Sample records for kilowatt kwh kilowatt-hour

  1. Energy savings can be communicated in terms of kilowatt hours (energy), carbon (climate change) or pounds (cost).

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    McAuley, Derek

    AIM Energy savings can be communicated in terms of kilowatt hours (energy), carbon (climate change) or pounds (cost). We want to know if these different communication units prime different motivations more broadly. This implies that considering carbon may result in wider changes in sustainable behaviour

  2. How Much Energy is a Kilowatt Hour? Jim Settelmeyer Cottage Grove High School

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Oregon, University of

    .k12.or.us Frank Vignola ­ University of Oregon fev@uoregon.edu For Emerald People's Utility District: ..........................................................................................................................................................2 Prelab for "Lab: My Personal Power Plant: ............................................................................................................................................................3 II. Lab: My Personal Power Plant

  3. Fridge of the future: Designing a one-kilowatt-hour/day domestic refrigerator-freezer

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Vineyard, E.A.; Sand, J.R.

    1998-03-01T23:59:59.000Z

    An industry/government Cooperative Research and Development Agreement (CRADA) was established to evaluate and test design concepts for a domestic refrigerator-freezer unit that represents approximately 60% of the US market. The goal of the CRADA was to demonstrate advanced technologies which reduce, by 50 percent, the 1993 NAECA standard energy consumption for a 20 ft{sup 3} (570 I) top-mount, automatic-defrost, refrigerator-freezer. For a unit this size, the goal translated to an energy consumption of 1.003 kWh/d. The general objective of the research was to facilitate the introduction of cost-efficient technologies by demonstrating design changes that can be effectively incorporated into new products. A 1996 model refrigerator-freezer was selected as the baseline unit for testing. Since the unit was required to meet the 1993 NAECA standards, the energy consumption was quite low (1.676 kWh/d), thus making further reductions in energy consumption very challenging. Among the energy saving features incorporated into the original design of the baseline unit were a low-wattage evaporator fan, increased insulation thicknesses, and liquid line flange heaters.

  4. Experimental and cost analyses of a one kilowatt-hour/day domestic refrigerator-freezer

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Vineyard, E.A.; Sand, J.R.

    1997-05-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Over the past ten years, government regulations for energy standards, coupled with the utility industry`s promotion of energy-efficient appliances, have prompted appliance manufacturers to reduce energy consumption in refrigerator-freezers by approximately 40%. Global concerns over ozone depletion have also required the appliance industry to eliminate CFC-12 and CFC-11 while concurrently improving energy efficiency to reduce greenhouse emissions. In response to expected future regulations that will be more stringent, several design options were investigated for improving the energy efficiency of a conventionally designed, domestic refrigerator-freezer. The options, such as cabinet and door insulation improvements and a high-efficiency compressor were incorporated into a prototype refrigerator-freezer cabinet and refrigeration system. Baseline energy consumption of the original 1996 production refrigerator-freezer, along with cabinet heat load and compressor calorimeter test results, were extensively documented to provide a firm basis for experimentally measured energy savings. The goal for the project was to achieve an energy consumption that is 50% below in 1993 National Appliance Energy Conservation Act (NAECA) standard for 20 ft{sup 3} (570 l) units. Based on discussions with manufacturers to determine the most promising energy-saving options, a laboratory prototype was fabricated and tested to experimentally verify the energy consumption of a unit with vacuum insulation around the freezer, increased door thicknesses, a high-efficiency compressor, a low wattage condenser fan, a larger counterflow evaporator, and adaptive defrost control.

  5. Sandia National Laboratories: $0.06 per kilowatt-hour for solar...

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Center in Vermont Achieves Milestone Installation On September 23, 2014, in Concentrating Solar Power, Energy, Facilities, National Solar Thermal Test Facility, News, News &...

  6. Investigation of the Role of Trap States in Solar Cell Reliability using Photothermal Deflection Spectroscopy

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Bezryadina, Anna Sergeyevna

    2012-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    electricity. The average cost per kWh (Kilowatt Hour) ofdirectly currently cost around $0.24 per kWh in Central and

  7. Assessment of Indoor Air Quality Benefits and Energy Costs of Mechanical Ventilation

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Logue, J.M.

    2012-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    heating, given the higher cost per KWh for electricity, aaverage cost of electrical energy per kilowatt-hour (kWh) is

  8. A restructuring agenda for developing competitive retail electric markets that is based on a low-cost, real-time, smart-kilowatt-hour meter adapter

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Chasek, N.E.

    1997-12-31T23:59:59.000Z

    This paper proposes six agenda items that should expedite a politically smooth transition into a most efficient economically viable market-driven public power system. The agenda would introduce: the virtual marketplace for retail electric power, smart meters, smart meter readers, near-real-time load balancing and load apportionment, advanced supply and demand or commodity-style pricing, and reliability metering.

  9. SANDIA REPORT

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    IV current-voltage KPI key performance indicator kW kilowatt kWh kilowatt-hour LCOE levelized cost of energy MTBF mean time between failure MTBM mean time between...

  10. Net Metering

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    Net excess generation (NEG) is treated as a kilowatt-hour (kWh) credit or other compensation on the customer's following bill.* When an annual period ends, a utility will purchase unused credits...

  11. Commercial and Industrial Rebate Program

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    Connecticut electricity customers that install energy efficiency equipment and reduce their energy use during peak hours may be eligible for a rebate based on the amount of kilowatt-hours (kWh) s...

  12. SECTION III

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    electricity using wind, photovoltaics (PV), hydropower, biomass, landfill gas, or fuel cells. The generated electricity in excess of demand can be applied as a kilowatt-hour (kWh)...

  13. City of Houston- Green Power Purchasing

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    In 2007, the City of Houston negotiated a 5-year contract with Reliant Energy for up to 80 MW or 700 million kilowatt-hours (kWh) annually of renewable energy credits (RECs). These RECs will be...

  14. Missouri: EERE Funds Help Offset City Electricity Expenses |...

    Energy Savers [EERE]

    produce between 90,000 and 100,000 kilowatt-hours (kWh) annually. This renewable energy production will offset 10% of the facility's total electricity usage (just over 12,000...

  15. Fact #823: June 2, 2014 Hybrid Vehicles use more Battery Packs...

    Broader source: Energy.gov (indexed) [DOE]

    vehicle powertrains in model year 2013, the greatest number went into conventional hybrid vehicles which use battery packs that average about 1.3 kilowatt-hours (kWh). However,...

  16. Orcas Power & Light- MORE Green Power Program

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    Incentive payments will be paid per kilowatt hour (kWh) of production, with a rate based on the year in which the system is interconnected. In 2014, incentive rates were adjusted to accommodate f...

  17. Freescale Semiconductor Successfully Implements an Energy Management...

    Broader source: Energy.gov (indexed) [DOE]

    projects at its Oak Hill Fab plant in Austin, Texas, that reduced annual plant-wide energy consumption by 28 million kilowatt hours (kWh) of electricity and 26,000 million...

  18. Estimating the Payback Period of Additional Insulation | Department...

    Energy Savers [EERE]

    actual price you pay per gallon of oil, kilowatt-hour (kWh) of electricity, gallon of propane, or therm (or per one hundred cubic feet ccf) of natural gas by the Btu content per...

  19. Sustainable use of California biomass resources can help meet state and national bioenergy targets

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Jenkins, Bryan M; Williams, Robert B; Gildart, Martha C; Kaffka, Stephen R.; Hartsough, Bruce; Dempster, Peter G

    2009-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    cost adds approxi- mately $0.01 per kilowatt-hour (kWh) torealize costs ranging from $0.05 to $0.07 per kWh. Where on-costs from biomass currently range from $0.06 to $0.10 per kWh

  20. The Business Case for Fuel Cells 2013 Reliability, Resiliency & Savings

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    ;ii Acronyms Used in this Report CHP Combined heat and power CO2 Carbon dioxide DOE U.S. Department Gigawatt-hour ITC Investment Tax Credit (federal) kW Kilowatt kWh Kilowatt-hour LREC Low Businesses Find Fuel Cells Cost

  1. Purdue Agricultural Economics Report Page 1 In This Issue

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    limited resources such as oil and coal or emit any pollutants into the atmosphere. A utility-scale wind.4 million and 3 million kilowatt- hours (kWh) annually to provide electricity for 240 to 300 households. Around 40% of all new-generation power added to the electric grid in the U.S. in recent years has been

  2. WHAT WE ARE DOING TO IT AND WHAT WE ARE DOING TO UNDERSTAND IT

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Schwartz, Stephen E.

    .6 0.4 0.2 0.0 CO2emissions,Pounds(C)perKWH Coal Oil Natural gas Nuclear CARBON DIOXIDE EMISSIONS FROM ELECTRIC ENERGY PRODUCTION (1990's Technology) Suffolk County 2001 Legislation How much does your household contribute? A typical household using 1000 kilowatt hours of electricity per month is responsible

  3. Simple and Effective Dynamic Provisioning for Power-Proportional Data Centers

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Andrew, Lachlan

    computer infrastructure. The closer to one PUE is, the better energy utilization is. Real-world statistics consumed an estimated 240 billion kilowatt-hours (kWh) of energy, roughly 1.3% of the world total energy Chen, and Lachlan L. H. Andrew Abstract--Energy consumption represents a significant cost in data

  4. 84Unit Conversions Energy, Power, Flux Energy is measured in a number of ways depending on what property is being

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    kilowatt- hour (1 kWh)? Problem 4 ­ How many ergs of energy are collected from a solar panel on a roof, if the sunlight provides a flux of 300 Joules/sec/meter 2 , the solar panels have an area of 27 square feet84Unit Conversions ­ Energy, Power, Flux Energy is measured in a number of ways depending on what

  5. BEFORE THE ENERGY RESOURCES CONSERVATION AND DEVELOPMENT COMMISSION OF THE STATE OF CALIFORNIA

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    average wind speed of 15.3 miles-per-hour ("mph") and annual energy production of 2,554 kilowatt hours ("k calculated that the annual energy production would be 9,513 kWh. Thus, it is impossible to reconcile the one in the Complaint and the KEMA Report, the claimed annual energy production of 2,554 kWh, and the annual energy

  6. Recharging U.S. Energy Policy: Advocating for a National Renewable Portfolio Standard

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Lunt, Robin J.

    2007-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    $0.40/ kilowatt-hour, and wind power cost $0.60/ kilowatt-hour, then the marginal cost of wind power would be $. 0.20/subsidizes the marginal cost of wind power in the case of

  7. Recovery helps California company get ahead | Department of Energy

    Broader source: Energy.gov (indexed) [DOE]

    XeroCoat provides as much as a 5-percent increase in energy on a kilowatt-hour basis. A medium-sized air conditioner runs for about one hour on a kilowatt-hour of electricity,...

  8. Subcontract Report NREL/SR-7A2-48318

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Wh kilowatt-hour LED light emitting diode MECO Maui Electric Company MWh megawatt-hour NAECA National

  9. Vehicle Technologies Office Merit Review 2015: 88 Kilowatt Automotive...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    88 Kilowatt Automotive Inverter with New 900 Volt Silicon Carbide MOSFET Technology Vehicle Technologies Office Merit Review 2015: 88 Kilowatt Automotive Inverter with New 900 Volt...

  10. Functions, Part 1 c csun Fall 2011 v15

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Fuller, Terry

    customers $14.00 per month plus $0.10 per kilowatt-hour (KWH) of electricity used. Thus, the monthly cost on the price? If the price per gallon is $3.40, what is the cost to fill the tank? If the price per gallon. This is read as: The cost, C(p), to fill the tank is a function of the price p per gallon. Written form: "the

  11. Property:Incentive/PVResFitDolKWh | Open Energy Information

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page onYou are now leaving Energy.gov You are now leaving Energy.gov YouKizildere I Geothermal PwerPerkins County, Nebraska:PrecourtOid JumpEligSysSize Jump to:PVNPFitDolKWh JumpPVResFitDolKWh

  12. Property:Incentive/PVNPFitDolKWh | Open Energy Information

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page onYou are now leaving Energy.gov You are now leaving Energy.gov YouKizildere I Geothermal PwerPerkins County, Nebraska:PrecourtOid JumpEligSysSize Jump to:PVNPFitDolKWh Jump to:

  13. Microsoft Word - CX-SnohomishPUD Equipment Purchase_140521

    Broader source: Energy.gov (indexed) [DOE]

    data acquisition equipment (including kilowatt hour quantity) Bay 15: three current transformers Bay 15: three voltage transformers Bay 2: SCADA 5 systems, plus Snohomish data...

  14. 2010 Wind Technologies Market Report

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Wiser, Ryan

    2012-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    kilowatt-hour Midwest Independent System Operator megawattPJM), Midwest Independent System Operator (MISO), New Yorkin 2009. The Midwest Independent System Operator (MISO) (net

  15. DOE Office of Indian Energy Project Development and Finance Course...

    Broader source: Energy.gov (indexed) [DOE]

    renewable energy based on the electrical output of the project in kilowatt hours 10 PV - photovoltaic. This is a solar resource converter to electricity. R Remaining Life - the...

  16. Kilowatts From Waste Wood In The Furniture Industry

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Nailen, R. L.

    1981-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    recently, the Singer Furniture Co., Lenoir, N. Carolina, purchased a 450 kilowatt steam turbine/induction generator set to use extra steam - produced by 'free' waste wood fuel - in generating 15% of the plant's electrical energy demand. The turbine...

  17. Feasibility Study of Biomass Electrical Generation on Tribal Lands

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Tom Roche; Richard Hartmann; Joohn Luton; Warren Hudelson; Roger Blomguist; Jan Hacker; Colene Frye

    2005-03-29T23:59:59.000Z

    The goals of the St. Croix Tribe are to develop economically viable energy production facilities using readily available renewable biomass fuel sources at an acceptable cost per kilowatt hour ($/kWh), to provide new and meaningful permanent employment, retain and expand existing employment (logging) and provide revenues for both producers and sellers of the finished product. This is a feasibility study including an assessment of available biomass fuel, technology assessment, site selection, economics viability given the foreseeable fuel and generation costs, as well as an assessment of the potential markets for renewable energy.

  18. Nuclear Waste Fund fee adequacy: An assessment

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    NONE

    1990-11-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The purpose of this report is to present the Department of Energy`s (the Department) analysis of the adequacy of the 1.00 mill per kilowatt-hour (kWh) fee being paid by the utilities generating nuclear power for the permanent disposal of their spent nuclear fuel (SNF). In accordance with the Nuclear Waste Policy Act (NWPA), the SNF would be disposed of in a geologic repository to be developed by the Department. An annual analysis of the fee`s adequacy is required by the NWPA.

  19. ENERGY RECOVERY COUNCIL WEEKLY UPDATE

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    apply to calendar year 2009 sales of kilowatt hours of electricity produced in the United States or one-loop biomass, geothermal energy, and solar energy; and 1.1 cent per kilowatt hour on the sale of electricity the House Education and Labor Committee where he served as Senior Labor Policy Advisor for Health and Safety

  20. 3Energy in the Home Every month, we get the Bad

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    operating, the accelerator requires 70 megaWatts of electricity ­ about the same as the power consumption) What is the Tevatron's electricity consumption in kilowatt hours? B) At $0.11 per kilowatt hour, how operating, the accelerator requires 70 megaWatts of electricity ­ about the same as the power consumption

  1. Palmetto Clean Energy (PaCE) Program

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    '''''Note: For a limited time, generators of 6 kilowatts or less of renewable energy can now take advantage of a premium $0.10 per kilowatt hour. This premium is available on a first-come-first...

  2. CX-004955: Categorical Exclusion Determination

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    Beacon Power -Development of a 100 Kilowatt Hour/1100 Kilowatt Flywheel Energy Storage ModuleCX(s) Applied: B3.6Date: 08/09/2010Location(s): Tyngsboro, MassachusettsOffice(s): Advanced Research Projects Agency - Energy

  3. Coeur Rochester, Inc.: Plant-Wide Assessment of Nevada Silver Mine Finds Opportunities to Improve Process Control and Reduce Energy Consumption

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Not Available

    2005-10-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The Coeur Rochester silver mine in Nevada would save almost 11 million kilowatt-hours and $813,000 annually by implementing the five energy efficiency projects described in this ITP case study.

  4. Data:Fe96708b-7748-40ca-8991-2376f4d9635a | Open Energy Information

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    will be increased by an amount of 0.00516 per kilowatt hour as per the Cooperative's Wholesale Power Cost Adjustment Clause. This amount represents the increment of the base...

  5. Renewable Energy Trust Fund

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    The renewable energy fund, known as the Massachusetts Renewable Energy Trust Fund, is supported by a non-bypassable surcharge of $0.0005 per kilowatt-hour (0.5 mill/kWh), imposed on customers of...

  6. Clean Energy Tax Credit (Maryland)

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    The Clean Energy Tax Credit is 0.85 cents for each kilowatt hour of electricity sold that was produced from a Maryland qualified energy resource during the 5-year period specified in the initial...

  7. SunShot Initiative: Making Solar Energy Affordable for All Americans (Fact Sheet)

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Not Available

    2013-10-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Through SunShot, DOE supports efforts by private companies, universities, and national laboratories to drive down the cost of solar electricity to $0.06 per kilowatt-hour, making solar energy affordable for more American families and businesses.

  8. Renewable Energy Production Tax Credit (Corporate)

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    Enacted in 2002, the New Mexico Renewable Energy Production Tax Credit provides a tax credit against the corporate income tax of one cent per kilowatt-hour for companies that generate electricity...

  9. Renewable Energy Production Tax Credit (Personal)

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    Enacted in 2002, the New Mexico Renewable Energy Production Tax Credit provides a tax credit against the personal income tax of one cent per kilowatt-hour for companies that generate electricity...

  10. Introduction to Benchmarking: Starting a Benchmarking Plan

    Broader source: Energy.gov (indexed) [DOE]

    plant Btu per pound of product Manufacturer Btu per pound of product processed Refinery Btu per number of beds occupied Hotel or hospital Kilowatt-hours per square foot...

  11. DOE Lighting Program Update: LED Validation Activities

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    savings equivalent to: - 190 terawatt (billion kilowatt) hours - Output of 24 1,000 MW power plants - 31.4 million metric tons of greenhouse gas emissions * Additional benefits...

  12. Secretary Chu Announces Over $110 Million in SunShot Projects...

    Energy Savers [EERE]

    1 a watt or roughly 6 cents per kilowatt-hour for utility systems - would allow solar energy systems to be broadly deployed across the country. By engaging multiple...

  13. EECBG Success Story: San Antonio Small Businesses "Seeing the...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    the Light" with Energy Upgrades March 21, 2012 - 2:27pm Addthis Thanks to the City Lights Program, this design shop is saving an estimated 25,500 kilowatt-hours and 2,000 on...

  14. Data:16cc1788-21d0-4a0b-8df1-4c91f66fb14a | Open Energy Information

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    base cost of power (U) is 0.0720 per kilowatt-hour. Parallel Generation (20 kW or less) Net Energy Billing - Available for single-phase and three-phase customers where a part or...

  15. Data:2479093a-56c0-4270-a09d-d5cc0d3440ca | Open Energy Information

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    base cost of power (U) is 0.0720 per kilowatt-hour. Parallel Generation (20 kW or less) Net Energy Billing - Available for single-phase and three-phase customers where a part or...

  16. Data:Ca36075e-72ee-48a7-9ec2-da25d52a9ac1 | Open Energy Information

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    base cost of power (U) is 0.0583 per kilowatt-hour. Parallel Generation (20 kW or less) Net Energy Billing - Available for single-phase and three-phase customers where a part or...

  17. Data:72748f8c-1d0a-49c8-b850-c0bf05945444 | Open Energy Information

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    base cost of power (U) is 0.0785 per kilowatt-hour. Parallel Generation (20 kW or less) Net Energy Billing - Available for single-phase and three-phase customers where a part or...

  18. Data:Fe5ec4e5-feb8-46c4-a088-48299e29c2f6 | Open Energy Information

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    base cost of power (U) is 0.0720 per kilowatt-hour. Parallel Generation (20 kW or less) Net Energy Billing - Available for single-phase and three-phase customers where a part or...

  19. Data:17dc89f8-92d6-40a3-a263-d6698a2ae638 | Open Energy Information

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    base cost of power (U) is 0.0583 per kilowatt-hour. Parallel Generation (20 kW or less) Net Energy Billing - Available for single-phase and three-phase customers where a part or...

  20. Data:9a87e30d-b106-4fb8-81d6-2cd201f57d69 | Open Energy Information

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    base cost of power (U) is 0.0720 per kilowatt-hour. Parallel Generation (20 kW or less) Net Energy Billing - Available for single-phase and three-phase customers where a part or...

  1. Data:434682d3-1caf-49df-b1fb-06e5d91edec8 | Open Energy Information

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    base cost of power (U) is 0.0785 per kilowatt-hour. Parallel Generation (20 kW or less) Net Energy Billing - Available for single-phase and three-phase customers where a part or...

  2. Data:B447adfe-305f-45f2-8b76-fef5eed1b014 | Open Energy Information

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    base cost of power (U) is 0.0720 per kilowatt-hour. Parallel Generation (20 kW or less) Net Energy Billing - Available for single-phase and three-phase customers where a part or...

  3. Data:001e54c2-b58d-4c84-a4a1-4421fbfa06ca | Open Energy Information

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    base cost of power (U) is 0.0720 per kilowatt-hour. Parallel Generation (20 kW or less) Net Energy Billing - Available for single-phase and three-phase customers where a part or...

  4. Data:49e21093-b78e-4d0e-86a8-ecc7e88f7173 | Open Energy Information

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    base cost of power (U) is 0.0720 per kilowatt-hour. Parallel Generation (20 kW or less) Net Energy Billing - Available for single-phase and three-phase customers where a part or...

  5. Data:C0e43caf-dd27-4614-98c5-668a21c57e77 | Open Energy Information

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    base cost of power (U) is 0.0583 per kilowatt-hour. Parallel Generation (20 kW or less) Net Energy Billing - Available for single-phase and three-phase customers where a part or...

  6. Data:3f661084-6107-4522-9923-7dd335dc7787 | Open Energy Information

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    base cost of power (U) is 0.0773 per kilowatt-hour. Parallel Generation (20 kW or less) Net Energy Billing - Available for single-phase and three-phase customers where a part or...

  7. Data:3189e1b5-e3c4-4f48-bc02-b7b87330dc18 | Open Energy Information

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    base cost of power (U) is 0.0720 per kilowatt-hour. Parallel Generation (20 kW or less) Net Energy Billing - Available for single-phase and three-phase customers where a part or...

  8. Title 20, California Code of Regulations Article 5. Electricity Generation Source Disclosure

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    fossil fuel may not be included: (1) Biomass and waste. For purposes of these regulations, "biomass type attribute" means the fuel or technology type used to generate a quantity of kilowatt hours

  9. Economic Stimulus Act Extends Renewable Energy Tax Credits |...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    credit for every kilowatt-hour produced at new qualified facilities during the first 10 years of operation, provided the facilities are placed in service before the tax credit's...

  10. 2011 Wind Technologies Market Report

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Bolinger, Mark

    2013-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    kilowatt-hour Midwest Independent System Operator megawattPJM), Midwest Independent System Operator (MISO), New YorkN/A (NSP) Midwest Independent System Operator N/A N/A (

  11. Optimization of Oxygen Purity for Coal Conversion Energy Reduction

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Baker, C. R.; Pike, R. A.

    1982-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The conversion of coal into gaseous and liquid fuels and chemical feedstock will require large quantities of oxygen. This oxygen will be produced in large multi-train air separation plants which will consume about 350 kilowatt hours of energy...

  12. Alternative Fuels Data Center

    Alternative Fuels and Advanced Vehicles Data Center [Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE)]

    Vehicle-to-Grid Energy Credit Retail electricity customers with at least one grid-integrated electric vehicle (EV) may qualify to receive kilowatt-hour credits for energy...

  13. Webinar: Award-Winning LEEP Campaign Sites Demonstrate Big Savings in High Efficiency Parking Lighting

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    The Lighting Energy Efficiency in Parking (LEEP) Campaign is saving nearly 45 million kilowatt-hours and $4 million annually by upgrading its partners to high efficiency lighting in over 500,000 parking spaces.

  14. MEASURING ENERGY CONSERVATION WITH UTILITY BILLS

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Deckel, Walter

    2013-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    in British Thermal Units, BTU, for these comparisons. Themade by noting that there are 100,000 BTU's in one therm andthat there are 3413 BTU's in one kilowatt hour. It should be

  15. Structural Composites Industries 4 kilowatt wind system development. Phase I: design and analysis, technical report

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Malkine, N.; Bottrell, G.; Weingart, O.

    1981-05-01T23:59:59.000Z

    A 4 kW small wind energy conversion system (SWECS) has been designed for residential applications in which relatively low (10 mph) mean annual wind speeds prevail. The objectives were to develop such a machine to produce electrical energy at 6 cents per kWh while operating in parallel with a utility grid or auxiliary generator. The Phase I effort began in November, 1979 and was carried through the Final Design Review in February 1981. During this period extensive trade, optimization and analytical studies were performed in an effort to provide the optimum machine to best meet the objectives. Certain components, systems and manufacturing processes were tested and evaluated and detail design drawings were produced. The resulting design is a 31-foot diameter horizontal axis downwind machine rated 5.7 kW and incorporating the following unique features: Composite Blades; Free-Standing Composite Tower; Torque-Actuated Blade Pitch Control. The design meets or exceeds all contract requirements except that for cost of energy. The target 6 cents per kWh will be achieved in a mean wind speed slightly below 12 mph instead of the specified 10 mph.

  16. Influences of pump transitions on thermal effects of multi-kilowatt thulium-doped fiber lasers

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Yang, Jianlong; Tang, Yulong; Xu, Jianqiu

    2015-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Thermal effects are critical constrains for developing high-power thulium-doped fiber lasers (TDFLs). In this paper, we numerically investigate the lasing and thermal characteristics of the TDFLs under different pump transitions. Our results show, the widely-used pump transition $^3H_6\\rightarrow^3H_4$, taking advantages of high-power high-efficiency laser diodes at $\\sim$0.8 $\\mu$m, may not be a superior choice for directly outputting multi-kilowatt at 2 $\\mu$m because of severe thermal problems. Meanwhile, using other pump transitions resulting 2-$\\mu$m emissions, especially the in-band pump transition $^3H_6\\rightarrow^3F_4$, will decrease the generated heat to a large extent. By optimizing the power filling factor of the gain fiber, we find a 2-$\\mu$m TDFL cladding-pumped at 1.9 $\\mu$m will lead to the laser slope efficiency close to its quantum efficiency (95\\%). The induced ultra-low quantum defect would be of great importance for power scaling. We thus propose tandem-pumped TDFLs for reducing the heat ...

  17. Overview of Multi-Kilowatt Free-Piston Stirling Power Conversion Research at GRC

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Geng, Steven M.; Mason, Lee S.; Dyson, Rodger W. [Thermal Energy Conversion Branch, NASA Glenn Research Center 21000 Brookpark Rd., Cleveland, OH 44135 (United States); Penswick, L. Barry [SEST Inc., 18000 Jefferson Park, Middleburg Hts, OH 44130 (United States)

    2008-01-21T23:59:59.000Z

    As a step towards development of Stirling power conversion for potential use in Fission Surface Power (FSP) systems, a pair of commercially available 1 kW class free-piston Stirling convertors and a pair of commercially available pressure wave generators (which will be plumbed together to create a high power Stirling linear alternator test rig) have been procured for in-house testing at Glenn Research Center. Delivery of both the Stirling convertors and the linear alternator test rig is expected by October, 2007. The 1 kW class free-piston Stirling convertors will be tested at GRC to map and verify performance. The convertors will later be modified to operate with a NaK liquid metal pumped loop for thermal energy input. The high power linear alternator test rig will be used to map and verify high power Stirling linear alternator performance and to develop power management and distribution (PMAD) methods and techniques. This paper provides an overview of the multi-kilowatt free-piston Stirling power conversion work being performed at GRC.

  18. DOE/NREL Advanced Wind Turbine Development Program

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Butterfield, C.P.; Smith, B.; Laxson, A.; Thresher, B. [National Renewable Energy Lab., Golden, CO (United States)] [National Renewable Energy Lab., Golden, CO (United States); Goldman, P. [USDOE Assistant Secretary for Conservation and Renewable Energy, Washington, DC (United States). Wind/Hydro/Ocean Technologies Div.] [USDOE Assistant Secretary for Conservation and Renewable Energy, Washington, DC (United States). Wind/Hydro/Ocean Technologies Div.

    1993-05-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The development of technologically advanced, high-efficiency wind turbines continues to be a high-priority activity of the US wind industry. The National Renewable Energy Laboratory (formerly the Solar Energy Research Institute), sponsored by the US Department of Energy (DOE), has initiated the Advanced Wind Turbine Program to assist the wind industry in the development of a new class of advanced wind turbines. The initial phase of the program focused on developing conceptual designs for near-term and advanced turbines. The goal of the second phase of this program is to use the experience gained over the last decade of turbine design and operation combined with the latest existing design tools to develop a turbine that will produce energy at $0.05 per kilowatt-hour (kWh) in a 5.8-m/s (13-mph) wind site. Three contracts have been awarded, and two more are under negotiation in the second phase. The third phase of the program will use new innovations and state-of-the-art wind turbine design technology to produce a turbine that will generate energy at $0.04/kWh in a 5.8-m/s wind site. Details of the third phase will be announced in early 1993.

  19. Integrated Testing, Simulation and Analysis of Electric Drive Options for Medium-Duty Parcel Delivery Vehicles: Preprint

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Ramroth, L. A.; Gonder, J.; Brooker, A.

    2012-09-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The National Renewable Energy Laboratory verified diesel-conventional and diesel-hybrid parcel delivery vehicle models to evaluate petroleum reduction and cost implications of plug-in hybrid gasoline and diesel variants. These variants are run on a field-data-derived design matrix to analyze the effects of drive cycle, distance, battery replacements, battery capacity, and motor power on fuel consumption and lifetime cost. Two cost scenarios using fuel prices corresponding to forecasted highs for 2011 and 2030 and battery costs per kilowatt-hour representing current and long-term targets compare plug-in hybrid lifetime costs with diesel conventional lifetime costs. Under a future cost scenario of $100/kWh battery energy and $5/gal fuel, plug-in hybrids are cost effective. Assuming a current cost of $700/kWh and $3/gal fuel, they rarely recoup the additional motor and battery cost. The results highlight the importance of understanding the application's drive cycle, daily driving distance, and kinetic intensity. For instances in the current-cost scenario where the additional plug-in hybrid cost is regained in fuel savings, the combination of kinetic intensity and daily distance travelled does not coincide with the usage patterns observed in the field data. If the usage patterns were adjusted, the hybrids could become cost effective.

  20. The EPRI/DOE Utility Wind Turbine Performance Verification Program

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Calvert, S.; Goldman, P. [Department of Energy, Washington, DC (United States); DeMeo, E.; McGowin, C. [Electric Power Research Inst., Palo Alto, CA (United States); Smith, B.; Tromly, K. [National Renewable Energy Lab., Golden, CO (United States)

    1997-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    In 1992, the Electric Power Research Institute (EPRI) and the US Department of Energy (DOE) initiated the Utility Wind Turbine Performance Verification Program (TVP). This paper provides an overview of the TVP, its purpose and goals, and the participating utility projects. Improved technology has significantly reduced the cost of energy from wind turbines since the early 1980s. In 1992, turbines were producing electricity for about $0.07--$0.09/kilowatt-hour (kWh) (at 7 m/s [16 mph sites]), compared with more than $0.30/kWh in 1980. Further technology improvements were expected to lower the cost of energy from wind turbines to $0.05/kWh. More than 17,000 wind turbines, totaling more than 1,500 MW capacity, were installed in the US, primarily in California and Hawaii. The better wind plants had availabilities above 95%, capacity factors exceeding 30%, and operation and maintenance costs of $0.01/kWh. However, despite improving technology, EPRI and DOE recognized that utility use of wind turbines was still largely limited to turbines installed in California and Hawaii during the 1980s. Wind resource assessments showed that other regions of the US, particularly the Midwest, had abundant wind resources. EPRI and DOE sought to provide a bridge from utility-grade turbine development programs under way to commercial purchases of the wind turbines. The TVP was developed to allow utilities to build and operate enough candidate turbines to gain statistically significant operating and maintenance data.

  1. Authors' Note: Address correspondence to John Byrne, Center for Energy & Environmental Policy, University of Delaware, Newark, DE 19716-7301; e-mail: jbbyrne@udel.edu.

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Delaware, University of

    kilowatt-hours, so that increased energy consumption and economic growth can continue. The article doubts part by the energy sector,2 one might hope that social concerns would rival technical ones. But so far81 Authors' Note: Address correspondence to John Byrne, Center for Energy & Environmental Policy

  2. Using and Measuring the Combined Heat and Power Advantage

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    John, T.

    2011-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    compared to other power generation systems. Fuel Charged to Power (FCP) is the fuel, net of credit for thermal output, required to produce a kilowatt-hour of electricity. This provides a metric that is used for comparison to the heat rate of other types...

