, G.B. [Arizona State Univ., Tempe, AZ (United States)

1996-12-31T23:59:59.000Z

266

Chemical kinetic modeling of component mixtures relevant to gasoline  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Real fuels are complex mixtures of thousands of hydrocarbon compounds including linear and branched paraffins, naphthenes, olefins and aromatics. It is generally agreed that their behavior can be effectively reproduced by simpler fuel surrogates containing a limited number of components. In this work, a recently revised version of the kinetic model by the authors is used to analyze the combustion behavior of several components relevant to gasoline surrogate formulation. Particular attention is devoted to linear and branched saturated hydrocarbons (PRF mixtures), olefins (1-hexene) and aromatics (toluene). Model predictions for pure components, binary mixtures and multi-component gasoline surrogates are compared with recent experimental information collected in rapid compression machine, shock tube and jet stirred reactors covering a wide range of conditions pertinent to internal combustion engines. Simulation results are discussed focusing attention on the mixing effects of the fuel components.

Mehl, M; Curran, H J; Pitz, W J; Westbrook, C K

2009-02-13T23:59:59.000Z

267

On a Broken Formal Symmetry between Kinetic and Gravitational Energy  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Historically, the discovery of symmetries has played an important role in the progress of our fundamental understanding of nature. This paper will demonstrate that there exists in Newtonian theory in a spherical gravitational field a formal symmetry between the kinetic (KE) and gravitational potential energy (GPE) of a test mass. Put differently, there exists a way of expressing GPE such that the form of the mathematical expression remains invariant under an interchange of KE and GPE. When extended to relativity by a suitable assumption, it leads to a framework that bridges the general relativistic and Newtonian conceptions of gravitational energy, even though the symmetry is broken except in the infinitesimal limit. Recognizing this symmetry at infinitesimal scales makes it possible to write a relativistic equation of an individual graviton, the properties of which under under one interpretation may be unexpected.

Armin Nikkhah Shirazi

2014-07-16T23:59:59.000Z

268

Consistent description of kinetic equation with triangle anomaly  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

We provide a consistent description of the kinetic equation with a triangle anomaly which is compatible with the entropy principle of the second law of thermodynamics and the charge/energy-momentum conservation equations. In general an anomalous source term is necessary to ensure that the equations for the charge and energy-momentum conservation are satisfied and that the correction terms of distribution functions are compatible to these equations. The constraining equations from the entropy principle are derived for the anomaly-induced leading order corrections to the particle distribution functions. The correction terms can be determined for the minimum number of unknown coefficients in one charge and two charge cases by solving the constraining equations.

Pu Shi; Gao Jianhua; Wang Qun [Interdisciplinary Center for Theoretical Study and Department of Modern Physics, University of Science and Technology of China, Hefei 230026 (China)

2011-05-01T23:59:59.000Z

269

Kinetic studies of elementary chemical reactions  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

This program concerning kinetic studies of elementary chemical reactions is presently focussed on understanding reactions of NH{sub x} species. To reach this goal, the author is pursuing experimental studies of reaction rate coefficients and product branching fractions as well as using electronic structure calculations to calculate transition state properties and reaction rate calculations to relate these properties to predicted kinetic behavior. The synergy existing between the experimental and theoretical studies allow one to gain a deeper insight into more complex elementary reactions.

Durant, J.L. Jr. [Sandia National Laboratories, Livermore, CA (United States)

1993-12-01T23:59:59.000Z

270

Experiments with a pressure-driven Stirling refrigerator with flexible chambers  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

We report on the design and experimental testing of a Stirling refrigerator that uses air as the working fluid and where the conventional piston-cylinder assemblies are replaced by pressure-driven flexible chambers. The two chambers are periodically compressed by pneumatic actuators resulting in airflow through the regenerator and in a net temperature difference between the chambers. An experimental setup is used to investigate the performance of the refrigerator under different operating conditions with particular attention to actuation frequencies driving pressure differences and phase angles between the two inputs. The time constant of the temperature difference between the two chambers is determined and the temperature difference is measured as a function of the system parameters. The results of several tests conducted under different operating conditions show that the refrigerating effect is very robust and allows good performance even for modulated inputs. The frequency response is radically different from that of a traditional motion-driven device. This work suggests that mechanical to thermal energy conversion devices based on this principle can be successfully powered by human motion.

Patrick McFarlane; Jonathan Suire; Mihir Sen

2014-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

271

IFE THICK LIQUID WALL CHAMBER DYNAMICS: GOVERNING MECHANISMS AND MODELING AND  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

fluid! led to the HYLIFE-II design.7 The most recent integrated design based on a TLW chamber, a heavy guide future analysis and research and devel- opment efforts. KEYWORDS: inertial fusion energy, liquid to the 1970s ~Refs. 1, 2, and 3!. The first detailed conceptual design work was carried out at Lawrence

Raffray, A. René

272

Modelling of e-cloud build-up in grooved vacuum chambers usingPOSINST  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Use of grooved vacuum chambers have been suggested as a wayto limitelectron cloud accumulation in the ILC-DR. We report onsimulations carried out using an augmented version of POSINST, accountingfor e-cloud dynamics in the presence of grooves, and make contact withprevious estimates of an effective secondary electron yield for groovedsurfaces.

Venturini, Marco; Celata, C.; Furman, Miguel; Vay, Jean-Luc; Pivi, Mauro

2007-06-29T23:59:59.000Z

273

Numerical simulation of detonation processes in a variable cross-section chamber  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Numerical simulation of detonation processes in a variable cross-section chamber H Y Fan and F K Lu for publication on 8 November 2007. DOI: 10.1243/09544100JAERO272 Abstract: The detonation processes occurring mechanism is used. Two detonation cases are simulated, corresponding to initiation from the closed, left end

Texas at Arlington, University of

274

Calculating Radiative Heat Transfer in an Axisymmetric Closed Chamber: An Application  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Calculating Radiative Heat Transfer in an Axisymmetric Closed Chamber: An Application to Crystal University of New York at Stony Brook Stony Brook N.Y. 11794 ABSTRACT Radiative heat transfer plays simulating radiative heat transfer in the crystal and in the region above the melt containing gas under

New York at Stoney Brook, State University of

275

Design and optimization of 6li neutron-capture pulse mode ion chamber  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

The purpose of this research is to design and optimize the performance of a unique, inexpensive 6Li neutron-capture pulse-mode ion chamber (LiPMIC) for neutron detection that overcomes the fill-gas contamination stemming from outgas of detector...

Chung, Kiwhan

2009-05-15T23:59:59.000Z

276

October 24, 2001 1. Remaining Action Items on Dry Chamber Wall  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

of Simplified Assumption Used to Estimate Temporal Distribution of Energy Depositions Photons Debris Ions Time10ns 0.2µs 1µs 2.5µs Fast Ions Energy Deposition Temporal Distribution of Energy Depositions from Ions for Direct Drive Spectra and Chamber Radius of 6.5 m Simplified Temporal Distribution of Energy Depositions

Raffray, A. René

277

On the intermittency and crystallization mechanisms of sub-seafloor magma chambers  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

......that the overall pressure in the magma storage zone is not sufficient to upwell into...magma in the chamber, and the convecting seawater in the permeable surface rocks. Thicknesses...to a hydrothermal boundary at or near seawater temperature (O'C), the layer of 'plated......

C. R. B. Lister

1983-05-01T23:59:59.000Z

278

First limit from a surface run of a 10 liter Dark Matter Time Projection Chamber  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

A 10 liter prototype Dark Matter Time Projection Chamber (DMTPC) is operated on the surface of the earth at 75 Torr using carbon-tetrafluoride (CF4) as a target material to obtain a 24.57 gram-day exposure. A limit is set ...

Caldwell, Thomas S., Jr

2009-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

279

Anode supported single chamber solid oxide fuel cells operating in exhaust gases of thermal engine  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Anode supported single chamber solid oxide fuel cells operating in exhaust gases of thermal engine fuel cells are usually described as devices able to convert chemical energy into electrical energy. Conventional solid oxide fuel cells are separated into two compartments containing each electrode split

Boyer, Edmond

280

A Diffusion Cloud Chamber Study of Very Slow Mesons. II. Beta Decay of the Muon  

DOE R&D Accomplishments [OSTI]

The spectrum of electrons arising from the decay of the negative mu meson has been determined. The muons are arrested in the gas of a high pressure hydrogen filled diffusion cloud chamber. The momenta of the decay electrons are determined from their curvature in a magnetic field of 7750 gauss. The spectrum of 415 electrons has been analyzed according to the theory of Michel.

Lederman, L. M.; Sargent, C. P.; Rinehart, M.; Rogers, K.

1955-03-00T23:59:59.000Z

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "kinetics chamber general" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


281

A model for the emergence of pillars, walls and royal chambers in termite nests  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

A model for the emergence of pillars, walls and royal chambers in termite nests Eric Bonabeau1, 31062 Toulouse Ce¨ dex, France A simple model of the emergence of pillars in termite nests by Deneubourg construction modi¢es current building conditions, we hypothesize that nest complexity can result from

Theraulaz, Guy

282

arXiv:astro-ph/0503398v117Mar2005 Development of Bubble Chambers With Enhanced Stability and Sensitivity to  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

arXiv:astro-ph/0503398v117Mar2005 Development of Bubble Chambers With Enhanced Stability Fermi National Accelerator Laboratory, Batavia, IL, USA The viability of using a Bubble Chamber for rare stability in such a detector are described. Results from prototype trials indicate that sensitivity to low

Collar, Juan I.

283

Thermodynamics and Kinetics of a Go Proteinlike Heteropolymer Model with Two-State Folding Characteristics  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

We present results of Monte Carlo computer simulations of a coarse-grained hydrophobic-polar Go-like heteropolymer model and discuss thermodynamic properties and kinetics of an exemplified heteropolymer, exhibiting two-state folding behavior. It turns out that general, characteristic folding features of realistic proteins with a single free-energy barrier can also be observed in this simplified model, where the folding transition is primarily driven by the hydrophobic force.

Anna Kallias; Michael Bachmann; Wolfhard Janke

2007-12-06T23:59:59.000Z

284

Monte Carlo calculations for reference dosimetry of electron beams with the PTW Roos and NE2571 ion chambers  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Purpose: To investigate recommendations for reference dosimetry of electron beams and gradient effects for the NE2571 chamber and to provide beam quality conversion factors using Monte Carlo simulations of the PTW Roos and NE2571 ion chambers. Methods: The EGSnrc code system is used to calculate the absorbed dose-to-water and the dose to the gas in fully modeled ion chambers as a function of depth in water. Electron beams are modeled using realistic accelerator simulations as well as beams modeled as collimated point sources from realistic electron beam spectra or monoenergetic electrons. Beam quality conversion factors are calculated with ratios of the doses to water and to the air in the ion chamber in electron beams and a cobalt-60 reference field. The overall ion chamber correction factor is studied using calculations of water-to-air stopping power ratios. Results: The use of an effective point of measurement shift of 1.55 mm from the front face of the PTW Roos chamber, which places the point of measurement inside the chamber cavity, minimizes the difference betweenR{sub 50}, the beam quality specifier, calculated from chamber simulations compared to that obtained using depth-dose calculations in water. A similar shift minimizes the variation of the overall ion chamber correction factor with depth to the practical range and reduces the root-mean-square deviation of a fit to calculated beam quality conversion factors at the reference depth as a function of R{sub 50}. Similarly, an upstream shift of 0.34 r{sub cav} allows a more accurate determination of R{sub 50} from NE2571 chamber calculations and reduces the variation of the overall ion chamber correction factor with depth. The determination of the gradient correction using a shift of 0.22 r{sub cav} optimizes the root-mean-square deviation of a fit to calculated beam quality conversion factors if all beams investigated are considered. However, if only clinical beams are considered, a good fit to results for beam quality conversion factors is obtained without explicitly correcting for gradient effects. The inadequacy of R{sub 50} to uniquely specify beam quality for the accurate selection of k{sub Q} factors is discussed. Systematic uncertainties in beam quality conversion factors are analyzed for the NE2571 chamber and amount to between 0.4% and 1.2% depending on assumptions used. Conclusions: The calculated beam quality conversion factors for the PTW Roos chamber obtained here are in good agreement with literature data. These results characterize the use of an NE2571 ion chamber for reference dosimetry of electron beams even in low-energy beams.

Muir, B. R., E-mail: bmuir@physics.carleton.ca; Rogers, D. W. O., E-mail: drogers@physics.carleton.ca [Physics Department, Carleton Laboratory for Radiotherapy Physics, Carleton University, 1125 Colonel By Drive, Ottawa, Ontario K1S 5B6 (Canada)] [Physics Department, Carleton Laboratory for Radiotherapy Physics, Carleton University, 1125 Colonel By Drive, Ottawa, Ontario K1S 5B6 (Canada)

2013-12-15T23:59:59.000Z

285

Pseudospin formulation of kinetic Ising models  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

It is shown that Glauber's kinetic Ising model is equivalent to an Ising model with multispin interactions in a transverse field. In one dimension, certain of Glauber's results are recovered by using the well-known fermion representation for spin-12.

Eric D. Siggia

1977-09-01T23:59:59.000Z

286

ERNSTMORITZARNDTUNIVERSITAT Absolute number density and kinetic analysis  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

and C2F4 molecules in pulsed CF4/H2 rf plasmas I n a u g u r a l d i s s e r t a t i o n zur Erlangung and kinetics of the target species in pulsed CF4/H2 rf plasmas 69 5.1 Plasma process parameters selected

Greifswald, Ernst-Moritz-Arndt-Universität

287

Kinetics of Anionic Surfactant Anoxic Degradation  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

) is the surfactant commonly used in space habitation. The two biofilm models differ in that one assumes a constant biofilm density and the other allows biofilm density changes based on space occupancy theory. Extant kinetic analysis of a mixed microbial culture using...

Camacho, Julianna G.

2010-07-14T23:59:59.000Z

288

LS-266 OPTIMIZATION OF FOUR-BUTTON BEAM POSITION MONITOR CONFIGURATION FOR SMALL-GAP VACUUM CHAMBERS  

Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

LS-266 LS-266 OPTIMIZATION OF FOUR-BUTTON BEAM POSITION MONITOR CONFIGURATION FOR SMALL-GAP VACUUM CHAMBERS S. H. Kim March 27, 1998 Summary - Induced charges on a four-button beam position monitor (BPM) system attached on a beam chamber of narrow rectangular cross sections are calculated as a 2-D electrostatic problem of image charges. The calculation shows that for a narrow chamber of width/height (2w/2h) >> 1, over 90% of the induced charges are distributed within a distance of 2h from the charged beam position in the direction of the chamber width. Therefore, a four-button system with a button diameter of (2 ~ 2.5)h and no button offset from the beam position is the most efficient configuration. The four-button BPMs used for 8-mm and 5-mm chambers in the APS have relatively low sensitivities because the button locations are outside

289

Thermodynamic and Kinetic Study of the Carbothermal Reduction of SnO2 for Solar Thermochemical Fuel Generation  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

Thermodynamic and Kinetic Study of the Carbothermal Reduction of SnO2 for Solar Thermochemical Fuel Generation ... Fossil fuel depletion and the environmental impact of their generalized use on the climate stability are major issues for the upcoming century. ... The carboredn. in SnO2 to produce Sn and its hydrolysis with steam to generate hydrogen were studied. ...

Gal Levque; Stphane Abanades

2013-12-18T23:59:59.000Z

290

The kerogen types and pyrolysis kinetics of several Chinese carbonate source rocks  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

The kerogen types and pyrolysis kinetics of several Chinese carbonate source rocks are studied in this paper. Samples involved are from Proterozoic to Neogene, including marine and lacustrine environments. Their TOC range from 0.15% to 1.69%. The carbonate contents are more than 80% except the Paleozoic Pingliang marl, Shanganning Basin. The maturations range from immature to late stage of oil generation. The Green River calcareous shale and Ghareb marl, Jordan are included for comparison. The study of kerogen types is based on analyses of kerogens including: optical method, elemental analysis, infrared spectrum, rock eval pyrolysis, pyrolysis-gas chromatography, and C-13 Nuclear Magnetic Resonance Spectrometry. The results of the study shows that most of the kerogens studied belong to type 1 or sapropelic type 2 (2a), while the kerogens from Triassic Qinglong limestone (restricted by), Jiangsu and Neogene Guantao limestone (small fault lacustrine), Shandong belong to mixed type 2 (2b). The study of pyrolysis kinetics is based on standard Rock Eval information (5 C/min.), a two-stage first order reaction model and optimization method which has been confirmed to be a simple, practical and effective method by a previous study. The current study reveals that different kerogen types have their own kinetic characteristics. Generally, kinetics parameters of type 1 and type 2a kerogens are greater than those of type 2b. However, high-sulfur type 1 and type 2a kerogens, such as those from Ghareb marl, Jordan, and Proterozoic kerogen, North China have relatively low kinetics parameters. The study also shows that kerogens with similar hydrocarbon potential (HI) and elemental composition (atomic H/C, O/C) may have very different kinetic processes.

Zhang, Youcheng (Texas A and M Univ., College Station, TX (United States). Dept. of Oceanography); Shisheng Hao (Petroleum Univ., Beijing (China). Dept. of Geosciences)

1992-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

291

Chemical Kinetic Modeling of Non-Petroleum Based Fuels | Department...  

Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

ft010pitz2011o.pdf More Documents & Publications Chemical Kinetic Modeling of Non-Petroleum Based Fuels Chemical Kinetic Modeling of Fuels Simulation of High Efficiency Clean...

292

Direct kinetic correlation of carriers and ferromagnetism in...  

Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

kinetic correlation of carriers and ferromagnetism in Co2+ : ZnO. Direct kinetic correlation of carriers and ferromagnetism in Co2+ : ZnO. Abstract: We report the use of controlled...

293

Ethylbenzene dehydrogenation into styrene: kinetic modeling and reactor simulation  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

detailed kinetic model for coke formation and gasification, which was coupled to the kinetic model for the main reactions. The calculation of the dynamic equilibrium coke content provided a crucial guideline for the selection of the steam to ethylbenzene...

Lee, Won Jae

2007-04-25T23:59:59.000Z

294

Kinetic modelling of the thermal decomposition of ettringite into metaettringite  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

1 Kinetic modelling of the thermal decomposition of ettringite into metaettringite J. Pourchez recent insights into thermal stability and decomposition mechanisms of ettringite, a lack of knowledge isothermal conditions. Keywords: ettringite, metaettringite, thermal decomposition, kinetic modelling. 1

Boyer, Edmond

295

Chemical Kinetics Research on HCCI and Diesel Fuels  

Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

Discusses detailed chemical kinetics mechanisms for complex hydrocarbon fuels and computationally efficiecnt, accurate methodologies for modeling advanced combustion strategies.

296

Reheating via a generalized nonminimal coupling of curvature to matter  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

In this work, one shows that a generalized nonminimal coupling between geometry and matter is compatible with Starobinsky inflation and leads to a successful process of preheating, a reheating scenario based on the production of massive particles via parametric resonance. The model naturally extends the usual preheating mechanism, which resorts to an ad hoc scalar curvature-dependent mass term for a scalar field {chi}, and also encompasses a previously studied preheating channel based upon a nonstandard kinetic term.

Bertolami, Orfeu; Frazao, Pedro; Paramos, Jorge [Departamento de Fisica e Astronomia, Faculdade de Ciencias, Universidade do Porto, Rua do Campo Alegre 687, 4169-007 Porto (Portugal); Instituto de Plasmas e FuSao Nuclear, Instituto Superior Tecnico Av. Rovisco Pais 1, 1049-001 Lisboa (Portugal)

2011-02-15T23:59:59.000Z

297

Rotational and divergent kinetic energy in the mesoscale model ALADIN  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Rotational and divergent kinetic energy in the mesoscale model ALADIN By V. BLAZ ICA1 *, N. Z AGAR1 received 7 June 2012; in final form 7 March 2013) ABSTRACT Kinetic energy spectra from the mesoscale. It is shown that about 50% of kinetic energy in the free troposphere in ALADIN is divergent energy

Zagar, Nedjeljka

298

Quantitative Spreading Kinetics of a Three Molecular Layer Liquid Patch  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

Quantitative Spreading Kinetics of a Three Molecular Layer Liquid Patch ... The late stage kinetics of the spreading of a smectic nanodrop on a solid surface was investigated by direct and real time imaging of a three molecular layer patch using the SEEC microscopy. ... (15) At some stage of the spreading kinetics, the structure reduces to a single bilayer patch lying on the surface monolayer. ...

Olivier Noel; Jean-Luc Buraud; Laurent Berger; Dominique Ausserre?

2010-03-19T23:59:59.000Z

299

Worldwide Oil Production Michaelis-Menten Kinetics Correlation and Regression  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Worldwide Oil Production Michaelis-Menten Kinetics Topic 4 Correlation and Regression Transformed Variables 1 / 13 #12;Worldwide Oil Production Michaelis-Menten Kinetics Outline Worldwide Oil Production Michaelis-Menten Kinetics Lineweaver-Burke double reciprocal plot 2 / 13 #12;Worldwide Oil Production

Watkins, Joseph C.

300

General Relativistic Effects in Atom Interferometry  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Atom interferometry is now reaching sufficient precision to motivate laboratory tests of general relativity. We begin by explaining the non-relativistic calculation of the phase shift in an atom interferometer and deriving its range of validity. From this we develop a method for calculating the phase shift in general relativity. This formalism is then used to find the relativistic effects in an atom interferometer in a weak gravitational field for application to laboratory tests of general relativity. The potentially testable relativistic effects include the non-linear three-graviton coupling, the gravity of kinetic energy, and the falling of light. We propose experiments, one currently under construction, that could provide a test of the principle of equivalence to 1 part in 10{sup 15} (300 times better than the present limit), and general relativity at the 10% level, with many potential future improvements. We also consider applications to other metrics including the Lense-Thirring effect, the expansion of the universe, and preferred frame and location effects.

Dimopoulos, Savas; /Stanford U., Phys. Dept.; Graham, Peter W.; /SLAC /Stanford U., Phys. Dept.; Hogan, Jason M.; Kasevich, Mark A.; /Stanford U., Phys. Dept.

2008-03-17T23:59:59.000Z

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "kinetics chamber general" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


301

DOE General Competencies  

Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

The DOE General Competencies are the personal and professional attributes that are critical to successful performance. A competency model is a collection of competencies that together define...

302

General User Proposals  

Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

Proposals Print General Users are granted beam time through a peer review proposal process. They may use beamlines and endstations provided by the ALS or the Participating Research...

303

Addendum to the Technical Design Report for the Upgrade of the ALICE Time Projection Chamber  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

This is the addendum to the TDR of the upgrade of the ALICE Time Projection Chamber (CERN-LHCC-2013-020 ; ALICE-TDR-016). The key objective of the upgrade is the replacement of the present MWPC-based readout chambers by detectors that allow continuous operation without active ion gating. In the TDR, we propose a solution that employs stacks of four Gas Electron Multipliers (GEMs) and demonstrate that it fulfills the design specifications, in particular in terms of intrinsic position resolution, energy resolution, and ion backflow. In this document we demonstrate with additional results from both detector R&D and simulations that the technological solution chosen in the TDR has sufficient safety margin for a successful campaign with the upgraded detector in RUN 3 and beyond.

The ALICE Collaboration

2015-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

304

Portable chamber for the study of UHV prepared electrochemical interfaces by hard x-ray diffraction  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

We report on a new electrochemical cell setup, combined with a portable UHV chamber, for in situ x-ray diffraction using synchrotron radiation. In contrast to more traditional electrochemical sample preparation schemes, atomically clean and well-ordered surfaces are routinely prepared by UHV methods, even in the case of reactive elements or alloys. Samples can be transferred from larger UHV systems into the portable chamber without exposure to ambient air. They can then be studied successively in UHV, in controlled gas atmospheres, and in contact with electrolyte solutions under applied electrochemical potential. The electrochemical setup employs a droplet geometry, which guarantees good electrochemical conditions during in situ x-ray measurements combined with voltammetry. We present first experimental results of Cu deposition on GaAs(001) and on freshly produced nanometric Pd(001) islands on Cu{sub 0.83}Pd{sub 0.17}(001), respectively.

