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Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "kilometers square kilometers" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


1

Science with the Square Kilometer Array: Motivation, Key Science Projects, Standards and Assumptions  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

The Square Kilometer Array (SKA) represents the next major, and natural, step in radio astronomical facilities, providing two orders of magnitude increase in collecting area over existing telescopes. In a series of meetings, starting in Groningen, the Netherlands (August 2002) and culminating in a `science retreat' in Leiden (November 2003), the SKA International Science Advisory Committee (ISAC), conceived of, and carried-out, a complete revision of the SKA science case (to appear in New Astronomy Reviews). This preface includes: (i) general introductory material, (ii) summaries of the key science programs, and (iii) a detailed listing of standards and assumptions used in the revised science case.

C. Carilli; S. Rawlings

2004-09-12T23:59:59.000Z

2

Power Challenges of Large Scale Research Infrastructures: the Square Kilometer Array and Solar Energy Integration; Towards a zero-carbon footprint next generation telescope  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

The Square Kilometer Array (SKA) will be the largest Global science project of the next two decades. It will encompass a sensor network dedicated to radioastronomy, covering two continents. It will be constructed in remote areas of South Africa and Australia, spreading over 3000Km, in high solar irradiance latitudes. Solar Power supply is therefore an option to power supply the SKA and contribute to a zero carbon footprint next generation telescope. Here we outline the major characteristics of the SKA and some innovation approaches on thermal solar energy Integration with SKA prototypes.

Barbosa, Domingos; Ruiz, Valeriano; Silva, Manuel; Verdes-Montenegro, Lourdes; Santander-Vela, Juande; Maia, Dalmiro; Antón, Sonia; van Ardenne, Arnold; Vetter, Matthias; Kramer, Michael; Keller, Reinhard; Pereira, Nuno; Silva, Vitor

2012-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

3

90Exploring the Large Hadron Collider The 27-kilometer diameter LHC ring, buried deep underground, uses thousands of  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

90Exploring the Large Hadron Collider The 27-kilometer diameter LHC ring, buried deep underground Joules)? During November, 2009 the Large Hadron Collider experiment at CERN began a slow, step, uses thousands of magnets to steer two beams of protons so that they collide at specific points along

4

5 Kilometers WILDLIFE AREA  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Creek Cre ek Creek Creek S toneLagoon Creek Creek Creek Bridge Cr eek McDo na ld Tom Redwood Creek Redw

5

5 Kilometers Galena Chain  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

of interest from this approach? We can use the WHAM-based reweighting equation applied to all temperatures

6

2 Kilometers Northampton  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Road Carter Road Nesbitt Road Parkview Road ChaffeeRoad River vi ew Road Tyron Road MacedoniaRoad Forbes Road Turnpike Drive Scobie RoadSourek Vaughn Rd Chippewa Creek Drive Button Road Egbert Rd Ghent Road Crystal

7

Radio Science Bulletin No 326 (September 2008) The Square Kilometer Array (SKA)  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

of the telescope have been identified. One site is in the Karoo wilderness of South Africa, while the other.berkeley.edu/ata/. 8.3 meerKAT (extended Karoo Array Telescope) - Brief description: >50 dish Ã? ~12 m dish synthesis array. - Site: Karoo wilderness, Republic of South Africa. - Main proponent: National Research

Tobar, Michael

8

SEARCHING FOR SUB-KILOMETER TRANS-NEPTUNIAN OBJECTS USING PAN-STARRS VIDEO MODE LIGHT CURVES: PRELIMINARY STUDY AND EVALUATION USING ENGINEERING DATA  

SciTech Connect

We present a pre-survey study of using the Panoramic Survey Telescope and Rapid Response System (Pan-STARRS) high sampling rate video mode guide star images to search for trans-Neptunian objects (TNOs). Guide stars are primarily used by Pan-STARRS to compensate for image motion and hence improve the point-spread function. With suitable selection of the guide stars within the Pan-STARRS 7 deg{sup 2} field of view, the light curves of these guide stars can also be used to search for occultations by TNOs. The best target stars for this purpose are stars with high signal-to-noise ratio (S/N) and small angular size. In order to do this, we compiled a catalog using the S/N calculated from stars with m{sub V} < 13 mag in the Tycho2 catalog, then cross matched these stars with the Two Micron All Sky Survey catalog, and estimated their angular sizes from (V - K) color. We also outlined a new detection method based on matched filter that is optimized to search for diffraction patterns in the light curves due to occultation by sub-kilometer TNOs. A detection threshold is set to compromise between real detections and false positives. Depending on the theoretical size distribution model used, we expect to find up to a hundred events during the three-year lifetime of the Pan-STARRS-1 project. The high sampling (30 Hz) of the project facilitates detections of small objects (as small as 400 m), which are numerous according to power-law size distribution, and thus allows us to verify various models and further constrain our understanding of the structure in the outer reach of the solar system. We have tested the detection algorithm and the pipeline on a set of engineering data (taken at 10 Hz instead of 30 Hz). No events were found within the engineering data, which is consistent with the small size of the data set and the theoretical models. Meanwhile, with a total of {approx}22 star-hours video mode data (|{beta}| < 10{sup 0}), we are able to set an upper limit of N(>0.5 km) {approx} 2.47 x 10{sup 10} deg{sup -2} at 95% confidence limit.

Wang, J.-H. [Institute of Astronomy and Astrophysics, Academia Sinica, P.O. Box 23-141, Taipei 106, Taiwan (China); Protopapas, P.; Alcock, C. R. [Harvard-Smithsonian Center for Astrophysics, 60 Garden Street, Cambridge, MA 02138 (United States); Chen, W.-P. [Institute of Astronomy, National Central University, No. 300, Jhongda Road, Jhongli City, Taoyuan County 320, Taiwan (China); Burgett, W. S.; Morgan, J. S.; Price, P. A.; Tonry, J. L. [Physics Department, University of Hawaii, 2680 Woodlawn Drive, Honolulu, HI 96822 (United States); Dombeck, T. [Institute for Astronomy, University of Hawaii, 2680 Woodlawn Drive, Honolulu, HI 96822 (United States); Grav, T., E-mail: jhwang@asiaa.sinica.edu.t, E-mail: pprotopapas@cfa.harvard.ed [Department of Physics and Astronomy, John Hopkins University, 366 Bloomberg Center, 3400 N. Charles Street, Baltimore, MD 21218 (United States)

2010-05-15T23:59:59.000Z

9

Powder River 0 20 40 KILOMETERS  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

1 Monitoring Coal Bed Methane Production: A Case Study from the Powder River Basin, Wyoming, United The growing significance of the Powder River Basin's Coal Bed Methane (CBM) to United States domestic energy% of gas mostly methane, hence the name Coal Bed Methane (CBM). The types of coal, in increasing order

10

0 10 Miles5 10 Kilometers5  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Flathead River Fish Creek McGee Creek Dutch Creek Anaconda Creek Mineral Creek McDonald Creek Sprague Creek

11

0.5 Kilometer Hiking trail  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

. P.G.T. Beauregard to withdraw. Grant's Last Line While the Confederates moved to crush the Hornets

12

0 1 2 Miles 2 Kilometers  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

VALLEY FLINT RIDGE East Entranc e Road M AM M O TH CAVE RIDGE Flint Ridge Road ParkRi dge Road R Hunter

13

Operation of the Tevatron satellite refrigerators for. 75- and 2. 0-kilometer-long magnet strings  

SciTech Connect

The Tevatron magnets at Fermilab are cooled by a hybrid system which consists of a 5000 liters/hr central helium liquefier coupled with a small-diameter liquid transfer line connecting twenty-four satellite refrigerators. The transfer line supplies liquid helium for both the refrigerators and the magnet lead flow as well as liquid nitrogen for the magnet shields. The satellites act as amplifiers with a gain of twelve by using the enthalpy of the helium supplied by the central liquefier as liquid and converting it to 4.5-K refrigeration and then returning it as 300-K gas. This arrangement combines the advantages of a single central facility with those of individual stand-alone units stationed around the ring. The central liquefier has the high efficiency associated with large components but its requirements for distribution of both cryogenic liquids and electric power to the service buildings is reduced. The six compressor buildings supply 20 atm helium to the twenty-four refrigerators through a discharge header located on the berm and a suction header located in the tunnel. The compressor buildings each have four-two stage 58 g/sec screw compressors; each of these has its own oil removal system. The inventory in the ring is controlled at the first compressor building through a cross-connect line to the central liquefier. The suction header is also used as the cooldown line as well as for quench relief. A third header located in the tunnel is the nitrogen collection and relief header.

Rode, C.H.; Andrews, R.A.; Ferry, R.; Gannon, J.; Makara, J.; Martin, M.; Misek, J.; Peterson, T.; Theilacker, J.

1983-08-01T23:59:59.000Z

14

Experimental demonstration of quantum-correlations over more than 10 kilometers  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

A Franson-type test of the Bell-inequality is presented. Energy and time entangled photons at a wavelength of 1310 nm are produced by parametric downconversion in a KNbO3 crystal and are sent into all-fiber interferometers using a telecom fiber network. The two interferometers are located 10.9 km aside from one another. Two-photon fringe visibilities of up to 81.6 % are obtained. These strong correlations yield a violation of Bell's inequality by 10 standard deviations thus confirming the nonlocal predictions of quantum mechanics.

Tittel, W; Gisin, B V; Herzog, T; Zbinden, H; Gisin, Nicolas

1998-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

15

Simulating the IHOP_2002 Fair-Weather CBL with the WRF-ARW–Noah Modeling System. Part II: Structures from a Few Kilometers to 100 km across  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Fair-weather data along the May–June 2002 International H2O Project (IHOP_2002) eastern track and the nearby Argonne Boundary Layer Experiments (ABLE) facility in southeast Kansas are compared to numerical simulations to gain insight into how the ...

Margaret A. LeMone; Fei Chen; Mukul Tewari; Jimy Dudhia; Bart Geerts; Qun Miao; Richard L. Coulter; Robert L. Grossman

2010-03-01T23:59:59.000Z

16

Thermoluminescence dosimetry of gamma rays from the Hiroshima atomic bomb at distances of 1. 27 to 1. 46 kilometers from the hypocenter  

SciTech Connect

Sixteen ornamental tile samples were collected from 1982 to 1983 from the rooftops of two buildings at Hiroshima University, Hiroshima, Japan. Quartz grains 50-150 microns in size extracted from the samples were analyzed for their thermoluminescence (TL) intensities. Conversion of TL intensity to /sup 60/Co gamma exposure resulted in the following estimates: 40.5 to 27.6 mC kg-1 (157 to 107 R) for five samples (one each) collected from five sites at distances of 1.27 to 1.34 km from the hypocenter of the atomic bomb detonated in 1945; 23.7 +/- 1.4 mC kg-1 (92 +/- 5 R) for three samples from one site at a distance of 1.39 km; 21.4 to 17.0 mC kg-1 (83 to 66 R) for three samples (one sample per site) from three sites at distances of 1.40 to 1.43 km; 19.8 +/- 1.3 mC kg-1 (77 +/- 5 R) for four samples from one site at a distance of 1.45 km; and 13.2 mC kg-1 (51 R) for one sample at a distance of 1.46 km. At face value, these estimates are greater by a factor of about 2.5 than previous estimates based on the tentative 1965 radiation dose estimates for atomic bomb survivors (a tentative dosimetry model proposed in 1965), but agree within +32% to -13% (+15% on the average) with recent estimates using modern computational techniques using an improved model of the atomic bomb explosion.

Ichikawa, Y.; Nagatomo, T.; Hoshi, M.; Kondo, S.

1987-04-01T23:59:59.000Z

17

Johnson(-like)-Noise-Kirchhoff-Loop Based Secure Classical Communicator Characteristics, for Ranges of Two to Two Thousand Kilometers, via Model-Line  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

A pair of Kirchhoff-Loop-Johnson(-like)-Noise communicators, which is able to work over variable ranges, was designed and built. Tests have been carried out on a model-line performance characteristics were obtained for ranges beyond the ranges of any known direct quantum communication channel and they indicate unrivalled signal fidelity and security performance of the exchanged raw key bits. This simple device has single-wire secure key generation and sharing rates of 0.1, 1, 10, and 100 bit/second for corresponding copper wire diameters/ranges of 21 mm / 2000 km, 7 mm / 200 km, 2.3 mm / 20 km, and 0.7 mm / 2 km, respectively and it performs with 0.02% raw-bit error rate (99.98 % fidelity). The raw-bit security of this practical system significantly outperforms raw-bit quantum security. Current injection breaking tests show zero bit eavesdropping ability without triggering the alarm signal, therefore no multiple measurements are needed to build an error statistics to detect the eavesdropping as in quantum communication. Wire resistance based breaking tests of Bergou-Scheuer-Yariv type give an upper limit of eavesdropped raw bit ratio of 0.19 % and this limit is inversely proportional to the sixth power of cable diameter. Hao's breaking method yields zero (below measurement resolution) eavesdropping information.

Robert Mingesz; Zoltan Gingl; Laszlo B. Kish

2006-12-15T23:59:59.000Z

18

Development of a cable reel development system using a rotary joint for kilometer lengths of two-fiber multi-mode fiber optic cable  

SciTech Connect

Brookhaven National Laboratory (BNL) recently developed a two-component system for use during remote inspections. The system consists of a mobile unit with television cameras and other equipment and a stationary base station. A variety of signals must be continually transmitted between the two system components as the mobile unit is moved from the location to another. Two channels of broadband (10MHz) NTSC video are transmitted from the mobile unit to the base station, and a bi-directional ``talk set`` provides audio communication between personnel at each location. In addition, several channels of RS-232 are required to support present and future instruments used at the mobile unit and controlled by personnel at the base station. Brookhaven developed a mobile unit which communicated with a base station over a 2-fiber multimode fiber optic cable. One of the design requirements was maintaining constant communication with the base station during the time the mobile unit was moved about. To provide uninterrupted communications, deployment of the 1-km long fiber optic cable was initially performed with a ``spinning reel`` mechanism. The spinning reel mechanism proved to be mechanically unsuitable, and so the cable deployment mechanism was redesigned to spool the cable off the reel. The requirement for uninterrupted communications required a two-channel fiber optic rotary joint in the design. Incorporation of the rotary joint into the design is described, and appropriate reference material is included.

Curtiss, J.A.; Jahelka, J.R.

1995-08-11T23:59:59.000Z

19

Punnet square  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

Punnet square Punnet square Name: Pat T Seeman Location: N/A Country: N/A Date: N/A Question: I want to learn any thing and everything about the Punnett square. If any one can tell me about it I would be grateful. Replies: Pat: It would be helpful to know how old you are and what you already know about the Punnet square. In short, it is a mathematical way to predict the possible offspring from two particular parents, given that you know something about their genes. Could you ask something a little more specific, so I'll know exactly what to tell you? Ellen Mayo The Punnet square is a tool used by geneticists and students of genetics to predict the outcome of a cross (mating) between two individuals with a known genotype (set of genes). I suppose it was invented by a person named Punnet (or perhaps his graduate student). The Punnet square is an array of cells that represent all of the possible offspring of the cross. It is made by listing all of the possible gametes (sperm or eggs) of one parent at the head of each column and all of the possible gametes of the other parent at the left of each row of the array. To determine each possible offspring, combine the genotypes of each gamete contributing to a particular offspring (that is, write in a particular cell the genotype of the column and row heading. A simple example to illustrate:

20

Waste Isolation Pilot Plant | Department of Energy  

Energy.gov (U.S. Department of Energy (DOE)) Indexed Site

WIPP occupies approximately 28 square kilometers (16 square miles). The Waste Isolation Pilot Plant's history is relatively short, as it became operational in 1999. The facility...

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "kilometers square kilometers" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


21

Vermont - U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) - U.S ...  

U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA)

Michigan Public Service Commission, ... Virginia Tech, ... Biomass resources available in the United States with 50 metric tons or greater per square kilometer ...

22

ARM - Facility News Article  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

approximately 22,500 square kilometers, or the approximate area of a modern climate model grid cell. Centered around the SGP Central Facility, these extended facilities are...

23

Microsoft Word - ESnet SRS SC12 paper camera ready.docx  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

instruments and high performance computing centers. Large-scale instruments like Large Hadron Collider or Square Kilometer Array 1 and simulations produce petabytes of data that...

24

Major World Ecosystem Complexes Ranked by Carbon in Live Vegetation...  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

kilometers); and medium, revised medium, minimum, and maximum carbon densities (in kilograms carbon per square meter). The minimum, medium, and maximum carbon densities were...

25

Geothermal Energy Resource Investigations, Chocolate Mountains...  

Open Energy Info (EERE)

securing over 177,000 square kilometers of <30cm accuracy digital elevation data. LiDAR data were analyzed to characterize the active tectonic environment, and identify...

26

Microsoft Word - Summary_FEIS_Final for GPO.doc  

Energy.gov (U.S. Department of Energy (DOE)) Indexed Site

Summary Summary Cover photos courtesy of (left to right): Southeast Renewable Fuels, LLC DOE National Renewable Energy Laboratory Public domain CONVERSION FACTORS Metric to English English to Metric Multiply by To get Multiply by To get Area Square kilometers 247.1 Acres Acres 0.0040469 Square kilometers Square kilometers 0.3861 Square miles Square miles 2.59 Square kilometers Square meters 10.764 Square feet Square feet 0.092903 Square meters Concentration Kilograms/sq. meter 0.16667 Tons/acre Tons/acre 0.5999 Kilograms/sq. meter Milligrams/liter 1 a Parts/million Parts/million 1 a Milligrams/liter Micrograms/liter 1 a Parts/billion Parts/billion 1 a Micrograms/liter Micrograms/cu. meter 1 a Parts/trillion Parts/trillion 1 a Micrograms/cu. meter

27

Property:PotentialOffshoreWindArea | Open Energy Information  

Open Energy Info (EERE)

PotentialOffshoreWindArea PotentialOffshoreWindArea Jump to: navigation, search Property Name PotentialOffshoreWindArea Property Type Quantity Description The area of potential offshore wind in a place. Use this type to express a quantity of two-dimensional space. The default unit is the square meter (m²). http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Area Acceptable units (and their conversions) are: Square Meters - 1 m²,m2,m^2,square meter,square meters,Square Meter,Square Meters,Sq. Meters,SQUARE METERS Square Kilometers - 0.000001 km²,km2,km^2,square kilometer,square kilometers,square km,square Kilometers,SQUARE KILOMETERS Square Miles - 0.000000386 mi²,mi2,mi^2,mile²,square mile,square miles,square mi,Square Miles,SQUARE MILES Square Feet - 10.7639 ft²,ft2,ft^2,square feet,square foot,FT²,FT2,FT^2,Square Feet, Square Foot

28

Property:PotentialCSPArea | Open Energy Information  

Open Energy Info (EERE)

PotentialCSPArea PotentialCSPArea Jump to: navigation, search Property Name PotentialCSPArea Property Type Quantity Description An area of potential CSP generation. Use this type to express a quantity of two-dimensional space. The default unit is the square meter (m²). http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Area Acceptable units (and their conversions) are: Square Meters - 1 m²,m2,m^2,square meter,square meters,Square Meter,Square Meters,Sq. Meters,SQUARE METERS Square Kilometers - 0.000001 km²,km2,km^2,square kilometer,square kilometers,square km,square Kilometers,SQUARE KILOMETERS Square Miles - 0.000000386 mi²,mi2,mi^2,mile²,square mile,square miles,square mi,Square Miles,SQUARE MILES Square Feet - 10.7639 ft²,ft2,ft^2,square feet,square foot,FT²,FT2,FT^2,Square Feet, Square Foot

29

Property:Area | Open Energy Information  

Open Energy Info (EERE)

Area Area Jump to: navigation, search Property Name Area Property Type Quantity Description Any unit of area. For example, the estimated area of Geothermal Regions. Use this type to express a quantity of two-dimensional space. The default unit is the square meter (m²). http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Area Acceptable units (and their conversions) are: Square Meters - 1 m²,m2,m^2,square meter,square meters,Square Meter,Square Meters,Sq. Meters,SQUARE METERS Square Kilometers - 0.000001 km²,km2,km^2,square kilometer,square kilometers,square km,square Kilometers,SQUARE KILOMETERS Square Miles - 0.000000386 mi²,mi2,mi^2,mile²,square mile,square miles,square mi,Square Miles,SQUARE MILES Square Feet - 10.7639 ft²,ft2,ft^2,square feet,square foot,FT²,FT2,FT^2,Square Feet, Square Foot

30

Property:PotentialOnshoreWindArea | Open Energy Information  

Open Energy Info (EERE)

PotentialOnshoreWindArea PotentialOnshoreWindArea Jump to: navigation, search Property Name PotentialOnshoreWindArea Property Type Quantity Description The area of potential onshore wind in a place. Use this type to express a quantity of two-dimensional space. The default unit is the square meter (m²). http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Area Acceptable units (and their conversions) are: Square Meters - 1 m²,m2,m^2,square meter,square meters,Square Meter,Square Meters,Sq. Meters,SQUARE METERS Square Kilometers - 0.000001 km²,km2,km^2,square kilometer,square kilometers,square km,square Kilometers,SQUARE KILOMETERS Square Miles - 0.000000386 mi²,mi2,mi^2,mile²,square mile,square miles,square mi,Square Miles,SQUARE MILES Square Feet - 10.7639 ft²,ft2,ft^2,square feet,square foot,FT²,FT2,FT^2,Square Feet, Square Foot

31

Property:PotentialUrbanUtilityScalePVArea | Open Energy Information  

Open Energy Info (EERE)

PotentialUrbanUtilityScalePVArea PotentialUrbanUtilityScalePVArea Jump to: navigation, search Property Name PotentialUrbanUtilityScalePVArea Property Type Quantity Description The area of potential utility-scale PV in urban areas in a place. Use this type to express a quantity of two-dimensional space. The default unit is the square meter (m²). http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Area Acceptable units (and their conversions) are: Square Meters - 1 m²,m2,m^2,square meter,square meters,Square Meter,Square Meters,Sq. Meters,SQUARE METERS Square Kilometers - 0.000001 km²,km2,km^2,square kilometer,square kilometers,square km,square Kilometers,SQUARE KILOMETERS Square Miles - 0.000000386 mi²,mi2,mi^2,mile²,square mile,square miles,square mi,Square Miles,SQUARE MILES Square Feet - 10.7639 ft²,ft2,ft^2,square feet,square

32

Property:PotentialRuralUtilityScalePVArea | Open Energy Information  

Open Energy Info (EERE)

PotentialRuralUtilityScalePVArea PotentialRuralUtilityScalePVArea Jump to: navigation, search Property Name PotentialRuralUtilityScalePVArea Property Type Quantity Description The area of potential utility scale PV in rural areas in a place. Use this type to express a quantity of two-dimensional space. The default unit is the square meter (m²). http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Area Acceptable units (and their conversions) are: Square Meters - 1 m²,m2,m^2,square meter,square meters,Square Meter,Square Meters,Sq. Meters,SQUARE METERS Square Kilometers - 0.000001 km²,km2,km^2,square kilometer,square kilometers,square km,square Kilometers,SQUARE KILOMETERS Square Miles - 0.000000386 mi²,mi2,mi^2,mile²,square mile,square miles,square mi,Square Miles,SQUARE MILES Square Feet - 10.7639 ft²,ft2,ft^2,square feet,square

33

Sumsets being squares  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Alon, Angel, Benjamini and Lubetzky recently studied an old problem of Euler on sumsets for which all elements of A + B are integer squares. Improving their result we prove: 1. There exists a set A of 3 positive integers and a corresponding set B ? [0, N] with |B | ? (log N) 15/17, such that all elements of A + B are perfect squares. 2. There exists a set A of 3 integers and a corresponding set B ? [0, N] with |B | ? (log N) 9/11, such that all elements of the sets A, B and A + B are perfect squares. The proofs make use of suitably constructed elliptic curves of high rank. 1

Andrej Dujella; Christian Elsholtz

2013-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

34

UK Windspeed Reference/Archival Database The windspeed database...  

Open Energy Info (EERE)

UK Windspeed ReferenceArchival Database The windspeed database provides estimates of mean annual wind speed throughout the UK, averaged over a 1-kilometer square area, at each of...

35

The Prediction of Nearshore Wind-induced Surface Currents from Wind Velocities Measured at Nearby Land Stations  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

This paper aims to find a fast and efficient way to predict the wind-induced components of surface currents in a nearshore coastal area of several hundred square kilometers from wind velocities measured at nearby land stations. Ocean Surface ...

Betty Ng

1993-08-01T23:59:59.000Z

36

Shortandy Image #1  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

SHR-1: One of the last square kilometers of "virgin" typical steppe in northern Kazakhstan, at the Shortandy grassland study site, pictured at the beginning of the growing season....

37

Fish population and behavior revealed by instantaneous continental-shelf scale imaging  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

The application of a technique to instantaneously image and continuously monitor the abundance, spatial distribution, and behavior of fish populations over thousands of square kilometers using Ocean Acoustic Waveguide ...

Symonds, Deanelle T

2008-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

38

Local-Scale Variability of Daily Solar Radiation—San Diego County, California  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

The spatial variability of daily solar radiation values over a region of several hundred square kilometers was examined. Coefficients of variability were obtained as the standard deviations of between-station daily radiation difference divided by ...

Edward Aguado

1986-05-01T23:59:59.000Z

39

Early Cloud Formation by Large Area Fires  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Fires simultaneously burning in hundreds of square kilometers could result from a nuclear weapon explosion. The strong buoyancy field of such large area fires induces high-velocity fire winds that turn upward in the burning region. This results ...

R. D. Small; K. E. Heikes

1988-05-01T23:59:59.000Z

40

The 1985 Biomass Burning Season in South America: Satellite Remote Sensing of Fires, Smoke, and Regional Radiative Energy Budgets  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Using satellite imagery, more than five million square kilometers of the forest and cerrado regions over South America are extensively studied to monitor fires and smoke during the 1985 biomass burning season. The results are characterized for ...

Sundar A. Christopher; Min Wang; Todd A. Berendes; Ronald M. Welch; Shi-Keng Yang

1998-07-01T23:59:59.000Z

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "kilometers square kilometers" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


41

The Effect of Groundwater Inflow on Evaporation from a Saline Lake  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

A decade study of the hydrometeorology of Big Quill Lake in Saskatchewan, a saline prairie lake, has effectively used remote sensing to delineate groundwater inflow. The lake covers an area of 250 square kilometers with the groundwater seeping ...

Jeffrey M. Whiting

1984-02-01T23:59:59.000Z

42

A Technique for Eliminating Water Returns from Lidar Beach Elevation Surveys  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Airborne light detecting and ranging (lidar) systems can survey hundreds of kilometers of shoreline with high spatial resolution (several elevation estimates per square meter). Sequential surveys yield spatial change maps of beach and dune sand ...

Marissa L. Yates; R. T. Guza; Roberto Gutierrez; Richard Seymour

2008-09-01T23:59:59.000Z

43

Greedy sums of distinct squares  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

When a positive integer is expressed as a sum of squares, with each successive summand as large as possible, the summands decrease rapidly in size until the very end, where one may find two 4's, or several 1's. We find that the set of integers for which ... Keywords: Greedy algorithm, differential-difference equations

Hugh L. Montgomery; Ulrike M. A. Vorhauer

2004-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

44

DRAFT  

Energy.gov (U.S. Department of Energy (DOE)) Indexed Site

FOR THE TRANSFER OF THE KANSAS CITY PLANT, KANSAS CITY, MISSOURI U.S. Department of Energy National Nuclear Security Administration May 2013 DOE/EA-1947 CONVERSION FACTORS Metric to English English to Metric Multiply by To get Multiply by To get Area Square kilometers 247.1 Acres Square kilometers 0.3861 Square miles Square meters 10.764 Square feet Concentration Kilograms/sq. meter 0.16667 Tons/acre Milligrams/liter 1 a Parts/million Micrograms/liter 1 a Parts/billion Micrograms/cu. meter 1 a Parts/trillion Density Grams/cu. centimeter 62.428 Pounds/cu. ft. Grams/cu. meter 0.0000624 Pounds/cu. ft. Length Centimeters 0.3937 Inches Meters 3.2808 Feet Micrometers 0.00003937 Inches Millimeters 0.03937 Inches Kilometers 0.62137 Miles

45

Square-free Integers and Infinite products  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

We study few properties of square-free integers in certain equations. Using this property, we derive some infinite products in powers of square free numbers. Also, we present a method, to convert power series and trigonometric series to infinte products. Infinite products of few elementary trigonometric functions and factorials for large numbers are shown as examples.

Ramesh Kumar Muthumalai

2009-01-13T23:59:59.000Z

46

Square Butte Electric Coop | Open Energy Information  

Open Energy Info (EERE)

Square Butte Electric Coop Square Butte Electric Coop Jump to: navigation, search Name Square Butte Electric Coop Place North Dakota Utility Id 17858 Utility Location Yes Ownership C NERC Location MRO NERC MRO Yes Operates Generating Plant Yes Activity Generation Yes Activity Transmission Yes References EIA Form EIA-861 Final Data File for 2010 - File1_a[1] LinkedIn Connections CrunchBase Profile No CrunchBase profile. Create one now! This article is a stub. You can help OpenEI by expanding it. Utility Rate Schedules Grid-background.png No rate schedules available. Average Rates No Rates Available References ↑ "EIA Form EIA-861 Final Data File for 2010 - File1_a" Retrieved from "http://en.openei.org/w/index.php?title=Square_Butte_Electric_Coop&oldid=411602"

47

Elmo bumpy square plasma confinement device  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

The invention is an Elmo bumpy type plasma confinement device having a polygonal configuration of closed magnet field lines for improved plasma confinement. In the preferred embodiment, the device is of a square configuration which is referred to as an Elmo bumpy square (EBS). The EBS is formed by four linear magnetic mirror sections each comprising a plurality of axisymmetric assemblies connected in series and linked by 90/sup 0/ sections of a high magnetic field toroidal solenoid type field generating coils. These coils provide corner confinement with a minimum of radial dispersion of the confined plasma to minimize the detrimental effects of the toroidal curvature of the magnetic field. Each corner is formed by a plurality of circular or elliptical coils aligned about the corner radius to provide maximum continuity in the closing of the magnetic field lines about the square configuration confining the plasma within a vacuum vessel located within the various coils forming the square configuration confinement geometry.

Owen, L.W.

1985-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

48

Solar Energy Squared, LLC | Open Energy Information  

Open Energy Info (EERE)

Squared, LLC Squared, LLC Jump to: navigation, search Logo: Solar Energy Squared, LLC Name Solar Energy Squared, LLC Address 116 Ottenheimer Plaza, President Clinton Avenue Place Little Rock, Arkansas Zip 72201 Sector Solar Product Utility Scale Solar Year founded 2008 Number of employees 1-10 Phone number 501-244-9522 Website http://www.solarenergysquared. Coordinates 34.7472769°, -92.2643659° Loading map... {"minzoom":false,"mappingservice":"googlemaps3","type":"ROADMAP","zoom":14,"types":["ROADMAP","SATELLITE","HYBRID","TERRAIN"],"geoservice":"google","maxzoom":false,"width":"600px","height":"350px","centre":false,"title":"","label":"","icon":"","visitedicon":"","lines":[],"polygons":[],"circles":[],"rectangles":[],"copycoords":false,"static":false,"wmsoverlay":"","layers":[],"controls":["pan","zoom","type","scale","streetview"],"zoomstyle":"DEFAULT","typestyle":"DEFAULT","autoinfowindows":false,"kml":[],"gkml":[],"fusiontables":[],"resizable":false,"tilt":0,"kmlrezoom":false,"poi":true,"imageoverlays":[],"markercluster":false,"searchmarkers":"","locations":[{"text":"","title":"","link":null,"lat":34.7472769,"lon":-92.2643659,"alt":0,"address":"","icon":"","group":"","inlineLabel":"","visitedicon":""}]}

49

Optical modelling of square solar concentrator  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

This paper deals with the optical design of a photovoltaic solar concentrator composed by two squared reflection mirrors. The optical configuration of the device, is based on the Cassegrain telescope and designed in order to maximize the fill factor ... Keywords: photovoltaic, ray tracing, solar cell

Maurizio Carlini; Carlo Cattani; Andrea O. M. Tucci

2007-06-01T23:59:59.000Z

50

Latin square three dimensional gage master  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

A gage master for coordinate measuring machines has an nxn array of objects distributed in the Z coordinate utilizing the concept of a Latin square experimental design. Using analysis of variance techniques, the invention may be used to identify sources of error in machine geometry and quantify machine accuracy.

Jones, Lynn L. (Lexena, KS)

1982-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

51

State-space least mean square  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

In this paper, we present a generalized form of the well-known least mean square (LMS) filter. The proposed filter incorporates linear time-varying state-space model of the underlying environment and hence is termed as state-space LMS (SSLMS). This attribute ... Keywords: Adaptive filtering, SSLMS, State-space LMS, Tracking

Mohammad Bilal Malik; Muhammad Salman

2008-05-01T23:59:59.000Z

52

Hybrid least squares multivariate spectral analysis methods  

SciTech Connect

A set of hybrid least squares multivariate spectral analysis methods in which spectral shapes of components or effects not present in the original calibration step are added in a following estimation or calibration step to improve the accuracy of the estimation of the amount of the original components in the sampled mixture. The "hybrid" method herein means a combination of an initial classical least squares analysis calibration step with subsequent analysis by an inverse multivariate analysis method. A "spectral shape" herein means normally the spectral shape of a non-calibrated chemical component in the sample mixture but can also mean the spectral shapes of other sources of spectral variation, including temperature drift, shifts between spectrometers, spectrometer drift, etc. The "shape" can be continuous, discontinuous, or even discrete points illustrative of the particular effect.

Haaland, David M. (Albuquerque, NM)

2002-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

53

square miles | OpenEI Community  

Open Energy Info (EERE)

0 0 Varnish cache server Home Groups Community Central Green Button Applications Developer Utility Rate FRED: FRee Energy Database More Public Groups Private Groups Features Groups Blog posts Content Stream Documents Discussions Polls Q & A Events Notices My stuff Energy blogs 429 Throttled (bot load) Error 429 Throttled (bot load) Throttled (bot load) Guru Meditation: XID: 2142235190 Varnish cache server square miles Home Sfomail's picture Submitted by Sfomail(48) Member 25 June, 2013 - 12:10 Solar Land Use Data on OpenEI acres csp land use how much land land requirements pv land use solar land use square miles I'm happy to announce that a new report on Solar+Land+Use was just released by the National+Renewable+Energy+Laboratory. You can find a brief summary of the results at the Solar+Land+Use page on OpenEI.

54

Optical inverse-square displacement sensor  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

This invention comprises an optical displacement sensor that uses the inverse-square attenuation of light reflected from a diffused surface to calculate the distance from the sensor to the reflecting surface. Light emerging from an optical fiber or the like is directed onto the surface whose distance is to be measured. The intensity I of reflected light is angle dependent, but within a sufficiently small solid angle it falls off as the inverse square of the distance from the surface. At least a pair of optical detectors are mounted to detect the reflected light within the small solid angle, their ends being at different distances R and R + [Delta]R from the surface. The distance R can then be found in terms of the ratio of the intensity measurements and the separation length as given in an equation. 10 figs.

Howe, R.D.; Kychakoff, G.

1989-09-12T23:59:59.000Z

55

Optical inverse-square displacement sensor  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

This invention comprises an optical displacement sensor that uses the inverse-square attenuation of light reflected from a diffused surface to calculate the distance from the sensor to the reflecting surface. Light emerging from an optical fiber or the like is directed onto the surface whose distance is to be measured. The intensity I of reflected light is angle dependent, but within a sufficiently small solid angle it falls off as the inverse square of the distance from the surface. At least a pair of optical detectors are mounted to detect the reflected light within the small solid angle, their ends being at different distances R and R+.DELTA.R from the surface. The distance R can then be found in terms of the ratio of the intensity measurements and the separation length as ##EQU1##

Howe, Robert D. (San Mateo County, CA); Kychakoff, George (King County, WA)

1989-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

56

The correlation of Abiyev's balanced squares with periodic law  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

For the first time, a perfect algorithm for writing the magic squares has been found by Abiyev. With the help of this algorithm we can write not only magic squares, but also magic cubes from any numbers of any orders. These squares have been called the ... Keywords: algorithm, correlation, magic square, periodic law, sequence, super-heavy

Asker Ali Abiyev

2011-09-01T23:59:59.000Z

57

Square Butte HVDC modulation system field tests  

SciTech Connect

The authors describe field tests conducted at the Square Butte dc system to validate transfer functions of the digital model for dc current and voltage modulation control design. The field tests and digital model results confirm a dominant interarea mode of oscillation of 0.8 hz. Field tests also established spurious responses in rectifier and inverter frequency measurements which appear to be attributable to transducer distortion.

Grund, C.E. (General Electric Co., Schenectady, NY (USA)); Hauer, J.F. (BPA, Portland, OR (US)); Crane, L.P.; Carlson, D.L. (Minnesota Power and Light Co., Duluth, MN (USA)); Wright, S.E. (EPRI, Palo Alto, CA (US))

1990-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

58

Highlighting High Performance: Four Times Square  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

4 Times Square is a 48-story environmentally responsible building in New York City. Developed by the Durst Organization, the building is the first project of its size to adopt standards for energy efficiency, indoor ecology, sustainable materials, and responsible construction, operations, and maintenance procedures. Designers used a whole-building approach--considering how the building's systems can work together most efficiently--and educated tenants on the benefits of the design.

Not Available

2001-11-01T23:59:59.000Z

59

Square-Free Rings And Their Automorphism Group  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Finite-dimensional square-free algebras have been completely characterized by Anderson and D'Ambrosia as certain twisted semigroup algebras over a square-free semigroup S with coefficients in a field K. D'Ambrosia extended the definition of square-free to artinian rings with unity and showed every square-free ring has an associated division ring D and square-free semigroup S. We show a square-free ring can be characterized as a twisted semigroup ring over a square-free semigroup S with coefficients in a division ring D. Also, to each square-free ring there exists a short exact sequence connecting the outer automorphisms of a square-free ring to certain cohomology groups related to S and D.

Montgomery, Martin W

2008-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

60

Observations of High Ground Flash Densities of Positive Lightning in Summertime Thunderstorms  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Observations of summertime thunderstorms indicate that positive polarity cloud-to-ground lightning activity can occur with rates as high as 67 flashes in 5 min and spatial densities up to 0.60 flashes per square kilometer per hour. All ground ...

Maribeth Stolzenburg

1994-08-01T23:59:59.000Z

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "kilometers square kilometers" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


61

Microsoft Word - S07409_2010_SER  

Office of Legacy Management (LM)

meters (m) m 3.281 ft miles (mi) 1.609 kilometers (km) km 0.6214 mi pounds (lb) 0.454 kilograms (kg) kg 2.205 lb gallons 3.785 liters (L) L 0.2642 gallons square feet (ft 2 )...

62

Solar design T-square | Open Energy Information  

Open Energy Info (EERE)

design T-square Jump to: navigation, search Name Solar Design T-Square AgencyCompany Organization Brian White Sector Energy Focus Area Renewable Energy, Solar Resource Type...

63

Square Footage Measurements and Comparisons in 2001 RECS  

U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA)

A discussion on measurements and comparsions of total square footage as presented in the 2001 Residential Energy Consumption Survey

64

square-mile Black Warrior Basin  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

will inject CO will inject CO 2 into a coalbed methane (CBM) well in Tuscaloosa County, Alabama, to assess the capability of mature CBM reservoirs to receive and adsorb large volumes of CO 2 . Injection began at the test site on June 15; the site was selected because it is representative of the 23,000- square-mile Black Warrior Basin located in northwestern Alabama and northeastern Mississippi. It is estimated that this area has the potential to store in the range of 1.1 to 2.3 Gigatons of CO 2 , which is approximately the amount that Alabama's coal-fired power plants emit in two decades. The targeted coal seams range from 940 to 1,800 feet deep and are one to six feet thick. Approximately 240 tons of CO 2 will be injected over a 45- to 60-day period. More information

65

Finite temperature R-squared quantum gravity  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

The quantum gravity path integral's measure can be written as the product of classical backgrounds and quantum fluctuations about each background. After proving that fluctuations about the background do not diffuse in Hilbert space and obey the laws of many-body statistics, their probability distributions, entropy, and expected background are determined. This background obeys expectation-valued Einstein equations and features an entropy-based positive cosmological constant. From the fluctuation probability distributions, a finite temperature, R-squared, quantum gravity path integral is constructed whose action presents an interaction picture of quantum gravity that `moves with' the expected background in Hilbert space. Within this interaction picture of quantum fluctuations about an expected background, the fields required to describe quantum gravity have been transformed into `ordinary' quantum fields propagating on this `rigid' or `fixed' expected background. Back-reaction has been fully accounted for, and the quantum formulation is manifestly background independent.

C. D. Burton

2013-02-07T23:59:59.000Z

66

Pioneer Valley Photovoltaics Cooperative aka PV Squared | Open Energy  

Open Energy Info (EERE)

Photovoltaics Cooperative aka PV Squared Photovoltaics Cooperative aka PV Squared Jump to: navigation, search Name Pioneer Valley Photovoltaics Cooperative (aka PV Squared) Place New Britain, Connecticut Zip 6051 Sector Solar Product Solar PV system installer. References Pioneer Valley Photovoltaics Cooperative (aka PV Squared)[1] LinkedIn Connections CrunchBase Profile No CrunchBase profile. Create one now! This article is a stub. You can help OpenEI by expanding it. Pioneer Valley Photovoltaics Cooperative (aka PV Squared) is a company located in New Britain, Connecticut . References ↑ "Pioneer Valley Photovoltaics Cooperative (aka PV Squared)" Retrieved from "http://en.openei.org/w/index.php?title=Pioneer_Valley_Photovoltaics_Cooperative_aka_PV_Squared&oldid=349764"

67

Lumenhaus Shows Off Solar in Times Square | Department of Energy  

Energy.gov (U.S. Department of Energy (DOE)) Indexed Site

Lumenhaus Shows Off Solar in Times Square Lumenhaus Shows Off Solar in Times Square Lumenhaus Shows Off Solar in Times Square February 1, 2010 - 10:00am Addthis Photo by Kelly Shimoda Photo by Kelly Shimoda Joshua DeLung How can I participate? The next Solar Decathlon will be held Sept. 23-Oct. 2, 2011, at the National Mall's West Potomac Park in Washington, D.C. Virginia Tech's Lumenhaus - a net-zero energy, solar-powered, 650-square-foot home - made a stop in New York on its tour, right in the middle of Times Square. The house was previously featured at the U.S. Department of Energy's Solar Decathlon in October, and the team will head to Madrid in June for Solar Decathlon Europe as the only U.S. team to participate in both competitions. While in Times Square, the team and the house were featured on "Good

68

Models and Algorithms for Distributionally Robust Least Squares ...  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Feb 12, 2011 ... The ordinary least squares (OLS) problem [7] is a fundamental problem ...... and A. Shapiro, eds., Stochastic Programming, Handbooks in Op-.

69

2013 NETL CO2 Capture Technology Meeting Sheraton Station Square...  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

CO2 Capture Technology Meeting Sheraton Station Square, Pittsburgh, PA July 8 - 11, 2013 ION Novel Solvent System for CO 2 Capture FE0005799 Nathan Brown ION Engineering...

70

Derivation of the coefficient squared probability law in quantum mechanics  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

If one assumes there is probability of perception in quantum mechanics, then unitarity dictates that it must have the coefficient squared form, in agreement with experiment.

Casey Blood

2013-06-02T23:59:59.000Z

71

Efficient approximate Regularized Least Squares by Toeplitz matrix  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Machine Learning based on the Regularized Least Squares (RLS) model requires one to solve a system of linear equations. Direct-solution methods exhibit predictable complexity and storage, but often prove impractical for large-scale problems; iterative ... Keywords: Digital signal processor, Large-scale learning, Levinson-Trench-Zohar algorithm, Regularized Least Squares, Resources limited device, Toeplitz matrix

Sergio Decherchi; Paolo Gastaldo; Rodolfo Zunino

2011-02-01T23:59:59.000Z

72

Table 2a. Electricity Consumption and Electricity Intensities, per Square  

U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

assistance viewing this page, please call (202) 586-8800. Energy Information Administration Home Page Home > Commercial Buildings Home > Sq Ft Tables > Table 2a. Electricity Consumption per Sq Ft Table 2a. Electricity Consumption and Electricity Intensities, per Square Foot, Specific to Occupied and Vacant Floorspace, 1992 Building Characteristics All Buildings Using Electricity (thousand) Total Electricity Consumption (trillion Btu) Electricity Intensities (thousand Btu) In Total Floor space In Occupied Floor space In Vacant Floor space Per Square Foot Per Occupied Square Foot Per Vacant Square Foot All Buildings 4,590 2,600 2,563 37 39 42 8 Building Floorspace (Square Feet) 1,001 to 5,000 2,532 334 331 3 48 51 6 5,001 to 10,000 946 250 247 3 36 38 6 10,001 to 25,000

73

The distribution of prime numbers on the square root spiral  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Prime Numbers clearly accumulate on defined spiral graphs,which run through the Square Root Spiral. These spiral graphs can be assigned to different spiral-systems, in which all spiral-graphs have the same direction of rotation and the same -second difference- between the numbers, which lie on these spiral-graphs. A mathematical analysis shows, that these spiral graphs are caused exclusively by quadratic polynomials. For example the well known Euler Polynomial x2+x+41 appears on the Square Root Spiral in the form of three spiral-graphs, which are defined by three different quadratic polynomials. All natural numbers,divisible by a certain prime factor, also lie on defined spiral graphs on the Square Root Spiral (or Spiral of Theodorus, or Wurzelspirale). And the Square Numbers 4, 9, 16, 25, 36 even form a highly three-symmetrical system of three spiral graphs, which divides the square root spiral into three equal areas. Fibonacci number sequences also play a part in the structure of the Square Root Spiral. With the help of the Number-Spiral, described by Mr. Robert Sachs, a comparison can be drawn between the Square Root Spiral and the Ulam Spiral. The shown sections of his study of the number spiral contain diagrams, which are related to my analysis results, especially in regards to the distribution of prime numbers.

Harry K. Hahn; Robert Sachs

2008-01-09T23:59:59.000Z

74

Quaternary faulting of Deschutes County, Oregon.  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

??Sixty-one normal faults were identified in a 53-kilometer long by 21-kilometer wide northwest-trending zone in central and northern Deschutes County, Oregon. The faults are within… (more)

Wellik, John M.

2008-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

75

Recollecting history : songs, flags and a Syrian square  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Symbols have played a major role in the development of a Syrian national identity since the beginning of the 20th century. These representations are national, official, and/or public (flag, song, and square), that are ...

Sergie, Lina, 1974-

2003-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

76

MC Squared Energy Services, LLC | Open Energy Information  

Open Energy Info (EERE)

MC Squared Energy Services, LLC MC Squared Energy Services, LLC Jump to: navigation, search Name MC Squared Energy Services, LLC Place Illinois Utility Id 56379 Utility Location Yes Ownership R RTO PJM Yes Operates Generating Plant Yes Activity Retail Marketing Yes References EIA Form EIA-861 Final Data File for 2010 - File1_a[1] LinkedIn Connections CrunchBase Profile No CrunchBase profile. Create one now! This article is a stub. You can help OpenEI by expanding it. Utility Rate Schedules Grid-background.png No rate schedules available. Average Rates Commercial: $0.0700/kWh Industrial: $0.0747/kWh References ↑ "EIA Form EIA-861 Final Data File for 2010 - File1_a" Retrieved from "http://en.openei.org/w/index.php?title=MC_Squared_Energy_Services,_LLC&oldid=411021"

77

Sparse non-linear least squares optimization for geometric vision  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Several estimation problems in vision involve the minimization of cumulative geometric error using non-linear least-squares fitting. Typically, this error is characterized by the lack of interdependence among certain subgroups of the parameters to be ...

