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Sample records for kilo deca deci

  1. KiloPower Project - KRUSTY Experiment Nuclear Design (Technical...

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    KiloPower Project - KRUSTY Experiment Nuclear Design Citation Details In-Document Search Title: KiloPower Project - KRUSTY Experiment Nuclear Design This PowerPoint presentation ...

  2. So How Do THey DeciDe

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    How Do THey DeciDe wHaT To Do aT THe iNL? nuclear energy Nuclear energy is a clean, safe, vital part of this country's energy mix. S takeholders frequently tell us they're impressed by all the nuclear research we do at the idaho National Laboratory, but they wonder why we don't do more work on renewable energy, like wind, solar and hydro. well, the answer is, we do research in those areas, but our history and our expertise is in nuclear energy research. we don't apologize for that: nuclear

  3. Thermodynamics of Electron Flow in the Bacterial Deca-heme Cytochrome MtrF

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Breuer, Marian; Zarzycki, Piotr P.; Blumberger, Jochen; Rosso, Kevin M.

    2012-07-01

    Electron transporting multiheme cytochromes are essential to the metabolism of microbes that inhabit soils and carry out important biogeochemical processes. Recently the first crystal structure of a prototype bacterial deca-heme cytochrome (MtrF) has been resolved and its electrochemistry characterized. However, the molecular details of electron conductance along heme chains in the cytochrome are difficult to access via experiment due to the nearly identical chemical nature of the heme cofactors. Here we employ large-scale molecular dynamics simulations to compute the reduction potentials of the ten hemes of MtrF in aqueous solution. We find that as a whole they fall within a range of about 0.3 V in agreement with experiment. Individual reduction potentials give rise to a free energy profile for electron conduction that is approximately symmetric with respect to the center of the protein. Our calculations indicate that there is no significant potential bias along the orthogonal octa- and tetra-heme chains suggesting that under aqueous conditions MtrF is a nearly reversible two-dimensional conductor.

  4. Tracking the sources of polybrominated diphenyl ethers in birds: Foraging in waste management facilities results in higher DecaBDE exposure in males

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Gentes, Marie-Line; Mazerolle, Marc J.; Giroux, Jean-François; Patenaude-Monette, Martin; and others

    2015-04-15

    Differences in feeding ecology are now recognized as major determinants of inter-individual variations in contaminant profiles of free-ranging animals, but exceedingly little attention has been devoted to the role of habitat use. Marked inter-individual variations and high levels of polybrominated diphenyl ethers (PBDEs) (e.g., DecaBDE) have previously been documented in ring-billed gulls (Larus delawarensis) breeding in a colony near Montreal (QC, Canada). However, the environmental sources of these compounds, and thus the reasons causing these large inter-individual variations remain unidentified. In the present study, we used GPS-based telemetry (±5 to 10 m precision) to track ring-billed gulls from this colony to reconstruct their movements at the landscape level. We related habitat use of individual gulls (n=76) to plasma concentrations (ng/g ww) and relative contributions (percentages) to Σ{sub 38}PBDEs of major congeners in the internationally restricted PentaBDE and current-use DecaBDE mixtures. Male gulls that visited waste management facilities (WMFs; i.e., landfills, wastewater treatment plants and related facilities; 25% of all GPS-tracked males) exhibited greater DecaBDE (concentrations and percentages) and lower PentaBDE (percentages) relative to those that did not. In contrast, no such relationships were found in females. Moreover, in males, DecaBDE (concentrations and percentages) increased with percentages of time spent in WMFs (i.e., ~5% of total foraging time), while PentaBDE (percentages) decreased. No relationships between percentages of time spent in other habitats (i.e., urban areas, agriculture fields, and St. Lawrence River) were found in either sex. These findings suggest that animals breeding in the vicinity of WMFs as well as mobile species that only use these sites for short stopovers to forage, could be at risk of enhanced DecaBDE exposure. - Highlights: • The study was conducted on breeding gulls with high levels of flame

  5. Kilo Geothermal Area | Open Energy Information

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    75C348.15 K 167 F 626.67 R 1 USGS Estimated Reservoir Volume: 1 km 1 USGS Mean Capacity: 2 MW 1 Click "Edit With Form" above to add content History and...

  6. KiloPower Project - KRUSTY Experiment Nuclear Design

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Poston, David Irvin; Godfroy, Thomas; Mcclure, Patrick Ray; Sanchez, Rene Gerardo

    2015-07-20

    This PowerPoint presentation covers the following topics: Reference Kilopower configuration; Reference KRUSTY configuration; KRUSTY design sensitivities; KRUSTY reactivity coefficients; KRUSTY criticality safety and control; KRUSTY core activation/dose; and KRUSTY shielding, room activation/dose.