Renner, Frank Uwe; Gruender, Yvonne; Zegenhagen, Joerg [European Synchrotron Radiation Facility, BP 220, 38043 Grenoble (France)

2007-03-15T23:59:59.000Z

305

Acoustic studies for alpha background rejection in dark matter bubble chamber detectors  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

COUPP (Chicagoland Observatory for Underground Particle Physics) is an experiment with bubble chambers able to detect dark matter directly either with Spin-Dependent or with Spin-Independent interactions. The target material is a superheated liquid (usually CF3I) that can be bubble nucleated due to nuclear recoils produced by elastic collisions of dark matter particles. The bubble growth inside the chamber is accompanied with an acoustic signature. The acoustic technique has been successfully used to have a good alpha discrimination (about 99%). In this paper, we present different studies and results related with the characterization of the acoustic properties of the detector and the different phenomena involved in the acoustic measurements of the bubble growth, such as sound generation, sound transmission and optimization of piezoelectric transducers.

Bou-Cabo, M.; Felis, I.; Ardid, M.; Collaboration: COUPP Collaboration

2013-08-08T23:59:59.000Z

306

Kinetic simulation of heterogeneous catalytic processes: Ethane hydrogenolysis over supported group VIII metals  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

A kinetic model for ethane hydrogenolysis over Pt, Pd, Ir, and Co was formulated in terms of essentially two chemical parameters: the strength of bonding between atomic hydrogen and the metal surface and the strength of carbon-metal bonding between hydrocarbon fragments and the surface. These two surface bond strengths were estimated by calorimetric measurements of the heats of H{sub 2} and CO adsorption, combined with bond order conservation calculations. The results of the kinetic simulations suggest that ethane hydrogenolysis over Pt, Pd, Ir and Co takes place through irreversible C-C rupture of C{sub 2}H{sub 4} and C{sub 2}H{sub 3} surface species. Hydrogenation of monocarbon CH{sub y} fragments is kinetically insignificant. Dissociative adsorption of hydrogen is an equilibrated process, while dissociative adsorption of ethane is slow and reversible. Finally, the role of kinetic modeling in the formulation, interpretation, and generalization of experimental research in heterogeneous catalysis is discussed.

Goddard, S.A.; Amiridis, M.D.; Rekoske, J.E.; Cardona-Martinez, N.; Dumesic, J.A. (Univ. of Wisconsin, Madison (USA))

1989-05-01T23:59:59.000Z

307

Aromatization of propane: Techno-economic analysis by multiscale kinetics-to-process simulation  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

Abstract This paper addresses the techno-economic analysis of the propane aromatization process, by adopting a novel kinetics-to-process approach. The recent interest in this technological route derives from the development of new third generation biorefinery concepts, in which, algal oil is subjected to catalytic hydrodeoxygenation processes for the production of (Hydrotreated Renewable Jet) HRJ fuels. Beside biofuels, co-production of large amounts of propane is observed, which can be upgraded by a catalytic conversion to aromatics on zeolites. Kinetic studies of propane aromatization over H-ZSM-5 zeolite in a wide range of conversions are reported in the literature. Based on these results, a general kinetic model of propane aromatization has been developed. The revised kinetic scheme is then embedded in a process simulation, performed with the commercial code SimSci PRO/II by Schneider Electric. Basing on the process simulation and on available price assessments, a techno-economic analysis has been performed to show limits as well as potentialities of the proposed layout.

Michele Corbetta; Flavio Manenti; Carlo Pirola; Mark V. Tsodikov; Andrey V. Chistyakov

2014-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

308

A new class of accelerated kinetic Monte Carlo algorithms  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Kinetic (aka dynamic) Monte Carlo (KMC) is a powerful method for numerical simulations of time dependent evolution applied in a wide range of contexts including biology, chemistry, physics, nuclear sciences, financial engineering, etc. Generally, in a KMC the time evolution takes place one event at a time, where the sequence of events and the time intervals between them are selected (or sampled) using random numbers. While details of the method implementation vary depending on the model and context, there exist certain common issues that limit KMC applicability in almost all applications. Among such is the notorious 'flicker problem' where the same states of the systems are repeatedly visited but otherwise no essential evolution is observed. In its simplest form the flicker problem arises when two states are connected to each other by transitions whose rates far exceed the rates of all other transitions out of the same two states. In such cases, the model will endlessly hop between the two states otherwise producing no meaningful evolution. In most situation of practical interest, the trapping cluster includes more than two states making the flicker somewhat more difficult to detect and to deal with. Several methods have been proposed to overcome or mitigate the flicker problem, exactly [1-3] or approximately [4,5]. Of the exact methods, the one proposed by Novotny [1] is perhaps most relevant to our research. Novotny formulates the problem of escaping from a trapping cluster as a Markov system with absorbing states. Given an initial state inside the cluster, it is in principle possible to solve the Master Equation for the time dependent probabilities to find the walker in a given state (transient or absorbing) of the cluster at any time in the future. Novotny then proceeds to demonstrate implementation of his general method to trapping clusters containing the initial state plus one or two transient states and all of their absorbing states. Similar methods have been subsequently proposed in [refs] but applied in a different context. The most serious deficiency of the earlier methods is that size of the trapping cluster size is fixed and often too small to bring substantial simulation speedup. Furthermore, the overhead associated with solving for the probability distribution on the trapping cluster sometimes makes such simulations less efficient than the standard KMC. Here we report on a general and exact accelerated kinetic Monte Carlo algorithm generally applicable to arbitrary Markov models1. Two different implementations are attempted both based on incremental expansion of trapping sub-set of Markov states: (1) numerical solution of the Master Equation with absorbing states and (2) incremental graph reduction followed by randomization. Of the two implementations, the 2nd one performs better allowing, for the first time, to overcome trapping basins spanning several million Markov states. The new method is used for simulations of anomalous diffusion on a 2D substrate and of the kinetics of diffusive 1st order phase transformations in binary alloys. Depending on temperature and (alloy) super-saturation conditions, speedups of 3 to 7 orders of magnitude are demonstrated, with no compromise of simulation accuracy.

Bulatov, V V; Oppelstrup, T; Athenes, M

2011-11-30T23:59:59.000Z

309

E-Print Network 3.0 - approximate kinetic equations Sample Search...  

Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

equation. Reactor kinetics and Summary: equations, prompt jump approximation; subcritical reactor kinetics, circulating fuel reactor dynamics 5... solution to neutron...

310

Coaching the Brass Quintet: Developing Better Student Musicians Through Chamber Music  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

students match articulation in order to facilitate ease and clarity in making music. If the students are able to listen and match appropriately, then the amount of time spent making music can be increased. Articulation is a musical device, and can be used... technical, musical, and most importantly extra-musical abilities from a 2 young age. These essential extra-musical skills such as critical self-reflection, pro-active listening, and leadership, are a chamber coachs primary responsibility...

Miller, Albert Edward

2014-05-31T23:59:59.000Z

311

Ion mediated crosslink driven mucous swelling kinetics  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

We present an experimentally guided, multi-phasic, multi-species ionic gel model to compare and make qualitative predictions on the rheology of mucus of healthy individuals (Wild Type) versus those infected with Cystic Fibrosis. The mixture theory consists of the mucus (polymer phase) and water (solvent phase) as well as several different ions: H+, Na+ and Ca++. The model is linearized to study the hydration of spherically symmetric mucus gels and calibrated against the experimental data of mucus diffusivities. Near equilibrium, the linearized form of the equation describing the radial size of the gel, reduces to the well-known expression used in the kinetic theory of swelling hydrogels. Numerical studies reveal that the Donnan potential is the dominating mechanism driving the mucus swelling/deswelling transition. However, the altered swelling kinetics of the Cystic Fibrosis infected mucus is not merely governed by the hydroelectric composition of the swelling media, but also due to the altered movement of el...

Sircar, S

2015-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

312

ET Kinetics of Bifunctional Redox Protein Maquettes  

Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

Kinetics of Bifunctional Redox Protein Maquettes Kinetics of Bifunctional Redox Protein Maquettes Mitchell W. Mutz, James F. Wishart and George L. McLendon Adv. Chem Ser. 254, Ch. 10, pp. 145-159 Abstract: We prepared three bifunctional redox protein maquettes based on 12-, 16-, and 20-mer three-helix bundles. In each case, the helix was capped with a Co(III) tris-bipyridyl electron acceptor and also functionalized with a C-terminal viologen (1-ethyl-1'-ethyl-4,4'-bipyridinium) donor. Electron transfer (ET) was initiated by pulse radiolysis and flash photolysis and followed spectrometrically to determined average, concentration-independent, first-order rates for the 16-mer and 20-mer maquettes. For the 16-mer bundle, the alpha-helical content was adjusted by the addition of urea or trifluoroethanol to solutions containing the metalloprotein. This

313

Fail-safe ion chamber errant beam detector tailored for personnel protection  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

This fail-safe ion chamber system is designed to be part of the personnel safety system (PSS) for the Los Alamos Neutron Scattering Center (LANSCE) at the Los Alamos National Laboratory. Its job is to protect the occupants of the experimental areas from large radiation doses caused by errant beam conditions during beam transport from the Proton Storage Ring (PSR) to the LANSCE neutron spallation target. The worst case beam spill scenario is calculated to result in a personnel exposure of about 0.01 Gys/s (1 rad/s). Although the preferred solution is to increase the bulk shielding between the beam line and the experimental area, the physical dimensions of the site do not permit an adequate amount of shielding to be added. The solution adopted is a layered system of three types of highly reliable detector systems: a current limiter system located in the beam line, a neutron detector system located in the experimental areas, and an ion chamber system located on the walls of the beam line tunnels. The ion chamber system is capable of shutting off the beam in less than 0.5 s, resulting in a worst case personnel exposure of 0.005 Gys (0.5 rad). 4 figs.

Plum, M.A.; Browman, A.A.; Brown, D.; Lee, D.M.; McCabe, C.W.

1989-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

314

Numerical simulations of industrial-scale combustion chamber - LES versus RANS  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

In this work we focus on the simulation of the process of biomass syngas combustion in the industrial combustion chamber directly linked with gasification chamber, where this gas is continuously producing from the biomass. Conflicting demands from the engineers to have rapid results and hints how to ensure the best conditions for combustion of this particular fuel and to lower the emission of pollutants, with simultaneously deep view inside the process and its stability motivates us to use both the RANS and LES techniques of turbulence modelling, compare it and take their advantages. We designed and performed series of 3D numerical simulations of both cold flow and combustion in complex geometry of industrial burner. It seems to us that the proper approach for modelling of biomass syngas combustion is steady flamelets model. Simulations performed with RANS closure are used as the initialisation of LES models, but their main goal is to predict the long-time oscillation of pressure and temperature observed in the working combustion chamber. On the other hand the main goal of the simulations with LES closure is to predict the proper level of short-time behaviour of the flame and local phenomena.

Kamil Kwiatkowski; Daniel Jasi?ski; Konrad Bajer

2011-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

315

OFFICE OF INSPECTOR GENERAL  

Broader source: Energy.gov (indexed) [DOE]

APP-005 APP-005 Planning for and Measuring Office of Inspector General Results FY 2002 Annual Performance Report and FY 2003 Annual Performance Plan Office of Inspector General U.S. Department of Energy Inspector General's Message We are pleased to present the Office of Inspector General's (OIG) consolidated Fiscal Year 2002 Annual Performance Report and Fiscal Year 2003 Annual Performance Plan. This document evaluates our actual Fiscal Year (FY) 2002 performance and establishes the performance goals and strategies we will pursue in FY 2003 to fulfill our mission. As mandated by the Inspector General Act, the OIG promotes the effective, efficient, and economical operation of the Department of Energy's programs and operations, including the National Nuclear Security Administration (NNSA).

316

Generalized Galilean Genesis  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

The galilean genesis scenario is an alternative to inflation in which the universe starts expanding from Minkowski in the asymptotic past by violating the null energy condition stably. Several concrete models of galilean genesis have been constructed so far within the context of galileon-type scalar-field theories. We give a generic, unified description of the galilean genesis scenario in terms of the Horndeski theory, i.e., the most general scalar-tensor theory with second-order field equations. In doing so we generalize the previous models to have a new parameter (denoted by {\\alpha}) which results in controlling the evolution of the Hubble rate. The background dynamics is investigated to show that the generalized galilean genesis solution is an attractor, similarly to the original model. We also study the nature of primordial perturbations in the generalized galilean genesis scenario. In all the models described by our generalized genesis Lagrangian, amplification of tensor perturbations does not occur as ...

Nishi, Sakine

2015-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

317

Kinetic Ising Model of the Glass Transition  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

A graph theory of single-spin-flip kinetic Ising models is developed and applied to a class of spin models with strongly cooperative dynamics. Self-consistent approximations for the spin time correlation function are presented. One of the dynamical models exhibits a glass transition with no underlying thermodynamic singularity. The approximation for the time correlation function predicts a critical temperature, below which small fluctuations from equilibrium in the thermodynamic limit cannot relax in a finite amount of time.

Glenn H. Fredrickson and Hans C. Andersen

1984-09-24T23:59:59.000Z

318

Model of the Kinetics of Polymorphous Crystallization  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

We propose a phase-field model for the kinetics of isothermal crystallization of an amorphous solid at a concentration nearly equal to the equilibrium crystal stochiometry. The model utilizes two coupled fields: a nonconserved ordering vector field which describes the local lattice structure and a conserved nonordering scalar field describing the local atomic composition. Results of large-scale computer simulations are reported which can be compared with experiments.

B. Morin; K. R. Elder; M. Sutton; Martin Grant

1995-09-11T23:59:59.000Z

319

Kinetics of atoms in a bichromatic field  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

The kinetics of atoms in a bichromatic field is considered. Analytic solutions are obtained for the force, friction coefficient, and diffusion coefficient in the model of a two-level atom without limitations imposed on the intensity of light fields. This effect is observed in the domain of global minima and maxima of the optical potential (i.e., at points where the relative phase of two standing waves is Greek-Phi-Symbol = 0, {pi}/2.

Prudnikov, O. N., E-mail: llf@laser.nsc.ru [Novosibirsk State University (Russian Federation); Baklanov, A. S. [Russian Academy of Sciences, Institute of Laser Physics, Siberian Branch (Russian Federation)] [Russian Academy of Sciences, Institute of Laser Physics, Siberian Branch (Russian Federation); Taichenachev, A. V. [Novosibirsk State University (Russian Federation)] [Novosibirsk State University (Russian Federation); Tumaikin, A. M. [Russian Academy of Sciences, Institute of Laser Physics, Siberian Branch (Russian Federation)] [Russian Academy of Sciences, Institute of Laser Physics, Siberian Branch (Russian Federation); Yudin, V. I. [Novosibirsk State University (Russian Federation)] [Novosibirsk State University (Russian Federation)

2013-08-15T23:59:59.000Z

320

Isothermal kinetics of new Albany oil shale  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

From the development of technologies for the utilization of eastern U.S. oil shales, fluidized bed pyrolysis technology is emerging as one of the most promising in terms of oil yield, operating cost, and capital investment. Bench-scale testing of eastern shales has reached a level where scale-up represents the next logical step in the evolution of this technology. A major consideration in this development and an essential part of any fluidized bed reactor scale-up effort--isothermal kinetics-- has largely been ignored for eastern US shale with the exception of a recent study conducted by Richardson et al. with a Cleveland shale. The method of Richardson et al. was used previously by Wallman et al. with western shale and has been used most recently by Forgac, also with western shale. This method, adopted for the present study, entails injecting a charge of shale into a fluidized bed and monitoring the hydrocarbon products with a flame ionization detector (FID). Advantages of this procedure are that fluidized bed heat-up effects are simulated exactly and real-time kinetics are obtained due to the on-line FID. Other isothermal methods have suffered from heat-up and cool-down effects making it impossible to observe the kinetics at realistic operating temperatures. A major drawback of the FID approach, however, is that no differentiation between oil and gas is possible.

Carter, S.D.

1987-04-01T23:59:59.000Z

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "kinetics chamber general" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


321

Kinetic regulation of coated vesicle secretion  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

The secretion of vesicles for intracellular transport often rely on the aggregation of specialized membrane-bound proteins into a coat able to curve cell membranes. The nucleation and growth of a protein coat is a kinetic process that competes with the energy-consuming turnover of coat components between the membrane and the cytosol. We propose a generic kinetic description of coat assembly and the formation of coated vesicles, and discuss its implication to the dynamics of COP vesicles that traffic within the Golgi and with the Endoplasmic Reticulum. We show that stationary coats of fixed area emerge from the competition between coat growth and the recycling of coat components, in a fashion resembling the treadmilling of cytoskeletal filaments. We further show that the turnover of coat components allows for a highly sensitive switching mechanism between a quiescent and a vesicle producing membrane, upon a slowing down of the exchange kinetics. We claim that the existence of this switching behaviour, also triggered by factors such as the presence of cargo and variation of the membrane mechanical tension, allows for efficient regulation of vesicle secretion. We propose a model, supported by different experimental observations, in which vesiculation of secretory membranes is impaired by the energy consuming desorption of coat proteins, until the presence of cargo or other factors triggers a dynamical switch into a vesicle producing state.

Lionel Foret; Pierre Sens

2008-07-28T23:59:59.000Z

322

Performance of a Single-Chamber Microbial Fuel Cell Degrading Phenol: Effect of Phenol Concentration and External Resistance  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

The performance of a single-chamber microbial fuel cell (MFC) using wastewater containing phenol as the anodic fuel was evaluated. The evaluation was performed considering ... presence of different phenol concent...

Germn Buitrn; Ivn Moreno-Andrade

2014-09-01T23:59:59.000Z

323

general_atomics.cdr  

Office of Legacy Management (LM)

former General former General Atomics Hot Cell Facility was constructed in 1959 and operated until 1991. The site encompassed approximately 7,400 square feet of laboratory and remote operations cells. Licensed operations at the facility included receipt, handling, and shipment of radioactive materials; remote handling, examination, and storage of previously irradiated nuclear fuel materials; pilot-scale tritium extraction operations; and development, fabrication, and inspection of uranium oxide-beryllium oxide fuel materials. General Atomics performed most of the work for the federal government. The General Atomics Hot Cell Facility was located in a 60-acre complex 13 miles northwest of downtown San Diego, 1 mile inland from the Pacific Ocean, and approximately 300 feet above sea level.

324

general_atomics.cdr  

Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

former former General Atomics Hot Cell Facility was constructed in 1959 and operated until 1991. The site encompassed approximately 7,400 square feet of laboratory and remote operations cells. Licensed operations at the facility included receipt, handling, and shipment of radioactive materials; remote handling, examination, and storage of previously irradiated nuclear fuel materials; pilot-scale tritium extraction operations; and development, fabrication, and inspection of uranium oxide-beryllium oxide fuel materials. General Atomics performed most of the work for the federal government. The General Atomics Hot Cell Facility was located in a 60-acre complex 13 miles northwest of downtown San Diego, 1 mile inland from the Pacific Ocean, and approximately 300 feet above sea level. The General Atomics site is in the center of Torrey Mesa Science Center, a 304-acre industrial

325

MASSACHUSETTS GENERAL HOSPITAL  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

MASSACHUSETTS GENERAL HOSPITAL Page 1 of 4 HARVARD MEDICAL SCHOOL Position: Quality & Safety and efficacy of our practice, reporting this data out to department clinicians, senior leadership and hospital hospital and department groups, exceptional interpersonal, communication, project organization, time

Adams, Mark

326

1 General Information  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

1 General Information. 1.1 Class time / location: TTh 9-10:15, REC 114. 1.2 Office Hours: T 1:00-2:30 and Th 12:00-1:00. 1.3 Textbook: Elementary differential...

2014-08-26T23:59:59.000Z

327

general_atomics.cdr  

Office of Legacy Management (LM)

300 feet above sea level. The General Atomics site is in the center of Torrey Mesa Science Center, a 304-acre industrial park. No ground water wells are at or near the Hot Cell...

328

General User Proposals  

Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

Proposals Print Tuesday, 01 June 2010 09:36 General Users are granted beam time through a peer review proposal process. They may use beamlines and endstations provided by the ALS...

329

Introduction: General Landslide Studies  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

Highlights for several papers included in the general landslide session for the 3rd World Landslide Forum are presented. Topics range from early warning systems and modelling to geomorphology and solid waste...

Peter Bobrowsky; Yueping Yin

2014-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

330

General relativity and experiment  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

The confrontation between Einstein's theory of gravitation and experiment is summarized. Although all current experimental data are compatible with general relativity, the importance of pursuing the quest for possible deviations from Einstein's theory is emphasized.

T. Damour

1994-12-08T23:59:59.000Z

331

2011 IAEA General Conference  

Broader source: Energy.gov (indexed) [DOE]

2011 IAEA General Conference 2011 IAEA General Conference Remarks as Prepared for Delivery Secretary Steven Chu Monday, September 19, 2011 Thank you, Ambassador Feruta. Congratulations on your election as President of this Conference. I also want to thank Director General Amano for his outstanding leadership. I am honored to represent the United States today, and I want to share a message from President Barack Obama: "On behalf of the United States, please accept my best wishes for a successful International Atomic Energy Agency General Conference. This year's meeting takes place against the backdrop of the severe earthquake and tsunami that struck Japan in March and the devastating accident at the Fukushima Daiichi Nuclear Power Station that followed. Along with

332

Symmetric generalized binomial distributions  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

In two recent articles, we have examined a generalization of the binomial distribution associated with a sequence of positive numbers, involving asymmetric expressions of probabilities that break the symmetry win-loss. We present in this article another generalization (always associated with a sequence of positive numbers) that preserves the symmetry win-loss. This approach is also based on generating functions and presents constraints of non-negativeness, similar to those encountered in our previous articles.

Bergeron, H. [Univ Paris-Sud, ISMO, UMR 8214, 91405 Orsay (France)] [Univ Paris-Sud, ISMO, UMR 8214, 91405 Orsay (France); Curado, E. M. F. [Centro Brasileiro de Pesquisas Fisicas, Rua Xavier Sigaud 150 22290-180 - Rio de Janeiro (Brazil) [Centro Brasileiro de Pesquisas Fisicas, Rua Xavier Sigaud 150 22290-180 - Rio de Janeiro (Brazil); Instituto Nacional de Cincia e Tecnologia - Sistemas Complexos, Rua Xavier Sigaud 150, 22290-180 - Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil); Gazeau, J. P. [Centro Brasileiro de Pesquisas Fisicas, Rua Xavier Sigaud 150 22290-180 - Rio de Janeiro (Brazil) [Centro Brasileiro de Pesquisas Fisicas, Rua Xavier Sigaud 150 22290-180 - Rio de Janeiro (Brazil); APC, UMR 7164, Univ Paris Diderot, Sorbonne Paris Cit, 75205 Paris (France); Rodrigues, Ligia M. C. S., E-mail: herve.bergeron@u-psud.fr, E-mail: evaldo@cbpf.br, E-mail: gazeau@apc.univ-paris7.fr, E-mail: ligia@cbpf.br [Centro Brasileiro de Pesquisas Fisicas, Rua Xavier Sigaud 150 22290-180 - Rio de Janeiro (Brazil)

2013-12-15T23:59:59.000Z

333

Effect of Grain Size on Uranium(VI) Surface Complexation Kinetics and Adsorption Additivity  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Laboratory experiments were performed to investigate the contribution of variable grain sizes to uranium adsorption/desorption in a sediment collected from the US DOE Hanford site. The sediment was wet-sieved into four size fractions: coarse sand (1-2 mm), medium sand (0.2-1 mm), fine sand (0.05-0.2 mm), and clay/silt fraction (< 0.05mm). For each size fraction and their composite (sediment), batch experiments were performed to determine uranium adsorption isotherms, and stirred flow-cell experiments were conducted to derive kinetic data of uranium adsorption and subsequent desorption. The results showed that uranium adsorption isotherms and adsorption/desorption kinetics were size-specific, reflecting the effects of size-specific adsorption site concentration and kinetic rate constants. The larger-size fraction had a larger mass percentage in the sediment, but with a smaller adsorption site concentration and generally a slower uranium adsorption/desorption rate. The same equilibrium surface complexation reaction and reaction constant could describe uranium adsorption isotherms for all size fractions and the composite after accounting for the effect of adsorption site concentration. Mass-weighted, linear additivity was observed for both uranium adsorption isotherms and adsorption/desorption kinetics in the composite. Our analysis also showed that uranium adsorption site concentration estimated from the adsorption isotherms was 3 orders of magnitude less than a site concentration estimated from sediment surface area and generic site density. One important implication of this study is that grain size distribution may be used to estimate uranium adsorption site, and adsorption/desorption kinetic rates in heterogeneous sediments from a common location.