Manolis I. A. Lourakis

2010-09-01T23:59:59.000Z

78

A Unification of Ensemble Square Root Kalman Filters  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

In recent years, several ensemble-based Kalman filter algorithms have been developed that have been classified as ensemble square root Kalman filters. Parallel to this development, the singular “evolutive” interpolated Kalman (SEIK) filter has ...

Lars Nerger; Tijana Janji?; Jens Schröter; Wolfgang Hiller

2012-07-01T23:59:59.000Z

79

Fast Rates for Regularized Least-squares Algorithm  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

We develop a theoretical analysis of generalization performances of regularized least-squares on reproducing kernel Hilbert spaces for supervised learning. We show that the concept of effective dimension of an integral ...

Caponnetto, Andrea

2005-04-14T23:59:59.000Z

80

Least Squares Reconstruction of Doppler Radar Spectra for Irregular PRT  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

A least squares method for the reconstruction of Doppler spectra of weather radars with irregular pulse repetition time used to increase the range of unambiguous velocity is presented and evaluated. This method is a robust spectral method that is ...

John Kalogiros

2012-12-01T23:59:59.000Z

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "kilometers square kilometers" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


81

Simulated diurnal rainfall physics in a multi-scale global climate model with embedded explicit convection  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

time of most westerly (offshore) winds is the end of thewind fluctuations over a distance of several hundred kilometers offshore

Pritchard, Michael Stephen

2011-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

82

Energy Efficiency Indicators Methodology Booklet  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

energy consumption. IEA countries have experienced a steady increase in car- kilometers per capita as personal consumption expenditure increase.

Sathaye, Jayant

2010-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

83

Electric Mean Squared Radii of Lambda(1405) in Chiral Dynamics  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

The electric mean squared radii _E of Lambda(1405) are calculated in the chiral unitary model. We describe the Lambda(1405) as a dynamically generated resonance fully in the octet meson and octet baryon scattering. We also consider ``Lambda(1405)'' as a bound state of KbarN. For the later ``Lambda(1405),'' we obtain negative and larger absolute value of electric mean squared radius than that of ordinary baryons, which implies that Lambda(1405) have structure of widely spread K^- around p.

T. Sekihara; T. Hyodo; D. Jido

2008-03-31T23:59:59.000Z

84

Table 1a. Effective, Occupied, and Vacant Square Footage, 1992  

U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

a. Occupied and Vacant Sq Ft a. Occupied and Vacant Sq Ft Table 1a. Effective, Occupied, and Vacant Square Footage, 1992 Building Characteristics All Buildings (thousand) Total Floorspace (million square feet) Total Occupied Floorspace (million square feet) Total Vacant Floorspace (million square feet) Occupied Square Footage as a Percent of Total All Buildings 4,779 67,072 61,325 5,746 91 Building Floorspace (Square Feet) 1,001 to 5,000 2,678 7,321 6,662 659 90 5,001 to 10,000 966 7,140 6,544 596 91 10,001 to 25,000 641 10,285 9,432 853 91 25,001 to 50,000 274 9,872 8,963 909 90 50,001 to 100,000 114 7,957 7,297 659 91 100,001 to 200,000 70 9,619 8,966 652 93 200,001 to 500,000 25 7,788 7,201 586 92 Over 500,000 9 7,087 6,257 829 88 Principal Building Activity Education 309 8,815 8,221 593 93 Food Sales and Service 413 2,375 2,166

85

A revisit to block and recursive least squares for parameter estimation  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

In this paper, the classical least squares (LS) and recursive least squares (RLS) for parameter estimation have been re-examined in the light of the present day computing capabilities. It has been demonstrated that for linear time-invariant systems, ... Keywords: Blockwise least squares (BLS), Change detection, Recursive least squares (RLS), Sliding window blockwise least squares (SWBLS), Variable-length window

Jin Jiang; Youmin Zhang

2004-07-01T23:59:59.000Z

86

Organic light-emitting diodes from homoleptic square planar complexes  

SciTech Connect

Homoleptic square planar complexes [M(N.LAMBDA.N).sub.2], wherein two identical N.LAMBDA.N bidentate anionic ligands are coordinated to the M(II) metal center, including bidentate square planar complexes of triazolates, possess optical and electrical properties that make them useful for a wide variety of optical and electrical devices and applications. In particular, the complexes are useful for obtaining white or monochromatic organic light-emitting diodes ("OLEDs"). Improved white organic light emitting diode ("WOLED") designs have improved efficacy and/or color stability at high brightness in single- or two-emitter white or monochrome OLEDs that utilize homoleptic square planar complexes, including bis[3,5-bis(2-pyridyl)-1,2,4-triazolato]platinum(II) ("Pt(ptp).sub.2").

Omary, Mohammad A

2013-11-12T23:59:59.000Z

87

Latin-square three-dimensional gage master  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

A gage master for coordinate measuring machines has an nxn array of objects distributed in the Z coordinate utilizing the concept of a Latin square experimental design. Using analysis of variance techniques, the invention may be used to identify sources of error in machine geometry and quantify machine accuracy.

Jones, L.

1981-05-12T23:59:59.000Z

88

A multivariate version of Hoeffding's Phi-Square  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

A multivariate measure of association is proposed, which extends the bivariate copula-based measure Phi-Square introduced by Hoeffding [22]. We discuss its analytical properties and calculate its explicit value for some copulas of simple form; a simulation ... Keywords: Copula, Empirical copula process, Multivariate measure of association, Nonparametric bootstrap, Nonparametric estimation, Primary, Secondary, Strong mixing, Weak convergence

Sandra Gaiíer; Martin Ruppert; Friedrich Schmid

2010-11-01T23:59:59.000Z

89

Multi-ring performance of the Kendall square multiprocessor  

SciTech Connect

Performance of the hierarchical shared-memory system of the Kendall Square Research multiprocessor is measured and characterized. The performance of prefetch is measured. Latency, bandwidth, and contention are analyzed on a 4-ring, 128 processor system. Scalability comparisons are made with other shared-memory and distributed-memory multiprocessors.

Dunigan, T.H.

1994-03-01T23:59:59.000Z

90

Precise root-mean-square radius of {sup 4}He  

SciTech Connect

We study the world data on elastic electron-helium scattering to determine the {sup 4}He charge root-mean-square radius. A precise value for this radius is needed as a reference for a number of ongoing studies in nuclear and atomic physics.

Sick, Ingo [Dept. fuer Physik, Universitaet Basel, CH4056 Basel (Switzerland)

2008-04-15T23:59:59.000Z

91

Renewal series and square-root boundaries for Bessel processes  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

We show how a description of Brownian exponential functionals as a renewal series gives access to the law of the hitting time of a square-root boundary by a Bessel process. This extends classical results by Breiman and Shepp, concerning Brownian motion, and recovers by different means, extensions for Bessel processes, obtained independently by Delong and Yor.

Enriquez, Nathanael; Yor, Marc

2008-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

92

Hydrologic data for the Idaho National Engineering Laboratory site, Idaho  

SciTech Connect

The Idaho Chemical Processing Plant (ICPP) discharges low-level waste and chemical waste directly to the Snake River Plain aquifer through a 600-foot (180 meter) disposal well. Most of the radioactivity is removed by distillation and ion exchange prior to being discharged into the well. During 1971 to 1973, the well was used to dispose of 404 curies of radioactivity, of which 389 curies were tritium (96 percent). The average yearly discharge was about 300 million gallons (1.1 x 10$sup 9$ liters). The distribution of waste products in the Snake River Plain aquifer covers about 15 square miles (30 square kilometers). Since disposal began in 1952, the wastes have migrated about 5 miles (8 kilometers) downgradient from discharge points. The perched ground-water body contains tritium, chromium-51, cobalt-60, and strontium-90. Radionuclides are subject to radioactive decay, sorption, and dilution by dispersion in the aquifer. Chemical wastes are subject to sorption and dilution by dispersion. Waste plumes south of the ICPP containing tritium, sodium, and chloride have been mapped and all cover a similar area. The plumes follow generally southerly flow lines and are widely dispersed in the aquifer. The waste plume of strontium-90 covers a much smaller area of the aquifer, about 1.5 square miles (4 square kilometers). Based on the relatively small size of the plume, it would appear that the strontium-90 is sorbed from solution as it moves through the Snake River Plain aquifer. (auth)

Barraclough, J. T.; Jensen, R. G.

1976-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

93

Ground Gravity Survey At Truckhaven Area (Layman Energy Associates, 2009) |  

Open Energy Info (EERE)

Truckhaven Area (Layman Energy Associates, 2009) Truckhaven Area (Layman Energy Associates, 2009) Jump to: navigation, search GEOTHERMAL ENERGYGeothermal Home Exploration Activity: Ground Gravity Survey At Truckhaven Area (Layman Energy Associates, 2009) Exploration Activity Details Location Truckhaven Area Exploration Technique Ground Gravity Survey Activity Date Usefulness useful DOE-funding Unknown Notes The area of coverage for the DOE-funded geophysical surveys is shown in Figure 9. The 95 magnetotelluric (MT) soundings cover a central area of about 80 square kilometers. The 126 gravity stations extend over a broader area of about 150 square kilometers, centered on the same area covered by the MT soundings. A detailed description of the instrumentation and data acquisition procedures used for both surveys is provided in GSY-USA, Inc.

94

ARM - Facility News Article  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

30, 2007 [Facility News] 30, 2007 [Facility News] High-Speed Internet Deflects Information Overload Bookmark and Share Covering approximately 143,000 square kilometers in Oklahoma and Kansas, instruments at the various facilities throughout the SGP site generate approximately 27 gigabytes of data every day. Covering approximately 143,000 square kilometers in Oklahoma and Kansas, instruments at the various facilities throughout the SGP site generate approximately 27 gigabytes of data every day. A little more room in the internet link at the ARM Southern Great Plains site is providing needed relief to the crowded lines that keep data flowing from the site. In July 2007, the internet service from the SGP Central Facility was switched to a higher speed (6 megabits) link, increasing the

95

Magnetotellurics At Truckhaven Area (Layman Energy Associates, 2010) | Open  

Open Energy Info (EERE)

Magnetotellurics At Truckhaven Area (Layman Energy Magnetotellurics At Truckhaven Area (Layman Energy Associates, 2010) Exploration Activity Details Location Truckhaven Area Exploration Technique Magnetotellurics Activity Date Usefulness useful DOE-funding Unknown Notes The area of coverage for the DOE-funded geophysical surveys is shown in Figure 9. The 95 magnetotelluric (MT) soundings cover a central area of about 80 square kilometers. The 126 gravity stations extend over a broader area of about 150 square kilometers, centered on the same area covered by the MT soundings. A detailed description of the instrumentation and data acquisition procedures used for both surveys is provided in GSY-USA, Inc. (2003a). References Layman Energy Associates Inc. (2006) Final Scientific - Technical Report, Geothermal Resource Exploration Program, Truckhaven Area, Imperial

96

Word Pro - Untitled1  

U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

6 Biomass Resources 6 Biomass Resources U.S. Energy Information Administration / Annual Energy Review 2011 113 Notes: * Data are for total biomass per square kilometer. * km 2 = square kilometer. * This study estimates the biomass resources currently available in the United States by county. It includes the following feedstock categories: crop residues (5 year average: 2003-2007), forest and primary mill residues (2007), secondary mill and urban wood waste (2002), methane emis- sions from landfills (2008), domestic wastewater treatment (2007), and animal manure (2002). For more information on the data development, please refer to http://www.nrel.gov/docs/fy06osti/39181.pdf. Although, the document contains the methodology for the development of an older assessment,

97

An aerial radiological survey of Project Rulison and surrounding area, Battlement Creek Valley, Colorado  

SciTech Connect

An aerial radiological survey was conducted over the Project Rulison site, 40 miles (64 kilometers) northeast of Grand Junction, Colorado, from July 6 through July 12, 1993. Parallel lines were flown at intervals of 250 feet (76 meters) over a 6.5-square-mile (17-square-kilometer) area at a 200-foot (61-meter) altitude surrounding Battlement Creek Valley. The gamma energy spectra obtained were reduced to an exposure rate contour map overlaid on a high altitude aerial photograph of the area. The terrestrial exposure rate varied from 3.5 to 12.5 {mu}R/h (excluding cosmic) at 1 meter above ground level. No anomalous or man-made isotopes were found.

NONE

1995-08-01T23:59:59.000Z

98

Large scale structure forecast constraints on particle production during inflation  

SciTech Connect

Bursts of particle production during inflation provide a well-motivated mechanism for creating bumplike features in the primordial power spectrum. Current data constrain these features to be less than about 5% the size of the featureless primordial power spectrum at wave numbers of about 0.1h Mpc{sup -1}. We forecast that the Planck cosmic microwave background experiment will be able to strengthen this constraint to the 0.5% level. We also predict that adding data from a square kilometer array galaxy redshift survey would improve the constraint to about the 0.1% level. For features at larger wave numbers, Planck will be limited by Silk damping and foregrounds, while the square kilometer array will be limited by nonlinear effects. We forecast, for a cosmic inflation probe galaxy redshift survey, that similar constraints can be achieved up to about a wave number of 1.0h Mpc{sup -1}.

Chantavat, Teeraparb; Gordon, Christopher; Silk, Joseph [Oxford Astrophysics, Denys Wilkinson Building, Keble Road, Oxford, OX1 3RH (United Kingdom)

2011-05-15T23:59:59.000Z

99

New Square, New York: Energy Resources | Open Energy Information  

Open Energy Info (EERE)

Square, New York: Energy Resources Square, New York: Energy Resources Jump to: navigation, search Equivalent URI DBpedia Coordinates 41.13965°, -74.028612° Loading map... {"minzoom":false,"mappingservice":"googlemaps3","type":"ROADMAP","zoom":14,"types":["ROADMAP","SATELLITE","HYBRID","TERRAIN"],"geoservice":"google","maxzoom":false,"width":"600px","height":"350px","centre":false,"title":"","label":"","icon":"","visitedicon":"","lines":[],"polygons":[],"circles":[],"rectangles":[],"copycoords":false,"static":false,"wmsoverlay":"","layers":[],"controls":["pan","zoom","type","scale","streetview"],"zoomstyle":"DEFAULT","typestyle":"DEFAULT","autoinfowindows":false,"kml":[],"gkml":[],"fusiontables":[],"resizable":false,"tilt":0,"kmlrezoom":false,"poi":true,"imageoverlays":[],"markercluster":false,"searchmarkers":"","locations":[{"text":"","title":"","link":null,"lat":41.13965,"lon":-74.028612,"alt":0,"address":"","icon":"","group":"","inlineLabel":"","visitedicon":""}]}

100

Mercerville-Hamilton Square, New Jersey: Energy Resources | Open Energy  

Open Energy Info (EERE)

Mercerville-Hamilton Square, New Jersey: Energy Resources Mercerville-Hamilton Square, New Jersey: Energy Resources Jump to: navigation, search Equivalent URI DBpedia Coordinates 40.2292669°, -74.6693186° Loading map... {"minzoom":false,"mappingservice":"googlemaps3","type":"ROADMAP","zoom":14,"types":["ROADMAP","SATELLITE","HYBRID","TERRAIN"],"geoservice":"google","maxzoom":false,"width":"600px","height":"350px","centre":false,"title":"","label":"","icon":"","visitedicon":"","lines":[],"polygons":[],"circles":[],"rectangles":[],"copycoords":false,"static":false,"wmsoverlay":"","layers":[],"controls":["pan","zoom","type","scale","streetview"],"zoomstyle":"DEFAULT","typestyle":"DEFAULT","autoinfowindows":false,"kml":[],"gkml":[],"fusiontables":[],"resizable":false,"tilt":0,"kmlrezoom":false,"poi":true,"imageoverlays":[],"markercluster":false,"searchmarkers":"","locations":[{"text":"","title":"","link":null,"lat":40.2292669,"lon":-74.6693186,"alt":0,"address":"","icon":"","group":"","inlineLabel":"","visitedicon":""}]}

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "kilometers square kilometers" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


101

Frankfort Square, Illinois: Energy Resources | Open Energy Information  

Open Energy Info (EERE)

Square, Illinois: Energy Resources Square, Illinois: Energy Resources Jump to: navigation, search Equivalent URI DBpedia Coordinates 41.5189226°, -87.8031048° Loading map... {"minzoom":false,"mappingservice":"googlemaps3","type":"ROADMAP","zoom":14,"types":["ROADMAP","SATELLITE","HYBRID","TERRAIN"],"geoservice":"google","maxzoom":false,"width":"600px","height":"350px","centre":false,"title":"","label":"","icon":"","visitedicon":"","lines":[],"polygons":[],"circles":[],"rectangles":[],"copycoords":false,"static":false,"wmsoverlay":"","layers":[],"controls":["pan","zoom","type","scale","streetview"],"zoomstyle":"DEFAULT","typestyle":"DEFAULT","autoinfowindows":false,"kml":[],"gkml":[],"fusiontables":[],"resizable":false,"tilt":0,"kmlrezoom":false,"poi":true,"imageoverlays":[],"markercluster":false,"searchmarkers":"","locations":[{"text":"","title":"","link":null,"lat":41.5189226,"lon":-87.8031048,"alt":0,"address":"","icon":"","group":"","inlineLabel":"","visitedicon":""}]}

102

Square ice, alternating sign matrices and classical orthogonal polynomials  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

The six-vertex model with Domain Wall Boundary Conditions, or square ice, is considered for particular values of its parameters, corresponding to 1-, 2-, and 3-enumerations of Alternating Sign Matrices (ASMs). Using Hankel determinant representations for the partition function and the boundary correlator of homogeneous square ice, it is shown how the ordinary and refined enumerations can be derived in a very simple and straightforward way. The derivation is based on the standard relationship between Hankel determinants and orthogonal polynomials. For the particular sets of parameters corresponding to 1-, 2-, and 3-enumerations of ASMs, the Hankel determinant can be naturally related to Continuous Hahn, Meixner-Pollaczek, and Continuous Dual Hahn polynomials, respectively. This observation allows for a unified and simplified treatment of ASMs enumerations. In particular, along the lines of the proposed approach, we provide a complete solution to the long standing problem of the refined 3-enumeration of AMSs.

F. Colomo; A. G. Pronko

2004-11-25T23:59:59.000Z

103

Square wells, quantum wells and ultra-thin metallic films  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

The eigenvalue equations for the energy of bound states of a particle in a square well are solved, and the exact solutions are obtained, as power series. Accurate analytical approximate solutions are also given. The application of these results in the physics of quantum wells are discussed,especially for ultra-thin metallic films, but also in the case of resonant cavities, heterojunction lasers, revivals and super-revivals.

Victor Barsan

2013-07-09T23:59:59.000Z

104

Property:FirstWellDepth | Open Energy Information  

Open Energy Info (EERE)

FirstWellDepth FirstWellDepth Jump to: navigation, search Property Name FirstWellDepth Property Type Quantity Use this type to express a quantity of length. The default unit is the meter (m). Acceptable units (and their conversions) are: Meters - 1 m, meter, meters Meter, Meters, METER, METERS Kilometers - 0.001 km, kilometer, kilometers, Kilometer, Kilometers, KILOMETERS, KILOMETERS Miles - 0.000621371 mi, mile, miles, Mile, Miles, MILE, MILES Feet - 3.28084 ft, foot, feet, Foot, Feet, FOOT, FEET Yards - 1.09361 yd, yard, yards, Yard, Yards, YARD, YARDS Pages using the property "FirstWellDepth" Showing 5 pages using this property. B Blue Mountain Geothermal Area + 672 m0.672 km 0.418 mi 2,204.724 ft 734.906 yd + K Kilauea East Rift Geothermal Area + 1,968 m1.968 km

105

Property:AvgReservoirDepth | Open Energy Information  

Open Energy Info (EERE)

AvgReservoirDepth AvgReservoirDepth Jump to: navigation, search Property Name AvgReservoirDepth Property Type Quantity Description Average depth to reservoir Use this type to express a quantity of length. The default unit is the meter (m). Acceptable units (and their conversions) are: Meters - 1 m, meter, meters Meter, Meters, METER, METERS Kilometers - 0.001 km, kilometer, kilometers, Kilometer, Kilometers, KILOMETERS, KILOMETERS Miles - 0.000621371 mi, mile, miles, Mile, Miles, MILE, MILES Feet - 3.28084 ft, foot, feet, Foot, Feet, FOOT, FEET Yards - 1.09361 yd, yard, yards, Yard, Yards, YARD, YARDS Pages using the property "AvgReservoirDepth" Showing 24 pages using this property. A Amedee Geothermal Area + 213 m0.213 km 0.132 mi 698.819 ft 232.939 yd + B Beowawe Hot Springs Geothermal Area + 850 m0.85 km

106

DESIGN OF PHASE INDUCED AMPLITUDE APODIZATION CORONAGRAPHS OVER SQUARE APERTURES  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

The purpose of this paper is to present the results of a theoretical study pertaining to the feasibility of Phase Induced Amplitude Apodization (PIAA) units using deformable mirrors (DMs). We begin by reviewing the general derivation of the design equations driving PIAA. We then show how to solve these equations for square apertures and show the performance of pure PIAA systems in the ray optics regime. We tie these design equations into the study of edge diffraction effects and provide a general expression for the field after a full propagation through a PIAA coronagraph. Third, we illustrate how a combination of pre- and post-apodizers yields a contrast of 10{sup -10} even in the presence of diffractive effects, for configuration with neither wavefront errors or wavefront control. Finally, we present novel PIAA configurations over square apertures which circumvent the constraints on the manufacturing of PIAA optics by inducing the apodization with two square DMs. Such solutions rely on pupil size smaller than currently envisioned static PIAA solutions and thus require aggressive pre- and post-apodizing screens in order to mitigate for diffractive effect between the two mirrors. As a result they are associated with significant loss in performance, throughput in particular.

Pueyo, Laurent [Department of Physics and Astronomy, Johns Hopkins University, 366 Bloomberg Center, 3400 N. Charles Street, Baltimore, MD 21218 (United States); Jeremy Kasdin, N.; Carlotti, Alexis [Department of Mechanical and Aerospace Engineering, Princeton University, Princeton, NJ 08544 (United States); Vanderbei, Robert, E-mail: lap@pha.jhu.edu [Department of Operations Research and Financial Engineering, Princeton University, Princeton, NJ 08544 (United States)

2011-08-01T23:59:59.000Z

107

U.S. Renewable Energy Technical Potentials: A GIS-Based Analysis  

SciTech Connect

This report presents the state-level results of a spatial analysis effort calculating energy technical potential, reported in square kilometers of available land, megawatts of capacity, and gigawatt-hours of generation, for six different renewable technologies. For this analysis, the system specific power density (or equivalent), efficiency (capacity factor), and land-use constraints were identified for each technology using independent research, published research, and professional contacts. This report also presents technical potential findings from previous reports.

Lopez, A.; Roberts, B.; Heimiller, D.; Blair, N.; Porro, G.

2012-07-01T23:59:59.000Z

108

Positive Scattering Cross Sections using Constrained Least Squares  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

A method which creates a positive Legendre expansion from truncated Legendre cross section libraries is presented. The cross section moments of order two and greater are modified by a constrained least squares algorithm, subject to the constraints that the zeroth and first moments remain constant, and that the standard discrete ordinate scattering matrix is positive. A method using the maximum entropy representation of the cross section which reduces the error of these modified moments is also presented. These methods are implemented in PARTISN, and numerical results from a transport calculation using highly anisotropic scattering cross sections with the exponential discontinuous spatial scheme is presented.

Dahl, J.A.; Ganapol, B.D.; Morel, J.E.

1999-09-27T23:59:59.000Z

109

Rotor-router aggregation on the layered square lattice  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

In rotor-router aggregation on the square lattice Z^2, particles starting at the origin perform deterministic analogues of random walks until reaching an unoccupied site. The limiting shape of the cluster of occupied sites is a disk. We consider a small change to the routing mechanism for sites on the x- and y-axes, resulting in a limiting shape which is a diamond instead of a disk. We show that for a certain choice of initial rotors, the occupied cluster grows as a perfect diamond.

Kager, Wouter

2010-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

110

,"Housing Units1","Average Square Footage Per Housing Unit",,,"Average Square Footage Per Household Member"  

U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

3 Average Square Footage of West Homes, by Housing Characteristics, 2009" 3 Average Square Footage of West Homes, by Housing Characteristics, 2009" " Final" ,"Housing Units1","Average Square Footage Per Housing Unit",,,"Average Square Footage Per Household Member" "Housing Characteristics","Millions","Total2","Heated","Cooled","Total2","Heated","Cooled" "Total West",24.8,1708,1374,800,628,506,294 "West Divisions and States" "Mountain",7.9,1928,1695,1105,723,635,415 "Mountain North",3.9,2107,1858,912,776,684,336 "Colorado",1.9,2082,1832,722,896,788,311 "Idaho, Montana, Utah, Wyoming",2,2130,1883,1093,691,610,354

111

,"Housing Units1","Average Square Footage Per Housing Unit",,,"Average Square Footage Per Household Member"  

U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

1 Average Square Footage of Midwest Homes, by Housing Characteristics, 2009" 1 Average Square Footage of Midwest Homes, by Housing Characteristics, 2009" " Final" ,"Housing Units1","Average Square Footage Per Housing Unit",,,"Average Square Footage Per Household Member" "Housing Characteristics","Millions","Total2","Heated","Cooled","Total2","Heated","Cooled" "Total Midwest",25.9,2272,1898,1372,912,762,551 "Midwest Divisions and States" "East North Central",17.9,2251,1869,1281,892,741,508 "Illinois",4.8,2186,1911,1451,860,752,571 "Michigan",3.8,1954,1559,962,729,582,359 "Wisconsin",2.3,2605,2091,1258,1105,887,534

112

Y-12 Lease Summary Address* (Description) Square Footage Lease Term Expiration Date  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

Y-12 Lease Summary Y-12 Lease Summary Address* (Description) Square Footage Lease Term Expiration Date Onsite Leases 602 Scarboro Rd (New Hope Center) 137,758 square feet Five years 05/04/2012 301 Bear Creek Rd (Jack Case Center) 411,837 square feet Five years 05/04/2012 Offsite Leases 200 Summit Place (Records Storage) 24,585 square feet Five years 5/31/2015 113C Union Valley Rd (Analytical Lab) 18,450 square feet Five years 10/24/2015 115 Union Valley Rd (Warehouse) 28,800 square feet Five years 07/20/2015 1099 Commerce Park Dr. (UPF Project) 64,960 square feet One year 09/30/2011 2410 Cherahala Boulevard (UPF Project) 32,058 square feet Six Months 12/31/2011 Knoxville, Tennessee * Oak Ridge, Tennessee unless noted otherwise.

113

Directional Distributions and Mean Square Slopes in the Equilibrium and Saturation Ranges of the Wave Spectrum  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Field observations show that the crosswind component constitutes a significant portion of the ocean surface mean square slope. The average ratio between the crosswind and upwind mean square slope components is 0.88 in slick-covered ocean ...

Paul A. Hwang; David W. Wang

2001-05-01T23:59:59.000Z

114

Dudley Square : a public building as a catalyst for urban revitalization  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Dudley Square in Roxbury, Massachusetts serves as the economic and commercial center for Boston's minority community. Between 1650 and 1950 the Dudley Square area grew in importance to become a major economic center outside ...

Raymond, Harold Ray

1990-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

115

A square root analog to digital converter to optimally convert photonic signals for computed tomography  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

The arrival of photons at a given location is a Poisson process with an associated shot noise which rises with the square root of the number of photons received. An analog-to-digital converter (ADC) with a square root ...

Bieniosek, Matthew (Matthew F.)

2010-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

116

Recent developments: PKI square dish for the Soleras Project  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

The Square Dish solar collectors are subjected to rigorous design attention regarding corrosion at the site, and certification of the collector structure. The microprocessor controls and tracking mechanisms are improved in the areas of fail safe operations, durability, and low parasitic power requirements. Prototype testing demonstrates performance efficiency of approximately 72% at 730 F outlet temperature. Studies are conducted that include developing formal engineering design studies, developing formal engineering design drawing and fabrication details, establishing subcontracts for fabrication of major components, and developing a rigorous quality control system. The improved design is more cost effective to product and the extensive manuals developed for assembly and operation/maintenance result in faster field assembly and ease of operation.

Rogers, W.E.

1984-03-01T23:59:59.000Z

117

A virtual square grid-based coverage algorithm of redundant node for wireless sensor network  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

A virtual square grid-based coverage algorithm (VSGCA) is proposed in this paper. Each sensor node divides its sensing range into virtual square grids, if all the grids are covered by neighbors, the target node is redundant node. Compared with some previous ... Keywords: Coverage, Energy conservation, Square grid, Wireless sensor network (WSN)

Yanheng Liu; Longxiang Suo; Dayang Sun; Aimin Wang

2013-03-01T23:59:59.000Z

118

Environmental Report 1994, Volume No. 1  

SciTech Connect

Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory (LLNL), a U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) facility operated by the University of California, serves as a national resource of scientific, technical, and engineering capability. The Laboratory`s mission focuses on nuclear weapons and national security, and over the years has been broadened to include areas such as strategic defense, energy, the environment, biomedicine, technology transfer, the economy, and education. The Laboratory carries out this multifaceted mission in compliance with local, state, and federal environmental regulatory requirements. It does so with the support of the Environmental Protection Department, which is responsible for environmental monitoring and analysis, hazardous waste management, environmental restoration, and ensuring compliance with environmental laws and regulations. LLNL comprises two sites: the Livermore site and Site 300. The Livermore site occupies an area of 3.28 square kilometers on the eastern edge of Livermore, California. Site 300, LLNL`s experimental testing site, is located 24 kilometers to the east in the Altamont Hills, and occupies an area of 30.3 square kilometers. Environmental monitoring activities are conducted at both sites as well as in surrounding areas. This summary provides an overview of LLNL`s environmental activities in 1994, including radiological and nonradiological sampling and surveillance monitoring, remediation, assessment of radiological releases and doses, and determination of the impact of LLNL operations on the environment and public health.

Rath, K.S. [ed.; Harrach, R.J.; Gallegos, G.M.; Failor, R.A. [and others

1995-09-01T23:59:59.000Z

119

Cumulative Effects of Micro-Hydro Development on the Fisheries of the Swan River Drainage, Montana, First Annual Progress Report (Covering Field Season July-November 1982).  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

This fisheries study is to determine the potential cumulative biological and economic effects of 20 small or micro-hydro-electric facilities (less than 5 megawatts) proposed to be constructed on tributaries to the Swan River, a 1738 square kilometer (671 square mile) drainage located in northwestern Montana. The study addresses portions of measure 1204 (b) (2) of the Norwthwest Power Planning Council's Columbia River Basin Fish and Wildlife Program. Aerial pre-surveys conducted during 1982 identified 102 stream reaches that may support fish populations in the Swan drainage between Swan and Lindbergh lakes. These reaches were located in 49 tributary streams and constituted 416 kilometers (258 miles) of potential fish habitat. Construction of all proposed small hydro projects would divert water from 54 kilometers (34 miles) or about 13 percent of the tributary system. Only two of the 20 proposed hydro sites did not support trout populations and most were populated by migratory bull trout and westslope cutthroat trout. Potential cumulative habitat losses that could result from dewatering of all proposed project areas were predicted using a stream reach classification scheme involving stream gradient, drainage ara, and fish population data. Preliminary results of this worst case analysis indicate that 23, 19 and 6 percent of the high quality rearing habitat for cutthroat, bull, and brook trout respectively would be lost.

Leathe, Stephen A.; Graham, Patrick J.

1984-03-01T23:59:59.000Z

120

ARM - Blog Article  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

7, 2013 [Blog, Field Notes, SGP] 7, 2013 [Blog, Field Notes, SGP] You Will Be Missed, Mr. Samaras Bookmark and Share Around the early 1990s, the U.S. Department of Energy set up the Atmospheric Radiation Measurement (ARM) Program to collect climate and weather-related observations from across the globe. One of its first sites-now sprawling over 143,000 square kilometers and harboring 33 suites of sophisticated instruments-is in Oklahoma. Around the same time, a man working by himself was designing and building his own weather-measuring probes and driving them around in a truck. For the next twenty years, Tim Samaras would log close to 56,000 kilometers each year, driving across the prairies during peak tornado season. Early in his life, the movie "The Wizard of Oz" had captured Samaras's imagination.

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "kilometers square kilometers" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


121

Science With The Australian Square Kilometre Array Pathfinder  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

The future of cm and m-wave astronomy lies with the Square Kilometre Array (SKA), a telescope under development by a consortium of 17 countries that will be 50 times more sensitive than any existing radio facility. Most of the key science for the SKA will be addressed through large-area imaging of the Universe at frequencies from a few hundred MHz to a few GHz. The Australian SKA Pathfinder (ASKAP) is a technology demonstrator aimed in the mid-frequency range, and achieves instantaneous wide-area imaging through the development and deployment of phased-array feed systems on parabolic reflectors. The large field-of-view makes ASKAP an unprecedented synoptic telescope that will make substantial advances in SKA key science. ASKAP will be located at the Murchison Radio Observatory in inland Western Australia, one of the most radio-quiet locations on the Earth and one of two sites selected by the international community as a potential location for the SKA. In this paper, we outline an ambitious science program for ASKAP, examining key science such as understanding the evolution, formation and population of galaxies including our own, understanding the magnetic Universe, revealing the transient radio sky and searching for gravitational waves.

Simon Johnston

2007-11-14T23:59:59.000Z

122

LDA - Measurements of Transitional Flows Induced by a Square Rib  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

New fundamental measurements are presented for the transition process in flat plate boundary layers downstream of two-dimensional square ribs. By use of laser Doppler anemometry (LDA) and a large Matched-Index-of-Refraction (MIR) flow system, data for wall-normal fluctuations and Reynolds stresses were obtained in the near wall region to y+<0.1 in addition to the usual mean streamwise velocity component and its fluctuation. By varying velocity and rib height, the experiment investigated the following range of conditions: k+ = 5.5 to 21, 0.3

Becker, S.; Durst, F.; Stoots, Carl Marcel; Condie, Keith Glenn; McEligot, Donald Marinus

2002-03-01T23:59:59.000Z

123

The ordered distribution of natural numbers on the square root spiral  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Natural numbers divisible by the same prime factor lie on defined spiral graphs which are running through the Square Root Spiral (also named as the Spiral of Theodorus or Wurzel Spirale or Einstein Spiral). Prime Numbers also clearly accumulate on such spiral graphs. And the square numbers 4, 9, 16, 25, 36,... form a highly three-symmetrical system of three spiral graphs, which divides the square-root-spiral into three equal areas. A mathematical analysis shows that these spiral graphs are defined by quadratic polynomials. Fibonacci number sequences also play a part in the structure of the Square Root Spiral. Fibonacci Numbers divide the Square Root Spiral into areas and angle sectors with constant proportions. These proportions are linked to the golden mean (or golden section), which behaves as a self-avoiding-walk-constant in the lattice-like structure of the square root spiral.

Harry K. Hahn; Kay Schoenberger

2007-12-13T23:59:59.000Z

124

,"Housing Units1","Average Square Footage Per Housing Unit",,,"Average Square Footage Per Household Member"  

U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

6 Average Square Footage of Mobile Homes, by Housing Characteristics, 2009" 6 Average Square Footage of Mobile Homes, by Housing Characteristics, 2009" " Final" ,"Housing Units1","Average Square Footage Per Housing Unit",,,"Average Square Footage Per Household Member" "Housing Characteristics","Millions","Total2","Heated","Cooled","Total2","Heated","Cooled" "Total Mobile Homes",6.9,1087,985,746,413,375,283 "Census Region" "Northeast",0.5,1030,968,711,524,492,362 "Midwest",1.1,1090,1069,595,400,392,218 "South",3.9,1128,1008,894,423,378,335 "West",1.4,995,867,466,369,322,173 "Urban and Rural3" "Urban",3.5,1002,919,684,396,364,271

125

,"Housing Units1","Average Square Footage Per Housing Unit",,,"Average Square Footage Per Household Member"  

U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

9 Average Square Footage of U.S. Homes, by Housing Characteristics, 2009" 9 Average Square Footage of U.S. Homes, by Housing Characteristics, 2009" " Final" ,"Housing Units1","Average Square Footage Per Housing Unit",,,"Average Square Footage Per Household Member" "Housing Characteristics","Millions","Total2","Heated","Cooled","Total2","Heated","Cooled" "Total",113.6,1971,1644,1230,766,639,478 "Census Region" "Northeast",20.8,2121,1663,921,836,656,363 "Midwest",25.9,2272,1898,1372,912,762,551 "South",42.1,1867,1637,1549,732,642,607 "West",24.8,1708,1374,800,628,506,294 "Urban and Rural3" "Urban",88.1,1857,1546,1148,728,607,450

126

,"Housing Units1","Average Square Footage Per Housing Unit",,,"Average Square Footage Per Household Member"  

U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

2 Average Square Footage of South Homes, by Housing Characteristics, 2009" 2 Average Square Footage of South Homes, by Housing Characteristics, 2009" " Final" ,"Housing Units1","Average Square Footage Per Housing Unit",,,"Average Square Footage Per Household Member" "Housing Characteristics","Millions","Total2","Heated","Cooled","Total2","Heated","Cooled" "Total South",42.1,1867,1637,1549,732,642,607 "South Divisions and States" "South Atlantic",22.2,1944,1687,1596,771,668,633 "Virginia",3,2227,1977,1802,855,759,692 "Georgia",3.5,2304,1983,1906,855,736,707 "Florida",7,1668,1432,1509,690,593,625 "DC, DE, MD, WV",3.4,2218,1831,1440,864,713,561

127

,"Housing Units1","Average Square Footage Per Housing Unit",,,"Average Square Footage Per Household Member"  

U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

4 Average Square Footage of Single-Family Homes, by Housing Characteristics, 2009" 4 Average Square Footage of Single-Family Homes, by Housing Characteristics, 2009" " Final" ,"Housing Units1","Average Square Footage Per Housing Unit",,,"Average Square Footage Per Household Member" "Housing Characteristics","Millions","Total2","Heated","Cooled","Total2","Heated","Cooled" "Total Single-Family",78.6,2422,2002,1522,880,727,553 "Census Region" "Northeast",12.7,2843,2150,1237,1009,763,439 "Midwest",19.2,2721,2249,1664,1019,842,624 "South",29.7,2232,1945,1843,828,722,684 "West",16.9,2100,1712,1009,725,591,348 "Urban and Rural3"

128

,"Housing Units1","Average Square Footage Per Housing Unit",,,"Average Square Footage Per Household Member"  

U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

0 Average Square Footage of Northeast Homes, by Housing Characteristics, 2009" 0 Average Square Footage of Northeast Homes, by Housing Characteristics, 2009" " Final" ,"Housing Units1","Average Square Footage Per Housing Unit",,,"Average Square Footage Per Household Member" "Housing Characteristics","Millions","Total2","Heated","Cooled","Total2","Heated","Cooled" "Total Northeast",20.8,2121,1663,921,836,656,363 "Northeast Divisions and States" "New England",5.5,2232,1680,625,903,680,253 "Massachusetts",2.5,2076,1556,676,850,637,277 "CT, ME, NH, RI, VT",3,2360,1781,583,946,714,234 "Mid-Atlantic",15.3,2080,1657,1028,813,647,402

129

,"Housing Units1","Average Square Footage Per Housing Unit",,,"Average Square Footage Per Household Member"  

U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

5 Average Square Footage of Multi-Family Homes, by Housing Characteristics, 2009" 5 Average Square Footage of Multi-Family Homes, by Housing Characteristics, 2009" " Final" ,"Housing Units1","Average Square Footage Per Housing Unit",,,"Average Square Footage Per Household Member" "Housing Characteristics","Millions","Total2","Heated","Cooled","Total2","Heated","Cooled" "Total Multi-Family",28.1,930,807,535,453,393,261 "Census Region" "Northeast",7.6,991,897,408,471,426,194 "Midwest",5.6,957,857,518,521,466,282 "South",8.4,924,846,819,462,423,410 "West",6.5,843,606,329,374,269,146 "Urban and Rural3" "Urban",26.9,927,803,531,450,390,258

130

Tested by Fire - How two recent Wildfires affected Accelerator Operations at LANL  

SciTech Connect

In a little more than a decade two large wild fires threatened Los Alamos and impacted accelerator operations at LANL. In 2000 the Cerro Grande Fire destroyed hundreds of homes, as well as structures and equipment at the DARHT facility. The DARHT accelerators were safe in a fire-proof building. In 2011 the Las Conchas Fire burned about 630 square kilometers (250 square miles) and came dangerously close to Los Alamos/LANL. LANSCE accelerator operations Lessons Learned during Las Conchas fire: (1) Develop a plan to efficiently shut down the accelerator on short notice; (2) Establish clear lines of communication in emergency situations; and (3) Plan recovery and keep squirrels out.

Spickermann, Thomas [Los Alamos National Laboratory

2012-08-01T23:59:59.000Z

131

Fully complex-valued radial basis function networks: Orthogonal least squares regression and classification  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

We consider a fully complex-valued radial basis function (RBF) network for regression and classification applications. For regression problems, the locally regularised orthogonal least squares (LROLS) algorithm aided with the D-optimality experimental ... Keywords: Classification, Complex-valued radial basis function network, D-optimality experimental design, Fisher ratio of class separability measure, Orthogonal least squares algorithm, Regression

S. Chen; X. Hong; C. J. Harris; L. Hanzo

2008-10-01T23:59:59.000Z

132

Least-Squares Spectral Method for the solution of a fractional advection-dispersion equation  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Fractional derivatives provide a general approach for modeling transport phenomena occurring in diverse fields. This article describes a Least Squares Spectral Method for solving advection-dispersion equations using Caputo or Riemann-Liouville fractional ... Keywords: Advection-dispersion, Anomalous diffusion, Anomalous transport, Caputo derivative, Fractional derivative, Least-Squares, Riemann-Liouville derivative, Riesz derivative, Spectral Method

Alfredo RaúL Carella; Carlos Alberto Dorao

2013-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

133

Generation of pornographic blacklist and its incremental update using an inverse chi-square based method  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

This study presented an inverse chi-square based web content classification system that works along with an incremental update mechanism for incremental generation of pornographic blacklist. The proposed system, as indicated from the experimental results, ... Keywords: Incremental update, Inverse chi-square function, Pornographic blacklist, Web content classification

Lung-Hao Lee; Cheng-Jye Luh

2008-09-01T23:59:59.000Z

134

Applying least squares support vector machines to the airframe wing-box structural design cost estimation  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

This research used the least squares support vector machines (LS-SVM) method to estimate the project design cost of an airframe wing-box structure. We also compared the estimation performance using back-propagation neural networks (BPN) and statistical ... Keywords: Airframe structure, Back-propagation neural networks, Cost estimation, Least squares support vector machines, Response surface methodology

S. Deng; Tsung-Han Yeh

2010-12-01T23:59:59.000Z

135

Algorithm 741: least-squares solution of a linear, bordered, block-diagonal system of equations  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

A package of Fortran subroutines is presented for the least-squares solution of a system of overdetermined, full-rank, linear equations with single-bordered block-diagonal structure. This structure allows for a natural sequential processing, one block ... Keywords: bordered block-diagonal equations, least-squares solutions, sparse systems

Richard D. Ray

1995-03-01T23:59:59.000Z

136

Housing  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

... NIST is located in Gaithersburg, Maryland, about 25 miles (40 kilometers) from the center of Washington, DC Housing arrangements have been ...

2010-10-05T23:59:59.000Z

137

Kevin Mills at NIST  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

... at 10 Mbps over a kilometer, using modest power, while being ... conducted research concerning methods to automate the generation of concurrent ...

2010-07-21T23:59:59.000Z

138

Magneto-Mechanical Measurements for High Current ...  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

... HTS) wires are now being fabricated in kilometer lengths, providing the basis for a new generation of electric power devices, including high power ...

2010-10-05T23:59:59.000Z

139

Impact-driven pressure management via targeted brine extraction Conceptual studies of CO2 storage in saline formations  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

kilometers away from the injection wells. Buscheck et al. (pattern around the CO 2 injection wells just outside theaquifer system. Five injection wells are planned in the

Birkholzer, J.T.

2013-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

140

Introduction to the constants for nonexperts 19201940  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

... with light traveling a readily measured distance on the Earth's surface was first ... method but in a 1.6 kilometer (one-mile) evacuated tube was carried ...

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "kilometers square kilometers" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


141

Geology of the southernmost Deschutes basin, Tumalo quadrangle, Deschutes County, Oregon.  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

??The Tumalo quadrangle lies approximately 30 kilometers behind the Cascade volcanic arc and marks the southernmost extent of continuously exposed Deschutes Formation rocks. Deschutes Formation… (more)

[No author

1989-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

142

2003 ORNL Story Tips | ornl.gov  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

kilometer worldwide. Energy - Hydrogen recovery refined October 07, 2003 - Petroleum refineries are one of potentially several beneficiaries of a patented separation technology...

143

WILDLAND ROAD REMOVAL: RESEARCH NEEDS  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Service. 2003. Road decommissioning monitoring report 2002.management agencies are decommissioning roads to mitigateto ten percent by decommissioning up to 160,000 kilometers

Switalski, T. Adam; Bissonette, John A.; DeLuca, Tom H.; Luce, Charles H.; Madej, Mary Ann

2003-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

144

NIST Tech Beat, March 2000  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

... Study Shows Quality Pays for Software-Driven Devices. ... For most of us, driving an Indy racer around a track at 330 kilometers (200 miles) per hour ...

145

Live Fire Tests with FDNY Will Guide Improvements in Fire ...  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

... a kilometer from the southern tip of Manhattan. ... Suppression Exercise, go to: www.nyc.gov/html ... Effectiveness of Fire Fighting Tactics Project, go to ...

2013-05-17T23:59:59.000Z

146

Electric Two-Wheelers in China: Promise Progress and Potential  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

0.2¢ per kilometer. Battery replacement costs can be higher,battery size and fluctuations in lead prices. By way of comparison, gasoline costs

Cherry, Christopher

2010-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

147

Physical Infrastructure: Connections  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

... Due to years of limited investment and maintenance, the US transportation infrastructure network (including approximately 6.5 million kilometers of ...

2012-10-05T23:59:59.000Z

148

Offshore Renewable Energy R&D (Fact Sheet), NREL (National Renewable...  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

within and immediately surrounding the wind plant, will be coupled with a mesoscale weather forecasting tool that simulates the weather on a scale of a few hundred kilometers...

149

New Aerodynamics Simulations Provide Better Understanding of...  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

lates the region within and immediately surrounding the wind plant, with a mesoscale weather forecasting tool that simulates the weather on a scale of a few hundred kilometers...

150

HEP education and outreach activities  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

in the universe and test the forces that affect them. Physicists use particle accelerators, many kilometers in length or circumference, to accelerate particles such as...