  7. Image plate characterization and absolute calibration to low kilo-electron-volt electrons

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Busold, S.; Philipp, K.; Otten, A.; Roth, M.

    2014-11-15

    We report on the characterization of an image plate and its absolute calibration to electrons in the low keV energy range (130 keV). In our case, an Agfa MD4.0 without protection layer was used in combination with a Fuji FLA7000 scanner. The calibration data are compared to other published data and a consistent picture of the sensitivity of image plates to electrons is obtained, which suggests a validity of the obtained calibration up to 100 keV.

  8. Lubricants Market to Record 44,165.11 Kilo Tons Volume by 2020...

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    over 50% of the global market share. Automotive oils sector is further segmented into hydraulic oil, engine oil, and gear oil. Improving GDP in developing nations such as India and...

  9. Property:PotentialBiopowerGaseousCapacity | Open Energy Information

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    1000 kW,kWe,KW,kilowatt,KiloWatt,KILOWATT,kilowatts,KiloWatts,KILOWATT,KILOWATTS 1000000 W,We,watt,watts,Watt,Watts,WATT,WATTS 1000000000 mW,milliwatt,milliwatts,MILLIWATT,MILLIWA...

  10. Property:GeneratingCapacity | Open Energy Information

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    1000 kW,kWe,KW,kilowatt,KiloWatt,KILOWATT,kilowatts,KiloWatts,KILOWATT,KILOWATTS 1000000 W,We,watt,watts,Watt,Watts,WATT,WATTS 1000000000 mW,milliwatt,milliwatts,MILLIWATT,MILLIWA...

  11. Property:GrossProdCapacity | Open Energy Information

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    1000 kW,kWe,KW,kilowatt,KiloWatt,KILOWATT,kilowatts,KiloWatts,KILOWATT,KILOWATTS 1000000 W,We,watt,watts,Watt,Watts,WATT,WATTS 1000000000 mW,milliwatt,milliwatts,MILLIWATT,MILLIWA...

  12. Property:InstalledCapacity | Open Energy Information

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    1000 kW,kWe,KW,kilowatt,KiloWatt,KILOWATT,kilowatts,KiloWatts,KILOWATT,KILOWATTS 1000000 W,We,watt,watts,Watt,Watts,WATT,WATTS 1000000000 mW,milliwatt,milliwatts,MILLIWATT,MILLIWA...

  13. 2013 R&D 100 Award Entries

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    3 R&D 100 Award Entries 2013 R&D 100 Award Entries Discoveries, developments, advancements, and inventions pouring from Los Alamos make America-and the world-a better and safer place and bolster national security. KiloPower: Making Deep-Space Exploration Feasible Again winner KiloPower: Making Deep-space Exploration Feasible Again We have developed a small-space reactor known as KiloPower that can provide long-term power-approximately 15 to 30 years-to a deep-space probe or satellite. To

  14. Kilowatt Reactor Using Stirling TechnologY (KRUSTY) Demonstration...

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    KiloPower by NASA) is to assemble and evaluate the operational performance of a compact reactor configuration that closely resembles the flight unit to be used by NASA to execute a ...

  15. Search for: All records | SciTech Connect

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    ... of a few microns, lateral air-cladding is detrimental and only enhances scattering losses. ... The chirped pulse amplification (CPA) laser system will deliver kilo-Joule pulses at an ...

  16. Award Fee Evaluation Period 6 Determination Scorecard Contractor...

    Office of Environmental Management (EM)

    6 Determination Scorecard Contractor: Wastren-EnergX Mission Support, LLC Contract: DE-CI0000004 Award Fee Evaluation Period: Fiscal Year 2015 (October 1, 2014 to September 30, ...

  17. Readiness Review RM

    Office of Environmental Management (EM)

    March 2010 CD-0 O 0 OFFICE OF C CD-1 F ENVIRO Standard R Readin Rev Critical Decis CD-2 M ... D-3 EMENT CD-4 Post Ope eration Standard Review Plan, 2 nd Edition, March 2010 i ...

  18. CONCUR: AWARD FEE PLAN - FY15

    Office of Environmental Management (EM)

    as Facility Support Services Contract Award Fee Plan Contract Number DE-CI0000004 3 editorial or personnel changes may be made and implemented without being provided to the...

