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While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


1

An nual En ergy Re view 2001  

Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update (EIA)

An nual En ergy Re view 2001 An nual En ergy Re view 2001 The An nual En ergy Re view (AER) pres ents the En ergy In for ma tion Ad min - is tra tion's his tor i cal en ergy sta tis tics. For many se ries, sta tis tics are given for ev ery year from 1949 through 2001. The sta tis tics, ex pressed in ei ther phys i cal units or Brit ish ther mal units, cover all ma jor en ergy ac tiv i ties, in - clud ing con sump tion, pro duc tion, trade, stocks, and prices, for all ma jor en - ergy com mod i ties, in clud ing fos sil fu els, elec tric ity, and re new able en ergy sources. Pub li ca tion of this re port is re quired un der Pub lic Law 95-91 (De part ment of En ergy Or ga ni za tion Act), Sec tion 205(c), and is in keep ing with re spon - si bil i ties given to the En ergy In for ma tion Ad min is tra tion un der Sec tion

2

TEAM HEV ARC HITECTURE ENGIN E FU EL TRANS MISSION EN ERGY STOR  

Broader source: Energy.gov (indexed) [DOE]

TEAM TEAM HEV ARC HITECTURE ENGIN E FU EL TRANS MISSION EN ERGY STOR AGE MO TOR Michigan Technological University Through-the-road Parallel 2.0-L 4 Cylinder Spark Ignition Reformulated Gasoline 4-speed Automatic COBASYS, Nickel Metal Hydride - 288V 50 kW Solectria AC Induction Transaxle Mississippi State University Through-the-road Parallel 1.9-L GM Direct Injection Turbo Diesel Bio Diesel (B20) GM F40 6-speed Manual Johnson Controls, Nickel Metal Hydride - 330V 45 kW Ballard Integrated Power Transaxle The Ohio State University Through-the-road Parallel 1.9-L GM Direct Injection Turbo Diesel Bio Diesel (B20) Aisin-Warner AF40 6-speed Automatic Transaxle Panasonic, Nickel Metal Hydride - 300V 67 kW Ballard AC Induction Transaxle /10.6 kW Kollmorgen Brushless DC Generator Pennsylvania State

3

SunErgy AE | Open Energy Information  

Open Energy Info (EERE)

SunErgy AE SunErgy AE Jump to: navigation, search Name SunErgy AE Place Thessaloniki, Greece Zip 55133 Product Sunergy AE develops and manufactures installations for PV projects in Greece. References SunErgy AE[1] LinkedIn Connections CrunchBase Profile No CrunchBase profile. Create one now! This article is a stub. You can help OpenEI by expanding it. SunErgy AE is a company located in Thessaloniki, Greece . http://www.rtl-hessen.de/videos.php?video=7202&kategorie=25 http://www.giessener-allgemeine.de/Home/Stadt/Uebersicht/Artikel,-Schimmel-in-den-Gemeinschaftswaschraeumen-_Schimmel-in-den-Gemeinschaftswaschraeumen-,_arid,128431_regid,1_puid,1_pageid,113.html The college dormitory A.n.n.e.r.ö.d.e.r W.e.g 58 is a financial source for the following project of Amang Aziz: http://www.sunergyweb.eu

4

MinnErgy LLC | Open Energy Information  

Open Energy Info (EERE)

MinnErgy LLC MinnErgy LLC Jump to: navigation, search Name MinnErgy LLC Place Winona, Minnesota Zip 55987 Product MinnErgy is a development stage Minnesota-based firm created for a planned ethanol project. Coordinates 38.046946°, -80.992255° Loading map... {"minzoom":false,"mappingservice":"googlemaps3","type":"ROADMAP","zoom":14,"types":["ROADMAP","SATELLITE","HYBRID","TERRAIN"],"geoservice":"google","maxzoom":false,"width":"600px","height":"350px","centre":false,"title":"","label":"","icon":"","visitedicon":"","lines":[],"polygons":[],"circles":[],"rectangles":[],"copycoords":false,"static":false,"wmsoverlay":"","layers":[],"controls":["pan","zoom","type","scale","streetview"],"zoomstyle":"DEFAULT","typestyle":"DEFAULT","autoinfowindows":false,"kml":[],"gkml":[],"fusiontables":[],"resizable":false,"tilt":0,"kmlrezoom":false,"poi":true,"imageoverlays":[],"markercluster":false,"searchmarkers":"","locations":[{"text":"","title":"","link":null,"lat":38.046946,"lon":-80.992255,"alt":0,"address":"","icon":"","group":"","inlineLabel":"","visitedicon":""}]}

5

use of renewable en-ergy options generally  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

or security risks. Re- newables can thus be used to diversify exist- ing utility resource portfolios electricity (i.e., kWhs) from nuclear and fossil fuel plants appears to solar energy, or bio- mass energy. As a result, most utilities may not purchase wind energy, methods to estimate these costs. Some have shown

Delaware, University of

6

ErgyCapital SpA formerly Greenergy Capital | Open Energy Information  

Open Energy Info (EERE)

ErgyCapital SpA formerly Greenergy Capital ErgyCapital SpA formerly Greenergy Capital Jump to: navigation, search Name ErgyCapital SpA (formerly Greenergy Capital) Place Milan, Italy Zip 20121 Sector Efficiency, Renewable Energy Product Investment company specializing in renewable energy and energy efficiency. Coordinates 45.468945°, 9.18103° Loading map... {"minzoom":false,"mappingservice":"googlemaps3","type":"ROADMAP","zoom":14,"types":["ROADMAP","SATELLITE","HYBRID","TERRAIN"],"geoservice":"google","maxzoom":false,"width":"600px","height":"350px","centre":false,"title":"","label":"","icon":"","visitedicon":"","lines":[],"polygons":[],"circles":[],"rectangles":[],"copycoords":false,"static":false,"wmsoverlay":"","layers":[],"controls":["pan","zoom","type","scale","streetview"],"zoomstyle":"DEFAULT","typestyle":"DEFAULT","autoinfowindows":false,"kml":[],"gkml":[],"fusiontables":[],"resizable":false,"tilt":0,"kmlrezoom":false,"poi":true,"imageoverlays":[],"markercluster":false,"searchmarkers":"","locations":[{"text":"","title":"","link":null,"lat":45.468945,"lon":9.18103,"alt":0,"address":"","icon":"","group":"","inlineLabel":"","visitedicon":""}]}

7

Kinetic Alfv'en Eigenmodes in a Hot Tokamak Plasma  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

'en waves, with a power absorption occurring through resistive dissipation. The kinetic model is appropriate­100 44 Stockholm, Sweden 2 CRPP­EPFL, CH­1015 Lausanne, Switzerland 3 JET Joint Undertaking, Abingdon Resonant destabilization of Alfv'en waves by fusion produced ff\\Gammaparticles is an important issue

Jaun, André

8

Vlasov simulations of Kinetic Alfv\\'en Waves at proton kinetic scales  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Kinetic Alfv\\'en waves represent an important subject in space plasma physics, since they are thought to play a crucial role in the development of the turbulent energy cascade in the solar wind plasma at short wavelengths (of the order of the proton inertial length $d_p$ and beyond). A full understanding of the physical mechanisms which govern the kinetic plasma dynamics at these scales can provide important clues on the problem of the turbulent dissipation and heating in collisionless systems. In this paper, hybrid Vlasov-Maxwell simulations are employed to analyze in detail the features of the kinetic Alfv\\'en waves at proton kinetic scales, in typical conditions of the solar wind environment. In particular, linear and nonlinear regimes of propagation of these fluctuations have been investigated in a single-wave situation, focusing on the physical processes of collisionless Landau damping and wave-particle resonant interaction. Interestingly, since for wavelengths close to $d_p$ and proton plasma beta $\\bet...

Vasconez, C L; Camporeale, E; Veltri, P

2014-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

9

University of Delaware EnErgy InstItUtE syMPOsIUM  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

in Electric Vehicles Willett M. Kempton ­ Associate Professor, Marine and Earth Studies Novel Materials for High Energy and Power Density II John Q. Xiao ­ Professor, Physics and Astronomy Fuel Cells: Opportunities and Challenges Ajay K. Prasad ­ Director, Center for Fuel Cell Research Electrocatalysts for Fuel

Firestone, Jeremy

10

STATEMENT OF CONSIDERATIONS REQUEST BY SIEMENS E~ERGY, INC. ("SEIMENS") FOR AN ADVANCE WAIVER OF  

Broader source: Energy.gov (indexed) [DOE]

SIEMENS SIEMENS E~ERGY, INC. ("SEIMENS") FOR AN ADVANCE WAIVER OF PATENT RIGHTS UN!DER DOE A WARD NO. DE-EE0005493; W(A) 2012-024 I . ~iemer:s has r,e~uested la. waiver, ~f p~tent rights of the United States of Ameri~ for all sub3ect mvent10ns ansmg from rts pmi1c1pat1on under the above referenced award entitled "Offshore 12 MW Turbine Rotor with Advanced Materials and Passive Design Concepts." I The purpose of the aw~rd is to develop, demonstrate, and commercialize wind turbine rotor technologies that will, if fUCcessful, enable a reduction in cost of energy by at least 20 percent. The technologies inc~ude development of a prototype rotor that will be installed on the Siemens 2.3 MW test turbine lbcated at the National Renewable Energy Laboratory's National

11

Micro Hydro Kinetic Turbines from Smart Hydro Power | Open Energy...  

Open Energy Info (EERE)

to the MHK database homepage Retrieved from "http:en.openei.orgwindex.php?titleMicroHydroKineticTurbinesfromSmartHydroPower&oldid720939" Category: Marine and...

12

Applied Numerical Mathematics 68 (2013) 5872 Contents lists available at SciVerse ScienceDirect  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

. The experiments reported here indicate that the efficiency of our new schemes is clearly superior to previous H(q, p) = T (p)+ U(q), where the potential en- ergy U(q) depends on positions and the kinetic energy solution of a modified Hamiltonian. Moreover, although the energy is not conserved along the trajectory

Blanes, Sergio

13

UC Energy Week 2010 May 10-12, 2010  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

UC Energy Week 2010 May 10-12, 2010 Inventing a New Energy Future Biomass Energy Geothermal Energy Solar Energy Wind Energy & Integrated Renewables InventIng a new energy Future UC EnErgy WEEk 2010 May 10­12, 2010 rgy intEgratEd rEnEWaBlEs Biomass EnErgy gEothErmal En nErgy gEothErmal EnErgy

14

Drift-/ Kinetic Alfven Eigenmodes in High Performance Tokamak Plasmas  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Stockholm, Sweden 2) Plasma Science Fusion Centre, MIT, Cambridge MA 02139, USA 3) CRPP-EPFL, 1015 Lausanne to the kinetic Alfv´en wave. This stimulated the development of models such as continuum damping, complex-kinetic description for the bulk plasma. Such a model is required to calculate the power transfer between global fluid

Jaun, André

15

Accurate Energy Attribution and Accounting for Multi-core Systems  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

us- age information. Our system utilizes runtime direct en- ergy measurements that provide accurate per-component energy usage

Ryffel, Sebi; Stathopoulos, Thanos; McIntire, Dustin; Kaiser, William; Thiele, Lothar

2009-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

16

Harvesting renewable energy from Earth's mid-infrared emissions  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

the Sun to the Earth, and wind power and hydroelectricity rely on the en- ergy flow from hotter to colder

Capasso, Federico

17

Nonequilibrium quantum kinetics  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

This paper contains viewgraphs on non-equilibrium quantum kinetics of nuclear reactions at the intermediate and high energy ranges.

Danielewicz, P.

1997-09-22T23:59:59.000Z

18

kinetic wave energy  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

kinetic wave energy ? kinetische Wellenenergie f [Teil der Wellenlnge, die im Feld der Orbitalgeschwindigkeiten unter der Welle enthalten ist und als Orbitalbewegung am Ort verbleibt

2014-08-01T23:59:59.000Z

19

CLEERS Coordination & Joint Development of Benchmark Kinetics...  

Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

Kinetic Data CLEERS Coordination & Joint Development of Benchmark Kinetics for LNT & SCR CLEERS Coordination & Development of Catalyst Process Kinetic Data - Pres. 1:...

20

Kinetics Of Carbon Gasification  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

Kinetics Of Carbon Gasification ... The steamcarbon reaction, which is the essential reaction of the gasification processes of carbon-based feed stocks (e.g., coal and biomass), produces synthesis gas (H2 + CO), a synthetically flexible, environmentally benign energy source. ... Coal Gasification in CO2 and Steam:? Development of a Steam Injection Facility for High-Pressure Wire-Mesh Reactors ...

C. W. Zielke; Everett. Gorin

1957-03-01T23:59:59.000Z

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "kinetic en ergy" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


21

LLNL Chemical Kinetics Modeling Group  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

The LLNL chemical kinetics modeling group has been responsible for much progress in the development of chemical kinetic models for practical fuels. The group began its work in the early 1970s, developing chemical kinetic models for methane, ethane, ethanol and halogenated inhibitors. Most recently, it has been developing chemical kinetic models for large n-alkanes, cycloalkanes, hexenes, and large methyl esters. These component models are needed to represent gasoline, diesel, jet, and oil-sand-derived fuels.

Pitz, W J; Westbrook, C K; Mehl, M; Herbinet, O; Curran, H J; Silke, E J

2008-09-24T23:59:59.000Z

22

Kinetic equilibrium and relativistic thermodynamics  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Relativistic thermodynamics is treated from the point of view of kinetic theory. It is shown that the generalized J\\"uttner distribution suggested in [1] is compatible with kinetic equilibrium. The requirement of compatibility of kinetic and thermodynamic equilibrium reveals several generalizations of the Gibbs relation where the velocity field is an independent thermodynamic variable.

P. Vn

2011-02-01T23:59:59.000Z

23

Improving alternative fuel utilization: detailed kinetic combustion...  

Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

alternative fuel utilization: detailed kinetic combustion modeling & experimental testing Improving alternative fuel utilization: detailed kinetic combustion modeling &...

24

Chemical kinetics modeling  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

This project emphasizes numerical modeling of chemical kinetics of combustion, including applications in both practical combustion systems and in controlled laboratory experiments. Elementary reaction rate parameters are combined into mechanisms which then describe the overall reaction of the fuels being studied. Detailed sensitivity analyses are used to identify those reaction rates and product species distributions to which the results are most sensitive and therefore warrant the greatest attention from other experimental and theoretical research programs. Experimental data from a variety of environments are combined together to validate the reaction mechanisms, including results from laminar flames, shock tubes, flow systems, detonations, and even internal combustion engines.

Westbrook, C.K.; Pitz, W.J. [Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory, CA (United States)

1993-12-01T23:59:59.000Z

25

nemsoverview_928.vp  

Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update (EIA)

9) 9) The Na tional En ergy Mod el ing Sys tem: An Over view 2009 October 2009 En ergy In for ma tion Ad min is tra tion Of fice of In te grated Anal y sis and Fore cast ing U.S. De part ment of En ergy Wash ing ton, DC 20585 This re port was pre pared by the En ergy In for ma tion Ad min is tra tion, the in de pend ent sta tis ti cal and an a lyt i cal agency within the U.S. De part ment of En ergy. The in for ma tion con tained herein should be at trib uted to the En ergy In for ma tion Ad min is tra tion and should not be con strued as ad vo cat ing or re flect ing any pol icy po si tion of the De part ment of En ergy or any other or ga ni za tion. This pub li ca tion is on the WEB at: www.eia.doe.gov/oiaf/aeo/over view/ The Na tional En ergy Mod el ing Sys tem: An Over view 2009 pro vides a sum mary de scrip tion of the Na tional En ergy

26

Nanostructured Materials for Energy Generation and Storage  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

waste-heat recovery allowing for energy reuse. The limited use of thermoelectric generatorswaste-heat recovery allowing for en- ergy reuse. The limited use of thermoelectric generators

Khan, Javed Miller

2012-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

27

CLEERS Coordination & Joint Development of Benchmark Kinetics...  

Broader source: Energy.gov (indexed) [DOE]

CLEERS Coordination & Joint Development of Benchmark Kinetics for LNT & SCR CLEERS Coordination & Joint Development of Benchmark Kinetics for LNT & SCR 2012 DOE Hydrogen and Fuel...

28

CLEERS Coordination & Joint Development of Benchmark Kinetics...  

Broader source: Energy.gov (indexed) [DOE]

Joint Development of Benchmark Kinetics for LNT & SCR CLEERS Coordination & Joint Development of Benchmark Kinetics for LNT & SCR 2011 DOE Hydrogen and Fuel Cells Program, and...

29

CLEERS Coordination & Development of Catalyst Process Kinetic...  

Broader source: Energy.gov (indexed) [DOE]

CLEERS Coordination & Development of Catalyst Process Kinetic Data CLEERS Coordination & Development of Catalyst Process Kinetic Data 2009 DOE Hydrogen Program and Vehicle...

30

Direct Observation of Aggregative Nanoparticle Growth: Kinetic...  

Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

Aggregative Nanoparticle Growth: Kinetic Modeling of the Size Distribution and Growth Rate. Direct Observation of Aggregative Nanoparticle Growth: Kinetic Modeling of the Size...

31

Multidimensional simulation and chemical kinetics development...  

Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

Developing chemical kinetic mechanisms and applying them to simulating engine combustion processes. deer09aceves.pdf More Documents & Publications Chemical Kinetic Research on...

32

Reciprocal Relations Between Kinetic Curves  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

We study coupled irreversible processes. For linear or linearized kinetics with microreversibility, $\\dot{x}=Kx$, the kinetic operator $K$ is symmetric in the entropic inner product. This form of Onsager's reciprocal relations implies that the shift in time, $\\exp (Kt)$, is also a symmetric operator. This generates reciprocity relations between kinetic curves. For example, for the Master equation, if we start the process from the $i$th pure state and measure the probability $p_j(t)$ of the $j$th state ($j\

Yablonsky, G S; Constales, D; Galvita, V; Marin, G B

2010-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

33

Chemical Looping Combustion Kinetics  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

One of the most promising methods of capturing CO{sub 2} emitted by coal-fired power plants for subsequent sequestration is chemical looping combustion (CLC). A powdered metal oxide such as NiO transfers oxygen directly to a fuel in a fuel reactor at high temperatures with no air present. Heat, water, and CO{sub 2} are released, and after H{sub 2}O condensation the CO{sub 2} (undiluted by N{sub 2}) is ready for sequestration, whereas the nickel metal is ready for reoxidation in the air reactor. In principle, these processes can be repeated endlessly with the original nickel metal/nickel oxide participating in a loop that admits fuel and rejects ash, heat, and water. Our project accumulated kinetic rate data at high temperatures and elevated pressures for the metal oxide reduction step and for the metal reoxidation step. These data will be used in computational modeling of CLC on the laboratory scale and presumably later on the plant scale. The oxygen carrier on which the research at Utah is focused is CuO/Cu{sub 2}O rather than nickel oxide because the copper system lends itself to use with solid fuels in an alternative to CLC called 'chemical looping with oxygen uncoupling' (CLOU).

Edward Eyring; Gabor Konya

2009-03-31T23:59:59.000Z

34

Theoretical Studies in Chemical Kinetics  

Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

Theoretical Studies in Chemical Kinetics ^ ^ iCi| Theoretical Studies in Chemical Kinetics ^ ^ iCi| under AEC Contract A T (30-1)-3780 " ■ ' Annual Report (1970) Principal In-vestigator: Martin Karpins Institution: Harvard University The research performed under this contract can best be sunmarized under several headings. (a) Alkali-Halideg Alkali-Halide (MX^ M*X*) Exchange Reactions. This project is being continued. A careful study of certain

35

A Kinetic model of crack fusion  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

......Research Note A Kinetic model of crack fusion Zbigniew Czechowski Institute of Geophysics...presents a kinetic approach to the problem of fusion of cracks. A kinetic equation for the...repetitive episodes of seismicity. crack fusion|kinetic model|seismicity| References......

Zbigniew Czechowski

1991-02-01T23:59:59.000Z

36

Chemical kinetics and combustion modeling  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

The goal of this program is to gain qualitative insight into how pollutants are formed in combustion systems and to develop quantitative mathematical models to predict their formation rates. The approach is an integrated one, combining low-pressure flame experiments, chemical kinetics modeling, theory, and kinetics experiments to gain as clear a picture as possible of the process in question. These efforts are focused on problems involved with the nitrogen chemistry of combustion systems and on the formation of soot and PAH in flames.

Miller, J.A. [Sandia National Laboratories, Livermore, CA (United States)

1993-12-01T23:59:59.000Z

37

Desorption Kinetics of Methanol, Ethanol, and Water from Graphene...  

Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

Desorption Kinetics of Methanol, Ethanol, and Water from Graphene. Desorption Kinetics of Methanol, Ethanol, and Water from Graphene. Abstract: The desorption kinetics of methanol,...

38

A Look at Commercial Buldings in 1995: Characteristics, Energy Consumption, and Energy Expenditures  

U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

DOE/EIA-0625(95) DOE/EIA-0625(95) Distribution Category UC-950 A Look at Commercial Buildings in 1995: Characteristics, Energy Consumption, and Energy Expenditures October 1998 En ergy In for ma tion Ad min istra tion Of fice of En ergy Mar kets and End Use U.S. De part ment of En ergy Wash ing ton, DC 20585 This re port was pre pared by the En ergy In for ma tion Ad min istra tion, the in de pend ent sta tis ti cal and ana lytic agency within the U.S. De part ment of En ergy. The in for ma tion con tained herein should be at trib uted to the En ergy In for ma tion Ad min istra tion and should not be con strued as ad vo cat ing or re flect ing any pol icy po si tion of the De part ment of En ergy or any other or gani za tion. Contacts The En ergy In for ma tion Ad min istra tion (EIA) pre pared this pub li ca tion un der the gen eral di rec tion of W. Cal vin

39

Operational Analysis of Multiregional Nuclear Reactor Kinetics  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

......Operational Analysis of Multiregional Nuclear Reactor Kinetics NASSAR H. S. HAIDAR...analytically for a multiregional nuclear reactor whose subregions are of arbitrary...Operational Analysis of Multiregional Nuclear Reactor Kinetics NASSAU H. S. HAIDAR......

NASSAR H. S. HAIDAR

1983-05-01T23:59:59.000Z

40

KINETIC ROUGHENING PHENOMENA, STOCHASTIC GROWTH, DIRECTED  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

KINETIC ROUGHENING PHENOMENA, STOCHASTIC GROWTH, DIRECTED POLYMERS AND ALL THAT Aspects 254 (1995) 215-414 Kinetic roughening phenomena, stochastic growth, directed polymers and all that for the nonlinear term 3.2. Dynamic RG analysis 3.3. A worthy detour: kinetic roughening with conservation law 3

Halpin-Healy, Tim

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "kinetic en ergy" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


41

Slow Sorption Kinetics of Pentachlorophenol on Soil  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Slow Sorption Kinetics of Pentachlorophenol on Soil: Concentration Effects J O H N P . D I V I N C of Delaware, Newark, Delaware 19717-1303 We investigated the sorption kinetics of pentachlorophenol (PCP in sorption. The onset of the slow sorption kinetics was also concentration dependent. At higher PCP

Sparks, Donald L.

42

14CME Kinetic Energy and Mass Kinetic energy is the energy that a  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

14CME Kinetic Energy and Mass Kinetic energy is the energy that a body has by virtue of its mass the table by determining the value of the missing entries using the formula for Kinetic Energy. Problem 2: What is the minimum and maximum range for the observed kinetic energies for the 10 CMEs? The largest

43

Estimating The Thermodynamics And Kinetics Of Chlorinated Hydrocarbon...  

Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

Estimating The Thermodynamics And Kinetics Of Chlorinated Hydrocarbon Degradation. Estimating The Thermodynamics And Kinetics Of Chlorinated Hydrocarbon Degradation. Abstract: Many...

44

ESS 2012 Peer Review - Amber Kinetics Flywheel Energy Storage Demo - Ed Chiao, Amber Kinetics  

Broader source: Energy.gov (indexed) [DOE]

amber_kinetics amber_kinetics DOE Peer Review September 2012 Ed Chiao, CEO amber_kinetics Amber Kinetics: Our Flywheel History Start-up launched in 2009, Stanford University Cleantech Entrepreneurship class Established a technology licensing & flywheel development partnership with LLNL; Amber Kinetics identified new material & lower-cost rotor designs for commercialization Awarded a Smart Grid Energy Storage Demonstration grant award for flywheels Awarded a matching grant for development & demonstration of flywheel technology Stanford University Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory U.S. Department of Energy California Energy Commission World-class institutions | innovative, deep flywheel technology owned by Amber Amber Kinetics, Inc. - Confidential and Proprietary, All Rights Reserved

45

Oxidation kinetics of aluminum diboride  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

The oxidation characteristics of aluminum diboride (AlB{sub 2}) and a physical mixture of its constituent elements (Al+2B) were studied in dry air and pure oxygen using thermal gravimetric analysis to obtain non-mechanistic kinetic parameters. Heating in air at a constant linear heating rate of 10 C/min showed a marked difference between Al+2B and AlB{sub 2} in the onset of oxidation and final conversion fraction, with AlB{sub 2} beginning to oxidize at higher temperatures but reaching nearly complete conversion by 1500 C. Kinetic parameters were obtained in both air and oxygen using a model-free isothermal method at temperatures between 500 and 1000 C. Activation energies were found to decrease, in general, with increasing conversion for AlB{sub 2} and Al+2B in both air and oxygen. AlB{sub 2} exhibited O{sub 2}-pressure-independent oxidation behavior at low conversions, while the activation energies of Al+2B were higher in O{sub 2} than in air. Differences in the composition and morphology between oxidized Al+2B and AlB{sub 2} suggested that Al{sub 2}O{sub 3}B{sub 2}O{sub 3} interactions slowed Al+2B oxidation by converting Al{sub 2}O{sub 3} on aluminum particles into a Al{sub 4}B{sub 2}O{sub 9} shell, while the same Al{sub 4}B{sub 2}O{sub 9} developed a needle-like morphology in AlB{sub 2} that reduced oxygen diffusion distances and increased conversion. The model-free kinetic analysis was critical for interpreting the complex, multistep oxidation behavior for which a single mechanism could not be assigned. At low temperatures, moisture increased the oxidation rate of Al+2B and AlB{sub 2}, but both appear to be resistant to oxidation in cool, dry environments. - Graphical abstract: Isothermal kinetic data for AlB{sub 2} in air, showing a constantly decreasing activation energy with increasing conversion. Model-free analysis allowed for the calculation of global kinetic parameters despite many simultaneous mechanisms occurring concurrently. (a) Timetemperature plots, (b) conversion as a function of time, (c) Arrhenius plots used to calculate activation energies, and (d) activation energy as a function of conversion. Display Omitted - Highlights: First reported kinetic parameters for AlB{sub 2} and Al+2B oxidation in air and O{sub 2}. Possible mechanism of enhanced boron combustion presented. Moisture sensitivity shown to be problematic for AlB{sub 2}, less for Al+2B.

Whittaker, Michael L., E-mail: michaelwhittaker2016@u.northwestern.edu [Department of Materials Science and Engineering, University of Utah, 122S. Central Campus Drive, Salt Lake City, UT 84112 (United States); Sohn, H.Y. [Department of Metallurgical Engineering, University of Utah, 135S 1460 E, Rm 00412, Salt Lake City, UT 84112 (United States); Cutler, Raymond A. [Ceramatec, Inc., 2425S. 900W., Salt Lake City, UT 84119 (United States)

2013-11-15T23:59:59.000Z

46

Kinetic Modeling of Microbiological Processes  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Kinetic description of microbiological processes is vital for the design and control of microbe-based biotechnologies such as waste water treatment, petroleum oil recovery, and contaminant attenuation and remediation. Various models have been proposed to describe microbiological processes. This editorial article discusses the advantages and limiation of these modeling approaches in cluding tranditional, Monod-type models and derivatives, and recently developed constraint-based approaches. The article also offers the future direction of modeling researches that best suit for petroleum and environmental biotechnologies.

Liu, Chongxuan; Fang, Yilin

2012-09-17T23:59:59.000Z

47

CLEERS Coordination & Development of Catalyst Process Kinetic...  

Broader source: Energy.gov (indexed) [DOE]

Development of Catalyst Process Kinetic Data - Pres. 1: Coordination of CLEERS Project; Pres. 2: ORNL Research on LNT Sulfation & Desulfation CLEERS Coordination & Development of...

48

CLEERS Coordination & Development of Catalyst Process Kinetic...  

Broader source: Energy.gov (indexed) [DOE]

& coordinate DOE research efforts (CLEERS Coordination) * Develop detailed technical data required to simulate energy efficient emission controls (LNT & SCR Kinetics, Sulfur &...

49

The Fractional Kinetic Equation and Thermonuclear Functions  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

The paper discusses the solution of a simple kinetic equation of the type used for the computation of the change of the chemical composition in stars like the Sun. Starting from the standard form of the kinetic equation it is generalized to a fractional kinetic equation and its solutions in terms of H-functions are obtained. The role of thermonuclear functions, which are also represented in terms of G- and H-functions, in such a fractional kinetic equation is emphasized. Results contained in this paper are related to recent investigations of possible astrophysical solutions of the solar neutrino problem.

H. J. Haubold; A. M. Mathai

2000-01-16T23:59:59.000Z

50

Kinetics of actinide complexation reactions  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Though the literature records extensive compilations of the thermodynamics of actinide complexation reactions, the kinetics of complex formation and dissociation reactions of actinide ions in aqueous solutions have not been extensively investigated. In light of the central role played by such reactions in actinide process and environmental chemistry, this situation is somewhat surprising. The authors report herein a summary of what is known about actinide complexation kinetics. The systems include actinide ions in the four principal oxidation states (III, IV, V, and VI) and complex formation and dissociation rates with both simple and complex ligands. Most of the work reported was conducted in acidic media, but a few address reactions in neutral and alkaline solutions. Complex formation reactions tend in general to be rapid, accessible only to rapid-scan and equilibrium perturbation techniques. Complex dissociation reactions exhibit a wider range of rates and are generally more accessible using standard analytical methods. Literature results are described and correlated with the known properties of the individual ions.

Nash, K.L.; Sullivan, J.C.

1997-09-01T23:59:59.000Z

51

Combustion kinetics and reaction pathways  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

This project is focused on the fundamental chemistry of combustion. The overall objectives are to determine rate constants for elementary reactions and to elucidate the pathways of multichannel reactions. A multitechnique approach that features three independent experiments provides unique capabilities in performing reliable kinetic measurements over an exceptionally wide range in temperature, 300 to 2500 K. Recent kinetic work has focused on experimental studies and theoretical calculations of the methane dissociation system (CH{sub 4} + Ar {yields} CH{sub 3} + H + Ar and H + CH{sub 4} {yields} CH{sub 3} + H{sub 2}). Additionally, a discharge flow-photoionization mass spectrometer (DF-PIMS) experiment is used to determine branching fractions for multichannel reactions and to measure ionization thresholds of free radicals. Thus, these photoionization experiments generate data that are relevant to both reaction pathways studies (reaction dynamics) and fundamental thermochemical research. Two distinct advantages of performing PIMS with high intensity, tunable vacuum ultraviolet light at the National Synchrotron Light Source are high detection sensitivity and exceptional selectivity in monitoring radical species.

Klemm, R.B.; Sutherland, J.W. [Brookhaven National Laboratory, Upton, NY (United States)

1993-12-01T23:59:59.000Z

52

The Excitation Energy Dependence of the Total Kinetic Energy Release in 235U(n,f)  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

The total kinetic energy release in the neutron induced fission of $^{235}$U was measured (using white spectrum neutrons from LANSCE) for neutron energies from E$_{n}$ = 3.2 to 50 MeV. In this energy range the average post-neutron total kinetic energy release drops from 167.4 $\\pm$ 0.7 to 162.1 $\\pm$ 0.8 MeV, exhibiting a local dip near the second chance fission threshold. The values and the slope of the TKE vs. E$_{n}$ agree with previous measurements but do disagree (in magnitude) with systematics. The variances of the TKE distributions are larger than expected and apart from structure near the second chance fission threshold, are invariant for the neutron energy range from 11 to 50 MeV. We also report the dependence of the total excitation energy in fission, TXE, on neutron energy.

R. Yanez; L. Yao; J. King; W. Loveland; F. Tovesson; N. Fotiades

2014-03-18T23:59:59.000Z

53

Multiple temperature kinetic model and gas-kinetic method for hypersonic non-equilibrium flow computations  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Multiple temperature kinetic model and gas-kinetic method for hypersonic non-equilibrium flow. For the non-equilibrium flow computations, i.e., the nozzle flow and hypersonic rarefied flow over flat plate-kinetic method; Hypersonic and rarefied flows 1. Introduction The development of aerospace technology has

Xu, Kun

54

Testing the kinetic energy functional: Kinetic energy density as a density functional  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

is to the exchange-correlation energy as a functional of the density. A large part of the total energy, the kinetic contexts. For finite systems these forms integrate to the same global ki- netic energy, but they differTesting the kinetic energy functional: Kinetic energy density as a density functional Eunji Sim

Burke, Kieron

55

Kinetic roughening on curved interfaces  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Stochastic growth phenomena on curved interfaces have not been explored in so much detail as their planar counterparts. The independence of the interface macroscopic shape on kinetic roughening has been occasionally assumed, but however, this fact can not be considered as universal. Stochastic partial differential equations on curved interfaces present dynamical and morphological properties that are completely different from their planar equivalents. Herein we will concentrate on equations which planar counterparts are linear. The fundamental differences are the loss of correlation of the interface through time for models showing sub-ballistic propagation of the correlations and the irrelevance of the noise in two and higher dimensional settings. We analyze some of these processes in detail, exploring why these consequences arise, and show that they tend to appear irrespective of the particular metric, provided that it is not Euclidean. Models showing a super-ballistic propagation of correlations present a fl...

Escudero, Carlos

2008-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

56

Decohesion Kinetics in Polymer Organic Solar Cells  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

Decohesion Kinetics in Polymer Organic Solar Cells ... We investigate the role of molecular weight (MW) of the photoactive polymer poly(3-hexylthiophene) (P3HT) on the temperature-dependent decohesion kinetics of bulk heterojunction (BHJ) organic solar cells (OSCs). ... fullerenes; solar cells; thin films; fracture; polymer ...

Christopher Bruner; Fernando Novoa; Stephanie Dupont; Reinhold Dauskardt

2014-11-04T23:59:59.000Z

57

Kinetics of Non-Thermal Atmospheric Pressure  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Kinetics of Non-Thermal Atmospheric Pressure Plasmas Alexander Fridman · Microdischarge Interaction and Structuring in Dielectric Barrier Discharges · Kinetics of Blood Coagulation in Plasma · Surface Wound wire Area of DBD plasma region: ~104cm2 #12;7 Microdischarge Patterning (2D) R22 R23 R24 R26 R27 R28

Kaganovich, Igor

58

Chemical kinetics and oil shale process design  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Oil shale processes are reviewed with the goal of showing how chemical kinetics influences the design and operation of different processes for different types of oil shale. Reaction kinetics are presented for organic pyrolysis, carbon combustion, carbonate decomposition, and sulfur and nitrogen reactions.

Burnham, A.K.

1993-07-01T23:59:59.000Z

59

ADVANCES IN ENVIRONMENTAL REACTION KINETICS AND THERMODYNAMICS  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

1262 ADVANCES IN ENVIRONMENTAL REACTION KINETICS AND THERMODYNAMICS: LONG-TERM FATE thermodynamic and kinetic data is available with regard to the formation of these mixed metal precipitate phases to six months from the initial addition of aqueous nickel. Additionally, we have determined thermodynamic

Sparks, Donald L.

60

International Energy Outlook 1998  

Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update (EIA)

8) 8) Dis tri bu tion Cate gory UC-950 In ter na tional En ergy Out look 1998 April 1998 En ergy In for ma tion Ad min istra tion Of fice of In te grated Analy sis and Fore cast ing U.S. De part ment of En ergy Wash ing ton, DC 20585 This re port was pre pared by the En ergy In for ma tion Ad min istra tion, the in de pend ent sta tis ti cal and ana lyti cal agency within the De part ment of En ergy. The in for ma tion con tained herein should be at trib uted to the En ergy In for ma tion Ad min istra tion and should not be con strued as ad vo cat ing or re flect ing any pol icy po si tion of the De part ment of En ergy or of any other or gani za tion. Con tacts The Inter na tional Energy Out look is pre pared by the Energy Infor ma tion Admin istra tion (EIA). Gen eral

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "kinetic en ergy" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


61

Chemical Kinetic Modeling of Non-Petroleum Based Fuels | Department...  

Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

ft010pitz2012o.pdf More Documents & Publications Chemical Kinetic Modeling of Non-Petroleum Based Fuels Chemical Kinetic Modeling of Fuels Chemical Kinetic Research on HCCI &...

62

Direct Visualization of Initial SEI Morphology and Growth Kinetics...  

Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

Initial SEI Morphology and Growth Kinetics During Lithium Deposition by in situ Electrochemical Direct Visualization of Initial SEI Morphology and Growth Kinetics During Lithium...

63

Transport-controlled kinetics of dissolution and precipitation...  

Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

Transport-controlled kinetics of dissolution and precipitation in the sediments under alkaline and saline conditions . Transport-controlled kinetics of dissolution and...

64

Studying The Kinetics Of Crystalline Silicon Nanoparticle Lithiation...  

Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

Studying The Kinetics Of Crystalline Silicon Nanoparticle Lithiation With In-Situ Transmission Electron Microscopy. Studying The Kinetics Of Crystalline Silicon Nanoparticle...

65

Global Optimization of Chemical Reactors and Kinetic Optimization  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Model; 3-D; Monolith; Reactor; Optimization Introduction TheAngeles Global Optimization of Chemical Reactors and KineticGlobal Optimization of Chemical Reactors and Kinetic

ALHUSSEINI, ZAYNA ISHAQ

2013-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

66

Structure, Kinetics, and Thermodynamics of the Aqueous Uranyl...  

Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

Kinetics, and Thermodynamics of the Aqueous Uranyl(VI) Cation. Structure, Kinetics, and Thermodynamics of the Aqueous Uranyl(VI) Cation. Abstract: Molecular simulation techniques...

67

Microscale Electrode Design Using Coupled Kinetic, Thermal and...  

Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

Microscale Electrode Design Using Coupled Kinetic, Thermal and Mechanical Modeling Microscale Electrode Design Using Coupled Kinetic, Thermal and Mechanical Modeling 2010 DOE...

68

Microscale Electrode Design Using Coupled Kinetic, Thermal and...  

Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

Microscale Electrode Design Using Coupled Kinetic, Thermal and Mechanical Modeling Microscale Electrode Design Using Coupled Kinetic, Thermal and Mechanical Modeling 2009 DOE...

69

Coupled Kinetic, Thermal, and Mechanical Modeling of FIB Micro...  

Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

Coupled Kinetic, Thermal, and Mechanical Modeling of FIB Micro-machined Electrodes Coupled Kinetic, Thermal, and Mechanical Modeling of FIB Micro-machined Electrodes 2010 DOE...

70

Benchmark Reaction Mechanisms and Kinetics for Lean NOx Traps...  

Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

Benchmark Reaction Mechanisms and Kinetics for Lean NOx Traps Development of Chemical Kinetic Models for Lean NOx Traps Modeling the Regeneration Chemistry of Lean NOx Traps...

71

Experimentally determined dissolution kinetics of Na-rich borosilicate...  

Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

Experimentally determined dissolution kinetics of Na-rich borosilicate glass at far from equilibrium conditions: Implications Experimentally determined dissolution kinetics of...

72

Modeling of Reactor Kinetics and Dynamics  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

In order to model a full fuel cycle in a nuclear reactor, it is necessary to simulate the short time-scale kinetic behavior of the reactor as well as the long time-scale dynamics that occur with fuel burnup. The former is modeled using the point kinetics equations, while the latter is modeled by coupling fuel burnup equations with the kinetics equations. When the equations are solved simultaneously with a nonlinear equation solver, the end result is a code with the unique capability of modeling transients at any time during a fuel cycle.

Matthew Johnson; Scott Lucas; Pavel Tsvetkov

2010-09-01T23:59:59.000Z

73

Kinetic equilibrium reconstruction on EAST tokamak  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

Plasma equilibrium is an important basis for tokamak plasma research. The equilibrium reconstructed from experimental diagnostics is a key element for experiments analysis and for theory study. The kinetic equilibrium has the profiles information (current or safety factor profile, kinetic pressure profile), which are key issues for some studies of physics. With the constraints of magnetic measurements, pressure profile and edge current profile, we achieved the first reconstructed kinetic equilibrium on EAST tokamak. The pressure and edge current profiles are based on the diagnostics and theoretical bootstrap current model. The kinetic equilibrium has the pedestal structure for H-mode plasma, which the magnetic reconstruction missed. This improved equilibrium is an important basis for some experimental analysis and theory studies on EAST.

G Q Li; Q L Ren; J P Qian; L L Lao; S Y Ding; Y J Chen; Z X Liu; B Lu; Q Zang

2013-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

74

Kinetics of ethanol dehydrogenation into ethyl acetate  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

The kinetics of gas-phase dehydrogenation of ethanol into ethyl acetate over a copper-zinc- ... means to design a reactor for dehydrogenation of ethanol into ethyl acetate in different regimes.

