National Library of Energy BETA

Sample records for kilograms km kilometers

  1. The Era of Kilometer-Scale Neutrino Detectors

    DOE Public Access Gateway for Energy & Science Beta (PAGES Beta)

    Halzen, Francis; Katz, Uli

    2013-01-01

    Neutrino astronomy beyond the Sun was first imagined in the late 1950s; by the 1970s, it was realized that kilometer-scale neutrino detectors were required. The first such instrument, IceCube, transforms a cubic kilometer of deep and ultra-transparent Antarctic ice into a particle detector. KM3NeT, an instrument that aims to exploit several cubic kilometers of the deep Mediterranean sea as its detector medium, is in its final design stages. The scientific missions of these instruments include searching for sources of cosmic rays and for dark matter, observing Galactic supernova explosions, and studying the neutrinos themselves. Identifying the accelerators that produce Galacticmore »and extragalactic cosmic rays has been a priority mission of several generations of high-energy gamma-ray and neutrino telescopes; success has been elusive so far. Detecting the gamma-ray and neutrino fluxes associated with cosmic rays reaches a new watershed with the completion of IceCube, the first neutrino detector with sensitivity to the anticipated fluxes. In this paper, we will first revisit the rationale for constructing kilometer-scale neutrino detectors. We will subsequently recall the methods for determining the arrival direction, energy and flavor of neutrinos, and will subsequently describe the architecture of the IceCube and KM3NeT detectors.« less

  2. IceCube: A Cubic Kilometer Radiation Detector

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Klein, S.; IceCube Collaboration

    2008-01-01

    Cubic Kilometer Radiation Detector The IceCube CollaborationA Cubic Kilometer Radiation Detector Spencer R. Klein, forlarge detector is to search for optical Cherenkov radiation

  3. The Case for a Kilometer-Scale High-Energy Neutrino Detector: 1996

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    F. Halzen

    1996-05-02

    The objective of neutrino astronomy, born with the identification of thermonuclear fusion in the sun and the particle processes controlling the fate of a nearby supernova, is to build instruments which reach throughout and far beyond our Galaxy and make measurements relevant to cosmology, astrophysics, cosmic-ray and particle physics. These telescopes will push astronomy to wavelengths smaller than $10^{-14}$~cm by mapping the sky in high-energy neutrinos instead of high-energy photons to which the Universe is partially opaque. While a variety of collaborations are pioneering complementary methods by building neutrino detectors with effective area in excess of 0.01~km$^2$, we show here that the science dictates 1~km$^2$, or a 1~km$^3$ instrumented volume, as the natural scale of a high-energy neutrino telescope. The construction of a high-energy neutrino telescope therefore requires a huge volume of very transparent, deeply buried material such as ocean water or ice, which acts as the medium for detecting the particles. We will speculate on its architecture. The field is immersed in technology in the domain of particle physics to which many of its research goals are intellectually connected. With several thousand optical modules the scope of constructing a kilometer-scale instrument is similar to that of experiments presently being commissioned such as the SNO neutrino observatory in Canada and the Superkamiokande experiment in Japan.

  4. MEASURING THE ABUNDANCE OF SUB-KILOMETER-SIZED KUIPER BELT OBJECTS USING STELLAR OCCULTATIONS

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Schlichting, Hilke E. [Department of Earth and Space Science, UCLA, 595 Charles East Young Drive East, Los Angeles, CA 90095 (United States); Ofek, Eran O.; Gal-Yam, Avishay [Faculty of Physics, Weizmann Institute of Science, P.O. Box 26, Rehovot 76100 (Israel); Sari, Re'em [Racah Institute of Physics, Hebrew University, Jerusalem 91904 (Israel); Nelan, Edmund P.; Livio, Mario [Space Telescope Science Institute, 3700 San Martin Drive, Baltimore, MD 21218 (United States); Wenz, Michael [Goddard Space Flight Center, 8800 Greenbelt Road, Greenbelt, MD 20771 (United States); Muirhead, Philip [Department of Astronomy, California Institute of Technology, MC 130-33, Pasadena, CA 91125 (United States); Javanfar, Nikta, E-mail: hilke@ucla.edu [Department of Physics, Physics Engineering and Astronomy, Queen's University, 99 University Avenue, Kingston, Ontario K7L 3N6 (Canada)

    2012-12-20

    We present here the analysis of about 19,500 new star hours of low ecliptic latitude observations (|b| {<=} 20 Degree-Sign ) obtained by the Hubble Space Telescope's Fine Guidance Sensors over a time span of more than nine years, which is in addition to the {approx}12, 000 star hours previously analyzed by Schlichting et al. Our search for stellar occultations by small Kuiper Belt Objects (KBOs) yielded one new candidate event corresponding to a body with a 530 {+-} 70 m radius at a distance of about 40 AU. Using bootstrap simulations, we estimate a probability of Almost-Equal-To 5% that this event is due to random statistical fluctuations within the new data set. Combining this new event with the single KBO occultation reported by Schlichting et al. we arrive at the following results: (1) the ecliptic latitudes of 6. Degree-Sign 6 and 14. Degree-Sign 4 of the two events are consistent with the observed inclination distribution of larger, 100-km-sized KBOs. (2) Assuming that small, sub-kilometer-sized KBOs have the same ecliptic latitude distribution as their larger counterparts, we find an ecliptic surface density of KBOs with radii larger than 250 m of N(r > 250 m) = 1.1{sup +1.5}{sub -0.7} Multiplication-Sign 10{sup 7} deg{sup -2}; if sub-kilometer-sized KBOs have instead a uniform ecliptic latitude distribution for -20 Degree-Sign < b < 20 Degree-Sign then N(r > 250 m) = 4.4{sup +5.8}{sub -2.8} Multiplication-Sign 10{sup 6} deg{sup -2}. This is the best measurement of the surface density of sub-kilometer-sized KBOs to date. (3) Assuming the KBO size distribution can be well described by a single power law given by N(> r){proportional_to}r{sup 1-q}, where N(> r) is the number of KBOs with radii greater than r, and q is the power-law index, we find q = 3.8 {+-} 0.2 and q = 3.6 {+-} 0.2 for a KBO ecliptic latitude distribution that follows the observed distribution for larger, 100-km-sized KBOs and a uniform KBO ecliptic latitude distribution for -20 Degree-Sign < b < 20 Degree-Sign , respectively. (4) Regardless of the exact power law, our results suggest that small KBOs are numerous enough to satisfy the required supply rate for the Jupiter family comets. (5) We can rule out a single power law below the break with q > 4.0 at 2{sigma}, confirming a strong deficit of sub-kilometer-sized KBOs compared to a population extrapolated from objects with r > 45 km. This suggests that small KBOs are undergoing collisional erosion and that the Kuiper Belt is a true analog to the dust producing debris disks observed around other stars.

  5. The Case for a Kilometer-Scale High Energy Neutrino Detector

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    F. Halzen

    1994-10-26

    Doing astronomy with photons of energies in excess of a GeV has turned out to be extremely challenging. Efforts are underway to develop instruments that may push astronomy to wavelengths smaller than $10^{-14}$~cm by mapping the sky in high energy neutrinos instead. Neutrino astronomy, born with the identification of thermonuclear fusion in the sun and the particle processes controlling the fate of a nearby supernova, will reach outside the galaxy and make measurements relevant to cosmology. The field is immersed in technology in the domains of particle physics to which many of its research goals are intellectually connected. To mind come the search for neutrino mass, cold dark matter (supersymmetric particles?) and the monopoles of the Standard Model. While a variety of collaborations are pioneering complementary methods by building telescopes with effective area in excess of 0.01~km$^2$, we show here that the natural scale of a high energy neutrino telescope is 1~km$^2$. With several thousand optical modules and a price tag unlikely to exceed 100 million dollars, the scope of a kilometer-scale instrument is similar to that of experiments presently being commissioned such as the SNO neutrino observatory in Canada and the Superkamiokande experiment in Japan.

  6. ALMA Observations of Asteroid 3 Juno at 60 Kilometer Resolution

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Partnership, ALMA; Kneissl, R; Moullet, A; Brogan, C L; Fomalont, E B; Vlahakis, C; Asaki, Y; Barkats, D; Dent, W R F; Hills, R; Hirota, A; Hodge, J A; Impellizzeri, C M V; Liuzzo, E; Lucas, R; Marcelino, N; Matsushita, S; Nakanishi, K; Perez, L M; Phillips, N; Richards, A M S; Toledo, I; Aladro, R; Broguiere, D; Cortes, J R; Cortes, P C; Dhawan, V; Espada, D; Galarza, F; Garcia-Appadoo, D; Guzman-Ramirez, L; Hales, A S; Humphreys, E M; Jung, T; Kameno, S; Laing, R A; Leon, S; Marconi, G; Nikolic, B; Nyman, L -A; Radiszcz, M; Remijan, A; Rodon, J A; Sawada, T; Takahashi, S; Tilanus, R P J; Vilaro, B Vila; Watson, L C; Wiklind, T; de Gregorio, I; Di Francesco, J; Mangum, J; Francke, H; Gallardo, J; Garcia, J; Gonzalez, S; Hill, T; Kaminski, T; Kurono, Y; Lopez, C; Morales, F; Plarre, K; Randall, S; van kempen, T; Videla, L; Villard, E; Andreani, P; Hibbard, J E; Tatematsu, K

    2015-01-01

    We present Atacama Large Millimeter/submillimeter Array (ALMA) 1.3 mm continuum images of the asteroid 3 Juno obtained with an angular resolution of 0.042 arcseconds (60 km at 1.97 AU). The data were obtained over a single 4.4 hr interval, which covers 60% of the 7.2 hr rotation period, approximately centered on local transit. A sequence of ten consecutive images reveals continuous changes in the asteroid's profile and apparent shape, in good agreement with the sky projection of the three-dimensional model of the Database of Asteroid Models from Inversion Techniques. We measure a geometric mean diameter of 259pm4 km, in good agreement with past estimates from a variety of techniques and wavelengths. Due to the viewing angle and inclination of the rotational pole, the southern hemisphere dominates all of the images. The median peak brightness temperature is 215pm13 K, while the median over the whole surface is 197pm15 K. With the unprecedented resolution of ALMA, we find that the brightness temperature varies ...

  7. ExaScale High Performance Computing in the Square Kilometer Array

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    van Nieuwpoort, Rob V.

    ExaScale High Performance Computing in the Square Kilometer Array P. Chris Broekema, broekema project requires active and intensive involve- ment from both the high performance computing researchScale Computing, Square Kilometer Array, High Performance Computing, Streaming Computing 1. INTRODUCTION

  8. Power Challenges of Large Scale Research Infrastructures: the Square Kilometer Array and Solar Energy Integration; Towards a zero-carbon footprint next generation telescope

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Barbosa, Domingos; Ruiz, Valeriano; Silva, Manuel; Verdes-Montenegro, Lourdes; Santander-Vela, Juande; Maia, Dalmiro; Antón, Sonia; van Ardenne, Arnold; Vetter, Matthias; Kramer, Michael; Keller, Reinhard; Pereira, Nuno; Silva, Vitor

    2012-01-01

    The Square Kilometer Array (SKA) will be the largest Global science project of the next two decades. It will encompass a sensor network dedicated to radioastronomy, covering two continents. It will be constructed in remote areas of South Africa and Australia, spreading over 3000Km, in high solar irradiance latitudes. Solar Power supply is therefore an option to power supply the SKA and contribute to a zero carbon footprint next generation telescope. Here we outline the major characteristics of the SKA and some innovation approaches on thermal solar energy Integration with SKA prototypes.

  9. Square Kilometer Array Telescope - Precision Reference Frequency Synchronisation via 1f-2f Dissemination

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Wang, B; Gao, C; Bai, Y; Dong, J W; Wang, L J

    2015-01-01

    The Square Kilometer Array (SKA) is an international effort to build the world's largest radio telescope, with one square kilometer collecting area. Besides its ambitious scientific objectives, such as probing the cosmic dawn and cradle of life, SKA also demands several revolutionary technological breakthroughs, with ultra-high precision synchronisation of the frequency references for thousands of antennas being one of them. In this report, aimed at applications to SKA, we demonstrate a frequency reference synchronization and dissemination scheme with the phase noise compensation function placed at the client site. Hence, one central hub can be linked to a large number of client sites, forming a star-shaped topology. As a performance test, the 100 MHz reference signal from a Hydrogen maser clock is disseminated and recovered at two remote sites. Phase noise characteristics of the recovered reference frequency signal coincides with that of the hydrogen-maser source and satisfies SKA requirement.

  10. (Data in kilograms of gallium content unless otherwise noted) Domestic Production and Use: No domestic primary gallium recovery was reported in 2009. One company in Utah

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    diselenide (CIGS) thin film solar cell. The company's CIGS material utilizes a flexible substrate that allows), photodetectors, and solar cells, represented 31% of gallium demand. The remaining 2% was used in research in the United States decreased to between $450 and $500 per kilogram. Several records for solar cell efficiency

  11. Teleporting independent qubits through a 97 km free-space channel

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Yin, Juan; Ren, Ji-Gang; Cao, Yuan; Yong, Hai-Lin; Wu, Yu-Ping; Liu, Chang; Liao, Sheng-Kai; Jiang, Yan; Cai, Xin-Dong; Xu, Ping; Pan, Ge-Sheng; Wang, Jian-Yu; Chen, Yu-Ao; Peng, Cheng-Zhi; Pan, Jian-Wei

    2012-01-01

    With the help of quantum entanglement, quantum communication can be achieved between arbitrarily distant places without passing through intermediate locations by quantum teleportation. In the laboratory, quantum teleportation has been demonstrated over short distance by photonic and atomic qubits. Using fiber links, quantum teleportation has been achieved over kilometer distances. Long distance quantum teleportation is of particular interest and has been one of the holy grails of practical quantum communication. Most recently, quantum teleportation over 16 km free-space link was demonstrated. However, a major restriction in this experiment is that the unknown quantum state cannot directly come from outside. Here, based on an ultra-bright multi-photon entanglement source, we demonstrate quantum teleportation, closely following the original scheme, for any unknown state created outside, between two optical free-space links separated by 97 km. Over a 35-53 dB high-loss quantum channel, an average fidelity of 80....

  12. Teleportation of entanglement over 143 km

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Thomas Herbst; Thomas Scheidl; Matthias Fink; Johannes Handsteiner; Bernhard Wittmann; Rupert Ursin; Anton Zeilinger

    2015-02-06

    As a direct consequence of the no-cloning theorem, the deterministic amplification as in classical communication is impossible for quantum states. This calls for more advanced techniques in a future global quantum network, e.g. for cloud quantum computing. A unique solution is the teleportation of an entangled state, i.e. entanglement swapping, representing the central resource to relay entanglement between distant nodes. Together with entanglement purification and a quantum memory it constitutes a so-called quantum repeater. Since the aforementioned building blocks have been individually demonstrated in laboratory setups only, the applicability of the required technology in real-world scenarios remained to be proven. Here we present a free-space entanglement-swapping experiment between the Canary Islands of La Palma and Tenerife, verifying the presence of quantum entanglement between two previously independent photons separated by 143 km. We obtained an expectation value for the entanglement-witness operator, more than 6 standard deviations beyond the classical limit. By consecutive generation of the two required photon pairs and space-like separation of the relevant measurement events, we also showed the feasibility of the swapping protocol in a long-distance scenario, where the independence of the nodes is highly demanded. Since our results already allow for efficient implementation of entanglement purification, we anticipate our assay to lay the ground for a fully-fledged quantum repeater over a realistic high-loss and even turbulent quantum channel.

  13. Pblico -Principal Meteorologia captou rajadas de 220 km/hora

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Instituto de Sistemas e Robotica

    Público - Principal Meteorologia captou rajadas de 220 km/hora Autor: Lurdes Ferreira Id: 1038362 #12;Público - Principal Meteorologia captou rajadas de 220 km/hora Autor: Lurdes Ferreira Id: 1038350.768,80 EUR #12;Público - Principal Meteorologia captou rajadas de 220 km/hora Autor: Lurdes Ferreira Id

  14. Cellulosic emissions (kg of pollutant per km2 county area) -...

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    Cellulosic emissions (kg of pollutant per km2 county area) Data reflects projected air emissions of nitrogen oxides (NOX), ammonia (NH3), carbon monoxide (CO), sulfur oxide (SOX),...

  15. Status of the KM3NeT project

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Margiotta, A

    2014-01-01

    KM3NeT is a deep-sea research infrastructure being constructed in the Mediterranean Sea. It will be installed at three sites: KM3NeT-Fr, offshore Toulon, France, KM3NeT-It, offshore Portopalo di Capo Passero, Sicily (Italy) and KM3NeT-Gr, offshore Pylos, Peloponnese, Greece. It will host the next generation Cherenkov neutrino telescope and nodes for a deep sea multidisciplinary observatory, providing oceanographers, marine biologists, and geophysicists with real time measurements. The neutrino telescope will search for Galactic and extra-Galactic sources of neutrinos, complementing IceCube in its field of view. The detector will have a modular structure and consists of six building blocks, each including about one hundred Detection Units (DUs). Each DU will be equipped with 18 multi-PMT digital optical modules. The first phase of construction has started and shore and deep-sea infrastructures hosting the future KM3NeT detector are being prepared in France near Toulon and in Italy, near Capo Passero in Sicily....

  16. Sensitivity and noise analysis of 4 km laser interferometric gravitational wave antennae

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Adhikari, Rana, 1974-

    2004-01-01

    Around the world, efforts are underway to commission several kilometer-scale laser interferometers to detect gravitational radiation. In the United States, there are two collocated interferometers in Hanford, Washington ...

  17. The European Optical Module for Paris, KM-3 electronics meeting

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Wiebusch, Christopher

    V) Tref optical link single mode (500 Mbd) Control, Ocean cable (30km) String-Controller(SC) Data (Ocean bottom) Sea water return #12;Why 2 di erent OMs in DUMAND II ? JOM and EOM are complementary Currents Voltages HighVoltage #12;The EOM Scintillator Electrical penetrator 432 mm 345 mm Philips XP2600

  18. High strain-rate deformation fabrics characterize a kilometers-thick Paleozoic fault zone in the Eastern Sierras Pampeanas, central Argentina

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Whitmeyer, Steven J.

    in the Eastern Sierras Pampeanas, central Argentina Steven J. Whitmeyer*, Carol Simpson Department of Earth´rdoba, central Argentina. The NNW-striking, east-dipping `Tres Arboles' fault zone extends for at least 250 km

  19. A 233 km tunnel for lepton and hadron colliders

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Summers, D. J.; Cremaldi, L. M.; Datta, A.; Duraisamy, M.; Luo, T.; Lyons, G. T. [Dept. of Physics and Astronomy, University of Mississippi-Oxford, University, MS 38677 (United States)

    2012-12-21

    A decade ago, a cost analysis was conducted to bore a 233 km circumference Very Large Hadron Collider (VLHC) tunnel passing through Fermilab. Here we outline implementations of e{sup +}e{sup -}, pp-bar , and {mu}{sup +}{mu}{sup -} collider rings in this tunnel using recent technological innovations. The 240 and 500 GeV e{sup +}e{sup -} colliders employ Crab Waist Crossings, ultra low emittance damped bunches, short vertical IP focal lengths, superconducting RF, and low coercivity, grain oriented silicon steel/concrete dipoles. Some details are also provided for a high luminosity 240 GeV e{sup +}e{sup -} collider and 1.75 TeV muon accelerator in a Fermilab site filler tunnel. The 40 TeV pp-bar collider uses the high intensity Fermilab p-bar source, exploits high cross sections for pp-bar production of high mass states, and uses 2 Tesla ultra low carbon steel/YBCO superconducting magnets run with liquid neon. The 35 TeV muon ring ramps the 2 Tesla superconducting magnets at 9 Hz every 0.4 seconds, uses 250 GV of superconducting RF to accelerate muons from 1.75 to 17.5 TeV in 63 orbits with 71% survival, and mitigates neutrino radiation with phase shifting, roller coaster motion in a FODO lattice.

  20. Johnson(-like)-Noise-Kirchhoff-Loop Based Secure Classical Communicator Characteristics, for Ranges of Two to Two Thousand Kilometers, via Model-Line

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Robert Mingesz; Zoltan Gingl; Laszlo B. Kish

    2012-03-14

    A pair of Kirchhoff-Loop-Johnson(-like)-Noise communicators, which is able to work over variable ranges, was designed and built. Tests have been carried out on a model-line performance characteristics were obtained for ranges beyond the ranges of any known direct quantum communication channel and they indicate unrivalled signal fidelity and security performance of the exchanged raw key bits. This simple device has single-wire secure key generation and sharing rates of 0.1, 1, 10, and 100 bit/second for corresponding copper wire diameters/ranges of 21 mm / 2000 km, 7 mm / 200 km, 2.3 mm / 20 km, and 0.7 mm / 2 km, respectively and it performs with 0.02% raw-bit error rate (99.98 % fidelity). The raw-bit security of this practical system significantly outperforms raw-bit quantum security. Current injection breaking tests show zero bit eavesdropping ability without triggering the alarm signal, therefore no multiple measurements are needed to build an error statistics to detect the eavesdropping as in quantum communication. Wire resistance based breaking tests of Bergou-Scheuer-Yariv type give an upper limit of eavesdropped raw bit ratio of 0.19 % and this limit is inversely proportional to the sixth power of cable diameter. Hao's breaking method yields zero (below measurement resolution) eavesdropping information.

  1. Indirect Detection of Dark Matter in km-size Neutrino Telescopes

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Lars Bergstrom; Joakim Edsjo; Paolo Gondolo

    1999-06-02

    Neutrino telescopes of kilometer size are currently being planned. They will be two or three orders of magnitude larger than presently operating detectors, but they will have a much higher muon energy threshold. We discuss the trade-off between area and energy threshold for indirect detection of neutralino dark matter captured in the Sun and in the Earth and annihilating into high energy neutrinos. We also study the effect of a higher threshold on the complementarity of different searches for supersymmetric dark matter.

  2. High rate, long-distance quantum key distribution over 250km of ultra low loss fibres

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    D. Stucki; N. Walenta; F. Vannel; R. T. Thew; N. Gisin; H. Zbinden; S. Gray; C. R. Towery; S. Ten

    2009-03-23

    We present a fully automated quantum key distribution prototype running at 625 MHz clock rate. Taking advantage of ultra low loss fibres and low-noise superconducting detectors, we can distribute 6,000 secret bits per second over 100 km and 15 bits per second over 250km.

  3. Simulation for KM3NeT using ANTARES-Software

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    S. Kuch

    2006-06-21

    The KM3NeT project is a common European effort for the design of a km3-scale deep-sea neutrino telescope in the Mediterranean. For the upcoming Design Study simulations have been done using modified ANTARES software. Several concepts and ideas have been tested for their merits and feasibility.

  4. Deactivation & Decommissioning Knowledge Management Information Tool (D&D KM-IT)

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    The Deactivation and Decommissioning Knowledge Management Information Tool (D&D KM-IT) serves as a centralized repository providing a common interface for all D&D related activities.

  5. Distribution of Time-Energy Entanglement over 100 km fiber using superconducting single-photon detectors

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Qiang Zhang; Hiroki Takesue; Sae Woo Nam; Carsten Langrock; Xiuping Xie; M. M. Fejer; Yoshihisa Yamamoto

    2007-12-25

    In this letter, we report an experimental realization of distributing entangled photon pairs over 100 km of dispersion-shifted fiber. In the experiment, we used a periodically poled lithium niobate waveguide to generate the time-energy entanglement and superconducting single-photon detectors to detect the photon pairs after 100 km. We also demonstrate that the distributed photon pairs can still be useful for quantum key distribution and other quantum communication tasks.

  6. Intelligent scraping experience using ultrasonics in two 60in./56in. dual diameter 100 km seawater transmission pipelines in Saudi Arabia

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Bird, A.F.; Chu, K.S.

    1995-10-01

    Saudi ARAMCO`s two 60in./56in. (1524/1422 mm) diameter Seawater Injection Pipelines used for secondary oil recovery stretch from the Seawater Treatment Plant across the Arabian Desert for a distance of approximately 100 kilometers. Both lines were put into operation in mid 1978 using over the ditch Plicoflex tape wrap as a means of protection against external corrosion. A significant portion of both pipelines (32 km of each line) runs through Subkha (salty moist) areas. A series of test hole evaluations in 1989 indicated moderate to sever external corrosion particularly in Subkha which necessitated sleeving and external coating application. In 1991 a series of leaks, four (4) in total over a period of two (2) months occurred in Pipeline {number_sign}2 due to external corrosion. This suggested that the line(s) were in urgent need of at least partial replacement or major rehabilitation. Prior to making a final decision on partial replacement it was decided to run an Intelligent Scraper in both pipelines to ascertain both internal and external pipeline conditions. An Ultrasonic Scraper the largest of it`s kind in the world, similar to what was used in the Alyeska Pipeline was developed and successfully run in both pipelines in February 1993. This paper discusses the pipeline history, test hole evaluations, Intelligent Scraping experiences, field evaluation for anomaly verification, and repair of approximately 120 locations as identified by the Intelligent Scraping run. The Intelligent Scraping evaluation played a major role in the cancellation of partial pipeline replacement with cost savings estimated $30 MM.

  7. Bottom interacting sound at 50 km range in a deep ocean environment

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Frandsen, Jannette B.

    of acoustic methods in many applications. In this paper acoustic bottom interaction in the deep water LongBottom interacting sound at 50 km range in a deep ocean environment Ilya A. Udovydchenkova) Applied Ocean Physics and Engineering Department, Woods Hole Oceanographic Institution, Woods Hole

  8. Aalborg Universitet Full Scale Test on a 100km, 150kV AC Cable

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Bak, Claus Leth

    wind farm Horns Rev 2, located in Denmark west coast, to Denmark's 400 kV transmission network from the electrical measurements on a 99.7 km, 150 kV three-phase AC cable, connecting 215 MW offshore

  9. Precise half-life measurement of the superallowed beta(+) emitter (38)K(m

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Ball, G. C.; Boisvert, G.; Bricault, P.; Churchman, R.; Dombsky, M.; Lindner, T.; Macdonald, J. A.; Vandervoort, E.; Bishop, S.; D'Auria, J. M.; Hardy, John C.; Iacob, V. E.; Leslie, J. R.; Mak, H. -B.

    2010-01-01

    The half-life of (38)K(m) has been measured to be 924.46(14) ms, a result that is a factor of two more precise than any of the five previous measurements of this quantity. The previous results are not consistent with one another, but our result...

  10. A 3 km atmospheric boundary layer on Titan indicated by dune spacing and Huygens data

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Claudin, Philippe

    Note A 3 km atmospheric boundary layer on Titan indicated by dune spacing and Huygens data Ralph D a b s t r a c t Some 20% of Titan's surface is covered in large linear dunes that resemble parameter limiting the growth of giant dunes, namely the boundary layer thickness (Andreotti et al., 2009

  11. The prototype detection unit of the KM3NeT detector

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Adrián-Martínez, S; Aharonian, F; Aiello, S; Albert, A; Ameli, F; Anassontzis, E G; Anghinolfi, M; Anton, G; Anvar, S; Ardid, M; Avgitas, T; Balasi, K; Band, H; Barbarino, G; Barbarito, E; Barbato, F; Baret, B; Baron, S; Barrios, J; Belias, A; Berbee, E; Berg, A M van den; Berkien, A; Bertin, V; Beurthey, S; van Beveren, V; Beverini, N; Biagi, S; Biagioni, A; Bianucci, S; Billault, M; Birbas, A; Rookhuizen, H Boer; Bormuth, R; Bouché, V; Bouhadef, B; Bourlis, G; Boutonnet, C; Bouwhuis, M; Bozza, C; Bruijn, R; Brunner, J; Cacopardo, G; Caillat, L; Calamai, M; Calvo, D; Capone, A; Caramete, L; Caruso, F; Cecchini, S; Ceres, A; Cereseto, R; Champion, C; Château, F; Chiarusi, T; Christopoulou, B; Circella, M; Classen, L; Cocimano, R; Coleiro, A; Colonges, S; Coniglione, R; Cosquer, A; Costa, M; Coyle, P; Creusot, A; Cuttone, G; D'Amato, C; D'Amico, A; De Bonis, G; De Rosa, G; Deniskina, N; Destelle, J -J; Distefano, C; Di Capua, F; Donzaud, C; Dornic, D; Dorosti-Hasankiadeh, Q; Drakopoulou, E; Drouhin, D; Drury, L; Durand, D; Eberl, T; Elsaesser, D; Enzenhöfer, A; Fermani, P; Fusco, L A; Gajanana, D; Gal, T; Galatà, S; Garufi, F; Gebyehu, M; Giordano, V; Gizani, N; GraciaRuiz, R; Graf, K; Grasso, R; Grella, G; Grmek, A; Habel, R; van Haren, H; Heid, T; Heijboer, A; Heine, E; Henry, S; Hernández-Rey, J J; Herold, B; Hevinga, M A; van der Hoek, M; Hofestädt, J; Hogenbirk, J; Hugon, C; Hößl, J; Imbesi, M; James, C W; Jansweijer, P; Jochum, J; de Jong, M; Jongen, M; Kadler, M; Kalekin, O; Kappes, A; Kappos, E; Katz, U; Kavatsyuk, O; Keller, P; Kieft, G; Koffeman, E; Kok, H; Kooijman, P; Koopstra, J; Korporaal, A; Kouchner, A; Kreykenbohm, I; Kulikovskiy, V; Lahmann, R; Lamare, P; Larosa, G; Lattuada, D; Provost, H Le; Leismüller, K P; Leisos, A; Lenis, D; Leonora, E; LindseyClark, M; Alvarez, C D Llorens; Löhner, H; Lonardo, A; Loucatos, S; Louis, F; Maccioni, E; Mannheim, K; Manolopoulos, K; Margiotta, A; Mari?, O; Markou, C; Martínez-Mora, J A; Martini, A; Masullo, R; Melis, K W; Michael, T; Migliozzi, P; Migneco, E; Miraglia, A; Mollo, C M; Mongelli, M; Morganti, M; Mos, S; Moudden, Y; Musico, P; Musumeci, M; Nicolaou, C; Nicolau, C A; Orlando, A; Orzelli, A; Papaikonomou, A; Papaleo, R; P?v?la?, G E; Peek, H; Pellegrino, C; Pellegriti, M G; Perrina, C; Piattelli, P; Pikounis, K; Popa, V; Pradier, Th; Priede, M; Pühlhofer, G; Pulvirenti, S; Racca, C; Raffaelli, F; Randazzo, N; Rapidis, P A; Razis, P; Real, D; Resvanis, L; Reubelt, J; Riccobene, G; Rovelli, A; Saldaña, M; Samtleben, D F E; Sanguineti, M; Santangelo, A; Sapienza, P; Schmelling, J; Schnabel, J; Sciacca, V; Sedita, M; Seitz, T; Sgura, I; Simeone, F; Sipala, V; Spitaleri, A; Spurio, M; Stavropoulos, G; Steijger, J; Stolarczyk, T; Stransky, D; Taiuti, M; Terreni, G; Tézier, D; Théraube, S; Thompson, L F; Timmer, P; Trasatti, L; Trovato, A; Tselengidou, M; Tsirigotis, A; Tzamarias, S; Tzamariudaki, E; Vallage, B; Van Elewyck, V; Vermeulen, J; Vernin, P; Vicini, P; Viola, S; Vivolo, D; Werneke, P; Wiggers, L; Wilms, J; de Wolf, E; van Wooning, R H L; Zonca, E; Zornoza, J D; Zúñiga, J; Zwart, A

    2015-01-01

    A prototype detection unit of the KM3NeT deep-sea neutrino telescope has been installed at 3500m depth 80km offshore the Italian coast. KM3NeT in its final configuration will contain several hundreds of detection units. Each detection unit is a mechanical structure anchored to the sea floor, held vertical by a submerged buoy and supporting optical modules for the detection of Cherenkov light emitted by charged secondary particles emerging from neutrino interactions. This prototype string implements three optical modules with 31 photomultiplier tubes each. These optical modules were developed by the KM3NeT Collaboration to enhance the detection capability of neutrino interactions. The prototype detection unit was operated since its deployment in May 2014 until its decommissioning in July 2015. Reconstruction of the particle trajectories from the data requires a nanosecond accuracy in the time calibration. A procedure for relative time calibration of the photomultiplier tubes contained in each optical module is...

  12. ENERGY SPECTRUM OF PRIMARY COSMIC RAYS ABOVE 1017 OBTAINED USING AKENO 20 KM2

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    OG 6.3-3 ENERGY SPECTRUM OF PRIMARY COSMIC RAYS ABOVE 1017 EV OBTAINED USING AKENO 20 KM2 ARRAY M, Tokyo Institute of Technology, Tokyo 152, Japan . Institute of High Energy Physics, Academia Sinica these showers, 60 of them are initiated by primaries with energies larger than 1019 eV. The energy spectrum

  13. Net Carbon Flux from US Croplands at 1km2 Resolution.

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Net Carbon Flux from US Croplands at 1km2 Resolution. This estimate includes all on-site sources and sinks of carbon Agronomic Feedstock Production and Environmental Impact Analyses ORNL uses high-resolution projections of feedstock production in analyses of soil carbon change, soil erosion, energy use, net

  14. Large-scale (100s km) distributions of tuna larvae (family Scombridae), par-

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    abundance and fecundity of T. albacares (yellowfin tuna) and K. pelamis (skipjack tuna) in the western. pelamis larvae. Other possible explanations, however, are that previous sampling scales of 100s km between waters (Miller, 1979), and Thunnus spp. and K. pelamis larvae were up to 100 times more concentrated

  15. Subsidence in the Michigan basin produced ~5 km of sedimentation over a period of more

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    other cra- tonic settings, such as the Illinois, Paris, and North Sea basins (Heidlauf et al., 1986ABSTRACT Subsidence in the Michigan basin produced ~5 km of sedimentation over a period of more corrections and estimates of paleo- bathymetry, we recognize four different styles of subsidence in the basin

  16. The prototype detection unit of the KM3NeT detector

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    KM3NeT Collaboration; S. Adrián-Martínez; M. Ageron; F. Aharonian; S. Aiello; A. Albert; F. Ameli; E. G. Anassontzis; M. Anghinolfi; G. Anton; S. Anvar; M. Ardid; T. Avgitas; K. Balasi; H. Band; G. Barbarino; E. Barbarito; F. Barbato; B. Baret; S. Baron; J. Barrios; A. Belias; E. Berbee; A. M. van den Berg; A. Berkien; V. Bertin; S. Beurthey; V. van Beveren; N. Beverini; S. Biagi; A. Biagioni; S. Bianucci; M. Billault; A. Birbas; H. Boer Rookhuizen; R. Bormuth; V. Bouché; B. Bouhadef; G. Bourlis; C. Boutonnet; M. Bouwhuis; C. Bozza; R. Bruijn; J. Brunner; G. Cacopardo; L. Caillat; M. Calamai; D. Calvo; A. Capone; L. Caramete; F. Caruso; S. Cecchini; A. Ceres; R. Cereseto; C. Champion; F. Château; T. Chiarusi; B. Christopoulou; M. Circella; L. Classen; R. Cocimano; A. Coleiro; S. Colonges; R. Coniglione; A. Cosquer; M. Costa; P. Coyle; A. Creusot; G. Cuttone; C. D'Amato; A. D'Amico; G. De Bonis; G. De Rosa; N. Deniskina; J. -J. Destelle; C. Distefano; F. Di Capua; C. Donzaud; D. Dornic; Q. Dorosti-Hasankiadeh; E. Drakopoulou; D. Drouhin; L. Drury; D. Durand; T. Eberl; D. Elsaesser; A. Enzenhöfer; P. Fermani; L. A. Fusco; D. Gajanana; T. Gal; S. Galatà; F. Garufi; M. Gebyehu; V. Giordano; N. Gizani; R. GraciaRuiz; K. Graf; R. Grasso; G. Grella; A. Grmek; R. Habel; H. van Haren; T. Heid; A. Heijboer; E. Heine; S. Henry; J. J. Hernández-Rey; B. Herold; M. A. Hevinga; M. van der Hoek; J. Hofestädt; J. Hogenbirk; C. Hugon; J. Hößl; M. Imbesi; C. W. James; P. Jansweijer; J. Jochum; M. de Jong; M. Jongen; M. Kadler; O. Kalekin; A. Kappes; E. Kappos; U. Katz; O. Kavatsyuk; P. Keller; G. Kieft; E. Koffeman; H. Kok; P. Kooijman; J. Koopstra; A. Korporaal; A. Kouchner; I. Kreykenbohm; V. Kulikovskiy; R. Lahmann; P. Lamare; G. Larosa; D. Lattuada; H. Le Provost; K. P. Leismüller; A. Leisos; D. Lenis; E. Leonora; M. LindseyClark; C. D. Llorens Alvarez; H. Löhner; A. Lonardo; S. Loucatos; F. Louis; E. Maccioni; K. Mannheim; K. Manolopoulos; A. Margiotta; O. Mari?; C. Markou; J. A. Martínez-Mora; A. Martini; R. Masullo; K. W. Melis; T. Michael; P. Migliozzi; E. Migneco; A. Miraglia; C. M. Mollo; M. Mongelli; M. Morganti; S. Mos; Y. Moudden; P. Musico; M. Musumeci; C. Nicolaou; C. A. Nicolau; A. Orlando; A. Orzelli; A. Papaikonomou; R. Papaleo; G. E. P?v?la?; H. Peek; C. Pellegrino; M. G. Pellegriti; C. Perrina; P. Piattelli; K. Pikounis; V. Popa; Th. Pradier; M. Priede; G. Pühlhofer; S. Pulvirenti; C. Racca; F. Raffaelli; N. Randazzo; P. A. Rapidis; P. Razis; D. Real; L. Resvanis; J. Reubelt; G. Riccobene; A. Rovelli; M. Saldaña; D. F. E. Samtleben; M. Sanguineti; A. Santangelo; P. Sapienza; J. Schmelling; J. Schnabel; V. Sciacca; M. Sedita; T. Seitz; I. Sgura; F. Simeone; V. Sipala; A. Spitaleri; M. Spurio; G. Stavropoulos; J. Steijger; T. Stolarczyk; D. Stransky; M. Taiuti; G. Terreni; D. Tézier; S. Théraube; L. F. Thompson; P. Timmer; L. Trasatti; A. Trovato; M. Tselengidou; A. Tsirigotis; S. Tzamarias; E. Tzamariudaki; B. Vallage; V. Van Elewyck; J. Vermeulen; P. Vernin; P. Vicini; S. Viola; D. Vivolo; P. Werneke; L. Wiggers; J. Wilms; E. de Wolf; R. H. L. van Wooning; E. Zonca; J. D. Zornoza; J. Zúñiga; A. Zwart

    2015-10-06

    A prototype detection unit of the KM3NeT deep-sea neutrino telescope has been installed at 3500m depth 80km offshore the Italian coast. KM3NeT in its final configuration will contain several hundreds of detection units. Each detection unit is a mechanical structure anchored to the sea floor, held vertical by a submerged buoy and supporting optical modules for the detection of Cherenkov light emitted by charged secondary particles emerging from neutrino interactions. This prototype string implements three optical modules with 31 photomultiplier tubes each. These optical modules were developed by the KM3NeT Collaboration to enhance the detection capability of neutrino interactions. The prototype detection unit was operated since its deployment in May 2014 until its decommissioning in July 2015. Reconstruction of the particle trajectories from the data requires a nanosecond accuracy in the time calibration. A procedure for relative time calibration of the photomultiplier tubes contained in each optical module is described. This procedure is based on the measured coincidences produced in the sea by the 40K background light and can easily be expanded to a detector with several thousands of optical modules. The time offsets between the different optical modules are obtained using LED nanobeacons mounted inside them. A set of data corresponding to 600 hours of livetime was analysed. The results show good agreement with Monte Carlo simulations of the expected optical background and the signal from atmospheric muons. An almost background-free sample of muons was selected by filtering the time correlated signals on all the three optical modules. The zenith angle of the selected muons was reconstructed with a precision of about 3{\\deg}.

  17. Hydrodynamic simulations of a combined hydrogen, helium thermonuclear runaway on a 10-km neutron star

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Starrfield, S.; Kenyon, S.; Truran, J.W.; Sparks, W.M.

    1983-01-01

    We have used a Lagrangian, hydrodynamic stellar-evolution computer code to evolve a thermonuclear runaway in the accreted hydrogen rich envelope of a 1.0M, 10-km neutron star. Our simulation produced an outburst which lasted about 2000 sec and peak effective temperature was 3 keV. The peak luminosity exceeded 2 x 10/sup 5/ L. A shock wave caused a precursor in the light curve which lasted 10/sup -5/ sec.

  18. The KM3NeT deep-sea neutrino telescope

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Margiotta, Annarita

    2014-01-01

    KM3NeT is a deep-sea research infrastructure being constructed in the Mediterranean Sea. It will host the next generation Cherenkov neutrino telescope and nodes for a deep sea multidisciplinary observatory, providing oceanographers, marine biologists, and geophysicists with real time measurements. The neutrino telescope will complement IceCube in its field of view and exceed it substantially in sensitivity. Its main goal is the detection of high energy neutrinos of astrophysical origin. The detector will have a modular structure with six building blocks, each consisting of about one hundred Detection Units (DUs). Each DU will be equipped with 18 multi-PMT digital optical modules. The first phase of construction has started and shore and deep-sea infrastructures hosting the future KM3NeT detector are being prepared offshore Toulon, France and offshore Capo Passero on Sicily, Italy. The technological solutions for the neutrino detector of KM3NeT and the expected performance of the neutrino telescope are present...

  19. Predicted Radiation Output from Several Kilograms of Plutonium...

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    Cycle & Fuel Materials(11); Nuclear Physics & Radiation Physics(73) radiation output, passive signature, plutonium oxide Word Cloud More Like This Full Text File size NAView Full...

  20. Predicted Radiation Output from Several Kilograms of Plutonium Oxide

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Homesum_a_epg0_fpd_mmcf_m.xls" ,"Available from WebQuantity of NaturalDukeWakefieldSulfateSciTech ConnectSpeeding accessusers'(x≤2) surface: A

  1. Predicted Radiation Output from Several Kilograms of Plutonium Oxide

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Homesum_a_epg0_fpd_mmcf_m.xls" ,"Available from WebQuantity of NaturalDukeWakefieldSulfateSciTech ConnectSpeeding accessusers'(x≤2) surface: A(Technical Report) | SciTech

  2. Mean zonal acceleration and heating of the 70- to 100-km region

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Miyahara, S.; Portnyagin, Yu.I.; Forbes, J.M. (Boston Univ., MA (USA)); Solovjeva, T.V. (Inst. for Experimental Meteorology, Obninsk (USSR))

    1991-02-01

    The dynamical interactions which occur in the atmospheric region around the mesopause ({approximately} 90 km) determine the boundary characteristics for the thermospheric region above. In the present work, using an empirical model of Eulerian-mean meridional motions based on monthly climatological winds from these radar data, the net vertical motions in this atmospheric regime are derived from the continuity equation. Assuming empirical prescriptions of the mean density and temperature fields, mean heat flux divergences and momentum flux divergences are estimated which exhibit very specific characteristics in the height versus latitude domain for winter, summer, and equinox conditions in both hemispheres. A numerical circulation model including gravity wave/mean flow and tide/mean flow interactions is utilized to examine possible origins of these heat and acceleration sources. At low latitudes ({le}30{degree}), it is evident that atmospheric tides represent the primary wave source contribution to zonal mean acceleration and heating of this region of the atmosphere; similarly, at middle and high latitudes ({ge}30{degree}) below about 90 km, dissipation of vertically propagating gravity waves appears to provide the dominant momentum source for the mean zonal circulation. However, above approximately 90 km and between about 40{degree} and 70{degree} latitude, very significant regions of mean heating and acceleration exist which are not accounted for by the effects of vertically propagating gravity waves and tides. The possible origins of these effects are examined. The authors suggest that the two most likely candidates to explain these observed features are (1) obliquely propagating gravity waves and/or (2) planetary scale waves.

  3. KM3NeT: A Next Generation Neutrino Telescope in the Mediterranean Sea

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    A. Kappes; for the KM3NeT Consortium

    2007-11-05

    To complement the IceCube neutrino telescope currently under construction at the South Pole, the three Mediterranean neutrino telescope projects ANTARES, NEMO and NESTOR have joined forces to develop, construct and operate a km^3-scale neutrino telescope in the Mediterranean Sea. Since February 2006, the technical specifications and performance of such a detector are studied in the framework of a 3-year EU-funded Design Study. In 2009 a technical design report will be released laying the foundations for the construction of the detector. In the following, the current status of the Design Study is presented and examples of solutions for the technical challenges are discussed.