151

Evaluate Potential Means of Rebuilding Sturgeon Populations in the Snake River between Lower Granite and Hells Canyon Dams, 1998 Annual Report.  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

In 1998 white sturgeon (Acipenser transmontanus) were captured, marked, and population data were collected in the Snake River between Lower Granite Dam and the mouth of the Salmon River. A total of 13,785 hours of setline effort and 389 hours of hook-and-line effort was employed in 1998. Of the 278 white sturgeon captured in the Snake River, 238 were marked for future identification. Three sturgeon were captured in the Salmon River and none were captured in the Clearwater River. Since 1997, 6.9% of the tagged fish have been recovered. Movement of recaptured white sturgeon ranged from 98.5 kilometers downstream to 60.7 kilometers upstream, however, less than 25% of the fish moved more than 16 kilometers (10 miles). In the Snake River, white sturgeon ranged in total length from 51.5 cm to 286 cm and averaged 118.9 cm. Differences were detected in the length frequency distributions of sturgeon in Lower Granite Reservoir and the free-flowing Snake River (Chi-Square test, P < 0.05). In addition, the proportion of white sturgeon greater than 92 cm (total length) in the free-flowing Snake River has shown an increase of 37% since the 1970's. Analysis of the length-weight relationship indicated that white sturgeon in Lower Granite Reservoir were slightly larger than white sturgeon in the free-flowing Snake River.

Everett, Scott R.; Tuell, Michael A. (Nez Perce Tribe, Department of Fisheries Resource Management, Lapwai, ID)

2002-03-01T23:59:59.000Z

152

Alfven Waves in the Lower Solar Atmosphere  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

We report the detection of oscillatory phenomena associated with a large bright-point group that is 430,000 square kilometers in area and located near the solar disk center. Wavelet analysis reveals full-width half-maximum oscillations with periodicities ranging from 126 to 700 seconds originating above the bright point and significance levels exceeding 99%. These oscillations, 2.6 kilometers per second in amplitude, are coupled with chromospheric line-of-sight Doppler velocities with an average blue shift of 23 kilometers per second. A lack of cospatial intensity oscillations and transversal displacements rules out the presence of magneto-acoustic wave modes. The oscillations are a signature of Alfven waves produced by a torsional twist of +/-22 degrees. A phase shift of 180 degrees across the diameter of the bright point suggests that these torsional Alfven oscillations are induced globally throughout the entire brightening. The energy flux associated with this wave mode is sufficient to heat the solar coro...

Jess, D B; Erdelyi, R; Crockett, P J; Keenan, F P; Christian, D J

2009-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

153

Supercomputers Crack Sixty-Trillionth Binary Digit of Pi-Squared |  

Energy.gov (U.S. Department of Energy (DOE)) Indexed Site

Supercomputers Crack Sixty-Trillionth Binary Digit of Pi-Squared Supercomputers Crack Sixty-Trillionth Binary Digit of Pi-Squared Supercomputers Crack Sixty-Trillionth Binary Digit of Pi-Squared April 28, 2011 - 11:28am Addthis David H. Bailey | Photo Courtesy of Lawrence Berkely National Lab David H. Bailey | Photo Courtesy of Lawrence Berkely National Lab Linda Vu What are the key facts? Australian researchers have found the sixty-trillionth binary digit of Pi-squared. The calculation would have taken a single computer processor unit (CPU) 1,500 years to calculate, but it took just a few months on IBM's "BlueGene/P" supercomputer, which is designed to run continuously at one quadrillion calculations per second. Pi is one of the most mysterious numbers in mathematics and can never be expressed as a finite decimal number -- humanity will never have

154

Ocean Interpolation by Four-Dimensional Weighted Least Squares—Application to the Waters around Australasia  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

A new four-dimensional ocean interpolation system based on locally weighted least squares fitting is presented. A loess filter is used to interpolate irregularly spaced data onto a uniform grid. This involves projecting the data onto quadratic ...

K. R. Ridgway; J. R. Dunn; J. L. Wilkin

2002-09-01T23:59:59.000Z

155

Approximate square-root-time relaxation in glass-forming liquids  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

We present data for the dielectric relaxation of 43 glass-forming organic liquids, showing that the primary (alpha) relaxation is often close to square-root-time relaxation. The better an inverse power-law description of the high-frequency loss applies, the more accurately is square-root-time relaxation obeyed. These findings suggest that square-root-time relaxation is generic to the alpha process, once a common view, but since long believed to be incorrect. Only liquids with very large dielectric losses deviate from this picture by having consistently narrower loss peaks. As a further challenge to the prevailing opinion, we find that liquids with accurate square-root-time relaxation cover a wide range of fragilities.

Albena I. Nielsen; Tage Christensen; Bo Jakobsen; Kristine Niss; Niels Boye Olsen; Ranko Richert; Jeppe C. Dyre

2007-12-17T23:59:59.000Z

156

Numerical Investigation of Turbulent Natural Convection in Differentially Heated Square Cavities  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

This paper deals with the numerical simulation of turbulent natural convection in cavities heated from the side. Three cases are considered: an air?filled square cavity of size 0.75 m

Sonja Schmelter; Gert Lindner; Gudrun Wendt; Regine Model

2011-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

157

Least Squares Retrieval of Microburst Winds from Single-Doppler Radar Data  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

A least squares (LS) method is developed for retrieving low-altitude winds from single-Doppler radar scans. The method is tested with Denver airport microburst data and the results compared with the previously developed simple adjoint (SA) ...

Chong-Jian Qiu; Qin Xu

1996-06-01T23:59:59.000Z

158

Implications of the Form of the Ensemble Transformation in the Ensemble Square Root Filters  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

This paper considers implications of different forms of the ensemble transformation in the ensemble square root filters (ESRFs) for the performance of ESRF-based data assimilation systems. It highlights the importance of using mean-preserving ...

Pavel Sakov; Peter R. Oke

2008-03-01T23:59:59.000Z

159

Skill Scores Based on the Mean Square Error and Their Relationships to the Correlation Coefficient  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Several skill scores are defined, based on the mean-square-error measure of accuracy and alternative climatological standards of reference. Decompositions of these skill scores are formulated, each of which is shown to possess terms involving 1) ...

Allan H. Murphy

1988-12-01T23:59:59.000Z

160

Matching method and exact solvability of discrete PT-symmetric square wells  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Discrete PT-symmetric square wells are studied. Their wave functions are found proportional to classical Tshebyshev polynomials of complex argument. The compact secular equations for energies are derived giving the real spectra in certain intervals of non-Hermiticity strengths Z. It is amusing to notice that although the known square well re-emerges in the usual continuum limit, a twice as rich, upside-down symmetric spectrum is exhibited by all its present discretized predecessors.

Miloslav Znojil

2006-05-24T23:59:59.000Z

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "kilometers square kilometers" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


161

An optical pattern recognition architecture implementing the mean-square-error correlation algorithm  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

The present invention relates to optical computing and image and pattern recognition systems and techniques in general and, more particularly, to an optical architecture for accomplishing real-time two-dimensional pattern recognition by implementing the so-called Mean-Square-Error'' correlation algorithm (also referred to as the Difference-Squared Error'' algorithm) for discriminating, i.e., recognizing two-dimensional patterns in gray-scale images. 16 figs.

Molley, P.A.

1990-03-26T23:59:59.000Z

162

Justice Square  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

into sunrise in Mashhad, Iran Sound of EKG Monitors fadesMORNING TITLE CARD: MASHHAD, IRAN The CALL TO PRAYER soundsBENHAM If we can get you into Iran you have a good chance at

Deratany, Jay Paul

2013-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

163

Advanced Online Flux Mapping of CANDU PHWR by Least-Squares Method  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

A least-squares method that solves both the core neutronics design equations and the in-core detector response equations on the least-squares principle is presented as a new advanced online flux-mapping method for CANada Deuterium Uranium (CANDU) pressurized heavy water reactors (PHWRs). The effectiveness of the new flux-mapping method is examined in terms of online flux-mapping calculations with numerically simulated true flux distribution and detector signals and those with the actual core-follow data for the Wolsong CANDU PHWRs in Korea. The effects of core neutronics models as well as the detector failures and uncertainties of measured detector signals on the effectiveness of the least-squares flux-mapping calculations are also examined.The following results are obtained. The least-squares method predicts the flux distribution in better agreement with the simulated true flux distribution than the standard core neutronics calculations by the finite difference method (FDM) computer code without using the detector signals. The adoption of the nonlinear nodal method based on the unified nodal method formulation instead of the FDM results in a significant improvement in prediction accuracy of the flux-mapping calculations. The detector signals estimated from the least-squares flux-mapping calculations are much closer to the measured detector signals than those from the flux synthesis method (FSM), the current online flux-mapping method for CANDU reactors. The effect of detector failures is relatively small so that the plant can tolerate up to 25% of detector failures without seriously affecting the plant operation. The detector signal uncertainties aggravate accuracy of the flux-mapping calculations, yet the effects of signal uncertainties of the order of 1% standard deviation can be tolerable without seriously degrading the prediction accuracy of the least-squares method. The least-squares method is disadvantageous because it requires longer CPU time than the existing FSM. Considering ever-increasing computer speed and the improved operational safety margin of CANDU reactors gained by accurate flux-mapping calculations, however, it is concluded that the least-squares method presents an effective alternative to the existing flux-mapping method for CANDU reactors.

Hong, In Seob [Seoul National University (Korea, Republic of); Kim, Chang Hyo [Seoul National University (Korea, Republic of); Suk, Ho Chun [Korea Atomic Energy Research Institute (Korea, Republic of)

2005-07-15T23:59:59.000Z

164

Transportation in the Balance: A Comparative Analysis of Costs, User Revenues, and Subsidies for Highway, Air, and High Speed Rail Systems  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

transportation than air or HSR, but the opportunities to recover some of these social coststransportation modes in dollar cost per passenger kilometer traveled, some public subsidy is justified on the basis of lower social costs,transportation modes in dollar cost per passenger kilometer traveled, some public subsidy is justified on the basis of lower social costs,

Chan, Evelyn; Kanafani, Adib; Canetti, Thomas

1997-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

165

Microsoft Word - B6B1789F.doc  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

na Depth to CO 2 injection zone: Mt. Simon: 1.3 to 1.6 miles (2.1 to 2.6 kilometers) St Peter (optional): 0.9 mile (1.4 kilometers) Impacts of CO 2 sequestration on underground...

166

Definition: Supervisory Control and Data Acquisition (SCADA) Communications  

Open Energy Info (EERE)

and Data Acquisition (SCADA) Communications and Data Acquisition (SCADA) Communications Network Jump to: navigation, search Dictionary.png Supervisory Control and Data Acquisition (SCADA) Communications Network SCADA communication networks are used to control geographically dispersed devices. The electricity grid has employed them for 15 years; smart grid implements SCADA more extensively both in geographic density and automated control of distribution system functionality. "SCADA systems are highly distributed systems used to control geographically dispersed assets, often scattered over thousands of square kilometers, where centralized data acquisition and control are critical to system operation." NIST Guide to Supervisory and Data Acquisition - SCADA and Industrial Control Systems Security (2007).[1]

167

A LOFAR RFI detection pipeline and its first results  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Radio astronomy is entering a new era with new and future radio observatories such as the Low Frequency Array and the Square Kilometer Array. We describe in detail an automated flagging pipeline and evaluate its performance. With only a fraction of the computational cost of correlation and its use of the previously introduced SumThreshold method, it is found to be both fast and unrivalled in its high accuracy. The LOFAR radio environment is analysed with the help of this pipeline. The high time and spectral resolution of LOFAR have resulted in an observatory where only a few percent of the data is lost due to RFI.

Offringa, A R; Zaroubi, S; Biehl, M

2010-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

168

Wind Energy Resource Atlas of the Dominican Republic  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

The Wind Energy Resource Atlas of the Dominican Republic identifies the wind characteristics and the distribution of the wind resource in this country. This major project is the first of its kind undertaken for the Dominican Republic. The information contained in the atlas is necessary to facilitate the use of wind energy technologies, both for utility-scale power generation and off-grid wind energy applications. A computerized wind mapping system developed by NREL generated detailed wind resource maps for the entire country. This technique uses Geographic Information Systems (GIS) to produce high-resolution (1-square kilometer) annual average wind resource maps.

Elliott, D.; Schwartz, M.; George, R.; Haymes, S.; Heimiller, D.; Scott, G.; Kline, J.

2001-10-01T23:59:59.000Z

169

Table 5a. Total District Heat Consumption per Effective Occupied Square  

U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

a. Total District Heat Consumption per Effective a. Total District Heat Consumption per Effective Occupied Square Foot, 1992 Building Characteristics All Buildings Using District Heat (thousand) Total District Heat Consumption (trillion Btu) District Heat Intensities (thousand Btu) Per Square Foot Per Effective Occupied Square Foot All Buildings 94 429 84 93 Building Floorspace (Square Feet) 1,001 to 5,000 18 Q Q Q 5,001 to 10,000 11 Q Q Q 10,001 to 25,000 28 65 144 155 25,001 to 50,000 16 Q Q Q 50,001 to 100,000 9 50 79 81 100,001 to 200,000 6 59 76 79 200,001 to 500,000 5 109 71 77 Over 500,000 1 65 62 80 Principal Building Activity Education 22 50 71 78 Food Sales and Service Q Q Q Q Health Care 3 57 100 142 Lodging 9 66 112 116 Mercantile and Service 9 Q Q Q Office 24 110 63 70 Public Assembly 10 23 64 66 Public Order and Safety Q Q Q Q Religious Worship Q Q Q Q Warehouse and Storage

170

Levy path integral approach to the solution of the fractional Schrödinger equation with infinite square well  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

The solution to the fractional Schr\\"odinger equation with infinite square well is obtained in this paper, by use of the L\\'evy path integral approach. We obtain the even and odd parity wave functions of this problem, which are in accordance with those given by Laskin in [Chaos 10 (2000), 780--790].

Dong Jianping

2013-01-14T23:59:59.000Z

171

Contributed paper: Robust digital watermarking in PDTDFB domain based on least squares support vector machine  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Geometric distortion is known as one of the most difficult attacks to resist, for it can desynchronize the location of the watermark and hence causes incorrect watermark detection. It is a challenging work to design a robust image watermarking scheme ... Keywords: Gaussian-Hermite moment, Geometric distortion, Image watermarking, Least squares support vector machine (LS-SVM), Shiftable complex directional pyramid (PDTDFB)

Hong-Ying Yang, Xiang-Yang Wang, Yan Zhang, Miao E-Nuo

2013-10-01T23:59:59.000Z

172

Use of multiple 4$pi$ radiation sources for quasi-uniform irradiation of square surfaces  

SciTech Connect

The question of distance and location of multiple 4 pi radiation sources from square planar target surfaces is addressed, with the constraint that the surface be irradiated with 80% uniformity. Results of computer calculations are presented, giving source location coordinates for optimum use of the sources under the uniformity constraint. (auth)

Clark, R.W.; Freiwald, D.A.

1973-11-01T23:59:59.000Z

173

Gravity as the square of Yang-Mills: implications for N=8 Supergravity  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

The pure gravity Lagrangian can be written as the "square" of the pure Yang-Mills Lagrangian to second order in coupling constants. This paper uses this form of the gravity Lagrangian as a starting point to arrive at a compact light-cone superspace Lagrangian for N=8 Supergravity to order $\\kappa$^2.

Sudarshan Ananth

2009-02-18T23:59:59.000Z

174

Impact Ionization Model Using Average Energy and Average Square Energy of Distribution Function  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Impact Ionization Model Using Average Energy and Average Square Energy of Distribution Function Ken relaxation length, v sat ø h''i (¸ 0:05¯m), the energy distribution function is not well described calculation of impact ionization coefficient requires the use of a high energy distribution function because

Dunham, Scott

175

Revenue forecasting using a least-squares support vector regression model in a fuzzy environment  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Revenue forecasting is difficult but essential for companies that want to create high-quality revenue budgets, especially in an uncertain economic environment with changing government policies. Under these conditions, the subjective judgment of decision ... Keywords: Genetic algorithms, Least-squares support vector regression, Membership function, Revenue forecasting

Kuo-Ping Lin; Ping-Feng Pai; Yu-Ming Lu; Ping-Teng Chang

2013-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

176

2012 Special Issue: Orthogonal least squares based complex-valued functional link network  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Functional link networks are single-layered neural networks that impose nonlinearity in the input layer using nonlinear functions of the original input variables. In this paper, we present a fully complex-valued functional link network (CFLN) with multivariate ... Keywords: Complex-valued neural network, Function approximation, Functional link network, Multivariate polynomial, Orthogonal least squares

Md. Faijul Amin; Ramasamy Savitha; Muhammad Ilias Amin; Kazuyuki Murase

2012-08-01T23:59:59.000Z

177

Total least squares in fuzzy system identification: An application to an industrial engine  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Takagi-Sugeno fuzzy models have proved to be a powerful tool for the identification of nonlinear dynamic systems. Their generic nonlinear model representation is particularly useful if information about the structure of the nonlinearity is available. ... Keywords: Gas engine, Identification algorithms, Local model networks, Nonlinear system identification, Steady-state constraints, Takagi-Sugeno fuzzy models, Total least squares

Stefan Jakubek; Christoph Hametner; Nikolaus Keuth

2008-12-01T23:59:59.000Z

178

Weighted least-squares finite elements based on particle imaging velocimetry data  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

The solution of the Navier-Stokes equations requires that data about the solution is available along the boundary. In some situations, such as particle imaging velocimetry, there is additional data available along a single plane within the domain, and ... Keywords: Data assimilation, Finite element, Least-squares, Particle imaging velocimetry

J. J. Heys; T. A. Manteuffel; S. F. McCormick; M. Milano; J. Westerdale; M. Belohlavek

2010-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

179

Least-Squares Support Vector Machine Approach to Viral Replication Origin Prediction  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Replication of their DNA genomes is a central step in the reproduction of many viruses. Procedures to find replication origins, which are initiation sites of the DNA replication process, are therefore of great importance for controlling the growth and ... Keywords: caudoviruses, feature selection, herpesviruses, least-squares support vector machines, replication origins

Raul Cruz-Cano; David S. H. Chew; Kwok-Pui Choi; Ming-Ying Leung

2010-07-01T23:59:59.000Z

180

Neural data fusion algorithms based on a linearly constrained least square method  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Two novel neural data fusion algorithms based on a linearly constrained least square (LCLS) method are proposed. While the LCLS method is used to minimize the energy of the linearly fused information, two neural-network algorithms are developed to overcome ...

Youshen Xia; H. Leung; E. Bosse

2002-03-01T23:59:59.000Z

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "kilometers square kilometers" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


181

DIVERGENCE-FREE AND CURL-FREE WAVELETS ON THE SQUARE FOR NUMERICAL SIMULATIONS  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

DIVERGENCE-FREE AND CURL-FREE WAVELETS ON THE SQUARE FOR NUMERICAL SIMULATIONS SOULEYMANE KADRI Grenoble cedex 9, France August 30, 2011 Abstract We present a construction of divergence-free and curl-free and integration. We introduce new BMRAs and wavelets for the spaces of divergence-free and curl-free vector

Paris-Sud XI, Université de

182

Analyzing currency crises' real effects with partial least squares sensitivity analysis  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

The effects of a currency crisis on a country's economy depend on non-linear relations among several variables that characterize the economic, financial, legal, and socio-political structure of the country at the onset of the crisis. We seek to determine ... Keywords: Currency crises, partial least squares, variable selection

Ismael E. Arciniegas Rueda; Fabio A. Arciniegas; Mark J. Embrechts

2008-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

183

Physical modelling and particle swarm design of coplanar waveguide square spiral inductor  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

This paper presents simple lumped element equivalent circuit for the coplanar waveguide (CPW) square spiral inductor. The circuit is based on physical modelling which takes into consideration the parasitic effects inherent in the CPW spiral inductor. ... Keywords: circuit modelling, coplanar waveguide, inductor, particle swarm optimization

N. I. Dib; J. I. Ababneh

2008-03-01T23:59:59.000Z

184

Property:Volume | Open Energy Information  

Open Energy Info (EERE)

Volume Volume Jump to: navigation, search Property Name Volume Property Type Quantity Description Any unit of volume. For example, the mean estimated reservoir volume at location based on the USGS 2008 Geothermal Resource Assessment if the United States. Use this type to express a quantity of three-dimensional space. The default unit is the cubic meter (m³). Acceptable units (and their conversions) are: Cubic Meters - 1 m³,m3,m^3,cubic meter,cubic meters,Cubic Meter,Cubic Meters,CUBIC METERS Cubic Kilometers - 0.000000001 km³,km3,km^3,cubic kilometer,cubic kilometers,cubic km,Cubic Kilometers,CUBIC KILOMETERS Cubic Miles - 0.000000000239912759 mi³,mi3,mi^3,mile³,cubic mile,cubic miles,cubic mi,Cubic Miles,CUBIC MILES Cubic Feet - 35.314666721 ft³,ft3,ft^3,cubic feet,cubic

185

Electromagnetic compatibility, tropospheric and ionospheric aspects of SPS MPTS operations  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

The results of a preliminary study of the effects of operation of a Solar Power Satellite (SPS) on the general performance of terrestrial and space based electromagnetic systems are given. In addition, the effects of a passing high energy Microwave Power Transmission System (MPTS) through the troposphere and through the ionosphere are also considered. The SPS as envisioned will be a satellite system in geosynchronous orbit with a solar array of about 144 square kilometers. The purpose of the SPS is to capture solar energy, convert the radiant energy to microwave energy and transmit it to the earth as a beam by means of a phased array antenna one kilometer in diameter at a frequency of 2.45 GHz. At the surface of the earth, the energy beam will be captured by an antenna about 100 square kilometers which will convert the microwave energy to high voltage ac power for injection into an electrical power network. The impact of SPS operation on the lower atmosphere, the ionosphere, and on operational telecommunication systems, is addressed in a preliminary manner. Topics include (a) further study on the susceptibility of electronic equipment to SPS emissions; (b) further study on the interference potential of SPS emissions and harmonics to electromagnetic systems; (c) study of the impact of tropospheric attenuation and scattering associated with SPS operation on microwave terrestrial, air/ground and satellite/ground telecommunication systems; (d) further theoretical study on the production of ionospheric irregularities resulting from microwave heating; and (e) further experimental evidence of the impact of SPS operation on the telecommunication system performance collected in conjunction with a Platteville microwave heating experiment.

Not Available

1978-03-01T23:59:59.000Z

186

Square-wave switching by crossed-polarization gain modulation in vertical-cavity semiconductor lasers  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

We study experimentally and theoretically the effects of crossed-polarization reinjection (XPR) on the output characteristics of a vertical-cavity semiconductor laser. We find a set of parameters values for which each polarization component develops a square-wave modulation at a period close to twice the reinjection delay. We analyze the regularity of this modulation in terms of the laser pumping current and of the reinjection level. These observations are numerically reproduced within the spin-flip model modified to account for XPR. In particular, the degradation of the square-wave switching is linked to the finite value of the spin-flip rate, and it occurs when the current approaches the boundaries of polarization bistability.

Mulet, J.; Giudici, M.; Javaloyes, J.; Balle, S. [Institut Mediterrani d'Estudis Avancats, CSIC UIB, E-07071 Palma de Mallorca (Spain)

2007-10-15T23:59:59.000Z

187

Method for exploiting bias in factor analysis using constrained alternating least squares algorithms  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

Bias plays an important role in factor analysis and is often implicitly made use of, for example, to constrain solutions to factors that conform to physical reality. However, when components are collinear, a large range of solutions may exist that satisfy the basic constraints and fit the data equally well. In such cases, the introduction of mathematical bias through the application of constraints may select solutions that are less than optimal. The biased alternating least squares algorithm of the present invention can offset mathematical bias introduced by constraints in the standard alternating least squares analysis to achieve factor solutions that are most consistent with physical reality. In addition, these methods can be used to explicitly exploit bias to provide alternative views and provide additional insights into spectral data sets.

Keenan, Michael R. (Albuquerque, NM)

2008-12-30T23:59:59.000Z

188

Squares of White Noise, SL(2,C) and Kubo - Martin -Schwinger States  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

We investigate the structure of Kubo - Martin - Schwinger (KMS) states on some extension of the universal enveloping algebra of SL(2,C}. We find that there exists a one-to-one correspondence between the set of all covariant KMS states on this algebra and the set of all probability measures d\\mu on the real half-line, which decrease faster than any inverse polynomial. This problem is connected to the problem of KMS states on square of white noise algebra.

D. V. Prokhorenko

2007-05-26T23:59:59.000Z

189

Magnetic Reversal of an Artificial Square Ice: Dipolar Correlation and Charge Ordering  

SciTech Connect

Magnetic reversal of an artificial square ice pattern subject to a sequence of magnetic fields applied slightly off the diagonal axis is investigated via magnetic force microscopy of the remanent states that result. Sublattice independent reversal is observed via correlated incrementally pinned flip cascades along parallel dipolar chains, as evident from analysis of vertex populations and dipolar correlation functions. Weak dipolar interactions between adjacent chains favour antialignment and give rise to weak charge ordering of 'monopole' vertices during the reversal process.

Stein A.; Morgan J.P.; Langridge S.; Marrows C.H.

2011-10-13T23:59:59.000Z

190

Extended Grimus-Stockinger theorem and inverse square law violation in quantum field theory  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

We study higher-order corrections to the Grimus-Stockinger theorem dealing with the large-distance asymptotic behavior of the wave-packet modified neutrino propagator within the framework of field-theoretical description of the neutrino oscillation phenomenon. We discuss the possibility that these corrections are responsible for breakdown of the classical inverse-square law (ISL) at the macroscopic distances. In particular the ISL violation can be an explanation of the well-known reactor antineutrino anomaly.

Naumov, Vadim A

2013-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

191

Extended Grimus-Stockinger theorem and inverse square law violation in quantum field theory  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

We study higher-order corrections to the Grimus-Stockinger theorem dealing with the large-distance asymptotic behavior of the wave-packet modified neutrino propagator within the framework of field-theoretical description of the neutrino oscillation phenomenon. We discuss the possibility that these corrections are responsible for breakdown of the classical inverse-square law (ISL) at the macroscopic distances. In particular the ISL violation can be an explanation of the well-known reactor antineutrino anomaly.

Vadim A. Naumov; Dmitry S. Shkirmanov

2013-09-04T23:59:59.000Z

192

Semi-flexible interacting self-avoiding trails on the square lattice  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Self-avoiding walks self-interacting via nearest neighbours (ISAW) and self-avoiding trails interacting via multiply-visited sites (ISAT) are two models of the polymer collapse transition of a polymer in dilute solution. On the square lattice it has been established numerically that the collapse transition of each model lies in a different universality class. It has been shown that by adding stiffness to the ISAW model a second low temperature phase eventuates and a more complicated phase diagram ensues with three types of transition that meet at a multi-critical point. For large enough stiffness the collapse transition becomes first-order. Interestingly, a phase diagram of a similar structure has been seen to occur in an extended ISAT model on the triangular lattice without stiffness. It is therefore of interest to see the effect of adding stiffness to the ISAT model. We have studied by computer simulation a generalised model of self-interacting self-avoiding trails on the square lattice with a stiffness parameter added. Intriguingly, we find that stiffness does not change the order of the collapse transition for ISAT on the square lattice for a very wide range of stiffness weights. While at the lengths considered there are clear bimodal distributions for very large stiffness, our numerical evidence strongly suggests that these are simply finite-size effects associated with a crossover to a first-order phase transition at infinite stiffness.

A Bedini; A L Owczarek; T Prellberg

2012-10-30T23:59:59.000Z

193

Determination of a control parameter in a one-dimensional parabolic equation using the moving least-square approximation  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

In this paper the approximation of moving least-square (MLS) is used for finding the solution of a one-dimensional parabolic inverse problem with source control parameter. Comparing with other numerical methods based on meshes such as finite difference ... Keywords: inverse problem, meshless method, moving least-square approximation, overspecification, parabolic equation

Rongjun Cheng

2008-09-01T23:59:59.000Z

194

The distribution of natural numbers divisible by 2,3,5,11,13 and 17 on the Square Root Spiral  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

The natural numbers divisible by the Prime Factors 2, 3, 5, 11, 13 and 17 lie on defined spiral graphs, which run through the Square Root Spiral. A mathematical analysis shows, that these spiral graphs are defined by specific quadratic polynomials. Basically all natural number which are divisible by the same prime factor lie on such spiral graphs. And these spiral graphs can be assigned to a certain number of Spiral Graph Systems, which have a defined spatial orientation to each other. This document represents a supplementation to my detailed introduction study to the Square Root Spiral, and it contains the missing diagrams and analyses, showing the distribution of the natural numbers divisible by 2, 3, 5, 11, 13 and 17 on the Square Root Spiral. My introduction study to the Square Root Spiral can be found in the arxiv-archive. The title of this study : The ordered distribution of the natural numbers on the Square Root Spiral.

Harry K. Hahn

2008-01-29T23:59:59.000Z

195

The effect of interelement dipole coupling in patterned ultrathin single crystal Fe square arrays  

SciTech Connect

The correlation between the magnetic properties and the interelement separation in patterned arrays of ultrathin single crystal Fe films of 12 monolayers (ML) grown on GaAs(100) has been studied. The critical condition to form single domain remanent states in the square elements was found to be 10 {mu}m in size and 20 {mu}m for the interelement separation. The coercivity was also found to increase with the increasing interelement separation in the patterned arrays. These results are attributed to the competition between the large in-plane uniaxial anisotropy, the demagnetizing field, and interelement dipole coupling as determined semiqualitatively by the ferromagnetic resonance measurements.

Sun Li; Zhai Ya [Department of Physics, Southeast University, Nanjing 211189 (China); Department of Electronics, Spintronics and Nanodevice Laboratory, University of York, York YO10 5DD (United Kingdom); Wong Pingkwanj; Zhang Wen; Xu Yongbing [Department of Electronics, Spintronics and Nanodevice Laboratory, University of York, York YO10 5DD (United Kingdom); Zou Xiao; Wu Jing [Department of Physics, University of York, York YO10 5DD (United Kingdom); Luo Linqiang; Zhai Hongru [National Laboratory of Solid Microstructures, Nanjing University, Nanjing 210093 (China)

2011-02-01T23:59:59.000Z

196

Spin-projection orientations in the plane square-lattice Ising model with periodic boundary conditions  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

The periodic boundary conditions changed the plane square-lattice Ising model to the torus-lattice system which restricts the spin-projection orientations. Only two of the three important spin-projection orientations, parallel to the x-axis or to the y-axis, are suited to the torus-lattice system. The infinitesimal difference of the free-energies of the systems between the two systems mentioned above makes their critical temperatures infinitely close to each other, but their topological fundamental groups are distinct.

You-gang Feng

2005-06-24T23:59:59.000Z

197

Blending mining and nuclear industries at the Waste Isolation Pilot Plant  

SciTech Connect

At the Waste Isolation Pilot Plant (WIPP) traditional procedures for underground mining activities have been significantly altered in order to assure underground safety and project adherence to numerous regulatory requirements. Innovative techniques have been developed for WIPP underground procedures, mining equipment, and operating environments. The mining emphasis at WIPP is upon the quality of the excavation, not (as in conventional mines) on the production of ore. The WIPP is a United States Department of Energy (DOE) project that is located 30 miles southeast of Carlsbad, New Mexico, where the nation's first underground engineered nuclear repository is being constructed. The WIPP site was selected because of its location amidst a 607 meter thick salt bed, which provides a remarkably stable rock formation for the permanent storage of nuclear waste. The underground facility is located 655 meters below the earth's surface, in the Salado formation, which comprises two-hundred million year old halites with minor amounts of clay and anhydrites. When completed, the WIPP underground facility will consist of two components: approximately 81 square kilometers of experimental areas, and approximately 405 square kilometers of repository. 3 figs.

Walls, J.R.

1990-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

198

Solar-energy-system performance evaluation, Cathedral Square, Burlington, Vermont, July-December 1981  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

The Cathedral Square solar site is a 10-story multiunit apartment building in Vermont. Its active solar energy system is designed to supply 51% of the hot water load, and consists of 1798 square feet of flat plate collectors, 2699-gallon water tank in an enclosed mechanical room on the roof, and two auxiliary natural gas boilers to supply hot water to immersed heat exchanger in an auxiliary storage tank. The measured solar fraction was only 28%, not 51%, which, it is concluded, is an unreasonable expectation. Other performance data include the solar savings ratio, conventional fuel savings, system performance factor, and solar system coefficient of performance. Monthly performance data are given for the solar system overall, and for the collector, storage, and hot water subsystems. Also included are insolation data, typical storage fluid temperatures, domestic hot water consumption, and solar heat exchangers inlet/outlet temperatures, and typical domestic hot water subsystem temperatures. In addition, the system operating sequence and solar energy utilization are given. Appended are a system description, performance evaluation techniques, long-term weather data. (LEW)

Welch, K.M.

1981-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

199

Textures in Polygonal Arrangements of Square Nanoparticles in Nematic Liquid Crystals Matrices  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

A systematic analysis of defect textures in facetted nanoparticles with polygonal configurations embedded in a nematic matrix is performed using the Landau-de Gennes model, homeotropic strong anchoring in a square domain with uniform alignment in the outer boundaries. Defect and textures are analyzed as functions of temperature T, polygon size R, and polygon number N. For nematic nanocomposites, the texture satisfies a defect charge balance equation between bulk and surface (particle corner) charges. Upon decreasing the temperature, the central bulk defects split and together with other -1/2 bulk defects, are absorbed by the nanoparticle's corners. Increasing the lattice size decreases confinement and eliminates bulk defects. Increasing the polygon number increases the central defect charge at high temperature and the number of surface defects at lower temperatures. The excess energy per particle is lower in even than in odd polygons, and it is minimized for a square particle arrangement. These discrete modeling results show for first time that even under strong anchoring, defects are attached to particles as corner defects, leaving behind a low energy homogeneous orientation field that favors nanoparticle ordering in nematic matrices. These new insights are consistent with recent thermodynamic approaches to nematic nanocomposites that predict the existence of novel nematic/crystal phases and can be used to design nanocomposites with orientational and positional order.

Paul M. Phillips; N. Mei; Ezequiel R. Soule; Linda Reven; Alejandro D. Rey

2013-11-21T23:59:59.000Z

200

SHASTA COUNTY The Shasta County Jail is a 115,035 square-foot facility located in Redding. Built in  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

SHASTA COUNTY The Shasta County Jail is a 115,035 square-foot facility located in Redding. Built in 1984, this facility has an 11-story jail wing attached to a two-story County administrative wing

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "kilometers square kilometers" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


201

Efficient Local Error Parameterizations for Square Root or Ensemble Kalman Filters: Application to a Basin-Scale Ocean Turbulent Flow  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

In large-sized atmospheric or oceanic applications of square root or ensemble Kalman filters, it is often necessary to introduce the prior assumption that long-range correlations are negligible and force them to zero using a local ...

Jean-Michel Brankart; Emmanuel Cosme; Charles-Emmanuel Testut; Pierre Brasseur; Jacques Verron

2011-02-01T23:59:59.000Z

202

A Square Prism Urban Canopy Scheme for the NHM and Its Evaluation on Summer Conditions in the Tokyo Metropolitan Area, Japan  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

A single-layered square prism urban canopy (SPUC) scheme for the Japan Meteorological Agency nonhydrostatic model (NHM) was developed. This scheme considers the urban canopy layer with square prism–shaped buildings. The basic concept of this ...

Toshinori Aoyagi; Naoko Seino

2011-07-01T23:59:59.000Z

203

2013 NETL CO2 Capture Technology Meeting Sheraton Station Square, Pittsburgh, PA  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

NETL CO2 Capture Technology Meeting NETL CO2 Capture Technology Meeting Sheraton Station Square, Pittsburgh, PA July 8 - 11, 2013 ION Novel Solvent System for CO 2 Capture FE0005799 Nathan Brown ION Engineering Presentation Outline 2  ION Advanced Solvent Background  Project Overview  Technology Fundamentals  Progress & Current Status  Plans for Future Commercialization  Acknowledgements ION Engineering Background 3 Mission Statement: Develop new solvents and processes for economic removal of CO 2 from industrial emissions. Markets:  Coal-fired flue gas  NGCC-fired flue gas  Sour gas processing 1 st & 2 nd Generation CO 2 Capture 4 Aqueous MEA Commercial Use Existing Commercial Technology Lateral Transfer of Existing Technology Aqueous MEA

204

Effective Occupied and Vacant Square Footage in Commercial Buildigs in 1992  

U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

Effective Occupied and Vacant Sq. Ft. Effective Occupied and Vacant Sq. Ft. Effective Occupied and Vacant Square Footage in Commercial Buildings in 1992 -- A Useful Benchmark of Commercial Floorspace Vacancy Rates -- Introduction One of the major approaches to analyzing energy use in end-use sectors is to relate energy use to measures of the extent of utilization of the sector, either in absolute terms or in terms relative to some maximum utilization level. For example, vehicle miles traveled is a measure of vehicle utilization in the transportation sector. The percent of maximum production capability at which an industry or an individual plant is operating is a measure of industrial capacity utilization in the industrial sector. For the commercial buildings sector, two concepts that measure how intensely a building is utilized seem to predominate: the number of hours the building is in operation and the amount of floorspace in the building that is occupied (or conversely, the amount that is vacant).

205

Tube vibration in industrial-size test heat exchanger (90/sup 0/ square layout)  

SciTech Connect

Tube vibrations in heat exchangers are being systematically investigated in a series of tests performed with an industrial-size test exchanger. Results from waterflow tests of eleven different tube bundles, in six- and eight-crosspass configurations on a 90/sup 0/ square layout with a pitch-to-diameter ratio of 1.25 are reported. The test cases include full tube bundles, no-tubes-in-window bundles, finned tube bundles, and proposed field and design fixes. The testing focused on identification of the lowest critical flowrate to initiate fluidelastic instability (large amplitude tube motion) and the location within the bundle of the tubes which first experience instability. The test results are tabulated to permit comparison with results obtained from previous tests with a 30/sup 0/ triangular layout tube bundle. Instability criteria are evaluated preliminarily. Pressure drop data are also generated and reported.

Halle, H.; Wambsganss, M.W.

1983-02-01T23:59:59.000Z

206

Multivariate analysis of remote LIBS spectra using partial least squares, principal component analysis, and related techniques  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Quantitative analysis with LIBS traditionally employs calibration curves that are complicated by the chemical matrix effects. These chemical matrix effects influence the LIBS plasma and the ratio of elemental composition to elemental emission line intensity. Consequently, LIBS calibration typically requires a priori knowledge of the unknown, in order for a series of calibration standards similar to the unknown to be employed. In this paper, three new Multivariate Analysis (MV A) techniques are employed to analyze the LIBS spectra of 18 disparate igneous and highly-metamorphosed rock samples. Partial Least Squares (PLS) analysis is used to generate a calibration model from which unknown samples can be analyzed. Principal Components Analysis (PCA) and Soft Independent Modeling of Class Analogy (SIMCA) are employed to generate a model and predict the rock type of the samples. These MV A techniques appear to exploit the matrix effects associated with the chemistries of these 18 samples.

Clegg, Samuel M [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Barefield, James E [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Wiens, Roger C [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Sklute, Elizabeth [MT HOLYOKE COLLEGE; Dyare, Melinda D [MT HOLYOKE COLLEGE

2008-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

207

Nonzero Mean Squared Momentum of Quarks in the Non-Perturbative QCD Vacuum  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

The non-local vacuum condensates of QCD describe the distributions of quarks and gluons in the non-perturbative QCD vacuum. Physically, this means that vacuum quarks and gluons have nonzero mean-squared momentum, called virtuality. In this paper we study the quark virtuality which is given by the ratio of the local quark-gluon mixed vacuum condensate to the quark local vacuum condensate. The two vacuum condensates are obtained by solving Dyson-Schwinger Equations of a fully dressed quark propagator with an effective gluon propagator. Using our calculated condensates, we obtain the virtuality of quarks in the QCD vacuum state. Our numerical predictions differ from the other theoretical model calculations such as QCD sum rules, Lattice QCD and instanton models.

Zhou, Li-Juan; Ma, Wei-xing

2009-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

208

Quantum anomalous Hall effect with cold atoms trapped in a square lattice  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

We propose an experimental scheme to realize the quantum anomalous Hall effect in an anisotropic square optical lattice which can be generated from available experimental setups of double-well lattices with minor modifications. A periodic gauge potential induced by atom-light interaction is introduced to give a Peierls phase for the nearest-neighbor site hopping. The quantized anomalous Hall conductivity is investigated by calculating the Chern number as well as the chiral gapless edge states of our system. Furthermore, we show in detail the feasability for its experimental detection through light Bragg scattering of the edge and bulk states with which one can determine the topological phase transition from usual insulating phase to quantum anomalous Hall phase.

Liu, Xiong-Jun; Liu, Xin; Wu, Congjun; Sinova, Jairo

2010-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

209

Least squares parameter estimation methods for material decomposition with energy discriminating detectors  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Purpose: Energy resolving detectors provide more than one spectral measurement in one image acquisition. The purpose of this study is to investigate, with simulation, the ability to decompose four materials using energy discriminating detectors and least squares minimization techniques. Methods: Three least squares parameter estimation decomposition techniques were investigated for four-material breast imaging tasks in the image domain. The first technique treats the voxel as if it consisted of fractions of all the materials. The second method assumes that a voxel primarily contains one material and divides the decomposition process into segmentation and quantification tasks. The third is similar to the second method but a calibration was used. The simulated computed tomography (CT) system consisted of an 80 kVp spectrum and a CdZnTe (CZT) detector that could resolve the x-ray spectrum into five energy bins. A postmortem breast specimen was imaged with flat panel CT to provide a model for the digital phantoms. Hydroxyapatite (HA) (50, 150, 250, 350, 450, and 550 mg/ml) and iodine (4, 12, 20, 28, 36, and 44 mg/ml) contrast elements were embedded into the glandular region of the phantoms. Calibration phantoms consisted of a 30/70 glandular-to-adipose tissue ratio with embedded HA (100, 200, 300, 400, and 500 mg/ml) and iodine (5, 15, 25, 35, and 45 mg/ml). The x-ray transport process was simulated where the Beer-Lambert law, Poisson process, and CZT absorption efficiency were applied. Qualitative and quantitative evaluations of the decomposition techniques were performed and compared. The effect of breast size was also investigated. Results: The first technique decomposed iodine adequately but failed for other materials. The second method separated the materials but was unable to quantify the materials. With the addition of a calibration, the third technique provided good separation and quantification of hydroxyapatite, iodine, glandular, and adipose tissues. Quantification with this technique was accurate with errors of 9.83% and 6.61% for HA and iodine, respectively. Calibration at one point (one breast size) showed increased errors as the mismatch in breast diameters between calibration and measurement increased. A four-point calibration successfully decomposed breast diameter spanning the entire range from 8 to 20 cm. For a 14 cm breast, errors were reduced from 5.44% to 1.75% and from 6.17% to 3.27% with the multipoint calibration for HA and iodine, respectively. Conclusions: The results of the simulation study showed that a CT system based on CZT detectors in conjunction with least squares minimization technique can be used to decompose four materials. The calibrated least squares parameter estimation decomposition technique performed the best, separating and accurately quantifying the concentrations of hydroxyapatite and iodine.

Le, Huy Q.; Molloi, Sabee [Department of Radiological Sciences, University of California, Irvine, California 92697 (United States)

2011-01-15T23:59:59.000Z

210

Least-squares variational principles and the finite element method: theory, formulations, and models for solid and fluid mechanics  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

We consider the application of least-squares variational principles and the finite element method to the numerical solution of boundary value problems arising in the fields of solidand fluidmechanics.For manyof these problems least-squares principles offer many theoretical and computational advantages in the implementation of the corresponding finite element model that are not present in the traditional weak form Galerkin finite element model.Most notably, the use of least-squares principles leads to a variational unconstrained minimization problem where stability conditions such as inf-sup conditions (typically arising in mixed methods using weak form Galerkin finite element formulations) never arise. In addition, the least-squares based finite elementmodelalways yields a discrete system ofequations witha symmetric positive definite coeffcientmatrix.These attributes, amongst manyothers highlightedand detailed in this work, allow the developmentofrobust andeffcient finite elementmodels for problems of practical importance. The research documented herein encompasses least-squares based formulations for incompressible and compressible viscous fluid flow, the bending of thin and thick plates, and for the analysis of shear-deformable shell structures.

Pontaza, Juan Pablo

2003-12-01T23:59:59.000Z

211

EIS-0391: Draft Environmental Impact Statement | Department of Energy  

Energy.gov (U.S. Department of Energy (DOE)) Indexed Site

Draft Environmental Impact Statement Draft Environmental Impact Statement EIS-0391: Draft Environmental Impact Statement Tank Closure and Waste Management for the Hanford Site, Richland, WA Abstract: The Hanford Site (Hanford), located in southeastern Washington State and situated along the Columbia River, is approximately 1,518 square kilometers (586 square miles) in size. Hanford's mission from the early 1940s to approximately 1989 included defense-related nuclear research, development, and weapons production activities. These activities created a wide variety of chemical and radioactive wastes. Hanford's mission now is focused on the cleanup of those wastes and ultimate closure of Hanford. To this end, several types of radioactive waste are being managed at Hanford: (1) high-level radioactive waste (HLW) as defined in DOE Manual

212

An aerial radiological survey of the Central Savannah River Site, Aiken, South Carolina  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

An aerial radiological survey was conducted over a 194-square- kilometer (75-square-mile) area encompassing the central portion of the Savannah River Site (SRS). The survey was flown during February 10--27, 1987. These radiological measurements were used as baseline data for the central area and for determining the extent of man-made radionuclide distribution. Previous SRS surveys included small portions of the area; the 1987 survey was covered during the site- wide survey conducted in 1979. Man-made radionuclides (including cobalt-60, cesium-137, protactinium-234m, and elevated levels of uranium-238 progeny) that were detected during the survey were typical of those produced by the reactor operations and material processing activities being conducted in the area. The natural terrestrial radiation levels were consistent with those measured during prior surveys of other SRS areas. 1 refs., 4 figs.

Feimster, E.L.

1991-09-01T23:59:59.000Z

213

Self-avoiding trails with nearest neighbour interactions on the square lattice  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Self-avoiding walks and self-avoiding trails, two models of a polymer coil in dilute solution, have been shown to be governed by the same universality class. On the other hand, self-avoiding walks interacting via nearest-neighbour contacts (ISAW) and self-avoiding trails interacting via multiply-visited sites (ISAT) are two models of the coil-globule, or collapse transition of a polymer in dilute solution. On the square lattice it has been established numerically that the collapse transition of each model lies in a different universality class. The models differ in two substantial ways. They differ in the types of subsets of random walk configurations utilised (site self-avoidance versus bond self-avoidance) and in the type of attractive interaction. It is therefore of some interest to consider self-avoiding trails interacting via nearest neighbour attraction (INNSAT) in order to ascertain the source for the difference in the collapse universality class. Using the flatPERM algorithm, we have performed computer simulations of this model. We present numerical evidence that the singularity in the free energy of INNSAT at the collapse transition has a similar exponent to that of the ISAW model rather than the ISAT model. This would indicate that the type of interaction used in ISAW and ISAT is the source of the difference in universality class.