  3. Novel Nanoscale Materials Reduce Electricity Needed for Sludge

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    This project researches the use of nanoscale materials (a broadly defined set of substances that haveNovel Nanoscale Materials Reduce Electricity Needed for Sludge Dewatering Industrial process, requiring up to 6000 kilowatt hours/year per million gallons per day. Project Description

  4. Alex Benson Cement Plants

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Toohey, Darin W.

    of generating electricity by coal. o From Kiln Combustion CO2 ­ 2nd largest CO2 emitter behind electricity cement company 156,000 kilowatt-hours of electricity per year o "Cemex to pay $2M for pollution controls to produce Kiln Mix -> sent to kilns along with coal ( heating is facilitated by the coal ). Kiln Mix

  5. CEF06, Amathus Beach Hotel, Limassol, Cyprus, June 22-24, 2006

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Nagurney, Anna

    electricity. · Accumulated evidence of global warming. · Need for environmental-energy modeling which include is growing, with the total global consumption of electricity to reach 23.1 trillion kilowatt hours in 2025 for Electric Power Supply Chains with Power Plants February 2006; to appear in Mathematical and Computer

  6. to bring down the largest single cost associated with tapping geothermal heat,and conducting

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Gildor, Hezi

    expand production tax credits. Currently,the U.S.produces 2,800 megawatts of electricity annually from,Staff Writer The expected response of the Earth's cryo- sphere to global warming is a critical open research production tax credit of 1.8 cents per kilowatt hour for new production for wind facilities should also

  7. Reconciliation of Retailer Claims, 2005 CommissionReport

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    used to provide electric services." All retail providers of electricity must disclose fuel source's default product. The law also requires all electricity generators who report meter data to a system operator to also report generation (in kilowatt-hours), generator technology, and fuel type consumed (as

  8. Sustainable Energy Revolving Loan Fund PROJECT APPLICATION

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Escher, Christine

    1 Sustainable Energy Revolving Loan Fund PROJECT APPLICATION I. Project Administration 1. Project;2 III. Estimated Annual Energy Savings SHOW CALCULATIONS, RATIONALE AND/OR METHODOLOGY Attach additional documentation if needed Estimated Energy Savings Estimated Financial Savings ELECTRICAL ­ Kilowatt hour and

  9. Policies supporting Heat Pump Technologies

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Oak Ridge National Laboratory

    Policies supporting Heat Pump Technologies in Canada IEA Heat Pump Workshop London, UK November 13 in the world, with an average of 16,995 kilowatt-hours per annum. #12;Canada's Context for Heat Pumps Impacts avenues: Ground source heat pumps for cold climates (heating and cooling) Reversible air source heat

  10. For the Meyer Fund for Sustainable Development and the University of Oregon Department of Physics and the Solar Radiation Monitoring Laboratory

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Oregon, University of

    and the Solar Radiation Monitoring LaboratoryG:SourcesforBackgroundInformation© Useful Web Sites: UO Solar Radiation Monitoring Laboratory Website: http://solardata.uoregon.edu/Educational Solar Radiation Basics Solar Electric Lesson Plans o What is a KiloWatt Hour? o Experiments

  11. MA 16010 - Exam 2 Practice Exam 2 1. Given f(x) = x2 sinx . Find f/(x ...

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    2015-01-13T23:59:59.000Z

    The price of one kilowatt-hour of electricity is given by p(t)=(t2 + 2t)2, where p(t) is the price in dollars and t is years after 2014 (so 2015 corresponds to t = 1.).

  12. Optimization of Oxygen Purity for Coal Conversion Energy Reduction 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Baker, C. R.; Pike, R. A.

    1982-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    %. Oxygen is a major tonnage chemical which is also highly energy intensive. The current United States capacity of about 80 thousand tons per day places it in the top five of basic chemicals, and its energy requirement of 350 to 450 kilowatt hours per ton...

  13. Briefing Note 2010 6 28 May 2010

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Pedersen, Tom

    include connecting the Supergrid to solarvoltaic panels and concentrating solar power installations as having an abundance of renewable energy sources, with wind farms in Scotland, solar panels in Germany as early as 2030. The wholesale cost would be an estimated 4.6 eurocents per kilowatt-hour, close

  14. Making it Happen The Action Plan The Council believes it is critical that the region act now to help secure an adequate, efficient,

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    passage at an average levelized cost of approximately 2.5 cents per kilowatt-hour. Despite savings of some value and reduces the risk of increases in fuel prices and the cost of electricity. Second that the region target 700 average megawatts of cost-effective conservation acquisitions from 2005 through 2009. 1

  15. Correspondence Latest MMR `dispute'

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Gillespie, Rosemary

    's reassurances. We should instead be considering solar energy -- a safe and sustainable option. India receives 5,000 trillion kilowatt-hours of solar energy equivalent every year, more than the total energy the country of the UK General Medical Council last year, but fail to report that it found Wakefield guilty, against

  16. November 19, 2004 Mark Walker

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    region-wide opportunities in end-use energy efficiency and "smart energy" technologies. Smart energy of the region's electric energy efficiency potential. Approximately half of the region's forecast growth over.4 cents per kilowatt- hour. The Council's cost and risk analysis demonstrates the critical need

  17. STAFF PAPER THERMAL EFFICIENCY OF GASFIRED

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    ..................................................................... 6 List of Tables Page Table 1: California Natural GasFired Heat Rates for 2001 ­ 2010 (Btu 5: Heat Rates for California's Natural GasFired Power Plants (Btu/kWh) ...................... 8 per kilowatt hour (Btu/kWh) from 2001 to 2010. Table 1: California Natural Gas-Fired Heat Rates

  18. Reference Model 5 (RM5): Oscillating Surge Wave Energy Converter

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Yu, Y. H.; Jenne, D. S.; Thresher, R.; Copping, A.; Geerlofs, S.; Hanna, L. A.

    2015-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    This report is an addendum to SAND2013-9040: Methodology for Design and Economic Analysis of Marine Energy Conversion (MEC) Technologies. This report describes an Oscillating Water Column Wave Energy Converter (OSWEC) reference model design in a complementary manner to Reference Models 1-4 contained in the above report. A conceptual design for a taut moored oscillating surge wave energy converter was developed. The design had an annual electrical power of 108 kilowatts (kW), rated power of 360 kW, and intended deployment at water depths between 50 m and 100 m. The study includes structural analysis, power output estimation, a hydraulic power conversion chain system, and mooring designs. The results were used to estimate device capital cost and annual operation and maintenance costs. The device performance and costs were used for the economic analysis, following the methodology presented in SAND2013-9040 that included costs for designing, manufacturing, deploying, and operating commercial-scale MEC arrays up to 100 devices. The levelized cost of energy estimated for the Reference Model 5 OSWEC, presented in this report, was for a single device and arrays of 10, 50, and 100 units, and it enabled the economic analysis to account for cost reductions associated with economies of scale. The baseline commercial levelized cost of energy estimate for the Reference Model 5 device in an array comprised of 10 units is $1.44/kilowatt-hour (kWh), and the value drops to approximately $0.69/kWh for an array of 100 units.

  19. Life-cycle analysis results of geothermal systems in comparison to other power systems.

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Sullivan, J. L.; Clark, C. E.; Han, J.; Wang, M.; Energy Systems

    2010-10-11T23:59:59.000Z

    A life-cycle energy and greenhouse gas emissions analysis has been conducted with Argonne National Laboratory's expanded Greenhouse Gases, Regulated Emissions, and Energy Use in Transportation (GREET) model for geothermal power-generating technologies, including enhanced geothermal, hydrothermal flash, and hydrothermal binary technologies. As a basis of comparison, a similar analysis has been conducted for other power-generating systems, including coal, natural gas combined cycle, nuclear, hydroelectric, wind, photovoltaic, and biomass by expanding the GREET model to include power plant construction for these latter systems with literature data. In this way, the GREET model has been expanded to include plant construction, as well as the usual fuel production and consumption stages of power plant life cycles. For the plant construction phase, on a per-megawatt (MW) output basis, conventional power plants in general are found to require less steel and concrete than renewable power systems. With the exception of the concrete requirements for gravity dam hydroelectric, enhanced geothermal and hydrothermal binary used more of these materials per MW than other renewable power-generation systems. Energy and greenhouse gas (GHG) ratios for the infrastructure and other life-cycle stages have also been developed in this study per kilowatt-hour (kWh) of electricity output by taking into account both plant capacity and plant lifetime. Generally, energy burdens per energy output associated with plant infrastructure are higher for renewable systems than conventional ones. GHG emissions per kWh of electricity output for plant construction follow a similar trend. Although some of the renewable systems have GHG emissions during plant operation, they are much smaller than those emitted by fossil fuel thermoelectric systems. Binary geothermal systems have virtually insignificant GHG emissions compared to fossil systems. Taking into account plant construction and operation, the GREET model shows that fossil thermal plants have fossil energy use and GHG emissions per kWh of electricity output about one order of magnitude higher than renewable power systems, including geothermal power.

  20. Hidden Benefits of Electric Vehicles for Addressing Climate Change

    DOE Public Access Gateway for Energy & Science Beta (PAGES Beta)

    Li, Canbing; Cao, Yijia; Zhang, Mi; Wang, Jianhui; Liu, Jianguo; Shi, Haiqing; Geng, Yinghui

    2015-03-19T23:59:59.000Z

    There is an increasingly hot debate on whether the replacement of conventional vehicles (CVs) by electric vehicles (EVs) should be delayed or accelerated since EVs require higher cost and cause more pollution than CVs in the manufacturing process. Here we reveal two hidden benefits of EVs for addressing climate change to support the imperative acceleration of replacing CVs with EVs. As EVs emit much less heat than CVs within the same mileage, the replacement can mitigate urban heat island effect (UHIE) to reduce the energy consumption of air conditioners, benefitting local and global climates. To demonstrate these effects brought bymore »the replacement of CVs by EVs, we take Beijing, China, as an example. EVs emit only 19.8% of the total heat emitted by CVs per mile. The replacement of CVs by EVs in 2012 could have mitigated the summer heat island intensity (HII) by about 0.946C, reduced the amount of electricity consumed daily by air conditioners in buildings by 14.44 million kilowatt-hours (kWh), and reduced daily CO2 emissions by 10,686 tonnes.« less

  1. Bird Mortaility at the Altamont Pass Wind Resource Area: March 1998--September 2001

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Smallwood, K. S.; Thelander, C. G.

    2005-09-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Over the past 15 years, research has shown that wind turbines in the Altamont Pass Wind Resource Area (APWRA) kill many birds, including raptors, which are protected by the Migratory Bird Treaty Act (MBTA), the Bald and Golden Eagle Protection Act, and/or state and federal Endangered Species Acts. Early research in the APWRA on avian mortality mainly attempted to identify the extent of the problem. In 1998, however, the National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL) initiated research to address the causal relationships between wind turbines and bird mortality. NREL funded a project by BioResource Consultants to perform this research directed at identifying and addressing the causes of mortality of various bird species from wind turbines in the APWRA.With 580 megawatts (MW) of installed wind turbine generating capacity in the APWRA, wind turbines there provide up to 1 billion kilowatt-hours (kWh) of emissions-free electricity annually. By identifying and implementing new methods and technologies to reduce or resolve bird mortality in the APWRA, power producers may be able to increase wind turbine electricity production at the site and apply similar mortality-reduction methods at other sites around the state and country.

  2. Commercialization of High-Temperature Solar Selective Coating: Cooperative Research and Development Final Report, CRADA Number CRD-08-300

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Gray, M. H.

    2014-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The goal for Concentrating Solar Power (CSP) technologies is to produce electricity at 15 cents/kilowatt-hour (kWh) with six hours of thermal storage in 2015 (intermediate power) and close to 10 cents/kWh with 12-17 hours of thermal storage in 2020 (baseload power). Cost reductions of up to 50% to the solar concentrator are targeted through technology advances. The overall solar-to-electric efficiency of parabolic-trough solar power plants can be improved and the cost of solar electricity can be reduced by improving the properties of the selective coating on the receiver and increasing the solar-field operating temperature to >450 degrees C. New, more-efficient selective coatings will be needed that have both high solar absorptance and low thermal emittance at elevated temperatures. Conduction and convection losses from the hot absorber surface are usually negligible for parabolic trough receivers. The objective is to develop new, more-efficient selective coatings with both high solar absorptance (..alpha.. > 0.95) and low thermal emittance (..epsilon.. < 0.08 @ 450 degrees C) that are thermally stable above 450 degrees C, ideally in air, with improved durability and manufacturability, and reduced cost.

  3. A reliability and availability sensitivity study of a large photovoltaic system.

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Stein, Joshua S.; Granata, Jennifer E.; Mundt, Michael Joseph; Miller, Steven P.; Quintana, Michael A.; Collins, Elmer W.; Sorensen, Neil Robert

    2010-08-01T23:59:59.000Z

    A reliability and availability model has been developed for a portion of the 4.6 megawatt (MWdc) photovoltaic system operated by Tucson Electric Power (TEP) at Springerville, Arizona using a commercially available software tool, GoldSim{trademark}. This reliability model has been populated with life distributions and repair distributions derived from data accumulated during five years of operation of this system. This reliability and availability model was incorporated into another model that simulated daily and seasonal solar irradiance and photovoltaic module performance. The resulting combined model allows prediction of kilowatt hour (kWh) energy output of the system based on availability of components of the system, solar irradiance, and module and inverter performance. This model was then used to study the sensitivity of energy output as a function of photovoltaic (PV) module degradation at different rates and the effect of location (solar irradiance). Plots of cumulative energy output versus time for a 30 year period are provided for each of these cases.

  4. Federal Energy Management Program technical assistance case study: The Forrestal Building relighting project saves $400K annually

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    NONE

    1997-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The US Department of Energy (DOE) believes energy efficiency begins at home -- in this case the James A. Forrestal Building in Washington, D.C. Since 1969, the 1.7 million-square-foot Forrestal Building has served as DOE Headquarters. In 1989, a team of in-house energy specialists began searching for opportunities to make the Forrestal Building more energy efficient. The team, on which personnel from the Federal Energy Management Program (FEMP) served, identified lighting as an area in which energy use could be reduced substantially. A monitoring program showed that the building`s more than 34,000 1-foot by 4-foot fluorescent lighting fixtures were responsible for 33% of the building`s total annual electric energy use, which represents more than 9 million kilowatt-hours (kWh) per year. In initiating the relighting program, DOE hoped to achieve these broad goals: Reduce energy use and utility bills, and improve lighting quality by distributing the light more uniformly. Funding was also an important consideration. DOE sought financing alternatives through which the lighting retrofit is paid for without using government-appropriated capital funds. DOE cut lighting costs more than 50% and paid for the project with the money saved on energy bills.

  5. Contract Provisions and Ratchets: Utility Security or Customer Equity?

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Penkala, B. A.

    CONTRACT PROVISIONS ANO RATCHETS: UTILITY SECURITY OR CUSTOMER EQUITY? BARBARA A. PENKALA Senior Research Analyst Houston Lighting & Power Company Houston. Texas ABSTRACT The contract provisions and ratchets con tained in an electric... of customers and the magnitude of the load served. A smaller part of the cost is dependent on kilowatt-hours. or energy supplied. The high investment required in the electric utility business relative to annual revenue has an important influence on price...

  6. GRIDS: Grid-Scale Rampable Intermittent Dispatchable Storage

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    None

    2010-09-01T23:59:59.000Z

    GRIDS Project: The 12 projects that comprise ARPA-E’s GRIDS Project, short for “Grid-Scale Rampable Intermittent Dispatchable Storage,” are developing storage technologies that can store renewable energy for use at any location on the grid at an investment cost less than $100 per kilowatt hour. Flexible, large-scale storage would create a stronger and more robust electric grid by enabling renewables to contribute to reliable power generation.

  7. American Indian Complex to Cool Off Using Ice Storage System

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    In Oklahoma City, summer temperatures can get above 100 degrees, making cooling more of a necessity than a luxury. But the designers of the American Indian Cultural Center and Museum (AICCM) wanted to make cooling choices that reflect American Indian cultures' respect for the land. So, rather than using conventional air-conditioning, the museum's main complex will use an ice storage system estimated to save 644,000 kilowatt hours of electricity a year.

  8. Reference Model 6 (RM6): Oscillating Wave Energy Converter.

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Bull, Diana L; Smith, Chris; Jenne, Dale Scott; Jacob, Paul; Copping, Andrea; Willits, Steve; Fontaine, Arnold; Brefort, Dorian; Gordon, Margaret Ellen; Copeland, Robert; Jepsen, Richard A.

    2014-10-01T23:59:59.000Z

    This report is an addendum to SAND2013-9040: Methodology for Design and Economic Analysis of Marine Energy Conversion (MEC) Technologies. This report describes an Oscillating Water Column Wave Energy Converter reference model design in a complementary manner to Reference Models 1-4 contained in the above report. In this report, a conceptual design for an Oscillating Water Column Wave Energy Converter (WEC) device appropriate for the modeled reference resource site was identified, and a detailed backward bent duct buoy (BBDB) device design was developed using a combination of numerical modeling tools and scaled physical models. Our team used the methodology in SAND2013-9040 for the economic analysis that included costs for designing, manufacturing, deploying, and operating commercial-scale MEC arrays, up to 100 devices. The methodology was applied to identify key cost drivers and to estimate levelized cost of energy (LCOE) for this RM6 Oscillating Water Column device in dollars per kilowatt-hour (%24/kWh). Although many costs were difficult to estimate at this time due to the lack of operational experience, the main contribution of this work was to disseminate a detailed set of methodologies and models that allow for an initial cost analysis of this emerging technology. This project is sponsored by the U.S. Department of Energy's (DOE) Wind and Water Power Technologies Program Office (WWPTO), within the Office of Energy Efficiency & Renewable Energy (EERE). Sandia National Laboratories, the lead in this effort, collaborated with partners from National Laboratories, industry, and universities to design and test this reference model.

  9. OFFICE OF ELECTRICITY DELIVERY AND ENERGY RELIABILITY (OE) NATIONAL ENERGY TECHNOLOGY LABORATORY (NETL) AMERICAN RECOVERY AND REINVESTMENT ACT 2009 UNITED STATES DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Singh, Mohit; Grape, Ulrik

    2014-07-29T23:59:59.000Z

    The purpose of this project was for Seeo to deliver the first ever large-scale or grid-scale prototype of a new class of advanced lithium-ion rechargeable batteries. The technology combines unprecedented energy density, lifetime, safety, and cost. The goal was to demonstrate Seeo’s entirely new class of lithium-based batteries based on Seeo’s proprietary nanostructured polymer electrolyte. This technology can enable the widespread deployment in Smart Grid applications and was demonstrated through the development and testing of a 10 kilowatt-hour (kWh) prototype battery system. This development effort, supported by the United States Department of Energy (DOE) enabled Seeo to pursue and validate the transformational performance advantages of its technology for use in grid-tied energy storage applications. The focus of this project and Seeo’s goal as demonstrated through the efforts made under this project is to address the utility market needs for energy storage systems applications, especially for residential and commercial customers tied to solar photovoltaic installations. In addition to grid energy storage opportunities Seeo’s technology has been tested with automotive drive cycles and is seen as equally applicable for battery packs for electric vehicles. The goals of the project were outlined and achieved through a series of specific tasks, which encompassed materials development, scaling up of cells, demonstrating the performance of the cells, designing, building and demonstrating a pack prototype, and providing an economic and environmental assessment. Nearly all of the tasks were achieved over the duration of the program, with only the full demonstration of the battery system and a complete economic and environmental analysis not able to be fully completed. A timeline over the duration of the program is shown in figure 1.

  10. Way Beyond Widgets: Delivering Integrated Lighting Design in Actionable Solutions

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Myer, Michael; Richman, Eric E.; Jones, Carol C.

    2008-08-17T23:59:59.000Z

    Previously, energy-efficiency strategies for commercial spaces have focused on using efficient equipment without providing specific detailed instructions. Designs by experts in their fields are an energy-efficiency product in its own right. A new national program has developed interactive application-specific lighting designs for widespread use in four major commercial sectors. This paper will describe the technical basis for the solutions, energy efficiency and cost-savings methodology, and installations and measurement/verification to-date. Lighting designs have been developed for five types of retail stores (big box, small box, grocery, specialty market, and pharmacy) and are planned for the office, healthcare, and education sectors as well. Nationally known sustainable lighting designers developed the designs using high-performance commercially available products, daylighting, and lighting controls. Input and peer review was received by stakeholders, including manufacturers, architects, utilities, energy-efficiency program sponsors (EEPS), and end-users (i.e., retailers). An interactive web tool delivers the lighting solutions and analyzes anticipated energy savings using project-specific inputs. The lighting solutions were analyzed against a reference building using the space-by-space method as allowed in the Energy Standard for Buildings Except Low-Rise Residential Buildings (ASHRAE 2004) co-sponsored by the American Society of Heating, Refrigeration, and Air Conditioning Engineers (ASHRAE) and the Illuminating Engineering Society of North America (IESNA). The results showed that the design vignettes ranged from a 9% to 28% reduction in the allowed lighting power density. Detailed control strategies are offered to further reduce the actual kilowatt-hour power consumption. When used together, the lighting design vignettes and control strategies show a modeled decrease in energy consumption (kWh) by 33% to 50% below the baseline design.

  11. Building opportunities for photovoltaics in the U.S. Final report [PV BONUS

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Michael Nicklas

    1999-09-08T23:59:59.000Z

    The objective of the North Carolina's PV Bonus Team was to develop and demonstrate a commercially viable, building-integrated, photovoltaic system that, in addition to providing electricity, would capture and effectively utilize the thermal energy produced by the photovoltaic array. This project objective was successfully achieved by designing, testing, constructing, and monitoring two roof integrated photovoltaic systems--one on a Applebee's Restaurant in Salisbury, North Carolina and the second on a Central Carolina Bank in Bessemer City, North Carolina. The goal of Innovative Design is to now use these successful demonstrations to facilitate entry of building integrated, pv/thermal systems into the marketplace. The strategy was to develop the two systems that could be utilized in future applications. Both systems were designed and then constructed at the North Carolina Solar Center at North Carolina State University. After extensive testing at the North Carolina Solar Center, the systems were moved to the actual construction sites and implemented. The Applebee's Restaurant system was designed to substitute for the roof assembly of a low sloping, south-facing sunspace roof that typically incorporated clay tile. After monitoring the installed system for one year it was determined that the 1.2 kilowatt (peak) system produces an average peak reduction of 1 kilowatt (rated peak is 1.7 kiloWatts), saves 1,529 kilowatt-hours of electricity, and offsets 11,776 kilowatt-hours of thermal energy savings used to pre-heat water. A DC fan connected directly to eight of the thirty-two amorphous modules moves air through air passages mounted on the backside of the modules and into a closed loop duct system to a heat exchanger. This heat exchanger is, in turn, connected to a pre-heat hot water tank that is used to heat the water for the restaurant. The Central Carolina Bank system was designed to substitute for the roof assembly of the drive-in window area of the bank. The design featured a triangulated truss that incorporated ten crystalline photovoltaic modules on one side of the truss and a reflective panel on the opposite side. The system used a utility interactive, programmable inverter and a 18.9 kilowatt-hour battery bank. The system is designed so that a DC fan, connected to one of the modules, forces ambient air across the back side of the modules. In the summer this heat is vented to the outside but in the winter this heated, fresh air is introduced into the building as ventilation air. Like the Applebee's system, the design allowed the entire roof assembly to be constructed off-site, tested, and then shipped to the site in pie-assembled, large components. During the first full year of operation, the 2.2 kilowatt (rated peak is 2.7 kilowatts) system contributed to an average peak reduction of .9 kilowatts. The system, as designed, saves 2,576 kilowatt-hours of electricity and offsets 3,473 kilowatt hours (of a potential thermal benefit of 10,172 collected kWhs) of thermal energy savings that is used as fresh air make-up in the colder months. This report is a summary of their conclusions.

  12. High-performance batteries for electric-vehicle propulsion and stationary energy storage. Progress report, October 1978-September 1979. [40 kWh, Li-Al and Li-Si anodes

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Barney, D. L.; Steunenberg, R. K.; Chilenskas, A. A.; Gay, E. C.; Battles, J. E.; Hornstra, F.; Miller, W. E.; Vissers, D. R.; Roche, M. F.; Shimotake, H.; Hudson, R.; Askew, B. A.; Sudar, S.

    1980-03-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The research, development, and management activities of the programs at Argonne National Laboratory (ANL) and at contractors' laboratories on high-temperature batteries during the period October 1978 to September 1979 are reported. These batteries are being developed for electric-vehicle propulsion and for stationary energy-storage applications. The present cells, which operate at 400 to 500/sup 0/C, are of a vertically oriented, prismatic design with one or more inner positive electrodes of FeS or FeS/sub 2/, facing negative electrodes of lithium-aluminum or lithium-silicon alloy, and molten LiCl-KC1 electrolyte. During this reporting period, cell and battery development work has continued at ANL and contractors' laboratories. A 40 kWh electric-vehicle battery (designated Mark IA) was fabricated and delivered to ANL for testing. During the initial heat-up, one of the two modules failed due to a short circuit. A failure analysis was conducted, and the Mark IA program completed. Development work on the next electric-vehicle battery (Mark II) was initiated at Eagle-Picher Industries, Inc. and Gould, Inc. Work on stationary energy-storage batteries during this period has consisted primarily of conceptual design studies. 107 figures, 67 tables.

  13. Beyond Kilowatts: Utility Business Innovation

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Sharing Smart Grid Experiences Through Performance Feedback Joe Miller, Smart Grid Implementation Strategy Team September 15, 2011 Prepared by: National Energy Technology...

  14. Beyond Kilowatts: Utility Business Innovation

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative1 First Use of Energy for All Purposes (Fuel and Nonfuel), 2002; Level: National5Sales for4,645U.S. DOE Office511041clothAdvanced Materials Advanced Materials Find MoreLawrence BerkeleyWaterTechnicalBewareSharing

  15. max kwh | OpenEI Community

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page onYou are now leaving Energy.gov You are now leaving Energy.gov You are being directedAnnualProperty Edit withTianlinPapersWindey Wind Home Rmckeel'slinked open data Homemaps

  16. KWhOURS | Open Energy Information

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page onYou are now leaving Energy.gov You are now leaving Energy.gov You are8COaBulkTransmissionSitingProcess.pdfGetecGtelInteriasIowa: Energy ResourcesKACO Geraetetechnik GmbHKLDKSLKWhOURS

  17. OpenEI Community - max kwh

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page onYou are now leaving Energy.gov You are now leaving Energy.gov You are beingZealand Jump to: navigation, searchOfRoseConcernsCompany Oil and GasOff<div/0 en The

  18. Cooling Towers Make Money

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Burger, R.

    20 year life cycle costs for energizing the fan horsepower they proposed installing. The purchasing department issued an order for the low bid of $650,000.000, as opposed to the next bidder who quoted $790,000.00. This looked like a $140... constant 8 cent per kilowatt hour costs, Illustration 2 shows that after 19 months of operation the purchase price plus energizing the four fan motors would costs the same and beyond that for 20 year analysis, the difference would be over one and one...

  19. Electric power monthly, February 1999 with data for November 1998

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    NONE

    1999-02-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The Electric Power Monthly presents monthly electricity statistics for a wide audience including Congress, Federal and State agencies, the electric utility industry, and the general public. The purpose of this publication is to provide energy decision makers with accurate and timely information that may be used in forming various perspectives on electric issues that lie ahead. Statistics are provided for net generation, fossil fuel consumption and stocks, quantity and quality of fossil fuels, cost of fossil fuels, electricity retail sales, associated revenue, and average revenue per kilowatt-hour of electricity sold.

  20. Photovoltaic system reliability

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Maish, A.B.; Atcitty, C. [Sandia National Labs., NM (United States); Greenberg, D. [Ascension Technology, Inc., Lincoln Center, MA (United States)] [and others

    1997-10-01T23:59:59.000Z

    This paper discusses the reliability of several photovoltaic projects including SMUD`s PV Pioneer project, various projects monitored by Ascension Technology, and the Colorado Parks project. System times-to-failure range from 1 to 16 years, and maintenance costs range from 1 to 16 cents per kilowatt-hour. Factors contributing to the reliability of these systems are discussed, and practices are recommended that can be applied to future projects. This paper also discusses the methodology used to collect and analyze PV system reliability data.

  1. WindPACT Turbine Rotor Design Study: June 2000--June 2002 (Revised)

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Malcolm, D. J.; Hansen, A. C.

    2006-04-01T23:59:59.000Z

    This report presents the results of the turbine rotor study completed by Global Energy Concepts (GEC) as part of the U.S. Department of Energy's WindPACT (Wind Partnership for Advanced Component Technologies) project. The purpose of the WindPACT project is to identify technology improvements that will enable the cost of energy from wind turbines to fall to a target of 3.0 cents/kilowatt-hour in low wind speed sites. The study focused on different rotor configurations and the effect of scale on those rotors.

  2. Converting a Motorcycle to Electric Power

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Simcoe, Christopher M.

    2009-12-18T23:59:59.000Z

    horsepower. The top speed is 60-70 mph which is adjustable by the sprocket gearing that is chosen. Its range is claimed to be 35-60 miles,depending on how you ride, via a 3.3 kilowatt-hour lithium battery pack. The battery pack can be recharged... of the bike’s parameters. Performance comes from a liquid-cooled, 3-phase AC (Alternating Current) induction motor and a proprietary high energy lithium-ion battery pack plus adjustable regenerative braking to capture wasted energy for battery recharging...

  3. Engineering innovation to reduce wind power COE

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Ammerman, Curtt Nelson [Los Alamos National Laboratory

    2011-01-10T23:59:59.000Z

    There are enough wind resources in the US to provide 10 times the electric power we currently use, however wind power only accounts for 2% of our total electricity production. One of the main limitations to wind use is cost. Wind power currently costs 5-to-8 cents per kilowatt-hour, which is more than twice the cost of electricity generated by burning coal. Our Intelligent Wind Turbine LDRD Project is applying LANL's leading-edge engineering expertise in modeling and simulation, experimental validation, and advanced sensing technologies to challenges faced in the design and operation of modern wind turbines.

  4. Communication and Collaboration Keep San Francisco VA Medical Center Project on Track

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    The Veterans Affairs Medical Center in San Francisco is saving almost 3 million kilowatt-hours of electricity, more than 70,000 therms of natural gas, and more than $500,000 annually. The energy savings are enough to power 400 homes and supply natural gas to more than 100 homes each year in California. These savings were realized by taking advantage of Super Energy Savings Performance Contracts (Super ESPCs) developed by the U.S. Department of Energy's Federal Energy Management Program (FEMP).

  5. Wind energy as a significant source of electricity for the United States

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Nix, R.G.

    1996-06-01T23:59:59.000Z

    This paper discusses wind energy and its potential to significantly impact the generation of electricity within the US. The principles and the equipment used to convert wind energy to electricity are described, as is the status of current technology. Markets and production projections are given. There is discussion of the advances required to reduce the selling cost of electricity generated from the wind from today`s price of about $0.05 per kilowatt-hour to full cost-competitiveness with gas- and coal-based electricity.

  6. Dow and Independent Power-- Yesterday, Today, Tomorrow 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Brunt, J. E.

    1989-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    including petro chemicals such as styrene and ethylene glycol -- consume large quantities of steam or thermal energy. So you can understand that energy costs are a crucial factor in our competitive ness. That's why Dow has been a dual energy producer... waste heat. So what did we get for our money? The typical heat rates, or the number of BTUs required to generate a net kilowatt hour, is 15,000 for a typical old steam boiler and turbine facility. But for a combined cycle gas turbine, waste heat...

  7. Use of Computer Simulation to Reduce the Energy Consumption in a Tall Office Building in Dubai-UAE

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Abu-Hijleh, B.; Abu-Dakka, M.

    2010-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    ,200 kilowatt hours per square meter, and the direct illumination falling to the earth exceeds 90000 lux in summer, the second highest in the world (Al-Sallal and Ahmed, 2007). Being on the tropic of cancer (24 deg N) results in that the UAE region...: 3D Max Design, Radiance and Daysim. Reinhart and Fitz (2009) investigated the performance of the above three programs (3D Max Design, Radiance and Daysim) through running of daylighting simulations for a room and comparing the results...

  8. Cheaper, Cleaner, Cooler Ways to Meet our Needs for New Energy

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Smith, T.

    World Energy-Related Carbon Dioxide Emissions, 1990-2030 (billion metric tons) 0 5 10 15 20 25 30 35 40 45 50 1990 1995 2000 2005 2010 2015 2020 2025 2030 Coal Liquids Natural Gas Total International Energy Outlook 2007 History Projections 43% 39% 40... initiatives would generate $4.40 in savings • Save energy at a cost of less than 2 cents per kilowatt- hour vs. 5¢ for coal Efficiency Renewables and CHP could save 76%-101% of the growth in demand in Texas Improved CHP policies 20% Utility savings...