  4. Daymet: Daily Surface Weather Data on a 1-km Grid for North America, Version 2.

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Thornton, Peter E [ORNL; Thornton, Michele M [ORNL; Mayer, Benjamin W [ORNL; Wilhelmi, Nate [National Center for Atmospheric Research (NCAR); Wei, Yaxing [ORNL; Devarakonda, Ranjeet [ORNL; Cook, Robert B [ORNL

    2014-01-01

    More information: http://daymet.ornl.gov Presenter: Ranjeet Devarakonda Environmental Sciences Division Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL) Daymet: Daily Surface Weather Data and Climatological Summaries provides gridded estimates of daily weather parameters for North America, including daily continuous surfaces of minimum and maximum temperature, precipitation occurrence and amount, humidity, shortwave radiation, snow water equivalent, and day length. The current data product (Version 2) covers the period January 1, 1980 to December 31, 2013 [1]. The prior product (Version 1) only covered from 1980-2008. Data are available on a daily time step at a 1-km x 1-km spatial resolution in Lambert Conformal Conic projection with a spatial extent that covers the conterminous United States, Mexico, and Southern Canada as meteorological station density allows. Daymet data can be downloaded from 1) the ORNL Distributed Active Archive Center (DAAC) search and order tools (http://daac.ornl.gov/cgi-bin/cart/add2cart.pl?add=1219) or directly from the DAAC FTP site (http://daac.ornl.gov/cgi-bin/dsviewer.pl?ds_id=1219) and 2) the Single Pixel Tool [2] and THREDDS (Thematic Real-time Environmental Data Services) Data Server [3]. The Single Pixel Data Extraction Tool allows users to enter a single geographic point by latitude and longitude in decimal degrees. A routine is executed that translates the (lon, lat) coordinates into projected Daymet (x,y) coordinates. These coordinates are used to access the Daymet database of daily-interpolated surface weather variables. Daily data from the nearest 1 km x 1 km Daymet grid cell are extracted from the database and formatted as a table with one column for each Daymet variable and one row for each day. All daily data for selected years are returned as a single (long) table, formatted for display in the browser window. At the top of this table is a link to the same data in a simple comma-separated text format, suitable for import into a spreadsheet or other data analysis software. The Single Pixel Data Extraction Tool also provides the option to download multiple coordinates programmatically. A multiple extractor script is freely available to download at http://daymet.ornl.gov/files/daymet.zip. The ORNL DAAC s THREDDS data server (TDS) provides customized visualization and access to Daymet time series of North American mosaics. Users can subset and download Daymet data via a variety of community standards, including OPeNDAP, NetCDF Subset service, and Open Geospatial Consortium (OGC) Web Map/Coverage Service. The ORNL DAAC TDS also exposes Daymet metadata through its ncISO service to facilitate harvesting Daymet metadata records into 3rd party catalogs. References: [1] Thornton, P.E., M.M. Thornton, B.W. Mayer, N. Wilhelmi, Y. Wei, R. Devarakonda, and R.B. Cook. 2014. Daymet: Daily Surface Weather Data on a 1-km Grid for North America, Version 2. Data set. Available on-line [http://daac.ornl.gov] from Oak Ridge National Laboratory Distributed Active Archive Center, Oak Ridge, Tennessee, USA. [2] Devarakonda R., et al. 2012. Daymet: Single Pixel Data Extraction Tool. Available on-line [http://daymet.ornl.go/singlepixel.html]. [3] Wei Y., et al. 2014. Daymet: Thematic Real-time Environmental Data Services. Available on-line [http://daymet.ornl.gov/thredds_tiles.html].

  5. Deep sea tests of a prototype of the KM3NeT digital optical module

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Adrián-Martínez, S; Aharonian, F; Aiello, S; Albert, A; Ameli, F; Anassontzis, E G; Anghinolfi, M; Anton, G; Anvar, S; Ardid, M; de Asmundis, R; Band, H; Barbarino, G; Barbarito, E; Barbato, F; Baret, B; Baron, S; Belias, A; Berbee, E; Berg, A M van den; Berkien, A; Bertin, V; Beurthey, S; van Beveren, V; Beverini, N; Biagi, S; Bianucci, S; Billault, M; Birbas, A; Rookhuizen, H Boer; Bormuth, R; Bouche, V; Bouhadef, B; Bourlis, G; Bouwhuis, M; Bozza, C; Bruijn, R; Brunner, J; Cacopardo, G; Caillat, L; Calamai, M; Calvo, D; Capone, A; Caramete, L; Caruso, F; Cecchini, S; Ceres, A; Cereseto, R; Champion, C; Chateau, F; Chiarusi, T; Christopoulou, B; Circella, M; Classen, L; Cocimano, R; Colonges, S; Coniglione, R; Cosquer, A; Costa, M; Coyle, P; Creusot, A; Curtil, C; Cuttone, G; D'Amato, C; D'Amico, A; De Bonis, G; De Rosa, G; Deniskina, N; Destelle, J -J; Distefano, C; Donzaud, C; Dornic, D; Dorosti-Hasankiadeh, Q; Drakopoulou7, E; Drouhin, D; Drury, L; Durand, D; Eberl, T; Eleftheriadis, C; Elsaesser, D; Enzenhofer, A; Fermani, P; Fusco, L A; Gajana, D; Gal, T; Galata, S; Gallo, F; Garufi, F; Gebyehu, M; Giordano, V; Gizani, N; Ruiz, R Gracia; Graf, K; Grasso, R; Grella, G; Grmek, A; Habel, R; van Haren, H; Heid, T; Heijboer, A; Heine, E; Henry, S; Hernandez-Rey, J J; Herold, B; Hevinga, M A; van der Hoek, M; Hofestadt, J; Hogenbirk, J; Hugon, C; Hosl, J; Imbesi, M; James, C; Jansweijer, P; Jochum, J; de Jong, M; Kadler, M; Kalekin, O; Kappes, A; Kappos, E; Katz, U; Kavatsyuk, O; Keller, P; Kieft, G; Koffeman, E; Kok, H; Kooijman, P; Koopstra, J; Korporaal, A; Kouchner, A; Koutsoukos, S; Kreykenbohm, I; Kulikovskiy, V; Lahmann, R; Lamare, P; Larosa, G; Lattuada, D; Provost, H Le; Leisos, A; Lenis, D; Leonora, E; Clark, M Lindsey; Liolios, A; Alvarez, C D Llorens; Lohner, H; Presti, D Lo; Louis, F; Maccioni, E; Mannheim, K; Manolopoulos, K; Margiotta, A; Maris, O; Markou, C; Martinez-Mora, J A; Martini, A; Masullo, R; Michael, T; Migliozzi, P; Migneco, E; Miraglia, A; Mollo, C; Mongelli, M; Morganti, M; Mos, S; Moudden, Y; Musico, P; Musumeci, M; Nicolaou, C; Nicolau, C A; Orlando, A; Orzelli, A; Papageorgiou, K; Papaikonomou, A; Papaleo, R; Pavalas, G E; Peek, H; Pellegrino, C; Pellegriti, M G; Perrina, C; Petridou, C; Piattelli, P; Popa, V; Pradier, Th; Priede, M; Puhlhofer, G; Pulvirenti, S; Racca, C; Raffaelli, F; Randazzo, N; Rapidis, P A; Razis, P; Real, D; Resvanis, L; Reubelt, J; Riccobene, G; Rovelli, A; Royon, J; Saldana, M; Samtleben, D F E; Sanguineti, M; Santangelo, A; Sapienza, P; Savvidis, I; Schmelling, J; Schnabel, J; Sedita, M; Seitz, T; Sgura, I; Simeone, F; Siotis, I; Sipala, V; Solazzo, M; Spitaleri, A; Spurio, M; Steijger, J; Stolarczyk, T; Stransky, D; Taiuti, M; Terreni, G; Tezier, D; Theraube, S; Thompson, L F; Timmer, P; Trapierakis, H I; Trasatti, L; Trovato, A; Tselengidou, M; Tsirigotis, A; Tzamarias, S; Tzamariudaki, E; Vallage, B; Van Elewyck, V; Vermeulen, J; Vernin, P; Viola, S; Vivolo, D; Werneke, P; Wiggers, L; Wilms, J; de Wolf, E; van Wooning, R H L; Yatkin, K; Zachariadou, K; Zonca, E; Zornoza, J D; Zúñiga, J; Zwart, A

    2014-01-01

    The first prototype of a photo-detection unit of the future KM3NeT neutrino telescope has been deployed in the deep waters of the Mediterranean Sea. This digital optical module has a novel design with a very large photocathode area segmented by the use of 31 three inch photomultiplier tubes. It has been integrated in the ANTARES detector for in-situ testing and validation. This paper reports on the first months of data taking and rate measurements. The analysis results highlight the capabilities of the new module design in terms of background suppression and signal recognition. The directionality of the optical module enables the recognition of multiple Cherenkov photons from the same $^{40}$K decay and the localization bioluminescent activity in the neighbourhood. The single unit can cleanly identify atmospheric muons and provide sensitivity to the muon arrival directions.

  6. Radiation damage of polyethylene exposed in the stratosphere at an altitude of 40 km

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Kondyurin, Alexey; Bilek, Marcela

    2011-01-01

    Low Density Polyethylene (LDPE) films were exposed at an altitude of 40 km over a 3 day NASA stratospheric balloon mission from Alice Springs, Australia. The radiation damage, oxidation and nitration in the LDPE films exposed in stratosphere were measured using ESR, FTIR and XPS spectroscopy. The results were compared with those from samples stored on the ground and exposed in a laboratory plasma. The types of free radicals, unsaturated hydrocarbon groups, oxygen-containing and nitrogen-containing groups in LDPE film exposed in the stratosphere and at the Earth's surface are different. The radiation damage in films exposed in the stratosphere are observed in the entire film due to the penetration of high energy cosmic rays through their thickness, while the radiation damage in films exposed on the ground is caused by sunlight penetrating into only a thin surface layer. A similarly thin layer of the film is damaged by exposure to plasma due to the low energy of the plasma particles. The intensity of oxidation ...

  7. Proposal of a new generation of Laser Beacon for time calibration in the KM3NeT neutrino telescope

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Real, Diego [IFIC, Instituto de Física Corpuscular, CSIC-Universidad de Valencia, C Collaboration: KM3NeT Collaboration

    2014-11-18

    The KM3NeT collaboration aims at the construction of a multi-km3 high-energy neutrino telescope in the Mediterranean Sea consisting of a matrix of pressure resistant glass spheres holding each a set (31) of small area photomultipliers. The main motivation of the telescope is to observe cosmic neutrinos through the Cherenkov light induced in sea water by charged particles produced in neutrino interactions with the surrounding medium. A relative time calibration between photomultipliers of the order of 1 ns is required to achieve an optimal performance. To this end, several time calibration subsystems have been developed. In this article, the proposal of a last generation Laser Beacon, to be used in KM3NeT and developed to measure and monitor the relative time offsets between photomultipliers, is presented.

  8. Brillouin optical time-domain analysis over a 240 km-long fiber loop with no repeater

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Thévenaz, Jacques

    Brillouin optical time-domain analysis over a 240 km-long fiber loop with no repeater Xabier Angulo.angulo@io.cfmac.csic.es; phone +34 915618806 ext.:222 ABSTRACT In this paper we combine the use of optical pulse coding and seeded second-order Raman amplification to extend the sensing distance of Brillouin optical time

  9. Directed aerial robot explorers for planetary exploration A.A. Pankine a,*, K.M. Aaron a

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Lorenz, Ralph D.

    Directed aerial robot explorers for planetary exploration A.A. Pankine a,*, K.M. Aaron a , M architecture relies upon the use of Directed Aerial Robot Explorers (DAREs), which essentially are long. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved. Keywords: Scientific ballooning; Direct Aerial Robot

  10. Evidence from P-to-S mantle converted waves for a flat b660-kmQ discontinuity beneath Iceland

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Foulger, G. R.

    Evidence from P-to-S mantle converted waves for a flat b660-kmQ discontinuity beneath Iceland Z. Du; accepted 19 September 2005 Available online 22 November 2005 Editor: R.D. van der Hilst Abstract Iceland discontinuity beneath central Iceland is shallow relative to peripheral regions and this was interpreted

  11. Iceberg size and orientation estimation using SeaWinds K.M. Stuart, D.G. Long

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Long, David G.

    Iceberg size and orientation estimation using SeaWinds K.M. Stuart, D.G. Long Microwave Earth but are unable to penetrate cloud cover and are dependent on solar illumination. Despite the high University's Microwave Earth Remote Sensing (MERS) Laboratory. These floating glacial ice fragments

  12. Equation of State Measurements of Materials Using a Three-Stage Gun to Impact Velocities of 11km/s

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    REINHART,WILLIAM D.; CHHABILDAS,LALIT C.; CARROLL,DANIEL E.; THORNHILL,T.G.; WINFREE,N.A.

    2000-09-26

    Understanding high pressure behavior of homogeneous as well as heterogeneous materials is necessary in order to address the physical processes associated with hypervelocity impact events related to space science applications including orbital debris impact and impact lethality. At very high impact velocities, material properties will be subjugated to phase-changes, such as melting and vaporization. These phase states cannot be obtained through conventional gun technology. These processes need to be represented accurately in hydrodynamic codes to allow credible computational analysis of impact events resulting from hypervelocity impact. In this paper, techniques that are being developed and implemented to obtain the needed shock loading parameters (Hugoniot states) for material characterization studies, namely shock velocity and particle velocity, will be described at impact velocities up to 11 km/s. What is new in this report is that these techniques are being implemented for use at engagement velocities never before attained utilizing two-stage light-gas gun technology.

  13. Search for Acoustic Signals from Ultra-High Energy Neutrinos in 1500 km^3 of Sea Water

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Naoko Kurahashi; Justin Vandenbroucke; Giorgio Gratta

    2010-07-30

    An underwater acoustic sensor array spanning ~1500 km^3 is used to search for cosmic-ray neutrinos of ultra-high energies (UHE, E > 10^18 eV). Approximately 328 million triggers accumulated over an integrated 130 days of data taking are analysed. The sensitivity of the experiment is determined from a Monte Carlo simulation of the array using recorded noise conditions and expected waveforms. Two events are found to have properties compatible with showers in the energy range 10^24 to 5x10^24 eV and 10^22 to 5x10^22 eV. Since the understanding of impulsive backgrounds is limited, a flux upper limit is set providing the most sensitive limit on UHE neutrinos using the acoustic technique.

  14. Design of the high-speed framing, FEC, and interleaving hardware used in a 5.4km free-space optical communication experiment

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Greco, Joseph Anthony, Jr.

    The forward error correction (FEC) and interleaver realizations used in a 5.4 km horizontal-path link experiment incorporated several unique elements that were specifically tailored to address turbulence-induced fading. ...

  15. Location of the M 2.0 Earthquake on 08/22/2010 that Occurred 25 km North of West Valley, New York.

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    1 Location of the M 2.0 Earthquake on 08/22/2010 that Occurred 25 km North of West Valley, New York at 16:41:47 (UTC) about 25 km north of West Valley, New York. There were no felt reports by residents and their distribution is plotted in Figure 2. 22 August 2010, Md 2.0 Earthquake 15 miles north of West Valley, NY -78

  16. Extension of the operating parameters of the two stage light gas gun to velocities below 2 km/sec.

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Thoe, R S

    2007-08-28

    The Joint Actinide Shock Physics Experimental Facility (JASPER) located in area 27 at the Nevada Test Site Has been tasked with providing high accuracy information on the Equation Of State (EOS) and other dynamic properties of weapons grade plutonium and other actinides important to the stockpile stewardship program. In the past 5 years this facility has provided dozens of experimental data points for the accurate determination of pressure density relationship for these materials over a broad pressure range. In order to complete this survey it is necessary to extend the low pressure region to include projectile velocities below 2 km/s. For most gas gun facilities this would present not too great a difficulty, one could simply decrease the amount of propellant along with a decrease in the strength of the petal valve, However JASPER requires that the piston be securely embedded in the Acceleration Reservoir (AR) as part of the containment system. The projectile must remain flat and undistorted. This requirement makes the attainment of slow velocities problematic. This talk will discuss the JASPER Facility, A finite difference code developed to give predictive capability for two stage gas guns, and a set of experiments performed to demonstrate this capability.

  17. Assessment of the 60 km rapid update cycle (RUC) with near real-time aircraft reports. Project report

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Cole, R.E.; Richard, C.; Kim, S.; Bailey, D.

    1998-07-15

    The National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA) is developing the Center-TRA-CON Advisory System (CTAS), a set of Air Traffic Management (ATM) Decision Support Tools (DST) for en route (Center) and terminal (TRACON) airspace designed to enable controllers to increase capacity and flight efficiency. A crucial component of the CTAS, or any ATM DST, is the computation of the time-of-flight of aircraft along flight path segments. Earlier NASA studies show that accurate knowledge of the wind through which the aircraft are flying is required to estimate time-of-flight accurately. There are current envisioned to be two sources of wind data for CTAS: The Rapid Update Cycle (RUC) for the Center airspace, a numerical model developed by the National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration (NOAA) Forecast System Laboratory (FSL) and run operationally by the National Weather Service (NWS) National Center for Environmental Prediction (NCEP); and The Integrated Terminal Weather System (ITWS) Terminal Winds (TW) for the TRACON airspace, developed at MIT Lincoln Laboratory under funding from the Federal Aviation Administration (FAA). This study has three goals: (1) determine the errors in the baseline 60 km resolution RUC forecast wind fields relative to the needs of en route DSTs such as CTAS, (2) determine the benefit of using the TW algorithm to refine the RUC forecast wind fields with near real-time Meteorological Data Collection and Reporting System (MDCRS) reports, and (3) identify factors that influence wind errors in order to improve accuracy and estimate errors in real time.

  18. A nonsteady one-dimensional theoretical model of Mars' neutral atmospheric composition between 30 and 200 km

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Rodrigo, R.; Garcia-Alvarez, E.; Lopez-Gonzalez, M.J.; Lopez-Moreno, J.J. (Instituto de Astrofisica de Andalucia, Granada (Spain))

    1990-08-30

    There has been a big advance in the knowledge of the composition of the atmosphere of the planet Mars since its exploration by different missions in the 1970s, and this will be deeply increased in the following years as the upcoming programs to Mars develop. In this context, the authors have elaborated a model of the Mars' neutral atmosphere including the following compounds: O({sup 3}P), O({sup 1}D), O{sub 2}, O{sub 3}, H, H{sub 2}, OH, H{sub 2}O, HO{sub 2}, H{sub 2}O{sub 2}, CO, and CO{sub 2}, between 30 and 200 km of altitude. The model is carried out for middle latitudes in equinox conditions and with moderate solar activity and provides the day-to-night evolution of the atmosphere. The scarcity of observations corresponding to the nightside of the planet has made it necessary to calculate the atmospheric temperature profile based on the available observations and on theoretical estimations. The model includes a detailed treatment of both the photochemical and the dynamical processes. In this sense, the most recent values of the reaction rates and photodissociation cross sections have been used, and a new height profile of the eddy diffusion coefficient has been computed which is able to explain the vertical distribution of carbon monoxide. The concentration profiles obtained show, in general, a very good agreement with the available experimental measurements.

  19. Mulching as a countermeasure for crop contamination within the 30 km zone of Chernobyl Nuclear Power Plant

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Yera, T.S.; Vallejo, R.; Tent, J.; Rauret, G. [Univ. de Barcelona (Spain); Omelyanenko, N.; Ivanov, Y. [Ukrainian Inst. of Agricultural Radiology, Kiev (Ukraine)

    1999-03-15

    The effect of mulch soil cover on crop contamination by {sup 137}Cs was studied within the 30 km zone of Chernobyl Nuclear Power Plant. Experiments were performed with oats (Avena sativa) over a three year period. In 1992 soil surface was covered by a plastic net. In 1993 two straw mulch treatments were applied at a dose rate of 200 g m{sup {minus}2} using {sup 137}Cs contaminated and clean straw, respectively. A similar mulch treatment was applied in 1994, and two mulch doses of clean straw were tested. Protection of the soil with a plastic net significantly increased crop yield and reduced crop contamination. When clean straw was used as a mulch layer, a significant decrease of about 30--40% in {sup 137}Cs activity concentration was observed. Mulching with {sup 137}Cs contaminated straw did not reduce crop contamination, probably due to an increase in soil available {sup 137}Cs released from the contaminated mulch. Mulching has been shown to be an effective treatment both for reducing {sup 137}Cs plant contamination and improving crop yield. Therefore, it can be considered as a potential countermeasure in a post-accident situation.

  20. Twelve-month, 12 km resolution North American WRF-Chem v3.4 air quality simulation: performance evaluation

    DOE Public Access Gateway for Energy & Science Beta (PAGES Beta)

    Tessum, C. W.; Hill, J. D.; Marshall, J. D.

    2014-12-02

    We present results from and evaluate the performance of a 12 month, 12 km horizontal resolution air pollution simulation for the contiguous United States using the WRF-Chem (Weather Research and Forecasting with Chemistry) meteorology and chemical transport model (CTM). We employ the 2005 US National Emissions Inventory, the Regional Atmospheric Chemistry Mechanism (RACM), and the Modal Aerosol Dynamics Model for Europe (MADE) with a Volatility Basis Set (VBS) secondary aerosol module. Overall, model performance is comparable to contemporary models used for regulatory and health-effects analysis, with an annual average daytime ozone (O3) mean fractional bias (MFB) of 12% and anmore »annual average fine particulate matter (PM2.5) MFB of ?1%. WRF-Chem, as configured here, tends to overpredict total PM2.5 at some high concentration locations, and generally overpredicts average 24 h O3 concentrations, with better performance at predicting average daytime and daily peak O3 concentrations. Predictive performance for PM2.5 subspecies is mixed: the model overpredicts particulate sulfate (MFB = 65%), underpredicts particulate nitrate (MFB = ?110%) and organic carbon (MFB = ?65%), and relatively accurately predicts particulate ammonium (MFB = 3%) and elemental carbon (MFB = 3%), so that the accuracy in total PM2.5 predictions is to some extent a function of offsetting over- and underpredictions of PM2.5 subspecies. Model predictive performance for PM2.5 and its subspecies is in general worse in winter and in the western US than in other seasons and regions, suggesting spatial and temporal opportunities for future WRF-Chem model development and evaluation.« less

  1. Experimental loophole-free violation of a Bell inequality using entangled electron spins separated by 1.3 km

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    B. Hensen; H. Bernien; A. E. Dréau; A. Reiserer; N. Kalb; M. S. Blok; J. Ruitenberg; R. F. L. Vermeulen; R. N. Schouten; C. Abellán; W. Amaya; V. Pruneri; M. W. Mitchell; M. Markham; D. J. Twitchen; D. Elkouss; S. Wehner; T. H. Taminiau; R. Hanson

    2015-08-24

    For more than 80 years, the counterintuitive predictions of quantum theory have stimulated debate about the nature of reality. In his seminal work, John Bell proved that no theory of nature that obeys locality and realism can reproduce all the predictions of quantum theory. Bell showed that in any local realist theory the correlations between distant measurements satisfy an inequality and, moreover, that this inequality can be violated according to quantum theory. This provided a recipe for experimental tests of the fundamental principles underlying the laws of nature. In the past decades, numerous ingenious Bell inequality tests have been reported. However, because of experimental limitations, all experiments to date required additional assumptions to obtain a contradiction with local realism, resulting in loopholes. Here we report on a Bell experiment that is free of any such additional assumption and thus directly tests the principles underlying Bell's inequality. We employ an event-ready scheme that enables the generation of high-fidelity entanglement between distant electron spins. Efficient spin readout avoids the fair sampling assumption (detection loophole), while the use of fast random basis selection and readout combined with a spatial separation of 1.3 km ensure the required locality conditions. We perform 245 trials testing the CHSH-Bell inequality $S \\leq 2$ and find $S = 2.42 \\pm 0.20$. A null hypothesis test yields a probability of $p = 0.039$ that a local-realist model for space-like separated sites produces data with a violation at least as large as observed, even when allowing for memory in the devices. This result rules out large classes of local realist theories, and paves the way for implementing device-independent quantum-secure communication and randomness certification.

  2. Twelve-month, 12 km resolution North American WRF-Chem v3.4 air quality simulation: performance evaluation

    DOE Public Access Gateway for Energy & Science Beta (PAGES Beta)

    Tessum, C. W.; Hill, J. D.; Marshall, J. D.

    2015-04-07

    We present results from and evaluate the performance of a 12-month, 12 km horizontal resolution year 2005 air pollution simulation for the contiguous United States using the WRF-Chem (Weather Research and Forecasting with Chemistry) meteorology and chemical transport model (CTM). We employ the 2005 US National Emissions Inventory, the Regional Atmospheric Chemistry Mechanism (RACM), and the Modal Aerosol Dynamics Model for Europe (MADE) with a volatility basis set (VBS) secondary aerosol module. Overall, model performance is comparable to contemporary modeling efforts used for regulatory and health-effects analysis, with an annual average daytime ozone (O3) mean fractional bias (MFB) of 12%more »and an annual average fine particulate matter (PM2.5) MFB of ?1%. WRF-Chem, as configured here, tends to overpredict total PM2.5 at some high concentration locations and generally overpredicts average 24 h O3 concentrations. Performance is better at predicting daytime-average and daily peak O3 concentrations, which are more relevant for regulatory and health effects analyses relative to annual average values. Predictive performance for PM2.5 subspecies is mixed: the model overpredicts particulate sulfate (MFB = 36%), underpredicts particulate nitrate (MFB = ?110%) and organic carbon (MFB = ?29%), and relatively accurately predicts particulate ammonium (MFB = 3%) and elemental carbon (MFB = 3%), so that the accuracy in total PM2.5 predictions is to some extent a function of offsetting over- and underpredictions of PM2.5 subspecies. Model predictive performance for PM2.5 and its subspecies is in general worse in winter and in the western US than in other seasons and regions, suggesting spatial and temporal opportunities for future WRF-Chem model development and evaluation.« less

  3. Topology of neutral hydrogen distribution with the Square Kilometer Array

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Wang, Yougang; Wu, Fengquan; Chen, Xuelei; Wang, Xin; Kim, Juhan; Park, Changbom; Lee, Khee-Gan; Cen, Renyue

    2015-01-01

    Morphology of the complex HI gas distribution can be quantified by statistics like the Minkowski functionals, and can provide a way to statistically study the large scale structure in the HI maps both at low redshifts, and during the epoch of reionization (EoR). At low redshifts, the 21cm emission traces the underlying matter distribution. Topology of the HI gas distribution, as measured by the genus, could be used as a "standard ruler". This enables the determination of distance-redshift relation and also the discrimination of various models of dark energy and of modified gravity. The topological analysis is also sensitive to certain primordial non-Gaussian features. Compared with two-point statistics, the topological statistics are more robust against the nonlinear gravitational evolution, bias, and redshift-space distortion. The HI intensity map observation naturally avoids the sparse sampling distortion, which is an important systematic in optical galaxy survey. The large cosmic volume accessible to SKA w...

  4. 0 25 50 Miles 25 50 Kilometers0

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    . Cedar R. Lake Washington SnoqualmieR. Skykomish R. Stillaguamish R. Skagit R. Lake Whatcom Baker Lake

  5. Expedition to the 30-km Chernobyl Exclusion Zone and the Utilization of its Experience in Education and Communication

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Aszodi, Attila; Yamaji, Bogdan [Institute of Nuclear Techniques, Budapest University of Technology and Economics, 1521 Budapest (Hungary); Silye, Judit [Hungarian Atomic Energy Authority, Nuclear Safety Directorate, H-1539 Budapest, P.O. Box 676 (Hungary); Pazmandi, Tamas [KFKI Atomic Energy Research Institute, H-1525 Budapest 114, P.O.B. 49. (Hungary)

    2006-07-01

    Between May 28 - June 4, 2005, under the organization of the Hungarian Nuclear Society (HNS) and the Hungarian Young Generation Network (HYGN) - which operates within the framework of the HNS - a scientific expedition visited the Chernobyl Nuclear Power Plant and the surrounding exclusion zone. The participants were young Hungarian nuclear professionals supervised by more experienced experts. The main scientific goals of the expedition were the followings: Get personal experiences in a direct way about the current status of the Chernobyl Power Plant and its surroundings, the contamination of the environment and about the doses. Gather information about the state of the shut down power plant and the shelter built above the damaged 4. unit. Training of young nuclear experts by performing on site measurements. The Hungarian expedition successfully achieved its objectives by performing wide-range of environmental and dosimetric measurements and collecting numerous biological and soil samples. Within the 30-km exclusion zone the influence of the accident occurred 20 years ago still could be measured clearly; however the level of the radioactivity is manageable in most places. The dosimetric measurements showed that no considerable exposure occurred among the members of the expedition. The analysis of samples has been started at the International Chernobyl Center in Slavutich. During the expedition not only environmental sampling and in-situ measurements were carried out but it was also well documented with photos and video recordings for educational, training and PR purposes. A documentary TV film was recorded during the expedition. The first-hand knowledge acquired during the expedition helps the authentic communication of the accident and its present-day consequences, which is especially important in 2006, 20 years after the Chernobyl accident. Since Ukraine and Hungary are neighbor countries the media constantly discuss the accident, the consequences and the risks of using nuclear energy. In addition in November 2005 Hungary's parliament approved plans to extend the lifetime of the country's four-unit nuclear power plant. In order to have the crucial public support for nuclear energy it is very important to dispel unrealistic dismay and misbelieves regarding these questions. Thus it is extremely beneficial to have a film on this topic created by nuclear professionals especially for the public audience. In 2005 a book on the Chernobyl accident was published in Hungary that covers this expedition in a full chapter [2]. We plan to present the film to the audience of the conference. (authors)

  6. Fig.3. Seismicity plots showing the depths and epicenters on Galapagos Is-lands. Note how the earthquakes are clustered at 10 km depth, probably contro-

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Geist, Dennis

    Bolivar). LAT LONG Fig.6. The GV01-GV04 baseline has recorded vertical uplift since the 2005 eruption with the vertical bars: Red = 2005 Sierra Negra, Blue= 2006 and Orange= 2007. The shallow and cluster seismicity= 2006 and Orange= 2007. A GV01GV07 2 km 0 Deep magma source B Sill magma Chamber body GEOTHERMAL SYSTEM

  7. PSR B0329+54: Substructure in the scatter-broadened image discovered with RadioAstron on baselines of up to 235,000 km

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Popov, M V; Bartel, N; Gwinn, C R; Johnson, M D; Joshi, B C; Kardashev, N S; Karuppusamy, R; Kovalev, Y Y; Kramer, M; Rudnitskii, A G; Safutdinov, E R; Shishov, V I; Smirnova, T V; Soglasnov, V A; Zensus, J A; Zhuravlev, V I

    2015-01-01

    We studied scattering properties of the pulsar PSR B0329+54 with a ground-space radio interferometer RadioAstron which included the 10-m Space Radio Telescope, the 110-m Green Bank Telescope, the 14x25-m Westerbork Synthesis Radio Telescope, and the 64-m Kalyazin Radio Telescope. The observations were performed at 324 MHz on baselines of up to 235,000 km in November 2012 and January 2014. At short ground-space baselines of less than about 20,000 km, the visibility amplitude decreases with the projected baseline length, providing a direct measurement of the diameter of the scattering disk of 4.7$\\pm$0.9 mas. The size of the diffraction spot near Earth is 15,000$\\pm$3,000 km. At longer baselines of up to 235,000 km, where no interferometric detection of the scattering disk would be expected, significant visibilities were observed with amplitudes scattered around a constant value. These detections result in a discovery of a substructure in the completely resolved scatter-broadened image of the pointlike source, ...

  8. Development and analysis of a 12-year daily 1-km forest fire dataset across North America from NOAA/AVHRR data

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Li, Zhanqing

    Development and analysis of a 12-year daily 1-km forest fire dataset across North America from NOAA Forest Service, Fire Sciences Laboratory, P.O. Box 8089, Missoula, MT 59807, United States g NOAA forests play a significant role in the global carbon cycle. While forest fires in North America (NA) have

  9. 1154 IEEE PHOTONICS TECHNOLOGY LETTERS, VOL. 19, NO. 15, AUGUST 1, 2007 10 10 Gb/s DWDM Transmission Through 2.2-km

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Kahn, Joseph M.

    Transmission Through 2.2-km Multimode Fiber Using Adaptive Optics Rahul A. Panicker, Jeffrey P. Wilde, Joseph M. Kahn, David F. Welch, and Ilya Lyubomirsky Abstract--Transmitter-based adaptive optics and receiver-crystal spatial light modulator controls the launched field pattern for ten 10-Gb/s nonreturn-to-zero channels

  10. A thermosphere-ionosphere-mesosphere-electrodynamics general circulation model (time-GCM): Equinox solar cycle minimum simulations (30-500 km)

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Roble, R.G.; Ridley, E.C.

    1994-03-15

    A new simulation model of the mesosphere, thermosphere, and ionosphere with coupled electrodynamics has been developed and used to calculate the global circulation, temperature and compositional structure between 30-500 km for equinox, solar cycle minimum, geomagnetic quiet conditions. The model incorporates all of the features of the NCAR thermosphere-ionosphere-electrodynamics general circulation model (TIE-GCM) but the lower boundary has been extended downward from 97 to 30 km (10 mb) and it includes the physical and chemical processes appropriate for the mesosphere and upper stratosphere. The first simulation used Rayleigh friction to represent gravity wave drag in the middle atmosphere and although it was able to close the mesospheric jets it severely damped the diurnal tide. Reduced Rayleigh friction allowed the tide to penetrate to thermospheric heights but did not close the jets. A gravity wave parameterization developed by Fritts and Lu allows both features to exist simultaneously with the structure of tides and mean flow dependent upon the strength of the gravity wave source. The model calculates a changing dynamic structure with the mean flow and diurnal tide dominant in the mesosphere, the in-situ generated semi-diurnal tide dominating the lower thermosphere and an in-situ generated diurnal tide in the upper thermosphere. The results also show considerable interaction between dynamics and composition, especially atomic oxygen between 85 and 120 km. 31 refs., 3 figs.

  11. 217 km long distance photon-counting optical time-domain reflectometry based on ultra-low noise up-conversion single photon detector

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Guo-Liang Shentu; Qi-Chao Sun; Xiao Jiang; Xiao-Dong Wang; Jason S. Pelc; M. M. Fejer; Qiang Zhang; Jian-Wei Pan

    2013-08-05

    We demonstrate a photon-counting optical time-domain reflectometry with 42.19 dB dynamic range using an ultra-low noise up-conversion single photon detector. By employing the long wave pump technique and a volume Bragg grating, we reduce the noise of our up-conversion single photon detector, and achieve a noise equivalent power of -139.7 dBm/sqrt(Hz). We perform the OTDR experiments using a fiber of length 216.95 km, and show that our system can identify defects along the entire fiber length with a distance resolution better than 10 cm in a measurement time of 13 minutes.

  12. Unscaled Scaled (% / km) Geographic Area /

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Diversity Keyhabitatquantity Sedimentload Obstructions ChannelStability Flow Food Temperature Predation Chemicals Competition functional habitats. Within the Methow basin, the Lower Twisp, Lower Methow Mainstem, Middle Methow Mainstem

  13. xu-km-99.PDF

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Homesum_a_epg0_fpd_mmcf_m.xls" ,"Available from WebQuantityBonneville Power AdministrationRobust,Field-effectWorkingLosThe 26thI D- 6 0 4 2 r mReducingwhistleblowerxinyufu Ames25

  14. Penetration Experiments with 6061-T6511 Aluminum Targets and Spherical-Nose Steel Projectiles at Striking Velocities Between 0.5 and 3.0 km/s

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Forrestal, M.J.; Piekutowski, A.J.

    1999-02-04

    We conducted depth of penetration experiments with 7.11-mm-diameter, 74.7-mm-long, spherical-nose, 4340 steel projectiles launched into 250-mm-diameter, 6061-T6511 aluminum targets. To show the effect of projectile strength, we used projectiles that had average Rockwell harnesses of R{sub c} = 36.6, 39.5, and 46.2. A powder gun and two-stage, light-gas guns launched the 0.023 kg projectiles at striking velocities between 0.5 and 3.0 km/s. Post-test radiographs of the targets showed three response regions as striking velocities increased: (1) the projectiles remained visibly undeformed, (2) the projectiles permanently deformed without erosion, and (3) the projectiles eroded and lost mass. To show the effect of projectile strength, we compared depth-of-penetration data as a function of striking velocity for spherical-nose rods with three Rockwell harnesses at striking velocities ranging from 0.5 to 3.0 km/s. To show the effect of nose shape, we compared penetration data for the spherical-nose projectiles with previously published data for ogive-nose projectiles.

  15. THE 300 km s{sup -1} STELLAR STREAM NEAR SEGUE 1: INSIGHTS FROM HIGH-RESOLUTION SPECTROSCOPY OF ITS BRIGHTEST STAR

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Frebel, Anna; Casey, Andrew R. [Massachusetts Institute of Technology, Kavli Institute for Astrophysics and Space Research, 77 Massachusetts Avenue, Cambridge, MA 02139 (United States); Lunnan, Ragnhild [Harvard-Smithsonian Center for Astrophysics, 60 Garden Street, Cambridge, MA 02138 (United States); Norris, John E. [Research School of Astronomy and Astrophysics, Australian National University, Mount Stromlo Observatory, Cotter Road, Weston, ACT 2611 (Australia); Wyse, Rosemary F. G. [Department of Physics and Astronomy, Johns Hopkins University, 300 N. Charles Street, Baltimore, MD 21218 (United States); Gilmore, Gerard [Institute of Astronomy, University of Cambridge, Madingley Road, Cambridge CB3 0HA (United Kingdom)

    2013-07-01

    We present a chemical abundance analysis of 300S-1, the brightest likely member star of the 300 km s{sup -1} stream near the faint satellite galaxy Segue 1. From a high-resolution Magellan/MIKE spectrum, we determine a metallicity of [Fe/H] = -1.46 {+-} 0.05 {+-} 0.23 (random and systematic uncertainties) for star 300S-1, and find an abundance pattern similar to typical halo stars at this metallicity. Comparing our stellar parameters to theoretical isochrones, we estimate a distance of 18 {+-} 7 kpc. Both the metallicity and distance estimates are in good agreement with what can be inferred from comparing the Sloan Digital Sky Survey photometric data of the stream stars to globular cluster sequences. While several other structures overlap with the stream in this part of the sky, the combination of kinematic, chemical, and distance information makes it unlikely that these stars are associated with either the Segue 1 galaxy, the Sagittarius Stream, or the Orphan Stream. Streams with halo-like abundance signatures, such as the 300 km s{sup -1} stream, present another observational piece for understanding the accretion history of the Galactic halo.

  16. 0.1 nm0.1 nm1 nm1 nm10 nm10 nm100 nm100 nm11 mm1010 mm100100 mm1 mm1 mm1 cm1 cm10 cm10 cm1 m1 m10 m10 m100 m100 m1 km1 kmWWAVELENGTHAVELENGTHWAVELENGTHWWAVELENGTHW 0.01K (-273C) 100K 5000K5000K5000K5000K5000K 30,000K 30,000,000K

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    visible and invisible light from across the Cosmos SKA (Square Kilometre Array) SKA will be the world nuclear power ALMA E-ELT GAIAJWST XMM SKA sea level 690km 384,400km ALMA (Atacama Large Millimetre Array) ALMA is a giant array of 66 antennas observing at millimetre/submillimetre wavelengths. Location

  17. 5 km/h 10 km/h 6 km/h

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    = 9.5 g h = 6.3 cm v g Procedure-1 Initial kinetic energy: (1/2) m v2 Initial potential energy: 0 Final kinetic energy: 0 Final potential energy: (m+M)gh The conservation of the mechanical energy + M) ] v2 Initial potential energy: 0 #12;Final kinetic energy: 0 Final potential energy: (m

  18. Measurement of Plasma Dynamics in the TCSU RMF Current Drive Experiment K.M. Velas, C.L. Deards, P.A. Melnik, J.A Grossnickle, A.L. Hoffman, K.E. Miller, R.D. Milroy

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Washington at Seattle, University of

    Measurement of Plasma Dynamics in the TCSU RMF Current Drive Experiment K.M. Velas, C.L. Deards, P.A. Melnik, J.A Grossnickle, A.L. Hoffman, K.E. Miller, R.D. Milroy Redmond Plasma Physics Laboratory, University of Washington Detailed magnetic measurements of Field-Reversed Configurations (FRC) from

  19. y 1000km of high resolution sleeve-gun array transects on the North Sza Fan, located at tbe mouth orwegian Channel, reveal three domina tyles of sedimentation within a thick

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    y 1000km of high resolution sleeve-gun array transects on the North Sza Fan, located at tbe mouth the lution data across the fan other than conventional he seismic source was an arra nstruments 40 in3 sleeve-guns along the fan axis. These data were shot with the same sleeve-gun array but recorded digitally via a 144

  20. We present HI observations of the environment of three nearby (~ 2000-2500 km s-1 ) Ly-absorbers. The absorbers are located along the sight lines towards Markarian 817, Markarian 509 and VII Zwicky 118. The

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Hibbard, John

    ABSTRACT We present HI observations of the environment of three nearby (~ 2000-2500 km s-1 ) Ly. We thus find, by comparing to the HI mass function, that there is 4 to 5 times more HI around Ly- absorbers than on average in the sky. The HI Environment of Nearby Ly-alpha Absorbers INTRODUCTION Numerical

  1. Adaptive Selective Learning for Automatic Identification of Sub-Kilometer Craters

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Ding, Wei

    Martian terrain characterized by heterogeneous surface morphology. The experimental results demonstrate and present geological processes and provide the only tool for measuring rela- tive ages of observed geologic. Geologic stratigraphy based on manually collected databases has coarse spatial resolutions. Finer spatial

  2. Semi-supervised based Active Class Selection for Automatic Identification of Sub-Kilometer Craters

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Ding, Wei

    characterized by heterogeneous surface morphology. The experimental results demonstrate that the proposed about the past and present geological processes and provide the only tool to measuring relative ages of observed geologic formations. The size distribution of craters conforms to the power-law as large craters

  3. The ASNA formula : a new concept -- cost per passenger mile (kilometer)

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Nasr, Asad

    1978-01-01

    The demand for air transport is affected by the usual extraneous factors, demographic, social and economic, as well as those falling properly within the sphere of the industry itself such as the quality of service, safety, ...

  4. Deformation processes involve systems of tens to hundreds of kilometers moving at

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Galland, Olivier

    presentations were threefold: to list the state-of-the-art image analysis tech- niques used in the laboratory-button "black boxes." Second, the group agreed to write a meth- odological review paper listing the main image for funding support. --kaRen leeveR,GeoForschungsZentrum,Pots- dam,Germany; olivieR galland,Physics of Geo

  5. Makarere University glacialarealextent(km2)

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Jones, Peter JS

    Glacier fig. (c) 29 52'Eo glacial extent (1955) glacial extent (1990) lake / river (a) (b) 022'N o 023'N o considered to be rising air temperatures which have amplified ice losses by evaporation and melting. Field prominent as warming continues in the 21st century. The projected loss of the glacial ice, Nzururu

  6. Along channel distance [km] Salinity [psu

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    at estuaries that have already seen the effects of tectonically induced sea level rise, scientists have been -- that is the upper intertidal mudflats and salt marsh edge -- while the decreased drag on the channel bed leads

  7. KM_C364e-20170629133124

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Homesum_a_epg0_fpd_mmcf_m.xls" ,"Available from WebQuantityBonneville Power Administration would likeUniverseIMPACT EVALUATIONIntroducingJobs2015Administration shows off theKIVA

  8. KM_C654e-20150324133840

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Homesum_a_epg0_fpd_mmcf_m.xls" ,"Available from WebQuantityBonneville Power Administration would likeUniverseIMPACT EVALUATIONIntroducingJobs2015Administration shows off theKIVA

  9. DIRECT IMAGING OF QUASI-PERIODIC FAST PROPAGATING WAVES OF {approx}2000 km s{sup -1} IN THE LOW SOLAR CORONA BY THE SOLAR DYNAMICS OBSERVATORY ATMOSPHERIC IMAGING ASSEMBLY

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Liu Wei; Title, Alan M.; Schrijver, Carolus J.; Aschwanden, Markus J.; De Pontieu, Bart; Tarbell, Theodore D.; Zhao Junwei; Ofman, Leon

    2011-07-20

    Quasi-periodic propagating fast mode magnetosonic waves in the solar corona were difficult to observe in the past due to relatively low instrument cadences. We report here evidence of such waves directly imaged in EUV by the new Atmospheric Imaging Assembly instrument on board the Solar Dynamics Observatory. In the 2010 August 1 C3.2 flare/coronal mass ejection event, we find arc-shaped wave trains of 1%-5% intensity variations (lifetime {approx}200 s) that emanate near the flare kernel and propagate outward up to {approx}400 Mm along a funnel of coronal loops. Sinusoidal fits to a typical wave train indicate a phase velocity of 2200 {+-} 130 km s{sup -1}. Similar waves propagating in opposite directions are observed in closed loops between two flare ribbons. In the k-{omega} diagram of the Fourier wave power, we find a bright ridge that represents the dispersion relation and can be well fitted with a straight line passing through the origin. This k-{omega} ridge shows a broad frequency distribution with power peaks at 5.5, 14.5, and 25.1 mHz. The strongest signal at 5.5 mHz (period 181 s) temporally coincides with quasi-periodic pulsations of the flare, suggesting a common origin. The instantaneous wave energy flux of (0.1-2.6) x 10{sup 7} erg cm{sup -2} s{sup -1} estimated at the coronal base is comparable to the steady-state heating requirement of active region loops.