Shang, Jianying; Liu, Chongxuan; Wang, Zheming; Zachara, John M.

2011-07-27T23:59:59.000Z

334

Phi-values in protein folding kinetics have energetic and structural components  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Phi-values are experimental measures of how the kinetics of protein folding is changed by single-site mutations. Phi-values measure energetic quantities, but are often interpreted in terms of the structures of the transition state ensemble. Here we describe a simple analytical model of the folding kinetics in terms of the formation of protein substructures. The model shows that Phi-values have both structural and energetic components. In addition, it provides a natural and general interpretation of "nonclassical" Phi-values (i.e., less than zero, or greater than one). The model reproduces the Phi-values for 20 single-residue mutations in the alpha-helix of the protein CI2, including several nonclassical Phi-values, in good agreement with experiments.

Claudia Merlo; Ken A. Dill; Thomas R. Weikl

2005-07-14T23:59:59.000Z

335

Dielectric function beyond the random-phase approximation: Kinetic theory versus linear response theory  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

Calculating the frequency-dependent dielectric function for strongly coupled plasmas, the relations within kinetic theory and linear response theory are derived and discussed in comparison. In this context, we give a proof that the Kohler variational principle can be extended to arbitrary frequencies. It is shown to be a special case of the Zubarev method for the construction of a nonequilibrium statistical operator from the principle of the extremum of entropy production. Within kinetic theory, the commonly used energy-dependent relaxation time approach is strictly valid only for the Lorentz plasma in the static case. It is compared with the result from linear response theory that includes electron-electron interactions and applies for arbitrary frequencies, including bremsstrahlung emission. It is shown how a general approach to linear response encompasses the different approximations and opens options for systematic improvements.

H. Reinholz and G. Rpke

2012-03-08T23:59:59.000Z

336

Energy Conservation Tests of a Coupled Kinetic-kinetic Plasma-neutral Transport Code  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

A Monte Carlo neutral transport routine, based on DEGAS2, has been coupled to the guiding center ion-electron-neutral neoclassical PIC code XGC0 to provide a realistic treatment of neutral atoms and molecules in the tokamak edge plasma. The DEGAS2 routine allows detailed atomic physics and plasma-material interaction processes to be incorporated into these simulations. The spatial pro le of the neutral particle source used in the DEGAS2 routine is determined from the uxes of XGC0 ions to the material surfaces. The kinetic-kinetic plasma-neutral transport capability is demonstrated with example pedestal fueling simulations.

D.P. Stotler, C.S. Chang, S.H. Ku, J. Lang and G. Park

2012-08-29T23:59:59.000Z

337

Pedestal Fueling Simulations with a Coupled Kinetic-kinetic Plasma-neutral Transport Code  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

A Monte Carlo neutral transport routine, based on DEGAS2, has been coupled to the guiding center ion-electron-neutral neoclassical PIC code XGC0 to provide a realistic treatment of neutral atoms and molecules in the tokamak edge plasma. The DEGAS2 routine allows detailed atomic physics and plasma-material interaction processes to be incorporated into these simulations. The spatial pro le of the neutral particle source used in the DEGAS2 routine is determined from the uxes of XGC0 ions to the material surfaces. The kinetic-kinetic plasma-neutral transport capability is demonstrated with example pedestal fueling simulations.

D.P. Stotler, C.S. Chang, S.H. Ku, J. Lang and G.Y. Park

2012-08-29T23:59:59.000Z

338

Flame kernel characterization of laser ignition of natural gasair mixture in a constant volume combustion chamber  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

In this paper, laser-induced ignition was investigated for compressed natural gasair mixtures. Experiments were performed in a constant volume combustion chamber, which simulate end of the compression stroke conditions of a SI engine. This chamber simulates the engine combustion chamber conditions except turbulence of airfuel mixture. It has four optical windows at diametrically opposite locations, which are used for laser ignition and optical diagnostics simultaneously. All experiments were conducted at 10bar chamber pressure and 373K chamber temperature. Initial stage of combustion phenomena was visualized by employing Shadowgraphy technique using a high speed CMOS camera. Flame kernel development of the combustible fuelair mixture was investigated under different relative airfuel ratios (?=1.2?1.7) and the images were interrogated for temporal propagation of flame front. Pressure-time history inside the combustion chamber was recorded and analyzed. This data is useful in characterizing the laser ignition of natural gasair mixture and can be used in developing an appropriate laser ignition system for commercial use in SI engines.

Dhananjay Kumar Srivastava; Kewal Dharamshi; Avinash Kumar Agarwal

2011-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

339

KINETIC THEORY OF EQUILIBRIUM AXISYMMETRIC COLLISIONLESS PLASMAS IN OFF-EQUATORIAL TORI AROUND COMPACT OBJECTS  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

The possible occurrence of equilibrium off-equatorial tori in the gravitational and electromagnetic fields of astrophysical compact objects has been recently proved based on non-ideal magnetohydrodynamic theory. These stationary structures can represent plausible candidates for the modeling of coronal plasmas expected to arise in association with accretion disks. However, accretion disk coronae are formed by a highly diluted environment, and so the fluid description may be inappropriate. The question is posed of whether similar off-equatorial solutions can also be determined in the case of collisionless plasmas for which treatment based on kinetic theory, rather than a fluid one, is demanded. In this paper the issue is addressed in the framework of the Vlasov-Maxwell description for non-relativistic, multi-species axisymmetric plasmas subject to an external dominant spherical gravitational and dipolar magnetic field. Equilibrium configurations are investigated and explicit solutions for the species kinetic distribution function are constructed, which are expressed in terms of generalized Maxwellian functions characterized by isotropic temperature and non-uniform fluid fields. The conditions for the existence of off-equatorial tori are investigated. It is proved that these levitating systems are admitted under general conditions when both gravitational and magnetic fields contribute to shaping the spatial profiles of equilibrium plasma fluid fields. Then, specifically, kinetic effects carried by the equilibrium solution are explicitly provided and identified here with diamagnetic energy-correction and electrostatic contributions. It is shown that these kinetic terms characterize the plasma equation of state by introducing non-vanishing deviations from the assumption of thermal pressure.

Cremaschini, Claudio; Kov?, Ji?; Slan, Petr; Stuchlk, Zden?k [Institute of Physics, Faculty of Philosophy and Science, Silesian University in Opava, Bezru?ovo nm.13, CZ-74601 Opava (Czech Republic); Karas, Vladimr [Astronomical Institute, Academy of Sciences, Bo?n II, CZ-14131 Prague (Czech Republic)

2013-11-01T23:59:59.000Z

340

Hamiltonian approach to kinetic Ising models  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

In the framework of the quantum approach to stochastic dynamics, the master equations governing the temporal evolution of the kinetic Ising models (KIM) are cast in the form of imaginary-time Schrdinger equations with second-quantized Hermitian Hamiltonians. On the basis of the quantum formalism a classical evolution equation is derived for an effective time-dependent Ising-type Hamiltonian. The grand ensemble corresponding to the latter describes the statistics of the spin configurations evolving under the dynamics of the KIM. The latter approach was used to qualitatively explain the results of recent Monte Carlo simulations of the Kawasaki KIM. 1996 The American Physical Society.

V. I. Tokar

1996-02-01T23:59:59.000Z

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "kinetics chamber general" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
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341

Studies of combustion kinetics and mechanisms  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

The objective of the current research is to gain new quantitative knowledge of the kinetics and mechanisms of polyatomic free radicals which are important in hydrocarbon combustion processes. The special facility designed and built for these (which includes a heatable tubular reactor coupled to a photoionization mass spectrometer) is continually being improved. Where possible, these experimental studies are coupled with theoretical ones, sometimes conducted in collaboration with others, to obtain an improved understanding of the factors determining reactivity. The decomposition of acetyl radicals, isopropyl radicals, and n-propyl radicals have been studied as well as the oxidation of methylpropargyl radicals.

Gutman, D. [Catholic Univ. of America, Washington, DC (United States)

1993-12-01T23:59:59.000Z

342

Kinetic equilibration from a radiative transport  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Kinetic equilibration during the early stage of a relativistic heavy ion collision is studied using a radiative transport model. Thermalization is found to dominate over expansion with medium regulated cross sections. Pressure anisotropy shows an approximate alpha_s scaling when radiative processes are included. It approaches an asymptotic time evolution on a time scale of 1 to 2 fm/c. Energy density is also found to approach an asymptotic time evolution that decreases slower than the ideal hydro evolution. These observations indicate that viscosity is important during the early longitudinal expansion phase of a relativistic heavy ion collision.

Bin Zhang

2009-03-11T23:59:59.000Z

343

Streamer chamber study of intermediate-energy nuclear collisions with CCD cameras  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

A system of three charge-coupled device (CCD) cameras has been designed and built to record nuclear collisions in a streamer chamber. This technical development significantly enhances the usefulness of streamer chambers as large solid angle ({approx}4{pi} sr) detectors for exclusive measurements in nuclear physics. The system has been used in an experiment designed to study nearly-central collisions of Nb + Nb at 100 and 180 MeV/nucleon. Computer codes have been developed that significantly reduce the amount of operator intervention in the data analysis. One of the most interesting predictions of fluid-dynamical models and VUU calculations for heavy-ion collisions is the sideward emission of nuclear matter, due to the high compression crated during the collision (Stoe 80, Mol 85). The transverse-momentum flow analysis introduced by Danielewicz and Odyniec (Dan 85) allows to calculate the amount of sideward momentum carried by the emitted fragments, while minimizing the distortions caused by finite-multiplicity effects. This momentum flow analysis has been performed on our 180 MeV/nucleon data. The slope of the mean transverse momentum per nucleon vs. rapidity curve at mid-rapidity, or flow, was found to be 47.0 {plus minus} 11.3 MeV/c/nucleon. In order to compare our results to those obtained from other experiments, scale-invariant transverse momentum, p{sup x}, and rapidity, y, have been introduced (Bal 84). The p{sup x} vs. y curve extracted from our data has been compared with the curves obtained for various systems in streamer chamber plus photographic film (Dan 85, Ren 84) and plastic ball experiments (Dos 85), and the shapes have been found to be very similar. The scale-invariant flow, F, for 180 MeV/nucleon Nb + Nb is 0.16 {plus minus} 0.04.

Angius, S.P.

1987-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

344

HEBT MOMENTUM SCRAPER, H+ RAY TRACE SIMULATION AND VACUUM CHAMBER DESIGN.  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

In the 1MW Spallation Neutron Source (SNS), the High-Energy Beam Transfer line (HEBT) connects the LINAC to the accumulator ring. A major requirement of the SNS complex is to have low uncontrolled beam loss (lnA/m), to allow hands on maintenance. The vacuum requirement for the HEBT is 5x10{sup {minus}8} Torr. Excessive H{sup {minus}} stripping will occur above this pressure and increase losses in the machine. The HEBT is also equipped with three sets of beam halo scrapers, one for momentum and two for transverse collimation. The momentum scraper is located at a maximum dispersion point, between the 3rd dipole magnet (DD3) of HEBT and the 14th quadrupole (Q14) of the HEBT line. The momentum scraper uses movable foils that strip the H{sup {minus}} beam that has momentum spread (0.2%<{delta}p/p<0.6%) into H{sup +}, and the H{sup +} ions are then directed out of the HEBT beam line to a beam dump by the next bending magnet DD4 (4th dipole of HEBT). In order to ensure that the extracted H{sup +} beam travels inside the extraction chamber to minimize the radiation in the beam dump station region, we performed H{sup +} particle tracking to determine the outer boundaries and the angle of the Y-type vacuum chamber that will contain the H{sup +} beam. The development and design of the special HEBT momentum scraper extraction and exit chamber, and the relevant H{sup +} trajectories are presented in this paper.

HE,P.; HSEUH,H.C.; RAPARIA,D.; TSOUPAS,N.; WEISS,D.

2001-06-18T23:59:59.000Z

345

Adding linear kinetic effects to existing finite-difference simulations  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

We present the proof-of-principle KINETIC-J module for iterative addition of all-order kinetic effects (parallel and perpendicular) in both the IC and EC frequency ranges, to any existing FD or FE frequency-domain full-wave RF simulation. The module calculates the linear, kinetic plasma current, such that given f 0 (r,v) and the cold plasma solution as an initial guess at the wave electric field, iterating the KINETIC-J module and the existing code (its internal plasma current replaced with the output of the module) converges to the kinetic solution. Since KINETIC-J does not use the k-space representation of the hot plasma dielectric, in favor of data parallel numeric integrals, implementing the module requires minimal code changes.

Green, David L [ORNL; Berry, Lee Alan [XCEL Engineering Inc., Oak Ridge

2013-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

346

Management of unconverted light for the National Ignition Facility target chamber  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

The NIF target chamber beam dumps must survive high x-ray, laser, ion, and shrapnel exposures without excessive generation of vapors or particulate that will contaminate the final optics debris shields, thereby making the debris shields susceptible to subsequent laser damage. The beam dumps also must be compatible with attaining and maintaining the required target chamber vacuum and must not activate significantly under high neutron fluxes. Finally, they must be developed, fabricated, and maintained for a reasonable cost. The primary challenge for the beam dump is to survive up to 20 J/cm{sup 2} of lpm light and 1 - 2 J/cm{sup 2} of nominally 200 - 350 eV blackbody temperature x rays. Additional threats include target shrapnel, and other contamination issues. Designs which have been evaluated include louvered hot-pressed boron carbide (B{sub 4}C) or stainless steel (SS) panels, in some cases covered with transparent Teflon film, and various combinations of inexpensive low thermal expansion glasses backed by inexpensive absorbing glass. Louvered designs can recondense a significant amount of ablated material that would otherwise escape into the target chamber. Transparent Teflon was evaluated as an alternative way to capture ablated material. The thin Teflon sheet would need to be replaced after each shot since it exhibits both laser damage and considerable x- ray ablation with each shot. Uncontaminated B{sub 4}C, SS, and low thermal expansion glasses have reasonably small x-ray and laser ablation rates, although the glasses begin to fail catastrophically after 100 high fluence shots. Commercially available absorbing glasses require a pre-shield of either Teflon or low thermal expansion glass to prevent serious degradation by the x-ray fluence. Advantages of the hot-pressed B{sub 4}C and SS over glass are their performance against microshrapnel, their relative indifference to contamination, and their ability to be refurbished by aggressive cleaning using CO{sub 2} pellets, glass beads, high pressure water or ultrasonic tanks. In addition the expected replacement rate to avoid catastrophic failure makes the glass option more costly. SS is less expensive, more easily formed into a louver design with high capture efficiency, and otherwise equivalent to B{sub 4}C. Hence, it would be preferred as long as debris shield damage is not substantially greater for SS as compared to damage from an equivalent mass of contamination of B{sub 4}C. If debris shield damage is problematic, the escape of SS could be mitigated by use of a transparent Teflon film. The Teflon film would require increased target chamber pumping and cleaning capability to accommodate the x-ray decomposition products.

Anderson, A. T.; Bletzer, K.; Burnham, A. K.; Dixit, S; Genin, F. Y.; Hibbard, W.; Norton, J.; Scott, J. M.; Whitman, P. K.

1998-07-08T23:59:59.000Z

347

Blood meal host preferences of Culex salinarius Coquillett (Diptera : culicidae) in Chambers County, Texas  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

: Culicidae) in Chambers County, Texas. (December 1994) John Paul Grieco, B. S. , University of Notre Dame Chair of Advisory Committee: Dr. Jimmy K. Olson Bloodmeal host preferences were assessed for ~ sQiDgi~ populations occurring along the upper Gulf...)(Seeley and Bickley 1974) and St. Louis encephalitis (Nayar et al. 1986) . Also, ~x. B~l' -a~i populations are often found in areas that are associated with large numbers of avian hosts which serve as possible reservoirs for eastern equine encephalitis (EEE...

Grieco, John Paul

2012-06-07T23:59:59.000Z

348

Conceptual design for a fast neutron ionization chamber for fusion reactor plasma diagnostics  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

A conceptual design for a radiation-hard ``pointing`` fast neutron ionization chamber that is capable of delivering a 1 MHz countrate of T(D,n) events at ITER is given. The detector will use a {approximately}1 cm{sup 3} volume of CO{sub 2} fill gas at 0.1 bar pressure in a 500 V/cm electric field. The pulse widths will be {approximately}10 ns, enabling it to operate in a flux of {approximately} 6 {times} 10{sup 13} DT n/cm{sup 2}/sec. A special collimator design is used, giving an estimated angular resolution of 4.5 degrees HWHM.

Sailor, W.C.; Barnes, C.W.

1994-06-01T23:59:59.000Z

349

Study of the calibration of X-T relation for the BESIII drift chamber  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

This paper introduces the calibration of the time-to-distance relation for the BESIII drift chamber. The parameterization of the time-to-distance relation is presented. The studies of left-right asymmetry and the variation with the entrance angle are performed. The impact of dead channels on the time-to-distance relation is given special attention in order to reduce the shifts of the measured momenta for the tracks passing near dead cells. Finally we present the spatial resolution (123 {\\mu}m) for barrel Bhabha events (|cos{\\theta}|data taken in 2012.

Xiao-Lin Kang; Ling-Hui Wu; Zhi Wu; Tao Luo; Chen Hu; Hai-Xai Wang; Shuang-Shi Fang; Kang-Lin He; Wei-Dong Li; Wei-Guo Li; Ze-Pu Mao; Liang-Liang Wang; Ye Yuan; Yao Zhang

2014-05-14T23:59:59.000Z

350

MicroBooNE: A New Liquid Argon Time Projection Chamber Experiment  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Liquid Argon Time Projection Chamber detectors are well suited to study neutrino interactions, and are an intriguing option for future massive detectors capable of measuring the parameters that characterize neutrino oscillations. These detectors combine fine-grained tracking with calorimetry, allowing for excellent imaging and particle identification ability. In this talk the details of the MicroBooNE experiment, a 175 ton LArTPC which will be exposed to Fermilab's Booster Neutrino Beamline starting in 2011, will be presented. The ability of MicroBooNE to differentiate electrons from photons gives the experiment unique capabilities in low energy neutrino interaction measurements.

Soderberg, M.

2009-10-01T23:59:59.000Z

351

Analysis of a kinetic multi-segment foot model part II: Kinetics and clinical implications  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

Kinematic multi-segment foot models have seen increased use in clinical and research settings, but the addition of kinetics has been limited and hampered by measurement limitations and modeling assumptions. In this second of two companion papers, we complete the presentation and analysis of a three segment kinetic foot model by incorporating kinetic parameters and calculating joint moments and powers. The model was tested on 17 pediatric subjects (ages 718years) during normal gait. Ground reaction forces were measured using two adjacent force platforms, requiring targeted walking and the creation of two sub-models to analyze ankle, midtarsal, and 1st metatarsophalangeal joints. Targeted walking resulted in only minimal kinematic and kinetic differences compared with walking at self selected speeds. Joint moments and powers were calculated and ensemble averages are presented as a normative database for comparison purposes. Ankle joint powers are shown to be overestimated when using a traditional single-segment foot model, as substantial angular velocities are attributed to the mid-tarsal joint. Power transfer is apparent between the 1st metatarsophalangeal and mid-tarsal joints in terminal stance/pre-swing. While the measurement approach presented here is limited to clinical populations with only minimal impairments, some elements of the model can also be incorporated into routine clinical gait analysis.

Dustin A. Bruening; Kevin M. Cooney; Frank L. Buczek

2012-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

352

Vlasov simulations of Kinetic Alfv\\'en Waves at proton kinetic scales  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Kinetic Alfv\\'en waves represent an important subject in space plasma physics, since they are thought to play a crucial role in the development of the turbulent energy cascade in the solar wind plasma at short wavelengths (of the order of the proton inertial length $d_p$ and beyond). A full understanding of the physical mechanisms which govern the kinetic plasma dynamics at these scales can provide important clues on the problem of the turbulent dissipation and heating in collisionless systems. In this paper, hybrid Vlasov-Maxwell simulations are employed to analyze in detail the features of the kinetic Alfv\\'en waves at proton kinetic scales, in typical conditions of the solar wind environment. In particular, linear and nonlinear regimes of propagation of these fluctuations have been investigated in a single-wave situation, focusing on the physical processes of collisionless Landau damping and wave-particle resonant interaction. Interestingly, since for wavelengths close to $d_p$ and proton plasma beta $\\bet...

Vasconez, C L; Camporeale, E; Veltri, P

2014-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

353

General Employee Radiological Training  

Broader source: Energy.gov (indexed) [DOE]

Not Measurement Not Measurement Sensitive DOE-HDBK-1131-2007 December 2007_______ Change Notice 1 Reaffirmed 2013 DOE HANDBOOK GENERAL EMPLOYEE RADIOLOGICAL TRAINING U.S. Department of Energy AREA TRNG Washington, D.C. 20585 DISTRIBUTION STATEMENT A. Approved for public release; distribution is unlimited. This document is available on the Department of Energy Technical Standards Program Web Site at http://www.hss.energy.gov/nuclearsafety/techstds/ Change 1 DOE-HDBK-1131-2007 Original Change Part 2 page 5 The average annual radiation dose to a member of the general population is about 360 millirem/year. The average annual radiation dose to a member of the general population is about 620 millirem/year. Part 2 page 5 Natural background radiation is by far the

354

General User Proposal Scores  

Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

General User Proposal Scores General User Proposal Scores General User Proposal Scores Print Tuesday, 01 June 2010 10:34 Scoring Proposals are scored on a scale of 1 to 5, with 1 being the best score and 5 the worst. Reviewers are requested to use the following ranking schema: Must do High Priority Medium Priority Low priority Don't do Beam time is assigned based on each proposal's score in relation to all other proposals for a given beamline. For beamlines where beamtime requests exceed available beamtime, a cutoff score is assigned after which no beam time is allocated. proposal scores Beam Time Cutoff Scores for the Current Cycle The table below lists the percent of beam time shifts allocated/requested for each beamline, and the cutoff scores, below which no beam time was assigned.

355

General Employee Radiological Training  

Broader source: Energy.gov (indexed) [DOE]

_______ _______ Change Notice 1 June 2009 DOE HANDBOOK GENERAL EMPLOYEE RADIOLOGICAL TRAINING U.S. Department of Energy AREA TRNG Washington, D.C. 20585 DISTRIBUTION STATEMENT A. Approved for public release; distribution is unlimited. Not Measurement Sensitive This document is available on the Department of Energy Technical Standards Program Web Site at http://www.hss.energy.gov/nuclearsafety/techstds/ Change 1 DOE-HDBK-1131-2007 Original Change Part 2 page 5 The average annual radiation dose to a member of the general population is about 360 millirem/year. The average annual radiation dose to a member of the general population is about 620 millirem/year. Part 2 page 5 Natural background radiation is by far the

356

NEWTON's General Science References  

Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

General Science References General Science References Do you have a great general science reference link? Please click our Ideas page. Featured Reference Links: First.gov Science and Technology First.gov Science and Technology This site, sponsered by the US Government provides reference links to topics on science, telecommunications, computers, research agencies, and news. NASA Science NASA Science NASA Science, is a website sponsered by NASA, that supplies resources for understanding our world and the world above. Topics include earth science, heliophysics, the planets, astrophysics and much more. There is also an educator page! Nobel Laueate Listings and Stories Nobel Laueate Listings and Stories See the official site for the Nobel Prize, and read biographies about all of the Nobel Laureates, and there life changing discoveries and accomplishments.

357

Generalized coherent states  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

In the coherent state of the harmonic oscillator, the probability density is that of the ground state subjected to an oscillation along a classical trajectory. Senitzky and others pointed out that there are states of the harmonic oscillator corresponding to an identical oscillatory displacement of the probability density of any energy eigenstate. These generalizations of the coherent state are rarely discussed, yet they furnish an interesting set of quantum states of light that combine features of number states and coherent states. Here we give an elementary account of the quantum optics of generalized coherent states.

T. G. Philbin

2013-12-18T23:59:59.000Z

358

3.205 Thermodynamics and Kinetics of Materials, Fall 2003  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Laws of thermodynamics applied to materials and materials processes. Solution theory. Equilibrium diagrams. Overview of fluid transport processes. Kinetics of processes that occur in materials, including diffusion, phase ...

Allen, Samuel M.

359

Simulations of Kinetic Events at the Atomic Scale  

Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

Presentation on the Simulations of Kinetic Events at the Atomic Scale given at the DOE Theory Focus Session on Hydrogen Storage Materials on May 18, 2006.