  9. Bonded Bracket Assmebly for Frameless Solar Panels

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Murray, Todd

    2013-01-30T23:59:59.000Z

    In February 2011 the US Department of Energy announced their new Sunshot Initiative. The Sunshot goal is to reduce the total cost of solar energy systems by about 75 percent before the end of the decade. The DOE estimated that a total installed cost of $1 per watt for photovoltaic systems would be equivalent to 6���¢/kilowatt hour (kWh) for energy available from the grid. The DOE also estimated that to meet the $1 per watt goal, PV module costs would need to be reduced to $.50 per watt, balance of systems costs would need to be reduced to $.40 per watt, and power electronic costs would need to reach $.10 per watt. To address the BOS balance of systems cost component of the $1 per watt goal, the DOE announced a funding opportunity called (BOS-X) Extreme Balance of System Hardware Cost Reductions. The DOE identified eight areas within the total BOS costs: 1) installation labor, 2) installation materials, 3) installation overhead and profit, 4) tracker, 5) permitting and commissioning, 6) site preparation, 7) land acquisition, 8) sales tax. The BOS-X funding announcement requested applications in four specific topics: Topic 1: Transformational Building Integrated Photovoltaic (BIPV) Modules Topic 2: Roof and Ground Mount Innovations Topic 3: Transformational Photovoltaic System Designs Topic 4: Development of New Wind Load Codes for PV Systems The application submitted by ARaymond Tinnerman reflected the requirements listed in Topic #2, Roof and Ground Mount Innovations. The goal of topic #2 was to develop technologies that would result in the extreme reduction of material and labor costs associated with applications that require physical connections and attachments to roof and ground mount structures. The topics researched in this project included component cost reduction, labor reduction, weight reduction, wiring innovations, and alternative material utilization. The project objectives included: 1) The development of an innovative quick snap bracket assembly that would be bonded to frameless PV modules for commercial rooftop installations. 2) The development of a composite pultruded rail to replace traditional racking materials. 3) In partnership with a roofing company, pilot the certification of a commercial roof to be solar panel compliant, eliminating the need for structural analysis and government oversight resulting in significantly decreased permitting costs. 4) Reduce the sum of all cost impacts in topic #2 from a baseline total of $2.05/watt to $.34/watt.

  10. Reducing Data Center Loads for a Large-Scale, Low-Energy Office Building: NREL's Research Support Facility (Book)

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Sheppy, M.; Lobato, C.; Van Geet, O.; Pless, S.; Donovan, K.; Powers, C.

    2011-12-01T23:59:59.000Z

    This publication detailing the design, implementation strategies, and continuous performance monitoring of NREL's Research Support Facility data center. Data centers are energy-intensive spaces that facilitate the transmission, receipt, processing, and storage of digital data. These spaces require redundancies in power and storage, as well as infrastructure, to cool computing equipment and manage the resulting waste heat (Tschudi, Xu, Sartor, and Stein, 2003). Data center spaces can consume more than 100 times the energy of standard office spaces (VanGeet 2011). The U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) reported that data centers used 61 billion kilowatt-hours (kWh) in 2006, which was 1.5% of the total electricity consumption in the U.S. (U.S. EPA, 2007). Worldwide, data centers now consume more energy annually than Sweden (New York Times, 2009). Given their high energy consumption and conventional operation practices, there is a potential for huge energy savings in data centers. The National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL) is world renowned for its commitment to green building construction. In June 2010, the laboratory finished construction of a 220,000-square-foot (ft{sup 2}), LEED Platinum, Research Support Facility (RSF), which included a 1,900-ft{sup 2} data center. The RSF will expand to 360,000 ft{sup 2} with the opening of an additional wing December, 2011. The project's request for proposals (RFP) set a whole-building demand-side energy use requirement of a nominal 35 kBtu/ft{sup 2} per year. On-site renewable energy generation will offset the annual energy consumption. To support the RSF's energy goals, NREL's new data center was designed to minimize its energy footprint without compromising service quality. Several implementation challenges emerged during the design, construction, and first 11 months of operation of the RSF data center. This document highlights these challenges and describes in detail how NREL successfully overcame them. The IT settings and strategies outlined in this document have been used to significantly reduce data center energy requirements in the RSF; however, these can also be used in existing buildings and retrofits.

  11. Nuclear Power: Is It a New Clear Choice for Malaysia

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Besar, Idris B. [Industrial Technology Division, Malaysian Nuclear Agency (Nuclear Malaysia) Bangi, 43000 Kajang, Selangor (Malaysia)

    2008-05-20T23:59:59.000Z

    Energy is essential for socio-economic development. Any nation's standard of living is closely related to its access to energy. To put into perspective, the per capita electricity consumptions in developed countries of the Organisation for Economic Cooperation and Development (OECD) is currently estimated at 8600 kilowatts-hour per year as compared to the consumption rates in Malaysia and some African countries of 3300 and 50 kilowatts-hour per year, respectively. Energy is therefore an important pre-requisite for achieving the Malaysian vision of becoming a developed nation by the year 2020, in that it is needed not only for industrialization programme but also in maintaining quality of life. In Malaysia, the main concern currently is still on the supply in term of adequacy, reliability and quality; and moving slowly but steadily towards security, sustainability, environmentally friendly and contribution to climate change. With this new dimension, nuclear power emerged as a good match to a possible alternative in the comprehensive national energy policy. Many studies presented the positive aspects of nuclear power while others indicated the bad sides and potential risks. This paper will highlight some of those pros and cons as well as the potential risks beside a discussion on relevant requirements for a nuclear power programme in particular those of interest to the professionals in the physical sciences.

  12. 1979 year-end electric power survey. [Monograph

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Not Available

    1980-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The status of electric power supply, generating facility expansion, and electric power equipment manufacture is presented for 1979 on the basis of an industry survey covering investor-owned systems, public systems, and rural electric cooperatives as well as industrial installations which are interconnected with and supply power to utility systems. A 3.2 increase in generating capacity brought the total to 576.2 million kilowatts, 86 percent of which is thermal and the remainder hydro. Survey data for Hawaii is shown separately. December and summer peak capabilities, peak loads, and capability margins are presented for each of the nine regions. Their relationships to each other, to annual load factor, and to annual kilowatt hour requirements are also shown. Details of the orders placed with manufacturers for heavy power equipment are presented for the years 1975 to 1979. The manufacturing schedules of conventional and nuclear equipment are presented for the years 1979 to 1985. 28 tables. (DCK)

  13. Dirty kilowatts: America's most polluting power plants

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    NONE

    2007-07-15T23:59:59.000Z

    In 2006, the US EPA tracked more than 1,400 fossil-fired power plants of varying sizes through its Acid Rain Program. This report ranks each of the 378 largest plants (generating at least 2 million megawatt-hours in 2006) for which both the most recent EPA emissions data and Energy Information Administration (EIA) electric generation data are available. The report ranks each plant based on emission rates, or pounds of pollutant for each megawatt-hour (or million megawatt-hours, in the case of mercury) the plant produced. It ranks the top fifty power plants polluters for sulfur dioxide, nitrogen oxides, carbon dioxide, and mercury. A complete listing of all 378 plants is included as Appendix A. Appendix B contains overheads of an NETL presentation: Tracking new coal-fired power plants - coal's resurgence in electric power generation, 24 January 2007. The 12 states with the heaviest concentrations of the dirtiest power plants, in terms of total tons of carbon dioxide emitted, are: Texas (five, including two of the top 10 dirtiest plants); Pennsylvania (four); Indiana (four, including two of the top 10 dirtiest plants); Alabama (three); Georgia (three, including two of the top three dirtiest plants); North Carolina (three); Ohio (three); West Virginia (three); Wyoming (two); Florida (two); Kentucky (two); and New Mexico (two). Carbon dioxide emissions from power plants are now at roughly 2.5 billion tons per year. Power plants are responsible for about 30%-40% of all man-made CO{sub 2} emissions in the USA. Power plants, especially those that burn coal, are by far the largest single contributor of SO{sub 2} pollution in the United States. Power plant mercury emissions remain steady as compared to previous years. A searchable database ranking 378 U.S. power plants on carbon dioxide, sulfur dioxide, nitrogen oxide and mercury pollution is available online at http://www.dirtykilowatts.org. 22 refs., 8 tabs., 2 apps.

  14. kWh Analytics: Quality Ratings for PV

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    This presentation summarizes the information given during the SunShot Grand Challenge Summit and Technology Forum, June 13-14, 2012.

  15. Comparing Mainframe and Windows Server Transactions per kWh

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Narasayya, Vivek

    ..................................................................................................................................15 Air Conditioner (Heat Pump) Efficiency Units

  16. KWH_APS_DPP07_1Page.ppt

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative1 First Use of Energy for All Purposes (Fuel and Nonfuel), 2002; Level: National5Sales for4,645U.S. DOEThe Bonneville PowerCherries 82981-1cnHigh SchoolIn12electron beamJoin2015Just Plain Cool,relocatesmInference of

  17. Property:Incentive/PVComFitDolKWh | Open Energy Information

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page onYou are now leaving Energy.gov You are now leaving Energy.gov YouKizildere I Geothermal PwerPerkins County, Nebraska:PrecourtOid JumpEligSysSize Jump to:

  18. Electric power monthly, December 1996 with data for September 1996

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    NONE

    1996-12-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The report presents monthly electricity statistics for a wide audience including Congress, Federal and State agencies, the electric utility industry, and the general public. The purpose of this publication is to provide energy decisionmakers with accurate and timely information that may be used in forming various perspectives on electric issues that lie ahead. This publication provides monthly statistics at the State, Census division, and US levels for net generation, fossil fuel consumption and stocks, quantity and quality of fossil fuels, cost of fossil fuels, electricity retail sales, associated revenue, and average revenue per kilowatt hour of electricity sold. In addition, data on net generation, fuel consumption, fuel stocks, quantity and cost of fossil fuels are also displayed for the North American Electric Reliability Council (NERC) regions. The EIA publishes statistics on net generation by energy source; consumption, stocks, quantity, quality, and cost of fossil fuels; and capability of new generating units by company and plant. 57 tabs.

  19. Electric power monthly: April 1996, with data for January 1996

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    NONE

    1996-04-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The Electric Power Monthly (EPM) presents monthly electricity statistics for a wide audience including Congress, Federal and State agencies, the electric utility industry, and the general public. The purpose of this publication is to provide energy decision makers with accurate and timely information that may be used in forming various perspectives on electric issues that lie ahead. The Coal and Electric Data and Renewables Division; Office of Coal, Nuclear, Electric and Alternate Fuels, Energy Information Administration (EIA), Department of Energy prepares the EPM. This publication provides monthly statistics at the State, Census division, and US levels for net generation, fossil fuel consumption and stocks, quantity and quality of fossil fuels, cost of fossil fuels, electricity sales, revenue, and average revenue per kilowatt hour of electricity sold. Data on net generation, fuel consumption, fuel stocks, quantity and cost of fossil fuels are also displayed for the North American Electric Reliability Council (NERC) regions. 64 tabs.

  20. Electric power monthly, September 1996, with data for June 1996

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    NONE

    1996-09-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The Coal and Electric Data and Renewables Division; Office of Coal, Nuclear, Electric and Alternate Fuels, Energy Information Administration (EIA), Department of Energy prepares the EPM. This publication provides monthly statistics at the State, Census division, and U.S. levels for net generation, fossil fuel consumption and stocks, quantity and quality of fossil fuels, cost of fossil fuels, electricity retail sales, associated revenue, and average revenue per kilowatt hour of electricity sold. In addition, data on net generation, fuel consumption, fuel stocks, quantity and cost of fossil fuels are also displayed for the North American Electric Reliability Council (NERC) regions. The EIA publishes statistics in the EPM on net generation by energy source; consumption, stocks, quantity, quality, and cost of fossil fuels; and capability of new generating units by company and plant.

  1. Electric power monthly, July 1999, with data for April 1999

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    NONE

    1999-07-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The Electric Power Division, Office of Coal, Nuclear, Electric and Alternate Fuels, Energy Information Administration (EIA), Department of Energy prepares the Electric Power Monthly (EPM). This publication provides monthly statistics at the State, Census division, and US levels for net generation, fossil fuel consumption and stocks, quantity and quality of fossil fuels, cost of fossil fuels, electricity retail sales, associated revenue, and average revenue per kilowatt hour of electricity sold. In addition, data on net generation, fuel consumption, fuel stocks, quantity and cost of fossil fuels are also displayed for the North American Electric Reliability Council (NERC) regions. The EIA publishes statistics in the EPM on net generation by energy source; consumption, stocks, quantity, quality, and cost of fossil fuels; and capability of new generating units by company and plant. 1 fig., 64 tabs.

  2. Soluble Lead Flow Battery: Soluble Lead Flow Battery Technology

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    None

    2010-09-01T23:59:59.000Z

    GRIDS Project: General Atomics is developing a flow battery technology based on chemistry similar to that used in the traditional lead-acid battery found in nearly every car on the road today. Flow batteries store energy in chemicals that are held in tanks outside the battery. When the energy is needed, the chemicals are pumped through the battery. Using the same basic chemistry as a traditional battery but storing its energy outside of the cell allows for the use of very low cost materials. The goal is to develop a system that is far more durable than today’s lead-acid batteries, can be scaled to deliver megawatts of power, and which lowers the cost of energy storage below $100 per kilowatt hour.

  3. Advanced Flywheel Composite Rotors: Low-Cost, High-Energy Density Flywheel Storage Grid Demonstration

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    None

    2010-10-01T23:59:59.000Z

    GRIDS Project: Boeing is developing a new material for use in the rotor of a low-cost, high-energy flywheel storage technology. Flywheels store energy by increasing the speed of an internal rotor —slowing the rotor releases the energy back to the grid when needed. The faster the rotor spins, the more energy it can store. Boeing’s new material could drastically improve the energy stored in the rotor. The team will work to improve the storage capacity of their flywheels and increase the duration over which they store energy. The ultimate goal of this project is to create a flywheel system that can be scaled up for use by electric utility companies and produce power for a full hour at a cost of $100 per kilowatt hour.

  4. Solar central receiver systems comparative economics

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Eicker, P J

    1980-04-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Several major conceptual design studies of solar central receiver systems and components have been completed in the last year. The results of these studies are used to compare the projected cost of electric power generation using central receiver systems with that of more conventional power generation. The cost estimate for a molten salt central receiver system is given. Levelized busbar energy cost is shown as a function of annual capacity factor indicating the fraction of the cost due to each of the subsystems. The estimated levelized busbar energy cost for a central receiver (70 to 90 mills per kilowatt hour) is compared with the levelized busbar energy cost for a new coal fired Rankine cycle plant. Sensitivities to the initial cost of coal and the delta fuel escalation are shown. (WHK)

  5. Cost-Effective Silicon Wafers for Solar Cells: Direct Wafer Enabling Terawatt Photovoltaics

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    None

    2010-01-15T23:59:59.000Z

    Broad Funding Opportunity Announcement Project: 1366 is developing a process to reduce the cost of solar electricity by up to 50% by 2020—from $0.15 per kilowatt hour to less than $0.07. 1366’s process avoids the costly step of slicing a large block of silicon crystal into wafers, which turns half the silicon to dust. Instead, the company is producing thin wafers directly from molten silicon at industry-standard sizes, and with efficiencies that compare favorably with today’s state-of-the-art technologies. 1366’s wafers could directly replace wafers currently on the market, so there would be no interruptions to the delivery of these products to market. As a result of 1366’s technology, the cost of silicon wafers could be reduced by 80%.

  6. Industrial demand side management: A status report

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Hopkins, M.F.; Conger, R.L.; Foley, T.J. [and others

    1995-05-01T23:59:59.000Z

    This report provides an overview of and rationale for industrial demand side management (DSM) programs. Benefits and barriers are described, and data from the Manufacturing Energy Consumption Survey are used to estimate potential energy savings in kilowatt hours. The report presents types and examples of programs and explores elements of successful programs. Two in-depth case studies (from Boise Cascade and Eli Lilly and Company) illustrate two types of effective DSM programs. Interviews with staff from state public utility commissions indicate the current thinking about the status and future of industrial DSM programs. A comprehensive bibliography is included, technical assistance programs are listed and described, and a methodology for evaluating potential or actual savings from projects is delineated.

  7. Summary Report for Concentrating Solar Power Thermal Storage Workshop: New Concepts and Materials for Thermal Energy Storage and Heat-Transfer Fluids, May 20, 2011

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Glatzmaier, G.

    2011-08-01T23:59:59.000Z

    This document summarizes a workshop on thermal energy storage for concentrating solar power (CSP) that was held in Golden, Colorado, on May 20, 2011. The event was hosted by the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE), the National Renewable Energy Laboratory, and Sandia National Laboratories. The objective was to engage the university and laboratory research communities to identify and define research directions for developing new high-temperature materials and systems that advance thermal energy storage for CSP technologies. This workshop was motivated, in part, by the DOE SunShot Initiative, which sets a very aggressive cost goal for CSP technologies -- a levelized cost of energy of 6 cents per kilowatt-hour by 2020 with no incentives or credits.

  8. Trace elements in coal by glow discharge mass spectrometry

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Jacobs, M.L.; Wilson, C.R.; Pestovich, J. Jr. [WAL Inc., Wheat Ridge, CO (United States)] [and others

    1995-08-01T23:59:59.000Z

    A need and a demand exist for determining trace elements in coal and coal related by-products, especially those elements which may potentially be a health hazard. The provisions of the 1990 clean air act require that the EPA evaluate the emissions of electric utilities for trace elements and other potentially hazardous organic compounds. The coal fired electric utility industry supplies roughly 60% of the total generating capacity of 2,882,525 million kilowatt hours (nearly 3 trillion kilowatt hours) generated in the U.S. This is accomplished by 414 power plants scattered across the country that burned 813,508,000 short tons of coal in 1993. The relative volatility of some inorganic constituents in coal makes them more prone to be emitted to the atmosphere following combustion. The production of analytical data for trace elements is known to be a difficult task in coal and by-products of coal combustion (fly ash, bottom ash, gas streams, etc.), in terms of both sample collection and analytical determinations. There are several common analytical methods available to the analyst to determine trace elements in coal and coal by-products. In general analytical germs, the material to be analyzed can be totally solubilized (or extracted), or the elements analytes can be determined in the material as a solid. A relatively new elemental technique, Glow Discharge Mass Spectrometry (GDMS) can be used with solids as well. This new analytical technique had never before been applied directly to coal. The radio frequency-glow discharge quadropole mass spectrometer was used to analyze coal directly for the first time ever by rf-GDMS. The rf-GDMS technique is described.

  9. Design of cascaded low cost solar cell with CuO substrate

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Samson, Mil'shtein; Anup, Pillai; Shiv, Sharma; Garo, Yessayan [Advanced Electronic Technology Center, ECE Dept., University of Massachusetts, Lowell, MA-01851 (United States)

    2013-12-04T23:59:59.000Z

    For many years the main focus of R and D in solar cells was the development of high-efficiency solar convertors. However with solar technology beginning to be a part of national grids and stand-alone power supplies for variety of individual customers, the emphasis has changed, namely, the cost per kilowatt- hour (kW-hr) started to be an important figure of merit. Although Si does dominate the market of solar convertors, this material has total cost of kilowatt-hour much higher than what the power grid is providing presently to customers. It is well known that the cost of raw semiconductor material is a major factor in formulation of the final cost of a solar cell. That motivated us to search and design a novel solar cell using cheap materials. The new p-i-n solar cell consists of hetero-structure cascade of materials with step by step decreasing energy gap. Since the lattice constant of these three materials do differ not more than 2%, the more expensive epitaxial fabrication methods can be used as well. It should be emphasized that designed solar cell is not a cascade of three solar cells connected in series. Our market study shows that Si solar panel which costs $250–400 / m{sup 2} leads to a cost of $0.12–0.30 / kW-hr. To the contrary, CuO based solar cells with Cadmium compounds on top, would cost $100 / m{sup 2}. This will allow the novel solar cell to produce electricity at a cost of $0.06–0.08 / kW-hr.

  10. NREL Establishes a 1.5-MW Wind Turbine Test Platform for Research Partnerships (Fact Sheet)

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Not Available

    2012-03-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Research turbine supports sustained technology development. For more than three decades, engineers at the National Renewable Energy Laboratory's (NREL) National Wind Technology Center (NWTC) have worked with the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Wind Program and industry partners to advance wind energy technology, improve wind turbine performance, and reduce the cost of energy. Although there have been dramatic increases in performance and drops in the cost of wind energy-from $0.80 per kilowatt-hour to between $0.06 and $0.08 per kilowatt-hour-the goal of the DOE Wind Program is to further increase performance and reduce the cost of energy for land-based systems so that wind energy can compete with natural gas by 2020. In support of the program's research and development (R and D) efforts, NREL has constructed state-of-the-art facilities at the NWTC where industry partners, universities, and other DOE laboratories can conduct tests and experiments to further advance wind technology. The latest facility to come online is the DOE-GE 1.5-MW wind turbine test platform. Working with DOE, NREL purchased and installed a GE 1.5-MW wind turbine at the NWTC in 2009. Since then, NREL engineers have extensively instrumented the machine, conducted power performance and full-system modal tests, and collected structural loads measurements to obtain baseline characterization of the turbine's power curve, vibration characteristics, and fatigue loads in the uniquely challenging NWTC inflow environment. By successfully completing a baseline for the turbine's performance and structural response, NREL engineers have established a test platform that can be used by industry, university, and DOE laboratory researchers to test wind turbine control systems and components. The new test platform will also enable researchers to acquire the measurements needed to develop and validate wind turbine models and improve design codes.

  11. Elk Valley Rancheria Energy Efficiency and Alternatives Analysis

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Ed Wait, Elk Valley Rancheria; Frank Ziano & Associates, Inc.

    2011-11-30T23:59:59.000Z

    Elk Valley Rancheria; Tribe; renewable energy; energy options analysis. The Elk Valley Rancheria, California ('Tribe') is a federally recognized Indian tribe located in Del Norte County, California, in the northwestern corner of California. The Tribe, its members and Tribal enterprises are challenged by increasing energy costs and undeveloped local energy resources. The Tribe currently lacks an energy program. The Tribal government lacked sufficient information to make informed decisions about potential renewable energy resources, energy alternatives and other energy management issues. To meet this challenge efficiently, the Tribe contracted with Frank Zaino and Associates, Inc. to help become more energy self-sufficient, by reducing their energy costs and promoting energy alternatives that stimulate economic development. Frank Zaino & Associates, Inc. provided a high level economic screening analysis based on anticipated electric and natural gas rates. This was in an effort to determine which alternative energy system will performed at a higher level so the Tribe could reduce their energy model by 30% from alternative fuel sources. The feasibility study will identify suitable energy alternatives and conservation methods that will benefit the Tribe and tribal community through important reductions in cost. The lessons learned from these conservation efforts will yield knowledge that will serve a wider goal of executing energy efficiency measures and practices in Tribal residences and business facilities. Pacific Power is the provider of electrical power to the four properties under review at $ 0.08 per Kilowatt-hour (KWH). This is a very low energy cost compared to alternative energy sources. The Tribe used baseline audits to assess current and historic energy usage at four Rancheria owned facilities. Past electric and gas billing statements were retained for review for the four buildings that will be audited. A comparative assessment of the various energy usages will determine the demand, forecast future need and identify the differences in energy costs, narrowing the focus of the work and defining its scope. The Tribe's peak demand periods will help determine the scope of need for alternative energy sources. The Tribe's Energy Efficiency and Alternatives Analysis report included several system investigations which include fuel cells, wind turbines, solar panels, hydro electric, ground source heat pumps, bio mass, cogeneration & energy conservation and implementation for the existing properties. The energy analysis included site visits to collect and analyze historical energy usage and cost. The analysis also included the study of the building systems for the Elk Valley Casino, Elk Valley Rancheria administration complex, United Indian Health Service/Small Community Center complex and the Tribal Gaming Commission Offices. The analysis involved identifying modifications, performing an engineering economic analysis, preparation of a rank ordered list of modifications and preparation of a report to provide recommendations and actions for the Tribe to implement.

  12. City of Phoenix - Energize Phoenix Program

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Laloudakis, Dimitrios J.

    2014-09-29T23:59:59.000Z

    Energize Phoenix (EPHX) was designed as an ambitious, large-scale, three-year pilot program to provide energy efficiency upgrades in buildings, along Phoenix’s new Light Rail Corridor – part of a federal effort to reduce energy consumption and stimulate job growth, while simultaneously reducing the country’s carbon footprint and promoting a shift towards a green economy. The program was created through a 2010 competitive grant awarded to the City of Phoenix who managed the program in partnership with Arizona State University (ASU), the state’s largest university, and Arizona Public Service (APS), the state’s largest electricity provider. The U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Better Buildings Neighborhood Program (BBNP) and the American Recovery and Reinvestment Act (ARRA) of 2009 provided $25M in funding for the EPHX program. The Light Rail Corridor runs through the heart of downtown Phoenix, making most high-rise and smaller commercial buildings eligible to participate in the EPHX program, along with a diverse mix of single and multi-family residential buildings. To ensure maximum impact and deeper market penetration, Energize Phoenix was subdivided into three unique parts: i. commercial rebate program, ii. commercial financing program, and iii. residential program Each component was managed by the City of Phoenix in partnership with APS. Phoenix was fortunate to partner with APS, which already operated robust commercial and residential rebate programs within its service territory. Phoenix tapped into the existing utility contractor network, provided specific training to over 100 contracting firms, and leveraged the APS rebate program structure (energy efficiency funding) to launch the EPHX commercial and residential rebate programs. The commercial finance program was coordinated and managed through a contract with National Bank of Arizona, NBAZ, which also provided project capital leveraging EPHX finance funds. Working in unison, approved contractors jointly produced more than 161,000 labor hours in pursuit of EPHX goals over the life of the project. Labor hours were spread among electricians, heating, ventilating and air-conditioning (HVAC) technicians, marketing professionals, engineers, sales, and administrative support staff across the approved contractor workforce. Program participants received both the utility rebate along with the EPHX rebate, and depending on project size and utility rebate structure some projects resulted in low to no-cost upgrades for customers. Phoenix also partnered with ASU, a grant sub-recipient, to leverage the institution’s expertise in research and data analysis. In this partnership, ASU accepted marketing responsibilities for the grant and partnered with DRA Communications (DRA), a Phoenix-based marketing firm, to create and communicate the message out to the marketplace. The EPHX program has completed its energy upgrade activities. A review of the work completed by ASU revealed that the EPHX program substantially exceeded the program’s stated goals by retrofitting/upgrading over 33 million sq ft of commercial space (30 million sq ft goal exceeded by 11%) and 2,014 residential units (1,700 unit goal exceeded by 18%) along the Light Rail Corridor. The program helped stimulate economic growth by adding $31million to the local economy and enhanced an already robust energy efficiency contractor network. This contractor network will continue to promote utility energy incentives to sustain energy efficiency upgrade activities in the future. Finally, EPHX helped reduce participants annual energy consumption by 135 million kilowatt-hour (kWh) translating into over $12.5 million of annual energy cost avoidance for the community. This also resulted in projected payback period of 4.5 years for total investment by all parties and reduced greenhouse gas emissions by over 95,000 metric tons of carbon dioxide equivalent (CO2e).

  13. Five Kilowatt Fuel Cell Demonstration for Remote Power Applications

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Dennis Witmer; Tom Johnson; Jack Schmid

    2008-12-31T23:59:59.000Z

    While most areas of the US are serviced by inexpensive, dependable grid connected electrical power, many areas of Alaska are not. In these areas, electrical power is provided with Diesel Electric Generators (DEGs), at much higher cost than in grid connected areas. The reasons for the high cost of power are many, including the high relative cost of diesel fuel delivered to the villages, the high operational effort required to maintain DEGs, and the reverse benefits of scale for small utilities. Recent progress in fuel cell technologies have lead to the hope that the DEGs could be replaced with a more efficient, reliable, environmentally friendly source of power in the form of fuel cells. To this end, the University of Alaska Fairbanks has been engaged in testing early fuel cell systems since 1998. Early tests were conducted on PEM fuel cells, but since 2001, the focus has been on Solid Oxide Fuel Cells. In this work, a 5 kW fuel cell was delivered to UAF from Fuel Cell Technologies of Kingston, Ontario. The cell stack is of a tubular design, and was built by Siemens Westinghouse Fuel Cell division. This stack achieved a run of more than 1 year while delivering grid quality electricity from natural gas with virtually no degradation and at an electrical efficiency of nearly 40%. The project was ended after two control system failures resulted in system damage. While this demonstration was successful, considerable additional product development is required before this technology is able to provide electrical energy in remote Alaska. The major issue is cost, and the largest component of system cost currently is the fuel cell stack cost, although the cost of the balance of plant is not insignificant. While several manufactures are working on schemes for significant cost reduction, these systems do not as yet provide the same level of performance and reliability as the larger scale Siemens systems, or levels that would justify commercial deployment.

  14. Five Kilowatt Solid Oxide Fuel Cell/Diesel Reformer

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Dennis Witmer; Thomas Johnson

    2008-12-31T23:59:59.000Z

    Reducing fossil fuel consumption both for energy security and for reduction in global greenhouse emissions has been a major goal of energy research in the US for many years. Fuel cells have been proposed as a technology that can address both these issues--as devices that convert the energy of a fuel directly into electrical energy, they offer low emissions and high efficiencies. These advantages are of particular interest to remote power users, where grid connected power is unavailable, and most electrical power comes from diesel electric generators. Diesel fuel is the fuel of choice because it can be easily transported and stored in quantities large enough to supply energy for small communities for extended periods of time. This projected aimed to demonstrate the operation of a solid oxide fuel cell on diesel fuel, and to measure the resulting efficiency. Results from this project have been somewhat encouraging, with a laboratory breadboard integration of a small scale diesel reformer and a Solid Oxide Fuel Cell demonstrated in the first 18 months of the project. This initial demonstration was conducted at INEEL in the spring of 2005 using a small scale diesel reformer provided by SOFCo and a fuel cell provided by Acumentrics. However, attempts to integrate and automate the available technology have not proved successful as yet. This is due both to the lack of movement on the fuel processing side as well as the rather poor stack lifetimes exhibited by the fuel cells. Commercial product is still unavailable, and precommercial devices are both extremely expensive and require extensive field support.

  15. Vehicle Technologies Office Merit Review 2015: 88 Kilowatt Automotive

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Google Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels DataDepartment of Energy Your DensityEnergy U.S.-China Electric Vehicle and03/02 TUEValidationAdvanced

  16. Solid state watt-hour meter

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Hurley, J.R.; Gilker, C.S.

    1984-08-21T23:59:59.000Z

    A watt-hour meter is disclosed which includes: a microprocessor coupled to a solid-state Hall-Effect sensor; an electrically alterable ROM coupled to the microprocessor; a power supply; a power outage timing means using the discharge characteristic of a capacitor; apparatus for supplying a 60 Hz clock signal to the microprocessor; a readout device coupled to the microprocessor to provide an indication of the power consumed; an output on the microprocessor for controlling a circuit breaker; and a switch for overriding the microprocessor controlled circuit breaker. The microprocessor and the electrically alterable ROM are connected and programmed: to sense the time of day as determined from an initial time of day and setting the 60 Hz clock signal; to sense and compute the power used by the consumer; to automatically open the circuit breaker when power demand on the electric power source is high and/or the cost per kilowatt hour is high; to automatically close the circuit breaker when the power demand on the source of electric power is low and/or the cost per kilowatt power is low; and to allow a consumer to override the microprocessor's control of the circuit breaker.

  17. The state of energy storage in electric utility systems and its effect on renewable energy resources

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Rau, N.S.

    1994-08-01T23:59:59.000Z

    This report describes the state of the art of electric energy storage technologies and discusses how adding intermittent renewable energy technologies (IRETs) to a utility network affects the benefits from storage dispatch. Load leveling was the mode of storage dispatch examined in the study. However, the report recommended that other modes be examined in the future for kilowatt and kilowatt-hour optimization of storage. The motivation to install storage with IRET generation can arise from two considerations: reliability and enhancement of the value of energy. Because adding storage increases cost, reliability-related storage is attractive only if the accruing benefits exceed the cost of storage installation. The study revealed that the operation of storage should not be guided by the output of the IRET but rather by system marginal costs. Consequently, in planning studies to quantify benefits, storage should not be considered as an entity belonging to the system and not as a component of IRETS. The study also indicted that because the infusion of IRET energy tends to reduce system marginal cost, the benefits from load leveling (value of energy) would be reduced. However, if a system has storage, particularly if the storage is underutilized, its dispatch can be reoriented to enhance the benefits of IRET integration.

  18. Application of the SULF-X process to coal conversion and utilization. Phase II final report

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Shapiro, E.; Bramer, H.C.; New, R.A.