  10. (Data in kilograms of germanium content, unless otherwise noted) Domestic Production and Use: The value of domestic refinery production of germanium, based on the 1999

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    of germanium increased in 1999, with slightly larger amounts brought to market by Canada and China. Output from companies supplied domestic and export markets with germanium-bearing materials generated from the mining were to be recovered from ash and flue dust generated in the burning of certain coals for power

  11. Kilogram Scale Synthesis of a Triazine-based Dendrimer and the Development of a General Strategy for the Installation of Pharmacophores to Yield Potential Drug Delivery Agents 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Venditto, Vincent J.

    2011-02-22

    Diverse dendrimer peripheries are often produced through convergent synthesis with multiple protection-deprotection steps. Achieving such diversity while maintaining monodispersity, has previously proven problematic. ...

  12. Prepared for the U.S. Department of Energy under Contract DE-AC05-76RL01830

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    and Construction, Inc.) for providing the drainage volumes from the Solid Waste Landfill Lysimeter. We wish the significant contributions of Randy Kirkham (Hydrology Group) to the conceptual design and construction-activity waste in. inch(es) km kilometer(s) m meter(s) mm millimeter(s) P+I precipitation plus irrigation PNNL

  13. Fabric Analysis of Survivor Clasts in the Southwest Deforming Zone of the San Andreas Fault at Three Kilometers Depth 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Loftin, Aileen

    2014-09-24

    The mechanisms responsible for aseismic creep along the central section of the San Andreas Fault are not well understood. Evidence for both pressure- and chemical-dependent microprocesses of creep have been reported. Here, the kinematics...

  14. EIS-0285: Transmission System Vegetation Management Program

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    Bonneville Power Administration (Bonneville) is responsible for maintaining a network of 24,000 kilometers (km) or 15,000 miles (mi.) of electric transmission lines and 350 substations. This...

  15. General Physics I Exam 1 -Chs. 1,2,3 -Units, Motion Sep. 16, 2009 Name Rec. Instr. Rec. Time

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Wysin, Gary

    General Physics I Exam 1 - Chs. 1,2,3 - Units, Motion Sep. 16, 2009 Name Rec. Instr. Rec. Time , M=106 , G=109 , T=1012 . 1. (2) Which of the following is NOT an SI unit? a. meter b. kilogram c), in standard SI units without any prefixes, preserving the number of significant figures. a) 630 µs b) 42400 km

  16. Abul K.M. Azad Northern Illinois University, USA

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    with online laboratories, pedagogical design, system architectures for remote laboratories, future trends A Cataloguing in Publication record for this book is available from the British Library. All work contributed of the trademark or registered trademark. Library of Congress Cataloging-in-Publication Data #12;254 Copyright

  17. Detecting Solar Neutrino Flare in Megaton and km^3 detectors

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Daniele Fargion; Paola Di Giacomo

    2009-01-21

    To foresee a solar flare neutrino signal we infer its upper and lower bound. The upper bound was derived since a few years by general energy equipartition arguments on observed solar particle flare. The lower bound, the most compelling one for any guarantee neutrino signal, is derived by most recent records of hard Gamma bump due to solar flare on January 2005 (by neutral pion decay).The observed gamma flux reflects into a corresponding one for the neutrinos, almost one to one. Therefore we obtain minimal bounds already at the edge of present but quite within near future Megaton neutrino detectors. Such detectors are considered mostly to reveal cosmic supernova background or rare Local Group (few Mpc) Supernovas events. However Megaton or even inner ten Megaton Ice Cube detector at ten GeV threshold may also reveal traces of solar neutrino in hardest energy of solar flares. Icecube, marginally, too. Solar neutrino flavors may shine light on neutrino mixing angles.

  18. 0.3 km/s for events within 2 km; and 7.9 0.1 km/s for events more than 2 km below the reflector. See

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Arblaster, Julie

    greenhouse gases and sulfate aerosols. However, most of the observed warming from 1900 to 1949 was likely due to natural climate variation. Most of the observed global-scale warming over the last 50 years is believed to have been due to the increase in atmospheric green- house gas concentrations (1). Here, we inves

  19. Change of Paradigm in KM Towards Collaborative Knowledge

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Kuhlen, Rainer

    Chair in Communications Department of Computer & Information Science University of Konstanz, Germany as a means of having better control over the production and usage of explicit and implicit knowledge. ·Human Genome project - A 13-year effort coordinated by the U.S. Department of Energy and the National

  20. Accelerated Aging Effects on Kevlar KM2 Fiber Survivability 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Yang, Tony

    2013-04-12

    good replacement for single filament tests and estimation techniques can determine the bundle Weibull parameters. Furthermore, the survival function for treated fibers is better if the bundle is lubricated. The accelerated aging experiments show...

  1. Zentralpanama 5 km stl. vom Kanal, tropisches Klima, Tonbden

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Baer, Christian

    vorherigen Landnutzung · für Unterschiede zwischen den Vegetationen Ausblick: bessere Aussagen bei Messung zu

  2. Microsoft Word - China_10km_solar_documentation.doc

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Google Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on QA:QAsource History ViewMayo, Maryland: Energy ResourcesDec 2005 WindPRO isMickey HotMicrosemi Corp Jump to:VII,China

  3. Microsoft Word - Ethiopia_10km_solar_country_report.doc

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Google Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on QA:QAsource History ViewMayo, Maryland: Energy ResourcesDec 2005 WindPRO isMickey HotMicrosemi Corp JumpEthiopia Final

  4. Microsoft Word - Ghana_10km_solar_country_report.doc

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Google Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on QA:QAsource History ViewMayo, Maryland: Energy ResourcesDec 2005 WindPRO isMickey HotMicrosemi Corp

  5. Microsoft Word - Kenya_10km_solar_country_report.doc

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Google Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on QA:QAsource History ViewMayo, Maryland: Energy ResourcesDec 2005 WindPRO isMickey HotMicrosemi CorpKenya Final country

  6. Microsoft Word - Nepal_10km_solar_country_report.doc

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Google Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on QA:QAsource History ViewMayo, Maryland: Energy ResourcesDec 2005 WindPRO isMickey HotMicrosemi CorpKenya FinalNepal

  7. Southern California Edison's Evaluation of California Energy Commission

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    .1 Publicly Available Publications and Data 5.2 Personal Communication 6.0 GLOSSARY APPENDIX, approximately 80 kilometers (km) northwest of the City of San Diego and 97 km southeast of Los Angeles Base (Base) near the northwest end of the Base's shoreline. Figure 11 also shows

  8. A l u m n i C a m p u sE N E R G I E (89 Kilometer nordwestlich

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Nejdl, Wolfgang

    und 15 Insti- Einleitung Ziel der Bundesregierung ist es, bis zum Jahr 2030 Offshore- Windparks mit- wicklung fiel im Herbst 2008 mit dem Bau des Umspann- werks für das Offshore-Test- feld alpha ventus- tioniert ist (Bild 2). Ab Frühjahr 2009 startet hier der Bau von sechs Offshore- Windenergieanlagen (OWEA

  9. Neotectonics, geodesy, and seismic hazard in the Northern Walker Lane of Western North America: Thirty kilometers of crustal shear and no strike-slip?

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    , University of Nevada, Reno 89557, United States b Nevada Geodetic Laboratory, Nevada Bureau of Mines and Geology, 89557, United States c Nevada Seismological Laboratory, University of Nevada, Reno 89557, United States a b s t r a c ta r t i c l e i n f o Article history: Received 2 January 2012 Received in revised

  10. ABSTRACT: This study examines NEXRAD Stage III product (hourly, cell size 4 km by 4 km) for its ability in estimating precipitation in cen-

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Small, Eric

    ability in estimating precipitation in cen- tral New Mexico, a semiarid area. A comparison between Stage III and a network of gauge precipitation estimates during 1995 to 2001 indi- cates that Stage III (1) overestimates the hourly conditional mean (CM) precipitation by 33 percent in the monsoon season and 55 per

  11. Atmos. Chem. Phys., 10, 63916408, 2010 www.atmos-chem-phys.net/10/6391/2010/

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Meskhidze, Nicholas

    , such as carbon monoxide, carbon dioxide, oxides of nitrogen, sulfur compounds, and particulate mat- ter kilometers. This activity emitted substantial amounts of fossil-fuel combustion prod- ucts within the upper latitudes, and 74.6% was burned above 7 km. This activity led to 162.25 Tg of carbon from CO2 emitted glob

  12. Units and unit conversions important for ENES 100 Handout prepared by Prof. Sheryl Ehrman, Fall 2008

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Jacob, Bruce

    Units and unit conversions important for ENES 100 Handout prepared by Prof. Sheryl Ehrman, Fall 2008 The objective of this handout is to review the topic of units and unit conversions. Measured combine units. 100 kilometers = 200 km 0.5 h h Unit Conversions: The equivalence between two expressions

  13. Fiber-Level Modeling of Dynamic Strength KM2 Ballistic Fabric

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Grujicic, Mica

    .g., as reinforcements in rigid polymer matrix composites (PMCs) for lightweight vehicle- armor systems). Flexible agile, and more mobile so that they can be quickly transported to operations conducted throughout-amide) fabric and an E-glass fiber/ethyl cellulose composite in body-armor systems can be linked to the Korean

  14. 1000 2000 3000 4000 x [km] -150 -100 -50 0 50 100 150

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Experiments with Magnetoacoustic Waves in the Solar Atmosphere C. Nutto1, O. Steiner1, W. Schaffenberger2, M. Steffen3 Motivation Numerical Set-up Results Conclusions Outlook References Longitudinal Transversal

  15. Cathodoluminescence petrography and isotope geochemistry of KT impact ejecta deposited 360 km from the Chicxulub crater,

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Fouke, Bruce W.

    ** and ALFRED G. FISCHER *Department of Geology, University of Illinois, 245 Natural History Building, 1301 W Barton Creek Formation dolomitized marine limestone overlain by 16 m of dolomitized Albion Formation impact ejecta. The Albion Formation consists of a lower fine- grained »1-m-thick spheroid bed

  16. Spatial variability of arsenic in 6000 tube wells in a 25 km2 of Bangladesh

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Gelman, Andrew

    [van Geen et al., 2002]. A comparison of the cost of installing such a well ($US$50 for a typical 50-ft well) with the per capita GNP of Bangladesh of US$1400, after adjusting for purchasing power [World

  17. New Agroforestry Site: Kotumachigi village About 20 Km from the town of Gadag

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Zeng, Ning

    rainwater harvesting. #12;The farmer was seriously concerned about planting trees let alone 2500 seedlings and cities. Need to install weather stations to generate interest in the environment. Water harvesting

  18. Eleutherodactylus discoidalis BOLIVIA: Departamento Tarija: 12.3 km NW of Entre

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Castoe, Todd A.

    College, Box 555, 124 Raymond Avenue, Poughkeepsie, NY 12604-0555, USA 2 Department of Biology, University

  19. Why Lean ?y ( QC TQC 5-7 KPI Competency HA-SHA KM

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Laksanacharoen, Sathaporn

    ­ Jidoka) 4. (Kaizen ­ Continuous Improvement) etc. #12;Why lean Thinking in Healthcare ? 1. 80 : 80

  20. Comparison And Discussion Of The 6 Km Temperature Maps Of The...

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    three areas of difference are discussed in detail. These three areas are critical for EGS resource evaluation yet they are quite different between the two maps. The data in...

  1. Memo: Estimates of hydrology in small (<80 km2 urbanized watersheds under dry weather and

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    weather and first flush flows from pump station facilities to publicly owned treatment works (POTWs questions and to help BASMAA with a preliminary ranking of pump station watersheds to focus on in response such as coldwater fish rearing and habitat for other native or endangered species Landscape irrigation (reducing

  2. Wind: wind power density GIS data at 50m above ground and 1km...

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    regions do not completely cover eastern China. Projection Parameters Projection LAMBERTAZIMUTHAL Datum WGS84 Zunits METERS Units METERS Spheroid DEFINED Major Axis...

  3. Wind: wind power density GIS data at 50m above ground and 1km...

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    Spatial Reference Information (Beg) ***** Projection Parameters Coordinate System: LambertAzimuthalEqualArea FalseEasting: 0.000000 FalseNorthing: 0.000000...

  4. Wind: wind power density maps at 50 m above ground and 1km resolution...

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    regions do not completely cover eastern China. Projection Parameters Projection LAMBERTAZIMUTHAL Datum WGS84 Z-units METERS Units METERS Spheroid DEFINED Major Axis...

  5. CURRICULUM VITAE OF K.M. ARIFUL KABIR ADDRESS OF PRESENT INSTITUTION

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    McCann, Robert J.

    cycle driven by solar collector. Title of M.S Thesis: Estimation of energies for ground state, Singlet Morphology), Fluid Dynamics and Solar cooling systems, Thermal Engineering RECOGNITIONS Life Member Numerical Analysis, Computational Mathematics, Quantum Mechanics, Thermal Engineering, and Fluid Dynamics

  6. I?raak Nuke, NXOO Leaa Km&l, NY00

    Office of Legacy Management (LM)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Homesum_a_epg0_fpd_mmcf_m.xls" ,"Available from WebQuantity of NaturalDukeWakefield Municipal Gas &SCE-SessionsSouth DakotaRobbins and MyersHr. Anthony V. Andolina:I * .z-y:c* -7 i!W.

  7. File:NREL-afg-10km-dir.pdf | Open Energy Information

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Google Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on QA:QAsource History View New Pages Recent Changes AllApschem.pdfgasp 03.pdfMmpa 2007.pdf Jump to:ModifyBioMap.pdf

  8. File:NREL-afg-10km-glo.pdf | Open Energy Information

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Google Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on QA:QAsource History View New Pages Recent Changes AllApschem.pdfgasp 03.pdfMmpa 2007.pdf Jump

  9. File:NREL-afg-10km-tilt.pdf | Open Energy Information

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Google Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on QA:QAsource History View New Pages Recent Changes AllApschem.pdfgasp 03.pdfMmpa 2007.pdf Jumptilt.pdf Jump to:

  10. Microsoft Word - Sri_Lanka_10km_solar_country_report.doc

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Google Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on QA:QAsource History ViewMayo, Maryland: Energy ResourcesDec 2005 WindPRO isMickey HotMicrosemi CorpKenya

  11. Single-Column Modeling D. A. Randall and K.-M. Xu Colorado State University

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Homesum_a_epg0_fpd_mmcf_m.xls" ,"Available from WebQuantityBonneville Power AdministrationRobust,Field-effect Photovoltaics -7541 UnlimitedShiftwater vapor andParticle DatabaseC.J.AC.

  12. Comparison And Discussion Of The 6 Km Temperature Maps Of The Western Us

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Google Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on QA:QA J-E-1 SECTIONRobertsdale, Alabama (Utility Company)| Open EnergyColoradoBiomassPlus JumpQinghai Dangshun*Prepared

  13. Search for Acoustic Signals from Ultra-High Energy Neutrinos in 1500 Km^3

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Homesum_a_epg0_fpd_mmcf_m.xls" ,"Available from WebQuantity of NaturalDukeWakefieldSulfateSciTechtail. (Conference) | SciTechsaturatedcrystals (Journal Article) | SciTech Connectof

  14. Search for Acoustic Signals from Ultra-High Energy Neutrinos in 1500 Km^3

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Homesum_a_epg0_fpd_mmcf_m.xls" ,"Available from WebQuantity of NaturalDukeWakefieldSulfateSciTechtail. (Conference) | SciTechsaturatedcrystals (Journal Article) | SciTech Connectofof

  15. Microsoft Word - 802.11i Rec Practices _KM-BL final edit ver 10_.doc

    Energy Savers [EERE]

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Google Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on DeliciousMathematicsEnergyInterested Parties - WAPAEnergy May 28MarEnergyDanielJune 14, 2011Securing WLANs

  16. Morphology and seismic stratigraphy of the Toyama deep sea fan 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Shepherd, David Barton

    1990-01-01

    with a surface area greater than 108, 000 square kilometers. Deposits of this Quaternary turbidite system range in thickness from less than 150 m to more than 750 m. The meandering Toyama Deep Sea Channel extends northward from the central coast.... The Toyama Deep Sea Channel is a remarkable feature, extending 550 km in a northerly direction from the central coast of Honshu. Seismic and bathymetry data collected over the past two decades are used to provide the most accurate description to date...

  17. Application for Permit to Operate a Class III Solid Waste Disposal Site at the Nevada Test Site Area 5 Asbestiform Low-Level Solid Waste Disposal Site

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    NSTec Environmental Management

    2007-11-01

    The NTS is located approximately 105 kilometers (km) (65 miles [mi]) northwest of Las Vegas, Nevada (Figure 1). The U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) is the federal lands management authority for the NTS, and NSTec is the Management and Operations contractor. Access on and off the NTS is tightly controlled, restricted, and guarded on a 24-hour basis. The NTS has signs posted along its entire perimeter.

  18. WORD PROBLEMS 1. Suppose your car gets 25 miles per gallon of gasoline and the price of gas is $3.50 per gallon. Write

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Koban, Nic

    on the other side of the river and 8 kilometers down stream (see figure 2). The man can run 5 km/hr and can and then run to B in terms of x. 3 8 A B C Figure 2: Point C is directly across the river from point A. Point B of fence are to be used to enclose a rectangular field next to a straight river. The river acts as one side

  19. Mesoscale Systems: weather associated with circulation systems of horizontal scales of 5 to 1,000 km

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Weber, Rodney

    . Urban heat island induced circulations (city-country side circulation) 4. Mountain-valley winds in winter #12;Urban Heat Island Urban heat island intensity: DTu-r = Turban - Trural Max DTu-r usually at night Intensity of urban heat island depends on many factors · Size of city · Geographical location

  20. 2 Bernd Freytag, Hartmut Holweger, Matthias Steffen, HansGunter Ludwig log 10 (H p0 /km)

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    granules because efficient radiative exchange tends to favour larger cells. Other depth scales are less.R.G. 1 Stellar surface structure: size of granules Improvements in observational methods have opened on the Sun to those stars: First he compared the typical horizontal size of a solar granule x gran (his

  1. 0 1 2 3 4 5 6 0 0.2 0.4 Velocity (km/s) Poisson's Ratio

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Crone, Timothy J.

    pressure anomalies). As a result, tidal stresses lead to spatial variations in pore pressure that can this hypothesis. First, we used a one-dimensional model of pore pressure based on Biot's poroelastic theory velocity field. The flow pattern is very sensitive to the inflow pressure gradient, and for these models

  2. [Km 100 to 1000 mM (17)] and to S. cerevisiae hexose transporters' apparent affinity for glucose

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Severson, David

    , and British Petroleum Technology Ventures (through the Energy Biosciences Institute) have submitted a patent

  3. LBNL RUNAROUND RESULTS 3.00 km (1.86 mi) October 9, 2009 TOP GROUP STANDINGS FOR 2009

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    :55.5 Dilworth Y Parkinson 30-39 men 1 6 10:59.9 Justin Paul Ishida -39 women 1 65 13:57.5 Kang Wei Chou

  4. LBL RUNAROUND RESULTS 3.00 km (1.86 mi) October 10, 1997 Place Time Name Group

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    9:45.0 Etien, Robert Paul 30-39 1 3 10:04.8 Farias, Leonel 30-39 2 4:06.6 Volfbeyn, Paul , Jens 30-39 28 63 13:18.8 Lewis, Keith 40-49 5 64 13:19.1 Chou, Peter

  5. LBNL RUNAROUND RESULTS 3.00 km (1.86 mi) October 8, 2010 TOP GROUP STANDINGS FOR 2010

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    -49 men 12 58 13:23.1 Nicholas S Norberg 30-39 men 15 59 13:25.4 Sergi Molins Rafa 30-39 men 16 60 13

  6. Multiphase Flow Metering: An Overview Manoj Kumar KM, Senior Scientist, Non-destructive Evaluation Lab, GE Global Research,

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Homesum_a_epg0_fpd_mmcf_m.xls" ,"Available from WebQuantityBonneville Power Administration wouldMass map shines light on77 PAGEMissionStressMove dataKiel7Multimodal ImagingMultiphase

  7. Data Release Report for Source Physics Experiments 2 and 3 (SPE-2 and SPE-3) Nevada National Security Site

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Townsend, Margaret; Obi, Curtis

    2015-01-26

    The second Source Physics Experiment shot (SPE-2) was conducted in Nevada on October 25, 2011, at 1900:00.011623 Greenwich Mean Time (GMT). The explosive source was 997 kilograms (kg) trinitrotoluene (TNT) equivalent of sensitized heavy ammonium fuel oil (SHANFO) detonated at a depth of 45.7 meters (m). The third Source Physics Experiment shot (SPE-3) was conducted in Nevada on July 24, 2012, at 1800:00.44835 GMT. The explosive source was 905 kg TNT equivalent of SHANFO detonated at a depth of 45.8 m. Both shots were recorded by an extensive set of instrumentation that includes sensors both at near-field (less than 100 m) and far-field (100 m or greater) distances. The near-field instruments consisted of three-component accelerometers deployed in boreholes at 15, 46, and 55 m depths around the shot and a set of single-component vertical accelerometers on the surface. The far-field network was composed of a variety of seismic and acoustic sensors, including short-period geophones, broadband seismometers, three-component accelerometers, and rotational seismometers at distances of 100 m to 25 kilometers. This report coincides with the release of these data for analysts and organizations that are not participants in this program. This report describes the second and third Source Physics Experiment shots and the various types of near-field and far-field data that are available.

  8. Data Release Report for Source Physics Experiment 1 (SPE-1), Nevada National Security Site

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Townsend, Margaret [NSTec; Mercadente, Jennifer [NSTec

    2014-04-28

    The first Source Physics Experiment shot (SPE-1) was conducted in May 2011. The explosive source was a ~100-kilogram TNT-equivalent chemical set at a depth of 60 meters. It was recorded by an extensive set of instrumentation that includes sensors both at near-field (less than 100 meters) and far-field (more than 100 meters) distances. The near-field instruments consisted of three-component accelerometers deployed in boreholes around the shot and a set of singlecomponent vertical accelerometers on the surface. The far-field network comprised a variety of seismic and acoustic sensors, including short-period geophones, broadband seismometers, three-component accelerometers, and rotational seismometers at distances of 100 meters to 25 kilometers. This report coincides with the release of these data for analysts and organizations that are not participants in this program. This report describes the first Source Physics Experiment and the various types of near-field and far-field data that are available.

  9. National Emission Standards for Hazardous Air Pollutants Calendar Year 1999

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    R. F. Grossman

    2000-06-01

    The Nevada Test Site (NTS) is operated by the US Department of Energy's Nevada Operations Office (DOE/NV) as the site for nuclear weapons testing, now limited to readiness activities and experiments in support of the national Stockpile Stewardship Management Program. It is located in Nye County, Nevada, with the southeast corner about 105 km (65 mi) northwest of Las Vegas, Nevada. The NTS covers about 3,561 km{sup 2} (1,375 mi{sup 2}), an area larger than Rhode Island. Its size is about 46 to 56 km (28 to 35 mi) east to west and from 64 to 88 km (40 to 55 mi) north to south. The NTS is surrounded, except on the south side, by public exclusion areas (Nellis Air Force Range [NAFR]) that provide another 24 to 104 km (15 to 65 mi) between the NTS and public lands. The NTS is characterized by desert valley and Great Basin mountain topography, with a climate, flora, and fauna typical of the southwest deserts. Population density within 150 km (93 mi) of the NTS is only about 0.2 persons per square kilometer, excluding the Las Vegas area. Restricted access, low population density in the surrounding area, and extended wind transport times are advantageous factors for the activities conducted at the NTS. Surface waters are scarce on the NTS and there is great depth to slow-moving groundwater.

  10. HIGH SPATIAL RESOLUTION OBSERVATIONS OF LOOPS IN THE SOLAR CORONA

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Brooks, David H.; Ugarte-Urra, Ignacio [College of Science, George Mason University, 4400 University Drive, Fairfax, VA 22030 (United States); Warren, Harry P. [Space Science Division, Naval Research Laboratory, Washington, DC 20375 (United States); Winebarger, Amy R. [NASA Marshall Space Flight Center, ZP 13, Huntsville, AL 35812 (United States)

    2013-08-01

    Understanding how the solar corona is structured is of fundamental importance to determine how the Sun's upper atmosphere is heated to high temperatures. Recent spectroscopic studies have suggested that an instrument with a spatial resolution of 200 km or better is necessary to resolve coronal loops. The High Resolution Coronal Imager (Hi-C) achieved this performance on a rocket flight in 2012 July. We use Hi-C data to measure the Gaussian widths of 91 loops observed in the solar corona and find a distribution that peaks at about 270 km. We also use Atmospheric Imaging Assembly data for a subset of these loops and find temperature distributions that are generally very narrow. These observations provide further evidence that loops in the solar corona are often structured at a scale of several hundred kilometers, well above the spatial scale of many proposed physical mechanisms.

  11. km on Lake Tanganyika (Fig. 2C). Single airguns or multigun arrays in the size range of40 to 140 cubic

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Richardson, David

    these rift sediments to be Cenozoic in age. 10. Sequence boundaries are the unconformities and their correlative conformities that define deposition- al sequences. A review of the concepts of sequence stratigraphy is presented in C. E. Payton, Ed., Am. Assoc. Pet. Geol. Mem. 26 (1977). 11. T. J. Dunkelman, J. A

  12. Himalayan orogen, so much so that the locus of deep exhumation has been maintained nearly 100 km northwards of the Himalayan

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    . Modeling mountain building and the seismic cycle in the Himalaya of Nepal. J. Geophys. Res. 105, 13389. Seismotectonics of the Nepal Himalaya from a local seismic network. J. Asian Earth Sci. 17, 703­712 (1999). 8 from two perspectives. GSA Bull. 112, 324­350 (2000). 12. DeCelles, P. G. et al. Stratigraphy

  13. The role of precipitation size distributions in km-scale NWP simulations of intense precipitation: Evaluation of cloud properties and surface precipitation

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Van Weverberg K.; Vogelmann A.; van Lipzig, N. P. M.; Delobbec, L.

    2012-04-01

    We investigate the sensitivity of simulated cloud properties and surface precipitation to assumptions regarding the size distributions of the precipitating hydrometeors in a one-moment bulk microphysics scheme. Three sensitivity experiments were applied to two composites of 15 convective and 15 frontal stratiform intense precipitation events observed in a coastal midlatitude region (Belgium), which were evaluated against satellite-retrieved cloud properties and radar-rain-gauge derived surface precipitation. It is found that the cloud optical thickness distribution was well captured by all experiments, although a significant underestimation of cloudiness occurred in the convective composite. The cloud-top-pressure distribution was improved most by more realistic snow size distributions (including a temperature-dependent intercept parameter and non-spherical snow for the calculation of the slope parameter), due to increased snow depositional growth at high altitudes. Surface precipitation was far less sensitive to whether graupel or hail was chosen as the rimed ice species, as compared to previous idealized experiments. This smaller difference in sensitivity could be explained by the stronger updraught velocities and higher freezing levels in the idealized experiments compared to typical coastal midlatitude environmental conditions.

  14. Evaluation of moist processes during intense precipitation in km-scale NWP models using remote sensing and in-situ data: Impact of microphysics size distribution assumptions

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Van Weverberg, K.; van Lipzig, N. P. M.; Delobbe, L.

    2011-02-01

    This study investigates the sensitivity of moist processes and surface precipitation during three extreme precipitation events over Belgium to the representation of rain, snow and hail size distributions in a bulk one-moment microphysics parameterisation scheme. Sensitivities included the use of empirically derived relations to calculate the slope parameter and diagnose the intercept parameter of the exponential snow and rain size distributions and sensitivities to the treatment of hail/graupel. A detailed evaluation of the experiments against various high temporal resolution and spatially distributed observational data was performed to understand how moist processes responded to the implemented size distribution modifications. Net vapor consumption by microphysical processes was found to be unaffected by snow or rain size distribution modifications, while it was reduced replacing formulations for hail by those typical for graupel, mainly due to intense sublimation of graupel. Cloud optical thickness was overestimated in all experiments and all cases, likely due to overestimated snow amounts. The overestimation slightly deteriorated by modifying the rain and snow size distributions due to increased snow depositional growth, while it was reduced by including graupel. The latter was mainly due to enhanced cloud water collection by graupel and reduced snow depositional growth. Radar reflectivity and cloud optical thickness could only be realistically represented by inclusion of graupel during a stratiform case, while hail was found indispensable to simulate the vertical reflectivity profile and the surface precipitation structure. Precipitation amount was not much altered by any of the modifications made and the general overestimation was only decreased slightly during a supercell convective case.

  15. ShoreZone in the Arctic 8,000 km of Coastal Habitat Mapping Cathy Coon, Bureau of Ocean Energy Management, catherine.coon@boem.gov

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    @coastalandoceans.com Cindy Hartmann Moore, NOAA/NMFS, cindy.hartmann@noaa.gov Tahzay Jones, National Park Service, Tahzay Resources Inc., john@coastalandoceans.com Cindy Hartmann Moore | NOAA/NMFS, cindy.hartmann@noaa.gov Tahzay

  16. Development and evolution of detachment faulting along 50 km of the Mid-Atlantic Ridge near 16.5ºN

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Smith, Deborah K.; Schouten, Hans; Dick, Henry; Cann, Joe; Salters, Vincent; Marschall, Horst R.; Ji, Fuwu; Yoerger, Dana; Sanfilippo, Alessio; Parnell-Turner, Ross; Palmiotto, Camilla; Zheleznov, Alexei; Bai, Hailong; Junkin, Will; Urann, Ben; Dick, Spencer; Sulanowska, Margaret; Lemmond, Peter; Curry, Scott

    2014-12-05

    [Smith et al., 2003] yielding a 119 6 remarkable average of about one earthquake (roughly > magnitude 2.5-3.0), every three days. 120 Based on seismicity rate and their interpretation of the morphology, Escartín et al. [2008] 121 concluded... to the volcanic axis, was interpreted as a newly emerging normal fault 101 forming a rafted block on top of the older West Ridge detachment fault. Seafloor photographs 102 from a camera tow near the top of East Ridge show steep fault scarps cutting pillow lavas...

  17. Generating carbon flux model parameters and drivers via space/time geostatistics As we know, our best moderate scale (1-10 Km2

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    is to parameterise and drive models with ground based data from sparse measurement networks. One characteristic the ecology, management, etc. Remotely sensed data offers a unique, large area data source to constrain models models: Kriging allows us to more objectively interpolate our data over the domain of interest

  18. Figure S1. Comparison of modelled PM2.5 (27 km resolution) with measurements at Harwell2 (UK) in January 2006.3

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Meskhidze, Nicholas

    m-3 ) between two2 simulations with a 15% emission reduction of either NOx or NH3 in January 2006 for the3 European domain. Aerosol formation is more sensitive to NOx emissions in blue regions and4 more concentration (µg m-3 ) between two2 simulations with a 15% emission reduction of either NOx or NH3 in June 2006

  19. OVERVIEW OF DT RESULTS FROM TFTR M.G. BELL, K.M. McGUIRE, V. ARUNASALAM, C.W. BARNES', S.H. BATHA2,

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    , Cambridge, Massachusetts, USA. lo TRINITI, Moscow, Russia. University of California, Irvine, California, USA Ioffe Physico-Technical Institute, St. Petersburg, Russia. " Canadian Fusion Fuels Technology Project transport coefficients from helium gas puffing experiments. The loss of energetic alpha particles

  20. The Project Shoal Area (PSA), located about 50 km southeast of Fallon, Nevada, was the site for a 12-kiloton-ton nuclear test

    Office of Legacy Management (LM)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Homesum_a_epg0_fpd_mmcf_m.xls" ,"Available from WebQuantity of NaturalDukeWakefield Municipal Gas &SCE-SessionsSouthReport for the WeldonB100 Ambrosia'1 ~(3JlpVSecretaryNV/13609-53

  1. Data Release Report for Source Physics Experiments 2 and 3 (SPE-2 and SPE-3) Nevada National Security Site

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Townsend, Margaret; Obi, Curtis

    2015-04-30

    The second Source Physics Experiment shot (SPE-2) was conducted in Nevada on October 25, 2011, at 1900:00.011623 Greenwich Mean Time (GMT). The explosive source was 997 kilograms (kg) trinitrotoluene (TNT) equivalent of sensitized heavy ammonium fuel oil (SHANFO) detonated at a depth of 45.7 meters (m). The third Source Physics Experiment shot (SPE-3) was conducted in Nevada on July 24, 2012, at 1800:00.44835 GMT. The explosive source was 905 kg TNT equivalent of SHANFO detonated at a depth of 45.8 m. Both shots were recorded by an extensive set of instrumentation that includes sensors both at near-field (less than 100 m) and far-field (100 m or greater) distances. The near-field instruments consisted of three-component accelerometers deployed in boreholes at 15, 46, and 55 m depths around the shot and a set of single-component vertical accelerometers on the surface. The far-field network was composed of a variety of seismic and acoustic sensors, including short-period geophones, broadband seismometers, three-component accelerometers, and rotational seismometers at distances of 100 m to 25 kilometers. This report coincides with the release of these data for analysts and organizations that are not participants in this program. This report describes the second and third Source Physics Experiment shots and the various types of near-field and farfield data that are available.This revised document includes reports on baseline shift corrections for the SPE-2 and SPE-3 shots that were missing from the original January 2015 version.

  2. Hydrothermal changes related to earthquake activity at Mud Volcano, Yellowstone National Park, Wyoming

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Pitt, A.M.; Hutchinson, R.A.

    1982-04-10

    The Mud Volcano hydrothermal area in Yellowstone National Park is near the intersection of a 20-km-long zone of northeast trending normal faults with the eastern resurgent dome within the 600,000-year-odd Yellowstone caldera. Recent crustal uplift along the northeast trending axis of the caldera is at a maximum (700 mm since 1923) near the Mud Volcano area. From 1973 through April 1978, less than 10 earthquakes (largest M 2.4) were located within 3 km of the Mud Volcano area. In May 1978, earthquakes began occurring beneath the hydrothermal area at depths of 1 to 5 km. The seismic activity continued until the end of November with intense swarms (100 events per hour) occurring on October 23 and November 7. The largest event (M 3.1) occured on November 14 and at least 8 events were M 2.5 or larger. In December 1978, heat flux in the Mud Volcano hydrothermal features began increasing along a 2-km-long northeast trending zone. Existing mud cauldrons became more active, new mud cauldrons and fumeroles were formed, and vegetation (primarily lodgepole pine) was killed by increased soil temperature. The increase in heat flux continued through July 1979 then gradually declined, reaching the early 1978 level by June 1980. The spatial and temporal association of earthquakes and increased hydrothermal activity at Mud Volcano suggests that the seismic activity expanded preexisting fracture systems, premitting increased fluid flow from depths of several kilometers.

  3. Arguments for a "U.S. Kamioka": SNOLab and its Implications for North American Underground Science Planning

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    W. C. Haxton; K. A. Philpott; Robert Holtz; Philip Long; J. F. Wilkerson

    2006-10-06

    We argue for a cost-effective, long-term North American underground science strategy based on partnership with Canada and initial construction of a modest U.S. Stage I laboratory designed to complement SNOLab. We show, by reviewing the requirements of detectors now in the R&D phase, that SNOLab and a properly designed U.S. Stage I facility would be capable of meeting the needs of North America's next wave of underground experiments. We discuss one opportunity for creating a Stage I laboratory, the Pioneer tunnel in Washington State, a site that could be developed to provide dedicated, clean, horizontal access. This unused tunnel, part of the deepest (1040 m) tunnel system in the U.S., would allow the U.S. to establish, at low risk and low cost, a laboratory at a depth (2.12 km.w.e., or kilometers of water equivalent) quite similar to that of the Japanese laboratory Kamioka (2.04 km.w.e.). We describe studies of cosmic ray attenuation important to properly locating such a laboratory, and the tunnel improvements that would be required to produce an optimal Stage I facility. We also discuss possibilities for far-future Stage II (3.62 km.w.e.) and Stage III (5.00 km.w.e.) developments at the Pioneer tunnel, should future North American needs for deep space exceed that available at SNOLab.

  4. datamanagementgroup 2011 SURVEY AREA SUMMARY

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Toronto, University of

    Collingwood CFB Borden 0 10 20 Kilometers Area = 521,900 Hectares #12;POPULATION CHARACTERISTICS Population

  5. BIOTROPICA 35(1): 125130 2003 Benthic Community Structure and Invertebrate Drift in a Pacific

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Benstead, Jon

    island systems and continental landmasses (often involving distances of hundreds of kilometers) results

  6. Tsukuba -February 2007G.Vali What will the doctor prescribe ?

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Vali, Gabor

    Mountain landslide, located 5 kilometers above the Ertan hydroelectric power station along Yalong River

  7. United States and Czech Republic Establish a Joint Civil Nuclear...

    Energy Savers [EERE]

    our two nations. Last month, DOE completed the transfer of 75 kilograms of fluoride salt from the Department's Oak Ridge National Laboratory to the Czech Nuclear Research...

  8. Table 7. Carbon intensity of the energy supply by State (2000...

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    Carbon intensity of the energy supply by State (2000-2011)" "kilograms of energy-related carbon dioxide per million Btu" ,,,"Change" ,,,"2000 to 2011"...

  9. COLOR DEPENDENCE IN THE SIZE DISTRIBUTION OF MAIN BELT ASTEROIDS REVISITED

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    August, Tyler M.; Wiegert, Paul A.

    2013-06-15

    The size distribution of the asteroid belt is examined with 16956 main belt asteroids detected in data taken from the Canada-France-Hawaii Telescope Legacy Survey in two filters (g' and r'). The cumulative H (absolute magnitude) distribution is examined in both filters, and both match well to simple power laws down to H = 17, with slopes in rough agreement with those reported the literature. This implies that disruptive collisions between asteroids are gravitationally dominated down to at least this size, and probably sub-kilometer scales. The slopes of these distributions appear shallower in the outer belt than the inner belt, and the g' distributions appear slightly steeper than the r'. The slope shallowing in the outer belt may reflect a real compositional difference: the inner asteroid belt has been suggested to consist mostly of stony and/or metallic S-type asteroids, whereas carbonaceous C-types are thought to be more prevalent further from the Sun. No waves are seen in the size distribution above H = 15. Since waves are expected to be produced at the transition from gravitationally-dominated to internal strength-dominated collisions, their absence here may imply that the transition occurs at sub-kilometer scales, much smaller than the H = 17 (diameter {approx} 1.6 km) cutoff of this study.

  10. Circumbinary planet formation in the Kepler-16 system. II. A toy model for in situ planet formation within a debris belt

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Meschiari, Stefano, E-mail: stefano@astro.as.utexas.edu [McDonald Observatory, University of Texas at Austin, Austin, TX 78712 (United States)

    2014-07-20

    Recent simulations have shown that the formation of planets in circumbinary configurations (such as those recently discovered by Kepler) is dramatically hindered at the planetesimal accretion stage. The combined action of the binary and the protoplanetary disk acts to raise impact velocities between kilometer-sized planetesimals beyond their destruction threshold, halting planet formation within at least 10 AU from the binary. It has been proposed that a primordial population of 'large' planetesimals (100 km or more in size), as produced by turbulent concentration mechanisms, would be able to bypass this bottleneck; however, it is not clear whether these processes are viable in the highly perturbed circumbinary environments. We perform two-dimensional hydrodynamical and N-body simulations to show that kilometer-sized planetesimals and collisional debris can drift and be trapped in a belt close to the central binary. Within this belt, planetesimals could initially grow by accreting debris, ultimately becoming 'indestructible' seeds that can accrete other planetesimals in situ despite the large impact speeds. We find that large, indestructible planetesimals can be formed close to the central binary within 10{sup 5} yr, therefore showing that even a primordial population of 'small' planetesimals can feasibly form a planet.

  11. Geographic resolution issues in RAM transportation risk analysis

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    MILLS,G. SCOTT; NEUHAUSER,SIEGLINDE

    2000-04-12

    Over the years that radioactive material (RAM) transportation risk estimates have been calculated using the RADTRAN code, demand for improved geographic resolution of route characteristics, especially density of population neighboring route segments, has led to code improvements that provide more specific route definition. With the advent of geographic information systems (GISs), the achievable resolution of route characteristics is theoretically very high. The authors have compiled population-density data in 1-kilometer increments for routes extending over hundreds of kilometers without impractical expenditures of time. Achievable resolution of analysis is limited, however, by the resolution of available data. U.S. Census data typically have 1-km or better resolution within densely-populated portions of metropolitan areas but census blocks are much larger in rural areas. Geographic resolution of accident-rate data, especially for heavy/combination trucks, are typically tabulated on a statewide basis. These practical realities cause one to ask what level(s) of resolution may be necessary for meaningful risk analysis of transportation actions on a state or interstate scale.

  12. Prograde rotation of protoplanets by accretion of pebbles in a gaseous environment

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Johansen, Anders

    2009-01-01

    We perform computer simulations of the accretion of pebbles and rocks onto protoplanets of a few hundred kilometers in radius, including two-way drag force coupling between particles and the protoplanetary disc gas. Particle streams interacting with the gas far out in the Hill sphere of the protoplanet spiral into a prograde circumplanetary disc. Material is accreted onto the protoplanet due to stirring by the turbulent surroundings. We speculate that the trend for prograde rotation among the largest asteroids is primordial and that protoplanets accreted 10%-50% of their mass from pebbles and rocks during the gaseous solar nebula phase. Our model offers an explanation for the narrow range of spin periods observed among the largest bodies in the asteroid and trans-Neptunian belts, and predicts that the 1000 km-scale Kuiper belt objects should preferentially spin in the prograde direction.

  13. The 1993 baseline biological studies and proposed monitoring plan for the Device Assembly Facility at the Nevada Test Site

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Woodward, B.D.; Hunter, R.B.; Greger, P.D.; Saethre, M.B.

    1995-02-01

    This report contains baseline data and recommendations for future monitoring of plants and animals near the new Device Assembly Facility (DAF) on the Nevada Test Site (NTS). The facility is a large structure designed for safely assembling nuclear weapons. Baseline data was collected in 1993, prior to the scheduled beginning of DAF operations in early 1995. Studies were not performed prior to construction and part of the task of monitoring operational effects will be to distinguish those effects from the extensive disturbance effects resulting from construction. Baseline information on species abundances and distributions was collected on ephemeral and perennial plants, mammals, reptiles, and birds in the desert ecosystems within three kilometers (km) of the DAF. Particular attention was paid to effects of selected disturbances, such as the paved road, sewage pond, and the flood-control dike, associated with the facility. Radiological monitoring of areas surrounding the DAF is not included in this report.

  14. Closure Report for Corrective Action Unit 254: Area 25, R-MAD Decontamination Facility, Nevada Test Site, Nevada

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    G. N. Doyle

    2002-02-01

    Corrective Action Unit (CAU) 254 is located in Area 25 of the Nevada Test Site (NTS), approximately 100 kilometers (km) (62 miles) northwest of Las Vegas, Nevada. The site is located within the Reactor Maintenance, Assembly and Disassembly (R-MAD) compound and consists of Building 3126, two outdoor decontamination pads, and surrounding areas within an existing fenced area measuring approximately 50 x 37 meters (160 x 120 feet). The site was used from the early 1960s to the early 1970s as part of the Nuclear Rocket Development Station program to decontaminate test-car hardware and tooling. The site was reactivated in the early 1980s to decontaminate a radiologically contaminated military tank. This Closure Report (CR) describes the closure activities performed to allow un-restricted release of the R-MAD Decontamination Facility.

  15. Electromagnetic pulse (EMP) interaction with electric power systems. Power Systems Technology Program. Final report

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Zaininger, H.W.

    1984-08-01

    A high altitude nuclear burst, detonated at a height of 50 km or more, causes two types of electromagnetic pulses (EMP) - high altitude EMP (HEMP) and magnetohydrodynamic EMP (MHD-EMP). This high altitude EMP scenario is of principal concern when assessing the effects of EMP on electric power systems, because the total United States can be simultaneously illuminated by HEMP and MHD-EMP can cover a large area of up to several hundred kilometers in diameter. The purpose of this project was first to define typical electrical power system characteristics for EMP analysis, and second, to determine reasonable worst case EMP induced surges on overhead electric power system transmission and distribution lines for reasonable assumptions, using unclassified HEMP and MHD-EMP electric field waveforms.