A. Bedini; A. L. Owczarek; T. Prellberg

2012-10-26T23:59:59.000Z

214

THE MADISON SQUARE GARDEN DISPERSION STUDY (MSG05) METEOROLOGICAL DATA DESCRIPTION.  

SciTech Connect

MSG05 was a study of atmospheric transport and dispersion in the deep urban canyons of Midtown New York City, in the area of Madison Square Garden. This downtown area is considered to be a prime target for terrorist activities, and has one of the largest commuter populations in the world. Little is known about air flow and hazardous gas dispersion in such scenarios, since previous urban field experiments have focused on small to medium sized cities with much smaller street canyons. On March 10 and 14, 2005, a series of Perfluorocarbon Tracer (PFT) tracers were released and tracked with about 30 sampling stations at radial distances of about 0.2 and 0.4 km, with vertical profiles near a 250 m tall building (One Penn Plaza). Meteorological stations collected wind data in the MSG vicinity, at street level and rooftop level. MSG05 is expected to provide useful information on rapid vertical dispersion will assist in planning for more extensive studies. This data release is being made available to a restricted group of key scientists who have worked on the project. Part of the QA program involves feedback from scientists and modelers who are working on this study. This document describes the meteorological component of the project. The file organization and metadata are detailed so that a researcher can work with the data sets.

REYNOLDS, R.M.

2006-10-01T23:59:59.000Z

215

Control and Optimization of Vapor Compression Cycles Using Recursive Least Squares Estimation  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Vapor compression cycles are the primary method by which refrigeration and air-conditioning systems operate, and thus constitute a significant portion of commercial and residential building energy consumption. This thesis presents a data-driven approach to find the optimal operating conditions of a multi-evaporator system in order to minimize the energy consumption while meeting operational requirements such as constant cooling or constant evaporator outlet temperature. The experimental system used for controller evaluation is a custom built small-scale water chiller with three evaporators; each evaporator services a separate body of water, referred to as a cooling zone. The three evaporators are connected to a single condenser and variable speed compressor, and feature variable water flow and electronic expansion valves. The control problem lies in development of a control architecture that will minimize the energy consumed by the system without prior information about the system in the form of performance maps, or complex mathematical models. The control architecture explored in this thesis relies on the data collected by sensors alone to formulate a function for the power consumption of the system in terms of controlled variables, namely, condenser and evaporator pressures, using recursive least squares estimation. This cost function is then minimized to attain optimal set points for the pressures which are fed to local controllers.

Rani, Avinash

2012-08-01T23:59:59.000Z

216

Engine ignition signal diagnosis with Wavelet Packet Transform and Multi-class Least Squares Support Vector Machines  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Engine ignition pattern analysis is one of the trouble-diagnosis methods for automotive gasoline engines. Based on the waveform of the ignition pattern, the mechanic guesses what may be the potential malfunctioning parts of an engine with his/her experience ... Keywords: Automotive engine ignition pattern diagnosis, Multi-class Least Squares Support Vector Machines, Pattern classification, Wavelet Packet Transform

C. M. Vong; P. K. Wong

2011-07-01T23:59:59.000Z

217

Weighted average least squares estimation with nonspherical disturbances and an application to the Hong Kong housing market  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

The recently proposed 'weighted average least squares' (WALS) estimator is a Bayesian combination of frequentist estimators. It has been shown that the WALS estimator possesses major advantages over standard Bayesian model averaging (BMA) estimators: ... Keywords: Bayesian analysis, Housing demand, Model averaging, Monte Carlo

Jan R. Magnus; Alan T. K. Wan; Xinyu Zhang

2011-03-01T23:59:59.000Z

218

Effect of location and orientation of two short dents on ultimate compressive strength of a thin square steel plate  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Thin plates are subject to several imperfections (including dents) which reduce the ultimate strength of plates. In this work, nearness effect of two short dents of same size on the ultimate strength of a thin square steel plate is numerically investigated. ...

A. V. Raviprakash; B. Prabu; N. Alagumurthi

2012-10-01T23:59:59.000Z

219

A Comparison of Hybrid Ensemble Transform Kalman Filter–Optimum Interpolation and Ensemble Square Root Filter Analysis Schemes  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

A hybrid ensemble transform Kalman filter (ETKF)–optimum interpolation (OI) analysis scheme is described and compared with an ensemble square root filter (EnSRF) analysis scheme. A two-layer primitive equation model was used under perfect-model ...

Xuguang Wang; Thomas M. Hamill; Jeffrey S. Whitaker; Craig H. Bishop

2007-03-01T23:59:59.000Z

220

Melt index prediction using optimized least squares support vector machines based on hybrid particle swarm optimization algorithm  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Melt index (MI) is considered as one of the most important variables of the quality, which determines the product specifications. Thus, a reliable estimation of MI is crucial in the quality control of the practical processes in the propylene polymerization ... Keywords: Ant colony optimization, Immune clone particle swarm optimization, Industrial polypropylene manufacture, Least squares support vector machines, Melt index prediction

Huaqin Jiang, Zhengbing Yan, Xinggao Liu

2013-11-01T23:59:59.000Z

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "kilometers square kilometers" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


221

Least Squares Fitting of Low-Level Gamma-ray Spectra with B-Spline Basis Functions  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

In this paper, new methods for smoothing gamma-ray spectra measured by NaI detector are derived. Least squares fitting method with B-spline basis functions is used to reduce the influence of statistical fluctuations. The derived procedures are simple and automatic. The results show that this method is better than traditional method with a more complete reduction of staistical fluctuation.

Zhu, M H; You, Z; Xu, A A

2007-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

222

Generalized Coupling Parameter Expansion: Application to Square-Well and Lennard Jones Fluids  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

The coupling parameter expansion in thermodynamic perturbation theory of simple fluids is generalized to include the derivatives of bridge function. We applied seventh order version of the theory to Square-Well (SW) and Lennard-Jones (LJ) fluids using Sarkisov Bridge function. In both cases, the theory reproduced the radial distribution functions obtained from integral equation theory (IET) and simulations with good accuracy. Also, the method worked inside the liquid-vapor coexistence region where the IETs are known to fail. In the case of SW fluids, the use of Carnahan-Starling expression for free energy density of Hard-Sphere reference system has improved the liquid-vapor phase diagram (LVPD) over that obtained from IET. We also obtained the surface tension of SW fluids of various ranges. Results of present theory and simulations are in good agreement. In the case of LJ fluids, the equation of state obtained from the present method matched with that obtained from IET with negligible deviation. We also obtained LVPD of LJ fluid from virial and energy routes and found that there is slight inconsistency between the two routes. The applications lead to the following conclusions. In cases where reference system properties are known accurately, the present method gives results which are very much improved over those obtained from the IET with the same bridge function. In cases where reference system data is not available, the method serves as an alternative way of solving the Ornstein-Zernike equation with a given closure relation with the advantage that solution can be obtained throughout the phase diagram with a proper choice of the reference system.

A. Sai Venkata Ramana

2013-03-14T23:59:59.000Z

223

ALASKA WILDERNESS LEAGUE—AUDUBON ALASKA—CENTER FOR BIOLOGICAL DIVERSITY—EARTHJUSTICE—NATURAL RESOURCES DEFENSE COUNCIL—NORTHERN ALASKA ENVIRONMENTAL CENTER—OCEAN CONSERVATION RESEARCH—PACIFIC ENVIRONMENT—SIERRA CLUB— WORLD WILDLIFE FUND  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Dear Mr. Payne: The undersigned groups submit the following comments on the National Marine Fisheries Service’s (“NMFS”) August 17, 2012, issuance of a proposed incidental harassment authorization (“IHA”) pursuant to the Marine Mammal Protection Act (“MMPA”). 1 NMFS proposes to allow the incidental take by Level B harassment of nine marine mammal species and by Level A harassment of three marine mammal species resulting from ION Geophysical’s (“ION’s”) seismic survey activities in the Beaufort and Chukchi seas that are scheduled to begin in October 2012. NMFS should deny ION’s application. ION’s proposal is remarkable for both its scope and timing. ION intends to use a survey vessel equipped with a 26-gun array with a total volume of 4,450 cubic inches. Not only is this an incredibly powerful array, but the surveying will take place across a large portion of the Alaskan Beaufort and Chukchi seas, with transect lines of approximately 7,175 kilometers (4,458 miles). The total area of water exposed to sounds greater than or equal to 160 dB will be 209,752 square kilometers. ION will survey for 76 days, beginning in October and lasting into

Via Email; Michael Payne Chief

2012-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

224

Examination of Analysis and Forecast Errors of High-Resolution Assimilation, Bias Removal, and Digital Filter Initialization with an Ensemble Kalman Filter  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Mesoscale atmospheric data assimilation is becoming an integral part of numerical weather prediction. Modern computational resources now allow assimilation and subsequent forecasting experiments ranging from resolutions of tens of kilometers over ...

Brian C. Ancell

2012-12-01T23:59:59.000Z

225

Predictability Characteristics of Landfalling Cyclones along the North American West Coast  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

The predictability of North Pacific cyclones can vary widely, from highly accurate prediction of storm intensity and location to forecast position errors of hundreds of kilometers and central pressure errors of tens of hectopascals. In this study, ...

Lynn A. McMurdie; Brian Ancell

2014-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

226

Microsoft Word - 20050821_Appendix_A.doc  

U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

0. U.S. Number of Vehicles, Vehicle-Kilometers, Motor Fuel Consumption and Expenditures, 0. U.S. Number of Vehicles, Vehicle-Kilometers, Motor Fuel Consumption and Expenditures, 2001 ENERGY INFORMATION ADMINISTRATION / HOUSEHOLD VEHICLES ENERGY USE: LATEST A N D TRENDS 120 Average per Vehicle 2001 Household and Vehicle Characteristics Number of Vehicles (million) Vehicle-Kilometers Traveled (hundreds) Consumption (liters) Expenditures (dollars) Liters per 100 Kilometers Household Characteristics Total.............................. 191.0 192.7 2,240 787 11.6 Census Region and Division Northeast......................... 31.7 191.7 2,162 766 11.3 New England...................... 10.0 197.8 2,218 810 11.2 Middle Atlantic ................. 21.8 188.9 2,137 746 11.3 Midwest .......................... 47.1 191.0 2,226 793 11.7

227

China energy, environment, and climate study: Background issues paper  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

and Wuji. The length of the pipelines total 4000 kilometerspipeline would total 6870 kilometers in length and requirepipeline would begin in Turkmenistan or Uzbekistan and end at Lianyungang in northeastern Jiangsu province. The length

Sinton, Jonathan E.; Fridley, David G.; Logan, Jeffrey; Guo, Yuan; Wang, Bangcheng; Xu, Qing

2000-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

228

Observations of Lightning in Convective Supercells within Tropical Storms and Hurricanes  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Cloud-to-ground (CG) lightning observations from land-based lightning detection networks now allow monitoring this component of the electrical structure of tropical storms and hurricanes within a few hundred kilometers of the United States ...

Walter A. Lyons; Cecil S. Keen

1994-08-01T23:59:59.000Z

229

Tunable micro-cavities in photonic band-gap yarns and optical fibers  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

The vision behind this work is the fabrication of high performance innovative fiber-based optical components over kilometer length-scales. The optical properties of these fibers derive from their multilayer dielectric ...

Benoit, Gilles, Ph. D. Massachusetts Institute of Technology

2006-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

230

Major Numerical Forecast Failures over the Northeast Pacific  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Strong North Pacific storms that impact the North American west coast are sometimes poorly predicted in the short term (up to 48 h) by operational models, with cyclone position errors of hundreds of kilometers and central pressure errors of tens ...

Lynn McMurdie; Clifford Mass

2004-04-01T23:59:59.000Z

231

An Operational System for the Remote Location of Lightning Flashes Using a VLF Arrival Time Difference Technique  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

An operational system for the remote location of lightning flashes at ranges of thousands of kilometers is presented. The vertical electric fields of VLF radio atmospherics (sferics), together with time data, are observed at a network of just ...

Anthony C. L. Lee

1986-12-01T23:59:59.000Z

232

Atmospherically Forced Eddies in the Northeast Pacific  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

In the northeast Pacific eddies are observed in the salinity and, to a lesser extent, in the thermal anomalies. In particular, a pronounced eddy is frequently observed a few hundred kilometers west of Sitka, Alaska, latitude 57°N. This paper ...

A. J. Willmott; L. A. Mysak

1980-11-01T23:59:59.000Z

233

Eos, Vol. 87, No. 26, 27 June 2006 The production of heat by radioactive  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

the Earth along with heat by the decay of radioactive isotopes of uranium, thorium, and potassium. Neutrinos interaction rate.The KamLAND detector, located in a kilometer-deep zinc mine on the Japanese island of Honshu

Stein, Seth

234

A Basinwide Estimate of Vertical Mixing in the Upper Pycnocline: Spreading of Bomb Tritium in the North Pacific Ocean  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

The vertical diffusivity KV in the upper half-kilometer of the North Pacific subtropical pycnocline is estimated from observations of the spreading rate of anthropogenic tritium. The calculation is based on approximately 300 ocean tritium ...

Dan E. Kelley; Kim A. Van Scoy

1999-08-01T23:59:59.000Z

235

The Atmospheric Mesoscale Dispersion Modeling System  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

The mesoscale dispersion modeling system (MDMS) described herein is under development as a simulation tool to investigate atmospheric flow and pollution dispersion over complex terrain for domains up to several hundred kilometers. The system ...

Marek Uliasz

1993-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

236

GNSS Precipitable Water Vapor from an Amazonian Rain Forest Flux Tower  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Understanding the complex interactions between water vapor fields and deep convection on the mesoscale requires observational networks with high spatial (kilometers) and temporal (minutes) resolution. In the equatorial tropics, where deep ...

David K. Adams; Rui M. S. Fernandes; Jair M. F. Maia

2011-10-01T23:59:59.000Z

237

Microsoft Word - DC4D135.doc  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

which is about 0.4 mile (0.6 kilometer) above the Mt. Simon formation. The St. Peter sandstone is estimated to be over 200 feet (61 meters) thick with state-wide lateral...

238

Novel approaches to Newtonian noise suppression in interferometric gravitational wave detection  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

The Laser Interferometer Gravitational-wave Observatory (LIGO) attempts to detect ripples in the curvature of spacetime using two large scale interferometers. These detectors are several kilometer long Michelson interferometers ...

Hunter-Jones, Nicholas R

2011-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

239

Observations of Boundary Mixing over the Continental Slope  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Observations of mixing over the continental slope using a towed body reveal a great lateral extent (several kilometers) of continuously turbulent fluid within a few hundred meters of the boundary at depth 1600 m. The largest turbulent dissipation ...

J. N. Moum; D. R. Caldwell; J. D. Nash; G. D. Gunderson

2002-07-01T23:59:59.000Z

240

First Observations of Microbaroms with Single Absolute Barometers  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

The first observations of microbaroms with single absolute barometers are presented and discussed. Microbaroms are pulses of atmospheric infrasound emitted by ocean surface waves. They can propagate over thousands of kilometers through the ...

Ganesh K. Subramanian; Andreas Muschinski

2011-07-01T23:59:59.000Z

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "kilometers square kilometers" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


241

FACT SHEET U.S. Department of Energy  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

altitude: 25,000 feet (7.5 kilometers) * Maximum gross weight: 36,000 pounds (16,330 kilograms) * Endurance with typical payload fuel: 4 hours * Crew capacity: 2 pilots, 1-4...

242

Why Sequence Lake Vostok accretion ice?  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

Sequence Lake Vostok accretion ice? Lake Vostok is the largest known subglacial lake in central Antarctica, though it's been buried under 4 kilometers (nearly 2.5 miles) of ice for...

243

Cloud Properties Simulated by a Single-Column Model. Part II: Evaluation of Cumulus Detrainment and Ice-Phase Microphysics Using a Cloud-Resolving Model  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

This paper is the second in a series in which kilometer-scale-resolving observations from the Atmospheric Radiation Measurement Program and output from the University of California, Los Angeles/Colorado State University cloud-resolving model (CRM)...

Yali Luo; Steven K. Krueger; Kuan-Man Xu

2006-11-01T23:59:59.000Z

244

Bias Elimination and Scatter in Lightning Location by the VLF Arrival Time Difference Technique  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

In the very low frequency (VLF) band lightning flashes are detectable at ranges of several thousand kilometers. Studies of experimental data show that if systematic biases were eliminated from the U.K. Meteorological Office's VLF arrival time ...

Anthony C. L. Lee

1990-10-01T23:59:59.000Z

245

Observations of Convection Initiation “Failure” from the 12 June 2002 IHOP Deployment  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Observations of the development of cumulus convection, which reached depths of several kilometers but failed to develop into sustained, precipitating, cumulonimbus clouds—an event the authors term “convection initiation failure”—are presented ...

Paul Markowski; Christina Hannon; Erik Rasmussen

2006-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

246

Measurement of the cosmic ray and neutrino-induced muon flux at the Sudbury neutrino observatory  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Results are reported on the measurement of the atmospheric neutrino-induced muon flux at a depth of 2 kilometers below the Earth’s surface from 1229 days of operation of the Sudbury Neutrino Observatory (SNO). By measuring ...

Formaggio, Joseph A.

247

Open Issues in the search for gravitational wave transients  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

The LIGO-Virgo network of kilometer-scale laser interferometric gravitational-wave detectors reached a major milestone with the successful operation of LIGO's fifth (S5) and Virgo's first (VSR1) science runs during 2005-2007. ...

Blackburn, Lindy L

2010-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

248

Circulations between Mesoscale Convective Systems along a Cold Front  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

A frontal squall line that passed over the central United States on 14–15 June 1985 consisted of several primary mesoscale convective systems (MCSs) with a prominent gap (several hundred kilometers wide) between two of them over central Kansas ...

Richard H. Johnson; Barbara D. Miner; Paul E. Ciesielski

1995-03-01T23:59:59.000Z

249

Internal Wave Interactions with Equatorial Deep Jets. Part II: Acceleration of the Jets  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

What drives the equatorial deep jets is a puzzle because of their isolation from surface forcing by the intervening main pycnocline and the Equatorial Undercurrent, and from lateral boundaries by distances of tens of thousands of kilometers. It ...

Joanna E. Muench; Eric Kunze

2000-08-01T23:59:59.000Z

250

An Improved Mapping Method of Multisatellite Altimeter Data  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Objective analysis of altimetric data (sea level anomaly) usually assumes that measurement errors are well represented by a white noise, though there are long-wavelength errors that are correlated over thousands of kilometers along the satellite ...

P. Y. Le Traon; F. Nadal; N. Ducet

1998-04-01T23:59:59.000Z

251

Measurements of Lagrangian Atmospheric Dispersion Statistics over Open Water  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Atmospheric dispersion statistics in the Lagrangian frame have been evaluated over open water by using a double-theodolite system to track neutrally buoyant balloons released a few kilometers off-shore during onshore winds. Analysis of the ...

C. M. Sheih; P. Frenzen; R. L. Hart

1980-05-01T23:59:59.000Z

252

An Explanation for Intense Frontal Updrafts and Narrow Cold-Frontal Rainbands  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Measurements with Doppler radar, and instrumented aircraft and towers, have revealed that surface cold fronts often have cross-frontal circulations organized on a scale of a kilometer or less. These circulations include intense updrafts (1 to 20 ...

David B. Parsons

1992-10-01T23:59:59.000Z

253

Height Correction of Atmospheric Motion Vectors Using Airborne Lidar Observations  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Uncertainties in the height assignment of atmospheric motion vectors (AMVs) are the main contributor to the total AMV wind error, and these uncertainties introduce errors that can be horizontally correlated over several hundred kilometers. As a ...

Martin Weissmann; Kathrin Folger; Heiner Lange

2013-08-01T23:59:59.000Z

254

Approximate -state Solutions to the Dirac Mobius Square-Yukawa and Mobius Square-quasi Yukawa Problems under Pseudospin and Spin Symmetry limits with Coulomb-like Tensor Interaction  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

In this paper, we present the Dirac equation for the Mobius-square-Yukawa potentials including the tensor interaction term within the framework of pseudospin and spin symmetry limit with arbitrary spin-orbit quantum number . We obtained the energy eigenvalues and the corresponding wave functions using the supersymmetry method. The limiting cases of this potential model reduce to the Deng-Fan, Yukawa and Coulomb potentials, respectively

Akpan N. Ikot; E. Maghsoodi; Akaninyene D. Antia; S. Zarrinkamar; H. Hassanabadi

2012-10-30T23:59:59.000Z

255

Domain and Stripe Formation Between Hexagonal and Square Ordered Fillings of Colloidal Particles on Periodic Pinning Substrates  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Using large scale numerical simulations, we examine the ordering of colloidal particles on square periodic two-dimensional muffin-tin substrates consisting of a flat surface with localized pinning sites. We show that when there are four particles per pinning site, the particles adopt a hexagonal ordering, while for five particles per pinning site, a square ordering appears. For fillings between four and five particles per pinning site, we identify a rich variety of distinct ordering regimes, including disordered grain boundaries, crystalline stripe structures, superlattice orderings, and disordered patchy arrangements. We characterize the different regimes using Voronoi analysis, energy dispersion, and ordering of the domains. We show that many of the boundary formation features we observe occur for a wide range of other fillings. Our results demonstrate that grain boundary tailoring can be achieved with muffin-tin periodic pinning substrates.

D. McDermott; J. Amelang; L. M. Lopatina; C. J. Olson Reichhardt; C. Reichhardt

2012-11-16T23:59:59.000Z

256

Full length article: Multiresolution wavelet denoising for ultra-wideband time-of-arrival estimation with regularized least squares  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Improving accuracy in wireless localization and ranging is a challenging task which often demands an increase in the signal-to-noise ratio (SNR). Impulsive ultra-wideband (UWB) technology is a promising signaling alternative that is capable of high-resolution ... Keywords: Channel estimation, Discrete wavelet transform (DWT), Impulse radio (IR), Ranging, Regularized least squares (RLS), Time-of-arrival (ToA) estimation, Ultra-wideband (UWB), Wavelet denoising (WD)

Ted C. -K. Liu; Xiaodai Dong; Wu-Sheng Lu

2009-12-01T23:59:59.000Z

257

A hybrid model of self-organizing maps (SOM) and least square support vector machine (LSSVM) for time-series forecasting  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Support vector machine is a new tool from Artificial Intelligence (AI) field has been successfully applied for a wide variety of problem especially in time-series forecasting. In this paper, least square support vector machine (LSSVM) is an improved ... Keywords: Forecasting, Least square support vector machine, Self-organizing maps, Time series

Shuhaida Ismail; Ani Shabri; Ruhaidah Samsudin

2011-08-01T23:59:59.000Z

258

Transfer coefficients for the Gibbs surface in a two-phase mixture in the non-equilibrium square gradient model  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

In this paper we calculate the transfer coefficients for evaporation and condensation of mixtures. We use the continuous profiles of various thermodynamic quantities through the interface, obtained in our previous works using the square gradient model. Furthermore we introduce the Gibbs surface and obtain the excess entropy production for a surface. Following the traditional non-equilibrium thermodynamic approach we introduce the surface transfer coefficients which we are able to determine from the continuous solution. The knowledge of these coefficients is important for many industrial applications which involve transport through a surface, such as for instance distillation. In our approach the values of the local resistivities in the liquid and the vapor phases are chosen on the basis of experimental values. In the interfacial region there are small peaks in these resistivities. Three amplitudes control the magnitude of these peaks. Possible values of these amplitudes are found by matching the diagonal transfer coefficients to values predicted by kinetic theory. Using these amplitudes we find that the value of the cross resistivities is 1-2 orders of magnitude higher then the one from kinetic theory. The results of both kinetic theory and molecular dynamics simulations support the existence of small peaks in the local resistivities in the interfacial region. The square gradient approach gives an independent way to determine the transfer coefficients for surfaces. The results indicate that kinetic theory underestimates the interfacial transfer coefficients in real fluids.

K. S. Glavatskiy; D. Bedeaux

2009-07-11T23:59:59.000Z

259

Lipid Analysis and Lipidomics: New Techniques & ApplicationChapter 15 Infrared Spectroscopy and Partial Least Square Calibration in Simultaneous Quantification of Isolated trans & CLA  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Lipid Analysis and Lipidomics: New Techniques & Application Chapter 15 Infrared Spectroscopy and Partial Least Square Calibration in Simultaneous Quantification of Isolated trans & CLA Methods and Analyses eChapters Methods - Analyses Book

260

Lawn chairs in Times Square : an analysis of the Pilot Streets Program and the provisional project approach for New York City's Green Light in Midtown project  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

In 2009 the New York City Department of Transportation (NYC DOT) initiated a Pilot Streets Program that called for the temporary closure of Broadway between 47th and 42nd Streets to all vehicular traffic. With Times Square ...

Taylor, Alexis (Alexis Abreu)

2011-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "kilometers square kilometers" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


261

A Hybrid MPI–OpenMP Parallel Algorithm and Performance Analysis for an Ensemble Square Root Filter Designed for Multiscale Observations  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

A hybrid parallel scheme for the ensemble square root filter (EnSRF) suitable for parallel assimilation of multiscale observations, including those from dense observational networks such as those of radar, is developed based on the domain ...

Yunheng Wang; Youngsun Jung; Timothy A. Supinie; Ming Xue

2013-07-01T23:59:59.000Z

262

Hanford 1999 Tier 2 Emergency and Hazardous Chemical Inventory Emergency Planning and Community Right to Know Act Section 312  

SciTech Connect

The Hanford Site covers approximately 1,450 square kilometers (560 square miles) of land that is owned by the U.S. Government and managed by the U.S. Department of Energy, Richland Operations Office (DOE-RL). The Hanford Site is located northwest of the city of Richland, Washington. The city of Richland adjoins the southeastern portion of the Hanford Site boundary and is the nearest population center. Activities on the Hanford Site are centralized in numerically designated areas. The 100 Areas, located along the Columbia River, contain deactivated reactors. The processing units are in the 200 Areas, which are on a plateau approximately 11 kilometers (7 miles) from the Columbia River. The 300 Area, located adjacent to and north of Richland, contains research and development laboratories. The 400 Area, 8 kilometers (5 miles) northwest of the 300 Area, contains the Fast Flux Test Facility previously used for testing liquid metal reactor systems. Adjacent to the north of Richland, the 1100 Area contains offices associated with administration, maintenance, transportation, and materials procurement and distribution. The 600 Area covers all locations not specifically given an area designation. This Tier Two Emergency and Hazardous Chemical Inventory report contains information pertaining to hazardous chemicals managed by DOE-RL and its contractors on the Hanford Site. It does not include chemicals maintained in support of activities conducted by others on lands covered by leases, use permits, easements, and other agreements whereby land is used by parties other than DOE-RL. For example, this report does not include chemicals stored on state owned or leased lands (including the burial ground operated by US Ecology, Inc.), lands owned or used by the Bonneville Power Administration (including the Midway Substation and the Ashe Substation), lands used by the National Science Foundation (the Laser Interferometer Gravitational-Wave Observatory), lands leased to the Washington Public Power Supply System, Johnson Controls, Inc. (boilers operated for steam production), and R. H. Smith Company (gas stations), or similarly leased lands not under the management of DOE-RL.

ZALOUDEK, D.E.

2000-03-01T23:59:59.000Z

263

1998 Tier two emergency and hazardous chemical inventory - emergency planning and community right-to-know act section 312  

SciTech Connect

The Hanford Site covers approximately 1,450 square kilometers (560 square miles) of land that is owned by the U.S, Government and managed by the U.S. Department of Energy, Richland Operations Office (DOE-RL). The Hanford Site is located northwest of the city of Richland, Washington. The city of Richland adjoins the southeastern portion of the Hanford Site boundary and is the nearest population center. Activities on the Hanford Site are centralized in numerically designated areas. The 100 Areas, located along the Columbia River, contain deactivated reactors. The processing units are in the 200 Areas, which are on a plateau approximately 11 kilometers (7 miles) from the Columbia River. The 300 Area, located adjacent to and north of Richland, contains research and development laboratories. The 400 Area, 8 kilometers (5 miles) northwest of the 300 Area, contains the Fast Flux Test Facility previously used for testing liquid metal reactor systems. Adjacent to the north of Richland, the 1100 Area contains offices associated with administration, maintenance, transportation, and materials procurement and distribution. The 600 Area covers all locations not specifically given an area designation. This Tier Two Emergency and Hazardous Chemical Inventory report contains information pertaining to hazardous chemicals managed by DOE-RL and its contractors on the Hanford Site. It does not include chemicals maintained in support of activities conducted by others on lands covered by leases, use permits, easements, and other agreements whereby land is used by parties other than DOE-RL. For example, this report does not include chemicals stored on state owned or leased lands (including the burial ground operated by US Ecology, Inc.), lands owned or used by the Bonneville Power Administration (including the Midway Substation and the Ashe Substation), lands used by the National Science Foundation (the Laser Interferometer Gravitational-Wave Observatory), lands leased to the Washington Public Power Supply System, Johnson Controls, Inc. (boilers operated for steam production), and R. H. Smith Company (gas stations), or similarly leased lands not under the management of DOE-RL.

ZALOUDEK, D.E.

1999-03-02T23:59:59.000Z

264

Transportation Energy Futures (TEF) Data and Sources  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

search search keywordsclear search show bibliography show instructions ^(sprawl|density|population density|census|ppsm|metro area|single-family|weighted density|population center|populations?|mix|american housing survey|schools?|population-serving|density gradient|metropolitan|msas?|psas?|urban|blocks?)$ ^(co2|emissions?|rates?|transient|smooth|driving|gallons per mile|g/mile|average speed|speeds?|moves|miles per gallon|mpg)$ ^(vmt|vehicle miles traveled|census tract|census|ppsm|persons per square mile|density|dwelling units?|units?|2005|2035|cambridge|residential land)$ ^(vkt|vehicle-kilometers|per capita|africa|latin america|asia|canada|oceania|europe|middle east|u.s.|united states|los angeles|san francisco|australia|johannesburg|seoul|taipei|density|persons per hectare)$

265

UK Windspeed Reference/Archival Database | OpenEI  

Open Energy Info (EERE)

Windspeed Reference/Archival Database Windspeed Reference/Archival Database Dataset Summary Description The windspeed database provides estimates of mean annual wind speed throughout the UK, averaged over a 1-kilometer square area, at each of the following three heights above ground level (agl): 10 meters, 25 meters, and 45 meters. The windspeed database is available through the UK Department of Energy and Climate Change (DECC) website, and is provided for archive purposes only. The database is comprised of historic information, including results derived from mathematical models, so it should not be considered to be measured data, or up to date or accurate. The database was originally developed by the UK Department of Trade and Industry (DTI) at some point before 2001. The data used to develop the database dates from the period approximately between the mid-1970s to the mid-1980s. Results derived from the UK windspeed database should be treated as approximate and high-level.

266

Ground Gravity Survey At Lightning Dock Area (Cunniff & Bowers, 2005) |  

Open Energy Info (EERE)

Ground Gravity Survey At Lightning Dock Area (Cunniff Ground Gravity Survey At Lightning Dock Area (Cunniff & Bowers, 2005) Exploration Activity Details Location Lightning Dock Area Exploration Technique Ground Gravity Survey Activity Date Usefulness useful DOE-funding Unknown Notes Two separate gravity surveys were conducted by LDG as part of this GRED Cooperative Agreement. The first survey was conducted in April 2001 and consisted of 77 stations in the north half of Section 7 and south half of Section 6, both sections being in Township 25 South, Range 19 West. A second and much larger survey was conducted in October 2001. This survey consisted of 227 new stations in nine linear traverses that covered more than one hundred (100) square kilometers centered on the known resource area in Section 7 (figure 3).

267

Characterization Of Geothermal Resources Using New Geophysical Technology |  

Open Energy Info (EERE)

Using New Geophysical Technology Using New Geophysical Technology Jump to: navigation, search GEOTHERMAL ENERGYGeothermal Home Conference Paper: Characterization Of Geothermal Resources Using New Geophysical Technology Details Activities (2) Areas (2) Regions (0) Abstract: This paper presents a geothermal case history using a relatively new but proven technology that can accurately map groundwater at significant depths (up to 1,000 meters) over large areas (square kilometers) in short periods of time (weeks). Understanding the location and extent of groundwater resources is very important to the geothermal industry for obvious reasons. It is crucial to have a cost-effective method of understanding where concentrations of geothermal water are located as well as the preferential flow paths of the water in the subsurface. Such

268

ARM - Publications: Science Team Meeting Documents  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

GPS Measured Water Vapor Variability at the ARM SGP CF GPS Measured Water Vapor Variability at the ARM SGP CF Braun, J. (a), Rocken, C. (a), and Schmid, B. (b), UCAR (a), BAER (b) Eleventh Atmospheric Radiation Measurement (ARM) Science Team Meeting Ground based Global Positioning System (GPS) stations can measure precipitable water vapor (PWV) and slant water vapor (SWV). SWV is the integrated amount of water vapor along the slant path from the GPS transmitter to the station. The ARM program has sponsored the University Corporation for Atmospheric Research (UCAR) to install and operate a network of single frequency GPS receivers at the Southern Great Plains (SGP) Central Facility (CF). Fourteen stations were installed in 1999, and an additional nine stations in 2000. The entire network covers approximately 40 square kilometers roughly centered around the SGP CF. This

269

Wind Resources in Alaska | OpenEI  

Open Energy Info (EERE)

Resources in Alaska Resources in Alaska Dataset Summary Description Wind resource data for Alaska and southeast Alaska, both high resolution wind resource maps and gridded wind parameters. The two high resolution wind maps are comprised of a grid of cells each containing a single value of average wind speed (m/s) at a hub height of 30, 50, 70, and 100 meters and wind power density (W/m^2) at a hub height of 50 meters for a 40,000 square meter area. The additional gridded wind parameter data includes data for points spaced 2 kilometers apart, and include: predicted wind speed frequency distribution as well as speed and energy in 16 directions (the information needed to produce a wind rose image at a given point). Data included here as .kml files (for viewing in Google Earth). GIS shape files available for the gridded wind parameters datasets from AEDI (http://akenergyinventory.org/data.shtml).

270

Hydrothermal Alteration Mineral Mapping Using Hyperspectral Imagery in Dixie Valley, Nevada  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

Hyperspectral (HyMap) data was used to map the location of outcrops of high temperature, hydrothermally alterated minerals (including alunite, pyrophyllite, and hematite) along a 15 km swath of the eastern front of the Stillwater Mountain Range in Dixie Valley, Nevada. Analysis of this data set reveals that several outcrops of these altered minerals exist in the area, and that one outcrop, roughly 1 square kilometer in area, shows abundant high temperature alteration. Structural analysis of the altered region using a Digital Elevation Model (DEM) suggests that this outcrop is bounded on all sides by a set of cross-cutting faults. This fault set lies within the Dixie Valley Fault system (Caskey et al. 1996). Both the intense alteration in this area and the presence of cross-cutting faults indicate a high probability of recent hot fluid escape.

Kennedy-Bowdoin, T; Martini, B A; Silver, E A; Pickles, W L

2004-04-02T23:59:59.000Z

271

barker-99.PDF  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

Overlapping Cloud: What Radars Give Overlapping Cloud: What Radars Give and What Models Require H. W. Barker Atmospheric Environment Service Ontario, Canada E. E. Clothiaux, T. P. Ackerman, and R. T. Marchand The Pennsylvania State University University Park, Pennsylvania Z. Li Canada Centre for Remote Sensing Ottawa, Ontario, Canada Q. Fu Dalhousie University Halifx, Nova Scotia, Canada Introduction Large-scale models (LSMs) of earth's atmosphere parameterize clouds and radiative transfer for domains measuring thousands of square kilometers. For domains this large, assumptions regarding vertical structure of non-overcast clouds are crucial for radiation budgets. Uni-directional cloud- profiling radars (CPRs) can yield information about the vertical structure of clouds but regardless of whether they are at the surface or on a satellite, they sample clouds very differently than how they are

272

Fermilab | Science at Fermilab | Experiments & Projects | Cosmic Frontier |  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

Pierre Auger Pierre Auger Pierre Auger Observatory at night Pierre Auger Observatory at night On the pampas of western Argentina, the Pierre Auger cosmic-ray observatory studies the effects of collisions of high-energy particles with Earth's atmosphere over an area of 3,000 square kilometers. When fast-moving particles strike air molecules in the Earth's atmosphere, debris flies from the collision in what is called an air shower. Fragments hit other air molecules in a cascade that continues until the energy of the original particle is spread among millions or even billions of particles raining down on Earth. By studying these air showers, physicists can investigate the source of the original particles. The rate at which particles with energies above 1019 electron volts fall

273

Great Britain | OpenEI  

Open Energy Info (EERE)

Britain Britain Dataset Summary Description The windspeed database provides estimates of mean annual wind speed throughout the UK, averaged over a 1-kilometer square area, at each of the following three heights above ground level (agl): 10 meters, 25 meters, and 45 meters. The windspeed database is available through the UK Department of Energy and Climate Change (DECC) website, and is provided for archive purposes only. The database is comprised of historic information, including results derived from mathematical models, so it should not be considered to be measured data, or up to date or accurate. Source UK Department of Energy and Climate Change (DECC) Date Released December 31st, 2000 (13 years ago) Date Updated Unknown Keywords archive Great Britain Northern Ireland

274

LiDAR At Chocolate Mountains Area (Alm, Et Al., 2010) | Open Energy  

Open Energy Info (EERE)

LiDAR At Chocolate Mountains Area (Alm, Et Al., 2010) LiDAR At Chocolate Mountains Area (Alm, Et Al., 2010) Jump to: navigation, search GEOTHERMAL ENERGYGeothermal Home Exploration Activity: LiDAR At Chocolate Mountains Area (Alm, Et Al., 2010) Exploration Activity Details Location Chocolate Mountains Area Exploration Technique LiDAR Activity Date Usefulness useful DOE-funding Unknown Notes Recent exploration includes a high resolution aerial Li-DAR survey flown over the project areas, securing over 177,000 square kilometers of <30cm accuracy digital elevation data. LiDAR data were analyzed to characterize the active tectonic environment, and identify Holocene structures, which are common conduits for upwelling geothermal fluids. References Steve Alm, S. Bjornstad, M. Lazaro, A. Sabin1, D. Meade, J. Shoffner, W. C. Huang, J. Unruh, M. Strane, H. Ross (2010) Geothermal

275

Hydrothermal alteration mineral mapping using hyperspectral imagery in  

Open Energy Info (EERE)

alteration mineral mapping using hyperspectral imagery in alteration mineral mapping using hyperspectral imagery in Dixie Valley, Nevada Jump to: navigation, search OpenEI Reference LibraryAdd to library Journal Article: Hydrothermal alteration mineral mapping using hyperspectral imagery in Dixie Valley, Nevada Abstract Hyperspectral (HyMap) data was used to map the location ofoutcrops of high temperature, hydrothermally alterated minerals(including alunite, pyrophyllite, and hematite) along a 15 kmswath of the eastern front of the Stillwater Mountain Range inDixie Valley, Nevada. Analysis of this data set reveals that severaloutcrops of these altered minerals exist in the area, and thatone outcrop, roughly 1 square kilometer in area, shows abundanthigh temperature alteration. Structural analysis of the alteredregion using a

276

Fermilab's 2009 Nature of Science Symposium  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

David Saltzberg David Saltzberg David Saltzberg (University of Calfornia, Los Angeles) Neutrino Hunting Using High Altitude Balloons and Antarctica Watch the talk (running time 46:37) Antarctica is the only continent reserved entirely for peace and science. NASA's long-duration high altitude balloon program is one example of unique science done on the continent. I will describe my experience working "on the ice" using the two programs. In particular, we looked for high energy neutrinos striking the ice, which served as a 1 million square kilometer telescope for neutrinos. We also performed research in the Antarctic deep field, using resources provided by the United States Antarctic Program. I will describe how the program supports scientists' need to go "into the field" in Antarctica.

277

NREL: Dynamic Maps, GIS Data, and Analysis Tools - Biomass Maps  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

Biomass Maps Biomass Maps These maps illustrate the biomass resources available in the United States by county. Biomass feedstock data are analyzed both statistically and graphically using a geographic information system (GIS). The following feedstock categories are evaluated: crop residues, forest residues, primary and secondary mill residues, urban wood waste, and methane emissions from manure management, landfills, and domestic wastewater treatment. Biomass Resources in the United States Map of Total Biomass Resources in the United States Total Resources by County Total Biomass per Square Kilometer These maps estimate the biomass resources currently available in the United States by county. They include the following feedstock categories: crop residues (5 year average: 2003-2007) forest and primary mill residues

278

archive | OpenEI  

Open Energy Info (EERE)

archive archive Dataset Summary Description The windspeed database provides estimates of mean annual wind speed throughout the UK, averaged over a 1-kilometer square area, at each of the following three heights above ground level (agl): 10 meters, 25 meters, and 45 meters. The windspeed database is available through the UK Department of Energy and Climate Change (DECC) website, and is provided for archive purposes only. The database is comprised of historic information, including results derived from mathematical models, so it should not be considered to be measured data, or up to date or accurate. Source UK Department of Energy and Climate Change (DECC) Date Released December 31st, 2000 (14 years ago) Date Updated Unknown Keywords archive Great Britain Northern Ireland

279

Northern Ireland | OpenEI  

Open Energy Info (EERE)

Northern Ireland Northern Ireland Dataset Summary Description The windspeed database provides estimates of mean annual wind speed throughout the UK, averaged over a 1-kilometer square area, at each of the following three heights above ground level (agl): 10 meters, 25 meters, and 45 meters. The windspeed database is available through the UK Department of Energy and Climate Change (DECC) website, and is provided for archive purposes only. The database is comprised of historic information, including results derived from mathematical models, so it should not be considered to be measured data, or up to date or accurate. Source UK Department of Energy and Climate Change (DECC) Date Released December 31st, 2000 (14 years ago) Date Updated Unknown Keywords archive Great Britain

280

First measurement of the small-scale spatial variability of the rain drop size distribution: Results from a crucial experiment and maximum entropy modeling  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

The main challenges of measuring precipitation are related to the spatio-temporal variability of the drop-size distribution, to the uncertainties that condition the modeling of that distribution, and to the instrumental errors present in the in situ estimations. This PhD dissertation proposes advances in all these questions. The relevance of the spatial variability of the drop-size distribution for remote sensing measurements and hydro-meteorology field studies is asserted by analyzing the measurement of a set of disdrometers deployed on a network of 5 squared kilometers. This study comprises the spatial variability of integral rainfall parameters, the ZR relationships, and the variations within the one moment scaling method. The modeling of the drop-size distribution is analyzed by applying the MaxEnt method and comparing it with the methods of moments and the maximum likelihood. The instrumental errors are analyzed with a compressive comparison of sampling and binning uncertainties that affect actual device...

Checa-Garcia, Ramiro

2013-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

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281

Apparent spatial blurring and displacement of a point optical source due to cloud scattering  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

A Monte Carlo algorithm is used to determine the apparent spatial blurring of a terrestrial 1.07 micron optical point source due to cloud scattering as seen from space. The virtual image of a point source over a virtual source plane area 22.4 x 22.4 square kilometers arising from cloud scattering was determined for stratus clouds (NASA cloud number 5) and altostratus clouds optical source arises from photon scattering by cloud water droplets. Displacement of the virtual source is due to the apparent illumination of the cloud top region directly about the actual source which when viewed at a nonzero look angle gives a projected displacement of the apparent source relative to the actual source. These features are quantified by an analysis of the Monte Carlo computational results.

Brower, K.L.

1997-09-01T23:59:59.000Z

282

Biodiversity Analysis of Vegetation on the Nevada Test Site  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

The Nevada Test Site (NTS) located in south central Nevada encompasses approximately 3,561 square kilometers and straddles two major North American deserts, Mojave and Great Basin. Transitional areas between the two desert types have been created by gradients in elevation, precipitation, temperature, and soils. From 1996-1998, more than 1,500 ecological landform units were sampled at the NTS for numerous biotic and abiotic parameters. These data provide a basis for spatial evaluations of biodiversity over landscape scales at the NTS. Species diversity maps (species richness vs. species abundance) have been produced. Differences in ecosystem diversity at the ecoregion, alliance, association, and ecological landform unit levels are presented. Spatial distribution maps of species presence and abundance provide evidence of where transition zones occur and the resulting impact on biodiversity. The influences of abiotic factors (elevation, soil, precipitation) and anthropogenic disturbance on biodiversity are assessed.

W. K. Ostler; D. J. Hansen

2001-06-01T23:59:59.000Z

283

C. A. La Electricidad de Caracas: Feasibility-study definitional report. Arreciffs Units 1 through 5 repowering project, electric power generation expansion Venezuela thermal power plant. Export trade information  

SciTech Connect

C.A. La Electricidad de Caracas (E.de C.) is a private company which in 1991 served some 830,000 customers in an area of 4,160 square kilometers surrounding Caracas. A program is underway by E.de C. for upgrading equipment and expanding the capacity of several of its existing generating facilities. The Arrecifes repowering project will involve the addition of about 330 MW of new natural gas fired gas turbine generators and heat recovery steam generators (HRSGs) to five existing thermal power units built 30 to 40 years ago which have steam turbine generator sets of 26 to 41 MW each. The existing steam boilers will be removed. The limited but seemingly sufficient space available is to be a primary focus of the feasibility study.

Not Available

1991-05-01T23:59:59.000Z

284

Exploration of the El Hoyo-Monte Galan Geothermal Concession. Final report  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

In January 1996 Trans-Pacific Geothermal Corporation (TGC) was granted a geothermal concession of 114 square kilometers from the Instituto Nicaragueense de Energie (INE) for the purpose of developing between 50 and 150 MWe of geothermal electrical generating capacity. The Concession Agreement required TGC to perform geological, geophysical, and geochemical studies as part of the development program. TGC commenced the geotechnical studies in January 1996 with a comprehensive review of all existing data and surveys. Based on this review, TGC formulated an exploration plan and executed that plan commencing in April, 1996. The ground magnetic (GM), self potential (SP), magnetotelluric/controlled source audio magnetotelluric (MT/CSAMT) and one-meter temperature surveys, data integration, and synthesis of a hydrogeologic model were performed. The purpose of this report is to present a compilation of all data gathered from the geophysical exploration program and to provide an integrated interpretation of that data.

NONE

1997-12-01T23:59:59.000Z

285

Large Scale Structure Forecast Constraints on Particle Production During Inflation  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Bursts of particle production during inflation provide a well-motivated mechanism for creating bump like features in the primordial power spectrum. Current data constrains these features to be less than about 5% the size of the featureless primordial power spectrum at wavenumbers of about 0.1 h Mpc^{-1}. We forecast that the Planck cosmic microwave background experiment will be able to strengthen this constraint to the 0.5% level. We also predict that adding data from a square kilometer array (SKA) galaxy redshift survey would improve the constraint to about the 0.1% level. For features at larger wave-numbers, Planck will be limited by Silk damping and foregrounds. While, SKA will be limited by non-linear effects. We forecast for a Cosmic Inflation Probe (CIP) galaxy redshift survey, similar constraints can be achieved up to about a wavenumber of 1 h Mpc^{-1}.