    1984-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Pittsburgh Environmental and Energy Systems, Inc. contracted with the Department of Energy to demonstrate the efficacy of an iron sulfide flue gas treatment system (FGT) for removing sulfur dioxide (SO/sub 2/) and nitrogen oxides (NO/sub x/) and to correlate process variables to system performance. Laboratory and bench-scale testing was conducted with the SULF-X process, using both synthesized gas and actual flue gas from a coal-fired furnace. Laboratory tests resulted in 95% SO/sub 2/ removal and up to 95% NO/sub x/ removal. The bench-scale system demonstrated similar SO/sub 2/ removal efficiencies, but achieved only 39% NO/sub x/ removal due to relatively high oxygen concentrations in the flue gas and insufficient liquid-gas interfacial area within the absorber. Elemental sulfur was recovered during the regeneration steps. Total capital investment for the SULF-X system was estimated to be $91 to $103 per kilowatt (electric), compared to $90/kw for sodium solution scrubbing, $78 to $83/kw for magnesia slurry scrubbing and $74/kw for limestone slurry scrubbing. Annual operating costs for the SULF-X system were estimated to be 5.44 to 6.90 mills per kilowatt-hour, compared to 4.96 to 5.22 for sodium, 3.68 to 3.99 for magnesia and 3.73 to 4.25 for limestone. 6 references, 6 figures, 9 tables.

  19. Member of the KWH Group10/8/12 File ID / Author Geothermal Vaults for Commercial

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Commenced. 1955 The first polyethylene pipes were delivered to customers. 1964 Butt Fusion Welding Machines the vault · Butt-fused manifolds · OSHA approved access ladder · Pressure Temperature Ports on all outlets circuit · Inline temperature and pressure gauges · OSHA Ladder · Electrical · Sump pump · Inline Fan · FRP

  20. Property:Building/SPBreakdownOfElctrcityUseKwhM2AirCompressors | Open

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

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  20. Property:Building/SPPurchasedEngyPerAreaKwhM2Pellets | Open Energy

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    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page onYou are now leaving Energy.gov You are now leaving Energy.gov You are beingZealand Jump to: navigation,Pillar GroupInformationInformation ElctrtyTotal JumpInformation

  1. Property:Building/SPPurchasedEngyPerAreaKwhM2Total | Open Energy

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page onYou are now leaving Energy.gov You are now leaving Energy.gov You are beingZealand Jump to: navigation,Pillar GroupInformationInformation ElctrtyTotal

  2. Property:Building/SPPurchasedEngyPerAreaKwhM2WoodChips | Open Energy

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page onYou are now leaving Energy.gov You are now leaving Energy.gov You are beingZealand Jump to: navigation,Pillar GroupInformationInformation ElctrtyTotalInformation WoodChips

  3. Wabash River Coal Gasification Combined Cycle Repowering Project: Clean Coal Technology Program. Environmental Assessment

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Not Available

    1993-05-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The proposed project would result in a combined-cycle power plant with lower emissions and higher efficiency than most existing coal-fired power plants of comparable size. The net plant heat rate (energy content of the fuel input per useable electrical generation output; i.e., Btu/kilowatt hour) for the new repowered unit would be a 21% improvement over the existing unit, while reducing SO{sub 2} emissions by greater than 90% and limiting NO{sub x} emissions by greater than 85% over that produced by conventional coal-fired boilers. The technology, which relies on gasified coal, is capable of producing as much as 25% more electricity from a given amount of coal than today`s conventional coal-burning methods. Besides having the positive environmental benefit of producing less pollutants per unit of power generated, the higher overall efficiency of the proposed CGCC project encourages greater utilization to meet base load requirements in order to realize the associated economic benefits. This greater utilization (i.e., increased capacity factor) of a cleaner operating plant has global environmental benefits in that it is likely that such power would replace power currently being produced by less efficient plants emitting a greater volume of pollutants per unit of power generated.

  4. Economizer Based Data Center Liquid Cooling with Advanced Metal Interfaces

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Timothy Chainer

    2012-11-30T23:59:59.000Z

    A new chiller-less data center liquid cooling system utilizing the outside air environment has been shown to achieve up to 90% reduction in cooling energy compared to traditional chiller based data center cooling systems. The system removes heat from Volume servers inside a Sealed Rack and transports the heat using a liquid loop to an Outdoor Heat Exchanger which rejects the heat to the outdoor ambient environment. The servers in the rack are cooled using a hybrid cooling system by removing the majority of the heat generated by the processors and memory by direct thermal conduction using coldplates and the heat generated by the remaining components using forced air convection to an air- to- liquid heat exchanger inside the Sealed Rack. The anticipated benefits of such energy-centric configurations are significant energy savings at the data center level. When compared to a traditional 10 MW data center, which typically uses 25% of its total data center energy consumption for cooling this technology could potentially enable a cost savings of up to $800,000-$2,200,000/year (assuming electricity costs of 4 to 11 cents per kilowatt-hour) through the reduction in electrical energy usage.

  5. Electric power monthly, May 1999, with data for February 1999

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    NONE

    1999-05-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The Electric Power Monthly (EPM) presents monthly electricity statistics for a wide audience including Congress, Federal and State agencies, the electric utility industry, and the general public. The purpose of this publication is to provide energy decision makers with accurate and timely information that may be used in forming various perspectives on electric issues that lie ahead. This publication provides monthly statistics at the State, Census division, and US levels for net generation, fossil fuel consumption and stocks, quantity and quality of fossil fuels, cost of fossil fuels, electricity retail sales, associated revenue, and average revenue per kilowatt hour of electricity sold. In addition, data on net generation, fuel consumption, fuel stocks, quantity and cost of fossil fuels are also displayed for the North American Electric Reliability Council (NERC) regions. The EIA publishes statistics in the EPM on net generation by energy source; consumption, stocks, quantity, quality, and cost of fossil fuels; and capability of new generating units by company and plant. 64 tabs.

  6. Southwestern Power Administration Annual Report 2012

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    none,

    2013-09-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Dear Secretary Moniz: I am pleased to present the financial statements and operating data for Southwestern Power Administration (Southwestern) for Fiscal Year (FY) 2012. In FY 2012, Southwestern delivered over 4.1 billion kilowatt-hours of energy to its wholesale customers in Arkansas, Kansas, Louisiana, Missouri, Oklahoma, and Texas, generating $195 million in revenue. In fulfilling its mission to market and reliably deliver renewable Federal hydroelectric power, Southwestern maintains 1,380 miles of high-voltage transmission lines, substations, and communications sites, contributing to the reliability of the regional and National electric grid. Southwestern also actively partners with the Department of Energy, the U.S. Army Corps of Engineers, Southwestern’s customers, and other Federal power stakeholders to most effectively balance their diverse interests with Southwestern’s mission while continuing to maximize Federal assets to repay the Federal investment in the 24 hydropower facilities within Southwestern’s marketing region. Southwestern is proud of its past successes, and we look forward to continuing to serve the Nation’s energy needs in the future. Sincerely, Christopher M. Turner Administrator

  7. Southwestern Power Administration Annual Report 2011

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    none,

    2013-04-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Dear Secretary Chu: I am pleased to present the financial statements and operating data for Southwestern Power Administration (Southwestern) for Fiscal Year (FY) 2011. In FY 2011, Southwestern delivered over 4.1 billion kilowatt-hours of energy to its wholesale customers in Arkansas, Kansas, Louisiana, Missouri, Oklahoma, and Texas, generating $167 million in revenue. In fulfilling its mission to market and reliably deliver renewable Federal hydroelectric power, Southwestern maintains 1,380 miles of high-voltage transmission lines, substations, and communications sites, contributing to the reliability of the regional and National electric grid. Southwestern also actively partners with the Department of Energy, the U.S. Army Corps of Engineers, Southwestern’s customers, and other Federal power stakeholders to most effectively balance their diverse interests with Southwestern’s mission while continuing to maximize Federal assets to repay the Federal investment in the 24 hydropower facilities within Southwestern’s marketing region. Southwestern is proud of its past successes, and we look forward to continuing to serve the Nation’s energy needs in the future. Sincerely, Christopher M. Turner Administrator

  8. Southwestern Power Administration Annual Report 2010

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    none,

    2012-09-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Dear Secretary Chu: I am pleased to present the financial statements and operating data for Southwestern Power Administration (Southwestern) for Fiscal Year (FY) 2010. In FY 2010, Southwestern delivered nearly 7.6 billion kilowatt-hours of energy to its wholesale customers in Arkansas, Kansas, Louisiana, Missouri, Texas, and Oklahoma, generating $189 million in revenue. In fulfilling its mission to market and reliably deliver renewable Federal hydroelectric power, Southwestern maintains 1,380 miles of high-voltage transmission lines, substations, and communications sites, contributing to the reliability of the regional and National electric grid. Southwestern also actively partners with the Department of Energy, the U.S. Army Corps of Engineers, Southwestern’s customers, and other Federal power stakeholders to most effectively balance their diverse interests with Southwestern’s mission while continuing to maximize Federal assets to repay the Federal investment in the 24 hydropower facilities within Southwestern’s marketing region. Southwestern is proud of its past successes, and we look forward to continuing to serve the Nation’s energy needs in the future. Sincerely, Christopher M. Turner Administrator

  9. A guide to geothermal energy and the environment

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Kagel, Alyssa; Bates, Diana; Gawell, Karl

    2005-04-22T23:59:59.000Z

    Geothermal energy, defined as heat from the Earth, is a statute-recognized renewable resource. The first U.S. geothermal power plant, opened at The Geysers in California in 1960, continues to operate successfully. The United States, as the world's largest producer of geothermal electricity, generates an average of 15 billion kilowatt hours of power per year, comparable to burning close to 25 million barrels of oil or 6 million short tons of coal per year. Geothermal has a higher capacity factor (a measure of the amount of real time during which a facility is used) than many other power sources. Unlike wind and solar resources, which are more dependent upon weather fluctuations and climate changes, geothermal resources are available 24 hours a day, 7 days a week. While the carrier medium for geothermal electricity (water) must be properly managed, the source of geothermal energy, the Earth's heat, will be available indefinitely. A geothermal resource assessment shows that nine western states together have the potential to provide over 20 percent of national electricity needs. Although geothermal power plants, concentrated in the West, provide the third largest domestic source of renewable electricity after hydropower and biomass, they currently produce less than one percent of total U.S. electricity.

  10. Cost Avoidance vs. Utility Bill Accounting - Explaining theDiscrepancy Between Guaranteed Savings in ESPC Projects and UtilityBills

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Kumar, S.; Sartor, D.

    2005-08-15T23:59:59.000Z

    Federal agencies often ask if Energy Savings PerformanceContracts (ESPCs) result in the energy and cost savings projected duringthe project development phase. After investing in ESPCs, federal agenciesexpect a reduction in the total energy use and energy cost at the agencylevel. Such questions about the program are common when implementing anESPC project. But is this a fair or accurate perception? Moreimportantly, should the federal agencies evaluate the success or failureof ESPCs by comparing the utility costs before and after projectimplementation?In fact, ESPC contracts employ measurement andverification (M&V) protocols to measure and ensure kilowatt-hour orBTU savings at the project level. In most cases, the translation toenergy cost savings is not based on actual utility rate structure, but acontracted utility rate that takes the existing utility rate at the timethe contract is signed with a clause to escalate the utility rate by afixed percentage for the duration of the contract. Reporting mechanisms,which advertise these savings in dollars, may imply an impact to budgetsat a much higher level depending on actual utility rate structure. FEMPhas prepared the following analysis to explain why the utility billreduction may not materialize, demonstrate its larger implication onagency s energy reduction goals, and advocate setting the rightexpectations at the outset to preempt the often asked question why I amnot seeing the savings in my utility bill?

  11. Defining a Standard Metric for Electricity Savings

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Brown, Marilyn; Akbari, Hashem; Blumstein, Carl; Koomey, Jonathan; Brown, Richard; Calwell, Chris; Carter, Sheryl; Cavanagh, Ralph; Chang, Audrey; Claridge, David; Craig, Paul; Diamond, Rick; Eto, Joseph H.; Fulkerson, William; Gadgil, Ashok; Geller, Howard; Goldemberg, Jose; Goldman, Chuck; Goldstein, David B.; Greenberg, Steve; Hafemeister, David; Harris, Jeff; Harvey, Hal; Heitz, Eric; Hirst, Eric; Hummel, Holmes; Kammen, Dan; Kelly, Henry; Laitner, Skip; Levine, Mark; Lovins, Amory; Masters, Gil; McMahon, James E.; Meier, Alan; Messenger, Michael; Millhone, John; Mills, Evan; Nadel, Steve; Nordman, Bruce; Price, Lynn; Romm, Joe; Ross, Marc; Rufo, Michael; Sathaye, Jayant; Schipper, Lee; Schneider, Stephen H; Sweeney, James L; Verdict, Malcolm; Vorsatz, Diana; Wang, Devra; Weinberg, Carl; Wilk, Richard; Wilson, John; Worrell, Ernst

    2009-03-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The growing investment by governments and electric utilities in energy efficiency programs highlights the need for simple tools to help assess and explain the size of the potential resource. One technique that is commonly used in this effort is to characterize electricity savings in terms of avoided power plants, because it is easier for people to visualize a power plant than it is to understand an abstraction such as billions of kilowatt-hours. Unfortunately, there is no standardization around the characteristics of such power plants. In this letter we define parameters for a standard avoided power plant that have physical meaning and intuitive plausibility, for use in back-of-the-envelope calculations. For the prototypical plant this article settles on a 500 MW existing coal plant operating at a 70percent capacity factor with 7percent T&D losses. Displacing such a plant for one year would save 3 billion kW h per year at the meter and reduce emissions by 3 million metric tons of CO2 per year. The proposed name for this metric is the Rosenfeld, in keeping with the tradition among scientists of naming units in honor of the person most responsible for the discovery and widespread adoption of the underlying scientific principle in question--Dr. Arthur H. Rosenfeld.

  12. Market Transformation (Fact Sheet)

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Not Available

    2011-10-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Through the SunShot Initiative, the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) works with manufacturers, communities, states, utilities, and other partners to enable the solar market by reducing non-hardware balance-of-system (BOS) costs, developing a skilled workforce, and eliminating market barriers to widespread adoption of solar technologies. The DOE SunShot Initiative is a collaborative national initiative to make solar energy technologies cost-competitive with other forms of energy by reducing the cost of solar energy systems by about 75% by the end of the decade. Reducing the total installed cost for utility-scale solar electricity to roughly 6 cents per kilowatt hour without subsidies will result in rapid, large-scale adoption of solar electricity across the United States. Reaching this goal will re-establish American technological leadership, improve the nation's energy security, and strengthen U.S. economic competitiveness in the global clean energy race. SunShot will work to bring down the full cost of solar - including the costs of solar cells and installation by focusing on four main pillars: (1) Technologies for solar cells and arrays that convert sunlight to energy; (2) Electronics that optimize the performance of the installation; (3) Improvements in the efficiency of solar manufacturing processes; and (4) Installation, design, and permitting for solar energy systems.

  13. Emissions of greenhouse gases from the use of transportation fuels and electricity. Volume 1, Main text

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    DeLuchi, M.A. [California Univ., Davis, CA (United States)

    1991-11-01T23:59:59.000Z

    This report presents estimates of full fuel-cycle emissions of greenhouse gases from using transportation fuels and electricity. The data cover emissions of carbon dioxide (CO{sub 2}), methane, carbon monoxide, nitrous oxide, nitrogen oxides, and nonmethane organic compounds resulting from the end use of fuels, compression or liquefaction of gaseous transportation fuels, fuel distribution, fuel production, feedstock transport, feedstock recovery, manufacture of motor vehicles, maintenance of transportation systems, manufacture of materials used in major energy facilities, and changes in land use that result from using biomass-derived fuels. The results for electricity use are in grams of CO{sub 2}-equivalent emissions per kilowatt-hour of electricity delivered to end users and cover generating plants powered by coal, oil, natural gas, methanol, biomass, and nuclear energy. The transportation analysis compares CO{sub 2}-equivalent emissions, in grams per mile, from base-case gasoline and diesel fuel cycles with emissions from these alternative- fuel cycles: methanol from coal, natural gas, or wood; compressed or liquefied natural gas; synthetic natural gas from wood; ethanol from corn or wood; liquefied petroleum gas from oil or natural gas; hydrogen from nuclear or solar power; electricity from coal, uranium, oil, natural gas, biomass, or solar energy, used in battery-powered electric vehicles; and hydrogen and methanol used in fuel-cell vehicles.

  14. Assessing geothermal energy potential in upstate New York. Final report, Tasks 1, 3, and 4

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Manger, K.C.

    1996-07-25T23:59:59.000Z

    New York State`s geothermal energy potential was evaluated based on a new resource assessment performed by the State University of New York at Buffalo (SUNY-Buffalo) and currently commercial technologies, many of which have become available since New York`s potential was last evaluated. General background on geothermal energy and technologies was provided. A life-cycle cost analysis was performed to evaluate the economics of using geothermal energy to generate electricity in upstate New York. A conventional rankine cycle, binary power system was selected for the economic evaluation, based on SUNY-Buffalo`s resource assessment. Binary power systems are the most technologically suitable for upstate New York`s resources and have the added advantage of being environmentally attractive. Many of the potential environmental impacts associated with geothermal energy are not an issue in binary systems because the geothermal fluids are contained in a closed-loop and used solely to heat a working fluid that is then used to generate the electricity Three power plant sizes were selected based on geologic data supplied by SUNY-Buffalo. The hypothetical power plants were designed as 5 MW modular units and sized at 5 MW, 10 MW and 15 MW. The life-cycle cost analysis suggested that geothermal electricity in upstate New York, using currently commercial technology, will probably cost between 14 and 18 cents per kilowatt-hour.

  15. US Department of Energy`s high-temperature and high-pressure particulate cleanup for advanced coal-based power systems

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Dennis, R.A.

    1997-05-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The availability of reliable, low-cost electricity is a cornerstone for the United States` ability to compete in the world market. The Department of Energy (DOE) projects the total consumption of electricity in the US to rise from 2.7 trillion kilowatt-hours in 1990 to 3.5 trillion in 2010. Although energy sources are diversifying, fossil fuel still produces 90 percent of the nation`s energy. Coal is our most abundant fossil fuel resource and the source of 56 percent of our electricity. It has been the fuel of choice because of its availability and low cost. A new generation of high-efficiency power systems has made it possible to continue the use of coal while still protecting the environment. Such power systems greatly reduce the pollutants associated with cola-fired plants built before the 1970s. To realize this high efficiency and superior environmental performance, advanced coal-based power systems will require gas stream cleanup under high-temperature and high-pressure (HTHP) process conditions. Presented in this paper are the HTHP particulate capture requirements for the Integrated Gasification Combined Cycle (IGCC) and Pressurized Fluidized-Bed Combustion (PFBC) power systems, the HTHP particulate cleanup systems being implemented in the PFBC and IGCC Clean Coal Technology (CCT) Projects, and the currently available particulate capture performance results.

  16. Assessing the Battery Cost at Which Plug-In Hybrid Medium-Duty Parcel Delivery Vehicles Become Cost-Effective

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Ramroth, L. A.; Gonder, J. D.; Brooker, A. D.

    2013-04-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL) validated diesel-conventional and diesel-hybrid medium-duty parcel delivery vehicle models to evaluate petroleum reductions and cost implications of hybrid and plug-in hybrid diesel variants. The hybrid and plug-in hybrid variants are run on a field data-derived design matrix to analyze the effect of drive cycle, distance, engine downsizing, battery replacements, and battery energy on fuel consumption and lifetime cost. For an array of diesel fuel costs, the battery cost per kilowatt-hour at which the hybridized configuration becomes cost-effective is calculated. This builds on a previous analysis that found the fuel savings from medium duty plug-in hybrids more than offset the vehicles' incremental price under future battery and fuel cost projections, but that they seldom did so under present day cost assumptions in the absence of purchase incentives. The results also highlight the importance of understanding the application's drive cycle specific daily distance and kinetic intensity.

  17. Technology to play hand in future power market

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Balzhiser, R.E. [Electric Power Research Institute, Palo Alto, CA (United States)

    1997-12-31T23:59:59.000Z

    A revolution is coming to the electricity industry, and it`s coming fast. As deregulation proceeds apace, new technologies promise greater efficiencies in everything from the power plant to the transmission grid. {open_quotes}In fact, technologies emerging from two different industry segments, aerospace and gas, have fused over the last decade to create a potent new competitor, the gas-fired combustion turbine, which is reshaping the electricity business,{close_quotes} says Richard E. Balzhiser, president emeritus of the Electric Power Research Institute in Palo Alto, California. One machine, which uses technology borrowed from the jet engine, is inexpensive, portable, and highly efficient. In fact, {open_quotes}6-watt personal turbines are being developed for military personnel,{close_quotes} Balzhiser says. But new technologies will not likely force the early retirement of our coal-fired and nuclear power plants. {open_quotes}Despite the bad press these facilities have received, we should remain committed to today`s top-performing coal and nuclear units.{close_quotes} Innovations are also on the horizon in electronic information systems and new electrotechnologies - {open_quotes}We`ll be buying comfort, refrigerated space, RPMs and horsepower, portable power, and light in the years ahead, not just kilowatt-hours,{close_quotes} Balzhiser says.

  18. Proceedings of the workshop on cool building materials

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Akbari, H.; Fishman, B. [Lawrence Berkeley Lab., CA (United States); Frohnsdorff, G. [National Inst. of Standards and Technology (NEL), Gaithersburg, MD (United States). Building Materials Div.] [eds.

    1994-04-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The Option 9, Cool Communities, of the Clinton-Gore Climate Change Action Plan (CCAP) calls for mobilizing community and corporate resources to strategically plant trees and lighten the surfaces of buildings and roads in order to reduce cooling energy use of the buildings. It is estimated that Cool Communities Project will potentially save over 100 billion kilowatt-hour of energy per year corresponding to 27 million tons of carbon per year by the year 2015. To pursue the CCAP`s objectives, Lawrence Berkeley Laboratory (LBL) on behalf of the Department of Energy and the Environmental Protection Agency, in cooperation with the Building and Fire Research Laboratory of the National Institute of Standards and Technology (NIST), organized a one-day meeting to (1) explore the need for developing a national plan to assess the technical feasibility and commercial potential of high-albedo (``cool``) building materials, and if appropriate, to (2) outline a course of action for developing the plan. The meeting took place on February 28, 1994, in Gaithersburg, Maryland. The proceedings of the conference, Cool Building Materials, includes the minutes of the conference and copies of presentation materials distributed by the conference participants.

  19. Investigation of design options for improving the energy efficiency of conventionally designed refrigerator-freezers

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Sand, J.R.; Vineyard, E.A. [Oak Ridge National Lab., TN (United States); Bohman, R.H. [Consulting Engineer, Cedar Rapids, IA (United States)

    1993-11-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Several design options for improving the energy efficiency of conventionally-designed, domestic refrigerator freezers (RFs) were incorporated into two 1990 production RF cabinets and refrigeration systems. The baseline performance of the original units and unit components were extensively documented to provide a firm basis for experimentally measured energy savings. A detailed refrigerator system computer model which could simulate cycling behavior was used to evaluate the daily energy use impacts for each modification, and modeled versus experimental results are compared. The model was shown to track measured RF performance improvement sufficiently well that it was used with some confidence to investigate additional options that could not be experimentally investigated. Substantial improvements in RF efficiency were demonstrated with relatively minor changes in system components and refrigeration circuit design. However, each improvement exacts a penalty in terms of increased cost or system complexity/reliability. For RF sizes typically sold in the United States (18-22 ft{sup 3} [510--620 1]), alternative, more-elaborate, refrigeration cycles may be required to achieve the program goal (1.00 Kilowatt-hour per day for a 560 l, top mount RF.

  20. Regulatory Considerations Associated with the Expanded Adoption of Distributed Solar

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Bird, L.; McLaren, J.; Heeter, J.; Linvill, C.; Shenot, J.; Sedano, R.; Migden-Ostrander, J.

    2013-11-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Increased adoption of distributed PV, and other forms of distributed generation, have the potential to affect utility-customer interactions, system costs recovery, and utility revenue streams. If a greater number of electricity customers choose to self-generate, demand for system power will decrease and utility fixed costs will have to be recovered over fewer kilowatt hours of sales. As such, regulators will need to determine the value and cost of additional distributed PV and determine the appropriate allocation of the costs and benefits among consumers. The potential for new business models to emerge also has implications for regulation and rate structures that ensure equitable solutions for all electricity grid users. This report examines regulatory tools and rate designs for addressing emerging issues with the expanded adoption of distributed PV and evaluates the potential effectiveness and viability of these options going forward. It offers the groundwork needed in order for regulators to explore mechanisms and ensure that utilities can collect sufficient revenues to provide reliable electric service, cover fixed costs, and balance cost equity among ratepayers -- while creating a value proposition for customers to adopt distributed PV.

  1. Accelerating Acceptance of Fuel Cell Backup Power Systems - Final Report

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Petrecky, James; Ashley, Christopher

    2014-07-21T23:59:59.000Z

    Since 2001, Plug Power has installed more than 800 stationary fuel cell systems worldwide. Plug Power’s prime power systems have produced approximately 6.5 million kilowatt hours of electricity and have accumulated more than 2.5 million operating hours. Intermittent, or backup, power products have been deployed with telecommunications carriers and government and utility customers in North and South America, Europe, the United Kingdom, Japan and South Africa. Some of the largest material handling operations in North America are currently using the company’s motive power units in fuel cell-powered forklifts for their warehouses, distribution centers and manufacturing facilities. The low-temperature GenSys fuel cell system provides remote, off-grid and primary power where grid power is unreliable or nonexistent. Built reliable and designed rugged, low- temperature GenSys delivers continuous or backup power through even the most extreme conditions. Coupled with high-efficiency ratings, low-temperature GenSys reduces operating costs making it an economical solution for prime power requirements. Currently, field trials at telecommunication and industrial sites across the globe are proving the advantages of fuel cells—lower maintenance, fuel costs and emissions, as well as longer life—compared with traditional internal combustion engines.

  2. Concentrating Solar Power (Fact Sheet)

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Not Available

    2011-10-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Concentrating Solar Power (CSP) offers a utility-scale, firm, dispatchable renewable energy option that can help meet the nation's goal of making solar energy cost competitive with other energy sources by the end of the decade. The DOE SunShot Initiative is a collaborative national initiative to make solar energy technologies cost-competitive with other forms of energy by reducing the cost of solar energy systems by about 75% by the end of the decade. Reducing the total installed cost for utility-scale solar electricity to roughly 6 cents per kilowatt hour without subsidies will result in rapid, large-scale adoption of solar electricity across the United States. Reaching this goal will re-establish American technological leadership, improve the nation's energy security, and strengthen U.S. economic competitiveness in the global clean energy race. SunShot will work to bring down the full cost of solar - including the costs of solar cells and installation by focusing on four main pillars: (1) Technologies for solar cells and arrays that convert sunlight to energy; (2) Electronics that optimize the performance of the installation; (3) Improvements in the efficiency of solar manufacturing processes; and (4) Installation, design, and permitting for solar energy systems.

  3. Commercial equipment loads: End-Use Load and Consumer Assessment Program (ELCAP)

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Pratt, R.G.; Williamson, M.A.; Richman, E.E.; Miller, N.E.

    1990-07-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The Office of Energy Resources of the Bonneville Power Administration is generally responsible for the agency's power and conservation resource planning. As associated responsibility which supports a variety of office functions is the analysis of historical trends in and determinants of energy consumption. The Office of Energy Resources' End-Use Research Section operates a comprehensive data collection program to provide pertinent information to support demand-side planning, load forecasting, and demand-side program development and delivery. Part of this on-going program is known as the End-Use Load and Consumer Assessment Program (ELCAP), an effort designed to collect electricity usage data through direct monitoring of end-use loads in buildings. This program is conducted for Bonneville by the Pacific Northwest Laboratory. This report provides detailed information on electricity consumption of miscellaneous equipment from the commercial portion of ELCAP. Miscellaneous equipment includes all commercial end-uses except heating, ventilating, air conditioning, and central lighting systems. Some examples of end-uses covered in this report are office equipment, computers, task lighting, refrigeration, and food preparation. Electricity consumption estimates, in kilowatt-hours per square food per year, are provided for each end-use by building type. The following types of buildings are covered: office, retail, restaurant, grocery, warehouse, school, university, and hotel/motel. 6 refs., 35 figs., 12 tabs.

  4. Fossil fuel derivatives with reduced carbon. Phase I final report

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Kennel, E.B.; Zondlo, J.W.; Cessna, T.J.

    1999-06-30T23:59:59.000Z

    This project involves the simultaneous production of clean fossil fuel derivatives with reduced carbon and sulfur, along with value-added carbon nanofibers. This can be accomplished because the nanofiber production process removes carbon via a catalyzed pyrolysis reaction, which also has the effect of removing 99.9% of the sulfur, which is trapped in the nanofibers. The reaction is mildly endothermic, meaning that net energy production with real reductions in greenhouse emissions are possible. In Phase I research, the feasibility of generating clean fossil fuel derivatives with reduced carbon was demonstrated by the successful design, construction and operation of a facility capable of utilizing coal as well as natural gas as an inlet feedstock. In the case of coal, for example, reductions in CO{sub 2} emissions can be as much as 70% (normalized according to kilowatts produced), with the majority of carbon safely sequestered in the form of carbon nanofibers or coke. Both of these products are value-added commodities, indicating that low-emission coal fuel can be done at a profit rather than a loss as is the case with most clean-up schemes. The main results of this project were as follows: (1) It was shown that the nanofiber production process produces hydrogen as a byproduct. (2) The hydrogen, or hydrogen-rich hydrocarbon mixture can be consumed with net release of enthalpy. (3) The greenhouse gas emissions from both coal and natural gas are significantly reduced. Because coal consumption also creates coke, the carbon emission can be reduced by 75% per kilowatt-hour of power produced.

  5. Property:Building/SPBreakdownOfElctrcityUseKwhM2HeatPumpsUsedForColg | Open

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page onYou are now leaving Energy.gov You are now leaving Energy.gov You are beingZealand Jump to: navigation,Pillar Group BV Jump to:InformationCaseType

  6. Assessment of a 40-kilowatt stirling engine for underground mining applications

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Cairelli, J.E.; Kelm, G.G.; Slaby, J.G.

    1982-06-01T23:59:59.000Z

    An assessment of alternative power souces for underground mining applications was performed. A 40-kW Stirling research engine was tested to evaluate its performance and emission characteristics when operated with helium working gas and diesel fuel. The engine, the test facility, and the test procedures are described. Performance and emission data for the engine operating with helium working gas and diesel fuel are reported and compared with data obtained with hydrogen working gas and unleaded gasoline fuel. Helium diesel test results are compared with the characteristics of current diesel engines and other Stirling engines. External surface temperature data are also presented. Emission and temperature results are compared with the Federal requirements for diesel underground mine engines. The durability potential of Stirling engines is discussed on the basis of the experience gaind during the engine tests.

  7. From comfort to kilowatts: An integrated assessment of electricity conservation in Thailand's commercial sector

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Busch, J.F. Jr.

    1990-08-01T23:59:59.000Z

    This document contains Appendix A, B, and C. In Appendix A, we are working as part of a research project with King Monkut's Institute of Technology, Thonburi, and the University of California, Berkeley (USA) to determine how people respond to the thermal environment inside buildings. We have prepared a short questionnaire which will survey thermal comfort. Our plan is to survey each building during each of three seasons over this year (e.g. hot, rainy, and cool seasons). Appendix B contains supporting technical documentation on conservation potential and Appendix C contains documentation on utility impacts.

  8. A market and engineering study of a 3-kilowatt class gas turbine generator

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Monroe, Mark A. (Mark Alan)

    2003-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Market and engineering studies were performed for the world's only commercially available 3 kW class gas turbine generator, the IHI Aerospace Dynajet. The objectives of the market study were to determine the competitive ...

  9. Heat pipe cooled reactors for multi-kilowatt space power supplies

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Ranken, W.A.; Houts, M.G.

    1995-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Three nuclear reactor space power system designs are described that demonstrate how the use of high temperature heat pipes for reactor heat transport, combined with direct conversion of heat to electricity, can result in eliminating pumped heat transport loops for both primary reactor cooling and heat rejection. The result is a significant reduction in system complexity that leads to very low mass systems with high reliability, especially in the power range of 1 to 20 kWe. In addition to removing heat exchangers, electromagnetic pumps, and coolant expansion chambers, the heat pipe/direct conversion combination provides such capabilities as startup from the frozen state, automatic rejection of reactor decay heat in the event of emergency or accidental reactor shutdown, and the elimination of single point failures in the reactor cooling system. The power system designs described include a thermoelectric system that can produce 1 to 2 kWe, a bimodal modification of this system to increase its power level to 5 kWe and incorporate high temperature hydrogen propulsion capability, and a moderated thermionic reactor concept with 5 to 20 kWe power output that is based on beryllium modules that thermally couple cylindrical thermionic fuel elements (TFEs) to radiator heat pipes.