V. A. Menshchikov; L. Kh. Goldshtein; I. P. Semenov

2014-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

75

Mechanistic studies using kinetic isotope effects  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

MECHANISTIC STUDIES USING KINETIC ISOTOPE EFFECTS A Thesis by BRIAN E. SCHULMFIER Submitted to the Office of Graduate Studies of Texas ARM University in partial fulfillment of the requtrements for the degree of MASTER OF SCIENCE December... 1999 Major Subject: Chemistry MECHANISTIC STUDIES USING KINETIC ISOTOPE EFFECTS A Thesis by BRIAN E. SCHULMEIER Submitted to Texas A&M University in partial fulfillment of the requirements for the degree of MASTER OF SCIENCE Approved...

Schulmeier, Brian E.

2012-06-07T23:59:59.000Z

76

Kinetic decoupling of WIMPs: analytic expressions  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

We present a general expression for the values of the average kinetic energy and of the temperature of kinetic decoupling of a WIMP, valid for any cosmological model. We show an example of the usage of our solution when the Hubble rate has a power-law dependence on temperature, and we show results for the specific cases of kination cosmology and low- temperature reheating cosmology.

Visinelli, Luca

2015-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

77

Quintom scenario with mixed kinetic terms  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

We examine an extension of the quintom scenario of dark energy, in which a canonical scalar field and a phantom field are coupled through a kinetic interaction. We perform a phase-space analysis and show that the kinetic coupling gives rise to novel cosmological behavior. In particular, we obtain both quintessence-like and phantomlike late-time solutions, as well as solutions that cross the phantom divide during the evolution of the Universe.

Saridakis, Emmanuel N. [College of Mathematics and Physics, Chongqing University of Posts and Telecommunications, Chongqing, 400065 (China); Weller, Joel M. [Department of Applied Mathematics, University of Sheffield, Hounsfield Road, Sheffield S3 7RH (United Kingdom)

2010-06-15T23:59:59.000Z

78

22nd IAEA-FEC Kinetic theory of Geodesic Acoustic Modes: ... 1 Kinetic theory of Geodesic Acoustic  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

22nd IAEA-FEC Kinetic theory of Geodesic Acoustic Modes: ... 1 Kinetic theory of Geodesic Acoustic Zonca, Liu Chen and Zhiyong Qiu #12;22nd IAEA-FEC Kinetic theory of Geodesic Acoustic Modes: ... 2 Chen and Zhiyong Qiu #12;22nd IAEA-FEC Kinetic theory of Geodesic Acoustic Modes: ... 3 2 Linear

Zonca, Fulvio

79

7-Gate Kinetic AMPA Model Kinetics to match EPSCs from calyx of Held  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

7-Gate Kinetic AMPA Model · Kinetics to match EPSCs from calyx of Held · Multiple closed, open and EPSC amplitude Bruce Graham Department of Computing Science and Mathematics, University of Stirling, U, including the calyx of Held in the mammalian auditory system. Such depression may be mediated

Graham, Bruce

80

Chemical Kinetic Modeling of Advanced Transportation Fuels  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Development of detailed chemical kinetic models for advanced petroleum-based and nonpetroleum based fuels is a difficult challenge because of the hundreds to thousands of different components in these fuels and because some of these fuels contain components that have not been considered in the past. It is important to develop detailed chemical kinetic models for these fuels since the models can be put into engine simulation codes used for optimizing engine design for maximum efficiency and minimal pollutant emissions. For example, these chemistry-enabled engine codes can be used to optimize combustion chamber shape and fuel injection timing. They also allow insight into how the composition of advanced petroleum-based and non-petroleum based fuels affect engine performance characteristics. Additionally, chemical kinetic models can be used separately to interpret important in-cylinder experimental data and gain insight into advanced engine combustion processes such as HCCI and lean burn engines. The objectives are: (1) Develop detailed chemical kinetic reaction models for components of advanced petroleum-based and non-petroleum based fuels. These fuels models include components from vegetable-oil-derived biodiesel, oil-sand derived fuel, alcohol fuels and other advanced bio-based and alternative fuels. (2) Develop detailed chemical kinetic reaction models for mixtures of non-petroleum and petroleum-based components to represent real fuels and lead to efficient reduced combustion models needed for engine modeling codes. (3) Characterize the role of fuel composition on efficiency and pollutant emissions from practical automotive engines.

PItz, W J; Westbrook, C K; Herbinet, O

2009-01-20T23:59:59.000Z

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "kinetic en ergy" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


81

MHD versus kinetic effects in the solar coronal heating: a two stage mechanism  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Using Particle-In-Cell simulations i.e. in the kinetic plasma description the discovery of a new mechanism of parallel electric field generation was recently reported. Here we show that the electric field generation parallel to the uniform unperturbed magnetic field can be obtained in a much simpler framework using the ideal magnetohydrodynamics (MHD) description. In ideal MHD the electric field parallel to the uniform unperturbed magnetic field appears due to fast magnetosonic waves which are generated by the interaction of weakly non-linear Alfv\\'en waves with the transverse density inhomogeneity. In the context of the coronal heating problem a new {\\it two stage mechanism} of plasma heating is presented by putting emphasis, first, on the generation of parallel electric fields within an {\\it ideal MHD} description directly, rather than focusing on the enhanced dissipation mechanisms of the Alfv\\'en waves and, second, dissipation of these parallel electric fields via {\\it kinetic} effects. It is shown that for a single Alfv\\'en wave harmonic with frequency $\

David Tsiklauri

2006-06-27T23:59:59.000Z

82

Philips Color Kinetics | Open Energy Information  

Open Energy Info (EERE)

Color Kinetics Color Kinetics Jump to: navigation, search Name Philips Color Kinetics Address 3 Burlington Woods Drive, 4th Floor Place Burlington, Massachusetts Zip 01803 Sector Efficiency Product LED lighting systems Website http://www.colorkinetics.com/ Coordinates 42.5005723°, -71.2042619° Loading map... {"minzoom":false,"mappingservice":"googlemaps3","type":"ROADMAP","zoom":14,"types":["ROADMAP","SATELLITE","HYBRID","TERRAIN"],"geoservice":"google","maxzoom":false,"width":"600px","height":"350px","centre":false,"title":"","label":"","icon":"","visitedicon":"","lines":[],"polygons":[],"circles":[],"rectangles":[],"copycoords":false,"static":false,"wmsoverlay":"","layers":[],"controls":["pan","zoom","type","scale","streetview"],"zoomstyle":"DEFAULT","typestyle":"DEFAULT","autoinfowindows":false,"kml":[],"gkml":[],"fusiontables":[],"resizable":false,"tilt":0,"kmlrezoom":false,"poi":true,"imageoverlays":[],"markercluster":false,"searchmarkers":"","locations":[{"text":"","title":"","link":null,"lat":42.5005723,"lon":-71.2042619,"alt":0,"address":"","icon":"","group":"","inlineLabel":"","visitedicon":""}]}

83

Kinetic studies of elementary chemical reactions  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

This program concerning kinetic studies of elementary chemical reactions is presently focussed on understanding reactions of NH{sub x} species. To reach this goal, the author is pursuing experimental studies of reaction rate coefficients and product branching fractions as well as using electronic structure calculations to calculate transition state properties and reaction rate calculations to relate these properties to predicted kinetic behavior. The synergy existing between the experimental and theoretical studies allow one to gain a deeper insight into more complex elementary reactions.

Durant, J.L. Jr. [Sandia National Laboratories, Livermore, CA (United States)

1993-12-01T23:59:59.000Z

84

It's not simple which is why the University of Houston is facing the challenge head on.  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

is our kind of crisis. UH ENERGY #12;UH.EdU/EnERgy Marathon Oil Schlumberger Technology Vinson & Elkins petroleum sector, including work on intelligent oil fields, nano-scale devices, subsea engineering

Azevedo, Ricardo

85

AAAS Council Meeting, 1983  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

...interests of the governments of Zaire, Tanzania, and the United States were engaged...from affiliation. The International Solar Ener-gy Society, American Section, has changed its name to American Solar En-ergy Society. As new affiliates...

Catherine Borras

1983-07-29T23:59:59.000Z

86

MCLACHLAN, ANTON. Water filtration by dissipative beaches  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

Input was mainly due to tidal effects as most wave energy was dis- sipated in the surf zone. During a very high-en- ergy cvcnt on a high tide, however, filtered vol...

2000-03-05T23:59:59.000Z

87

622 IEEE JOURNAL OF SOLID-STATE CIRCUITS, VOL. 49, NO. 3, MARCH 2014 Co-Design of a CMOS Rectifier and Small Loop  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

622 IEEE JOURNAL OF SOLID-STATE CIRCUITS, VOL. 49, NO. 3, MARCH 2014 Co-Design of a CMOS Rectifier (EM) en- ergy into electrical DC power. This DC power is locally stored in a capacitor or battery

Serdijn, Wouter A.

88

News of Science  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

...California to produce electricity from atomic en-ergy...of the proj-ect. Electricity from the experimental...re-actor plant for production of electricity and for space heating...laboratories on a 22-acre site at Stanford University...

1956-02-24T23:59:59.000Z

89

Pseudospin formulation of kinetic Ising models  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

It is shown that Glauber's kinetic Ising model is equivalent to an Ising model with multispin interactions in a transverse field. In one dimension, certain of Glauber's results are recovered by using the well-known fermion representation for spin-12.

Eric D. Siggia

1977-09-01T23:59:59.000Z

90

ERNSTMORITZARNDTUNIVERSITAT Absolute number density and kinetic analysis  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

and C2F4 molecules in pulsed CF4/H2 rf plasmas I n a u g u r a l d i s s e r t a t i o n zur Erlangung and kinetics of the target species in pulsed CF4/H2 rf plasmas 69 5.1 Plasma process parameters selected

Greifswald, Ernst-Moritz-Arndt-Universität

91

Kinetics of Anionic Surfactant Anoxic Degradation  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

) is the surfactant commonly used in space habitation. The two biofilm models differ in that one assumes a constant biofilm density and the other allows biofilm density changes based on space occupancy theory. Extant kinetic analysis of a mixed microbial culture using...

Camacho, Julianna G.

2010-07-14T23:59:59.000Z

92

STATISTICAL ANALYSIS OF PROTEIN FOLDING KINETICS  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

STATISTICAL ANALYSIS OF PROTEIN FOLDING KINETICS AARON R. DINNER New Chemistry Laboratory for Protein Folding: Advances in Chemical Physics, Volume 120. Edited by Richard A. Friesner. Series Editors Experimental and theoretical studies have led to the emergence of a unified general mechanism for protein

Dinner, Aaron

93

Ca rlsbad Field Office  

Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

En ergy En ergy Ca rlsbad Field Office P. O . Box 3090 Carlsbad , New Mexico 88221 AUG 2 9 2013 Mr. John E. Kieling , Chief Hazardous Waste Bureau New Mexico Environment Department 2905 Rodeo Park Drive East, Building 1 Santa Fe, New Mexico 87505-6303 Subject: Notification of Class 1 Permit Modification to the Waste Isolation Pilot Plant Hazardous Waste Facility Permit Number: NM4890139088-TSDF

94

Atomic Substitutions in Yba2cu3o7 - Modification of the Electronic-Structure  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

, the atomic valences, and the Fermi en- ergy was calculated. I. INTRODUCTION Since the discovery of the new high-T, superconduc- tors, '2 there have been many studies of changes in the su- perconducting properties of these materials induced by re...307 to determine the modification of the local densities of states, the atomic valences, and the Fermi en- ergy. Some of these results have been presented in an ea.-- lier form. II. METHOD We previously calculated the electronic structure...

RICHERT, BA; Allen, Roland E.

1988-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

95

Managing Variable Energy Resources to Increase Renewable Electricity's  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Are There Challenges in Integrating Wind and Solar Power into the Power Grid? 10 What National and State PoliciesManaging Variable Energy Resources to Increase Renewable Electricity's Contribution to the Grid P oG MEllon founDatIon, thE u.s. DEpaRtMEnt of EnERGy's natIonal EnERGy tEChnoloGy laboRatoRy, thE El

96

Chemical Kinetic Modeling of Non-Petroleum Based Fuels | Department...  

Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

ft010pitz2011o.pdf More Documents & Publications Chemical Kinetic Modeling of Non-Petroleum Based Fuels Chemical Kinetic Modeling of Fuels Simulation of High Efficiency Clean...

97

Direct kinetic correlation of carriers and ferromagnetism in...  

Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

kinetic correlation of carriers and ferromagnetism in Co2+ : ZnO. Direct kinetic correlation of carriers and ferromagnetism in Co2+ : ZnO. Abstract: We report the use of controlled...

98

Ethylbenzene dehydrogenation into styrene: kinetic modeling and reactor simulation  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

detailed kinetic model for coke formation and gasification, which was coupled to the kinetic model for the main reactions. The calculation of the dynamic equilibrium coke content provided a crucial guideline for the selection of the steam to ethylbenzene...

Lee, Won Jae

2007-04-25T23:59:59.000Z

99

Kinetic modelling of the thermal decomposition of ettringite into metaettringite  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

1 Kinetic modelling of the thermal decomposition of ettringite into metaettringite J. Pourchez recent insights into thermal stability and decomposition mechanisms of ettringite, a lack of knowledge isothermal conditions. Keywords: ettringite, metaettringite, thermal decomposition, kinetic modelling. 1

Boyer, Edmond

100

Chemical Kinetics Research on HCCI and Diesel Fuels  

Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

Discusses detailed chemical kinetics mechanisms for complex hydrocarbon fuels and computationally efficiecnt, accurate methodologies for modeling advanced combustion strategies.

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "kinetic en ergy" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


101

Rotational and divergent kinetic energy in the mesoscale model ALADIN  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Rotational and divergent kinetic energy in the mesoscale model ALADIN By V. BLAZ ICA1 *, N. Z AGAR1 received 7 June 2012; in final form 7 March 2013) ABSTRACT Kinetic energy spectra from the mesoscale. It is shown that about 50% of kinetic energy in the free troposphere in ALADIN is divergent energy

Zagar, Nedjeljka

102

Quantitative Spreading Kinetics of a Three Molecular Layer Liquid Patch  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

Quantitative Spreading Kinetics of a Three Molecular Layer Liquid Patch ... The late stage kinetics of the spreading of a smectic nanodrop on a solid surface was investigated by direct and real time imaging of a three molecular layer patch using the SEEC microscopy. ... (15) At some stage of the spreading kinetics, the structure reduces to a single bilayer patch lying on the surface monolayer. ...

Olivier Noel; Jean-Luc Buraud; Laurent Berger; Dominique Ausserre?

2010-03-19T23:59:59.000Z

103

Worldwide Oil Production Michaelis-Menten Kinetics Correlation and Regression  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Worldwide Oil Production Michaelis-Menten Kinetics Topic 4 Correlation and Regression Transformed Variables 1 / 13 #12;Worldwide Oil Production Michaelis-Menten Kinetics Outline Worldwide Oil Production Michaelis-Menten Kinetics Lineweaver-Burke double reciprocal plot 2 / 13 #12;Worldwide Oil Production

Watkins, Joseph C.

104

Inlichtingenblad, matlab-en simulink handleiding en  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Inlichtingenblad, matlab- en simulink handleiding en practicumopgaven IWS 1 #12;4 2 Opmerkingen bij de Matlab-handleiding De voor dit practicum relevante informatie staat in de paragrafen 3.4, 4.1 en 4.2, en in de paragraaf 4.3 tot SIMULINK MENUS en vanaf ANALYSIS COMMANDS van de Matlab-handleiding die

Al Hanbali, Ahmad

105

E-Print Network 3.0 - approximate kinetic equations Sample Search...  

Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

equation. Reactor kinetics and Summary: equations, prompt jump approximation; subcritical reactor kinetics, circulating fuel reactor dynamics 5... solution to neutron...

106

Ion mediated crosslink driven mucous swelling kinetics  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

We present an experimentally guided, multi-phasic, multi-species ionic gel model to compare and make qualitative predictions on the rheology of mucus of healthy individuals (Wild Type) versus those infected with Cystic Fibrosis. The mixture theory consists of the mucus (polymer phase) and water (solvent phase) as well as several different ions: H+, Na+ and Ca++. The model is linearized to study the hydration of spherically symmetric mucus gels and calibrated against the experimental data of mucus diffusivities. Near equilibrium, the linearized form of the equation describing the radial size of the gel, reduces to the well-known expression used in the kinetic theory of swelling hydrogels. Numerical studies reveal that the Donnan potential is the dominating mechanism driving the mucus swelling/deswelling transition. However, the altered swelling kinetics of the Cystic Fibrosis infected mucus is not merely governed by the hydroelectric composition of the swelling media, but also due to the altered movement of el...

Sircar, S

2015-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

107

ET Kinetics of Bifunctional Redox Protein Maquettes  

Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

Kinetics of Bifunctional Redox Protein Maquettes Kinetics of Bifunctional Redox Protein Maquettes Mitchell W. Mutz, James F. Wishart and George L. McLendon Adv. Chem Ser. 254, Ch. 10, pp. 145-159 Abstract: We prepared three bifunctional redox protein maquettes based on 12-, 16-, and 20-mer three-helix bundles. In each case, the helix was capped with a Co(III) tris-bipyridyl electron acceptor and also functionalized with a C-terminal viologen (1-ethyl-1'-ethyl-4,4'-bipyridinium) donor. Electron transfer (ET) was initiated by pulse radiolysis and flash photolysis and followed spectrometrically to determined average, concentration-independent, first-order rates for the 16-mer and 20-mer maquettes. For the 16-mer bundle, the alpha-helical content was adjusted by the addition of urea or trifluoroethanol to solutions containing the metalloprotein. This

108

Kinetic Ising Model of the Glass Transition  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

A graph theory of single-spin-flip kinetic Ising models is developed and applied to a class of spin models with strongly cooperative dynamics. Self-consistent approximations for the spin time correlation function are presented. One of the dynamical models exhibits a glass transition with no underlying thermodynamic singularity. The approximation for the time correlation function predicts a critical temperature, below which small fluctuations from equilibrium in the thermodynamic limit cannot relax in a finite amount of time.

Glenn H. Fredrickson and Hans C. Andersen

1984-09-24T23:59:59.000Z

109

Chemical kinetics models for semiconductor processing  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Chemical reactions in the gas-phase and on surfaces are important in the deposition and etching of materials for microelectronic applications. A general software framework for describing homogeneous and heterogeneous reaction kinetics utilizing the Chemkin suite of codes is presented. Experimental, theoretical and modeling approaches to developing chemical reaction mechanisms are discussed. A number of TCAD application modules for simulating the chemically reacting flow in deposition and etching reactors have been developed and are also described.

Coltrin, M.E.; Creighton, J.R. [Sandia National Labs., Albuquerque, NM (United States); Meeks, E.; Grcar, J.F.; Houf, W.G. [Sandia National Labs., Livermore, CA (United States); Kee, R.J. [Colorado School of Mines, Golden, CO (United States)

1997-12-31T23:59:59.000Z

110

Model of the Kinetics of Polymorphous Crystallization  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

We propose a phase-field model for the kinetics of isothermal crystallization of an amorphous solid at a concentration nearly equal to the equilibrium crystal stochiometry. The model utilizes two coupled fields: a nonconserved ordering vector field which describes the local lattice structure and a conserved nonordering scalar field describing the local atomic composition. Results of large-scale computer simulations are reported which can be compared with experiments.

B. Morin; K. R. Elder; M. Sutton; Martin Grant

1995-09-11T23:59:59.000Z

111

Kinetics of atoms in a bichromatic field  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

The kinetics of atoms in a bichromatic field is considered. Analytic solutions are obtained for the force, friction coefficient, and diffusion coefficient in the model of a two-level atom without limitations imposed on the intensity of light fields. This effect is observed in the domain of global minima and maxima of the optical potential (i.e., at points where the relative phase of two standing waves is Greek-Phi-Symbol = 0, {pi}/2.

Prudnikov, O. N., E-mail: llf@laser.nsc.ru [Novosibirsk State University (Russian Federation); Baklanov, A. S. [Russian Academy of Sciences, Institute of Laser Physics, Siberian Branch (Russian Federation)] [Russian Academy of Sciences, Institute of Laser Physics, Siberian Branch (Russian Federation); Taichenachev, A. V. [Novosibirsk State University (Russian Federation)] [Novosibirsk State University (Russian Federation); Tumaikin, A. M. [Russian Academy of Sciences, Institute of Laser Physics, Siberian Branch (Russian Federation)] [Russian Academy of Sciences, Institute of Laser Physics, Siberian Branch (Russian Federation); Yudin, V. I. [Novosibirsk State University (Russian Federation)] [Novosibirsk State University (Russian Federation)

2013-08-15T23:59:59.000Z

112

Isothermal kinetics of new Albany oil shale  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

From the development of technologies for the utilization of eastern U.S. oil shales, fluidized bed pyrolysis technology is emerging as one of the most promising in terms of oil yield, operating cost, and capital investment. Bench-scale testing of eastern shales has reached a level where scale-up represents the next logical step in the evolution of this technology. A major consideration in this development and an essential part of any fluidized bed reactor scale-up effort--isothermal kinetics-- has largely been ignored for eastern US shale with the exception of a recent study conducted by Richardson et al. with a Cleveland shale. The method of Richardson et al. was used previously by Wallman et al. with western shale and has been used most recently by Forgac, also with western shale. This method, adopted for the present study, entails injecting a charge of shale into a fluidized bed and monitoring the hydrocarbon products with a flame ionization detector (FID). Advantages of this procedure are that fluidized bed heat-up effects are simulated exactly and real-time kinetics are obtained due to the on-line FID. Other isothermal methods have suffered from heat-up and cool-down effects making it impossible to observe the kinetics at realistic operating temperatures. A major drawback of the FID approach, however, is that no differentiation between oil and gas is possible.

Carter, S.D.

1987-04-01T23:59:59.000Z

113

Kinetic regulation of coated vesicle secretion  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

The secretion of vesicles for intracellular transport often rely on the aggregation of specialized membrane-bound proteins into a coat able to curve cell membranes. The nucleation and growth of a protein coat is a kinetic process that competes with the energy-consuming turnover of coat components between the membrane and the cytosol. We propose a generic kinetic description of coat assembly and the formation of coated vesicles, and discuss its implication to the dynamics of COP vesicles that traffic within the Golgi and with the Endoplasmic Reticulum. We show that stationary coats of fixed area emerge from the competition between coat growth and the recycling of coat components, in a fashion resembling the treadmilling of cytoskeletal filaments. We further show that the turnover of coat components allows for a highly sensitive switching mechanism between a quiescent and a vesicle producing membrane, upon a slowing down of the exchange kinetics. We claim that the existence of this switching behaviour, also triggered by factors such as the presence of cargo and variation of the membrane mechanical tension, allows for efficient regulation of vesicle secretion. We propose a model, supported by different experimental observations, in which vesiculation of secretory membranes is impaired by the energy consuming desorption of coat proteins, until the presence of cargo or other factors triggers a dynamical switch into a vesicle producing state.

Lionel Foret; Pierre Sens

2008-07-28T23:59:59.000Z

114

Kinetic cascade beyond MHD of solar wind turbulence in two-dimensional hybrid simulations  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

The nature of solar wind turbulence in the dissipation range at scales much smaller than the large MHD scales remains under debate. Here a two-dimensional model based on the hybrid code abbreviated as A.I.K.E.F. is presented, which treats massive ions as particles obeying the kinetic Vlasov equation and massless electrons as a neutralizing fluid. Up to a certain wavenumber in the MHD regime, the numerical system is initialized by assuming a superposition of isotropic Alfv\\'en waves with amplitudes that follow the empirically confirmed spectral law of Kolmogorov. Then turbulence develops and energy cascades into the dispersive spectral range, where also dissipative effects occur. Under typical solar wind conditions, weak turbulence develops as a superposition of normal modes in the kinetic regime. Spectral analysis in the direction parallel to the background magnetic field reveals a cascade of left-handed Alfv\\'en/ion-cyclotron waves up to wave vectors where their resonant absorption sets in, as well as a cont...

Verscharen, Daniel; Motschmann, Uwe; Mller, Joachim

2012-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

115

Energy Conservation Tests of a Coupled Kinetic-kinetic Plasma-neutral Transport Code  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

A Monte Carlo neutral transport routine, based on DEGAS2, has been coupled to the guiding center ion-electron-neutral neoclassical PIC code XGC0 to provide a realistic treatment of neutral atoms and molecules in the tokamak edge plasma. The DEGAS2 routine allows detailed atomic physics and plasma-material interaction processes to be incorporated into these simulations. The spatial pro le of the neutral particle source used in the DEGAS2 routine is determined from the uxes of XGC0 ions to the material surfaces. The kinetic-kinetic plasma-neutral transport capability is demonstrated with example pedestal fueling simulations.

D.P. Stotler, C.S. Chang, S.H. Ku, J. Lang and G. Park

2012-08-29T23:59:59.000Z

116

Pedestal Fueling Simulations with a Coupled Kinetic-kinetic Plasma-neutral Transport Code  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

A Monte Carlo neutral transport routine, based on DEGAS2, has been coupled to the guiding center ion-electron-neutral neoclassical PIC code XGC0 to provide a realistic treatment of neutral atoms and molecules in the tokamak edge plasma. The DEGAS2 routine allows detailed atomic physics and plasma-material interaction processes to be incorporated into these simulations. The spatial pro le of the neutral particle source used in the DEGAS2 routine is determined from the uxes of XGC0 ions to the material surfaces. The kinetic-kinetic plasma-neutral transport capability is demonstrated with example pedestal fueling simulations.

D.P. Stotler, C.S. Chang, S.H. Ku, J. Lang and G.Y. Park

2012-08-29T23:59:59.000Z

117

Kinetic equation for the Ising model  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

A time-dependent projection-operator formalism is used to derive a kinetic equation for the single-spin density operator in an Ising system of N two-state spins in weak interaction with a heat bath. This equation contains a contribution at the self-consistent-field level and also higher-order contributions due to dynamically generated correlations. A detailed evaluation of the self-consistent-field terms is made. Possibilities for generalizing the method to obtain equations for multispin density operators are discussed.

Michael R. Emptage; Paul Hawrylak; Subir K. Bose

1982-12-01T23:59:59.000Z

118

Hamiltonian approach to kinetic Ising models  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

In the framework of the quantum approach to stochastic dynamics, the master equations governing the temporal evolution of the kinetic Ising models (KIM) are cast in the form of imaginary-time Schrdinger equations with second-quantized Hermitian Hamiltonians. On the basis of the quantum formalism a classical evolution equation is derived for an effective time-dependent Ising-type Hamiltonian. The grand ensemble corresponding to the latter describes the statistics of the spin configurations evolving under the dynamics of the KIM. The latter approach was used to qualitatively explain the results of recent Monte Carlo simulations of the Kawasaki KIM. 1996 The American Physical Society.

V. I. Tokar

1996-02-01T23:59:59.000Z

119

Studies of combustion kinetics and mechanisms  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

The objective of the current research is to gain new quantitative knowledge of the kinetics and mechanisms of polyatomic free radicals which are important in hydrocarbon combustion processes. The special facility designed and built for these (which includes a heatable tubular reactor coupled to a photoionization mass spectrometer) is continually being improved. Where possible, these experimental studies are coupled with theoretical ones, sometimes conducted in collaboration with others, to obtain an improved understanding of the factors determining reactivity. The decomposition of acetyl radicals, isopropyl radicals, and n-propyl radicals have been studied as well as the oxidation of methylpropargyl radicals.

Gutman, D. [Catholic Univ. of America, Washington, DC (United States)

1993-12-01T23:59:59.000Z

120

Kinetic equilibration from a radiative transport  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Kinetic equilibration during the early stage of a relativistic heavy ion collision is studied using a radiative transport model. Thermalization is found to dominate over expansion with medium regulated cross sections. Pressure anisotropy shows an approximate alpha_s scaling when radiative processes are included. It approaches an asymptotic time evolution on a time scale of 1 to 2 fm/c. Energy density is also found to approach an asymptotic time evolution that decreases slower than the ideal hydro evolution. These observations indicate that viscosity is important during the early longitudinal expansion phase of a relativistic heavy ion collision.

Bin Zhang

2009-03-11T23:59:59.000Z

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "kinetic en ergy" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


121

Kinetic analysis of dynamic PET data  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Our goal is to quantify regional physiological processes such as blood flow and metabolism by means of tracer kinetic modeling and positron emission tomography (PET). Compartmental models are one way of characterizing the behavior of tracers in physiological systems. This paper describes a general method of estimating compartmental model rate constants from measurements of the concentration of tracers in blood and tissue, taken at multiple time intervals. A computer program which applies the method is described, and examples are shown for simulated and actual data acquired from the Donner 280-Crystal Positron Tomograph.

Knittel, B.

1983-12-01T23:59:59.000Z

122

Adding linear kinetic effects to existing finite-difference simulations  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

We present the proof-of-principle KINETIC-J module for iterative addition of all-order kinetic effects (parallel and perpendicular) in both the IC and EC frequency ranges, to any existing FD or FE frequency-domain full-wave RF simulation. The module calculates the linear, kinetic plasma current, such that given f 0 (r,v) and the cold plasma solution as an initial guess at the wave electric field, iterating the KINETIC-J module and the existing code (its internal plasma current replaced with the output of the module) converges to the kinetic solution. Since KINETIC-J does not use the k-space representation of the hot plasma dielectric, in favor of data parallel numeric integrals, implementing the module requires minimal code changes.

Green, David L [ORNL; Berry, Lee Alan [XCEL Engineering Inc., Oak Ridge

2013-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

123

Stability of global driftkinetic Alfv'en eigenmodes in A.JAUN 1 , J.VACLAVIK 2 , L.VILLARD 2  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

wavefield, the mode converted kinetic Alfv'en, ion­acoustic and drift waves. The power transfers between.VILLARD 2 1 Alfv'en Laboratory, EURATOM­NFR Association, KTH, SE­100 44 Stockholm, Sweden 2 CRPP­EPFL, CH the wave and the particles show that the drift character of the wavefield in the core destabilizes DKAE

Jaun, André

124

Analysis of a kinetic multi-segment foot model part II: Kinetics and clinical implications  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

Kinematic multi-segment foot models have seen increased use in clinical and research settings, but the addition of kinetics has been limited and hampered by measurement limitations and modeling assumptions. In this second of two companion papers, we complete the presentation and analysis of a three segment kinetic foot model by incorporating kinetic parameters and calculating joint moments and powers. The model was tested on 17 pediatric subjects (ages 718years) during normal gait. Ground reaction forces were measured using two adjacent force platforms, requiring targeted walking and the creation of two sub-models to analyze ankle, midtarsal, and 1st metatarsophalangeal joints. Targeted walking resulted in only minimal kinematic and kinetic differences compared with walking at self selected speeds. Joint moments and powers were calculated and ensemble averages are presented as a normative database for comparison purposes. Ankle joint powers are shown to be overestimated when using a traditional single-segment foot model, as substantial angular velocities are attributed to the mid-tarsal joint. Power transfer is apparent between the 1st metatarsophalangeal and mid-tarsal joints in terminal stance/pre-swing. While the measurement approach presented here is limited to clinical populations with only minimal impairments, some elements of the model can also be incorporated into routine clinical gait analysis.

Dustin A. Bruening; Kevin M. Cooney; Frank L. Buczek

2012-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

125

Managing Variable Energy Resources to Increase Renewable Electricity's  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Are There Challenges in Integrating Wind and Solar Power into the Power Grid? 10 What National and State PoliciesManaging Variable Energy Resources to Increase Renewable Electricity's Contribution to the Grid P oG MEllon founD atIon, thE u.s. DEpaRtMEnt of EnERGy 's natIonal E nERGy t EChnolo Gy laboRatoRy, thE El

126

3.205 Thermodynamics and Kinetics of Materials, Fall 2003  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Laws of thermodynamics applied to materials and materials processes. Solution theory. Equilibrium diagrams. Overview of fluid transport processes. Kinetics of processes that occur in materials, including diffusion, phase ...

Allen, Samuel M.

127

Simulations of Kinetic Events at the Atomic Scale  

Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

Presentation on the Simulations of Kinetic Events at the Atomic Scale given at the DOE Theory Focus Session on Hydrogen Storage Materials on May 18, 2006.

128

Kinetics, Mechanics and Microstructure Changes in Storage Media  

Broader source: Energy.gov (indexed) [DOE]

Focus Session on Hydrogen Storage DOE Hydrogen Program Review Crystal Gateway Marriott, Crystal City, VA May 18, 2006 Kinetics, Mechanics and Microstructure Changes in Storage...

129

Extraction of Equilibrium Energy and Kinetic Parameters from...  

Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

Investigator for the Extraction of Equilibrium Energy and Kinetic Parameters from Single Molecule Force Spectroscopy Data. LLNL BES Programs Highlight Extraction of...

130

Kinetics, Mechanics and Microstructure Changes in Storage Media  

Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

Presentation on the Kinetics, Mechanics and Microstructure Changes in Storage Media given at the DOE Theory Focus Session on Hydrogen Storage Materials on May 18, 2006.

131

Chemical kinetics parameters of nuclear graphite gasification  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

This paper provides chemical kinetics parameters for the gasification of nuclear graphite grades of IG-110, IG-430, NBG-18 and NBG-25 and presents empirical correlations for their surface areas of free active sites as a function of mass. The kinetics parameters for the four elementary chemical reactions of gasification of these grades of nuclear graphite include the values and Gaussian distributions of the specific activation energies and the values of the pre-exponential rate coefficients for the adsorption of oxygen and desorption of CO and CO2 gases. The values of these parameters and the surface area of free active sites for IG-110 and NB-25, with fine and medium petroleum coke filler particles, are nearly the same, but slightly different from those of NBG-18 and IG-430, with medium and fine coal tar pitch coke filler particles. Recommended parameters are applicable to future safety analysis of high and very high temperature gas cooled reactors in the unlikely event of a massive air ingress accident.

Mohamed S. El-Genk; Jean-Michel P. Tournier

2013-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

132

Ion mediated crosslink driven mucous swelling kinetics  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

We present an experimentally guided, multi-phasic, multi-species ionic gel model to compare and make qualitative predictions on the rheology of mucus of healthy individuals (Wild Type) versus those infected with Cystic Fibrosis. The mixture theory consists of the mucus (polymer phase) and water (solvent phase) as well as several different ions: H+, Na+ and Ca++. The model is linearized to study the hydration of spherically symmetric mucus gels and calibrated against the experimental data of mucus diffusivities. Near equilibrium, the linearized form of the equation describing the radial size of the gel, reduces to the well-known expression used in the kinetic theory of swelling hydrogels. Numerical studies reveal that the Donnan potential is the dominating mechanism driving the mucus swelling/deswelling transition. However, the altered swelling kinetics of the Cystic Fibrosis infected mucus is not merely governed by the hydroelectric composition of the swelling media, but also due to the altered movement of electrolytes as well as due to the defective properties of the mucin polymer network.

S. Sircar; A. J. Roberts

2015-01-20T23:59:59.000Z

133

Acifluorfen Sorption and Sorption Kinetics in Soil  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

The time-dependent increase in sorbed acifluorfen up to 48 h was described by a two-site equilibrium/kinetic model where Si is sorbed concentration (?mol kg-1), C is solution concentration (?M), ke (L kg-1) is the coefficient for sorption at sites 1 exhibiting instantaneous equilibrium, kf (L kg-1 h-1) and kr (h-1) are rate constants for sorption and desorption, respectively, from sites 2, 1/N accounts for sorption nonlinearity, and t (h) is time. ... Alternatively, acifluorfen degradation and time-dependent sorption of metabolites may be qualitatively described by assuming first-order kinetics: where P is the solution concentration of all metabolic products (?M), SP is concentration of sorbed metabolite (?mol kg-1), kd (h-1) and kp (h-1) are first-order rate constants for substrate degradation and metabolite sorption, respectively, v is solution volume (L), and m is sorbent mass (kg). ... All sorption isotherms were nonlinear and exponent (1/N) values less than 1 (Table 1), indicating decreasing fraction sorbed with increasing initial acifluorfen concentration. ...

Martin A. Locke; Lewis A. Gaston; Robert M. Zablotowicz

1997-01-20T23:59:59.000Z

134

Direct Kinetic Measurements of a Criegee Intermediate  

Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

Direct Kinetic Measurements of a Criegee Intermediate Print Direct Kinetic Measurements of a Criegee Intermediate Print In the earth's troposphere, which blankets the planet surface where we live and breathe, dust particles, gas molecules, water vapor, and sunlight provide the ingredients for a multitude of chemical reactions that can generate effects ranging from clouds and smog to acid rain and climate change. In 1949, chemist Rudolf Criegee proposed a novel chemical pathway for one such reaction, known as ozonolysis: the destruction of alkenes (a type of hydrocarbon), via reaction with ozone, a key pollutant in the troposphere. Although there has been much indirect evidence supporting Criegee's mechanism, breakthrough research done at the ALS by chemists from Sandia National Laboratories, the University of Manchester, and Bristol University has for the first time directly measured reaction rates for so-called "Criegee intermediates," elusive molecules formed at intermediate stages of ozonolysis. The surprising results may have important implications for subjects ranging from advanced engine design to air quality and climate modeling.

135

Kinetic Energy Systems | Open Energy Information  

Open Energy Info (EERE)

Systems Systems Jump to: navigation, search Name Kinetic Energy Systems Place Ocala, Florida Zip 34476 Sector Hydro Product Designs and develops tidal generators. Has notably patented the KESC Tidal Generator which is based on free flow hydrodynamics. Coordinates 29.187525°, -82.140394° Loading map... {"minzoom":false,"mappingservice":"googlemaps3","type":"ROADMAP","zoom":14,"types":["ROADMAP","SATELLITE","HYBRID","TERRAIN"],"geoservice":"google","maxzoom":false,"width":"600px","height":"350px","centre":false,"title":"","label":"","icon":"","visitedicon":"","lines":[],"polygons":[],"circles":[],"rectangles":[],"copycoords":false,"static":false,"wmsoverlay":"","layers":[],"controls":["pan","zoom","type","scale","streetview"],"zoomstyle":"DEFAULT","typestyle":"DEFAULT","autoinfowindows":false,"kml":[],"gkml":[],"fusiontables":[],"resizable":false,"tilt":0,"kmlrezoom":false,"poi":true,"imageoverlays":[],"markercluster":false,"searchmarkers":"","locations":[{"text":"","title":"","link":null,"lat":29.187525,"lon":-82.140394,"alt":0,"address":"","icon":"","group":"","inlineLabel":"","visitedicon":""}]}

136

Detailed Kinetic Modeling of Gasoline Surrogate Mixtures  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Real fuels are complex mixtures of thousands of hydrocarbon compounds including linear and branched paraffins, naphthenes, olefins and aromatics. It is generally agreed that their behavior can be effectively reproduced by simpler fuel surrogates containing a limited number of components. In this work, a recently revised version of the kinetic model by the authors is used to analyze the combustion behavior of several components relevant to gasoline surrogate formulation. Particular attention is devoted to linear and branched saturated hydrocarbons (PRF mixtures), olefins (1-hexene) and aromatics (toluene). Model predictions for pure components, binary mixtures and multi-component gasoline surrogates are compared with recent experimental information collected in rapid compression machine, shock tube and jet stirred reactors covering a wide range of conditions pertinent to internal combustion engines. Simulation results are discussed focusing attention on the mixing effects of the fuel components.

Mehl, M; Curran, H J; Pitz, W J; Westbrook, C K

2009-03-09T23:59:59.000Z

137

Kinetics of wet sodium vapor complex plasma  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

In this paper, we have investigated the kinetics of wet (partially condensed) Sodium vapor, which comprises of electrons, ions, neutral atoms, and Sodium droplets (i) in thermal equilibrium and (ii) when irradiated by light. The formulation includes the balance of charge over the droplets, number balance of the plasma constituents, and energy balance of the electrons. In order to evaluate the droplet charge, a phenomenon for de-charging of the droplets, viz., evaporation of positive Sodium ions from the surface has been considered in addition to electron emission and electron/ion accretion. The analysis has been utilized to evaluate the steady state parameters of such complex plasmas (i) in thermal equilibrium and (ii) when irradiated; the results have been graphically illustrated. As a significant outcome irradiated, Sodium droplets are seen to acquire large positive potential, with consequent enhancement in the electron density.

Mishra, S. K., E-mail: nishfeb@rediffmail.com [Institute for Plasma Research (IPR), Gandhinagar 382428 (India); Sodha, M. S. [Centre of Energy Studies, Indian Institute of Technology Delhi (IITD), New Delhi 110016 (India)] [Centre of Energy Studies, Indian Institute of Technology Delhi (IITD), New Delhi 110016 (India)

2014-04-15T23:59:59.000Z

138

An action with positive kinetic energy term for general relativity  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

At first, we state some results in arXiv: 0707.2639, and then, using a positive kinetic energy coordinate condition given by arXiv: 0707.2639, we present an action with positive kinetic energy term for general relativity. Based on this action, the corresponding theory of canonical quantization is discussed.

T. Mei

2007-11-02T23:59:59.000Z

139

MEANKINETIC ENERGY,EDDY ENERGY,AND KINETIC ENERGYEXCHANGEBETWEENFLUCTUATIONSAND MEAN  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

MEANKINETIC ENERGY,EDDY ENERGY,AND KINETIC ENERGYEXCHANGEBETWEENFLUCTUATIONSAND MEAN FLOWWITHIN by cornputing three quantities suggested by the theory of turbulence: the nean kinetic energy, the eddy energy, and the energy exchange between the nean and fluctuating portions of the flow field (ca11ed dE/dt). Contours

Luther, Douglas S.