  19. Fermilab | Tevatron | Tevatron Operation

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Tevatron Operation Fermilab's Accelerator Complex Fermilab's Accelerator Complex has 10 accelerators. The Tevatron, which shuts down on Sept. 30, is one of those accelerators. The Cockcroft Walton accelerates negative hydrogen ions to 740 kilo electron volts (KeV). The negative ions are then accelerated down the LINAC to 400 MeV. The particles enter the booster where the electrons are stripped off, leaving the protons. In the Booster, the protons are then accelerated to 8 GeV. Once the protons

  20. Kilowatt Reactor Using Stirling TechnologY (KRUSTY) Demonstration. CEDT

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    Phase 1 Preliminary Design Documentation (Technical Report) | SciTech Connect Technical Report: Kilowatt Reactor Using Stirling TechnologY (KRUSTY) Demonstration. CEDT Phase 1 Preliminary Design Documentation Citation Details In-Document Search Title: Kilowatt Reactor Using Stirling TechnologY (KRUSTY) Demonstration. CEDT Phase 1 Preliminary Design Documentation The intent of the integral experiment request IER 299 (called KiloPower by NASA) is to assemble and evaluate the operational

  1. DOE-HDBK-1122-99; Radiological Control Technician Training

    Energy Savers [EERE]

    ... PREFIX FACTOR SYMBOL PREFIX FACTOR SYMBOL yotta 10 24 Y deci 10 -1 d zetta 10 21 Z centi 10 -2 c exa 10 18 E milli 10 -3 m peta 10 15 P micro 10 -6 tera 10 12 T nano 10 -9 n ...

  2. Kilowatt Reactor Using Stirling TechnologY (KRUSTY) Demonstration. CEDT Phase 1 Preliminary Design Documentation

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Sanchez, Rene Gerardo; Hutchinson, Jesson D.; Mcclure, Patrick Ray; Myers, William L.

    2015-08-20

    The intent of the integral experiment request IER 299 (called KiloPower by NASA) is to assemble and evaluate the operational performance of a compact reactor configuration that closely resembles the flight unit to be used by NASA to execute a deep space exploration mission. The reactor design will include heat pipes coupled to Stirling engines to demonstrate how one can generate electricity when extracting energy from a “nuclear generated” heat source. This series of experiments is a larger scale follow up to the DUFF series of experiments1,2 that were performed using the Flat-Top assembly.

  3. R&D 100 Honor Roll

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    R&D 100 Honor Roll R&D 100 Honor Roll Discoveries, developments, advancements, and inventions pouring from Los Alamos make America-and the world-a better and safer place and bolster national security. 2015 SHMTools (Structural Health Monitoring Software) Lab-Scale Asynchronous Radiographic System (LARS) Multidimensional Hashed Indexed Middleware (MDHIM) PipeLIBS (Laser-Induced Breakdown Spectroscopy) 2014 Acoustic Wavenumber Spectroscopy (AWS) Safire Cyto-AMP IsoFOX MagRay 2013 KiloPower

  4. Mitigation of carbon dioxide from the Indonesia energy system

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Adi, A.C.; Nurrohim, A.; Hidajat, M.N.

    1996-12-31

    Energy consumption in Indonesia is growing fast in line with the development of national economy. During (1990 - 1993) the emission of CO{sub 2} gas coming from energy sector increased from 150 million tones to 200 million tones in 1993. Whereas, the total methane emission from the oil, gas and coal sub-sector reached 550 kilo tones in 1991 and increased to 670 kilo tones in 1994. This amount of CO{sub 2} and Methane from energy sector was 26% and 10 % respectively of the total emission of Indonesia. Based on the last two decades of Indonesia`s economic growth experience, as a developing country this high economic growth rate of Indonesia in the future will be kept until reaching the newly industrialized country level, which is more than 6% annually in the next decade. This high growth rate economic projection will also added the level of GHG emission in the future. As a developing country Indonesia is one of the fast growing countries. The GDP growth in the year 1995 was more than 7 percent, therefore growth rate of energy consumption in this country also rose following the economic growth.

  5. Unbiased free energy estimates in fast nonequilibrium transformations using Gaussian mixtures

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Procacci, Piero

    2015-04-21

    In this paper, we present an improved method for obtaining unbiased estimates of the free energy difference between two thermodynamic states using the work distribution measured in nonequilibrium driven experiments connecting these states. The method is based on the assumption that any observed work distribution is given by a mixture of Gaussian distributions, whose normal components are identical in either direction of the nonequilibrium process, with weights regulated by the Crooks theorem. Using the prototypical example for the driven unfolding/folding of deca-alanine, we show that the predicted behavior of the forward and reverse work distributions, assuming a combination of only two Gaussian components with Crooks derived weights, explains surprisingly well the striking asymmetry in the observed distributions at fast pulling speeds. The proposed methodology opens the way for a perfectly parallel implementation of Jarzynski-based free energy calculations in complex systems.