Teeraparb Chantavat; Christopher Gordon; Joseph Silk

2010-09-29T23:59:59.000Z

286

Nevada Test Site 2007 Data Report: Groundwater Monitoring Program Area 5 Radioactive Waste Management Site  

SciTech Connect

This report is a compilation of the groundwater sampling results from three monitoring wells located near the Area 5 Radioactive Waste Management Site (RWMS) at the Nevada Test Site (NTS), Nye County, Nevada, for calendar year 2007. The NTS is an approximately 3,561 square kilometer (1,375 square mile) restricted-access federal installation located approximately 105 kilometers (65 miles) northwest of Las Vegas, Nevada (Figure 1). Pilot wells UE5PW-1, UE5PW-2, and UE5PW-3 are used to monitor the groundwater at the Area 5 RWMS (Figure 2). In addition to groundwater monitoring results, this report includes information regarding site hydrogeology, well construction, sample collection, and meteorological data measured at the Area 5 RWMS. The disposal of low-level radioactive waste and mixed low-level radioactive waste at the Area 5 RWMS is regulated by U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Order 435.1, 'Radioactive Waste Management'. The disposal of mixed low-level radioactive waste is also regulated by the state of Nevada under the Resource Conservation and Recovery Act (RCRA) regulation Title 40 Code of Federal Regulations (CFR) Part 265, 'Interim Status Standards for Owners and Operators of Hazardous Waste Treatment, Storage, and Disposal Facilities' (CFR, 1999). The format of this report was requested by the Nevada Division of Environmental Protection (NDEP) in a letter dated August 12, 1997. The appearance and arrangement of this document have been modified slightly since that date to provide additional information and to facilitate the readability of the document. The objective of this report is to satisfy any Area 5 RWMS reporting agreements between DOE and NDEP.

NSTec Environmental Management

2008-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

287

EOS, TRANSACTIONS, AMERICAN GEOPHYSICAL UNION Nutrient Enrichment Drives  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

During most summers over the past 30 years, bottom dissolved oxygen across a large area of the Louisiana and upper Texas continental shelf declined to concentrations too low (hypoxia) for most fish and large invertebrate animals to survive. This area is one of the best known “dead zones ” proliferating around the world [Diaz and Rosenberg, 2008]. During July 2008, hypoxic bottom waters extended across 20,720 square kilometers (Figure 1), but they were probably even more extensive because winds from Hurricane Dolly mixed the waters off Texas before the survey could be completed. Increased inputs of nutrients (principally nitrogen and phosphorus) from the U.S. agricultural heartland within the Mississippi- Atchafalaya River Basin ( MARB) are implicated in the development and spread of hypoxia in the Gulf of Mexico. Consequently, the causes of, and solutions for, hypoxia have been subjects of extensive debate and analysis. An integrated scientific assessment led to a 2001 Action Plan [Mississippi River / Gulf of Mexico Watershed Nutrient Task Force, 2001] with a goal of reducing the area of the hypoxic zone to less than 5000 square kilometers by reducing nitrogen loading [Rabalais et al., 2007]. are primarily related to nutrient fluxes from the MARB ” [SAB, 2008, p. 2]. The reconfirmed consensus is that anthropogenic nutrients stimulate the production of planktonic organic matter, the decomposition of which depletes dissolved oxygen in bottom waters on the seasonally stratified inner shelf. Despite these two major scientific assessments supporting this consensus, skeptics [Dagg et al., 2007; Bianchi et al., 2008] have suggested alternative causes of hypoxia, including (1) oxidation of organic matter not derived from phytoplankton production, (2) physical processes affecting water column stability, and (3) coastal wetland loss and river controls. This article addresses these criticisms and demonstrates why they do not challenge the consensus on nutrient enrichment. Organic Matter Sources Seasonally recurring hypoxia developed on the shelf from the 1970s through the 1990s, coinciding with a tripling of nitrate

Gulf Of Mexico Hypoxia

2009-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

288

Application Of Least Squares And Kriging In Multivariate Optimizations Of Field Development Scheduling And Well Placement Design  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

This study applied two multivariate interpolation algorithms, Least Squares and Kriging, to interpolate a limited number of data obtained from simulation in order to predict the optimal strategies in a field development scheduling project and a waterflood project with a significant reduction in the simulation efforts required. The two projects were application examples with known answers. The objective of this study was to examine the feasibility and efficiency of multivariate interpolation in solving optimization problems by reducing the simulation effort required. The net present value was used as the objective function in both projects. The field development scheduling simulation was achieved by an economic model taking acount of all the costs and profits during the time period being studied. The waterflooding simulation was achieved by solving the Laplace equation and generating streamlines within the specified pattern. The movements of the waterfrontwere tracked and then the oil a...

A Report; Yan Pan

1995-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

289

Ensemble Square Root Filters  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Ensemble data assimilation methods assimilate observations using state-space estimation methods and low-rank representations of forecast and analysis error covariances. A key element of such methods is the transformation of the forecast ensemble ...

Michael K. Tippett; Jeffrey L. Anderson; Craig H. Bishop; Thomas M. Hamill; Jeffrey S. Whitaker

2003-07-01T23:59:59.000Z

290

FermiNews - December 11, 1998  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

December 11, 1998 | Number 23 December 11, 1998 | Number 23 FermiNews Main Page Response in FermiNews, 05/12/2000 Santa and sleigh Santa at Nearly the Speed of Light by Arnold Pompos, Purdue University, and Sharon Butler, Office of Public Affairs About this time of year, inquisitive children of a certain age begin to question whether Santa is real. After all, Santa has a major delivery problem. There are some 2 billion children in the world expecting Christmas presents. Assuming an average of 2.5 children per household, then, Santa has to visit about 800 million homes scattered about the globe. The distance Santa has to travel can be estimated from the following. First, while the surface area of Earth is about 1014 square meters, only about 30 percent of that is land mass, or about 0.3 x 1014 square meters. Second, weÂ’ll assume, for simplicityÂ’s sake, that the 800 million homes are equally distributed on this land mass. Dividing 0.3 x 1014 by 800 million gives 4 x 104 square meters occupied by every household (about six football fields); the square root of that is the distance between households, about 200 meters. Multiply this by the 800 million households to get the distance Santa must travel on Christmas Eve to deliver all the childrenÂ’s gifts: 160 million kilometers, farther than the distance from here to the sun.

291

A Failure of Serendipity: the Square Kilometre Array will struggle to eavesdrop on Human-like ETI  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

The Square Kilometre Array (SKA) will operate in frequency ranges often used by military radar and other communications technology. It has been shown that if Extraterrestrial Intelligences (ETIs) communicate using similar technology, then the SKA should be able to detect such transmissions up to distances of ~100 pc (~300 light years) from Earth. However, Mankind has greatly improved its communications technology over the last century, dramatically reducing signal leakage and making the Earth "radio quiet". If ETIs follow the same pattern as the human race, will we be able to detect their signal leakage before they become radio quiet? We investigate this question using Monte Carlo Realisation techniques to simulate the growth and evolution of intelligent life in the Galaxy. We show that if civilisations are "human" in nature (i.e. they are only "radio loud" for ~100 years, and can only detect each other with an SKA-like instrument out to 100 pc, within a maximum communication time of 100 years), then the prob...

Forgan, D H

2010-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

292

PV water pumping with a peak-power tracker using a simple six-step square-wave inverter  

SciTech Connect

The application of photovoltaics (PVs) has been increasingly popular, especially in remote areas, where power from a utility is not available or is too costly to install. PV-powered water pumping is frequently used for agriculture and in households. Among many available schemes, the system under study consists of a PV array, a variable-frequency inverter, an induction motor, and a water pump. The inverter feeds the induction motor, which drives the water pump. To seek the optimum power output of the PV array, the inverter is operated at variable frequency, to vary the output of the water pump. The inverter is operated to generate a six-step quasi-square wave, instead of a pulsewidth modulated (PWM) voltage output, to reduce the switching losses. The inverter acts as both a variable-frequency source and a peak-power tracker of the system, thus, having the number of switches minimized. The system is a low-cost design, with a simple control strategy. The dc bus is supported by a dc capacitor; thus, a balance-of-power flow must be maintained to avoid the collapse of the dc-bus voltage. Another advantage of the system is that the current is limited to an upper limit of the PV-array current. Thus, in case a short circuit is developed, the motor winding and the power semiconductor switches can be protected against excessive current flow.

Muljadi, E. [National Renewable Energy Lab., Golden, CO (United States)

1997-05-01T23:59:59.000Z

293

Property:EstReservoirVol | Open Energy Information  

Open Energy Info (EERE)

EstReservoirVol EstReservoirVol Jump to: navigation, search Property Name EstReservoirVol Property Type Quantity Description Mean estimated reservoir volume at location based on the USGS 2008 Geothermal Resource Assessment if the United States Use this type to express a quantity of three-dimensional space. The default unit is the cubic meter (m³). Acceptable units (and their conversions) are: Cubic Meters - 1 m³,m3,m^3,cubic meter,cubic meters,Cubic Meter,Cubic Meters,CUBIC METERS Cubic Kilometers - 0.000000001 km³,km3,km^3,cubic kilometer,cubic kilometers,cubic km,Cubic Kilometers,CUBIC KILOMETERS Cubic Miles - 0.000000000239912759 mi³,mi3,mi^3,mile³,cubic mile,cubic miles,cubic mi,Cubic Miles,CUBIC MILES Cubic Feet - 35.314666721 ft³,ft3,ft^3,cubic feet,cubic foot,FT³,FT3,FT^3,Cubic Feet, Cubic Foot

294

High pT [p subscript T] nonphotonic electron production in p+p collisions at ?s=200??[square root of s=200] GeV  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

We present the measurement of nonphotonic electron production at high transverse momentum (pT>2.5??GeV/c) [(p subscript T > 2.5 GeV/c)] in p+p collisions at ?s=200??[square root of s=200] GeV using data recorded during ...

Balewski, Jan T.

295

Investigation of the Heat Transfer Coefficient of Liquid and Gas Bubble Train Flow in a Square Mini-channel Using Infra-Red thermography  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Investigation of the Heat Transfer Coefficient of Liquid and Gas Bubble Train Flow in a Square Mini slug and bubbles, liquid and gas superficial velocities which depend on the volume flow ratio of the channel (Bo) for specific liquid and gas phase. At relatively high Bo (Bo>Bocr1.835) systems gravity force

Khandekar, Sameer

296

Least squares support vector machines with tuning based on chaotic differential evolution approach applied to the identification of a thermal process  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

In the past decade, support vector machines (SVMs) have gained the attention of many researchers. SVMs are non-parametric supervised learning schemes that rely on statistical learning theory which enables learning machines to generalize well to unseen ... Keywords: Chaotic differential evolution, Identification, Least squares support vector machines

Glauber Souto dos Santos; Luiz Guilherme Justi Luvizotto; Viviana Cocco Mariani; Leandro dos Santos Coelho

2012-04-01T23:59:59.000Z

298

POSITION STATEMENT SAVING THE ARECIBO OBSERVATORY  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

A unique world resource, the Arecibo astronomical observatory in Puerto Rico is scheduled to be phased out over the next few years, due to withdrawal of funding by the National Science Foundation. With its 305-meter diameter antenna, the Arecibo Observatory is the world's largest and most sensitive radio-radar telescope. The IEEE recognized the observatory as an electrical engineering milestone in 2002. Arecibo is essential to support the recent congressionally-mandated NASA mission for highprecision tracking and characterizing potentially hazardous Near-Earth Objects (NEOs)--defined as objects 140 meters or greater in diameter, with orbits that may cross that of Earth. A NASA report released last year estimates that, among the many millions of asteroids and comets in the solar system, approximately 100,000 potentially hazardous NEOs are yet to be located. Some assess the likelihood of such an object hitting the earth in a typical human lifetime as about one in sixty. But we are doing little to reduce that likelihood. If a 140 meter NEO were to hit the earth, a huge amount of energy-- equivalent to 100 megatons of TNT-- would be released. As an actual historical reference, the Tunguska event in Siberia in 1908 was most likely caused by a meteor about 40 meters in diameter, exploding at about 10 kilometers altitude. The explosion toppled more than 80 million trees over 2,150 square kilometers, and was about 1,000 times as powerful as the bomb dropped on Hiroshima. IEEE-USA calls upon Congress and the administration to maintain the Arecibo, supporting the congressionally-mandated NASA NEO mission by: Provide funding for the continued operation and maintenance of the Arecibo facility at its present activity level. Directing the National Science Foundation to initiate and/or extend programs and activities to sustain the NASA mission and Encouraging NASA's continued use of Arecibo to carry out the mission

unknown authors

2008-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

299

Do it yourself lighting power survey: lighting power audit for use with the Massachusetts type watts per square foot method of calculating a building's lighting power budget  

SciTech Connect

Advantages of the self-audit approach to energy conservation are presented. These are that it is cheaper to do it yourself; the employees become part of the corporate conservation effect; and no one knows the building and its needs better than the occupant. Steps described in the lighting survey procedure are: (1) divide the building into categories; (2) determine the total square footage for each category; (3) assign a power allowance for each category; (4) multiply the total square footage for each category by the respective power allowances; (5) add the budget sub-totals for each category to determine total building budget; and (6) walk through the building room-by-room and calculate the connected lighting load fixture-by-fixture. Some worksheets are provided. (MCW)

Not Available

1980-06-01T23:59:59.000Z

300

Case Closed on Nauru Island Effect  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

Closed on Nauru Island Effect Closed on Nauru Island Effect For original submission and image(s), see ARM Research Highlights http://www.arm.gov/science/highlights/ Research Highlight The tiny 4-kilometer-by-6-kilometer island of Nauru is isolated in the equatorial Pacific Ocean with naught but a few small scattered islands for thousands of kilometers around. Thus, the ARM measurements made there are intended to represent the larger surrounding oceanic area. But decades of phosphate mining have left large barren karst fields as the predominant land surface over most of the center of the island, making it much more susceptible to solar heating than typical tropical vegetated surfaces. During the Nauru99 campaign, small cumulus clouds were observed at times forming over the center of the island, advecting over the ARM site

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "kilometers square kilometers" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


301

Compressed natural gas and liquefied petroleum gas as alternative fuels  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

The use of alternative fuels in the transportation industry has gained a strong support in recent years. In this paper an attempt was made to evaluate the use of liquefied petroleum gas (LPG) and compressed natural gas (NG) by 25 LPG-bifuel and 14 NG-bifuel vehicles that are operated by 33 transit systems throughout Nebraska. A set of performance measures such as average fuel efficiency in kilometers per liter, average fuel cost per kilometer, average oil consumption, and average operation and maintenance cost for alternatively fueled vehicles were calculated and compared with similar performance measures of gasoline powered vehicles. The results of the study showed that the average fuel efficiency of gasoline is greater than those of LPG and NG, and the average fuel costs (dollars per kilometer) for LPG and NG are smaller than those for gasoline for most of the vehicles under this study.

Moussavi, M.; Al-Turk, M. (Univ. of Nebraska, Omaha, NE (United States). Civil Engineering Dept.)

1993-12-01T23:59:59.000Z

302

LONG-TERM STEWARDSHIP AT DOE HANFORD SITE - 12575  

SciTech Connect

The U.S. Department of Energy's (DOE) Hanford Site is located in southeast Washington and consists of 1,518 square kilometers (586 square miles) of land. Established in 1943 as part of the Manhattan Project, Hanford workers produced plutonium for our nation's nuclear defense program until the mid 1980's. Since then, the site has been in cleanup mode that is being accomplished in phases. As we achieve remedial objectives and complete active cleanup, DOE will manage Hanford land under the Long-Term Stewardship (LTS) Program until completion of cleanup and the site becomes ready for transfer to the post cleanup landlord - currently planned for DOE's Office of Legacy Management (LM). We define Hanford's LTS Program in the ''Hanford Long-Term Stewardship Program Plan,'' (DOE/RL-201 0-35)[1], which describes the scope including the relationship between the cleanup projects and the LTS Program. DOE designed the LTS Program to manage and provide surveillance and maintenance (S&M) of institutional controls and associated monitoring of closed waste sites to ensure the protection of human health and the environment. DOE's Richland Operations Office (DOE-RL) and Hanford cleanup and operations contractors collaboratively developed this program over several years. The program's scope also includes 15 key activities that are identified in the DOE Program Plan (DOE/RL-2010-35). The LTS Program will transition 14 land segments through 2016. The combined land mass is approximately 570 square kilometers (220 square miles), with over 1,300 active and inactive waste sites and 3,363 wells. Land segments vary from buffer zone property with no known contamination to cocooned reactor buildings, demolished support facilities, and remediated cribs and trenches. DOE-RL will transition land management responsibilities from cleanup contractors to the Mission Support Contract (MSC), who will then administer the LTS Program for DOE-RL. This process requires an environment of cooperation between the contractors and DOE-RL. Information Management (IM) is a key part of the LTS program. The IM Program identifies, locates, stores, protects and makes accessible Hanford LTS records and data to support the transfer of property ultimately to LM. As such, DOE-RL manages the Hanford LTS Program in a manner consistent with LM's goals, policies, and procedures.

MOREN RJ; GRINDSTAFF KD

2012-01-11T23:59:59.000Z

303

Use of a General Nonlinear Least-Squares Curve Fitting Program with nonclosed form relationships. [GNLS, in FORTRAN for CDC computers  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

A use for GNLS, a general nonlinear least-squares curve fitting program, is presented. In this use GNLS determines a set of best parameters for relationships that cannot be written in closed form. This program can be useful for experimenters who need to determine experimental parameters by fitting nonclosed-form relationships to experimental data. Two examples are given to indicate how GNLS can be used for this type of problem. 11 figures.

Abey, A.E.

1979-12-26T23:59:59.000Z

304

Search for Supersymmetry Using Final States with One Lepton, Jets, and Missing Transverse Momentum with the ATLAS Detector in ?s=7??[square root of s=7] TeV pp Collisions  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

This Letter presents the first search for supersymmetry in final states containing one isolated electron or muon, jets, and missing transverse momentum from ?s=7??[square root of s=7] TeV proton-proton collisions at the ...

Taylor, Frank E.

305

Predicted Geology of the Pahute Mesa-Oasis Valley Phase II Drilling Initiative  

SciTech Connect

Pahute Mesa–Oasis Valley (PM-OV) Phase II drilling will occur within an area that encompasses approximately 117 square kilometers (45 square miles) near the center of the Phase I PM-OV hydrostratigraphic framework model area. The majority of the investigation area lies within dissected volcanic terrain between Pahute Mesa on the north and Timber Mountain on the south. This area consists of a complex distribution of volcanic tuff and lava of generally rhyolitic composition erupted from nearby calderas and related vents. Several large buried volcanic structural features control the distribution of volcanic units in the investigation area. The Area 20 caldera, including its structural margin and associated caldera collapse collar, underlies the northeastern portion of the investigation area. The southern half of the investigation area lies within the northwestern portion of the Timber Mountain caldera complex, including portions of the caldera moat and resurgent dome. Another significant structural feature in the area is the west-northwest-trending Northern Timber Mountain moat structural zone, which bisects the northern portion of the investigation area and forms a structural bench. The proposed wells of the UGTA Phase II drilling initiative can be grouped into four generalized volcanic structural domains based on the stratigraphic distribution and structural position of the volcanic rocks in the upper 1,000 meters (3,300 feet) of the crust, a depth that represents the approximate planned total depths of the proposed wells.

NSTec Environmental Restoration

2009-04-20T23:59:59.000Z

306

An aerial radiological survey of the Fernald Environmental Management Project and surrounding area, Fernald, Ohio  

SciTech Connect

An aerial radiological survey was conducted from May 17--22, 1994, over a 36 square mile (93 square kilometer) area centered on the Fernald Environmental Management Project located in Fernald, Ohio. The purpose of the survey was to detect anomalous gamma radiation in the environment surrounding the plant. The survey was conducted at a nominal altitude of 150 feet (46 meters) with a line spacing of 250 feet (76 meters). A contour map of the terrestrial gamma exposure rate extrapolated to 1 meter (3.3 feet) above ground was prepared and overlaid on an aerial photograph of the area. Analysis of the data for man made sources showed five sites within the boundaries of the Fernald Environmental Management Project having elevated readings. The exposure rates outside the plant boundary were typical of naturally occurring background radiation. Soil samples and pressurized ion chamber measurements were obtained at four locations within the survey boundaries to supplement the aerial data. It was concluded that although the radionuclides identified in the high-exposure-rate areas are naturally occurring, the levels encountered are greatly enhanced due to industrial activities at the plant.

Phoenix, K.A.

1997-04-01T23:59:59.000Z

307

An aerial radiological survey of the Babcock and Wilcox Nuclear Facilities and surrounding area, Lynchburg, Virginia. Date of survey: July 1988  

SciTech Connect

An aerial radiological survey was conducted from July 18 through July 25, 1988, over a 41-square-kilometer (16-square-mile) area surrounding the Babcock and Wilcox nuclear facilities located near Lynchburg, Virginia. The survey was conducted at a nominal altitude of 61 meters (200 feet) with line spacings of 91 meters (300 feet). A contour map of the terrestrial gamma exposure rate extrapolated to 1 meter above ground level (AGL) was prepared and overlaid on an aerial photograph. The terrestrial exposure rates varied from 8 to 12 microroentgens per hour ({mu}R/h). A search of the data for man-made radiation sources revealed the presence of three areas of high count rates in the survey area. Spectra accumulated over the main plant showed the presence of cobalt-60 ({sup 60}Co) and cesium-137 ({sup 137}Cs). A second area near the main plant indicated the presence of uranium-235 ({sup 235}U). Protactinium-234m ({sup 234m}Pa) and {sup 60}Co were detected over a building to the east of the main plant. Soil samples and pressurized ion chamber measurements were obtained at four locations within the survey boundaries in support of the aerial data.

Guss, P.P.

1993-04-01T23:59:59.000Z

308

An aerial radiological survey of the Oyster Creek Nuclear Power Plant and surrounding area, Forked River, New Jersey. Date of survey: September 18--25, 1992  

SciTech Connect

An aerial radiological survey was conducted over the Oyster Creek Nuclear Power Plant in Forked River, New Jersey, during the period September 18 through September 24, 1992. The survey was conducted at an altitude of 150 feet (46 meters) over a 26-square-mile (67-square-kilometer) area centered on the power station. The purpose of the survey was to document the terrestrial gamma radiation environment of the Oyster Creek Nuclear Power plant and surrounding area. The results of the aerial survey are reported as inferred gamma radiation exposure rates at 1 meter above ground level in the form of a contour map. Outside the plant boundary, exposure rates were found to vary between 4 and 10 microroentgens per hour and were attributed to naturally-occurring uranium, thorium, and radioactive potassium gamma emitters. The aerial data were compared to ground-based benchmark exposure rate measurements and radionuclide assays of soil samples obtained within the survey boundary. The ground-based measurements were found to be in good agreement with those inferred from the aerial measuring system. A previous survey of the power plant was conducted in August 1969 during its initial startup phase. Exposure rates and radioactive isotopes revealed in both surveys were consistent and within normal terrestrial background levels.

Hopkins, H.A.; McCall, K.A.

1994-05-01T23:59:59.000Z

309

An aerial radiological survey of the Ames Laboratory and surrounding area, Ames, Iowa. Date of survey: July 1991  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

An aerial radiological survey of the Ames Laboratory and surrounding area in Ames, Iowa, was conducted during the period July 15--25, 1991. The purpose of the survey was to measure and document the terrestrial radiological environment at the Ames Laboratory and the surrounding area for use in effective environmental management and emergency response planning. The aerial survey was flown at an altitude of 200 feet (61 meters) along a series of parallel lines 350 feet (107 meters) apart. The survey encompassed an area of 36 square miles (93 square kilometers) and included the city of Ames, Iowa, and the Iowa State University. The results are reported as exposure rates at 1 meter above ground level (inferred from the aerial data) in the form of a gamma radiation contour map. Typical background exposure rates were found to vary from 7 to 9 microroentgens per hour ({mu}R/h). No anomalous radiation levels were detected at the Ames Laboratory. However, one anomalous radiation source was detected at an industrial storage yard in the city of Ames. In support of the aerial survey, ground-based exposure rate and soil sample measurements were obtained at several sites within the survey perimeter. The results of the aerial and ground-based measurements were found to agree within the expected uncertainty of {+-}15%.

Maurer, R.J.

1993-04-01T23:59:59.000Z

310

An aerial radiological survey of the Oak Ridge Reservation, Oak Ridge, Tennessee. Date of survey: April 1992  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

An aerial radiological survey of the Oak Ridge Reservation (ORR) and surrounding area in Oak Ridge, Tennessee, was conducted during the period March 30 to April 14,1992. The purpose of the survey was to measure and document the terrestrial radiological environment of the Oak Ridge Reservation for use in environmental management programs and emergency response planning. The aerial survey was flown at an altitude of 150 feet (46 meters) along a series of parallel lines 250 feet (76 meters) apart and included X-10 (Oak Ridge National Laboratory), K-25 (former Gaseous Diffusion Plant), Y-12 (Weapons Production Plant), the Freels Bend Area and Oak Ridge Institute for Science and Education, the East Fork Poplar Creek (100-year floodplain extending from K-25 to Y-12), Elza Gate (former uranium ore storage site located in the city of Oak Ridge), Parcel A, the Clinch River (river banks extending from Melton Hill Dam to the city of Kingston), and the CSX Railroad Tracks (extending from Y-12 to the city of Oak Ridge). The survey encompassed approximately 55 square miles (1 41 square kilometers) of the Oak Ridge Reservation and surrounding area.

Maurer, R.J.

1993-04-01T23:59:59.000Z

311

An Aerial Radiological Survey of the Portsmouth Gaseous Diffusion Plant and Surrounding Area, Portsmouth, Ohio  

SciTech Connect

An aerial radiological survey was conducted over the 16 square-mile (~41 square-kilometer) area surrounding the Portsmouth Gaseous Diffusion Plant. The survey was performed in August 2007 utilizing a large array of helicopter mounted sodium iodide detectors. The purpose of the survey was to update the previous radiological survey levels of the environment and surrounding areas of the plant. A search for a missing radium-226 source was also performed. Implied exposure rates, man-made activity, and excess bismuth-214 activity, as calculated from the aerial data are presented in the form of isopleth maps superimposed on imagery of the surveyed area. Ground level and implied aerial exposure rates for nine specific locations are compared. Detected radioisotopes and their associated gamma ray exposure rates were consistent with those expected from normal background emitters. At specific plant locations described in the report, man-made activity was consistent with the operational histories of the location. There was no spectral activity that would indicate the presence of the lost source.

Namdoo Moon

2007-12-01T23:59:59.000Z

312

Stability of critical bubble in stretched fluid of square-gradient density-functional model with triple-parabolic free energy  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

The square-gradient density-functional model with triple-parabolic free energy, that was used previously to study the homogeneous bubble nucleation [J. Chem. Phys. 129, 104508 (2008)], is used to study the stability of the critical bubble nucleated within the bulk under-saturated stretched fluid. The stability of the bubble is studied by solving the Schr\\"odinger equation for the fluctuation. The negative eigenvalue corresponds to the unstable growing mode of the fluctuation. Our results show that there is only one negative eigenvalue whose eigenfunction represents the fluctuation that corresponds to the isotropically growing or shrinking nucleus. In particular, this negative eigenvalue survives up to the spinodal point. Therefore the critical bubble is not fractal or ramified near the spinodal.

Masao Iwamatsu; Yutaka Okabe

2010-06-11T23:59:59.000Z

313

Applying the Inverse Average Magnitude Squared Coherence Index for Determining Order-Chaos Transition in a System Governed by Hénon Mapping Dynamics  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

The quantitative determination of the order-chaos transition in a nonlinear dynamical system described by Hénon mapping defined as x[n + 1] = 1.0 ? A ? x[n] 2 + B ? y[n],y[n + 1] = B ? x[n], where B = 0.3, and A is an adjustable control parameter, was made. This was achieved by applying the Inverse Average Magnitude-Squared Coherence Index (IAMSCI). This method is based on the Welch average periodogram technique and it has the advantage respect to nonlinear dynamical methods that it may be applied to any stationary signal by using discrete Fourier transform (DFT) representation which allows to operate on a short discrete-time series. Its effectiveness was demonstrated by comparing the results obtained by applying IAMSCI

Rubén Orozco Morales

2008-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

314

Predicted Fall Chinook Survival and Passage Timing Under BiOp and Alternative Summer Spill Programs  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Corps of Engineers, Waterways Experiment Station (WES) as well as additional work done by Columbia Basin are provided in table 1. Hanford Reach fall Chinook 1 #12;were released at river kilometer 593 with a single release profile modeled after the cumulative "1 3 W" pittag releases in the Hanford reach. All stocks were

Washington at Seattle, University of

315

On the Derivation of Material Thermal Properties Representative of Heterogeneous Urban Neighborhoods  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

An important question arises when modeling a heterogeneous landscape (e.g., an urbanized area) with a mesoscale atmospheric model. The surface within a grid cell of the model (which has a typical dimension of one or more kilometers) can be ...

F. Salamanca; E. S. Krayenhoff; A. Martilli

2009-08-01T23:59:59.000Z

316

Metabolic Factors Limiting Performance in Marathon Runners  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Each year in the past three decades has seen hundreds of thousands of runners register to run a major marathon. Of those who attempt to race over the marathon distance of 26 miles and 385 yards (42.195 kilometers), more ...

Rapoport, Benjamin I.

317

Gridded Hourly Precipitation Analysis from High-Density Rain Gauge Network over the Yangtze–Huai Rivers Basin during the 2007 Mei-Yu Season and Comparison with CMORPH  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Heavy rainfall hit the Yangtze–Huai Rivers basin (YHRB) of east China several times during the prolonged 2007 mei-yu season, causing the worst flood since 1954. There has been an urgent need for attaining and processing high-quality, kilometer-...

Yali Luo; Weimiao Qian; Renhe Zhang; Da-Lin Zhang

2013-08-01T23:59:59.000Z

318

Solid Oxide Fuel Cell Manufacturing Overview  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

..............................................................................17 Figure 18: Truck Featuring a Delphi SOFC APU Solutions SOFC Solid oxide fuel cell kg Kilogram TGC The Gas Company km/h Kilometer per hour UAV Unmanned fuel cells (SOFC) for residential use. In South Korea, a new government program is supporting up to 80

319

Limits to the Aerosol Indirect Radiative Effect Derived from Observations of Ship Tracks  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

One-kilometer Advanced Very High Resolution Radiometer (AVHRR) observations of the effects of ships on low-level clouds off the west coast of the United States are used to derive limits for the degree to which clouds might be altered by increases ...

James A. Coakley Jr.; Christopher D. Walsh

2002-02-01T23:59:59.000Z

320

Midyear 2007--Brooks & Roland-Holst, Financial Multilateralism . . . --Page 1 HOW FINANCIAL MULTILATERALISM CAN INCREASE SUSTAINABLE  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

.1 Geography Armenia is situated in southwestern Asia, and is bordered by Georgia, Azerbaijan, Iran, and Turkey Kilometers TURKEY IRAN GEORGIA AZERBAIJAN AZERBAIJAN Provincial CapitalTown or% Lake Legend Tashir Amasia. Bargus At R. MiaporR. Gugarats Range AreguniR. Lake Sevan AZERBAIJAN AZERBAIJAN GEORGIA IRAN TURKEY

Kammen, Daniel M.

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "kilometers square kilometers" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


321

Modeling Linear Kinematic Features in Sea Ice  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Sea ice deformation is localized in narrow zones of high strain rate that extend hundreds of kilometers, for example, across the Arctic Basin. This paper demonstrates that these failure zones may be modeled with a viscous–plastic sea ice model, ...

Jennifer K. Hutchings; Petra Heil; William D. Hibler III

2005-12-01T23:59:59.000Z

322

Far-Field Power of Lightning Strokes as Measured by the World Wide Lightning Location Network  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

The World Wide Lightning Location Network (WWLLN) is a long-range network capable of locating lightning strokes in space and time. While able to locate lightning to within a few kilometers and tens of microseconds, the network currently does not ...

Michael L. Hutchins; Robert H. Holzworth; Craig J. Rodger; James B. Brundell

2012-08-01T23:59:59.000Z

323

This article appeared in a journal published by Elsevier. The attached copy is furnished to the author for internal non-commercial research  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

et al., 2006). From the late Carboniferous to the Early Jurassic, the Karoo Supergroup, which consists of several kilometers of clastic sediments, was deposited in the Karoo Basin (Fig. 1 area, the emplacement of numerous dolerite sills (Karoo magmatic event). The subsequent break

Kaminski, Edouard

324

73Working with Rates Because things change in the  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

years Problem 6 - 416 gamma-ray bursts spotted in 52 weeks Problem 7 - 3000 kilometers traveled in 200 in 800 years = 2 novas/year Problem 6 - 416 gamma-ray bursts spotted in 52 weeks = 8 gamma-ray bursts

325

Modeling the subsurface thermal impact of Arctic thaw lakes in a warming climate  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Warming air temperatures in the Arctic are modifying the rates of thermokarst processes along Alaska's Arctic Coastal Plain. The Arctic Coastal Plain is dominated by thaw lakes. These kilometer-scale lakes are the most visible surface features in the ... Keywords: MATLAB, Numerical model, Permafrost, Thaw lakes, Thermal model

N. Matell; R. S. Anderson; I. Overeem; C. Wobus; F. E. Urban; G. D. Clow

2013-04-01T23:59:59.000Z

326

Magma flow inferred from AMS fabrics in a layered mafic sill, Insizwa, South Africa  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Basalt (CFB) province in Southern Africa. This Lower Jurassic CFB prov- ince displays exceptionally good exposures, along a several kilometer-thick section, from the top Drakens- berg Formation basalt lava flows shallow down away from the feeder. (A) Pipe feeder where magma supply originates from a single vertical

Ferré, Eric

327

National Aeronautics and Space Administration thaensingMeSemotR  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

to be `one-pagers' with a Teacher's Guide and Answer Key as a second page. This compact form was deemed very in kilometers? Space Math http://spacemath.gsfc.nasa.gov #12;Answer Key 1 Problem 1 - A digital camera created://spacemath.gsfc.nasa.gov #12;Answer Key 1 Problem 1 - Suppose that the camera was photographing a bright daytime scene

328

Short-Wavelength Technology and the Potential For Distributed Networks of Small Radar Systems  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Dense networks of short-range radars capable of mapping storms and detecting atmospheric hazards are described. Composed of small X-band (9.4 GHz) radars spaced tens of kilometers apart, these networks defeat the Earth curvature blockage that ...

David McLaughlin; David Pepyne; Brenda Philips; James Kurose; Michael Zink; David Westbrook; Eric Lyons; Eric Knapp; Anthony Hopf; Alfred Defonzo; Robert Contreras; Theodore Djaferis; Edin Insanic; Stephen Frasier; V. Chandrasekar; Francesc Junyent; Nitin Bharadwaj; Yanting Wang; Yuxiang Liu; Brenda Dolan; Kelvin Droegemeier; Jerald Brotzge; Ming Xue; Kevin Kloesel; Keith Brewster; Frederick Carr; Sandra Cruz-Pol; Kurt Hondl; Pavlos Kollias

2009-12-01T23:59:59.000Z

329

TARGETS FOR HIGH-INTENSITY PARTICLE PRODUCTION T. A. Gabriel, J. R. Haines, T. J. McManamy, P. Spampinato, B. W. Riemer  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

and remote handling tests (TTF only): WTHL, MTHL, and TTF. Proceedings of the 2001 Particle Accelerator at a detector located many kilometers away. This part of the paper describes some of the target remote handling on the graphite target. 3.1 Remote Handling Associated With the Target Area Facility design concepts have been

McDonald, Kirk

330

Cortical hyperpolarization-activated depolarizing current takes part in the generation of focal  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

- ered by the ROSAT satellite (Popov et al. 2002) and some of the unidentified EGRET sources (Grenier are born with space velocities of several hundred kilometers per second (Lyne and Lorimer 1994). Binary the supernova rate in the Gould Belt, which is about 20­30 per Myr (Grenier 2000), and the ratio of the number

Bazhenov, Maxim

331

Hot rocks  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Four kilometers down below the orange earth of Australia¿s Cooper Basin lies some of the hottest nonvolcanic rock in the world¿rock that the geothermal industry had never seriously considered using to make electricity. But next month Geodynamics, an ...

S. Upson

2009-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

332

The Buck Institute Turned to Geothermal  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

of heat sinks or sources in the subsurface are (i) geothermal activity, (ii) solar radiation, (iii by heating were not investigated. Free thermal convection, however, is a key process in geothermal reser on the meter-scale. However, on the larger kilometer-scale of a geothermal reservoir regarded here, the effect

333

CERN's Discerning Detectors  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

European particle physics laboratory CERN will power up the large hadron collider (LHC), a circular, 27-kilometer-long crash-test course for protons. Their main quarry will be a tantalizing subatomic particle called the Higgs boson. Two of the LHC's ...

G. Weiss

2007-05-01T23:59:59.000Z

334

Long term biosustainability in a high energy, low diversity crustal biome  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

Geochemical, microbiological, and molecular analyses of alkaline saline groundwater at 2.8 kilometers depth in Archaean metabasalt revealed a microbial biome dominated by a single phylotype affiliated with thermophilic sulfate reducers belonging to Firmicutes. These sulfate reducers were sustained by geologically produced sulfate and hydrogen at concentrations sufficient to maintain activities for millions of years with no apparent reliance on photosynthetically derived substrates.

Lin, L-H.; Wang, P-L.; Rumble, D.; Lippmann-Pipke, J.; SherwoodLollar, B.; Boice, E.; Pratt, L.; Brodie, E.; Hazen, T.C.; Andersen,G.L.; DeSantis, T.; Moser, D.P.; Kershaw, D.; Onstott, T.

2006-10-01T23:59:59.000Z

335

An exploration on long-distance communications between left-behind children and their parents in China  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

In China, hundreds of millions of migrant workers have moved to cities or coastal regions for more or better-paid jobs and have left their children behind at their rural homes. Separated by thousands of kilometers, these "left-behind" children and their ... Keywords: left-behind children, long-distance communication, mobile mediated contact

Lu Pan; Feng Tian; Fei Lu; Xiaolong (Luke) Zhang; Ying Liu; Wenxin Feng; Guozhong Dai; Hongan Wang

2013-02-01T23:59:59.000Z

336

The Future of Transportation Networks and Their  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

with environmental regulations is increasing the adoption of alternative fuels and engines. ­ Hybrid Gas/Electric Vehicles 0 1000 2000 3000 4000 5000 6000 7000 Kilometers Total Registered Vehicles National Expressways S have had local roads since the beginning of history and will continue to do so until universal adoption

Levinson, David M.

337

Analysis and Modeling of an Extremely Dense Fog Event in Southern Ontario  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

In this study, a dense fog episode that occurred near Windsor, Ontario, Canada, on 3 September 1999 is investigated. The fog patch, with a spatial scale of several kilometers, reduced visibility on a major highway to a few meters and led to a ...

Mariusz Pagowski; Ismail Gultepe; Patrick King

2004-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

338

STUDENT ORGANIZATION FOOD/BEVERAGE HANDLING REQUEST FOR  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Table of Contents NASA Office of Inspector General October 1, 2001--March 31, 2002 Semiannual.........................................................................................................29 #12;NASA Office of Inspector General October 1, 2001--March 31, 2002 Semiannual Report to Congress kilometers (124 miles). #12;FROM THE INSPECTOR GENERAL NASA Office of Inspector General October 1, 2001

Oklahoma, University of

339

Three-Dimensional Mapping of Fluorescent Dye Using a Scanning, Depth-Resolving Airborne Lidar  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Results are presented from a pilot study using a fluorescent dye tracer imaged by airborne lidar in the ocean surface layer on spatial scales of meters to kilometers and temporal scales of minutes to hours. The lidar used here employs a scanning, ...

M. A. Sundermeyer; E. A. Terray; J. R. Ledwell; A. G. Cunningham; P. E. LaRocque; J. Banic; W. J. Lillycrop

2007-06-01T23:59:59.000Z

340

Critical cavity in the stretched fluid studied using square-gradient density-functional model with triple-parabolic free energy  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

The generic square-gradient density-functional model with triple-parabolic free energy is used to study the stability of a cavity introduced into the stretched liquid. The various properties of the critical cavity, which is the largest stable cavity within the liquid, are compared with those of the critical bubble of the homogeneous bubble nucleation. It is found that the size of the critical cavity is always smaller than that of the critical bubble, while the work of formation of the former is always higher than the latter in accordance with the conjectures made by Punnathanam and Corti [J. Chem. Phys. {\\bf 119}, 10224 (2003)] deduced from the Lennard-Jones fluids. Therefore their conjectures about the critical cavity size and the work of formation would be more general and valid even for other types of liquid such as metallic liquid or amorphous. However, the scaling relations they found for the critical cavity in the Lennard-Jones fluid are marginally satisfied only near the spinodal.

Masao Iwamatsu

2009-04-04T23:59:59.000Z

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341

Assessment of the Geothermal Development of Mexico  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

Mexico, with a 60 million population has an extension of almost 2 million square kilometers. A large number of volcanoes and hydrothermal manifestations are found in the area, particularly along the Pacific Coast. The electricity needs of this country require its installed capacity to be doubled every eight-and-a-half years. Although its main energy source is the hydrocarbons, new sources of energy are being investigated and developed. In 1973, at Cerro Prieto, a 75 MW plant was inaugurated utilizing geothermal steam, initiating in this way commercial exploitation of this energy. From there on an uninterrupted program of exploration and development has been followed, along and across the country. Probably the region with the highest potential of geothermal energy is the New-volcanic Belt, a zone 300 kilometers wide which crosses the country from the Pacific Coast to the Gulf of Mexico Coast. In this zone, the geothermal fields of Los Azufres, Los Negritos, Ixtlan de los Hervores, La Primavera and San Marcos are located. Sixteen wells have been drilled at Los Azufres, 14 good producers with an average temperature of 275 C. An area of 385 square kilometers is estimated can be exploited for steam production. By 1981, it is expected to have four wellhead turbogenerators rated 6 MW each. Two geothermal wells are now being drilled at La Primavera, with very good results. Temperatures of 275 C have been found at a depth of 800 m in the first well of the Rio Caliente module. The first two wells are now being drilled at Los Humeros geothermal zone. To date, 80 wells have been drilled at Cerro Prieto. In the last group of wells the producing stratum was found at a depth between 2000 and 3000 m. The temperature of this stratum is about 340 C, and each well has an average output of 200 tons per hour. Research is now being conducted to solve the problems encountered of casing corrosion, and for the development of better cementing materials and improved cementing techniques, since the results obtained have not been entirely satisfactory, being the life of the geothermal wells shortened, increasing the cost of power generation. Since its inauguration in 1973, Cerro Prieto has been generating electricity continuously, with increasing annual plant factors, better than 90 percent in the last three years. As of this date, the installed capacity at Cerro Prieto is 150 MW. The installation of a fifth unit of 30 MW is now underway. This unit will utilize low pressure steam flashed from the separated water, now being discarded from units 1 to 4. A flashing plant is currently being installed for this purpose. This means a 20 percent increase without drilling more wells. Future plans are the construction of two more plants of 200 MW each, for a total of 620 MW for May 1983. These units will be operating at slightly higher pressures than the existing ones. It is estimated that a total capacity of 40,000 MW could be installed by the year 2000, using steam obtained from the known geothermal areas of Mexico.

Dominguez, B.; Bermejo, F.; Guiza, J.

1980-12-01T23:59:59.000Z

342

Azimuthal variation of radiation of seismic energy from cast blasts  

SciTech Connect

As part of a series of seismic experiments designed to improve the understanding of the impact of mining blasts on verifying a Comprehensive Test Ban Treaty, a sixteen station network of three-component seismic sensors were deployed around a large cast shot in the Black Thunder Mine. The seismic stations were placed, where possible, at a range of 2.5 kilometers with a constant inter-station spacing of 22.5 degrees. All of the data were recorded with the seismometers oriented such that the radial component pointed to the middle point of the approximately 2 kilometer long shot. High quality data were recorded at each station. Data were scaled to a range of 2.5 kilometers and the sum of the absolute value of the vertical, radial, and transverse channels computed. These observations were used to construct radiation patterns of the seismic energy propagating from the cast shot. It is obvious that cast shots do not radiate seismic energy isotropically. Most of the vertical motion occurs behind the highwall while radial and transverse components of motion are enhanced in directions parallel to the highwall. These findings have implications for local (0.1 to 15 kilometer range) and possibly for regional (100 to 2,000 kilometer range) seismic observations of cast blasting. Locally, it could be argued that peak particle velocities could be scaled not only by range but also by azimuthal direction from the shot. This result implies that long term planning of pit orientation relative to sensitive structures could mitigate problems with vibration levels from future blasting operations. Regionally, the local radiation pattern may be important in determining the magnitude of large scale cast blasts. Improving the transparency of mining operations to international seismic monitoring systems may be possible with similar considerations.

Pearson, D.C.; Stump, B.W. [Los Alamos National Lab., NM (United States); Martin, R.L. [Thunder Basin Coal Co., Wright, WY (United States)

1996-12-31T23:59:59.000Z

343

Evidence for a narrow Higgs-like diphoton resonance with a mass of 125 GeV in pp collisions at [square root of]s = 7 - 8 TeV  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

We have performed a search for the production of the standard model Higgs boson decaying to diphotons in pp collisions at the LHC at [square root of]s = 7-8 TeV with the CMS detector. Having analyzed data corresponding to ...

Bendavid, Joshua Lorne

2013-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

344

Inverse determination of the penalty parameter in penalized weighted least-squares algorithm for noise reduction of low-dose CBCT  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Purpose: A statistical projection restoration algorithm based on the penalized weighted least-squares (PWLS) criterion can substantially improve the image quality of low-dose CBCT images. The performance of PWLS is largely dependent on the choice of the penalty parameter. Previously, the penalty parameter was chosen empirically by trial and error. In this work, the authors developed an inverse technique to calculate the penalty parameter in PWLS for noise suppression of low-dose CBCT in image guided radiotherapy (IGRT). Methods: In IGRT, a daily CBCT is acquired for the same patient during a treatment course. In this work, the authors acquired the CBCT with a high-mAs protocol for the first session and then a lower mAs protocol for the subsequent sessions. The high-mAs projections served as the goal (ideal) toward, which the low-mAs projections were to be smoothed by minimizing the PWLS objective function. The penalty parameter was determined through an inverse calculation of the derivative of the objective function incorporating both the high and low-mAs projections. Then the parameter obtained can be used for PWLS to smooth the noise in low-dose projections. CBCT projections for a CatPhan 600 and an anthropomorphic head phantom, as well as for a brain patient, were used to evaluate the performance of the proposed technique. Results: The penalty parameter in PWLS was obtained for each CBCT projection using the proposed strategy. The noise in the low-dose CBCT images reconstructed from the smoothed projections was greatly suppressed. Image quality in PWLS-processed low-dose CBCT was comparable to its corresponding high-dose CBCT. Conclusions: A technique was proposed to estimate the penalty parameter for PWLS algorithm. It provides an objective and efficient way to obtain the penalty parameter for image restoration algorithms that require predefined smoothing parameters.