360

Kinetics, Mechanics and Microstructure Changes in Storage Media  

Broader source: Energy.gov (indexed) [DOE]

Focus Session on Hydrogen Storage DOE Hydrogen Program Review Crystal Gateway Marriott, Crystal City, VA May 18, 2006 Kinetics, Mechanics and Microstructure Changes in Storage...

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "kinetics chamber general" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


361

Extraction of Equilibrium Energy and Kinetic Parameters from...  

Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

Investigator for the Extraction of Equilibrium Energy and Kinetic Parameters from Single Molecule Force Spectroscopy Data. LLNL BES Programs Highlight Extraction of...

362

Micro Hydro Kinetic Turbines from Smart Hydro Power | Open Energy...  

Open Energy Info (EERE)

to the MHK database homepage Retrieved from "http:en.openei.orgwindex.php?titleMicroHydroKineticTurbinesfromSmartHydroPower&oldid720939" Category: Marine and...

363

Kinetics, Mechanics and Microstructure Changes in Storage Media  

Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

Presentation on the Kinetics, Mechanics and Microstructure Changes in Storage Media given at the DOE Theory Focus Session on Hydrogen Storage Materials on May 18, 2006.

364

Chemical kinetics parameters of nuclear graphite gasification  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

This paper provides chemical kinetics parameters for the gasification of nuclear graphite grades of IG-110, IG-430, NBG-18 and NBG-25 and presents empirical correlations for their surface areas of free active sites as a function of mass. The kinetics parameters for the four elementary chemical reactions of gasification of these grades of nuclear graphite include the values and Gaussian distributions of the specific activation energies and the values of the pre-exponential rate coefficients for the adsorption of oxygen and desorption of CO and CO2 gases. The values of these parameters and the surface area of free active sites for IG-110 and NB-25, with fine and medium petroleum coke filler particles, are nearly the same, but slightly different from those of NBG-18 and IG-430, with medium and fine coal tar pitch coke filler particles. Recommended parameters are applicable to future safety analysis of high and very high temperature gas cooled reactors in the unlikely event of a massive air ingress accident.

Mohamed S. El-Genk; Jean-Michel P. Tournier

2013-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

365

Ion mediated crosslink driven mucous swelling kinetics  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

We present an experimentally guided, multi-phasic, multi-species ionic gel model to compare and make qualitative predictions on the rheology of mucus of healthy individuals (Wild Type) versus those infected with Cystic Fibrosis. The mixture theory consists of the mucus (polymer phase) and water (solvent phase) as well as several different ions: H+, Na+ and Ca++. The model is linearized to study the hydration of spherically symmetric mucus gels and calibrated against the experimental data of mucus diffusivities. Near equilibrium, the linearized form of the equation describing the radial size of the gel, reduces to the well-known expression used in the kinetic theory of swelling hydrogels. Numerical studies reveal that the Donnan potential is the dominating mechanism driving the mucus swelling/deswelling transition. However, the altered swelling kinetics of the Cystic Fibrosis infected mucus is not merely governed by the hydroelectric composition of the swelling media, but also due to the altered movement of electrolytes as well as due to the defective properties of the mucin polymer network.

S. Sircar; A. J. Roberts

2015-01-20T23:59:59.000Z

366

Acifluorfen Sorption and Sorption Kinetics in Soil  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

The time-dependent increase in sorbed acifluorfen up to 48 h was described by a two-site equilibrium/kinetic model where Si is sorbed concentration (?mol kg-1), C is solution concentration (?M), ke (L kg-1) is the coefficient for sorption at sites 1 exhibiting instantaneous equilibrium, kf (L kg-1 h-1) and kr (h-1) are rate constants for sorption and desorption, respectively, from sites 2, 1/N accounts for sorption nonlinearity, and t (h) is time. ... Alternatively, acifluorfen degradation and time-dependent sorption of metabolites may be qualitatively described by assuming first-order kinetics: where P is the solution concentration of all metabolic products (?M), SP is concentration of sorbed metabolite (?mol kg-1), kd (h-1) and kp (h-1) are first-order rate constants for substrate degradation and metabolite sorption, respectively, v is solution volume (L), and m is sorbent mass (kg). ... All sorption isotherms were nonlinear and exponent (1/N) values less than 1 (Table 1), indicating decreasing fraction sorbed with increasing initial acifluorfen concentration. ...

Martin A. Locke; Lewis A. Gaston; Robert M. Zablotowicz

1997-01-20T23:59:59.000Z

367

Direct Kinetic Measurements of a Criegee Intermediate  

Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

Direct Kinetic Measurements of a Criegee Intermediate Print Direct Kinetic Measurements of a Criegee Intermediate Print In the earth's troposphere, which blankets the planet surface where we live and breathe, dust particles, gas molecules, water vapor, and sunlight provide the ingredients for a multitude of chemical reactions that can generate effects ranging from clouds and smog to acid rain and climate change. In 1949, chemist Rudolf Criegee proposed a novel chemical pathway for one such reaction, known as ozonolysis: the destruction of alkenes (a type of hydrocarbon), via reaction with ozone, a key pollutant in the troposphere. Although there has been much indirect evidence supporting Criegee's mechanism, breakthrough research done at the ALS by chemists from Sandia National Laboratories, the University of Manchester, and Bristol University has for the first time directly measured reaction rates for so-called "Criegee intermediates," elusive molecules formed at intermediate stages of ozonolysis. The surprising results may have important implications for subjects ranging from advanced engine design to air quality and climate modeling.

368

Preliminary design of dust lifting and transport in the martian General Circulation Model.  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

by the GCM When wind blows accross a surface covered by loose particles, kinetic energy is transferred Package 4 1 #12; Contents 1 Introduction 2 2 Dust lifting 3 2.1 Lifting by the general circulation winds . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 6 2.1.4 Implementation in the GCM. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 6 2.2 Lifting by dust devils

Forget, François

369

Stochastic cooling of bunched beams from fluctuation and kinetic theory  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

A theoretical formalism for stochastic phase-space cooling of bunched beams in storage rings is developed on the dual basis of classical fluctuation theory and kinetic theory of many-body systems in phase-space. The physics is that of a collection of three-dimensional oscillators coupled via retarded nonconservative interactions determined by an electronic feedback loop. At the heart of the formulation is the existence of several disparate time-scales characterizing the cooling process. Both theoretical approaches describe the cooling process in the form of a Fokker-Planck transport equation in phase-space valid up to second order in the strength and first order in the auto-correlation of the cooling signal. With neglect of the collective correlations induced by the feedback loop, identical expressions are obtained in both cases for the coherent damping and Schottky noise diffusion coefficients. These are expressed in terms of Fourier coefficients in a harmonic decomposition in angle of the generalized nonconservative cooling force written in canonical action-angle variables of the particles in six-dimensional phase-space. Comparison of analytic results to a numerical simulation study with 90 pseudo-particles in a model cooling system is presented.

Chattopadhyay, S.

1982-09-01T23:59:59.000Z

370

Mechanism and kinetics of peptide partitioning into membranes  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Partitioning properties of transmembrane (TM) polypeptide segments directly determine membrane protein folding, stability, and function, and their understanding is vital for rational design of membrane active peptides. However, direct determination of water-to-bilayer transfer of TM peptides has proved difficult. Experimentally, sufficiently hydrophobic peptides tend to aggregate, while atomistic computer simulations at physiological temperatures cannot yet reach the long time scales required to capture partitioning. Elevating temperatures to accelerate the dynamics has been avoided, as this was thought to lead to rapid denaturing. However, we show here that model TM peptides (WALP) are exceptionally thermostable. Circular dichroism experiments reveal that the peptides remain inserted into the lipid bilayer and are fully helical, even at 90 C. At these temperatures, sampling is 50 500 times faster, sufficient to directly simulate spontaneous partitioning at atomic resolution. A folded insertion pathway is observed, consistent with three-stage partitioning theory. Elevated temperature simulation ensembles further allow the direct calculation of the insertion kinetics, which is found to be first-order for all systems. Insertion barriers are Hin = 15 kcal/mol for a general hydrophobic peptide and 23 kcal/mol for the tryptophan-flanked WALP peptides. The corresponding insertion times at room temperature range from 8.5 s to 163 ms. High-temperature simulations of experimentally validated thermostable systems suggest a new avenue for systematic exploration of peptide partitioning properties.

Ulmschneider, Martin [University of Oxford; Killian, J Antoinette [University of Utrecht; Doux, Jacques P. F. [University of Utrecht; Smith, Jeremy C [ORNL; Ulmschneider, Jakob [University of Heidelberg

2010-02-01T23:59:59.000Z

371

An assessment of chemical kinetics for bio-syngas combustion  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

Abstract The present work was devoted to assess the chemical kinetic modelling of bio-syngas combustion. Three reaction mechanisms (the Gas Research Institute-mechanism GRI 3.0, its skeletal version DRM22 and Heghes C1C4 mechanism) were considered for that purpose along with series of ignition delay measurements relevant to the burning of bio-syngas. For experiments involving methane with and without considerably smaller quantities of added hydrogen, the measurements are generally overpredicted by Heghes mechanism but underpredicted by the GRI and DRM mechanisms. Experiments involving various blends of the bio-syngas constituents were also simulated. The strong discrepancies present for high pressures and temperatures and low pressures and temperatures could be correlated to five reactions which are only influential under those conditions, four of which involving HO 2 . The effects of variations in the bio-syngas composition on combustion were numerically investigated by using the GRI-mechanism. Globally it was found that an increase in any of the constituents goes hand in hand with higher amount of CO released. The ignition delay is either shortened or left unchanged as the initial concentration is increased except in the case of methane where it is raised. The results were in good agreement with experimental observations made elsewhere.

M. Fischer; X. Jiang

2014-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

372

Thermodynamics and Kinetics of Carbon Dioxide Binding to Two Stereoisomers  

Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

Binding to Stereoisomers of a Cobalt(I) Macrocycle Binding to Stereoisomers of a Cobalt(I) Macrocycle Carol Creutz, Harold A. Schwarz, James F. Wishart, Etsuko Fujita and Norman Sutin J. Am. Chem. Soc. 113, 3361-3371 (1991) Abstract: The thermodynamics and kinetics of binding of CO2, CO, and H+ to N-racemic and N-meso stereoisomers of the cobalt(I) macrocycle CoL+ (L=5,7,7,12,14,14-hexamethyl-1,4,8,11-tetraazacyclotetradeca-4,11-diene) have been determined in aqueous media with use of the pulse radiolysis technique and transient ultraviolet-visible spectroscopy. N-rac or N-meso-CoL+ was produced by the hydrated electron reduction of N-rac or N-meso-CoL2+, with tert-butyl alcohol generally added to scavenge hydroxyl radicals. Reactions of both N-rac- and N-meso CoL+ are readily followed by the disappearance of intense ([epsilon] 1 x 104 M-1 cm-1) absorption bands

373

ENGINEERING General Information 436  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

great power to control their environment and, with this power, the responsibility to control it wiselySCHOOL OF ENGINEERING General Information 436 Descriptions of Fields of Study 438 Facilities 443 Information HISTORY AND AIMS OF THE SCHOOL Instruction in engineering began at Rutgers in 1864, when the state

Garfunkel, Eric

374

GENERAL CIRCULATION Mean Characteristics  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

of California, Department of Land, Air, and Water Resources, Davis, CA 95616-8627, USA Introduction state. The general circulation undergoes seasonal change. In many fields the seasonal change is much on an annual average. Simple geometry (see Figure 1) shows that the amount of solar radiation reaching unit

Grotjahn, Richard

375

General com Technology community  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Campus IT General com m unity Technology community ITsystem owners Campus Council for Information Technology (CCFIT) · ~30 members · Advisory evaluation and review role · Input from faculty, staff, students formal representation on steering team and subcommittees Technology Support Program · Technology support

Ferrara, Katherine W.

376

Singular Value Decomposition Generalized  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

1 Overview The singular value decomposition (SVD) is a generalization of the eigen- ferent eigenvalues are pairwise orthogonal. Let X be a positive semi-definite, its eigen containing the eigenvalues of X. The SVD uses the eigen-decomposition of a positive semi-definite matrix

Abdi, Hervé

377

Progress on an integrated multi-physics simulation predictive capability for plasma chamber nuclear components  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Understanding the behavior of a plasma chamber component in the fusion environment requires a simulation technique that is capable of integrating multi-disciplinary computational codes while appropriately treating geometric heterogeneity and complexity. Such a tool should be able to interpret phenomena from mutually dependent scientific disciplines and predict performance with sufficient accuracy and consistency. Integrated multi-physics simulation predictive capability (ISPC) relies upon advanced numerical simulation techniques and is being applied to ITER first wall/shield and Test Blanket Module (TBM) designs. In this paper, progress in ISPC development is described through the presentation of a number of integrated simulations. The simulations cover key physical phenomena encountered in a fusion plasma chamber system, including tritium permeation, fluid dynamics, and structure mechanics. Interface engines were developed in order to pass field data, such as surface deformation or nuclear heating rate, from the structural analysis to the thermo-fluid MHD analysis code for magnetohydrodynamic (MHD) velocity profile assessments, or from the neutronics analysis to the thermo-fluid analysis for temperature calculations, respectively. Near-term effort toward further ISPC development is discussed.

A. Ying; M. Abdou; H. Zhang; R. Munipalli; M. Ulrickson; M. Sawan; B. Merrill

2010-12-01T23:59:59.000Z

378

Binary reconstruction of the heart chambers from biplane angiographic image sequences  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

The aim of this work is the three-dimensional (3-D) reconstruction of the left or right heart chamber from digital biplane angiograms. The approach used, the binary reconstruction, exploits the density information of subtracted ventriculograms from two orthogonal views in addition to the ventricular contours. The ambiguity of the problem is largely reduced by incorporating a priori knowledge of human ventricles. A model-based reconstruction program is described that is applicable to routinely acquired biplane ventriculographic studies. Prior to reconstruction, several geometric and densitometric imaging errors are corrected. The finding of corresponding density profiles and anatomical landmarks is supported by a biplane image pairing procedure that takes the movement of the gantry system into account. Absolute measurements are based on geometric isocenter calibration and a slice-wise density calibration technique. The reconstructed ventricles allow 3-D visualization and regional wall motion analysis independently of the gantry setting. The method is applied to clinical angiograms and tested in left- and right-ventricular phantoms yielding a well shape conformity even with few model information. The results indicate that volumes of binary reconstructed ventricles are less projection-dependent compared to volume data derived by purely contour-based methods. A limitations is that the heart chamber must not be superimposed by other dye-filled structures in both projections.

Prause, G.P.M.; Onnasch, D.G.W. [Univ. of Kiel (Germany). Clinic of Pediatric Cardiology] [Univ. of Kiel (Germany). Clinic of Pediatric Cardiology

1996-08-01T23:59:59.000Z

379

Multinuclear and multidimensional solid-state NMR investigations of combustion chamber deposits  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Multinuclear solid-state NMR has been used to study the carbonaceous backbone of combustion chamber deposits (CCDs) generated in both gasoline and diesel engines. The combination of {sup 1}H-{sup 13}C cross-polarization, and dipolar dephasing techniques have been used to {open_quotes}average molecule{close_quotes} parameters for a large number of CCDs. These parameters were correlated with gasoline composition and cylinder cleanliness. Discussion will be presented on deposits from different areas of the chamber - piston top, cylinder head, squish, non-squish, end-gas, non-end gas regions. Deposits from various cylinders in a number of dynamometer engines, fleet car engines will be compared. The use of NMR to observe the effects of bench-test engine modifications on CCD structure will be demonstrated. The macromolecular structure of the deposits was studied by {sup 13}C-{sup 13}C spin-exchange experiments which allow one to observe internuclear dipolar interactions between the various carbon functionalities in the deposit. The spatial information on fuel additive - CCD interactions that these experiments provide will be discussed.

Edwards, J.C. [Texaco Research Center, Beacon, NY (United States)

1996-10-01T23:59:59.000Z

380

Electrical optimization of plasma-enhanced chemical vapor deposition chamber cleaning plasmas  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

Fluorinated gas discharges are widely used by the semiconductor industry in etching and chamber cleaning applications but the performance of these discharges varies in unpredictable ways for unknown reasons believed to be electrical in origin. To investigate possible mechanisms for this behavior we have measured the electrical characteristics of NF 3 /Ar CF 4 /O 2 /Ar and C 2 F 6 /O 2 /Ar chamber cleaning plasmas at 6.7267 Pa in a 13.56 MHz capacitively coupled parallel-plate reactor using radio-frequency current and voltage probes and optical emission spectroscopy. From the measurements power losses in the external circuitry surrounding the discharge were determined. Furthermore using the measurements and equivalent circuit models the mechanisms by which power was absorbed within the discharge itself were investigated. Power was absorbed most efficiently at particular values of the discharge impedance. These optimal impedances occur in the middle of a transition from capacitive impedances at low pressures to resistive impedances at high pressures. These results illustrate that the plasma impedance is a useful parameter for monitoring and optimizing plasma processes in highly electronegative gases.

M. A. Sobolewski; J. G. Langan; B. S. Felker

1998-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "kinetics chamber general" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


381

Photoelectron track length distributions measured in a negative ion time projection chamber  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

We report photoelectron track length distributions between 3 and 8 keV in gas mixtures of Ne+CO2+CH3NO2 (260:80:10 Torr) and CO2+CH3NO2 (197.5: 15 Torr). The measurements were made using a negative ion time projection chamber (NITPC) at the National Synchrotron Light Source (NSLS) at the Brookhaven National Laboratory (BNL). We report the first quantitative analysis of photoelectron track length distributions in a gas. The distribution of track lengths at a given energy is best fit by a lognormal distribution. A powerlaw distribution of the form, f(E)=a(E/Eo)n, is found to fit the relationship between mean track length and energy. We find n=1.29 +/- 0.07 for Ne+CO2+CH3NO2 and n=1.20 +/- 0.09 for CO2+CH3NO2. Understanding the distribution of photoelectron track lengths in proportional counter gases is important for optimizing the pixel size and the dimensions of the active region in electron-drift time projection chambers (TPCs) and NITPC X-ray polarimeters.

Prieskorn, Z R; Kaaret, P E; Black, J K

2014-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

382

Design and Construction of Large Size Micromegas Chambers for the ATLAS Upgrade of the Muon Spectrometer  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Large area Micromegas detectors will be employed fo r the first time in high-energy physics experiments. A total surface of about 150 m$^2$ of the forward regions of the Muon Spectrometer of the ATLAS detector at LHC will be equipped with 8-layer Micromegas modules. Each module extends over a surface from 2 to 3 m$^2$ for a total active area of 1200 m$^2$. Together with the small strip Thin Gap Chambers they will compose the two New Small Wheels, which will replace the innermost stations of the ATLAS endcap muon tracking system in the 2018/19 shutdown. In order to achieve a 15% transverse momentum resol ution for 1 TeV muons, in addition to an excellent intrinsic resolution, the mechanical prec ision of each plane of the assembled module must be as good as 30 $\\mu$m along the precision coordi nate and 80 $\\mu$m perpendicular to the chamber. The design and construction procedure of the microm egas modules will be presented, as well as the design for the assembly of modules onto the New Small Wheel. Emphasis wi...

Losel, Philipp Jonathan; The ATLAS collaboration

2014-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

383

Quality assurance of proton beams using a multilayer ionization chamber system  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Purpose: The measurement of percentage depth-dose (PDD) distributions for the quality assurance of clinical proton beams is most commonly performed with a computerized water tank dosimetry system with ionization chamber, commonly referred to as water tank. Although the accuracy and reproducibility of this method is well established, it can be time-consuming if a large number of measurements are required. In this work the authors evaluate the linearity, reproducibility, sensitivity to field size, accuracy, and time-savings of another system: the Zebra, a multilayer ionization chamber system.Methods: The Zebra, consisting of 180 parallel-plate ionization chambers with 2 mm resolution, was used to measure depth-dose distributions. The measurements were performed for scattered and scanned proton pencil beams of multiple energies delivered by the Hitachi PROBEAT synchrotron-based delivery system. For scattered beams, the Zebra-measured depth-dose distributions were compared with those measured with the water tank. The principal descriptors extracted for comparisons were: range, the depth of the distal 90% dose; spread-out Bragg peak (SOBP) length, the region between the proximal 95% and distal 90% dose; and distal-dose fall off (DDF), the region between the distal 80% and 20% dose. For scanned beams, the Zebra-measured ranges were compared with those acquired using a Bragg peak chamber during commissioning.Results: The Zebra demonstrated better than 1% reproducibility and monitor unit linearity. The response of the Zebra was found to be sensitive to radiation field sizes greater than 12.5 12.5 cm; hence, the measurements used to determine accuracy were performed using a field size of 10 10 cm. For the scattered proton beams, PDD distributions showed 1.5% agreement within the SOBP, and 3.8% outside. Range values agreed within ?0.1 0.4 mm, with a maximum deviation of 1.2 mm. SOBP length values agreed within 0 2 mm, with a maximum deviation of 6 mm. DDF values agreed within 0.3 0.1 mm, with a maximum deviation of 0.6 mm. For the scanned proton pencil beams, Zebra and Bragg peak chamber range values demonstrated agreement of 0.0 0.3 mm with a maximum deviation of 1.3 mm. The setup and measurement time for all Zebra measurements was 3 and 20 times less, respectively, compared to the water tank measurements.Conclusions: Our investigation shows that the Zebra can be useful not only for fast but also for accurate measurements of the depth-dose distributions of both scattered and scanned proton beams. The analysis of a large set of measurements shows that the commonly assessed beam quality parameters obtained with the Zebra are within the acceptable variations specified by the manufacturer for our delivery system.

Dhanesar, Sandeep; Sahoo, Narayan; Kerr, Matthew; Taylor, M. Brad; Summers, Paige; Zhu, X. Ronald; Poenisch, Falk; Gillin, Michael [Department of Radiation Physics and Proton Therapy Center, The University of Texas MD Anderson Cancer Center, 1515 Holcombe Boulevard, Unit 94, Houston, Texas 77030 (United States) [Department of Radiation Physics and Proton Therapy Center, The University of Texas MD Anderson Cancer Center, 1515 Holcombe Boulevard, Unit 94, Houston, Texas 77030 (United States); Department of Radiation Physics and Proton Therapy Center, The University of Texas MD Anderson Cancer Center, 1515 Holcombe Boulevard, Unit 94, Houston, Texas 77030 and The University of Texas at Houston Graduate School of Biomedical Sciences, 6767 Bertner Avenue, S3.8344, Houston, Texas 77030 (United States); Department of Radiation Physics and Proton Therapy Center, The University of Texas MD Anderson Cancer Center, 1515 Holcombe Boulevard, Unit 94, Houston, Texas 77030 (United States); Department of Radiation Physics and Proton Therapy Center, The University of Texas MD Anderson Cancer Center, 1515 Holcombe Boulevard, Unit 94, Houston, Texas 77030 and The University of Texas at Houston Graduate School of Biomedical Sciences, 6767 Bertner Avenue, S3.8344, Houston, Texas 77030 (United States)

2013-09-15T23:59:59.000Z

384

Kinetics of muonic helium in muon-catalyzed d-d and d-t fusion  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

An accurate kinetics treatment is applied to the muonic helium atoms formed by a muons sticking to the charged particle produced in muon-catalyzed d-d and d-t fusion. Cross sections for l- and n- changing transitions are included to describe density-dependent stripping and x-ray production. Coupled with recent accurate calculations of the initial sticking, the results are generally in very good agreement with experiments. The noteworthy exception is that the density dependence of the sticking is much weaker than previously observed, in agreement with preliminary results of a new experiment.

James S. Cohen

1987-04-06T23:59:59.000Z

385

Extraction of depth-dependent perturbation factors for parallel-plate chambers in electron beams using a plastic scintillation detector  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Purpose: This work presents the experimental extraction of the overall perturbation factor P{sub Q} in megavoltage electron beams for NACP-02 and Roos parallel-plate ionization chambers using a plastic scintillation detector (PSD). Methods: The authors used a single scanning PSD mounted on a high-precision scanning tank to measure depth-dose curves in 6, 12, and 18 MeV clinical electron beams. The authors also measured depth-dose curves using the NACP-02 and PTW Roos chambers. Results: The authors found that the perturbation factors for the NACP-02 and Roos chambers increased substantially with depth, especially for low-energy electron beams. The experimental results were in good agreement with the results of Monte Carlo simulations reported by other investigators. The authors also found that using an effective point of measurement (EPOM) placed inside the air cavity reduced the variation of perturbation factors with depth and that the optimal EPOM appears to be energy dependent. Conclusions: A PSD can be used to experimentally extract perturbation factors for ionization chambers. The dosimetry protocol recommendations indicating that the point of measurement be placed on the inside face of the front window appear to be incorrect for parallel-plate chambers and result in errors in the R{sub 50} of approximately 0.4 mm at 6 MeV, 1.0 mm at 12 MeV, and 1.2 mm at 18 MeV.