  6. Multibody correlations in the hydrophobic solvation of glycine peptides

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Harris, Robert C.; Drake, Justin A.; Pettitt, B. Montgomery

    2014-12-14

    Protein collapse during folding is often assumed to be driven by a hydrophobic solvation energy (ΔG{sub vdw}) that scales linearly with solvent-accessible surface area (A). In a previous study, we argued that ΔG{sub vdw}, as well as its attractive (ΔG{sub att}) and repulsive (ΔG{sub rep}) components, was not simply a linear function of A. We found that the surface tensions, γ{sub rep}, γ{sub att}, and γ{sub vdw}, gotten from ΔG{sub rep}, ΔG{sub att}, and ΔG{sub vdw} against A for four configurations of deca-alanine differed from those obtained for a set of alkanes. In the present study, we extend our analysis to fifty decaglycine structures and atomic decompositions. We find that different configurations of decaglycine generate different estimates of γ{sub rep}. Additionally, we considered the reconstruction of the solvation free energy from scaling the free energy of solvation of each atom type, free in solution. The free energy of the isolated atoms, scaled by the inverse surface area the atom would expose in the molecule does not reproduce the γ{sub rep} for the intact decaglycines. Finally, γ{sub att} for the decaglycine conformations is much larger in magnitude than those for deca-alanine or the alkanes, leading to large negative values of γ{sub vdw} (−74 and −56 cal/mol/Å{sup 2} for CHARMM27 and AMBER ff12sb force fields, respectively). These findings imply that ΔG{sub vdw} favors extended rather than compact structures for decaglycine. We find that ΔG{sub rep} and ΔG{sub vdw} have complicated dependencies on multibody correlations between solute atoms, on the geometry of the molecular surface, and on the chemical identities of the atoms.

  7. Generation and Characterization of Electron Bunches with Ramped Current Profiles in a Dual-Frequency Superconducting Linear Accelerator

    DOE Public Access Gateway for Energy & Science Beta (PAGES Beta)

    Piot, P.; Behrens, C.; Gerth, C.; Dohlus, M.; Lemery, F.; Mihalcea, D.; Stoltz, P.; Vogt, M.

    2011-09-07

    We report on the successful experimental generation of electron bunches with ramped current profiles. The technique relies on impressing nonlinear correlations in the longitudinal phase space using a superconducing radiofrequency linear accelerator operating at two frequencies and a current-enhancing dispersive section. The produced {approx} 700-MeV bunches have peak currents of the order of a kilo-Ampere. Data taken for various accelerator settings demonstrate the versatility of the method and in particular its ability to produce current profiles that have a quasi-linear dependency on the longitudinal (temporal) coordinate. The measured bunch parameters are shown, via numerical simulations, to produce gigavolt-per-meter peak acceleratingmore » electric fields with transformer ratios larger than 2 in dielectric-lined waveguides.« less

  8. National Environmental Policy Act RM

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    National Environmental Policy Act Review Module March 2010 CD- N -0 OFFICE O National E C CD-1 OF ENVIRO Standa Environm Rev Critical Deci CD-2 M ONMENTA ard Review mental P view Modul ision (CD) A C March 2010 AL MANAG Plan olicy Act le Applicability D-3 GEMENT t (NEPA) CD-4 ) Post Ope eration Standard Review Plan, 2 nd Edition, March 2010 i FOREWORD The Standard Review Plan (SRP) 1 provides a consistent, predictable corporate review framework to ensure that issues and risks that could

  9. Quality Assurance for Critical Decision Reviews RM

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Quality Assurance for Critical Decision Reviews Module March 2010 CD-0 O 0 OFFICE OF Q C CD-1 F ENVIRO Standard R Quality A Rev Critical Decis CD-2 M ONMENTAL Review Plan Assuranc view Module sion (CD) Ap CD March 2010 L MANAGE n (SRP) e (QA) e pplicability D-3 EMENT CD-4 Post Ope eration Standard Review Plan, 2 nd Edition, March 2010 i FOREWORD The Standard Review Plan (SRP) 1 provides a consistent, predictable corporate review framework to ensure that issues and risks that could challenge the

  10. Toward quantitative modeling of silicon phononic thermocrystals

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Lacatena, V.; Haras, M.; Robillard, J.-F. Dubois, E.; Monfray, S.; Skotnicki, T.