Wang, Jing; Guan, Huaiqun; Solberg, Timothy [Department of Radiation Oncology, UT Southwestern Medical Center, Dallas, Texas 75390 (United States); Department of Radiation oncology, Sylvester Comprehensive Cancer Center, University of Miami Medical School, Florida 33136 (United States); Department of Radiation Oncology, UT Southwestern Medical Center, Dallas, Texas 75390 (United States)

2011-07-15T23:59:59.000Z

345

A FOURTH H I 21 cm ABSORPTION SYSTEM IN THE SIGHT LINE OF MG J0414+0534: A RECORD FOR INTERVENING ABSORBERS  

SciTech Connect

We report the detection of a strong H I 21 cm absorption system at z = 0.5344, as well as a candidate system at z = 0.3389, in the sight line toward the z = 2.64 quasar MG J0414+0534. This, in addition to the absorption at the host redshift and the other two intervening absorbers, takes the total to four (possibly five). The previous maximum number of 21 cm absorbers detected along a single sight line is two and so we suspect that this number of gas-rich absorbers is in some way related to the very red color of the background source. Despite this, no molecular gas (through OH absorption) has yet been detected at any of the 21 cm redshifts, although, from the population of 21 cm absorbers as a whole, there is evidence for a weak correlation between the atomic line strength and the optical-near-infrared color. In either case, the fact that so many gas-rich galaxies (likely to be damped Ly{alpha} absorption systems) have been found along a single sight line toward a highly obscured source may have far-reaching implications for the population of faint galaxies not detected in optical surveys, a possibility which could be addressed through future wide-field absorption line surveys with the Square Kilometer Array.

Tanna, A.; Webb, J. K. [School of Physics, University of New South Wales, Sydney, NSW 2052 (Australia); Curran, S. J. [Sydney Institute for Astronomy, School of Physics, University of Sydney, NSW 2006 (Australia); Whiting, M. T. [CSIRO Astronomy and Space Science, P.O. Box 76, Epping, NSW 1710 (Australia); Bignell, C., E-mail: sjc@physics.usyd.edu.au [National Radio Astronomy Observatory, P.O. Box 2, Rt. 28/92 Green Bank, WV 24944-0002 (United States)

2013-08-01T23:59:59.000Z

346

Constraining isocurvature perturbations with the 21cm emission from minihaloes  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

We investigate the effects of isocurvature perturbations on the 21cm radiation from minihaloes (MHs) at high redshifts and examine constraints on the isocurvature amplitude and power spectrum using the next generation of radio telescopes such as the Square-Kilometer Array. We find that there is a realistic prospect of observing the isocurvature imprints in the 21cm emission from MHs, but only if the isocurvature spectral index is close to $3$ (i.e. the spectrum is blue). When the isocurvature fraction increases beyond $\\sim 10\\%$ of the adiabatic component, we observe an unexpected decline in the 21cm fluctuations from small-mass MHs, which can be explained by the incorporation small MHs into larger haloes. We perform a detailed Fisher-matrix analysis, and conclude that the combination of future CMB and 21cm experiments (such as CMBPol and the Fast-Fourier-Transform Telescope) is ideal in constraining the isocurvature parameters, but will stop short of distinguishing between CDM and baryon types of isocurvature perturbations, unless the isocurvature fraction is large and the spectrum is blue.

Yoshitaka Takeuchi; Sirichai Chongchitnan

2013-11-11T23:59:59.000Z

347

Challenge for Mesozoic hydrocarbon exploration in the Eastern Indonesia  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

The eastern part of Indonesia covers approximately 3 million square kilometers, 35 percent being landmass and 65 percent covered by ocean. Only three of 38 sedimentary basins are producing hydrocarbon (Salawati, Bintuni, and Seram Basins). Oil and gas have discovered in the Lariang, Bone, Timor, Banggai, Sula and Biak Basins, however the discoveries have not developed yet. Hydrocarbon systems in Northern Australia and Papua New Guinea give the major contributions to the geological idea of Pre-Tertiary section in the less explored area in the Eastern Indonesia. The Triassic-Middle Jurassic marine carbonaceous shale sequences are the main hydrocarbon source rock in the Irian Jaya and surrounding area (Buton, gula and Seram basins). The main Mesozoic reservoir are the Kembelangan Formation in the Bintuni Basin of Irian Jaya and Bobong Formation in the North Sula Region. Exploration play types in the Eastern Indonesia can be divided into five types: 1 - Peri Cratonic, 2 - Marginal Rift Graben, 3 - Thrust Fold Belt Island Arc, 4 - Early Collision and 5 -Microcontinental Block - Advanced Collision. Recent discoveries through Mesozoic section in Eastern Indonesia are: Roabiba-1 (1990) in Bintuni Basin-Irian Jaya (Kambelangan Formation); Loku- 1 (1990) in North Sula region (Pre-Tertiary sediments); Oseil-1 (1993/94) in Bula-Seram Basin (Jurassic Manusela Formation); Elang-1 (1 994); Kakaktua-1 (1994) and Laminaria-1 in North Bonaparte Basin (Upper Jurassic Sands).

Abdullah, S.; Rukmiati, M.G.; Sitompul, N. (Pertamina Exploration and Production, Jakarta (Indonesia))

1996-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

348

White flight or flight from poverty?  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

The phenomenon of White flight is often illustrated by the case of Detroit whose population dropped from 1.80 million to 0.95 million between 1950 and 2000 while at the same time its Black and Hispanic component grew from 30 percent to 85 percent. But is this case really representative? The present paper shows that the phenomenon of White flight is in fact essentially a flight from poverty. As a confirmation, we show that the changes in White or Black populations are highly correlated which means that White flight is always paralleled by Black flight (and Hispanic flight as well). This broader interpretation of White flight accounts not only for the case of northern cities such as Cincinnati, Cleveland or Detroit, but for all population changes at county level, provided the population density is higher than a threshold of about 50 per square-kilometer which corresponds to moderately urbanized areas (as can be found in states like Indiana or Virginia for instance).

Jego, C; Jego, Charles; Roehner, Bertrand M.

2006-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

349

Geothermal hydrology of Warner Valley, Oregon: a reconnaissance study  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

Warner Valley and its southern extension, Coleman Valley, are two of several high-desert valleys in the Basin and Range province of south-central Oregon that contain thermal waters. At least 20 thermal springs, defined as having temperatures of 20/sup 0/C or more, issue from Tertiary basaltic flows and tuffs in and near the valleys. Many shallow wells also produce thermal waters. The highest measured temperature is 127/sup 0/C, reported from a well known as Crump geyser, at a depth of 200 meters. The hottest spring, located near Crump geyser, has a surface temperature of 78/sup 0/C. The occurrence of these thermal waters is closely related to faults and fault intersections in the graben and horst structure of the valleys. Chemical analyses show that the thermal waters are of two types: sodium chloride and sodium bicarbonate waters. Chemical indicators show that the geothermal system is a hot-water rather than a vapor-dominated system. Conductive heat flow in areas of the valley unaffected by hydrothermal convection is probably about 75 milliwatts per square meter. The normal thermal gradient in valley-fill dpeosits in these areas may be about 40/sup 0/C per kilometer. Geothermometers and mixing models indicate that temperatures of equilibration are at least 170/sup 0/C for the thermal components of the hotter waters. The size and location of geothermal reservoirs are unknown.

Sammel, E.A.; Craig, R.W.

1981-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

350

Abu Dhabi's Masdar project: dazzling? or Just a mirage?  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

The Masdar project is to build a self-contained economic zone creating 70,000 jobs and eventually housing as many as 40,000 residents in the middle of the desert by 2016. The community, which is envisioned to house a science and technology park and housing, is designed to be carbon neutral and virtually waste-free. Two-thirds of the power is to come from a 10 MW solar farm, and nearly all water is to be recycled and reused. There will be virtually no waste, as all packaging and material are to be recycled, used for power generation or turned into compost. The car-free zone will be served by advanced personal rapid transit (PRT) vehicles that will zip residents around the 6.5-square-kilometer area. The problem with Masdar is not so much what goes inside it, but rather what is outside. Masdar is unlikely to change the image of Abu Dhabi as the most carbon-intensive place on earth.

NONE

2009-06-15T23:59:59.000Z

351

"GiGa": the Billion Galaxy HI Survey -- Tracing Galaxy Assembly from Reionization to the Present  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

In this paper, we review the Billion Galaxy Survey that will be carried out at radio--optical wavelengths to micro--nanoJansky levels with the telescopes of the next decades. These are the Low-Frequency Array, the Square Kilometer Array and the Large Synoptic Survey Telescope as survey telescopes, and the Thirty Meter class Telescopes for high spectral resolution+AO, and the James Webb Space Telescope (JWST) for high spatial resolution near--mid IR follow-up. With these facilities, we will be addressing fundamental questions like how galaxies assemble with super-massive black-holes inside from the epoch of First Light until the present, how these objects started and finished the reionization of the universe, and how the processes of star-formation, stellar evolution, and metal enrichment of the IGM proceeded over cosmic time. We also summarize the high-resolution science that has been done thus far on high redshift galaxies with the Hubble Space Telescope (HST). Faint galaxies have steadily decreasing sizes at fainter fluxes and higher redshifts, reflecting the hierarchical formation of galaxies over cosmic time. HST has imaged this process in great structural detail to zsub-clumps. Finally, we summarize how the 6.5 meter James Webb Space Telescope (JWST) will measure first light, reionization, and galaxy assembly in the near--mid-IR.

R. A. Windhorst; S. H. Cohen; N. P. Hathi; R. A. Jansen; R. E. Ryan Jr

2008-06-12T23:59:59.000Z

352

Conference Summary: HI Science in the Next Decade  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

The atomic hydrogen (HI) 21cm line measures the gas content within and around galaxies, traces the dark matter potential and probes volumes and objects that other surveys do not. Over the next decade, 21cm line science will exploit new technologies, especially focal plane and aperture arrays, and will see the deployment of Epoch of Reionization/Dark Age detection experiments and Square Kilometer Array (SKA) precursor instruments. Several experiments designed to detect and eventually to characterize the reionization history of the intergalactic medium should deliver first results within two-three years time. Although "precision cosmology" surveys of HI in galaxies at z ~ 1 to 3 require the full collecting area of the SKA, a coherent program of HI line science making use of the unique capabilities of both the existing facilities and the novel ones demonstrated by the SKA precursors will teach us how many gas rich galaxies there really are and where they reside and will yield fundamental insight into how galaxie...

Haynes, Martha P

2008-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

353

Conference Summary: HI Science in the Next Decade  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

The atomic hydrogen (HI) 21cm line measures the gas content within and around galaxies, traces the dark matter potential and probes volumes and objects that other surveys do not. Over the next decade, 21cm line science will exploit new technologies, especially focal plane and aperture arrays, and will see the deployment of Epoch of Reionization/Dark Age detection experiments and Square Kilometer Array (SKA) precursor instruments. Several experiments designed to detect and eventually to characterize the reionization history of the intergalactic medium should deliver first results within two-three years time. Although "precision cosmology" surveys of HI in galaxies at z ~ 1 to 3 require the full collecting area of the SKA, a coherent program of HI line science making use of the unique capabilities of both the existing facilities and the novel ones demonstrated by the SKA precursors will teach us how many gas rich galaxies there really are and where they reside and will yield fundamental insight into how galaxies accrete gas, form stars and interact with their environment.

Martha P. Haynes

2008-06-10T23:59:59.000Z

354

SRS ECOLOGY ENVIRONMENTAL INFORMATION DOCUMENT  

SciTech Connect

The SRS Ecology Environmental Information Document (EEID) provides a source of information on the ecology of Savannah River Site (SRS). The SRS is a U.S. Department of Energy (DOE)--owned property on the upper Atlantic Coastal Plain of South Carolina, centered approximately 40 kilometers (25 miles) southeast of Augusta, Georgia. The entire site was designated a National Environmental Research Park in 1972 by the Atomic Energy Commission, the predecessor of DOE. This document summarizes and synthesizes ecological research and monitoring conducted on the three main types of ecosystems found at SRS: terrestrial, wetland and aquatic. It also summarizes the available information on the threatened and endangered species found on the Savannah River Site. SRS is located along the Savannah River and encompasses an area of 80,267 hectares (310 square miles) in three South Carolina counties. It contains diverse habitats, flora, and fauna. Habitats include upland terrestrial areas, wetlands, streams, reservoirs, and the adjacent Savannah River. These diverse habitats support a variety of plants and animals, including many commercially or recreationally valuable species and several rare, threatened, or endangered species. Soils are the basic terrestrial resource, influencing the development of terrestrial biological communities. Many different soils exist on the SRS, from hydric to well-drained, and from sand to clay. In general, SRS soils are predominantly well-drained loamy sands.

Wike, L; Doug Martin, D; Eric Nelson, E; Nancy Halverson, N; John Mayer, J; Michael Paller, M; Rodney Riley, R; Michael Serrato, M

2006-03-01T23:59:59.000Z

355

The Nature of Microjansky Radio Sources and Implications for the Design of the Next Generation Very Sensitive Radio Telescopes  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Deep radio surveys show a population of very red counterparts of microjansky radio sources, which are unidentified to I = 25 in ground based images and I = 28.5 in the Hubble Deep Field. This population of optically faint radio sources, which comprises about 20% of the microjansky radio samples, may be dust enshrouded starburst galaxies, extreme redshift or dust reddened AGN, or due to displaced radio lobes. Even deeper radio surveys, which will be made possible by next generation radio telescopes such as the Expanded VLA or the Square Kilometer Array, will reach to nanojansky levels which may be dominated by this new population, but only if special care is taken to achieve high angular resolution and dynamic range better than 60 dB. This will reuire array dimensions up to 1000 km to achieve confusion limited performance at 1.4 GHz and up to 10,000 km at 300 MHz. But, even then, the ability to study individual nanojanksy radio sources may be limited by the finite extent of the sources and consequential blending of their images.

K. I. Kellermann; E. A. Richards

1999-09-06T23:59:59.000Z

356

Radio detection of high-energy cosmic rays at the Pierre Auger Observatory  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

The southern Auger Observatory provides an excellent test bed to study the radio detection of extensive air showers as an alternative, cost-effective, and accurate tool for cosmic-ray physics. The data from the radio setup can be correlated with those from the well-calibrated baseline detectors of the Pierre Auger Observatory. Furthermore, human-induced radio noise levels at the southern Auger site are relatively low. We have started an R&D program to test various radio-detection concepts. Our studies will reveal Radio Frequency Interferences (RFI) caused by natural effects such as day-night variations, thunderstorms, and by human-made disturbances. These RFI studies are conducted to optimise detection parameters such as antenna design, frequency interval, antenna spacing and signal processing. The data from our initial setups, which presently consist of typically 3 - 4 antennas, will be used to characterise the shower from radio signals and to optimise the initial concepts. Furthermore, the operation of a large detection array requires autonomous detector stations. The current design is aiming at stations with antennas for two polarisations, solar power, wireless communication, and local trigger logic. The results of this initial phase will provide an important stepping stone for the design of a few tens kilometers square engineering array

A. M. van den Berg; for the Pierre Auger Collaboration

2007-08-13T23:59:59.000Z

357

Materials Reliability Program: Technical Basis for Change to American Society of Mechanical Engineers (ASME) Section XI Appendix VIII Root- Mean-Square Error Requirement for Qualification of Depth-Sizing for Ultrasonic Testing (UT) Performed from the In  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

This report provides the technical basis for a modification of the ultrasonic testing (UT) qualification requirements of Appendix VIII of ASME Section XI. A recommended change to the requirement for flaw depth-sizing uncertainty is presented on the basis of deterministic and probabilistic evaluation approaches.BackgroundCompliance with the 0.125" depth-sizing root-mean-square error (RMSE) required by ASME Code Section XI Appendix VIII (Supplements 2, 10, ...

2013-10-17T23:59:59.000Z

358

Closure Report for Corrective Action Unit 110: Areas 3 RWMS U-3ax/bl Disposal Unit, Nevada Test Site, Nevada  

SciTech Connect

This Closure Report (CR) has been prepared for the Area 3 Radioactive Waste Management Site (RWMS) U-3ax/bl Disposal Unit Corrective Action Unit (CAU) 110 in accordance with the reissued (November 2000) Resource Conservation and Recovery Act (RCRA) Part B operational permit NEV HW009 (Nevada Division of Environmental Protection [NDEP], 2000) and the Federal Facility and Consent Order (FFACO) (NDEP et al., 1996). CAU 110 consists of one Corrective Action Site 03-23-04, described as the U-3ax/bl Subsidence Crater. Certifications of closure are located in Appendix A. The U-3ax/bl is a historic disposal unit within the Area 3 RWMS located on the Nevada Test Site (NTS). The unit, which was formed by excavating the area between two subsidence craters (U-3ax and U-3bl), was operationally closed in 1987. The U-3ax/bl disposal unit was closed under the RCRA, as a hazardous waste landfill. Existing records indicate that, from July 1968 to December 1987, U-3ax/bl received 2.3 x 10{sup 5} cubic meters (m{sup 3}) (8.12 x 10{sup 6} cubic feet [ft{sup 3}]) of waste. NTS atmospheric nuclear device testing generated approximately 95% of the total waste volume disposed of in U-3ax/bl; 80% of the total volume was generated from the Waste Consolidation Project. Area 3 is located in Yucca Flat, within the northeast quadrant of the NTS. The Yucca Flat watershed is a structurally closed basin encompassing an area of approximately 780 square kilometers (300 square miles). The structural geomorphology of Yucca Flat is typical of the Basin and Range Physiographic Province. Yucca Flat lies in one of the most arid regions of the country. Water balance calculations for Area 3 indicate that it is normally in a state of moisture deficit.

J. L. Smith

2001-08-01T23:59:59.000Z

359

Siting GNEP at the Savannah River Site: Using Legacy and Infrastructure in a Commercial Energy Park Concept  

SciTech Connect

The Savannah River Site (SRS) was proposed as one of eleven potential sites to be included in the U.S. Department of Energy Programmatic Environmental Impact Statement (PEIS) for the Global Nuclear Energy Partnership (GNEP) program. The approach to meet siting and infrastructure requirements for possible GNEP facilities at the SRS focused on available infrastructure including land, cooling water systems, high voltage power supplies, existing heavy haul roadways, existing analytical capabilities, and existing waste handling capabilities. Additional siting criteria and existing SRS capabilities and conditions were developed to locate the GNEP within a commercial Energy Park contained within, but separate from, the SRS. Included as part of, or corollary to, existing infrastructure at the SRS was the availability of a nuclear trained workforce living within the area. The SRS consists of approximately 803 square kilometers (310 square miles) in the Upper Atlantic Coastal Plain of South Carolina bordering along the Savannah River. Historic production reactors, processing, and laboratory facilities are currently being decommissioned and destroyed while new facilities such as the MOX facility are being built. Existing legacy infrastructure, beneficial to the potential GNEP facilities, continues to exist and operate. The SRS has a long history of processing, reprocessing and in the disposition of nuclear fuels and byproducts continuing through today with HCanyon as the only DOE facility currently capable of uranium reprocessing. Because of ongoing operations and maintenance of historic systems, SRS has existing infrastructure immediately available for GNEP facilities in or near the proposed Energy Park. The Energy Park location was chosen to achieve maximum use of this legacy infrastructure. In summary: Requirements for potential or conceivable GNEP facilities can be met using the existing facilities and infrastructure of the SRS. A potential commercially operated Energy Park located within the existing boundaries of the SRS can use existing site infrastructure to lessen the overall construction costs and decrease the start up time for our national GNEP program. (authors)

Wyatt, D. [URS, Washington Division/Safety Management Solutions, Aiken, SC (United States); Chaput, E. [Aiken-Edgefield Economic Development Partnership, Aiken, SC (United States); Hoffman, D. [URS, Washington Division/Safety Management Solutions, Oak Ridge, TN (United States)

2008-07-01T23:59:59.000Z

360

An aerial radiological survey of the Davis-Monthan Air Force Base and surrounding area, Tucson, Arizona  

SciTech Connect

An aerial radiological survey, which was conducted from March 1 to 13, 1995, covered a 51-square-mile (132-square-kilometer) area centered on the Davis-Monthan Air Force Base (DMAFB) in Tucson, Arizona. The results of the survey are reported as contours of bismuth-214 ({sup 214}Bi) soil concentrations, which are characteristic of natural uranium and its progeny, and as contours of the total terrestrial exposure rates extrapolated to one meter above ground level. All data were scaled and overlaid on an aerial photograph of the DMAFB area. The terrestrial exposure rates varied from 9 to 20 microroentgens per hour at one meter above the ground. Elevated levels of terrestrial radiation due to increased concentrations of {sup 214}Bi (natural uranium) were observed over the Southern Pacific railroad yard and along portions of the railroad track bed areas residing both within and outside the base boundaries. No man-made, gamma ray-emitting radioactive material was observed by the aerial survey. High-purity germanium spectrometer and pressurized ionization chamber measurements at eight locations within the base boundaries were used to verify the integrity of the aerial results. The results of the aerial and ground-based measurements were found to be in agreement. However, the ground-based measurements were able to detect minute quantities of cesium-137 ({sup 137}Cs) at six of the eight locations examined. The presence of {sup 137}Cs is a remnant of fallout from foreign and domestic atmospheric nuclear weapons testing that occurred in the 1950s and early 1960s. Cesium-137 concentrations varied from 0.1 to 0.3 picocuries per gram, which is below the minimum detectable activity of the aerial system.

NONE

1995-09-01T23:59:59.000Z

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "kilometers square kilometers" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


361

CX-001926: Categorical Exclusion Determination | Department of Energy  

Energy.gov (U.S. Department of Energy (DOE)) Indexed Site

926: Categorical Exclusion Determination 926: Categorical Exclusion Determination CX-001926: Categorical Exclusion Determination Development of Exploration Methods for Engineered Geothermal Systems through Integrated Geologic, Geophysical, and Geochemical Interpretation CX(s) Applied: A9 Date: 04/27/2010 Location(s): Dixie Valley, Nevada Office(s): Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy, Golden Field Office AltaRock Energy, Inc. (AltaRock) would test the hypothesis that the potential for Engineered Geothermal Systems (EGS) can be characterized, and drilling targets can be identified, through integration of existing and new geosciences data. The project includes both field work and limited laboratory work. Field work would take place in a 5 kilometer X 5 kilometer area in Dixie Valley Nevada. Laboratory work would take place at

362

NREL: Dynamic Maps, Geographic Information System (GIS) Data and Analysis  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

First Quarter 2012 First Quarter 2012 The Geographic Information System (GIS) Team at the National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL) encompasses a broad range of scientific research and reporting activity in support of the U.S. Department of Energy's (DOE) Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE), NREL programs and initiatives, and the GIS community. The purpose of this quarterly newsletter is to feature recent projects, highlight new tools and announce datasets available for download. Featured Project Thummbnail of the 10-km TMY3 boundries map. 10-kilometer TMY3 Boundaries Refined GIS analyst, Anthony Lopez, is finalizing a project that defines 10-kilometer TMY3 boundaries based on the spatial variance of resource, elevation, distance to station, and station uncertainty-as opposed to

363

DOE/EIS-0293 Final Environmental Impact Statement for the Conveyance and Transfer of Certain Land Tracts Administered by the U.S. Department of Energy and Located at Los Alamos National Laboratory, Los Alamos and Santa Fe Counties, New Mexico (Oct. 1999)  

Energy.gov (U.S. Department of Energy (DOE)) Indexed Site

S-1 S-1 Final CT EIS SUMMARY Introduction Los Alamos National Laboratory (LANL) is one of several national laboratories that supports the U.S. Department of Energy's (DOE's) responsibilities for national security, energy resources, environmental quality, and science. LANL is located in north-central New Mexico, within Los Alamos County and Santa Fe County, about 60 miles (97 kilometers) north-northeast of Albuquerque and about 25 miles (40 kilometers) northwest of Santa Fe (see Figure S-1). The small communities of Los Alamos townsite, White Rock, Pajarito Acres, the Royal Crest Mobile Home Park, and San Ildefonso Pueblo are located in the immediate vicinity of LANL. On November 26, 1997, Congress passed Public Law (PL) 105-119, the Departments of Commerce, Justice, and State, the Judiciary,

364

Small space object imaging : LDRD final report.  

SciTech Connect

We report the results of an LDRD effort to investigate new technologies for the identification of small-sized (mm to cm) debris in low-earth orbit. This small-yet-energetic debris presents a threat to the integrity of space-assets worldwide and represents significant security challenge to the international community. We present a nonexhaustive review of recent US and Russian efforts to meet the challenges of debris identification and removal and then provide a detailed description of joint US-Russian plans for sensitive, laser-based imaging of small debris at distances of hundreds of kilometers and relative velocities of several kilometers per second. Plans for the upcoming experimental testing of these imaging schemes are presented and a preliminary path toward system integration is identified.

Ackermann, Mark R.; Valley, Michael T.; Kearney, Sean Patrick

2009-10-01T23:59:59.000Z

365

Electrodynamics acceleration of electrical dipoles  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

This article considers the acceleration of electric dipoles consisting of thin metal plates and dielectric (barium titanate). The dipoles are of a cylindrical shape with a diameter of the cylinder two centimeters and length one centimeter. Capacity of the parallel-plate capacitor is three hundred picofarads and it is charged up to the voltage of two hundred eighty kilovolts. Pre-acceleration of the electric dipoles till velocity one kilometer per second is reached by the gas-dynamic method. The finite acceleration is produced in a spiral waveguide, where the pulse is travelling with voltage amplitude seven hundreds kilovolts and power one hundred twenty-five megawatts. This pulse travels via the spiral waveguide and accelerates the injected electric dipoles in the longitudinal direction till the finite velocity eight and a half kilometers per second over length seven hundred and seventy meters.

Dolya, S N

2013-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

366

Proceedings of the 17 th GAMM-Seminar Leipzig 2001, pp. 29{54 Description and generation of geometries and grids  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

10000 15000 20000 25000 30000 35000 "WIPP_2D.lgm" 6 surfcaes, 3 outcrops 3 triangles, 57 quadrilaterals WIPP2D.ng WIPP2D.lgm Figure 22: lgm2ng: WIPP domain 2D, lgm-geometry and ng-mesh Fig. 22 shows the WIPP by lgm2ng. In reality the horizontal extension of the WIPP-domain is 35 kilometers whereas the thickness

367

Beam Space Propulsion  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Author offers a revolutionary method non-rocket transfer of energy and thrust into Space with distance of millions kilometers. The author has developed theory and made the computations. The method is more efficient than transmission of energy by high-frequency waves. The method may be used for space launch and for acceleration the spaceship and probes for very high speeds, up to relativistic speed by current technology. Research also contains prospective projects which illustrate the possibilities of the suggested method.

Alexander Bolonkin

2007-01-04T23:59:59.000Z

368

LISA and ground-based detectors for gravitational waves: An overview  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

The gravitational wave spectrum covers many decades in frequency. Sources in the audio-frequency regime above 1 Hz are accessible to ground-based detectors while sources in the low-frequency regime can only be observed from space because of the unshieldable background of local gravitational noise on the ground and because ground-based interferometers are limited in length to a few kilometers. Laser interferometry is a promising technique to observe the minute distance changes caused by gravitational waves

Karsten Danzmann LISA Study Team

1998-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

369

Annual AM/dircam/10DEC03  

Open Energy Info (EERE)

- 3.5 2.5 - 3.0 2.0 - 2.5 < 2 Annual AMdircam10DEC03 0 100 200 50 Kilometers N I C A R A G U A H O N D U R A S G U A T E M A L A B E L I Z E E L S A L V A D O R Managua...

370

Technology development for a neutrino astrophysical observatory. Letter of intent  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

The authors propose a set of technology developments relevant to the design of an optimized Cerenkov detector for the study of neutrino interactions of astrophysical interest. Emphasis is placed on signal processing innovations that enhance significantly the quality of primary data. These technical advances, combined with field experience from a follow-on test deployment, are intended to provide a basis for the engineering design for a kilometer-scale Neutrino Astrophysical Observatory.

Chaloupka, V.; Cole, T.; Crawford, H.J. [and others

1996-02-01T23:59:59.000Z

371

Technology Development for a Neutrino AstrophysicalObservatory  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

We propose a set of technology developments relevant to the design of an optimized Cerenkov detector for the study of neutrino interactions of astrophysical interest. Emphasis is placed on signal processing innovations that enhance significantly the quality of primary data. These technical advances, combined with field experience from a follow-on test deployment, are intended to provide a basis for the engineering design for a kilometer-scale Neutrino Astrophysical Observatory.

Chaloupka, V.; Cole, T.; Crawford, H.J.; He, Y.D.; Jackson, S.; Kleinfelder, S.; Lai, K.W.; Learned, J.; Ling, J.; Liu, D.; Lowder, D.; Moorhead, M.; Morookian, J.M.; Nygren, D.R.; Price, P.B.; Richards, A.; Shapiro, G.; Shen, B.; Smoot, George F.; Stokstad, R.G.; VanDalen, G.; Wilkes, J.; Wright, F.; Young, K.

1996-02-01T23:59:59.000Z

372

Strong variations of cosmic ray intensity during thunderstorms and associated pulsations of the geomagnetic field  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Strong variations of the intensity of secondary cosmic rays during thunderstorms are found to be accompanied in some cases by very clear pulsations of the geomagnetic field. The experiment is carried out in the Baksan Valley, North Caucasus, the Carpet air shower array being used as a particle detector. Magnetic field measurements are made with high-precision magnetometers located deep underground in the tunnel of the Baksan Neutrino Observatory, several kilometers apart from the air shower array.

Kanonidi, K Kh; Lidvansky, A S; Sobisevich, L E

2011-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

373

EA-1949: Admiralty Inlet Pilot Tidal Project, Puget Sound, WA  

Energy.gov (U.S. Department of Energy (DOE))

This EA analyzes the potential environmental effects of a proposal by the Public Utility District No. 1 of Snowhomish County, Washington to construct and operate the Admiralty Inlet Tidal Project. The proposed 680-kilowatt project would be located on the east side of Admiralty Inlet in Puget Sound, Washington, about 1 kilometer west of Whidbey Island, entirely within Island County, Washington. The Federal Energy Regulatory Commission (FERC) is the lead agency. DOE is a cooperating agency.

374

Megaton Water Cerenkov Detectors and Astrophysical Neutrinos  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Although formal proposals have not yet been made, the UNO and Hyper-Kamiokande projects are being developed to follow-up the tremendously successful program at Super-Kamiokande using a detector that is 20-50 times larger. The potential of such a detector to continue the study of astrophysical neutrinos is considered and contrasted with the program for cubic kilometer neutrino observatories.

Maury Goodman

2005-01-21T23:59:59.000Z

375

Megaton Water Cerenkov Detectors and Astrophysical Neutrinos  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Although formal proposals have not yet been made, the UNO and Hyper-Kamiokande projects are being developed to follow-up the tremendously successful program at Super-Kamiokande using a detector that is 20-50 times larger. The potential of such a detector to continue the study of astrophysical neutrinos is considered and contrasted with the program for cubic kilometer neutrino observatories. 1.

M. Goodman A

2005-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

376

First order leveling: Pleasant Bayou geothermal test site, Brazoria County, Texas  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

First order leveling to be conducted as part of an environmental monitoring program for a geopressured test well was reported. 39.43 kilometers of first order levels were run to NGS specifications. Twelve Class B type bench marks were set to NGS specifications. The adjusted elevation of bench mark C-1209 was used as a starting elevation and is based on a supplementary adjustment of April 6, 1979 by NGS. The closure for the loop around the well site is -0.65 millimeters. The distance around the loop is 1.29 kilometers, the allowable error of closure was 4.54 millimeters. The initial leveling of this well was performed in 1977. A thorough search for their monumentation was conducted. No monuments were found due to the lack of adequate monument descriptions. Therefore, an elevation comparison summary for this report is only available along the NGS lines outside the well area. The first order level tie to line No. 101 (BMA-1208) was +3.37 millimeters in 17.21 kilometers. The allowable error of closure was 12.44 millimeters.

Not Available

1984-10-01T23:59:59.000Z

377

SAN JOSE STATE UNIVERSITY ONE WASHINGTON SQUARE  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

knowledge and skills that will help them to comprehend the workings of American democracy and of the society in which they live, to enable them to contribute to that society as responsible and constructive citizens; this unfortunate time line has resulted in insufficient consultation to date with History and Political Science

Gleixner, Stacy

378

Physical Plant: FY2010 Gross Square  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

(NERPC) Southborough, MA 87 308 Harvard Depository Petersham, MA 2857 73 Harvard Forest (Forestry, Botany

Chou, James

379

Physical Plant: FY2011 Gross Square  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

, Harvard University, Petersham, Massachusetts, 013669 4 Department of Ecology and Evolutionary Biology the northern (Harvard Forest; Petersham, Massachusetts; 42° N lat.) and57 southern (Duke Forest; Hillsborough

Samuel, Aravi

380

RATIONAL SUMS OF HERMITIAN SQUARES OF FREE ...  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Jul 24, 2013 ... K. Aardal and R. Weismantel, editors, Discrete Optimization, volume 12 of Handbooks in Opera- tions Research and Management Science, ...

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "kilometers square kilometers" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


381

sparse optimization with least-squares constraints  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Jan 30, 2010 ... 1.4. Outline. In section 2 we give conditions under which the Pareto curve is ...... 25th International Converence on Machine Learning, 2008, pp.

382

Robust Least Square Semidefinite Programming with Applications  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

To stress test a portfolio of correlated assets, the risk manager can specify the hypothetical scenarios and accordingly compute the loss of the ...... Intel E5620 Xeon 64-bit CPUs and 48 GB RAM, equipped with SUSE Linux Enterprise server 11.

383

Space nuclear power, propulsion, and related technologies.  

SciTech Connect

Sandia National Laboratories (Sandia) is one of the nation's largest research and development (R&D) facilities, with headquarters at Albuquerque, New Mexico; a laboratory at Livermore, California; and a test range near Tonopah, Nevada. Smaller testing facilities are also operated at other locations. Established in 1945, Sandia was operated by the University of California until 1949, when, at the request of President Truman, Sandia Corporation was formed as a subsidiary of Bell Lab's Western Electric Company to operate Sandia as a service to the U.S. Government without profit or fee. Sandia is currently operated for the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) by AT&T Technologies, Inc., a wholly-owned subsidiary of AT&T. Sandia's responsibility is national security programs in defense and energy with primary emphasis on nuclear weapon research and development (R&D). However, Sandia also supports a wide variety of projects ranging from basic materials research to the design of specialized parachutes. Assets, owned by DOE and valued at more than $1.2 billion, include about 600 major buildings containing about 372,000 square meters (m2) (4 million square feet [ft2]) of floor space, located on land totalling approximately 1460 square kilometers (km2) (562 square miles [mi]). Sandia employs about 8500 people, the majority in Albuquerque, with about 1000 in Livermore. Approximately 60% of Sandia's employees are in technical and scientific positions, and the remainder are in crafts, skilled labor, and administrative positions. As a multiprogram national laboratory, Sandia has much to offer both industrial and government customers in pursuing space nuclear technologies. The purpose of this brochure is to provide the reader with a brief summary of Sandia's technical capabilities, test facilities, and example programs that relate to military and civilian objectives in space. Sandia is interested in forming partnerships with industry and government organizations, and has already formed several cooperative alliances and agreements. Because of the synergism of multiple governmental and industrial sponsors of many programs, Sandia is frequently able to provide complex technical solutions in a relatively short time, and often at lower cost to a particular customer. They have listed a few ongoing programs at Sandia related to space nuclear technology as examples of the possible synergisms that could result from forming teams and partnerships with related technologies and objectives.

Berman, Marshall

1992-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

384

Space nuclear power, propulsion, and related technologies.  

SciTech Connect

Sandia National Laboratories (Sandia) is one of the nation's largest research and development (R&D) facilities, with headquarters at Albuquerque, New Mexico; a laboratory at Livermore, California; and a test range near Tonopah, Nevada. Smaller testing facilities are also operated at other locations. Established in 1945, Sandia was operated by the University of California until 1949, when, at the request of President Truman, Sandia Corporation was formed as a subsidiary of Bell Lab's Western Electric Company to operate Sandia as a service to the U.S. Government without profit or fee. Sandia is currently operated for the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) by AT&T Technologies, Inc., a wholly-owned subsidiary of AT&T. Sandia's responsibility is national security programs in defense and energy with primary emphasis on nuclear weapon research and development (R&D). However, Sandia also supports a wide variety of projects ranging from basic materials research to the design of specialized parachutes. Assets, owned by DOE and valued at more than $1.2 billion, include about 600 major buildings containing about 372,000 square meters (m2) (4 million square feet [ft2]) of floor space, located on land totalling approximately 1460 square kilometers (km2) (562 square miles [mi]). Sandia employs about 8500 people, the majority in Albuquerque, with about 1000 in Livermore. Approximately 60% of Sandia's employees are in technical and scientific positions, and the remainder are in crafts, skilled labor, and administrative positions. As a multiprogram national laboratory, Sandia has much to offer both industrial and government customers in pursuing space nuclear technologies. The purpose of this brochure is to provide the reader with a brief summary of Sandia's technical capabilities, test facilities, and example programs that relate to military and civilian objectives in space. Sandia is interested in forming partnerships with industry and government organizations, and has already formed several cooperative alliances and agreements. Because of the synergism of multiple governmental and industrial sponsors of many programs, Sandia is frequently able to provide complex technical solutions in a relatively short time, and often at lower cost to a particular customer. They have listed a few ongoing programs at Sandia related to space nuclear technology as examples of the possible synergisms that could result from forming teams and partnerships with related technologies and objectives.

Berman, Marshall

1992-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

385

The Impact of Tropical Cyclones on the Geomorphic Evolution of Bolivar Peninsula, TX  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Annually, tropical cyclones do tremendous damage and are agents of long-term coastal change. To test this idea of different tropical cyclones delivering consistent coastal change, a landform with such evolution is needed. One such landform is a spit. What contributions do tropical cyclones give toward the evolution of a spit, and do tropical cyclones give the same kinds of impacts? To determine if tropical cyclones have similar impacts, shoreline and volumetric change from four storms impacting Bolivar Peninsula are considered. Being a southwest-trended spit at a length of 33.5 kilometers, storm impacts are measured in the form of one dimensional shoreline and two dimensional volumetric change. These impacts are abstracted into shoreline change and volumetric change patterns. These patterns are identified and compared for differences between each storm and similarity among all storms. Results indicate that shoreline accretionary zones vary alongshore. Results from Hurricane Ike indicate an accretionary zone ten kilometers from the distal end. Shoreline change patterns for Hurricane Rita show an unstable accretionary zone at four kilometers from the distal end. Results for Tropical Storm Fay indicate an unstable accretionary zone that begins at the distal end and continues to the middle of the spit. In terms of similarity for shoreline change, all patterns from storms demonstrated erosion near Rollover Fish Pass. One dimensional volumetric change patterns were entirely erosive for Hurricanes Rita and Ike, and Tropical Storm Fay had by small zones of accretion near the distal portion of the spit. Tropical Storm Josephine demonstrated an accretion zone between the middle and distal portion of the spit. Results from two dimensional volumetric change patterns suggest a threshold for inland penetration. Tropical Storm Fay showed a ten to twenty meter wide pattern of erosion around five kilometers from the distal end and near the proximal end of the spit, and Hurricane Rita demonstrated a twenty meter wide pattern of erosion near the distal end. Hurricane Ike had erosive penetration of up to 200 meters around fifteen kilometers from the distal end. Results suggest that certain storms reinforce the standard spit growth model, and others work against it.

Hales, Billy

2012-05-01T23:59:59.000Z

386

Multivariate geographic clustering on the world`s first zero price/performance parallel computer  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

The authors present an application of multivariate non-hierarchical statistical clustering to geographic environmental data from the 48 conterminous US in order to produce maps of regions of ecological similarity, called ecoregions. These maps represent more realistic and finer scale regionalizations than those generated by the traditional technique: an expert with a marker pen. Nine input variables thought to affect the growth of vegetation are clustered at a resolution of one square kilometer. These data represent over 7.7 million map cells in a 9-dimensional data space. Denied the funding for the construction of a Beowulf-style cluster of new PCs on which to perform this analysis, the authors built a 126-node cluster out of surplus PCs--primarily Intel 486 CPUs with a host of different motherboards and connected via 10 Mb/s ethernet--obtained at no cost from federal facilities in Oak Ridge, Tennessee. The authors describe the construction of this unique and heterogeneous cluster. Running RedHat Linux with the GNU compiles and both PVM and MPI, this cluster, aptly named the Stone SouperComputer, is the first parallel computer with a price/performance ratio of zero. After developing a serial version of the iterative statistical clustering algorithm, the authors developed a parallel version of the algorithm which uses the MPI message passing routines. The parallel algorithm uses a classical master/slave organization, performs dynamic load balancing for reasonable performance on heterogeneous clusters, and saves intermediate results for easy restarting in case of hardware failure. In addition to being run on the Stone SouperComputer, the parallel algorithm was tested on other parallel platforms without code modification. Finally, the results of the geographic clustering are presented.

Hoffman, F.M.; Hargrove, W.W. [Oak Ridge National Lab., TN (United States); Schultz, A.J. [Univ. of Tulsa, OK (United States)

1998-10-01T23:59:59.000Z

387

MOLECULAR AND ATOMIC LINE SURVEYS OF GALAXIES. I. THE DENSE, STAR-FORMING GAS PHASE AS A BEACON  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

We predict the space density of molecular gas reservoirs in the universe and place a lower limit on the number counts of carbon monoxide (CO), hydrogen cyanide (HCN) molecular, and [C II] atomic emission lines in blind redshift surveys in the submillimeter-centimeter spectral regime. Our model uses (1) recently available HCN spectral line energy distributions (SLEDs) of local luminous infrared galaxies (LIRGs, L{sub IR} > 10{sup 11} L{sub Sun }), (2) a value for {epsilon}{sub *} = SFR/M{sub dense}(H{sub 2}) provided by new developments in the study of star formation feedback on the interstellar medium, and (3) a model for the evolution of the infrared luminosity density. Minimal 'emergent' CO SLEDs from the dense gas reservoirs expected in all star-forming systems in the universe are then computed from the HCN SLEDs since warm, HCN-bright gas will necessarily be CO-bright, with the dense star-forming gas phase setting an obvious minimum to the total molecular gas mass of any star-forming galaxy. We include [C II] as the most important of the far-infrared cooling lines. Optimal blind surveys with the Atacama Large Millimeter Array (ALMA) could potentially detect very distant (z {approx} 10-12) [C II] emitters in the {>=}ULIRG galaxy class at a rate of {approx}0.1-1 hr{sup -1} (although this prediction is strongly dependent on the star formation and enrichment history at this early epoch), whereas the (high-frequency) Square Kilometer Array will be capable of blindly detecting z > 3 low-J CO emitters at a rate of {approx}40-70 hr{sup -1}. The [C II] line holds special promise for detecting metal-poor systems with extensive reservoirs of CO-dark molecular gas where detection rates with ALMA can reach up to 2-7 hr{sup -1} in Bands 4-6.

Geach, James E. [Department of Physics, McGill University, 3600 rue University, Montreal, Quebec H3A 2T8 (Canada); Papadopoulos, Padelis P., E-mail: jimgeach@physics.mcgill.ca, E-mail: padelis@mpifr-bonn.mpg.de [Max Planck Institute for Radioastronomy, Auf dem Huegel 69, D-53121 Bonn (Germany)

2012-10-01T23:59:59.000Z

388

The Inductrack Approach to Magnetic Levitation  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

Concepts developed during research on passive magnetic bearing systems at the Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory gave rise to a new approach to magnetic levitation, the Inductrack. A passive induced-current system employing permanent magnets on the moving vehicle, the Inductrack maximizes levitation forces by a combination of two elements. First, the permanent magnets on the vehicle are arranged in a ''Halbach array,'' a magnet configuration that optimally produces a periodic magnetic field below the array, while canceling the field above the array. Second, the track is made up of close-packed shorted electrical circuits. These circuits couple optimally to the magnetic field of the Halbach array. As a result, levitating forces of order 40 metric tonnes per square meter of Halbach array can be generated, using NdFeB magnets whose weight is a few percent of the levitated weight. Being an induced-current system, the levitation requires motion of the vehicle above a low transition speed. For maglev applications this speed is a few kilometers per hour, walking speed. At rest or in the station auxiliary wheels are needed. The Inductrack is thus fail-safe, that is, drive system failure would only result in the vehicle slowing down and finally settling on its auxiliary wheels. On the basis of theoretical analyses a small model vehicle and a 20-meter-long track was built and tested at speeds of order 12 meters per second. A second model, designed to achieve 10-g acceleration levels and much higher speeds, is under construction under NASA sponsorship, en route to the design of maglev-based launchers for rockets. Some of the presently perceived practical problems of implementing full-scale maglev systems based on the Inductrack concept will be discussed.

Post, R.F.; Ryutov, D.D.

2000-04-19T23:59:59.000Z

389

Opportunities for renewable energy sources in Central Asia countries  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

This report presents an overview of the state of conventional energy sources and the potential for development of renewable energy sources in the Central Asia countries of Kazakhstan, Uzbekistan, Kyrgyzstan, Turkmenistan, and Tajikistan. The region has a population of about 50 million in an area of more than four million square kilometers. The per capita gross internal product is more than $2,500, although the economy has been declining the past five years. The area has substantial coal, oil, uranium, and natural gas reserves, although they are not distributed equally among the five countries. Energy production is such that the countries do not have to rely heavily on imports. One of the problems in Central Asia is that the energy prices are substantially below the world prices. This is a factor in development of renewable energy sources. The primary renewable energy resources available are wind in Kazakhstan, solar in the entire region, biomass in Kyrgyzstan, and micro-hydropower stations in Kazakhstan and Kyrgyzstan. All of these have the potential to provide a significant amount of the required energy for the region. However, all of the countries have an abundance of various renewable energy resources. To effectively use these resources, however, a number of barriers to their development and commercialization must be overcome. These include low prices of conventional energy sources, absence of legislative support, lack of financing for new technologies, and lack of awareness of renewable energy sources by the population. A number of specific actions are proposed to overcome these barriers. These include establishment of a Central Asia coordinating council for renewable energy, development of a regional renewable energy program, and setting up a number of large demonstration projects. 16 figs.

Obozov, A.J. [Project KUN (Kyrgyzstan); Loscutoff, W.V. [National Renewable Energy Lab., Golden, CO (United States)

1998-07-01T23:59:59.000Z

390

Long Baseline Neutrino Beams and Large Detectors  

SciTech Connect

It is amazing to acknowledge that in roughly 70 years from when the existence of the neutrino was postulated, we are now contemplating investigating the mysteries of this particle (or particles) requiring and utilizing detectors of 300 ktons , distances of 1,000-2,000 kilometers, beam intensities of megawatts and underground depth of 5,000 feet. This evolution has evolved slowly, from the experimental discovery of the neutrino in 1956, to the demonstration that there were two neutrinos in 1962 and three and only three by 1991. The great excitement occurred in the 2000's coming from the study of solar and atmospheric neutrinos in which neutrinos were observed to oscillate and therefore have mass. Although the absolute mass of any of the neutrinos has yet to be determined (the upper limit is less than I electron volt) the difference in this square of these masses has been measured, yielding a value of (2.3 {+-} .2) 10{sup -3} ev{sup 2} for atmospheric neutrinos and (7.6 {+-} .2) 10{sup -5} ev{sup 2} for solar neutrinos. In addition their mixing angles were found to be 45{sup o} for atmospheric neutrinos and 34{sup o} for solar neutrinos. This present state of knowledge on neutrinos is pictorially displayed in Fig. 1. Of course, mixing between flavors had already been observed in the quark sector as exemplified by the Cabbibo-Kobayashi-Meskawa Matrix. It was therefore natural to extend this formalism to the lepton sector involving unitary 3 x 3 matrices and one CP violating phase. This is shown in Fig. 2 for the two sectors, quark and leptons including the Jarlskog invariant (J).