  16. Gigantic Ordovician volcanic ash fall in North America and Europe: Biological, tectonomagmatic, and event-stratigraphic significance

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Huff, W.D. (Univ. of Cincinnati, OH (United States)); Bergstroem, S.M. (Ohio State Univ., Columbus (United States)); Kolata, D.R. (Illinois State Geological Survey, Champaign (United States))

    1992-10-01

    Biostratigraphical, geochemical, isotopic, and paleogeographic data suggest that the Millbrig K-bentonite, one of the thickest and most widespread Ordovician volcanic ash beds in eastern North America, is the same as the so-called 'Big Bentonite' in Baltoscandia. This is the first time that the same K-bentonite has been identified in both North America and Europe, and it serves as a unique event-stratigraphic marker over a large portion of the Northern Hemisphere. This eruption produced at least 340 km[sup 3] of dense-rock-equivalent ash that was deposited in a layer up to 1-2 m thick over several million square kilometers. As much as 800 km[sup 3] of additional ash may have fallen into the Iapetus Ocean, for a total of 1,140 km[sup 3]. Trace element geochemistry shows that the ash was derived from a felsic calc-alkalic magmatic source characteristic of volcanism in a continental crust-based, destructive plate-margin setting. This is one of the largest, if not the largest, ash falls recorded in Earth's Phanerozoic stratigraphic record, but its recognizable effect on faunas and floras was minimal, and it did not result in a global extinction event. The Millbrig-Big Bentonite bed provides accurate time control for sedimentologic, paleoecologic, and paleogeographic reconstructions across plates positioned in tropical (Laurentia) and temperate (Baltica) latitudes during Middle Ordovician time.

  17. Neutrino telescopes in the World

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Ernenwein, J.-P.

    2007-01-12

    Neutrino astronomy has rapidly developed these last years, being the only way to get specific and reliable information about astrophysical objects still poorly understood.Currently two neutrino telescopes are operational in the World: BAIKAL, in the lake of the same name in Siberia, and AMANDA, in the ices of the South Pole. Two telescopes of the same type are under construction in the Mediterranean Sea: ANTARES and NESTOR. All these telescopes belong to a first generation, with an instrumented volume smaller or equal to 0.02 km3. Also in the Mediterranean Sea, the NEMO project is just in its stag phase, within the framework of a cubic kilometer size neutrino telescope study. Lastly, the ICECUBE detector, with a volume reaching about 1 km3, is under construction on the site of AMANDA experiment, while an extension of the BAIKAL detector toward km3 is under study. We will present here the characteristics of these experiments, as well as the results of their observations.

  18. Evaluation of hypotheses for the cause of the 1886 Charleston earthquake

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    White, R.M.; Long, L.T. (Law Environmental, Inc., Kennesaw, GA (USA); Georgia Inst. of Tech., Atlanta, GA (USA))

    1989-10-01

    This report describes a geophysical/geological investigation of the earth's crust at seismogenic depths in the Charleston, South Carolina area. This investigation was made for the purpose of narrowing the range of theories that have been used to explain the historic 1886 Charleston earthquake. Since a number of these theories are based on only a portion of the available data, we have established a comprehensive data set in order to allow these hypotheses to be subjected to the entire data set. Specifically, we combined existing and new gravity, magnetic and topographic data in grids of 128 km, 256 km and 1028 km on a side centered on Charleston. Seismic, geologic and drilling data were collected and summarized. A magnetotelluric survey consisting of 12 soundings interpreted to depths of over 40 kilometers defined the bottom of the rigid crust with assistance from seismic reflection and other data. A geologic model of the crust in the area of Charleston was constructed and it defined the locations of Triassic/Jurassic basins Paleozoic plutons in greater detail than has previously been achieved. 102 refs., 75 figs.

  19. REVISITING JOVIAN-RESONANCE INDUCED CHONDRULE FORMATION

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Nagasawa, M. [Interactive Research Center of Science, Tokyo Institute of Technology, 2-12-1 Ookayama, Meguro-ku, Tokyo 152-8551 (Japan); Tanaka, K. K.; Tanaka, H. [Institute of Low Temperature Science, Hokkaido University, Kita-19, Nishi-8, Kita-ku, Sapporo 060-0819 (Japan); Nakamoto, T. [Department of Earth and Planetary Sciences, Tokyo Institute of Technology, 2-12-1 Ookayama, Meguro-ku, Tokyo 152-8551 (Japan); Miura, H. [Graduate School of Natural Sciences, Nagoya City University, 1 Yamanohata, Mizuho-cho, Mizuho-ku, Nagoya 467-8501 (Japan); Yamamoto, T., E-mail: nagasawa.m.ad@m.titech.ac.jp [Center for Planetary Science, Kobe University, 7-1-48 Minamimachi, Minatojima, Chuo-ku, Kobe 650-0047 (Japan)

    2014-10-10

    It is proposed that planetesimals perturbed by Jovian mean-motion resonances are the source of shock waves that form chondrules. It is considered that this shock-induced chondrule formation requires the velocity of the planetesimal relative to the gas disk to be on the order of ? 7 km s{sup –1} at 1 AU. In previous studies on planetesimal excitation, the effects of Jovian mean-motion resonance together with the gas drag were investigated, but the velocities obtained were at most 8 km s{sup –1} in the asteroid belt, which is insufficient to account for the ubiquitous existence of chondrules. In this paper, we reexamine the effect of Jovian resonances and take into account the secular resonance in the asteroid belt caused by the gravity of the gas disk. We find that the velocities relative to the gas disk of planetesimals a few hundred kilometers in size exceed 12 km s{sup –1}, and that this is achieved around the 3:1 mean-motion resonance. The heating region is restricted to a relatively narrowband between 1.5 AU and 3.5 AU. Our results suggest that chondrules were produced effectively in the asteroid region after Jovian formation. We also find that many planetesimals are scattered far beyond Neptune. Our findings can explain the presence of crystalline silicate in comets if the scattered planetesimals include silicate dust processed by shock heating.

  20. DETECTION OF LOW-VELOCITY COLLISIONS IN SATURN'S F RING

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Attree, N. O.; Murray, C. D.; Cooper, N. J.; Williams, G. A.

    2012-08-20

    Jets of material extending several hundred kilometers from Saturn's F ring are thought to be caused by collisions at speeds of several tens of ms{sup -1} between {approx}10 km diameter objects such as S/2004 S 6 and the core of the ring. The subsequent effects of Keplerian shear give rise to the multi-stranded nature of the F ring. Observations of the ring by the Imaging Science Subsystem experiment on the Cassini spacecraft have provided evidence that some smaller protrusions from the ring's core are the result of low-velocity collisions with nearby objects. We refer to these protrusions as 'mini-jets' and one such feature has been observed for {approx}7.5 hr as its length changed from {approx}75 km to {approx}250 km while it simultaneously appeared to collapse into the core. Orbit determinations suggest that such mini-jets consist of ring material displaced by a {approx}1 ms{sup -1} collision with a nearby moonlet, resulting in paths relative to the core that are due to a combination of Keplerian shear and epicyclic motion. Detections of mini-jets in the Cassini images suggest that it may now be possible to understand most small-scale F ring structure as the result of such collisions. A study of these mini-jets will therefore put constraints on the properties of the colliding population as well as improve our understanding of low-velocity collisions between icy objects.

  1. TECI-INICAL RGPORT A-78-3 MECHANICAL HARVESTING OF

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    US Army Corps of Engineers

    plants from the harvesting site or area to the takeout point on the water-land interface. Once there1I1a'IJ. TECI-INICAL RGPORT A-78-3 MECHANICAL HARVESTING OF AQUATIC PLANTS R.rtl FIELD EVALUATION cubic metre kilograms kilograms per sCluare metre Fl #12;MECHANICAL HARVESTING OF AQUATIC PLANTS FIELD

  2. EOS of North America, Inc. Material Pricing Order Placement: us.materialorders@eos-na.com or via fax: (248) 306-0298

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    McGaughey, Alan

    conductivity, high-stiffness $62 9012-0029 Polyamide 12 Carbon Fiber Reinforced CarbonMide® Black, light) 306-0143 www.eos.info *Sold in 20 kilogram increments for plastics. **Sold in 10 kilogram increments, 2014 v13 EOS Materials Plastics Detailed material information, including data sheets, can be found

  3. Greenhouse Gas Laser Imaging Tomography Experiment (GreenLITE): Evaluation of a new method to look at high resolution spatial/temporal distributions of carbon over key sub km sites

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Dobler, Jeremy; Zaccheo, T. Scott; Blume, Nathan; Braun, Michael; Perninit, Timothy; McGregor, Doug; Botos, Chris; Dobeck, Laura

    2015-01-01

    Recently a new laser based approach for measuring area with potential for producing 2D estimates of the concentration spatial distribution has been developed through a cooperative agreement with the National Energy and Technology Laboratory of the Department of Energy, Exelis Inc. and AER Inc. The new approach is based on a pair of continuous wave intensity modulated laser absorption spectrometer transceivers, combined with a series of retro reflectors located around the perimeter of the area being monitored. The main goal of this cooperative agreement is monitoring, reporting and verification for ground carbon capture and storage projects. The system was recently tested at the Zero Emission Research and Technology site in Bozeman, MT, with underground leak rates ranging from 0.1 – 0.3 metric ton per day (T/d), as well as a 0.8 T/d surface release. Over 200 hours of data were collected over a rectangular grid 180m x 200m between August 18th and September 9th. In addition, multiple days of in situ data were acquired for the same site, using a Licor gas analyzer systems. Initial comparisons between the laser-based system and the in situ agree very well. The system is designed to operate remotely and transmit the data via a 3G/4G connection along with weather data for the site. An all web-based system ingests the data, populates a database, performs the inversion to ppm CO2 using the Line-by-Line Radiative Transfer Model (LBLRTM), and displays plots and statistics for the retrieved data. We will present an overview of the GreenLITE measurement system, outline the retrieval and reconstruction approach, and discuss results from extensive field testing.

  4. The research project GLOWA-Danube (www.glowa-danube.de) investigates Global Change effects on the water cycle of the Upper Danube river basin (Germany, ~80.0000 km) involving 11 different disciplines from natural and social sciences.

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Cirpka, Olaf Arie

    in the simulation system DANUBIA. A primary scope of DANUBIA is to evaluate consequences of IPCC derived climate, treatment and distribution. It acts as a link between the natural 'supply side', simulated by a groundwater it for showering, toilet flush, laundry etc. The wastewater is passed through virtual clarification plants

  5. High upwind concentrations observed during an upslope tracer event

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Ciolek, J.T. Jr.

    1993-10-01

    In February of 1991 the Rocky Flats Plant conducted twelve tracer experiments to validate an emergency response dispersion model known as the Terrain-Responsive Atmospheric Code (TRAC) (Hodgin 1985). Experimenters released 140 to 260 kilograms of inert tracer gas (sulfur hexafloride) from the plant over an 11 hour period. During each release, one hundred and sixty-five samples, most of which formed concentric rings of 8 and 16 km radius from the plant, recorded cumulative hourly concentrations of the tracer at one meter above ground level (AGL). Figure 1 contains a depiction of the sampler location, the terrain, and the meteorological stations available within the tracer study area. Brown (1991) describes the experimental setup in more detail. The subject of this paper is an event that occurred early in the fifth experiment, on February 9, 1991. In this experiment, tracer material released from 13:00 to 17:00 LST appeared both downwind and upwind of the source, with the highest concentrations upwind. During the fifth experiment, high pressure in Utah produced mostly sunny skis around Rocky Flats. For most of the day, one could find moderate (5 to 10 ms{sup {minus}1}) northerly (from the North) flow within the 700 to 500 mb level of the atmosphere (approximately 3000 to 5500 meters above Mean Sea Level (MSL)). Synoptic scale motions were isolated enough from the surface layer and heating was great enough to produce a 1 km deep upslope flow (flow from the East to the West) by late afternoon. The winds reversed and became downslope at approximately 17:30 LST.

  6. Modeling Suburban and Rural-Residential Development Beyond the Urban Fringe

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Newburn, David A.; Berck, Peter

    2006-01-01

    1 kilometer ring around the sewer and water service areas (SWSA) boundaries. FIGURE 2: Sewer and Water Service Area1 kilometer ring around the sewer and water service areas (

  7. TEXT THOMAS BHRKE Foto:SPLAgenturFocus

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Falge, Eva

    200000 Kilometer unter der Oberflä- che. Anders als bei der Erde, wo es hauptsächlich an den beiden Polen

  8. Evaluation of low-temperature geothermal potential in north-central Box Elder County, Utah

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Davis, M.C.; Kolesar, P.T.

    1984-12-01

    The low-temperature geothermal resources of north-central Box Elder County, Utah were assessed. Exploration techniques used included chemical analyses of water from wells and springs, temperature surveys, and temperature-depth measurements in unused wells within the study area. The highest water temperatures (31/sup 0/, 30/sup 0/, and 29/sup 0/C) recorded in this research were located in three separate geographic regions, suggesting that no single warm water occurrence dominates the study area. Total dissolved solid (TDS) concentrations ranged from 294 to 11,590 mg/l. Areas of warm water occurrences generally had TDS values of greater than 1100 mg/l. Reservoir temperatures were estimated using chemical geothermometers. Calculated temperatures ranged between 50/sup 0/ and 100/sup 0/C. Temperature-depth measurements were logged in 16 unused wells. Thermal gradients calculated from the profiles ranged from isothermal to 267/sup 0/C/km. The background gradient for the study area appears to be slightly above the average Basin and Range gradient of 35/sup 0/C/km. The highest gradients were calculated for the area approximately eight kilometers west of Snowville, Utah, which is also an area of warm water. 61 refs., 15 figs., 6 tabs.

  9. A POSSIBLE DIVOT IN THE SIZE DISTRIBUTION OF THE KUIPER BELT'S SCATTERING OBJECTS

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Shankman, C.; Gladman, B. J. [Department of Physics and Astronomy, University of British Columbia, 6224 Agriculture Road, Vancouver, BC V6T 1Z1 (Canada); Kaib, N. [Department of Physics and Astronomy, Queens University (Canada); Kavelaars, J. J. [National Research Council of Canada, Victoria, BC V9E 2E7 (Canada); Petit, J. M. [Institut UTINAM, CNRS-Universite de Franche-Comte, Besancon (France)

    2013-02-10

    Via joint analysis of a calibrated telescopic survey, which found scattering Kuiper Belt objects, and models of their expected orbital distribution, we explore the scattering-object (SO) size distribution. Although for D > 100 km the number of objects quickly rise as diameters decrease, we find a relative lack of smaller objects, ruling out a single power law at greater than 99% confidence. After studying traditional ''knees'' in the size distribution, we explore other formulations and find that, surprisingly, our analysis is consistent with a very sudden decrease (a divot) in the number distribution as diameters decrease below 100 km, which then rises again as a power law. Motivated by other dynamically hot populations and the Centaurs, we argue for a divot size distribution where the number of smaller objects rises again as expected via collisional equilibrium. Extrapolation yields enough kilometer-scale SOs to supply the nearby Jupiter-family comets. Our interpretation is that this divot feature is a preserved relic of the size distribution made by planetesimal formation, now ''frozen in'' to portions of the Kuiper Belt sharing a ''hot'' orbital inclination distribution, explaining several puzzles in Kuiper Belt science. Additionally, we show that to match today's SO inclination distribution, the supply source that was scattered outward must have already been vertically heated to the of order 10 Degree-Sign .

  10. Design and manufacturing of an ion electrospray propulsion system package and passively-fed propellant supply

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Perna, Louis Evan

    2014-01-01

    Satellites under 500 kilograms have been growing more popular with the miniaturization of high-performance electronics and instruments. Constellations and formations of satellites consisting of thousands of small satellites ...

  11. THE PLUTONIUM STORY

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Seaborg, G.T.

    2010-01-01

    the bulk of the uranium, as uranyl nitrate hexahydrate, fromto separate large- amounts of uranyl nitrate from plutonium.Plutonium. A sample of uranyl nitrate weighing 1.2 kilograms

  12. Renewable Hydrogen: Technology Review and Policy Recommendations for State-Level Sustainable Energy Futures

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Lipman, Timothy; Edwards, Jennifer Lynn; Brooks, Cameron

    2006-01-01

    can be produced from coal gasification at delivered costs ofper kilogram. Gasification of Coal and Other Hydrocarbons Inkg/day Small Coal Oxygen-blown Gasification 313,090 kg/day

  13. Carlsbad Field Office

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Acrot: Kilograms Per Hour: Metric T 011t Per CUbic Meters; Hectates; CUbic T82 Lime Day; MeUic TOllS Per HOur; Sllart TOll II Yardt Per Day: BTU Per H1111r: Lllers Per...

  14. Microsoft PowerPoint - 7_GARY_LANGLIE_NMMSS 2014 NRC HEU Report...

    National Nuclear Security Administration (NNSA)

    2012 Kilograms Figure 1: Exports of U.S. HEU 1957 - 2012 used as fuel or targets in a nuclear research or test reactor HEU Exports HEU exports began in the 1957 time frame...

  15. Reduction Chemistry of Rare-Earth Metal Complexes: Toward New Reactivity and Properties

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Huang, Wenliang

    2013-01-01

    Elsner, A. ; Milliken, M. As hybrid cars gobble rare metals,rare-earths are heavily used in fuel-efficient hybrid cars.In a leading model of hybrid car, 1 kilogram of neodymium

  16. CuriosityMars Science Laboratory NASA's JOURNEY TO

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    and Mineralogy Environmental Instruments REMS -- Rover Environmental Monitoring Station RAD -- Radiation Assessment Detector DAN -- Dynamic Albedo of Neutrons Rover Size Length --10 feet (3 meters), not including -- 2000 pounds (900 kilograms) Heating and Electrical Power Radioisotope Power System -- a Multi

  17. Tuesday, March 14, 2006 IMPACT CRATERING: MODELING AND EXPERIMENTS

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Rathbun, Julie A.

    R. M. Swift W. R. A Probable Taurid Impact on the Moon [#1731] On November 7, 2005, at 23:41:52 UT, observers located at the Marshall Space Flight Center captured the flash produced by a kilogram

  18. Final Environmental Impact Statement for the FutureGen Project...

    Energy Savers [EERE]

    by weight. 6 na No performance target or no CCPI target. kg kilogram; Btu British thermal unit. Sources: DOE, 2002; DOE, 2006a; DOE, 2006b. When switching between coals,...

  19. Secretary Moniz's Remarks at the 2014 IAEA General Conference...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Critical Assembly. Since 2009, the United States has partnered with 26 countries and Taiwan to eliminate more than 3,000 kilograms of HEU and plutonium - enough material for well...

  20. Midterm review sheet

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    2015-03-03

    A tank starts out with 50 gallons of water with a salt concentration of 2 ... the air resistance force has magnitude |v| kilograms meters per second squared, where v ...

  1. Solar Thermal Powered Evaporators

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Moe, Christian Robert

    2015-01-01

    required to evaporate water to the energy needed to overcomeproduce fresh water at the cost of energy and produce afrom sea water requires 3.5 kJ of energy per kilogram of

  2. Microsoft PowerPoint - 2_Thursday 5-23 9 NMMSS_2013_Obligations...

    National Nuclear Security Administration (NNSA)

    on 812012 from the Australian facility AUSFAC1 which contain 75,000 grams of Uranium (3000 grams of U235) and 5 kilograms of Plutonium. This shipment is subject to the...

  3. EA-1123: Transfer of Normal and Low-Enriched Uranium Billets to the United Kingdom, Hanford Site, Richland, Washington

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    This EA evaluates the environmental impacts of the proposal to transfer approximately 710,000 kilograms (1,562,000 pounds) of unneeded normal and low-enriched uranium to the United Kingdom; thus,...

  4. Strategies to reduce energy demand in manufacturing processes are becoming necessary due to the growing concern of carbon emissions and the expected rise of electricity prices over time. To guide the development of these strategies, the results of a life-cycle energy consumption analysis of milling machine tools are first highlighted to show the effect of several factors such as degree of automation, manufacturing environment, transportation, material inputs, and facility inputs on environmental impact. An overview of design and operation strategies to reduce energy consumption is thereafter presented including the implementation of a Kinetic Energy Recovery System (KERS), a process parameter selection strategy, and a web-based energy estimation tool.

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Dornfeld, David; Wright, Paul

    2007-01-01

    The 1.7 kilogram microchip: Energy and material use in the2002) describing the energy and materials that go into athe cost of materials and manufacturing (in terms of energy

  5. EA-1255: Project Partnership Transportation of Foreign-Owned Enriched Uranium from the Republic of Georgia

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    This EA evaluates the environmental impacts for the proposal to transport 5.26 kilograms of enriched uranium-23 5 in the form of nuclear fuel, from the Republic of Georgia to the United Kingdom.

  6. 2011 September NNSA News Viewable.pmd

    National Nuclear Security Administration (NNSA)

    6.3 kilograms (13.8 pounds) of U.S.- origin highly enriched uranium (HEU) spent fuel from a nuclear research facility in South Africa. "With this return, we have taken...

  7. Preliminary Safety Analysis of the Gorleben Site: Geological Database - 13300

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Weber, Jan Richard; Mrugalla, Sabine; Dresbach, Christian; Hammer, Joerg

    2013-07-01

    The Gorleben salt dome is 4 km wide and nearly 15 km long. It is composed of different salt rock types of the Zechstein (Upper Permian) series and extends to the Zechstein basis in a depth of more than 3 km. In the course of the salt dome formation the salt was moved several kilometers. During the uplift of the salt the initially plane-bedded strata of the Zechstein series were extensively folded. In this process anhydrite as a competent layer was broken to isolated blocks. In the core of the salt dome the Hauptsalz, which is characterized by a particularly high creeping capacity, forms a homogeneous halite body with a volume of several cubic kilometres. The Hauptsalz contains gaseous and liquid hydrocarbons in separated zones of decimeter to meter dimensions. The overall hydrocarbon content is far below 0.01 %. At the flanks the salt dome consists of salt rocks with lower creeping capacities. Brine reservoirs with fluid volumes in the range of liters to hundreds of cubic meters exist in certain regions of this part of the salt dome. The water content of the Hauptsalz is below 0.02 %. Interconnected pores do not exist in the salt rock outside of fluid bearing or fractured areas, i.e. the salt rock is impermeable. The exploration of the Gorleben site as a potential site for a HLW-repository started in 1979 and is still in progress. To date no scientific findings contest the suitability of the site for a safe HLW-repository. (authors)

  8. HIGH ECLIPTIC LATITUDE SURVEY FOR SMALL MAIN-BELT ASTEROIDS

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Terai, Tsuyoshi [National Astronomical Observatory of Japan, 2-21-1 Osawa, Mitaka, Tokyo 181-8588 (Japan); Takahashi, Jun; Itoh, Yoichi, E-mail: tsuyoshi.terai@nao.ac.jp [Center for Astronomy, University of Hyogo, 407-2 Nishigaichi, Sayo-cho, Sayo-gun, Hyogo 679-5313 (Japan)

    2013-11-01

    Main-belt asteroids have been continuously colliding with one another since they were formed. Their size distribution is primarily determined by the size dependence of asteroid strength against catastrophic impacts. The strength scaling law as a function of body size could depend on collision velocity, but the relationship remains unknown, especially under hypervelocity collisions comparable to 10 km s{sup –1}. We present a wide-field imaging survey at an ecliptic latitude of about 25° for investigating the size distribution of small main-belt asteroids that have highly inclined orbits. The analysis technique allowing for efficient asteroid detections and high-accuracy photometric measurements provides sufficient sample data to estimate the size distribution of sub-kilometer asteroids with inclinations larger than 14°. The best-fit power-law slopes of the cumulative size distribution are 1.25 ± 0.03 in the diameter range of 0.6-1.0 km and 1.84 ± 0.27 in 1.0-3.0 km. We provide a simple size distribution model that takes into consideration the oscillations of the power-law slope due to the transition from the gravity-scaled regime to the strength-scaled regime. We find that the high-inclination population has a shallow slope of the primary components of the size distribution compared to the low-inclination populations. The asteroid population exposed to hypervelocity impacts undergoes collisional processes where large bodies have a higher disruptive strength and longer lifespan relative to tiny bodies than the ecliptic asteroids.

  9. Development of a Seismic Snow Streamer and Use of Multi-Offset Reflection for Determining Glacier Ice Properties

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Velez Gonzalez, Jose Antonio

    2012-12-31

    source was 0.5 kilograms of pentaerythritoltetranitrate (PETN) placed in shot holes buried 10 meters below the surface. For this experiment, the recording array of geophones remained stationary and twenty- two seismic sources were deployed at offsets... source was 0.5 kilograms of pentaerythritoltetranitrate (PETN) placed in shot holes buried 10 meters below the surface. For this experiment, the recording array of geophones remained stationary and twenty- two seismic sources were deployed at offsets...

  10. Remedial Action Plan and site design for stabilization of the inactive uranium mill tailings site at Gunnison, Colorado. Attachment 2, Geology report: Final report

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Not Available

    1992-10-01

    Detailed investigations of geologic, geomorphic, and seismic conditions at the Landfill disposal site were conducted. The purpose of these studies was basic site characterization and identification of potential geologic hazards that could affect long-term site stability. Subsequent engineering studies, such as analyses of hydrologic and liquefaction hazards, used the data developed in these studies. The geomorphic analysis was employed in the design of effective erosion protection. Studies of the regional and local seismotectonic setting, which included a detailed search for possible capable faults within a 65-kilometer (km) (40-mile) radius of the site, provided the basis for seismic design parameters. The scope of work performed included the following: Compilation and analysis of previous published and unpublished geologic literature and maps. Review of historical and instrumental earthquake data. Review of site-specific subsurface geologic data, including lithologic and geophysical logs of exploratory boreholes advanced in the site area. Photogeologic interpretations of existing conventional aerial photographs. Ground reconnaissance and mapping of the site region.

  11. Magnetic field gradients in solar wind plasma and geophysics periods

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    A. Bershadskii

    2006-11-16

    Using recent data obtained by Advanced Composition Explorer (ACE) the pumping scale of the magnetic field gradients of the solar wind plasma has been calculated. This pumping scale is found to be equal to 24h $\\pm$ 2h. The ACE spacecraft orbits at the L1 libration point which is a point of Earth-Sun gravitational equilibrium about 1.5 million km from Earth. Since the Earth's magnetosphere extends into the vacuum of space from approximately 80 to 60,000 kilometers on the side toward the Sun the pumping scale cannot be a consequence of the 24h-period of the Earth's rotation. Vise versa, a speculation is suggested that for the very long time of the coexistence of Earth and of the solar wind the weak interaction between the solar wind and Earth could lead to stochastic synchronization between the Earth's rotation and the pumping scale of the solar wind magnetic field gradients. This synchronization could transform an original period of the Earth's rotation to the period close to the pumping scale of the solar wind magnetic field gradients.

  12. Socioeconomic impact of photovoltaic power at Schuchulik, Arizona. Final report

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Bahr, D.; Garrett, B.G.; Chrisman, C.

    1980-10-01

    Schuchuli, a small remote village on the Papago Indian Reservation in southwest Arizona, is 27 kilometers (17 miles) from the nearest available utility power. In some respects, Schuchuli resembles many of the rural villages in other parts of the world. For example, it's relatively small in size (about 60 residents), composed of a number of extended family groupings, and remotely situated relative to major population centers (190 km, or 120 miles, from Tucson). Its lack of conventional power is due to the prohibitive cost of supplying a small electrical load with a long-distance distribution line. Furthermore, alternate energy sources are expensive and place a burden on the resources of the villagers. On December 16, 1978, as part of a federally funded project, a solar cell power system was put into operation at Schuchuli. The system powers the village water pump, lighting for homes ad other village buildings, family refrigerators and a communal washing machine and sewing machine. The project, managed for the US Department of Energy by the NASA Lewis Research Center, provided for a one-year socio-economic study to assess the impact of a relatively small amount of electricity on the basic living environment of the villagers. The results of that study are presented, including village history, group life, energy use in general and the use of the photovoltaic-powered appliances. No significant impacts due to the photovoltaic power system were observed.

  13. X-ray Emission from Thunderstorms and Lightning

    ScienceCinema (OSTI)

    Dwyer, Joseph [Florida Institute of Technology, Melbourne, Florida, United States

    2010-01-08

    How lightning is initiated in the relatively low electric fields inside thunderclouds and how it can then propagate for tens of kilometers through virgin air are two of the great unsolved problems in the atmospheric sciences.  Until very recently it was believed that lightning was entirely a conventional discharge, involving only low-energy (a few eV) electrons.  This picture changed completely a few years ago with the discovery of intense x-ray emission from both natural cloud-to-ground lightning and rocket-triggered lightning.  This energetic emission cannot be produced by a conventional discharge, and so the presence of x-rays strongly implies that runaway breakdown plays a role in lightning processes.  During runaway breakdown, electrons are accelerated through air to nearly the speed of light by strong electric fields.  These runaway electrons then emit bremsstrahlung x-rays and gamma-rays during collisions with air.  Indeed, the x-ray and gamma-ray emission produced by runaway breakdown near the tops of thunderstorms is bright enough to be seen from outer space, 600 km away.  As a result, the physics used for decades to describe thunderstorm electrification and lightning discharges is incomplete and needs to be revisited. 

  14. Remedial action plan and site design for stabilization of the inactive uranium mill tailings sites at Slick Rock, Colorado. Remedial action selection report, Appendix B

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Not Available

    1993-07-01

    The Slick Rock uranium mill tailings sites are located near the small town of Slick Rock, in San Miguel County, Colorado. There are two designated UMTRA sites at Slick Rock, the Union Carbide (UC) site and the North Continent (NC) site. Both sites are adjacent to the Dolores River. The UC site is approximately 1 mile (mi) [2 kilometers (km)] downstream of the NC site. Contaminated materials cover an estimated 55 acres (ac) [22 hectares (ha)] at the UC site and 12 ac (4.9 ha) at the NC site. The sites contain former mill building concrete foundations, tailings piles, demolition debris, and areas contaminated by windblown and waterborne radioactive materials. The total estimated volume of contaminated materials is approximately 620, 000 cubic yards (yd{sup 3}) [470,000 cubic meters (m{sup 3})]. In addition to the contamination at the two processing site areas, four vicinity properties were contaminated. Contamination associated with the UC and NC sites has leached into groundwater.

  15. Environmental assessment of remedial action at the Naturita Uranium processing site near Naturita, Colorado. Revision 2

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Not Available

    1994-01-01

    The proposed remedial action for the Naturita processing site is relocation of the contaminated materials and debris to the Dry Flats disposal sits, 6 road miles (mi) [10 kilometers (km)) to the southeast. At the disposal site, the contaminated materials would be stabilized and covered with layers of earth and rock. The proposed disposal site is on land administered by the Bureau of Land Management (BLM) and used primarily for livestock grazing. The final disposal sits would cover approximately 57 ac (23 ha), which would be permanently transferred from the BLM to the DOE and restricted from future uses. The remedial action activities would be conducted by the DOE`s Uranium Mill Tailings Remedial Action (UMTRA) Project. The proposed remedial action would result in the loss of approximately 162 ac (66 ha) of soils at the processing and disposal sites; however, 133 ac (55 ha) of these soils at and adjacent to the processing site are contaminated and cannot be used for other purposes. If supplemental standards are approved by the NRC and state of Colorado, approximately 112 ac (45 ha) of contaminated soils adjacent to the processing site would not be cleaned up. This area is steeply sloped. The cleanup of this contamination would have adverse environmental consequences and would be potentially hazardous to remedial action workers. Another 220 ac (89 ha) of soils would be temporarily disturbed during the remedial action. The final disposal site would result in approximately 57 ac (23 ha) being removed from livestock grazing and wildlife use.

  16. Environmental assessment of remedial action at the Naturita uranium processing site near Naturita, Colorado. Revision 3

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Not Available

    1994-02-01

    The proposed remedial action for the Naturita processing site is relocation of the contaminated materials and debris to the Dry Flats disposal site, 6 road miles (mi) [10 kilometers (km)] to the southeast. At the disposal site, the contaminated materials would be stabilized and covered with layers of earth and rock. The proposed disposal site is on land administered by the Bureau of Land Management (BLM) and used primarily for livestock grazing. The final disposal site would cover approximately 57 ac (23 ha), which would be permanently transferred from the BLM to the DOE and restricted from future uses. The remedial action activities would be conducted by the DOE`s Uranium Mill Tailings Remedial Action (UMTRA) Project. The proposed remedial action would result in the loss of approximately 162 ac (66 ha) of soils at the processing and disposal sites; however, 133 ac (55 ha) of these soils at and adjacent to the processing site are contaminated and cannot be used for other purposes. If supplemental standards are approved by the NRC and state of Colorado, approximately 112 ac (45 ha) of contaminated soils adjacent to the processing site would not be cleaned up. This area is steeply sloped. The cleanup of this contamination would have adverse environmental consequences and would be potentially hazardous to remedial action workers. Another 220 ac (89 ha) of soils would be temporarily disturbed during the remedial action. The final disposal site would result in approximately 57 ac (23 ha) being removed from livestock grazing and wildlife use.

  17. Environmental assessment of remedial action at the Naturita Uranium Processing Site near Naturita, Colorado. Revision 4

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Not Available

    1994-05-01

    The Uranium Mill Tailings Radiation Control Act (UMTRCA) of 1978, Public Law (PL) 95-604, authorized the US Department of Energy (DOE) to perform remedial action at the Naturita, Colorado, uranium processing site to reduce the potential health effects from the radioactive materials at the site and at vicinity properties associated with the site. The US Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) promulgated standards for the UMTRCA that contain measures to control the contaminated materials and to protect groundwater quality. Remedial action at the Naturita site must be performed in accordance with these standards and with the concurrence of the US Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC) and the state of Colorado. The proposed remedial action for the Naturita processing site is relocation of the contaminated materials and debris to either the Dry Flats disposal site, 6 road miles (mi) [10 kilometers (km)] to the southeast, or a licensed non-DOE disposal facility capable of handling RRM. At either disposal site, the contaminated materials would be stabilized and covered with layers of earth and rock. The proposed Dry Flats disposal site is on land administered by the Bureau of Land Management (BLM) and used primarily for livestock grazing. The final disposal site would cover approximately 57 ac (23 ha), which would be permanently transferred from the BLM to the DOE and restricted from future uses. The remedial action would be conducted by the DOE`s Uranium Mill Tailings Remedial Action (UMTRA) Project. This report discusses environmental impacts associated with the proposed remedial action.

  18. Lower Flathead System Fisheries Study, 1986 Interim Report.

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Bradshaw, William H.; DosSantos, Joseph M.; Darling, James M.

    1986-08-01

    We believe our results have clearly shown Kerr hydroelectric operations and operational constraints have negatively affected Flathead River trout and northern pike populations and the aquatic habitat which support them. Even so, it is possible to mitigate many of these impacts and develop a very important fishery. Trout abundance in the lower Flathead averaged only 19 fish per kilometer, the lowest abundance of trout for a river of this size in Montana. Little main channel spawning by trout was observed and most spawning probably occurs in tributaries. Lower river tributaries support resident populations of brook, rainbow, brown, and cutthroat trout; and a small resident population of bull trout is present in the South Fork of the Jocko River. Using weirs, spawning runs of rainbow and brown trout from the main river were monitored entering the Jocko River and the Post/Mission Creek system. Utilization of Crow Creek by main river trout stocks of trout was limited to the 6 km segment below Crow Dam. Evaluations of tributary spawning gravels showed high levels of silt which would suggest poor survival of trout eggs. Excessive harvest in the tributaries was indicated by analysis of age class structure and abundance of trout greater than 200 mm.

  19. Cheap Method for Shielding a City from Rocket and Nuclear Warhead Impacts

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Alexander Bolonkin

    2008-01-10

    The author suggests a cheap closed AB-Dome which protects the densely populated cities from nuclear, chemical, biological weapon (bombs) delivered by warheads, strategic missiles, rockets, and various incarnations of aviation technology. The offered AB-Dome is also very useful in peacetime because it shields a city from exterior weather and creates a fine climate within the AB-Dome. The hemispherical AB-Dome is the inflatable, thin transparent film, located at altitude up to as much as 15 km, which converts the city into a closed-loop system. The film may be armored the stones which destroy the rockets and nuclear warhead. AB-Dome protects the city in case the World nuclear war and total poisoning the Earth atmosphere by radioactive fallout (gases and dust). Construction of the AB-Dome is easy; the enclosure film is spread upon the ground, the air pump is turned on, and the cover rises to its planned altitude and supported by a small air over-pressure. The offered method is cheaper by thousand times than protection of city by current anti-rocket systems. The AB-Dome may be also used (height up to 15 and more kilometers) for TV, communication, telescope, long distance location, tourism, high placed windmills (energy), illumination and entertainments. The author developed theory of AB-Dome, made estimation, computation and computed a typical project. Discussion and results are in the end of article.

  20. Climatology of Mid-latitude Ionospheric Disturbances from the Very Large Array Low-frequency Sky Survey

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Helmboldt, J F; Cotton, W D

    2012-01-01

    The results of a climatological study of ionospheric disturbances derived from observations of cosmic sources from the Very Large Array (VLA) Low-frequency Sky Survey (VLSS) are presented. We have used the ionospheric corrections applied to the 74 MHz interferometric data within the VLSS imaging process to obtain fluctuation spectra for the total electron content (TEC) gradient on spatial scales from a few to hundreds of kilometers and temporal scales from less than one minute to nearly an hour. The observations sample nearly all times of day and all seasons. They also span latitudes and longitudes from 28 deg. N to 40 deg. N and 95 deg. W to 114 deg. W, respectively. We have binned and averaged the fluctuation spectra according to time of day, season, and geomagnetic (Kp index) and solar (F10.7) activity. These spectra provide a detailed, multi-scale account of seasonal and intraday variations in ionospheric activity with wavelike structures detected at wavelengths between about 35 and 250 km. In some cases,...

  1. ORNL part of new project to study how tropical forests worldwide...

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    better than ten kilometers. This is the resolution that next-generation Earth system models will achieve during the project's lifetime. The team will take advantage of...

  2. Communications system using a mirror kept in outer space by electromagnetic radiation pressure

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Csonka, Paul L. (Eugene, OR)

    1981-01-01

    A method and system are described for transmitting electromagnetic radiation by using a communications mirror located between about 100 kilometers and about 200 kilometers above ground. The communications mirror is kept aloft above the atmosphere by the pressure of the electromagnetic radiation which it reflects, and which is beamed at the communications mirror by a suitably constructed transmitting antenna on the ground. The communications mirror will reflect communications, such as radio, radar, or television waves up to about 1,100 kilometers away when the communications mirror is located at a height of about 100 kilometers.

  3. What Can China Do? China's Best Alternative Outcome for Energy Efficiency and CO2 Emissions

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    G. Fridley, David

    2010-01-01

    for California Natural Gas Vehicles Partnership. ShanghaiReport for California Natural Gas Vehicles Partnership. CISfor compressed natural gas cars. 14 The vehicle kilometers

  4. OCEAN THERMAL ENERGY CONVERSION (OTEC) PROGRAMMATIC ENVIRONMENTAL ANALYSIS

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Sands, M. D.

    2011-01-01

    KILOMETERS () = FOSSIL GENERATING PLANT NUMBER WITHIN PLANTKaupo o () = FOSSIL GENERATING PLANT NUMBER WITHIN PLANTSea o = o FOSSIL GENERATING PLANT HYDROELECTRIC GENERATING

  5. January | U.S. DOE Office of Science (SC)

    Office of Science (SC) Website

    or poorly estimated. To begin to resolve features such as narrow currents and mesoscale eddies (circular loop-like features with a diameter of less than 200 kilometers),...

  6. Microsoft Word - DOE-EA-1599 Draft 2008-06-11--rjk dc - accepted...

    Office of Environmental Management (EM)

    Cave, Kentucky, 135 miles (217 kilometers) east of the site (DOE 1999b). The largest air pollution sources near the Paducah area include the United States Enrichment...

  7. Results from two years of resistivity monitoring at Cerro Prieto

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Wilt, M.J.; Goldstein, N.E.

    1981-01-01

    Dipole-dipole resistivity measurements for the combined purposes of reservoir delineation and resistivity monitoring were first made at Cerro Prieto in 1978 and have continued on an annual basis since then. Two 20 km long dipole-dipole lines with permanently emplaced electrodes at one kilometer spacings were established over the field area; one of these lines is remeasured annually. Resistivity measurements are taken using a 25 kW generator capable of up to 80A output and a microprocessor controlled signal averaging receiver; this high power-low noise system is capable of highly accurate measurements even at large transmitter-receiver separations. Standard error calculations for collected data indicate errors less than 5% for all points, but 95% confidence intervals show error limits about 2 to 4 times higher. Analysis of collected data indicate little change in the apparent resistivity of the upper 300 m over the field production zone and that in this section measurements are relatively insensitive to the annual rainfall cycle. Apparent resistivity increases were observed over the older producing zone at Cerro Prieto at depths of 1 km and greater. Large zones of decreasing apparent resistivity were observed flanking the zone of increases on both sides. The increase in apparent resistivity in the production region may be due to an increasing fraction of steam in the reservoir resulting from a production related decline in reservoir pressure. Alternatively the increases may be the result of fresh water influx from the Colorado River. The zone of declining resistivity flanking the area of increase may be due to the movement of saline waters into the reservoir region as a result of the pressure decline. Quantitative modeling of observed changes is impractical owing to the high uncertainty in estimating apparent resistivity changes and the nonuniqueness of models.

  8. A Proposed Exact Integer Value for Avogadro's Number

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Ronald F. Fox; Theodore P. Hill

    2007-04-28

    An exact value for Avodagro's number, namely NA* = (84446888)^3, is proposed. The number 84446888 represents the side length of a cube of atoms whose volume is closest, among all integral side lengths, to the current official NIST value of Avogadro's number. This value NA* is nearly dead center of the estimated range for the value of Avogadro's number, and is within the official standard level of uncertainty. Adoption of this value as the fixed value for NA would eliminate the current time-dependent definition of Avogadro's number, which depends on the definition of kilogram via an unstable physical artifact. It would also eliminate the need for the kilogram artifact altogether, since then, by definition, a kilogram would be exactly 1000/12 the mass of NA* atoms of carbon-12.

  9. Please cite this article in press as: Kam KM, et al. On assessing spatial uniformity of particle distributions in quality control of manufacturing processes. J Manuf Syst (2012), http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.jmsy.2012.07.018

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Yang, Jian

    2012-01-01

    , in the metal matrix nanocomposite (MMNC) fabrication processes where nano-sized ceramic particles are embedded strengthen the metal matrix, and the more uniformly the nanoparticles disperse, the bet- ter the composite matrix nanocomposite (MMNC) Tissue-engineered scaffolds a b s t r a c t There are many situations

  10. UMass Amherst adalah kampus unggulan dari sistem Universi-tas Massachusetts. Universitas ini terletak di Western Massachu-

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Massachusetts at Amherst, University of

    UMass Amherst adalah kampus unggulan dari sistem Universi- tas Massachusetts. Universitas ini. Kampus ini mudah dijangkau dari banyak daerah metropolitan yang paling bersemangat dan menarik di negara ini. Sebagai contoh, UMass Amherst berada di 118 kilometer ke barat dari Boston, 219 kilometer ke

  11. USDA Forest Service Gen. Tech. Rep. PSW-GTR-181. 2002. 71 Modeling the Delivery of Large Wood to

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    USDA Forest Service Gen. Tech. Rep. PSW-GTR-181. 2002. 71 Modeling the Delivery of Large Wood forest structure and predict the delivery of wood to over 55 stream kilometers in a 28-square kilometer = 0.45). The model predicted that 83 percent of wood delivered to streams originated within 20 meters

  12. Site-specific analysis of glycosylated proteins using mass spectrometry

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Irungu, Janet W.

    2008-01-16

    in Telsa, m in kilograms, r in meters, q in Coulombs, and v in meters per second. 25, 28, 30 As shown from equation 2, the cyclotron frequency is inversely proportional to the mass-to-charge ratio (m/q or m/z). All ions of the same m/q rotate... in Telsa, m in kilograms, r in meters, q in Coulombs, and v in meters per second. 25, 28, 30 As shown from equation 2, the cyclotron frequency is inversely proportional to the mass-to-charge ratio (m/q or m/z). All ions of the same m/q rotate...

  13. Determining Home Range and Preferred Habitat of Feral Horses on the Nevada National Security Site Using Geographic Information Systems

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Burns, Ashley V.