140

Kinetics and Modeling of Reductive Dechlorination at High PCE  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Kinetics and Modeling of Reductive Dechlorination at High PCE and TCE Concentrations Seungho Yu for anaerobic reductive dechlorination of tetrachloroethylene (PCE) and trichloroethylene (TCE) were developed. The models were compared with results from batch kinetic tests conducted over a wide range of PCE and TCE

Semprini, Lewis

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "kinetic en ergy" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


141

Kinetics of coal pyrolysis and devolatilization  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

An experimentally based, conceptual model of the devolatilization of a HV bituminous coal is outlined in this report. This model contends that the relative dominance of a process type-chemical kinetic, heat transport, mass transport -- varies with the extent of reaction for a given set of heating conditions and coal type and with experimental conditions for a given coal type and extent of reaction. The rate of devolatilization mass loss process is dominated initially by heat transfer processes, then coupled mass transfer and chemical kinetics, and finally by chemical processes alone. However, the chemical composition of the initial tars are determined primarily by the chemical characteristics of the parent coal. Chemically controlled gas phase reactions of the initial tars and coupled mass transfer and chemically controlled reactions of heavy tars determine the bulk of the light gas yields. For a HV bituminous coal this conceptual model serves to quantify the Two-Component Hypothesis'' of volatiles evolution. The model postulates that the overall rates of coal devolatilization should vary with coal type insofar as the characteristics of the parent coal determine the potential tar yield and the chemical characteristics of the initial tars. Experimental evidence indicates chemical characteristics and yields of primary'' tars vary significantly with coal type. Consequently, the conceptual model would indicate a shift from transport to chemical dominance of rate processes with variation in coal type. Using the conceptual model, United Technologies Research Center has been able to correlate initial mass loss with a heat transfer index for a wide range of conditions for high tar yielding coals. 33 refs., 30 figs., 6 tabs.

Not Available

1987-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

142

Negative kinetic energy term of general relativity and its removing  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

We first present a new Lagrangian of general relativity, which can be divided into kinetic energy term and potential energy term. Taking advantage of vierbein formalism, we reduce the kinetic energy term to a sum of five positive terms and one negative term. Some gauge conditions removing the negative kinetic energy term are discussed. Finally, we present a Lagrangian that only include positive kinetic energy terms. To remove the negative kinetic energy term leads to a new field equation of general relativity in which there are at least five equations of constraint and at most five dynamical equations, this characteristic is different from the normal Einstein field equation in which there are four equations of constraint and six dynamical equations.

T. Mei

2009-03-30T23:59:59.000Z

143

Fully kinetic simulations of megajoule-scale dense plasma focus  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

Dense plasma focus (DPF) Z-pinch devices are sources of copious high energy electrons and ions x-rays and neutrons. Megajoule-scale DPFs can generate 1012 neutrons per pulse in deuterium gas through a combination of thermonuclear and beam-target fusion. However the details of the neutron production are not fully understood and past optimization efforts of these devices have been largely empirical. Previously we reported on the first fully kinetic simulations of a kilojoule-scale DPF and demonstrated that both kinetic ions and kinetic electrons are needed to reproduce experimentally observed features such as charged-particle beam formation and anomalous resistivity. Here we present the first fully kinetic simulation of a MegaJoule DPF with predicted ion and neutron spectra neutron anisotropy neutron spot size and time history of neutron production. The total yield predicted by the simulation is in agreement with measured values validating the kinetic model in a second energy regime.

M. May

2014-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

144

PHYSICAL REVIEW B 86, 245427 (2012) Strong anisotropy in surface kinetic roughening: Analysis and experiments  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

PHYSICAL REVIEW B 86, 245427 (2012) Strong anisotropy in surface kinetic roughening: Analysis; published 26 December 2012) We report an experimental assessment of surface kinetic roughening properties systems whose kinetic roughening is strongly anisotropic, as consistently described by this scaling

Cuerno, Rodolfo

145

Kinetics of the 5-Hydroxymethylfurfural Formation Reaction in Chinese Rice Wine  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

Kinetics of the 5-Hydroxymethylfurfural Formation Reaction in Chinese Rice Wine ... The kinetics of 5-hydroxymethylfurfural (HMF) formation in Chinese rice wine was investigated under different treatment conditions. ... Chinese rice wine; 5-hydroxymethylfurfural (HMF); kinetics ...

Lei Chen; Huahong Huang; Wenbao Liu; Ning Peng; Xuesong Huang

2010-02-18T23:59:59.000Z

146

HIGH PRESSURE COAL COMBUSTON KINETICS PROJECT  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

As part of the U.S. Department of Energy (DoE) initiative to improve the efficiency of coal-fired power plants and reduce the pollution generated by these facilities, DOE has funded the High-Pressure Coal Combustion Kinetics (HPCCK) Projects. A series of laboratory experiments were conducted on selected pulverized coals at elevated pressures with the specific goals to provide new data for pressurized coal combustion that will help extend to high pressure and validate models for burnout, pollutant formation, and generate samples of solid combustion products for analyses to fill crucial gaps in knowledge of char morphology and fly ash formation. Two series of high-pressure coal combustion experiments were performed using SRI's pressurized radiant coal flow reactor. The first series of tests characterized the near burner flame zone (NBFZ). Three coals were tested, two high volatile bituminous (Pittsburgh No.8 and Illinois No.6), and one sub-bituminous (Powder River Basin), at pressures of 1, 2, and 3 MPa (10, 20, and 30 atm). The second series of experiments, which covered high-pressure burnout (HPBO) conditions, utilized a range of substantially longer combustion residence times to produce char burnout levels from 50% to 100%. The same three coals were tested at 1, 2, and 3 MPa, as well as at 0.2 MPa. Tests were also conducted on Pittsburgh No.8 coal in CO2 entrainment gas at 0.2, 1, and 2 MPa to begin establishing a database of experiments relevant to carbon sequestration techniques. The HPBO test series included use of an impactor-type particle sampler to measure the particle size distribution of fly ash produced under complete burnout conditions. The collected data have been interpreted with the help of CFD and detailed kinetics simulation to extend and validate devolatilization, char combustion and pollutant model at elevated pressure. A global NOX production sub-model has been proposed. The submodel reproduces the performance of the detailed chemical reaction mechanism for the NBFZ tests.

Stefano Orsino

2005-03-30T23:59:59.000Z

147

Corrections to kinetic measurements taken on a disk electrode  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Below the limiting current, the rotating disk electrode has a nonuniform current distribution. When the nonuniformities are not explicitly accounted for, errors in values of kinetic parameters determined through measurements on a disk can result. In this analysis, valid for Tafel kinetics, correction factors are obtained as a function of the dimensionless average current density.It is assumed that ohmic corrections are made by the interruption of current. The results indicate that, under certain conditions, the errors are negligible and that the disk geometry, despite its nonuniformities, is adequate for the investigation of systems characterized by Tafel kinetics.

West, A.C.; Newman, J.

1989-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

148

Kinetic modelling of krypton fluoride laser systems  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

A kinetic model has been developed for the KrF* rare gas halide laser system, specifically for electron-beam pumped mixtures of krypton, fluorine, and either helium or argon. The excitation produced in the laser gas by the e-beam was calculated numerically using an algorithm checked by comparing the predicted ionization yields in the pure rare gases with their experimental values. The excitation of the laser media by multi-kilovolt x-rays was also modeled and shown to be similar to that produced by high energy electrons. A system of equations describing the transfer of the initial gas excitation into the laser upper level was assembled using reaction rate constants from both experiment and theory. A one-dimensional treatment of the interaction of the laser radiation with the gas was formulated which considered spontaneous and stimulated emission and absorption. The predictions of this model were in good agreement with the fluorescence signals and gain and absorption measured experimentally.

Jancaitis, K.S.

1983-11-01T23:59:59.000Z

149

Kinetics of methanation on nickel catalysts  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Extensive steady-state and transient measurements of the disproportionation of carbon monoxide, the hydrogenation of deposited carbon, and methanation of carbon monoxide were performed over 2 and 10% nickel on silica support. The results indicated that the methanation of carbon monoxide involves competitively adsorbed species; that the reaction is nearly zero order in carbon monoxide at 0.1-0.5 atm CO and 1 atm H/sub 2/, but negative at higher CO partial pressures and that it becomes less negative with increasing temperature or increasing hydrogen pressure; and that the reaction order with respect to hydrogen changes from 0.5 to 1.0 with increasing CO pressure and decreasing H/sub 2/ pressure. A reaction mechanism is proposed which consists of the molecular adsorption of CO, the dissociative adsorption of H/sub 2/, dissociation of the surface CO species, and reaction of two adsorbed hydrogen atoms with the oxygen; and a multistep hydrogenation and desorption process for the adsorbed carbon. The dissociation and reaction of adsorbed CO is probably the rate-limiting step. The kinetic behavior is best represented with the assumption of a heterogeneous catalyst surface, containing three types of sites of widely varying activity.

Ho, S.V.; Harriott, P.

1980-08-01T23:59:59.000Z

150

Femtosecond kinetics of photoexcited carriers in germanium  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

Thermalization, intervalley scattering, and cooling of photoexcited carriers are observed in the indirect-band-gap semiconductor Ge through time-resolved direct-band-gap transmission and luminescence with 100-fs resolution. The transmission experiment, which uses ?=1.53 ?m, 120-fs pulses from a 76-MHz optical parametric oscillator takes advantage of the indirect-band-gap character of Ge to unambiguously determine the ??L intervalley scattering time at 295 K. The measured ??L transfer time for electrons at the ? valley edge is 23025 fs yielding 4.20.2108 eV/cm for the D?-L intervalley deformation potential. The luminescence experiments were performed at 10 K using a standard time and spectrally gated up-conversion technique employing an 82-MHz, 80-fs pulse width Ti:sapphire laser operating at ?=750 nm. From the luminescence experiments conducted with peak carrier densities of 10181019 cm-3, we observe that ??L,X scattering competes with carrier-carrier scattering so that nonthermalized carriers are observed for up to several hundred femtoseconds after an excitation pulse. Because the initial carrier kinetic energy is quite high we find that in addition to phonon-assisted L-L intervalley scattering, X-L and X-X processes must be included to account for a carrier-cooling time. A value of 5108 eV/cm is obtained for the DX-X deformation potential.

X. Q. Zhou; H. M. van Driel; G. Mak

1994-08-15T23:59:59.000Z

151

Quantum kinetic theory with nonlocal coherence  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

In this thesis we develop a novel approximation scheme (eQPA), where the effects of nonlocal coherence are included in the kinetic approach to nonequilibrium quantum dynamics. The key element in our formalism is the finding of new singular shell solutions, located at $k_{0,z} = 0$ in the phase space of 2-point Wightman function, which describe the nonlocal quantum coherence between the ``opposite'' mass-shell excitations for spatially homogeneous and static planar symmetric problems, respectively. This phase space structure leads to a closed set of transport equations for the corresponding on-shell distribution functions $f$, providing an extension to the standard quantum Boltzmann equation. We have considered a number of applications to demonstrate the use of our formalism, including the Klein problem, quantum reflection from a CP-violating mass wall and coherent production of (fermionic and scalar) particles in an oscillating background. Our formalism should be of relevance for many problems in particle physics and cosmology, including baryogenesis and neutrino flavour oscillations in an inhomogeneous background.

Matti Herranen

2009-06-17T23:59:59.000Z

152

INFRARED ABSORPTION SPECTROSCOPY AND CHEMICAL KINETICS OF FREE RADICALS  

Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

mNAL PERFORMANCE REPORT mNAL PERFORMANCE REPORT for INFRARED ABSORPTION SPECTROSCOPY AND CHEMICAL KINETICS OF FREE RADICALS DE-FG05-85ER13439 1-AUG-1985 to 31-JUL-1994 Robert F. Curl and Graham P. Glass Principal Investigators Introduction This research was directed at the detection, monitoring, and study (by infrared absorption spectroscopy) of the chemical kinetic behavior of small free radical species thought to be important intermediates in combustion. The work typically progressed from the detection and analysis of the infrared spectrum of combustion radical to the utilization of the infrared spectrum thus obtained in the investigation of chemical kinetics of the radical species. The methodology employed was infrared kinetic spectroscopy. In this technique the radical is produced by UV flash photolysis using an excimer laser and then

153

An Improved Equilibrium-Kinetics Speciation Algorithm For Redox Reactions  

Open Energy Info (EERE)

Improved Equilibrium-Kinetics Speciation Algorithm For Redox Reactions Improved Equilibrium-Kinetics Speciation Algorithm For Redox Reactions In Variably Saturated Subsurface Flow Systems Jump to: navigation, search GEOTHERMAL ENERGYGeothermal Home Journal Article: An Improved Equilibrium-Kinetics Speciation Algorithm For Redox Reactions In Variably Saturated Subsurface Flow Systems Details Activities (0) Areas (0) Regions (0) Abstract: Reactive chemical transport occurs in a variety of geochemical environments, and over a broad range of space and time scales. Efficiency of the chemical speciation and water-rock-gas interaction calculations is important for modeling field-scale multidimensional reactive transport problems. An improved efficient model, REACT, for simulating water-rock-gas interaction under equilibrium and kinetic conditions, has been developed.

154

Mechanistic kinetic modeling of the hydrocracking of complex feedstocks  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

subclasses by distinguishing the isomers of a class according to the number of methyl branches. The kinetic model is plugged into an adiabatic multi-bed trickle flow reactor model. The model contains 33 feedstock and temperature independent parameters which...

Kumar, Hans

2009-05-15T23:59:59.000Z

155

Modeling Hydrolysis and Esterification Kinetics for Biofuel Processes  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

We determined the kinetics for ethyl oleate hydrolysis in high-temperature water and for the reverse reaction, oleic acid esterification, in near- and supercritical ethanol. Hydrolysis was clearly autocatalytic. The experimental data, from reactions at ...

Shujauddin Changi; Tanawan Pinnarat; Phillip E. Savage

2011-02-15T23:59:59.000Z

156

Long-term Kinetics of Uranyl Desorption from Sediments Under...  

Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

results were used to evaluate alternative multi-rate surface complexation reaction (SCR) approaches to describe the short- and long-term kinetics of U(VI) desorption under...

157

Topobo : a gestural design tool with kinetic memory  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

The modeling of kinetic systems, both in physical materials and virtual simulations, provides a methodology to better understand and explore the forces and dynamics of our physical environment. The need to experiment, ...

Parkes, Amanda Jane

2004-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

158

Kinetic Roughening with Algebraically Distributed Noise Amplitudes or Waiting Times  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

In this paper we report on numerical simulation results on Zhangs prediction1...about the relevance of the distribution of noise amplitudes ?in kinetic surface roughening2. For power law distributions P(?) ? ?-(...

Jnos Kertsz

1993-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

159

Kinetic roughening-like transition with finite nucleation barrier  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Recent observations of the growth of protein crystals have identified two different growth regimes. At low supersaturation, the surface of the crystal is smooth and increasing in size due to the nucleation of steps at defects and the subsequent growth of the steps. At high supersaturation, nucleation occurs at many places simultaneously, the crystal surface becomes rough and the growth velocity increases more rapidly with increasing supersaturation than in the smooth regime. Kinetic roughening transitions are typically assumed to be due to the vanishing of the barrier for two-dimension nucleation on the surface of the crystal. We show here, by means of both analytic mean field models and kinetic Monte Carlo simulations that a transition between different growth modes reminiscent of kinetic roughening can also arise as a kinetic effect occurring at finite nucleation barriers.

James F. Lutsko; Vasileios Basios; Gregoire Nicolis; John J. Kozak; Mike Sleutel; Dominique Maes

2010-01-07T23:59:59.000Z

160

Thermoanalysis and reaction kinetics of heavy oil combustion  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

The present study deals with fingerprinting the oxidation behavior of a Brazilian crude (12 API) oil. It focuses on the determination of reaction kinetic parameters through classical thermal analysis techniques ...

Anderson N. Pereira; Osvair V. Trevisan

2014-02-01T23:59:59.000Z

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "kinetic en ergy" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


161

Multistep pyrolysis kinetics of North Korean oil shale  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

In this paper, multistep pyrolysis kinetics of North Korean oil shale was investigated by thermogravimetric analysis. All the...?1...from room temperature to 873K under nitrogen atmosphere. The main oil-producin...

Wei Wang; Shuyuan Li; Changtao Yue; Yue Ma

2014-10-01T23:59:59.000Z

162

BE.420J Biomolecular Kinetics and Cellular Dynamics, Fall 2004  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

This subject deals primarily with kinetic and equilibrium mathematical models of biomolecular interactions, as well as the application of these quantitative analyses to biological problems across a wide range of levels of ...

Wittrup, K. Dane

163

Nonphotochemical hole burning and dispersive kinetics in amorphous solids.  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

??Results of an extensive study, covering burn intensities in the nW to {dollar}?{dollar}W/cm{dollar}2{dollar} range, of dispersive hole growth kinetics are reported for Oxazine 720 in (more)

Kenney, Michael Joseph

1990-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

164

Catalytic deactivation on methane steam reforming catalysts. 2. Kinetic study  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

The kinetics of methane steam reforming reaction over an alumina-supported nickel catalyst was investigated at a temperature range of 640-740/sup 0/C in a flow reactor at atmospheric pressure. The experiments were performed varying the inlet concentration of methane, hydrogen, and water. A kinetic scheme of the Houghen-Watson type was satisfactorily proposed assuming the dissociative adsorption of CH/sub 4/ as the rate-limiting step, but this kinetic scheme can be easily replaced by a first-order kinetics (r/sub CH/4/sub / = kapparho/sub CH/4/sub /) for engineering purposes. Catalyst activation with H/sub 2/ and N/sub 2/ mixtures or with the reactant mixture results in the same extent of reaction.

Agnelli, M.E.; Ponzi, E.N.; Yeramian, A.A.

1987-08-01T23:59:59.000Z

165

Kinetic energy error in the NIMROD spheromak simulations Carl Sovinec  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Kinetic energy error in the NIMROD spheromak simulations Carl Sovinec 10/25/00 Dmitri Ryutov at the ends (as in the spheromak simulations), it may lead to compression in a boundary layer.] The maximum

Sovinec, Carl

166

Application of Ice Nucleation Kinetics in Orographic Clouds  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

Ice nucleation by silver iodide-sodium iodide aerosol particles has been characterized in the Colorado State University isothermal cloud chamber using the techniques of chemical kinetics. Two separate mechanisms of condensation-freezing ice ...

Rochelle R. Blumenstein; Robert M. Rauber; Lewis O. Grant; William G. Finnegan

1987-10-01T23:59:59.000Z

167

A Study and Comparison of SCR Reaction Kinetics from Reactor...  

Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

Data A Study and Comparison of SCR Reaction Kinetics from Reactor and Engine Experimental Data Presents experimental study of a Cu-zeolite SCR in both reactor and engine test cell,...

168

Kinetic studies of isoprene reactions with hydroxyl and chlorine radicals  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Kinetic studies of the isoprene oxidation reactions initiated by the hydroxyl radical OH and the chlorine atom Cl have been investigated using a fast-flow reactor in conjunction with chemical ionization mass spectrometry (CIMS) and using laser...

Suh, Inseon

2012-06-07T23:59:59.000Z

169

Observable fast kinetic eigenmode in binary noble-gas mixtures  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

It is suggested that a fast kinetic mode should be observable in a whole class of disparate mass fluid mixtures, such as gaseous He-Xe, by neutron scattering experiments, at not too high densities and Xe concentrations.

Campa, A.; Cohen, E.G.D.

1988-08-15T23:59:59.000Z

170

Fully kinetic modeling of a divergent cusped-field thruster  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

A fully kinetic, particle-in-cell plasma simulation tool has been incrementally developed by members of the Massachusetts Institute of Technology Space Propulsion Laboratory. Adapting this model to simulate the performance ...

Gildea, Stephen Robert

2009-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

171

Nonlinear Adaptive Control for Bioreactors with Unknown Kinetics  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

on a real life wastewater treatment plant. Key words: Nonlinear adaptive control, continuous bioprocesses, unknown kinetics, wastewater treatment. 1 Introduction Biological processes have become widely used a pollutant (wastewater treatment...). There- fore, bioreactors require advanced regulation procedures

Bernard, Olivier

172

Turbulent kinetic energy balance as a tool for estimating vertical ...  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

Based on microstructure measurements in a simply shaped lake basin, the sources of ... Comparison with turbulent kinetic energy balances, performed in five other lakes, ...... pation (PB) is everywhere the same per unit area of sediment

1910-00-90T23:59:59.000Z

173

Kinetic and Performance Studies of the Regeneration Phase of...  

Broader source: Energy.gov (indexed) [DOE]

Studies of the Regeneration Phase of Model PtRhBa NOx Traps for Design and Optimization Kinetic and Performance Studies of the Regeneration Phase of Model PtRhBa NOx...

174

Activation of the Sulfhydryl Group by Mo Centers: Kinetics of...  

Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

Mo(mu-SH)Mo Complex Abstract: This paper provides evidence from kinetic experiments and electronic structure calculations of a significantly reduced S-H bond strength in the...

175

Explicit Integration with GPU Acceleration for Large Kinetic Networks  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

We demonstrate the first implementation of recently-developed fast explicit kinetic integration algorithms on modern graphics processing unit (GPU) accelerators. Taking as a generic test case a Type Ia supernova explosion with an extremely stiff thermonuclear network having 150 isotopic species and 1604 reactions coupled to hydrodynamics using operator splitting, we demonstrate the capability to solve of order 100 realistic kinetic networks in parallel in the same time that standard implicit methods can solve a single such network on a CPU. This orders-of-magnitude decrease in compute time for solving systems of realistic kinetic networks implies that important coupled, multiphysics problems in various scientific and technical fields that were intractible, or could be simulated only with highly schematic kinetic networks, are now computationally feasible.

Brock, Benjamin; Billings, Jay Jay; Guidry, Mike

2014-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

176

Intercalation Kinetics and Ion Mobility in Electrode Materials...  

Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

es093daniel2011o.pdf More Documents & Publications Coupled Kinetic, Thermal, and Mechanical Modeling of FIB Micro-machined Electrodes In-Situ Electron Microscopy of Electrical...

177

Energy landscapes, folding mechanisms and kinetics of RNA tetraloop hairpins  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

Energy landscapes, folding mechanisms and kinetics of RNA tetraloop hairpins ... In this work, we use the discrete path sampling (DPS) approach to explore the energy landscapes of two RNA tetraloop hairpins, and provide insights into their folding mechanisms and kinetics in atomistic detail. ... Our results show that the potential energy landscapes have a distinct funnel-like bias towards the folded hairpin state, consistent with efficient structure-seeking properties. ...

Debayan Chakraborty; Rosana Collepardo-Guevara; David J. Wales

2014-12-02T23:59:59.000Z

178

Kinetic Isotope Effects in Cycloreversion of Rhenium (V) Diolates  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

The isotope effects were all calculated from these ratios according to the equation25 (F = extent of reaction; R = isotopic ratio vs reference at extent of reaction F; R0 = initial isotopic ratio vs reference). ... The magnitudes of small kinetic isotope effects (KIEs) are amplified in the isotopic compn. of starting materials recovered from reactions taken to high conversions. ... The magnitudes of small kinetic isotope effects (KIEs) are amplified in the isotopic compn. of starting materials recovered from reactions taken to high conversions. ...

Kevin P. Gable; Fedor A. Zhuravlev

2002-03-21T23:59:59.000Z

179

Kinetic parameter estimation using nonisothermal trickle-bed reactor data  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

KINETIC PARAMETER ESTIMATION USING NONISOTHERMAL TRICKLE-BED REACTOR DATA A Thesis by MICHAEL ALLEN MENSIK Submitted to the Graduate College of Texas ALM University in partial fulfillment of the requirements for the degree of MASTER... OF SCIENCE May 1985 Major Subject: Chemical Engineering KINETIC PARAMETER ESTIMATION USING NONISOTHERMAL TRICKLE-BED REACTOR DATA A Thesis by MICHAEL ALLEN MENSIK Approved as to style and content by: A. ger n (Chairman of Comm ee) R. G. Antho...

Mensik, Michael Allen

2012-06-07T23:59:59.000Z

180

Neptunium_Oxide_Precipitation_Kinetics_AJohnsen  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

We evaluate the proposed NpO{sub 2}{sup +}(aq)-NpO{sub 2}(cr) reduction-precipitation system at elevated temperatures to obtain primary information on the effects of temperature, ionic strength, O{sub 2} and CO{sub 2}. Experiments conducted on unfiltered solutions at 10{sup -4} M NpO{sub 2}{sup +}(aq), neutral pH, and 200 C indicated that solution colloids strongly affect precipitation kinetics. Subsequent experiments on filtered solutions at 200, 212, and 225 C showed consistent and distinctive temperature-dependent behavior at reaction times {le} 800 hours. At longer times, the 200 C experiments showed unexpected dissolution of neptunium solids, but experiments at 212 C and 225 C demonstrated quasi steady-state neptunium concentrations of 3 x 10{sup -6} M and 6 x 10{sup -6} M, respectively. Solids from a representative experiment analyzed by X-ray diffraction were consistent with NpO{sub 2}(cr). A 200 C experiment with a NaCl concentration of 0.05 M showed a dramatic increase in the rate of neptunium loss. A 200 C experiment in an argon atmosphere resulted in nearly complete loss of aqueous neptunium. Previously proposed NpO{sub 2}{sup +}(aq)-NpO{sub 2}(cr) reduction-precipitation mechanisms in the literature specified a 1:1 ratio of neptunium loss and H{sup +} production in solution over time. However, all experiments demonstrated ratios of approximately 0.4 to 0.5. Carbonate equilibria can account for only about 40% of this discrepancy, leaving an unexpected deficit in H+ production that suggests that additional chemical processes are occurring.

Johnsen, A M; Roberts, K E; Prussin, S G

2012-06-08T23:59:59.000Z

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "kinetic en ergy" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


181

One-dimensional kinetics modifications for BWR reload methods  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Yankee Atomic Electric Company (YAEC) currently uses RETRAN-02 to analyze limiting transients and establish operating minimum critical power ratio (MCPR) limits for Vermont Yankee (VY) boiling water reactor (BWR) reload analysis. The US Nuclear Regulatory Commission-approved analysis methods, used in previous cycles, use the point-kinetics modeling option in RETRAN-02 to represent transient-induced neutronic feedback. RETRAN-02 also contains a one-dimensional (1-D) kinetics neutronic feedback model option that provides a more accurate transient power prediction than the point-kinetics model. In the past few fuel cycles, the thermal or MCPR operating margin at VY has eroded due to increases in fuel cycle length. To offset this decrease, YAEC has developed the capability to use the more accurate 1-D kinetics RETRAN option. This paper reviews the qualification effort for the YAEC BWR methods. This paper also presents a comparison between RETRAN-02 predictions using 1-D and point kinetics for the limiting transient, and demonstrates the typical gain in thermal margin from 1-D kinetics.

Chandola, V.; Robichaud, J.D.

1990-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

182

Peptide concentration alters intermediate species in amyloid ? fibrillation kinetics  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Highlights: ? A?(140) aggregation in vitro has been monitored at different concentrations. ? A?(140) fibrillation does not always follow conventional kinetic mechanisms. ? We demonstrate non-linear features in the kinetics of A?(140) fibril formation. ? At high A?(140) concentrations secondary processes dictate fibrillation speed. ? Intermediate species may play significant roles on final amyloid fibril development. -- Abstract: The kinetic mechanism of amyloid aggregation remains to be fully understood. Investigations into the species present in the different kinetic phases can assist our comprehension of amyloid diseases and further our understanding of the mechanism behind amyloid ? (A?) (140) peptide aggregation. Thioflavin T (ThT) fluorescence and transmission electron microscopy (TEM) have been used in combination to monitor A?(140) aggregation in vitro at both normal and higher than standard concentrations. The observed fibrillation behaviour deviates, in several respects, from standard concepts of the nucleationpolymerisation models and shows such features as concentration-dependent non-linear effects in the assembly mechanism. A?(140) fibrillation kinetics do not always follow conventional kinetic mechanisms and, specifically at high concentrations, intermediate structures become populated and secondary processes may further modify the fibrillation mechanism.

Garvey, M., E-mail: megan.garvey@molbiotech.rwth-aachen.de [Max-Planck Research Unit for Enzymology of Protein Folding, Weinbergweg 22, 06120 Halle (Saale) (Germany); Morgado, I., E-mail: immorgado@ualg.pt [Max-Planck Research Unit for Enzymology of Protein Folding, Weinbergweg 22, 06120 Halle (Saale) (Germany)

2013-04-12T23:59:59.000Z

183

New insights into the mechanism and kinetics of adsorbed CO electrooxidation on platinum: Online mass spectrometry and Kinetic  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

New insights into the mechanism and kinetics of adsorbed CO electrooxidation on platinum: Online Monte Carlo simulation code specific to the electrooxidation of adsorbed CO on Pt. The simulations

Pfeifer, Holger

184

Model calculations of the hydrogen/deuterium kinetic isotope effect in the atomic hydrogen + disilane reaction  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

Model calculations of the hydrogen/deuterium kinetic isotope effect in the atomic hydrogen + disilane reaction ...

I. Safarik; T. L. Pollock; O. P. Strausz

1974-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

185

Phrases of the Kinetic: Dynamic Physicality as a Dimension of the Design Process  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

construction and dynamics physics education with children; Kinetic Sketchup, a system for motion construction

Ishii, Hiroshi

186

Catalyst deactivation kinetics: An apparent delay in decreasing of catalyst activity, inflection point and data interpretation  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

Problems of catalyst deactivation kinetics and catalyst stability testing are considered. An apparent delay...

N. M. Ostrovskii

2011-12-01T23:59:59.000Z

187

Kinetics of Ni Sorption in Soils: Roles of Soil Organic Matter and Ni Precipitation  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Kinetics of Ni Sorption in Soils: Roles of Soil Organic Matter and Ni Precipitation Zhenqing Shi, Lawrence, Kansas 66045-7609, United States *S Supporting Information ABSTRACT: The kinetics of Ni sorption) precipitates using both experimental studies and kinetic modeling. Batch sorption kinetic experiments were

Sparks, Donald L.

188

Creating an Energy Awareness Campaign - A Handbook for Federal Energy Managers  

Broader source: Energy.gov (indexed) [DOE]

l l n t li b a f Creating an EnErgy AwArEnEss ProgrAm A HAnDBooK For FEDErAL EnErgy mAnAgErs Energy Efficiency Renewable Energy is c ean, abu U.S. Department of Energy and Bringing you a prosperous future where energy dan , re a le, nd af ordable Creating an Energy Awareness Program A HAnDBooK For FEDErAL EnErgy mAnAgErs The Federal government is the single largest domestic user of energy, spending more than $17 billion to power its vehicles, operations, and approximately 500,000 facilities throughout the United States. Federal agencies impact every energy-consuming sector of our economy - commercial, industrial, residential, agricultural, and transportation. Efficient energy management at Federal facilities and operations: * Saves taxpayers money; * Reduces greenhouse gas emissions;

189

The Impact of Alternative Fuels on Combustion Kinetics  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

The research targets the development of detailed kinetic models to quantitatively characterize the impact of alternative fuels on the performance of Navy turbines and diesel engines. Such impacts include kinetic properties such as cetane number, flame speed, and emissions as well as physical properties such as the impact of boiling point distributions on fuel vaporization and mixing. The primary focus will be Fischer-Tropsch liquids made from natural gas, coal or biomass. The models will include both the effects of operation with these alternative fuels as well as blends of these fuels with conventional petroleum-based fuels. The team will develop the requisite kinetic rules for specific reaction types and incorporate these into detailed kinetic mechanisms to predict the combustion performance of neat alternative fuels as well as blends of these fuels with conventional fuels. Reduced kinetic models will be then developed to allow solution of the coupled kinetics/transport problems. This is a collaboration between the Colorado School of Mines (CSM) and the Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory (LLNL). The CSM/LLNL team plans to build on the substantial progress made in recent years in developing accurate detailed chemical mechanisms for the oxidation and pyrolysis of conventional fuels. Particular emphasis will be placed upon reactions of the isoalkanes and the daughter radicals, especially tertiary radicals, formed by abstraction from the isoalkanes. The various components of the program are described. We have been developing the kinetic models for two iso-dodecane molecules, using the same kinetic modeling formalisms that were developed for the gasoline and diesel primary reference fuels. These mechanisms, and the thermochemical and transport coefficient submodels for them, are very close to completion at the time of this report, and we expect them to be available for kinetic simulations early in the coming year. They will provide a basis for prediction and selection of desirable F-T molecules for use in jet engine simulations, where we should be able to predict the ignition, combustion and emissions characteristics of proposed fuel components. These mechanisms include the reactions and chemical species needed to describe high temperature phenomena such as shock tube ignition and flammability behavior, and they will also include low temperature kinetics to describe other ignition phenomena such as compression ignition and knocking. During the past years, our hydrocarbon kinetics modeling group at LLNL has focused a great deal on fuels typical of gasoline and diesel fuel. About 10 years ago, we developed kinetic models for the fuel octane primary reference fuels, n-heptane [1] and iso-octane [2], which have 7 and 8 carbon atoms and are therefore representative of typical gasoline fuels. N-heptane represents the low limit of knock resistance with an octane number of 0, while iso-octane is very knock resistant with an octane number of 100. High knock resistance in iso-octane was attributed largely to the large fraction of primary C-H bonds in the molecule, including 15 of the 18 C-H bonds, and the high bond energy of these primary bonds plays a large role in this knock resistance. In contrast, in the much more ignitable n-heptane, 10 of its 16 C-H bonds are much less strongly bound secondary C-H bonds, leading to its very low octane number. All of these factors, as well as a similarly complex kinetic description of the equally important role of the transition state rings that transfer H atoms within the reacting fuel molecules, were quantified and collected into large kinetic reaction mechanisms that are used by many researchers in the fuel chemistry world.

Pitz, W J; Westbrook, C K

2009-07-30T23:59:59.000Z

190

Inlichtingenblad, matlab-en simulink handleiding en  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Inlichtingenblad, matlab- en simulink handleiding en practicumopgaven IWS 1 #12;6 3 Matlab 3.1 Fundamentals Matlab. The name Matlab stands for matrix laboratory. Main principle. Matlab works and commands in Matlab are intended to be natural in a matrix sense, not unlike how they might be indicated

Al Hanbali, Ahmad

191

Inlichtingenblad, matlab en simulink handleiding en  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Inlichtingenblad, matlab­ en simulink handleiding en practicumopgaven IWS 1 #12; 6 3 Matlab 3.1 Fundamentals Matlab. The name Matlab stands for matrix laboratory. Main principle. Matlab works and commands in Matlab are intended to be natural in a matrix sense, not unlike how they might be indicated

Al Hanbali, Ahmad

192

Gravitationally Induced Particle Production: Thermodynamics and Kinetic Theory  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

A relativistic kinetic description for the irreversible thermodynamic process of gravitationally induced particle production is proposed in the context of an expanding Friedmann-Robertson-Walker (FRW) geometry. We show that the covariant thermodynamic treatment referred to as "adiabatic" particle production provoked by the cosmic time-varying gravitational field has a consistent kinetic counterpart. The variation of the distribution function is associated to a non-collisional kinetic term of quantum-gravitational origin which is proportional to the ratio $\\Gamma/H$, where $\\Gamma$ is the gravitational particle production rate and H is the Hubble parameter. For $\\Gamma gravitation. The resulting non-equilibrium distribution function has the same functional form of equilibrium with the evolution laws corrected by the particle production process. The macroscopic temperature evolution law is also kinetically derived for massive and massless particles. The present approach points to the possibility of an exact (semi-classical) quantum-gravitational kinetic treatment by incorporating back-reaction effects in the cosmic background.

J. A. S. Lima; I. P. Baranov

2014-11-24T23:59:59.000Z

193

Chemical Kinetics of Hydrocarbon Ignition in Practical Combustion Systems  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Chemical kinetic factors of hydrocarbon oxidation are examined in a variety of ignition problems. Ignition is related to the presence of a dominant chain branching reaction mechanism that can drive a chemical system to completion in a very short period of time. Ignition in laboratory environments is studied for problems including shock tubes and rapid compression machines. Modeling of the laboratory systems are used to develop kinetic models that can be used to analyze ignition in practical systems. Two major chain branching regimes are identified, one consisting of high temperature ignition with a chain branching reaction mechanism based on the reaction between atomic hydrogen with molecular oxygen, and the second based on an intermediate temperature thermal decomposition of hydrogen peroxide. Kinetic models are then used to describe ignition in practical combustion environments, including detonations and pulse combustors for high temperature ignition, and engine knock and diesel ignition for intermediate temperature ignition. The final example of ignition in a practical environment is homogeneous charge, compression ignition (HCCI) which is shown to be a problem dominated by the kinetics intermediate temperature hydrocarbon ignition. Model results show why high hydrocarbon and CO emissions are inevitable in HCCI combustion. The conclusion of this study is that the kinetics of hydrocarbon ignition are actually quite simple, since only one or two elementary reactions are dominant. However, there are many combustion factors that can influence these two major reactions, and these are the features that vary from one practical system to another.

Westbrook, C.K.

2000-07-07T23:59:59.000Z

194

First principles Tafel kinetics of methanol oxidation on Pt(111)  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

Abstract Electrocatalytic methanol oxidation is of fundamental importance in electrochemistry and also a key reaction in direct methanol fuel cell. To resolve the kinetics at the atomic level, this work investigates the potential-dependent reaction kinetics of methanol oxidation on Pt(111) using the first principles periodic continuum solvation model based on modified-PoissonBoltzmann equation (CM-MPB), focusing on the initial dehydrogenation elementary steps. A theoretical model to predict Tafel kinetics (current vs potential) is established by considering that the rate-determining step of methanol oxidation (to CO) is the first CH bond breaking (CH3OH(aq)?CH2OH*+H*) according to the computed free energy profile. The first CH bond breaking reaction needs to overcome a large entropy loss during methanol approaching to the surface and replacing the adsorbed water molecules. While no apparent charge transfer is involved in this elementary step, the charge transfer coefficient of the reaction is calculated to be 0.36, an unconventional value for charge transfer reactions, and the Tafel slope is deduced to be 166mV. The results show that the metal/adsorbate interaction and the solvation environment play important roles on influencing the Tafel kinetics. The knowledge learned from the potential-dependent kinetics of methanol oxidation can be applied in general for understanding the electrocatalytic reactions of organic molecules at the solidliquid interface.

Ya-Hui Fang; Zhi-Pan Liu

2014-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

195

NETL: Mercury Emissions Control Technologies - Bench Scale Kinetics of  

Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

Bench Scale Kinetics of Mercury Reactions in FGD Liquors Bench Scale Kinetics of Mercury Reactions in FGD Liquors When research into the measurement and control of Hg emissions from coal-fired power plants began in earnest in the early 1990s, it was observed that oxidized mercury can be scrubbed at high efficiency in wet FGD systems, while elemental mercury can not. In many cases, elemental mercury concentrations were observed to increase slightly across wet FGD systems, but this was typically regarded as within the variability of the measurement methods. However, later measurements have shown substantial re-emissions from some FGD systems. The goal of this project is to develop a fundamental understanding of the aqueous chemistry of mercury (Hg) absorbed by wet flue gas desulfurization (FGD) scrubbing liquors. Specifically, the project will determine the chemical reactions that oxidized mercury undergoes once absorbed, the byproducts of those reactions, and reaction kinetics.

196

Amber Kinetics, Inc. Smart Grid Demonstration Project | Open Energy  

Open Energy Info (EERE)

Kinetics, Inc. Smart Grid Demonstration Project Kinetics, Inc. Smart Grid Demonstration Project Jump to: navigation, search Project Lead Amber Kinetics, Inc. Country United States Headquarters Location Fremont, California Recovery Act Funding $4,000,000.00 Total Project Value $10,000,000.00 Coordinates 37.5482697°, -121.9885719° Loading map... {"minzoom":false,"mappingservice":"googlemaps3","type":"ROADMAP","zoom":14,"types":["ROADMAP","SATELLITE","HYBRID","TERRAIN"],"geoservice":"google","maxzoom":false,"width":"600px","height":"350px","centre":false,"title":"","label":"","icon":"","visitedicon":"","lines":[],"polygons":[],"circles":[],"rectangles":[],"copycoords":false,"static":false,"wmsoverlay":"","layers":[],"controls":["pan","zoom","type","scale","streetview"],"zoomstyle":"DEFAULT","typestyle":"DEFAULT","autoinfowindows":false,"kml":[],"gkml":[],"fusiontables":[],"resizable":false,"tilt":0,"kmlrezoom":false,"poi":true,"imageoverlays":[],"markercluster":false,"searchmarkers":"","locations":[]}

197

Kinetic Alfven double layer formed by electron viscosity  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

The effect of the electron viscosity on the kinetic Alfven solitary wave is investigated. It is found that small electron viscosity changes the electron motion along the magnetic field producing a boundary layer, and thus that in a low beta electron-ion plasma({beta} Much-Less-Than m{sub e}/m{sub i}), an obliquely propagating kinetic solitary Alfven wave can become a double layer. This double layer can exist in the sub-Alfvenic and super-Alfvenic regimes. The length scale of density drop for this double layer is on the order of that of the conventional kinetic solitary Alfven wave, and thus this double layer can accelerate electrons on a very short length scale.