Lacroix, Frederic; Guillot, Mathieu; McEwen, Malcolm; Cojocaru, Claudiu; Gingras, Luc; Beddar, A. Sam; Beaulieu, Luc [Departement de Radio-Oncologie, Centre hospitalier de l'Universite de Montreal (CHUM), 1560 Sherbrooke Est, Montreal, Quebec H2L 4M1 (Canada) and Departement de Physique, Universite de Montreal, Pavillon Roger-Gaudry (D-428), 2900 Boul. Edouard-Montpetit, Montreal, Quebec H3T 1J4 (Canada); Departement de Physique, de Genie Physique et d'Optique, Universite Laval, Quebec, Quebec G1K 7P4 (Canada) and Departement de Radio-Oncologie, Ho circumflex tel-Dieu de Quebec, Centre hospitalier Universitaire de Quebec (CHUQ), Quebec, Quebec G1R 2J6 (Canada); Ionizing Radiation Standards, Institute for National Measurement Standards, National Research Council (NRC), Ottawa, Ontario K1A 0R6 (Canada); Departement de Physique, de Genie Physique et d'Optique, Universite Laval, Quebec, Quebec G1K 7P4 (Canada) and Departement de Radio-Oncologie, Ho circumflex tel-Dieu de Quebec, Centre hospitalier Universitaire de Quebec (CHUQ), Quebec, Quebec G1R 2J6 (Canada); Department of Radiation Physics, Unit 94, University of Texas M. D. Anderson Cancer Center, 1515 Holcombe Boulevard, Houston, Texas 77030 (United States); Departement de Physique, de Genie Physique et d'Optique, Universite Laval, Quebec, Quebec G1K 7P4 (Canada) and Departement de Radio-Oncologie, Hotel-Dieu de Quebec, Centre hospitalier Universitaire de Quebec (CHUQ), Quebec, Quebec G1R 2J6 (Canada)

2010-08-15T23:59:59.000Z

386

Three-dimensional temperature field simulation of magma chamber in the Los Humeros geothermal field, Puebla, Mexico  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

Three-dimensional (3-D) thermal modeling of a magma chamber in the Los Humeros geothermal field of Mexico was carried out for the entire geological history of about 500,000y. Earlier application of 3-D modeling for only about 30,000y of total simulation time with discretization time of 1000y and mesh size of 0.25km, had indicated that the thermal regime is affected more by the depth of magma chamber than its volume. Now using a chamber depth of 5km, chamber volume of 1400km3, shorter discretization time of 10 years, mesh size of 0.25km, convection in the geothermal reservoir, and magma recharge in the chamber, we present our best 3-D thermal model for the Los Humeros geothermal field. Although this model is consistent with the static formation temperature estimates from geothermal wells, ways to improve this model to make it suitable for the estimation of geothermal budget are also pointed out.

Surendra P. Verma; Efran Gmez-Arias

2013-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

387

Theory of spatially non-symmetric kinetic equilibria for collisionless plasmas  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

The problem posed by the possible existence/non-existence of spatially non-symmetric kinetic equilibria has remained unsolved in plasma theory. For collisionless magnetized plasmas, this involves the construction of stationary solutions of the Vlasov-Maxwell equations. In this paper, the issue is addressed for non-relativistic plasmas both in astrophysical and laboratory contexts. The treatment is based on a Lagrangian variational description of single-particle dynamics. Starting point is a non-perturbative formulation of gyrokinetic theory, which allows one to construct 'a posteriori' with prescribed order of accuracy an asymptotic representation for the magnetic moment. In terms of the relevant particle adiabatic invariants generalized bi-Maxwellian equilibria are proved to exist. These are shown to recover, under suitable assumptions, a Chapman-Enskog form which permits an analytical treatment of the corresponding fluid moments. In particular, the constrained posed by the Poisson and the Ampere equations are analyzed, both for quasi-neutral and non-neutral plasmas. The conditions of existence of the corresponding non-symmetric kinetic equilibria are investigated. As a notable feature, both astrophysical and laboratory plasmas are shown to exhibit, under suitable conditions, a kinetic dynamo, whereby the equilibrium magnetic field can be self-generated by the equilibrium plasma currents.

Cremaschini, Claudio [Department of Mathematics and Geosciences, University of Trieste, Via Valerio 12, 34127 Trieste (Italy); Faculty of Philosophy and Science, Institute of Physics, Silesian University in Opava, Bezrucovo nam.13, CZ-74601 Opava (Czech Republic); Tessarotto, Massimo [Department of Mathematics and Geosciences, University of Trieste, Via Valerio 12, 34127 Trieste (Italy)

2013-01-15T23:59:59.000Z

388

Transition from gas to plasma kinetic equilibria in gravitating axisymmetric structures  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

The problem of the transition from gas to plasma in gravitating axisymmetric structures is addressed under the assumption of having initial and final states realized by kinetic Maxwellian-like equilibria. In astrophysics, the theory applies to accretion-disc scenarios around compact objects. A formulation based on non-relativistic kinetic theory for collisionless systems is adopted. Equilibrium solutions for the kinetic distribution functions describing the initial neutral matter and the resulting plasma state are constructed in terms of single-particle invariants and expressed by generalized Maxwellian distributions. The final plasma configuration is related to the initial gas distribution by the introduction of appropriate functional constraints. Qualitative aspects of the solution are investigated and physical properties of the system are pointed out. In particular, the admitted functional dependences of the fluid fields carried by the corresponding equilibrium distributions are determined. Then, the plasma is proved to violate the condition of quasi-neutrality, implying a net charge separation between ions and electrons. This result is shown to be independent of the precise realization of the plasma distribution function, while a physical mechanism able to support a non-neutral equilibrium state is proposed.

Cremaschini, Claudio; Stuchlk, Zden?k [Institute of Physics, Faculty of Philosophy and Science, Silesian University in Opava, Bezru?ovo nm.13, CZ-74601 Opava (Czech Republic)] [Institute of Physics, Faculty of Philosophy and Science, Silesian University in Opava, Bezru?ovo nm.13, CZ-74601 Opava (Czech Republic)

2014-04-15T23:59:59.000Z

389

Office of Inspector General  

Broader source: Energy.gov (indexed) [DOE]

Inspector General Inspector General Office of Audits and Inspections Work Plan for FY 2013 Audits Central Audits Division  Ecotality  Funding Overlap  Follow-up on Smart Grid Investment Grant  DOE's Loan Program Office's Portfolio Management  Office of Fossil Energy's Regional Carbon Sequestration Partnerships  Advanced Manufacturing Office's Combined Heat and Power Systems  DOE's Management of Contaminated Non-EM Facilities  Unneeded Real Estate  Review of For-Profit Grantees for selected DOE programs  Commercialization Efforts at National Laboratories  Research Misconduct at Office of Science  Public Dissemination of Research Results  BPA's Management of Borrowing Authority Construction  Controls Over PMA's Use of Hedging Instruments

390

EMSL: News: General Stories  

Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

General News General News Battery development may extend range of electric cars Battery development may extend range of electric cars New anode quadruples life of lithium-sulfur battery, could also help store renewable energy more cheaply Released: January 09, 2014 Scientists used EMSL capabilities and expertise to help develop and test a new anode design for lithium-sulfur batteries. The "hybrid" anode significantly extends the life of lithium-sulfur batteries, bringing them closer to commercial use. Read the PNNL news release. Batteries as they are meant to be seen Batteries as they are meant to be seen The search for long-lasting, inexpensive rechargeable batteries Released: December 27, 2013 Researchers working at EMSL study how a battery works under wet conditions

391

Extremal generalized quantum measurements  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

A measurement on a section K of the set of states of a finite dimensional C*-algebra is defined as an affine map from K to a probability simplex. Special cases of such sections are used in description of quantum networks, in particular quantum channels. Measurements on a section correspond to equivalence classes of so-called generalized POVMs, which are called quantum testers in the case of networks. We find extremality conditions for measurements on K and characterize generalized POVMs such that the corresponding measurement is extremal. These results are applied to the set of channels. We find explicit extremality conditions for two outcome measurements on qubit channels and give an example of an extremal qubit 1-tester such that the corresponding measurement is not extremal.

Anna Jencova

2012-07-23T23:59:59.000Z

392

Generalized qudit Choi maps  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Following the linear programming prescription of Ref. \\cite{PRA72}, the $d\\otimes d$ Bell diagonal entanglement witnesses are provided. By using Jamiolkowski isomorphism, it is shown that the corresponding positive maps are the generalized qudit Choi maps. Also by manipulating particular $d\\otimes d$ Bell diagonal separable states and constructing corresponding bound entangled states, it is shown that thus obtained $d\\otimes d$ BDEW's (consequently qudit Choi maps) are non-decomposable in certain range of their parameters.

M. A. Jafarizadeh; M. Rezaeen; S. Ahadpour

2006-07-24T23:59:59.000Z

393

A Generalized Deletion Machine  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

In this work we prescribe a more generalized quantum-deleting machine (input state dependent). The fidelity of deletion is dependent on some machine parameters such that on alteration of machine parameters we get back to standard deleting machines. We also carried out a various comparative study of various kinds of quantum deleting machines. We also plotted graphs, making a comparative study of fidelity of deletion of the deletion machines, obtained as particular cases on changing the machine parameters of our machine.

Indranil Chakrabarty; Satyabrata Adhikari

2005-11-22T23:59:59.000Z

394

Kinetic Energy Systems | Open Energy Information  

Open Energy Info (EERE)

Systems Systems Jump to: navigation, search Name Kinetic Energy Systems Place Ocala, Florida Zip 34476 Sector Hydro Product Designs and develops tidal generators. Has notably patented the KESC Tidal Generator which is based on free flow hydrodynamics. Coordinates 29.187525°, -82.140394° Loading map... {"minzoom":false,"mappingservice":"googlemaps3","type":"ROADMAP","zoom":14,"types":["ROADMAP","SATELLITE","HYBRID","TERRAIN"],"geoservice":"google","maxzoom":false,"width":"600px","height":"350px","centre":false,"title":"","label":"","icon":"","visitedicon":"","lines":[],"polygons":[],"circles":[],"rectangles":[],"copycoords":false,"static":false,"wmsoverlay":"","layers":[],"controls":["pan","zoom","type","scale","streetview"],"zoomstyle":"DEFAULT","typestyle":"DEFAULT","autoinfowindows":false,"kml":[],"gkml":[],"fusiontables":[],"resizable":false,"tilt":0,"kmlrezoom":false,"poi":true,"imageoverlays":[],"markercluster":false,"searchmarkers":"","locations":[{"text":"","title":"","link":null,"lat":29.187525,"lon":-82.140394,"alt":0,"address":"","icon":"","group":"","inlineLabel":"","visitedicon":""}]}

395

Kinetics of wet sodium vapor complex plasma  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

In this paper, we have investigated the kinetics of wet (partially condensed) Sodium vapor, which comprises of electrons, ions, neutral atoms, and Sodium droplets (i) in thermal equilibrium and (ii) when irradiated by light. The formulation includes the balance of charge over the droplets, number balance of the plasma constituents, and energy balance of the electrons. In order to evaluate the droplet charge, a phenomenon for de-charging of the droplets, viz., evaporation of positive Sodium ions from the surface has been considered in addition to electron emission and electron/ion accretion. The analysis has been utilized to evaluate the steady state parameters of such complex plasmas (i) in thermal equilibrium and (ii) when irradiated; the results have been graphically illustrated. As a significant outcome irradiated, Sodium droplets are seen to acquire large positive potential, with consequent enhancement in the electron density.

Mishra, S. K., E-mail: nishfeb@rediffmail.com [Institute for Plasma Research (IPR), Gandhinagar 382428 (India); Sodha, M. S. [Centre of Energy Studies, Indian Institute of Technology Delhi (IITD), New Delhi 110016 (India)] [Centre of Energy Studies, Indian Institute of Technology Delhi (IITD), New Delhi 110016 (India)

2014-04-15T23:59:59.000Z

396

MEANKINETIC ENERGY,EDDY ENERGY,AND KINETIC ENERGYEXCHANGEBETWEENFLUCTUATIONSAND MEAN  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

MEANKINETIC ENERGY,EDDY ENERGY,AND KINETIC ENERGYEXCHANGEBETWEENFLUCTUATIONSAND MEAN FLOWWITHIN by cornputing three quantities suggested by the theory of turbulence: the nean kinetic energy, the eddy energy, and the energy exchange between the nean and fluctuating portions of the flow field (ca11ed dE/dt). Contours

Luther, Douglas S.

397

Kinetics and Modeling of Reductive Dechlorination at High PCE  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Kinetics and Modeling of Reductive Dechlorination at High PCE and TCE Concentrations Seungho Yu for anaerobic reductive dechlorination of tetrachloroethylene (PCE) and trichloroethylene (TCE) were developed. The models were compared with results from batch kinetic tests conducted over a wide range of PCE and TCE

Semprini, Lewis

398

Drift-/ Kinetic Alfven Eigenmodes in High Performance Tokamak Plasmas  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Stockholm, Sweden 2) Plasma Science Fusion Centre, MIT, Cambridge MA 02139, USA 3) CRPP-EPFL, 1015 Lausanne to the kinetic Alfv´en wave. This stimulated the development of models such as continuum damping, complex-kinetic description for the bulk plasma. Such a model is required to calculate the power transfer between global fluid

Jaun, André

399

Kinetics of coal pyrolysis and devolatilization  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

An experimentally based, conceptual model of the devolatilization of a HV bituminous coal is outlined in this report. This model contends that the relative dominance of a process type-chemical kinetic, heat transport, mass transport -- varies with the extent of reaction for a given set of heating conditions and coal type and with experimental conditions for a given coal type and extent of reaction. The rate of devolatilization mass loss process is dominated initially by heat transfer processes, then coupled mass transfer and chemical kinetics, and finally by chemical processes alone. However, the chemical composition of the initial tars are determined primarily by the chemical characteristics of the parent coal. Chemically controlled gas phase reactions of the initial tars and coupled mass transfer and chemically controlled reactions of heavy tars determine the bulk of the light gas yields. For a HV bituminous coal this conceptual model serves to quantify the Two-Component Hypothesis'' of volatiles evolution. The model postulates that the overall rates of coal devolatilization should vary with coal type insofar as the characteristics of the parent coal determine the potential tar yield and the chemical characteristics of the initial tars. Experimental evidence indicates chemical characteristics and yields of primary'' tars vary significantly with coal type. Consequently, the conceptual model would indicate a shift from transport to chemical dominance of rate processes with variation in coal type. Using the conceptual model, United Technologies Research Center has been able to correlate initial mass loss with a heat transfer index for a wide range of conditions for high tar yielding coals. 33 refs., 30 figs., 6 tabs.

Not Available

1987-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

400

General Motors | Open Energy Information  

Open Energy Info (EERE)

General Motors Place: Detroit, MI Website: http:www.generalmotors.com References: General Motors1 Information About Partnership with NREL Partnership with NREL Yes Partnership...

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "kinetics chamber general" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
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to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


401

Generalized Adaptive A* Xiaoxun Sun  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Generalized Adaptive A* Xiaoxun Sun USC Computer Science Los Angeles, California xiaoxuns spaces changes. Adaptive A* [7] is a Cite as: Generalized Adaptive A*, Xiaoxun Sun, Sven Koenig

Yeoh, William

402

Generalized utility metrics for supercomputers  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

2007:112 Generalized utility metrics for supercomputers 12.ISSUE PAPER Generalized utility metrics for supercomputersproblem of ranking the utility of supercom- puter systems

Strohmaier, Erich

2009-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

403

Fully kinetic simulations of megajoule-scale dense plasma focus  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

Dense plasma focus (DPF) Z-pinch devices are sources of copious high energy electrons and ions x-rays and neutrons. Megajoule-scale DPFs can generate 1012 neutrons per pulse in deuterium gas through a combination of thermonuclear and beam-target fusion. However the details of the neutron production are not fully understood and past optimization efforts of these devices have been largely empirical. Previously we reported on the first fully kinetic simulations of a kilojoule-scale DPF and demonstrated that both kinetic ions and kinetic electrons are needed to reproduce experimentally observed features such as charged-particle beam formation and anomalous resistivity. Here we present the first fully kinetic simulation of a MegaJoule DPF with predicted ion and neutron spectra neutron anisotropy neutron spot size and time history of neutron production. The total yield predicted by the simulation is in agreement with measured values validating the kinetic model in a second energy regime.

M. May

2014-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

404

Kinetics of phase transitions in weakly segregated block copolymers: Pseudostable and transient states  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

We study the kinetics of order-disorder and order-order transitions in weakly segregated diblock copolymers using a time-dependent Ginzburg-Landau (TDGL) approach. In particular, we investigate the microstructural change as well as the order-parameter evolution after a sudden temperature jump from one phase to another. Direct numerical simulation of the TDGL equations shows that depending on the extent of the temperature jump, these transitions often occur in several stages and can involve nontrivial intermediate states. For example, we find that transition from the lamellar phase to the hexagonal cylinder phase goes through a perforated lamellar state within a certain temperature range. The numerical results are elucidated by a multimode analysis under the single-wave-number approximation. The analysis reveals that the geometric characteristics of the free energy surface, particularly saddle points and ridgelike features, are responsible for the nontrivial intermediate states on the kinetic pathways. On the basis of this analysis, a generalized kinetic ``phase diagram'' is constructed, which is able to account for all the different scenarios observed in the numerical simulation. Our results are discussed in connection with available experimental observations. In particular, we suggest the possibility that the perforated-modulated lamellar structures obtained by Bates and co-workers [I. W. Hamley, K. A. Koppi, J. H. Rosedale, F. S. Bates, K. Almdal, and K. Mortensen, Macromolecules 26, 5959 (1993); S. Frster, A. K. Khandpur, J. Zhao, F. S. Bates, I. W. Hamley, A. J. Ryan, and W. Bras, Macromolecules 27, 6922 (1994)] may be kinetic, intermediate states rather than new equilibrium phases.

Shuyan Qi and Zhen-Gang Wang

1997-02-01T23:59:59.000Z

405

A chemical kinetic model of hydrocarbon generation from the Bakken Formation, Williston Basin, North Dakota  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

This report describes a model of hydrocarbon generation and expulsion in the North Dakota portion of the Williston Basin. The modeling incorporates kinetic methods to simulate chemical reactions and 1-dimensional conductive heat flow models to simulate thermal histories of the Mississippian-Devonian Bakken Formation source rock. We developed thermal histories of the source rock for 53 wells in the basin using stratigraphic and heat flow data obtained by the University of North Dakota. Chemical kinetics for hydrocarbon generation, determined from Pyromat pyrolysis, were, then used with the diennal histories to calculate the present day value of the Rock-Eval T{sub max} for each well. The calculated Rock-Eval T{sub max} values agreed with measured values within amounts attributable to uncertainties in the chemical kinetics and the heat flow. These optimized thermal histories were then used with a more detailed chemical kinetic model of hydrocarbon generation and expulsion, modified from a model developed for the Cretaceous La Luna shale, to simulate pore pressure development and detailed aspects of the hydrocarbon chemistry. When compared to values estimated from sonic logs, the pore pressure calculation underestimates the role of hydrocarbon generation and overestimates the role of compaction disequilibrium, but it matches well the general areal extent of pore pressures of 0.7 times lithostatic and higher. The simulated chemistry agrees very well with measured values of HI, PI, H/C atomic ratio of the kerogen, and Rock-Eval S1. The model is not as successful in simulating the amount of extracted bitumen and its saturate content, suggesting that detailed hydrous pyrolysis experiments will probably be needed to further refine the chemical model.

Sweeney, J.J.; Braun, R.L.; Burnham, A.K. [Lawrence Livermore National Lab., CA (United States); Gosnold, W.D. [North Dakota Univ., Grand Forks, ND (United States)

1992-10-01T23:59:59.000Z

406

PHYSICAL REVIEW B 86, 245427 (2012) Strong anisotropy in surface kinetic roughening: Analysis and experiments  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

PHYSICAL REVIEW B 86, 245427 (2012) Strong anisotropy in surface kinetic roughening: Analysis; published 26 December 2012) We report an experimental assessment of surface kinetic roughening properties systems whose kinetic roughening is strongly anisotropic, as consistently described by this scaling

Cuerno, Rodolfo

407

Kinetics of the 5-Hydroxymethylfurfural Formation Reaction in Chinese Rice Wine  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

Kinetics of the 5-Hydroxymethylfurfural Formation Reaction in Chinese Rice Wine ... The kinetics of 5-hydroxymethylfurfural (HMF) formation in Chinese rice wine was investigated under different treatment conditions. ... Chinese rice wine; 5-hydroxymethylfurfural (HMF); kinetics ...

Lei Chen; Huahong Huang; Wenbao Liu; Ning Peng; Xuesong Huang

2010-02-18T23:59:59.000Z

408

U.S. Chamber of Commerce's 4th Annual North America Forum | Department of  

Broader source: Energy.gov (indexed) [DOE]

Commerce's 4th Annual North America Forum Commerce's 4th Annual North America Forum U.S. Chamber of Commerce's 4th Annual North America Forum June 16, 2008 - 1:30pm Addthis Remarks As Prepared for Delivery for Secretary Bodman Thank you very much, Ron, for that kind introduction and for the critically important work that you and your colleagues do at Lawrence Livermore. I also want to thank my good friend Secretary George Shultz - along with his esteemed co-chairs for this event, Peter Lougheed and Pedro Aspe, for inviting me to be with you. It's a pleasure to be here. The way I see it, this event could not come at a better time. With its focus on enhancing cooperation among the United States, Canada and Mexico - and on bringing together representatives of our governments and the private sector - you are helping to develop and achieve real and lasting solutions

409

Performance of a Chamber for Studying the Liquid Xenon Response to Nuclear Recoils  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

The design and performance of a 1.2 liter liquid xenon chamber equipped with 7 two-inch photomultiplier tubes, with the purpose of studying the scintillation response of xenon to gamma-rays and neutrons, is described. Measurements with gamma-rays indicate a high VUV light collection efficiency resulting in ~5.5 photoelectrons per 1 keV of deposited energy. The energy resolution (FWHM) is 18% and 22%, for 122 keV and 511 keV gamma-rays, respectively. An algorithm for the reconstruction of the scintillation coordinates in (x,y) plane was developed and tested. The position resolution is estimated to be 6.9 mm (sigma) for 122 keV gamma-rays.

V. Chepel; F. Neves; V. Solovov; A. Pereira; M. I. Lopes; J. Pinto da Cunha; P. Mendes; A. Lindote; C. P. Silva; R. Ferreira Marques; A. J. P. L. Policarpo

2005-01-07T23:59:59.000Z

410

Environmental chamber measurements of mercury flux from coal utilization by-products  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

An environmental chamber was constructed to measure the mercury flux from coal utilization by-product (CUB) samples. Samples of fly ash, FGD gypsum, and wallboard made from FGD gypsum were tested under both dark and illuminated conditions with or without the addition of water to the sample. Mercury releases varied widely, with 7-day experiment averages ranging from -6.8 to 73 ng/m2 h for the fly ash samples and -5.2 to 335 ng/m2 h for the FGD/wallboard samples. Initial mercury content, fly ash type, and light exposure had no observable consistent effects on the mercury flux. For the fly ash samples, the effect of a mercury control technology was to decrease the emission. For three of the four pairs of FGD gypsum and wallboard samples, the wallboard sample released less (or absorbed more) mercury than the gypsum.

Pekney, N.J.; Martello, D.V.; Schroeder, K.T.; Granite, E.J.

2009-05-01T23:59:59.000Z

411

Performance of a Large Area Avalanche Photodiode in a Liquid Xenon Ionization and Scintillation Chamber  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Scintillation light produced in liquid xenon (LXe) by alpha particles, electrons and gamma-rays was detected with a large area avalanche photodiode (LAAPD) immersed in the liquid. The alpha scintillation yield was measured as a function of applied electric field. We estimate the quantum efficiency of the LAAPD to be 45%. The best energy resolution from the light measurement at zero electric field is 7.5%(sigma) for 976 keV internal conversion electrons from Bi-207 and 2.6%(sigma) for 5.5 MeV alpha particles from Am-241. The detector used for these measurements was also operated as a gridded ionization chamber to measure the charge yield. We confirm that using a LAAPD in LXe does not introduce impurities which inhibit the drifting of free electrons.