    2014-05-30

    Feral horses (Equus caballus) are free-roaming descendants of domesticated horses and legally protected by the Wild and Free-Roaming Horses and Burros Act of 1971, which mandates how feral horses and burros should be managed and protected on federal lands. Using a geographic information system to determine the home range and suitable habitat of feral horses on the federally managed Nevada National Security Site can enable wildlife biologists in making best management practice recommendations. Home range was estimated at 88.1 square kilometers. Site suitability was calculated for elevation, forage, slope, water presence and horse observations. These variables were combined in successive iterations into one polygon. Suitability rankings established that 85 square kilometers are most suitable habitat, with 2,052 square kilometers of good habitat 1,252 square kilometers of fair habitat and 122 square kilometers of least suitable habitat.

  14. National Emission Standards for Hazardous Air Pollutants Calendar Year 2001

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Y. E. Townsend

    2002-06-01

    The Nevada Test Site (NTS) is operated by the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE), National Nuclear Security Administration Nevada Operations Office (NNSA/NV) as the site for nuclear weapons testing, now limited to readiness activities, experiments in support of the national Stockpile Stewardship Program, and the activities listed below. Located in Nye County, Nevada, the site's southeast corner is about 88 km (55 mi) northwest of the major population center, Las Vegas, Nevada. The NTS covers about 3,561 km2 (1,375 mi2), an area larger than Rhode Island. Its size is 46 to 56 km (28 to 35 mi) east to west and from 64 to 88 km (40 to 55 mi) north to south. The NTS is surrounded, except on the south side, by public exclusion areas (Nellis Air Force Range [NAFR]) that provide another 24 to 104 km (15 to 65 mi) between the NTS and public lands (Figure 1.0). The NTS is characterized by desert valley and Great Basin mountain topography, with a climate, flora, and fauna typical of the southwest deserts. Population density within 150 km (93 mi) of the NTS is only about 0.2 persons per square kilometer, excluding the Las Vegas area. Restricted access, low population density in the surrounding area, and extended wind transport times are advantageous factors for the activities conducted at the NTS. Surface waters are scarce on the NTS, and slow-moving groundwater is present hundreds to thousands of feet below the land surface. The sources of radionuclides include current and previous activities conducted on the NTS (Figure 2.0). The NTS was the primary location for testing of nuclear explosives in the Continental U.S. between 1951 and 1992. Historical testing above or at ground surface has included (1) atmospheric testing in the 1950s and early 1960s, (2) earth-cratering experiments, and (3) open-air nuclear reactor and rocket engine testing. Since the mid-1950s, testing of nuclear explosive devices has occurred underground in drilled vertical holes or in mined tunnels (DOE 1996a). No such tests have been conducted since September 23, 1992 (DOE 2000). Limited non-nuclear testing includes spills of hazardous materials at the Hazardous Materials Spill Center, private technology development, aerospace and demilitarization activities, and site remediating activities. Processing of radioactive materials is limited to laboratory analyses, and handling is restricted to transport, storage, and assembly of nuclear explosive devices and operation of radioactive waste management sites (RWMSs) for low-level radioactive and mixed waste (DOE 1996a). Monitoring and evaluation of the various activities conducted onsite indicate that the potential sources of offsite radiation exposure in CY 2001 were releases from (1) evaporation of tritiated water (HTO) from containment ponds that receive drainage water from E Tunnel in Area 12 and from discharges of two wells (Well U-3cn PS No. 2 and Well ER-20-5 No.3) into lined ponds, (2) onsite radio analytical laboratories, (3) the Area 5 RWMS (RWMS-5) facility, and (4) diffuse sources of tritium and re- suspension of plutonium and americium. The following sections present a general description of the present sources on the NTS and at the North Las Vegas Facility.

  15. Modifications and Applications of the HERMES model: June - October 2010

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Reaugh, J E

    2010-11-16

    The HERMES (High Explosive Response to MEchanical Stimulus) model has been developed to describe the response of energetic materials to low-velocity mechanical stimulus, referred to as HEVR (High Explosive Violent Response) or BVR (Burn to Violent Reaction). For tests performed with an HMX-based UK explosive, at sample sizes less than 200 g, the response was sometimes an explosion, but was not observed to be a detonation. The distinction between explosion and detonation can be important in assessing the effects of the HE response on nearby structures. A detonation proceeds as a supersonic shock wave supported by the release of energy that accompanies the transition from solid to high-pressure gas. For military high explosives, the shock wave velocity generally exceeds 7 km/s, and the pressure behind the shock wave generally exceeds 30 GPa. A kilogram of explosive would be converted to gas in 10 to 15 microseconds. An HEVR explosion proceeds much more slowly. Much of the explosive remains unreacted after the event. Peak pressures have been measured and calculated at less than 1 GPa, and the time for the portion of the solid that does react to form gas is about a millisecond. The explosion will, however, launch the confinement to a velocity that depends on the confinement mass, the mass of explosive converted, and the time required to form gas products. In many tests, the air blast signal and confinement velocity are comparable to those measured when an amount of explosive equal to that which is converted in an HEVR is deliberately detonated in the comparable confinement. The number of confinement fragments from an HEVR is much less than from the comparable detonation. The HERMES model comprises several submodels including a constitutive model for strength, a model for damage that includes the creation of porosity and surface area through fragmentation, an ignition model, an ignition front propagation model, and a model for burning after ignition. We have used HERMES in computer simulations of US and UK variants of the Steven Test. We have recently improved some of the submodels, and report those developments here, as well as the results of some additional applications.

  16. THE RISK OF NUCLEAR TERRORISM AND NEXT STEPS TO REDUCE THE DANGER

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Laughlin, Robert B.

    nuclear facility in South Africa, where hundreds of kilograms of weapon-grade highly enriched uranium (HEU nuclear weapon and every cache of potential nuclear bomb material worldwide is secured against the kinds terrorism. Do terrorists want nuclear weapons? For a small set of terrorists, the answer is clearly "yes

  17. The Gravity Field of the Earth and Coriolis Effects.... The gravity field

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Riser, Stephen C.

    The Gravity Field of the Earth and Coriolis Effects.... The gravity field Stationary particles #12;Gravity.... Newton's Universal Law of Gravitation: The force between any two particles having.673 ×10-11 newton-meter2/kilogram2) #12;Gravity.... In vector form, or, 21 è force on 2 due to 1 12 è

  18. EXTRUSION SIMULATION AND EXPERIMENTAL VALIDATION TO OPTIMIZE PRECISION DIE DESIGN

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Kostic, Milivoje M.

    and precision of final extrudate profiles for plastic scintillators. Plastic Scintillator Properties of extruded plastic scintillators for large-scale accelerator detectors. For example, MINOS (Main Injector tons of finished plastic scintillators [1]. At about $40 per kilogram cost of cast plastic scintillator

  19. Deploying a Sensor Network in an Extreme Environment K.Martinez, P.Padhy, A.Elsaify, G.Zou, A.Riddoch, J.K. Hart*

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Southampton, University of

    powerful distributed processing but many services, such as storage, for sensor networks [6]. This type inside glaciers. This paper describes the solutions to power management, radio communications and other (including small sub- kilogram intelligent tele-robots) [1], aeroplanes [10] and micro-submarines [13

  20. LITHIUM--1997 46.1 By Joyce A. Ober

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    the production shift to South America. Australia, Canada, and Zimbabwe were important sources of lithium ore at its Trail, British Columbia, Canada, plant. Each battery weighs more than 1,200 kilograms and Tox on its coal, copper, and molybdenum operations (Platt's Metals Week, 1997). FMC Corp., Lithium Div

  1. Mars Science Laboratory Launch Contingency Planning

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Thermoelectric Gen- erator (MMRTG). Essentially a nuclear battery, the MMRTG contains 10.6 pounds (4.8 kilograms systems during the frigid Martian night. The MMRTG is an evolutionary design of the power sources missions for more than 40 years. As with the previous seven generations of such devices, the MMRTG

  2. Svar Birgisson REYST report 04-2011

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Karlsson, Brynjar

    . Biodiesel is a natural, renewable transportation fuel which increases lubrication of diesel engines and decreases carbon emission equal to 3.11 kg for each kilogram of biodiesel used instead of fossil diesel in the price of rapeseed meal and in price of biodiesel means an IRR of equity is 22% and 21%. One of the main

  3. EPOXI COMET ENCOUNTER Nov. 2, 2010

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    (9-foot-by-9 foot) solar panel providing up to 750 watts, depending on distance from sun. Power) fuel. On 10/25/10 there was 4 kilograms (8.8 pounds) of fuel remaining. Power: 2.8-meter-by-2.8-meter, a flyby spacecraft, acted as the mother ship, carrying and powering the impactor until 24 hours before

  4. ER100/PPC184/ER200/PPC284, Fall 2014 Energy Units & Conversions, Global Energy Use

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Kammen, Daniel M.

    points) e. How many kilograms of wood? (3 points) f. How many cubic feet of natural gas? (Note on the highway and 40% in the city, calculate average daily gas consumption in gallons per person, and yearly gas/1756211/Energy-and-Society-Fall-2014 2. ENERGY USE IN CHINA: In 2012, China's electric power sector generated 4

  5. Revised: 6 November 1991 Trends in the Consumption of Energy-Intensive Basic Materials

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    materials consumption patterns on energy use is the recognition that physical units (kilograms) are moreRevised: 6 November 1991 Trends in the Consumption of Energy-Intensive Basic Materials. 1. INTRODUCTION} Industry accounts for 50% of total energy use in developing countries

  6. Osprey: A Practical Type System for Validating Dimensional Unit Correctness of C Programs

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Su, Zhendong

    .S.A. {jiangl, su}@cs.ucdavis.edu ABSTRACT Misuse of measurement units is a common source of errors in sci units, type systems 1. INTRODUCTION Scientific applications use measurement units such as meters, seconds, or kilograms. Misuse of measurement units in these ap- plications can be disastrous

  7. LLNL Site plan for a MOX fuel lead assembly mission in support of surplus plutonium disposition

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Bronson, M.C.

    1997-10-01

    The principal facilities that LLNL would use to support a MOX Fuel Lead Assembly Mission are Building 332 and Building 334. Both of these buildings are within the security boundary known as the LLNL Superblock. Building 332 is the LLNL Plutonium Facility. As an operational plutonium facility, it has all the infrastructure and support services required for plutonium operations. The LLNL Plutonium Facility routinely handles kilogram quantities of plutonium and uranium. Currently, the building is limited to a plutonium inventory of 700 kilograms and a uranium inventory of 300 kilograms. Process rooms (excluding the vaults) are limited to an inventory of 20 kilograms per room. Ongoing operations include: receiving SSTS, material receipt, storage, metal machining and casting, welding, metal-to-oxide conversion, purification, molten salt operations, chlorination, oxide calcination, cold pressing and sintering, vitrification, encapsulation, chemical analysis, metallography and microprobe analysis, waste material processing, material accountability measurements, packaging, and material shipping. Building 334 is the Hardened Engineering Test Building. This building supports environmental and radiation measurements on encapsulated plutonium and uranium components. Other existing facilities that would be used to support a MOX Fuel Lead Assembly Mission include Building 335 for hardware receiving and storage and TRU and LLW waste storage and shipping facilities, and Building 331 or Building 241 for storage of depleted uranium.

  8. Appendix V. List of Acronyms and Abbreviations, and Glossary of Terms List of Acronyms and Abbreviations

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    practicable control technology Bq/kg Becquerel/kilogram. BRC Bureau of Radiation Control CAA Clean Air Act Ca and Abbreviations Ac actinium ac acre ac-ft acre-feet ACAA American Coal Ash Association AEA Atomic Energy Act AEC Source and Non-point Sources (USGS computer model) BAT best achievable technology Bi bismuth BPCT best

  9. Appendix I. List of Acronyms and Abbreviations, and Glossary of Terms

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    practicable control technology Bq/kg Becquerel/kilogram. BRC Bureau of Radiation Control CAA Clean Air Act Ca and Abbreviations Ac actinium ac acre ac-ft acre-feet ACAA American Coal Ash Association AEA Atomic Energy Act AEC Source and Non-point Sources (USGS computer model) BAT best achievable technology Bi bismuth BPCT best

  10. Detoxification of Organophosphate Nerve Agents by Immobilized Escherichia

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Chen, Wilfred

    et al., 1989). In the United States over 40 million kilograms of organo- phosphate pesticides, in ap- proximately 100 min, at a specific rate of 0.160 mM min-1 (g cell dry wt)-1 . The immobilized with mus- cular responses, and in vital organs produces serious symp- toms and eventually death (Donarski

  11. Simple Harmonic Motion and Newton's 3rd

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Yu, Jaehoon

    Simple Harmonic Motion and Newton's 3rd Law Theory Simple Harmonic Motion is not as simpleperiod where m is the mass of the object in kilograms and k is the spring constant. Newton's 3rd Law Newton's 3rd Law using two Force sensors. Procedure: Simple Harmonic Motion Getting the data 1. Open

  12. Plasma acceleration from radio-frequency discharge in dielectric capillary A. Dunaevskya

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    .1063/1.2214127 Electric propulsion devices for spacecraft with masses of several tens of kilograms are in increasing, weight, and dimensions. Saturation and thermal load on the magnetic system limit miniaturization had only an efficiency of 6% at 100 W consumed power.4 Pulsing propulsion de- vices such as pulsed

  13. 24Meteorite Compositions: A matter of density Most people have heard about

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    in the solar system. The above meteorite sample is called the Esquel Pallasite, and was part of a 1000 kilogram was the mass of each of the two ingredients to the pallasite? Problem 2 - Meteorite collectors find and sell Problem 2 - Meteorite collectors find and sell samples by the gram. The price of a gram of the Esquel

  14. Magnesium oxide inserts for the LECO Carbon Analyzer

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Bagaasen, L.M.; Jensen, C.M.

    1991-01-16

    LECO carbon analysis of plutonium metal and plutonium oxide at the Rocky Flats Plant generates several hundred kilograms of high silica residues each year. The plutonium in these residues is difficult and expensive to recover using production dissolution processes. A magnesium oxide (MgO) insert has been developed that significantly lowers the plutonium recovery costs without adversely affecting accuracy of the carbon analysis.

  15. BY BOER DENG Universities in the United States employ many

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Haddadi, Hamed

    enriched uranium or weapons-grade plutonium needed to build a bomb, an event known as `breakout'. The preliminary deal requires that Iran reduce the number of operating centrifuges from 19,000 to 5,060 and its stockpile of low-enriched uranium from 10,000 kilograms to 300 kg. Under this scenario, it would take

  16. Parameterization and Geometric Optimization of Balloon Launched Sensorcraft for Atmospheric

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Sóbester, András

    Atmospheric Science Through Robotic Aircraft SLS Selective Laser Sintering SLA Stereolithography FDM Fused Deposition Modeling P Power, Watts (W) t Time, seconds (s) M Mass, Kilograms (kg) COTS Commercial Off) The University of Southampton ASTRA project seeks to investigate new technologies for enabling low cost

  17. University of Southampton Research Repository ePrints Soton

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Sóbester, András

    of altitudes. Nomenclature ASTRA Atmospheric Science Through Robotic Aircraft SLS Selective Laser Sintering SLA Stereolithography FDM Fused Deposition Modeling P Power, Watts (W) t Time, seconds (s) M Mass, Kilograms (kg) COTS Aircraft (ASTRA) The University of Southampton ASTRA project seeks to investigate new technologies

  18. Spatial consistency of Chinook salmon redd distribution within and among years in the Cowlitz River, Washington

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Klett, Katherine J.; Torgersen, Christian; Henning, Julie; Murray, Christopher J.

    2013-04-28

    We investigated the spawning patterns of Chinook salmon Oncorhynchus tshawytscha on the lower Cowlitz River, Washington (USA) using a unique set of fine- and coarse-scale 35 temporal and spatial data collected during bi-weekly aerial surveys conducted in 1991-2009 (500 m to 28 km resolution) and 2008-2009 (100-500 m resolution). Redd locations were mapped from a helicopter during 2008 and 2009 with a hand-held global positioning system (GPS) synchronized with in-flight audio recordings. We examined spatial patterns of Chinook salmon redd reoccupation among and within years in relation to segment-scale geomorphic features. Chinook salmon spawned in the same sections each year with little variation among years. On a coarse scale, five years (1993, 1998, 2000, 2002, and 2009) were compared for reoccupation. Redd locations were highly correlated among years resulting in a minimum correlation coefficient of 0.90 (adjusted P = 0.002). Comparisons on a fine scale (500 m) between 2008 and 2009 also revealed a high degree of consistency among redd locations (P < 0.001). On a finer temporal scale, we observed that salmon spawned in the same sections during the first and last week (2008: P < 0.02; and 2009: P < 0.001). Redds were clustered in both 2008 and 2009 (P < 0.001). Regression analysis with a generalized linear model at the 500-m scale indicated that river kilometer and channel bifurcation were positively associated with redd density, whereas sinuosity was negatively associated with redd density. Collecting data on specific redd locations with a GPS during aerial surveys was logistically feasible and cost effective and greatly enhanced the spatial precision of Chinook salmon spawning surveys.

  19. A new look at geothermal energy potential of the eastern Snake River Plain, Idaho

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Smith, R.P.; Faulder, D.D.; Jackson, S.M. (EG and G Idaho, Inc., Idaho Falls (USA)); Hackett, W.R. (Idaho State Univ., Pocatello (USA))

    1990-06-01

    Passage of the Yellowstone plume beneath the Eastern Snake River Plain (ESRP) left a wake of silicic batholiths and associated 4 to 6 Ma rhyolitic tuffs, a 1 km thick sequence of post 4 Ma basalt lava flows, and high heat flow comparable to that of the Basin-and-Range province. U.S.G.S. (United States Geological Survey) Circular 790 estimates that accessible resources are one-third larger than those of the Cascades, but geothermal exploration and research activities on the ESRP have quietly perished. The authors believe that the ESRP merits further attention as a geothermal exploration target. In this article, the first of several by their group, they identify relevant geological and geophysical features of the ESRP, the first step toward a meaningful exploration strategy. Although exploration is hindered by the heat-sapping effects of the overlying SRP aquifer, several geological features of the ESRP suggest that viable exploration targets exist beneath the aquifer: (1) the fracture zones of buried, Neogene silicic calderas; (2) Quaternary basaltic rift zones (several NW-trending ones and an axial one), which have been persistent zones of fissuring, minor faulting, and magma transport; (3) high-angle faults and fractures around the margin of the downwarped ESRP, including NW-trending basin-and-range faults and NE-trending marginal faults; and (4) fractured or brecciated zones near Pleistocene rhyolite domes and silicic intrusions. Existing geophysical data also constrain exploration targets. Aeromagnetic surveys show NW-trending highs that intersect a NE-trending axial high; rhyolite domes and youthful basaltic volcanism are localized along the highs and at intersections. Although the ESRP is remarkably aseismic, recently installed local seismic networks have identified contemporary microearthquakes that could preserve fracture permeability to depths of several kilometers.

  20. Finding of No Significant Impact for the Environmental Assessment for the Strategic Petroleum Reserve West Hackberry Facility Raw Water Intake Pipeline Replacement Cameron and Calcasieu Parishes, Louisiana

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    N /A

    2004-08-31

    DOE has prepared an Environmental Assessment (EA), DOE/EA-1497, for the proposed replacement of the existing 107 centimeter (cm) [42 inch (in)] 6.87 kilometer (km) [4.27 mile (mi)] raw water intake pipeline (RWIPL). This action is necessary to allow for continued, optimum operations at the West Hackberry facility (main site/facility). The EA described the proposed action (including action alternatives) and three alternatives to the proposed action. The EA evaluated only the potential environmental consequences of the proposed action (one action alternative), and Alternative 3, which consisted of the No Build Action that is required by 10 CFR 1021.321(c). Based on the analysis in DOE/EA-1497, DOE has determined that the proposed action does not constitute a major Federal action significantly affecting humans or the natural environment within the meaning of the National Environmental Policy Act of 1969 (NEPA), 42 USC 4321 et seq. Therefore, an Environmental Impact Statement (EIS) is not required, and DOE is issuing this Finding of No Significant Impact (FONSI). To further minimize impacts to environmental media, the DOE will also implement a Mitigation Action Plan (MAP) for this action. The MAP is included as Appendix F of this EA, which is appended to this FONSI. The Energy Policy and Conservation Act of 1975 (EPCA), as amended, authorizes the creation of the Strategic Petroleum Reserve (SPR) to store crude oil to reduce the United States' vulnerability to energy supply disruptions. Crude oil is stored in geologic formations, or salt domes, located under these facilities. The purpose of this proposed project is to construct a new RWIPL at the main site to replace the existing RWIPL which services this facility.

  1. Baseline risk assessment of ground water contamination at the Uranium Mill Tailings Site near Naturita, Colorado

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    1995-08-01

    The Uranium Mill Tailings Remedial Action (UMTRA) Project consists of the Surface Project (phase I), and the Ground Water Project (phase II). For the UMTRA Project site located near Naturita, Colorado (the Naturita site), phase I involves the removal of radioactively contaminated soils and materials and their transportation to a disposal site at Union Carbide Corporation`s Upper Burbank Repository at Uravan, Colorado, about 13 road miles (mi) (21 kilometers [km]) to the northwest. No uranium mill tailings are involved because the tailings were removed from the Naturita site and placed at Coke Oven, Colorado, during 1977 to 1979. Phase II of the project will evaluate the nature and extent of ground water contamination resulting from uranium processing and its effect on human health or the environment; and will determine site-specific ground water compliance strategies in accordance with the US Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) ground water standards established for the UMTRA Project. Human health risks could occur from drinking water pumped from a hypothetical well drilled in the contaminated ground water area. Environmental risks may result if plants or animals are exposed to contaminated ground water, or surface water that has received contaminated ground water. Therefore, a risk assessment is conducted for the Naturita site. This risk assessment report is the first site-specific document prepared for the Ground Water Project at the Naturita site. What follows is an evaluation of current and possible future impacts to the public and the environment from exposure to contaminated ground water. The results of this evaluation and further site characterization will be used to determine whether any action is needed to protect human health or the environment.

  2. Environmental assessment of remedial action at the Naturita Uranium processing site near Naturita, Colorado. Revision 1

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Not Available

    1993-08-01

    The proposed remedial action for the Naturita processing site is relocation of the contaminated materials and debris to the Dry Flats disposal site, 6 road miles (mi) [ 1 0 kilometers (km)] to the southeast. At the disposal site, the contaminated materials would be stabilized and covered with layers of earth and rock. The proposed disposal site is on land administered by the Bureau of Land Management (BLM) and used primarily for livestock grazing. The final disposal site would cover approximately 57 ac (23 ha), which would be permanently transferred from the BLM to the DOE and restricted from future uses. The remedial action activities would be conducted by the DOE`s Uranium Mill Tailings Remedial Action (UMTRA) Project. The remedial action would result in the loss of approximately 164 ac (66 ha) of soils, but 132 ac (53 ha) of these soils are contaminated and cannot be used for other purposes. Another 154 ac (62 ha) of soils would be temporarily disturbed. Approximately 57 ac (23 ha) of open range land would be permanently removed from livestock grazing and wildlife use. The removal of the contaminated materials would affect the 1 00-year floodplain of the San Miguel River and would result in the loss of riparian habitat along the river. The southwestern willow flycatcher, a Federal candidate species, may be affected by the remedial action, and the use of water from the San Miguel River ``may affect`` the Colorado squawfish, humpback chub, bonytail chub, and razorback sucker. Traffic levels on State Highways 90 and 141 would be increased during the remedial action, as would the noise levels along these transportation routes. Measures for mitigating the adverse environmental impacts of the proposed remedial action are discussed in Section 6.0 of this environmental assessment (EA).

  3. Biological assessment of remedial action at the abandoned uranium mill tailings site near Naturita, Colorado

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    1996-03-01

    Pursuant to the Uranium Mill Tailings Radiation Control Act (UMTRCA) of 1978, the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) is proposing to conduct remedial action to clean up the residual radioactive materials (RRM) at the Naturita uranium processing site in Colorado. The Naturita site is in Montrose County, Colorado, and is approximately 2 miles (mi) (3 kilometer [km]) from the unincorporated town of Naturita. The proposed remedial action is to remove the RRM from the Naturita site to the Upper Burbank Quarry at the Uravan disposal site. To address the potential impacts of the remedial action on threatened and endangered species, the DOE prepared this biological assessment. Informal consultations with the U.S. Department of the Interior, Fish and Wildlife Service (FWS) were initiated in 1986, and the FWS provided a list of the threatened and endangered species that may occur in the Naturita study area. This list was updated by two FWS letters in 1988 and by verbal communication in 1990. A biological assessment was included in the environmental assessment (EA) of the proposed remedial action that was prepared in 1990. This EA addressed the impacts of moving the Naturita RRM to the Dry Flats disposal site. In 1993, the design for the Dry Flats disposal alternative was changed. The FWS was again consulted in 1993 and provided a new list of threatened and endangered species that may occur in the Naturita study area. The Naturita EA and the biological assessment were revised in response to these changes. In 1994, remedial action was delayed because an alternate disposal site was being considered. The DOE decided to move the FIRM at the Naturita site to the Upper Burbank Quarry at the Uravan site. Due to this delay, the FWS was consulted in 1995 and a list of threatened and endangered species was provided. This biological assessment is a revision of the assessment attached to the Naturita EA and addresses moving the Naturita RRM to the Upper Burbank Quarry disposal site.

  4. Bonneville Power Administration Transmission System Vegetation Management Program - Final Environmental Impact Statement

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    N /A

    2000-06-23

    Bonneville is responsible for maintaining a network of 24,000 kilometers (km) or 15,000 miles (mi.) of electric transmission lines and 350 substations in a region of diverse vegetation. This vegetation can interfere with electric power flow, pose safety problems for us and the public, and interfere with our ability to maintain these facilities. We need to (1) keep vegetation away from our electric facilities; (2) increase our program efficiency and consistency; (3) review herbicide use (under increased public scrutiny); and (4) maximize the range of tools we can use while minimizing environmental impact (Integrated Vegetation Management). This Final Environmental Impact Statement (FEIS) establishes Planning Steps for managing vegetation for specific projects (to be tiered to this Environmental Impact Statement (EIS)). In addition to No Action (current practice), alternatives are presented for Rights-of-way, Electric Yards, and Non-electric Facilities (landscaping, work yards). Four vegetation control methods are analyzed manual, mechanical, herbicide, and biological. Also evaluated are 23 herbicide active ingredients and 4 herbicide application techniques (spot, localized, broadcast, and aerial). For rights-of-way, we consider three sets of alternatives: alternative management approaches (time-driven or establishing low-growing plant communities); alternative method packages; and, if herbicides are in a methods package, alternative vegetation selections (noxious weeds, deciduous, or any vegetation). For electric yards, one herbicide-use alternative is considered. For non-electric facilities, two method package alternatives are considered. For rights-of-way, the environmentally preferred alternative(s) would use manual, mechanical, and biological control methods, as well as spot and localized herbicide applications for noxious and deciduous plant species; the BPA-preferred alternative(s) would add broadcast and aerial herbicide applications, and would use herbicides on any vegetation. Both would favor a management approach that fosters low-growing plant communities.

  5. Evidence for a colour dependence in the size distribution of main belt asteroids

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Paul Wiegert; David Balam; Andrea Moss; Christian Veillet; Martin Connors; Ian Shelton

    2006-11-09

    We present the results of a project to detect small (~1 km) main-belt asteroids with the 3.6 meter Canada-France-Hawaii Telescope (CFHT). We observed in 2 filters (MegaPrime g' and r') in order to compare the results in each band. Owing to the observational cadence we did not observe the same asteroids through each filter and thus do not have true colour information. However strong differences in the size distributions as seen in the two filters point to a colour-dependence at these sizes, perhaps to be expected in this regime where asteroid cohesiveness begins to be dominated by physical strength and composition rather than by gravity. The best fit slopes of the cumulative size distributions (CSDs) in both filters tend towards lower values for smaller asteroids, consistent with the results of previous studies. In addition to this trend, the size distributions seen in the two filters are distinctly different, with steeper slopes in r' than in g'. Breaking our sample up according to semimajor axis, the difference between the filters in the inner belt is found to be somewhat less pronounced than in the middle and outer belt, but the CSD of those asteroids seen in the r' filter is consistently and significantly steeper than in g' throughout. The CSD slopes also show variations with semimajor axis within a given filter, particularly in r'. We conclude that the size distribution of main belt asteroids is likely to be colour dependent at kilometer sizes and that this dependence may vary across the belt.

  6. A Saturn Ring Observer Mission Using Multi-Mission Radioisotope Power Systems

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Abelson, Robert D.; Spilker, Thomas R.; Shirley, James H. [Jet Propulsion Laboratory, California Institute of Technology, 4800 Oak Grove Drive, Mail Stop 301-445W, Pasadena, CA 91109-8099 (United States)

    2006-01-20

    Saturn remains one of the most fascinating planets within the solar system. To better understand the complex ring structure of this planet, a conceptual Saturn Ring Observer (SRO) mission is presented that would spend one year in close proximity to Saturn's A and B rings, and perform detailed observations and measurements of the ring particles and electric and magnetic fields. The primary objective of the mission would be to understand ring dynamics, including the microphysics of individual particles and small scale (meters to a few kilometers) phenomena such as particle agglomeration behavior. This would be accomplished by multispectral imaging of the rings at multiple key locations within the A and B rings, and by ring-particle imaging at an unprecedented resolution of 0.5 cm/pixel. The SRO spacecraft would use a Venus-Earth-Earth-Jupiter Gravity Assist (VEEJGA) and be aerocaptured into Saturn orbit using an advanced aeroshell design to minimize propellant mass. Once in orbit, the SRO would stand off from the ring plane 1 to 1.4 km using chemical thrusters to provide short propulsive maneuvers four times per revolution, effectively causing the SRO vehicle to 'hop' above the ring plane. The conceptual SRO spacecraft would be enabled by the use of a new generation of multi-mission Radioisotope Power Systems (RPSs) currently being developed by NASA and DOE. These RPSs include the Multi-Mission Radioisotope Thermoelectric Generator (MMRTG) and Stirling Radioisotope Generator (SRG). The RPSs would generate all necessary electrical power ({>=}330 We at beginning of life) during the 10-year cruise and 1-year science mission ({approx}11 years total). The RPS heat would be used to maintain the vehicle's operating and survival temperatures, minimizing the need for electrical heaters. Such a mission could potentially launch in the 2015-2020 timeframe, with operations at Saturn commencing in approximately 2030.

  7. Evaluation of 2004 Toyota Prius Hybrid Electic Drive System Interim Report - Revised

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Ayers, C.W.; Hsu, J.S.; Marlino, L.D.; Miller, C.W.; Ott, G.W., Jr.; Oland, C.B.; Burress, T.A.

    2007-07-31

    The 2004 Toyota Prius is a hybrid automobile equipped with a gasoline engine and a battery-powered electric motor. Both of these motive power sources are capable of providing mechanical drive power for the vehicle. The engine can deliver a peak power output of 57 kilowatts (kW) at 5000 revolutions per minute (rpm) while the motor can deliver a peak power output of 50 kW at 1300 rpm. Together, this engine-motor combination has a specified peak power output of 82 kW at a vehicle speed of 85 kilometers per hour (km/h). In operation, the 2004 Prius exhibits superior fuel economy compared to conventionally powered automobiles. Laboratory tests were conducted to evaluate the electrical and mechanical performance of the 2004 Toyota Prius and its hybrid electric drive system. As a hybrid vehicle, the 2004 Prius uses both a gasoline-powered internal combustion engine and a battery-powered electric motor as motive power sources. Innovative algorithms for combining these two power sources results in improved fuel efficiency and reduced emissions compared to traditional automobiles. Initial objectives of the laboratory tests were to measure motor and generator back-electromotive force (emf) voltages and determine gearbox-related power losses over a specified range of shaft speeds and lubricating oil temperatures. Follow-on work will involve additional performance testing of the motor, generator, and inverter. Information contained in this interim report summarizes the test results obtained to date, describes preliminary conclusions and findings, and identifies additional areas for further study.

  8. Variability of Power from Large-Scale Solar Photovoltaic Scenarios in the State of Gujarat (Presentation)

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Parsons, B.; Hummon, M.; Cochran, J.; Stoltenberg, B.; Batra, P.; Mehta, B.; Patel, D.

    2014-04-01

    India has ambitious goals for high utilization of variable renewable power from wind and solar, and deployment has been proceeding at a rapid pace. The western state of Gujarat currently has the largest amount of solar generation of any Indian state, with over 855 Megawatts direct current (MWDC). Combined with over 3,240 MW of wind, variable generation renewables comprise nearly 18% of the electric-generating capacity in the state. A new historic 10-kilometer (km) gridded solar radiation data set capturing hourly insolation values for 2002-2011 is available for India. We apply an established method for downscaling hourly irradiance data to one-minute irradiance data at potential PV power production locations for one year, 2006. The objective of this report is to characterize the intra-hour variability of existing and planned photovoltaic solar power generation in the state of Gujarat (a total of 1.9 gigawatts direct current (GWDC)), and of five possible expansion scenarios of solar generation that reflect a range of geographic diversity (each scenario totals 500-1,000 MW of additional solar capacity). The report statistically analyzes one year's worth of power variability data, applied to both the baseline and expansion scenarios, to evaluate diurnal and seasonal power fluctuations, different timescales of variability (e.g., from one to 15 minutes), the magnitude of variability (both total megawatts and relative to installed solar capacity), and the extent to which the variability can be anticipated in advance. The paper also examines how Gujarat Energy Transmission Corporation (GETCO) and the Gujarat State Load Dispatch Centre (SLDC) could make use of the solar variability profiles in grid operations and planning.

  9. Variability of Photovoltaic Power in the State of Gujarat Using High Resolution Solar Data

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Hummon, M.; Cochran, J.; Weekley, A.; Lopez, A.; Zhang, J.; Stoltenberg, B.; Parsons, B.; Batra, P.; Mehta, B.; Patel, D.

    2014-03-01

    India has ambitious goals for high utilization of variable renewable power from wind and solar, and deployment has been proceeding at a rapid pace. The western state of Gujarat currently has the largest amount of solar generation of any Indian state, with over 855 Megawatts direct current (MWDC). Combined with over 3,240 MW of wind, variable generation renewables comprise nearly 18% of the electric-generating capacity in the state. A new historic 10-kilometer (km) gridded solar radiation data set capturing hourly insolation values for 2002-2011 is available for India. We apply an established method for downscaling hourly irradiance data to one-minute irradiance data at potential PV power production locations for one year, 2006. The objective of this report is to characterize the intra-hour variability of existing and planned photovoltaic solar power generation in the state of Gujarat (a total of 1.9 gigawatts direct current (GWDC)), and of five possible expansion scenarios of solar generation that reflect a range of geographic diversity (each scenario totals 500-1,000 MW of additional solar capacity). The report statistically analyzes one year's worth of power variability data, applied to both the baseline and expansion scenarios, to evaluate diurnal and seasonal power fluctuations, different timescales of variability (e.g., from one to 15 minutes), the magnitude of variability (both total megawatts and relative to installed solar capacity), and the extent to which the variability can be anticipated in advance. The paper also examines how Gujarat Energy Transmission Corporation (GETCO) and the Gujarat State Load Dispatch Centre (SLDC) could make use of the solar variability profiles in grid operations and planning.

  10. Variability of Power from Large-Scale Solar Photovoltaic Scenarios in the State of Gujarat: Preprint

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Parsons, B.; Hummon, M.; Cochran, J.; Stoltenberg, B.; Batra, P.; Mehta, B.; Patel, D.

    2014-04-01

    India has ambitious goals for high utilization of variable renewable power from wind and solar, and deployment has been proceeding at a rapid pace. The western state of Gujarat currently has the largest amount of solar generation of any Indian state, with over 855 Megawatts direct current (MWDC). Combined with over 3,240 MW of wind, variable generation renewables comprise nearly 18% of the electric-generating capacity in the state. A new historic 10-kilometer (km) gridded solar radiation data set capturing hourly insolation values for 2002-2011 is available for India. We apply an established method for downscaling hourly irradiance data to one-minute irradiance data at potential PV power production locations for one year, 2006. The objective of this report is to characterize the intra-hour variability of existing and planned photovoltaic solar power generation in the state of Gujarat (a total of 1.9 gigawatts direct current (GWDC)), and of five possible expansion scenarios of solar generation that reflect a range of geographic diversity (each scenario totals 500-1,000 MW of additional solar capacity). The report statistically analyzes one year's worth of power variability data, applied to both the baseline and expansion scenarios, to evaluate diurnal and seasonal power fluctuations, different timescales of variability (e.g., from one to 15 minutes), the magnitude of variability (both total megawatts and relative to installed solar capacity), and the extent to which the variability can be anticipated in advance. The paper also examines how Gujarat Energy Transmission Corporation (GETCO) and the Gujarat State Load Dispatch Centre (SLDC) could make use of the solar variability profiles in grid operations and planning.

  11. Corrective Action Investigation Plan for Corrective Action Unit 321: Area 22 Weather Station Fuel Storage, Nevada Test Site, Nevada

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    DOE /NV

    1999-01-28

    This Corrective Action Investigation Plan (CAIP) has been developed in accordance with the Federal Facility Agreement and Consent Order (FFACO) that was agreed to by the US Department of Energy, Nevada Operations Office (DOE/NV); the State of Nevada Division of Environmental Protection (NDEP); and the US Department of Defense (FFACO, 1996). The CAIP is a document that provides or references all of the specific information for investigation activities associated with Corrective Action Units (CAUs) or Corrective Action Sites (CASs). According to the FFACO (1996), CASs are sites potentially requiring corrective action(s) and may include solid waste management units or individual disposal or release sites. A CAU consists of one or more CASs grouped together based on geography, technical similarity, or agency responsibility for the purpose of determining corrective actions. This CAIP contains the environmental sample collection objectives and the criteria for conducting site investigation activities at the CAU 321 Area 22 Weather Station Fuel Storage, CAS 22-99-05 Fuel Storage Area. For purposes of this discussion, this site will be referred to as either CAU 321 or the Fuel Storage Area. The Fuel Storage Area is located in Area 22 of the Nevada Test Site (NTS). The NTS is approximately 105 kilometers (km) (65 miles [mi]) northwest of Las Vegas, Nevada (Figure 1-1) (DOE/NV, 1996a). The Fuel Storage Area (Figure 1-2) was used to store fuel and other petroleum products necessary for motorized operations at the historic Camp Desert Rock facility which was operational from 1951 to 1958 at the Nevada Test Site, Nevada. The site was dismantled after 1958 (DOE/NV, 1996a).

  12. Corrective Action Investigation Plan for Corrective Action Unit 321: Area 22 Weather Station Fuel Storage, Nevada Test Site, Nevada, Revision 0. UPDATED WITH RECORD OF TECHNICAL CHANGE No.1

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    U.S. DOE /NV

    1999-02-08

    This Corrective Action Investigation Plan (CAIP) has been developed in accordance with the Federal Facility Agreement and Consent Order (FFACO) that was agreed to by the US Department of Energy, Nevada Operations Office (DOE/NV); the State of Nevada Division of Environmental Protection (NDEP); and the US Department of Defense (FFACO, 1996). The CAIP is a document that provides or references all of the specific information for investigation activities associated with Corrective Action Units (CAUs) or Corrective Action Sites (CASs). According to the FFACO (1996), CASs are sites potentially requiring corrective action(s) and may include solid waste management units or individual disposal or release sites. A CAU consists of one or more CASs grouped together based on geography, technical similarity, or agency responsibility for the purpose of determining corrective actions. This CAIP contains the environmental sample collection objectives and the criteria for conducting site investigation activities at the CAU 321 Area 22 Weather Station Fuel Storage, CAS 22-99-05 Fuel Storage Area. For purposes of this discussion, this site will be referred to as either CAU 321 or the Fuel Storage Area. The Fuel Storage Area is located in Area 22 of the Nevada Test Site (NTS). The NTS is approximately 105 kilometers (km) (65 miles [mi]) northwest of Las Vegas, Nevada (DOE/NV, 1996a). The Fuel Storage Area was used to store fuel and other petroleum products necessary for motorized operations at the historic Camp Desert Rock facility which was operational from 1951 to 1958 at the Nevada Test Site, Nevada. The site was dismantled after 1958 (DOE/NV, 1996a).

  13. Systematic variations in stress state in the southern San Joaquin Valley: Inferences based on well-bore data and contemporary seismicity

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Castillo, D.A.; Zoback, M.D. (Stanford Univ., CA (United States))

    1994-08-01

    Analysis of stress-induced well-bore breakouts in 35 wells from 10 production fields in the southern San Joaquin Valley (SSJV) indicates systematic spatial variations in the direction of the maximum horizontal stresses at three different scales. First, the regional northeast-southwest compressional stress direction seen along the western margin of the San Joaquin Valley in the Elk Hills, Kettleman Hills, and Coalinga areas, gradually changes to approximately north-south compression over a distance of 10-20 km in the SSJV. This major excursion in the stress field seen in the Yowlumne, Yowlumne North, Paloma, and Rio Viejo production fields represents an approximately 40[degrees] counterclockwise rotation in the direction of the maximum horizontal stress (MHS). This systematic reorientation is consistent with approximately north-south convergence as seen in the local fold axes and reverse faults of Pliocene age and younger. Second, at the extreme south of the SSJV in the San Emidio, Los Lobos, Pleito, Wheeler Ridge, and North Tejon fields, another systematic, but localized, reorientation in the stress field indicates an abrupt change to an approximately east-northeast-west-southwest compression over a distance of a few kilometers. This latter reorientation of MHS stress direction, which is inconsistent with the local east-west-trending fold axes and thrust faults, represents a 40-50[degrees] clockwise rotation in the stresses; this reorientation appears to be limited to oil production fields located within the inferred hanging wall of the White Wolf fault that ruptured during the 1952 Kern County earthquake. Inversion of earthquake focal mechanisms of events located below the perturbed stress field indicates approximately north-south compression. The stress drop associated with the 1952 earthquake may have been responsible for rotating the MHS stress direction, implying that the remote horizontal stresses are comparable in magnitude. 53 refs., 16 refs., 2 tabs.

  14. Final Technical Report: DOE-Biological Ocean Margins Program. Microbial Ecology of Denitrifying Bacteria in the Coastal Ocean.

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Lee Kerkhof

    2013-01-01

    The focus of our research was to provide a comprehensive study of the bacterioplankton populations off the coast of New Jersey near the Rutgers University marine field station using terminal restriction fragment polymorphism analysis (TRFLP) coupled to 16S rRNA genes for large data set studies. Our three revised objectives to this study became: (1) to describe bacterioplankton population dynamics in the Mid Atlantic Bight using TRFLP analysis of 16S rRNA genes. (2) to determine whether spatial and temporal factors are driving bacterioplankton community dynamics in the MAB using monthly samping along our transect line over a 2-year period. (3) to identify dominant members of a coastal bacterioplankton population by clonal library analysis of 16S rDNA genes and sequencing of PCR product corresponding to specific TRFLP peaks in the data set. Although open ocean time-series sites have been areas of microbial research for years, relatively little was known about the population dynamics of bacterioplankton communities in the coastal ocean on kilometer spatial and seasonal temporal scales. To gain a better understanding of microbial community variability, monthly samples of bacterial biomass were collected in 1995-1996 along a 34-km transect near the Long-Term Ecosystem Observatory (LEO-15) off the New Jersey coast. Surface and bottom sampling was performed at seven stations along a transect line with depths ranging from 1 to 35m (n=178). The data revealed distinct temporal patterns among the bacterioplankton communities in the Mid-Atlantic Bight rather than grouping by sample location or depth (figure 2-next page). Principal components analysis models supported the temporal patterns. In addition, partial least squares regression modeling could not discern a significant correlation from traditional oceanographic physical and phytoplankton nutrient parameters on overall bacterial community variability patterns at LEO-15. These results suggest factors not traditionally measured during oceanographic studies are structuring coastal microbial communities.

  15. Evaluation of the Life History of Native Salmonids in the Malheur River Basin; Cooperative Bull Trout/Redband Trout Research Project, 2000-2001 Annual Report.

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Gonzales, Dan; Schwabe, Lawrence; Wenick, Jess (Burns Paiute Tribe, Department of Fish and Wildlife, Burns, OR)

    2001-08-01

    The Malheur basin lies within southeastern Oregon. The Malheur River is a tributary to the Snake River, entering at about River Kilometer (RK) 595. The hydrological drainage area of the Malheur River is approximately 12,950 km{sup 2} and is roughly 306 km in length. The headwaters of the Malheur River originate in the Blue Mountains at elevations of 6,500 to 7,500 feet, and drops to an elevation of 2000 feet at the confluence with the Snake River near Ontario, Oregon. The climate of the Malheur basin is characterized by hot dry summers, occasionally exceeding 38 C and cold winters that may drop below -29 C. Average annual precipitation is 300 centimeters and ranges from 100 centimeters in the upper mountains to less than 25 centimeters in the lower reaches (Gonzalez 1999). Wooded areas consist primarily of mixed fir and pine forest in the higher elevations. Sagebrush and grass communities dominate the flora in the lower elevations. Efforts to document salmonid life histories, water quality, and habitat conditions have continued in fiscal year 2000. The Burns Paiute Tribe (BPT), United States Forest Service (USFS), and Oregon Department of Fish and Wildlife (ODFW), have been working cooperatively to achieve this common goal. Bull trout ''Salvenlinus confluentus'' have specific environmental requirements and complex life histories making them especially susceptible to human activities that alter their habitat (Howell and Buchanan 1992). Bull trout are considered to be a cold-water species and are temperature dependent. This presents a challenge for managers, biologists, and private landowners in the Malheur basin. Because of the listing of bull trout under the Endangered Species Act as threatened and the current health of the landscape, a workgroup was formed to develop project objectives related to bull trout. This report will reflect work completed during the Bonneville Power contract period starting 1 April 2000 and ending 31 March 2001. The study area will include the North Fork Malheur River and the Upper Malheur River from Warm Springs Reservoir upstream to the headwaters.