Woo, M. H.; Ryu, C.-M. [Department of Physics, Pohang University of Science and Technology, Pohang 790-784 (Korea, Republic of); Choi, C. R. [Department of Physics, Korea Advanced Institute of Science and Technology, Taejon 305-701 (Korea, Republic of)

2012-07-15T23:59:59.000Z

198

Kinetic Isotope Effects of L-Dopa Decarboxylase  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

Kinetic Isotope Effects of L-Dopa Decarboxylase ... A mixed centroid path integral and free energy perturbation method (PI-FEP/UM) has been used to investigate the primary carbon and secondary hydrogen kinetic isotope effects (KIEs) in the amino acid decarboxylation of L-Dopa catalyzed by the enzyme L-Dopa decarboxylase (DDC) along with the corresponding uncatalyzed reaction in water. ... The computed kinetic isotope effects (KIE) on the carboxylate C-13 are consistent with that observed on decarboxylation reactions of other PLP-dependent enzymes, whereas the KIEs on the ? carbon and secondary proton, which can easily be validated experimentally, may be used as a possible identification for the active form of the PLP tautomer in the active site of DDC. ...

Yen-lin Lin; Jiali Gao

2011-03-02T23:59:59.000Z

199

Kinetic azeotropy and design of reactive distillation columns  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

The reactive fixed points in the distillation maps of a reactive distillation column (RDC) with kinetically controlled reactions are identified and their role in deciding the design feasibility has been elucidated. The fixed points at which both reaction and distillation vectors have zero magnitudes correspond to the equilibrium fixed point. It is known that the relative positions of these points for the rectifying and stripping sections determine the value of the minimum reflux ratio. However, apart from these fixed points, there are certain fixed points in the distillation map at which, though the reaction and distillation vectors have nonzero magnitudes, they nullify the effects of each other. These points correspond to the kinetic fixed points and have a special significance. Their positions have direct influence on the feasible product composition. A simple example of an ideal ternary system undergoing a reaction 2B {longleftrightarrow} A + c has been illustrated to show the importance of kinetic azeotropy in the design aspects of RDC.

Mahajani, S.M. [Monash Univ., Clayton, Victoria (Australia). Dept. of Chemical Engineering] [Monash Univ., Clayton, Victoria (Australia). Dept. of Chemical Engineering

1999-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

200

Kinetic Alfvn wave turbulence and formation of localized structures  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

This work presents non-linear interaction of magnetosonic wave with kinetic Alfvn wave for intermediate ?-plasma (m{sub e}/m{sub i}???1). A set of dimensionless equations have been developed for analysis by considering ponderomotive force due to pump kinetic Alfvn wave in the dynamics of magnetosonic wave. Stability analysis has been done to study modulational instability or linear growth rate. Further, numerical simulation has been carried out to study the nonlinear stage of instability and resulting power spectrum applicable to solar wind around 1 AU. Due to the nonlinearity, background density of magnetosonic wave gets modified which results in localization of kinetic Alfvn wave. From the obtained results, we observed that spectral index follows k{sup ?3.0}, consistent with observation received by Cluster spacecraft for the solar wind around 1 AU. The result shows the steepening of power spectrum which may be responsible for heating and acceleration of plasma particles in solar wind.

Sharma, R. P. [Centre for Energy Studies, Indian Institute of Technology Delhi, Delhi 110016 (India)] [Centre for Energy Studies, Indian Institute of Technology Delhi, Delhi 110016 (India); Modi, K. V. [Centre for Energy Studies, Indian Institute of Technology Delhi, Delhi 110016 (India) [Centre for Energy Studies, Indian Institute of Technology Delhi, Delhi 110016 (India); Mechanical Engineering Department, Government Engineering College Valsad, Gujarat 396001 (India)

2013-08-15T23:59:59.000Z

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "kinetic en ergy" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


201

Chitosan as green kinetic inhibitors for gas hydrate formation  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

The kinetic inhibiting effect of a number of chitosans on hydrate formation was investigated using methane and methane/ethane gas mixtures. The results indicated that chitosan was a good kinetic inhibitor. The induction time of gas hydrate formation evidently increased with the degree of deacetylation (DD), however, when DD was higher than 80%, the effect of DD on the induction time was negligible. Moreover, it was found that the molecular weight (MW) of chitosan and the addition of polyethylene oxide (PEO) had little effect on the induction time. The optimal concentration of chitosan was found to be 0.6 wt%. Finally, the mechanisms of the kinetic inhibitor on the hydrate formation were discussed.

Yongjun Xu; Minlin Yang; Xiaoxi Yang

2010-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

202

Gravitationally Induced Particle Production: Thermodynamics and Kinetic Theory  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

A relativistic kinetic description for the irreversible thermodynamic process of gravitationally induced particle production is proposed in the context of an expanding Friedmann-Robertson-Walker (FRW) geometry. We show that the covariant thermodynamic treatment referred to as "adiabatic" particle production provoked by the cosmic time-varying gravitational field has a consistent kinetic counterpart. The variation of the distribution function is associated to a non-collisional kinetic term of quantum-gravitational origin which is proportional to the ratio $\\Gamma/H$, where $\\Gamma$ is the gravitational particle production rate and H is the Hubble parameter. For $\\Gamma << H$ the process is negligible and as should be expected it also vanishes (regardless of the value of $\\Gamma$) in the absence of gravitation. The resulting non-equilibrium distribution function has the same functional form of equilibrium with the evolution laws corrected by the particle production process. The macroscopic temperature evo...

Lima, J A S

2014-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

203

Kinetic modelling of the thermal decomposition of ettringite into metaettringite  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

Despite recent insights into thermal stability of ettringite and structural changes during decomposition, a lack of knowledge on nucleation and growth mechanisms of metaettringite remained. Therefore, a better understanding of the kinetic modelling of this heterogeneous reaction was proposed. Thanks to an experimental approach allowing to check the validity of kinetic assumptions (rate-determining step, expression of the rate as d?/dt=k f(?)), a good agreement was found between the calculated and experimental ? vs. t and d?/dt vs. t kinetic curves. The reaction area of the region in which the rate-limiting step occurs was also elucidated. Finally, we demonstrated that the rate-limiting step of the growth process follows an Arrhenius law in non-isothermal conditions.

J. Pourchez; F. Valdivieso; P. Grosseau; R. Guyonnet; B. Guilhot

2006-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

204

Benchmarking kinetic calculations of resistive wall mode stability  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Validating the calculations of kinetic resistive wall mode (RWM) stability is important for confidently predicting RWM stable operating regions in ITER and other high performance tokamaks for disruption avoidance. Benchmarking the calculations of the Magnetohydrodynamic Resistive SpectrumKinetic (MARS-K) [Y. Liu et al., Phys. Plasmas 15, 112503 (2008)], Modification to Ideal Stability by Kinetic effects (MISK) [B. Hu et al., Phys. Plasmas 12, 057301 (2005)], and Perturbed Equilibrium Nonambipolar Transport (PENT) [N. Logan et al., Phys. Plasmas 20, 122507 (2013)] codes for two Solov'ev analytical equilibria and a projected ITER equilibrium has demonstrated good agreement between the codes. The important particle frequencies, the frequency resonance energy integral in which they are used, the marginally stable eigenfunctions, perturbed Lagrangians, and fluid growth rates are all generally consistent between the codes. The most important kinetic effect at low rotation is the resonance between the mode rotation and the trapped thermal particle's precession drift, and MARS-K, MISK, and PENT show good agreement in this term. The different ways the rational surface contribution was treated historically in the codes is identified as a source of disagreement in the bounce and transit resonance terms at higher plasma rotation. Calculations from all of the codes support the present understanding that RWM stability can be increased by kinetic effects at low rotation through precession drift resonance and at high rotation by bounce and transit resonances, while intermediate rotation can remain susceptible to instability. The applicability of benchmarked kinetic stability calculations to experimental results is demonstrated by the prediction of MISK calculations of near marginal growth rates for experimental marginal stability points from the National Spherical Torus Experiment (NSTX) [M. Ono et al., Nucl. Fusion 40, 557 (2000)].

Berkery, J. W.; Sabbagh, S. A. [Department of Applied Physics and Applied Mathematics, Columbia University, New York, New York 10027 (United States)] [Department of Applied Physics and Applied Mathematics, Columbia University, New York, New York 10027 (United States); Liu, Y. Q. [Euratom/CCFE Fusion Association, Culham Science Centre, Abingdon OX14 3DB (United Kingdom)] [Euratom/CCFE Fusion Association, Culham Science Centre, Abingdon OX14 3DB (United Kingdom); Wang, Z. R.; Logan, N. C.; Park, J.-K.; Manickam, J. [Princeton Plasma Physics Laboratory, Princeton University, Princeton, New Jersey 08543 (United States)] [Princeton Plasma Physics Laboratory, Princeton University, Princeton, New Jersey 08543 (United States); Betti, R. [Laboratory for Laser Energetics, University of Rochester, Rochester, New York 14623 (United States)] [Laboratory for Laser Energetics, University of Rochester, Rochester, New York 14623 (United States)

2014-05-15T23:59:59.000Z

205

Fluctuation-dominated kinetics in diffusion-controlled reactions  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

The kinetics of a number of prototypical diffusion-controlled reactions are studied, primarily through the application of scaling approaches. Our goal is to investigate the effects of spatial inhomogeneities in the particle densities on the reaction kinetics. In general, we find that there exists an upper critical dimension below which the kinetics cannot be described by a rate-equation analysis, an approach which gives the kinetic laws of a mean-field approximation. Below the upper critical dimension, spatial inhomogeneities in the particle densities give rise to new fluctuation-dominated kinetics. For irreversible reactions, with bimolecular decay A+B?inert being a simple generic example, universal kinetic laws are obtained which are a function only of the spatial dimension, the number of particles needed to initiate a reaction, and the nature of the particle-conservation laws for the system. We also consider the generalization of bimolecular decay to a multistate process where particles of variable heights and traps of variable depths react. This phenomenologically rich example serves as an illustrative testing ground for scaling ideas. The introduction of a small reaction probability on bimolecular decay provides an example of a dramatic crossover from an initial mean-field decay to the fluctuation-dominated decay law at large times. When the possibility of a reverse reaction is allowed in bimolecular decay, the available evidence suggests that there is a power-law approach to the equilibrium state, rather than an exponential approach predicted by the rate equation. Many of our new theoretical predictions are tested by extensive numerical simulations.

K. Kang and S. Redner

1985-07-01T23:59:59.000Z

206

Kinetic Energy Principle And Neoclassical Toroidal Torque In Tokamaks  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

It is shown that when tokamaks are perturbed the kinetic energy principle is closely related to the neoclassical toroidal torque by the action invariance of particles. Especially when tokamaks are perturbed from scalar pressure equilibria, the imaginary part of the potential energy in the kinetic energy principle is equivalent to the toroidal torque by the Neoclassical Toroidal Viscosity (NTV). A unified description therefore should be made for both physics. It is also shown in this case that the potential energy operator can be self-adjoint and thus the stability calculation can be simplified by minimizing the potential energy

Jong-Kyu Park

2011-11-07T23:59:59.000Z

207

Infrared absorption spectroscopy and chemical kinetics of free radicals  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

This research is directed at the detection, monitoring, and study of chemical kinetic behavior by infrared absorption spectroscopy of small free radical species thought to be important intermediates in combustion. During the last year, infrared kinetic spectroscopy using excimer laser flash photolysis and color-center laser probing has been employed to study the high resolution spectrum of HCCN, the rate constant of the reaction between ethynyl (C{sub 2}H) radical and H{sub 2} in the temperature region between 295 and 875 K, and the recombination rate of propargyl (CH{sub 2}CCH) at room temperature.

Curl, R.F.; Glass, G.P. [Rice Univ., Houston, TX (United States)

1993-12-01T23:59:59.000Z

208

Spectroscopy and kinetics of combustion gases at high temperatures  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

This program involves two complementary activities: (1) development and application of cw ring dye laser absorption methods for sensitive detection of radical species and measurement of fundamental spectroscopic parameters at high temperatures; and (2) shock tube studies of reaction kinetics relevant to combustion. Species currently under investigation in the spectroscopic portion of the research include NO and CH{sub 3}; this has necessitated the continued operated at wavelengths in the range 210-230 nm. Shock tube studies of reaction kinetics currently are focussed on reactions involving CH{sub 3} radicals.

Hanson, R.K.; Bowman, C.T. [Stanford Univ., CA (United States)

1993-12-01T23:59:59.000Z

209

Kinetics of rapid reactions on nanometer catalyst particles  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

Steady-state kinetics of the practically important catalytic reaction 2A+B2?2AB (e.g., 2CO+O2 ? 2CO2 on Pt, Rh or Pd), occurring on nanometer supported catalyst particles, is analyzed by employing two schemes taking into account, respectively, (i) the interplay of the reaction on different facets of the catalyst particle and (ii) the possibility of adsorption of reactants on the support followed by diffusion to the catalyst. The results obtained demonstrate that the kinetics for these two cases can be remarkably different compared to those corresponding to the infinite surface.

V. P. Zhdanov and B. Kasemo

1997-02-15T23:59:59.000Z

210

A kinetic scheme for pressurized flows in non uniform pipes  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

The aim of this paper is to present a kinetic numerical scheme for the computations of transient pressurised flows in closed water pipes with variable sections. Firstly, we detail the derivation of the mathematical model in curvilinear coordinates under some hypothesis and we performe a formal asymptotic analysis. Then the obtained system is written as a conservative hyperbolic partial differential system of equations, and we recall how to obtain the corresponding kinetic formulation based on an upwinding of the source term due to the "pseudo topography" performed in a close manner described by Perthame and al.

Bourdarias, Christian; Gerbi, Stphane

2008-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

211

Kinetic modeling of the Townsend breakdown in argon  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Kinetic modeling of the Townsend breakdown in argon was performed in the forward-back approximation. The kinetic model was found to adequately describe the left branch of the Paschen curve, and the important role of ionization by fast ions and atoms near the cathode, as well as the increase in secondary emission coefficient in strong electric fields described in the literature, was confirmed. The modeling also showed that the electron energy distribution function develops a beam of high-energy electrons and that the runaway effect, i.e., the monotonic increase of the mean electron energy with the distance from the cathode, occurs at the left branch of the Paschen curve.

Macheret, S. O.; Shneider, M. N. [Department of Mechanical and Aerospace Engineering, Princeton University, D-414 Engineering Quadrangle, Princeton, New Jersey 08544 (United States)] [Department of Mechanical and Aerospace Engineering, Princeton University, D-414 Engineering Quadrangle, Princeton, New Jersey 08544 (United States)

2013-10-15T23:59:59.000Z

212

Fundamental kinetics of methane oxidation in supercritical water. Summary report  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Fundamental understanding of the oxidation of compounds in supercritical water is essential for the design, development and operation of a supercritical water oxidation unit. Previous work in our group determined the oxidation kinetics of carbon monoxide and ethanol in supercritical water for temperatures ranging from 400 to 540 C. Oxidation studies of methane up to 700 C have recently been completed and are presented in this report. Theoretical studies of fundamental kinetics and mechanistic pathways for the oxidation of methane in supercritical water are discussed. Application of current gas phase elementary reaction models are briefly presented and their limitations discussed.

Webley, P.A.; Tester, J.W. [Massachusetts Inst. of Tech., Cambridge, MA (United States). Dept. of Chemical Engineering

1989-05-22T23:59:59.000Z

213

Kinematics and kinetics of normal and planovalgus feet during walking  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

Abstract Planovalgus deformity is prevalent in cerebral palsy patients, but very few studies have quantitatively reported differences between planovalgus and normal foot function. Intersegmental foot kinetics have not been reported in this population. In this study, a three segment (hindfoot, forefoot, hallux) kinematic and kinetic model was applied to typically developing (n=10 subjects, 20 feet) and planovalgus (n=10 subjects, 18 feet) pediatric subjects by two clinicians for each subject. Intra-clinician and inter-clinician repeatability of kinematic variables have been previously reported. Variability of kinetic outcomes (joint moments and power) is reported and found to be equally repeatable in typically developing and planovalgus groups. Kinematic differences in the planovalgus foot including excessive ankle eversion (valgus) and plantarflexion, reduced ankle flexion range of motion, and increased midfoot joint dorsiflexion and pronation reflected the reported pathology. Contrary to clinical expectations no significant difference was observed in midfoot flexion or ankle eversion ranges of motion. Kinetic differences in planovalgus feet compared to typically developing feet included reduced ankle plantarflexion moment, ankle power and midfoot joint power.

Prabhav Saraswat; Bruce A. MacWilliams; Roy B. Davis; Jacques L. DAstous

2014-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

214

ORBITAL-FREE KINETIC-ENERGY DENSITY FUNCTIONAL THEORY  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Chapter 5 ORBITAL-FREE KINETIC-ENERGY DENSITY FUNCTIONAL THEORY Yan Alexander Wang and Emily A Theory (DFT), there was the Thomas-Fermi (TF) model, which uses the electron density ¢¡ r£ (a function-dependent DFT Density-Functional Theory DI density-independent DM1 first-order reduced density matrix EDF energy

Wang, Yan Alexander

215

AER1301: KINETIC THEORY OF GASES Assignment #2  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

AER1301: KINETIC THEORY OF GASES Assignment #2 1. Using the formalism of the text book is as follows. Assume that the particle number density is a slowly varying function of the z coordinate #27; ? is a constant. 3. Show that if the potential function, U(r), varies as 1=r 4

Groth, Clinton P. T.

216

AER1301: KINETIC THEORY OF GASES Assignment #2  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

AER1301: KINETIC THEORY OF GASES Assignment #2 1. Using the formalism of the text book the particle number density and temperature are both slowly varying functions of the z coordinate of the previous problem is as follows. Assume that the particle number density is a slowly varying function

Groth, Clinton P. T.

217

Kinetic roughening during rare-gas homoepitaxy E. Nabighian,1  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Kinetic roughening during rare-gas homoepitaxy E. Nabighian,1 M. C. Bartelt,2 and X. D. Zhu1,* 1 roughening, which accounts for deviations from layer- by-layer growth, is generally very sensitive substrates; see e.g., Ref. 3. A quantitative assessment of the way in which rare-gas multilayer films roughen

Zhu, Xiangdong

218

Pyrolysis of automotive shredder residues: a lumped kinetic characterization  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

A lumped kinetic model for the pyrolysis of industrial wastes of unknown chemical composition is developed. The model is applied to the pyrolysis of automotive shredder residues (ASRs), studied by means of thermogravimetric and calorimetric analyses, in isothermal and non-isothermal conditions.

Oreste Patierno; Paola Cipriani; Fausto Pochetti; Massimiliano Giona

1998-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

219

Desorption Kinetics of Methanol, Ethanol, and Water from Graphene  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

The desorption kinetics of methanol, ethanol, and water from graphene covered Pt(111) are investigated. The temperature programmed desorption (TPD) spectra for both methanol and ethanol have well-resolved first, second, third, and multilayer layer desorption peaks. The alignment of the leading edges is consistent with zero-order desorption kinetics from all layers. In contrast, for water the first and second layers are not resolved. At low water coverages (< 1 ML) the initial desorption leading edges are aligned but then fall out of alignment at higher temperatures. For thicker water layers (10 to 100 ML), the desorption leading edges are in alignment throughout the desorption of the film. The coverage dependence of the desorption behavoir suggests that at low water coverages the non-alignment of the desorption leading edges is due to water dewetting from the graphene substrate. Kinetic simulations reveal that the experimental results are consistent with zero-order desorption. The simulations also show that fractional order desorption kinetics would be readily apparent in the experimental TPD spectra.

Smith, R. Scott; Matthiesen, Jesper; Kay, Bruce D.

2014-09-18T23:59:59.000Z

220

Supercooled water and the kinetic glass transition F. Sciortino,1  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

-dynamics study of the self-dynamics of water molecules in deeply supercooled liquid states. We find the superheated, stretched, and supercooled states of liquid water 4­6 ; ii the existence of a meta- stable, lowSupercooled water and the kinetic glass transition F. Sciortino,1 P. Gallo,2 P. Tartaglia,1 and S

Sciortino, Francesco

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "kinetic en ergy" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


221

Linear Kinetic Heat Transfer: Moment Equations, Boundary Conditions, and Knudsen  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

] and phonons [6], and the radiative transfer equation [7]. The solution of any kinetic equation is usually][25], radiative transfer [7][26], and phonon transport in crystals [6]. Despite the long history, and success method, and the methods employed in [18][19][20], are based solely on the transport equations in the bulk, and

Struchtrup, Henning

222

Detailed chemical kinetic oxidation mechanism for a biodiesel surrogate  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

A detailed chemical kinetic mechanism has been developed and used to study the oxidation of methyl decanoate, a surrogate for biodiesel fuels. This model has been built by following the rules established by Curran et al. for the oxidation of n-heptane and it includes all the reactions known to be pertinent to both low and high temperatures. Computed results have been compared with methyl decanoate experiments in an engine and oxidation of rapeseed oil methyl esters in a jet stirred reactor. An important feature of this mechanism is its ability to reproduce the early formation of carbon dioxide that is unique to biofuels and due to the presence of the ester group in the reactant. The model also predicts ignition delay times and OH profiles very close to observed values in shock tube experiments fueled by n-decane. These model capabilities indicate that large n-alkanes can be good surrogates for large methyl esters and biodiesel fuels to predict overall reactivity, but some kinetic details, including early CO{sub 2} production from biodiesel fuels, can be predicted only by a detailed kinetic mechanism for a true methyl ester fuel. The present methyl decanoate mechanism provides a realistic kinetic tool for simulation of biodiesel fuels.

Herbinet, O; Pitz, W J; Westbrook, C K

2007-09-20T23:59:59.000Z

223

Detailed chemical kinetic oxidation mechanism for a biodiesel surrogate  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

A detailed chemical kinetic mechanism has been developed and used to study the oxidation of methyl decanoate, a surrogate for biodiesel fuels. This model has been built by following the rules established by Curran et al. for the oxidation of n-heptane and it includes all the reactions known to be pertinent to both low and high temperatures. Computed results have been compared with methyl decanoate experiments in an engine and oxidation of rapeseed oil methyl esters in a jet stirred reactor. An important feature of this mechanism is its ability to reproduce the early formation of carbon dioxide that is unique to biofuels and due to the presence of the ester group in the reactant. The model also predicts ignition delay times and OH profiles very close to observed values in shock tube experiments fueled by n-decane. These model capabilities indicate that large n-alkanes can be good surrogates for large methyl esters and biodiesel fuels to predict overall reactivity, but some kinetic details, including early CO2 production from biodiesel fuels, can be predicted only by a detailed kinetic mechanism for a true methyl ester fuel. The present methyl decanoate mechanism provides a realistic kinetic tool for simulation of biodiesel fuels.

Herbinet, O; Pitz, W J; Westbrook, C K

2007-09-17T23:59:59.000Z

224

Plasmadynamics and ionization kinetics of thermionic energy conversion  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

To reduce the plasma arc-drop, thermionic energy conversion is studied with both analytical and numerical tools. Simplifications are made in both the plasmadynamic and ionization-recombination theories. These are applied to a scheme proposed presently using laser irradiation to enhance the ionization kinetics of the thermionic plasma and thereby reduce the arc-drop. It is also predicted that it is possible to generate the required laser light from a thermionic-type cesium plasma. The analysis takes advantage of theoretical simplifications derived for the ionization-recombination kinetics. It is shown that large laser ionization enhancements can occur and that collisional cesium recombination lasing is expected. To complement the kinetic theory, a numerical method is developed to solve the thermionic plasma dynamics. To combine the analysis of ionization-recombination kinetics with the plasma dynamics of thermionic conversion, a finite difference computer program is constructed. It is capable of solving for both unsteady and steady thermionic converter behavior including possible laser ionization enhancement or atomic recombination lasing. A proposal to improve thermionic converter performance using laser radiation is considered. In this proposed scheme, laser radiation impinging on a thermionic plasma enhances the ionization process thereby raising the plasma density and reducing the plasma arc-drop. A source for such radiation may possibly be a cesium recombination laser operating in a different thermionic converter. The possibility of this being an energy efficient process is discussed. (WHK)

Lawless, J.L. Jr.; Lam, S.H.

1982-02-01T23:59:59.000Z

225

Kinetic Properties of Alfven Modes in Tokamak Plasmas  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

The ability to predict the stability of fast-particle-driven Alfven eigenmodes in burning fusion plasmas requires a detailed understanding of the dissipative mechanisms that damp these modes. In order to address this question, the linear gyro-kinetic, electromagnetic code LIGKA is employed to investigate their behaviour in realistic tokamak geometry. The eigenvalue formulation of LIGKA allows to calculate self-consistently the coupling of large-scaled MHD modes to the gyroradius scale-length kinetic Alfven waves. Therefore, the properties of the kineticly modified TAE mode in or near the gap (KTAE, radiative damping or 'tunnelling') and its coupling to the continuum close to the edge can be analysed numerically. In addition, an antenna-like version of LIGKA allows for a frequency scan, analogous to an external antenna.The model and the implementation of LIGKA were recently extended in order to capture the coupling of the shear Alfven waves to the sound waves. This coupling becomes important for the investigation of kinetic effects on the low-frequency phase of cascade modes, where e.g. geodesic acoustic effects play a significant role.

Lauber, Ph.; Guenter, S.; Bruedgam, M. [Max-Planck-Institut fuer Plasmaphysik, EURATOM-Association, D-85748 Garching (Germany); Koenies, A. [Max-Planck Institut fuer Plasmaphysik, EURATOM-Association, D-17489 Greifswald (Germany); Pinches, S. D. [UKAEA Fusion Association Culham Science Centre, Abingdon, Oxfordshire OX143DB (United Kingdom)

2006-11-30T23:59:59.000Z

226

On a diffusionkinetic equation arising in extended kinetic theory  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

describe phenomena occurring in the neutron and electron transport in gases and are relevant to scattering of a linear Boltzmann equation with inelastic scattering term. An interesting feature of this equation of the kinetic theory. Key words: evolution equations, positive semigroups, inelastic scattering, singular

Louisiana State University

227

Hydrogen pickup measurements in zirconium alloys: Relation to oxidation kinetics  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Hydrogen pickup measurements in zirconium alloys: Relation to oxidation kinetics Adrien Couet a to reduce hydrogen pickup during operation, and the associated cladding degradation. The present study focuses on precisely and accurately measuring hydrogen pickup fraction for a set of alloys to specifically

Motta, Arthur T.

228

Optimization of a Microfluidic Mixer for Studying Protein Folding Kinetics  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Optimization of a Microfluidic Mixer for Studying Protein Folding Kinetics David E. Hertzog with numerical simulations to minimize the mixing time of a microfluidic mixer developed for protein folding reported continuous flow mixer for protein folding. Fast events in protein folding often occur

Santiago, Juan G.

229

Femtomole Mixer for Microsecond Kinetic Studies of Protein Folding  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Femtomole Mixer for Microsecond Kinetic Studies of Protein Folding David E. Hertzog,, Xavier a microfluidic mixer for studying protein folding and other reactions with a mixing time of 8 µs and sample) measurements of single-stranded DNA. We also demon- strate the feasibility of measuring fast protein folding

Michalet, Xavier

230

Statistical Analysis of Protein Folding Kinetics Aaron R. Dinner  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Statistical Analysis of Protein Folding Kinetics Aaron R. Dinner , Sung-Sau So ¡ , and Martin and theoretical studies over several years have led to the emergence of a unified general mechanism for protein folding that serves as a framework for the design and interpretation of research in this area [1

Dinner, Aaron

231

Kinetic Controls on Cu and Pb Sorption by Ferrihydrite  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Kinetic Controls on Cu and Pb Sorption by Ferrihydrite A N D R E A S C . S C H E I N O and time, Cu and Pbwereboundtotheferrihydritesurfacebyformationofedge- sharing inner-sphere sorption limiting the slow sorption process. The quantification of diffusion-limited surface sites in soils

Sparks, Donald L.

232

Nano Research Kinetics of Molecular Recognition Mediated Nanoparticle  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Nano Research Kinetics of Molecular Recognition Mediated Nanoparticle Self-Assembly Chinmay Soman1 the streptavidin-biotin interaction [9] 0078 Nano Res (2009) 2: 78 84 DOI 10.1007/s12274-009-9005-z Research Article #12;79Nano Res (2009) 2: 78 84 are incubated with specific antigens in a physiological buffer

233

Exploring Frontiers in Kinetics and Mechanisms of Geochemical Processes at the Mineral/Water Interface  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Exploring Frontiers in Kinetics and Mechanisms of Geochemical Processes at the Mineral in the Earth's Critical Zone is the kinetics. The timescales for geochemical processes range from milliseconds geochemical processes including surface complexation, mineral transformations, and oxidation

Sparks, Donald L.

234

Microfluidic systems for chemical kinetics that rely on chaotic mixing in droplets  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

...system is particularly appropriate for chemical kinetics and biochemical assays. The...required. 9. Using the microfluidic platform to measure kinetics This plug-based...Press. Ottino, J. M. 1994 Mixing and chemical-reactions--a tutorial. Chem. Engng...

2004-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

235

Dynamics and kinetic roughening of interfaces in two-dimensional forced wetting  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

We consider the dynamics and kinetic roughening of wetting fronts in the case of......, which separates two regimes of dissipative behavior and governs the kinetic roughening of the interfaces by giving an upper...

T. Laurila; C. Tong; I. Huopaniemi

2005-08-01T23:59:59.000Z

236

Kinetic Roughening in Deposition with Suppressed Screening Peter Nielaba a and Vladimir Privman b  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Kinetic Roughening in Deposition with Suppressed Screening Peter Nielaba a and Vladimir Privman b: 68.10.Jy, 82.20.Wt -- 1 -- #12; The standard, KPZ [1] model of kinetic roughening of growing surfaces

237

A comparison of the point kinetics equations with the QUANDRY analytic nodal diffusion method  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

The point kinetics equations were incorporated into QUANDRY, a nuclear reactor analysis computer program which uses the analytic nodal method to solve the neutron diffusion equation. Both the point kinetics equations, solved using the IMSL MATH...

Velasquez, Arthur

2012-06-07T23:59:59.000Z

238

Phrases of the Kinetic: Dynamic Physicality as a Construct of Interaction Design  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

, a system for motion construction and dynamics physics education with children; Kinetic Sketchup, a system Backpacks for motion modulation Evaluations Kinetic Sketch-up Design Tools for motion prototyping

Ishii, Hiroshi

239

Rheological response and dynamics of the amphiphilic diamond phase from kinetic latticeBoltzmann simulations  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

...diamond phase from kinetic lattice-Boltzmann simulations R.S. Saksena...are performed using a kinetic lattice-Boltzmann method. Lyotropic liquid crystals...studied previously using our lattice-Boltzmann (LB) approach (Gonzalez-Segredo...

2009-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

240

Thermal kinetics of montmorillonite nanoclay/maleic anhydride-modified polypropylene nanocomposites  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

Thermal kinetics of montmorillonite nanoclay (MMT)/maleic anhydride-modified polypropylene (MAH ... and crystallization kinetics. The effects of MMT nanoclay on the thermal stability of PP in ... was significantl...

Henry Kuo Feng Cheng; Nanda Gopal Sahoo

2012-07-01T23:59:59.000Z

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "kinetic en ergy" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


241

Crystallization Kinetics and Excess Free Energy of H2O and D2O...  

Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

Crystallization Kinetics and Excess Free Energy of H2O and D2O Nanoscale Films of Amorphous Solid Water. Crystallization Kinetics and Excess Free Energy of H2O and D2O Nanoscale...

242

Esterification kinetics of triglycerides in n-hexane catalyzed by an immobilized lipase  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

The kinetics of enzyme-catalyzed esterification of triglycerides over immobilized lipase in n-hexane was investigated. The reaction kinetics were described in terms of a mechanism developed following the Langmuir-Hinshelwood-Hougen-Watson (LHHW...

Gomez Ruiz, Alejandro

2012-06-07T23:59:59.000Z

243

Advance Registration Form  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

...industry-university link-ages; future trends; energy research cen-ters. Stev,en Ballard...Tho-mas Tolbert, Sheila S. Jasanioff Energy Research and Funding in the 1990s: Status...0:00pm). Fission electric power; energy efficient building; solar en-ergy...

1988-10-28T23:59:59.000Z

244

Adsorption kinetics taking account of the interaction of nearest and next-nearest neighbors  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

A study was carried out on the effect of the interaction between nearest and next-nearest neighbors on adsorption and desorption kinetics. The interaction effect on the adsorption kinetics is much stronger than on the desorption kinetics. The suitability of an adsorption model taking account of the two nearest neighbors for describing the experimental data was examined. The effect of taking account of the ordering of adatoms on desorption kinetics was shown for the case of 2 x 2 super-structure.

Tovbin, Yu.K.; Surovtsev, S.Yu.

1986-04-01T23:59:59.000Z

245

Macromol. Chem. Phys. 2001, 202, 775784 775 Kinetics of the Thermal and Thermo-Oxidative  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

, respectively. #12;776 J. D. Peterson, S. Vyazovkin, C. A. Wight mer degradation kinetics may require developing

Utah, University of

246

Accepted Manuscript Kinetic Modelling of High Density PolyEthylene Pyrolysis: Part 1. Comparison of  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Accepted Manuscript Kinetic Modelling of High Density PolyEthylene Pyrolysis: Part 1. Comparison this article as: Gascoin N, Navarro-Rodriguez A, Gillard P, Mangeot A, Kinetic Modelling of High Density PolyEthylene.polymdegradstab.2012.05.008 #12;M ANUSCRIPT ACCEPTED ACCEPTED MANUSCRIPT 1 Kinetic Modelling of High Density PolyEthylene

Paris-Sud XI, Université de

247

A parametric sensitivity study of entropy production and kinetic energy dissipation using the FAMOUS AOGCM  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

A parametric sensitivity study of entropy production and kinetic energy dissipation using of APE and entropy production associated with kinetic energy dissipation, with the standard FAMOUS values of the conjecture of maximum APE production (or equivalently maximum dissipation of kinetic energy). Keywords

Ambaum, Maarten

248

On Measuring the Terms of the Turbulent Kinetic Energy Budget from an AUV LOUIS GOODMAN  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

of production of turbulent kinetic energy (TKE). Heat flux is obtained by correlating the vertical velocityOn Measuring the Terms of the Turbulent Kinetic Energy Budget from an AUV LOUIS GOODMAN School of the steady-state, homogeneous turbulent kinetic energy budgets are obtained from mea- surements of turbulence

Goodman, Louis

249

COPPER-UPTAKE KINETICS OF COASTAL AND OCEANIC DIATOMS1 , Amber L. Annett3  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

COPPER-UPTAKE KINETICS OF COASTAL AND OCEANIC DIATOMS1 Jian Guo2 , Amber L. Annett3 , Rebecca L We investigated copper (Cu) acquisition mecha- nisms and uptake kinetics of the marine diatoms organic Cu complexes. Key index words: copper; Cu; diatom; Fe; iron; kinetics; Thalassiosira; transport

250

Using Stochastic Roadmap Simulation to Predict Experimental Quantities in Protein Folding Kinetics: Folding Rates and  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Using Stochastic Roadmap Simulation to Predict Experimental Quantities in Protein Folding Kinetics for studying protein folding kinetics. It uses the recently intro- duced Stochastic Roadmap Simulation (SRS validate the SRS method and indicate its potential as a general tool for studying protein folding kinetics

Pratt, Vaughan

251

En Neo | Open Energy Information  

Open Energy Info (EERE)

Neo Jump to: navigation, search Name: En-Neo Place: Germany Sector: Services, Wind energy Product: En-Neo's profile of services includes development, planning, construction and...

252

Simulations of Kinetic Events at the Atomic Scale  

Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

of kinetic events at the atomic scale of kinetic events at the atomic scale Graeme Henkelman UT Austin Al / Al(100) B 3 I / Si Pd / MgO How can we simulate the dynamics of molecular systems over experimental time scales? Objective: To calculate dynamics of a surface over time scales which are much longer than can be calculated with direct classical dynamics. Problem: time scale gap fs ps ns ms ms s mins atomic dynamics thermally activated experimental vibrations simulations reaction dynamics time scales Most interesting transitions are rare 0.5 eV 1000/s events (much slower than vibrations) Simulating a transition for a typical rare event with classical dynamics can require ~10 12 force evaluations Transition state theory A statistical theory for calculating the rate of slow thermal processes

253

MHK Projects/Ogdensburg Kinetic Energy Project | Open Energy Information  

Open Energy Info (EERE)

Ogdensburg Kinetic Energy Project Ogdensburg Kinetic Energy Project < MHK Projects Jump to: navigation, search << Return to the MHK database homepage Loading map... {"minzoom":false,"mappingservice":"googlemaps3","type":"ROADMAP","zoom":5,"types":["ROADMAP","SATELLITE","HYBRID","TERRAIN"],"geoservice":"google","maxzoom":false,"width":"500px","height":"350px","centre":false,"title":"","label":"","icon":"File:Aquamarine-marker.png","visitedicon":"","lines":[],"polygons":[],"circles":[],"rectangles":[],"copycoords":false,"static":false,"wmsoverlay":"","layers":[],"controls":["pan","zoom","type","scale","streetview"],"zoomstyle":"DEFAULT","typestyle":"DEFAULT","autoinfowindows":false,"kml":[],"gkml":[],"fusiontables":[],"resizable":false,"tilt":0,"kmlrezoom":false,"poi":true,"imageoverlays":[],"markercluster":false,"searchmarkers":"","locations":[{"text":"","title":"","link":null,"lat":44.6942,"lon":-75.4863,"alt":0,"address":"","icon":"http:\/\/prod-http-80-800498448.us-east-1.elb.amazonaws.com\/w\/images\/7\/74\/Aquamarine-marker.png","group":"","inlineLabel":"","visitedicon":""}]}

254

Conformational Analysis of ET Kinetics across Oligoproline Peptides  

Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

Analysis of the Electron-Transfer Kinetics across Analysis of the Electron-Transfer Kinetics across Oligoproline Peptides Using N,N-Dimethyl-1,4-benzenediamine Donors and Pyrene-1-sulfonyl Acceptors Joseph B. Issa, Abdu S. Salameh, Edward W. Castner, Jr., James F. Wishart, and Stephan S. Isied J. Phys. Chem. B 111, 6878-6886 (2007). [Find paper at ACS Publications] or use ACS Articles on Request Abstract: Photoinduced intramolecular charge separation across proline-bridged donor-acceptor complexes of the type Pyr-(Pro)n-DMPD (where Pyr = pyrene-1-sulfonyl and DMPD = N,N-dimethyl-1,4-phenylenediamine) was studied. The steady-state emission spectrum for n = 0, 1, 2, 3 showed an increase in emission intensity with the number of proline residues. Time-dependent emission measured by streak camera showed increasing

255

Dissipative kinetic Alfvn solitary waves resulting from viscosity  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Nonlinear small-amplitude kinetic Alfvn solitary waves (KASWs) are investigated with their anomalous kinetic viscosity effect on electrons. It is found that the structure of a hump-type KASW solution develops into a shock-type (or double layer) KASW solution for large amplitude KASWs when viscosity exists. For small amplitude KASWs, the Korteweg-de Vries (KdV) equation with an approximate pseudopotential was solved, and it is found that the hump-type KASWs develop into oscillating shock-type (kink-type) KASWs. It is also found that the oscillating scale of this structure is related to the propagation velocity and plasma beta, while the damping scale is inversely proportional to the viscosity.

Choi, C.-R.; Kang, S.-B.; Min, K.-W. [Department of Physics, Korea Advanced Institute of Science and Technology, Daejeon 305-701 (Korea, Republic of)] [Department of Physics, Korea Advanced Institute of Science and Technology, Daejeon 305-701 (Korea, Republic of); Woo, M.-H. [National Fusion Research Institute, Daejeon 305-333 (Korea, Republic of)] [National Fusion Research Institute, Daejeon 305-333 (Korea, Republic of); Hwang, J.; Park, Y.-D. [Korea Astronomy and Space Science Institute, Daejeon 305-348 (Korea, Republic of)] [Korea Astronomy and Space Science Institute, Daejeon 305-348 (Korea, Republic of)

2013-11-15T23:59:59.000Z

256

Systems engineering analysis of kinetic energy weapon concepts  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

This study examines, from a systems engineering design perspective, the potential of kinetic energy weapons being used in the role of a conventional strategic weapon. Within the Department of Energy (DOE) complex, strategic weapon experience falls predominantly in the nuclear weapons arena. The techniques developed over the years may not be the most suitable methodologies for use in a new design/development arena. For this reason a more fundamental approach was pursued with the objective of developing an information base from which design decisions might be made concerning the conventional strategic weapon system concepts. The study examined (1) a number of generic missions, (2) the effects of a number of damage mechanisms from a physics perspective, (3) measures of effectiveness (MOE`s), and (4) a design envelope for kinetic energy weapon concepts. With the base of information a cut at developing a set of high-level system requirements was made, and a number of concepts were assessed against these requirements.

Senglaub, M.