    2015-03-16

    The wealth of technological patterning technologies of deca-nanometer resolution brings opportunities to artificially modulate thermal transport properties. A promising example is given by the recent concepts of 'thermocrystals' or 'nanophononic crystals' that introduce regular nano-scale inclusions using a pitch scale in between the thermal phonons mean free path and the electron mean free path. In such structures, the lattice thermal conductivity is reduced down to two orders of magnitude with respect to its bulk value. Beyond the promise held by these materials to overcome the well-known “electron crystal-phonon glass” dilemma faced in thermoelectrics, the quantitative prediction of their thermal conductivity poses a challenge. This work paves the way toward understanding and designing silicon nanophononic membranes by means of molecular dynamics simulation. Several systems are studied in order to distinguish the shape contribution from bulk, ultra-thin membranes (8 to 15 nm), 2D phononic crystals, and finally 2D phononic membranes. After having discussed the equilibrium properties of these structures from 300 K to 400 K, the Green-Kubo methodology is used to quantify the thermal conductivity. The results account for several experimental trends and models. It is confirmed that the thin-film geometry as well as the phononic structure act towards a reduction of the thermal conductivity. The further decrease in the phononic engineered membrane clearly demonstrates that both phenomena are cumulative. Finally, limitations of the model and further perspectives are discussed.

  11. A fluorescence-based method for rapid and direct determination of polybrominated diphenyl ethers in water

    DOE Public Access Gateway for Energy & Science Beta (PAGES Beta)

    Shan, Huimei; Liu, Chongxuan; Wang, Zheming; Ma, Teng; Shang, Jianying; Pan, Duoqiang

    2015-01-01

    A new method was developed for rapid and direct measurement of polybrominated diphenyl ethers (PBDEs) in aqueous samples using fluorescence spectroscopy. The fluorescence spectra of tri- to deca-BDE (BDE 28, 47, 99, 153, 190, and 209) commonly found in environment were measured at variable emission and excitation wavelengths. The results revealed that the PBDEs have distinct fluorescence spectral profiles and peak positions that can be exploited to identify these species and determine their concentrations in aqueous solutions. The detection limits as determined in deionized water spiked with PBDEs are 1.71-5.82 ng/L for BDE 28, BDE 47, BDE 190, and BDEmore » 209 and 45.55–69.95 ng/L for BDE 99 and BDE 153. The effects of environmental variables including pH, humic substance, and groundwater chemical composition on PBDEs measurements were also investigated. These environmental variables affected fluorescence intensity, but their effect can be corrected through linear additivity and separation of spectral signal contribution. Compared with conventional GC-based analytical methods, the fluorescence spectroscopy method is more efficient as it only uses a small amount of samples (2-4 mL), avoids lengthy complicated concentration and extraction steps, and has a low detection limit of a few ng/L.« less

  12. A fluorescence-based method for rapid and direct determination of polybrominated diphenyl ethers in water

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Shan, Huimei; Liu, Chongxuan; Wang, Zheming; Ma, Teng; Shang, Jianying; Pan, Duoqiang

    2015-01-01

    A new method was developed for rapid and direct measurement of polybrominated diphenyl ethers (PBDEs) in aqueous samples using fluorescence spectroscopy. The fluorescence spectra of tri- to deca-BDE (BDE 28, 47, 99, 153, 190, and 209) commonly found in environment were measured at variable emission and excitation wavelengths. The results revealed that the PBDEs have distinct fluorescence spectral profiles and peak positions that can be exploited to identify these species and determine their concentrations in aqueous solutions. The detection limits as determined in deionized water spiked with PBDEs are 1.71-5.82 ng/L for BDE 28, BDE 47, BDE 190, and BDE 209 and 45.5569.95 ng/L for BDE 99 and BDE 153. The effects of environmental variables including pH, humic substance, and groundwater chemical composition on PBDEs measurements were also investigated. These environmental variables affected fluorescence intensity, but their effect can be corrected through linear additivity and separation of spectral signal contribution. Compared with conventional GC-based analytical methods, the fluorescence spectroscopy method is more efficient as it only uses a small amount of samples (2-4 mL), avoids lengthy complicated concentration and extraction steps, and has a low detection limit of a few ng/L.