  16. Lepers and Ludwig

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Hacker, Randi

    2010-09-15

    Broadcast Transcript: This is not a postcard about South Korea. It is a postcard about compassion and connection that just happens to take place in South Korea on Sorok Island, located one kilometer off the southwest coast. Until last year...

  17. Rediscovering the River Bièvre : the feasibility of restoring ecological functions in an urban stream

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Simpson, Jacob T., 1978-

    2005-01-01

    The Bièvre's 36-kilometer course stretches from the southwest of Paris near Satin-Quentin-en- Yvelines through numerous towns before disappearing into the urban hydraulic network upon its approach to Paris's dense urban ...

  18. Oelrichs folio, South Dakota-Nebraska 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Darton, Nelson Horatio, 1865-1948.

    1902-01-01

    Results of previous investigations have indicated the possibility that recent deformation has occurred on the Criner fault of southern Oklahoma. The Criner fault is located in Carter and Love Counties, Oklahoma, approximately 100 kilometers...

  19. Novel approaches to Newtonian noise suppression in interferometric gravitational wave detection

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Hunter-Jones, Nicholas R

    2011-01-01

    The Laser Interferometer Gravitational-wave Observatory (LIGO) attempts to detect ripples in the curvature of spacetime using two large scale interferometers. These detectors are several kilometer long Michelson interferometers ...

  20. Observation of Parametric Instability in Advanced LIGO

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Gras, Slawek

    Parametric instabilities have long been studied as a potentially limiting effect in high-power interferometric gravitational wave detectors. Until now, however, these instabilities have never been observed in a kilometer-scale ...

  1. Levee Failures in the Sacramento - San Joaquin River Delta: Characteristics and Perspectives 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Hopf, Frank

    2012-02-14

    Between 1850 and 1922, agriculturalists built 1,700 kilometers of levees to convert 250,000 hectares of tidal marsh to farmland where the San Joaquin and Sacramento Rivers enter the San Francisco Bay (the Delta). Drained, ...

  2. January 21, 2000 Snowball Earth

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Catling, David C.

    escaping from the molten core prevents the oceans from freezing to the bottom, but ice grows a kilometer cryogenic slumber, the volcanoes slowly manufacture an escape from the chill: carbon dioxide

  3. Compost marketing guidelines for solid municipal waste management in India

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Huang, Ellen, M. Eng. (Ellen C.). Massachusetts Institute of Technology

    2015-01-01

    India has a waste problem. With the world's second largest population at 1.252 billion individuals, a population density of 382 persons per square kilometer and consumer behavior demanding a higher standard of life and ...

  4. Fish population and behavior revealed by instantaneous continental-shelf scale imaging

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Symonds, Deanelle T

    2008-01-01

    The application of a technique to instantaneously image and continuously monitor the abundance, spatial distribution, and behavior of fish populations over thousands of square kilometers using Ocean Acoustic Waveguide ...

  5. Toll road public-private partnerships in Malaysia : using the CLIOS process for policy improvements

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Ward, John L., 1977-

    2005-01-01

    Malaysia has relied on private sector provision of toll roads for over twenty years using public- private partnerships (PPPs). While the program has been successful in providing close to 1,800 kilometers of highway in that ...

  6. 45th AIAA Aerospace Sciences Meeting AIAA-2007-0874 January 8-11, 2007 Reno, NV

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Guo, Zhixiong "James"

    size of the resonator (usually the order of 1m for meso-scale CRDS) to several kilometers. Through limitations on the meso-scale CRDS technique. The intensity of the light coupled into and out of the cavity

  7. Eurographics Conference on Visualization (EuroVis) 2012 S. Bruckner, S. Miksch, and H. Pfister

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Hamann, Bernd

    mesoscale eddies, that are believed to have a role in the transport and redistribution of salt, heat Mesoscale eddies are vortices with diameters on the order of a hundred kilometers and typical lifetimes

  8. Mineral Deformation at Earth's Core-Mantle Boundary

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Mineral Deformation at Earth's Core-Mantle Boundary Print Earth is a dynamic planet in which convection takes place on the scale of thousands of kilometers. Because Earth is mostly...

  9. Organization and Environmental Properties of Extreme-Rain-Producing Mesoscale Convective Systems

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Schumacher, Russ

    -kilometer national composite radar reflectivity data are then used to examine the structure and evolution of each. Doswell et al. (1996, hereafter DBM96) note that the total precipitation at any point is directly pro

  10. A study of the characteristics of thunderstorm cessation at the NASA Kennedy Space Center 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Hinson, Michael Shawn

    1997-01-01

    A lightning summary was developed for a 100xlOO kilometer area centered at the NASA Kennedy Space Center. Spatial and temporal patterns, and first stroke peak currents were analyzed from 1986-1995, Three thunderstorms were chosen due...

  11. Hydrodynamic and transport phenomena at the interface between flow and aquatic vegetation : from the forest to the blade scale

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Rominger, Jeffrey T. (Jeffrey Tsaros)

    2014-01-01

    From the canopy scale to the blade scale, interactions between fluid motion and kelp produce a wide array of hydrodynamic and scalar transport phenomena. At the kilometer scale of the kelp forest, coastal currents transport ...

  12. APPENDIX 6 : ABBRE VIATIONS Abbreviations

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    kilometer L liter LME large marine ecosystem LNG liquid natural gas m meter MAFMC Mid-Atlantic Fishery National Research Council NRCS Natural Resources Conservation Service NWFSC Northwest Fisheries Science

  13. Open to the public! : a new network of communal recreation waterfront space in Bangkok

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Srirojanapinyo, Apichart

    2009-01-01

    Physically and historically, Bangkok has been shaped by its relationship to its waterfront. Flowing 370 kilometers through Thailand, the Chao Phraya River is more than the nation's lifeline. It was a principal waterway ...

  14. Geophysical modeling of two willemite deposits, Vazante (Brazil) and Beltana (Australia) Richard A. Krahenbuhl* and Murray Hitzman

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    by conventional processing techniques and geophysical inversion. Vazante deposit in Brazil The Vazante willemite. The mineralized portion of the fault zone extends more than 5 kilometers along strike and is known from drilling

  15. Tunable micro-cavities in photonic band-gap yarns and optical fibers

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Benoit, Gilles, Ph. D. Massachusetts Institute of Technology

    2006-01-01

    The vision behind this work is the fabrication of high performance innovative fiber-based optical components over kilometer length-scales. The optical properties of these fibers derive from their multilayer dielectric ...

  16. Rice Field Geochemistry and Hydrology: An Explanation for Why Groundwater Irrigated Fields in Bangladesh are Net Sinks of Arsenic from Groundwater

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Neumann, Rebecca B.

    Irrigation of rice fields in Bangladesh with arsenic-contaminated groundwater transfers tens of cubic kilometers of water and thousands of tons of arsenic from aquifers to rice fields each year. Here we combine observations ...

  17. Evaluating the national HIV counseling and testing (CT) program of St. Lucia: a study to determine coverage, utilization, successes, and gaps in service delivery

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Asrat, Anjabebu S.

    2010-01-01

    quot;“""°5 ‘ -M ~ Barbados 0 200 Kilometers ‘ .Barbuda, the Bahamas, Barbados, Belize, Dominica, Grenada,Tobago 2.6% Guyana 2.4% Barbados 1.5% Jamaica 1.5% Dominican

  18. Transition from geostrophic turbulence to inertia–gravity waves in the atmospheric energy spectrum

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Ferrari, Raffaele

    Midlatitude fluctuations of the atmospheric winds on scales of thousands of kilometers, the most energetic of such fluctuations, are strongly constrained by the Earth’s rotation and the atmosphere’s stratification. As a ...

  19. Stratal architecture and sedimentology of a portion of the Upper Cambrian Hickory Sandstone, central Texas, U.S.A. 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Perez Teran, Isaac Antonio

    2009-05-15

    in central Texas provide an exceptional opportunity to examine the sedimentology of deposits of this age in order to interpret sedimentary environments. During quarrying, vertical walls, one half-kilometer long and several tens of meters high, are blasted...

  20. Open Issues in the search for gravitational wave transients

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Blackburn, Lindy L

    2010-01-01

    The LIGO-Virgo network of kilometer-scale laser interferometric gravitational-wave detectors reached a major milestone with the successful operation of LIGO's fifth (S5) and Virgo's first (VSR1) science runs during 2005-2007. ...

  1. Leveraging infrastructure : sustainable bus rapid transit route planning in Beirut, Lebanon

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Nabti, Jumana M., 1976-

    2004-01-01

    This thesis applies the concepts of urban design, public transportation planning, economic development, and sustainability, to the routing and site plan of a two-kilometer bus rapid transit (BRT) line segment into downtown ...

  2. Nanotechnology for Teachers Dr. John S. Hutchinson

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Engineering? Nanobots? Science Fiction! #12;"Nano": How small is that, really? Mountain 1 km 1000 m 0.001 km

  3. The Failure of Confidence Mechanism: Reflections on the 1990’s Social Change Movement in the Light of policy Measures Affecting Farming System in Nepal

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Pandey, Tulsi Ram

    1993-01-01

    to external goods intensified after 1950s with the opening of rural interiors through transportation development. In 1951, Nepal only had a total of 376 kilometers of motorable roads of any kind. This increased to 6,306 kilometers in 1986 (CBS 1988: 119... of the 1964 Lands Act was able to raise an equivalent of USdoliar 15 million within four years of its implementation (Baskota and Lohani 1985: 101). Unfortunately the administrative machinary assigned to dispense credit was inelfecient in recording...

  4. Evaluation of solitary waves as a mechanism for oil transport in poroelastic media: A case study of the South Eugene Island field, Gulf of Mexico basin

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Joshi, Ajit; Appold, Martin S.; Nunn, Jeffrey A.

    2012-11-01

    Hydrocarbons in shallow reservoirs of the Eugene Island 330 field in the Gulf of Mexico basin are thought to have migrated rapidly along low permeability sediments of the Red fault zone as discrete pressure pulses from source rocks at depths of about 4.5 km. The aim of this research was to evaluate the hypothesis that these pressure pulses represent solitary waves by investigating the mechanics of solitary wave formation and motion and wave oil transport capability. A two-dimensional numerical model of Eugene Island minibasin formation predicted overpressures at the hydrocarbon source depth to increase at an average rate of 30 Pa/yr, reaching 52 MPa by the present day and oil velocities of 1E�¢����12 m/yr, far too low for kilometer scale oil transport to fill shallow Plio-Pleistocene reservoirs within the 3.6 million year minibasin history. Calculations from a separate one-dimensional model that used the pressure generation rate from the two-dimensional model showed that solitary waves could only form and migrate within sediments that have very low permeabilities between 1E�¢����25 to 1E�¢����24 m2 and that are highly overpressured to 91-93% of lithostatic pressure. Solitary waves were found to have a maximum pore volume of 105 m3, to travel a maximum distance of 1-2 km, and to have a maximum velocity of 1E�¢����3 m/yr. Based on these results, solitary waves are unlikely to have transported oil to the shallowest reservoirs in the Eugene Island field in a poroelastic fault gouge rheology at the pressure generation rates likely to have been caused by disequilibrium compaction and hydrocarbon generation. However, solitary waves could perhaps be important agents for oil transport in other locations where reservoirs are closer to the source rocks, where the pore space is occupied by more than one fluid, or where sudden fracturing of overpressured hydrocarbon source sediments would allow the solitary waves to propagate as shock waves. Hydrocarbons in shallow reservoirs of the Eugene Island 330 field in the Gulf of Mexico basin are thought to have migrated rapidly along low permeability sediments of the Red fault zone as discrete pressure pulses from source rocks at depths of about 4.5 km. The aim of this research was to evaluate the hypothesis that these pressure pulses represent solitary waves by investigating the mechanics of solitary wave formation and motion and wave oil transport capability. A two-dimensional numerical model of Eugene Island minibasin formation predicted overpressures at the hydrocarbon source depth to increase at an average rate of 30 Pa/yr, reaching 52 MPa by the present day and oil velocities of 1E�¢����12 m/yr, far too low for kilometer scale oil transport to fill shallow Plio-Pleistocene reservoirs within the 3.6 million year minibasin history. Calculations from a separate one-dimensional model that used the pressure generation rate from the two-dimensional model showed that solitary waves could only form and migrate within sediments that have very low permeabilities between 1E�¢����25 to 1E�¢����24 m2 and that are highly overpressured to 91-93% of lithostatic pressure. Solitary waves were found to have a maximum pore volume of 100,000 m3, to travel a maximum distance of 1-2 km, and to have a maximum velocity of 1E�¢����3 m/yr. Based on these results, solitary waves are unlikely to have transported oil to the shallowest reservoirs in the Eugene Island field in a poroelastic fault gouge rheology at the pressure generation rates likely to have been caused by disequilibrium compaction and hydrocarbon generation. However, solitary waves could perhaps be important agents for oil transport in other locations where reservoirs are closer to the source rocks, where the pore space is occupied by more than one fl

  5. Characterization of the Kootenai River Algae Community and Primary Productivity Before and After Experimental Nutrient Addition, 2004–2007 [Chapter 2, Kootenai River Algal Community Characterization, 2009 KTOI REPORT].

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Holderman, Charlie; Anders, Paul; Shafii, Bahman

    2009-07-01

    The Kootenai River ecosystem (spelled Kootenay in Canada) has experienced numerous ecological changes since the early 1900s. Some of the largest impacts to habitat, biological communities, and ecological function resulted from levee construction along the 120 km of river upstream from Kootenay Lake, completed by the 1950s, and the construction and operation of Libby Dam on the river near Libby Montana, completed in 1972. Levee construction isolated tens of thousands of hectares of historic functioning floodplain habitat from the river channel downstream in Idaho and British Columbia (B.C.) severely reducing natural biological productivity and habitat diversity crucial to large river-floodplain ecosystem function. Libby Dam greatly reduces sediment and nutrient transport to downstream river reaches, and dam operations cause large changes in the timing, duration, and magnitude of river flows. These and other changes have contributed to the ecological collapse of the post-development Kootenai River ecosystem and its native biological communities. In response to large scale loss of nutrients, experimental nutrient addition was initiated in the North Arm of Kootenay Lake in 1992, in the South Arm of Kootenay Lake in 2004, and in the Kootenai River at the Idaho-Montana border during 2005. This report characterizes baseline chlorophyll concentration and accrual (primary productivity) rates and diatom and algal community composition and ecological metrics in the Kootenai River for four years, one (2004) before, and three (2005 through 2007) after nutrient addition. The study area encompassed a 325 km river reach from the upper Kootenay River at Wardner, B.C. (river kilometer (rkm) 445) downstream through Montana and Idaho to Kootenay Lake in B.C. (rkm 120). Sampling reaches included an unimpounded reach furthest upstream and four reaches downstream from Libby Dam affected by impoundment: two in the canyon reach (one with and one without nutrient addition), a braided reach, and a meandering reach. The study design included 14 sampling sites: an upstream, unimpounded reference site (KR-14), four control (non-fertilized) canyon sites downstream from Libby Dam, but upstream from nutrient addition (KR-10 through KR-13), two treatment sites referred to collectively as the nutrient addition zone (KR-9 and KR-9.1, located at and 5 km downstream from the nutrient addition site), two braided reach sites (KR-6 and KR-7), and four meander reach sites (KR-1 through KR-4). A series of qualitative evaluations and quantitative analyses were used to assess baseline conditions and effects of experimental nutrient addition treatments on chlorophyll, primary productivity, and taxonomic composition and metric arrays for the diatom and green algae communities. Insufficient density in the samples precluded analyses of bluegreen algae taxa and metrics for pre- and post-nutrient addition periods. Chlorophyll a concentration (mg/m{sup 2}), chlorophyll accrual rate (mg/m{sup 2}/30d), total chlorophyll concentration (chlorophyll a and b) (mg/m{sup 2}), and total chlorophyll accrual rate (mg/m{sup 2}/30d) were calculated. Algal taxa were identified and grouped by taxonomic order as Cyanophyta (blue-greens), Chlorophyta (greens), Bacillariophyta (diatoms), Chrysophyta (goldens), and dominant species from each sample site were identified. Algal densities (number/ml) in periphyton samples were calculated for each sample site and sampling date. Principal Component Analysis (PCA) was performed to reduce the dimension of diatom and algae data and to determine which taxonomic groups and metrics were contributing significantly to the observed variation. PCA analyses were tabulated to indicate eigenvalues, proportion, and cumulative percent variation, as well as eigenvectors (loadings) for each of the components. Biplot graphic displays of PCA axes were also generated to characterize the pattern and structure of the underlying variation. Taxonomic data and a series of biological and ecological metrics were used with PCA for diatoms and algae. Algal metrics included

  6. Preparing to Submit a License Application for Yucca Mountain

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    W.J. Arthur; M.D. Voegele

    2005-03-14

    In 1982, the U.S. Congress passed the Nuclear Waste Policy Act, a Federal law that established U.S. policy for the permanent disposal of spent nuclear fuel and high-level radioactive waste. Congress amended the Act in 1987, directing the Department of Energy to study only Yucca Mountain, Nevada as the site for a permanent geologic repository. As the law mandated, the Department evaluated Yucca Mountain to determine its suitability as the site for a permanent geologic repository. Decades of scientific studies demonstrated that Yucca Mountain would protect workers, the public, and the environment during the time that a repository would be operating and for tens of thousands of years after closure of the repository. A repository at this remote site would also: preserve the quality of the environment; allow the environmental cleanup of Cold War weapons facilities; provide the nation with additional protection from acts of terrorism; and support a sound energy policy. Throughout the scientific evaluation of Yucca Mountain, there has been no evidence to disqualify Yucca Mountain as a suitable site for the permanent disposal of spent nuclear fuel and high-level radioactive waste. Upon completion of site characterization, the Secretary of Energy considered the results and concluded that a repository at Yucca Mountain would perform in a manner that protects public health and safety. The Secretary recommended the site to the President in February 2002; the President agreed and recommended to Congress that the site be approved. The Governor of Nevada submitted a notice of disapproval, and both houses of Congress acted to override the disapproval. In July 2002, the President's approval allowed the Department to begin the process of submittal of a license application for Yucca Mountain as the site for the nation's first repository for spent nuclear fuel and high-level radioactive waste. Yucca Mountain is located on federal land in Nye County in southern Nevada, an arid region of the United States, approximately 100 miles (160 kilometers) northwest of Las Vegas (Figure 1). The location is remote from population centers, and there are no permanent residents within approximately 14 miles (23 km) of the site. Overall, Nye County has a population density of about two persons per square mile (two persons per 2.5 square km); in the vicinity of Yucca Mountain, it is significantly less. Yucca Mountain is a series of north-south-trending ridges extending approximately 25 miles (40 km), and consists of successive layers of fine-grained volcanic tuffs, millions of years old, underlain by older carbonate rocks. The alternating layers of welded and nonwelded volcanic tuffs have differing hydrologic properties that significantly impact the manner in which water moves through the mountain. The repository horizon will be in welded tuff located in the unsaturated zone, more than 1,000 feet (300 meters) above the water table in the present-day climate, and is expected to remain well above the water table during wetter future climate conditions. Future meteorology and climatology at Yucca Mountain are important elements in understanding the amount of water available to potentially interact with the waste.

  7. Corrective Action Investigation Plan for Corrective Action Unit 99: Rainier Mesa/Shoshone Mountain, Nevada Test Site, Nevada with Errata and ROTC 1, Rev. No. 0

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    John McCord; Marutzky, Sam

    2004-12-01

    This Corrective Action Investigation Plan (CAIP) was developed for Corrective Action Unit (CAU) 99, Rainier Mesa/Shoshone Mountain. The CAIP is a requirement of the ''Federal Facility Agreement and Consent Order'' (FFACO) agreed to by the State of Nevada, the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE), and the U.S. Department of Defense (DoD) (FFACO, 1996). The FFACO addresses environmental restoration activities at U.S. Department of Energy, National Nuclear Security Administration Nevada Site Office (NNSA/NSO) facilities and sites including the underground testing area(s) of the Nevada Test Site (NTS). This CAIP describes the investigation activities currently planned for the Rainier Mesa/Shoshone Mountain CAU. These activities are consistent with the current Underground Test Area (UGTA) Project strategy described in Section 3.0 of Appendix VI, Revision No. 1 (December 7, 2000) of the FFACO (1996) and summarized in Section 2.1.2 of this plan. The Rainier Mesa/Shoshone Mountain CAU extends over several areas of the NTS (Figure 1-1) and includes former underground nuclear testing locations in Areas 12 and 16. The area referred to as ''Rainier Mesa'' includes the geographical area of Rainier Mesa proper and the contiguous Aqueduct Mesa. Figure 1-2 shows the locations of the tests (within tunnel complexes) conducted at Rainier Mesa. Shoshone Mountain is located approximately 20 kilometers (km) south of Rainier Mesa, but is included within the same CAU due to similarities in their geologic setting and in the nature and types of nuclear tests conducted. Figure 1-3 shows the locations of the tests conducted at Shoshone Mountain. The Rainier Mesa/Shoshone Mountain CAU falls within the larger-scale Rainier Mesa/Shoshone Mountain Investigation Area, which also includes the northwest section of the Yucca Flat CAU as shown in Figure 1-1. Rainier Mesa and Shoshone Mountain lie adjacent to the Timber Mountain Caldera Complex and are composed of volcanic rocks that erupted from the caldera as well as from more distant sources. This has resulted in a layered volcanic stratigraphy composed of thick deposits of welded and nonwelded ash-flow tuff and lava flows. These deposits are proximal to the source caldera and are interstratified with the more distal facies of fallout tephra and bedded reworked tuff from more distant sources. In each area, a similar volcanic sequence was deposited upon Paleozoic carbonate and siliciclastic rocks that are disrupted by various thrust faults, normal faults, and strike-slip faults. In both Rainier Mesa (km) to the southwest, and Tippipah Spring, 4 km to the north, and the tunnel complex is dry. Particle-tracking simulations performed during the value of information analysis (VOIA) (SNJV, 2004b) indicate that most of the regional groundwater that underlies the test locations at Rainier Mesa and Shoshone Mountain eventually follows similar and parallel paths and ultimately discharges in Death Valley and the Amargosa Desert. Particle-tracking simulations conducted for the regional groundwater flow and risk assessment indicated that contamination from Rainier Mesa and Shoshone Mountain were unlikely to leave the NTS during the 1,000-year period of interest (DOE/NV, 1997a). It is anticipated that CAU-scale modeling will modify these results somewhat, but it is not expected to radically alter the outcome of these previous particle-tracking simulations within the 1,000-year period of interest. The Rainier Mesa/Shoshone Mountain CAIP describes the corrective action investigation (CAI) to be conducted at the Rainier Mesa/Shoshone Mountain CAU to evaluate the extent of contamination in groundwater due to the underground nuclear testing. The CAI will be conducted by the UGTA Project, which is part of the NNSA/NSO Environmental Restoration Project (ERP). The purpose and scope of the CAI are presented in this section, followed by a summary of the entire document.

  8. An accurate determination of the Avogadro constant by counting the atoms in a 28Si crystal

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Andreas, B; Bartl, G; Becker, P; Bettin, H; Borys, M; Busch, I; Gray, M; Fuchs, P; Fujii, K; Fujimoto, H; Kessler, E; Krumrey, M; Kuetgens, U; Kuramoto, N; Mana, G; Manson, P; Massa, E; Mizushima, S; Nicolaus, A; Picard, A; Pramann, A; Rienitz, O; Schiel, D; Valkiers, S; Waseda, A

    2010-01-01

    The Avogadro constant links the atomic and the macroscopic properties of matter. Since the molar Planck constant is well known via the measurement of the Rydberg constant, it is also closely related to the Planck constant. In addition, its accurate determination is of paramount importance for a definition of the kilogram in terms of a fundamental constant. We describe a new approach for its determination by "counting" the atoms in 1 kg single-crystal spheres, which are highly enriched with the 28Si isotope. It enabled isotope dilution mass spectroscopy to determine the molar mass of the silicon crystal with unprecedented accuracy. The value obtained, 6.02214084(18) x 10^23 mol^-1, is the most accurate input datum for a new definition of the kilogram.

  9. Further studies on the role of unidentified factors and gossypol in the nutrition of the domestic fowl 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Willingham, Haskell Eugene

    1956-01-01

    protein (Drackett C-7) Soybean oil Salts T-Il 65?00 22?V5 2?76 8?00 The following amount of vitamins and amino acids were added per kilogram of dietJ Thiamine hydroch1oride, 4 mg, J ribof18vin? 6 mg?J calcium pantothenatc, 16 mg ~ J niacin, 100 mg.... U ~ J vitamin A, 10, 000 IFf. J methionine? V, S gm?J giycine, 4 gms ~ J and penicillins 55 mg? 2 Mineral mixture supplied the following psr kilogram of diet J CaC05? 14?6 gm?J CaHPOA 2E20? 42 1 gms ~ J KaCI? Q, 6 gms?J EnSO&? 5 ~? 1?I gms ~ J...

  10. Current experimental activities for solid breeder development

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Johnson, C.E.; Hollenberg, G.W.; Roux, N.; Watanabe, H.

    1988-01-01

    The current data base for ceramic breeder materials does not exhibit any negative features as regards to thermophysical, mechanical, and irradiation behavior. All candidate materials show excellent stability for irradiation testing to 3% burnup. In-situ tritium recovery tests show very low tritium inventories for all candidates. Theoretical models are being developed to accurately predict real time release rates. Fabrication of kilogram quantities of materials has been achieved and technology is available for further scale-up.

  11. 1 av / of 4 Massverfring och separationsteknik

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Zevenhoven, Ron

    ångbubblan. (1½p.) c. Ett kilogram vatten (W, 18 kg/mol) tillsätts; vattnet blandar sig inte med B.fi/fak/tkf/vt/Swe/education_Evaluation_sw.htm A) under den senaste vecka; B) några veckor sedan; C) några månader sedan; D) ett år eller längre sedan; E) inte ännu; F) kommer inte ihåg, skall därför ännu göra det (på nytt). When did you give your

  12. SCHOOL OF MATHEMATICS AND STATISTICS Autumn Semester MECHANICS 2 hours

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    the mass of the Sun in kilograms. (4 marks) (d) Show that the total energy is E = - 1 2 GMm r , that is(t), kinetic energy T and specific angular momentum h, given by T = 1 2 m r · r, h = r × r, where r dr of kinetic energy due to the force is T = F · r. (4 marks) (ii) (a) Show that the change in kinetic energy

  13. Process for the synthesis of aliphatic alcohol-containing mixtures

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Greene, Marvin I. (Oradell, NJ); Gelbein, Abraham P. (Morristown, NJ)

    1984-01-01

    A process for the synthesis of mixtures which include saturated aliphatic alcohols is disclosed. In the first step of the process, the first catalyst activation stage, a catalyst, which comprises the oxides of copper, zinc, aluminum, potassium and one or two additional metals selected from the group consisting of chromium, magnesium, cerium, cobalt, thorium and lanthanum, is partially activated. In this step, a reducing gas stream, which includes hydrogen and at least one inert gas, flows past the catalyst at a space velocity of up to 5,000 liters (STP) per hour, per kilogram of catalyst. The partially activated catalyst is then subjected to the second step of the process, second-stage catalyst activation. In this step, the catalyst is contacted by an activation gas stream comprising hydrogen and carbon monoxide present in a volume ratio of 0.5:1 and 4:1, respectively, at a temperature of 200.degree. to 450.degree. C. and a pressure of between 35 and 200 atmospheres. The activation gas flows at a space velocity of from 1,000 to 20,000 liters (STP) per hour, per kilogram of catalyst. Second-stage activation continues until the catalyst is contacted with at least 500,000 liters (STP) of activation gas per kilogram of catalyst. The fully activated catalyst, in the third step of the process, contacts a synthesis gas stream comprising hydrogen and carbon monoxide.

  14. Process for the synthesis of aliphatic alcohol-containing mixtures

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Greene, M.I.; Gelbein, A.P.

    1984-10-16

    A process for the synthesis of mixtures which include saturated aliphatic alcohols is disclosed. In the first step of the process, the first catalyst activation stage, a catalyst, which comprises the oxides of copper, zinc, aluminum, potassium and one or two additional metals selected from the group consisting of chromium, magnesium, cerium, cobalt, thorium and lanthanum, is partially activated. In this step, a reducing gas stream, which includes hydrogen and at least one inert gas, flows past the catalyst at a space velocity of up to 5,000 liters (STP) per hour, per kilogram of catalyst. The partially activated catalyst is then subjected to the second step of the process, second-stage catalyst activation. In this step, the catalyst is contacted by an activation gas stream comprising hydrogen and carbon monoxide present in a volume ratio of 0.5:1 and 4:1, respectively, at a temperature of 200 to 450 C and a pressure of between 35 and 200 atmospheres. The activation gas flows at a space velocity of from 1,000 to 20,000 liters (STP) per hour, per kilogram of catalyst. Second-stage activation continues until the catalyst is contacted with at least 500,000 liters (STP) of activation gas per kilogram of catalyst. The fully activated catalyst, in the third step of the process, contacts a synthesis gas stream comprising hydrogen and carbon monoxide.

  15. Corrective Action Plan for Corrective Action Unit 262: Area 25 Septic Systems and Underground Discharge Point, Nevada Test Site, Nevada

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    K. B. Campbell

    2002-06-01

    This Corrective Action Plan (CAP) provides selected corrective action alternatives and proposes the closure methodology for Corrective Action Unit (CAU) 262, Area 25 Septic Systems and Underground Discharge Point. CAU 262 is identified in the Federal Facility Agreement and Consent Order (FFACO) of 1996. Remediation of CAU 262 is required under the FFACO. CAU 262 is located in Area 25 of the Nevada Test Site (NTS), approximately 100 kilometers (km) (62 miles [mi]) northwest of Las Vegas, Nevada. The nine Corrective Action Sites (CASs) within CAU 262 are located in the Nuclear Rocket Development Station complex. Individual CASs are located in the vicinity of the Reactor Maintenance, Assembly, and Disassembly (R-MAD); Engine Maintenance, Assembly, and Disassembly (E-MAD); and Test Cell C compounds. CAU 262 includes the following CASs as provided in the FFACO (1996); CAS 25-02-06, Underground Storage Tank; CAS 25-04-06, Septic Systems A and B; CAS 25-04-07, Septic System; CAS 25-05-03, Leachfield; CAS 25-05-05, Leachfield; CAS 25-05-06, Leachfield; CAS 25-05-08, Radioactive Leachfield; CAS 25-05-12, Leachfield; and CAS 25-51-01, Dry Well. Figures 2, 3, and 4 show the locations of the R-MAD, the E-MAD, and the Test Cell C CASs, respectively. The facilities within CAU 262 supported nuclear rocket reactor engine testing. Activities associated with the program were performed between 1958 and 1973. However, several other projects used the facilities after 1973. A significant quantity of radioactive and sanitary waste was produced during routine operations. Most of the radioactive waste was managed by disposal in the posted leachfields. Sanitary wastes were disposed in sanitary leachfields. Septic tanks, present at sanitary leachfields (i.e., CAS 25-02-06,2504-06 [Septic Systems A and B], 25-04-07, 25-05-05,25-05-12) allowed solids to settle out of suspension prior to entering the leachfield. Posted leachfields do not contain septic tanks. All CASs located in CAU 262 are inactive or abandoned. However, some leachfields may still receive liquids from runoff during storm events. Results from the 2000-2001 site characterization activities conducted by International Technology (IT) Corporation, Las Vegas Office are documented in the Corrective Action Investigation Report for Corrective Action Unit 262: Area 25 Septic Systems and Underground Discharge Point, Nevada Test Site, Nevada. This document is located in Appendix A of the Corrective Action Decision Document for CAU 262. Area 25 Septic Systems and Underground Discharge Point, Nevada Test Site, Nevada. (DOE/NV, 2001).

  16. Space nuclear power, propulsion, and related technologies.

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Berman, Marshall

    1992-01-01

    Sandia National Laboratories (Sandia) is one of the nation's largest research and development (R&D) facilities, with headquarters at Albuquerque, New Mexico; a laboratory at Livermore, California; and a test range near Tonopah, Nevada. Smaller testing facilities are also operated at other locations. Established in 1945, Sandia was operated by the University of California until 1949, when, at the request of President Truman, Sandia Corporation was formed as a subsidiary of Bell Lab's Western Electric Company to operate Sandia as a service to the U.S. Government without profit or fee. Sandia is currently operated for the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) by AT&T Technologies, Inc., a wholly-owned subsidiary of AT&T. Sandia's responsibility is national security programs in defense and energy with primary emphasis on nuclear weapon research and development (R&D). However, Sandia also supports a wide variety of projects ranging from basic materials research to the design of specialized parachutes. Assets, owned by DOE and valued at more than $1.2 billion, include about 600 major buildings containing about 372,000 square meters (m2) (4 million square feet [ft2]) of floor space, located on land totalling approximately 1460 square kilometers (km2) (562 square miles [mi]). Sandia employs about 8500 people, the majority in Albuquerque, with about 1000 in Livermore. Approximately 60% of Sandia's employees are in technical and scientific positions, and the remainder are in crafts, skilled labor, and administrative positions. As a multiprogram national laboratory, Sandia has much to offer both industrial and government customers in pursuing space nuclear technologies. The purpose of this brochure is to provide the reader with a brief summary of Sandia's technical capabilities, test facilities, and example programs that relate to military and civilian objectives in space. Sandia is interested in forming partnerships with industry and government organizations, and has already formed several cooperative alliances and agreements. Because of the synergism of multiple governmental and industrial sponsors of many programs, Sandia is frequently able to provide complex technical solutions in a relatively short time, and often at lower cost to a particular customer. They have listed a few ongoing programs at Sandia related to space nuclear technology as examples of the possible synergisms that could result from forming teams and partnerships with related technologies and objectives.

  17. Evaluation of 2004 Toyota Prius Hybrid Electric Drive System

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Staunton, R.H.; Ayers, C.W.; Chiasson, J.N.; Burress, B.A.; Marlino, L.D.

    2006-05-01

    The 2004 Toyota Prius is a hybrid automobile equipped with a gasoline engine and a battery- and generator-powered electric motor. Both of these motive-power sources are capable of providing mechanical-drive power for the vehicle. The engine can deliver a peak-power output of 57 kilowatts (kW) at 5000 revolutions per minute (rpm) while the motor can deliver a peak-power output of 50 kW over the speed range of 1200-1540 rpm. Together, this engine-motor combination has a specified peak-power output of 82 kW at a vehicle speed of 85 kilometers per hour (km/h). In operation, the 2004 Prius exhibits superior fuel economy compared to conventionally powered automobiles. To acquire knowledge and thereby improve understanding of the propulsion technology used in the 2004 Prius, a full range of design characterization studies were conducted to evaluate the electrical and mechanical characteristics of the 2004 Prius and its hybrid electric drive system. These characterization studies included (1) a design review, (2) a packaging and fabrication assessment, (3) bench-top electrical tests, (4) back-electromotive force (emf) and locked rotor tests, (5) loss tests, (6) thermal tests at elevated temperatures, and most recently (7) full-design-range performance testing in a controlled laboratory environment. This final test effectively mapped the electrical and thermal results for motor/inverter operation over the full range of speeds and shaft loads that these assemblies are designed for in the Prius vehicle operations. This testing was undertaken by the Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL) as part of the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE)-Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) FreedomCAR and Vehicle Technologies (FCVT) program through its vehicle systems technologies subprogram. The thermal tests at elevated temperatures were conducted late in 2004, and this report does not discuss this testing in detail. The thermal tests explored the derating of the Prius motor design if operated at temperatures as high as is normally encountered in a vehicle engine. The continuous ratings at base speed (1200 rpm) with different coolant temperatures are projected from test data at 900 rpm. A separate, comprehensive report on this thermal control study is available [1].

  18. Evaluation of 2004 Toyota Prius Hybrid Electric Drive System

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Staunton, Robert H; Ayers, Curtis William; Chiasson, J. N.; Burress, Timothy A; Marlino, Laura D

    2006-05-01

    The 2004 Toyota Prius is a hybrid automobile equipped with a gasoline engine and a battery- and generator-powered electric motor. Both of these motive-power sources are capable of providing mechanical-drive power for the vehicle. The engine can deliver a peak-power output of 57 kilowatts (kW) at 5000 revolutions per minute (rpm) while the motor can deliver a peak-power output of 50 kW over the speed range of 1200-1540 rpm. Together, this engine-motor combination has a specified peak-power output of 82 kW at a vehicle speed of 85 kilometers per hour (km/h). In operation, the 2004 Prius exhibits superior fuel economy compared to conventionally powered automobiles. To acquire knowledge and thereby improve understanding of the propulsion technology used in the 2004 Prius, a full range of design characterization studies were conducted to evaluate the electrical and mechanical characteristics of the 2004 Prius and its hybrid electric drive system. These characterization studies included (1) a design review, (2) a packaging and fabrication assessment, (3) bench-top electrical tests, (4) back-electromotive force (emf) and locked rotor tests, (5) loss tests, (6) thermal tests at elevated temperatures, and most recently (7) full-design-range performance testing in a controlled laboratory environment. This final test effectively mapped the electrical and thermal results for motor/inverter operation over the full range of speeds and shaft loads that these assemblies are designed for in the Prius vehicle operations. This testing was undertaken by the Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL) as part of the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) - Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) FreedomCAR and Vehicle Technologies (FCVT) program through its vehicle systems technologies subprogram. The thermal tests at elevated temperatures were conducted late in 2004, and this report does not discuss this testing in detail. The thermal tests explored the derating of the Prius motor design if operated at temperatures as high as is normally encountered in a vehicle engine. The continuous ratings at base speed (1200 rpm) with different coolant temperatures are projected from test data at 900 rpm. A separate, comprehensive report on this thermal control study is available [1].

  19. Min Zhou,and Gerard T.Schuster,University of Utah ComparisonbetweenReducedTimeMigrationandInterferometricMigrationofCDPData

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    .5 km/s Depth(km) Offset (km) True velocity model Depth(km) Offset (km) Migration velocity model Figure 2. Kirchhoff depth migration image (a), RTM depth image (b), and IM depth imageReducedTimeMigrationandInterferometricMigrationofCDPData ABSTRACT One of the difficulties in seeing beneath salt is that the migration velocity in the salt

  20. Modeling the Physical and Biochemical Influence of Ocean Thermal Energy Conversion Plant Discharges into their Adjacent Waters

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    PAT GRANDELLI, P.E.; GREG ROCHELEAU; JOHN HAMRICK, Ph.D.; MATT CHURCH, Ph.D.; BRIAN POWELL, Ph.D.

    2012-09-29

    This paper describes the modeling work by Makai Ocean Engineering, Inc. to simulate the biochemical effects of of the nutrient-enhanced seawater plumes that are discharged by one or several 100 megawatt OTEC plants. The modeling is needed to properly design OTEC plants that can operate sustainably with acceptably low biological impact. In order to quantify the effect of discharge configuration and phytoplankton response, Makai Ocean Engineering implemented a biological and physical model for the waters surrounding O`ahu, Hawai`i, using the EPA-approved Environmental Fluid Dynamics Code (EFDC). Each EFDC grid cell was approximately 1 square kilometer by 20 meters deep, and used a time step of three hours. The biological model was set up to simulate the biochemical response for three classes of organisms: Picoplankton (< 2 um) such as prochlorococccus, nanoplankton (2-20 um), and microplankton (> 20 um) e.g., diatoms. The dynamic biological phytoplankton model was calibrated using chemical and biological data collected for the Hawaii Ocean Time Series (HOTS) project. Peer review of the biological modeling was performed. The physical oceanography model uses boundary conditions from a surrounding Hawai'i Regional Ocean Model, (ROM) operated by the University of Hawai`i and the National Atmospheric and Oceanic Administration. The ROM provided tides, basin scale circulation, mesoscale variability, and atmospheric forcing into the edges of the EFDC computational domain. This model is the most accurate and sophisticated Hawai'ian Regional Ocean Model presently available, assimilating real-time oceanographic observations, as well as model calibration based upon temperature, current and salinity data collected during 2010 near the simulated OTEC site. The ROM program manager peer-reviewed Makai's implementation of the ROM output into our EFDC model. The supporting oceanographic data was collected for a Naval Facilities Engineering Command / Makai project. Results: The model was run for a 100 MW OTEC Plant consisting of four separate ducts, discharging a total combined flow rate of 420 m3/s of warm water and 320 m3/s of cold water in a mixed discharge at 70 meters deep. Each duct was assumed to have a discharge port diameter of 10.5m producing a downward discharge velocity of about 2.18 m/s. The natural system, as measured in the HOTS program, has an average concentration of 10-15 mgC/m3. To calibrate the biological model, we first ran the model with no OTEC plant and varied biological parameters until the simulated data was a good match to the HOTS observations. This modeling showed that phytoplankton concentration were patchy and highly dynamic. The patchiness was a good match with the data variability observed within the HOTS data sets. We then ran the model with simulated OTEC intake and discharge flows and associated nutrients. Directly under the OTEC plant, the near-field plume has an average terminal depth of 172 meters, with a volumetric dilution of 13:1. The average terminal plume temperature was 19.8oC. Nitrate concentrations are 1 to 2 umol/kg above ambient. The advecting plume then further dilutes to less than 1 umol/kg above ambient within a few kilometers downstream, while remaining at depth. Because this terminal near-field plume is well below the 1% light limited depths (~120m), no immediate biological utilization of the nutrients occurs. As the nitrate is advected and dispersed downstream, a fraction of the deep ocean nutrients (< 0.5 umol/kg perturbation) mix upward where they are utilized by the ambient phytoplankton population. This occurs approximately twenty-five kilometers downstream from the plant at 110 - 70 meters depth. For pico-phytoplankton, modeling results indicate that this nutrient perturbation causes a phytoplankton perturbation of approximately 1 mgC/m3 (~10% of average ambient concentrations) that covers an area 10x5 km in size at the 70 to 90m depth. Thus, the perturbations are well within the natural variability of the system, generally corresponding to a 10 to 15% increase above the a

  1. Isomer-Specific Biodegradation and Chemical Oxidation of Nonylphenol

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Lu, Zhijiang

    2014-01-01

    at 3 sites (near the rivermouth, 7 km offshore, and12 km offshore) in the Ariake Sea, Japan. As expected, thefrom the rivermouth to 7 km offshore while the concentration

  2. Numerical Modeling of CO2 Sequestration in Geologic Formations - Recent Results and Open Challenges

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Pruess, Karsten

    2006-01-01

    crustal conditions of a geothermal gradient of 30 ?C/km andwater in a normal geothermal gradient of 30 ?C/km with ais held in a normal geothermal gradient of 30 ?C/km and is

  3. Optimum Performance of Direct Hydrogen Hybrid Fuel Cell Vehicles

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Zhao, Hengbing; Burke, Andy

    2009-01-01

    Current Stack Voltage Drive Cycle (atm. ) (A) (V) (km/Hr)Current Stack Voltage Drive Cycle (atm. ) ( )A) (V) (km/Hr)Current Battery Voltage Drive Cycle (A) (V) (km/Hr) and load

  4. Compressed natural gas and liquefied petroleum gas as alternative fuels

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Moussavi, M.; Al-Turk, M. . Civil Engineering Dept.)

    1993-12-01

    The use of alternative fuels in the transportation industry has gained a strong support in recent years. In this paper an attempt was made to evaluate the use of liquefied petroleum gas (LPG) and compressed natural gas (NG) by 25 LPG-bifuel and 14 NG-bifuel vehicles that are operated by 33 transit systems throughout Nebraska. A set of performance measures such as average fuel efficiency in kilometers per liter, average fuel cost per kilometer, average oil consumption, and average operation and maintenance cost for alternatively fueled vehicles were calculated and compared with similar performance measures of gasoline powered vehicles. The results of the study showed that the average fuel efficiency of gasoline is greater than those of LPG and NG, and the average fuel costs (dollars per kilometer) for LPG and NG are smaller than those for gasoline for most of the vehicles under this study.