1996-06-01T23:59:59.000Z

257

On Consistent Kinetic and Derivative Interactions for Gravitons  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

The only known fully ghost-free and consistent Lorentz-invariant kinetic term for a graviton (or indeed for any spin-2 field) is the Einstein-Hilbert term. Here we propose and investigate a new family of candidate kinetic interactions and their extensions to derivative interactions involving several spin-2 fields. These new terms generically break diffeomorphism invariance(s) and as a result can lead to the propagation of 5 degrees of freedom for a single spin-2 field - analogous to ghost-free Massive Gravity. We discuss under what circumstances these new terms can be used to build healthy effective field theories and in the process establish the `Jordan' and `Einstein' frame pictures for Massive-, Bi- and Multi-Gravity.

Noller, Johannes

2014-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

258

On Consistent Kinetic and Derivative Interactions for Gravitons  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

The only known fully ghost-free and consistent Lorentz-invariant kinetic term for a graviton (or indeed for any spin-2 field) is the Einstein-Hilbert term. Here we propose and investigate a new family of candidate kinetic interactions and their extensions to derivative interactions involving several spin-2 fields. These new terms generically break diffeomorphism invariance(s) and as a result can lead to the propagation of 5 degrees of freedom for a single spin-2 field - analogous to ghost-free Massive Gravity. We discuss under what circumstances these new terms can be used to build healthy effective field theories and in the process establish the `Jordan' and `Einstein' frame pictures for Massive-, Bi- and Multi-Gravity.

Johannes Noller

2014-09-26T23:59:59.000Z

259

Chemistry Resolved Kinetic Flow Modeling of TATB Based Explosives  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Detonation waves in insensitive, TATB based explosives are believed to have multi-time scale regimes. The initial burn rate of such explosives has a sub-microsecond time scale. However, significant late-time slow release in energy is believed to occur due to diffusion limited growth of carbon. In the intermediate time scale concentrations of product species likely change from being in equilibrium to being kinetic rate controlled. They use the thermo-chemical code CHEETAH linked to an ALE hydrodynamics code to model detonations. They term their model chemistry resolved kinetic flow as CHEETAH tracks the time dependent concentrations of individual species in the detonation wave and calculates EOS values based on the concentrations. A HE-validation suite of model simulations compared to experiments at ambient, hot, and cold temperatures has been developed. They present here a new rate model and comparison with experimental data.

Vitello, P A; Fried, L E; Howard, W M; Levesque, G; Souers, P C

2011-07-21T23:59:59.000Z

260

Kinetics of surface roughening and smoothing during ion sputtering  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

We have measured the kinetics of roughness evolution during low energy ion sputtering of SiO{sub 2} surfaces using in situ x-ray reflectivity. Sputtering with heavy ions (Xe) leads to rapid roughening of the surface that can not be explained by a simple random removal process. Subsequent bombardment with light ions (He,H) leads to an exponential decrease in the surface roughness. These kinetics are explained quantitatively by a linear model that contains a balance between smoothing by surface diffusion and viscous flow and roughening by sputter removal of material. A curvature dependent sputter yield leads to amplification of a limited range of spatial frequencies on the surface and the formation of a ripple topography.

Chason, E.; Mayer, T.M.; Howard, A.J.

1993-12-31T23:59:59.000Z

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "kinetic en ergy" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


261

Gasification characteristics and kinetics for an eastern oil shale  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Gasification tests of Indiana New Albany oil shale fines have been conducted. Thermobalance test results indicate that over 95% of the organic carbon in the shale can be gasified at 1700{degree}F and 135 psig with 30 minutes residence time under a synthesis gas atmosphere and at 1800{degree}F and 15 psig with 30 minutes residence time under a hydrogen/steam atmosphere. A simple kinetic expression for hydrogen/steam gasification weight loss has been developed. Weight loss has been described as the sum of the weight loss from two independent, simultaneous reaction paths: a rapid (<2 minutes) first order reaction and a slower gasification reaction that can be expressed in terms of the steam/carbon reaction. Work is in progress to study the gasification of other Eastern shales and improve the kinetic description of weight loss.

Lau, F.S.; Rue, D.M.; Punwani, D.V.; Rex, R.C. Jr.

1987-04-01T23:59:59.000Z

262

Nonequilibrium sensing and its analogy to kinetic proofreading  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

For a paradigmatic model of chemotaxis, we analyze the effect how a nonzero affinity driving receptors out of equilibrium affects sensitivity. This affinity arises whenever changes in receptor activity involve ATP hydrolysis. The sensitivity integrated over a ligand concentration range is shown to be enhanced by the affinity, providing a measure of how much energy consumption improves sensing. With this integrated sensitivity we can establish an intriguing analogy between sensing with nonequilibrium receptors and kinetic proofreading: the increase in integrated sensitivity is equivalent to the decrease of the error in kinetic proofreading. The influence of the occupancy of the receptor on the phosphorylation and dephosphorylation reaction rates is shown to be crucial for the relation between integrated sensitivity and affinity. This influence can even lead to a regime where a nonzero affinity decreases the integrated sensitivity, which corresponds to anti-proofreading.

Hartich, David; Seifert, Udo

2015-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

263

Protein Folding Kinetics and Thermodynamics from Atomistic Simulations  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

Determining protein folding kinetics and thermodynamics from all-atom molecular dynamics (MD) simulations without using experimental data represents a formidable scientific challenge because simulations can easily get trapped in local minima on rough free energy landscapes. This necessitates the computation of multiple simulation trajectories, which can be independent from each other or coupled in some manner, as, for example, in the replica exchange MD method. Here we present results obtained with a new analysis tool that allows the deduction of faithful kinetics data from a heterogeneous ensemble of simulation trajectories. The method is demonstrated on the decapeptide Chignolin for which we predict folding and unfolding time constants of 1.00.3 and 2.60.4???s, respectively. We also derive the energetics of folding, and calculate a realistic melting curve for Chignolin.

David van der Spoel and M. Marvin Seibert

2006-06-15T23:59:59.000Z

264

Kinetic Method for Hydrogen-Deuterium-Tritium Mixture Distillation Simulation  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Simulation of hydrogen distillation plants requires mathematical procedures suitable for multicomponent systems. In most of the present-day simulation methods a distillation column is assumed to be composed of theoretical stages, or plates. However, in the case of a multicomponent mixture theoretical plate does not exist.An alternative kinetic method of simulation is depicted in the work. According to this method a system of mass-transfer differential equations is solved numerically. Mass-transfer coefficients are estimated with using experimental results and empirical equations.Developed method allows calculating the steady state of a distillation column as well as its any non-steady state when initial conditions are given. The results for steady states are compared with ones obtained via Thiele-Geddes theoretical stage technique and the necessity of using kinetic method is demonstrated. Examples of a column startup period and periodic distillation simulations are shown as well.

Sazonov, A.B.; Kagramanov, Z.G.; Magomedbekov, E.P. [Mendeleyev University of Chemical Technology of Russia (Russian Federation)

2005-07-15T23:59:59.000Z

265

Kinetic dielectric decrement revisited: phenomenology of finite ion concentrations  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

With the help of a recently developed non-equilibrium approach, we investigate the ionic strength dependence of the Hubbard--Onsager dielectric decrement. We compute the depolarization of water molecules caused by the motion of ions in sodium chloride solutions from the dilute regime (0.035 M) up close to the saturation concentration (4.24 M), and find that the kinetic decrement displays a strong nonmonotonic behavior, in contrast to the prediction of available models. We introduce a phenomenological modification of the Hubbard--Onsager continuum theory, that takes into account the screening due to the ionic cloud at mean field level, and, is able to describe the kinetic decrement at high concentrations including the presence of a pronounced minimum.

Marcello Sega; Sofia Kantorovich; Axel Arnold

2014-07-16T23:59:59.000Z

266

Kinetic model for electrorefining, part I: Model development and validation  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

Abstract Electrorefining is the key process of the pryprocessing for treatment of spent nuclear fuels. In the present study, a kinetic model for electrorefining is developed. The model has the capability to predict the kinetic features of materials dissolution/deposition at anodes/cathodes of the electrorefiner and the evolution of the partial currents of the species involved, the potentials of the electrodes, and species concentrations in the molten salt. The model takes into account the changes of the surface areas and the volumes of the electrodes related to materials dissolution and deposition. The model is validated by compared with available experimental data. This article, focusing on the model development and validation, is Part I of the systemic study on development of the pyroprocessing model. Part II of this study will focus on the applications of the model.

Jinsuo Zhang

2014-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

267

Nonlinear simplified model to study localization of kinetic Alfvn wave  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

We have presented the numerical simulation of the coupled equations governing the dynamics of kinetic Alfvn wave (KAW) and ion acoustic wave in the intermediate ? plasma, where ? is the ratio of thermal pressure to the background magnetic pressure. We have also developed a simplified model for this nonlinear interaction using the results obtained from the simulation to understand the physics of nonlinear evolution of KAW. Localization of magnetic field intensity of KAW has been studied by means of the simplified model.

Sharma, R. P., E-mail: rpsharma@ces.iitd.ac.in; Gaur, Nidhi, E-mail: nidhiphysics@gmail.com [Centre for Energy Studies, Indian Institute of Technology, Delhi 110016 (India)] [Centre for Energy Studies, Indian Institute of Technology, Delhi 110016 (India)

2014-04-15T23:59:59.000Z

268

Measurement of the Sintering Kinetics of Coal Ash  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

Measurement of the Sintering Kinetics of Coal Ash ... A new technique has been developed to determine the sintering rate of coal ash based on the measurement of the pressure-drop across a pellet of ash. ... The technique developed in this study shows a good repeatability of the rate of sintering and confirms that viscous flow is the dominant mechanism for sintering of coal ash. ...

A. Y. Al-Otoom; L. K. Elliott; T. F. Wall; B. Moghtaderi

2000-08-16T23:59:59.000Z

269

Master equation approach to protein folding and kinetic traps  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

The master equation for 12-monomer lattice heteropolymers is solved numerically and the time evolution of the occupancy of the native state is determined. At low temperatures, the median folding time follows the Arrhenius law and is governed by the longest relaxation time. For good folders, significant kinetic traps appear in the folding funnel whereas for bad folders, the traps also occur in non-native energy valleys.

Marek Cieplak; Malte Henkel; Jan Karbowski; Jayanth R. Banavar

1998-04-21T23:59:59.000Z

270

Kinetics of Irreversible Adsorption with Diffusion:? Application to Biomolecule Immobilization  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

To demonstrate the utility of the numerical model over the limiting analytical solutions, the kinetics of the adsorption of glucose oxidase (GOD) onto a MPA self-assembled monolayer (SAM) was monitored using a quartz crystal microbalance. ... We have measured the maximum monolayer coverage of GOD as 1 10-12 mol cm-2?13 and take the diffusion coefficient as 5 10-7 cm2 s-1 for a 10 nm diameter particle. ...

D. Brynn Hibbert; J. Justin Gooding; Paul Erokhin

2002-02-08T23:59:59.000Z

271

Adiabatic trapping in coupled kinetic Alfven-acoustic waves  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

In the present work, we have discussed the effects of adiabatic trapping of electrons on obliquely propagating Alfven waves in a low {beta} plasma. Using the two potential theory and employing the Sagdeev potential approach, we have investigated the existence of arbitrary amplitude coupled kinetic Alfven-acoustic solitary waves in both the sub and super Alfvenic cases. The results obtained have been analyzed and presented graphically and can be applied to regions of space where the low {beta} assumption holds true.

Shah, H. A.; Ali, Z. [Department of Physics, G.C. University, 54000 Lahore (Pakistan); Masood, W. [COMSATS, Institute of Information Technology, Park Road, Chak Shahzad, Islamabad 44000 (Pakistan); National Centre for Physics (NCP), Shahdara Valley Road, 44000 Islamabad (Pakistan); Theoretical Plasma Physics Division, P. O. Nilore, Islamabad (Pakistan)

2013-03-15T23:59:59.000Z

272

Plasmadynamics and ionization kinetics of thermionic energy conversion  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

To reduce the plasma arc-drop, thermionic energy conversion is studied with both analytical and numerical tools. Simplifications are made in both the plasmadynamic and ionization-recombination theories. These are applied to a scheme proposed presently using laser irradiation to enhance the ionization kinetics of the thermionic plasma and thereby reduce the arc-drop. It is also predicted that it is possible to generate the required laser light from a thermionic-type Cesium plasma. The analysis takes advantage of theoretical simplifications derived for the ionization-recombination kinetics. It is shown that large laser ionization enhancements can occur and that collisional Cesium recombination lasing is expected. To complement the kinetic theory, a numerical method is developed to solve the thermionic plasma dynamics. The effects of the complete system of electron-atom inelastic collisions on the ionization-recombination problem are shown to reduce to a system nearly as simple as the well-known one-quantum approximation. To combine the above analysis of ionization-recombination kinetics with the plasma dynamics of thermionic conversion, a finite difference computer program is constructed. Using the above developments, a proposal to improve thermionic converter performance using laser radiation is considered. In this proposed scheme, laser radiation impinging on a thermionic plasma enhances the ionization process thereby raising the plasma density and reducing the plasma arc-drop. A source for such radiation may possibly be a Cesium recombination laser operating in a different thermionic converter. The possibility of this being an energy efficient process is discussed.

Lawless, J.L. Jr.

1981-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

273

Tolman's law in linear irreversible thermodynamics: a kinetic theory approach  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

In this paper it is shown that Tolman's law can be derived from relativistic kinetic theory applied to a simple fluid in a BGK-like approximation. Using this framework, it becomes clear that the contribution of the gravitational field can be viewed as a cross effect that resembles the so-called \\emph{Thomson effect} in irreversible thermodynamics. A proper generalization of Tolman's law in an inhomogeneous medium is formally established based on these grounds.

A. Sandoval-Villalbazo; A. L. Garcia-Perciante; D. Brun-Battistini

2012-07-10T23:59:59.000Z

274

Potential digestibilities and digestion kinetics of forage cell wall components  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

LITERATURE REVIEW. EXPERIMENTAL PROCEDURES. Chemical Analysis Colorimetric Determinations Statistical Evaluation. 10 13 15 IV RESULTS AND DISCUSSION 16 V Characteristics of Forage Kinetics of Cell Wall Digestion SUMMARY AND CONCLUSIONS... and both of these variables appear to be the result of several dynamic processes. The amount of structural carbohydrates, the main constituents of the fibrous cell wall, ruminants can digest appears to be limited by the potential digestibility...

Tauskey, William Henry

1973-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

275

KINETICS OF HOT-GAS DESULFURIZATION SORBENTS FOR TRANSPORT REACTORS  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Hot-gas desulfurization for the integrated gasification combined cycle (IGCC) process has been investigated by many researchers to remove effectively hydrogen sulfide with various metal oxide sorbents at elevated temperatures. Various metal oxide sorbents are formulated with metal oxides such as Fe, Co, Zn, and Ti. Initial reaction kinetics of formulated sorbents with hydrogen sulfide is studied in the presence of various amounts of moisture and hydrogen at various reaction temperatures. The objectives of this research are to study initial reaction kinetics for a sorbent-hydrogen sulfide heterogeneous reaction system, to investigate effects of concentrations of hydrogen sulfide, hydrogen, and moisture on dynamic absorption of H{sub 2}S into sorbents, and to evaluate effects of temperature and sorbent amounts on dynamic absorption of H{sub 2}S into sorbents. Experimental data on initial reaction kinetics of hydrogen sulfide with metal oxide sorbents were obtained with a 0.83-cm{sup 3} differential reactor. In this report, the reactivity of AHI-5 was examined. This sorbent was obtained from the Research Triangle Institute (RTI). The sorbent in the form of 70 {micro}m particles are reacted with 9000-18000 ppm hydrogen sulfide at 350-500 C. The range of space time of reaction gas mixtures is 0.071-0.088 s. The range of reaction duration is 4-10800 s.

K.C. Kwon

2001-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

276

Nonphotochemical hole burning and dispersive kinetics in amorphous solids  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Results covering burn intensities in the nW to {mu}W/cm{sup 2} range, of dispersive hole growth kinetics are reported for Oxazine 720 in glycerol glasses and polyvinyl alcohol polymer films and their deuterated analogues. A theoretical model which employs a distribution function for the hole burning rate constant based upon a Gaussian distribution for the tunnel parameter is shown to accurately describe the kinetic data. This model incorporates the linear electron-phonon coupling. A method for calculating the nonphotochemical quantum yield is presented which utilizes the Gaussian distribution of tunnel parameters. The quantum yield calculation can be extended to determine a quantum yield as a function of hole depth. The effect of spontaneous hole filling is shown to be insignificant over the burn intensity range studied. Average relaxation rates for hole burning are {approximately}8 orders of magnitude greater than for hole filling. The dispersive kinetics of hole burning are observed to be independent over the temperature range of these experiments, 1.6 to 7.0 K. 6 refs., 20 figs., 1 tab.

Kenney, M.J.

1990-09-21T23:59:59.000Z

277

Kinetics and mechanisms of reactions involving small aromatic reactive intermediates  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Small aromatic radicals such as C{sub 6}H{sub 5}, C{sub 6}H{sub 5}O and C{sub 6}H{sub 4} are key prototype species of their homologs. C{sub 6}H{sub 5} and its oxidation product, C{sub 6}H{sub 5}O are believed to be important intermediates which play a pivotal role in hydrocarbon combustion, particularly with regard to soot formation. Despite their fundamental importance, experimental data on the reaction mechanisms and reactivities of these species are very limited. For C{sub 6}H{sub 5}, most kinetic data except its reactions with NO and NO{sub 2}, were obtained by relative rate measurements. For C{sub 6}H{sub 5}O, the authors have earlier measured its fragmentation reaction producing C{sub 5}H{sub 5} + CO in shock waves. For C{sub 6}H{sub 4}, the only rate constant measured in the gas phase is its recombination rate at room temperature. The authors have proposed to investigate systematically the kinetics and mechanisms of this important class of molecules using two parallel laser diagnostic techniques--laser resonance absorption (LRA) and resonance enhanced multiphoton ionization mass spectrometry (REMPI/MS). In the past two years, study has been focused on the development of a new multipass adsorption technique--the {open_quotes}cavity-ring-down{close_quotes} technique for kinetic applications. The preliminary results of this study appear to be quite good and the sensitivity of the technique is at least comparable to that of the laser-induced fluorescence method.

Lin, M.C. [Emory Univ., Atlanta, GA (United States)

1993-12-01T23:59:59.000Z

278

Kinetic Energy Recovery System for Sailing Yachts: Preliminary Experimental Results  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

Abstract SEAKERS (SEA Kinetic Energy Recovery System) is a research project, funded within the 7th EU Framework Program, whose goal is to develop an innovative device consisting in a model of a kinetic energy recovery system for sailing yachts, based on the conversion of wave-induced boat oscillations (heave, pitch and roll) into electric energy by means of a linear generator. The device aims at recovering as much kinetic energy as possible from the natural movements of a sailing yacht on the sea, therefore taking the view of a boat as a moving wave energy converter with energy harvesting capability. The boat's motions can be vertical oscillations due to the buoyancy in the presence of sea waves and rolling and pitching motions originated both by sailing in wavy waters and by the normal boat dynamics due to the sails propulsion. This paper presents a brief description of the prototype of linear generator, which has been developed in the SEAKERS project, and reports about the first experimental tests carried out on the prototype. Two kind of tests have been performed on the generator, which can be classified as a linear permanent magnet switched reluctance generator: first, the possibility to use the prototype like an actuator has been investigated, in order to force the cursor to have a motion in phase with the external forcing, so as to recover more energy when the machine acts as generator. The behaviour of the actuator was examined in a static way, measuring the forces between cursor and stator, varying relative position of cursor and current in the coils. The second kind of tests has been performed to analyse the efficiency of the generator, for different external loads and translational velocities. The trend shown in these tests are then explained by an analytical model based on an electromagnetic circuit.

Giuseppe Leo Guizzi; Michele Manno; Guido Manzi; Marco Salvatori; Domenico Serpella

2014-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

279

Two-Dimensional Kinetic Turbulence in the Solar Wind  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

We present the first 2D hybrid-Vlasov simulations of turbulence in the solar wind that describe the evolution of the energy spectra in a range of two decades of wavelengths around the ion inertial scale. Several previous magnetohydrodynamics and particle-in-cell simulations in the range of large (fluid) wavelengths showed a marked anisotropy of the energy spectra in the direction perpendicular to the mean magnetic field. Here we give evidence that the parallel direction can also be a privileged way for turbulence to develop towards short scales, where kinetic effects govern the plasma dynamics.

F. Valentini; F. Califano; P. Veltri

2010-05-17T23:59:59.000Z

280

Chemical Kinetics in Support of Syngas Turbine Combustion  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

This document is the final report on an overall program formulated to extend our prior work in developing and validating kinetic models for the CO/hydrogen/oxygen reaction by carefully analyzing the individual and interactive behavior of specific elementary and subsets of elementary reactions at conditions of interest to syngas combustion in gas turbines. A summary of the tasks performed under this work are: 1. Determine experimentally the third body efficiencies in H+O{sub 2}+M = HO{sub 2}+M (R1) for CO{sub 2} and H{sub 2}O. 2. Using published literature data and the results in this program, further develop the present H{sub 2}/O{sub 2}/diluent and CO/H{sub 2}/O{sub 2}/diluent mechanisms for dilution with CO{sub 2}, H{sub 2}O and N{sub 2} through comparisons with new experimental validation targets for H{sub 2}-CO-O{sub 2}-N{sub 2} reaction kinetics in the presence of significant diluent fractions of CO{sub 2} and/or H{sub 2}O, at high pressures. (task amplified to especially address ignition delay issues, see below). 3. Analyze and demonstrate issues related to NOx interactions with syngas combustion chemistry (task amplified to include interactions of iron pentacarbonyl with syngas combustion chemistry, see below). 4. Publish results, including updated syngas kinetic model. Results are summarized in this document and its appendices. Three archival papers which contain a majority of the research results have appeared. Those results not published elsewhere are highlighted here, and will appear as part of future publications. Portions of the work appearing in the above publications were also supported in part by the Department of Energy under Grant No. DE-FG02-86ER-13503. As a result of and during the research under the present contract, we became aware of other reported results that revealed substantial differences between experimental characterizations of ignition delays for syngas mixtures and ignition delay predictions based upon homogenous kinetic modeling. We adjusted emphasis of Task 2 to understand the source of these noted disparities because of their key importance to developing lean premixed combustion technologies of syngas turbine applications. In performing Task 3, we also suggest for the first time the very significant effect that metal carbonyls may have on syngas combustion properties. This work is fully detailed. The work on metal carbonyl effects is entirely computational in nature. Pursuit of experimental verification of these interactions was beyond the scope of the present work.

Dryer, Frederick

2007-07-31T23:59:59.000Z

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "kinetic en ergy" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


281

Kinetic dissipation and anisotropic heating in a turbulent collisionless plasma  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

The kinetic evolution of the Orszag-Tang vortex is studied using collisionless hybrid simulations. In the magnetohydrodynamic regime this vortex leads rapidly to broadband turbulence. Significant differences from MHD arise at small scales, where the fluid scale energy dissipates into heat almost exclusively through the magnetic field because the protons are decoupled from the magnetic field. Although cyclotron resonance is absent, the protons heat preferentially in the plane perpendicular to the mean field, as in the corona and solar wind. Effective transport coefficients are calculated.

Parashar, T N; Cassak, P A; Matthaeus, W H

2008-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

282

Kinetics of light induced defect creation in organic solar cells  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

The kinetics of light-induced recombination centers in bulk heterojunction organic solar cells are measured as a function of exposure time intensity and the illumination photon energy. The density of induced centers increases with exposure but stabilizes partially due to self-annealing. UV exposure is roughly 50 times more effective for defect creation than white light or yellow-filtered white light. Light-induced breaking of C-H bonds to create H-related localized states is proposed as the underlying mechanism.

R. A. Street; D. M. Davies

2013-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

283

Kinetic model of catalytic oxidation of carbon monoxide on nickel  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

A mechanism is proposed for describing the previous disclosed multiplicity of equilibrium states in the oxidation of carbon monoxide on metallic nickel. In contrast to the known mechanism for oxidation of CO on platinum metals it includes a nonlinear stage of carbon monoxide adsorption and a linear stage of oxygen adsorption. A kinetic model has been obtained and stage velocity constants have been found, providing a basis for obtaining a quantitative agreement between the calculated and experimental relations between the reaction velocity and the reagent concentrations. Opinions are stated in relation to the causes for evolution of the CO oxidation reaction from platinum metals to nickel.

Pyatnitskii, Yu.I.; Ostapyuk, V.A.

1986-07-01T23:59:59.000Z

284

Kinetic study of ion-acoustic plasma vortices  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

The kinetic theory of electron plasma waves with finite orbital angular momentum has recently been introduced by Mendonca. This model shows possibility of new kind of plasma waves and instabilities. We have extended the theory to ion-acoustic plasma vortices carrying orbital angular momentum. The dispersion equation is derived under paraxial approximation which exhibits a kind of linear vortices and their Landau damping. The numerical solutions are obtained and compared with analytical results which are in good agreement. The physical interpretation of the ion-acoustic plasma vortices and their Landau resonance conditions are given for typical case of Maxwellian plasmas.

Khan, S. A. [National Centre for Physics (NCP), Quaid-i-Azam University Campus, Islamabad 45320 (Pakistan); Aman-ur-Rehman, E-mail: amansadiq@gmail.com [Pakistan Institute of Engineering and Applied Sciences (PIEAS), P.O. Nilore, Islamabad 45650 (Pakistan); Mendonca, J. T. [IPFN, Instituto Superior Tchnico, Av. Rovisco Pais 1, 1049-001 Lisboa (Portugal)

2014-09-15T23:59:59.000Z

285

Convergent synthesis of proteins by kinetically controlled ligation  

DOE Patents [OSTI]

The present invention concerns methods and compositions for synthesizing a polypeptide using kinetically controlled reactions involving fragments of the polypeptide for a fully convergent process. In more specific embodiments, a ligation involves reacting a first peptide having a protected cysteyl group at its N-terminal and a phenylthioester at its C-terminal with a second peptide having a cysteine residue at its N-termini and a thioester at its C-termini to form a ligation product. Subsequent reactions may involve deprotecting the cysteyl group of the resulting ligation product and/or converting the thioester into a thiophenylester.

Kent, Stephen (Chicago, IL); Pentelute, Brad (Chicago, IL); Bang, Duhee (Boston, MA); Johnson, Erik (Chicago, IL); Durek, Thomas (Chicago, IL)

2010-03-09T23:59:59.000Z

286

Microsecond Microfluidic Mixing for Investigation of Protein Folding Kinetics  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

We have developed and characterized a mixer to study the reaction kinetics of protein folding on a microsecond timescale. The mixer uses hydrodynamic focusing of pressure-driven flow in a microfluidic channel to reduce diffusion times as first demonstrated by Knight et al.[1]. Features of the mixer include 1 {micro}s mixing times, sample consumptions of order 1 nl/s, loading sample volumes on the order of microliters, and the ability to manufacture in fused silica for compatibility with most spectroscopic methods.

Hertzog, D E; Santiago, J G; Bakajin, O

2005-02-10T23:59:59.000Z

287

Microsecond Microfluidic Mixing for Investigation of Protein Folding Kinetics  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

We have developed and characterized a mixer to study the reaction kinetics of protein folding on a microsecond timescale. The mixer uses hydrodynamic focusing of pressure-driven flow in a microfluidic channel to reduce diffusion times as first demonstrated by Knight et al.[1]. Features of the mixer include 1 {micro}s mixing times, sample consumptions of order 1 nl/s, loading sample volumes on the order of microliters, and the ability to manufacture in fused silica for compatibility with most spectroscopic methods.

Hertzog, D E; Santiago, J G; Bakajin, O

2003-06-25T23:59:59.000Z

288

Non-minimal Kinetic coupling to gravity and accelerated expansion  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

We study a scalar field with kinetic term coupled to itself and to the curvature, as a source of dark energy, and analyze the role of this new coupling in the accelerated expansion at large times. In the case of scalar field dominance, the scalar field and potential giving rise to power-law expansion are found in some cases, and a dynamical equation of state is calculated for a given solution of the field equations. A behavior very close to that of the cosmological constant was found.

L. N. Granda

2009-11-19T23:59:59.000Z

289

Single Molecule Acid-Base Kinetics and Thermodynamics  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

We report a method in which temperature dependent single-molecule fluorescence measurements are used to study the kinetics and thermodynamics of the acid-base interaction in films of photoresist polymer. We use the two distinct fluorescent prototropic forms of Coumarin 6 (C6?C6+) to indicate the state of the acid-base system. Data are analyzed using a statistical model of the intensity probability distributions, yielding temperature dependent proton exchange rates, which is confirmed through agreement with a simple two-state MonteCarlo model. The temperature dependent rates are used to calculate the activation enthalpy for proton exchange.

Michael D. Mason; Krishanu Ray; Robert D. Grober; Gerd Pohlers; James Cameron

2004-08-13T23:59:59.000Z

290

A microrheological study of hydrogel kinetics and micro-heterogeneity  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

DOI 10.1140/epje/i2014-14044-y Regular Article Eur. Phys. J. E (2014) 37: 44 THE EUROPEAN PHYSICAL JOURNAL E A microrheological study of hydrogel kinetics and micro-heterogeneity Anders Aufderhorst-Roberts1,a, William J. Frith2, and Athene M. Donald... unique mechan- ical properties [5]. The range of available low-molecular-weight hydro- gelating systems has increased in recent years as their discovery has steadily relied more upon rational de- sign and less upon serendipity [6]. Hydrogelating sys- tems...

Aufderhorst-Roberts, Anders; Frith, William J.; Donald, Athene M.

2014-05-27T23:59:59.000Z

291

Un exemple de conversion d'une table de production en volume en tables de production en biomasse  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Un exemple de conversion d'une table de production en volume en tables de production en biomasse secteur ligérien, proposée par PARD? en 1962, est convertie en quatre tables de production en biomasse correspondant chacune à une partie de l'arbre ou à l'arbre entier, biomasse foliaire exclue. La conversion est

Paris-Sud XI, Université de

292

On spherically symmetric metric satisfying the positive kinetic energy coordinate condition  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Generally speaking, there is a negative kinetic energy term in the Lagrangian of the Einstein-Hilbert action of general relativity; On the other hand, the negative kinetic energy term can be vanished by designating a special coordinate system. For general spherically symmetric metric, the question that seeking special coordinate system that satisfies the positive kinetic energy coordinate condition is referred to solving a linear first-order partial differential equation. And then, we present a metric corresponding to the Reissner-Nordstrom solution that satisfies the positive kinetic energy coordinate condition. Finally, we discuss simply the case of the Tolman metric.

T. Mei

2008-02-28T23:59:59.000Z

293

E-Print Network 3.0 - atomistic kinetic monte Sample Search Results  

Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

Materials Science ; Physics 5 Mesoscopic model for dynamic simulations of carbon nanotubes Leonid V. Zhigilei* Summary: of the potential energy and kinetic energy of a 395...

294

Pyrolysis Kinetics and Chemical Structure Considerations of a Green River Oil Shale and Its Derivatives.  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

??This work had the objective of determining both the kinetic parameters for the pyrolysis of oil shale and kerogen as well as using analytical techniques (more)

Hillier, James L

2011-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

295

Progress in an oxygen-carrier reaction kinetics experiment for rotary-bed chemical looping combustion .  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

??The design process for an experimental platform measuring reaction kinetics in a chemical looping combustion (CLC) process is documented and justified. To enable an experiment (more)

Jester-Weinstein, Jack (Jack L.)

2013-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

296

Kinetics of Hematite to Wstite by Hydrogen for Chemical Looping Combustion  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

Kinetics of Hematite to Wstite by Hydrogen for Chemical Looping Combustion ... Industrial & Engineering Chemistry Research (1989), 28 (8), 1130-40 CODEN: IECRED; ISSN:0888-5885. ...

Esmail R. Monazam; Ronald W. Breault; Ranjani Siriwardane

2014-07-01T23:59:59.000Z

297

Comparison of Palladium and Platinum Water Gas Shift Kinetics Using Density Functional Theory Models.  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

??The Water Gas Shift (WGS) reaction can be either thermodynamically or kinetically limited, depending on process conditions. Improved catalysts are of particular interest at low (more)

Clay, John

2014-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

298

Comparison of palladium and platinum Water Gas Shift reaction kinetics using density functional theory models.  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

?? The Water Gas Shift (WGS) reaction can be either thermodynamically or kinetically limited, depending on process conditions. Improved catalysts are of particular interest at (more)

Clay, John P.

2014-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

299

Photo-oxidation of Ge Nanocrystals: Kinetic Measurements by In Situ Raman Spectroscopy  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Photo-oxidation of Ge Nanocrystals: Kinetic Measurements byrate enhancement is due to a photo-chemical process. Thenanocrystals can be rapidly photo-oxidized. This oxidation

2008-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

300

E-Print Network 3.0 - anodic reaction kinetics Sample Search...  

Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

of Al should be severely retarded. Because of this retarded kinetics of anodization process... The Formation of Porous Anodic ... Source: Kim, Ki-Bum - School of Materials...

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "kinetic en ergy" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


301

Fundamental Mechanisms of Copper CMP Passivation Kinetics of Copper in CMP Slurry Constituents  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Tribochemical Mechanisms of Copper Chemical MechanicalE06-02 Fundamental Mechanisms of Copper CMP PassivationKinetics of Copper in CMP Slurry Constituents Shantanu

Tripathi, Shantanu; Doyle, F M; Dornfeld, David

2009-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

302

E-Print Network 3.0 - axial kinetic energy Sample Search Results  

Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

axial flow fan systems. Despite... -vortex-driven flow structures to increase the energy efficiency of axial flow fan systems to provide high quality... the mean kinetic...

303

Development of 3-D Neutronic Kinetic Model and Control for CANDU Reactors.  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

??The development of a three dimensional (3-D) neutronic kinetic modeling process aiming at control system design for CANadian Deuterium Uranium (CANDU) reactors is carried out (more)

Xia, Lingzhi

2012-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

304

Kinetic theory and numerical simulations of two-species coagulation  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

In this work we study the stochastic process of two-species coagulation. This process consists in the aggregation dynamics taking place in a ring. Particles and clusters of particles are set in this ring and they can move either clockwise or counterclockwise. They have a probability to aggregate forming larger clusters when they collide with another particle or cluster. We study the stochastic process both analytically and numerically. Analytically, we derive a kinetic theory which approximately describes the process dynamics. One of our strongest assumptions in this respect is the so called well-stirred limit, that allows neglecting the appearance of spatial coordinates in the theory, so this becomes effectively reduced to a zeroth dimensional model. We determine the long time behavior of such a model, making emphasis in one special case in which it displays self-similar solutions. In particular these calculations answer the question of how the system gets ordered, with all particles and clusters moving in the same direction, in the long time. We compare our analytical results with direct numerical simulations of the stochastic process and both corroborate its predictions and check its limitations. In particular, we numerically confirm the ordering dynamics predicted by the kinetic theory and explore properties of the realizations of the stochastic process which are not accessible to our theoretical approach.

Carlos Escudero; Fabricio Macia; Raul Toral; Juan J. L. Velazquez

2014-04-19T23:59:59.000Z

305

A comprehensive kinetics model for CO oxidation during char combustion  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

The most important parameter in representing energy feedback to a particle during char combustion concerns the oxidation of CO to CO/sub 2/. If substantial oxidation of CO occurs near a particle, then the greater heat of combustion for the complete oxidation of carbon to CO/sub 2/ (94.1 kcal/mole vs. 26.4 kcal/mole for oxidation to CO) is available for energy feedback mechanisms. ''Energy feedback'' is here defined as any situation in which an individual particle receives a significant fraction of its heat of combustion directly, through the localized oxidation of emitted combustible species, i.e. CO. Conversely, if the oxidation of CO does not occur near a particle, then energy feedback will occur only indirectly, through heating of the bulk gas. The primary reaction product at the particle surface during char combustion is generally considered to be CO, and the location of the subsequent CO oxidation zone plays a very important role in determining the particle temperature. Ayling and Smith performed experimental and modeling work which indicates that CO oxidation is not of major importance under the conditions they investigated, although they noted the need for improved accuracy in measuring char reactivities, as well as for better modeling of the gas phase CO oxidation kinetics. The modeling work presented in this paper attempts to develop an improved understanding of the boundary layer oxidation of CO through the use of a comprehensive set of kinetic expressions.

Haussmann, G.; Kruger, C.

1986-04-01T23:59:59.000Z

306

Multiple-relaxation-time lattice Boltzmann kinetic model for combustion  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

To probe both the Mechanical Non-Equilibrium (MNE) and Thermodynamic Non-Equilibrium (TNE) in the combustion procedure, a two-dimensional Multiple-Relaxation-Time (MRT) version of the Lattice Boltzmann Kinetic Model(LBKM) for combustion phenomena is presented. The chemical energy released in the progress of combustion is dynamically coupled into the system by adding a chemical term to the LB kinetic equation. The LB model is required to recover the Navier-Stokes equations with chemical reaction in the hydrodynamic limit. To that aim, we construct a discrete velocity model with $24$ velocities divided into $3$ groups. In each group a flexible parameter is used to control the size of discrete velocities and a second parameter is used to describe the contribution of the extra degrees of freedom. The current model works for both subsonic and supersonic flows with or without chemical reaction. In this model both the specific-heat ratio and the Prandtl number are flexible, the TNE effects are naturally presented in...

Xu, Aiguo; Zhang, Guangcai; Li, Yingjun

2014-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

307

The conservative cascade of kinetic energy in compressible turbulence  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

The physical nature of compressible turbulence is of fundamental importance in a variety of astrophysical settings. We present the first direct evidence that mean kinetic energy cascades conservatively beyond a transitional "conversion" scale-range despite not being an invariant of the compressible flow dynamics. We use high-resolution three-dimensional simulations of compressible hydrodynamic turbulence on $512^3$ and $1024^3$ grids. We probe regimes of forced steady-state isothermal flows and of unforced decaying ideal gas flows. The key quantity we measure is pressure dilatation cospectrum, $E^{PD}(k)$, where we provide the first numerical evidence that it decays at a rate faster than $k^{-1}$ as a function of wavenumber. This is sufficient to imply that mean pressure dilatation acts primarily at large-scales and that kinetic and internal energy budgets statistically decouple beyond a transitional scale-range. Our results suggest that an extension of Kolmogorov's inertial-range theory to compressible turbulence is possible.

Hussein Aluie; Shengtai Li; Hui Li

2011-07-28T23:59:59.000Z

308

The conservative cascade of kinetic energy in compressible turbulence  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

The physical nature of compressible turbulence is of fundamental importance in a variety of astrophysical settings. We present the first direct evidence that mean kinetic energy cascades conservatively beyond a transitional "conversion" scale-range despite not being an invariant of the compressible flow dynamics. We use high-resolution three-dimensional simulations of compressible hydrodynamic turbulence on $512^3$ and $1024^3$ grids. We probe regimes of forced steady-state isothermal flows and of unforced decaying ideal gas flows. The key quantity we measure is pressure dilatation cospectrum, $E^{PD}(k)$, where we provide the first numerical evidence that it decays at a rate faster than $k^{-1}$ as a function of wavenumber. This is sufficient to imply that mean pressure dilatation acts primarily at large-scales and that kinetic and internal energy budgets statistically decouple beyond a transitional scale-range. Our results suggest that an extension of Kolmogorov's inertial-range theory to compressible turbu...

Aluie, Hussein; Li, Hui

2011-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

309

Kinetic Alfvn solitary and rogue waves in superthermal plasmas  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

We investigate the small but finite amplitude solitary Kinetic Alfvn waves (KAWs) in low ? plasmas with superthermal electrons modeled by a kappa-type distribution. A nonlinear Korteweg-de Vries (KdV) equation describing the evolution of KAWs is derived by using the standard reductive perturbation method. Examining the dependence of the nonlinear and dispersion coefficients of the KdV equation on the superthermal parameter ?, plasma ?, and obliqueness of propagation, we show that these parameters may change substantially the shape and size of solitary KAW pulses. Only sub-Alfvnic, compressive solitons are supported. We then extend the study to examine kinetic Alfvn rogue waves by deriving a nonlinear Schrdinger equation from the KdV equation. Rational solutions that form rogue wave envelopes are obtained. We examine how the behavior of rogue waves depends on the plasma parameters in question, finding that the rogue envelopes are lowered with increasing electron superthermality whereas the opposite is true when the plasma ? increases. The findings of this study may find applications to low ? plasmas in astrophysical environments where particles are superthermally distributed.

Bains, A. S.; Li, Bo, E-mail: bbl@sdu.edu.cn; Xia, Li-Dong [Shandong Provincial Key Laboratory of Optical Astronomy and Solar-Terrestrial Environment, School of Space Science and Physics, Shandong University at Weihai, 264209 Weihai (China)] [Shandong Provincial Key Laboratory of Optical Astronomy and Solar-Terrestrial Environment, School of Space Science and Physics, Shandong University at Weihai, 264209 Weihai (China)

2014-03-15T23:59:59.000Z

310

Kinetics of Elementary Processes Relevant to Incipient Soot Formation  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Soot formation and abatement processes are some of the most important and challenging problems in hydrocarbon combustion. The key reactions involved in the formation of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHâ??s), the precursors to soot, remain elusive. Small aromatic species such as C5H5, C6H6 and their derivatives are believed to play a pivotal role in incipient soot formation. The goal of this project is to establish a kinetic database for elementary reactions relevant to soot formation in its incipient stages. In the past year, we have completed by CRDS the kinetics for the formation and decomposition of C6H5C2H2O2 in the C6H5C2H2 +O2 reaction and the formation of C10H7O2 in the C10H7 + O2 reaction by directly monitoring C6H5C2H2O2 and C10H7O2 radicals in the visible region; their mechanisms have been elucidated computationally by quantum-chemical calculations. The O + C2H5OH reaction has been studied experimentally and computationally and the OH + HNCN reaction has been investigated by ab initio molecular orbital calculation. In addition, a new pulsed slit molecular beam system has been constructed and tested for spectroscopic studies of aromatic radicals and their derivatives by the cavity ringdown technique (CRDS).