  13. SU-E-J-10: Imaging Dose and Cancer Risk in Image-Guided Radiotherapy of Cancers

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Zhou, L; Bai, S; Zhang, Y; Deng, J

    2015-06-15

    Purpose: To systematically evaluate imaging doses and cancer risks to organs-at-risk as a Result of cumulative doses from various radiological imaging procedures in image-guided radiotherapy (IGRT) in a large cohort of cancer patients. Methods: With IRB approval, imaging procedures (computed tomography, kilo-voltage portal imaging, megavoltage portal imaging and kilo-voltage cone-beam computed tomography) of 4832 cancer patients treated during 4.5 years were collected with their gender, age and circumference. Correlations between patient’s circumference and Monte Carlo simulated-organ dose were applied to estimate organ doses while the cancer risks were reported as 1+ERR using BEIR VII models. Results: 80 cGy or more doses were deposited to brain, lungs and RBM in 273 patients (maximum 136, 278 and 267 cGy, respectively), due largely to repetitive imaging procedures and non-personalized imaging settings. Regardless of gender, relative cancer risk estimates for brain, lungs, and RBM were 3.4 (n = 55), 2.6 (n = 49), 1.8 (n = 25) for age group of 0–19; 1.2 (n = 87), 1.4 (n = 98), 1.3 (n = 51) for age group of 20–39; 1.0 (n = 457), 1.1 (n = 880), 1.8 (n=360) for age group of 40–59; 1.0 (n = 646), 1.1 (n = 1400), 2.3 (n = 716) for age group of 60–79 and 1.0 (n = 108),1.1 (n = 305),1.6 (n = 147) for age group of 80–99. Conclusion: The cumulative imaging doses and associated cancer risks from multi-imaging procedures were patient-specific and site-dependent, with up to 2.7 Gy imaging dose deposited to critical structures in some pediatric patients. The associated cancer risks in brain and lungs for children of age 0 to 19 were 2–3 times larger than those for adults. This study indicated a pressing need for personalized imaging protocol to maximize its clinical benefits while reducing associated cancer risks. Sichuan University Scholarship.

  14. Systematic measurements of whole-body imaging dose distributions in image-guided radiation therapy

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Haelg, Roger A.; Besserer, Juergen; Schneider, Uwe

    2012-12-15

    Purpose: The full benefit of the increased precision of contemporary treatment techniques can only be exploited if the accuracy of the patient positioning is guaranteed. Therefore, more and more imaging modalities are used in the process of the patient setup in clinical routine of radiation therapy. The improved accuracy in patient positioning, however, results in additional dose contributions to the integral patient dose. To quantify this, absorbed dose measurements from typical imaging procedures involved in an image-guided radiation therapy treatment were measured in an anthropomorphic phantom for a complete course of treatment. The experimental setup, including the measurement positions in the phantom, was exactly the same as in a preceding study of radiotherapy stray dose measurements. This allows a direct combination of imaging dose distributions with the therapy dose distribution. Methods: Individually calibrated thermoluminescent dosimeters were used to measure absorbed dose in an anthropomorphic phantom at 184 locations. The dose distributions from imaging devices used with treatment machines from the manufacturers Accuray, Elekta, Siemens, and Varian and from computed tomography scanners from GE Healthcare were determined and the resulting effective dose was calculated. The list of investigated imaging techniques consisted of cone beam computed tomography (kilo- and megavoltage), megavoltage fan beam computed tomography, kilo- and megavoltage planar imaging, planning computed tomography with and without gating methods and planar scout views. Results: A conventional 3D planning CT resulted in an effective dose additional to the treatment stray dose of less than 1 mSv outside of the treated volume, whereas a 4D planning CT resulted in a 10 times larger dose. For a daily setup of the patient with two planar kilovoltage images or with a fan beam CT at the TomoTherapy unit, an additional effective dose outside of the treated volume of less than 0.4 mSv and 1

  15. Ferroelectric opening switches for large-scale pulsed power drivers.

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Brennecka, Geoffrey L.; Rudys, Joseph Matthew; Reed, Kim Warren; Pena, Gary Edward; Tuttle, Bruce Andrew; Glover, Steven Frank