K. Ni; E. Aprile; D. Day; K. L. Giboni; J. A. M. Lopes; P. Majewski; M. Yamashita

2005-02-14T23:59:59.000Z

412

Design, Fabrication, and Application of a Dynamic Chamber for Measuring Gas Emissions from Soil  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

Accurate measurement of the emission of trace gases and VOCs from soils to the atmosphere is essential for studying the behavior of gas movement and its fate in the subsurface, for evaluating existing theories and models of trace gas and VOC emissions, for estimating masses of trace gases and VOCs emitted into the atmosphere, and thus, for assessing the effects of such emissions upon the environment. ... (6) The outside surface of the chamber should be able to reflect solar radiation so that the radiant heating or the greenhouse effect can be effectively reduced. ... This flow rate was monitored every 1 s using a turbine-wheel gas flow sensor (McMillan Co., Georgetown, TX), averaged over a 5-min interval and recorded by an on-site computer. ...

Fang Gao; S. R. Yates; M. V. Yates; Jianying Gan; F. F. Ernst

1996-12-30T23:59:59.000Z

413

Microbial Community Analysis of a Single Chamber Microbial Fuel Cell Using Potato Wastewater  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Microbial fuel cells (MFCs) convert chemical energy to electrical energy via bioelectrochemical reactions mediated by microorganisms. We investigated the diversity of the microbial community in an air cathode single chamber MFC that utilized potato-process wastewater as substrate. Terminal Restriction Fragment Length Polymorphism (T-RFLP) results indicated that the bacterial communities on the anode, cathode, control electrode, and MFC bulk fluid were similar, but differed dramatically from that of the anaerobic domestic sludge and potato wastewater inoculum. The 16S rDNA sequencing results showed that microbial species detected on the anode were predominantly within the phyla of Proteobacteria, Firmicutes, and Bacteroidetes. Fluorescent microscopy results indicated that there was a clear enhancement of biofilm formation on the anode. Results of this study could help improve understanding of the complexity of microbial communities and optimize the microbial composition for generating electricity by MFCs that utilize potato wastewater.

Zhen Li; Rishika Haynes; Eugene Sato; Malcolm Shields; Yoshiko Fujita; Chikashi Sato

2014-04-01T23:59:59.000Z

414

Proposal for the award of a blanket purchase contract, without competitive tendering, for the supply of pressurised ionisation chambers for radiation monitoring  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Proposal for the award of a blanket purchase contract, without competitive tendering, for the supply of pressurised ionisation chambers for radiation monitoring

2013-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

415

Usiing NovoCOS cleaning equipment in repairing the furnace-chamber lining in coke batteries 4 & 5 at OAO Koks  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Experience with a new surface-preparation technology for the ceramic resurfacing of the refractory furnace-chamber lining in coke batteries is described.

S.G. Protasov; R. Linden; A. Gross [OAO Koks, Kemerovo (Russian Federation)

2009-05-15T23:59:59.000Z

416

A sonic spark chamber system with on-line computation for studying the reaction $\\pi^{-} + p -> f^{0} + n$ at 3 GeV/c  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

A sonic spark chamber system with on-line computation for studying the reaction $\\pi^{-} + p -> f^{0} + n$ at 3 GeV/c

Bird, L; West, D; Whitehead, G; Wood, E; Crabb, D G; Hutchinson, G W; McEwen, J G; Ott, R; Aitken, D; Hague, J; Jennings, R; Parsons, A J; Auld, E G

1964-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

417

Posterior chamber phakic intraocular lens to correct myopia: Long-term follow-up  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

Purpose To evaluate the long-term safety and efficacy of a refractive phakic intraocular lens (pIOL) (PRL) to correct moderate to high myopia. Setting Department of Ophthalmology, University Medicine Charit Berlin, Berlin, Germany. Design Retrospective cohort study. Methods Uncorrected (UDVA) and corrected (CDVA) distance visual acuities, refraction, intraocular pressure, endothelial cell loss, and adverse events were evaluated. Results The study enrolled 53 eyes (mean spherical equivalent [SE] ?12.17 diopters [D] 4.12 [SD]) of 29 patients. The mean age was 34.6 9.2 years and the mean follow-up, 86 21.2 months. The mean UDVA improved from 1.37 0.28 logMAR preoperatively to 0.14 0.19 logMAR at the last postoperative visit (P<.05). The mean CDVA improved from 0.10 0.18 logMAR to ?0.01 0.09 logMAR (P<.05). The overall mean efficacy index and mean safety index were 0.9 and 1.21, respectively, at the last follow-up visit. The mean endothelial cell loss at the last follow-up was 6.4%. The complications were slight posterior chamber (PC) pIOL decentration (5 eyes, 9.4%), severe PC pIOL decentration resulting in pIOL removal (1 eye, 1.8%), glaucoma (4 eyes, 7.5%), clinically significant cortical lens opacification resulting in cataract surgery (4 eyes, 7.5%), clinically asymptomatic anterior subcapsular cataract formation (6 eyes, 11.3%), and retinal detachment (2 eyes, 3.8%). Conclusions Posterior chamber phakic pIOL implantation to correct moderate to high myopia provided predictable and stable refractive results but with a high rate of serious complications over the long term. Financial Disclosure No author has a financial or proprietary interest in any material or method mentioned.

Necip Torun; Eckart Bertelmann; Matthias K.J. Klamann; Anna-Karina Maier; Anja Liekfeld; Johannes Gonnermann

2013-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

418

KadanoffBaym equations and non-Markovian Boltzmann equation in generalized T-matrix approximation  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

A recently developed method [Semkat et al. Phys. Rev. E 59 1557 (1999); Kremp et al. in Progress in Nonequilibrium Greens Functions (World Scientific Singapore 2000) p. 34] for incorporating initial binary correlations into the KadanoffBaym equations (KBE) is used to derive a generalized T-matrix approximation for the self-energies. It is shown that the T-matrix obtains additional contributions arising from initial correlations. Using these results and taking the time-diagonal limit of the KBE a generalized quantum kinetic equation in binary collision approximation is derived. This equation is a far-reaching generalization of Boltzmann-type kinetic equations: It self-consistently includes memory effects (retardation off-shell T-matrices) as well as many-particle effects (damping in-medium T-matrices) and spin-statistics effects (Pauli-blocking).

D. Semkat; D. Kremp; M. Bonitz

2000-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

419

HIGH PRESSURE COAL COMBUSTON KINETICS PROJECT  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

As part of the U.S. Department of Energy (DoE) initiative to improve the efficiency of coal-fired power plants and reduce the pollution generated by these facilities, DOE has funded the High-Pressure Coal Combustion Kinetics (HPCCK) Projects. A series of laboratory experiments were conducted on selected pulverized coals at elevated pressures with the specific goals to provide new data for pressurized coal combustion that will help extend to high pressure and validate models for burnout, pollutant formation, and generate samples of solid combustion products for analyses to fill crucial gaps in knowledge of char morphology and fly ash formation. Two series of high-pressure coal combustion experiments were performed using SRI's pressurized radiant coal flow reactor. The first series of tests characterized the near burner flame zone (NBFZ). Three coals were tested, two high volatile bituminous (Pittsburgh No.8 and Illinois No.6), and one sub-bituminous (Powder River Basin), at pressures of 1, 2, and 3 MPa (10, 20, and 30 atm). The second series of experiments, which covered high-pressure burnout (HPBO) conditions, utilized a range of substantially longer combustion residence times to produce char burnout levels from 50% to 100%. The same three coals were tested at 1, 2, and 3 MPa, as well as at 0.2 MPa. Tests were also conducted on Pittsburgh No.8 coal in CO2 entrainment gas at 0.2, 1, and 2 MPa to begin establishing a database of experiments relevant to carbon sequestration techniques. The HPBO test series included use of an impactor-type particle sampler to measure the particle size distribution of fly ash produced under complete burnout conditions. The collected data have been interpreted with the help of CFD and detailed kinetics simulation to extend and validate devolatilization, char combustion and pollutant model at elevated pressure. A global NOX production sub-model has been proposed. The submodel reproduces the performance of the detailed chemical reaction mechanism for the NBFZ tests.

Stefano Orsino

2005-03-30T23:59:59.000Z

420

Corrections to kinetic measurements taken on a disk electrode  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Below the limiting current, the rotating disk electrode has a nonuniform current distribution. When the nonuniformities are not explicitly accounted for, errors in values of kinetic parameters determined through measurements on a disk can result. In this analysis, valid for Tafel kinetics, correction factors are obtained as a function of the dimensionless average current density.It is assumed that ohmic corrections are made by the interruption of current. The results indicate that, under certain conditions, the errors are negligible and that the disk geometry, despite its nonuniformities, is adequate for the investigation of systems characterized by Tafel kinetics.

West, A.C.; Newman, J.

1989-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "kinetics chamber general" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


421

Chemical kinetic modeling of component mixtures relevant to gasoline  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Detailed kinetic models of pyrolysis and combustion of hydrocarbon fuels are nowadays widely used in the design of internal combustion engines and these models are effectively applied to help meet the increasingly stringent environmental and energetic standards. In previous studies by the combustion community, such models not only contributed to the understanding of pure component combustion, but also provided a deeper insight into the combustion behavior of complex mixtures. One of the major challenges in this field is now the definition and the development of appropriate surrogate models able to mimic the actual features of real fuels. Real fuels are complex mixtures of thousands of hydrocarbon compounds including linear and branched paraffins, naphthenes, olefins and aromatics. Their behavior can be effectively reproduced by simpler fuel surrogates containing a limited number of components. Aside the most commonly used surrogates containing iso-octane and n-heptane only, the so called Primary Reference Fuels (PRF), new mixtures have recently been suggested to extend the reference components in surrogate mixtures to also include alkenes and aromatics. It is generally agreed that, including representative species for all the main classes of hydrocarbons which can be found in real fuels, it is possible to reproduce very effectively in a wide range of operating conditions not just the auto-ignition propensity of gasoline or Diesel fuels, but also their physical properties and their combustion residuals [1]. In this work, the combustion behavior of several components relevant to gasoline surrogate formulation is computationally examined. The attention is focused on the autoignition of iso-octane, hexene and their mixtures. Some important issues relevant to the experimental and modeling investigation of such fuels are discussed with the help of rapid compression machine data and calculations. Following the model validation, the behavior of mixtures is discussed on the basis of computational results.

Mehl, M; Curran, H J; Pitz, W J; Dooley, S; Westbrook, C K

2008-05-29T23:59:59.000Z

422

ROLES OF THE KINETIC AND DYNAMIC MECHANISMS IN THE L{sub p} -E{sub p} RELATION  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

The L{sub p} -E{sub p} relation is a well-known relation in gamma-ray bursts (GRBs). Its implication remains unclear. We propose to investigate the underlying mechanisms of this relation by considering the corresponding kinetic and dynamic mechanisms separately. In this way, one can tell how much the kinetic or dynamic mechanism contributes to the index of the relationship. Our analysis gives rise to several conclusions. (1) The index of the kinetic effect in the L{sub p} -E{sub p} relation can simply be derived from the theory of special relativity, which is generally larger than 2, depending on the situation concerned. (2) The index of the dynamic effect in the relation can be deduced from observation once a model of jets is adopted. According to current GRB data, we find that the dynamic effect alone tends to give rise to an anti-correlation between L{sub p} and E{sub p} ; in terms of statistics, the dynamic effect is obviously smaller than the kinetic effect; in the situation of jets with moving discrete radio clouds that move directly toward the observer, the index of the dynamic effect is currently constrained within (- 1.6, -1), while in other situations of jets, the constraints are different; both internal and external shocks can account for the current data.

Qin, Yi-Ping; Chen, Zhi-Fu, E-mail: ypqin@gzhu.edu.cn [Center for Astrophysics, Guangzhou University, Guangzhou 510006 (China)] [Center for Astrophysics, Guangzhou University, Guangzhou 510006 (China)

2013-04-10T23:59:59.000Z

423

Revealing the surface and bulk regimes of isothermal graphene growth on Ni with in situ kinetic measurements and modeling  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

In situ optical diagnostics are used to reveal the isothermal nucleation and growth mechanisms of graphene on Ni across a wide temperature range (560 C < T < 840 C) by chemical vapor deposition from single, sub-second pulses of acetylene. An abrupt, two-orders of magnitude change in growth times (~ 100s to 1s) is revealed at T = 680 C. Below and above this temperature, similar sigmoidal kinetics are measured and attributed to autocatalytic growth reactions but by two different mechanisms, surface assembly and dissolution/precipitation, respectively. These data are used to develop a simple and general kinetic model for graphene growth that includes the nucleation phase and includes the effects of carbon solubility in metals, describes delayed nucleation, and allows the interpretation of the competition between surface and bulk growth modes. The sharp transition in growth kinetics at T = 680 C is explained by a change in defect site density required for nucleation due to a transition in the carbon-induced mobility of the Ni surface. The easily-implemented optical reflectivity diagnostics and the simple kinetic model described here allow a pathway to optimize the growth of graphene on metals with arbitrary carbon solubility.

Puretzky, Alexander A [ORNL; Merkulov, Igor A [ORNL; Rouleau, Christopher M [ORNL; Eres, Gyula [ORNL; Geohegan, David B [ORNL

2014-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

424

General Employee Radiological Training  

Broader source: Energy.gov (indexed) [DOE]

DOE HANDBOOK GENERAL EMPLOYEE RADIOLOGICAL TRAINING U.S. Department of Energy AREA TRNG Washington, D.C. 20585 DISTRIBUTION STATEMENT A. Approved for public release; distribution is unlimited. Not Measurement Sensitive This document is available on the Department of Energy Technical Standards Program Web Site at http://www.hss.energy.gov/nuclearsafety/techstds/ DOE-HDBK-1131-2007 iii Foreword This Handbook describes an implementation process for core training as recommended in chapter 14, Radiation Safety Training, of Implementation Guide G44.1B, Radiation Protection Programs Guide, and as outlined in the DOE Radiological Control Standard [RCS - DOE-STD-1098-99, Ch. 1]. The Handbook is meant to assist those individuals

425

Teacher and General Resources  

Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

Argonne Argonne Science Project Ideas! Our Teacher and General Resources section provides you with online aids for learning about science, such as a tutorial of science equipment, as well as guides for the metric system. Please select any item below that interests you. Also, if you have an idea for a great teacher resource that we could share, please click our Ideas page. We would love to hear from you! Science Equipment Resources: Online Basic Laboratory Equipment Information An Introduction to Basic Laboratory Equipment All students need to know and understand the function of the equipment that they will be using in the science classroom. This exercise is to help students know a beaker from a bunsen burner! TSwift MB 3200 Microscope Online Tutorial Online Microscope Tutorial

426

Ocean General Circulation Models  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

1. Definition of Subject The purpose of this text is to provide an introduction to aspects of oceanic general circulation models (OGCMs), an important component of Climate System or Earth System Model (ESM). The role of the ocean in ESMs is described in Chapter XX (EDITOR: PLEASE FIND THE COUPLED CLIMATE or EARTH SYSTEM MODELING CHAPTERS). The emerging need for understanding the Earths climate system and especially projecting its future evolution has encouraged scientists to explore the dynamical, physical, and biogeochemical processes in the ocean. Understanding the role of these processes in the climate system is an interesting and challenging scientific subject. For example, a research question how much extra heat or CO2 generated by anthropogenic activities can be stored in the deep ocean is not only scientifically interesting but also important in projecting future climate of the earth. Thus, OGCMs have been developed and applied to investigate the various oceanic processes and their role in the climate system.

Yoon, Jin-Ho; Ma, Po-Lun

2012-09-30T23:59:59.000Z

427

United States Attorney General  

Broader source: Energy.gov (indexed) [DOE]

93, 5 U.S. Op. Off. Legal Counsel 1, 1981 WL 30865 (U.S.A.G.) 93, 5 U.S. Op. Off. Legal Counsel 1, 1981 WL 30865 (U.S.A.G.) United States Attorney General ***1 *293 January 16, 1981 **1 The President The White House Washington, D.C. 20500 MY DEAR MR. PRESIDENT: You have asked my opinion concerning the scope of currently existing legal and constitutional authorities for the continuance of government functions during a temporary lapse in appropriations, such as the Government sustained on October 1, 1980. As you know, some initial determination concerning the extent of these authorities had to be made in the waning hours of the last fiscal year in order to avoid extreme administrative confusion that might have arisen from Congress' failure timely to enact 11 of the 13 anticipated regular appropriations bills, FN;B1[FN1]FN;F1 or a

428

Kinetic modelling of krypton fluoride laser systems  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

A kinetic model has been developed for the KrF* rare gas halide laser system, specifically for electron-beam pumped mixtures of krypton, fluorine, and either helium or argon. The excitation produced in the laser gas by the e-beam was calculated numerically using an algorithm checked by comparing the predicted ionization yields in the pure rare gases with their experimental values. The excitation of the laser media by multi-kilovolt x-rays was also modeled and shown to be similar to that produced by high energy electrons. A system of equations describing the transfer of the initial gas excitation into the laser upper level was assembled using reaction rate constants from both experiment and theory. A one-dimensional treatment of the interaction of the laser radiation with the gas was formulated which considered spontaneous and stimulated emission and absorption. The predictions of this model were in good agreement with the fluorescence signals and gain and absorption measured experimentally.

Jancaitis, K.S.

1983-11-01T23:59:59.000Z

429

Kinetics of methanation on nickel catalysts  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Extensive steady-state and transient measurements of the disproportionation of carbon monoxide, the hydrogenation of deposited carbon, and methanation of carbon monoxide were performed over 2 and 10% nickel on silica support. The results indicated that the methanation of carbon monoxide involves competitively adsorbed species; that the reaction is nearly zero order in carbon monoxide at 0.1-0.5 atm CO and 1 atm H/sub 2/, but negative at higher CO partial pressures and that it becomes less negative with increasing temperature or increasing hydrogen pressure; and that the reaction order with respect to hydrogen changes from 0.5 to 1.0 with increasing CO pressure and decreasing H/sub 2/ pressure. A reaction mechanism is proposed which consists of the molecular adsorption of CO, the dissociative adsorption of H/sub 2/, dissociation of the surface CO species, and reaction of two adsorbed hydrogen atoms with the oxygen; and a multistep hydrogenation and desorption process for the adsorbed carbon. The dissociation and reaction of adsorbed CO is probably the rate-limiting step. The kinetic behavior is best represented with the assumption of a heterogeneous catalyst surface, containing three types of sites of widely varying activity.

Ho, S.V.; Harriott, P.

1980-08-01T23:59:59.000Z

430

Femtosecond kinetics of photoexcited carriers in germanium  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

Thermalization, intervalley scattering, and cooling of photoexcited carriers are observed in the indirect-band-gap semiconductor Ge through time-resolved direct-band-gap transmission and luminescence with 100-fs resolution. The transmission experiment, which uses ?=1.53 ?m, 120-fs pulses from a 76-MHz optical parametric oscillator takes advantage of the indirect-band-gap character of Ge to unambiguously determine the ??L intervalley scattering time at 295 K. The measured ??L transfer time for electrons at the ? valley edge is 23025 fs yielding 4.20.2108 eV/cm for the D?-L intervalley deformation potential. The luminescence experiments were performed at 10 K using a standard time and spectrally gated up-conversion technique employing an 82-MHz, 80-fs pulse width Ti:sapphire laser operating at ?=750 nm. From the luminescence experiments conducted with peak carrier densities of 10181019 cm-3, we observe that ??L,X scattering competes with carrier-carrier scattering so that nonthermalized carriers are observed for up to several hundred femtoseconds after an excitation pulse. Because the initial carrier kinetic energy is quite high we find that in addition to phonon-assisted L-L intervalley scattering, X-L and X-X processes must be included to account for a carrier-cooling time. A value of 5108 eV/cm is obtained for the DX-X deformation potential.

X. Q. Zhou; H. M. van Driel; G. Mak

1994-08-15T23:59:59.000Z

431

Quantum kinetic theory with nonlocal coherence  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

In this thesis we develop a novel approximation scheme (eQPA), where the effects of nonlocal coherence are included in the kinetic approach to nonequilibrium quantum dynamics. The key element in our formalism is the finding of new singular shell solutions, located at $k_{0,z} = 0$ in the phase space of 2-point Wightman function, which describe the nonlocal quantum coherence between the ``opposite'' mass-shell excitations for spatially homogeneous and static planar symmetric problems, respectively. This phase space structure leads to a closed set of transport equations for the corresponding on-shell distribution functions $f$, providing an extension to the standard quantum Boltzmann equation. We have considered a number of applications to demonstrate the use of our formalism, including the Klein problem, quantum reflection from a CP-violating mass wall and coherent production of (fermionic and scalar) particles in an oscillating background. Our formalism should be of relevance for many problems in particle physics and cosmology, including baryogenesis and neutrino flavour oscillations in an inhomogeneous background.

Matti Herranen

2009-06-17T23:59:59.000Z

432

Effect of sweep gas composition on ionization chamber response in the BEATRIX-II tritium recovery experiment  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

The BEATRIX-II irradiation experiment was an in situ tritium recovery experiment to evaluate the tritium release characteristics of fusion ceramic breeder materials and to characterize their stability under fast neutron irradiation to extended burnups. This is an International Energy Agency (IEA) sponsored experiment which is being carried out in the Materials Open Test Assembly of Fast Flux Test Facility (FFTF). The participants are Japan, Canada and the US The in situ tritium recovery experiment consisted of two individual in-reactor experimental assemblies (Phase I and Phase II) that were irradiated for 300 and 200 EFPD, respectively. Each experimental phase included two specimens: a thin annular specimen capable of temperature changes and a larger temperature-gradient specimen. In Phase I both specimens were Li{sub 2}O while for Phase II the temperature-change specimen consisted of Li{sub 2}O and the temperature-gradient specimen was a Li{sub 2}ZrO{sub 3} spherebed. Real-time measurements of the tritium release from the specimens during changing conditions (neutronics, temperature and sweep gas composition) were made using ion chambers. In order to correctly interpret the response of the ionization chambers it is necessary to understand the effect of changing sweep gas composition on the operation of the chambers. The purpose of this paper is to describe activities carried out to determine the effect of hydrogen additions to a helium sweep gas on the operation of these ionization chambers.

Slagle, O.D.; Hollenberg, G.W. [Pacific Northwest Lab., Richland, WA (United States); Baker, D.E. [Westinghouse Hanford Co., Richland, WA (United States)

1992-10-01T23:59:59.000Z

433

Effect of sweep gas composition on ionization chamber response in the BEATRIX-II tritium recovery experiment  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

The BEATRIX-II irradiation experiment was an in situ tritium recovery experiment to evaluate the tritium release characteristics of fusion ceramic breeder materials and to characterize their stability under fast neutron irradiation to extended burnups. This is an International Energy Agency (IEA) sponsored experiment which is being carried out in the Materials Open Test Assembly of Fast Flux Test Facility (FFTF). The participants are Japan, Canada and the US The in situ tritium recovery experiment consisted of two individual in-reactor experimental assemblies (Phase I and Phase II) that were irradiated for 300 and 200 EFPD, respectively. Each experimental phase included two specimens: a thin annular specimen capable of temperature changes and a larger temperature-gradient specimen. In Phase I both specimens were Li[sub 2]O while for Phase II the temperature-change specimen consisted of Li[sub 2]O and the temperature-gradient specimen was a Li[sub 2]ZrO[sub 3] spherebed. Real-time measurements of the tritium release from the specimens during changing conditions (neutronics, temperature and sweep gas composition) were made using ion chambers. In order to correctly interpret the response of the ionization chambers it is necessary to understand the effect of changing sweep gas composition on the operation of the chambers. The purpose of this paper is to describe activities carried out to determine the effect of hydrogen additions to a helium sweep gas on the operation of these ionization chambers.

Slagle, O.D.; Hollenberg, G.W. (Pacific Northwest Lab., Richland, WA (United States)); Baker, D.E. (Westinghouse Hanford Co., Richland, WA (United States))

1992-10-01T23:59:59.000Z

434

2014 National Small Business Contracting Summit- US Womens Chamber of Commerce & National Association of Small Business Contractors  

Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

The National Association of Small Business Contractors and the U.S. Women's Chamber of Commerce present the 2014 National Small Business Federal Contracting Summit. The event will include sessions on securing a fair share of federal contracting, legal issues, trends and opportunities.