M. C. Lin; M. C. Heaven

2008-04-30T23:59:59.000Z

311

Noname manuscript No. (will be inserted by the editor)  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

involving known forms of matter. However, recent discovery of empirical evidence of the existence of dark dark energy (DE) have opened up the possibility of having Preprint: DF/IST-4.2007 O. Bertolami and F of the interaction between dark matter and dark en- ergy in the Abell Cluster A586 and the ensued violation

Paris-Sud XI, Université de

312

Interactive Seismic Interpretation with Piecewise Global Energy Minimization  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Information Administration, roughly 58% of the marketed energy in 2007 were oil and gas products resulted in the need for exploring smaller and more complex oil reservoirs. Planning of the reservoir. It is expected that in 2035 oil and gas will still account for more than 50% of the marketed en- ergy

313

Extracting Hydrogen Electricity from  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

. In the United States, energy security motivates the de- velopment of previously untapped sources of oil as well & TECHNOLOGY 161A C oncerns about climate change, in- creased global demand for finite oil and natural gas reserves, and national en- ergy security, among other factors, are driving the search for alternatives

314

International Power Engineering Research Collaborations  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

- disciplinary projects. Index Terms Collaborative Research and Educa- tion, Renewable Energy, Market Mechanisms range from market mechanisms to renewable en- ergy integration and from specific power topics to inter with foreign institutions in Spain, Brazil, China and Ma- laysia. The presentation discusses the objectives

Gross, George

315

DEAD-END ELIMINATION AS A HEURISTIC FOR MIN-CUT IMAGE SEGMENTATION Mala L. Radhakrishnan  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

and branch-and-bound to eliminate solutions incompatible with global optimization of the objective functionV self(ip) + X i,jV, iself(ip) is the self energy of pixel i in state p are assigned to the same segment, their pairwise en- ergy is 0. The self energies are such that the energy

Su, Sara

316

mong the biggest chal-lenges the world faces  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

EnErgy Consumption A Forrester Research report proj- ects the number of personal com- puters in use efficiency of lead- ing competitors ("The Potential of the Cell Processor for Scientific Computi stated goal is to reduce world energy use to 1990 levels, thereby stabilizing atmo- spheric CO2 emissions

Blevis, Eli

317

Fission Power: An Evolutionary Strategy  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

...Government of Socialist Ethiopia and the United Republic of Tanzania for providing encouragement and cooperation during field-work...a result ofthe pen-etration of new energy sources such as solar energy or fusion in a growing en-ergy economy. At least...

Harold A. Feiveson; Frank von Hippel; Robert H. Williams

1979-01-26T23:59:59.000Z

318

Anisotropic Heat and Water Transport in a PEFC Cathode Gas Diffusion Layer  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

PEFCs , owing to their high en- ergy efficiency, low emission, and low noise, are widely considered. In addition, the latent heat effects due to condensation/evaporation of water on the temperature and water ohmic losses. Along with water man- agement, thermal management is also a key to high performance

319

Meetings and Societies  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

...contacts at both ends of the slab. By the applica-tion of...BAND V` E Bo Go EMITTER ROS COLLECTOR TANTALUM NIONIOM CDUCTOR...York 18.) March 1. Junior Solar Symposium, Tempe, Ariz. (Association for Applied Solar En-ergy, 3424 N. Central...

1957-12-27T23:59:59.000Z

320

www.sciam.com SCIENTIFIC AMERICAN 49 Pumping carbon dioxide  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

and on substitut- ing noncarbon renewable or nuclear en- ergy sources for fossil fuel (coal, oil and natural gas to be surmountable. Carbon Dioxide Capture the combustion of fossil fuels pro- duces huge quantities of carbon and how these developments might af- fect human health and well-being. Our

O'Donnell, Tom

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "kinetic en ergy" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


321

Identifying Energy Waste through Dense Power Sensing and Utilization Monitoring  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Identifying Energy Waste through Dense Power Sensing and Utilization Monitoring Maria Kazandjieva the efficiency of such a computing system requires detailed data of both en- ergy consumption and energy waste to differentiate energy used well from energy waste. This is an important difference from pre- vious work [8, 14

Stanford University

322

Electronic Journal of Differential Equations, Vol. 1997(1997), No. 04, pp. 114. ISSN: 1072-6691. URL: http://ejde.math.swt.edu or http://ejde.math.unt.edu  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

, or thermal en- ergy density, w(x, t) of the material, normalized so that w = 0 for solid at the phase change.120.3.113 Analysis of the mushy region in conduction- convection problems with change of phase Mike O'Leary Abstract A conduction-convection problem with change of phase is studied, where convective motion of the liquid affects

O'Leary, Michael

323

The Hobbling of Coal: Policy and Regulatory Uncertainties  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

...discussing his efforts to develop a program to provide incentives to coal...incentives in the 1977 en-ergy program proposed by President Carter...use arid then providing tax rebates equal to the amount of investment...un-dermine the President's program. First, the proposals were...

Richard L. Gordon

1978-04-14T23:59:59.000Z

324

EnergyBox: A Trace-driven Tool for Data Transmission Energy Consumption Studies  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

EnergyBox: A Trace-driven Tool for Data Transmission Energy Consumption Studies Ekhiotz Jon Vergara-awareness and propose EnergyBox, a tool that provides accurate and repeatable en- ergy consumption studies for 3G and WiFi transmissions at the user end. We recognize that the energy consumption of data transmission is highly

325

Energy Characterization of Hardware-Based Data Prefetching , Saurabh Chheda2  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

hardware-based data prefetching techniques from an energy perspective, and explores their en- ergy and potential energy-related issues of data prefetching mechanisms and to motivate new development of energy perspective, and explores their energy/performance tradeoffs. The prefetching techniques studied include

Massachusetts at Amherst, University of

326

EVIDENCE OF SMALL SCALE RECONNECTION IN A MOVING FEATURE Stephane Regnier1  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Solar flares are often related to photospheric motions of magnetic polarities such as moving magnetic and the release of magnetic en- ergy in the solar corona and especially in active regions, we need to find what are the precursors of eruptive events and how the magnetic energy can be stored and/or re- leased even at small scale

Régnier, Stéphane

327

Ocean Temperature Gradients: Solar Power from the Sea  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

...col-lection of sunlight and storage of en-ergy. Undoubtedly...condenser cooled by cold seawater. A very important and...probably because it used seawater, which has a very low...submerged system, the seawater's hydrostatic pressure...shellfish with water pumped up from a depth of 870...

William D. Metz

1973-06-22T23:59:59.000Z

328

Liquefaction of H2 molecules upon exterior surfaces of carbon nanotube Sang Soo Han, Jeung Ku Kang, and Hyuck Mo Leea  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

of the Department of En- ergy: namely that hydrogen fuel cell cars require a hydrogen capacity of 6.5 wt % to match-range electrostatic interactions of polarized charges on the deformed CNT bundle with hydrogen molecules are observed to induce a high local-ordering of H2 gas that results in hydrogen liquefaction. Our predicted heat

Goddard III, William A.

329

Steam Explosions, Earthquakes, and Volcanic Eruptions--What's in Yellowstone's Future?  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Steam Explosions, Earthquakes, and Volcanic Eruptions-- What's in Yellowstone's Future? U. In the background, steam vigorously rises from the hot Each year, millions of visitors come to admire the hot, such as geysers. Steam and hot water carry huge quantities of thermal en- ergy to the surface from the magma cham

Torgersen, Christian

330

BULLETIN OF SCIENCE, TECHNOLOGY & SOCIETY / De-cember 2001Byrne et al. / THE POSTMODERN GREENHOUSE The Postmodern Greenhouse  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

is developing the architecture of a policy response. Three serious flaws are examined: (a) the potential to secure the future of the world en- ergy regime. An alternative, based on principles of sustainability change, energy system, equity, sustainability, ecological justice Much has been made of the "new economy

Delaware, University of

331

Is Economic Volatility Detrimental to Global Sustainability?  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

, with the impacts exacerbated in some subsamples such as higher en- ergy intensity countries and lower trade share economy as a key factor influencing the low carbon development path. The finding is signifi- cant/huangyf.htm. 1 #12;1 Introduction In the 1990s the world economy grew at an averaged rate of 2.7 percent

Matthews, Adrian

332

Atmos. Chem. Phys., 7, 16831692, 2007 www.atmos-chem-phys.net/7/1683/2007/  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

. Combin- ing the observed excess NO2 with lightning flash data from the Canadian Lightning Detection, with by far the largest uncertainty, is lightning. The large amounts of en- ergy released by lightning flashes. This work is licensed under a Creative Commons License. Atmospheric Chemistry and Physics Lightning

333

Urban Computing: Concepts, Methodologies, and Applications YU ZHENG, Microsoft Research  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

people's lives but also engendered big challenges, such as air pollution, increased en- ergy consumption but also engendered big issues, such as traffic congestion, energy consumption, and pollution. Urban]: Database Applications--Data mining, Spatial databases and GIS; J.2 [Physical Sciences and Engineering

Wolfson, Ouri E.

334

Free Lunch: Exploiting Renewable Energy For Computing Sherif Akoush, Ripduman Sohan, Andrew Rice, Andrew W. Moore and Andy Hopper  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Free Lunch: Exploiting Renewable Energy For Computing Sherif Akoush, Ripduman Sohan, Andrew Rice renewable en- ergy by (i) colocating datacentres with these remote energy sources, (ii) connecting them over that period. In anticipation of this growth, our industry is begin- ning to explore renewable energy

Cambridge, University of

335

A boot-strap PoissonBoltzmann theory for the structure and thermodynamics of charged colloidal solutions  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

A boot-strap Poisson­Boltzmann theory for the structure and thermodynamics of charged colloidal investigated by Monte Carlo simulation. A boot-strap Poisson­Boltzmann BSPB theory has been developed using a boot-strap Poisson­Boltzmann BSPB theory. Comparisons of the structure, internal en- ergy

Chan, Derek Y C

336

sustAinABLe energy College of Rural and Community Development  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

sustAinABLe energy College of Rural and Community Development 907-842-5109 or 800-478-5109 www and training in energy efficiency and renewable en- ergy, the sustainable energy occupational endorsement preparation for entry-level sustainable energy careers. It also serves as a stepping-stone into science

Hartman, Chris

337

ENERGY STRATEGY: THE ROAD NOT TAKEN?  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

ENERGY STRATEGY: THE ROAD NOT TAKEN? By Amory B. Lovins Two road5 diverged in a wood, and I-- I are America's formal or de facto energy policies leading us? Where might we choose to go instead? How can we concepts in energy strategy by outlining and contrasting two en- ergy paths tbat the United States might

Kammen, Daniel M.

338

Fusion11 Conference Summary Carlos A. Bertulani,a  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

, the international project for thermonuclear fusion. This project (presently estimated at 15 billion euros) will open physics and material science. The generation of commercial en- ergy by using thermonuclear fusionFusion11 Conference Summary Carlos A. Bertulani,a Department of Physics and Astronomy, Texas A

Bertulani, Carlos A. - Department of Physics and Astronomy, Texas A&M University

339

33RD INTERNATIONAL COSMIC RAY CONFERENCE, RIO DE JANEIRO 2013 THE ASTROPARTICLE PHYSICS CONFERENCE  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

a good estimation of the energy of the primary cos- mic ray particle. The electromagnetic energy is proportional to the energy dissipated. Whereas the global process of energy deposit by charged particles a sizeable frac- tion of the primary electron energy may deposit their en- ergy at far distances from

Boyer, Edmond

340

U.S. Energy Demand: Some Low Energy Futures  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

...energy consumption per unit of output fell...I to 1.5 percent per year from 1950 to...en-ergy consumption per capita rose by 50...Between 1946 and 1973 amenities such as...enable resource production from low-grade ores...Exporting Countries (OPEC) (fall 1973) and...

1978-04-14T23:59:59.000Z

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "kinetic en ergy" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


341

Variable Radii Connected Sensor Cover in Sensor Networks Zongheng Zhou, Samir Das, Himanshu Gupta  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

minimizing energy usage in the network. En- ergy is spent due to message transmissions by the radio interface a connected communication graph, so that they can autonomously respond to application queries and/or tasks is fixed. In this article, we address the problem of selecting a minimum energy-cost connected sensor cover

Gupta, Himanshu

342

Using Circuit-Level Power Measurements in Household Energy Management Systems  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Using Circuit-Level Power Measurements in Household Energy Management Systems Alan Marchiori and Qi to accurately measure en- ergy usage in the home. Measuring energy usage is not dif- ficult, however we must decide what to measure. Whole- home energy measurement is cheap and easy to setup be- cause only one

Han, Qi "Chee"

343

November 2008 Alternative Energy  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

-switching from fossil fuels to electricity as the energy carrier of choice would necessarily require a large? In this paper we will discuss a range of alternative primary energy sources and alternative energy carriers which may be used to help reach our ambitious greenhouse gas targets. ThE EnErgy ConvErSIon Ch

Pedersen, Tom

344

Conformal GaP layers on Si wire arrays for solar energy applications Adele C. Tamboli,a  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

are a promising geometry for solar en- ergy conversion in semiconductors with a limited minority carrier diffusionConformal GaP layers on Si wire arrays for solar energy applications Adele C. Tamboli,a Manav length.1 The microwire geometry decouples the absorption length and minority carrier diffusion length

Kimball, Gregory

345

IEEE JOURNAL OF PHOTOVOLTAICS, VOL. 1, NO. 1, JULY 2011 37 Evaluation of Series Resistance Losses in  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

- duction toward thinner wafers in combination with the aim of higher energy conversion efficiencies demands and rear achieving en- ergy conversion efficiencies of up to 19.4% on 125 mm ? 125 mm p-type 2­3 ·cm boron factors below 76% due to an increased series resistance. In this paper, we analyze the main cause

346

SolarErergyVol. 42, No. 3, pp. 201-207,1989 Printedin theU.S.A.  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

smaller scale variations which are im- portant for the use of solar energy. In other parts of the world, the networks are even more sparse, par- ticularly in countries such as Africa where solar en- ergy is sorely it possible to investigate spa- tially small-scale variatons of available solar energy, knowledge of which

Paris-Sud XI, Université de

347

OPTIMAL CONTROL EXPERIMENTATION OF COMPRESSION TRAJECTORIES FOR A LIQUID PISTON AIR COMPRESSOR  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

compressor is the critical part of a Compressed Air En- ergy Storage (CAES) system. Efficient and fast and expansion has many applications in pneumatic and hydraulic systems, including in the Compressed Air Energy CAES system, high pressure (20-30MPa) compressed air is stored in a dual chamber storage vessel

Li, Perry Y.

348

Advances in Flash Memory SSD Technology for Enterprise Database Applications  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

in the storage market. Despite its superiority in access latency and energy consumption, the full-blown adoption Electronics Co., Ltd. San #16 Banwol-Ri Hwasung-City 445-701, Korea ci.park@samsung.com ABSTRACT The past few to transaction throughput, cost effectiveness and en- ergy consumption. Categories and Subject Descriptors H

Moon, Bongki

349

Status of the National Ignition Campaign Prof. R. Paul Drake  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Ignition Campaign has the goal of producing net en- ergy gain in a laser-fusion system. I have been keeping Status of the National Ignition Campaign Prof. R. Paul Drake Joint Seminar with Atmospheric progress on the National Ignition Campaign, from a recent conference. This includes a discussion

Shyy, Wei

350

Converting the Sun's Heat to Gasoline Solar Fuel Corporation is a clean tech company transforming the way gasoline, diesel and hydrogen fuels  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Converting the Sun's Heat to Gasoline Solar Fuel Corporation is a clean tech company transforming the way gasoline, diesel and hydrogen fuels are created and produced. The company has a proprietary technology for converting solar thermal en- ergy (the sun's heat) to fuel (e.g., gasoline, diesel, hydrogen

Jawitz, James W.

351

Density Functional Theory ab initio simulations  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

:(i) the electronic states usually show a strong dependence on the wavevector (i.e. they show dispersion), leading show considerable dispersion, and for which a good kpoint sampling is necessary. For this reason energy; (iii) the Hartree en- ergy; (iv) the exchange correlation energy; (v) the nuclear- nuclear

Alavi, Ali

352

Mechanical & Aerospace Engineering Turning Ideas into Reality  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Mechanical & Aerospace Engineering Turning Ideas into Reality EnErgy Environ m Ent HEaltH mat Overview The Courses Mechanical Engineering (MEng / BEng) Mechanical Engineering With International Study (MEng / BEng) Aero-Mechanical Engineering (MEng / BEng) E N T r y F A Q S A p p l y i n g C a m p u

Mottram, Nigel

353

2004 by the American Society of Ichthyologists and Herpetologists Copeia, 2004(1), pp. 145151  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

of body size and body temperature (Tb) variation is critical to understanding many aspects of snake, and temperature can be used to develop models explaining overall en- ergy requirements (Porter and Tracy, 1974; Se sized snakes at various body temperatures. MATERIALS AND METHODS We used five C. adamanteus to determine

Dorcas, Michael E.

354

Managing the Cost, Energy Consumption, and Carbon Footprint of Internet Services  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

or "green" energy. This paper introduces a general, optimization-based framework for enabling multi-data-center services to manage their brown en- ergy consumption and leverage green energy, while respecting their SLAs. "green" or renewable energy.) We argue that placing caps on the brown energy consumption of data centers

Bianchini, Ricardo

355

GreenHadoop: Leveraging Green Energy in Data-Processing Frameworks  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

GreenHadoop: Leveraging Green Energy in Data-Processing Frameworks ´I~nigo Goiri Dept. of Computer that energy demand and supply must be matched, if we are to take full advantage of the green en- ergy workload to match the green energy supply. In particular, we consider data-processing frameworks, in which

356

Integrating Dynamic Pricing of Electricity into Energy Aware Scheduling for HPC Systems  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

- ure that the size of these jobs affects their energy efficiency or not. We hypothesizeIntegrating Dynamic Pricing of Electricity into Energy Aware Scheduling for HPC Systems Xu Yang aimed at reducing en- ergy consumption in HPC environments. In this paper we propose a job power aware

Sun, Xian-He

357

Datasheet Fujitsu EsPRiMO C5731 E-staR 5.0 DEsktOP PC Page 1 / 7 http://ts.fujitsu.com/esPRIMO  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

. Up to 500 GB hard drive and PCI Low Profile Slot eneRgy savIng Reduced power costs and consumption the environmental protection requirements of tomorrow, for example EnERGY staR® 5.0. COMPaCt DesIgn Fully fledged PC and vertical position. Ultra small form factor PC, power supply, legacy interfaces and powered serial ports

Fiebig, Peter

358

ccsd00001474, Model-independent tracking of criticality signals in nuclear multifragmentation data  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

parameter, de#28;ning two di#27;erent regimes at low and high incident energy, respectively, according of nuclear mul- tifragmentation reactions as observed in intermediate en- ergy heavy-ion collisions [1ccsd­00001474, version 2 ­ 6 Sep 2004 Model-independent tracking of criticality signals in nuclear

359

IEEE TRANSACTIONS ON POWER SYSTEMS, VOL. 7, NO. 3, AUGUST 1992, PP. 1001 1011. A VECTOR ENERGY FUNCTION APPROACH FOR  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

reasonably detailed third order HVDC dynamics along with ac system models that include reactive ows the derivationof individualcompo- nent Lyapunovfunctionsforsimpli edmodelsofHVDC links connected to in nitely. Keywords: HVDC, Lyapunov functions, transient en- ergy functions, transient stability, dynamic security as

Cañizares, Claudio A.

360

Suavizacion no parametrica en fiabilidad  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

En este trabajo consideramos estimaciones no paramtricas de las funciones de razn de fallo y supervivencia en fiabilidad haciendo uso de suavizaciones no paramtricas de la funcin de distribucin emprica (...

M. A. Fernndez Sotelo; W. Gonzlez Manteiga

1986-09-01T23:59:59.000Z

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "kinetic en ergy" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


361

Comparison of point kinetics, improved quasistatic and theta method as space-time kinetics solvers in DONJON-3 simulations  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

To ensure the safety of nuclear reactors, we have to simulate accurately their normal operation and also accident cases. To perform transient calculations, coupled neutronic and fhermo-hydraulic codes are used. This article compares three neutronic solvers. The first one is the point kinetic approach where the flux shape is constant during all the transient. For the second method (the improved quasistatic method), the flux shape is constant but only during small time steps. Finally, we used the theta approach where both flux and precursors distributions vary with time and space. Transients of Lost Of Coolant Accident in CANDU-6 reactors have been simulated with DONJON and the outputs of a thermalhydraulic system code. Results show that the point kinetics is inappropriate for transient with large distortion of the flux shape. Improved quasistatic and theta methods give relatively similar results. However, the improved quasistatic approach is less stable and a little bit more sensitive on time-step and spatial discretization than the theta method is. (authors)

Chambon, R.; Marleau, G. [Institut de Genie Nucleaire, Ecole Polytechnique de Montreal, 2500 chemin de la Polytechnique, Montreal, QC H3C 3A7 (Canada)

2012-07-01T23:59:59.000Z

362

Un teatro campesino en Venezuela  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

102 LATIN AMERICAN THEATRE REVIEW Un teatro campesino en Venezuela GUILLERMO KORN Producto espontneo de la participacin colectiva naci el grupo de teatro del Asentamiento Campesino Sabaneta, en el Estado Aragua de Venezuela. Las obras de su..., despert inters. En la Universidad Central de Venezuela quieren saber ms de ustedes. Para eso he venido. . . ? Podran eventualmente hacer una representacin en la Escuela de Comuni cacin Social? Almeida: {Claro que s! Si nos dan un medio para...

Korn, Guillermo

1976-10-01T23:59:59.000Z

363

MHK Technologies/Kinetic Hydropower System KHPS | Open Energy Information  

Open Energy Info (EERE)

Kinetic Hydropower System KHPS Kinetic Hydropower System KHPS < MHK Technologies Jump to: navigation, search << Return to the MHK database homepage Verdantpower.jpg Technology Profile Primary Organization Verdant Power Project(s) where this technology is utilized *MHK Projects/Roosevelt Island Tidal Energy RITE *MHK Projects/Cornwall Ontario River Energy CORE Technology Resource Click here Current/Tidal Technology Type Click here Axial Flow Turbine Technology Readiness Level Click here TRL 7/8: Open Water System Testing & Demonstration & Operation Technology Description Verdant Power's central technology is the Kinetic Hydropower System (KHPS), a water-to-wire system that consists of three main components: 1) KHPS TURBINE: a three-bladed horizontal-axis turbine with four major assemblies: a) Composite rotor with 3-fixed blades that rotate at the relatively slow and constant speed of approximately 40 RPM, with tip-speeds of 35 feet per second. This is well below normal water vessel propeller speeds and conventional hydropower turbine blade speeds. b) Sealed nacelle, pylon and passive yaw mechanism that is hydrodynamically designed to allow the turbine to self-rotate into the prevailing current (like a weathervane) so that the blades are optimally aligned to generate energy. c) Custom-designed drivetrain unit (with induction generator) enclosed within the nacelle that integrates the bearing housing with a special long-life planetary gearbox, with mechanical shaft seals and a minimum of sealed lubricants. d) Streambed mounting system that can vary depending on site conditions as a single drilled monopile, a single gravity-based structure, or a gravity-based triframe mount that supports 3 turbines. 2) UNDERWATER CABLING: low-voltage shielded cable of short distance; and shoreline switchgear vaults, control room, and interconnection point(s). 3) APPURTENANT FACILITIES: for navigation safety, such as Public Aides to Navigation (PATON) buoys and lighted warning signs, as well as instrumentation including Acoustic Doppler Current Profilers (ADCPs). In order to maximize the application of the KHPS within the global MHK resource, Verdant Power has designed the technology as a simple and uniquely scalable system that can be operated in tidal, river and ocean current settings. Possible KHPS installations range from distributed generation arrangements in near-shore urban and village settings to base power generation at offshore deepwater locales.

364

Kinetic Modeling of Toluene Oxidation for Surrogate Fuel Applications  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

New environmental issues, like the effect of combustion-generated greenhouse gases, provide motivation to better characterize oxidation of hydrocarbons. Transportation, in particular, significantly contributes to energy consumption and CO{sub 2} emissions. Kinetic studies about the combustion of fuels under conditions typical of internal combustion engines provides important support to improve mechanism formulation and to eventually provide better computational tools that can be used to increase the engine performance. It is foreseeable that at least in the next 30 years the main transportation fuels will be either gasoline or diesel. Unfortunately, these fuels are very complex mixtures of many components. Moreover, their specifications and performance requirements significantly change the composition of these fuels: gasoline and diesel mixtures are different if coming from different refineries or they are different from winter to summer. At the same time a fuel with a well defined and reproducible composition is needed for both experimental and modeling work. In response to these issues, surrogate fuels are proposed. Surrogate fuels are defined as mixtures of a small number of hydrocarbons whose relative concentrations is adjusted in order to approximate the chemical and physical properties of a real fuel. Surrogate fuels are then very useful both for the design of reproducible experimental tests and also for the development of reliable kinetic models. The primary reference fuels (PRF) are a typical and old example of surrogate fuel: n-heptane and iso-octane mixtures are used to reproduce antiknock propensity of complex mixtures contained in a gasoline. PRFs are not able to surrogate gasoline in operating conditions different from standard ones and new surrogates have been recently proposed. Toluene is included in all of them as a species able to represent the behavior of aromatic compounds. On the other side, the toluene oxidation chemistry is not so well established and uncertainties still remain in the mechanism. This is especially true in the low temperature regime (< 850K). In these conditions, the toluene reactivity is too low to be conveniently investigated. Nonetheless, gasoline surrogates work in the engine at low temperatures, because of the presence of very reactive alkanes. The effect of these component interactions have to be taken into account. This work's aim is to present the model activity carried out by two different research groups, comparing the main pathways and results, matching data carried out in different devices both for pure toluene and mixtures. This is the starting point for a further activity to improve the two kinetic schemes.

Frassoldati, A; Mehl, M; Fietzek, R; Faravelli, T; Pitz, W J; Ranzi, E

2009-04-21T23:59:59.000Z

365

Kinetics simulation for natural gas conversion to unsaturated C? hydrocarbons  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

value. The usual chemical composition range of natural gas is shown in Table I. l. Table 1. 1 Natural Gas Composition Component Methane Ethane Pro ane iso-Butane normal-Butane iso-Pentane normal-Pentane Hexane s lus Nitro en Carbon Dioxide... Acetylene Carbon Ethylene Hydrogen Methane Water Carbon Dioxide CHAPTER I INTRODUCTION Challenge for Natural Gas Natural Gas (NG), which is comprised priinarily of methane, is found throughout the world, burns cleanly, and processes a high caloric...

Yang, Li

2003-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

366

A Novel Approach to Experimental Studies of Mineral DIsoolution Kinetics  

Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

Novel ApproAch to experimeNtAl Novel ApproAch to experimeNtAl StudieS of miNerAl diSSolutioN KiNeticS Background DOE is conducting pilot CO 2 injection tests to evaluate the concept of geologic sequestration. One strategy that has the potential to enhance CO 2 solubility and reduce the risk of CO 2 leaking back to the surface is dissolution of indigenous minerals in the geological formation and formation of secondary carbonate precipitates. This both increases the brine pH and immobilizes the CO 2 . Clearly, the rates at which these dissolution and precipitation reactions occur directly determine the efficiency of this option. However, one of the fundamental problems in modern geochemistry is the persistent two to five orders of magnitude discrepancy between laboratory-measured and field-derived

367

Probing the disilane adsorption kinetics:?An alternative approach  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

The adsorption kinetics and subsequent dissociation of disilane during gas source molecular beam epitaxy on Si(001) surface is studied in situ using modulated beam mass spectrometry, thermal desorption spectroscopy, reflection high energy electron diffraction and growth of epitaxial layers involving repeated cycles of disilane adsorption and hydrogen desorption. The dissociation of disilane molecules is found to occur sequentially and the major intermediate reaction products are SiH2 and SiH. At temperatures above 400 C, disilane dissociates readily to give two silicon atoms and all six hydrogen atoms and forms the monohydride (21)+(12) surface. The formation of a Si-monohydride surface also passivates against further adsorption and dissociation of disilane. The main reaction pathway for the decomposition of SiH2 to SiH is identified and studied as a function of incident flux and growth temperature. This process is found to be controlled by the number of unsaturated dangling orbitals.

R. W. Price; E. S. Tok; J. Zhang

1999-02-15T23:59:59.000Z

368

Mass independent kinetic energy reducing inlet system for vacuum environment  

DOE Patents [OSTI]

A particle inlet system comprises a first chamber having a limiting orifice for an incoming gas stream and a micrometer controlled expansion slit. Lateral components of the momentum of the particles are substantially cancelled due to symmetry of the configuration once the laminar flow converges at the expansion slit. The particles and flow into a second chamber, which is maintained at a lower pressure than the first chamber, and then moves into a third chamber including multipole guides for electromagnetically confining the particle. The vertical momentum of the particles descending through the center of the third chamber is minimized as an upward stream of gases reduces the downward momentum of the particles. The translational kinetic energy of the particles is near-zero irrespective of the mass of the particles at an exit opening of the third chamber, which may be advantageously employed to provide enhanced mass resolution in mass spectrometry.

Reilly, Peter T.A.

2014-05-13T23:59:59.000Z

369

[Grain boundary and interface kinetics during ion irradiation  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Proposed here is renewed support of a research program focused on interface motion and phase transformation during ion irradiation, with emphasis on elemental semiconductors. Broadly speaking, the aims of this program are to explore defect kinetics in amorphous and crystalline semiconductors, and to relate defect dynamics to interface motion and phase transformations. Over the last three years, we initiated a program under DOE support to explore crystallization and amorphization of elemental semiconductors under irradiation. This research has enabled new insights about the nature of defects in amorphous semiconductors and about microstructural evolution in the early stages of crystallization. In addition, we have demonstrated almost arbitrary control over the relative rates of crystal nucleation and crystal growth in silicon. As a result, the impinged grain microstructure of thin (100 nm) polycrystalline films crystallized under irradiation can be controlled with grain sizes ranging from a few nanometers to several micrometers, which may have interesting technological implications.

Atwater, H.A.

1991-12-31T23:59:59.000Z

370

(Grain boundary and interface kinetics during ion irradiation)  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Proposed here is renewed support of a research program focused on interface motion and phase transformation during ion irradiation, with emphasis on elemental semiconductors. Broadly speaking, the aims of this program are to explore defect kinetics in amorphous and crystalline semiconductors, and to relate defect dynamics to interface motion and phase transformations. Over the last three years, we initiated a program under DOE support to explore crystallization and amorphization of elemental semiconductors under irradiation. This research has enabled new insights about the nature of defects in amorphous semiconductors and about microstructural evolution in the early stages of crystallization. In addition, we have demonstrated almost arbitrary control over the relative rates of crystal nucleation and crystal growth in silicon. As a result, the impinged grain microstructure of thin (100 nm) polycrystalline films crystallized under irradiation can be controlled with grain sizes ranging from a few nanometers to several micrometers, which may have interesting technological implications.

Atwater, H.A.

1991-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

371

Q-branch Raman scattering and modern kinetic thoery  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

The program is an extension of previous APL work whose general aim was to calculate line shapes of nearly resonant isolated line transitions with solutions of a popular quantum kinetic equation-the Waldmann-Snider equation-using well known advanced solution techniques developed for the classical Boltzmann equation. The advanced techniques explored have been a BGK type approximation, which is termed the Generalized Hess Method (GHM), and conversion of the collision operator to a block diagonal matrix of symmetric collision kernels which then can be approximated by discrete ordinate methods. The latter method, which is termed the Collision Kernel method (CC), is capable of the highest accuracy and has been used quite successfully for Q-branch Raman scattering. The GHM method, not quite as accurate, is applicable over a wider range of pressures and has proven quite useful.

Monchick, L. [The Johns Hopkins Univ., Laurel, MD (United States)

1993-12-01T23:59:59.000Z

372

High Temperature Chemical Kinetic Combustion Modeling of Lightly Methylated Alkanes  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Conventional petroleum jet and diesel fuels, as well as alternative Fischer-Tropsch (FT) fuels and hydrotreated renewable jet (HRJ) fuels, contain high molecular weight lightly branched alkanes (i.e., methylalkanes) and straight chain alkanes (n-alkanes). Improving the combustion of these fuels in practical applications requires a fundamental understanding of large hydrocarbon combustion chemistry. This research project presents a detailed high temperature chemical kinetic mechanism for n-octane and three lightly branched isomers octane (i.e., 2-methylheptane, 3-methylheptane, and 2,5-dimethylhexane). The model is validated against experimental data from a variety of fundamental combustion devices. This new model is used to show how the location and number of methyl branches affects fuel reactivity including laminar flame speed and species formation.

Sarathy, S M; Westbrook, C K; Pitz, W J; Mehl, M

2011-03-01T23:59:59.000Z

373

Kinetic model for a polymer in one dimension  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

We consider a model for a directed polymer on a one-dimensional lattice of width 2, with attractive interactions between monomers that occupy first-neighbor sites on the lattice and are not consecutive along the chain. We show that this model is equivalent to the one-dimensional Ising model with first- and second-neighbor interactions. We study the kinetic behavior of the model in the region of the phase diagram where the ground state is not frustrated, using a Glauber ansatz for the time evolution of the configurations. In order to decouple the dynamical equations, we use the pair approximation. In this approximation, we show that the dynamical exponent of the model is a function of the ratio between second- and first-neighbor interaction strengths. (c) 1995 The American Physical Society

Jos Arthur Martins and Jrgen F. Stilck

1995-12-01T23:59:59.000Z

374

Kinetics of the heterogeneous photocatalytic oxidation of isopropanol  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Intrinsic kinetics for the ambient temperature photocatalytic oxidation (PCO) of dilute isopropanol (IPA) in humid air over near-ultraviolet (UV) irradiated titanium dioxide have been determined using a continuous microreactor flow system. The IPA disappearance rate exhibits a Langmuir-Hinshelwood-Hougen-Watson (LHHW) type dependence on IPA concentration. The rate is nearly first order in UV irradiance at low UV flux. The rate is independent of relative humidity R{sub H} at low R{sub H} levels, but is enhanced by water vapor concentration at higher levels. This relatively unique behavior is likely a direct consequence of the adsorption strength of alcohols on titania, which in general is considerably higher than the corresponding adsorption strengths for other classes of organic compounds. In addition to carbon dioxide, acetone is generated as a product of IPA destruction. This acetone is itself photocatalytically oxidized to carbon dioxide and water vapor at longer residence time. 10 refs., 3 figs.

Ameen, M.; Kalaga, M.; Annapragada, R.; Raupp, G.B. [Arizona State Univ., Tempe, AZ (United States)

1996-12-31T23:59:59.000Z

375

Chemical kinetic modeling of component mixtures relevant to gasoline  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Real fuels are complex mixtures of thousands of hydrocarbon compounds including linear and branched paraffins, naphthenes, olefins and aromatics. It is generally agreed that their behavior can be effectively reproduced by simpler fuel surrogates containing a limited number of components. In this work, a recently revised version of the kinetic model by the authors is used to analyze the combustion behavior of several components relevant to gasoline surrogate formulation. Particular attention is devoted to linear and branched saturated hydrocarbons (PRF mixtures), olefins (1-hexene) and aromatics (toluene). Model predictions for pure components, binary mixtures and multi-component gasoline surrogates are compared with recent experimental information collected in rapid compression machine, shock tube and jet stirred reactors covering a wide range of conditions pertinent to internal combustion engines. Simulation results are discussed focusing attention on the mixing effects of the fuel components.

Mehl, M; Curran, H J; Pitz, W J; Westbrook, C K

2009-02-13T23:59:59.000Z

376

Mass independent kinetic energy reducing inlet system for vacuum environment  

DOE Patents [OSTI]

A particle inlet system comprises a first chamber having a limiting orifice for an incoming gas stream and a micrometer controlled expansion slit. Lateral components of the momentum of the particles are substantially cancelled due to symmetry of the configuration once the laminar flow converges at the expansion slit. The particles and flow into a second chamber, which is maintained at a lower pressure than the first chamber, and then moves into a third chamber including multipole guides for electromagnetically confining the particle. The vertical momentum of the particles descending through the center of the third chamber is minimized as an upward stream of gases reduces the downward momentum of the particles. The translational kinetic energy of the particles is near-zero irrespective of the mass of the particles at an exit opening of the third chamber, which may be advantageously employed to provide enhanced mass resolution in mass spectrometry.

Reilly, Peter T. A. [Knoxville, TN

2010-12-14T23:59:59.000Z

377

Utilization of rotor kinetic energy storage for hybrid vehicles  

DOE Patents [OSTI]

A power system for a motor vehicle having an internal combustion engine, the power system comprises an electric machine (12) further comprising a first excitation source (47), a permanent magnet rotor (28) and a magnetic coupling rotor (26) spaced from the permanent magnet rotor and at least one second excitation source (43), the magnetic coupling rotor (26) also including a flywheel having an inertial mass to store kinetic energy during an initial acceleration to an operating speed; and wherein the first excitation source is electrically connected to the second excitation source for power cycling such that the flywheel rotor (26) exerts torque on the permanent magnet rotor (28) to assist braking and acceleration of the permanent magnet rotor (28) and consequently, the vehicle. An axial gap machine and a radial gap machine are disclosed and methods of the invention are also disclosed.

Hsu, John S. (Oak Ridge, TN)

2011-05-03T23:59:59.000Z

378

Chemical Kinetic Models for HCCI and Diesel Combustion  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Hydrocarbon fuels for advanced combustion engines consist of complex mixtures of hundreds or even thousands of different components. These components can be grouped into a number of chemically distinct classes, consisting of n-paraffins, branched paraffins, cyclic paraffins, olefins, oxygenates, and aromatics. Biodiesel contains its own unique chemical class called methyl esters. The fractional amounts of these chemical classes are quite different in gasoline, diesel fuel, oil-sand derived fuels and bio-derived fuels, which contributes to the very different combustion characteristics of each of these types of combustion systems. The objectives of this project are: (1) Develop detailed chemical kinetic models for fuel components used in surrogate fuels for diesel and HCCI engines; (2) Develop surrogate fuel models to represent real fuels and model low temperature combustion strategies in HCCI and diesel engines that lead to low emissions and high efficiency; and (3) Characterize the role of fuel composition on low temperature combustion modes of advanced combustion engines.

Pitz, W J; Westbook, C K; Mehl, M

2008-10-30T23:59:59.000Z

379

On a Broken Formal Symmetry between Kinetic and Gravitational Energy  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Historically, the discovery of symmetries has played an important role in the progress of our fundamental understanding of nature. This paper will demonstrate that there exists in Newtonian theory in a spherical gravitational field a formal symmetry between the kinetic (KE) and gravitational potential energy (GPE) of a test mass. Put differently, there exists a way of expressing GPE such that the form of the mathematical expression remains invariant under an interchange of KE and GPE. When extended to relativity by a suitable assumption, it leads to a framework that bridges the general relativistic and Newtonian conceptions of gravitational energy, even though the symmetry is broken except in the infinitesimal limit. Recognizing this symmetry at infinitesimal scales makes it possible to write a relativistic equation of an individual graviton, the properties of which under under one interpretation may be unexpected.

Armin Nikkhah Shirazi

2014-07-16T23:59:59.000Z

380

Kinetic and Fluid Ballooning Stability with Anisotropic Energetic Electron Layers  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

A kinetic ballooning mode theory is developed from the gyrokinetic equation in the frequency range for which the ions are fluid, the thermal electron response is adiabatic and the hot electrons are non-interacting due to their large drift velocity. Trapped particle effects are ignored, The application of the quasineutrality condition together with the parallel and binomial components of Ampere's Law reduces the gyrokinetic equation to a second order ordinary differential equation along the equilibrium magnetic field lines. The instability dynamics are dominated by the pressure gradients of the thermal species in the fluid magnetohydrodynamic limit. The resulting equation combines features of both the Kruskal-Oberman energy principle and the rigid hot particle energy principle proposed by Johnson et al. to model the Astron device.

Cooper, W. A. [Ecole Polytechnique Federale de Lausanne, Centre de Recherches en Physique des Plasmas, Association Euratom-Confederation Suisse, CH-1015 Lausanne (Switzerland)

2006-11-30T23:59:59.000Z

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "kinetic en ergy" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


381

Kinetically determined shapes of grain boundaries in CVD graphene  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Predicting the shape of grain boundaries is essential to control results of the growth of large graphene crystals. A global energy minimum search predicting the most stable final structure contradicts experimental observations. Here we present Monte Carlo simulation of kinetic formation of grain boundaries (GB) in graphene during collision of two growing graphene flakes. Analysis of the resulting GBs for the full range of misorientation angles $\\alpha$ allowed us to identify a hidden (from post facto analysis such as microscopy) degree of freedom - the edge misorientation angle $\\beta$. Edge misorientation characterizes initial structure rather than final structure and therefore provides more information about growth conditions. Use of $\\beta$ enabled us to explain disagreements between the experimental observations and theoretical work. Finally, we report an analysis of an interesting special case of zero-tilt GBs for which structure is determined by two variables describing the relative shift of initial isl...