    2009-11-01

    Fast electrical energy storage or Voltage-Driven Technology (VDT) has dominated fast, high-voltage pulsed power systems for the past six decades. Fast magnetic energy storage or Current-Driven Technology (CDT) is characterized by 10,000 X higher energy density than VDT and has a great number of other substantial advantages, but it has all but been neglected for all of these decades. The uniform explanation for neglect of CDT technology is invariably that the industry has never been able to make an effective opening switch, which is essential for the use of CDT. Most approaches to opening switches have involved plasma of one sort or another. On a large scale, gaseous plasmas have been used as a conductor to bridge the switch electrodes that provides an opening function when the current wave front propagates through to the output end of the plasma and fully magnetizes the plasma - this is called a Plasma Opening Switch (POS). Opening can be triggered in a POS using a magnetic field to push the plasma out of the A-K gap - this is called a Magnetically Controlled Plasma Opening Switch (MCPOS). On a small scale, depletion of electron plasmas in semiconductor devices is used to affect opening switch behavior, but these devices are relatively low voltage and low current compared to the hundreds of kilo-volts and tens of kilo-amperes of interest to pulsed power. This work is an investigation into an entirely new approach to opening switch technology that utilizes new materials in new ways. The new materials are Ferroelectrics and using them as an opening switch is a stark contrast to their traditional applications in optics and transducer applications. Emphasis is on use of high performance ferroelectrics with the objective of developing an opening switch that would be suitable for large scale pulsed power applications. Over the course of exploring this new ground, we have discovered new behaviors and properties of these materials that were here to fore unknown. Some of

  16. SU-E-P-54: Evaluation of the Accuracy and Precision of IGPS-O X-Ray Image-Guided Positioning System by Comparison with On-Board Imager Cone-Beam Computed Tomography

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Zhang, D; Wang, W; Jiang, B; Fu, D

    2015-06-15

    Purpose: The purpose of this study is to assess the positioning accuracy and precision of IGPS-O system which is a novel radiographic kilo-voltage x-ray image-guided positioning system developed for clinical IGRT applications. Methods: IGPS-O x-ray image-guided positioning system consists of two oblique sets of radiographic kilo-voltage x-ray projecting and imaging devices which were equiped on the ground and ceiling of treatment room. This system can determine the positioning error in the form of three translations and three rotations according to the registration of two X-ray images acquired online and the planning CT image. An anthropomorphic head phantom and an anthropomorphic thorax phantom were used for this study. The phantom was set up on the treatment table with correct position and various “planned” setup errors. Both IGPS-O x-ray image-guided positioning system and the commercial On-board Imager Cone-beam Computed Tomography (OBI CBCT) were used to obtain the setup errors of the phantom. Difference of the Result between the two image-guided positioning systems were computed and analyzed. Results: The setup errors measured by IGPS-O x-ray image-guided positioning system and the OBI CBCT system showed a general agreement, the means and standard errors of the discrepancies between the two systems in the left-right, anterior-posterior, superior-inferior directions were −0.13±0.09mm, 0.03±0.25mm, 0.04±0.31mm, respectively. The maximum difference was only 0.51mm in all the directions and the angular discrepancy was 0.3±0.5° between the two systems. Conclusion: The spatial and angular discrepancies between IGPS-O system and OBI CBCT for setup error correction was minimal. There is a general agreement between the two positioning system. IGPS-O x-ray image-guided positioning system can achieve as good accuracy as CBCT and can be used in the clinical IGRT applications.

  17. From medium-sized to megawatt turbines...

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Dongen, W. van

    1996-12-31

    One of the world`s first 500 kW turbines was installed in 1989 in the Netherlands. This forerunner of the current NedWind 500 kW range also represents the earliest predesign of the NedWind megawatt turbine. After the first 500 kW turbines with steel rotor blades and rotor diameter of 34 m, several design modifications followed, e.g. the rotor diameter was increased to 35 m and a tip brake was added. Later polyester blades were introduced and the rotor diameter was increased with 5 in. The drive train was also redesigned. Improvements on the 500 kW turbine concept has resulted in decreased cost, whereas annual energy output has increased to approx. 1.3 million kWh. Wind energy can substantially contribute to electricity supply. Maximum output in kiloWatthours is the target. Further improvement of the existing technology and implementation of flexible components may well prove to be a way to increase energy output, not only in medium or large sized wind turbines. 7 figs.