Samios,N.P.

2008-10-27T23:59:59.000Z

391

AN ARECIBO SEARCH FOR PULSARS AND TRANSIENT SOURCES IN M33  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

We report on a systematic and sensitive search for pulsars and transient sources in the nearby spiral galaxy M33, conducted at 1.4 GHz with the Arecibo telescope's seven-beam receiver system, ALFA. Data were searched for both periodic and aperiodic sources, up to 1000 pc cm{sup -3} in dispersion measure and on timescales from {approx}50 {mu}s to several seconds. The galaxy was sampled with 12 ALFA pointings, or 84 pixels in total, each of which was searched for 2-3 hr. We describe the observations, search methodologies, and analysis strategies applicable to multibeam systems, and comment on the data quality and statistics of spurious events that arise due to radio frequency interference. While these searches have not led to any conclusive signals of periodic or transient nature that originate in the galaxy, they illustrate some of the underlying challenges and difficulties in such searches and the efficacy of simultaneous multiple beams in the analysis of search output. The implied limits are {approx}<5 {mu}Jy Mpc{sup 2} in luminosity (at 1400 MHz) for periodic sources in M33 with duty cycles {approx}<5%. For short-duration transient signals (with pulse widths {approx}<100 {mu}s ), the limiting peak flux density is 100 mJy, which would correspond to a 5{sigma} detection of bright giant pulses ({approx}20 kJy) from Crab-like pulsars if located at the distance of M33. We discuss the implications of our null results for various source populations within the galaxy and comment on the future prospects to conduct even more sensitive searches with the upcoming next-generation instruments including the Square Kilometer Array and its pathfinders.

Bhat, N. D. R.; Cox, P. J. [Centre for Astrophysics and Supercomputing, Swinburne University, Hawthorn, Victoria 3122 (Australia); Cordes, J. M.; Deneva, J. S. [Astronomy Department, Cornell University, Space Sciences Building, Ithaca, NY 14853 (United States); Hankins, T. H. [Physics Department, New Mexico Tech, Socorro, NM 87801 (United States); Lazio, T. J. W. [Jet Propulsion Laboratory, California Institute of Technology, Pasadena, CA 91109 (United States); McLaughlin, M. A. [Department of Physics, West Virginia University, Morgantown, WV 26506 (United States)

2011-05-01T23:59:59.000Z

392

U-PLANT GEOGRAPHIC ZONE CLEANUP PROTOTYPE  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

The U Plant geographic zone (UPZ) occupies 0.83 square kilometers on the Hanford Site Central Plateau (200 Area). It encompasses the U Plant canyon (221-U Facility), ancillary facilities that supported the canyon, soil waste sites, and underground pipelines. The UPZ cleanup initiative coordinates the cleanup of the major facilities, ancillary facilities, waste sites, and contaminated pipelines (collectively identified as ''cleanup items'') within the geographic zone. The UPZ was selected as a geographic cleanup zone prototype for resolving regulatory, technical, and stakeholder issues and demonstrating cleanup methods for several reasons: most of the area is inactive, sufficient characterization information is available to support decisions, cleanup of the high-risk waste sites will help protect the groundwater, and the zone contains a representative cross-section of the types of cleanup actions that will be required in other geographic zones. The UPZ cleanup demonstrates the first of 22 integrated zone cleanup actions on the Hanford Site Central Plateau to address threats to groundwater, the environment, and human health. The UPZ contains more than 100 individual cleanup items. Cleanup actions in the zone will be undertaken using multiple regulatory processes and decision documents. Cleanup actions will include building demolition, waste site and pipeline excavation, and the construction of multiple, large engineered barriers. In some cases, different cleanup actions may be taken at item locations that are immediately adjacent to each other. The cleanup planning and field activities for each cleanup item must be undertaken in a coordinated and cohesive manner to ensure effective execution of the UPZ cleanup initiative. The UPZ zone cleanup implementation plan (ZCIP) was developed to address the need for a fundamental integration tool for UPZ cleanup. As UPZ cleanup planning and implementation moves forward, the ZCIP is intended to be a living document that will provide a focal point for integrating UPZ actions, including field cleanup activities, waste staging and handling, and post-cleanup monitoring and institutional controls.

ROMINE, L.D.

2006-02-01T23:59:59.000Z

393

Environmental Restoration of Corrective Action Unit 408: Bomblet Target Area, Tonopah Test Range, Nevada (Funded by the American Reinvestment and Recovery Act)  

SciTech Connect

The mission of the U.S. Department of Energy, National Nuclear Security Administration Nevada Site Office (NNSA/NSO) Environmental Restoration Program is to address the environmental impacts of weapons testing conducted on the Nevada National Security Site and the Nevada Test and Training Range. The large physical size of these sites, along with limits on funding and other resources available for remediation efforts, means that environmental restoration activities must be prioritized and accomplished incrementally over time. The remediation of a bomblet target area on the Tonopah Test Range (TTR), which is located within the Nevada Test and Training Range, was originally planned in 2007 but was not carried out until funding became available in the summer of 2009 through the American Reinvestment and Recovery Act. This activity was implemented in accordance with the Federal Facility Agreement and Consent Order established between NNSA/NSO and the Nevada Division of Environmental Protection. This activity which was complete by the end of Fiscal Year 2010, involved the excavation of disposal pits suspected of containing submunitions and the surface clearance of submunitions on seven target areas amounting to approximately 6.7 square kilometers of land at the TTR. The TTR was used by Sandia National Laboratories from the late 1960s through the mid-1980s to conduct research into the deployment of submunitions. Although there were efforts to identify, collect, and dispose various amounts of unexploded ordnance on the TTR in the past, no comprehensive effort to remediate the entire flightline area for submunitions was undertaken before this project.

Kevin Cabble (NSO), Mark Burmeister and Mark Krauss (N-I)

2011-03-03T23:59:59.000Z

394

Final Technical Report: DOE-Biological Ocean Margins Program. Microbial Ecology of Denitrifying Bacteria in the Coastal Ocean.  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

The focus of our research was to provide a comprehensive study of the bacterioplankton populations off the coast of New Jersey near the Rutgers University marine field station using terminal restriction fragment polymorphism analysis (TRFLP) coupled to 16S rRNA genes for large data set studies. Our three revised objectives to this study became: (1) to describe bacterioplankton population dynamics in the Mid Atlantic Bight using TRFLP analysis of 16S rRNA genes. (2) to determine whether spatial and temporal factors are driving bacterioplankton community dynamics in the MAB using monthly samping along our transect line over a 2-year period. (3) to identify dominant members of a coastal bacterioplankton population by clonal library analysis of 16S rDNA genes and sequencing of PCR product corresponding to specific TRFLP peaks in the data set. Although open ocean time-series sites have been areas of microbial research for years, relatively little was known about the population dynamics of bacterioplankton communities in the coastal ocean on kilometer spatial and seasonal temporal scales. To gain a better understanding of microbial community variability, monthly samples of bacterial biomass were collected in 1995-1996 along a 34-km transect near the Long-Term Ecosystem Observatory (LEO-15) off the New Jersey coast. Surface and bottom sampling was performed at seven stations along a transect line with depths ranging from 1 to 35m (n=178). The data revealed distinct temporal patterns among the bacterioplankton communities in the Mid-Atlantic Bight rather than grouping by sample location or depth (figure 2-next page). Principal components analysis models supported the temporal patterns. In addition, partial least squares regression modeling could not discern a significant correlation from traditional oceanographic physical and phytoplankton nutrient parameters on overall bacterial community variability patterns at LEO-15. These results suggest factors not traditionally measured during oceanographic studies are structuring coastal microbial communities.

Lee Kerkhof

2013-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

395

Closure Plan for Corrective Action Unit 110: Area 3 RWMS U-3ax/bl Disposal Unit, Nevada Test Site, Nevada  

SciTech Connect

This Closure Plan has been prepared for the Area 3 RWMS U-3ax/bl Disposal Unit Corrective Action Unit 110 in accordance with the Federal Facility and Consent Order (Nevada Division of Environmental Protection [NDEP] et al., 1996). The U-3ax/bl is a historic disposal unit within the Area 3 Radioactive Waste Management Site located on the Nevada Test Site (NTS). The unit, which was formed by excavating the area between two subsidence craters (U-3ax and U-3bl), was operationally closed in 1987. The U-3ax/bl disposal unit is scheduled for permanent closure under the Resource Conservation and Recovery Act as a hazardous waste landfill. Existing records indicate that, from July 1968 to December 1987, U-3ax/bl received 2.3 x 10{sup 5} cubic meters (8.12 x 10{sup 6} cubic feet) of waste. NTS nuclear device testing generated approximately 95 percent of the total volume disposed of in U-3ax/bl, the majority of which came from the Waste Consolidation Project (80 percent of the total volume) (Elletson and Johnejack, 1995). Area 3 is located in Yucca Flat, within the northeast quadrant of the NTS. The Yucca Flat watershed is a structurally closed basin encompassing an area of approximately 780 square kilometers (300 square miles). The structural geomorphology of Yucca Flat is typical of the Basin and Range Physiographic Province. Yucca Flat lies in one of the most arid regions of the country. Water balance calculations for Area 3 indicate that it is continuously in a state of moisture deficit. The U-3ax/bl Disposal Unit will be closed in place by installing a Resource Conservation and Recovery Act equivalent cover. Following cover construction a fence will be installed around the cover to prevent accidental damage to the cover. Post-closure monitoring will consist of site inspections to determine the condition of the engineered cover and cover performance monitoring using Time-Domain Reflectometry arrays to monitor moisture migration in the cover. Any identified maintenance and repair requirements will be remedied within 60 working days of discovery and documented in writing at the time of repair. Results of all inspections/repairs for a given year will be addressed in a single report submitted annually to the NDEP. Soil moisture will be monitored within the cover for a period of at least two years prior to establishing performance criteria for NDEP regulatory purposes.

T. M. Fitzmaurice

2000-08-01T23:59:59.000Z

396

Status of understanding of the saturated-zone ground-water flow system at Yucca Mountain, Nevada, as of 1995  

SciTech Connect

Yucca Mountain, which is being studied extensively because it is a potential site for a high-level radioactive-waste repository, consists of a thick sequence of volcanic rocks of Tertiary age that are underlain, at least to the southeast, by carbonate rocks of Paleozoic age. Stratigraphic units important to the hydrology of the area include the alluvium, pyroclastic rocks of Miocene age (the Timber Mountain Group; the Paintbrush Group; the Calico Hills Formation; the Crater Flat Group; the Lithic Ridge Tuff; and older tuffs, flows, and lavas beneath the Lithic Ridge Tuff), and sedimentary rocks of Paleozoic age. The saturated zone generally occurs in the Calico Hills Formation and stratigraphically lower units. The saturated zone is divided into three aquifers and two confining units. The flow system at Yucca Mountain is part of the Alkali Flat-Furnace Creek subbasin of the Death Valley groundwater basin. Variations in the gradients of the potentiometric surface provided the basis for subdividing the Yucca Mountain area into zones of: (1) large hydraulic gradient where potentiometric levels change at least 300 meters in a few kilometers; (2) moderate hydraulic gradient where potentiometric levels change about 45 meters in a few kilometers; and (3) small hydraulic gradient where potentiometric levels change only about 2 meters in several kilometers. Vertical hydraulic gradients were measured in only a few boreholes around Yucca Mountain; most boreholes had little change in potentiometric levels with depth. Limited hydraulic testing of boreholes in the Yucca Mountain area indicated that the range in transmissivity was more than 2 to 3 orders of magnitude in a particular hydrogeologic unit, and that the average values for the individual hydrogeologic units generally differed by about 1 order of magnitude. The upper volcanic aquifer seems to be the most permeable hydrogeologic unit, but this conclusion was based on exceedingly limited data.

Luckey, R.R.; Tucci, P.; Faunt, C.C.; Ervin, E.M. [and others

1996-12-31T23:59:59.000Z

397

Section 23  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

3 3 Atmospheric Emitted Radiance Interferometer Temperature and Water Vapor Retrievals: Southern Great Plains Cloud and Radiation Testbed Seasonal Statistical Analysis, Monthly Climatic Means for Model Integration, and Future GOES/AERI Retrievals W. F. Feltz, W. L. Smith, R. O. Knuteson, H. E. Revercomb, H. Woolf H. B. Howell and S. Ho Cooperative Institute for Meteorological Satellite Studies Space Science and Engineering Center, University of Wisconsin-Madison Madison, Wisconsin Introduction The Atmospheric Emitted Radiance Interferometer (AERI) (Revercomb et al. 1993) is providing radiances to routinely produce temperature and water vapor retrievals in the first three kilometers of the Earth's atmosphere at the Atmospheric Radiation Measurement (ARM) Southern Great Plains (SGP)

398

Dose commitments due to radioactive releases from nuclear power plant sites: Methodology and data base. Supplement 1  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

This manual describes a dose assessment system used to estimate the population or collective dose commitments received via both airborne and waterborne pathways by persons living within a 2- to 80-kilometer region of a commercial operating power reactor for a specific year of effluent releases. Computer programs, data files, and utility routines are included which can be used in conjunction with an IBM or compatible personal computer to produce the required dose commitments and their statistical distributions. In addition, maximum individual airborne and waterborne dose commitments are estimated and compared to 10 CFR Part 50, Appendix 1, design objectives. This supplement is the last report in the NUREG/CR-2850 series.

Baker, D.A. [Pacific Northwest National Lab., Richland, WA (United States)] [Pacific Northwest National Lab., Richland, WA (United States)

1996-06-01T23:59:59.000Z

399

Photovoltaic-Concentrator Based Power Beaming For Space Elevator Application  

SciTech Connect

The MClimber team, at the Student Space Systems Fabrication Laboratory of the University of Michigan, has developed a prototype robotic climber for competition in the NASA sponsored Power Beaming Challenge. This paper describes the development of the system that utilizes a simple telescope to deliver an 8 kW beam to a photovoltaic panel in order to power a one kilometer climb. Its unique approach utilizes a precision GPS signal to track the panel. Fundamental systems of the project were implemented using a design strategy focusing on robustness and modularity. Development of this design and its results are presented.

Becker, Daniel E.; Chiang, Richard; Keys, Catherine C.; Lyjak, Andrew W.; Starch, Michael D. [S3FL, University of Michigan, Ann Arbor, MI, 48109 (United States); Nees, John A. [Center for Ultrafast Optical Science-University of Michigan, Ann Arbor, MI, 48109 (United States)

2010-05-06T23:59:59.000Z

400

Arctic Lower Troposphere Observed Structure (ALTOS)  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

Lower Troposphere Observed Structure (ALTOS) Lower Troposphere Observed Structure (ALTOS) will raise and lower a heavily instrumented tethered balloon system at regular intervals in the lower 2 kilometers of the atmosphere at Oliktok Point. Data obtained during the ALTOS campaign will provide a statistically significant set of observed in situ cloud properties for validating retrieval algorithms and help scientists reduce the uncertainty in the radiative forcing and heating rates on hourly time scales. The data will also help researchers gain a better understanding of the driving processes that control climate changes and determine the state of the Arctic climate system. Collaborators Science Team: The Pennsylvania State University, Stratton

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401

EPRI Independent Peer Review of the TEPCO Seismic Walkdown and Evaluation of the Kashiwazaki-Kariwa Nuclear Power Plants  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

The Tokyo Electric Power Company's (TEPCO's) Kashiwazaki-Kariwa (KK) plant is the largest nuclear power plant in the world with a total output of 8212 MW. The KK plant is 16 kilometers away from the epicenter of the Niigataken-Chuetsu-Oki (NCO) offshore earthquake, which took place at 10:13 a.m. on July 16, 2007, and had a Richter magnitude of 6.6. Ground motion recordings at the basemat of the seven boiling water reactors at the site revealed that the S2 seismic design level had been exceeded during the...

2008-01-14T23:59:59.000Z

402

Life Cycle Assessment of the Energy Independence and Security Act of 2007: Ethanol - Global Warming Potential and Environmental Emissions  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

The objective of this study is to use life cycle assessment (LCA) to evaluate the global warming potential (GWP), water use, and net energy value (NEV) associated with the EISA-mandated 16 bgy cellulosic biofuels target, which is assumed in this study to be met by cellulosic-based ethanol, and the EISA-mandated 15 bgy conventional corn ethanol target. Specifically, this study compares, on a per-kilometer-driven basis, the GWP, water use, and NEV for the year 2022 for several biomass feedstocks.

Heath, G. A.; Hsu, D. D.; Inman, D.; Aden, A.; Mann, M. K.

2009-07-01T23:59:59.000Z

403

Doubly Fed Induction Generator in an Offshore Wind Power Plant Operated at Rated V/Hz: Preprint  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

This paper introduces the concept of constant Volt/Hz operation of offshore wind power plants. The deployment of offshore WPPs requires power transmission from the plant to the load center inland. Since this power transmission requires submarine cables, there is a need to use High-Voltage Direct Current transmission, which is economical for transmission distances longer than 50 kilometers. In the concept presented here, the onshore substation is operated at 60 Hz synced with the grid, and the offshore substation is operated at variable frequency and voltage, thus allowing the WPP to be operated at constant Volt/Hz.

Muljadi, E.; Singh, M.; Gevorgian, V.

2012-06-01T23:59:59.000Z

404

Prospects For Precision Measurements with Reactor Antineutrinos at Daya Bay  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

In 2012 the Daya Bay experiment made an unambiguous observation of reactor antineutrino disappearance over kilometer-long baselines and determined that the neutrino mixing angle $\\theta_{13}$ is non-zero. The measurements of Daya Bay have provided the most precise determination of $\\theta_{13}$ to date. This whitepaper outlines the prospects for precision studies of reactor antineutrinos at Daya Bay in the coming years. This includes precision measurements of sin$^2 2\\theta_{13}$ and $\\Delta m^2_{ee}$ to $reactor flux and spectrum, and non-standard physics searches.

The Daya Bay Collaboration

2013-09-30T23:59:59.000Z

405

Corrective action investigation plan for CAU Number 453: Area 9 Landfill, Tonopah Test Range  

SciTech Connect

This Corrective Action Investigation Plan (CAIP) contains the environmental sample collection objectives and criteria for conducting site investigation activities at the Area 9 Landfill, Corrective Action Unit (CAU) 453/Corrective Action (CAS) 09-55-001-0952, which is located at the Tonopah Test Range (TTR). The TTR, included in the Nellis Air Force Range, is approximately 255 kilometers (140 miles) northwest of Las Vegas, Nevada. The Area 9 Landfill is located northwest of Area 9 on the TTR. The landfill cells associated with CAU 453 were excavated to receive waste generated from the daily operations conducted at Area 9 and from range cleanup which occurred after test activities.

NONE

1997-05-14T23:59:59.000Z

406

A Note on TeV Cerenkov Events as Bose-Einstein Gamma Condensations  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

The idea that the TeV air showers, thought to be produced by >10 TeV gamma rays from Mrk 501, can be mimicked by coherent bunches of sub-TeV photons is reexamined, focusing on fundamental considerations. In particular, it is shown that the minimum spot size of the beam of pulsed TeV photons arriving at Earth is on the order of a few kilometers, unless a lens with certain characteristics is placed between the TeV laser and Earth. The viability of the laser production mechanism proposed by Harwit et al. (2000) is also reassessed.

Amir Levinson

2000-07-09T23:59:59.000Z

407

The geological, isotopic, botanical, invertebrate, and lower vertebrate contexts for aripithecus ramidus  

SciTech Connect

Sediments containing Ardipithecus ramidus were deposited 4.4 million years ago on an alluvial floodplain in Ethiopia's western Afar rift. The Lower Aramis Member hominid-bearing unit, now exposed across a >9-kilometer structural arc, is sandwiched between two volcanic tuffs that have nearly identical {sup 40}Ar/{sup 39}Ar ages. Geological data presented here, along with floral, invertebrate, and vertebrate paleontological and taphonomic evidence associated with the hominids, suggest that they occupied a wooded biotope over the western three-fourths of the paleotransect. Phytoliths and oxygen and carbon stable isotopes of pedogenic carbonates provide evidence of humid cool woodlands with a grassy substrate.

Woldegabriel, Giday [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Ambrose, Stanley H [UNIV OF ILLINOIS; Barboni, Doris [CEREGE, FRANCE; Bonneffille, Raymond [CEREGE, FRANCE; Bremond, Laurent [MONTPELLIER, FRANCE; Currie, Brian [MIAMI UNIV, OXFORD, OHIO; Degusta, David [STANFORD UNIV.; Hart, William K [MIAMI UNIV, OXFORD, OHIO; Murray, Alison M [UNIV OF ALBERTA; Renne, Paul R [UC/BERKELEY; Jolly - Saad, M C [NANTERRE, FRANCE; Stewart, Kathlyn M [CANADA; White, Tim D [UC/BERKELEY

2009-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

408

Oahu Solar Measurement Grid (1-Year Archive): 1-Second Solar Irradiance; Oahu, Hawaii (Data)  

DOE Data Explorer (OSTI)

Seventeen measurement stations in the south western region of the island of Oahu collected data at 1-second intervals over the course of a year. The sensors are located in a 1-kilometer grid and the information then can be used to predict what PV outputs might be at 1-second intervals for medium-sized and large PV systems. This DOE-funded study by NREL supports the Hawaii Clean Energy Initiative (HCEI), a multifaceted program to substantially increase the use of renewable energy in Hawaii.

Sengupta, M.; Andreas, A.

409

Cost-Effective Cementitious Material Compatible with Yucca Mountain Repository Geochemistry  

SciTech Connect

The current plans for the Yucca Mountain (YM) repository project (YMP) use steel structures to stabilize the disposal drifts and connecting tunnels that are collectively over 100 kilometers in length. The potential exist to reduce the underground construction cost by 100s of millions of dollars and improve the repository's performance. These economic and engineering goals can be achieved by using the appropriate cementitious materials to build out these tunnels. This report describes the required properties of YM compatible cements and reviews the literature that proves the efficacy of this approach. This report also describes a comprehensive program to develop and test materials for a suite of underground construction technologies.

Dole, LR

2004-12-17T23:59:59.000Z

410

Oahu Solar Measurement Grid (1-Year Archive): 1-Second Solar Irradiance; Oahu, Hawaii (Data)  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Seventeen measurement stations in the south western region of the island of Oahu collected data at 1-second intervals over the course of a year. The sensors are located in a 1-kilometer grid and the information then can be used to predict what PV outputs might be at 1-second intervals for medium-sized and large PV systems. This DOE-funded study by NREL supports the Hawaii Clean Energy Initiative (HCEI), a multifaceted program to substantially increase the use of renewable energy in Hawaii.

Sengupta, M.; Andreas, A.

2010-03-16T23:59:59.000Z

411

Neutrinos from Gamma Ray Bursts  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

We show that the detection of neutrinos from a typical gamma ray burst requires a kilometer-scale detector. We argue that large bursts should be visible with the neutrino telescopes under construction. We emphasize the 3 techniques by which neutrino telescopes can perform this search: by triggering on i) bursts of muons from muon neutrinos, ii) muons from air cascades initiated by high energy gamma rays and iii) showers made by relatively low energy ($\\simeq 100\\,\\mev$) electron neutrinos. Timing of neutrino-photon coincidences may yield a measurement of the neutrino mass to order $10^{-5}$~eV, an interesting range in light of the solar neutrino anomaly.

F. Halzen; G. Jaczko

1996-02-07T23:59:59.000Z

412

A new way to infer variations of the seismic solar radius  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

We show that the mean phase of waves propagating all the way from the far side of the Sun to the front side, as measured by seismic holography, varies with time. The change is highly anticorrelated with solar cycle activity and is consistent with other recent results on the variation of the seismic radius of the Sun. The phase change that we observe corresponds to a few kilometers difference in the seismic solar radius from solar maximum to solar minimum in agreement with inferrences from global helioseismology studies.

Hernandez, I Gonzalez; Hill, F; 10.1088/0004-637X/691/2/L87

2009-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

413

Modeling the Physical and Biochemical Influence of Ocean Thermal Energy Conversion Plant Discharges into their Adjacent Waters  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

This paper describes the modeling work by Makai Ocean Engineering, Inc. to simulate the biochemical effects of of the nutrient-enhanced seawater plumes that are discharged by one or several 100 megawatt OTEC plants. The modeling is needed to properly design OTEC plants that can operate sustainably with acceptably low biological impact. In order to quantify the effect of discharge configuration and phytoplankton response, Makai Ocean Engineering implemented a biological and physical model for the waters surrounding O`ahu, Hawai`i, using the EPA-approved Environmental Fluid Dynamics Code (EFDC). Each EFDC grid cell was approximately 1 square kilometer by 20 meters deep, and used a time step of three hours. The biological model was set up to simulate the biochemical response for three classes of organisms: Picoplankton (< 2 um) such as prochlorococccus, nanoplankton (2-20 um), and microplankton (> 20 um) e.g., diatoms. The dynamic biological phytoplankton model was calibrated using chemical and biological data collected for the Hawaii Ocean Time Series (HOTS) project. Peer review of the biological modeling was performed. The physical oceanography model uses boundary conditions from a surrounding Hawai'i Regional Ocean Model, (ROM) operated by the University of Hawai`i and the National Atmospheric and Oceanic Administration. The ROM provided tides, basin scale circulation, mesoscale variability, and atmospheric forcing into the edges of the EFDC computational domain. This model is the most accurate and sophisticated Hawai'ian Regional Ocean Model presently available, assimilating real-time oceanographic observations, as well as model calibration based upon temperature, current and salinity data collected during 2010 near the simulated OTEC site. The ROM program manager peer-reviewed Makai's implementation of the ROM output into our EFDC model. The supporting oceanographic data was collected for a Naval Facilities Engineering Command / Makai project. Results: The model was run for a 100 MW OTEC Plant consisting of four separate ducts, discharging a total combined flow rate of 420 m3/s of warm water and 320 m3/s of cold water in a mixed discharge at 70 meters deep. Each duct was assumed to have a discharge port diameter of 10.5m producing a downward discharge velocity of about 2.18 m/s. The natural system, as measured in the HOTS program, has an average concentration of 10-15 mgC/m3. To calibrate the biological model, we first ran the model with no OTEC plant and varied biological parameters until the simulated data was a good match to the HOTS observations. This modeling showed that phytoplankton concentration were patchy and highly dynamic. The patchiness was a good match with the data variability observed within the HOTS data sets. We then ran the model with simulated OTEC intake and discharge flows and associated nutrients. Directly under the OTEC plant, the near-field plume has an average terminal depth of 172 meters, with a volumetric dilution of 13:1. The average terminal plume temperature was 19.8oC. Nitrate concentrations are 1 to 2 umol/kg above ambient. The advecting plume then further dilutes to less than 1 umol/kg above ambient within a few kilometers downstream, while remaining at depth. Because this terminal near-field plume is well below the 1% light limited depths (~120m), no immediate biological utilization of the nutrients occurs. As the nitrate is advected and dispersed downstream, a fraction of the deep ocean nutrients (< 0.5 umol/kg perturbation) mix upward where they are utilized by the ambient phytoplankton population. This occurs approximately twenty-five kilometers downstream from the plant at 110 - 70 meters depth. For pico-phytoplankton, modeling results indicate that this nutrient perturbation causes a phytoplankton perturbation of approximately 1 mgC/m3 (~10% of average ambient concentrations) that covers an area 10x5 km in size at the 70 to 90m depth. Thus, the perturbations are well within the natural variability of the system, generally corresponding to a 10 to 15% increase above the a

PAT GRANDELLI, P.E.; GREG ROCHELEAU; JOHN HAMRICK, Ph.D.; MATT CHURCH, Ph.D.; BRIAN POWELL, Ph.D.

2012-09-29T23:59:59.000Z

414

Modeling the Physical and Biochemical Influence of Ocean Thermal Energy Conversion Plant Discharges into their Adjacent Waters  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

This paper describes the modeling work by Makai Ocean Engineering, Inc. to simulate the biochemical effects of of the nutrient-enhanced seawater plumes that are discharged by one or several 100 megawatt OTEC plants. The modeling is needed to properly design OTEC plants that can operate sustainably with acceptably low biological impact. In order to quantify the effect of discharge configuration and phytoplankton response, Makai Ocean Engineering implemented a biological and physical model for the waters surrounding O`ahu, Hawai`i, using the EPA-approved Environmental Fluid Dynamics Code (EFDC). Each EFDC grid cell was approximately 1 square kilometer by 20 meters deep, and used a time step of three hours. The biological model was set up to simulate the biochemical response for three classes of organisms: Picoplankton ( 20 um) e.g., diatoms. The dynamic biological phytoplankton model was calibrated using chemical and biological data collected for the Hawaii Ocean Time Series (HOTS) project. Peer review of the biological modeling was performed. The physical oceanography model uses boundary conditions from a surrounding Hawai'i Regional Ocean Model, (ROM) operated by the University of Hawai`i and the National Atmospheric and Oceanic Administration. The ROM provided tides, basin scale circulation, mesoscale variability, and atmospheric forcing into the edges of the EFDC computational domain. This model is the most accurate and sophisticated Hawai'ian Regional Ocean Model presently available, assimilating real-time oceanographic observations, as well as model calibration based upon temperature, current and salinity data collected during 2010 near the simulated OTEC site. The ROM program manager peer-reviewed Makai's implementation of the ROM output into our EFDC model. The supporting oceanographic data was collected for a Naval Facilities Engineering Command / Makai project. Results: The model was run for a 100 MW OTEC Plant consisting of four separate ducts, discharging a total combined flow rate of 420 m3/s of warm water and 320 m3/s of cold water in a mixed discharge at 70 meters deep. Each duct was assumed to have a discharge port diameter of 10.5m producing a downward discharge velocity of about 2.18 m/s. The natural system, as measured in the HOTS program, has an average concentration of 10-15 mgC/m3. To calibrate the biological model, we first ran the model with no OTEC plant and varied biological parameters until the simulated data was a good match to the HOTS observations. This modeling showed that phytoplankton concentration were patchy and highly dynamic. The patchiness was a good match with the data variability observed within the HOTS data sets. We then ran the model with simulated OTEC intake and discharge flows and associated nutrients. Directly under the OTEC plant, the near-field plume has an average terminal depth of 172 meters, with a volumetric dilution of 13:1. The average terminal plume temperature was 19.8oC. Nitrate concentrations are 1 to 2 umol/kg above ambient. The advecting plume then further dilutes to less than 1 umol/kg above ambient within a few kilometers downstream, while remaining at depth. Because this terminal near-field plume is well below the 1% light limited depths (~120m), no immediate biological utilization of the nutrients occurs. As the nitrate is advected and dispersed downstream, a fraction of the deep ocean nutrients (< 0.5 umol/kg perturbation) mix upward where they are utilized by the ambient phytoplankton population. This occurs approximately twenty-five kilometers downstream from the plant at 110 - 70 meters depth. For pico-phytoplankton, modeling results indicate that this nutrient perturbation causes a phytoplankton perturbation of approximately 1 mgC/m3 (~10% of average ambient concentrations) that covers an area 10x5 km in size at the 70 to 90m depth. Thus, the perturbations are well within the natural variability of the system, generally corresponding to a 10 to 15% increase above the a

PAT GRANDELLI, P.E.; GREG ROCHELEAU; JOHN HAMRICK, Ph.D.; MATT CHURCH, Ph.D.; BRIAN POWELL, Ph.D.

2012-09-29T23:59:59.000Z

415

Bi-iterative least-square method for subspace tracking  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

schemes for ef?cient subspace tracking,” IEEE Trans. SignalLinebarger, “Subspace tracking”. [11] E. M. Dowling, L. P.angle and frequency tracking,” IEEE Trans. Signal Process. ,

Ouyang, S; Hua, Y

2005-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

416

Least-squares approach to risk parity in portfolio selection  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Oct 21, 2013 ... does not utilize any information on the assets' volatility or their correlations. ... has a simpler structure and allows for easier analysis and efficient algorithmic ..... is “

417

The architect as communicator : a dialogue of Copley Square  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Architecture is a dialogue. It is a communication between those who design and the society which they design in. The two are inseparable. The role of the designer, which I have chosen as an architect, is that of a communicator. ...

May, Paul Gerard

1987-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

418

Every Square Inch: The Fight for the California Desert  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

an industrial size solar or wind farm on its borders? Are weparabolic troughs and large wind farms? Others counter thatpossibility of a few wind or solar farms in the area was a

Argandona, Monica

2012-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

419

INSIGHT: LOCAL INSIGHT: LOCAL he Square Kilometre Array  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

and Australia. The Karoo, an area in SA that was once the floor of an inland sea, is one of the best places of the entire SKA project using the Meer- KAT telescope under construction in the Karoo and a similar, twin% in the Karoo and 40% spread across eight partner countries in Africa (Botswana, Namibia, Mozambique, Madagascar

Glass, Ian S.

420

Word in the Square Conversation Monitoring and Analysis Report  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

technologies from GM, Honda, BMW and others. Debate between the electric and hydrogen cars emerged about what offers the opportunity to educate bloggers that the hydrogen fuel cell cars are in fact electric cars other alternative fuels and energy o The Los Angeles auto show sparked much debate about emerging car

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "kilometers square kilometers" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


421

A derivative-free algorithm for least-squares minimization  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

random process [1, 2]. ..... Step 3 (Safety step) This step applies only when dk. safety step (Step 3) when the.

422

From OO to FPGA : fitting round objects into square hardware.  

SciTech Connect

Consumer electronics today such as cell phones often have one or more low-power FPGAs to assist with energy-intensive operations in order to reduce overall energy consumption and increase battery life. However, current techniques for programming FPGAs require people to be specially trained to do so. Ideally, software engineers can more readily take advantage of the benefits FPGAs offer by being able to program them using their existing skills, a common one being object-oriented programming. However, traditional techniques for compiling object-oriented languages are at odds with today's FPGA tools, which support neither pointers nor complex data structures. Open until now is the problem of compiling an object-oriented language to an FPGA in a way that harnesses this potential for huge energy savings. In this paper, we present a new compilation technique that feeds into an existing FPGA tool chain and produces FPGAs with up to almost an order of magnitude in energy savings compared to a low-power microprocessor while still retaining comparable performance and area usage.

Kou, Stephen [University of California, Los Angeles, CA] University of California, Los Angeles, CA; Palsberg, Jens [University of California, Los Angeles, CA] University of California, Los Angeles, CA; Brooks, Jeffrey

2012-09-01T23:59:59.000Z

423

Every Square Inch: The Fight for the California Desert  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

local distribution and rooftop solar instead of paving overup Los Angeles, and rooftop solar was far more practical.from urban centers when rooftop solar could feed back into

Argandona, Monica

2012-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

424

Least Squares Optimal Scaling of Partially Observed Linear Systems  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

presence or absence of home-security devices). Items werestation Incivility: Graffiti Home security: Motion detector

2003-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

425

An Extension of Sums of Squares Relaxations to Polynomial ...  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Tokyo Institute of Technology. 2-12-1 Oh-Okayama, ... Department of Computer Science, The University of Electro-Communications, 1-5-1. Chofugaoka ...

426

Metal Artefact Reduction by Least-Squares Penalized-Likelihood ...  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

representation mapped from a single attenuation image at a reference energy. Using the same model, we proposed an alternative reconstruction algorithm that

427

Disk Packing in a Square: A New Global Optimization Approach  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

An interesting alternative could be to consider the unconstrained minimization of the energy function (3) as done in [Nurmela et al. (1997)]. As remarked in ...

428

13 Railroad Square, Suite 504 Haverhill, Massachusetts 01832  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

for Smart Customer Interface ­ Distribution Automation ­ Smart metering improves load models and profiles Power Grid and Energy Infrastructure? ­ A secure "architected" sensing, communications, automation Automation "Prices to Devices" (Demand Response) Phasor Measurement Smart Grid ­ Exchanging Information

429

The 1973 Least-Squares Adiustment of the Fundamental ...  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

... V V"'PL - V'IIBS = 1.13(14) f.1.V V'IIPL - V'-lBS = 1.07(14) pV V:'-Ist ... over a period of time 10nj2; enough to completely cover the lunar and solar cycles ...

2011-06-08T23:59:59.000Z

430

Squares of the natural numbers in radiation protection. [Informal history  

SciTech Connect

An informal history of radiation protection is given. The following topics are included: the discovery of x rays and their effects, the formation of the International Committee on X-ray and Radium Protection, the Manhattan Project and its plutonium aspects, dose limits and their origin, the increase in antinuclear writings, the publication of reports on radiation levels and effects, the role of the EPA in medical radiation, and the Oklo phenomenon. Recommendations for NCRP and ICRP actions are given. The publication also contains brief biographies of Lauriston S. Taylor and Herbert M. Parker. (RWR)

Parker, H.M.

1977-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

431

Revealing the process : a bakery for Kenmore Square  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

This thesis seeks to explore the connection between humans and the machines they created. Machines in our daily lives have been miniaturized; one can no longer understand how they function, causing distress and anger. ...

Zlotogura, Jessica A. (Jessica Amy), 1975-

2000-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

432

,"Housing Units1","Average Square Footage Per Housing Unit",...  

U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

the U.S. Department of Energy's Office of Energy and Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE). 5Rented includes households that occupy their primary housing unit without payment of...

433

Sums of Squares Relaxations of Polynomial Semidefinite Programs  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

a vector variable in the n-dimensional Euclidean space and A(x) an m × m symmetric matrix whose (i, j)th component Aij(x) is a real valued polynomial in x.

434

Figure 3. PCs and Terminals per Million Square Feet, 1995  

U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

consumptioncommercialdataarchivecbecsconsumptionbriefssqft1995.htm For help with technical problems, please contact the webmaster: wmaster@eia.doe.gov Phone: (202) 586-8959...

435

Compass, Square and Swastika: Freemasonry in the Third Reich  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Nazi persecution was not uniform and could be negotiated by the groups being targeted based on a number of factors including the racial status of the group being persecuted, the willingness of the group members to cooperate with the regime, the services and skills the group had to offer and the willingness of the regime to allow cooperation. The experience of Freemasons under the Third Reich provides an example of the ability of targeted groups to negotiate Nazi persecution based on these factors. As members of the educated and professional class, Freemasons belonged to the demographic that most strongly supported Hitler from the late 1920s until war's outbreak in 1939. For Hitler, the skills these men possessed as doctors, lawyers, businessmen and bankers were essential to the success of the regime. So what would have otherwise been a mutually beneficial relationship eagerly sought after by both parties was prevented by the fact that the men were Freemasons and thus had ties to an organization whose ideology stood in complete contrast to that of National Socialism. However, because the identifier "Freemason" was not one based on biology or race, Freemasons had the ability to shed their identity as Freemasons by leaving the regime, an ability that they willingly and eagerly exercised. In return, the Nazi Party had to decide to what extent former Freemasons, whose professional skills and talent were so essential, could be allowed to work with the regime. Thus began the complex dance of compromise as each side tested the limits of what it could and couldn't do in order to cooperate with the other. For former Freemasons, the goal was trying to prove loyalty to the regime in the face of their previous lodge membership. For the regime the goal was finding a balance between ideological purity and practical necessity. Though the Nazis destroyed Freemasonry as an institution, the success of former Freemasons in aligning with the party as individuals shows the ability of Germans, even those in targeted groups, to escape persecution and even benefit from the regime that had previously targeted them.

Thomas, Christopher Campbell

2011-08-01T23:59:59.000Z

436

Thousands of Atoms Swap 'Spins' in Quantum Square Dance  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

... and light, quantum computers might provide extraordinary power for applications ... rubidium atoms trapped within a three-dimensional grid of light ...

2013-07-08T23:59:59.000Z

437

Black Thunder Coal Mine and Los Alamos National Laboratory experimental study of seismic energy generated by large scale mine blasting  

SciTech Connect

In an attempt to better understand the impact that large mining shots will have on verifying compliance with the international, worldwide, Comprehensive Test Ban Treaty (CTBT, no nuclear explosion tests), a series of seismic and videographic experiments has been conducted during the past two years at the Black Thunder Coal Mine. Personnel from the mine and Los Alamos National Laboratory have cooperated closely to design and perform experiments to produce results with mutual benefit to both organizations. This paper summarizes the activities, highlighting the unique results of each. Topics which were covered in these experiments include: (1) synthesis of seismic, videographic, acoustic, and computer modeling data to improve understanding of shot performance and phenomenology; (2) development of computer generated visualizations of observed blasting techniques; (3) documentation of azimuthal variations in radiation of seismic energy from overburden casting shots; (4) identification of, as yet unexplained, out of sequence, simultaneous detonation in some shots using seismic and videographic techniques; (5) comparison of local (0.1 to 15 kilometer range) and regional (100 to 2,000 kilometer range) seismic measurements leading to determine of the relationship between local and regional seismic amplitude to explosive yield for overburden cast, coal bulking and single fired explosions; and (6) determination of the types of mining shots triggering the prototype International Monitoring System for the CTBT.

Martin, R.L.; Gross, D. [Thunder Basin Coal Co., Wright, WY (United States); Pearson, D.C.; Stump, B.W. [Los Alamos National Lab., NM (United States); Anderson, D.P. [Southern Methodist Univ., Dallas, TX (United States). Dept. of Geological Sciences

1996-12-31T23:59:59.000Z

438

OTEC thermal resource report for Dampier Land, Australia  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

The region off Dampier Land, Australia was selected for study as a potential OTEC site. The region examined was between 13--18/sup 0/ South latitude and 118--121/sup 0/ East longitude. Data coverage was sparse, but the existing data demonstrated a fine potential for Ocean Thermal Energy Conversion (OTEC) use. The maximum temperature gradient remains relatively stable throughout the year. The annual average ..delta..T at 1000 meters is 22.6/sup 0/C. At 600 meters, an annual average ..delta..T greater than 20/sup 0/C is obtainable. The continental shelf off Dampier Land is very wide; thus, the distance to water 1500 meters deep may be as much as 480 kilometers (260 nautical miles). Water 1000 meters deep lies at least 265 kilometers (143 nautical miles) offshore. This distance is a major problem, perhaps necessitating the use of a plant ship. Tropical storms can be a problem between December and April. The ocean off Dampier Land has an upper mixed layer throughout the year. Currents are generally moderate, although the surface circulation pattern changes during the year.

Wolff, W. A.

1979-05-01T23:59:59.000Z

439

OTEC thermal resource report for Guam  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

The temperature difference resource of Guam is unsurpassed among the ten sites studied under the present contract. The monthly mean surface temperatures are consistently high throughout the year, ranging from 27.7 to 29.2/sup 0/C. Consistently large ..delta..T values are available throughout the year, with small variability. An annual average ..delta..T greater than 20/sup 0/C is available at depths of slightly less than 500 meters. Potential OTEC sites off Guam would require cable lengths of less than 9.3 kilometers (5 nautical miles) in many locations. Waters 500 meters deep are within 3.7 kilometers (2 nautical miles) off parts of Guam. Typhoons and tropical storms (with associated high seas and strong winds) are problems at the Guam site. Currents are generally moderate in strength with little variation in direction. Guam has airfields and harbors available for logistic support. Seismic activity in the area also poses a potential threat to OTEC operations.

Wolff, W. A.

1979-05-01T23:59:59.000Z

440

Intensive archaeological survey of the F/H Surface Enhancement Project Area, Savannah River Site, Aiken and Barnwell Counties, South Carolina  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Twelve archaeological sites and four artifact occurrences were located by intensive survey of two tracts of land for the F and H Surface Enhancement Project on the Savannah River Site, Aiken and Barnwell Counties, South Carolina. Fieldwork in the 480-acre project area included surface reconnaissance of 3.6 linear kilometers of transects, 140 shovel tests along 4.2 linear kilometers of transects, an additional 162 shovel tests at sites and occurrences, and the excavation of six l {times} 2 m test units. All but one of the sites contained artifacts of the prehistoric era; the twelfth site consists of the remains of a twentieth-century home place. The historic site and six of the prehistoric sites consist of limited and/or disturbed contexts of archaeological deposits that have little research potential and are therefore considered ineligible for nomination to the National Register of Historic Places (NRHP). The remaining five sites have sufficient content and integrity to yield information important to ongoing investigations into upland site use. These sites (38AK146, 38AK535, 38AK539, 38AK541, and 38AK543) are thus deemed eligible for nomination to the NRHP and the Savannah River Archaeological Research Program (SRARP) recommends that they be preserved through avoidance or data recovery.

Sassaman, K.E.; Gillam, J.C.

1993-08-01T23:59:59.000Z

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "kilometers square kilometers" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


441

Preliminary targeting of geothermal resources in Delaware. Progress report, July 15, 1979-May 30, 1980  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

Work completed included additional gravity mapping in southern Delaware, development of a computer program for contouring gravity data, and some preliminary quantitative interpretations of gravity and magnetic data in southern Delaware. No significant changes were made in the original Bouguer gravity map produced during the original contract period as a result of this later mapping. The SYMAP and SCONTOUR computing programs, developed by Harvard Graphics and adapted for the B7700, were used to generate computer drawn Bouguer gravity maps for the study area. Maximum depths calculated for the top of a gravity anomaly in the Bridgeville area ranged from about 2.3 to 2.7 kilometers (7500 to 8000 feet). Depth to magnetic basement in the same general area was calculated to be between about 1.5 and 2.9 kilometers (4920 and 6200 feet). Both gravity and magnetic data agree with trends noted on regional maps and suggest that in selected cases fracture zones beneath the coastal plain might be a possible target for future geothermal exploration.

Woodruff, K.D.

1980-08-01T23:59:59.000Z

442

Climate Impact of Transportation A Model Comparison  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Transportation contributes to a significant and rising share of global energy use and GHG emissions. Therefore modeling future travel demand, its fuel use, and resulting CO2 emission is highly relevant for climate change mitigation. In this study we compare the baseline projections for global service demand (passenger-kilometers, ton-kilometers), fuel use, and CO2 emissions of five different global transport models using harmonized input assumptions on income and population. For four models we also evaluate the impact of a carbon tax. All models project a steep increase in service demand over the century. Technology is important for limiting energy consumption and CO2 emissions, but quite radical changes in the technology mix are required to stabilize or reverse the trend. While all models project liquid fossil fuels dominating up to 2050, they differ regarding the use of alternative fuels (natural gas, hydrogen, biofuels, and electricity), because of different fuel price projections. The carbon tax of US$200/tCO2 in 2050 stabilizes or reverses global emission growth in all models. Besides common findings many differences in the model assumptions and projections indicate room for improvement in modeling and empirical description of the transport system.