  10. The Development of a Control System for a 5 Kilowatt Free Piston Stirling Space Convertor

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Kirby, Raymond L. [Space Research Institute, 231 Leach Center, Auburn University, Auburn University, AL, USA 36849-5320 (United States); Vitale, N. [Foster-Miller, Inc., 431 New Karner Rd., Albany, NY, USA 12205 (United States)

    2008-01-21T23:59:59.000Z

    The new NASA Vision for Exploration, announced by President Bush in January 2004, proposes an ambitious program that plans to return astronauts to the moon by the 2018 time frame. A recent NASA study entitled 'Affordable Fission Surface Power Study' recommended a 40 kWe, 900 K, NaK-cooled, Stirling conversion for 2020 launch. Use of two of the nominal 5 kW converters allows the system to be dynamically balanced. A group of four dual-converter combinations that would yield 40 kWe can be tested to validate the viability of Stirling technology for space fission surface power systems. The work described in this paper deals specifically with the control system for the 5 kW convertor described in the preceding paragraph. This control system is responsible for maintaining piston stroke to a setpoint in the presence of various disturbances including electrical load variations. Pulse starting of the FSPE convertor is also an inherent part of such a control system. Finally, the ability to throttle the engine to match the required output power is discussed in terms of setpoint control. Several novel ideas have been incorporated into the piston stroke control strategy that will engender a stable response to disturbances in the presence of midpoint drift while providing useful data regarding the position of both the power piston and displacer.

  11. Progress in Developing a New 5 Kilowatt Free-Piston Stirling Space Convertor

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Brandhorst, Henry W. Jr.; Kirby, Raymond L. [Space Research Institute, 231 Leach Center, Auburn University, Auburn University, AL, 36849-5320 (United States); Chapman, Peter A. [Foster-Miller, Inc., 431 New Karner Rd., Albany, NY, USA 12205 (United States)

    2008-01-21T23:59:59.000Z

    The NASA Vision for Exploration of the Moon envisions a nuclear reactor coupled with a free-piston Stirling convertor at a power level of 30-40 kWe. In the 1990s, Mechanical Technology, Inc.'s Stirling Engine Systems Division (now a part of Foster-Miller, Inc.) developed a 25 kWe free piston Stirling Space Power Demonstrator Engine under the SP-100 program. This system consisted of two 12.5 kWe engines connected at their hot ends and mounted in tandem to cancel vibration. Recently, NASA and DoE have been developing dual 55 We and 80 We Stirling convertor systems for use with radioisotope heat sources. Total test times of all convertors in this effort exceed 120,000 hours. Recently, NASA began a new project with Auburn University to develop a 5 kWe, single convertor for use in the Lunar power system. Goals of this development program include a specific power in excess of 140 We/kg at the convertor level, lifetime in excess of five years and a control system that will safely manage the convertors in case of an emergency. Auburn University awarded a subcontract to Foster-Miller, Inc. to undertake development of the 5 kWe Stirling Convertor Assembly. The characteristics of the design along with progress in developing the system will be described.

  12. U.S. Department of Energy -- Advanced Vehicle Testing Activity: Plug-in Hybrid Electric Vehicle Testing and Demonstration Activities

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    James E. Francfort; Donald Karner; John G. Smart

    2009-05-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The U.S. Department of Energy’s (DOE) Advanced Vehicle Testing Activity (AVTA) tests plug-in hybrid electric vehicles (PHEV) in closed track, dynamometer and onroad testing environments. The onroad testing includes the use of dedicated drivers on repeated urban and highway driving cycles that range from 10 to 200 miles, with recharging between each loop. Fleet demonstrations with onboard data collectors are also ongoing with PHEVs operating in several dozen states and Canadian Provinces, during which trips- and miles-per-charge, charging demand and energy profiles, and miles-per-gallon and miles-per-kilowatt-hour fuel use results are all documented, allowing an understanding of fuel use when vehicles are operated in charge depleting, charge sustaining, and mixed charge modes. The intent of the PHEV testing includes documenting the petroleum reduction potential of the PHEV concept, the infrastructure requirements, and operator recharging influences and profiles. As of May 2008, the AVTA has conducted track and dynamometer testing on six PHEV conversion models and fleet testing on 70 PHEVs representing nine PHEV conversion models. A total of 150 PHEVs will be in fleet testing by the end of 2008, all with onboard data loggers. The onroad testing to date has demonstrated 100+ miles per gallon results in mostly urban applications for approximately the first 40 miles of PHEV operations. The primary goal of the AVTA is to provide advanced technology vehicle performance benchmark data for technology modelers, research and development programs, and technology goal setters. The AVTA testing results also assist fleet managers in making informed vehicle purchase, deployment and operating decisions. The AVTA is part of DOE’s Vehicle Technologies Program. These AVTA testing activities are conducted by the Idaho National Laboratory and Electric Transportation Engineering Corporation, with Argonne National Laboratory providing dynamometer testing support. The proposed paper and presentation will discuss PHEV testing activities and results. INL/CON-08-14333

  13. Southwestern Power Administration Annual Report 2008

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    none,

    2010-12-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Dear Secretary Chu, I am pleased to present the financial statements and operating data for Southwestern Power Administration (Southwestern) for Fiscal Year (FY) 2008. In FY 2008, Southwestern delivered over 7.3 billion kilowatt-hours of energy to its wholesale customers – nearly 31% more than average due to numerous record rainfall amounts in the southwest region. These record amounts produced revenues which exceeded the average annual revenue requirement by nearly $20 million and resulted in over $200 million in economic benefits to the region. Yet even as Southwestern exceeded its goals of marketing and delivering Federal hydroelectric power to our customers, we stayed focused on safety, security, and reliability. For example, we maintained our nearly 1,400 miles of high-voltage transmission lines, substations, and communications sites while achieving a Recordable Accident Frequency Rate of 0.0, a record that reflects Southwestern’s safety achievement of no recordable injuries for every 200,000 hours worked. We kept our rights-of-way secure from vegetation and other obstacles, work that not only supports our mission but also promotes reliability of the regional and National grid. We exceeded all North American Electric Reliability Corporation (NERC) Control Performance Standards (CPS- 1 and CPS-2), and maintained regulation and reserve obligations and reactive reserve margins to ensure the reliability of the bulk electric system, even during extended periods of restricted hydro operations due to unusually high project inflows. Finally, we continued our partnerships with the Department of Energy, the U.S. Army Corps of Engineers, our customers, and other Federal power stakeholders, partnerships that are vital to our continued success in marketing and delivering carbon-free, renewable, and domestically produced energy to our customers and to the Nation. Sincerely, Jon Worthington Administrator

  14. Southeastern Power Administration 2007 Annual Report

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    none,

    2007-12-28T23:59:59.000Z

    Dear Secretary Chu: I am proud to submit Southeastern Power Administration’s (Southeastern’s) fiscal year (FY) 2007 Annual Report for your review. The information included in this report reflects Southeastern’s programs, accomplishments, and financial activities for the 12-month period beginning October 1, 2006 and ending September 30, 2007. Southeastern marketed more than 5 billion kilowatt-hours of energy to 492 wholesale Federal power customers in an 11-state marketing area in FY 2007. Revenues from the sale of this power totaled approximately $219 million. Drought conditions continued to plague the southeast region of the United States during 2007 placing strains on our natural and financial resources. Southeastern purchased more than $40 million in replacement power to meet customer contract requirements to ensure the continued reliability of our nation’s power grid. With the financial assistance and support of our Federal power customers, continued funding for capitalized equipment replacements at various Corps of Engineers’ (Corps) hydroelectric projects provided much needed repairs and maintenance for aging facilities. Southeastern’s cyber and physical security program continued to be reviewed and updated to meet Department of Energy (DOE), Homeland Security, and North American Electric Reliability Corporation standards and requirements. Plans for the upcoming year include communication and cooperation with DOE, Federal power customers, and the Corps to maximize the benefits of our nation’s water resources. Competition for the use of water and the prolonged drought conditions will present another challenging year for our agency. The employees at Southeastern will be proactive in meeting these challenges and providing reliable hydroelectric power to the people in the southeast. Sincerely, Kenneth E. Legg Administrator

  15. Southeastern Power Administration 2011 Annual Report

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    none,

    2011-12-31T23:59:59.000Z

    Dear Secretary Chu: I am pleased to submit Southeastern Power Administration’s (Southeastern) fiscal year (FY) 2011 Annual Report for your review. This report reflects our agency’s programs, accomplishments, operational, and financial activities for the 12-month period beginning October 1, 2010, and ending September 31, 2011. This past year, Southeastern marketed approximately 6.2 billion kilowatt-hours of energy to 489 wholesale customers in 10 southeastern states. Revenues from the sale of this power totaled more than $264 million. With the financial assistance and support of Southeastern’s customers, funding for capitalized equipment purchases and replacements at hydroelectric facilities operated by the U.S. Army Corps of Engineers (Corps) continued in FY 2011. This funding, which totaled more than $45 million, provided much needed repairs and maintenance for aging projects in Southeastern’s marketing area. Currently, there are more than 214 customers participating in the funding efforts in the Georgia-Alabama-South Carolina, Kerr-Philpott, and Cumberland Systems of projects. Drought conditions continued in the southeastern region of the United States this past year, particularly in the Savannah River Basin. Lack of rain placed strains on our natural and financial resources. Power purchases for FY 2011 totaled approximately $38 million. About $9 million of this amount was for replacement power, which is purchased only during adverse water conditions in order to meet Southeastern’s customer contract requirements. Southeastern’s goal is to maximize the benefits of our region’s water resources. Competing uses of these resources will present another challenging year for Southeastern’s employees. With the cooperation and communication among the Department of Energy (DOE), preference customers, and Corps, I am certain Southeastern is positioned to meet these challenges in the future. We are committed to providing reliable hydroelectric power to preference customers, which ultimately serve more than 12 million consumers in the southeast.

  16. Southeastern Power Administration 2012 Annual Report

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    none,

    2012-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Dear Secretary Moniz: I am pleased to submit Southeastern Power Administration’s (Southeastern) fiscal year (FY) 2012 Annual Report for your review. This report reflects our agency’s programs, accomplishments, operational, and financial activities for the 12-month period beginning October 1, 2011, and ending September 30, 2012. This past year, Southeastern marketed approximately 5.4 billion kilowatt-hours of energy to 487 wholesale customers in 10 southeastern states. Revenues from the sale of this power totaled about $263 million. With the financial assistance and support of Southeastern’s customers, funding for capitalized equipment purchases and replacements at hydroelectric facilities operated by the U.S. Army Corps of Engineers (Corps) continued in FY 2012. Currently, there are more than 214 customers participating in funding infrastructure renewal efforts of powerplants feeding the Georgia-Alabama-South Carolina, Kerr-Philpott, and Cumberland Systems. This funding, which totaled more than $71 million, provided much needed repairs and maintenance for aging projects in Southeastern’s marketing area. Drought conditions continued in the southeastern region of the United States this past year, particularly in the Savannah River Basin. Lack of rainfall strained our natural and financial resources. Power purchases for FY 2012 in the Georgia-Alabama-South Carolina System totaled approximately $29 million. About $8 million of this amount was for replacement power, which is purchased only during adverse water conditions in order to meet Southeastern’s customer contract requirements. Southeastern’s goal is to maximize the benefits of our region’s water resources. Competing uses of these resources will present another challenging year for Southeastern’s employees. With the cooperation and communication among the Department of Energy (DOE), preference customers, and Corps, I am certain Southeastern is positioned to meet these challenges in the future. We are committed to providing reliable hydroelectric power to preference customers, which ultimately serve more than 12 million consumers in the southeast. Sincerely, Kenneth E. Legg Administrator

  17. Life Cycle Greenhouse Gas Emissions of Nuclear Electricity Generation: Systematic Review and Harmonization

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Warner, E. S.; Heath, G. A.

    2012-04-01T23:59:59.000Z

    A systematic review and harmonization of life cycle assessment (LCA) literature of nuclear electricity generation technologies was performed to determine causes of and, where possible, reduce variability in estimates of life cycle greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions to clarify the state of knowledge and inform decision making. LCA literature indicates that life cycle GHG emissions from nuclear power are a fraction of traditional fossil sources, but the conditions and assumptions under which nuclear power are deployed can have a significant impact on the magnitude of life cycle GHG emissions relative to renewable technologies. Screening 274 references yielded 27 that reported 99 independent estimates of life cycle GHG emissions from light water reactors (LWRs). The published median, interquartile range (IQR), and range for the pool of LWR life cycle GHG emission estimates were 13, 23, and 220 grams of carbon dioxide equivalent per kilowatt-hour (g CO{sub 2}-eq/kWh), respectively. After harmonizing methods to use consistent gross system boundaries and values for several important system parameters, the same statistics were 12, 17, and 110 g CO{sub 2}-eq/kWh, respectively. Harmonization (especially of performance characteristics) clarifies the estimation of central tendency and variability. To explain the remaining variability, several additional, highly influential consequential factors were examined using other methods. These factors included the primary source energy mix, uranium ore grade, and the selected LCA method. For example, a scenario analysis of future global nuclear development examined the effects of a decreasing global uranium market-average ore grade on life cycle GHG emissions. Depending on conditions, median life cycle GHG emissions could be 9 to 110 g CO{sub 2}-eq/kWh by 2050.

  18. Aquaculture in the Imperial Valley -- A geothermal success story

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Rafferty, K. [Geo-Heat Center, Klamath Falls, OR (United States)

    1999-03-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The Salton Sea and Imperial Valley area of southern California has long been recognized as a hot spot of geothermal development. In the geothermal industry, this area has for some time been synonymous with electric power generation projects. Starting with the first plant in East Mesa in 1979, geothermal power has increased over the years to the present 400+ MW of installed capacity in the three primary areas of Salton Sea, Heber and East Mesa. Although most in the industry are aware of the millions of kilowatt-hours annually produced in this desert oasis of development, they remain surprisingly uninformed about the Valley`s other geothermal industry -- aquaculture. At present, there are approximately 15 fish farming (or aquaculture) operations clustered, for the most part, around the Salton Sea. All of these farms use geothermal fluids to control the temperature of the fish culture facilities so as to produce larger fish in a shorter period of time and to permit winter production which would otherwise not be possible. In aggregate, these farms produce on the order of 10,000,000 lbs of fish per year most of which is sold into the California market. Principle species are catfish, striped bass and tilapia. For the past several years, tilapia has been the fastest growing part of the aquaculture industry. In 1996, the total US consumption of tilapia was 62,000 lbs. Of this, only 16,000,000 lbs (26%) was domestically produced and the balance imported. The primary market for the fish on the West Coast is among the Asian-American populations in the major cities. Fish are shipped and sold liver at the retail level.

  19. Southeastern Power Administration 2008 Annual Report

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    none,

    2008-12-29T23:59:59.000Z

    Dear Secretary Chu: I am pleased to submit Southeastern Power Administration’s (Southeastern’s) fiscal year (FY) 2008 Annual Report for your review. The information included in this document reflects our agency’s programs, accomplishments, operational and financial activities for the 12-month period beginning October 1, 2007 and ending September 30, 2008. Southeastern marketed more than 4.5 billion kilowatt-hours of energy to 491 wholesale customers in ten southeastern states this past year. Revenues from the sale of this power totaled approximately $263 million. Drought conditions persisted in the southeastern region of the United States during FY 2008 placing strains on our natural and financial resources. Power purchases for FY 2008 totaled $91 million. Approximately $44 million of this amount was for replacement power which is paid only during adverse water conditions in order to meet our customers’ contract requirements. With the continued financial assistance and support of our Federal power customers, funding for capitalized equipment purchases and replacements at U.S. Army Corps of Engineers’ (Corps) hydroelectric projects provided much needed repairs and maintenance for these aging facilities. Southeastern’s cyber and physical security programs continued to be reviewed and updated to meet Department of Energy (DOE), Homeland Security, and North American Electric Reliability Corporation (NERC) standards and requirements. In the coming year, Southeastern will continue open communication and cooperation with DOE, the Federal power customers, and the Corps to maximize the benefits of our region’s water resources. Although competing uses of water and the prolonged drought conditions will present another challenging year for our agency, Southeastern’s employees will meet these challenges and continue to provide reliable hydroelectric power to the people in the southeast. Sincerely, Kenneth E.Legg Administrator

  20. Opportunities for Demand Response in California Agricultural Irrigation: A Scoping Study

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Marks, Gary; Wilcox, Edmund; Olsen, Daniel; Goli, Sasank

    2013-01-02T23:59:59.000Z

    California agricultural irrigation consumes more than ten billion kilowatt hours of electricity annually and has significant potential for contributing to a reduction of stress on the grid through demand response, permanent load shifting, and energy efficiency measures. To understand this potential, a scoping study was initiated for the purpose of determining the associated opportunities, potential, and adoption challenges in California agricultural irrigation. The primary research for this study was conducted in two ways. First, data was gathered and parsed from published sources that shed light on where the best opportunities for load shifting and demand response lie within the agricultural irrigation sector. Secondly, a small limited survey was conducted as informal face-to-face interviews with several different California growers to get an idea of their ability and willingness to participate in permanent load shifting and/or demand response programs. Analysis of the data obtained from published sources and the survey reveal demand response and permanent load shifting opportunities by growing region, irrigation source, irrigation method, grower size, and utility coverage. The study examines some solutions for demand response and permanent load shifting in agricultural irrigation, which include adequate irrigation system capacity, automatic controls, variable frequency drives, and the contribution from energy efficiency measures. The study further examines the potential and challenges for grower acceptance of demand response and permanent load shifting in California agricultural irrigation. As part of the examination, the study considers to what extent permanent load shifting, which is already somewhat accepted within the agricultural sector, mitigates the need or benefit of demand response for agricultural irrigation. Recommendations for further study include studies on how to gain grower acceptance of demand response as well as other related studies such as conducting a more comprehensive survey of California growers.

  1. ``White Land``...new Russian closed-cycle nuclear technology for global deployment

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Bowman, C.D.

    1996-07-01T23:59:59.000Z

    A Russian technology called ``White Land`` is being pursued which is based on their heavy-metal-cooled fast spectrum reactor technology developed to power their super-fast Alpha Class submarines. These reactors have important safety advantages over the more conventional sodium-cooled fast breeder reactors but preserve some of the attractive operational features of the fast spectrum systems. Perhaps chief among these advantages in the current political milieu is their ability to generate energy from any nuclide heavier than thorium including HEU, weapons plutonium, commercial plutonium, neptunium, americium, and curium. While there are several scenarios for deployment of these systems, the most attractive perhaps is containment in submarine-like enclosures to be placed underwater near a coastal population center. A Russian organization named the Alphabet Company would build the reactors and maintain title to them. The company would be paid on the basis of kilowatt-hours delivered. The reactors would not require refueling for 10--15 years and no maintenance violating the radiation containment would be required or would be carried out at the deployment site. The host country need not develop any nuclear technology or accept any nuclear waste. When the fuel load has been burned, the entire unit would be towed to Archangel, Russia for refueling. The fission product would be removed from the fuel by ``dry`` molten salt technology to minimize the waste stream and the fissile material would be returned to the reactor for further burning. The fission product waste would be stored at New Land Island, their current nuclear test site in the Arctic. If concerns over fission product justify it, the long-lived species will be transmuted in an accelerator-driven system. Apparently this project is backed at the highest levels of MINATOM and the Alphabet Company has the funding to proceed.

  2. The New York Power Authority`s energy-efficient refrigerator program for the New York City Housing Authority -- 1997 savings evaluation

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Pratt, R.G.; Miller, J.D.

    1998-09-01T23:59:59.000Z

    This document describes the estimation of the annual energy savings achieved from the replacement of 20,000 refrigerators in New York City Housing Authority (NYCHA) public housing with new, highly energy-efficient models in 1997. The US Department of Housing and Urban Development (HUD) pays NYCHA`s electricity bills, and agreed to reimburse NYCHA for the cost of the refrigerator installations. Energy savings over the lifetime of the refrigerators accrue to HUD. Savings were demonstrated by a metering project and are the subject of the analysis reported here. The New York Power Authority (NYPA) identified the refrigerator with the lowest life-cycle cost, including energy consumption over its expected lifetime, through a request for proposals (RFP) issued to manufacturers for a bulk purchase of 20,000 units in 1997. The procurement was won by Maytag with a 15-ft{sup 3} top-freezer automatic-defrost refrigerator rated at 437 kilowatt-hours/year (kWh/yr). NYCHA then contracted with NYPA to purchase, finance, and install the new refrigerators, and demanufacture and recycle materials from the replaced units. The US Department of Energy (DOE) helped develop and plan the project through the ENERGY STAR{reg_sign} Partnerships program conducted by its Pacific Northwest National Laboratory (PNNL). PNNL designed the metering protocol and occupant survey used in 1997, supplied and calibrated the metering equipment, and managed and analyzed the data collected by NYPA. The objective of the 1997 metering study was to achieve a general understanding of savings as a function of refrigerator label ratings, occupant effects, indoor and compartment temperatures, and characteristics (such as size, defrost features, and vintage). The data collected in 1997 was used to construct models of refrigerator energy consumption as a function of key refrigerator and occupant characteristics.

  3. Life Cycle Greenhouse Gas Emissions of Utility-Scale Wind Power: Systematic Review and Harmonization

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Dolan, S. L.; Heath, G. A.

    2012-04-01T23:59:59.000Z

    A systematic review and harmonization of life cycle assessment (LCA) literature of utility-scale wind power systems was performed to determine the causes of and, where possible, reduce variability in estimates of life cycle greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions. Screening of approximately 240 LCAs of onshore and offshore systems yielded 72 references meeting minimum thresholds for quality, transparency, and relevance. Of those, 49 references provided 126 estimates of life cycle GHG emissions. Published estimates ranged from 1.7 to 81 grams CO{sub 2}-equivalent per kilowatt-hour (g CO{sub 2}-eq/kWh), with median and interquartile range (IQR) both at 12 g CO{sub 2}-eq/kWh. After adjusting the published estimates to use consistent gross system boundaries and values for several important system parameters, the total range was reduced by 47% to 3.0 to 45 g CO{sub 2}-eq/kWh and the IQR was reduced by 14% to 10 g CO{sub 2}-eq/kWh, while the median remained relatively constant (11 g CO{sub 2}-eq/kWh). Harmonization of capacity factor resulted in the largest reduction in variability in life cycle GHG emission estimates. This study concludes that the large number of previously published life cycle GHG emission estimates of wind power systems and their tight distribution suggest that new process-based LCAs of similar wind turbine technologies are unlikely to differ greatly. However, additional consequential LCAs would enhance the understanding of true life cycle GHG emissions of wind power (e.g., changes to other generators operations when wind electricity is added to the grid), although even those are unlikely to fundamentally change the comparison of wind to other electricity generation sources.

  4. Life Cycle Greenhouse Gas Emissions of Coal-Fired Electricity Generation: Systematic Review and Harmonization

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Whitaker, M.; Heath, G. A.; O'Donoughue, P.; Vorum, M.

    2012-04-01T23:59:59.000Z

    This systematic review and harmonization of life cycle assessments (LCAs) of utility-scale coal-fired electricity generation systems focuses on reducing variability and clarifying central tendencies in estimates of life cycle greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions. Screening 270 references for quality LCA methods, transparency, and completeness yielded 53 that reported 164 estimates of life cycle GHG emissions. These estimates for subcritical pulverized, integrated gasification combined cycle, fluidized bed, and supercritical pulverized coal combustion technologies vary from 675 to 1,689 grams CO{sub 2}-equivalent per kilowatt-hour (g CO{sub 2}-eq/kWh) (interquartile range [IQR]= 890-1,130 g CO{sub 2}-eq/kWh; median = 1,001) leading to confusion over reasonable estimates of life cycle GHG emissions from coal-fired electricity generation. By adjusting published estimates to common gross system boundaries and consistent values for key operational input parameters (most importantly, combustion carbon dioxide emission factor [CEF]), the meta-analytical process called harmonization clarifies the existing literature in ways useful for decision makers and analysts by significantly reducing the variability of estimates ({approx}53% in IQR magnitude) while maintaining a nearly constant central tendency ({approx}2.2% in median). Life cycle GHG emissions of a specific power plant depend on many factors and can differ from the generic estimates generated by the harmonization approach, but the tightness of distribution of harmonized estimates across several key coal combustion technologies implies, for some purposes, first-order estimates of life cycle GHG emissions could be based on knowledge of the technology type, coal mine emissions, thermal efficiency, and CEF alone without requiring full LCAs. Areas where new research is necessary to ensure accuracy are also discussed.

  5. Deep Eutectic Salt Formulations Suitable as Advanced Heat Transfer Fluids

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Raade, Justin; Roark, Thomas; Vaughn, John; Bradshaw, Robert

    2013-07-22T23:59:59.000Z

    Concentrating solar power (CSP) facilities are comprised of many miles of fluid-filled pipes arranged in large grids with reflective mirrors used to capture radiation from the sun. Solar radiation heats the fluid which is used to produce steam necessary to power large electricity generation turbines. Currently, organic, oil-based fluid in the pipes has a maximum temperature threshold of 400 °C, allowing for the production of electricity at approximately 15 cents per kilowatt hour. The DOE hopes to foster the development of an advanced heat transfer fluid that can operate within higher temperature ranges. The new heat transfer fluid, when used with other advanced technologies, could significantly decrease solar electricity cost. Lower costs would make solar thermal electricity competitive with gas and coal and would offer a clean, renewable source of energy. Molten salts exhibit many desirable heat transfer qualities within the range of the project objectives. Halotechnics developed advanced heat transfer fluids (HTFs) for application in solar thermal power generation. This project focused on complex mixtures of inorganic salts that exhibited a high thermal stability, a low melting point, and other favorable characteristics. A high-throughput combinatorial research and development program was conducted in order to achieve the project objective. Over 19,000 candidate formulations were screened. The workflow developed to screen various chemical systems to discover salt formulations led to mixtures suitable for use as HTFs in both parabolic trough and heliostat CSP plants. Furthermore, salt mixtures which will not interfere with fertilizer based nitrates were discovered. In addition for use in CSP, the discovered salt mixtures can be applied to electricity storage, heat treatment of alloys and other industrial processes.

  6. Life Cycle Greenhouse Gas Emissions of Trough and Tower Concentrating Solar Power Electricity Generation: Systematic Review and Harmonization

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Burkhardt, J. J.; Heath, G.; Cohen, E.

    2012-04-01T23:59:59.000Z

    In reviewing life cycle assessment (LCA) literature of utility-scale concentrating solar power (CSP) systems, this analysis focuses on reducing variability and clarifying the central tendency of published estimates of life cycle greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions through a meta-analytical process called harmonization. From 125 references reviewed, 10 produced 36 independent GHG emissions estimates passing screens for quality and relevance: 19 for parabolic trough (trough) technology and 17 for power tower (tower) technology. The interquartile range (IQR) of published estimates for troughs and towers were 83 and 20 grams of carbon dioxide equivalent per kilowatt-hour (g CO2-eq/kWh),1 respectively; median estimates were 26 and 38 g CO2-eq/kWh for trough and tower, respectively. Two levels of harmonization were applied. Light harmonization reduced variability in published estimates by using consistent values for key parameters pertaining to plant design and performance. The IQR and median were reduced by 87% and 17%, respectively, for troughs. For towers, the IQR and median decreased by 33% and 38%, respectively. Next, five trough LCAs reporting detailed life cycle inventories were identified. The variability and central tendency of their estimates are reduced by 91% and 81%, respectively, after light harmonization. By harmonizing these five estimates to consistent values for global warming intensities of materials and expanding system boundaries to consistently include electricity and auxiliary natural gas combustion, variability is reduced by an additional 32% while central tendency increases by 8%. These harmonized values provide useful starting points for policy makers in evaluating life cycle GHG emissions from CSP projects without the requirement to conduct a full LCA for each new project.

  7. Energy Conservation Through Industrial Cogeneration Systems

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Solt, J. C.

    1979-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    illustrates potential savings. Assume that we have a business with a given thermal requirement. Assume further that it is possible to fill this requirement by recovering exhaust heat from a gas turbine which also powers an electric generator. Fuel....021 - 0.013 = 0.008 kWh ? Annual Saving/Kilowatt Installed = $72/kW CD Simple Payback: 266 --;- 72 = 3. 69 years @ Rate of Return = 15% Conclusion Solar has used gas turbine engines to provide site-generated electric power in almost every...

  8. Note: Proton irradiation at kilowatt-power and neutron production from a free-surface liquid-lithium target

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Halfon, S.; Feinberg, G. [Soreq NRC, Yavne 81800 (Israel); Racah Institute of Physics, Hebrew University, Jerusalem 91904 (Israel); Arenshtam, A.; Kijel, D.; Weissman, L.; Aviv, O.; Berkovits, D.; Dudovitch, O.; Eisen, Y.; Eliyahu, I.; Haquin, G.; Hazenshprung, N.; Kreisel, A.; Mardor, I.; Shimel, G.; Shor, A.; Silverman, I.; Yungrais, Z. [Soreq NRC, Yavne 81800 (Israel); Paul, M., E-mail: paul@vms.huji.ac.il; Tessler, M. [Racah Institute of Physics, Hebrew University, Jerusalem 91904 (Israel)

    2014-05-15T23:59:59.000Z

    The free-surface Liquid-Lithium Target, recently developed at Soreq Applied Research Accelerator Facility (SARAF), was successfully used with a 1.9 MeV, 1.2 mA (2.3 kW) continuous-wave proton beam. Neutrons (?2 × 10{sup 10} n/s having a peak energy of ?27 keV) from the {sup 7}Li(p,n){sup 7}Be reaction were detected with a fission-chamber detector and by gold activation targets positioned in the forward direction. The setup is being used for nuclear astrophysics experiments to study neutron-induced reactions at stellar energies and to demonstrate the feasibility of accelerator-based boron neutron capture therapy.

  9. North Wind Power Company 2-kilowatt high-reliability wind system. Phase I. Design and analysis. Technical report

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Mayer, D J; Norton, Jr, J H

    1981-07-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Results are presented of Phase I of a program to design a 2kW high reliability wind turbine for use in remote locations and harsh environments. In phase I of the program, a predecessor of the proposed design was procured and tested in a wind tunnel and in the freestream to observe operational characteristics. An analytical procedure was developed for designing and modelling the proposed variable axis rotor control system (VARCS). This was then verified by extensive mobile testing of pre-prototype components. A low speed three phase alternator with a Lundel type rotor was designed. Prototypes were fabricated and tested to refine calculation procedures and develop an effective alternator with appropriate characteristics. A solid state field switching regulator was designed and tested successfully. All necessary support elements were designed and engineered. A complete analysis of system reliability was conducted including failure mode and effects analyses and reliability, maintenance and safety analyses. Cost estimates were performed for a mature product in production rates of 1000 per year. Analysis and testing conducted throughout the first phase is included.

  10. Next-Generation Flywheel Energy Storage: Development of a 100 kWh/100 kW Flywheel Energy Storage Module

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    None

    2010-09-22T23:59:59.000Z

    GRIDS Project: Beacon Power is developing a flywheel energy storage system that costs substantially less than existing flywheel technologies. Flywheels store the energy created by turning an internal rotor at high speeds—slowing the rotor releases the energy back to the grid when needed. Beacon Power is redesigning the heart of the flywheel, eliminating the cumbersome hub and shaft typically found at its center. The improved design resembles a flying ring that relies on new magnetic bearings to levitate, freeing it to rotate faster and deliver 400% as much energy as today’s flywheels. Beacon Power’s flywheels can be linked together to provide storage capacity for balancing the approximately 10% of U.S. electricity that comes from renewable sources each year.

  11. Initial test results from the RedFlow 5 kW, 10 kWh zinc-bromide module, phase 1.

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Ferreira, Summer Rhodes; Rose, David Martin

    2012-02-01T23:59:59.000Z

    In this paper the performance results of the RedFlow zinc-bromide module (ZBM) Gen 2.0 are reported for Phase 1 of testing, which includes initial characterization of the module. This included physical measurement, efficiency as a function of charge and discharge rates, efficiency as a function of maximum charge capacity, duration of maximum power supplied, and limited cycling with skipped strip cycles. The goal of this first phase of testing was to verify manufacturer specifications of the zinc-bromide flow battery. Initial characterization tests have shown that the ZBM meets the manufacturer's specifications. Further testing, including testing as a function of temperature and life cycle testing, will be carried out during Phase 2 of the testing, and these results will be issued in the final report, after Phase 2 testing has concluded.

  12. Katech (Lithium Polymer) 4-Passenger NEV - Range and Battery Testing Report

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    J. Francfort; D. Karner

    2005-07-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The U.S. Department of Energy’s (DOE’s) Advanced Vehicle Testing Activity (AVTA) received a Neighborhood Electric Vehicle (NEV) from the Korea Automotive Technology Institute (KATECH) for vehicle and battery characterization testing. The KATECH NEV (called the Invita) was equipped with a lithium polymer battery pack from Kokam Engineering. The Invita was to be baseline performance tested by AVTA’s testing partner, Electric Transportation Applications (ETA), at ETA’s contract testing facilities and test track in Phoenix, Arizona, to AVTA’s NEVAmerica testing specifications and procedures. Before and during initial constant speed range testing, the Invita battery pack experienced cell failures, and the onboard charger failed. A Kokamsupplied off-board charger was used in place of the onboard charger to successfully perform a constant speed range test on the Invita. The Invita traveled a total of 47.9 miles in 1 hour 47 minutes, consuming 91.3 amp-hours and 6.19 kilowatt-hours. The Kokam Engineering lithium polymer battery was also scheduled for battery pack characterization testing, including the C/3 energy capacity, dynamic stress, and peak power tests. Testing was stopped during the initial C/3 energy capacity test, however, because the battery pack failed to withstand cycling without cell failures. After the third discharge/charge sequence was completed, it was discovered that Cell 6 had failed, with a voltage reading of 0.5 volts. Cell 6 was replaced, and the testing sequence was restarted. After the second discharge/charge sequence was complete, it was discovered that Cell 1 had failed, with its voltage reading 0.2 volts. At this point it was decided to stop all battery pack testing. During the discharge cycles, the battery pack supplied 102.21, 94.34, and 96.05 amp-hours consecutively before Cell 6 failed. After replacing Cell 6, the battery pack supplied 98.34 and 98.11 amp-hours before Cell 1 failed. The Idaho National Laboratory managed these testing activities for the AVTA, as part of DOE’s FreedomCAR and Vehicle Technologies Program.