  5. Chromospheric Anemone Jets as Evidence of Ubiquitous Reconnection

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Kazunari Shibata; Tahei Nakamura; Takuma Matsumoto; Kenichi Otsuji; Takenori J. Okamoto; Naoto Nishizuka; Tomoko Kawate; Hiroko Watanabe; Shin'ichi Nagata; Satoru UeNo; Reizaburo Kitai; Satoshi Nozawa; Saku Tsuneta; Yoshinori Suematsu; Kiyoshi Ichimoto; Toshifumi Shimizu; Yukio Katsukawa; Theodore D. Tarbell; Thomas E. Berger; Bruce W. Lites; Richard A. Shine; Alan M. Title

    2008-10-22

    The heating of the solar chromosphere and corona is a long-standing puzzle in solar physics. Hinode observations show the ubiquitous presence of chromospheric anemone jets outside sunspots in active regions. They are typically 3 to 7 arc seconds = 2000 to 5000 kilometers long and 0.2 to 0.4 arc second = 150 to 300 kilometers wide, and their velocity is 10 to 20 kilometers per second. These small jets have an inverted Y-shape, similar to the shape of x-ray anemone jets in the corona. These features imply that magnetic reconnection similar to that in the corona is occurring at a much smaller spatial scale throughout the chromosphere and suggest that the heating of the solar chromosphere and corona may be related to small-scale ubiquitous reconnection.

  6. Solar Radiation Map of the U.S. - Annual (National Renewable Energy Laboratory)

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    2009-01-18

    Maps that provide monthly average daily total solar resource information on grid cells of approximately 40 km by 40 km in size.

  7. Digital Elevation Model, 0.5-m, Barrow Environmental Observatory, Alaska, 2012

    DOE Data Explorer [Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)]

    Gangodagamage, Chandana; Wilson, Cathy; Rowland, Joel

    The dataset is a digital elevation model, DEM, of a 2km by 7km region in the vicinity of the Barrow Environmental Observatory near Barrow, Ak.

  8. Adjusted proof of Theorem 4.19 from the book "Complex-Valued Neural Networks with Multi-Valued Neurons by Igor Aizenberg", Springer 2011. The proof is adjusted by the author.

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Aizenberg, Igor

    neurons: 0 0 1 , 1 1 1 ; ( 1) ; 1,..., . ( 1) km km km km m km km km i i km i m m m C w w N C w w Y i N N,..., ; 2,..., 1. kjkj kj kj j kj kjkj kj i i kj i j j kj j C w w N z C w w Y N z i N j m k k k k k k i i k i k C w w n z C w w x i n n z = + + =+ = + (4.136) where jN is the number

  9. On CO2 Behavior in the Subsurface, Following Leakage from a Geologic Storage Reservoir

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Pruess, Karsten

    2006-01-01

    respectively, and a geothermal gradient of 30 ?C per km thatwater in a normal geothermal gradient of 30 ?C/km with a

  10. Techno-Economic Models for Carbon Dioxide Compression, Transport, and Storage & Correlations for Estimating Carbon Dioxide Density and Viscosity

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    McCollum, David L; Ogden, Joan M

    2006-01-01

    well [ o C] G g = geothermal gradient [ o C/km] T res =injection well) and a geothermal gradient of 25 o C/km [ 8],

  11. Digital Elevation Model, 0.5-m, Barrow Environmental Observatory, Alaska, 2012

    DOE Data Explorer [Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)]

    Wilson,Cathy; Rowland,Joel; Gangodagamage,Chandana

    2013-12-08

    The dataset is a digital elevation model, DEM, of a 2km by 7km region in the vicinity of the Barrow Environmental Observatory near Barrow, Ak.

  12. Artificial ozone holes

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    S. N. Dolya

    2014-10-18

    This article considers an opportunity of disinfecting a part of the Earth surface, occupying a large area of ten thousand square kilometers. The sunlight will cause dissociation of molecular bromine into atoms; each bromine atom kills thirty thousand molecules of ozone. Each bromine plate has a mass of forty milligrams grams and destroys ozone in the area of hundred square meters. Thus, to form the ozone hole over the area of ten thousand square kilometers, it is required to have the total mass of bromine equal to the following four tons.

  13. INSTITUTE OF PHYSICS PUBLISHING NANOTECHNOLOGY Nanotechnology 13 (2002) 644652 PII: S0957-4484(02)35105-5

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    2002-01-01

    Km 163.5, 34012 Basovizza, Trieste, Italy 2 NNL (National Nanotecnology Laboratory), INFM, Universit

  14. INTERNATIONAL CONNECTIVITY Version 7 January 5, 1993

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Liblit, Ben

    ) ­­­­­ CC Cocos (Keeling) Islands b­u­­ CO Colombia (Republic of) ­­­­­ KM Comoros (Islamic Federal Republic

  15. INTERNATIONAL CONNECTIVITY Version 10 February 15, 1994

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Liblit, Ben

    (Indian Ocean) ­­­­­ CC Cocos (Keeling) Islands B­u­­ CO Colombia (Republic of) ­­­­­ KM Comoros (Islamic

  16. Kode Dansk English AD Andorra ANDORRA

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    KENYA KG Kirgisistan KYRGYZSTAN KH Cambodia CAMBODIA KI Kiribati KIRIBATI KM Comorerne COMOROS KN Sankt

  17. INTERNATIONAL CONNECTIVITY Version 16 June 15, 1997

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Liblit, Ben

    ) Islands Iu­ CO Colombia (Republic of) ­­­ KM Comoros (Islamic Federal Republic of the) ­­­ CG Congo

  18. INTERNATIONAL CONNECTIVITY Version 8 April 15, 1993

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Liblit, Ben

    (Republic of) ­­­­­ KM Comoros (Islamic Federal Republic of the) ­­u­­ CG Congo (Republic of the) ­­­­­ CK

  19. INTERNATIONAL CONNECTIVITY Version 13 February 15, 1995

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Liblit, Ben

    Colombia (Republic of) ­­­­ KM Comoros (Islamic Federal Republic of the) ­­U­ CG Congo (Republic of the

  20. INTERNATIONAL CONNECTIVITY Version 9 August 1, 1993

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Liblit, Ben

    (Indian Ocean) ­­­­­ CC Cocos (Keeling) Islands B­u­­ CO Colombia (Republic of) ­­­­­ KM Comoros (Islamic

  1. INTERNATIONAL CONNECTIVITY Version 12 November 15, 1994

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Liblit, Ben

    (Keeling) Islands BIu­ CO Colombia (Republic of) ­­­­ KM Comoros (Islamic Federal Republic of the) ­­u­ CG

  2. Energy Management in Microgrids: Algorithms and System

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Shi, Wenbo

    2015-01-01

    1.5MW 0.3MW 1.9km wind 3000kW 0.3MW diesel 0.2km 1000kW1.5MW 0.3MW 1.9km wind 3000kW 0.3MW diesel 0.2km 1000kW

  3. WILDLAND WEEDS 19 Introduction

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Ling, Sharon Ewe Mei

    " (small fruit orchards) were examined. Ewe and her partners traveled approximately 600 km in the urban

  4. 1. Introduction There exists a belief that addition of nanoparticles

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    North Texas, University of

    Sustentable (CIQS), Facultad de Química, Universidad Autónoma del Estado de México, Km. 12 de la carretera

  5. Middle Pleistocene climate and habitat change at Zhoukoudian, China, from the carbon and oxygen isotopic record from

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    ; Paleoecology Introduction Zhoukoudian, located about 50 km to the southwest of Beijing (see Fig. 1

  6. University of Hawai`i at Mnoa INFORMASI UNTUK MAHASISWA

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    riset kelautan sendiri yang bernama Coconut Island (Pulau Kelapa), terletak 24 km di lepas pantai timur

  7. Journal of species lists and distribution Chec ListNotesoNGeoGraphicDistributioN

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Aguirre, Windsor E.

    Litoral, Facultad de Ingenieria Marítima, Ciencias Biológicas Oceánicas y Recursos Naturales. Km 30.5 Via

  8. Supp. Info of Aiken et al. (2010) Page 1 of 15 Supplementary Information for Aiken et al. "Mexico City Aerosol Analysis during

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Meskhidze, Nicholas

    2010-01-01

    Supp. Info of Aiken et al. (2010) Page 1 of 15 Supplementary Information for Aiken et al. "Mexico Supersite (T0). Part 2: Analysis of the Biomass Burning Contribution and the Modern Carbon Fraction." #12 MODIS fire counts from March to April of 2006 for each radius: (c) 60 km, 120 km, 250 km, (d) 500 km

  9. EOS, TRANSACTIONS, AMERICAN GEOPHYSICAL UNION Seismology is the study of the propaga-

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Wright, Dawn Jeannine

    assessment, nuclear test monitoring and treaty verifica- tion, volcano and tsunami warning systems, and mineral resources at depths of meters to a few kilometers. Detailed knowledge of the Earth's near sur- face is therefore a crucial part of managing a sustainable environment for civilization. One

  10. Investigating transport pathways in the ocean Annalisa Griffa a,b,n

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Ozgökmen, Tamay M.

    of kilometers to the dissipation scales. Transport by ocean currents plays an important role in many practical is relevant to a number of important applications. Ocean currents transport physical properties to understand and predict transport by ocean currents is crucial for climatic applications, for instance

  11. Seasonally Flooded Grasslands -Grand CaymanSeasonally Flooded Grasslands -Grand Cayman 0 1 2 3 4 50.5

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Exeter, University of

    Seasonally Flooded Grasslands - Grand CaymanSeasonally Flooded Grasslands - Grand Cayman 0 1 2 3 4 Protected Areas Seasonally Flooded Grasslands V.A.1.N.g. #12;Seasonally Flooded Grasslands - Little CaymanSeasonally Flooded Grasslands - Little Cayman 0 0.5 1 1.5 2 2.50.25 Kilometers Cayman Islands National Biodiversity

  12. Exploring the Earth from Mars David T. Sandwell

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Sandwell, David T.

    orthogonal ridge/transform patterns, and a magnetic field that reverses at just the right rate to be recorded of kilometers (miles) across the mantle of the Earth at rates that are too slow to be observed without the aid further to claim that it is the optimal mechanism for the Earth to shed excess radiogenic heat produced

  13. Crustal structure of the Gamburtsev Mountains, East Antarctica, from S-wave receiver functions and Rayleigh wave phase velocities

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    , USA c Dept. of Earth and Planetary Sciences, Washington University in St. Louis, St. Louis, MO 63130 tectonic features on Earth. Buried beneath several kilometers of ice, the mountains are characterized large-scale ice sheets that formed in Antarctica as the Earth's climate cooled ~34 Ma (Bo et al., 2009

  14. Technische Universitt Mnchen Corporate Communications Center 80290 Mnchen www.tum.de Name Funktion Telefon E-Mail

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Kemper, Gregor

    . "EVA" showcases a new super-fast charging system recharging the battery within 15 minutes, a range of 200 kilometers and an individual air conditioning. TUM CREATE is a common research project such as individualized overhead air- conditioning. "This new electric taxi for tropical mega cities, developed

  15. What does it take to earn a BS degree in Electrical Engineering? A BS degree in Electrical Engineering is earned through a 4-year program involving a fundamental

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Maxwell, Bruce D.

    the country ... or communications with deep space probes billions of kilometers out in space ... or anything people need to know," such as social science, artistic expression, writing, public speaking, history Details Signals and Systems Control Systems Electrical Power and Energy Conversion Telecommunications

  16. Humboldt National Forest East Mormon

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Laughlin, Robert B.

    Humboldt National Forest Humboldt National Forest Millers Delamar Valley Dry Lake Dry Lake Valley Boundary Existing Designated Corridor (See Note 2) (As of 6/5/2009) Solar Energy Study Area (As of 6 14 16 Kilometers Carson City Ely Nevada Las Vegas Solar Energy Study Areas in Nevada Map Prepared

  17. CTWatch Quarterly August 2005 Low Power Computing for Fleas, Mice, and

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    , as with a Formula One race car, where one gets only a little over one kilometer at almost any cost? Certainly it is fair to say that performance/power has always been an engineering Special? From an engineering point of view, it is obvious that one would want to save power to attain

  18. Energy Transition Initiative: Island Energy Snapshot - San Andres and Providencia (Fact Sheet); NREL(National Renewable Energy Laboratory)

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    2015-03-01

    This profile provides a snapshot of the energy landscape of the Archipelago of San Andres, Providencia, and Santa Catalina (unpopulated), also known as San Andres and Providencia, which is equidistant between Costa Rica and Jamaica and 775 kilometers northwest of Colombia. The archipelago is part of Colombia, though Nicaragua has also laid claim to it.

  19. Observation of Parametric Instability in Advanced LIGO

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Evans, Matthew; Fritschel, Peter; Miller, John; Barsotti, Lisa; Martynov, Denis; Brooks, Aidan; Coyne, Dennis; Abbott, Rich; Adhikari, Rana; Arai, Koji; Bork, Rolf; Kells, Bill; Rollins, Jameson; Smith-Lefebvre, Nicolas; Vajente, Gabriele; Yamamoto, Hiroaki; Derosa, Ryan; Effler, Anamaria; Kokeyama, Keiko; Betzweiser, Joseph; Frolov, Valera; Mullavey, Adam; O`Reilly, Brian; Dwyer, Sheila; Izumi, Kiwamu; Kawabe, Keita; Landry, Michael; Sigg, Daniel; Ballmer, Stefan; Massinger, Thomas J; Staley, Alexa; Mueller, Chris; Grote, Hartmut; Ward, Robert; King, Eleanor; Blair, David; Ju, Li; Zhao, Chunnong

    2015-01-01

    Parametric instabilities have long been studied as a potentially limiting effect in high-power interferometric gravitational wave detectors. Until now, however, these instabilities have never been observed in a kilometer-scale interferometer. In this work we describe the first observation of parametric instability in an Advanced LIGO detector, and the means by which it has been removed as a barrier to progress.

  20. Convective-Resolving Regional Climate Simulations for the Amazon Basin: Comparison with TRMM Rainfall Data 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Kinney, Nichole 1987-

    2012-08-21

    ), Clark and Peltier (1977), and Clark (1979). It is worth mentioning that the technology at the time limited their domain size to a few tens of kilometers and their runtimes to a few hours at the spatial and temporal resolutions required to simulate a...

  1. 2010 Annual Research Report www.osc.edu

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Calyam, Prasad

    that a water filter may exist 440-660 kilometers beneath the surface. Alternatively, water may exist is covered with water, in the form of oceans, ice, rivers and lakes. However, even our brightest scientists know little about the distribution of water beneath the planet's surface or even how much total water

  2. Analytical and Numerical Investigation of 3D Multilayer Detachment Folding

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Kaus, Boris

    of kilometers in places where upper crustal rocks are compressed as a result of tectonic plate convergence (such layer [4, 5] affected by gravity with three different material viscosities: lower detachment or salt wavelength () and growth rate (q) that accounts for all model parameters (salt viscosity s, competent layer

  3. The Low-Frequency ArrayThe Low-Frequency Array HeinoHeino FalckeFalcke

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Meyer-Vernet, Nicole

    LOFARLOFAR The Low-Frequency ArrayThe Low-Frequency Array HeinoHeino FalckeFalcke LOFAR of the Netherlands plus Germany · Frequencies: 30 - 240 MHz · 10% Square Kilometer Array (SKA) prototype at low Falcke et al. (2005), Nature, Vol. 435, p. 313 #12;Low-Frequency Observations of the Moon · Lunar radio

  4. Tracking deep mantle reservoirs with ultra-low velocity zones Allen K. McNamara a,

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Rhoads, James

    . Garnero a , Sebastian Rost b a Arizona State University, School of Earth and Space Exploration, PO Box exhibit anomalous seismic properties within a thin zone, less than tens of kilometers in thickness (ULVZs) due to their greater than 10% drop in seismic velocities. High resolution seismic array studies

  5. Establishing Public Policy as a Primary Cause of Engineering Failure: Did Market Deregulation Lead to the North American `Blackout', August 14th 2003?

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Williamson, John

    some 3,700 utility organizations providing more than 320,000 kilometers of transmission lines and Ontario, Canada, experienced an electric power blackout on 14th August 2003. The outage affected an area to their power supplies. Losses have been estimated between $5-10 billion. It is, therefore, one of the most wide

  6. FastTIMES v. 15, no. 3, October 2010 43 0XOWL)UHTXHQF\\ (0 6XUYH\\V +HOS ,GHQWLI\\ 3RVVLEOH 1HDU

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Wilson, Thomas H.

    Partnership (SWP) on Carbon Sequestration's San Juan Basin Fruitland Coal pilot test. The project was funded). The efforts reported on here were undertaken as part of the NETL Phase II Regional Partnership activities 70 line-kilometers of multi-frequency EM data were collected over a carbon sequestra- tion pilot site

  7. WHY SMALL IS BEAUTIFUL AND HOW TO DETECT ANOTHER 10 BILLION SMALL MAIN BELT ASTEROIDS. Henning Haack1

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Andersen, Anja C.

    WHY SMALL IS BEAUTIFUL ­ AND HOW TO DETECT ANOTHER 10 BILLION SMALL MAIN BELT ASTEROIDS. Henning. Introduction: Estimates of the size distribution of main belt asteroids suggest that there is a population- tant sub-kilometer asteroids in the main belt. Long intergration times cannot be used unless the object

  8. Deep-SeaResearch,Vo[ 33. No 8. pp. 1003 11)15. 198(3. qUg.s, 1)14~l/at~ $~ Illl ~ II !~ll Printed ill Grcal Britain. Pt2r~illlltlll .hltllllals lid

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Talley, Lynne D.

    ill Grcal Britain. Pt2r~illlltlll .hltllllals lid RAPID RESPONSE PAPER The geothermal heating characteristics in the deepest kilometer ol the water cohmm. Geothermal heat flux from the abyssal sediments can characteristics of the abyssal waters are gradually altered by vertical mixing with the warmer, less saline

  9. Eric J. Korpela Publications

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Korpela, Eric J.

    for Extraterrestrial Intelligence with the Square Kilometre Array," in [Astronomy and Astrophsics with the Square Kilometer Array], Proc. Sci. 116 (Dec. 2014) arXiv:1412.4867 ADS:2014arXiv1412.4867S . 111. Pingel, N. M

  10. arXiv:1012.3507v1 [astroph.IM

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Crawford III, Fronefield

    arXiv:1012.3507v1 [astro­ph.IM] 16 Dec 2010 Pulsars with the Australian Square Kilometre Array of Amsterdam, 1098 SJ Amsterdam, Netherlands #12; Abstract. The Australian Square Kilometre Array Pathfinder Kilometre Array Pathfinder (ASKAP) is currently being built at the proposed site for the Square Kilometer

  11. 1 Chemistry and Related Properties of Freshly Emitted Sea Spray 3 Patricia K. Quinn,*,

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    combustion, biomass burning, dust, and biogenic emissions) 41can be transported great distances across ocean basins, either in 42the boundary layer or in the free troposphere. Marine vessel 43emissions also events that carry continental 49emissions thousands of kilometers downwind. While acknowl- 50edging

  12. Remotely forced nearshore upwelling in Southern California James M. Pringle1

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Pringle, James "Jamie"

    In Press JGR/oceans 1 jpringle@cisunix.unh.edu 142 Morse Hall, UNH 39 College Str. Durham, NH, 03824-3525 2 Alongshore winds in Baja California strongly influence nearshore temperatures hun- dreds of kilometers to the north at Pt. Loma, San Diego, California on timescales of a week to a year. The time lag between wind

  13. A nested grid model of the Oregon Coastal Transition Zone: Simulations and comparisons with observations during the 2001

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Kurapov, Alexander

    several hundred kilometers offshore where shelf flows interact with the northern California Current. A primitive-equation numerical ocean model is used to study the upwelling circulation in this region from 1 is realistic representation of coastal jet separation and eddy formation offshore of Cape Blanco. Three

  14. U.S. Department of the Interior U.S. Geological Survey

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    . With Louisianas coastal wetlands converting to open water at a rate of 25-35 square miles (65-91 square kilometers to provide a new fur resource and to control problem plants such as the water hyacinth (Eichhornia crassipes in the 1950s, the Louisiana legislature promoted fur harvest by offering a $0.25 bounty in 16 parishes

  15. Observations of PKKP Precursors Used to Estimate Small-Scale Topography on the

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Shearer, Peter

    Observations of PKKP Precursors Used to Estimate Small-Scale Topography on the Core-Mantle Boundary shows that scattering from random small-scale topography at the PKKP core-mantle­boundary reflection core-mantle­boundary topography of 250 to 350 meters and correlation length of 7 to 10 kilometers

  16. High Performance Computing Technologies Jack Dongarra

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Dongarra, Jack

    Fundamental limits are being approached. ffl More cost effective solution Example: Weather Prediction (Navier pressure humidity 3 \\Gamma wind velocity ffl 1 Kilometer Cells ffl 10 slices ! 5 \\Theta 10 9 cells ffl each Industry ffl Huge users of HPC technology: Ford (US) is 25th largest user of HPC in the world ffl Main uses

  17. High Performance Computing Technologies Jack Dongarra

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Dongarra, Jack

    limits are being approached. More cost e ective solution Example: Weather Prediction Navier-Stokes with 3D Grid around the Earth 6 variables 8 : temperature pressure humidity 3 ,wind velocity 1 Kilometer Huge users of HPC technology: Ford US is 25th largest user of HPC in the world Main uses of simulation

  18. Scattered waves from low-frequency earthquakes and plate boundary structure in northern Cascadia

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Nowack, Robert L.

    et al., 2012], a region with generally low levels of regular seismicity, has afforded a new source of seismic energy with which to interro- gate plate boundary structure. We review constraints on plate to northern Vancouver Island, and from some tens of kilometers seaward of the coast to depths in excess of 40

  19. The Effect of Hurricane Hugo on Six Invertebrate Species in the Luquillo Experimental Forest of Puerto Ricol

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Willig, Michael

    The Effect of Hurricane Hugo on Six Invertebrate Species in the Luquillo Experimental Forest,the consequencesof catastrophic events are poorly understood. On 18September 1787 Hurricane Hugo struck Puerto Rico, with the center of the hurricane passing within ten kilometers of the Luquillo Experimental Forest. This provided

  20. Author's personal copy Model-based control of multiphase flow in subsurface oil reservoirs

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Van den Hof, Paul

    of meters. They are typically in the order of tens of meters thick and cover sev- eral square kilometers this primary recovery phase ends, and it will be necessary to inject water or gas into the reservoir in the oil industry under various names, such as `smart fields', `intelligent fields', `real-time reservoir

  1. Reprint draft October 8, 2003 Pliocene tephra correlations between East African

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    deMenocal, Peter B.

    , University of Utah, Salt Lake City, UT 84112 Abstract A continuous record of Pliocene-Pleistocene East African volcanic tephra deposition has been developed from a marine sediment sequence at Ocean Drilling-Sea Drilling Project (DSDP) sites from the Gulf of Aden, nearly one thousand kilometers northeast of hominid

  2. 1. Background What is the fate of the Amazon under climate change?

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Saleska, Scott

    through forest transpiration significant cooling from forest latent heat fluxes #12;What will climate "transpiration services": $PDG Bolivia300 0 300 600 Kilometers 2 0 ° 2 0 ° 8 0 ° 7 5 ° 7 0 ° 6 5 ° 6 0 ° 5 5 ° 5 transpiration Ecophysiological feedbacks in Hadley ModelEcophysiological feedbacks in Hadley Model Amazon

  3. For JCLI CCSM Special Issue The influence of sea ice on ocean heat uptake in

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Bitz, Cecilia

    and the rate of ocean heat uptake. The warming rate in response to increasing green- house gases in models CO2 are investigated with CCSM3: A deep warming below 500 m and extending down several kilometers in the Southern Ocean and warming in a 200-m layer just below the surface in the Arctic Ocean. Ocean heat uptake

  4. Earth System Science at Cornell Earth system sciences looks at the integrated whole of the planet,

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Walter, M.Todd

    Earth System Science at Cornell Earth system sciences looks at the integrated whole of the planet for earth system science range from nm to 1000's of kilometers. Advancing earth system science requires whose work contributes to an understanding of earth system science. We think that organizing ourselves

  5. Modeling Sediment and Wood Storage and Dynamics in Small Mountainous Watersheds

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    85 Modeling Sediment and Wood Storage and Dynamics in Small Mountainous Watersheds Stephen T controls on supply and transport of sediment and wood in a small (approximately two square kilometers) basin in the Oregon Coast Range, typical of streams at the interface between episodic sediment and wood

  6. Pallickara, Plale, Jensen, Sun Structure, sharing and preservation of scientific experiment data

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Pallickara, Sangmi

    with developments in sensors and instruments capable of monitoring the lower several kilometers of the atmosphere that we conducted. Keywords: Scientific Computing, Metadata, Grid Services, LEAD, Experiment data, OGSA solution is a metadata database for storing metadata about data products. A scientist, in the process

  7. Stochastic Programming Formulation for Integrating Renewables into the Distribution Grid

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Ernst, Damien

    #12;Distribution Networks Distribution networks had been designed to carry power from the transmis. The set of scenarios sizing the network infrastructure might not be frequent. Much more kilometers of electricity markets : .... Day-ahead market Intraday market Time ... Period 1 Period 2 Period T ... Real

  8. ASP Conference Series, Vol. **VOLUME**, **PUBLICATION YEAR** **EDITORS**

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Jeffery, Simon

    **TITLE** ASP Conference Series, Vol. **VOLUME**, **PUBLICATION YEAR** **EDITORS** Exotic stars the conference worthwhile, and what have we learnt?". The #12;rst speci#12;c question to consider is \\What makes a star exotic?" A sign outside the conference hotel, situated on route A1A a few kilometers north

  9. Non-profit Organization U.S. Postage

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Gao, Grace Xingxin

    generate appreciable wave amplitudes in the upper atmo- sphere ­ in this case, the airglow layer Japan, was observed in an airglow layer 250 kilometers above the earth's surface. It preceded. As a tsunami moves across the ocean, it produces atmospheric gravity waves forced by centimeter-level surface

  10. JournalofGeophysicalResearch: EarthSurface RESEARCH ARTICLE

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Ashkenazy, Yossi "Yosef"

    of kilometers) [Yizhaq et al., 2007, 2013]. Sand dunes cover vast areas in arid and coastal regions ( 10. Dunes may be stabilized by vegetation and/or biogenic soil crust (BSC) [Danin et al., 1989]; since: · Modeling the role of psammophilous plants in sand dune dynamics · One, two, or, first predicted here, three

  11. 36 IEEE GEOSCIENCE AND REMOTE SENSING LETTERS, VOL. 3, NO. 1, JANUARY 2006 A Novel ELF Radar for Major Oil Deposits

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Taflove, Allen

    for Major Oil Deposits Jamesina J. Simpson, Student Member, IEEE, and Allen Taflove, Fellow, IEEE Abstract--This letter proposes a novel extremely low frequency (ELF) radar for major oil deposits. Using our recently provides a sensitive means to detect oil fields that are located within several kilometers of the Earth

  12. 1 INTRODUCTION 1.1 Purpose and Scope of MARSSIM

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Agency (EPA), the Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC), and the Department of Energy (DOE) are responsible--ranging in size from Federal weapons- production facilities covering hundreds of square kilometers to the nuclear specific regulatory limit) was met. In MARSSIM, this demonstration is given the name "final status survey

  13. Flashover vulnerability of transmission and distribution lines to high-altitude electromagnetic pulse

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Kruse, V.J. (Westinghouse Electric Corp., Pittsburgh, PA (USA). Advanced Systems Technology Div.); Tesche, F.M. (E-Systems, Inc., Greenville, TX (USA)); Liu, T.K. (Lutech, Inc., Oakland, CA (US)); Barnes, P.R. (Oak Ridge National Lab., TN (USA))

    1990-04-01

    This paper estimates the vulnerability of transmission and distribution lines to flashover from the electromagnetic pulse generated by a nuclear detonation 400 kilometers above the earth. The analysis consists of first determining the cumulative probability of induced-voltage on three-phase lines, including shield and neutral conductors, for four operating voltages and then comparing these stresses to estimates of line insulation strength.

  14. Tracing global biogeochemical cycles and meridional overturning circulation using chromophoric dissolved organic matter

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Siegel, David A.

    of the ocean, ultraviolet light penetration, and photochemical reactions that influence the cycling) within the top kilometer of the Pacific and Indian Oceans. However, a much weaker correspondence is found encompass all three ocean basins transecting the subtropics where satelliteretrieved surface ocean CDOM

  15. AFFILIATIONS: X. Li--GST, NOAA/NESDIS, College Park, Maryland; Zhang--Hurricane Research Division, AOML, NOAA,

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Long, David G.

    at kilometer spa- tial resolution. However, the intense air­sea inter- action near the ocean surface cannot;radar that emits radar pulses that can penetrate through clouds. SAR then receives the radar back the ocean surface return--a process quite similar to the QuikSCAT scatterometer wind retrieval. As a result

  16. the continental crust or the over-lying sediments. Microorganisms

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Lovley, Derek

    of the University of Washington, Seattle. Just how massive this ocean crustal bio- sphere might be remains unclear,000 kilometers through the global ocean. For example, something seems to be nib- bling on the glass that makes up about 5% of ocean crustal rock; samples of the glass brought up by deep drilling are scarred with pits

  17. The BErkeley Lab Laser Accelerator (BELLA): A 10 GeV Laser Plasma Accelerator

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Geddes, Cameron Guy Robinson

    of something like the proposed International Linear Collider--a 25 miles (40 kilometers) long machine place formidable demands on the accelerators that drive them. The design of the International Linear Collider (ILC), an RF-driven, TeV-scale, electron-positron machine, calls for a luminosity of 1034 cm-2 s-1

  18. datamanagementgroup 2011 SURVEY AREA SUMMARY

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Toronto, University of

    RidgeRd. SimcoeSt. Hwy.7&12 RegRd.57 0 4 8 Kilometers Area = 51,980 Hectares #12;POPULATION CHARACTERISTICSdatamanagementgroup 2011 SURVEY AREA SUMMARY DEPARTMENT OF CIVIL ENGINEERING - UNIVERSITY Drivers Vehicles Trips/day 2011 2006 1996 1986 datamanagementgroup 2011 SURVEY AREA SUMMARY DEPARTMENT

  19. Arctic Whale Ecology Study (ARCWEST)/ Chukchi Acoustics, Oceanography, and Zooplankton

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    (AKC 108) November 2014 #12;ARCWEST 2014 Cruise Report M12PG00021 (AKC 108) 2 of 51 This report set in 2007 (4.30 million square kilometers). This area was more than 50% less than that of two information on the year-round presence of large whales is needed in the Chukchi Sea planning area. Timing

  20. datamanagementgroup 2011 SURVEY AREA SUMMARY

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Toronto, University of

    datamanagementgroup 2011 SURVEY AREA SUMMARY DEPARTMENT OF CIVIL ENGINEERING - UNIVERSITY OF TORONTO PREPARED BY 51 TOWN OF RICHMOND HILL REGIONAL MUNICIPALITY OF YORK LeslieSt. Stouffville Rd. King 6 Kilometers Area = 10,180 Hectares #12;POPULATION CHARACTERISTICS Population Age Daily

  1. (ARCTIC WHALE ECOLOGY STUDY) 2013 Cruise Report

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    of 51 This report was prepared by the ARCWEST principal investigators: Nancy A. Friday1 , Ph.D., Phillip.30 million square kilometers). This area was more than 50% less than that of two decades ago. The speed-round presence of large whales is needed in the Chukchi Sea planning area. Timing and location of whale

  2. Reducing False Alarms with Multi-modal Sensing for Pipeline Blockage (Extended)

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Heidemann, John

    oilfield has many kilometers of distribution flowlines that collect crude oil extracted from wellhead by studying a specific application: blockages in oil flowline common in cold weather. We use pipe skin to collect data, detect prob- lems, and take actions in the physical world. Small and inexpensive, sensornets

  3. IEEE Wireless Communications February 2015112 1536-1284/15/$25.00 2015 IEEE Miao Wang and Xuemin

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Shen, Xuemin "Sherman"

    in gasoline costs over the vehicle's lifetime. For instance, a TESLA Model S, a pioneer retail battery PEV produced by TESLA Motors, costs only $30 per kilometer, while a gasoline-fueled premium sedan costs $173). As report- ed in [1], battery powered PEVs, which completely depend on rechargeable batteries and thus

  4. 16 IEEE Canadian Review -Spring / Printemps 2003 1.0 Introduction

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Ng, Wai Tung

    power flow to the motor. There are cur- rently a number of companies specializing in e, approximately 300 companies sold over 1 million electric bikes in 2002 [1]. The efficiency of the e less energy per kilometer than a standard car. In addition, as solar panel technology becomes more

  5. WORLD RIVERS REVIEW June 2014 5 or over 200 consecutive days, indigenous Penan, Kenyah and

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Kammen, Daniel M.

    of Renewable Energy ("SCORE") is a component of Malaysia's nation- al development plan that proposes buildingBaramDam,inSarawak,Malaysia. They have successfully stalled the construction of this project, which would flood 400 square kilometers and environmental groups in Sarawak, argue that there is no need for such a destructive project when the nearby

  6. REVISED DRAFT September, 1991

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    building an island of about 5 square kilometers (actually 511 hectares or 1308 acres) in an average at the Massachusetts Institute of Technology. He is the author of Airport Systems Planning as well as three other texts on engineering systems analysis. As the Chairman of M.I.T.'s Technology and Policy Program, he spent his 1990

  7. Moore, J. C, Mascle, A., et al., 1990 Proceedings of the Ocean Drilling Program, Scientific Results, Vol. 110

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    scales of tens to tens of thousands of years. High heat flow in the vicinity of 15°30'N and not elsewhere. Surface heat-flow values from Leg110(calculated from geothermal gradients forced through the bottom forearc and trench sediments. Geothermal gradi ents in the upper kilometer of sediment that extrapolate

  8. OCEAN STIRRING BY SWIMMING BODIES Jean-Luc Thiffeault

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    proposed that the mechanical energy delivered by the swimming motions of the marine biosphere could amount to almost 1012 W, a figure comparable to the energy delivered by the winds and tides. This suggests that this energy is delivered to the top three kilometers of the oceans, they estimate an effective diffusivity

  9. In Proceedings SC'98 Adaptive Parallel Computation of a Grand-Challenge Problem

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Stout, Quentin F.

    that the Sun interacts with the Earth is through the solar wind, which is an ionized multi- component fluid that emanates from the Sun and travels radially outward at hundreds of kilometers per second. Solar-wind involved in solar-wind phenomena, it had previously been impossible to predict CME propa- gation to Earth

  10. Architecture of the upper Sego Sandstone, Book Cliffs, Utah 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Birkhead, Stanley Scott

    2006-04-12

    ................................................................................................................... 22 SEDIMENTOLOGY.................................................................................................... 26 Marine Shale with Wavy Sandstones............................................................... 26 Highly... surfaces. The cross-section defines an 8.5 kilometer section that begins in Sego Canyon outside of Thompson Springs, Figure 12-Bedding diagram of major facies transitions with sedimentary logs overlain. SEDIMENTOLOGY Upper Sego Sandstone deposits can...

  11. Fission-track tectonic studies of the Transantarctic Mountains, Beardmore Glacier area

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Fitzgerald, P.G.

    1986-01-01

    The Transantarctic Mountains are a major transcontinental range stretching for some 4000 kilometers, varying from 200-400 kilometers in width, and having elevations up to 4500 meters. The uplift and formation of the Transantarctic Mountains have always been something of an enigma, but recent apatite fission-track analysis is providing important new information not only about their uplift history but also about the implications of that uplift history for the glacial history of Antarctica as a whole. The main field objective of this project was to collect samples for fission-track analysis to determine the timing and rate of uplift of the Transantarctic Mountains and measure relative vertical displacements across faults within the range. Results from southern Victoria Land indicate that uplift of the Transantarctic Mountains was initiated at about 50 million years ago and since that time the mountains have undergone some 5 kilometers of uplift at an average rate of 100 meters per million years. It is important to realize, however, that this is an average rate and may well conceal pulses of faster and slower uplift or even periods of subsidence. The amount of uplift across the mountain range is differential; from the axis of maximum uplift about 30 kilometers inland of the Victoria Land coast, the mountains dip gently westward under the polar ice cap. The study was extended to the Beardmore Glacier area to see whether the uplift history and tectonics varies from that observed in southern Victoria Land.

  12. Topography of the Lunar Poles from Radar Interferometry: A

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Margot, Jean-Luc

    Topography of the Lunar Poles from Radar Interferometry: A Survey of Cold Trap Locations J. L. Margot,1 * D. B. Campbell,1 R. F. Jurgens,2 M. A. Slade2 Detailed topographic maps of the lunar poles are 1030 and 2550 square kilometers for the north and south poles, respectively. Topographic depressions

  13. JAVA Project IMIS 2009-2010 Page 1 sur 3 JAVA Project IMIS

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Marfisi-Schottman, Iza

    the flow of luggage and carts in the airport. Big luggage Batterie recharge Airplane 3Airplane 2Airplane 1-in desk. #12;JAVA Project ­ IMIS ­ 2009-2010 Page 2 sur 3 The carts run on a battery that needs to be recharged every few kilometers. When the chart detects that its battery is low, it goes to one

  14. Commercial exploitation of nanophase powder formed with exploding wire technology. Final report

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    NONE

    1996-10-01

    In this report, the region of the energy density under the uniform heating conditions, of the lower pressures of the gas environment and of the smaller wire diameter have been studied. Here, the theoretical investigations of exploding wire and powder formation processes are presented, the results of experimental investigations are discussed. It is demonstrated that exploding wire technique is able to produce nanophase powders of aluminum and iron oxides with the mean surface size of 30 nm or less at commercial quantities per hour and the cost of no more than $1,000 per kilogram. Here too, decisions for theoretical and technical activity during future program are recommended.

  15. TRITIUM EXTRACTION FACILITY ALARA

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Joye, BROTHERTON

    2005-04-19

    The primary mission of the Tritium Extraction Facility (TEF) is to extract tritium from tritium producing burnable absorber rods (TPBARs) that have been irradiated in a commercial light water reactor and to deliver tritium-containing gas to the Savannah River Site Facility 233-H. The tritium extraction segment provides the capability to deliver three (3) kilograms per year to the nation's nuclear weapons stockpile. The TEF includes processes, equipment and facilities capable of production-scale extraction of tritium while minimizing personnel radiation exposure, environmental releases, and waste generation.

  16. Separation of rare gases and chiral molecules by selective binding in porous organic cages

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Chen, Linjiang; Reiss, Paul S.; Chong, Samantha Y.; Holden, Daniel; Jelfs, Kim E.; Hasell, Tom; Little, Marc A.; Kewley, Adam; Briggs, Michael E.; Stephenson, Andrew; Thomas, K. M.; Armstrong, Jayne A.; Bell, Jon; Busto, Jose; Noel, Raymond; Liu, Jian; Strachan, Denis M.; Thallapally, Praveen K.; Cooper, Andrew I.

    2014-10-31

    Abstract: The rare gases krypton, xenon, and radon pose both an economic opportunity and a potential environmental hazard. Xenon is used in commercial lighting, medical imaging, and anesthesia, and can sell for $5,000 per kilogram. Radon, by contrast, Is naturally radioactive and the second largest cause of lung cancer, and radioactive xenon, 133Xe, was a major pollutant released In the Fukushima Daiichi Nuclear Power Plant disaster. We describe an organic cage molecule that can capture xenon and radon with unprecedented selectivity, suggesting new technologies for environmental monitoring, removal of pollutants, or the recovery of rare, valuable elements from air.

  17. Trace Fission Product Ratios for Nuclear Forensics Attribution of Weapons-Grade Plutonium from Fast Breeder Reactor Blankets 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Osborn, Jeremy

    2014-08-13

    for the 500-MWe Indian PFBR was obtained from Chirayath et al.22 and essential parameters are listed in Table II. There is an active core, one meter in height, which consists of an inner core and outer core of MOX “driver” fuel. The MOX fuel of the active...-Particle MOX – Mixed Oxide MWd/kg – Megawatt-day per kilogram of heavy metal MWe – Megawatt electric NPT – Treaty on the Non-Proliferation of Nuclear Weapons ORNL – Oak Ridge National Laboratory PFBR – Prototype Fast Breeder Reactor PHWR...

  18. A comparative study of seating for the elderly and arthritic 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Gueths, Ellen Ann

    1985-01-01

    96 31. 32. Kilograms (lbs. ) of Force at 25. 4 cm (10. 0 in. ) Armrest Height for Height Category = Average. Maximum Pressure in mmHg (lbs/in ) - Duncans Multiple Range 2 Test ~ 98 104 33. Mean Pressure in mmHg (lbs/in ) ? Duncans Multiple... by Finlay, Bayles, Rosen, and Milling. Finlay et al. (1983) has shown that ambulatory women (average age of 80) could rise more easily from a seat 40. 6 cm (16. 0 in. ) to 43. 2 cm (17. 0 in. ) high than from a lower seat. Finlay et al. also found...

  19. A study of the use of feed supplements for prevention of experimental bitterweed (Hymenoxys odorata) poisoning in sheep 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Bridges, Gary Wayne

    1977-01-01

    in reducing the toxicity of bitterv!eed (~H&!en~ox s odorata). In each of four experiments, sheep were divided into four groups of two and were dosed with bitterweed equal in weight to 0. 1/, 0. 2/, 0. 4'i and 0. 8'/ of their body weight. The median lethal... as above and the LD50 was estimated to be 4. 0 + 0. 3 gm bitterweed per kilogrtln! of body weight. Sodium sulfate, administered to the lambs at a rate of 340 mg per kilogram of body v!eight prior to dosing with bitterv!eed, also affected the toxicity...

  20. Adak Island, Alaska, Microearthquake survey: Preliminary Hypocenter Determinations

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Lange, Arthur L.; Avramenko, Walter

    1982-11-05

    Microearthquakes, defined as shocks having magnitudes less than 4, are commonly recorded in the vicinity of geothermal manifestations and volcanism. They have been mapped from producing geothermal fields as well as those not yet developed, in such places as Iceland, El Salvador, Japan, Kenya and the US. Microearthquakes have been recorded at several geothermal sites in the Imperial Valley and Coso Hot Springs, California; Kilbourne Hole, New Mexico; Yellowstone National Park, Wyoming; and The Geysers, California, where there is debate over whether or not the seismicity is induced by steam production. Seismicity occurs around active volcanoes, but appears reduced directly over zones of high temperature or magma, where the depth of the brittle fracture zone is shallow, as over Yellowstone caldera. In areas of active hydrothermalism, regional stress is likely to be relieved by low-level seismicity rather than occasional large ruptures, owing to the high temperatures, presence of fluids, and crustal weakening due to alteration and fracturing. Active faulting maintains the permeability of the system, which in its absence, might otherwise seal. on the microscopic scale, pore-fluid pressures rise as a result of heating, resulting in the decrease of effective pressure at the pore-mineral boundary. When this effective pressure becomes less than the rock's tensile strength, the pore ruptures; and if it intersects a through-going fracture under hydrostatic pressure can result in a shock detectable on seismographs at the surface. Such a mechanism might also account for the swarms of very small events seen in a number of geothermal areas. A microearthquake survey was conducted on Adak Island, Alaska for the purpose of identifying seismicity associated with a possible geothermal reservoir. During 30 days of recording in September and October 1982, 190 seismic events were recorded on two or more stations of a nine-station network. Of the total, 33 were of local origin, and of these 24 were locatable. Utilizing a 5 km/sec constant velocity earth model, the hypocenters define a structure dipping north-northwestward toward the Bering Sea, beneath Mt. Adagdak. many of the events took place beneath the Adagdak peninsula in an area in which hot springs discharge and where other geophysical evidences suggest a geothermal reservoir. A similar NNW-dipping fault plane was deduced from a 9-day microearthquake survey conducted in 1974. At that time all of the activity occurred beneath the sea. the projected surface trace lies NNW of that deduced form the present survey. It is quite likely that the mapped structure and attendant fractures control a hydrothermal system by providing the necessary permeability for maintaining circulation of hot waters within the upper several kilometers of the surface. Only preliminary analysis of the records fell within the scope of the present project. The work should be supplemented with the application of a locally appropriate earth model, 3D fault-mapping, first-motion studies leading to fault-plane solutions, and computations of event magnitudes.

  1. Migratory Behavior and Survival of Juvenile Salmonids in the Lower Columbia River, Estuary, and Plume in 2010

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    McMichael, Geoffrey A.; Harnish, Ryan A.; Skalski, John R.; Deters, Katherine A.; Ham, Kenneth D.; Townsend, Richard L.; Titzler, P. Scott; Hughes, Michael S.; Kim, Jin A.; Trott, Donna M.