Girod, Bastien; Van Vuuren, Detlef; Grahn, Maria; Kitous, Alban; Kim, Son H.; Kyle, G. Page

2013-06-01T23:59:59.000Z

443

Ionizing radiation risks to Satellite Power Systems (SPS) workers in space  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

A reference Satellite Power System (SPS) has been designed by NASA and its contractors for the purposes of evaluating the concept and carrying out assessments of the various consequences of development, including those on the health of the space workers. The Department of Energy has responsibility for directing various assessments. Present planning calls for the SPS workers to move from Earth to a low earth orbit (LEO) at an altitude of 500 kilometers; to travel by a transfer ellipse (TE) trajectory to a geosynchronous orbit (GEO) at an altitude of 36,000 kilometers; and to remain in GEO orbit for about 90 percent of the total time aloft. The radiation risks to the health of workers who will construct and maintain solar power satellites in the space environment are studied. The charge to the committee was: (a) to evaluate the radiation environment estimated for the Reference System which could represent a hazard; (b) to assess the possible somatic and genetic radiation hazards; and (c) to estimate the risks to the health of SPS workers due to space radiation exposure, and to make recommendations based on these conclusions. Details are presented. (WHK)

Not Available

1980-12-01T23:59:59.000Z

444

Final Environmental Impact Statement for the Conveyance and Transfer of Certain Land Tracts Administered by the U.S. Department of Energy and Located at Los Alamos National Laboratory, Los Alamos and Santa Fe Counties, New Mexico  

SciTech Connect

Los Alamos National Laboratory (LANL) is one of several national laboratories that supports the U.S. Department of Energy's (DOE's) responsibilities for national security, energy resources, environmental quality, and science. LANL is located in north-central New Mexico, within Los Alamos County and Santa Fe County, about 60 miles (97 kilometers) north-northeast of Albuquerque and about 25 miles (40 kilometers) northwest of Santa Fe. The small communities of Los Alamos townsite, White Rock, Pajarito Acres, the Royal Crest Mobile Home Park, and San Ildefonso Pueblo are located in the immediate vicinity of LANL. On November 26, 1997, Congress passed Public Law (PL) 105-119, the ''Departments of Commerce, Justice, and State, the Judiciary, and Related Agencies Appropriations Act'', 1998 (Section 632, 42 United States Code [U.S.C.] Section 2391; ''the Act''), which directs the DOE to convey or transfer parcels of DOE land in the vicinity of LANL to the Incorporated County of Los Alamos, New Mexico, and the Secretary of the Interior, in trust for the Pueblo of San Ildefonso. Such parcels, or tracts, of land must not be required to meet the national security mission of the DOE and must also meet other criteria established by the Act.

N /A

2000-02-04T23:59:59.000Z

445

COLOR DEPENDENCE IN THE SIZE DISTRIBUTION OF MAIN BELT ASTEROIDS REVISITED  

SciTech Connect

The size distribution of the asteroid belt is examined with 16956 main belt asteroids detected in data taken from the Canada-France-Hawaii Telescope Legacy Survey in two filters (g' and r'). The cumulative H (absolute magnitude) distribution is examined in both filters, and both match well to simple power laws down to H = 17, with slopes in rough agreement with those reported the literature. This implies that disruptive collisions between asteroids are gravitationally dominated down to at least this size, and probably sub-kilometer scales. The slopes of these distributions appear shallower in the outer belt than the inner belt, and the g' distributions appear slightly steeper than the r'. The slope shallowing in the outer belt may reflect a real compositional difference: the inner asteroid belt has been suggested to consist mostly of stony and/or metallic S-type asteroids, whereas carbonaceous C-types are thought to be more prevalent further from the Sun. No waves are seen in the size distribution above H = 15. Since waves are expected to be produced at the transition from gravitationally-dominated to internal strength-dominated collisions, their absence here may imply that the transition occurs at sub-kilometer scales, much smaller than the H = 17 (diameter {approx} 1.6 km) cutoff of this study.

August, Tyler M.; Wiegert, Paul A., E-mail: tx_august@laurentian.ca [Department of Physics and Astronomy, The University of Western Ontario, London, ON N6A 3K7 (Canada)

2013-06-15T23:59:59.000Z

446

Mine seismicity and the Comprehensive Nuclear Test Ban Treaty  

SciTech Connect

Surface and underground mining operations generate seismic ground motions which are created by chemical explosions and ground failures. It may come as a surprise to some that the ground failures (coal bumps, first caves, pillar collapses, rockbursts, etc.) can send signals whose magnitudes are as strong or stronger than those from any mining blast. A verification system that includes seismic, infrasound, hydroacoustic and radionuclide sensors is being completed as part of the CTBT. The largest mine blasts and ground failures will be detected by this system and must be identified as distinct from signals generated by small nuclear explosions. Seismologists will analyze the seismic records and presumably should be able to separate them into earthquake-like and non earthquake-like categories, using a variety of so-called seismic discriminants. Non-earthquake essentially means explosion- or implosion-like. Such signals can be generated not only by mine blasts but also by a variety of ground failures. Because it is known that single-fired chemical explosions and nuclear explosion signals of the same yield give very similar seismic records, the non-earthquake signals will be of concern to the Treaty verification community. The magnitude of the mine-related events is in the range of seismicity created by smaller nuclear explosions or decoupled tests, which are of particular concern under the Treaty. It is conceivable that legitimate mining blasts or some mine-induced ground failures could occasionally be questioned. Information such as shot time, location and design parameters may be all that is necessary to resolve the event identity. In rare instances where the legitimate origin of the event could not be resolved by a consultation and clarification procedure, it might trigger on On-Site Inspection (OSI). Because there is uncertainty in the precise location of seismic event as determined by the International Monitoring System (IMS), the OSI can cover an area of up to 1,000 squared kilometers. In active mining districts this area could include several different mining operations. So, an OSI could be disruptive both to the mining community and to the US Government which must host the foreign inspection team. Accordingly, it is in the best interest of all US parties to try and eliminate the possible occurrence of false alarms. This can be achieved primarily by reducing the ambiguity of mine-induced seismic signals, so that even if these remain visible to the IMS they are clearly consistent with recognizable mining patterns.

Chiappetta, F. [Blasting Analysis International, Allentown, PA (United States); Heuze, F.; Walter, W. [Lawrence Livermore National Lab., CA (United States); Hopler, R. [Powderman Consulting Inc., Oxford, MD (United States); Hsu, V. [Air Force Technical Applications Center, Patrick AFB, FL (United States); Martin, B. [Thunder Basin Coal Co., Wright, WY (United States); Pearson, C. [Los Alamos National Lab., NM (United States); Stump, B. [Southern Methodist Univ., Dallas, TX (United States); Zipf, K. [Univ. of New South Wales (Australia)

1998-12-09T23:59:59.000Z

447

A Hydrostratigraphic Model and Alternatives for the Groundwater Flow and Contaminant Transport Model of Corrective Action Unit 97: Yucca Flat-Climax Mine, Lincoln and Nye Counties, Nevada  

SciTech Connect

A new three-dimensional hydrostratigraphic framework model for the Yucca Flat-Climax Mine Corrective Action Unit was completed in 2005. The model area includes Yucca Flat and Climax Mine, former nuclear testing areas at the Nevada Test Site, and proximal areas. The model area is approximately 1,250 square kilometers in size and is geologically complex. Yucca Flat is a topographically closed basin typical of many valleys in the Basin and Range province. Faulted and tilted blocks of Tertiary-age volcanic rocks and underlying Proterozoic and Paleozoic sedimentary rocks form low ranges around the structural basin. During the Cretaceous Period a granitic intrusive was emplaced at the north end of Yucca Flat. A diverse set of geological and geophysical data collected over the past 50 years was used to develop a structural model and hydrostratigraphic system for the basin. These were integrated using EarthVision? software to develop the 3-dimensional hydrostratigraphic framework model. Fifty-six stratigraphic units in the model area were grouped into 25 hydrostratigraphic units based on each unit's propensity toward aquifer or aquitard characteristics. The authors organized the alluvial section into 3 hydrostratigraphic units including 2 aquifers and 1 confining unit. The volcanic units in the model area are organized into 13 hydrostratigraphic units that include 8 aquifers and 5 confining units. The underlying pre-Tertiary rocks are divided into 7 hydrostratigraphic units, including 3 aquifers and 4 confining units. Other units include 1 Tertiary-age sedimentary confining unit and 1 Mesozoic-age granitic confining unit. The model depicts the thickness, extent, and geometric relationships of these hydrostratigraphic units (''layers'' in the model) along with the major structural features (i.e., faults). The model incorporates 178 high-angle normal faults of Tertiary age and 2 low-angle thrust faults of Mesozoic age. The complexity of the model area and the non-uniqueness of some of the interpretations incorporated into the base model made it necessary to formulate alternative interpretations for some of the major features in the model. Five of these alternatives were developed so they could be modeled in the same fashion as the base model. This work was done for the U.S. Department of Energy, National Nuclear Security Administration Nevada Site Office in support of the Underground Test Area subproject of the Environmental Restoration Project.

Geotechnical Sciences Group Bechtel Nevada

2006-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

448

Effects of overstory composition and prescribed fire on fuel loading across a heterogeneous managed landscape in the southeastern USA.  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

In the southeastern USA, land use history, forest management and natural geomorphic features have created heterogeneous fuel loads. This apparent temporal and spatial variation in fuel loads make it difficult to reliably assess potential fire behavior from remotely sensed canopy variables to determine risk and to prescribe treatments. We examined this variation by exploring the relationships between overstory forest vegetation attributes, recent fire history, and selected surface fuel components across an 80,000 ha contiguous landscape. Measurements of dead and live vegetation components of surface fuels were obtained from 624 permanent plots, or about 1 plot per 100 ha of forest cover. Within forest vegetation groups, we modeled the relationship between individual surface fuel components and overstory stand age, basal area, site quality and recent fire history, then stochastically predicted fuel loads across the landscape using the same linkage variables. The fraction of the plot variation, i.e., R2, explained by predictive models for individual fuel components ranged from 0.05 to 0.66 for dead fuels and 0.03 to 0.97 for live fuels in pine dominated vegetation groups. Stand age and basal area were generally more important than recent fire history for predicting fuel loads. Mapped fuel loads using these regressor variables showed a very heterogeneous landscape even at the scale of a few square kilometers. The mapped patterns corresponded to stand based forest management disturbances that are reflected in age, basal area, and fire history. Recent fire history was significant in explaining variation in litter and duff biomass. Stand basal area was positively and consistently related to dead fuel biomass in most groups and was present in many predictive equations. Patterns in live fuel biomass were related to recent fire history, but the patterns were not consistent among forest vegetation groups. Age and basal area were related to live fuels in a complex manner that is likely confounded with periodic disturbances that disrupt stand dynamics. This study complements earlier hazardous fuels research in the southeastern USA, and indicates that succession, disturbance, site quality and decomposition interact with forest management practices to create variable spatial and temporal conditions. The inclusion of additional land use, disturbance history, and soil-topographic variables coupled to improved sampling methods may increase precision and subsequent fuel mapping.

Parresol, Bernard, R.; Scott, Joe, H.; Andreu, Anne; Prichard, Susan; Kurth, Laurie

2012-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

449

CHEMICAL FIXATION OF CO2 IN COAL COMBUSTION PRODUCTS AND RECYCLING THROUGH BIOSYSTEMS  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

This Annual Technical Progress Report presents the principle results in enhanced growth of algae using coal combustion products as a catalyst to increase bicarbonate levels in solution. A co-current reactor is present that increases the gas phase to bicarbonate transfer rate by a factor of five to nine. The bicarbonate concentration at a given pH is approximately double that obtained using a control column of similar construction. Algae growth experiments were performed under laboratory conditions to obtain baseline production rates and to perfect experimental methods. The final product of this initial phase in algae production is presented. Algal growth can be limited by several factors, including the level of bicarbonate available for photosynthesis, the pH of the growth solution, nutrient levels, and the size of the cell population, which determines the available space for additional growth. In order to supply additional CO2 to increase photosynthesis and algal biomass production, fly ash reactor has been demonstrated to increase the available CO2 in solution above the limits that are achievable with dissolved gas alone. The amount of dissolved CO2 can be used to control pH for optimum growth. Periodic harvesting of algae can be used to maintain algae in the exponential, rapid growth phase. An 800 liter scale up demonstrated that larger scale production is possible. The larger experiment demonstrated that indirect addition of CO2 is feasible and produces significantly less stress on the algal system. With better harvesting methods, nutrient management, and carbon dioxide management, an annual biomass harvest of about 9,000 metric tons per square kilometer (36 MT per acre) appears to be feasible. To sequester carbon, the algal biomass needs to be placed in a permanent location. If drying is undesirable, the biomass will eventually begin to aerobically decompose. It was demonstrated that algal biomass is a suitable feed to an anaerobic digester to produce methane. The remaining carbonaceous material is essentially bio-inactive and is permanently sequestered. The feasibility of using algae to convert carbon dioxide to a biomass has been demonstrated. This biomass provides a sustainable means to produce methane, ethanol, and/or bio diesel. The first application of concept demonstrated by the project could be to use algal biomass production to capture carbon dioxide associated with ethanol production.

C. Henry Copeland; Paul Pier; Samantha Whitehead; Paul Enlow; Richard Strickland; David Behel

2003-12-15T23:59:59.000Z

450

Assessment of Energy Production Potential from Tidal Streams in the United States  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

Tidal stream energy is one of the alternative energy sources that are renewable and clean. With the constantly increasing effort in promoting alternative energy, tidal streams have become one of the more promising energy sources due to their continuous, predictable and spatially-concentrated characteristics. However, the present lack of a full spatial-temporal assessment of tidal currents for the U.S. coastline down to the scale of individual devices is a barrier to the comprehensive development of tidal current energy technology. This project created a national database of tidal stream energy potential, as well as a GIS tool usable by industry in order to accelerate the market for tidal energy conversion technology. Tidal currents are numerically modeled with the Regional Ocean Modeling System and calibrated with the available measurements of tidal current speed and water level surface. The performance of the model in predicting the tidal currents and water levels is assessed with an independent validation. The geodatabase is published at a public domain via a spatial database engine and interactive tools to select, query and download the data are provided. Regions with the maximum of the average kinetic power density larger than 500 W/m2 (corresponding to a current speed of ~1 m/s), surface area larger than 0.5 km2 and depth larger than 5 m are defined as hotspots and list of hotspots along the USA coast is documented. The results of the regional assessment show that the state of Alaska (AK) contains the largest number of locations with considerably high kinetic power density, and is followed by, Maine (ME), Washington (WA), Oregon (OR), California (CA), New Hampshire (NH), Massachusetts (MA), New York (NY), New Jersey (NJ), North and South Carolina (NC, SC), Georgia (GA), and Florida (FL). The average tidal stream power density at some of these locations can be larger than 8 kW/m2 with surface areas on the order of few hundred kilometers squared, and depths larger than 100 meters. The Cook Inlet in AK is found to have a substantially large tidal stream power density sustained over a very large area.

Haas, Kevin A.

2011-06-29T23:59:59.000Z

451

COSMOLOGICAL MAGNETOHYDRODYNAMIC SIMULATIONS OF CLUSTER FORMATION WITH ANISOTROPIC THERMAL CONDUCTION  

SciTech Connect

The intracluster medium (ICM) has been suggested to be buoyantly unstable in the presence of magnetic field and anisotropic thermal conduction. We perform first cosmological simulations of galaxy cluster formation that simultaneously include magnetic fields, radiative cooling, and anisotropic thermal conduction. In isolated and idealized cluster models, the magnetothermal instability (MTI) tends to reorient the magnetic fields radially whenever the temperature gradient points in the direction opposite to gravitational acceleration. Using cosmological simulations of cluster formation we detect radial bias in the velocity and magnetic fields. Such radial bias is consistent with either the inhomogeneous radial gas flows due to substructures or residual MTI-driven field rearrangements that are expected even in the presence of turbulence. Although disentangling the two scenarios is challenging, we do not detect excess bias in the runs that include anisotropic thermal conduction. The anisotropy effect is potentially detectable via radio polarization measurements with LOFAR and the Square Kilometer Array and future X-ray spectroscopic studies with the International X-ray Observatory. We demonstrate that radiative cooling boosts the amplification of the magnetic field by about two orders of magnitude beyond what is expected in the non-radiative cases. This effect is caused by the compression of the gas and frozen-in magnetic field as it accumulates in the cluster center. At z = 0 the field is amplified by a factor of about 10{sup 6} compared to the uniform magnetic field that evolved due to the universal expansion alone. Interestingly, the runs that include both radiative cooling and thermal conduction exhibit stronger magnetic field amplification than purely radiative runs. In these cases, buoyant restoring forces depend on the temperature gradients rather than the steeper entropy gradients. Thus, the ICM is more easily mixed and the winding up of the frozen-in magnetic field is more efficient, resulting in stronger magnetic field amplification. We also demonstrate that thermal conduction partially reduces the gas accretion driven by overcooling despite the fact that the effective conductivity is suppressed below the Spitzer-Braginskii value.

Ruszkowski, M. [Department of Astronomy, University of Michigan, 500 Church Street, Ann Arbor, MI 48109 (United States); Lee, D. [Department of Astronomy, ASC/Flash Center, University of Chicago, 5640 South Ellis Avenue, Chicago, IL 60637 (United States); Brueggen, M. [School of Engineering and Science, Jacobs University Bremen, Campus Ring 1, 28759 Bremen 05233 (Germany); Parrish, I. [Astronomy Department and Theoretical Astrophysics Center, 601 Campbell Hall, University of California, Berkeley, CA 94720 (United States); Oh, S. Peng, E-mail: mateuszr@umich.edu, E-mail: dongwook@flash.uchicago.edu, E-mail: m.brueggen@jacobs-university.de, E-mail: iparrish@astro.berkeley.edu, E-mail: peng@physics.ucsb.edu [Department of Physics, University of California, Santa Barbara, CA 93106 (United States)

2011-10-20T23:59:59.000Z

452

Preliminary estimates of spatially distributed net infiltration and recharge for the Death Valley region, Nevada-California  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

A three-dimensional ground-water flow model has been developed to evaluate the Death Valley regional flow system, which includes ground water beneath the Nevada Test Site. Estimates of spatially distributed net infiltration and recharge are needed to define upper boundary conditions. This study presents a preliminary application of a conceptual and numerical model of net infiltration. The model was developed in studies at Yucca Mountain, Nevada, which is located in the approximate center of the Death Valley ground-water flow system. The conceptual model describes the effects of precipitation, runoff, evapotranspiration, and redistribution of water in the shallow unsaturated zone on predicted rates of net infiltration; precipitation and soil depth are the two most significant variables. The conceptual model was tested using a preliminary numerical model based on energy- and water-balance calculations. Daily precipitation for 1980 through 1995, averaging 202 millimeters per year over the 39,556 square kilometers area of the ground-water flow model, was input to the numerical model to simulate net infiltration ranging from zero for a soil thickness greater than 6 meters to over 350 millimeters per year for thin soils at high elevations in the Spring Mountains overlying permeable bedrock. Estimated average net infiltration over the entire ground-water flow model domain is 7.8 millimeters per year. To evaluate the application of the net-infiltration model developed on a local scale at Yucca Mountain, to net-infiltration estimates representing the magnitude and distribution of recharge on a regional scale, the net-infiltration results were compared with recharge estimates obtained using empirical methods. Comparison of model results with previous estimates of basinwide recharge suggests that the net-infiltration estimates obtained using this model may overestimate recharge because of uncertainty in modeled precipitation, bedrock permeability, and soil properties for locations such as the Spring Mountains. Although this model is preliminary and uncalibrated, it provides a first approximation of the spatial distribution of net infiltration for the Death Valley region under current climatic conditions.

Hevesi, J.A.; Flint, A.L.; Flint, L.E.

2002-07-18T23:59:59.000Z

453

Estimating forest structural characteristics with airborne lidar scanning and a near-real time profiling laser systems  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

LiDAR (Light Detection and Ranging) directly measures canopy vertical structures, and provides an effective remote sensing solution to accurate and spatiallyexplicit mapping of forest characteristics, such as canopy height and Leaf Area Index. However, many factors, such as large data volume and high costs for data acquisition, precludes the operational and practical use of most currently available LiDARs for frequent and large-scale mapping. At the same time, a growing need is arising for realtime remote sensing platforms, e.g., to provide timely information for urgent applications. This study aims to develop an airborne profiling LiDAR system, featured with on-the-fly data processing, for near real- or real- time forest inventory. The development of such a system involves implementing the on-board data processing and analysis as well as building useful regression-based models to relate LiDAR measurements with forest biophysical parameters. This work established a paradigm for an on-the-fly airborne profiling LiDAR system to inventory regional forest resources in real- or near real- time. The system was developed based on an existing portable airborne laser system (PALS) that has been previously assembled at NASA by Dr. Ross Nelson. Key issues in automating PALS as an on-the-fly system were addressed, including the design of an archetype for the system workflow, the development of efficient and robust algorithms for automatic data processing and analysis, the development of effective regression models to predict forest biophysical parameters from LiDAR measurements, and the implementation of an integrated software package to incorporate all the above development. This work exploited the untouched potential of airborne laser profilers for realtime forest inventory, and therefore, documented an initial step toward developing airborne-laser-based, on-the-fly, real-time, forest inventory systems. Results from this work demonstrated the utility and effectiveness of airborne scanning or profiling laser systems for remotely measuring various forest structural attributes at a range of scales, i.e., from individual tree, plot, stand and up to regional levels. The system not only provides a regional assessment tool, one that can be used to repeatedly, remotely measure hundreds or thousands of square kilometers with little/no analyst interaction or interpretation, but also serves as a paradigm for future efforts in building more advanced airborne laser systems such as real-time laser scanners.

Zhao, Kaiguang

2008-08-01T23:59:59.000Z

454

Preparing to Submit a License Application for Yucca Mountain  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

In 1982, the U.S. Congress passed the Nuclear Waste Policy Act, a Federal law that established U.S. policy for the permanent disposal of spent nuclear fuel and high-level radioactive waste. Congress amended the Act in 1987, directing the Department of Energy to study only Yucca Mountain, Nevada as the site for a permanent geologic repository. As the law mandated, the Department evaluated Yucca Mountain to determine its suitability as the site for a permanent geologic repository. Decades of scientific studies demonstrated that Yucca Mountain would protect workers, the public, and the environment during the time that a repository would be operating and for tens of thousands of years after closure of the repository. A repository at this remote site would also: preserve the quality of the environment; allow the environmental cleanup of Cold War weapons facilities; provide the nation with additional protection from acts of terrorism; and support a sound energy policy. Throughout the scientific evaluation of Yucca Mountain, there has been no evidence to disqualify Yucca Mountain as a suitable site for the permanent disposal of spent nuclear fuel and high-level radioactive waste. Upon completion of site characterization, the Secretary of Energy considered the results and concluded that a repository at Yucca Mountain would perform in a manner that protects public health and safety. The Secretary recommended the site to the President in February 2002; the President agreed and recommended to Congress that the site be approved. The Governor of Nevada submitted a notice of disapproval, and both houses of Congress acted to override the disapproval. In July 2002, the President's approval allowed the Department to begin the process of submittal of a license application for Yucca Mountain as the site for the nation's first repository for spent nuclear fuel and high-level radioactive waste. Yucca Mountain is located on federal land in Nye County in southern Nevada, an arid region of the United States, approximately 100 miles (160 kilometers) northwest of Las Vegas (Figure 1). The location is remote from population centers, and there are no permanent residents within approximately 14 miles (23 km) of the site. Overall, Nye County has a population density of about two persons per square mile (two persons per 2.5 square km); in the vicinity of Yucca Mountain, it is significantly less. Yucca Mountain is a series of north-south-trending ridges extending approximately 25 miles (40 km), and consists of successive layers of fine-grained volcanic tuffs, millions of years old, underlain by older carbonate rocks. The alternating layers of welded and nonwelded volcanic tuffs have differing hydrologic properties that significantly impact the manner in which water moves through the mountain. The repository horizon will be in welded tuff located in the unsaturated zone, more than 1,000 feet (300 meters) above the water table in the present-day climate, and is expected to remain well above the water table during wetter future climate conditions. Future meteorology and climatology at Yucca Mountain are important elements in understanding the amount of water available to potentially interact with the waste.

W.J. Arthur; M.D. Voegele

2005-03-14T23:59:59.000Z

455

Unusual Decommissioning of Contaminated Facilities at the Savannah River Site - The Demolition of Cooling Towers 285-H and 285-F  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Savannah River Site is an 800-square kilometer (310-square mile) U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) industrial facility located in Aiken, Allendale, and Barnwell Counties in South Carolina. The site is dedicated to environmental cleanup, developing and deploying technologies to support the cleanup mission, processing and storing nuclear materials, and supporting national security missions. The current focus in environmental management is on the cleanup of legacy materials, facilities and wastes left from the Cold War. In 2002 the DOE initiated actions to expedite cleanup focusing on significant risk reduction coupled with reducing costs. SRS published the Savannah River Site Environmental Management Integrated Deactivation and Decommissioning Plan in 2003 which addressed the final disposition and physical end state of all 1,013 Environmental Management facilities on site by the year 2025. Included in this list of facilities are reactors, fabrication facilities, process facilities and the support facilities that were required during the past 50 years. By the end of FY06, over 200 facilities had been decommissioned. This paper describes the demolition of two facilities, cooling towers 285-H and 285-F that were associated with the operation of the process canyons. Because of the circumstances surrounding these decommissions, unique and unusual techniques were safely employed to demolish and remove the cooling towers. Both 285-H and 285-F were safely felled by pulling the columns remotely to weaken the internal portion of the structure so it would collapse inwards into the basin. Cooling tower 285-H fell in less than 1 second after approximately two-thirds of the columns had been broken. See Figure 3 for a photo of 285-H after its collapse. 285-F, which was larger than 285-H, fell in three sections, two cells at a time. Once the towers were felled conventional demolition equipment was used to segregate and remove the debris. All protective measures used to protect surrounding equipment and structures were successful and the basins were cleaned out and returned to service in less than two weeks. The demolition of both cooling towers 285- H and 285-F was completed safely and timely using unconventional means to fell the towers due to structural degradation, height, limited access, radiological and asbestos hazards, and a requirement to protect equipment on all sides of the facility as well as preservation of the basins. During felling operations personnel were required to stay outside the fall zone equivalent to a distance of 150% of the height of the towers. Remote operations outside the fall zone required a tracked vehicle to pull cables attached to the columns in a predetermined sequence so as to fell the tower straight down into the basin. Once the towers fell traditional demolition equipment segregated and removed the waste. Wooden cooling towers of this vintage present a difficult challenge to traditional demolition techniques. Because of the height and potential instability of these types of facilities, considerable effort is placed on reducing the potential energy to a point where heavy equipment can reach safely without endangering the operators. The column-pulling technique chosen for both 285-H and 285-F cooling towers proved to be a safe and efficient method for demolition of these types of facilities.

Austin, William E.; Baldwin, Guy R. [Washington Savannah River Company, Aiken, SC 29808 (United States)

2008-01-15T23:59:59.000Z

456

Section 5  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

Are Small-Scale Deep Convective Clouds in the Tropical Are Small-Scale Deep Convective Clouds in the Tropical Western Pacific Relevant to Intra-Seasonal Oscillations? S.A. Barr-Kumarakulasinghe Marine Sciences Research Center State University of New York Stony Brook, New York Introduction Deep convection can occur with convective units on the order of a few kilometers or at large-scale units with cloud sizes on the order of over 100 km in diameter (Figure 1). Studies on convection have typically emphasized large-scale convection. However, the interaction of small-scale and large-scale clouds and the atmosphere is not clear. This analysis demonstrates that the bulk of the areal coverage of cold high-level cloud fluctuates between small and large scale and that this size distribution is well correlated to the upper tropospheric

457

Hopper (Phase 1) Prepares NERSC for Petascale Computing  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

2010 A selection of scientific results produced by NERSC users. Prepared by the National Energy Research Scientific Computing Center Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory Berkeley, CA 94720 SEARCH Computing Sciences ABOUT US RESEARCH OUR SCIENTISTS MEDIA CENTER CONTACT US Figure 1. In this model galactic plane (seen in cross section), the energy input of stellar superclusters causes gases to shoot out at speeds up to 1000 kilometers per second at temperatures reaching 100 million Kelvin. These appear as plumes or "chimneys," visible in the top three frames (showing density, temperature, and velocity; the bottom frame shows gas column density). Small bubbles of hot gas in the field (visible in the top two frames) are the result of stellar feedback from runaway stars.

458

Pore-Level Modeling of Carbon Dioxide Infiltrating the Ocean Floor  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

Infiltrating the Ocean Floor Infiltrating the Ocean Floor Grant S. Bromhal, Duane H. Smith, US DOE, National Energy Technology Laboratory, Morgantown, WV 26507-0880; M. Ferer, Department of Physics, West Virginia University, Morgantown, WV 26506-6315 Ocean sequestration of carbon dioxide is considered to be a potentially important method of reducing greenhouse gas emissions (US DOE, 1999). Oceans are currently the largest atmospheric carbon dioxide sink; and certainly, enough storage capacity exists in the oceans to hold all of the CO 2 that we can emit for many years. Additionally, technologies exist that allow us to pump liquid CO 2 into the oceans at depths between one and two kilometers for extended periods of time and five times that deep for shorter durations. The biggest unknown in the ocean sequestration process, however, is the fate and

459

Water for future Mars astronauts?  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

Water for future Mars astronauts? Water for future Mars astronauts? Water for future Mars astronauts? Within its first three months on Mars, NASA's Curiosity Rover saw a surprising diversity of soils and sediments along a half-kilometer route that tell a complex story about the gradual desiccation of the Red Planet. September 26, 2013 This image shows two areas on Mars in a location named Rocknest that were scooped out by the Curiosity Rover last year. Researchers took samples of the areas to determine whether they were wetter underneath or whether they dried out after scooping. Researchers found that soil moisture was consistent at the surface and underneath. Nevertheless, there is a small amount of water in the soil that astronauts might be able to use to sustain themselves. These finding and others are outlined in a series of papers appearing today in the Journal "Science." (Image credit: NASA)

460

Daya Bay Reactor Neutrino Project at NERSC  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

Daya Bay Reactor Neutrino Daya Bay Reactor Neutrino Experiment Daya Bay Reactor Neutrino Experiment Daya Bay is an international neutrino-oscillation experiment designed to determine the last unknown neutrino mixing angle θ13 using anti-neutrinos produced by the Daya Bay and Ling Ao Nuclear Power Plant reactors. The experiment is being built by blasting three kilometers of tunnel through the granite rock under the mountains where the power plants are located. Data collection is now scheduled to start in in 2011. On the PDSF cluster at NERSC, Daya Bay performs simulations of the detectors, reactors, and surrounding mountains to help design and anticipate detector properties and behavior. Once real data are available, Daya Bay will be using NERSC to analyze data and NERSC HPSS will be the central U.S. repository for all raw

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461

Direct-Current Resistivity Survey At Clear Lake Area (Skokan, 1993) | Open  

Open Energy Info (EERE)

Area (Skokan, 1993) Area (Skokan, 1993) Jump to: navigation, search GEOTHERMAL ENERGYGeothermal Home Exploration Activity: Direct-Current Resistivity Survey At Clear Lake Area (Skokan, 1993) Exploration Activity Details Location Clear Lake Area Exploration Technique Direct-Current Resistivity Survey Activity Date Usefulness useful DOE-funding Unknown Notes Several direct-current, bipole-dipole surveys were carried out in the area. These field measurements (Rapolla and Keller, 1984) were combined by spatially averaging apparent resistivities on a one kilometer grid ( Fig. 6 ). The authors felt that local geologic noise could be reduced and large-scale features would be emphasized by this averaging. The most significant feature which resulted was a clear electrical signature of the

462

Mapping and Assessment of the United States Ocean Wave Energy Resource |  

Open Energy Info (EERE)

450 450 Varnish cache server Mapping and Assessment of the United States Ocean Wave Energy Resource Dataset Summary Description This project estimates the naturally available and technically recoverable U.S. wave energy resources, using a 51-month Wavewatch III hindcast database developed especially for this study by National Oceanographic and Atmospheric Administration's (NOAA's) National Centers for Environmental Prediction. For total resource estimation, wave power density in terms of kilowatts per meter is aggregated across a unit diameter circle. This approach is fully consistent with accepted global practice and includes the resource made available by the lateral transfer of wave energy along wave crests, which enables densities within a few kilometers of a linear array, even for fixed terminator devices.

463

EA-1625: Final Environmental Assessment | Department of Energy  

Energy.gov (U.S. Department of Energy (DOE)) Indexed Site

Final Environmental Assessment Final Environmental Assessment EA-1625: Final Environmental Assessment Southeast Regional Carbon Sequestration Partnership (SECARB) Phase III Early Test The Department of Energy proposes to co-fund a project to inject and closely monitor the flow of approximately 1.7 million short tons (1.5 million metric tons) of supercritical carbon dioxide into the brinebearing Tuscaloosa Formation in an area within the lease boundaries of the Cranfield Unit oilfield, about 12 miles (19 kilometers (km)) east of Natchez, Mississippi Final Environmental Assessment Southeast Regional Carbon Sequestration Partnership (SECARB) Phase III Early Test, DOE/EA-1625 (March 2009) More Documents & Publications EA-1785: Final Environmental Assessment EA-1846: Final Environmental Assessment

464

Page not found | Department of Energy  

Energy.gov (U.S. Department of Energy (DOE)) Indexed Site

61 - 21270 of 29,416 results. 61 - 21270 of 29,416 results. Page Reactor Materials The reactor materials crosscut effort will enable the development of innovative and revolutionary materials and provide broad-based, modern materials science that will benefit all four DOE-NE... http://energy.gov/ne/nuclear-energy-enabling-technologies/reactor-materials Page EA-1949: Admiralty Inlet Pilot Tidal Project, Puget Sound, WA This EA analyzes the potential environmental effects of a proposal by the Public Utility District No. 1 of Snowhomish County, Washington to construct and operate the Admiralty Inlet Tidal Project. The proposed 680-kilowatt project would be located on the east side of Admiralty Inlet in Puget Sound, Washington, about 1 kilometer west of Whidbey Island, entirely within Island County, Washington. The Federal Energy Regulatory Commission

465

Page not found | Department of Energy  

Energy.gov (U.S. Department of Energy (DOE)) Indexed Site

31 - 2840 of 28,905 results. 31 - 2840 of 28,905 results. Download Ltr._to_Gottlieb_-_Response_from_LLNL_75_FR_72036_3-23-09.pdf http://energy.gov/gc/downloads/ltrtogottlieb-responsefromllnl75fr720363-23-09pdf Article Geek-Up[12.23.2010]: Muons at the South Pole and Dr. Nick Holoynak Earlier today, the Energy Blog featured Los Alamos National Lab's system to track Santa. However, while there is a lot of attention focused on the North Pole right now, the Geek-Up[date] team is taking a look at the opposite end of the Earth. This past weekend, a collaborative group of 40 institutions from around the world, including DOE's Lawrence Berkeley National Lab, celebrated the completion of the IceCube Neutrino Observatory at the South Pole. This immense telescope encloses a cubic kilometer of

466

EA-1949: FERC Draft Environmental Assessment | Department of Energy  

Energy.gov (U.S. Department of Energy (DOE)) Indexed Site

Draft Environmental Assessment Draft Environmental Assessment EA-1949: FERC Draft Environmental Assessment Admiralty Inlet Pilot Tidal Project, Puget Sound, WA This EA analyzes the potential environmental effects of a proposal by the Public Utility District No. 1 of Snowhomish County, Washington to construct and operate the Admiralty Inlet Tidal Project. The proposed 680-kilowatt project would be located on the east side of Admiralty Inlet in Puget Sound, Washington, about 1 kilometer west of Whidbey Island, entirely within Island County, Washington. The Federal Energy Regulatory Commission (FERC) is the lead agency. DOE is a cooperating agency. EA-1949-FERC-DEA-2013.pdf More Documents & Publications EA-1949: FERC Notice of Availability of an Environmental Assessment EA-1949: FERC Final Environmental Assessment

467

DOE/EIS-0324; Umatilla Generating Project (082001)  

Energy.gov (U.S. Department of Energy (DOE)) Indexed Site

Umatilla Generating Company Umatilla Generating Company UMATILLA GENERATING PROJECT Project Location Map March 2001 Figure 2.1 N S S U m a tilla R . Umatilla Hermiston " # 1 $ " # 0 $ 0.5 0 0.5 1 Kilometers 0.5 0 0.5 1 Miles GTN Intertie BPA Interconnection Point Existing Transmission Line to be Reconductored Water and Gas Pipeline Corridor New Transmission Line on New Towers Existing Transmission Line to be Reconductored Proposed GTN Gas Pipeline Alternative 1 Proposed GTN Gas Pipeline Alternative 2 Proposed CNG Gas Pipeline Alternative Existing PG&E GTN Mainline Power Plant Site Hermiston Generating Plant Water and Gas Pipeline Corridor Print Date: March 28, 2001 k:\umatilla_new\apr\eis_sec2.apr 1:55000 Umatilla Chemical Depot Co lu m b ia R iv e r Hermiston Pendleton Portland Eugene " # / $ ) 9 " # 1 $ Overview of Location in the State of Oregon

468

 

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

Ron Walli Ron Walli Communications 865.576.0226 ORNL's LandScan helps tsunami relief LandScan image of Sri Lanka shows population densities, particularly along the hard-hit eastern coast. LandScan image of Sri Lanka shows population densities, particularly along the hard-hit eastern coast. Listen to the audio OAK RIDGE, Tenn., Dec. 28, 2004 - Relief agencies working to assist victims of Sunday's tsunamis in the Indian Ocean are using a demographic database developed at the Department of Energy's Oak Ridge National Laboratory. LandScan is a global population database that shows geographical distribution of population at one-kilometer resolution. Using population distribution maps, relief workers can easily and quickly determine the locations of potential tsunami victims who would otherwise be cut off from

469

Slide 1  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

Over 70 wood chemical plants operated in northern Pennsylvania Over 70 wood chemical plants operated in northern Pennsylvania between ca. 1890 and 1950, all located within 72 kilometers of the NY state border. Their original purpose was to salvage the small unwanted hardwood trees left behind by the lumber mills and to make charcoal, calcium acetate and methanol for a growing number of industrial uses. Scrap timber was loaded into large metal retorts, which were then heated, driving off volatile compounds by destructive distillation and leaving the charcoal behind. One byproduct of this process was a large amount of wood tar, which was sometimes burned as fuel, but more often dumped locally. By the 1920s and 1930s, the industrial demand for the products of the wood chemical plant had declined, or cheaper

470

NREL: Dynamic Maps, GIS Data, and Analysis Tools - Geothermal Data  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

Geothermal Data Geothermal Data This dataset is a qualitative assessment of geothermal potential for the U.S. using Enhanced Geothermal Systems (EGS) and based on the levelized cost of electricity with CLASS 1 being most favorable and CLASS 5 being least favorable. This dataset does not include shallow EGS resources located near hydrothermal sites or the U.S. Geological Survey assessment of undiscovered hydrothermal resources. The source data for deep EGS includes temperature at depth from 3 to 10 kilometer (km) were provided by the Southern Methodist University Geothermal Laboratory (Blackwell & Richards, 2009) and the analyses for regions with temperatures ≥150°C were performed by NREL (2009). CLASS 999 regions have temperatures less than 150°C at a 10-km depth and were not assessed for deep EGS potential.

471

DOE/EA-1497: Finding of No Significant Impact for the Environmental Assessment for the Strategic Petroleum Reserve West Hackberry Facility Raw Intake Pipeline Replacement Project, Cameron and Calcasieu Parishes, Louisiana (8/31/04)  

Energy.gov (U.S. Department of Energy (DOE)) Indexed Site

FINDING OF NO SIGNIFICANT IMPACT FINDING OF NO SIGNIFICANT IMPACT RAW WATER INTAKE PIPELINE REPLACEMENT STRATEGIC PETROLEUM RESERVE WEST HACKBERRY FACILITY AGENCY: Department of Energy (DOE) ACTION: Finding of No Significant Impact (FONSI) SUMMARY: DOE has prepared an Environmental Assessment (EA), DOE/EA-1497, for the proposed replacement of the existing 107 centimeter (cm) [42 inch (in)] 6.87 kilometer (km) [4.27 mile (mi)] raw water intake pipeline (RWIPL). This action is necessary to allow for continued, optimum operations at the West Hackberry facility (main site/facility). The EA described the proposed action (including action alternatives) and three alternatives to the proposed action. The EA evaluated only the potential environmental consequences of

472

ARM - Field Campaign - CASES Data Analysis  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

govCampaignsCASES Data Analysis govCampaignsCASES Data Analysis Comments? We would love to hear from you! Send us a note below or call us at 1-888-ARM-DATA. Send Campaign : CASES Data Analysis 2004.07.01 - 2009.06.30 Lead Scientist : Margaret LeMone Description CASES Data Analysis: Potential Benefits Diurnal variation of the Atmospheric Boundary Layer. Taken together, the two Cooperative Atmosphere Surface Exchange Study (CASES) field programs, CASES-97 (morning and evening) and CASES-99 (evening, night, morning) provide a robust dataset for looking at the diurnal changes of the wind, temperature, humidity and their vertical transports near the ground and through the lowest few kilometers where surface effects are directly felt - the atmospheric boundary layer. Much of our observational knowledge

473

Closure Report for Corrective Action Unit 254: Area 25, R-MAD Decontamination Facility, Nevada Test Site, Nevada  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

Corrective Action Unit (CAU) 254 is located in Area 25 of the Nevada Test Site (NTS), approximately 100 kilometers (km) (62 miles) northwest of Las Vegas, Nevada. The site is located within the Reactor Maintenance, Assembly and Disassembly (R-MAD) compound and consists of Building 3126, two outdoor decontamination pads, and surrounding areas within an existing fenced area measuring approximately 50 x 37 meters (160 x 120 feet). The site was used from the early 1960s to the early 1970s as part of the Nuclear Rocket Development Station program to decontaminate test-car hardware and tooling. The site was reactivated in the early 1980s to decontaminate a radiologically contaminated military tank. This Closure Report (CR) describes the closure activities performed to allow un-restricted release of the R-MAD Decontamination Facility.

G. N. Doyle

2002-02-01T23:59:59.000Z

474

High Spatial Resolution Observations of Loops in the Solar Corona  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Understanding how the solar corona is structured is of fundamental importance to determining how the Sun's upper atmosphere is heated to high temperatures. Recent spectroscopic studies have suggested that an instrument with a spatial resolution of 200km or better is necessary to resolve coronal loops. The High Resolution Coronal Imager (Hi-C) achieved this performance on a rocket flight in July 2012. We use Hi-C data to measure the Gaussian widths of 91 loops observed in the solar corona and find a distribution that peaks at about 270km. We also use Atmospheric Imaging Assembly (AIA) data for a subset of 79 of these loops and find that their temperature distributions are narrow. These observations provide further evidence that loops in the solar corona are structured at a scale of several hundred kilometers, well above the spatial scale of proposed physical mechanisms.

Brooks, David H; Ugarte-Urra, Ignacio; Winebarger, Amy R

2013-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

475

Bohai Oil corporation conceptual engineering of overall development scheme for SZ 36-1 oil field. Final report. Export trade information  

SciTech Connect

SZ 36-1 oil field is located in the Liaodong Bay in the northeastern section of Bohai Bay, in approximately 32 meters water depth, 46 kilometers offshore the Suizhong Coast. The reservoir is highly heterogeneous and unconsolidated, and the crude has high viscosity, high specific gravity, and requires artificial lift for production. A phased development of the field is planned. The U.S. Trade and Development Program (TDP) contracted for engineering services to perform conceptual engineering of the overall development scheme for the SZ 36-1 oil field. The study consisted of two parts: (1) concept selection, to assess various schemes for developing the SZ 36-1 field and selecting one to recommend to the Bohai oil corporation (BOC); (2) conceptual engineering of the recommended development concept. The final report covers both the concept selection and concept engineering phases of the study.

Not Available

1992-10-01T23:59:59.000Z

476

submitted to Transportation Quarterly corresponding author:  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

This study evaluates the full cost of three modes of intercity transportation: air, highway, and high speed rail for the California Corridor, connecting the Los Angeles Basin and the San Francisco Bay Area in order to compare the economic implications of investment in, or expansion of, any of these three modes. In this study we include estimates of four types of external, social costs: accidents, congestion, noise, and air pollution. Based on the results, we find that the full cost of air transportation for the California Corridor ($0.1315 per passenger-kilometer traveled (pkt)) is significantly less costly than the other two modes. High speed rail and highway transportation have approximately the same full cost; rail costs $0.2350/pkt and highway costs $0.2302/pkt. However, the modes have a different distribution of internal and external costs, automobiles have the highest external costs while high speed rail has the highest internal costs.

David Levinson; Adib Kanafani; David Gillen; David Levinson

1998-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

477

NREL: International Activities - India Solar Resource Maps  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

International Activities International Activities Search More Search Options Site Map Printable Version UPDATED India Solar Resource Maps This page provides 10-kilometer (km) solar resource maps and data for India. The 10-km hourly solar resource data were developed using weather satellite (METEOSAT) measurements incorporated into a site-time specific solar modeling approach developed at the U.S. State University of New York at Albany. The data is made publicly available in geographic information system (GIS) format and as static maps below. The hourly data can also be downloaded for specific locations from NREL's Renewable Resource Data Center. The new maps and data were released in June 2013. The new data expands the time period of analysis from 2002-2007 to 2002-2011 and incorporates

478

Remarks Prepared for Secretary of Energy Samuel Bodman Baku-Tbilisi-Ceyhan  

Energy.gov (U.S. Department of Energy (DOE)) Indexed Site

Prepared for Secretary of Energy Samuel Bodman Prepared for Secretary of Energy Samuel Bodman Baku-Tbilisi-Ceyhan Pipeline First Oil Ceremony Baku, Azerbaijan Remarks Prepared for Secretary of Energy Samuel Bodman Baku-Tbilisi-Ceyhan Pipeline First Oil Ceremony Baku, Azerbaijan May 25, 2005 - 12:54pm Addthis Ladies and Gentlemen, it is a great pleasure to be with you today to mark the loading of first oil into the Baku-Tbilisi-Ceyhan oil pipeline. This extraordinary project will deliver oil from the Caspian Sea through Georgia to the Turkish Mediterranean coast in Ceyhan 1,760 kilometers away. This project is remarkable in many different ways, not the least of which has been its technical and financial complexity. Building this pipeline also required a regional consensus, complex environmental analyses, and a

479

Direct-Current Resistivity At Clear Lake Area (Skokan, 1993) | Open Energy  

Open Energy Info (EERE)

Clear Lake Area (Skokan, 1993) Clear Lake Area (Skokan, 1993) Jump to: navigation, search GEOTHERMAL ENERGYGeothermal Home Exploration Activity: Direct-Current Resistivity At Clear Lake Area (Skokan, 1993) Exploration Activity Details Location Clear Lake Area Exploration Technique Direct-Current Resistivity Survey Activity Date Usefulness useful DOE-funding Unknown Notes Several direct-current, bipole-dipole surveys were carried out in the area. These field measurements (Rapolla and Keller, 1984) were combined by spatially averaging apparent resistivities on a one kilometer grid ( Fig. 6 ). The authors felt that local geologic noise could be reduced and large-scale features would be emphasized by this averaging. The most significant feature which resulted was a clear electrical signature of the

480

Research Highlight  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

Measurement of Convective Entrainment Using Lagrangian Particles Measurement of Convective Entrainment Using Lagrangian Particles Download a printable PDF Submitter: Romps, D., University of California, Berkeley Area of Research: Cloud Processes Working Group(s): Cloud Life Cycle Journal Reference: Yeo K and DM Romps. 2013. "Measurement of convective entrainment using Lagrangian particles." Journal of the Atmospheric Sciences, 70(1), doi:10.1175/JAS-D-12-0144.1. Trajectories of seven particles that are entrained at the cloud base and transported to the cloud top. Colors denote the mixing ratio of condensed water. Previous work by Romps (2010) found large entrainment rates of ~100% per kilometer for deep convection using a new technique for large-eddy simulations (LES) called "Eulerian direct measurement". These results

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