  13. Final Technical Report

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Miller, Robert A.

    2007-04-18T23:59:59.000Z

    From September 1, 2002, to November 30, 2006, the Industrial Assessment Center (IAC) at the University of Illinois at Chicago (UIC) conducted over 120 industrial assessments across 19 different industry types in five different states. In the 1,000+ assessment recommendations written during the award, the UIC-IAC has written recommendations that, if implemented will save several millions of kilowatt-hours of electricity and several million British thermal units of natural gas annually. Additionally, the UIC-IAC has achieved an overall implementation rate in excess of 50%. During the overall span of the award period, the UIC-IAC has trained over 50 students, nearly 25% of which have remained in the energy field in some way after graduating from the IAC program. UIC-IAC students have received over $23,000 in scholarships in the last two years alone. During the course of the award, the UIC-IAC has made it a priority to incorporate ITP tools and technologies whenever possible. The ITP Best Practices tools have been used on several assessments and introduced to clients. DOE technologies are constantly compared against assessment clients to determine what technologies have reached the stage where they can effectively be introduced into industrial operations. The UIC-IAC has been involved in several projects for the Department of Energy (DOE), including energy assessments of Department of Defense bases and industrial facilities, the Plant Energy Profiler (PEP) tool assessment, and expanding the range of assessments to include large- energy users. Additionally, the UIC-IAC has forged a close relationship with the Midwest CHP Application Center, working to incorporate combined heat and power (CHP) and distributed generation (DG) technologies into industrial plants. The most recent project is the Save Energy Now (SEN) six- and 12-month follow-up surveys being conducted by UIC-IAC students. The SEN surveys are an effort for the DOE to determine the implementation rate of energy efficiency measures identified by Qualified System (QS) specialists throughout the nation. The UIC-IAC has also written several papers highlighting its work in the arena of energy efficiency. Currently, several UIC-IAC students have submitted a paper to the American Council for an Energy-Efficient Economy (ACEEE). This paper has been accepted by ACEEE and will be presented later in 2007.

  14. Assessing Internet energy intensity: A review of methods and results

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Coroama, Vlad C., E-mail: vcoroama@gmail.com [Instituto Superior Técnico, Universidade Técnica de Lisboa, Av. Rovisco Pais 1, 1049-001 Lisboa (Portugal); Hilty, Lorenz M. [Department of Informatics, University of Zurich, Binzmühlestrasse 14, 8050 Zurich (Switzerland) [Department of Informatics, University of Zurich, Binzmühlestrasse 14, 8050 Zurich (Switzerland); Empa, Swiss Federal Laboratories for Materials Science and Technology, Lerchenfeldstr. 5, 9014 St. Gallen (Switzerland); Centre for Sustainable Communications, KTH Royal Institute of Technology, Lindstedtsvägen 5, 100 44 Stockholm (Sweden)

    2014-02-15T23:59:59.000Z

    Assessing the average energy intensity of Internet transmissions is a complex task that has been a controversial subject of discussion. Estimates published over the last decade diverge by up to four orders of magnitude — from 0.0064 kilowatt-hours per gigabyte (kWh/GB) to 136 kWh/GB. This article presents a review of the methodological approaches used so far in such assessments: i) top–down analyses based on estimates of the overall Internet energy consumption and the overall Internet traffic, whereby average energy intensity is calculated by dividing energy by traffic for a given period of time, ii) model-based approaches that model all components needed to sustain an amount of Internet traffic, and iii) bottom–up approaches based on case studies and generalization of the results. Our analysis of the existing studies shows that the large spread of results is mainly caused by two factors: a) the year of reference of the analysis, which has significant influence due to efficiency gains in electronic equipment, and b) whether end devices such as personal computers or servers are included within the system boundary or not. For an overall assessment of the energy needed to perform a specific task involving the Internet, it is necessary to account for the types of end devices needed for the task, while the energy needed for data transmission can be added based on a generic estimate of Internet energy intensity for a given year. Separating the Internet as a data transmission system from the end devices leads to more accurate models and to results that are more informative for decision makers, because end devices and the networking equipment of the Internet usually belong to different spheres of control. -- Highlights: • Assessments of the energy intensity of the Internet differ by a factor of 20,000. • We review top–down, model-based, and bottom–up estimates from literature. • Main divergence factors are the year studied and the inclusion of end devices. • We argue against extending the Internet system boundary beyond data transmission. • Decision-makers need data that differentiates between end devices and transmission.

  15. Energy Storage/Conservation and Carbon Emissions Reduction Demonstration Project

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Bigelow, Erik

    2012-10-30T23:59:59.000Z

    The U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) awarded the Center for Transportation and the Environment (CTE) federal assistance for the management of a project to develop and test a prototype flywheel-­?based energy recovery and storage system in partnership with Test Devices, Inc. (TDI). TDI specializes in the testing of jet engine and power generation turbines, which uses a great deal of electrical power for long periods of time. In fact, in 2007, the company consumed 3,498,500 kW-­?hr of electricity in their operations, which is equivalent to the electricity of 328 households. For this project, CTE and TDI developed and tested a prototype flywheel-­?based energy recovery and storage system. This technology is being developed at TDI’s facilities to capture and reuse the energy necessary for the company’s core process. The new technology and equipment is expected to save approximately 80% of the energy used in the TDI process, reducing total annual consumption of power by approximately 60%, saving approximately two million kilowatt-­?hours annually. Additionally, the energy recycling system will allow TDI and other end users to lower their peak power demand and reduce associated utility demand charges. The use of flywheels in this application is novel and requires significant development work from TDI. Flywheels combine low maintenance costs with very high cycle life with little to no degradation over time, resulting in lifetimes measured in decades. All of these features make flywheels a very attractive option compared to other forms of energy storage, including batteries. Development and deployment of this energy recycling technology will reduce energy consumption during jet engine and stationary turbine development. By reengineering the current inefficient testing process, TDI will reduce risk and time to market of efficiency upgrades of gas turbines across the entire spectrum of applications. Once in place the results from this program will also help other US industries to utilize energy recycling technology to lower domestic energy use and see higher net energy efficiency. The prototype system and results will be used to seek additional resources to carry out full deployment of a system. Ultimately, this innovative technology is expected to be transferable to other testing applications involving energy-­?based cycling within the company as well as throughout the industry.

  16. Economic Evaluation of Electrical Power Generation Using Laser Inertial Fusion Energy (LIFE)

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Tm Anklam; Wayne Meier; Al Erl; Robin Miles; Aaron Simon

    2009-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    With the completion of the National Ignition Facility (NIF) and upcoming ignition experiments, there is renewed interest in laser fusion-fission hybrids and pure fusion systems for base load power generation. An advantage of a laser fusion based system is that it would produce copious neutrons ( ~ 1.8x10 20 /s for a 500 MW fusion source). This opens the door to hybrid systems with once through, high burn-up, closed fuel cycles. With abundant fusion neutrons, only modest fission gain (5 to 10) is needed for power production. Depleted uranium can be used as the fission fuel, effectively eliminating the need for uranium mining and enrichment. With high burn up, a hybrid would generate only 5 % to 10% the volume of high-level nuclear waste per kilowatt hour that a once through light water reactor (LWR) does. Reprocessing is no longer needed to close the fuel cycle as the spent fuel can, after interim cooling, go directly to geologic disposal. While the depleted uranium fuel cycle offers advantages of simplicity and proliferation avoidance, it has the most challenging fuel lifetime requirements. Fissile fuel such as plutonium, or plutonium and minor actinides separated from spent nuclear fuel, would have roughly twice the fission gain and incur only about 25 % of the radiation damage to reach the same burn up level as depleted uranium. These missions are interesting in their own right and also provide an opportunity for early market entry of laser fusion based energy sources. A third fuel cycle option is to burn spent fuel directly, without prior separation of the plutonium and minor actinides. The neutronic and economic performance of this fuel cycle is very similar to the depleted uranium system. The primary difference is the need to fabricate new LIFE fuel from spent LWR fuel. The advantage of this fuel cycle is that it would burn the residual actinides in spent nuclear fuel, greatly reducing long term radio-toxicity and heat load, while avoiding the need to chemically separate spent LWR fuel.

  17. Weatherization Innovation Pilot Program: Program Overview and Philadelphia Project Highlight (Fact Sheet)

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Not Available

    2012-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Case Study with WIPP program overview, information regarding eligibility, and successes from Pennsylvania's Commission on Economic Opportunity (CEO) that demonstrate innovative approaches that maximize the benefit of the program. The Department of Energy (DOE) Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) recently launched the Weatherization Innovation Pilot Program (WIPP) to accelerate innovations in whole-house weatherization and advance DOE's goal of increasing the energy efficiency and health and safety of homes of low-income families. Since 2010, WIPP has helped weatherization service providers as well as new and nontraditional partners leverage non-federal financial resources to supplement federal grants, saving taxpayer money. WIPP complements the Weatherization Assistance program (WAP), which operates nation-wide, in U.S. territories and in three Native American tribes. 16 grantees are implementing weatherization innovation projects using experimental approaches to find new and better ways to weatherize homes. They are using approaches such as: (1) Financial tools - by understanding a diverse range of financing mechanisms, grantees can maximize the impact of the federal grant dollars while providing high-quality work and benefits to eligible low-income clients; (2) Green and healthy homes - in addition to helping families reduce their energy costs, grantees can protect their health and safety. Two WIPP projects (Connecticut and Maryland) will augment standard weatherization services with a comprehensive green and healthy homes approach; (3) New technologies and techniques - following the model of continuous improvement in weatherization, WIPP grantees will continue to use new and better technologies and techniques to improve the quality of work; (4) Residential energy behavior change - Two grantees are rigorously testing home energy monitors (HEMs) that display energy used in kilowatt-hours, allowing residents to monitor and reduce their energy use, and another is examining best-practices for mobile home energy efficiency; (5) Workforce development and volunteers - with a goal of creating a self-sustaining weatherization model that does not require future federal investment, three grantees are adapting business models successful in other sectors of the home performance business to perform weatherization work. Youthbuild is training youth to perform home energy upgrades to eligible clients and Habitat for Humanity is developing a model for how to incorporate volunteer labor in home weatherization. These innovative approaches will improve key weatherization outcomes, such as: Increasing the total number of homes that are weatherized; Reducing the weatherization cost per home; Increasing the energy savings in each weatherized home; Increasing the number of weatherization jobs created and retained; and Reducing greenhouse gas emissions.

  18. --No Title--

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    172015 15:50 SLCAIP Hydro Generation Estimates Month Forecast Generation less losses (kWh) Less Proj. Use (kWh) Net Generation (kWh) SHP Deliveries (kWh) Firming Purchases (kWh)...

  19. Data:E7101117-ac86-4860-b08b-f043c5e88676 | Open Energy Information

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    0.028 per KWH. Next 140 KWH per KVA @ 0.024 per KWH. Over 470 KWH per KVA @ 0.021 per KWH. Power Cost Adjustment: 0.0001 Source or reference: Rate Binder Kelly 11 ISU...

  20. Data:5f97368e-9814-4f0c-9bcb-c9f7fb6e0b23 | Open Energy Information

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    0.035 per KWH. Next 140 KWH per KVA @ 0.029 per KWH. Over 470 KWH per KVA @ 0.023 per KWH. Power Cost Adjustment: 0.0001 Source or reference: Rate Binder Kelly 11 ISU...

  1. Data:B1bc8c49-742b-4298-bf5e-c693012c631f | Open Energy Information

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    0.026 per KWH. Next 140 KWH per KVA @ 0.022 per KWH. Over 470 KWH per KVA @ 0.019 per KWH. Power Cost Adjustment: 0.0001 Source or reference: Rate Binder Kelly 11 ISU...

  2. Data:6aaf3bd3-a593-4012-9a64-d50af6aae37b | Open Energy Information

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    0.022 per KWH. Next 140 KWH per KVA @ 0.019 per KWH. Over 470 KWH per KVA @ 0.016 per KWH. Power Cost Adjustment: 0.0001 Source or reference: Rate Binder Kelly 11 ISU...

  3. Data:E1bf36dc-a90f-4994-9da6-35da49c75453 | Open Energy Information

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    0.024 per KWH. Next 140 KWH per KVA @ 0.021 per KWH. Over 470 KWH per KVA @ 0.018 per KWH. Power Cost Adjustment: 0.0001 Primary Service Discount: 0.040 per KVA When...

  4. Data:86569193-360e-4643-9a4c-99f318741e1e | Open Energy Information

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    0.028 per KWH. Next 140 KWH per KVA @ 0.024 per KWH. Over 470 KWH per KVA @ 0.021 per KWH. Power Cost Adjustment: 0.0001 Source or reference: Rate Binder Kelly 11 ISU...

  5. Data:6a97852e-2512-4b61-8526-b1079d3221fd | Open Energy Information

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    0.024 per KWH. Next 140 KWH per KVA @ 0.021 per KWH. Over 470 KWH per KVA @ 0.018 per KWH. Power Cost Adjustment: 0.0001 When Consumer's building or structure is sufficiently...

  6. Data:58db9e4d-6785-4e0c-bb85-793d68fc3702 | Open Energy Information

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    0.026 per KWH. Next 140 KWH per KVA @ 0.022 per KWH. Over 470 KWH per KVA @ 0.019 per KWH. Power Cost Adjustment: 0.0001 Source or reference: Rate Binder Kelly 11 ISU...

  7. Data:F40fc4c9-0e02-428b-b96d-bcfb5222116e | Open Energy Information

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    0.024 per KWH. Next 140 KWH per KVA @ 0.021 per KWH. Over 470 KWH per KVA @ 0.018 per KWH. Power Cost Adjustment: 0.0001 Source or reference: Rate Binder Kelly 11 ISU...

  8. Data:3775b1a9-cb0a-4487-bbdf-c461b085a357 | Open Energy Information

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    0.033 per KWH. Next 140 KWH per KVA @ 0.027 per KWH. Over 470 KWH per KVA @ 0.021 per KWH. Power Cost Adjustment: 0.0001 Source or reference: Rate Binder Kelly 11 ISU...

  9. Conceptual study of the potential for automotive-derived and free-piston Stirling engines in 30- to 400-kilowatt stationary power applications. Final Report

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Vatsky, A.; Chen, H.S.; Dineen, J.

    1982-05-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The technical feasibility of applying automotive-derived kinematic and free-piston Stirling engine concepts for stationary applications was explored. Automotive-derived engines offer cost advantages by providing a mature and developed engine technology base with downrating and parts commonality options for specific applications. Two engine sizes (30 and 400 kW), two Stirling engine configurations (kinematic and free-piston), and two output systems (crankshaft and hydraulic pump) were studied. The study includes the influences of using either hydrogen or helium as the working gas. The first kinematic configuration selects an existing Stirling engine design from an automotive application and adapts it to stationary requirements. A 50,000-hour life requirement was established by downrating the engine to 40 kW and reducing auxiliary loads. Efficiency improvements were gained by selective material and geometric variations and peak brake efficiency of 36.8 percent using helium gas was achieved. The second design was a four-cylinder, 400 kW engine, utilizing a new output drive system known as the z-crank, which provides lower friction losses and variable stroke power control. Three different material and working gas combinations were considered. Brake efficiency levels varied from 40.5 percent to 45.6 percent. A 37.5 kW single-cycle, free-piston hydraulic output design was generated by scaling one cylinder of the original automotive engine and mating it to a counterbalanced reciprocal hydraulic pump. Metallic diaphragms were utilized to transmit power.

  10. Investigation Of Synergistic NOx Reduction From Cofiring And Air Staged Combustion Of Coal And Low Ash Dairy Biomass In A 30 Kilowatt Low NOx Furnace

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Lawrence, Benjamin Daniel

    2013-08-01T23:59:59.000Z

    to address this concern. DB is evaluated as a cofired fuel with Wyoming Powder River Basin (PRB) sub-bituminous coal in a small-scale 29 kW_(t) low NO_(x) burner (LNB) facility. Fuel properties, of PRB and DB revealed the following: a higher heating value...

  11. Abstract--Current grid standards seem to largely require low power (e.g. several kilowatts) single-phase photovoltaic (PV)

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Berning, Torsten

    --Grid requirements; photovoltaic systems; low voltage ride through; ancillary services; grid support; reliability I-phase photovoltaic (PV) systems to operate at unity power factor with maximum power point tracking, and disconnect. INTRODUCTION Due to the declining photovoltaic (PV) module price and the strong feed-in tariff policies

  12. --No Title--

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    6222015 14:27 SLCAIP Hydro Generation Estimates Month Forecast Generation less losses (kWh) Less Proj. Use (kWh) Net Generation (kWh) SHP Deliveries (kWh) Firming Purchases...

  13. Data:2b7b349c-ebfd-4708-8d5a-3851f15a119e | Open Energy Information

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    to whom service is not available under any other resale rate schedule. Total Monthly Fuel Cost adjustment First 15,000 kWh .02706kWh. Additional kWh .02670kWh Source or...

  14. Tradeoffs between Costs and Greenhouse Gas Emissions in the Design of Urban Transit Systems

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Griswold, Julia Baird

    2013-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    of veh (kWh/veh-km) Cost per kWh ($/kWh) Operating cost ($/of veh (kWh/veh-km) Cost per kWh ($/kWh) Operating cost ($/

  15. Conservation screening curves to compare efficiency investments to power plants: Applications to commercial sector conservation programs

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Koomey, Jonathan; Rosenfeld, Arthur H.; Gadgil, Ashok J.

    2008-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    kW. 9¢/kWh 7¢/kWh Gas Turbine 5¢/kWh Combined-Cycle Oilhigh operating costs (such as gas turbines) during those fewtechnology. 9¢/kWh 7¢/kWh Gas Turbine 5¢/kWh Combined-Cycle

  16. STABLE HIGH CONDUCTIVITY BILAYERED ELECTROLYTES FOR LOW TEMPERATURE SOLID OXIDE FUEL CELLS

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Eric D. Wachsman

    2000-10-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Solid oxide fuel cells (SOFCs) are the future of energy production in America. They offer great promise as a clean and efficient process for directly converting chemical energy to electricity while providing significant environmental benefits (they produce negligible CO, HC, or NOx and, as a result of their high efficiency, produce about one-third less CO{sub 2} per kilowatt hour than internal combustion engines). Unfortunately, the current SOFC technology, based on a stabilized zirconia electrolyte, must operate in the region of 1000 C to avoid unacceptably high ohmic losses. These high temperatures demand (a) specialized (expensive) materials for the fuel cell interconnects and insulation, (b) time to heat up to the operating temperature and (c) energy input to arrive at the operating temperature. Therefore, if fuel cells could be designed to give a reasonable power output at lower temperatures tremendous benefits may be accrued, not the least of which is reduced cost. The problem is, at lower temperatures the conductivity of the conventional stabilized zirconia electrolyte decreases to the point where it cannot supply electrical current efficiently to an external load. The primary objectives of the proposed research is to develop a stable high conductivity (>0.05 S cm{sup -1} at 550 C) electrolyte for lower temperature SOFCs. This objective is specifically directed toward meeting the lowest (and most difficult) temperature criteria for the 21st Century Fuel Cell Program. Meeting this objective provides a potential for future transportation applications of SOFCs, where their ability to directly use hydrocarbon fuels could permit refueling within the existing transportation infrastructure. In order to meet this objective we are developing a functionally gradient bilayer electrolyte comprised of bismuth oxide on the air side and ceria on the fuel side. Bismuth oxide and doped ceria are among the highest ionic conducting electrolytes and in fact bismuth oxide based electrolytes are the only known solid oxide electrolytes to have an ionic conductivity that meets the program conductivity goal. We have previously demonstrated that this concept works, that a bismuth oxide/ceria bilayer electrolyte provides near theoretical open circuit potential (OCP) and is stable for 1400 h of fuel cell operation under both open circuit and maximum power conditions. More recently, we developed a computer model to determine the defect transport in this bilayer and have found that a bilayer comprised primarily of the more conductive component (bismuth oxide) is stable for 500 C operation. In this first year of the project we are obtaining necessary thermochemical data to complete the computer model as well as initial SOFC results based on thick 1-2 mm single and bilayer ceria/bismuth oxide electrolytes. We will use the computer model to obtain the optimum relative layer thickness as a function of temperature and air/fuel conditions. SOFCs will be fabricated with 1-2 mm single and bilayer electrolytes based on the modeling results, tested for OCP, conductivity, and stability and compared against the predictions. The computer modeling is a continuation of previous work under support from GRI and the student was available at the inception of the contract. However, the experimental effort was delayed until the beginning of the Spring Semester because the contract was started in October, 2 months after the start of our Fall Semester, and after all of the graduate students were committed to other projects. The results from both of these efforts are described in the following two sections: (1) Experimental; and (2) Computer Modeling.

  17. STABLE HIGH CONDUCTIVITY BILAYERED ELECTROLYTES FOR LOW TEMPERATURE SOLID OXIDE FUEL CELLS

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Eric D. Wachsman; Keith L. Duncan

    2002-03-31T23:59:59.000Z

    Solid oxide fuel cells (SOFCs) are the future of energy production in America. They offer great promise as a clean and efficient process for directly converting chemical energy to electricity while providing significant environmental benefits (they produce negligible hydrocarbons, CO, or NO{sub x} and, as a result of their high efficiency, produce about one-third less CO{sub 2} per kilowatt hour than internal combustion engines). Unfortunately, the current SOFC technology, based on a stabilized zirconia electrolyte, must operate in the region of 1000 C to avoid unacceptably high ohmic losses. These high temperatures demand (a) specialized (expensive) materials for the fuel cell interconnects and insulation, (b) time to heat up to the operating temperature and (c) energy input to arrive at the operating temperature. Therefore, if fuel cells could be designed to give a reasonable power output at low to intermediate temperatures tremendous benefits may be accrued. At low temperatures, in particular, it becomes feasible to use ferritic steel for interconnects instead of expensive and brittle ceramic materials such as those based on LaCrO{sub 3}. In addition, sealing the fuel cell becomes easier and more reliable; rapid startup is facilitated; thermal stresses (e.g., those caused by thermal expansion mismatches) are reduced; radiative losses ({approx}T{sup 4}) become minimal; electrode sintering becomes negligible and (due to a smaller thermodynamic penalty) the SOFC operating cycle (heating from ambient) would be more efficient. Combined, all these improvements further result in reduced initial and operating costs. The problem is, at lower temperatures the conductivity of the conventional stabilized zirconia electrolyte decreases to the point where it cannot supply electrical current efficiently to an external load. The primary objectives of the proposed research is to develop a stable high conductivity (> 0.05 S cm{sup -1} at {le} 550 C) electrolyte for lower temperature SOFCs. This objective is specifically directed toward meeting the lowest (and most difficult) temperature criteria for the 21st Century Fuel Cell Program. Meeting this objective provides a potential for future transportation applications of SOFCs, where their ability to directly use hydrocarbon fuels could permit refueling within the existing transportation infrastructure. In order to meet this objective we are developing a functionally gradient bilayer electrolyte comprised of a layer of erbia-stabilized bismuth oxide (ESB) on the oxidizing side and a layer of SDC or GDC on the reducing side, see Fig. 1. Bismuth oxide and doped ceria are among the highest ionic conducting electrolytes and in fact bismuth oxide based electrolytes are the only known solid oxide electrolytes to have an ionic conductivity that meets the program conductivity goal. In this arrangement, the ceria layer protects the bismuth oxide layer from decomposing by shielding it from very low P{sub O{sub 2}}'s and the ESB layer serves to block electronic flux through the electrolyte. This arrangement has two significant advantages over the YSZ/SDC bilayers investigated by others [1, 2]. The first advantage is that SDC is conductive enough to serve as an intermediate temperature SOFC electrolyte. Moreover, ESB is conductive enough to serve as a low temperature electrolyte. Consequently, at worst an SDC/ESB bilayered SOFC should have the conductivity of SDC but with improved efficiency due to the electronic flux barrier provided by ESB. The second advantage is that small (dopant) concentrations of SDC in ESB or ESB in SDC, have been found to have conductivities comparable to the host lattice [3, 4]. Therefore, if solid solutioning occurs at the SDC-ESB interface, it should not be detrimental to the performance of the bilayer. In contrast, solid solutions of SDC and YSZ have been found to be significantly less conductive than SDC or YSZ. Thus, it bears emphasizing that, at this time, only SDC/ESB electrolytes have potential in low temperature SOFC applications.

  18. Data:829f535d-4378-468f-b5f9-c767185bde0f | Open Energy Information

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    0.028 per KWH. Next 140 KWH per KVA @ 0.024 per KWH. Over 470 KWH per KVA @ 0.021 per KWH. Power Cost Adjustment: 0.0001 Primary Meter Discount: 0.40 per KVA. Source or...

  19. A study of time-dependent responses of a mechanical displacement ventilation (DV) system and an underfloor air distribution (UFAD) system : building energy performance of the UFAD system

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Yu, Jong Keun

    2010-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    kWh. The elec- tricity cost per kWh is obtained from U.S.Ad- ministration. The gas cost per kWh is calculated fromper kWh. The electricity cost per kWh is obtained from U.S.

  20. Data:E93fa523-f6c5-4240-82b5-3a3e396ee3eb | Open Energy Information

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    0.022 per KWH. Next 140 KWH per KVA @ 0.019 per KWH. Over 470 KWH per KVA @ 0.016 per KWH. Power Cost Adjustment: 0.0001 Primary Service Discount: 0.040 per KVA Source or...

  1. Estimated Value of Service Reliability for Electric Utility Customers in the United States

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Sullivan, M.J.

    2009-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    kW demand and costs per annual kWh sales. Cost estimates arePer Un-served kWh Cost Per Annual kWh Small C&I Cost PerPer Un-served kWh Cost Per Annual kWh Residential Cost Per

  2. Data:1aec8d19-b9f5-4f22-9b66-46275858d5a8 | Open Energy Information

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    0.026 per KWH. Next 140 KWH per KVA @ 0.022 per KWH. Over 470 KWH per KVA @ 0.019 per KWH. Power Cost Adjustment: 0.0001 Primary Meter Discount: 0.40 per KVA Source or...

  3. Data:975f76e7-e706-4f8a-95ee-5ab43a42922c | Open Energy Information

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    .006kWh Residential Conservation Charge (RCC): 0.47month Renewable Energy & Energy Conservation Incentive Charge(REECIC):0.0005kWh kWh adjustments: PAC - PASNY + REECIC ...

  4. Data:40886b73-f968-4dbf-b0e4-d54df03630a8 | Open Energy Information

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    Comments Applicability Demand (kW) Minimum (kW): Maximum (kW): History (months): Energy (kWh) Minimum (kWh): Maximum (kWh): History (months): Service Voltage Minimum (V):...

  5. Data:Fb6bfa25-64ae-4c87-b424-90fc4e710d89 | Open Energy Information

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    Comments Applicability Demand (kW) Minimum (kW): Maximum (kW): History (months): Energy (kWh) Minimum (kWh): Maximum (kWh): History (months): Service Voltage Minimum (V):...

  6. Data:Af44dc0c-12b1-434b-8a26-dbc88de4ec13 | Open Energy Information

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    Comments Applicability Demand (kW) Minimum (kW): Maximum (kW): History (months): Energy (kWh) Minimum (kWh): Maximum (kWh): History (months): Service Voltage Minimum (V):...

  7. Data:E9ea84c4-7ab3-49d4-93b8-bd9e6bce6fea | Open Energy Information

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    Comments Applicability Demand (kW) Minimum (kW): Maximum (kW): History (months): Energy (kWh) Minimum (kWh): Maximum (kWh): History (months): Service Voltage Minimum (V):...

  8. Effect of Heat and Electricity Storage and Reliability on Microgrid Viability: A Study of Commercial Buildings in California and New York States

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Stadler, Michael

    2009-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    increases in size, the cost per kWh decreases significantly.batteries typically cost about $100 per kWh for “wet” typesto MW in size and cost $500 to $800 per kWh. As the overall

  9. Conservation Screening Curves to Compare Efficiency Investments to Power Plants

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Koomey, J.G.

    2008-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    variable costs, and cost per delivered kWh. The informationvariable costs, and cost per delivered kWh. The informationto represent the cost per delivered kWh), while CAPP may be

  10. Commercializing Light-Duty Plug-In/Plug-Out Hydrogen-Fuel-Cell Vehicles:“Mobile Electricity” Technologies, Early California Household Markets, and Innovation Management

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Williams, Brett D

    2007-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    electricity rates on a cost per kWh basis only with someTable 2-5 presents the cost per kWh produced by variousHybrid battery module cost per kWh required for lifecycle

  11. Distributed Generation Investment by a Microgrid Under Uncertainty

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Siddiqui, Afzal; Marnay, Chris

    2006-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    the amortised investment cost per kWh of the DG unit is lessis equal to the fixed cost per kWh of switching states. Forcurves reflects the investment cost per kWh. As indicated in

  12. Distributed Generation Investment by a Microgrid under Uncertainty

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Siddiqui, Afzal

    2008-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    amortised investment cost per kWh e of the DG unit is lessis equal to the fixed cost per kWh e of switching states.reflects the investment cost per kWh e . As indicated in

  13. COST-EFFECTIVE VISIBILITY-BASED DESIGN PROCEDURES FOR GENERAL OFFICE LIGHTING

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Clear, Robert

    2013-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    were calculated at the stated cost per Kwh by assuming 30to the work surface. The costs per Kwh essentially span themostly dependent upon the cost per Kwh divided by the area

  14. Commercializing light-duty plug-in/plug-out hydrogen-fuel-cell vehicles: “Mobile Electricity” technologies and opportunities

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Williams, Brett D; Kurani, Kenneth S

    2007-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Table 2-5 presents the cost per kWh produced by variouselectricity rates on a cost per kWh basis only with someHybrid battery module cost per kWh required for lifecycle

  15. The Potential of Plug-in Hybrid and Battery Electric Vehicles as Grid Resources: the Case of a Gas and Petroleum Oriented Elecricity Generation System

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Greer, Mark R

    2012-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    the battery depletion cost per kWh transferred could bethe battery depletion cost per kWh transferred from off-peakhigher battery depletion cost per kWh transferred under the

  16. Conservation screening curves to compare efficiency investments to power plants: Applications to commercial sector conservation programs

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Koomey, Jonathan; Rosenfeld, Arthur H.; Gadgil, Ashok J.

    2008-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    variable costs, and cost per delivered kWh. The informationvariable costs, and cost per delivered kWh. The informationto represent the cost per delivered kWh), while CAPP may be

  17. Electricity Rate Structures and the Economics of Solar PV: Could Mandatory Time-of-Use Rates Undermine California’s Solar Photovoltaic Subsidies?

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Borenstein, Severin

    2007-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    ation-adjusted) levelized cost per kWh of power the panelsarrive at a lifetime real cost per kWh produced. Studies ofnot for soiling. The cost per kWh is then calculated by ?

  18. Commercializing Light-Duty Plug-In/Plug-Out Hydrogen-Fuel-Cell Vehicles: "Mobile Electricity" Technologies, Early California Household Markets, and Innovation Management

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Williams, Brett D

    2010-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Table 2-5 presents the cost per kWh produced by variousHybrid battery module cost per kWh required for lifecycleelectricity rates on a cost per kWh basis only with some

  19. Alameda Municipal Power - Commercial Energy Efficiency Rebate...

    Broader source: Energy.gov (indexed) [DOE]

    (Motors): 0.09kWh Custom Rebates (Lighting): 0.15kWh Custom Rebates (HVAC, Refrigeration, Networks): 0.11kWh HVAC System: 50% of the difference in cost between Title 24...

  20. Data:F39fe515-688d-41a7-be6a-d555ea9a62df | Open Energy Information

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    Structure for Rate Period 1 Tier Max Usage Rate kWh Adjustments kWh Sell kWh 1 450 0.03550000 2 0.02900000 3 4 5 6 Weekday Schedule 11111111111111111111111111111111111111...

  1. Data:8d3ee145-f490-4a13-bf22-f70de8958abc | Open Energy Information

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    www.stcharlesil.govcodebooktitle-13 Comments Applicability Demand (kW) Minimum (kW): 450 Maximum (kW): History (months): 1 Energy (kWh) Minimum (kWh): Maximum (kWh): History...