435

A Geographic Redirection Service for On-line Games Chris Chambers Wu-chi Feng Wu-chang Feng  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

@OHSU {chambers,wuchi,wuchang}@cse.ogi.edu Debanjan Saha IBM Research dsaha@us.ibm.com ABSTRACT For many on Shooters, fre- quently utilize a widely distributed server model. For the most popular FPS at this time, Counter-Strike (a variant of Half-Life), there are more than 30,000 registered servers running at any

436

Contact for the Assistant General Counsel for General Law (GC...  

Energy Savers [EERE]

Sue Wadel, Deputy Assistant General Counsel 202-586-4040 sue.wadel@hq.doe.gov Isiah Smith Jr., Deputy Assistant General Counsel 202-586-6724 isiah.smith@hq.doe.gov Yvonne...

437

A Concept for a Low Pressure Noble Gas Fill Intervention in the IFE Fusion Test Facility (FTF) Target Chamber  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

An engineering evaluation has been initiated to investigate conceptual engineering methods for implementing a viable gas shield strategy in the Fusion Test Facility (FTF) target chamber. The employment of a low pressure noble gas in the target chamber to thermalize energetic helium ions prior to interaction with the wall could dramatically increase the useful life of the first wall in the FTF reactor1. For the purpose of providing flexibility, two target chamber configurations are addressed: a five meter radius sphere and a ten meter radius sphere. Experimental studies at Nike have indicated that a low pressure, ambient gas resident in the target chamber during laser pulsing does not appear to impair the ability of laser light from illuminating targets2. In addition, current investigations into delivering, maintaining, and processing low pressure gas appear to be viable with slight modification to current pumping and plasma exhaust processing technologies3,4. Employment of a gas fill solution for protecting the dry wall target chamber in the FTF may reduce, or possibly eliminate the need for other attenuating technologies designed for keeping He ions from implanting in first wall structures and components. The gas fill concept appears to provide an effective means of extending the life of the first wall while employing mostly commercial off the shelf (COTS) technologies. Although a gas fill configuration may provide a methodology for attenuating damage inflicted on chamber surfaces, issues associated with target injection need to be further analyzed to ensure that the gas fill concept is viable in the integrated FTF design5. In the proposed system, the ambient noble gas is heated via the energetic helium ions produced by target detonation. The gas is subsequently cooled by the chamber wall to approximately 800oC, removed from the chamber, and processed by the chamber gas processing system (CGPS). In an optimized scenario of the above stated concept, the chamber wall acts as the primary heat exchanger. During removal, gas is pumped through the laser ports by turbo molecular-drag pumps (TM-DP). For the purpose of reducing organic based lubricants and seals, a magnetically levitated TM-DP is being investigated with pump manufacturers. Currently, magnetically levitated turbo molecular pumps are commercially available. The pumps will be exposed to thermal loads and ionizing radiation (tritium, Ar-41, post detonation neutrons). Although the TM-DP's will be subjected to these various radiations, current designs for similar pumping devices have been hardened and have the ability of locating control electronics in remote radiation shielded enclosures4. The radiation hardened TM-DP's will be 5 required to operate with minimal maintenance for periods of up to 18 continuous months. As part of this initial investigation for developing a conceptual engineering strategy for a gas fill solution, commercial suppliers of low pressure gas pumping systems have been contacted and engaged in this evaluation. Current technology in the area of mechanical pumping systems indicates that the development of a robust pumping system to meet the requirements of the FTF gas fill concept is within the limits of COTS equipment3,4.

C.A. Gentile, W.R. Blanchard, T.A. Kozub, M. Aristova, C. McGahan, S. Natta, K. Pagdon, J. Zelenty

2010-01-14T23:59:59.000Z

438

INFRARED ABSORPTION SPECTROSCOPY AND CHEMICAL KINETICS OF FREE RADICALS  

Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

mNAL PERFORMANCE REPORT mNAL PERFORMANCE REPORT for INFRARED ABSORPTION SPECTROSCOPY AND CHEMICAL KINETICS OF FREE RADICALS DE-FG05-85ER13439 1-AUG-1985 to 31-JUL-1994 Robert F. Curl and Graham P. Glass Principal Investigators Introduction This research was directed at the detection, monitoring, and study (by infrared absorption spectroscopy) of the chemical kinetic behavior of small free radical species thought to be important intermediates in combustion. The work typically progressed from the detection and analysis of the infrared spectrum of combustion radical to the utilization of the infrared spectrum thus obtained in the investigation of chemical kinetics of the radical species. The methodology employed was infrared kinetic spectroscopy. In this technique the radical is produced by UV flash photolysis using an excimer laser and then

439

An Improved Equilibrium-Kinetics Speciation Algorithm For Redox Reactions  

Open Energy Info (EERE)

Improved Equilibrium-Kinetics Speciation Algorithm For Redox Reactions Improved Equilibrium-Kinetics Speciation Algorithm For Redox Reactions In Variably Saturated Subsurface Flow Systems Jump to: navigation, search GEOTHERMAL ENERGYGeothermal Home Journal Article: An Improved Equilibrium-Kinetics Speciation Algorithm For Redox Reactions In Variably Saturated Subsurface Flow Systems Details Activities (0) Areas (0) Regions (0) Abstract: Reactive chemical transport occurs in a variety of geochemical environments, and over a broad range of space and time scales. Efficiency of the chemical speciation and water-rock-gas interaction calculations is important for modeling field-scale multidimensional reactive transport problems. An improved efficient model, REACT, for simulating water-rock-gas interaction under equilibrium and kinetic conditions, has been developed.

440

Mechanistic kinetic modeling of the hydrocracking of complex feedstocks  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

subclasses by distinguishing the isomers of a class according to the number of methyl branches. The kinetic model is plugged into an adiabatic multi-bed trickle flow reactor model. The model contains 33 feedstock and temperature independent parameters which...

Kumar, Hans

2009-05-15T23:59:59.000Z

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "kinetics chamber general" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


441

Modeling Hydrolysis and Esterification Kinetics for Biofuel Processes  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

We determined the kinetics for ethyl oleate hydrolysis in high-temperature water and for the reverse reaction, oleic acid esterification, in near- and supercritical ethanol. Hydrolysis was clearly autocatalytic. The experimental data, from reactions at ...

Shujauddin Changi; Tanawan Pinnarat; Phillip E. Savage

2011-02-15T23:59:59.000Z

442

Long-term Kinetics of Uranyl Desorption from Sediments Under...  

Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

results were used to evaluate alternative multi-rate surface complexation reaction (SCR) approaches to describe the short- and long-term kinetics of U(VI) desorption under...

443

Topobo : a gestural design tool with kinetic memory  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

The modeling of kinetic systems, both in physical materials and virtual simulations, provides a methodology to better understand and explore the forces and dynamics of our physical environment. The need to experiment, ...

Parkes, Amanda Jane

2004-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

444

Kinetic Roughening with Algebraically Distributed Noise Amplitudes or Waiting Times  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

In this paper we report on numerical simulation results on Zhangs prediction1...about the relevance of the distribution of noise amplitudes ?in kinetic surface roughening2. For power law distributions P(?) ? ?-(...

Jnos Kertsz

1993-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

445

Kinetic roughening-like transition with finite nucleation barrier  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Recent observations of the growth of protein crystals have identified two different growth regimes. At low supersaturation, the surface of the crystal is smooth and increasing in size due to the nucleation of steps at defects and the subsequent growth of the steps. At high supersaturation, nucleation occurs at many places simultaneously, the crystal surface becomes rough and the growth velocity increases more rapidly with increasing supersaturation than in the smooth regime. Kinetic roughening transitions are typically assumed to be due to the vanishing of the barrier for two-dimension nucleation on the surface of the crystal. We show here, by means of both analytic mean field models and kinetic Monte Carlo simulations that a transition between different growth modes reminiscent of kinetic roughening can also arise as a kinetic effect occurring at finite nucleation barriers.

James F. Lutsko; Vasileios Basios; Gregoire Nicolis; John J. Kozak; Mike Sleutel; Dominique Maes

2010-01-07T23:59:59.000Z

446

Thermoanalysis and reaction kinetics of heavy oil combustion  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

The present study deals with fingerprinting the oxidation behavior of a Brazilian crude (12 API) oil. It focuses on the determination of reaction kinetic parameters through classical thermal analysis techniques ...

Anderson N. Pereira; Osvair V. Trevisan

2014-02-01T23:59:59.000Z

447

Multistep pyrolysis kinetics of North Korean oil shale  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

In this paper, multistep pyrolysis kinetics of North Korean oil shale was investigated by thermogravimetric analysis. All the...?1...from room temperature to 873K under nitrogen atmosphere. The main oil-producin...

Wei Wang; Shuyuan Li; Changtao Yue; Yue Ma

2014-10-01T23:59:59.000Z

448

BE.420J Biomolecular Kinetics and Cellular Dynamics, Fall 2004  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

This subject deals primarily with kinetic and equilibrium mathematical models of biomolecular interactions, as well as the application of these quantitative analyses to biological problems across a wide range of levels of ...

Wittrup, K. Dane

449

Nonphotochemical hole burning and dispersive kinetics in amorphous solids.  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

??Results of an extensive study, covering burn intensities in the nW to {dollar}?{dollar}W/cm{dollar}2{dollar} range, of dispersive hole growth kinetics are reported for Oxazine 720 in (more)

Kenney, Michael Joseph

1990-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

450

Catalytic deactivation on methane steam reforming catalysts. 2. Kinetic study  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

The kinetics of methane steam reforming reaction over an alumina-supported nickel catalyst was investigated at a temperature range of 640-740/sup 0/C in a flow reactor at atmospheric pressure. The experiments were performed varying the inlet concentration of methane, hydrogen, and water. A kinetic scheme of the Houghen-Watson type was satisfactorily proposed assuming the dissociative adsorption of CH/sub 4/ as the rate-limiting step, but this kinetic scheme can be easily replaced by a first-order kinetics (r/sub CH/4/sub / = kapparho/sub CH/4/sub /) for engineering purposes. Catalyst activation with H/sub 2/ and N/sub 2/ mixtures or with the reactant mixture results in the same extent of reaction.

Agnelli, M.E.; Ponzi, E.N.; Yeramian, A.A.

1987-08-01T23:59:59.000Z

451

Kinetic energy error in the NIMROD spheromak simulations Carl Sovinec  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Kinetic energy error in the NIMROD spheromak simulations Carl Sovinec 10/25/00 Dmitri Ryutov at the ends (as in the spheromak simulations), it may lead to compression in a boundary layer.] The maximum

Sovinec, Carl

452

A Study and Comparison of SCR Reaction Kinetics from Reactor...  

Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

Data A Study and Comparison of SCR Reaction Kinetics from Reactor and Engine Experimental Data Presents experimental study of a Cu-zeolite SCR in both reactor and engine test cell,...

453

Kinetic studies of isoprene reactions with hydroxyl and chlorine radicals  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Kinetic studies of the isoprene oxidation reactions initiated by the hydroxyl radical OH and the chlorine atom Cl have been investigated using a fast-flow reactor in conjunction with chemical ionization mass spectrometry (CIMS) and using laser...

Suh, Inseon

2012-06-07T23:59:59.000Z

454

Observable fast kinetic eigenmode in binary noble-gas mixtures  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

It is suggested that a fast kinetic mode should be observable in a whole class of disparate mass fluid mixtures, such as gaseous He-Xe, by neutron scattering experiments, at not too high densities and Xe concentrations.

Campa, A.; Cohen, E.G.D.

1988-08-15T23:59:59.000Z

455

Fully kinetic modeling of a divergent cusped-field thruster  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

A fully kinetic, particle-in-cell plasma simulation tool has been incrementally developed by members of the Massachusetts Institute of Technology Space Propulsion Laboratory. Adapting this model to simulate the performance ...

Gildea, Stephen Robert

2009-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

456

Nonlinear Adaptive Control for Bioreactors with Unknown Kinetics  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

on a real life wastewater treatment plant. Key words: Nonlinear adaptive control, continuous bioprocesses, unknown kinetics, wastewater treatment. 1 Introduction Biological processes have become widely used a pollutant (wastewater treatment...). There- fore, bioreactors require advanced regulation procedures

Bernard, Olivier

457

Turbulent kinetic energy balance as a tool for estimating vertical ...  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

Based on microstructure measurements in a simply shaped lake basin, the sources of ... Comparison with turbulent kinetic energy balances, performed in five other lakes, ...... pation (PB) is everywhere the same per unit area of sediment

1910-00-90T23:59:59.000Z

458

Kinetic and Performance Studies of the Regeneration Phase of...  

Broader source: Energy.gov (indexed) [DOE]

Studies of the Regeneration Phase of Model PtRhBa NOx Traps for Design and Optimization Kinetic and Performance Studies of the Regeneration Phase of Model PtRhBa NOx...

459

Activation of the Sulfhydryl Group by Mo Centers: Kinetics of...  

Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

Mo(mu-SH)Mo Complex Abstract: This paper provides evidence from kinetic experiments and electronic structure calculations of a significantly reduced S-H bond strength in the...

460

Explicit Integration with GPU Acceleration for Large Kinetic Networks  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

We demonstrate the first implementation of recently-developed fast explicit kinetic integration algorithms on modern graphics processing unit (GPU) accelerators. Taking as a generic test case a Type Ia supernova explosion with an extremely stiff thermonuclear network having 150 isotopic species and 1604 reactions coupled to hydrodynamics using operator splitting, we demonstrate the capability to solve of order 100 realistic kinetic networks in parallel in the same time that standard implicit methods can solve a single such network on a CPU. This orders-of-magnitude decrease in compute time for solving systems of realistic kinetic networks implies that important coupled, multiphysics problems in various scientific and technical fields that were intractible, or could be simulated only with highly schematic kinetic networks, are now computationally feasible.

Brock, Benjamin; Billings, Jay Jay; Guidry, Mike

2014-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "kinetics chamber general" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


461

Intercalation Kinetics and Ion Mobility in Electrode Materials...  

Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

es093daniel2011o.pdf More Documents & Publications Coupled Kinetic, Thermal, and Mechanical Modeling of FIB Micro-machined Electrodes In-Situ Electron Microscopy of Electrical...

462

Nickel based anodes for single chamber solid oxide fuel cells : a catalytic study Geoffroy Gadacz, Sorina Udroiu, Jean-Paul Viricelle, Christophe Pijolat, Michle Pijolat  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Nickel based anodes for single chamber solid oxide fuel cells : a catalytic study Geoffroy Gadacz Single chamber solid oxide fuel cells (SCFC) are an alternative concept to traditional SOFC-gas-shift equilibrium. Introduction Fifteen years ago, Hibino (1) has shown the feasibility of a fuel cell consisting

Boyer, Edmond

463

Generalized Uncertainty Principle: Approaches and Applications  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

We review highlights from string theory, black hole physics and doubly special relativity and some "thought" experiments which were suggested to probe the shortest distance and/or the maximum momentum at the Planck scale. The models which are designed to implement the minimal length scale and/or the maximum momentum in different physical systems are analysed entered the literature as the Generalized Uncertainty Principle (GUP). We compare between them. The existence of a minimal length and a maximum momentum accuracy is preferred by various physical observations. Furthermore, assuming modified dispersion relation allows for a wide range of applications in estimating, for example, the inflationary parameters, Lorentz invariance violation, black hole thermodynamics, Saleker-Wigner inequalities, entropic nature of the gravitational laws, Friedmann equations, minimal time measurement and thermodynamics of the high-energy collisions. One of the higher-order GUP approaches gives predictions for the minimal length uncertainty. Another one predicts a maximum momentum and a minimal length uncertainty, simultaneously. An extensive comparison between the different GUP approaches is summarized. We also discuss the GUP impacts on the equivalence principles including the universality of the gravitational redshift and the free fall and law of reciprocal action and on the kinetic energy of composite system. The concern about the compatibility with the equivalence principles, the universality of gravitational redshift and the free fall and law of reciprocal action should be addressed. We conclude that the value of the GUP parameters remain a puzzle to be verified.

Abdel Nasser Tawfik; Abdel Magied Diab

2014-11-23T23:59:59.000Z

464

Energy landscapes, folding mechanisms and kinetics of RNA tetraloop hairpins  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

Energy landscapes, folding mechanisms and kinetics of RNA tetraloop hairpins ... In this work, we use the discrete path sampling (DPS) approach to explore the energy landscapes of two RNA tetraloop hairpins, and provide insights into their folding mechanisms and kinetics in atomistic detail. ... Our results show that the potential energy landscapes have a distinct funnel-like bias towards the folded hairpin state, consistent with efficient structure-seeking properties. ...

Debayan Chakraborty; Rosana Collepardo-Guevara; David J. Wales

2014-12-02T23:59:59.000Z

465

Kinetic Isotope Effects in Cycloreversion of Rhenium (V) Diolates  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

The isotope effects were all calculated from these ratios according to the equation25 (F = extent of reaction; R = isotopic ratio vs reference at extent of reaction F; R0 = initial isotopic ratio vs reference). ... The magnitudes of small kinetic isotope effects (KIEs) are amplified in the isotopic compn. of starting materials recovered from reactions taken to high conversions. ... The magnitudes of small kinetic isotope effects (KIEs) are amplified in the isotopic compn. of starting materials recovered from reactions taken to high conversions. ...

Kevin P. Gable; Fedor A. Zhuravlev

2002-03-21T23:59:59.000Z

466

Kinetic parameter estimation using nonisothermal trickle-bed reactor data  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

KINETIC PARAMETER ESTIMATION USING NONISOTHERMAL TRICKLE-BED REACTOR DATA A Thesis by MICHAEL ALLEN MENSIK Submitted to the Graduate College of Texas ALM University in partial fulfillment of the requirements for the degree of MASTER... OF SCIENCE May 1985 Major Subject: Chemical Engineering KINETIC PARAMETER ESTIMATION USING NONISOTHERMAL TRICKLE-BED REACTOR DATA A Thesis by MICHAEL ALLEN MENSIK Approved as to style and content by: A. ger n (Chairman of Comm ee) R. G. Antho...

Mensik, Michael Allen

2012-06-07T23:59:59.000Z

467

Chapter 22 - General Concepts  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

Publisher Summary The term Electronic Design Automation (EDA) refers to the tools that are used to design and verify integrated circuits (ICs), printed circuit boards (PCBs), and electronic systems, in general. Over time, these early computer-aided drafting tools evolved into interactive programs that performed integrated circuit layout. Other companies like Racal-Redac, SCI-Cards, and Telesis created equivalent layout programs for printed circuit boards. These integrated circuit and circuit board layout programs became known as Computer-Aided Design (CAD) tools. The companies promoting front-end tools for schematic capture and simulation classed them as Computer-Aided Engineering (CAE). The term automation refers to the ability for end-users to augment, customize, and drive the capabilities of electronic design and verification tools by means of a scripting language and associated support utilities. There are a wide variety of programming languages available, butexcepting specialist application areasthe most commonly used by far are traditional C and its object-oriented offspring, C++. A gate-level netlist refers to a circuit representation at the level of individual logic gates, registers, and other simple functions. The netlist will also specify the connections (wires) between the various gates and functions. A component-level netlist refers to a circuit representation at the level of individual components. System programming languages such as C, C++, and Java are designed to allow programmers to build data structures, algorithms, andultimatelyapplications from the ground up.

Clive Max Maxfield

2009-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

468

Neptunium_Oxide_Precipitation_Kinetics_AJohnsen  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

We evaluate the proposed NpO{sub 2}{sup +}(aq)-NpO{sub 2}(cr) reduction-precipitation system at elevated temperatures to obtain primary information on the effects of temperature, ionic strength, O{sub 2} and CO{sub 2}. Experiments conducted on unfiltered solutions at 10{sup -4} M NpO{sub 2}{sup +}(aq), neutral pH, and 200 C indicated that solution colloids strongly affect precipitation kinetics. Subsequent experiments on filtered solutions at 200, 212, and 225 C showed consistent and distinctive temperature-dependent behavior at reaction times {le} 800 hours. At longer times, the 200 C experiments showed unexpected dissolution of neptunium solids, but experiments at 212 C and 225 C demonstrated quasi steady-state neptunium concentrations of 3 x 10{sup -6} M and 6 x 10{sup -6} M, respectively. Solids from a representative experiment analyzed by X-ray diffraction were consistent with NpO{sub 2}(cr). A 200 C experiment with a NaCl concentration of 0.05 M showed a dramatic increase in the rate of neptunium loss. A 200 C experiment in an argon atmosphere resulted in nearly complete loss of aqueous neptunium. Previously proposed NpO{sub 2}{sup +}(aq)-NpO{sub 2}(cr) reduction-precipitation mechanisms in the literature specified a 1:1 ratio of neptunium loss and H{sup +} production in solution over time. However, all experiments demonstrated ratios of approximately 0.4 to 0.5. Carbonate equilibria can account for only about 40% of this discrepancy, leaving an unexpected deficit in H+ production that suggests that additional chemical processes are occurring.

Johnsen, A M; Roberts, K E; Prussin, S G

2012-06-08T23:59:59.000Z

469

One-dimensional kinetics modifications for BWR reload methods  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Yankee Atomic Electric Company (YAEC) currently uses RETRAN-02 to analyze limiting transients and establish operating minimum critical power ratio (MCPR) limits for Vermont Yankee (VY) boiling water reactor (BWR) reload analysis. The US Nuclear Regulatory Commission-approved analysis methods, used in previous cycles, use the point-kinetics modeling option in RETRAN-02 to represent transient-induced neutronic feedback. RETRAN-02 also contains a one-dimensional (1-D) kinetics neutronic feedback model option that provides a more accurate transient power prediction than the point-kinetics model. In the past few fuel cycles, the thermal or MCPR operating margin at VY has eroded due to increases in fuel cycle length. To offset this decrease, YAEC has developed the capability to use the more accurate 1-D kinetics RETRAN option. This paper reviews the qualification effort for the YAEC BWR methods. This paper also presents a comparison between RETRAN-02 predictions using 1-D and point kinetics for the limiting transient, and demonstrates the typical gain in thermal margin from 1-D kinetics.

Chandola, V.; Robichaud, J.D.

1990-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

470

Peptide concentration alters intermediate species in amyloid ? fibrillation kinetics  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Highlights: ? A?(140) aggregation in vitro has been monitored at different concentrations. ? A?(140) fibrillation does not always follow conventional kinetic mechanisms. ? We demonstrate non-linear features in the kinetics of A?(140) fibril formation. ? At high A?(140) concentrations secondary processes dictate fibrillation speed. ? Intermediate species may play significant roles on final amyloid fibril development. -- Abstract: The kinetic mechanism of amyloid aggregation remains to be fully understood. Investigations into the species present in the different kinetic phases can assist our comprehension of amyloid diseases and further our understanding of the mechanism behind amyloid ? (A?) (140) peptide aggregation. Thioflavin T (ThT) fluorescence and transmission electron microscopy (TEM) have been used in combination to monitor A?(140) aggregation in vitro at both normal and higher than standard concentrations. The observed fibrillation behaviour deviates, in several respects, from standard concepts of the nucleationpolymerisation models and shows such features as concentration-dependent non-linear effects in the assembly mechanism. A?(140) fibrillation kinetics do not always follow conventional kinetic mechanisms and, specifically at high concentrations, intermediate structures become populated and secondary processes may further modify the fibrillation mechanism.

Garvey, M., E-mail: megan.garvey@molbiotech.rwth-aachen.de [Max-Planck Research Unit for Enzymology of Protein Folding, Weinbergweg 22, 06120 Halle (Saale) (Germany); Morgado, I., E-mail: immorgado@ualg.pt [Max-Planck Research Unit for Enzymology of Protein Folding, Weinbergweg 22, 06120 Halle (Saale) (Germany)

2013-04-12T23:59:59.000Z

471

nasa Office Of Inspector General  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

nasa Office Of Inspector General S E m I A N N u A L r E P O r T october 1, 2010­march 31, 2011 #12;#12;FROM THE INSPECTOR GENERAL In January 2011, the NASA Office of Inspector General (OIG) took the unusual step of sending a letter to the Chairs and Ranking Members of NASA's congressional oversight

Christian, Eric

472

New insights into the mechanism and kinetics of adsorbed CO electrooxidation on platinum: Online mass spectrometry and Kinetic  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

New insights into the mechanism and kinetics of adsorbed CO electrooxidation on platinum: Online Monte Carlo simulation code specific to the electrooxidation of adsorbed CO on Pt. The simulations

Pfeifer, Holger

473

Model calculations of the hydrogen/deuterium kinetic isotope effect in the atomic hydrogen + disilane reaction  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

Model calculations of the hydrogen/deuterium kinetic isotope effect in the atomic hydrogen + disilane reaction ...