    2011-09-01

    Uncertainty regarding the migratory behavior and survival of juvenile salmonids passing through the lower Columbia River and estuary after negotiating dams on the Federal Columbia River Power System (FCRPS) prompted the development and application of the Juvenile Salmon Acoustic Telemetry System (JSATS). The JSATS has been used to investigate the survival of juvenile salmonid smolts between Bonneville Dam (river kilometer (rkm) 236) and the mouth of the Columbia River annually since 2004. In 2010, a total of 12,214 juvenile salmonids were implanted with both a passive integrated transponder (PIT) and a JSATS acoustic transmitter. Using detection information from JSATS receiver arrays deployed on dams and in the river, estuary, and plume, the survival probability of yearling Chinook salmon and steelhead smolts tagged at John Day Dam was estimated form multiple reaches between rkm 153 and 8.3 during the spring. During summer, the survival probability of subyearling Chinook salmon was estimated for the same reaches. In addition, the influence of routes of passage (e.g., surface spill, deep spill, turbine, juvenile bypass system) through the lower three dams on the Columbia River (John Day, The Dalles, and Bonneville) on juvenile salmonid smolt survival probability from the dams to rkm 153 and then between rkm 153 and 8.3 was examined to increase understanding of the immediate and latent effects of dam passage on juvenile salmon survival. Similar to previous findings, survival probability was relatively high (>0.95) for most groups of juvenile salmonids from the Bonneville Dam tailrace to about rkm 50. Downstream of rkm 50 the survival probability of all species and run types we examined decreased markedly. Steelhead smolts suffered the highest mortality in this lower portion of the Columbia River estuary, with only an estimated 60% of the tagged fish surviving to the mouth of the river. In contrast, yearling and subyearling Chinook salmon smolts survived to the mouth of the river at higher rates, with estimated survival probabilities of 84% and 86%, respectively. The influence of route of passage at the lower three dams in the FCRPS on juvenile salmonid survival appeared to be relatively direct and immediate. Significant differences in estimated survival probabilities of juvenile salmonid smolts among groups with different dam passage experiences were often detected between the dams and rkm 153. In contrast, the influence of route of passage on survival to the mouth of the Columbia River was not apparent among the groups of tagged juvenile salmonids with different FCRPS passage experiences after they had already survived to a point about 80 km downstream of Bonneville Dam. Yearling Chinook salmon and steelhead smolts that migrated through the lower estuary in off-channel habitats took two to three times longer to travel through these lower reaches and their estimated survival probabilities were not significantly different from that of their cohorts which migrated in or near the navigation channel. A large proportion of the tagged juvenile salmonids migrating in or near the navigation channel in the lower estuary crossed from the south side of the estuary near Astoria, Oregon and passed through relatively shallow expansive sand flats (Taylor Sands) to the North Channel along the Washington shore of the estuary. This migratory behavior may contribute to the avian predation losses observed on for fish (2 to 12% of fish in this study).

  2. Primer on Use of Multi-Spectral and Infra Red Imaging for On-Site Inspections

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Henderson, J R

    2010-10-26

    The purpose of an On-Site Inspection (OSI) is to determine whether a nuclear explosion has occurred in violation of the Comprehensive Nuclear Test Ban Treaty (CTBT), and to gather information which might assist in identifying the violator (CTBT, Article IV, Paragraph 35) Multi-Spectral and Infra Red Imaging (MSIR) is allowed by the treaty to detect observables which might help reduce the search area and thus expedite an OSI and make it more effective. MSIR is permitted from airborne measurements, and at and below the surface to search for anomalies and artifacts (CTBT, Protocol, Part II, Paragraph 69b). The three broad types of anomalies and artifacts MSIR is expected to be capable of observing are surface disturbances (disturbed earth, plant stress or anomalous surface materials), human artifacts (man-made roads, buildings and features), and thermal anomalies. The purpose of this Primer is to provide technical information on MSIR relevant to its use for OSI. It is expected that this information may be used for general background information, to inform decisions about the selection and testing of MSIR equipment, to develop operational guidance for MSIR use during an OSI, and to support the development of a training program for OSI Inspectors. References are provided so readers can pursue a topic in more detail than the summary information provided here. The following chapters will provide more information on how MSIR can support an OSI (Section 2), a short summary what Multi-Spectral Imaging and Infra Red Imaging is (Section 3), guidance from the CTBT regarding the use of MSIR (Section 4), and a description of several nuclear explosion scenarios (Section 5) and consequent observables (Section 6). The remaining sections focus on practical aspects of using MSIR for an OSI, such as specification and selection of MSIR equipment, operational considerations for deployment of MISR equipment from an aircraft, and the conduct of field exercises to mature MSIR for an OSI. Finally, an appendix provides detail describing the magnitude and spatial extent of the surface shock expected from an underground nuclear explosion. If there is a seismic event or other data to suggest there has been a nuclear explosion in violation of the CTBT, an OSI may be conducted to determine whether a nuclear explosion has occurred and to gather information which may be useful in identifying the party responsible for conducting the explosion. The OSI must be conducted in the area where the event that triggered the inspection request occurred, and the inspected area must not exceed 1,000 square kilometers, or be more than 50 km on aside (CTBT Protocol, Part II, Paragraphs 2 and 3). One of the guiding principles for an inspection is that it be effective, minimally intrusive, timely, and cost-effective [Hawkins, Feb 1998]. In that context, MSIR is one of several technologies that can be used during an aircraft overflight to identify ground regions of high interest in a timely and cost-effective manner. This allows for an optimized inspection on the ground. The primary purpose for MSIR is to identify artifacts and anomalies that might be associated with a nuclear explosion, and to use the location of those artifacts and anomalies to reduce the search area that must be inspected from the ground. The MSIR measurements can have additional utility. The multi-spectral measurements of the ground can be used for terrain classification, which can aid in geological characterization of the Inspected Area. In conditions of where light smoke or haze is present, long-wave infrared imaging can provide better imaging of the ground than is possible with standard visible imagery.

  3. Experimental Measurement of the Flow Field of Heavy Trucks

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Fred Browand; Charles Radovich

    2005-05-31

    Flat flaps that enclose the trailer base on the sides and top are known to reduce truck drag and reduce fuel consumption. Such flapped-truck geometries have been studied in laboratory wind tunnels and in field tests. A recent review of wind tunnel data for a variety of truck geometries and flow Reynolds numbers show roughly similar values of peak drag reduction, but differ in the determination of the optimum flap angle. Optimum angles lie in the range 12 degrees-20 degrees, and may be sensitive to Reynolds number and truck geometry. The present field test is undertaken to provide additional estimates of the magnitude of the savings to be expected on a typical truck for five flap angles 10, 13, 16, 19, and 22 degrees. The flaps are constructed from a fiberglass-epoxy-matrix material and are one-quarter of the base width in length (about 61 cm, or 2 feet). They are attached along the rear door hinge lines on either side of the trailer, so that no gap appears at the joint between the flap and the side of the trailer The flap angle is adjusted by means of two aluminum supports. The present test is performed on the NASA Crows Landing Flight Facility at the northern end of the San Joaquin valley in California. The main runway is approximately 2400 meters in length, and is aligned approximately in a north-south direction The test procedure is to make a series of runs starting at either end of the runway. All runs are initiated under computer control to accelerate the truck to a target speed of 60 mph (96 6 km/hr), to proceed at the target speed for a fixed distance, and to decelerate at the far end of the runway. During a run, the broadcast fuel rate, the engine rpm, forward speed, elapsed time--as well as several other parameters (10 in all)--are digitized at a rate of 100 digitizations per second. Various flapped-conditions are interspersed with the ''no flaps'' control, and are sequenced in a different order on different days. Approximately 310 runs are accumulated over the 5-day test period, May 17-21, 2004. The runway slopes rather uniformly upward from north-to-south. Over the distance of 2424 meters between our two ''start'' markers at either end of the runway, the net change in elevation is a little over ten meters. Test results clearly show the greater fuel consumption required to lift the truck against gravity in the southbound direction For this reason, it is important that the tests be averaged over a round trip circuit--that is, a run in both directions over the identical portion of the roadway. Northbound-southbound averages require an overlap segment of the runway (near the middle of the runway) where the truck--starting from either end--has achieved its target speed. For the target truck speed of 60 mph, this overlap region is approximately 700 meters in length. Typically a run and the return run are accomplished within a time interval of 6 minutes. Analysis of the data show fuel consumption savings at all flap angle settings tested, when compared to the ''no flaps'' condition. The most beneficial flap angle appears to be 13 degrees, for which the fuel consumption is 0.3778 {+-} 0.0025 liters/km compared to the ''no flaps'' control of 0.3941 {+-} 0.0034 liters/km. The error bounds expressed above mark the 99% confidence interval in the mean values given. That is, additional estimates of the mean fuel consumption would be expected to lie within the bounds given, approximately 99% of the time. The fuel consumption saving is--to reasonable accuracy--about 1.63 liters/100 kilometers. These savings represent the increment associated only with the change in drag due to the presence or absence of flaps. The result will hold for any truck of similar size and shape and engine performance regardless of the loading of the truck or the rolling resistance. The economy achieved by use of base flaps can be compared to the economy resulting from driving two trucks in a tandem configuration. In December 2003, such fuel consumption tests were performed at the same Crows Landing testsite. In the tests, two identical trucks are ope

  4. Operation of a bushing melter system designed for actinide vitrification

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Ramsey, W.G.

    1996-03-01

    The Westinghouse Savannah River Company is developing a melter system to vitrify actinide materials. The melter system will used to vitrify the americium and curium solution which is currently stored in one of the Savannah River Site`s (SRS) processing canyons. This solution is one of the materials designated by the Defense Nuclear Facilities Safety Board (DNFSB) to be dispositioned as part of the DNFSB recommendation 94-1. The Am/Cm solution contains an extremely large fraction (>2 kilograms of Cm and 10 kilograms of Am) of t he United States`s total inventory of both elements. They have an estimated value on the order of one billion dollars - if they are processed through the DOE Isotope Sales program at the Oak Ridge National Laboratory. It is therefore deemed highly desirable to transfer the material to Oak Ridge in a form which can allow for recovery of the material. A commercial glass composition has been demonstrated to be compatible with up to 40 weight percent of the Am/Cm solution contents. This glass is also selectively attacked by nitric acid. This allows the actinide to be recovered by common separation processes.

  5. The Precursors and Outcomes of Goal Choice and Attainment

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Stimson, Tierra Starr

    2009-01-01

    Russell Sage Foundation. Elliot A.J. , & Sheldon, K.M. (Psychology, 73, 171-185. Elliot, A.J. , Sheldon, K.M. , &471-491. Sheldon, K. M. , & Elliot, A. J. (1998). Not all

  6. Radiative conductivity in the Earth's lower mantle Alexander F. Goncharov1

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Jacobsen, Steven D.

    . The lower mantle extends from the 660-km seismic discontinuity to the core­mantle boundary at 2,900 km depth,10 . Thermal conductivity in metals is dominated by electron transport, whereas heat conduction in insulators

  7. Surface deformation of Bezymianny Volcano, Kamchatka, recorded by GPS: The eruptions from 2005 to 2010 and long-term, long-wavelength subsidence

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Grapenthin, Ronni

    . The network-wide subsidence cannot be explained by tectonic deformation related to the build to about 0.023 km3 /yr of ba- salt, (Fedotov et al., 2010)) about 10 km to the north

  8. Steady state deformation of the Coso Range, east central California...

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    an area approximately 10 km by 15 km. The deformation is most likely the result of subsidence in an area around the Coso geothermal field. The deformation signal has a...

  9. GEOMETRIC ACCURACY ASSESSMENT OF MSG-SEVIRI LEVEL 1.5 Sultan Kocaman Aksakal, Emmanuel Baltsavias, Konrad Schindler

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Giger, Christine

    -Resolution Visible (HRV) band with 1-km Ground Sample Distance (GSD) and several multispectral (MS) bands with 3-km and absolute accuracy of the HRV images and band-to-band registration (BBR) accuracy between the HRV and 6 MS

  10. Seismic interpretation and regional geologic correlation established for offshore Togo, West Africa: a preliminary evaluation of hydrocarbon potential in deep water 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Gray, Max Daniel

    2001-01-01

    Offshore Togo, West Africa provides exciting potential for hydrocarbon exploration. Previous exploration is limited to four wells, drilled prior to 1986 in shallow water. This investigation focuses on a 625 km² section of 3100 km² of high quality...

  11. Nocturnal temperature structure in the mesopause region over the Arecibo Observatory (18.35N, 66.75W): Seasonal variations

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Chu, Xinzhao

    around equinoxes, particularly late autumn when it is near 195 K, while the spring mesopause temperature in summer ($100 km), a medium altitude in late autumn and winter ($96 km), and a low altitude in early

  12. The 2011 Tohoku earthquake, tsunami, and Fukushima nuclear accident

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Ferrari, Silvia

    The 2011 Tohoku earthquake, tsunami, and Fukushima nuclear accident: the Risk Policy Aftermath 3 #12;Personal experience in March 2011 Tsukuba 170km Tokyo 230km Fukushima Daiichi nuclear power

  13. Mantle structure beneath the western United States and its implications for convection processes

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Allen, Richard M.

    River Plain (ESRP) and the High Lava Plains, and a deep low velocity anomaly (>600 km) beneath the ESRP and dips toward the northwest; (3) shallow low velocity anomalies (upper 200 km) beneath the eastern Snake

  14. vec l'hritage de deux grands foyers de peu-

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Boyer, Edmond

    140 km2 , soit une densité moyenne de 658 habitants/km2 . Les deux États de l'extrême sud, le Kerala démographiques différenciées. Les quatre États du sud - Kerala, Tamil Nadu, Andhra Pra- desh et Karnataka ­ ont

  15. Magma Flow through Elastic-Walled Dikes

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Al Hanbali, Ahmad

    Mountain · · · · · Yucca Mountain ~300 m ~200 m ~ 10 km ~ 1 m~ 3 km Repository tunnels Magma dike Magma.g., frozen dike Eppelsberg #12;Eiffel 2002 boccas? #12;Ship Rock U.S.A. #12;Proposed repository site at Yucca

  16. Thermodynamic model for mineral solubility in aqueous fluids: theory, calibration and application to model

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Manning, Craig

    show a steady increase in solubility along constant geothermal gradients or water isochores, at a geothermal gradient of 20°C km)1 . For subduction zones, modeled by a geotherm of 7°C km)1 , the required

  17. Mineralogy and Petrology (2007) 91: 1124 DOI 10.1007/s00710-007-0183-7

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Cartigny, Pierre

    2007-01-01

    to 90 km along a cold geothermal gradient (8 C=km). Unmetamor- phosed and HP metasediments show is available for mafic rocks and metasediments sub- ducted along warm geothermal gradients (Moran et al., 1992

  18. LUCI: A facility at DUSEL for large-scale experimental study of geologic carbon sequestration

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Peters, C. A.

    2011-01-01

    m at 45°C, with a geothermal gradient of 25°C per km and abut with the same geothermal gradient of 25°C per km. While

  19. A FEMTOSECOND-LEVEL FIBER-OPTICS TIMING DISTRIBUTION SYSTEM USING FREQUENCY-OFFSET INTERFEROMETRY

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Staples, J.W.

    2008-01-01

    Figure 3: 2.8 km SLAC klystron gallery phase variation (km ?ber loop in the SLAC klystron gallery, exposed to fullperturbation of the klystron modulators. Mea- surement were

  20. Identification and analysis of residues contained on b fi a loops of the

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Fülöp, Vilmos

    Nacional de Geno´ mica para la Biodiversidad (Langebio), CINVESTAV-IPN, Km 9.6 Libramiento Norte, Carretera Diversity Laboratory, Laboratorio Nacional de Geno´ mica para la Biodiversidad (Langebio), CINVESTAV-IPN, Km

  1. Technically Recoverable Shale Oil and Shale Gas Resources:

    Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update (EIA)

    at Yuzovska in the eastern Dniepr-Donets Basin covers an area of 7,886 km 2 and assigns oil and gas rights to all strata to a depth of 10 km, including tight and basin-centered...

  2. Towards Developing a Calibrated EGS Exploration Methodology Using...

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    the following three principal EGS parameters of interest: temperature, rock type, and stress, at depths from +1km to -4km above sea level. Trust maps provide a data reliability...

  3. The Otowi Member of the Bandelier Tuff, Valles Caldera, New Mexico...

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    volume of 316 km3. Assuming approximately equal caldera fill, outflow, and distal ash volumes in large ignimbrites to the Otowi Member yields a value of 474 km3 DRE for the...

  4. A Comparative Study of Estimation Models for Satellite Relative Motion 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Desai, Uri

    2013-01-31

    The problem of relative spacecraft motion estimation is considered with application to various reference and relative orbits. Mean circular and elliptic orbits are analyzed, with relative orbits ranging in size from 1 km to 10 km. Estimators...

  5. An intercomparison of lidar-derived aerosol optical properties with airborne measurements near Tokyo during ACE-Asia

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Clarke, Antony

    and 6 km over Sagami Bay southwest of Tokyo. The C-130 observation package included a tracking Sun extinction coefficients (sa $ 0.03 kmÀ1 ) derived from the airborne tracking Sun photometer, in situ optical

  6. Coordinated avifaunal roadCounts (Car) Animal Demography Unit

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    de Villiers, Marienne

    ". Agriculture List types of agriculture practised along the route, if possible in this form: "From km 10 to km features Mention other features of the route which are relevant or interesting, e.g. wetlands, dams

  7. Setting Metsovo the navel of touristic development of Pindos T.D. Papazissis, Civil Engineer N.T.U.A.

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Psarrakos, Panayiotis

    , Meteora in Thessalia (which are just 75 km. away), Kastoria in Macedonia (122 km) and the island the capital of Macedonia, Salonica, the time will be shortened to 2 hours and 15 min- utes. So mountain lovers

  8. Buried fiber optic intrusion sensor 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Maier, Eric William

    2004-09-30

    piezoelectric transducer to produce a controllable optical phase shift at the 2 km point of a 12 km path length. Interrogation of the distributed sensor was accomplished by repetitively gating light pulses from the stable laser into the sensing fiber...

  9. PHOTONIC TEXTILES: OVERVIEW OF THE TECHNOLOGY, APPLICATIONS AND COMMERCIALISATION

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Skorobogatiy, Maksim

    . Distributed sensing (T, P, ...) over 1m-1km X 1m-1km areas without any point sensors 2. Electrically passive structures such as bridges, houses, etc. for long term structural integrity monitoring with minimal servicing

  10. The Development of the Linac Coherent Light Source RF Gun

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Dowell, David H; Lewandowski, James; Limborg-Deprey, Cecile; Li, Zenghai; Schmerge, John; Vlieks, Arnold; Wang, Juwen; Xiao, Liling

    2015-01-01

    The Linac Coherent Light Source (LCLS) is the first x-ray laser user facility based upon a free electron laser (FEL). In addition to many other stringent requirements, the LCLS XFEL requires extraordinary beam quality to saturate at 1.5 angstroms within a 100 meter undulator.[1] This new light source is using the last kilometer of the three kilometer linac at SLAC to accelerate the beam to an energy as high as 13.6 GeV and required a new electron gun and injector to produce a very bright beam for acceleration. At the outset of the project it was recognized that existing RF guns had the potential to produce the desired beam but none had demonstrated it. This paper describes the analysis and design improvements of the BNL/SLAC/UCLA s-band gun leading to achievement of the LCLS performance goals.

  11. Small space object imaging : LDRD final report.

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Ackermann, Mark R.; Valley, Michael T.; Kearney, Sean Patrick

    2009-10-01

    We report the results of an LDRD effort to investigate new technologies for the identification of small-sized (mm to cm) debris in low-earth orbit. This small-yet-energetic debris presents a threat to the integrity of space-assets worldwide and represents significant security challenge to the international community. We present a nonexhaustive review of recent US and Russian efforts to meet the challenges of debris identification and removal and then provide a detailed description of joint US-Russian plans for sensitive, laser-based imaging of small debris at distances of hundreds of kilometers and relative velocities of several kilometers per second. Plans for the upcoming experimental testing of these imaging schemes are presented and a preliminary path toward system integration is identified.

  12. CHALLENGE TO ARM AND ASP Determine aerosol radiative forcings at ARM site(s).

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Schwartz, Stephen E.

    aerosol optical thickness is 0.1: 3 W m-2 cooling. ~50 km Drone Radiometers AMF DIRECT DETERMINATION

  13. Translating peter.e.clark@boeing.com

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Lifschitz, Vladimir

    represents the function that turns every Volkswagen into its electric sys­ tem. In KM, it turns into a slot

  14. INTERNATIONAL CONNECTIVITY Version 14 June 15, 1995

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Liblit, Ben

    (Keeling) Islands bIu­ CO Colombia (Republic of) ­­­­ KM Comoros (Islamic Federal Republic of the) ­­U­ CG

  15. Research and Development Facility at Black Rock Hills Utah for a next

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    of the sites. 13 km to the west, the US department of Fish and Wildlife operates the Fish Springs Wildlife

  16. Pressure perturbations from geologic carbon sequestration: Area-of-review boundaries and borehole leakage driving forces

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Nicot, J.-P.

    2010-01-01

    geothermal gradient is 30°C/km; vertical lines represent possible water density profiles in a borehole:

  17. Demography in an increasingly variable world

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Kalisz, Susan

    mesoscale (2­2000 km) temperature and precipitation to disturbances such as hurricanes [11,12]. Glossary

  18. Ageostrophic, anticyclonic instability of a geostrophic, barotropic boundary current

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Yavneh, Irad

    -called atmospheric mesoscale (with L between about 1 and 1000 km) and oceanic mesoscale and "submesoscale" (with L

  19. The 1 April 2014 Iquique, Chile, M w 8.1 earthquake rupture sequence

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Lay, Thorne; Yue, Han; Brodsky, Emily E; An, Chao

    2014-01-01

    zones. Improved onshore and offshore geodetic and seismican ~100 km long region offshore of southeastern Peru just

  20. Morphological and Genetic Divergence of Hoplias microlepis (Characiformes: Erythrinidae) in Rivers and Artificial Impoundments of

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Aguirre, Windsor E.

    drainage primarily for the generation of hydroelectric power. It has a surface area of 270 km2 , contains

  1. Data from CREL, from the SHEBA experiment, western Arctic How to define it?

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Washington at Seattle, University of

    - summer 2005, no replenishment of MY ice - Fram Strait export 40% of MY ice loss (rest = melting) #12;But in the game? ASSUME 1m thick ~ 2 x 1012 m3 (extra volume lost) (i.e. 2 x 103 km3) Energy needed for melt 106 km2 2006 ~ 0.16 x 106 km2 2007 ~ 0.28 x 106 km2 Ice export only ~ 15% of sea ice retreat Extra

  2. A STUDY OF REGIONAL TEMPERATURE AND THERMOHYDROLOGICAL EFFECTS OF AN UNDERGROUND REPOSITORY FOR NUCLEAR WASTES IN HARD ROCK

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Wang, J.S.Y.

    2010-01-01

    geothermal gradient of 30°C/km is assumed. By imposing a constant pressure boundary condition in equation (

  3. Assessing surface water consumption using remotely-sensed groundwater, evapotranspiration, and precipitation

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Anderson, Ray G; Lo, Min-Hui; Famiglietti, James S

    2012-01-01

    Energy Balance ALgorithm (SEBAL) run using 250 m and 1 km observations with automatic pixel selec- tion, dynamic wind

  4. Facing the Coastal Challenge: Modeling Coastal Erosion in Southern California

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Inman, Douglas L.; Masters, Patricia M.; Jenkins, Scott A.

    2002-01-01

    vertical exaggeration 23x seabed paleo wave-cut platform Distance, km Figure 2. Generalized seismic profile

  5. Hydrographisches Amt der autonomen Provinz Bozen -Sdtirol

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Kerschner, Hanns

    -3.16 >3.16-7.51 area classes (km2 ) numberofglaciers 1km2 There were 259 glaciers in 1997, covering 109 km 2 Area-altitude distribution 2100 2300 2500 2700 2900 3100 3300 3500 3700 3900 0 10 20 30 40 50 60 70 80 90 100 km2 Most of the area is concentrated around 2800 - 3300 m. Areas above 3400 m are small

  6. MOUNT ALLISON UNIVERSITY S a c k v i l l e , N e w B r u n s w i c k , C a n a d a

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Hutcheon, James M.

    , are both within two hours of Sackville, and beautiful Prince Edward Island is just 65km (40 miles) away

  7. RESEARCH ARTICLE Open Access Regionally accentuated reversible brain grey

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Gaser, Christian

    . It was the second European transcontinental multistage ultra marathon race and covered 4487 km (2788 miles) from

  8. Geologic Carbon Sequestration: Mitigating Climate Change by Injecting CO2 Underground

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Oldenburg

    2009-07-30

    July 21, 2009 Berkeley Lab summer lecture: Climate change provides strong motivation to reduce CO2 emissions from the burning of fossil fuels. Carbon dioxide capture and storage involves the capture, compression, and transport of CO2 to geologically favorable areas, where its injected into porous rock more than one kilometer underground for permanent storage. Oldenburg, who heads Berkeley Labs Geologic Carbon Sequestration Program, will focus on the challenges, opportunities, and research needs of this innovative technology.

  9. EA-1949: Admiralty Inlet Pilot Tidal Project, Puget Sound, WA

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    This EA analyzes the potential environmental effects of a proposal by the Public Utility District No. 1 of Snohomish County, Washington to construct and operate the Admiralty Inlet Tidal Project. The proposed 680-kilowatt project would be located on the east side of Admiralty Inlet in Puget Sound, Washington, about 1 kilometer west of Whidbey Island, entirely within Island County, Washington. The Federal Energy Regulatory Commission (FERC) is the lead agency. The DOE NEPA process for this project has been canceled.

  10. Geologic Carbon Sequestration: Mitigating Climate Change by Injecting CO2 Underground (LBNL Summer Lecture Series)

    ScienceCinema (OSTI)

    Oldenburg, Curtis M [LBNL Earth Sciences Division

    2011-04-28

    Summer Lecture Series 2009: Climate change provides strong motivation to reduce CO2 emissions from the burning of fossil fuels. Carbon dioxide capture and storage involves the capture, compression, and transport of CO2 to geologically favorable areas, where its injected into porous rock more than one kilometer underground for permanent storage. Oldenburg, who heads Berkeley Labs Geologic Carbon Sequestration Program, will focus on the challenges, opportunities, and research needs of this innovative technology.

  11. Geologic Carbon Sequestration: Mitigating Climate Change by Injecting CO2 Underground (LBNL Summer Lecture Series)

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Oldenburg, Curtis M.

    2009-07-21

    Summer Lecture Series 2009: Climate change provides strong motivation to reduce CO2 emissions from the burning of fossil fuels. Carbon dioxide capture and storage involves the capture, compression, and transport of CO2 to geologically favorable areas, where its injected into porous rock more than one kilometer underground for permanent storage. Oldenburg, who heads Berkeley Labs Geologic Carbon Sequestration Program, will focus on the challenges, opportunities, and research needs of this innovative technology.

  12. A Differential Phase Shift Scheme for Quantum Key Distribution in Passive Optical Networks

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Michael Hentschel; Andreas Poppe; Bernhard Schrenk; Momtchil Peev; Edwin Querasser; Roland Lieger

    2014-12-19

    We propose a scheme for quantum key distribution (QKD) in a passive optical network (PON) based on differential phase shift (DPS) coding. A centralized station including all expensive components serves many users, making it suitable for a true multi-user network in a local environment with moderate distances on the order of a few kilometers. The emphasis lies on an asymmetric design for cost effective implementation of network end points.

  13. The Development of the Bronze Age Funerary Landscape of Nichoria

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Boyd, Michael J.

    2014-11-28

    for periodicals in the reference lists of the chapters follow the conventions of the Ameri- can Journal of Archaeology 111 (2007), pp. 14–34. List of Abbreviations CR Crete DA Dark Age dat. dative diam. diameter dim. dimensions EDS energy dispersive X... diachronic analyses of the development of the site and its eventual incorpora- tion within the boundaries of the Pylian state (Ben- net 1995, 1999). Nichoria is located on the western arc of the Gulf of Messenia, about two kilometers inland...

  14. Application of the 2-D Continuous Wavelet Transforms for Characterization of Geological and Geophysical Data 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Vuong, Au K

    2014-05-05

    continuous wavelet transforms to imag- ing of Shatsky Rise plateau using marine seismic data . . . . . 3 1.1.3 Multi-scale analysis the surface roughness of the minerals . . . 6 1.2 Dissertation structure... evolution. Oceanic plateaus are very large igneous provinces in the deep 3 oceans and are generally a result of massive basaltic volcanism. Observations show that the size of these plateaus ranges up to millions of square kilometers, suggest- ing they must...

  15. Linac Coherent Light Source (LCLS) Bunch-Length Monitor using Coherent Radiation

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Wu, Juhao; Emma, P.; /SLAC

    2007-03-21

    The Linac Coherent Light Source (LCLS) is a SASE x-ray Free-Electron Laser (FEL) based on the final kilometer of the Stanford Linear Accelerator. One of the most critical diagnostic devices is the bunch length monitor (BLM), which is to be installed right after each compressor utilizing coherent radiation from the last bending magnet. We describe the components and the optical layout of such a BLM. Based on the setup geometry, we discuss some issues about the coherent radiation signal.

  16. Technology Development for a Neutrino AstrophysicalObservatory

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Chaloupka, V.; Cole, T.; Crawford, H.J.; He, Y.D.; Jackson, S.; Kleinfelder, S.; Lai, K.W.; Learned, J.; Ling, J.; Liu, D.; Lowder, D.; Moorhead, M.; Morookian, J.M.; Nygren, D.R.; Price, P.B.; Richards, A.; Shapiro, G.; Shen, B.; Smoot, George F.; Stokstad, R.G.; VanDalen, G.; Wilkes, J.; Wright, F.; Young, K.

    1996-02-01

    We propose a set of technology developments relevant to the design of an optimized Cerenkov detector for the study of neutrino interactions of astrophysical interest. Emphasis is placed on signal processing innovations that enhance significantly the quality of primary data. These technical advances, combined with field experience from a follow-on test deployment, are intended to provide a basis for the engineering design for a kilometer-scale Neutrino Astrophysical Observatory.

  17. Technology development for a neutrino astrophysical observatory. Letter of intent

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Chaloupka, V.; Cole, T.; Crawford, H.J.

    1996-02-01

    The authors propose a set of technology developments relevant to the design of an optimized Cerenkov detector for the study of neutrino interactions of astrophysical interest. Emphasis is placed on signal processing innovations that enhance significantly the quality of primary data. These technical advances, combined with field experience from a follow-on test deployment, are intended to provide a basis for the engineering design for a kilometer-scale Neutrino Astrophysical Observatory.

  18. Flashover vulnerability of transmission and distribution lines to high-altitude electromagnetic pulse (HEMP)

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Kruse, V.J.; Liu, T.K.; Tesche, F.M.; Barnes, P.R.

    1989-01-01

    This paper estimates the vulnerability of transmission and distribution lines to flashover from the electromagnetic pulse generated by a nuclear detonation 400 kilometers above the earth. The analysis consists of first determining the cumulative probability of induced-voltage on three-phase lines, including shield and neutral conductors, for four operating voltages and then comparing these stresses to estimates of line insulation strength. 11 refs., 9 figs., 5 tabs.

  19. U.S. Renewable Energy Technical Potentials. A GIS-Based Analysis

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Lopez, Anthony; Roberts, Billy; Heimiller, Donna; Blair, Nate; Porro, Gian

    2012-07-01

    This report presents the state-level results of a spatial analysis effort calculating energy technical potential, reported in square kilometers of available land, megawatts of capacity, and gigawatt-hours of generation, for six different renewable technologies. For this analysis, the system specific power density (or equivalent), efficiency (capacity factor), and land-use constraints were identified for each technology using independent research, published research, and professional contacts. This report also presents technical potential findings from previous reports.

  20. U.S. Renewable Energy Technical Potentials: A GIS-Based Analysis

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Lopez, A.; Roberts, B.; Heimiller, D.; Blair, N.; Porro, G.

    2012-07-01

    This report presents the state-level results of a spatial analysis effort calculating energy technical potential, reported in square kilometers of available land, megawatts of capacity, and gigawatt-hours of generation, for six different renewable technologies. For this analysis, the system specific power density (or equivalent), efficiency (capacity factor), and land-use constraints were identified for each technology using independent research, published research, and professional contacts. This report also presents technical potential findings from previous reports.

  1. Migration velocity analysis using multifocusing/CRS attributes based on paraxial raytracing

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Cerveny, Vlastislav

    , Keydar, Gelchinsky, Pajchel) 2001-present - Fugro-Jason #12;1. Prestack depth migration 2. Multifocusing;1. Prestack depth migration Diffraction stack (A unified approach to 3-D seismic reflection imaging, Part II(km) 0 1 2 3 depth(km) 0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 distance(km) #12;Marmousi prestack depth migrated image 0 1 2

  2. The geoarchaeology of Buttermilk Creek, Bell County, Texas 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Gibson, Brandy Deanne

    1997-01-01

    was conducted. Buttermilk Creek is a 13 km stream incised into limestone bedrock with a drainage basin size of 43 kM2 , a stream gradient of 8.5 m/km, and a sinuosity of 1.26. This project was undertaken with two objectives in mind-, to create a...

  3. Field observations and theoretical studies relevant to enhanced in situ carbonation

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    similar in size are in Papua New Guinea (~ 10,000 km 2 in outcrop), New Caledonia (~ 6000 km 2 ) and along the east coast of the Adriatic Sea (several ~ 4000 km 2 massifs). Proposed exothermic self of chemical potential energy. Fyfe (1974) proposed that exothermic hydration of olivine to form the hydrous

  4. An Improvement to Mathon's Cyclotomic Ramsey Colorings

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Radziszowski, Stanislaw P.

    An Improvement to Mathon's Cyclotomic Ramsey Colorings Xiaodong Xu Guangxi Academy of Sciences, . . . , km)- and (k1, . . . , km; n)-colorings, respectively. The Ramsey number R(k1, . . . , km) is defined will use simpler notation Rm(k) and Rm(k; n) for sets of colorings, and Rm(k) for the Ramsey numbers

  5. JPL D-26226 GREAT LAKES WINTER EXPERIMENT 2002 (GLAWEX 2002)

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Huron, and Lake Erie - have frozen over for the first time in nearly a decade [CNN/Reuters, 2003,000 km2 with a drainage basin extending 1110 km north-south and 1390 km east-west, the ice cover

  6. Excitements and Challenges for Future Light Sources Based on X-Ray FELs

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    -ray Laser Laboratory #12;LLINACINAC CCOHERENTOHERENT LLIGHTIGHT SSOURCEOURCE 2 Km 0 Km 3 Km #12;LCLS brightness of the LCLS and other facilities operating or under construction LEUTL TTF FEL LCLS Spontaneous)(B. Faatz) UCLAUCLA #12;LCLS - The First Experiments Team Leaders: AbsorptionResonanceRaman t0 t1 t2 t3 t4 t

  7. The Ross Sea Response to Evolving Ocean-Ice Interactions in a Changing Climate 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Wiederwohl, Christina 1980-

    2012-12-03

    decade (1994–2007) mostly (50%) from larger melt water inputs from the Pine Island (17.7 km^3 per decade) and Dotson (14.8 km^3 per decade) glaciers. Two decades of steady (1978-2000) strengthening of sea ice productivity (200 km^3 per decade) within...

  8. Agreements --Asia 51 52 Atlas of International Freshwater Agreements

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Wolf, Aaron

    Agreements -- Asia 51 ASIA #12;52 Atlas of International Freshwater Agreements Amur River. Photo credit: Mikhail A. Yatskov. Amur* Total area: 2,085,900 km2 Area of Basin in Country Countries km2 and the Upper Amur River #12;Agreements -- Asia 53 An Nahr Al Kabir Total area: 1,300 km2 Area of Basin

  9. Government of Malawi Department of Fisheries

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Bay Fisheries Bulletin No. 51 Department of Fisheries P.O. Box 593 Lilongwe 2001 #12;1 Table. .........................................15 #12;2 Introduction Lake Chiuta is a permanent lake (Tweddle, 1983) covering a mean area of 199km2 , oscillating between a minimum area of 93km2 and a maximum of 304km2 according to season and rainfall

  10. Ferry-Based Linear Wireless Sensor Networks

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Wu, Jie

    Networks Existing wireless sensor network research Assumption that the network used for sensors does of oil, gas, and water pipeline infrastructure using wireless sensor networks. #12;IEEE Globecom 2013 UAE (2006): 2,580 Km of gas pipelines 2,950 Km of oil pipelines 156 Km of refined products

  11. Risk division Semi-analytical model of brine leakage through

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Paris-Sud XI, Université de

    , Canada: 508 wells in a 30km x 30 km area. from Bachu and Celia, 2009 hal-00658780,version1-18Jun2012 #12. (Pruess, 2006, for geothermal wells) · = > Thermal equilibrium (Oldenburg & Rinaldi 2011) > 8 Mt/y for 50 years > D=6.7 km from the injection to the abandonned well > Cement plug: 10 m high, weak

  12. Volcano-tectonic modelling of magma chambers, ring-faults, unrest, and eruptions in the Tianchi Volcano, China

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Sheldon, Nathan D.

    this range to AD938-946), produced between 96 and 172 km3 of deposits, or around 30 km3 of dense magma, and is one of the largest eruptions on Earth during the past 1100 years. A 5-km-diameter collapse caldera, indicating that the shallow magma chamber and/or an associated geothermal system beneath the volcano

  13. Geophysical Research Abstracts, Vol. 10, EGU2008-A-10672, 2008

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Belousov, Alexander

    volcano on January 8, 1933 with the volume 0.4 km3. The failure generated tsunami up to 20 m high with 2-10672 EGU General Assembly 2008 © Author(s) 2008 Large scale failures and debris avalanche deposits volumes of the failures - around 1 km3. Three largest 3 to 4 km-across scars (which were formed

  14. The Coleopterists Bulletin, 54(1):90119. 2000. ARBOREAL BEETLES OF NEOTROPICAL FORESTS

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Miller, Scott

    air km SW Puerto Maldonado, Rio Tambopata Res., 12 50 S, 69 20 W); A. aeris new species, (PERU, Madre, Ama- zonas, Tefe´ (Ega), 3 22 S, 64 42 W); A. servatorum new species, (PERU, Loreto, 1km SW Boca del, 30 air km SW Puerto Maldonado, Rio Tambopata Res., 12 50 S, 69 20 W); A. lilu new species, (BRAZIL

  15. Atmos. Chem. Phys., 9, 44674483, 2009 www.atmos-chem-phys.net/9/4467/2009/

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Meskhidze, Nicholas

    with a fog and low wind speeds. Three air quality models (50-km EMEP model, 10-km EMEP4HR model and 1-km CAMx closure mesoscale meteorological model (WRF), the wind regimes and thermo-dynamical structure of the lower conditions are often con- nected with the occurrence of high pollution episodes es- pecially in urban

  16. EFFECTIVENESS OF QUIKSCAT'S ULTRA-HIGH RESOLUTION IMAGES IN DETERMINING TROPICAL CYCLONE EYE LOCATION

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Long, David G.

    459 Clyde Building, Provo, UT 84602, USA ABSTRACT The 25km resolution standard wind products (L2B) are available op- erationally in near-real time from SeaWinds on QuikSCAT. This rel- atively low resolution can, for a given year and basin, mean error distance as small as 15km with a 9km standard deviation. The use

  17. Towards Ultra-High Resolution Models of Climate and Weather

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Wehner, Michael; Oliker, Leonid; Shalf, John

    2007-01-01

    We present a speculative extrapolation of the performance aspects of an atmospheric general circulation model to ultra-high resolution and describe alternative technological paths to realize integration of such a model in the relatively near future. Due to a superlinear scaling of the computational burden dictated by stability criterion, the solution of the equations of motion dominate the calculation at ultra-high resolutions. From this extrapolation, it is estimated that a credible kilometer scale atmospheric model would require at least a sustained ten petaflop computer to provide scientifically useful climate simulations. Our design study portends an alternate strategy for practical power-efficient implementations of petaflop scale systems. Embedded processor technology could be exploited to tailor a custom machine designed to ultra-high climate model specifications at relatively affordable cost and power considerations. The major conceptual changes required by a kilometer scale climate model are certain to be difficult to implement. Although the hardware, software, and algorithms are all equally critical in conducting ultra-high climate resolution studies, it is likely that the necessary petaflop computing technology will be available in advance of a credible kilometer scale climate model.

  18. Environmental Report 1994, Volume No. 1

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Rath, K.S.; Harrach, R.J.; Gallegos, G.M.; Failor, R.A.

    1995-09-01

    Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory (LLNL), a U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) facility operated by the University of California, serves as a national resource of scientific, technical, and engineering capability. The Laboratory`s mission focuses on nuclear weapons and national security, and over the years has been broadened to include areas such as strategic defense, energy, the environment, biomedicine, technology transfer, the economy, and education. The Laboratory carries out this multifaceted mission in compliance with local, state, and federal environmental regulatory requirements. It does so with the support of the Environmental Protection Department, which is responsible for environmental monitoring and analysis, hazardous waste management, environmental restoration, and ensuring compliance with environmental laws and regulations. LLNL comprises two sites: the Livermore site and Site 300. The Livermore site occupies an area of 3.28 square kilometers on the eastern edge of Livermore, California. Site 300, LLNL`s experimental testing site, is located 24 kilometers to the east in the Altamont Hills, and occupies an area of 30.3 square kilometers. Environmental monitoring activities are conducted at both sites as well as in surrounding areas. This summary provides an overview of LLNL`s environmental activities in 1994, including radiological and nonradiological sampling and surveillance monitoring, remediation, assessment of radiological releases and doses, and determination of the impact of LLNL operations on the environment and public health.

  19. AB Space Engine

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Alexander Bolonkin

    2008-03-02

    On 4 January 2007 the author published the article Wireless Transfer of Electricity in Outer Space in http://arxiv.org wherein he offered and researched a new revolutionary method of transferring electric energy in space. In that same article, he offered a new engine which produces a large thrust without throwing away large amounts of reaction mass (unlike the conventional rocket engine). In the current article, the author develops the theory of this kind of impulse engine and computes a sample project which shows the big possibilities opened by this new AB-Space Engine. The AB-Space Engine gets the energy from ground-mounted power; a planet electric station can transfer electricity up to 1000 millions (and more) of kilometers by plasma wires. Author shows that AB-Space Engine can produce thrust of 10 tons (and more). That can accelerate a space ship to some thousands of kilometers/second. AB-Space Engine has a staggering specific impulse owing to the very small mass expended. The AB-Space Engine reacts not by expulsion of its own mass (unlike rocket engine) but against the mass of its planet of origin (located perhaps a thousand of millions of kilometers away) through the magnetic field of its plasma cable. For creating this plasma cable the AB-Space Engine spends only some kg of hydrogen.

  20. Characterization of 618-11 solid waste burial ground, disposed waste, and description of the waste generating facilities

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Hladek, K.L.

    1997-10-07

    The 618-11 (Wye or 318-11) burial ground received transuranic (TRTJ) and mixed fission solid waste from March 9, 1962, through October 2, 1962. It was then closed for 11 months so additional burial facilities could be added. The burial ground was reopened on September 16, 1963, and continued operating until it was closed permanently on December 31, 1967. The burial ground received wastes from all of the 300 Area radioactive material handling facilities. The purpose of this document is to characterize the 618-11 solid waste burial ground by describing the site, burial practices, the disposed wastes, and the waste generating facilities. This document provides information showing that kilogram quantities of plutonium were disposed to the drum storage units and caissons, making them transuranic (TRU). Also, kilogram quantities of plutonium and other TRU wastes were disposed to the three trenches, which were previously thought to contain non-TRU wastes. The site burial facilities (trenches, caissons, and drum storage units) should be classified as TRU and the site plutonium inventory maintained at five kilograms. Other fissile wastes were also disposed to the site. Additionally, thousands of curies of mixed fission products were also disposed to the trenches, caissons, and drum storage units. Most of the fission products have decayed over several half-lives, and are at more tolerable levels. Of greater concern, because of their release potential, are TRU radionuclides, Pu-238, Pu-240, and Np-237. TRU radionuclides also included slightly enriched 0.95 and 1.25% U-231 from N-Reactor fuel, which add to the fissile content. The 618-11 burial ground is located approximately 100 meters due west of Washington Nuclear Plant No. 2. The burial ground consists of three trenches, approximately 900 feet long, 25 feet deep, and 50 feet wide, running east-west. The trenches constitute 75% of the site area. There are 50 drum storage units (five 55-gallon steel drums welded together) buried in three rows in the northeast comer. In addition, five eight-foot diameter caissons are located at the west end of the center row of the drum storage units. Initially, wastes disposed to the caissons and drum storage units were from the 325 and 327 building hot cells. Later, a small amount of remote-handled (RH) waste from the 309 building Plutonium Recycle Test Reactor (PRTR) cells, and the newly built 324 building hot cells, was disposed at the site.