  2. Power Crisis Quick Conversion Sheet Mtoe/y / UK

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    MacKay, David J.C.

    rate: 1 kWh # 250g of CO 2 (oil, petrol) 1 kWh (e) /d electrical energy is more costly: 1 kWh (e) # 445

  3. California’s Energy Future: Transportation Energy Use in California

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Yang, Christopher; Ogden, Joan M; Hwang, Roland; Sperling, Daniel

    2011-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    associated reductions in cost per kWh. Over time, largerpack costs for BEV sedan as a function of assumed per kWh

  4. A Better Steam Engine: Designing a Distributed Concentrating Solar Combined Heat and Power System

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Norwood, Zachary Mills

    2011-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    have lower operational costs per kWh produced. There is alsoper kWh of energy, the energy payback time (EPBT), the cost

  5. Demand-Side Management and Energy Efficiency Revisited

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Auffhammer, Maximilian; Blumstein, Carl; Fowlie, Meredith

    2007-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    programs, and the average cost per kWh saved. Using utilitythat the average per kWh program costs reported by utilities

  6. Energy dispatch schedule optimization and cost benefit analysis for grid-connected, photovoltaic-battery storage systems

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Nottrott, A.; Kleissl, J.; Washom, B.

    2013-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    or $100- 400 per kWh) at an installed cost of approximatelyinstalled cost of about $400 - $500 per kWh (approximately

  7. Energy Information Administration - Commercial Energy Consumption...

    Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update (EIA)

    4A. Electricity Consumption and Expenditure Intensities for All Buildings, 2003 Electricity Consumption Electricity Expenditures per Building (thousand kWh) per Square Foot (kWh)...

  8. Nonlinear Pricing in Energy and Environmental Markets

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Ito, Koichiro

    2011-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    the state level, the cost per kWh reduction was 14.8 cents.study concludes that the cost per kWh savings range from 29kWh consumption. The average cost per kWh reduction is 14.8

  9. Alameda Municipal Power - Residential Energy Efficiency Program...

    Broader source: Energy.gov (indexed) [DOE]

    Motors: 0.18per kWh saved Lighting: 0.20per kWh saved HVAC: 0.22per kWh saved Refrigeration: 0.22per kWh saved Provider Alameda Municipal Power Alameda Municipal Power...

  10. Data:Fae9c5a7-e500-4bb8-8cfa-95fdc388bfd5 | Open Energy Information

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    01 End date if known: Rate name: Residential Service Sector: Residential Description: *Energy Charge: First 2500 kWh 6.4 cents per kWh All over 2500 kWh 7.3 cents per kWh Prices...

  11. Data:B84d8cf2-4a8a-4404-a98d-1e170febc28c | Open Energy Information

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    including shops, sheds, barns, lighting service, pumps, etc. This cannot be a residence. Energy Charge: First 2500 kWh 6.4 cents per kWh All over 2500 kWh 7.3 cents per kWh Prices...

  12. An Estimate of Energy Use in Laboratories, Cleanrooms, and Data Centers in New York

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Mathew, Paul

    2010-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    cost ($/MCF) NY - Labs - Electricty expenditures (Million $)kWh) NY - Data Centers - Electricty expenditures (Million $)

  13. Portland General Electric Company Fourth Revision of Sheet No. 32-1 P.U.C. Oregon No. E-17 Canceling Third Revision of Sheet No. 32-1

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Over 5,000 kWh 0.264 ¢ per kWh Energy Charge Standard Cost of Service Offer 4.677 ¢ per kWh (I) or Time.00 Transmission and Related Services Charge 0.248 ¢ per kWh Distribution Charge First 5,000 kWh 2.350 ¢ per kWh-of-Use (TOU) Offer (enrollment is necessary) On-Peak Period 7.817 ¢ per kWh (I) Mid-Peak Period 4.677 ¢ per kWh

  14. Guidelines for Company Reporting on Greenhouse Gas Emissions Annexes updated July 2005

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    0.32 LPG kWh x 0.214 therms x 6.27 litres x 1.49 Coking Coal tonnes x 2736 kWh x 0.331 Aviation.63 Petrol tonnes x 3135 kWh x 0.24 litres x 2.30 Fuel Oil tonnes x 3223 kWh x 0.27 Coal2 tonnes x 2548 kWh xWh x 0.25 Petroleum Coke tonnes x 3410 kWh x 0.34 Refinery Miscellaneous kWh x 0.24 therms x 7

  15. ITP Industrial Distributed Energy: Combined Heat & Power Multifamily Performance Program-- Sea Park East 150 kW CHP System

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    Overview of Sea Park East 150 kilowatt (kW) Combined Heat and Power (CHP) System in Brooklyn, New York

  16. Climate and Transportation Solutions: Findings from the 2009 Asilomar Conference on Transportation and Energy Policy

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Sperling, Daniel; Cannon, James S.

    2010-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    simulation, the hybrid version was assumed to be equipped with a 110 kilowatt (kW) internal combustion engine,

  17. HIGH-TEMPERATURE HEAT EXCHANGER TESTING IN A PILOT-SCALE SLAGGING FURNACE SYSTEM

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Michael E. Collings; Bruce A. Dockter; Douglas R. Hajicek; Ann K. Henderson; John P. Hurley; Patty L. Kleven; Greg F. Weber

    1999-12-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The University of North Dakota Energy & Environmental Research Center (EERC), in partnership with United Technologies Research Center (UTRC) under a U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) contract, has designed, constructed, and operated a 3.0-million Btu/hr (3.2 x 10{sup 6} kJ/hr) slagging furnace system (SFS). Successful operation has demonstrated that the SFS meets design objectives and is well suited for testing very high-temperature heat exchanger concepts. Test results have shown that a high-temperature radiant air heater (RAH) panel designed and constructed by UTRC and used in the SFS can produce a 2000 F (1094 C) process air stream. To support the pilot-scale work, the EERC has also constructed laboratory- and bench-scale equipment which was used to determine the corrosion resistance of refractory and structural materials and develop methods to improve corrosion resistance. DOE projects that from 1995 to 2015, worldwide use of electricity will double to approach 20 trillion kilowatt hours. This growth comes during a time of concern over global warming, thought by many policy makers to be caused primarily by increases from coal-fired boilers in carbon dioxide (CO{sub 2}) emissions through the use of fossil fuels. Assuming limits on CO{sub 2} emissions from coal-fired boilers are imposed in the future, the most economical CO{sub 2} mitigation option may be efficiency improvements. Unless efficiency improvements are made in coal-fired power plants, utilities may be forced to turn to more expensive fuels or buy CO{sub 2} credits. One way to improve the efficiency of a coal-fired power plant is to use a combined cycle involving a typical steam cycle along with an indirectly fired turbine cycle using very high-temperature but low-pressure air as the working fluid. At the heart of an indirectly fired turbine combined-cycle power system are very high-temperature heat exchangers that can produce clean air at up to 2600 F (1427 C) and 250 psi (17 bar) to turn an aeroderivative turbine. The overall system design can be very similar to that of a typical pulverized coal-fired boiler system, except that ceramics and alloys are used to carry the very high-temperature air rather than steam. This design makes the combined-cycle system especially suitable as a boiler-repowering technology. With the use of a gas-fired duct heater, efficiencies of 55% can be achieved, leading to reductions in CO{sub 2} emissions of 40% as compared to today's coal-fired systems. On the basis of work completed to date, the high-temperature advanced furnace (HITAF) concept appears to offer a higher-efficiency technology option for coal-fired power generation systems than conventional pulverized coal firing. Concept analyses have demonstrated the ability to achieve program objectives for emissions (10% of New Source Performance Standards, i.e., 0.003 lb/MMBtu of particulate), efficiency (47%-55%), and cost of electricity (10%-25% below today's cost). Higher-efficiency technology options for new plants as well as repowering are important to the power generation industry in order to conserve valuable fossil fuel resources, reduce the quantity of pollutants (air and water) and solid wastes generated per MW, and reduce the cost of power production in a deregulated industry. Possibly more important than their potential application in a new high-temperature power system, the RAH panel and convective air heater tube bank are potential retrofit technology options for existing coal-fired boilers to improve plant efficiencies. Therefore, further development of these process air-based high-temperature heat exchangers and their potential for commercial application is directly applicable to the development of enabling technologies in support of the Vision 21 program objectives. The objective of the work documented in this report was to improve the performance of the UTRC high-temperature heat exchanger, demonstrate the fuel flexibility of the slagging combustor, and test methods for reducing corrosion of brick and castable refractory in such combustion environments. Specif

  18. AEP (Central and North) - Residential Energy Efficiency Programs...

    Office of Environmental Management (EM)

    242kW and 0.08kWh Residential Standard Offer Program Underserved Measures (HVAC, Insulation): 269kW and 0.09kWh Residential Standard Offer Program Underserved Counties:...

  19. Data:9e75ff65-eaa0-4499-9961-f4eb143e16b1 | Open Energy Information

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    .006kWh Residential Conservation Charge (RCC): 0.47month Renewable Energy & Energy Conservation Incentive Charge(REECIC):0.0005kWh Flat rate adjustments: PAC - PASNY +...

  20. Data:E9d72d0c-f8be-470d-afca-297aef377a7f | Open Energy Information

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    .006kWh Residential Conservation Charge (RCC): 0.47month Renewable Energy & Energy Conservation Incentive Charge(REECIC):0.0005kWh Flat rate adjustments: PAC - PASNY +...

  1. Data:061d5075-322f-4012-b069-f64f50e233e7 | Open Energy Information

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    Power - Rate PP Time Of Use adjustment power cost adjustment factor (all rates) On peak energy cost per kWh 0.09960 Off peak energy cost per kWh 0.03558 Critical peak...

  2. The relationship between policy choice and the size of the policy region: Why small jurisdictions may prefer renewable energy policies to reduce CO2 emissions

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Accordino, Megan H.; Rajagopal, Deepak

    2012-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    can be true. Either, coal generation can be sold in bothin the policy region and coal generation must be utilized inKWh) Pre-Policy Coal Generation (KWh) ? r ? g ? c Demand

  3. Development and Application of Advanced Models for Steam Hydrogasification: Process Design and Economic Evaluation

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Lu, Xiaoming

    2012-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    5. Power generation via IGCC from bituminous coal. It shouldElectricity Generation (KWh/gallon FT Liquid) Coal-to-PowerElectricity Generation (KWh/gallon FT Liquid) Coal-to-Power

  4. Data:Dae3ac19-5345-4585-86e4-92360800288e | Open Energy Information

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    Included) 3.60MeterMonth Renewable Energy Market Adjustment 0.003KWH Controlled Water Heater Credit .00736KWH Applies to the first 1,000 KWHs each month (October-March)...

  5. Data:82bd0fbd-fe04-4bf5-8d11-a3b31c89c79a | Open Energy Information

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    Energy Market Adjustment 0.003KWH (Added to All Above Energy Rates) Controlled Water Heater Credit .00736KWH Applies to the first 1,000 KWHs each month (October-March)...

  6. Data:D2129d32-012f-4dd4-a7ca-d2315ec62f0a | Open Energy Information

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    Energy Market Adjustment 0.003KWH (Added to All Above Energy Rates) Controlled Water Heater Credit .00736KWH Applies to the first 1,000 KWHs each month (October-March)...

  7. Data:909cb0ad-9159-40ad-a117-2d7740c2d61e | Open Energy Information

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    Energy Market Adjustment 0.003KWH (Added to All Above Energy Rates) Controlled Water Heater Credit .00736KWH Applies to the first 1,000 KWHs each month (October-March)...

  8. Data:6bc31d59-5e38-432d-9d4f-652f008d3493 | Open Energy Information

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    Energy Market Adjustment 0.003KWH (Added to All Above Energy Rates) Controlled Water Heater Credit .00736KWH Applies to the first 1,000 KWHs each month (October-March)...

  9. Data:Ab78023e-2306-4602-a927-2e512289d99c | Open Energy Information

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    Energy Market Adjustment 0.003KWH (Added to All Above Energy Rates) Controlled Water Heater Credit .00736KWH Applies to the first 1,000 KWHs each month (October-March)...

  10. Data:88de88e4-d7fe-4b8f-830b-8c4223d97a0c | Open Energy Information

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    Energy Market Adjustment 0.003KWH (Added to All Above Energy Rates) Controlled Water Heater Credit .00736KWH Applies to the first 1,000 KWHs each month (October-March)...

  11. Data:Ff017aa6-e7c3-4c15-8fbf-e58b62222ef3 | Open Energy Information

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    Energy Market Adjustment 0.003KWH (Added to All Above Energy Rates) Controlled Water Heater Credit .00736KWH Applies to the first 1,000 KWHs each month (October-March)...

  12. Data:F778d669-a0c1-4113-8157-fb53b71b085a | Open Energy Information

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    Energy Market Adjustment 0.003KWH (Added to All Above Energy Rates) Controlled Water Heater Credit .00736KWH Applies to the first 1,000 KWHs each month (October-March)...

  13. Data:Dbe25a1e-0788-49b1-8754-82fee5bf271f | Open Energy Information

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    Energy Market Adjustment 0.003KWH (Added to All Above Energy Rates) Controlled Water Heater Credit .00736KWH Applies to the first 1,000 KWHs each month (October-March)...

  14. Data:9311e64f-5c32-4f29-9247-9ba497eae67b | Open Energy Information

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    Energy Market Adjustment 0.003KWH (Added to All Above Energy Rates) Controlled Water Heater Credit .00736KWH Applies to the first 1,000 KWHs each month (October-March)...

  15. Data:3469c3e5-0ca9-445f-9c0b-6e37fcdf0e95 | Open Energy Information

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    Energy Market Adjustment 0.003KWH (Added to All Above Energy Rates) Controlled Water Heater Credit .00736KWH Applies to the first 1,000 KWHs each month (October-March)...

  16. Data:0db9e594-0df3-4e53-8964-5dea4f94c432 | Open Energy Information

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    Energy Market Adjustment 0.003KWH (Added to All Above Energy Rates) Controlled Water Heater Credit .00736KWH Applies to the first 1,000 KWHs each month (October-March)...

  17. Data:C9ce392b-bb0c-4621-b123-45b1d3508223 | Open Energy Information

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    Energy Market Adjustment 0.003KWH (Added to All Above Energy Rates) Controlled Water Heater Credit .00736KWH Applies to the first 1,000 KWHs each month (October-March)...

  18. Data:768b1737-403d-4d88-8270-ed62f894393a | Open Energy Information

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    Energy Market Adjustment 0.003KWH (Added to All Above Energy Rates) Controlled Water Heater Credit .00736KWH Applies to the first 1,000 KWHs each month (October-March)...

  19. Data:7f30ea2b-a87c-4afb-a8e0-fdd6b57b29bd | Open Energy Information

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    Energy Market Adjustment 0.003KWH (Added to All Above Energy Rates) Controlled Water Heater Credit .00736KWH Applies to the first 1,000 KWHs each month (October-March)...

  20. Data:82a11b98-78ca-4b45-ac37-f1387b2f4f5f | Open Energy Information

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    Energy Market Adjustment 0.003KWH (Added to All Above Energy Rates) Controlled Water Heater Credit .00736KWH Applies to the first 1,000 KWHs each month (October-March)...

  1. Data:B4925aa6-0194-4ae2-aa45-110457d20bf5 | Open Energy Information

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    Energy Market Adjustment 0.003KWH (Added to All Above Energy Rates) Controlled Water Heater Credit .00736KWH Applies to the first 1,000 KWHs each month (October-March)...

  2. Data:E12425a6-2cce-4d13-ba24-569ce282c924 | Open Energy Information

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    Energy Market Adjustment 0.003KWH (Added to All Above Energy Rates) Controlled Water Heater Credit .00736KWH Applies to the first 1,000 KWHs each month (October-March)...

  3. Data:1f70e04c-66de-4cc0-8eac-d240df2831e6 | Open Energy Information

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    Energy Market Adjustment 0.003KWH (Added to All Above Energy Rates) Controlled Water Heater Credit .00736KWH Applies to the first 1,000 KWHs each month (October-March)...

  4. How to Estimate the Value of Service Reliability Improvements

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Sullivan, Michael J.

    2010-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    and costs per annual kWh. Cost estimates are provided forper event, costs per average kW, costs per un-served kWhinvestments: 1. Cost per un-served kWh is substantially

  5. OCEAN THERMAL ENERGY CONVERSION (OTEC) PROGRAMMATIC ENVIRONMENTAL ANALYSIS

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Sands, M. D.

    2011-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    industrial users. Costs and per kWh increased from to 2.7rf-30, 1978, the average cost per kWh was 6.09i for residential

  6. Determining the lowest-cost hydrogen delivery mode

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Yang, Christopher; Ogden, Joan M

    2007-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    diesel) carbon dioxide emissions from electricity (gCO 2 /kWh) distance traveled (km) fuel economy (km/gal) electricity work used (kWh) lower heating value

  7. Data:37cfd1b4-12a3-480f-ba5b-79db36229eec | Open Energy Information

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    date: 20130116 End date if known: Rate name: Schedule C - HEAT METER GeothermalHeat Pump Rates Sector: Residential Description: 2 Heat Meter - All kwh at .08 per kwh...

  8. Data:12ff2eb2-e571-4dae-a172-de4af0d12da4 | Open Energy Information

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    with 100 KVA or more of installed capacity, the measured KWH shall be increased by 0.5% for each 1% by which the average monthly power factor is less than 90% lagging. kWh <<...

  9. Data:E9f9fafe-ff21-439c-a74d-a08164141847 | Open Energy Information

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    be as stated in the applicable rate tariff. Under this rider, only the kWh charge for electricity delivered by the Customer is affected. The Customer will pay for all kWh...

  10. Data:155c5dea-18da-4430-b224-2c01c4b70fb9 | Open Energy Information

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    be as stated in the applicable rate tariff. Under this rider, only the kWh charge for electricity delivered by the Customer is affected. The Customer will pay for all kWh...

  11. Data:97323792-0a3c-4f1f-bc43-9cfdeb8312cc | Open Energy Information

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    be as stated in the applicable rate tariff. Under this rider, only the kWh charge for electricity delivered by the Customer is affected. The Customer will pay for all kWh...

  12. Data:3d46b2e1-fb0b-4c8d-a648-29fcad737e34 | Open Energy Information

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    be as stated in the applicable rate tariff. Under this rider, only the kWh charge for electricity delivered by the Customer is affected. The Customer will pay for all kWh...

  13. Data:1fa8bc80-2710-41d8-b5f0-afc8fa84e793 | Open Energy Information

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    be as stated in the applicable rate tariff. Under this rider, only the kWh charge for electricity delivered by the Customer is affected. The Customer will pay for all kWh...

  14. Data:F8bb206f-d66e-4d24-8945-302b6068c0c3 | Open Energy Information

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    be as stated in the applicable rate tariff. Under this rider, only the kWh charge for electricity delivered by the Customer is affected. The Customer will pay for all kWh...

  15. Data:Edf339e2-649f-4676-9354-4b212e4e2183 | Open Energy Information

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    be as stated in the applicable rate tariff. Under this rider, only the kWh charge for electricity delivered by the Customer is affected. The Customer will pay for all kWh...

  16. Data:Eef7990a-140e-42ae-843b-c89105fa9bce | Open Energy Information

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    average price per kWh each month is determined by using the monthly customer charge and energy charges above and the predetermined formula below based on your actual kWh usage in...

  17. Automated Price and Demand Response Demonstration for Large Customers in New York City using OpenADR

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Kim, Joyce Jihyun

    2014-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Dynamic controls for energy efficiency and demand response:to evaluate continuous energy management and demand responseBldg Energy (kWh) Energy (kWh) Demand (kW) Office Bldg Of f

  18. The Impact of Retail Rate Structures on the Economics of Commercial Photovoltaic Systems in California

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Wiser, Ryan; Mills, Andrew; Barbose, Galen; Golove, William

    2007-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    with PV Annual PV Energy Production ( $ / kWh ) Expressingwith PV Annual PV Energy Production ( $ / kWh ) It is clearanalysis, and the annual energy production of a PV system,

  19. Development and Application of Advanced Models for Steam Hydrogasification: Process Design and Economic Evaluation

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Lu, Xiaoming

    2012-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    to small scale electricity generation plants and is alsoElectricity Use (KWh/gallon FT Liquid) Plant Electricity Generation (Electricity Usage (MW) Plant Electricity Use (KWh/gallon FT Liquid) Plant Electricity Generation (

  20. Data:65383d81-9d8c-46a1-beaa-a0d0dcf9e6d5 | Open Energy Information

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    3 Next >> Basic Information Utility name: Pataula Electric Member Corp Effective date: 19971201 End date if known: Rate name: Schedule GS - Single Phase (From 200 kWh to 400 kWh...

  1. Data:2a4f9048-77cc-4c1c-a3a3-a83caa09795d | Open Energy Information

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 Comments kWh (Distribution Charge) + (Energy Charge) + (Energy Optimization Charge) kWh << Previous 1 2 3 Next >> Category:Categories Retrieved from...

  2. Data:D61d5333-cf2d-4185-a1e3-b78375110af0 | Open Energy Information

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    1 1 1 1 1 1 1 Comments kWh (Variable Distribution Charge + Energy Charge + Energy Optimization Surcharge) kWh << Previous 1 2 3 Next >> Category:Categories Retrieved...

  3. Data:056f1f93-1c49-447a-96b7-01b337f1fee8 | Open Energy Information

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 Comments kWh (Distribution Charge) + (Energy Charge) + (Energy Optimization Charge) kWh << Previous 1 2 3 Next >> Category:Categories Retrieved from...

  4. Data:158d3933-5a90-4e10-b81d-b04bea603a54 | Open Energy Information

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    1 1 1 1 1 1 1 Comments kWh (Variable Distribution Charge + Energy Charge + Energy Optimization Surcharge) kWh << Previous 1 2 3 Next >> Category:Categories Retrieved...

  5. Data:A2e0bdd6-f51c-49da-8c50-9c6c9d7f56bd | Open Energy Information

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 Comments kWh (Distribution Charge) + (Energy Charge) + (Energy Optimization Charge) kWh << Previous 1 2 3 Next >> Category:Categories Retrieved from...

  6. Data:8901a43f-7e33-4310-8a3c-99aa796d35f7 | Open Energy Information

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 Comments kWh (Distribution Charge) + (Energy Charge) + (Energy Optimization Charge) kWh << Previous 1 2 3 Next >> Category:Categories Retrieved from...

  7. South Carolina Municipalities- Green Power Purchasing

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    Participating residential customers are able to purchase this green power for $3 per 100 kWh block. Commercial participants are able to purchase the power for $6 per 200 kWh block.

  8. An Estimate of Energy Use in Laboratories, Cleanrooms, and Data Centers in New York

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Mathew, Paul

    2010-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    tBTU) NY - Average commercial electricity cost ($/ kWh) NY -GWh) NY - Average commercial electricity cost ($/kWh) NY -costs for electricity and fu el w ere calcu lated u sing average

  9. IMPROVING ENERGY EFFICIENCY AND REDUCING COSTS IN THE DRINKING WATER SUPPLY INDUSTRY: An ENERGY STAR Resource Guide for Energy and Plant Managers

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Brown, Moya Melody, Camilla Dunham Whitehead, Rich

    2011-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    MGD)—Weighted Average Total Use Treatment electricity costelectricity cost Units kWh kW kWh kW Source Water (by MGD)—Weighted Averagecosts are for electricity (EPRI, 2002). ? Groundwater systems use an average

  10. Energy saving A major research institute is celebrating

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Steiner, Ullrich

    of around five million kWh per year in electricity and four million kWh per year in gas. At a cost of around 10p per kWh paid by the University it means the institute has saved £100,000 since the scheme beganGreenlines Energy saving milestone A major research institute is celebrating saving one million kWh

  11. The Open Source Stochastic Building Simulation Tool SLBM and Its Capabilities to Capture Uncertainty of Policymaking in the U.S. Building Sector

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Stadler, Michael

    2009-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    market share [1] levelized cost of energy [$/kWh] specificwith the lowest levelized costs of energy supply will gain

  12. Optimal Real-time Dispatch for Integrated Energy Systems

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Firestone, Ryan Michael

    2007-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    change in average electricity cost ($/kWh) to industrialreported that the average electricity cost was 2% less in

  13. Essays on the Economics of Environmental Issues: The Environmental Kuznets Curve to Optimal Energy Portfolios

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Meininger, Aaron G.

    2012-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    levelized generating costs per kWh. Expected portfolioThis is due to the high cost per kWh (low return) shown in2 costs are derived by multiplying 1kg of CO 2 per kWh for

  14. Techno-Economic Analysis of Indian Draft Standard Levels for Room Air Conditioners

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    McNeil, Michael A.; Iyer, Maithili

    2008-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    the current cost of production of 3.5 Rs per kWh. It isthe average cost of production to be 3.50 Rs. per kWh, or $the cost of production significantly at 4.80 Rs. per kWh. As

  15. Solar Adoption and Energy Consumption in the Residential Sector

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    McAllister, Joseph Andrew

    2012-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    customer groups. While the cost per kWh for each respectivewith the average cost declines, per kWh for average andcost of doing so would be zero (prior to 2011), or small, on the order of 5 cents per kWh (

  16. LIGHTING CONTROLS: SURVEY OF MARKET POTENTIAL

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Verderber, R.R.

    2010-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Increased Energy Cost (B$) @ $0.10 per kWh Decrease Energytypical energy costs ($0.05 to $0.10 per kWh), and standardand for energy costs of $0.05 and $0.10 per kWh for four

  17. Providing better indoor environmental quality brings economic benefits

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Fisk, William; Seppanen, Olli

    2007-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    to operate fans cost 0.10 € per kWh, the daily energy costdata, and energy costs of 0.04 € per kWh for heat and 0.1 €0.05 and 0.15 € per kWh, the benefit-cost ratios are 80 and

  18. Potential Electricity Impacts of a 1978 California Drought

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Sathaye, J.

    2011-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    is assumed to cost 11 mills per kWh in steam expense.33are assumed to cost 32 mills per kWh to PG&E. fuel costs,we arrive at costs of 24 mills per kWh for oil genera- tion

  19. www.postersession.com In recent years, energy efficiency has become one of the

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Hutcheon, James M.

    in the U.S. market due to its cost of $0.76 per square foot. The analysis of Polyisocyanurate insulation-21 Polyisocyanurate insulation as the most effective when considering the cost per year in electric). RESULTS COMPARISON PER STATE ElectricConsumption(kwh) Month ElectricConsumption(kwh) Month ElectricConsumption(kwh

  20. Data:7d9701f3-cceb-418d-a3e1-655931024f05 | Open Energy Information

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    Structure for Rate Period 1 Tier Max Usage Rate kWh Adjustments kWh Sell kWh 1 450 0.10000000 0.00570000 2 0.05700000 0.00570000 3 4 5 6 Structure for Rate Period 2 Tier...

  1. Data:89a183f1-9364-4688-a526-7f3695abc274 | Open Energy Information

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    Structure for Rate Period 1 Tier Max Usage Rate kWh Adjustments kWh Sell kWh 1 450 0.09500000 0.00570000 2 0.05700000 0.00570000 3 4 5 6 Structure for Rate Period 2 Tier...

  2. Data:E23a0fa2-427e-49be-8570-648dccf3a1af | Open Energy Information

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    15.00 base charge, plus .1016 cents per kWh. The cost for customers consuming 750 kWh of electricity would be 91.20 (15.00 plus 750 kWh x 0.1016) per month. The minimum monthly...

  3. U.S. Virgin Islands Feed-In Tariff

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    In May of 2014, AB 7586 created a feed-in-tariff that would allow owners of solar photovotaic systems ranging between 10 kWh and 500 kWh to sell their energy for approximately 26 cents per kWh. Two...

  4. Effect of Heat and Electricity Storage and Reliability on Microgrid Viability: A Study of Commercial Buildings in California and New York States

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Stadler, Michael

    2009-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    substantial (517 kW) and the battery bank huge (2082 kWh),181 kW), as is the battery bank (1518 kWh). In this case thePV array and a huge battery bank (6434 kWh). Note that this

  5. Value and Technology Assessment to Enhance the Business Case for the CERTS Microgrid

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Lasseter, Robert

    2010-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    substantial (517 kW) and the battery bank huge (2082 kWh),181 kW), as is the battery bank (1518 kWh). In this case thePV array and a huge battery bank (6434 kWh). Note that this

  6. 2008 Guidelines to Defra's GHG Conversion Factors Guidelines to Defra's GHG Conversion Factors

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    - Imports and Exports Last updated: Jun-05 Total emissions (kg CO2) Total electricity produced Total heat produced kg CO2/kWh elecricity Total emissions (kg CO2) Total electricity produced Total heat produced kg CO2/kWh heat Emissions (in kgCO2) per kWh electricity = twice total emissions (in kgCO2) twice total

  7. Guidelines to Defra's GHG conversion factors for company reporting Annexes updated June 2007

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    and Exports Last updated: Jun-05 Total emissions (kg CO2) Total electricity produced Total heat produced kg CO2/kWh elecricity Total emissions (kg CO2) Total electricity produced Total heat produced kg CO2/kWh heat Emissions (in kgCO2) per kWh electricity = twice total emissions (in kgCO2) twice total

  8. Exceeding Energy Consumption Design Expectations

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Castleton, H. F.; Beck, S. B. M.; Hathwat, E. A.; Murphy, E.

    2013-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    ) the building consumed 208.7 kWh m-2 yr-1, 83% of the expected energy consumption (250 kWh m-2 yr-1). This dropped further to 176.1 kWh m-2 yr-1 in 2012 (70% below expected). Factors affecting building energy consumption have been discussed and appraised...

  9. Havasupai Indian Reservation, Supai Village, Arizona | Department...

    Broader source: Energy.gov (indexed) [DOE]

    Three photovoltaic (PV) energy systems will supply up to 2 kilowatts of electrical power each to three facilities, which include a school, a jail, and a government complex...

  10. EA-1819: Final Environmental Assessment | Department of Energy

    Broader source: Energy.gov (indexed) [DOE]

    Assessment EA-1819: Final Environmental Assessment Kilowatts for Kenston Wind Energy Project, Chagrin Falls, Geauga County The Department of Energy has provided Federal...

  11. CX-001568: Categorical Exclusion Determination | Department of...

    Broader source: Energy.gov (indexed) [DOE]

    involves the purchase and installation of a 9 kilowatt (kW) photovoltaic (PV) solar panel system on the roof of the Trexler Environmental Center building. The proposed...

  12. CX-005520: Categorical Exclusion Determination | Department of...

    Broader source: Energy.gov (indexed) [DOE]

    street lights with light emitting diodes; and 4) install an approximately 20 kilowatt solar electric panel array on the Beaverton Library. DOCUMENT(S) AVAILABLE FOR DOWNLOAD...

  13. CX-006343: Categorical Exclusion Determination | Department of...

    Broader source: Energy.gov (indexed) [DOE]

    Energy Efficiency and Conservation Block Grant Program. 1) Installation of a solar photovoltaic system with a capacity of approximately 117 kilowatts on the roof of the Public...

  14. CX-007041: Categorical Exclusion Determination | Department of...

    Broader source: Energy.gov (indexed) [DOE]

    5) green energy education and publicity program, 6) install 25 solar powered light emitting diode light systems in Summit Central Park, and 7) install a 10 kilowatt solar...

  15. PowerSaver Success Stories | Department of Energy

    Office of Environmental Management (EM)

    rebates. Ms. Kidder's upgrades included: solar PV (2 kilowatts), an air source heat pump for space heating, an electric hot water heater, LED lighting replacement kits for...

  16. Max Tech and Beyond: Maximizing Appliance and Equipment Efficiency by Design

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Desroches, Louis-Benoit

    2012-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    factor heating, ventilation, and air conditioning kilowatt-electronics; heating, ventilation, and air conditioning (on a building’s heating, ventilation, and air conditioning (

  17. CX-005440: Categorical Exclusion Determination | Department of...

    Broader source: Energy.gov (indexed) [DOE]

    North Kingstown, Rhode Island Office(s): Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy, National Energy Technology Laboratory Installation of a 375 kilowatt solar array photovoltaic...

  18. Opportunities for Energy Efficiency and Open Automated Demand Response in Wastewater Treatment Facilities in California -- Phase I Report

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Lekov, Alex

    2010-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    50 Effluent Hydropower- Kilowatt Output as Function of HeadDepartment of Energy (2003). Hydropower Setting a Course forEnergy Commission). Hydropower: Hydropower turbines for low-

  19. Data:A915028e-78fd-4dc6-8c89-228bab9da7f3 | Open Energy Information

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    to any Distributed Generating Facility Class I renewable energy resource or hydropower facility whose generating capacity is less than or equal to 2,000 kilowatts. Monthly...

  20. Kenergy- Commercial and Industrial Rebate Program

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    Kenergy offers commercial and industrial customers rebates for energy-efficient lighting and other energy efficient improvements. Customers can receive rebates of $350 per kilowatt of energy...

  1. CX-003979: Categorical Exclusion Determination | Department of...

    Broader source: Energy.gov (indexed) [DOE]

    CX-003979: Categorical Exclusion Determination Tuscola North Plant 100 Kilowatt Wind Turbine Installation CX(s) Applied: B5.1 Date: 09222010 Location(s): Tuscola, Illinois...

  2. CX-004655: Categorical Exclusion Determination | Department of...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    in State Energy Program funding to Avatar Energy, LLC to install an anaerobic digester and a 75 kilowatt combined heat and power generation unit at Desert Hills, an...