I. Safarik; T. L. Pollock; O. P. Strausz

1974-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

474

Phrases of the Kinetic: Dynamic Physicality as a Dimension of the Design Process  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

construction and dynamics physics education with children; Kinetic Sketchup, a system for motion construction

Ishii, Hiroshi

475

Catalyst deactivation kinetics: An apparent delay in decreasing of catalyst activity, inflection point and data interpretation  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

Problems of catalyst deactivation kinetics and catalyst stability testing are considered. An apparent delay...

N. M. Ostrovskii

2011-12-01T23:59:59.000Z

476

Kinetics of Ni Sorption in Soils: Roles of Soil Organic Matter and Ni Precipitation  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Kinetics of Ni Sorption in Soils: Roles of Soil Organic Matter and Ni Precipitation Zhenqing Shi, Lawrence, Kansas 66045-7609, United States *S Supporting Information ABSTRACT: The kinetics of Ni sorption) precipitates using both experimental studies and kinetic modeling. Batch sorption kinetic experiments were

Sparks, Donald L.

477

A steerable UV laser system for the calibration of liquid argon time projection chambers  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

A number of liquid argon time projection chambers (LAr TPC's) are being build or are proposed for neutrino experiments on long- and short baseline beams. For these detectors a distortion in the drift field due to geometrical or physics reasons can affect the reconstruction of the events. Depending on the TPC geometry and electric drift field intensity this distortion could be of the same magnitude as the drift field itself. Recently, we presented a method to calibrate the drift field and correct for these possible distortions. While straight cosmic ray muon tracks could be used for calibration, multiple coulomb scattering and momentum uncertainties allow only a limited resolution. A UV laser instead can create straight ionization tracks in liquid argon, and allows one to map the drift field along different paths in the TPC inner volume. Here we present a UV laser feed-through design with a steerable UV mirror immersed in liquid argon that can point the laser beam at many locations through the TPC. The straight ionization paths are sensitive to drift field distortions, a fit of these distortion to the linear optical path allows to extract the drift field, by using these laser tracks along the whole TPC volume one can obtain a 3D drift field map. The UV laser feed-through assembly is a prototype of the system that will be used for the MicroBooNE experiment at the Fermi National Accelerator Laboratory (FNAL).

A. Ereditato; I. Kreslo; M. Lthi; C. Rudolf von Rohr; M. Schenk; T. Strauss; M. Weber; M. Zeller

2014-10-04T23:59:59.000Z

478

Pressure Evolution in the Chamber of a Dense Plasma Focus Device  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

Adsorption and desorption of impurities in the filling gas by the electrodes the insulator and chamber materials of plasma focus devices have been suggested as probable causes for the fluctuations in their neutron yield. This work describes analysis of data aimed at looking for evidence to support this hypothesis. Before starting each series of discharges a vacuum around 10?6 torr is achieved. The filling gas pure deuterium is maintained under static conditions. A sudden fall of the initial pressure around 5% is systematically observed after the first shot in each series before creeping back at an almost constant rate in successive shots. On the other hand for the first shot with fresh filling gas the neutron yield is always low and systematically increases for the second one. Except for the first two shots we find no evidence to support the hypothesis that the neutron yield fluctuations are related to an adsorption?desorption process. It is also observed that as the number of shots increases for each series the neutron yield variability tends to increase as higher yields are obtained for a few shots.

J. J. E. Herrera; F. Castillo; J. Rangel

2006-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

479

Laser-assisted homogeneous charge ignition in a constant volume combustion chamber  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

Homogeneous charge compression ignition (HCCI) is a very promising future combustion concept for internal combustion engines. There are several technical difficulties associated with this concept, and precisely controlling the start of auto-ignition is the most prominent of them. In this paper, a novel concept to control the start of auto-ignition is presented. The concept is based on the fact that most HCCI engines are operated with high exhaust gas recirculation (EGR) rates in order to slow-down the fast combustion processes. Recirculated exhaust gas contains combustion products including moisture, which has a relative peak of the absorption coefficient around 3?m. These water molecules absorb the incident erbium laser radiations (?=2.79?m) and get heated up to expedite ignition. In the present experimental work, auto-ignition conditions are locally attained in an experimental constant volume combustion chamber under simulated EGR conditions. Taking advantage of this feature, the time when the mixture is thought to auto-ignite could be adjusted/controlled by the laser pulse width optimisation, followed by its resonant absorption by water molecules present in recirculated exhaust gas.

Dhananjay Kumar Srivastava; Martin Weinrotter; Henrich Kofler; Avinash Kumar Agarwal; Ernst Wintner

2009-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

480

The Impact of Alternative Fuels on Combustion Kinetics  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

The research targets the development of detailed kinetic models to quantitatively characterize the impact of alternative fuels on the performance of Navy turbines and diesel engines. Such impacts include kinetic properties such as cetane number, flame speed, and emissions as well as physical properties such as the impact of boiling point distributions on fuel vaporization and mixing. The primary focus will be Fischer-Tropsch liquids made from natural gas, coal or biomass. The models will include both the effects of operation with these alternative fuels as well as blends of these fuels with conventional petroleum-based fuels. The team will develop the requisite kinetic rules for specific reaction types and incorporate these into detailed kinetic mechanisms to predict the combustion performance of neat alternative fuels as well as blends of these fuels with conventional fuels. Reduced kinetic models will be then developed to allow solution of the coupled kinetics/transport problems. This is a collaboration between the Colorado School of Mines (CSM) and the Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory (LLNL). The CSM/LLNL team plans to build on the substantial progress made in recent years in developing accurate detailed chemical mechanisms for the oxidation and pyrolysis of conventional fuels. Particular emphasis will be placed upon reactions of the isoalkanes and the daughter radicals, especially tertiary radicals, formed by abstraction from the isoalkanes. The various components of the program are described. We have been developing the kinetic models for two iso-dodecane molecules, using the same kinetic modeling formalisms that were developed for the gasoline and diesel primary reference fuels. These mechanisms, and the thermochemical and transport coefficient submodels for them, are very close to completion at the time of this report, and we expect them to be available for kinetic simulations early in the coming year. They will provide a basis for prediction and selection of desirable F-T molecules for use in jet engine simulations, where we should be able to predict the ignition, combustion and emissions characteristics of proposed fuel components. These mechanisms include the reactions and chemical species needed to describe high temperature phenomena such as shock tube ignition and flammability behavior, and they will also include low temperature kinetics to describe other ignition phenomena such as compression ignition and knocking. During the past years, our hydrocarbon kinetics modeling group at LLNL has focused a great deal on fuels typical of gasoline and diesel fuel. About 10 years ago, we developed kinetic models for the fuel octane primary reference fuels, n-heptane [1] and iso-octane [2], which have 7 and 8 carbon atoms and are therefore representative of typical gasoline fuels. N-heptane represents the low limit of knock resistance with an octane number of 0, while iso-octane is very knock resistant with an octane number of 100. High knock resistance in iso-octane was attributed largely to the large fraction of primary C-H bonds in the molecule, including 15 of the 18 C-H bonds, and the high bond energy of these primary bonds plays a large role in this knock resistance. In contrast, in the much more ignitable n-heptane, 10 of its 16 C-H bonds are much less strongly bound secondary C-H bonds, leading to its very low octane number. All of these factors, as well as a similarly complex kinetic description of the equally important role of the transition state rings that transfer H atoms within the reacting fuel molecules, were quantified and collected into large kinetic reaction mechanisms that are used by many researchers in the fuel chemistry world.

Pitz, W J; Westbrook, C K

2009-07-30T23:59:59.000Z

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "kinetics chamber general" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


481

Microscopic observations on a kinetic Ising model  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

We comment on the practical realization and physical relevance of a k i n e t i cIsing model which has played an important role during the last decade as a guide for real experiments and for the development of theory. We stress the possibility of performing m i c r o s c o p i c observations during the computer evolution of the model system. This is illustrated by discussing the observed behavior of some general concepts of physics such as energy specific heat and metastable states.

J. Marro; R. Toral

1986-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

482

Agreements --General/Regional 171 GENERAL/REGIONAL  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

; Armenia; Australia; Austria; Azerbaijan; Bangladesh; Belgium; Bolivia; Brazil; Bulgaria; Burkina Faso African convention on the conservation of nature and natural resources March 25, 1957 General Belgium

Wolf, Aaron

483

OLEDS FOR GENERAL LIGHTING  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

The goal of this program was to reduce the long term technical risks that were keeping the lighting industry from embracing and developing organic light-emitting diode (OLED) technology for general illumination. The specific goal was to develop OLEDs for lighting to the point where it was possible to demonstrate a large area white light panel with brightness and light quality comparable to a fluorescence source and with an efficacy comparable to that of an incandescent source. it was recognized that achieving this would require significant advances in three area: (1) the improvement of white light quality for illumination, (2) the improvement of OLED energy efficiency at high brightness, and (3) the development of cost-effective large area fabrication techniques. The program was organized such that, each year, a ''deliverable'' device would be fabricated which demonstrated progress in one or more of the three critical research areas. In the first year (2001), effort concentrated on developing an OLED capable of generating high illumination-quality white light. Ultimately, a down-conversion method where a blue OLED was coupled with various down-conversion layers was chosen. Various color and scattering models were developed to aid in material development and device optimization. The first year utilized this approach to deliver a 1 inch x 1 inch OLED with higher illumination-quality than available fluorescent sources. A picture of this device is shown and performance metrics are listed. To their knowledge, this was the first demonstration of true illumination-quality light from an OLED. During the second year, effort concentrated on developing a scalable approach to large area devices. A novel device architecture consisting of dividing the device area into smaller elements that are monolithically connected in series was developed. In the course of this development, it was realized that, in addition to being scalable, this approach made the device tolerant to the most common OLED defect--electrical shorts. This architecture enabled the fabrication of a 6 inch x 6 inch OLED deliverable for 2002. A picture of this deliverable is shown and the performance metrics are listed. At the time, this was the highest efficiency, highest lumen output illumination-quality OLED in existence. The third year effort concentrated on improving the fabrication yield of the 6 inch x 6 inch devices and improving the underlying blue device efficiency. An efficiency breakthrough was achieved through the invention of a new device structure such that now 15 lumen per watt devices could be fabricated. A 2 feet x 2 feet OLED panel consisting of sixteen 6 inch x 6 inch high efficiency devices tiled together was then fabricated. Pictures of this panel are shown with performance metrics listed. This panel met all project objectives and was the final deliverable for the project. It is now the highest efficiency, highest lumen output, illumination-quality OLED in existence.

Anil Duggal; Don Foust; Chris Heller; Bill Nealon; Larry Turner; Joe Shiang; Nick Baynes; Tim Butler; Nalin Patel

2004-02-29T23:59:59.000Z

484

A new two-dimensional X-ray drift chamber for diffraction studies with pulsed synchroton radiation  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

A two-dimensional position-sensitive detector (drift-chamber) for X-ray difraction experiments with pulsed synchrotron radiation is described. For the measurements of drift direction (x), the small drift chamber uses a reference signal generated by the electron bunches circulating in the storage ring. A flat geometry delay-line, inductively connected to the anode, detects the position of avalanche electrons on the anode wire (y-direction). The main features are: spatial resolution in drift direction (x), 100 ?m for 5 keV photons; spatial resolution in y direction, 400 ?m; maximum counting-rate 5105 cps; quantum efficiency ar 5 keV, 52%. The systems has been succesfully tested at the ADONE storage ring at Frascati by measuring the small-angle diffraction spectrum of a dry tendon collagen.

Mario Iannuzzi; Andrea La Monaca

1982-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

485

Characterization and use of a 2D-array of ion chambers for brachytherapy dosimetric quality assurance  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

The two-dimensional (2D) ionization chamber array MatriXX Evolution is one of the 2D ionization chamber arrays developed by IBA Dosimetry (IBA Dosimetry, Germany) for megavoltage real-time absolute 2D dosimetry and verification of intensity-modulated radiation therapy (IMRT). The purpose of this study was to (1) evaluate the performance of ion chamber array for submegavoltage range brachytherapy beam dose verification and quality assurance (QA) and (2) use the end-to-end dosimetric evaluation that mimics a patient treatment procedure and confirm the primary source strength calibration agrees in both the treatment planning system (TPS) and treatment delivery console computers. The dose linearity and energy dependence of the 2D ion chamber array was studied using kilovoltage X-ray beams (100, 180 and 300 kVp). The detector calibration factor was determined using 300 kVp X-ray beams so that we can use the same calibration factor for dosimetric verification of high-dose-rate (HDR) brachytherapy. The phantom used for this measurement consists of multiple catheters, the IBA MatriXX detector, and water-equivalent slab of RW3 to provide full scattering conditions. The treatment planning system (TPS) (Oncentra brachy version 3.3, Nucletron BV, Veenendaal, the Netherlands) dose distribution was calculated on the computed tomography (CT) scan of this phantom. The measured and TPS calculated distributions were compared in IBA Dosimetry OmniPro-I'mRT software. The quality of agreement was quantified by the gamma ({gamma}) index (with 3% delta dose and distance criterion of 2 mm) for 9 sets of plans. Using a dedicated phantom capable of receiving 5 brachytherapy intralumenal catheters a QA procedure was developed for end-to-end dosimetric evaluation for routine QA checks. The 2D ion chamber array dose dependence was found to be linear for 100-300 kVp and the detector response (k{sub user}) showed strong energy dependence for 100-300 kVp energy range. For the Ir-192 brachytherapy HDR source, dosimetric evaluation k{sub user} factor determined by photon beam of energy of 300 kVp was used. The maximum mean difference between ion chamber array measured and TPS calculated was 3.7%. Comparisons of dose distribution for different test plans have shown agreement with >94.5% for {gamma} {<=}1. Dosimetric QA can be performed with the 2D ion chamber array to confirm primary source strength calibration is properly updated in both the TPS and treatment delivery console computers. The MatriXX Evolution ionization chamber array has been found to be reliable for measurement of both absolute dose and relative dose distributions for the Ir-192 brachytherapy HDR source.

Yewondwossen, Mammo, E-mail: mammo.yewondwossen@cdha.nshealth.ca [Department of Radiation Oncology, Dalhousie University, Halifax, Nova Scotia (Canada)

2012-10-01T23:59:59.000Z

486

The UHV Experimental Chamber For Optical Measurements (Reflectivity and Absorption) and Angle Resolved Photoemission of the BEAR Beamline at ELETTRA  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

The experimental station of the BEAR (Bending magnet for Emission, Absorption and Reflectivity) beamline at ELETTRA (Trieste, Italy) is an UHV chamber conceived to fully exploit the spectroscopic possibilities offered by the light spot produced by the beamline. Spectroscopies include reflectivity ({theta}-2{theta} and diffuse), optical absorption, fluorescence and angle resolved photoemission. The chamber can be rotated around the beam axis to select the s (TE) or p (TM) incidence conditions and/or the position of the ellipse of polarization with respect to the sample. Photon detectors (e.g. photodiodes) and electron detector (hemispherical analyzer - 1 deg. angular resolution, 20 meV energy resolution) cover about completely the full 2{pi} solid angle above the sample surface in any light incidence condition.

Pasquali, L.; Nannarone, S. [UdR-INFM Modena, Universita di Modena and Reggio Emilia, Via Vignolese 905, 41100 Modena (Italy); Dipartimento di Ingegneria dei Materiali e dell'Ambiente, Universita di Modena and Reggio Emilia, Via Vignolese 905, 41100 Modena (Italy); De Luisa, A. [TASC-INFM, MM building in Area Science Park, s.s.14 km 163.5, 34012 Basovizza, Trieste (Italy)

2004-05-12T23:59:59.000Z

487

Kinetic extruder - a dry pulverized solid material pump  

DOE Patents [OSTI]

Method and apparatus are shown for the continuous feeding of pulverized material to a high pressure container. A rotor is located within the high pressure container. The pulverized material is fed from a feed hopper through a stationary feed pipe to a vented spin-up chamber to a plurality of two-stage sprues mounted in the rotor. Control nozzles downstream from the sprues meter the flow of coal through the sprues.

Meyer, John W. (Palo Alto, CA); Bonin, John H. (Sunnyvale, CA); Daniel, Jr., Arnold D. (Pleasanton, CA)

1983-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

488

Homogeneous nucleation rates of higher n -alcohols measured in a laminar flow diffusion chamber  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

Nucleation rate isotherms of n-butanol n-pentanol n-hexanol n-heptanol and n-octanol were measured in a laminar flowdiffusion chamber using helium as carrier gas. The measurements were made at 250310 K corresponding to reduced temperatures of 0.430.50 and at atmospheric pressure. Experimental nucleation rate range was from 10 3 to 10 7 ? cm ?3 ? s ?1 . The expression and accuracy of thermodynamic parameters in particular equilibrium vapor pressure were found to have a significant effect on calculated nucleation rates. The results were compared to the classical nucleation theory (CNT) the self-consistency corrected classical theory (SCC) and the Hales scaled model of the CNT. The average ratio between the experimental and theoretical nucleation rates for all alcohols used was 1.510 3 when the CNT was used and 0.210 ?1 when the SCC was used and 0.710 ?1 when the Hales scaled theory was used. The average values represent all the alcohols used at the same reduced temperatures. The average ratio was about the same throughout the temperature range although J exp /J the calculated with the Hales scaled theory increased slightly with increasing temperature. The saturation ratio dependency was predicted closest to experiment with the classical nucleation theory. The nucleation rates were compared to those found in the literature. The measurements were in reasonable agreement with each other. The molecular content of critical alcohol clusters was between 35 and 80 molecules. At a fixed reduced temperature the number of molecules in a critical cluster decreased as a function of alcohol carbon chain length. The number of molecules in critical clusters was compared to those predicted by the Kelvin equation. The theory predicted the critical cluster sizes well.

Antti-Pekka Hyvrinen; Heikki Lihavainen; Yrj Viisanen; Markku Kulmala

2004-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

489

Scintillation counter and wire chamber front end modules for high energy physics experiments  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

This document describes two front-end modules developed for the proposed MIPP upgrade (P-960) experiment at Fermilab. The scintillation counter module was developed for the Plastic Ball detector time and charge measurements. The module has eight LEMO 00 input connectors terminated with 50 ohms and accepts negative photomultiplier signals in the range 0.25...1000 pC with the maximum input voltage of 4.0 V. Each input has a passive splitter with integration and differentiation times of {approx}20 ns. The integrated portion of the signal is digitized at 26.55 MHz by Analog Devices AD9229 12-bit pipelined 4-channel ADC. The differentiated signal is discriminated for time measurement and sent to one of the four TMC304 inputs. The 4-channel TMC304 chip allows high precision time measurement of rising and falling edges with {approx}100 ps resolution and has internal digital pipeline. The ADC data is also pipelined which allows deadtime-less operation with trigger decision times of {approx}4 {micro}s. The wire chamber module was developed for MIPP EMCal detector charge measurements. The 32-channel digitizer accepts differential analog signals from four 8-channel integrating wire amplifiers. The connection between wire amplifier and digitizer is provided via 26-wire twist-n-flat cable. The wire amplifier integrates input wire current and has sensitivity of 275 mV/pC and the noise level of {approx}0.013 pC. The digitizer uses the same 12-bit AD9229 ADC chip as the scintillator counter module. The wire amplifier has a built-in test pulser with a mask register to provide testing of the individual channels. Both modules are implemented as a 6Ux220 mm VME size board with 48-pin power connector. A custom europack (VME) 21-slot crate is developed for housing these front-end modules.

Baldin, Boris; DalMonte, Lou; /Fermilab

2011-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

490

Gravitationally Induced Particle Production: Thermodynamics and Kinetic Theory  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

A relativistic kinetic description for the irreversible thermodynamic process of gravitationally induced particle production is proposed in the context of an expanding Friedmann-Robertson-Walker (FRW) geometry. We show that the covariant thermodynamic treatment referred to as "adiabatic" particle production provoked by the cosmic time-varying gravitational field has a consistent kinetic counterpart. The variation of the distribution function is associated to a non-collisional kinetic term of quantum-gravitational origin which is proportional to the ratio $\\Gamma/H$, where $\\Gamma$ is the gravitational particle production rate and H is the Hubble parameter. For $\\Gamma gravitation. The resulting non-equilibrium distribution function has the same functional form of equilibrium with the evolution laws corrected by the particle production process. The macroscopic temperature evolution law is also kinetically derived for massive and massless particles. The present approach points to the possibility of an exact (semi-classical) quantum-gravitational kinetic treatment by incorporating back-reaction effects in the cosmic background.

J. A. S. Lima; I. P. Baranov

2014-11-24T23:59:59.000Z

491

Chemical Kinetics of Hydrocarbon Ignition in Practical Combustion Systems  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Chemical kinetic factors of hydrocarbon oxidation are examined in a variety of ignition problems. Ignition is related to the presence of a dominant chain branching reaction mechanism that can drive a chemical system to completion in a very short period of time. Ignition in laboratory environments is studied for problems including shock tubes and rapid compression machines. Modeling of the laboratory systems are used to develop kinetic models that can be used to analyze ignition in practical systems. Two major chain branching regimes are identified, one consisting of high temperature ignition with a chain branching reaction mechanism based on the reaction between atomic hydrogen with molecular oxygen, and the second based on an intermediate temperature thermal decomposition of hydrogen peroxide. Kinetic models are then used to describe ignition in practical combustion environments, including detonations and pulse combustors for high temperature ignition, and engine knock and diesel ignition for intermediate temperature ignition. The final example of ignition in a practical environment is homogeneous charge, compression ignition (HCCI) which is shown to be a problem dominated by the kinetics intermediate temperature hydrocarbon ignition. Model results show why high hydrocarbon and CO emissions are inevitable in HCCI combustion. The conclusion of this study is that the kinetics of hydrocarbon ignition are actually quite simple, since only one or two elementary reactions are dominant. However, there are many combustion factors that can influence these two major reactions, and these are the features that vary from one practical system to another.

Westbrook, C.K.

2000-07-07T23:59:59.000Z

492

CPFFS Exhibit A General Conditions  

Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

2, 6/14/13) Exhibit A General Conditions 2, 6/14/13) Exhibit A General Conditions Page 1 of 20 EXHIBIT "A" GENERAL CONDITIONS TABLE OF CONTENTS GC Title Page GC-1 DEFINITIONS (Aug 2012) .......................................................................................................... 3 GC-2A AUTHORIZED REPRESENTATIVES, COMMUNICATIONS AND NOTICES (Jan 2010) ........................................................................................................................................... 3 GC-3 INDEPENDENT CONTRACTOR (Jun 2009) ............................................................................. 4 GC-4 SUBCONTRACT INTERPRETATION (Jun 2009) ...................................................................... 4 GC-5 NOTICE TO PROCEED (Jul 2011)............................................................................................. 4

493

EFS Exhibit A General Conditions  

Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

2, 6/14/13) Exhibit A General Conditions 2, 6/14/13) Exhibit A General Conditions Page 1 of 26 EXHIBIT "A" GENERAL CONDITIONS TABLE OF CONTENTS GC Title Page GC-1 DEFINITIONS (Aug 2012) .......................................................................................................... 3 GC-2 AUTHORIZED REPRESENTATIVES, COMMUNICATIONS AND NOTICES (Apr 2013) ........................................................................................................................................... 3 GC-3 INDEPENDENT CONTRACTOR (Jun 2009) ............................................................................. 4 GC-4 SUBCONTRACT INTERPRETATION (Jun 2009) ...................................................................... 4 GC-5 NOTICE TO PROCEED (Jul 2011)............................................................................................. 4

494

EFS Exhibit A General Conditions  

Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

1, 4/9/13) Exhibit A General Conditions 1, 4/9/13) Exhibit A General Conditions Page 1 of 39 EXHIBIT "A" GENERAL CONDITIONS TABLE OF CONTENTS GC Title Page GC-1 DEFINITIONS (Aug 2012) .......................................................................................................... 3 GC-2 AUTHORIZED REPRESENTATIVES, COMMU