Bets, Ksenia V; Yakobson, Boris I

2014-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

382

Consistent description of kinetic equation with triangle anomaly  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

We provide a consistent description of the kinetic equation with a triangle anomaly which is compatible with the entropy principle of the second law of thermodynamics and the charge/energy-momentum conservation equations. In general an anomalous source term is necessary to ensure that the equations for the charge and energy-momentum conservation are satisfied and that the correction terms of distribution functions are compatible to these equations. The constraining equations from the entropy principle are derived for the anomaly-induced leading order corrections to the particle distribution functions. The correction terms can be determined for the minimum number of unknown coefficients in one charge and two charge cases by solving the constraining equations.

Pu Shi; Gao Jianhua; Wang Qun [Interdisciplinary Center for Theoretical Study and Department of Modern Physics, University of Science and Technology of China, Hefei 230026 (China)

2011-05-01T23:59:59.000Z

383

Single-molecule kinetic energy of condensed normal deuterium  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

Inelastic scattering of 300-meV neutrons allows the study of the liquid (T=20 and 30 K, saturated vapor pressure) and solid (T=4.2 K, saturated vapor pressure) phases of the normal deuterium mixture (2/3 o-D2+1/3 p-D2) in the region of momentum transfer where a single-molecule response is expected. The spectra are analyzed within the impulse approximation and assuming Gaussian momentum distributions for the translation of the molecules. For the solid, the estimated value of the single-molecule average kinetic energy does not compare unfavorably with those obtained scaling experimental results in parahydrogen solids. In the liquid state, substantial departures seem to exist from the classical liquid behavior, even if up to second-order quantum corrections are taken into account. 1996 The American Physical Society.

F. J. Mompen; M. Garca-Hernndez; F. J. Bermejo; S. M. Bennington

1996-07-01T23:59:59.000Z

384

Large-scale Simulation of the Two-dimensional Kinetic Ising Model  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Large-scale Simulation of the Two-dimensional Kinetic Ising Model Andreas Linke, Dieter W. Heermann-dimensional kinetic Ising model using a lattice of size 106 106 spins. We used Glauber as well as Metropolis dynamics for the Ising model because of its simplicity and its model character as a representant for a universality class

Heermann, Dieter W.

385

Major accidents scenarios used for LUP and off-site emergency planning : Importance of kinetic description  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Major accidents scenarios used for LUP and off-site emergency planning : Importance of kinetic, INERIS shows a method enabling to integrate, as a second prioritisation criteria, the on-site and off-site. Keywords : Land Use Planning ; off-site emergency planning ; chemical accident scenario ; kinetic 1

Paris-Sud XI, Université de

386

Neutron kinetics in subcritical cores with application to the source modulation method  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Neutron kinetics in subcritical cores with application to the source modulation method J. Wright for the measurement of reactivity in subcritical, source-driven cores. Methods of measuring reactivity by a single. Hence, first, the conditions of point kinetic behaviour in subcritical source-driven cores are revis

Pázsit, Imre

387

An experimental and detailed chemical kinetic modelling study of 2methyl furan oxidation  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

platform chemical 5hydroxymethylfurfural now a possibility [4], [5], [6] and [7]. 25DMF offers significantAn experimental and detailed chemical kinetic modelling study of 2methyl furan oxidation.55­1.65, initial temperatures of 298­398 K and atmospheric pressure. A detailed chemical kinetic mechanism

Paris-Sud XI, Université de

388

Temperature independent physisorption kinetics and adsorbate layer compression for Ar adsorbed on Pt(111)  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Temperature independent physisorption kinetics and adsorbate layer compression for Ar adsorbed the observed kinetics in terms of a competition between adsorbate- substrate and adsorbate-adsorbate not involve the transfer of electrons between the adsorbate and the substrate, (i.e. no chemical bonds

Persson, Mats

389

Kinetic Theories of Geodesic Acoustic Modes: Radial Structure, Linear Excitation by Energetic Particles and Nonlinear Saturation  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Kinetic Theories of Geodesic Acoustic Modes: Radial Structure, Linear Excitation by Energetic, Vol.13, No.3, Jun 2011 Kinetic Theories of Geodesic Acoustic Modes: Radial Structure, Linear, Univ. of California, Irvine CA 92697-4575, USA Abstract Geodesic acoustic modes (GAMs) are oscillating

Zonca, Fulvio

390

Universality issues in surface kinetic roughening of thin solid Rodolfo Cuerno Luis Vazquez  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Universality issues in surface kinetic roughening of thin solid films Rodolfo Cuerno Luis V´azquez Abstract Since publication of the main contributions on the theory of kinetic roughening more than fifteen roughening in many different real systems, and without a clear understanding of the reasons behind

Cuerno, Rodolfo

391

EVAPORATION LAW IN KINETIC GRAVITATIONAL SYSTEMS DESCRIBED BY SIMPLIFIED LANDAU MODELS  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

EVAPORATION LAW IN KINETIC GRAVITATIONAL SYSTEMS DESCRIBED BY SIMPLIFIED LANDAU MODELS PIERRE to a mathematical and numerical study of a simplified kinetic model for evaporation phenomena in gravitational) is the gravitational potential and (u) is the following 3 ? 3 matrix (u)ij = |u|2ij - uiuj |u|2 , (1.2) 1 #12;2 P

Méhats, Florian

392

Materials Science Forum, Vols. 426432, 2003, pp. 3542. Advances in the Kinetic Theory of Carbide Precipitation  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Materials Science Forum, Vols. 426­432, 2003, pp. 35­42. Advances in the Kinetic Theory of Carbide Pembroke Street, Cambridge CB2 3QZ, U.K., www.msm.cam.ac.uk/phase­trans Keywords : Carbides, kinetics and reversion of carbides can determine the quality of steels. This paper is a review of efforts towards better

Cambridge, University of

393

Adaptive change of basis in entropy-based moment closures for linear kinetic equations  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

Entropy-based (M"N) moment closures for kinetic equations are defined by a constrained optimization problem that must be solved at every point in a space-time mesh, making it important to solve these optimization problems accurately and efficiently. ... Keywords: Convex optimization, Entropy-based closures, Kinetic theory, Moment equations, Realizability, Transport

Graham W. Alldredge; Cory D. Hauck; Dianne P. Oleary; Andr L. Tits

2014-02-01T23:59:59.000Z

394

Catalysis Letters Vol. 76, No. 12, 2001 35 Second order isothermal desorption kinetics  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

cycles of controlled heating and cooling of the sample, instead of the standard linear heat- ing rates, the kinetics of CO adsorption and desorption from Pd(110) [5], NH3/Re(0001) [6] monitored by optical second desorption that corresponds to second order de- sorption kinetics. Assuming high enough pumping speed

Asscher, Micha

395

Thermodynamics and Kinetics Analysis of Gasoline Reforming Assisted by Arc Discharge  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

Thermodynamics and Kinetics Analysis of Gasoline Reforming Assisted by Arc Discharge ... In the first one, the electric discharge is accounted for as a homogeneous energy source inside the whole reactor. ... kinetic schemes, without inclusion of specific plasma processes, is sufficient for simulation of H prodn. in discharges with hot plasmas, in particular, in low-current arc discharges. ...

Jean-Damien Rollier; Guillaume Petitpas; Jos Gonzalez-Aguilar; Adeline Darmon; Laurent Fulcheri; Rudolf Metkemeijer

2008-04-18T23:59:59.000Z

396

Gas-Kinetic Scheme for Continuum and Near-Continuum Hypersonic Flows  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Gas-Kinetic Scheme for Continuum and Near-Continuum Hypersonic Flows Wei Liao and Li-Shi Luo Old. The gas-kinetic schemes are validated with simulations of the hypersonic flow past a hollow flare at Mach and simulation of complex hypersonic flows become very challenging for computa- tional fluid dynamics (CFD) [1

Xu, Kun

397

Gas Kinetic Scheme for Continuum and Near-Continuum Hypersonic Flows  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Gas Kinetic Scheme for Continuum and Near-Continuum Hypersonic Flows Wei Liao and Li-Shi Luo Old for the near-continuum flows. The gas-kinetic schemes are validated with simulations of the hypersonic flow thickness, modeling and simulation of complex hypersonic flows become very challenging for computational

Luo, Li-Shi

398

Zero electron kinetic energy spectroscopy of the ArCl anion Thomas Lenzer,a)  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

and the neutral complexes are observed in the ZEKE spectra. From our spectroscopic data we construct modelZero electron kinetic energy spectroscopy of the ArCl anion Thomas Lenzer,a) Ivan Yourshaw, Berkeley, California 94720 Received 19 January 1999; accepted 23 February 1999 Zero electron kinetic energy

Neumark, Daniel M.

399

Zero electron kinetic energy spectroscopy of the XeCl Thomas Lenzer,a)  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

measurements for the neutral state we construct a Morse­Morse-switching­van der Waals model potential functionZero electron kinetic energy spectroscopy of the XeCl? anion Thomas Lenzer,a) Ivan Yourshaw, Berkeley, California 94720 Received 9 November 2001; accepted 21 December 2001 Zero electron kinetic energy

Neumark, Daniel M.

400

HYDRODYNAMIC LIMITS FOR KINETIC EQUATIONS AND THE DIFFUSIVE APPROXIMATION OF RADIATIVE  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

HYDRODYNAMIC LIMITS FOR KINETIC EQUATIONS AND THE DIFFUSIVE APPROXIMATION OF RADIATIVE TRANSPORT . The radiative transport equations, satisfied by the Wigner function for random acoustic waves, present#usive approximation of the radiative transport equation. 1. Introduction We consider a class of kinetic models

Tzavaras, Athanasios E.

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "kinetic en ergy" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


401

HYDRODYNAMIC LIMITS FOR KINETIC EQUATIONS AND THE DIFFUSIVE APPROXIMATION OF RADIATIVE  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

HYDRODYNAMIC LIMITS FOR KINETIC EQUATIONS AND THE DIFFUSIVE APPROXIMATION OF RADIATIVE TRANSPORT of the radiative transport equation. 1. Introduction We consider a class of kinetic models equipped with a single. A general compactness frame- work is obtained for the diffusive scaling in L1 . The radiative transport

Tzavaras, Athanasios E.

402

RIS-M-2366 KINETICS OF THE REACTION OF HYDROXYL RADICALS WITH ETHANE AND  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

produced by pulse radiolysis of water vapour and the kinetics of OH was followed by kinetic spectroscopy studied at atmospheric pressure and over the temperature range 300-400 K. Hydroxyl radicals were produced by pulse radiolysis of water vapour and the decay rate was studied by monitoring the tran- sient light

403

Quantifying kinetic fractionation in Bunker Cave speleothems using D47 Tobias Kluge*, Hagit P. Affek  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Quantifying kinetic fractionation in Bunker Cave speleothems using D47 Tobias Kluge*, Hagit P. Holocene and modern speleothems from Bunker Cave (Germany) as well as modern material from the adjacent in the kinetic isotope fractionation in Bunker Cave are associated with changing drip water super saturation

404

Three distinct kinetic groupings of the synaptotagmin family: Candidate sensors for rapid and  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Three distinct kinetic groupings of the synaptotagmin family: Candidate sensors for rapid, syt I, appears to function as a Ca2 sensor that triggers the rapid exocytosis of synaptic vesicles much slower disassembly kinetics than does syt I, might function as Ca2 sensors for asynchronous

Chapman, Edwin R.

405

Demonstrations: blocks on planes, scales, to find coefficients of static and kinetic friction  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Demonstrations: ·blocks on planes, scales, to find coefficients of static and kinetic friction Text: Fishbane 5-1, 5-2 Problems: 18, 21, 28, 30, 34 from Ch. 5 What's important: ·frictional forces ·coefficients of static and kinetic friction Friction Where objects move in contact with other objects, we know

Boal, David

406

Intrinsic Primary and Secondary Hydrogen Kinetic Isotope Effects for Alanine Racemase from Global Analysis of  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Intrinsic Primary and Secondary Hydrogen Kinetic Isotope Effects for Alanine Racemase from Global of the intrinsic primary kinetic isotope effects, the lower boundary on the energy of the quinonoid intermediate, making alanine racemase an attractive target for antibacterials. Global analysis of protiated

Toney, Michael

407

HYDROGEN SULFIDE KINETICS ON PEM FUEL CELL ELECTRODES V. A. Sethuramana  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

HYDROGEN SULFIDE KINETICS ON PEM FUEL CELL ELECTRODES V. A. Sethuramana , L. A. Wiseb , S for the poisoning kinetics of hydrogen sulfide (H2S) on composite solid polymer electrolyte Pt (SPE-Pt) electrode) fuel cells, there is much less in the literature on H2S poisoning. Uribe et al showed

Sethuraman, Vijay A.

408

A gas-kinetic scheme for reactive ows Yongsheng Lian, Kun Xu*  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

A gas-kinetic scheme for reactive ¯ows Yongsheng Lian, Kun Xu* Department of Mathematics, Hong Kong in revised form 22 July 1999; accepted 22 July 1999 Abstract In this paper, the gas-kinetic BGK scheme for the compressible ¯ow equations is extended to chemical reactive ¯ow. The mass fraction of the unburnt gas

Xu, Kun

409

Single molecule analysis of RNA polymerase elongation reveals uniform kinetic behavior  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Single molecule analysis of RNA polymerase elongation reveals uniform kinetic behavior Karen) By using single-molecule measurements, we demonstrate that the elongation kinetics of individual any variation in the behavior of single RNAP molecules as well as the differences that exist between

La Porta, Arthur

410

Kinetic Modeling of Cellulosic Biomass to Ethanol Via Simultaneous Saccharification and  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

ARTICLE Kinetic Modeling of Cellulosic Biomass to Ethanol Via Simultaneous Saccharification: cellulose; ethanol; kinetics; reactor design Introduction Plant biomass is the only foreseeable sustainable­803] for simultaneous saccharification of fermentation of cellulosic biomass is extended and modified to accommodate

California at Riverside, University of

411

Power spectral analysis of Jupiter's clouds and kinetic energy from Cassini David S. Choi  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

of wind vectors and atmospheric kinetic energy within Jupiter's troposphere. We computed power spectraPower spectral analysis of Jupiter's clouds and kinetic energy from Cassini David S. Choi , Adam P o Article history: Received 16 December 2010 Revised 8 September 2011 Accepted 6 October 2011

412

Author's personal copy Power spectral analysis of Jupiter's clouds and kinetic energy from Cassini  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

full-longitudinal maps of wind vectors and atmospheric kinetic energy within Jupiter's troposphere. WeAuthor's personal copy Power spectral analysis of Jupiter's clouds and kinetic energy from Cassini 85721, USA a r t i c l e i n f o Article history: Received 16 December 2010 Revised 8 September 2011

Choi, David S.

413

Competitive oxygen-18 kinetic isotope effects expose OO bond formation in water oxidation  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Competitive oxygen-18 kinetic isotope effects expose O­O bond formation in water oxidation. Roth*a Competitive oxygen kinetic isotope effects (18 O KIEs) on water oxidation initiated by ruthenium during oxygenic photo- synthesis.1 Formation of the O­O bond in molecular oxygen has been proposed

Roth, Justine P.

414

Visualizing Chemical Compositions and Kinetics of Sol-Gel by Near-Infrared Multispectral Imaging  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Visualizing Chemical Compositions and Kinetics of Sol-Gel by Near-Infrared Multispectral Imaging, Milwaukee, Wisconsin 53201 Kinetics of sol-gel formation were studied using the recently developed near-infrared been studied extensively by many different spectroscopic techniques.4-15 Among them, the near-infrared

Reid, Scott A.

415

A multiple temperature kinetic model and its application to micro-scale gas flow simulations  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

A multiple temperature kinetic model and its application to micro-scale gas flow simulations model, micro-scale flows. 1. Introduction Gas flows can be classified according to the flow regimes_pku@yahoo.com.cn Abstract This paper presents a numerical approach to solve the multiple temperature kinetic model (MTKM

Xu, Kun

416

Predicting Experimental Quantities in Protein Folding Kinetics using Stochastic Roadmap Simulation  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Predicting Experimental Quantities in Protein Folding Kinetics using Stochastic Roadmap Simulation the transition state ensemble (TSE) and predict the rates and -values for protein folding. The new method as a gen- eral tool for studying protein folding kinetics. 1 Introduction Protein folding is a crucial

Pratt, Vaughan

417

A wearable system for multi-segment foot kinetics measurement  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

Abstract This study aims to design a wearable system for kinetics measurement of multi-segment foot joints in long-distance walking and to investigate its suitability for clinical evaluations. The wearable system consisted of inertial sensors (3D gyroscopes and 3D accelerometers) on toes, forefoot, hindfoot, and shank, and a plantar pressure insole. After calibration in a laboratory, 10 healthy elderly subjects and 12 patients with ankle osteoarthritis walked 50m twice wearing this system. Using inverse dynamics, 3D forces, moments, and power were calculated in the joint sections among toes, forefoot, hindfoot, and shank. Compared to those we previously estimated for a one-segment foot model, the sagittal and transverse moments and power in the ankle joint, as measured via multi-segment foot model, showed a normalized RMS difference of less than 11%, 14%, and 13%, respectively, for healthy subjects, and 13%, 15%, and 14%, for patients. Similar to our previous study, the coronal moments were not analyzed. Maximaminima values of anterior-posterior and vertical force, sagittal moment, and power in shank-hindfoot and hindfoot-forefoot joints were significantly different between patients and healthy subjects. Except for power, the inter-subject repeatability of these parameters was CMC>0.90 for healthy subjects and CMC>0.70 for patients. Repeatability of these parameters was lower for the forefoot-toes joint. The proposed measurement system estimated multi-segment foot joints kinetics with acceptable repeatability but showed difference, compared to those previously estimated for the one-segment foot model. These parameters also could distinguish patients from healthy subjects. Thus, this system is suggested for outcome evaluations of foot treatments.

H. Rouhani; J. Favre; X. Crevoisier; K. Aminian

2014-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

418

Parameter estimation for models of ligninolytic and cellulolytic enzyme kinetics  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

While soil enzymes have been explicitly included in the soil organic carbon (SOC) decomposition models, there is a serious lack of suitable data for model parameterization. This study provides well-documented enzymatic parameters for application in enzyme-driven SOC decomposition models from a compilation and analysis of published measurements. In particular, we developed appropriate kinetic parameters for five typical ligninolytic and cellulolytic enzymes ( -glucosidase, cellobiohydrolase, endo-glucanase, peroxidase, and phenol oxidase). The kinetic parameters included the maximum specific enzyme activity (Vmax) and half-saturation constant (Km) in the Michaelis-Menten equation. The activation energy (Ea) and the pH optimum and sensitivity (pHopt and pHsen) were also analyzed. pHsen was estimated by fitting an exponential-quadratic function. The Vmax values, often presented in different units under various measurement conditions, were converted into the same units at a reference temperature (20 C) and pHopt. Major conclusions are: (i) Both Vmax and Km were log-normal distributed, with no significant difference in Vmax exhibited between enzymes originating from bacteria or fungi. (ii) No significant difference in Vmax was found between cellulases and ligninases; however, there was significant difference in Km between them. (iii) Ligninases had higher Ea values and lower pHopt than cellulases; average ratio of pHsen to pHopt ranged 0.3 0.4 for the five enzymes, which means that an increase or decrease of 1.1 1.7 pH units from pHopt would reduce Vmax by 50%. (iv) Our analysis indicated that the Vmax values from lab measurements with purified enzymes were 1 2 orders of magnitude higher than those for use in SOC decomposition models under field conditions.

Wang, Gangsheng [ORNL; Post, Wilfred M [ORNL; Mayes, Melanie [ORNL; Frerichs, Joshua T [ORNL; Jagadamma, Sindhu [ORNL

2012-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

419

Kinetic study of the reaction between nitric oxide and carbon monoxide catalyzed by clean polycrystalline platinum  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

The kinetics of the platinum catalyzed reaction between NO and CO has been studied under conditions chosen to approximate those observed during operation of catalysts in automotive exhaust gas treatment applications. The catalysts were polycrystalline platinum foils and wires. The reaction was studied over a range of reactant partial pressures of 10 V Torr to 1 Torr and catalyst temperatures of 500 to 1500K. The steady-state kinetics results could not be fit by a simple Langmuir-Hinshelwood kinetic model over all experimental conditions studied. The kinetics at high coverage were most consistent with Langmuir-Hinshelwood kinetics assuming a bimolecular reaction between NO and CO as the rate-limiting step. At high temperature, the Langmuir-Hinshelwood assumption of fast adsorption-desorption equilibrium relative to the surface reaction rate was no longer appropriate and the mechanism of adsorption of NO had to be considered explicitly.

Klein, R.L.

1984-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

420

DOI: 10.1002/ejic.200600960 Synthesis and Sublimation Kinetics of a Highly Volatile Asymmetric Iron(II)  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

FULL PAPER DOI: 10.1002/ejic.200600960 Synthesis and Sublimation Kinetics of a Highly Volatile: Asymmetric iron(II) amidinate / Bridging ligands / Metathesis / Sublimation kinetics / Thermochemistry properties have been the subject of intense investigations in chemistry, electronics, optics, energy

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421

A Comparison of HCCI Engine Performance Data and Kinetic Modeling Results over a Wide Rangeof Gasoline Range Surrogate Fuel Blends  

Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

Kinetic models of fuels are needed to allow the simulation of engine performance for research, design, or verification purposes.

422

A Global Kinetic Model for Cometary Comae: The Evolution of the Coma of the Rosetta Target Comet Churyumov-Gerasimenko throughout the Mission  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

The Rosetta spacecraft is en route to comet 67P/Churyumov-Gerasimenko for a rendezvous, landing, and extensive orbital phase beginning in 2014. Model studies of the coma will be required not only for planning of the mission and interpretation of spacecraft data, but also for an expectedly large amount of complementary remote observational data that will be obtained in the meantime. A full-scale simulation of the coma under conditions occurring during the mission can be done only on the basis of a kinetic model. In this work we present a newly developed direct simulation Monte Carlo model of a multispecies coma, where components of the coma are coupled through momentum exchange and photochemical processes, and its application to the case of comet Churyumov-Gerasimenko. It is shown that kinetic effects determine the state of the coma, which limits applicability of a hydrodynamics approach. The study of the coma was performed in the region starting from the surface of the nucleus and extending up to 106 km, which allows incorporation of a realistic model of the gas production from the nucleus from a thermophysical model of a porous ice/dust mixture accounting for the thermal reradiation, the subsurface sublimation and recondensation, and the subsurface mass and energy transport. The results obtained present states of the coma for a series of stages throughout the Rosetta mission and can serve for the planning of the mission as well as for the interpretation of ground-based observations during the 2009 and 2016 apparitions.

Valeriy Tenishev; Michael Combi; Bjrn Davidsson

2008-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

423

Excitation of kinetic geodesic acoustic modes by drift waves in nonuniform plasmas Z. Qiu, L. Chen, and F. Zonca  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Excitation of kinetic geodesic acoustic modes by drift waves in nonuniform plasmas Z. Qiu, L. Chen://scitation.aip.org/termsconditions. Downloaded to IP: 192.107.52.30 On: Thu, 06 Feb 2014 15:42:45 #12;Excitation of kinetic geodesic acoustic) Effects of system nonuniformities and kinetic dispersiveness on the spontaneous excitation of Geodesic

Zonca, Fulvio

424

A new class of accelerated kinetic Monte Carlo algorithms  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Kinetic (aka dynamic) Monte Carlo (KMC) is a powerful method for numerical simulations of time dependent evolution applied in a wide range of contexts including biology, chemistry, physics, nuclear sciences, financial engineering, etc. Generally, in a KMC the time evolution takes place one event at a time, where the sequence of events and the time intervals between them are selected (or sampled) using random numbers. While details of the method implementation vary depending on the model and context, there exist certain common issues that limit KMC applicability in almost all applications. Among such is the notorious 'flicker problem' where the same states of the systems are repeatedly visited but otherwise no essential evolution is observed. In its simplest form the flicker problem arises when two states are connected to each other by transitions whose rates far exceed the rates of all other transitions out of the same two states. In such cases, the model will endlessly hop between the two states otherwise producing no meaningful evolution. In most situation of practical interest, the trapping cluster includes more than two states making the flicker somewhat more difficult to detect and to deal with. Several methods have been proposed to overcome or mitigate the flicker problem, exactly [1-3] or approximately [4,5]. Of the exact methods, the one proposed by Novotny [1] is perhaps most relevant to our research. Novotny formulates the problem of escaping from a trapping cluster as a Markov system with absorbing states. Given an initial state inside the cluster, it is in principle possible to solve the Master Equation for the time dependent probabilities to find the walker in a given state (transient or absorbing) of the cluster at any time in the future. Novotny then proceeds to demonstrate implementation of his general method to trapping clusters containing the initial state plus one or two transient states and all of their absorbing states. Similar methods have been subsequently proposed in [refs] but applied in a different context. The most serious deficiency of the earlier methods is that size of the trapping cluster size is fixed and often too small to bring substantial simulation speedup. Furthermore, the overhead associated with solving for the probability distribution on the trapping cluster sometimes makes such simulations less efficient than the standard KMC. Here we report on a general and exact accelerated kinetic Monte Carlo algorithm generally applicable to arbitrary Markov models1. Two different implementations are attempted both based on incremental expansion of trapping sub-set of Markov states: (1) numerical solution of the Master Equation with absorbing states and (2) incremental graph reduction followed by randomization. Of the two implementations, the 2nd one performs better allowing, for the first time, to overcome trapping basins spanning several million Markov states. The new method is used for simulations of anomalous diffusion on a 2D substrate and of the kinetics of diffusive 1st order phase transformations in binary alloys. Depending on temperature and (alloy) super-saturation conditions, speedups of 3 to 7 orders of magnitude are demonstrated, with no compromise of simulation accuracy.

Bulatov, V V; Oppelstrup, T; Athenes, M

2011-11-30T23:59:59.000Z

425

Fundamental Chemical Kinetic And Thermodynamic Data For Purex Process Models  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

To support either the continued operations of current reprocessing plants or the development of future fuel processing using hydrometallurgical processes, such as Advanced Purex or UREX type flowsheets, the accurate simulation of Purex solvent extraction is required. In recent years we have developed advanced process modeling capabilities that utilize modern software platforms such as Aspen Custom Modeler and can be run in steady state and dynamic simulations. However, such advanced models of the Purex process require a wide range of fundamental data including all relevant basic chemical kinetic and thermodynamic data for the major species present in the process. This paper will summarize some of these recent process chemistry studies that underpin our simulation, design and testing of Purex solvent extraction flowsheets. Whilst much kinetic data for actinide redox reactions in nitric acid exists in the literature, the data on reactions in the diluted TBP solvent phase is much rarer. This inhibits the accurate modelization of the Purex process particularly when species show a significant extractability in to the solvent phase or when cycling between solvent and aqueous phases occurs, for example in the reductive stripping of Pu(IV) by ferrous sulfamate in the Magnox reprocessing plant. To support current oxide reprocessing, we have investigated a range of solvent phase reactions: - U(IV)+HNO{sub 3}; - U(IV)+HNO{sub 2}; - U(IV)+HNO{sub 3} (Pu catalysis); - U(IV)+HNO{sub 3} (Tc catalysis); - U(IV)+ Np(VI); - U(IV)+Np(V); - Np(IV)+HNO{sub 3}; - Np(V)+Np(V); Rate equations have been determined for all these reactions and kinetic rate constants and activation energies are now available. Specific features of these reactions in the TBP phase include the roles of water and hydrolyzed intermediates in the reaction mechanisms. In reactions involving Np(V), cation-cation complex formation, which is much more favourable in TBP than in HNO{sub 3}, also occurs and complicates the redox chemistry. Whilst some features of the redox chemistry in TBP appear similar to the corresponding reactions in aqueous HNO{sub 3}, there are notable differences in rates, the forms of the rate equations and mechanisms. Secondly, to underpin the development of advanced single cycle flowsheets using the complexant aceto-hydroxamic acid, we have also characterised in some detail its redox chemistry and solvent extraction behaviour with both Np and Pu ions. We find that simple hydroxamic acids are remarkably rapid reducing agents for Np(VI). They also reduce Pu(VI) and cause a much slower reduction of Pu(IV) through a complex mechanism involving acid hydrolysis of the ligand. AHA is a strong hydrophilic and selective complexant for the tetravalent actinide ions as evidenced by stability constant and solvent extraction data for An(IV), M(III) and U(VI) ions. This has allowed the successful design of U/Pu+Np separation flowsheets suitable for advanced fuel cycles. (authors)

Taylor, R.J.; Fox, O.D.; Sarsfield, M.J.; Carrott, M.J.; Mason, C.; Woodhead, D.A.; Maher, C.J. [British Technology Centre, Nexia Solutions, Sellafield, Seascale, CA20 1PG (United Kingdom); Steele, H. [Nexia Solutions, inton House, Risley, Warrington, WA3 6AS (United Kingdom); Koltunov, V.S. [A.A. Bochvar All-Russia Institute of Inorganic Materials, VNIINM, PO Box 369, Moscow 123060 (Russian Federation)

2007-07-01T23:59:59.000Z

426

La Migracin Centroamericana en la Frontera Sur: un Perfil del Riesgo en la Migracin Indocumentada Internacional  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

resistencia del otro en el encuentro, desigualdades que surgen de inequidades en el acceso a y manejo de recursos materiales (

Ruiz, Olivia

2003-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

427

Alcator (en) Alcator (en) http://www.psfc.mit.edu/favicon.ico  

Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

(en) Alcator (en) http:www.psfc.mit.edufavicon.ico http:www.psfc.mit.eduresearchalcatorcmodwikiindex.phpSpecial:Search...

428

Ion kinetic energy conservation and magnetic field strength constancy in multi-fluid solar wind Alfv\\'enic turbulence  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

We investigate properties of the plasma fluid motion in the large amplitude low frequency fluctuations of highly Alfv\\'enic fast solar wind. We show that protons locally conserve total kinetic energy when observed from an effective frame of reference comoving with the fluctuations. For typical properties of the fast wind, this frame can be reasonably identified by alpha particles, which, owing to their drift with respect to protons at about the Alfv\\'en speed along the magnetic field, do not partake in the fluid low frequency fluctuations. Using their velocity to transform proton velocity into the frame of Alfv\\'enic turbulence, we demonstrate that the resulting plasma motion is characterized by a constant absolute value of the velocity, zero electric fields, and aligned velocity and magnetic field vectors as expected for unidirectional Alfv\\'enic fluctuations in equilibrium. We propose that this constraint, via the correlation between velocity and magnetic field in Alfv\\'enic turbulence, is at the origin of ...

Matteini, L; Pantellini, F; Velli, M; Schwartz, S J

2015-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

429

Turbulent Flame Speeds and NOx Kinetics of HHC Fuels with Contaminants and High Dilution Levels  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

This final report documents the technical results of the 3-year project entitled, Turbulent Flame Speeds and NOx Kinetics of HHC Fuels with Contaminants and High Dilution Levels, funded under the NETL of DOE. The research was conducted under six main tasks: 1) program management and planning; 2) turbulent flame speed measurements of syngas mixtures; 3) laminar flame speed measurements with diluents; 4) NOx mechanism validation experiments; 5) fundamental NOx kinetics; and 6) the effect of impurities on NOx kinetics. Experiments were performed using primary constant-volume vessels for laminar and turbulent flame speeds and shock tubes for ignition delay times and species concentrations. In addition to the existing shock- tube and flame speed facilities, a new capability in measuring turbulent flame speeds was developed under this grant. Other highlights include an improved NOx kinetics mechanism; a database on syngas blends for real fuel mixtures with and without impurities; an improved hydrogen sulfide mechanism; an improved ammonia kintics mechanism; laminar flame speed data at high pressures with water addition; and the development of an inexpensive absorption spectroscopy diagnostic for shock-tube measurements of OH time histories. The Project Results for this work can be divided into 13 major sections, which form the basis of this report. These 13 topics are divided into the five areas: 1) laminar flame speeds; 2) Nitrogen Oxide and Ammonia chemical kinetics; 3) syngas impurities chemical kinetics; 4) turbulent flame speeds; and 5) OH absorption measurements for chemical kinetics.

Peterson, Eric; Krejci, Michael; Mathieu, Olivier; Vissotski, Andrew; Ravi, Sankat; Plichta, Drew; Sikes, Travis; Levacque, Anthony; Camou, Alejandro; Aul, Christopher

2013-09-30T23:59:59.000Z

430

Kinetics of Ni Sorption in Soils: Roles of Soil Organic Matter and Ni Precipitation  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

The kinetics of Ni sorption to two Delaware agricultural soils were studied to quantitatively assess the relative importance of Ni adsorption on soil organic matter (SOM) and the formation of Ni layered double hydroxide (Ni-LDH) precipitates using both experimental studies and kinetic modeling. Batch sorption kinetic experiments were conducted with both soils at pH 6.0, 7.0, and 7.5 from 24 h up to 1 month. Time-resolved Ni speciation in soils was determined by X-ray absorption spectroscopy (XAS) during the kinetic experiments. A kinetics model was developed to describe Ni kinetic reactions under various reaction conditions and time scales, which integrated Ni adsorption on SOM with Ni-LDH precipitation in soils. The soil Ni speciation (adsorbed phases and Ni-LDH) calculated using the kinetics model was consistent with that obtained through XAS analysis during the sorption processes. Under our experimental conditions, both modeling and XAS results demonstrated that Ni adsorption on SOM was dominant in the short term and the formation of Ni-LDH precipitates accounted for the long-term Ni sequestration in soils, and, more interestingly, that the adsorbed Ni may slowly transfer to Ni-LDH phases with longer reaction times.

Shi, Zhenqing; Peltier, Edward; Sparks, Donald L. (Delaware); (Kansas)

2012-12-10T23:59:59.000Z

431

Pattern Formation and Growth Kinetics in Eutectic Systems  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Growth patterns during liquid/solid phase transformation are governed by simultaneous effects of heat and mass transfer mechanisms, creation of new interfaces, jump of the crystallization units from liquid to solid and their rearrangement in the solid matrix. To examine how the above processes influence the scale of microstructure, two eutectic systems are chosen for the study: a polymeric system polyethylene glycol-p-dibromobenzene (PEG-DBBZ) and a simple molecular system succinonitrile (SCN)-camphor. The scaling law for SCN-camphor system is found to follow the classical Jackson-Hunt model of circular rod eutectic, where the diffusion in the liquid and the interface energy are the main physics governing the two-phase pattern. In contrast, a significantly different scaling law is observed for the polymer system. The interface kinetics of PEG phase and its solute concentration dependence thus have been critically investigated for the first time by directional solidification technique. A model is then proposed that shows that the two-phase pattern in polymers is governed by the interface diffusion and the interface kinetics. In SCN-camphor system, a new branch of eutectic, elliptical shape rodl, is found in thin samples where only one layer of camphor rods is present. It is found that the orientation of the ellipse can change from the major axis in the direction of the thickness to the direction of the width as the velocity and/or the sample thickness is decreased. A theoretical model is developed that predicts the spacing and orientation of the elliptical rods in a thin sample. The single phase growth patterns of SCN-camphor system were also examined with emphasis on the three-dimensional single cell and cell/dendrite transition. For the 3D single cell in a capillary tube, the entire cell shape ahead of the eutectic front can be described by the Saffmann-Taylor finger only at extremely low growth rate. A 3D directional solidification model is developed to characterize the cell shape and tip undercooling and the experimental results are compared with the predictions of the model. From the investigation of cell/dendrite transition, a model is proposed, from which the condition for the onset of the transition can be obtained.

Jing Teng

2007-12-01T23:59:59.000Z

432

Higher-order desorption kinetics of hydrogen from silane/, disilane/, and D/Si(100)  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

Hydrogen desorption kinetics from silane/, disilane/, and D/Si(100)-21 surfaces with and without thermal processings have been investigated using temperature-programmed desorption (TPD) measurements. In contrast to previously reported first-order desorption kinetics from H/Si(100) surface, the kinetics became higher-order under certain conditions of hydrogenating gases and thermal processings. Specifically, the hydrogen desorption from a post-annealed, silane-saturated surface showed the highest reaction order of all the combinations. A unified explanation is given to these results using the prepairing of surface hydrogen atoms at a dimer.

Hideki Nakazawa; Maki Suemitsu

1998-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

433

1D to 3D diffusion-reaction kinetics of defects in crystals  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

Microstructural features evolving in crystalline solids from diffusion-reaction kinetics of mobile components depend crucially on the dimension of the underlying diffusion process which is commonly assumed to be three-dimensional (3D). In metals, irradiation-induced displacement cascades produce clusters of self-interstitials performing 1D diffusion. Changes between equivalent 1D diffusion paths and transversal diffusion result in diffusion-reaction kinetics between one and three dimensions. An analytical approach suggests a single-variable function (master curve) interpolating between the 1D and 3D limiting cases. The analytical result is fully confirmed by kinetic Monte Carlo simulations.

H. Trinkaus; H. L. Heinisch; A. V. Barashev; S. I. Golubov; B. N. Singh

2002-08-30T23:59:59.000Z

434

Nederland en Suriname: Een gemeenschappelijk verleden, heden en toekomst.  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

??1975 werd het jaar dat Suriname onafhankelijk werd van de kolonisator. Nederland liet haar kolonie in Zuid- Amerika gaan en wilde het op eigen benen (more)

Sewgobind, A.B.

2011-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

435

Reduced and Validated Kinetic Mechanisms for Hydrogen-CO-sir Combustion in Gas Turbines  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Rigorous experimental, theoretical, and numerical investigation of various issues relevant to the development of reduced, validated kinetic mechanisms for synthetic gas combustion in gas turbines was carried out - including the construction of new radiation models for combusting flows, improvement of flame speed measurement techniques, measurements and chemical kinetic analysis of H{sub 2}/CO/CO{sub 2}/O{sub 2}/diluent mixtures, revision of the H{sub 2}/O{sub 2} kinetic model to improve flame speed prediction capabilities, and development of a multi-time scale algorithm to improve computational efficiency in reacting flow simulations.

Yiguang Ju; Frederick Dryer

2009-02-07T23:59:59.000Z

436

The relationship between the Wigner-Weyl kinetic formalism and the complex geometrical optics method  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

The relationship between two different asymptotic techniques developed in order to describe the propagation of waves beyond the standard geometrical optics approximation, namely, the Wigner-Weyl kinetic formalism and the complex geometrical optics method, is addressed. More specifically, a solution of the wave kinetic equation, relevant to the Wigner-Weyl formalism, is obtained which yields the same wavefield intensity as the complex geometrical optics method. Such a relationship is also discussed on the basis of the analytical solution of the wave kinetic equation specific to Gaussian beams of electromagnetic waves propagating in a ``lens-like'' medium for which the complex geometrical optics solution is already available.

Omar Maj

2005-11-04T23:59:59.000Z

437

Analysis of kinetic models of the methanol-to-gasoline (MTG) process in an integral reactor  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

From experimental results obtained in a wide range of operating conditions (temperature and contact time) in an isothermal fixed bed integral reactor, the validity both of the kinetic models proposed in the literature as well as their modifications, for the methanol-to-gasoline (MTG) process at zero time on-stream, has been studied. The kinetic parameters for the various models have been calculated by solving the equation of mass conservation in the reactor for the lumps of the kinetic models. The usefulness of the model of Schipper and Krambeck for simulating the operation in the isothermal fixed bed integral reactor has been proven in the 573648 K range.

Ana G. Gayubo; Pedro L. Benito; Andrs T. Aguayo; Itziar Aguirre; Javier Bilbao

1996-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

438

Interpretation of kinetic rate data taken in a channel flow cell  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Nonuniform current distribution can complicate the interpretation of kinetic rate measurements. This paper shows explicitly how nonuniformities affect measurements in the flow-channel cell. Results are given for linear and Tafel kinetics and can be used to relate measurable electrochemical quantities to kinetic parameters. In addition to the appropriate polarization parameter, the interpretation of data requires knowledge of the ratio of the two characteristic lengths and the placement of the reference electrode. The analysis assumes that the ohmic potential drop is subtracted from the measurements by the interruption of current, and that concentration variations are negligible.

West, A.C.; Newman, J. (Materials and Chemical Sciences Div., Lawrence Berkeley Lab., and Dept. of Chemical Engineering, Univ. of California, Berkeley, CA (US))

1989-12-01T23:59:59.000Z

439

Existence of two sets of kinetic parameters in the correlation of the hydrogen electrode reaction  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

It has been demonstrated that the dependence of the current density on overpotential for the hydrogen electrode reaction described through the Volmer-Heyrovsky-Tafel mechanism can be correlated by two different sets of the kinetic parameters. Such sets lead to two different dependencies of the surface coverage on overpotential, while a unique dependence of the corresponding pseudocapacitance of adsorption is obtained. The expressions that relate both sets of kinetic parameters have been established and analyzed for the simultaneous occurrence of the three steps and for the different kinetic routes.