  3. Power Module User's Manual 3/2/05 Commercial Confidential

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Wood, Stephen L.

    by forced ventilation systems kW Kilowatt kPa(g) Kilo-Pascals gauge pressure LPH Litres per hour MTBF Mean

  4. 2006 Federal Energy and Water Management Award Winners | Department...

    Office of Environmental Management (EM)

    Institution (FCI) Victorville, including installing a 750-kilowatt wind turbine, a photovoltaic (PV) covered parking solar array, and several cost-efficient upgrades to the...

  5. Success Stories | Department of Energy

    Broader source: Energy.gov (indexed) [DOE]

    rebates. Ms. Kidder's upgrades included: solar PV (2 kilowatts), an air source heat pump for space heating, an electric hot water heater, LED lighting replacement kits for...

  6. Advanced Wind Energy Projects Test Facility Moving to Texas Tech...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    technologies. The Lubbock site will include an initial installation of two 225-kilowatt wind turbines and three anemometer towers, with the potential to expand to nine or more...

  7. Data:Ff64394d-ddf8-4eb4-b967-d5225a6b7045 | Open Energy Information

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    with peak demand of 500 kilowatts or more), other than those on special contracts or flexible tariffs. Service is alternating current, nominally 60 cycles, three phase, in...

  8. TMCC WIND RESOURCE ASSESSMENT

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Turtle Mountain Community College

    2003-12-30T23:59:59.000Z

    North Dakota has an outstanding resource--providing more available wind for development than any other state. According to U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) studies, North Dakota alone has enough energy from good wind areas, those of wind power Class 4 and higher, to supply 36% of the 1990 electricity consumption of the entire lower 48 states. At present, no more than a handful of wind turbines in the 60- to 100-kilowatt (kW) range are operating in the state. The first two utility-scale turbines were installed in North Dakota as part of a green pricing program, one in early 2002 and the second in July 2002. Both turbines are 900-kW wind turbines. Two more wind turbines are scheduled for installation by another utility later in 2002. Several reasons are evident for the lack of wind development. One primary reason is that North Dakota has more lignite coal than any other state. A number of relatively new minemouth power plants are operating in the state, resulting in an abundance of low-cost electricity. In 1998, North Dakota generated approximately 8.2 million megawatt-hours (MWh) of electricity, largely from coal-fired plants. Sales to North Dakota consumers totaled only 4.5 million MWh. In addition, the average retail cost of electricity in North Dakota was 5.7 cents per kWh in 1998. As a result of this surplus and the relatively low retail cost of service, North Dakota is a net exporter of electricity, selling approximately 50% to 60% of the electricity produced in North Dakota to markets outside the state. Keeping in mind that new electrical generation will be considered an export commodity to be sold outside the state, the transmission grid that serves to export electricity from North Dakota is at or close to its ability to serve new capacity. The markets for these resources are outside the state, and transmission access to the markets is a necessary condition for any large project. At the present time, technical assessments of the transmission network indicate that the ability to add and carry wind capacity outside of the state is limited. Identifying markets, securing long-term contracts, and obtaining a transmission path to export the power are all major steps that must be taken to develop new projects in North Dakota.

  9. IBM Systems and Technology Electronics IBM CMOS 7HV for

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    companies can significantly improve these metrics today by using IBM technology in smart solar- panel to improve effi- ciency, cost per kilowatt and reliability of solar modules IBM CMOS 7HV is the industry, cost per kilowatt and reliability of solar modules. While this research is critical, photovoltaics

  10. J.Ongena Our Energy Future Bochum, 18 November 2012 How to shape our future energy supply ?

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Gerwert, Klaus

    ­ 5kWh One liter of petrol ­ 10kWh One aluminum can for coke, water,... (15g) ­ 0.6kWh Energy : Some: There are only 3 different methods to produce energy 1. Burning Fossil Fuels : Coal, Oil, Gas ? Enormous in the world (2007) Energy source Power [TW] Contribution [%] Oil 4.6 36.6 Coal 3.12 24.9 Gas 3.02 24.1 Hydro

  11. Final Project Due: May 18, 2010

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Aalberts, Daniel P.

    : Monthly totals Total Electricity in kWh Average kWh per day Cost $.11/kWh Emissions .41 kg/kWh (unit in kg electricity bill, cost and emissions of the Bernhard/Chapin complex. 4 Figure 3: This graph provides a monthly electricity use trends for Chapin Hall and Bernhard4 #12;5 Winter Shutdown Daily Average 0 100 200 300 400 500

  12. An Environmental and Economic Trade-off Analysis of Manufacturing Process Chains to Inform Decision Making for Sustainability

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Robinson, Stefanie L.

    2013-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    manufacturing processes, taking into account casting, laserFROM DISCRETE MANUFACTURING PROCESSES Figure 6.5: CO 2 laserMANUFACTURING PROCESSES Energy consumption (kWh) = Laser

  13. Metrics for Sustainable Manufacturing

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Reich-Weiser, Corinne; Vijayaraghavan, Athulan; Dornfeld, David A.

    2008-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    global warming potential) associated with a kWh of electricityGlobal Warming Potential (g CO2eq/kg) GHG Data: UNFCCC (2005), Electricity

  14. Performance Analysis of XCPC Powered Solar Cooling Demonstration Project

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Widyolar, Bennett

    2013-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    47 3.8 Economic Evaluation…………………………………………………………….49 4. AElectrical (kWh) Electrical COP 3.8 Economic Evaluation Asimple economic evaluation of the system was performed using

  15. Waste to Energy: Biogas CHP

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Wagner, R.

    2011-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    fuel to generate electricity, DWU?s Biogas has the potential to reduce the City of Dallas? total grid derived electricity consumption by almost 4% DWU 7% Reduction (30,000,000 kWh/Year) 430,000,000 kWh / Year 60% Reduction (30,000,000 kWh/Year...) 50,000,000 kWh / Year CITY 790,000,000 kWh/Year 4% Reduction (30,000,000 kWh / Year) SOUTHSIDE WWTP Benefits of the Project to the City ? The City will reduce its grid derived electricity needs by approximately 30,000,000 kWh per year...

  16. Effects of 'Limited Product Line Audits'

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Van Ormer, H.

    2006-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    . This is higher than the normal quoted percentage and could be caused by improper adjustments. Estimated annual electrical energy operating cost at idle (not including loaded time) at $0.05 per kWh ((1,000 hp x .746 x 0.05 x 8,760 x .40) / .95 me) equals... 23% Lowest % 14 Highest % 48% Average Electric Rate $0.06/kWh Lowest rate $0.04/kWh Highest rate $0.09/kWh Third-party Incentives Obtained: Audit Cost 5...

  17. Energy Information Administration - Commercial Energy Consumption...

    Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update (EIA)

    6A. Electricity Expenditures by Census Region for All Buildings, 2003 Total Electricity Expenditures (million dollars) Electricity Expenditures (dollars) per kWh per Square Foot...

  18. Data:05971f8f-ef9f-451d-97ed-708452de2636 | Open Energy Information

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    name: Jackson Purchase Energy Corporation Effective date: End date if known: Rate name: Renewable Resources Energy Per 100 kWh Blocks Sector: Description: Members may choose to...

  19. Data:48a3e70a-fcfc-469d-b9c2-ae1add5b74ae | Open Energy Information

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    5 Sector: Commercial Description: Alternate Renewable Resource Service (To encourage new renewable resources, available to general service customers). Charge - 7.50 per 100 kWh...

  20. Data:Dcb0bb5d-9daa-4fa8-ae67-e50d304205f3 | Open Energy Information

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    municipal street lighting, yard and security lighting, and athletic field lighting. Power Cost Adjustment Clause: Charge per all kWh varies monthly. Source or reference: http:...

  1. Data:0f32b7eb-11a9-4f5d-a388-402c1916c4f6 | Open Energy Information

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    for space heating and water heating and other residential purposes. Subject to Power Cost Adjustment and kWh Tax. Rural residence service:Service to residential customers...

  2. Data:04763027-dea5-434f-aea0-ced2aa932dd4 | Open Energy Information

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    municipal street lighting, yard and security lighting, and athletic field lighting. Power Cost Adjustment Clause: Charge per all kWh varies monthly. Source or reference: http:...

  3. Data:6ebaf50c-0760-4af2-84b4-5ce1d7ff810d | Open Energy Information

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    name: 100% controlled electric heat separate meter Sector: Residential Description: Power Cost Adjustment on all kWh + .003 No Customer Charge Source or reference: http:...

  4. Data:727d9c24-d297-47ce-8daf-792c39b6d53f | Open Energy Information

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    lighting. The Utility will furnish, install, and maintain street lighting units. Power Cost Adjustment Clause: Charge per all kWh varies monthly Commitment to Community Program...

  5. Data:497e19c6-e62e-40bf-9124-a49ff9e9cbc1 | Open Energy Information

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    known: Rate name: Commercial general service rate Sector: Commercial Description: Power Cost Adjustment on all kWh + .003 Source or reference: http:www.citytrf.net...

  6. Data:91a9b456-c26d-4d4a-9fa5-366fba1db0f0 | Open Energy Information

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    lighting. The Utility will furnish, install, and maintain street lighting units. Power Cost Adjustment Clause: Charge per all kWh varies monthly Commitment to Community Program...

  7. Data:2553e2e4-1199-44c8-b016-833a650200b7 | Open Energy Information

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    lighting. The Utility will furnish, install, and maintain street lighting units. Power Cost Adjustment Clause: Charge per all kWh varies monthly Commitment to Community Program...

  8. Data:854e5d63-365d-4002-a2c7-e9d1feb9f29c | Open Energy Information

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    name: Residential - 100% controlled electric heat Sector: Residential Description: Power Cost Adjustment on all kWh + .003 Closed to new customers 1111 Source or reference:...

  9. Data:1f26a3c0-e101-402d-aa61-a38b67dbf165 | Open Energy Information

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    date if known: Rate name: Residential service rate Sector: Residential Description: Power Cost Adjustment on all kWh + .003 Source or reference: http:www.citytrf.net...

  10. Data:F418fda9-4196-43d0-88a7-02f048efc51a | Open Energy Information

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    name: Residential with demand Sector: Residential Description: The current Regulatory Cost Charge is 0.000578kWh for all accounts. The current Power Cost Adjustment is...

  11. Data:Cab06a83-dad1-4d9e-891a-807e53060785 | Open Energy Information

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    municipal street lighting, yard and security lighting, and athletic field lighting. Power Cost Adjustment Clause: Charge per all kWh varies monthly. Source or reference: http:...

  12. Data:D72b0bf5-6360-4297-a75f-439e47625ef9 | Open Energy Information

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    municipal street lighting, yard and security lighting, and athletic field lighting. Power Cost Adjustment Clause: Charge per all kWh varies monthly. Source or reference: http:...

  13. Optimizing Power Factor Correction

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Phillips, R. K.; Burmeister, L. C.

    = energy charge from 5 above, $/mo c) $0.024 per kWh for the next 250 kWh per kVA 7. The bill is then adjusted for times the billing capacity; plus a) fuel and purchased energy under the energy d) $0.022 per kWh for all remaining kWh. cost adjustment... are neglected. A linear capacitor cost model is assumed that has an initial cost plus a cost per kVAR of .? ESL-IE-86-06-132 Proceedings from the Eighth Annual Industrial Energy Technology Conference, Houston, TX, June 17-19, 1986 capacitance. Although...

  14. Data:1946731f-1fdb-417f-83c5-d699e95c6364 | Open Energy Information

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    Lighting Description: This rate will be applied to athletic field lighting only. Power Cost Adjustment Clause: Charge per all kWh varies monthly. Commitment to Community Program...

  15. Data:7439e112-4080-45fc-936e-41b15503d510 | Open Energy Information

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    and ancillary charge added to energy and transmission charges. Subject to power cost adjustment and kWh tax. Minimum Charge: Single Phase Service: Customer charge +...

  16. Data:35396d20-20a3-4866-a37f-8d07f28332da | Open Energy Information

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    known: Rate name: Industrial general service rate Sector: Industrial Description: Power Cost Adjustment on all kWh + .003 Source or reference: http:www.citytrf.net...

  17. Data:B53e1c4d-4abb-4d3e-ade2-8b6dbbdc091c | Open Energy Information

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    Company) Effective date: End date if known: Rate name: Heavy Industrial-over 100,000 kWh Sector: Industrial Description: Cost + energy charge Source or reference:...

  18. Data:E7a405a1-64a5-4dc7-9e8a-718ee3a02140 | Open Energy Information

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    for space heating and water heating and other residential purposes. Subject to Power Cost Adjustment and kWh Tax. Rural residence service:Service to residential customers...

  19. Data:38bce442-ae42-4b83-bc6e-35d846572213 | Open Energy Information

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    lighting. The Utility will furnish, install, and maintain street lighting units. Power Cost Adjustment Clause: Charge per all kWh varies monthly Commitment to Community Program...

  20. Data:C8b753df-101c-472d-8610-196cc25512e7 | Open Energy Information

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    lighting. Customer Owned and Customer maintained, Energy and PCAC Charges only. Power Cost Adjustment Clause: Charge per all kWh varies monthly. Source or reference: http:...

  1. Data:9cf9e6da-0907-4ff4-8c02-19036bfef1ab | Open Energy Information

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    Service Rules and Regulations and the IURC Rules Governing Electric Utilities. Cost adjustment of 0.000216kWh. Source or reference: Source Parent: Comments...

  2. Data:5f6cb142-353b-4176-98ac-ef4c1517f85a | Open Energy Information

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    Effective date: End date if known: Rate name: Medium Industrial - 50,000 - 100,000 kWh Sector: Industrial Description: Cost + Energy Charge Source or reference:...

  3. Data:65eb2728-542b-4fec-8d9c-9fd3969f6dc6 | Open Energy Information

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    municipal street lighting, yard and security lighting, and athletic field lighting. Power Cost Adjustment Clause: Charge per all kWh varies monthly. Source or reference: http:...

  4. Data:9b8c859d-dcf3-40db-b959-7c9c416fec9c | Open Energy Information

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    name: Commercial - 100% controlled electric heat Sector: Commercial Description: Power Cost Adjustment on all kWh + .003 Source or reference: http:www.citytrf.net...

  5. Data:62b9252f-0acb-4f42-9153-056c19f3ce28 | Open Energy Information

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    (>1000 KWh)-T2 Sector: Residential Description: http:www.grotonelectric.orgratesrate-book pages 26 and 27 Source or reference: http:www.grotonelectric.orgrates Source...

  6. Catalog of DC Appliances and Power Systems

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Garbesi, Karina

    2012-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    battery storage.grid, the cost of battery storage per unit of load servedalong with 22 kWh of battery storage. This study claims only

  7. Energy Information Administration - Commercial Energy Consumption...

    Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update (EIA)

    7A. Electricity Consumption and Conditional Energy Intensity by Census Division for All Buildings, 2003: Part 1 Total Electricity Consumption (billion kWh) Total Floorspace of...

  8. Energy Information Administration - Commercial Energy Consumption...

    Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update (EIA)

    9A. Electricity Consumption and Conditional Energy Intensity by Census Division for All Buildings, 2003: Part 3 Total Electricity Consumption (billion kWh) Total Floorspace of...

  9. Energy Information Administration - Commercial Energy Consumption...

    Annual Energy Outlook 2013 [U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA)]

    2A. Electricity Consumption and Conditional Energy Intensity by Year Constructed for All Buildings, 2003 Total Electricity Consumption (billion kWh) Total Floorspace of Buildings...

  10. --No Title--

    Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update (EIA)

    9. Electricity Consumption and Conditional Energy Intensity by Census Division for Non-Mall Buildings, 2003: Part 3 Total Electricity Consumption (billion kWh) Total Floorspace of...

  11. --No Title--

    Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update (EIA)

    4. Electricity Consumption and Expenditure Intensities for Non-Mall Buildings, 2003 Electricity Consumption Electricity Expenditures per Building (thousand kWh) per Square Foot...

  12. --No Title--

    Annual Energy Outlook 2013 [U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA)]

    5. Electricity Consumption and Conditional Energy Intensity by Census Region for Non-Mall Buildings, 2003 Total Electricity Consumption (billion kWh) Total Floorspace of Buildings...

  13. --No Title--

    Annual Energy Outlook 2013 [U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA)]

    0. Electricity Consumption and Conditional Energy Intensity by Climate Zonea for Non-Mall Buildings, 2003 Total Electricity Consumption (billion kWh) Total Floorspace of Buildings...

  14. Residential Electricity Demand in China -- Can Efficiency Reverse the Growth?

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Letschert, Virginie

    2010-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    for 90% of household electricity consumption in China. Usinggives an annual electricity consumption of 12kWh assumingto look at is electricity consumption at the household

  15. Energy Information Administration - Commercial Energy Consumption...

    Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update (EIA)

    0A. Electricity Consumption and Conditional Energy Intensity by Climate Zonea for All Buildings, 2003 Total Electricity Consumption (billion kWh) Total Floorspace of Buildings...

  16. Energy Information Administration - Commercial Energy Consumption...

    Annual Energy Outlook 2013 [U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA)]

    Table C22. Electricity Consumption and Conditional Energy Intensity by Year Constructed for Non-Mall Buildings, 2003 Total Electricity Consumption (billion kWh) Total Floorspace...

  17. Energy Information Administration - Commercial Energy Consumption...

    Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update (EIA)

    8A. Electricity Consumption and Conditional Energy Intensity by Census Division for All Buildings, 2003: Part 2 Total Electricity Consumption (billion kWh) Total Floorspace of...

  18. --No Title--

    Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update (EIA)

    8. Electricity Consumption and Conditional Energy Intensity by Census Division for Non-Mall Buildings, 2003: Part 2 Total Electricity Consumption (billion kWh) Total Floorspace of...

  19. --No Title--

    Annual Energy Outlook 2013 [U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA)]

    7. Electricity Consumption and Conditional Energy Intensity by Census Division for Non-Mall Buildings, 2003: Part 1 Total Electricity Consumption (billion kWh) Total Floorspace of...

  20. Energy Information Administration - Commercial Energy Consumption...

    Annual Energy Outlook 2013 [U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA)]

    5A. Electricity Consumption and Conditional Energy Intensity by Census Region for All Buildings, 2003 Total Electricity Consumption (billion kWh) Total Floorspace of Buildings...

  1. Essays in Public Economics and Development

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Gerard, Francois

    2013-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    but only economic incentives (kWh) Simulations: totargets through economic incentives is often consideredtargets through economic incentives (e.g. , prices) is often

  2. Flow of mantle fluids through the ductile lower crust: Helium isotope trends

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Kennedy, B. Mack; van Soest, Matthijs C.

    2008-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    particularly for geothermal energy development. Mantlex 10 kWh of accessible geothermal energy. This is a sizableBasic Energy Sciences and Office of Geothermal Technologies

  3. Data:0cabeb2f-a5fe-4f8f-bbc1-2132198c0dbe | Open Energy Information

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    average monthly usage of 500 kWh Source or reference: http:www.puc.texas.govconsumerelectricitypolrTNCRES.pdf Source Parent: http:www.puc.texas.govconsumerelectricity...

  4. Data:76383b62-d154-4a14-a46a-1cd08a74a3e1 | Open Energy Information

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    Electric Department Net Metered Renewable Energy Source Rider Rate for Positive Electricity Producers. Additional payments are possible for any excess kWh's put back on...

  5. Data:84c59819-a563-4cb1-aa76-4f495328f20e | Open Energy Information

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    Cimarron Electric Coop Effective date: 20040501 End date if known: Rate name: Wind Energy Rider Sector: Description: Retail Pricing: Fifty (50) cents per 100 kWh Renewable...

  6. Power Crisis Quick Conversion Sheet Mtoe/y / UK

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    MacKay, David J.C.

    energy exchange rate: 1 kWh 250 g of CO2 (oil, petrol) 1 kWh(e) /d electrical energy is more costly: 1 k

  7. Rural electrification, climate change, and local economies: Facilitating communication in development policy and practice on Nicaragua's Atlantic Coast

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Casillas, Christian E.

    2012-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    biogas digester .. Installation of a biogas digester  In order to demonstrate heat value of biogas production: 321 kWh.   The digester is 

  8. , 3 2006 Most of a WTE plant is dedicated to emissions

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Columbia University

    to emissions control. That's why, per kWh produced, a WTE is three times more expensive than a coal-fired power

  9. Response to "Fusion Power: Will It Come?" By W. E. Parkins Farrokh Najmabadi, University of California, San Diego

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    . The latest US study, ARIES-AT1 , arrives at a cost of electricity of ~5 ¢/kWh, comparable to that of coal-fired

  10. Energy Efficiency Retrofits for U.S. Housing: Removing the Bottlenecks

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Bardhan, Ashok; Jaffee, Dwight; Kroll, Cynthia; Wallace, Nancy

    2013-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    owner to the solar installation company to pay for thevia independent solar contracting companies who are paid onwill pay the solar finance company per KWH produced.    The

  11. Added Value of Reliability to a Microgrid: Simulations of Three California Buildings

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Marnay, Chris

    2009-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    $/kWh lifetime (a) lead- acid batterie s co nfere nc e, Calfor the lead-acid battery. Even though flow batteries were

  12. Distributed Energy Resource Optimization Using a Software as Service (SaaS) Approach at the University of California, Davis Campus

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Michael, Stadler

    2011-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    example, 44.5 kWh of lead acid batteries are adopted. As canphotovoltaics (PV), lead acid batteries, and Zinc-Bromide

  13. U.S. Department of Energy

    Annual Energy Outlook 2013 [U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA)]

    IREC: Interstate Renewable Energy Council ITC: Investment Tax Credit kWh: Kilowatthour LBNL: Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory LCFS: Low Carbon Fuel Standard LDV: Light-duty...

  14. Data:54dfe1eb-d2b7-417c-ab5b-ad6a82708b55 | Open Energy Information

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    from Potomac Edison Company Monthly Usage: 162kWh The above charges are subject to the Levelized Purchased Power Factor, Schedule LPPFQ, or the Cooperative's Wholesale Power...

  15. Data:Ca600802-b9c6-4a52-82ba-037fd0673e7b | Open Energy Information

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    from Potomac Edison Company Monthly Usage: 162kWh The above charges are subject to the Levelized Purchased Power Factor, Schedule LPPFQ, or the Cooperative's Wholesale Power...

  16. Microsoft Word - Future Power Systems 20 - The Smart Enterprise...

    Office of Environmental Management (EM)

    all gives inefficient burn which costs more in fuel and emissions per kWh. Future Power Systems 20 The Smart Enterprise, its Objective and Forecasting. Steve...

  17. Data:8be5a0b7-eeb5-4f12-b7a1-dc00048ea799 | Open Energy Information

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    Effective date: 20111205 End date if known: Rate name: Irrigation and Related Pumping (< or to 195 kWh per hp) Sector: Commercial Description: - Monthly Power Cost...

  18. Data:9eca030c-26d6-4372-a5fc-2ab2d8571412 | Open Energy Information

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    Effective date: 20111205 End date if known: Rate name: Irrigation and Related Pumping (> 195 kWh per hp) Sector: Commercial Description: - Power Cost Adjustment may apply...

  19. Data:086afd92-645b-444e-adfa-9c71eea4b1b2 | Open Energy Information

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    Inc Effective date: 20090201 End date if known: Rate name: SL- 175 Watt MV 77 kWh (Steel Underground) Sector: Lighting Description: Source or reference: http:...

  20. Data:7c4fc97a-725a-456e-a579-9c55a0863e8b | Open Energy Information

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    Inc Effective date: 20090201 End date if known: Rate name: SL- 175 Watt MV 77 kWh (Steel Pole Overhead) Sector: Lighting Description: Source or reference: http:...

  1. Data:F6cbd293-b00c-4b6d-aa14-a8d5e2fac4d9 | Open Energy Information

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    Inc Effective date: 20090201 End date if known: Rate name: SL- 400 Watt HPS 170 kWh ( Steel Pole Underground) Sector: Lighting Description: Source or reference: http:...

  2. Data:79598a8f-5301-4d49-bf27-a2e34d78b3fc | Open Energy Information

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    Inc Effective date: 20090201 End date if known: Rate name: SL- 250 Watt HPS 106 kWh (Steel Pole Underground) Sector: Lighting Description: Source or reference: http:...

  3. Data:19c90038-2440-4226-b9bd-e2ea8b556d24 | Open Energy Information

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    Inc Effective date: 20090201 End date if known: Rate name: SL- 400 Watt HPS 170 kWh ( Steel Pole Overhead) Sector: Lighting Description: Source or reference: http:...

  4. Data:4185121c-9bc7-4993-b6cd-b3c79c073f57 | Open Energy Information

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    Inc Effective date: 20090201 End date if known: Rate name: SL- 150 Watt HPS 60 kWh (Steel Pole Underground) Sector: Lighting Description: Source or reference: http:...

  5. Data:1a8b1adc-8132-42e1-bbc6-37cbe8433d4a | Open Energy Information

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    Inc Effective date: 20090201 End date if known: Rate name: SL- 400 Watt MV 169 kWh (Steel Pole Underground) Sector: Lighting Description: Source or reference: http:...

  6. Data:83dd866f-1ad1-4738-be83-cdba19e39264 | Open Energy Information

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    Inc Effective date: 20090201 End date if known: Rate name: SL- 150 Watt HPS 60 kWh (Steel Pole Overhead) Sector: Lighting Description: Source or reference: http:...

  7. Data:Cc0acc3a-fb58-4bdd-8e1d-f7e0d6b32e6e | Open Energy Information

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    Inc Effective date: 20090201 End date if known: Rate name: SL- 250 Watt HPS 106 kWh (Steel Pole Overhead) Sector: Lighting Description: Source or reference: http:...

  8. Data:6371ae39-fc33-4aa6-abc7-d77cff3bd7f5 | Open Energy Information

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    Estimated monthly KWH: 47 POLE CHARGES PER MONTH: Poles installed through 2281997: 2.59 monthly charge Poles installed or changed out after 2281997: 4.00 monthly...

  9. Data:1101feab-6452-45f9-acf0-0497f8d48f0e | Open Energy Information

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    Estimated monthly KWH: 68 POLE CHARGES PER MONTH: Poles installed through 2281997: 2.59 monthly charge Poles installed or changed out after 2281997: 4.00 monthly...

  10. Data:1d5cf1ef-fac5-40e2-af7f-727f242f4c9a | Open Energy Information

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    Power Supply Cost Recovery Factor, Fixed Charge Customer Charge + Energy Optimization. kWh << Previous 1 2 3 Next >> Category:Categories Retrieved from "http:...

  11. Data:09fe04d5-ae8e-440d-94ff-fe10226cd307 | Open Energy Information

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    Comments Adjustment Power Cost Recovery. Fixed Charge Customer Charge + Energy Optimization. kWh << Previous 1 2 3 Next >> Category:Categories Retrieved from "http:...

  12. Data:9f8c3bfe-bc3c-49ca-a0b0-112f89f77a74 | Open Energy Information

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    1 1 1 1 1 1 1 Comments Fixed Monthly Charge (Monthly Availability Charge + Energy Optimization Surcharge) kWh (Variable Distribution Charge + Energy Charge) + (Power Supply...

  13. Data:21263577-1c3c-4ff6-8b41-754aa77547a5 | Open Energy Information

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    Distribution Delivery Charge + Electric Supply Service Charge Adjustments Energy Optimization Surcharge + Power Supply Cost Recovery Factor kWh << Previous 1 2 3 Next >>...

  14. Data:6b9e64ca-02ba-4455-b2ed-10ca92673ffa | Open Energy Information

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    Power Supply Cost Recovery Factor, Fixed Charge Customer Charge + Energy Optimization. kWh << Previous 1 2 3 Next >> Category:Categories Retrieved from "http:...

  15. Data:B3224968-3a5e-45eb-8a15-14acff3d9d3e | Open Energy Information

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    1 1 1 1 1 1 1 Comments Fixed Monthly Charge (Monthly Availability Charge + Energy Optimization Surcharge) kWh (Distribution Charge + Energy Charge) + (Power Supply Cost...

  16. Data:8d24d75b-3a52-468e-97bb-574edddddccc | Open Energy Information

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    Comments Adjustment Power Cost Recovery. Fixed Charge Customer Charge + Energy Optimization. kWh << Previous 1 2 3 Next >> Category:Categories Retrieved from "http:...

  17. Data:E32e3fac-39a0-475a-9f89-fee1783eeed9 | Open Energy Information

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    Power Supply Cost Recovery Factor, Fixed Charge Customer Charge + Energy Optimization kWh << Previous 1 2 3 Next >> Category:Categories Retrieved from "http:...

  18. Data:2fa483de-dace-46ba-a515-da25ba853cdc | Open Energy Information

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    and delivery charges. Adjustment is power supply cost recovery factor and energy optimization surcharge. kWh << Previous 1 2 3 Next >> Category:Categories Retrieved...

  19. Data:9cd44c76-a461-4cc5-831b-bbe9c1ce7cf8 | Open Energy Information

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    Power Supply Cost Recovery Factor, Fixed Charge Customer Charge + Energy Optimization kWh << Previous 1 2 3 Next >> Category:Categories Retrieved from "http:...

  20. Data:54084c22-fa05-41ed-aa05-b563cf042885 | Open Energy Information

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    Comments Adjustment Power Cost Recovery, Fixed Charge Customer Charge + Energy Optimization. kWh << Previous 1 2 3 Next >> Category:Categories Retrieved from "http:...

  1. Data:26c361e6-64f7-4093-b4d8-58c0befc98f5 | Open Energy Information

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    Power Supply Cost Recovery Factor, Fixed Charge Customer Charge + Energy Optimization kWh << Previous 1 2 3 Next >> Category:Categories Retrieved from "http:...

  2. Data:Dbce3e55-8252-47f8-9a84-c0512e2c4690 | Open Energy Information

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    Fixed Monthly Charge ((Prepaid Annual Availability Charge 12 months) + Energy Optimization Surcharge) kWh (Variable Distribution Charge + Energy Charge) + (Power Supply...

  3. Data:54adb3ff-c362-4574-b14b-8b9c0fd2f8fb | Open Energy Information

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    Power Supply Cost Recovery Factor, Fixed Charge Customer Charge + Energy Optimization. kWh << Previous 1 2 3 Next >> Category:Categories Retrieved from "http:...

  4. Data:3e551bbd-b29e-4f03-a70d-013dfc4ea454 | Open Energy Information

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    delivery charges. Adjustment is power supply cost recovery adjustment and energy optimization charge. kWh << Previous 1 2 3 Next >> Category:Categories Retrieved from...

  5. Data:0715ba34-f2ae-4452-bf7b-df4185eae462 | Open Energy Information

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    Power Supply Cost Recovery Factor, Fixed Charge Customer charge + Energy Optimization. kWh << Previous 1 2 3 Next >> Category:Categories Retrieved from "http:...

  6. Data:A494ad2e-ee48-408a-af1d-f8c063ebcd43 | Open Energy Information

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    1 1 1 1 1 1 1 Comments Fixed Monthly Charge (Monthly Availability Charge + Energy Optimization Surcharge) kWh (Distribution Charge + Energy Charge) + (Power Supply Cost...

  7. Data:C5ebe149-bdc6-481b-931d-d6d37bff9e10 | Open Energy Information

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    Fixed Monthly Charge ((Prepaid Annual Availability Charge 12 months) + Energy Optimization Surcharge) kWh (Variable Distribution Charge + Energy Charge) + (Power Supply...

  8. Data:2db447bd-f96f-45aa-a79c-34589911a98d | Open Energy Information

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    Distribution Delivery Charge + Electric Supply Service Charge Adjustments Energy Optimization Surcharge + Power Supply Cost Recovery Factor kWh << Previous 1 2 3 Next >>...

  9. Data:5092ea38-68d0-4703-8291-8aa4d2b355a8 | Open Energy Information

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    1 1 1 1 1 1 1 Comments Fixed Monthly Charge (Monthly Availability Charge + Energy Optimization Surcharge) kWh (Distribution Charge + Energy Charge) + (Power Supply Cost...

  10. Data:26d218aa-3411-4513-8e61-dd945f8a9791 | Open Energy Information

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    1 1 1 1 1 1 1 Comments Fixed Monthly Charge (Monthly Availability Charge + Energy Optimization Surcharge) kWh (Distribution Charge + Energy Charge) + (Power Supply Cost...

  11. Data:Ed345227-4593-404b-a780-ed7350e72803 | Open Energy Information

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    Power Supply Cost Recovery Factor, Fixed Charge Customer Charge + Energy Optimization kWh << Previous 1 2 3 Next >> Category:Categories Retrieved from "http:...

  12. Data:9f85a932-89d4-4b9a-8e3e-dab86ba42e32 | Open Energy Information

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    1 1 1 1 1 1 1 Comments Fixed Monthly Charge (Monthly Availability Charge + Energy Optimization Surcharge) kWh (Variable Distribution Charge + Energy Charge) + (Power Supply...

  13. Data:6d54e8dd-2920-4a3f-986e-96892cdb12ea | Open Energy Information

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

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  14. Data:3f57736d-01d1-480f-a56b-50f60c7e337e | Open Energy Information

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