Chialvo, M.R.G. de; Chialvo, A.C.

2000-05-01T23:59:59.000Z

440

Information cascade, Kirman's ant colony model, and kinetic Ising model  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

In this paper, we discuss a voting model in which voters can obtain information from a finite number of previous voters. There exist three groups of voters: (i) digital herders and independent voters, (ii) analog herders and independent voters, and (iii) tanh-type herders. In our previous paper, we used the mean field approximation for case (i). In that study, if the reference number r is above three, phase transition occurs and the solution converges to one of the equilibria. In contrast, in the current study, the solution oscillates between the two equilibria, that is, good and bad equilibria. In this paper, we show that there is no phase transition when r is finite. If the annealing schedule is adequately slow from finite r to infinite r, the voting rate converges only to the good equilibrium. In case (ii), the state of reference votes is equivalent to that of Kirman's ant colony model, and it follows beta binomial distribution. In case (iii), we show that the model is equivalent to the finite-size kinetic...

Hisakado, Masato

2014-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "kinetic en ergy" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


441

Kinetic studies of amylase and biomass production by Calvatia gigantea  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Production of alpha-amylase (alpha-4, glucan 4-glucanohydrolase, EC 3.2.1.1) by microorganisms has been practiced for many years in small and large scale operations and the literature on this enzyme is voluminous. Aspergillus niger and Aspergillus oryzae have been reported as the main fungal species used for commercial production of the enzyme. On the other hand, large volumes of low-cost agricultural products such as acorn (the perisperm-free dry seed contains approximately 60% starch) are wasted in many countries and provide a challenge to biotechnology to efficiently utilize these rich sources of starch for the production of high added value products like enzymes. C. gigantea is an edible puffball excreting high levels of alpha-amylase when cultivated on different sources of starch containing elevated quantities of toxic tannic compounds. This fungus has been employed for the production of microbial protein from wastes and acorns containing high levels of toxic tannic compounds. The same fungus was also reported to grow on both hydrolyzable and condensed tannins as sole carbon sources. The present work was undertaken to investigate certain kinetic characteristics of alpha-amylase and biomass production by C. gigantea grown on soluble and acorn starch in a lab fermenter. (Refs. 18).

Kekos, D.; Macris, B.J.

1987-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

442

Gasification characteristics and kinetics for an Eastern oil shale  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Gasification reactivity of an Eastern oil shale was studied in a three-year research project under a cooperative agreement between the Department of Energy, Morgantown Energy Technology Center, and HYCRUDE Corp. to expand the data base on the hydroretorting of Eastern oil shales. Gasification tests were conducted with the Indiana New Albany oil shale during the first year of the program. A total of six Eastern oil shales are planned to be tested during the program. A laboratory thermobalance and a 2-inch diameter fluidized bed were used to conduct gasification tests with Indiana New Albany oil shale. Temperature and pressure ranges used were 1600 to 1900/sup 0/F and 15 to 500 psig, respectively. Fifteen thermobalance tests were made in hydrogen/steam and synthesis gas/steam mixtures. Six fluidized-bed tests were made in the same synthesis gas/steam mixture. Carbon conversions as high as 95% were achieved. Thermobalance test results and a kinetic description of weight loss during hydrogen/steam gasification are presented. 14 refs., 6 figs., 4 tabs.

Lau, F.S.; Rue, D.M.; Punwani, D.V.; Rex, R.C. Jr.

1987-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

443

Coupled simulation of kinetic pedestal growth and MHD ELM crash  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Edge pedestal height and the accompanying ELM crash are critical elements of ITER physics yet to be understood and predicted through high performance computing. An entirely self-consistent first principles simulation is being pursued as a long term research goal, and the plan is planned for completion in time for ITER operation. However, a proof-of-principle work has already been established using a computational tool that employs the best first principles physics available at the present time. A kinetic edge equilibrium code XGC0, which can simulate the neoclassically dominant pedestal growth from neutral ionization (using a phenomenological residual turbulence diffusion motion superposed upon the neoclassical particle motion) is coupled to an extended MHD code M3D, which can perform the nonlinear ELM crash. The stability boundary of the pedestal is checked by an ideal MHD linear peeling-ballooning code, which has been validated against many experimental data sets for the large scale (type I) ELMs onset boundary. The coupling workflow and scientific results to be enabled by it are described.

Park, G. [New York University; Cummings, J. [California Institute of Technology, University of California, Davis; Chang, C. S. [New York University; Klasky, Scott A [ORNL; Ku, S. [New York University; Podhorszki, Norbert [University of California, Davis; Pankin, A. [Lehigh University, Bethlehem, PA; Samtaney, Ravi [Princeton Plasma Physics Laboratory (PPPL); Shoshani, A. [Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory (LBNL); Snyder, P. [General Atomics, San Diego; Strauss, H. [New York University; Sugiyama, L. [Massachusetts Institute of Technology (MIT); CPES Team, the [SciDAC Prototype FSP Center for Plasma Edge Simulation

2007-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

444

Stochastic cooling of bunched beams from fluctuation and kinetic theory  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

A theoretical formalism for stochastic phase-space cooling of bunched beams in storage rings is developed on the dual basis of classical fluctuation theory and kinetic theory of many-body systems in phase-space. The physics is that of a collection of three-dimensional oscillators coupled via retarded nonconservative interactions determined by an electronic feedback loop. At the heart of the formulation is the existence of several disparate time-scales characterizing the cooling process. Both theoretical approaches describe the cooling process in the form of a Fokker-Planck transport equation in phase-space valid up to second order in the strength and first order in the auto-correlation of the cooling signal. With neglect of the collective correlations induced by the feedback loop, identical expressions are obtained in both cases for the coherent damping and Schottky noise diffusion coefficients. These are expressed in terms of Fourier coefficients in a harmonic decomposition in angle of the generalized nonconservative cooling force written in canonical action-angle variables of the particles in six-dimensional phase-space. Comparison of analytic results to a numerical simulation study with 90 pseudo-particles in a model cooling system is presented.

Chattopadhyay, S.

1982-09-01T23:59:59.000Z

445

Kinetic Modeling of Combustion Characteristics of Real Biodiesel Fuels  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Biodiesel fuels are of much interest today either for replacing or blending with conventional fuels for automotive applications. Predicting engine effects of using biodiesel fuel requires accurate understanding of the combustion characteristics of the fuel, which can be acquired through analysis using reliable detailed reaction mechanisms. Unlike gasoline or diesel that consists of hundreds of chemical compounds, biodiesel fuels contain only a limited number of compounds. Over 90% of the biodiesel fraction is composed of 5 unique long-chain C{sub 18} and C{sub 16} saturated and unsaturated methyl esters. This makes modeling of real biodiesel fuel possible without the need for a fuel surrogate. To this end, a detailed chemical kinetic mechanism has been developed for determining the combustion characteristics of a pure biodiesel (B100) fuel, applicable from low- to high-temperature oxidation regimes. This model has been built based on reaction rate rules established in previous studies at Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory. Computed results are compared with the few fundamental experimental data that exist for biodiesel fuel and its components. In addition, computed results have been compared with experimental data for other long-chain hydrocarbons that are similar in structure to the biodiesel components.

Naik, C V; Westbrook, C K

2009-04-08T23:59:59.000Z

446

Mechanism and kinetics of peptide partitioning into membranes  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Partitioning properties of transmembrane (TM) polypeptide segments directly determine membrane protein folding, stability, and function, and their understanding is vital for rational design of membrane active peptides. However, direct determination of water-to-bilayer transfer of TM peptides has proved difficult. Experimentally, sufficiently hydrophobic peptides tend to aggregate, while atomistic computer simulations at physiological temperatures cannot yet reach the long time scales required to capture partitioning. Elevating temperatures to accelerate the dynamics has been avoided, as this was thought to lead to rapid denaturing. However, we show here that model TM peptides (WALP) are exceptionally thermostable. Circular dichroism experiments reveal that the peptides remain inserted into the lipid bilayer and are fully helical, even at 90 C. At these temperatures, sampling is 50 500 times faster, sufficient to directly simulate spontaneous partitioning at atomic resolution. A folded insertion pathway is observed, consistent with three-stage partitioning theory. Elevated temperature simulation ensembles further allow the direct calculation of the insertion kinetics, which is found to be first-order for all systems. Insertion barriers are Hin = 15 kcal/mol for a general hydrophobic peptide and 23 kcal/mol for the tryptophan-flanked WALP peptides. The corresponding insertion times at room temperature range from 8.5 s to 163 ms. High-temperature simulations of experimentally validated thermostable systems suggest a new avenue for systematic exploration of peptide partitioning properties.

Ulmschneider, Martin [University of Oxford; Killian, J Antoinette [University of Utrecht; Doux, Jacques P. F. [University of Utrecht; Smith, Jeremy C [ORNL; Ulmschneider, Jakob [University of Heidelberg

2010-02-01T23:59:59.000Z

447

An assessment of chemical kinetics for bio-syngas combustion  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

Abstract The present work was devoted to assess the chemical kinetic modelling of bio-syngas combustion. Three reaction mechanisms (the Gas Research Institute-mechanism GRI 3.0, its skeletal version DRM22 and Heghes C1C4 mechanism) were considered for that purpose along with series of ignition delay measurements relevant to the burning of bio-syngas. For experiments involving methane with and without considerably smaller quantities of added hydrogen, the measurements are generally overpredicted by Heghes mechanism but underpredicted by the GRI and DRM mechanisms. Experiments involving various blends of the bio-syngas constituents were also simulated. The strong discrepancies present for high pressures and temperatures and low pressures and temperatures could be correlated to five reactions which are only influential under those conditions, four of which involving HO 2 . The effects of variations in the bio-syngas composition on combustion were numerically investigated by using the GRI-mechanism. Globally it was found that an increase in any of the constituents goes hand in hand with higher amount of CO released. The ignition delay is either shortened or left unchanged as the initial concentration is increased except in the case of methane where it is raised. The results were in good agreement with experimental observations made elsewhere.

M. Fischer; X. Jiang

2014-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

448

Thermodynamics and Kinetics of Carbon Dioxide Binding to Two Stereoisomers  

Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

Binding to Stereoisomers of a Cobalt(I) Macrocycle Binding to Stereoisomers of a Cobalt(I) Macrocycle Carol Creutz, Harold A. Schwarz, James F. Wishart, Etsuko Fujita and Norman Sutin J. Am. Chem. Soc. 113, 3361-3371 (1991) Abstract: The thermodynamics and kinetics of binding of CO2, CO, and H+ to N-racemic and N-meso stereoisomers of the cobalt(I) macrocycle CoL+ (L=5,7,7,12,14,14-hexamethyl-1,4,8,11-tetraazacyclotetradeca-4,11-diene) have been determined in aqueous media with use of the pulse radiolysis technique and transient ultraviolet-visible spectroscopy. N-rac or N-meso-CoL+ was produced by the hydrated electron reduction of N-rac or N-meso-CoL2+, with tert-butyl alcohol generally added to scavenge hydroxyl radicals. Reactions of both N-rac- and N-meso CoL+ are readily followed by the disappearance of intense ([epsilon] 1 x 104 M-1 cm-1) absorption bands

449

Materiales utilizados en la osteosntesis  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

Qu se espera del material utilizado en una osteosntesis? La osteosntesis puede definirse como la estabilizacin temporal interna o externa de los fragmentos seos, hasta que se obtiene la consolidacin. Los materiales utilizados para los implantes de osteosntesis deben ser biocompatibles y proporcionar elevadas prestaciones mecnicas. Por estas razones los implantes metlicos son la norma actualmente. En algunas indicaciones, y sobre todo, para tensiones poco importantes, se utilizan o estn en perodo de evaluacin otros materiales como polmeros, materiales compuestos o biorreabsorbibles (polmeros o cermicas). Debido a sus propiedades mecnicas (fragilidad, resistencia limitada a las tensiones) y a su mtodo de fabricacin, las cermicas no se utilizan hoy en da en traumatologa sea para el soporte de carga. En este captulo se resumen los trminos cientficos bsicos, los materiales ms corrientes, su interaccin biolgica y su visualizacin mediante tcnicas de diagnstico por la imagen.

M. Altmann; J.-M. Cognet; L. Eschbach; B. Gasser; G. Richards; P. Simon

2009-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

450

Peltier A., 2008, La cartographie rglementaire des risques naturels en Suisse, en Italie et en France , La mise en carte des risques naturels, Diversit des approches, Montpellier : Presses Universitaires de la Mditerrane,  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Peltier A., 2008, « La cartographie réglementaire des risques naturels en Suisse, en Italie et en (2008) 61-67" #12;Peltier A., 2008, « La cartographie réglementaire des risques naturels en Suisse, en

Paris-Sud XI, Université de

451

NETL: C&CBTL - Development of Kinetics and Mathematical Models for High  

Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

Kinetics and Mathematical Models for High Pressure Gasification of Lignite-Switchgrass Blends Kinetics and Mathematical Models for High Pressure Gasification of Lignite-Switchgrass Blends Georgia Tech Research Corporation Project Number: FE0005339 Project Description The objectives of the proposed study are to obtain experimental reactor data and develop kinetic rate expressions for pyrolysis and char gasification for the coal-biomass blends under conditions free from transport limitations, to develop a detailed understanding of the effect of pyrolysis conditions on the porous char structure, to build mathematical models that combine true kinetic rate expressions with transport models for predicting gasification behavior for a broad range of pressures and temperatures, and to investigate the physical and chemical parameters that might lead to synergistic effects in coal-biomass blends gasification.

452

Kinetics of an Inverse Temperature Transition Process and Its Application on Supported Lipid Bilayer  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

the ability to measure the kinetics of the PNIPAM and the ELPs collapse without a heat transfer problem. The conformational change of the ELPs during the phase transition process is utilized as a nanoscale protein filter to modulate ligandreceptor binding...

Chang, Chin-Yuan

2011-10-21T23:59:59.000Z

453

Spectroscopic, kinetic and dosimetric features of the radical species produced after radiodegradation of solid triclosan  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

In the present work, spectroscopic, kinetic and dosimetric features of the radicalic intermediates produced after gamma irradiation at room temperature of solid triclosan (2,4,4-trichloro-2-hydroxydiphenyl ether....

?lknur Ozkirim stnda?; Mustafa Korkmaz

2009-04-01T23:59:59.000Z

454

Statistical Prediction of Integrated Kinetic Energy in North Atlantic Tropical Cyclones  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

Integrated kinetic energy (IKE) is a useful quantity that measures the size and strength of a tropical cyclone wind field. As a result, it is inherently related to the destructive potential of these powerful storms. In most current operational ...

Michael E. Kozar; Vasubandhu Misra

2014-12-01T23:59:59.000Z

455

E-Print Network 3.0 - astrophysical systems kinetic Sample Search...  

Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

Institut fur Astronomie, ETH Zurich Summary: .O.Benz On the Kinetics of Solar Wind Astronomy and Astrophysics T. Gold Acceleration 55, 229 (1977) A.O.Benz Correlation... Star AB...

456

Methane Steam Reforming Kinetics on a Ni/Mg/K/Al2O3 Catalyst  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

The kinetics of methane steam reforming were studied on a Ni/Mg/K/...2O3...catalyst that was developed for conditioning of biomass-derived syngas. Reactions were conducted in a packed-bed reactor while the concen...

Allison M. Robinson; Megan E. Gin; Matthew M. Yung

2013-12-01T23:59:59.000Z

457

Kinetic solution to the Mach probe problem in transversely flowing strongly magnetized plasmas  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

The kinetic equation governing a strongly magnetized transverse plasma flow past a convex ion-collecting object is solved numerically for arbitrary ion to electron temperature ratio ?. The approximation of isothermal ions ...

Patacchini, Leonardo

458

Kinetic viscoelasticity modeling applied to degradation during carboncarbon composite processing  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Kinetic viscoelasticity modeling has been successfully utilized to describe phenomena during cure of thermoset based carbon fiber reinforced matrices. The basic difference from classic viscoelasticity is that the fundamental ...

Drakonakis, Vassilis M.

459

Using an ADCP to estimate turbulent kinetic energy dissipation rate in sheltered coastal waters  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

Turbulent microstructure and acoustic Doppler current profiler (ADCP) data were collected near Tacoma Narrows in Puget Sound, WA. Over 100 coincident microstructure profiles have been compared to ADCP estimates of turbulent kinetic energy ...

A. D. Greene; P. J. Hendricks; M. C. Gregg

460

Reaction mechanism and kinetics of pressurized pyrolysis of Chinese oil shale in the presence of water  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

A study of reaction mechanisms and chemical kinetics of pressurized pyrolysis of Chinese Liushuhe oil shale in the presence of water were conducted ... thermal degradation. It was found that the oil shale was fir...

Chaohe Fang; Shuyuan Li; Guili Ma; Hongyan Wang; Zhilong Huang

2012-12-01T23:59:59.000Z

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "kinetic en ergy" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


461

Transients in Hydrolysis Kinetics 101 Applied Biochemistry and Biotechnology Vol. 105108, 2003  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Transients in Hydrolysis Kinetics 101 Applied Biochemistry and Biotechnology Vol. 105­108, 2003 and Biotechnology Vol. 105­108, 2003 temperature oil or fluidized sand bath set at the reaction temperature

California at Riverside, University of

462

Modeling the kinetics of parallel thermal and catalytic hydrotreating of heavy oil  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

Abstract A series of experiments were performed for obtaining the kinetics of the parallel thermal and catalytic hydrotreating reactions. The reactions considered were: hydrodesulfurization, hydrodenitrogenation (basic and non-basic), hydrodemetallization, hydrodeasphaltenization and hydro Conradson carbon removal. Hydrodesulfurization reaction was described by LangmuirHinshelwood kinetics while the other reactions were modeled with power-law approach. The tests were carried out in a CSTBR at the following conditions: 380420C, 9.8MPa, 891stdm3/m3 of hydrogen-to-oil ratio, 0.982.56 of g feed/(gcath), and 200h of time-on-stream. The developed kinetic model incorporates the effectiveness factor and a time-dependant deactivation function for obtaining the intrinsic kinetic parameters. It was demonstrated that at low severity reaction conditions the reactions occur via catalytic route, while at high severity conditions thermal reactions are more favored.

Jeremas Martnez; Jorge Ancheyta

2014-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

463

Automatic decomposition of kinetic models of signaling networks minimizing the retroactivity among modules  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

......functional units. Simulation (2003...theory for chemical processes. Chem...Supplementary Data - pdf file Automatic...implemented in MATLAB (Mathworks...Computer Simulation Kinetics...defined as chemical systems...functional units. Simulation, 79, 703716...theory for chemical processes. Chem......

Julio Saez-Rodriguez; Stefan Gayer; Martin Ginkel; Ernst Dieter Gilles

2008-08-15T23:59:59.000Z

464

Accepted Manuscript Kinetic modelling of high density polyethylene pyrolysis: Part 2. Reduction of existing  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Accepted Manuscript Kinetic modelling of high density polyethylene pyrolysis: Part 2. Reduction density polyethylene pyrolysis: Part 2. Reduction of existing detailed mechanism, Polymer Degradation Modelling of High Density PolyEthylene Pyrolysis: Part 2. Reduction of existing detailed mechanism. N

Paris-Sud XI, Université de

465

Effects of Point Defects and Impurities on Kinetics in NaAlH4  

Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

A presentation showing that point defects play an important role in the kinetics of NaAlH4 including vacancies and interstitials consistent with observed effects of Ti.

466

Kinetics of catalyst regeneration by coke combustion. II. Influence of temperature rise in the catalyst particles  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

A grain-pellet model has been used to study the effect of high reaction rates upon the temperature profiles developed during regeneration of coked catalyst particles. The possibility of falsification of kinetic.....

D. Lafarga; C. Royo; A. Monzn; M. Menndez

1991-08-01T23:59:59.000Z

467

Binding Kinetics of Triclosan (Irgasan) to Alloplastic Vascular Grafts: An In Vitro Study  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

The aim of this study was to investigate the binding kinetics of triclosan (Irgasan) to alloplastic vascular grafts and ... . Grafts were incubated in 10 g/L triclosan (Irgasan), dried, sterilized, and incubated...

T. Hernndez-Richter; H.M. Schardey; F. Lhlein

2000-07-01T23:59:59.000Z

468

Mass fluctuation kinetics : analysis and computation of equilibria and local dynamics  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

The mass fluctuation kinetics (MFK) model is a set of coupled first-order differential equations describing the temporal evolution of means, variances and covariances of species concentrations in systems of chemical ...

Azunre, Paul

2009-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

469

Kinetic Study on the Acid-Catalyzed Hydrolysis of Cellulose to Levulinic Acid  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

A variety of interesting bulk chemicals is accessible by the acid-catalyzed hydrolysis of cellulose. An interesting example is levulinic acid, a versatile precursor for fuel additives, polymers, and resins. A detailed kinetic study on the acid-catalyzed ...

B. Girisuta; L. P. B. M. Janssen; H. J. Heeres

2007-02-13T23:59:59.000Z

470

Detailed kinetic study of anisole pyrolysis and oxidation to understand tar formation during biomass  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

biomass combustion and gasification Milena Nowakowska, Olivier Herbinet, Anthony Dufour, Pierre. Methoxyphenols are one of the main precursors of PAH and soot in biomass combustion and gasification. Keywords: Anisole; Pyrolysis; Oxidation; Tars; Biomass; Kinetic modeling Corresponding author

Paris-Sud XI, Université de

471

ONE-DIMENSIONAL PSEUDO-HOMOGENEOUS PACKED BED REACTOR MODELING INCLUDING NO-CO KINETICS  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

the chemical species and energy equations for dynamically incompressible flow in one-dimension. Furthermore, the chemical kinetics on the reduction reaction of nitric oxide by carbon monoxide over rhodium-alumina and platinum-alumina catalysts is investigated...

Srinivasan, Anand

2011-08-31T23:59:59.000Z

472

Recent Advances in Detailed Chemical Kinetic Models for Large Hydrocarbon and Biodiesel Transportation Fuels  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

n-Hexadecane and 2,2,4,4,6,8,8-heptamethylnonane represent the primary reference fuels for diesel that are used to determine cetane number, a measure of the ignition property of diesel fuel. With the development of chemical kinetics models for these two primary reference fuels for diesel, a new capability is now available to model diesel fuel ignition. Also, we have developed chemical kinetic models for a whole series of large n-alkanes and a large iso-alkane to represent these chemical classes in fuel surrogates for conventional and future fuels. Methyl decanoate and methyl stearate are large methyl esters that are closely related to biodiesel fuels, and kinetic models for these molecules have also been developed. These chemical kinetic models are used to predict the effect of the fuel molecule size and structure on ignition characteristics under conditions found in internal combustion engines.

Westbrook, C K; Pitz, W J; Curran, H J; Herbinet, O; Mehl, M

2009-03-30T23:59:59.000Z

473

Neutron scattering from myelin revisited: bilayer asymmetry and water-exchange kinetics  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

The structure of internodal myelin in the rodent central and peripheral nervous systems has been determined using neutron diffraction. The kinetics of water exchange in these tissues is also described.

Denninger, A.R.

2014-11-22T23:59:59.000Z

474

Systems, methods and computer-readable media to model kinetic performance of rechargeable electrochemical devices  

DOE Patents [OSTI]

A system includes an electrochemical cell, monitoring hardware, and a computing system. The monitoring hardware samples performance characteristics of the electrochemical cell. The computing system determines cell information from the performance characteristics. The computing system also analyzes the cell information of the electrochemical cell with a Butler-Volmer (BV) expression modified to determine exchange current density of the electrochemical cell by including kinetic performance information related to pulse-time dependence, electrode surface availability, or a combination thereof. A set of sigmoid-based expressions may be included with the modified-BV expression to determine kinetic performance as a function of pulse time. The determined exchange current density may be used with the modified-BV expression, with or without the sigmoid expressions, to analyze other characteristics of the electrochemical cell. Model parameters can be defined in terms of cell aging, making the overall kinetics model amenable to predictive estimates of cell kinetic performance along the aging timeline.

Gering, Kevin L.

2013-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

475

Kinetic coefficient for hard-sphere crystal growth from the melt  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Using molecular-dynamics simulation, we determine the magnitude and anisotropy of the kinetic coefficient (mu) for the crystal growth from the melt for the hard-sphere system through an analysis of equilibrium capillary ...

Laird, Brian Bostian; Amini, M.

2006-11-24T23:59:59.000Z

476

An Approach to Kinetic Energy Diagnosis of MesoSynoptic Scale interactions  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

To explicitly describe the energy exchange between meso and synoptic-scale motions, a diagnostic scheme of kinetic energy has been developed. By using a horizontal filtering technique, meteorological variables are separated into synoptic and ...

Shou-Jun Chen; Le-Sheng Bai; Ernest C. Kung

1990-12-01T23:59:59.000Z

477

A Progress Report A Comprehensive Kinetic Model of Ethylene and Acetylene  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

A Progress Report on A Comprehensive Kinetic Model of Ethylene and Acetylene Oxidation at High. Simulation of Shock-Tube Experiments .....................................................15 5.1. Ethylene Tubes .............................................16 5.3. Mechanisms of Acetylene and Ethylene

Wang, Hai

478

A kinetic scheme for unsteady pressurised flows in closed water pipes  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

he aim of this paper is to present a kinetic numerical scheme for the computations of transient pressurised flows in closed water pipes. Firstly, we detail the mathematical model written as a conservative hyperbolic partial differentiel system of equations, and the we recall how to obtain the corresponding kinetic formulation. Then we build the kinetic scheme ensuring an upwinding of the source term due to the topography performed in a close manner described by Perthame et al. using an energetic balance at microscopic level for the Shallow Water equations. The validation is lastly performed in the case of a water hammer in a uniform pipe: we compare the numerical results provided by an industrial code used at EDF-CIH (France), which solves the Allievi equation (the commonly used equation for pressurised flows in pipes) by the method of characteristics, with those of the kinetic scheme. It appears that they are in a very good agreement.

Bourdarias, Christian; Gerbi, Stphane

2008-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

479

Evaluation of kinetic parameters appropriate for modeling urethane foam insulation performance  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

Computer codes which model the pyrolysis of thermal insulators for in-depth temperature response are particularly sensitive to the kinetic parameters used in the code. The parameter values, which are evaluated...

I. Auerbach

480

Development of a Grid-Based Gyro-Kinetic Simulation Code  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

The 4D Semi-Lagrangian code CYGNE for solving electrostatic drift-kinetic equations is presented. The code simulates well the linear phase. In the non-linear, phase development of negative value regions are investigated.

Lapillonne, X.; Brunetti, M.; Brunner, S.; Tran, T.-M. [Ecole Polytechnique Federale de Lausanne (EPFL), Centre de Recherches en Physique des Plasmas, CH-1015 Lausanne (Switzerland)

2006-11-30T23:59:59.000Z

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "kinetic en ergy" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


481

On Measuring the Terms of the Turbulent Kinetic Energy Budget from an AUV  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

The terms of the steady-state, homogeneous turbulent kinetic energy budgets are obtained from measurements of turbulence and fine structure from the small autonomous underwater vehicle (AUV) Remote Environmental Measuring Units (REMUS). The ...

Louis Goodman; Edward R. Levine; Rolf G. Lueck

2006-07-01T23:59:59.000Z

482

Microprocessor Field Impactometer Calibration: Do We Measure Drops Momentum or Their Kinetic Energy?  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

This study presents the construction and calibration of a low-cost piezoelectric microprocessor impactometer designed for the field measurements of the rainfall kinetic energy (KE) flux. Its precise calibration was performed in laboratory ...

Pawe? Licznar; Janusz ?omotowski; S?awomir B?o?ski; Grzegorz J. Ciach

2008-05-01T23:59:59.000Z

483

Measurement of Turbulent Kinetic Energy Dissipation Rate with a Lagrangian Float  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

This study tests the ability of a neutrally buoyant float to estimate the dissipation rate of turbulent kinetic energy ? from its vertical acceleration spectrum using an inertial subrange method. A Lagrangian float was equipped with a SonTek ...

Ren-Chieh Lien; Eric A. D'Asaro

2006-07-01T23:59:59.000Z

484

The Kinetics and Magnesium Requirements for the Folding of Antigenomic Ribozymes  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

The Kinetics and Magnesium Requirements for the Folding of Antigenomic Ribozymes Sirinart of antigenomic ri- bozyme was studied, it is demonstrated that its L3 loop requires magnesium and, apparently

Perreault, Jean-Pierre

485

Atmospheric Kinetic Energy Spectra from Global High-Resolution Nonhydrostatic Simulations  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

Kinetic energy (KE) spectra derived from global high-resolution atmospheric simulations from the Model for Prediction Across Scales (MPAS) are presented. The simulations are produced using quasi-uniform global Voronoi horizontal meshes with 3-, ...

William C. Skamarock; Sang-Hun Park; Joseph B. Klemp; Chris Snyder

2014-11-01T23:59:59.000Z

486

Hydrogen Oxidation and Evolution Reaction Kinetics on Platinum: Acid vs Alkaline Electrolytes  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

The kinetics of the hydrogen oxidation reaction (HOR) and hydrogen evolution reaction (HER) on polycrystalline platinum [Pt(pc)] and high surface area carbon-supported platinum nanoparticles (Pt/C) were studied in 0.1 M ...

Sheng, Wenchao

487

Single molecule kinetics. I. Theoretical analysis of indicators James B. Witkoskie and Jianshu Cao  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Single molecule kinetics. I. Theoretical analysis of indicators James B. Witkoskie and Jianshu Cao February 2004; accepted 2 July 2004 Single molecule experiments reveal intriguing phenomenon in chemical for single molecule experiments and demonstrates the relationships between indicators. Under certain

Cao, Jianshu

488

The Study on Combustion Characteristics and Kinetics of Coal and Biomass  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

The combustion characteristics of Qilianta-coal and rice straw ... ignition temperature and time decreases after adding the biomass to the coal; When the sample mixed ... the chemical reaction kinetic parameters ...

Hongbo Lu; Chunxia Jia; Lei Zhang; Guiqiu Su

2007-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

489

Charge transfer kinetics at the solidsolid interface in porous electrodes  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Interfacial charge transfer is widely assumed to obey the ButlerVolmer kinetics. For certain liquidsolid interfaces, the MarcusHushChidsey theory is more accurate and predictive, but it has not been applied to porous ...

Bai, Peng

490

Macroscopic Kinetic Effect of Cell-to-Cell Variation in Biochemical Reactions  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

Genetically identical cells under the same environmental conditions can show strong variations in protein copy numbers due to inherently stochastic events in individual cells. We here develop a theoretical framework to address how variations in enzyme abundance affect the collective kinetics of metabolic reactions observed within a population of cells. Kinetic parameters measured at the cell population level are shown to be systematically deviated from those of single cells, even within populations of homogeneous parameters. Because of these considerations, Michaelis-Menten kinetics can even be inappropriate to apply at the population level. Our findings elucidate a novel origin of discrepancy between in vivo and in vitro kinetics, and offer potential utility for analysis of single-cell metabolomic data.

Pan-Jun Kim and Nathan D. Price

2010-04-08T23:59:59.000Z

491

The removal kinetics of industrial organic compounds in natural and synthetic systems  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

techniques of most interest are; least squares curve fitting of non-linear functions, differentiation and integration of data wh1ch are not equally spaced, and interpolation - extrapolation (5, 15). The capability of presenting different kinetic...

Petrasek, Albert Charles

1970-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

492

Traduire Shmlu, pote iranien en franais.  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

??La littrature persane est surtout connue en Occident par les excellentes traductions en franais d'illustres potes classiques comme Omar Khayyam, Roumi, Hafz. Genre majeur de (more)

Hempartian, Azita

2013-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

493

Literatura marroqu escrita en cataln y castellano  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

de cuerpos se refugia en un sexo desprovisto de afectos querelaciones con personajes del sexo opuesto, que adquierense deben al abuso del sexo, tanto en el sentido meramente

Ekhause, Roselia

2012-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

494

Pseudo-isothermal ice-crystallization kinetics in the gas-diffusion layer  

Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

Pseudo-isothermal ice-crystallization kinetics in the gas-diffusion layer Pseudo-isothermal ice-crystallization kinetics in the gas-diffusion layer of a fuel cell from differential scanning calorimetry Title Pseudo-isothermal ice-crystallization kinetics in the gas-diffusion layer of a fuel cell from differential scanning calorimetry Publication Type Journal Article Year of Publication 2013 Authors Dursch, Thomas J., Monica A. Ciontea, Gregory J. Trigub, Clayton J. Radke, and Adam Z. Weber Journal International Journal of Heat and Mass Transfer Volume 60 Pagination 450 - 458 Date Published 5/2013 ISSN 00179310 Keywords crystallization, differential scanning calorimetry, gas-diffusion layer, Heat Transfer, kinetics, melt, nonisothermal crystallization, nucleation, polyesters, polymer crystallization, solidification Abstract Non-isothermal ice-crystallization kinetics in the fibrous gas-diffusion layer (GDL) of a proton-exchange-membrane fuel cell is investigated using differential scanning calorimetry (DSC). Non-isothermal ice-crystallization rates and ice-crystallization temperatures are obtained from heat-flow measurements in a water-saturated commercial GDL at cooling rates of 2.5, 5, 10, and 25 K/min. Our previously developed isothermal ice-crystallization rate expression is extended to non-isothermal crystallization to predict ice-crystallization kinetics in a GDL at various cooling rates. Agreement between DSC experimental results and theory is good. Both show that as the cooling rate increases, ice-crystallization rates increase and crystallization temperatures decrease monotonically. Importantly, we find that the cooling rate during crystallization has a negligible effect on the crystallization rate when crystallization times are much faster than the time to decrease the sample temperature by the subcooling. Based on this finding, we propose a pseudo-isothermal method for obtaining non-isothermal crystallization kinetics using isothermal crystallization kinetics evaluated at the non-isothermal crystallization temperature.

495

Development of Kinetics and Mathematical Models for High Pressure Gasification of Lignite-Switchgrass Blends  

Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

Kinetics and Mathematical Kinetics and Mathematical Models for High Pressure Gasification of Lignite-Switchgrass Blends Background Significant progress has been made in recent years in controlling emissions resulting from coal-fired electricity generation in the United States through the research, development, and deployment of innovative technologies such as gasification. Gasification is a process that converts solid feedstocks such as coal, biomass, or blends

496

Evaluation of the kinetics of Cr-51 methylene diphosphonate: a potential therapeutic radiopharmaceutical for osteogenic sarcoma  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

EVALUATION OF THE KINETICS OF Cr-51 METHYLENE DIPHOSPHONATE: A POTENTIAL THERAPEUTIC RADIOPHARMACEUTICAL FOR OSTEOGENIC SARCOMA A Thesis by BRIAN ALLEN POTEET Submitted to the Graduate College of Texas A8cM University in partial fulfillment... by BRIAN ALLEN POTEET Approved as to style and content by: Dan Hig tower (Chairman of Commitee) ) d~& L~a- "tr J. D. McCrady (Department Head) i'', . James G. Anderson (Member) E. L. Morris (Member) May 1987 ABSTRACT Evaluation of the Kinetics...

Poteet, Brian Allen

2012-06-07T23:59:59.000Z

497

Kinetic Isotope Effects in the N2O Decomposition over NiO  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

Kinetic Isotope Effects in the N2O Decomposition over NiO ... The 15N and 18O kinetic isotope effects (KIEs) in the catalytic decomposition of nitrous oxide on NiO powder were determined in the temperature range of 625?825 K, and the following temperature dependencies were found:? KIE(15N) = (0.821 0.180) + (1445 128)/T and KIE(18O) = (1.384 ...

Peter emva; Antonija Lesar; Ivan Kobal; Marjan Senega?nik

2001-04-21T23:59:59.000Z

498

Nonlinear evolution of the magnetized Kelvin-Helmholtz instability: From fluid to kinetic modeling  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

The nonlinear evolution of collisionless plasmas is typically a multi-scale process, where the energy is injected at large, fluid scales and dissipated at small, kinetic scales. Accurately modelling the global evolution requires to take into account the main micro-scale physical processes of interest. This is why comparison of different plasma models is today an imperative task aiming at understanding cross-scale processes in plasmas. We report here the first comparative study of the evolution of a magnetized shear flow, through a variety of different plasma models by using magnetohydrodynamic (MHD), Hall-MHD, two-fluid, hybrid kinetic, and full kinetic codes. Kinetic relaxation effects are discussed to emphasize the need for kinetic equilibriums to study the dynamics of collisionless plasmas in non trivial configurations. Discrepancies between models are studied both in the linear and in the nonlinear regime of the magnetized Kelvin-Helmholtz instability, to highlight the effects of small scale processes on the nonlinear evolution of collisionless plasmas. We illustrate how the evolution of a magnetized shear flow depends on the relative orientation of the fluid vorticity with respect to the magnetic field direction during the linear evolution when kinetic effects are taken into account. Even if we found that small scale processes differ between the different models, we show that the feedback from small, kinetic scales to large, fluid scales is negligible in the nonlinear regime. This study shows that the kinetic modeling validates the use of a fluid approach at large scales, which encourages the development and use of fluid codes to study the nonlinear evolution of magnetized fluid flows, even in the collisionless regime.

Henri, P. [Dipartimento di Fisica, Universit di Pisa, Largo Pontecorvo 3, 56127 Pisa (Italy) [Dipartimento di Fisica, Universit di Pisa, Largo Pontecorvo 3, 56127 Pisa (Italy); Universit de Nice Sophia Antipolis, CNRS, Observatoire de la Cte d'Azur, BP 4229 06304, Nice Cedex 4 (France); Cerri, S. S. [Dipartimento di Fisica, Universit di Pisa, Largo Pontecorvo 3, 56127 Pisa (Italy) [Dipartimento di Fisica, Universit di Pisa, Largo Pontecorvo 3, 56127 Pisa (Italy); Max-Planck-Institut fr Plasmaphysik, EURATOM Association, D-85748 Garching (Germany); Califano, F.; Pegoraro, F. [Dipartimento di Fisica, Universit di Pisa, Largo Pontecorvo 3, 56127 Pisa (Italy)] [Dipartimento di Fisica, Universit di Pisa, Largo Pontecorvo 3, 56127 Pisa (Italy); Rossi, C. [Dipartimento di Fisica, Universit di Pisa, Largo Pontecorvo 3, 56127 Pisa (Italy) [Dipartimento di Fisica, Universit di Pisa, Largo Pontecorvo 3, 56127 Pisa (Italy); LPP-CNRS, Ecole Polytechnique, UPMC, Universit Paris VI, Universit Paris XI, route de Saclay, 91128 Palaiseau (France); Faganello, M. [International Institute for Fusion Science/PIIM, UMR 7345 CNRS, Aix-Marseille University, 13397 Marseille (France)] [International Institute for Fusion Science/PIIM, UMR 7345 CNRS, Aix-Marseille University, 13397 Marseille (France); ebek, O. [Astronomical Institute and Institute of Atmospheric Physics, AS CR Bocni II/1401, CZ-14131 Prague, Czech Republic and Faculty of Nuclear Sciences and Physical Engineering, Czech Technical University in Prague, B?ehov 7, 11519 Prague (Czech Republic)] [Astronomical Institute and Institute of Atmospheric Physics, AS CR Bocni II/1401, CZ-14131 Prague, Czech Republic and Faculty of Nuclear Sciences and Physical Engineering, Czech Technical University in Prague, B?ehov 7, 11519 Prague (Czech Republic); Trvn?ek, P. M. [Space Sciences Laboratory, University of California Berkeley, 7 Gauss Way, Berkeley, California 94720, USA and Astronomical Institute and Institute of Atmospheric Physics, AS CR Bocni II/1401, CZ-14131 Prague (Czech Republic)] [Space Sciences Laboratory, University of California Berkeley, 7 Gauss Way, Berkeley, California 94720, USA and Astronomical Institute and Institute of Atmospheric Physics, AS CR Bocni II/1401, CZ-14131 Prague (Czech Republic); Hellinger, P. [Astronomical Institute and Institute of Atmospheric Physics, AS CR Bocni II/1401, CZ-14131 Prague (Czech Republic)] [Astronomical Institute and Institute of Atmospheric Physics, AS CR Bocni II/1401, CZ-14131 Prague (Czech Republic); and others

2013-10-15T23:59:59.000Z

499

The effect of pulse reactivity for stochastic neutron point kinetic equation in nuclear reactor dynamics  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

In this present analysis, the numerical simulation methods are applied to calculate the solution for Stochastic Neutron Point Kinetic Equations (SNPKE) with pulse reactivity in dynamical system of a nuclear reactor. The resulting systems of differential equations are solved for each time step-size. Using experimental data, the methods are investigated with pulse reactivity. The computational results designate that these numerical approximation methods are straightforward, effective and easy for solving stochastic point kinetic equations.

A. Patra; S. Saha Ray

2014-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

500

Path-integral Monte Carlo calculation of the kinetic energy of condensed lithium  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

We report path-integral Monte Carlo calculations of the kinetic energy of condensed lithium for several temperatures in both the solid and liquid phases. The excess kinetic energy of lithium decreases from about 10.4% of the classical value at 300 K to 3.2% at 520 K indicating a very slow decay with temperature. A Wigner-Kirkwood perturbation treatment of quantum effects to order ?2 gives a satisfactory agreement with the path-integral results.

Claudia Filippi and David M. Ceperley

1998-01-01T23:59:59.000Z