  18. CPT conservation and atmospheric neutrinos in the MINOS far detector

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Becker, Bernard Raymond

    2006-02-01

    The MINOS Far Detector is a 5400 ton iron calorimeter located at the Soudan state park in Soudan Minnesota. The MINOS far detector can observe atmospheric neutrinos and separate charge current {nu}{sub {mu}} and {bar {nu}}{sub {mu}} interactions by using a 1.4 T magnetic field to identify the charge of the produced muon. The CPT theorem requires that neutrinos and anti-neutrinos oscillate in the same way. In a fiducial exposure of 5.0 kilo-ton years a total of 41 candidate neutrino events are observed with an expectation of 53.1 {+-} 7.6(system.) {+-} 7.2(stat.) unoscillated events or 31.6 {+-} 4.7(system.) {+-} 5.6(stat.) events with {Delta}m{sup 2} = 2.4 x 10{sup -3} eV{sup 2}, sin{sup 2}(2{theta}) = 1.0 as oscillation parameters. These include 28 events which can have there charge identified with high confidence. These 28 events consist of 18 events consistent with being produced by {nu}{sub {mu}} and 10 events being consistent with being produced by {bar {nu}}{sub {mu}}. No evidence of CPT violation is observed.

  19. Hybrid Simulator

    Energy Science and Technology Software Center (OSTI)

    2005-10-15

    HybSim (short for Hybrid Simulator) is a flexible, easy to use screening tool that allows the user to quanti the technical and economic benefits of installing a village hybrid generating system and simulates systems with any combination of —Diesel generator sets —Photovoltaic arrays -Wind Turbines and -Battery energy storage systems Most village systems (or small population sites such as villages, remote military bases, small communities, independent or isolated buildings or centers) depend on diesel generationmore » systems for their source of energy. HybSim allows the user to determine other "sources" of energy that can greatly reduce the dollar to kilo-watt hour ratio. Supported by the DOE, Energy Storage Program, HybSim was initially developed to help analyze the benefits of energy storage systems in Alaskan villages. Soon after its development, other sources of energy were added providing the user with a greater range of analysis opportunities and providing the village with potentially added savings. In addition to village systems, HybSim has generated interest for use from military institutions in energy provisions and USAID for international village analysis.« less

  20. Unmanned airships for near earth remote sensing missions

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Hochstetler, R.D.

    1996-10-01

    In recent years the study of Earth processes has increased significantly. Conventional aircraft have been employed to a large extent in gathering much of this information. However, with this expansion of research has come the need to investigate and measure phenomena that occur beyond the performance capabilities of conventional aircraft. Where long dwell times or observations at very low attitudes are required there are few platforms that can operate safely, efficiently, and cost-effectively. One type of aircraft that meets all three parameters is the unmanned, autonomously operated airship. The UAV airship is smaller than manned airships but has similar performance characteristics. It`s low speed stability permits high resolution observations and provides a low vibration environment for motion sensitive instruments. Maximum airspeed is usually 30mph to 35mph and endurance can be as high as 36 hours. With scientific payload capacities of 100 kilos and more, the UAV airship offers a unique opportunity for carrying significant instrument loads for protracted periods at the air/surface interface. The US Army has operated UAV airships for several years conducting border surveillance and monitoring, environmental surveys, and detection and mapping of unexploded ordinance. The technical details of UAV airships, their performance, and the potential of such platforms for more advanced research roles will be presented. 3 refs., 5 figs.

  1. Electric Power Delivery Testing Feasibility Study Task 6 Final Report

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Thomas Tobin

    2009-07-01

    This Final Report is covers the completion of the Electric Power Delivery Testing Feasibility Study. The objective of this project was to research, engineer, and demonstrate high-power laboratory testing protocols to accurately reproduce the conditions on the electric power grid representing both normal load switching and abnormalities such as short-circuit fault protection. Test circuits, equipment, and techniques were developed and proven at reduced power levels to determine the feasibility of building a large-scale high-power testing laboratory capable of testing equipment and systems at simulated high-power conditions of the U.S. power grid at distribution levels up through 38 kiloVolts (kV) and transmission levels up through 230 kV. The project delivered demonstrated testing techniques, high-voltage test equipment for load testing and synthetic short-circuit testing, and recommended designs for future implementation of a high-power testing laboratory to test equipment and systems, enabling increased reliability of the electric transmission and distribution grid.

  2. Energy conservation in electric distribution

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Lee, Chong-Jin

    1994-12-31

    This paper discusses the potential for energy and power savings that exist in electric power delivery systems. These savings translate into significant financial and environmental benefits for electricity producers and consumers as well as for society in general. AlliedSignal`s knowledge and perspectives on this topic are the result of discussions with hundreds of utility executives, government officials and other industry experts over the past decade in conjunction with marketing our Amorphous Metal technology for electric distribution transformers. Amorphous metal is a technology developed by AlliedSignal that significantly reduces the energy lost in electric distribution transformers at an incremental cost of just a few cents per kilo-Watt-hour. The purpose of this paper is to discuss: Amorphous Metal Alloy Technology; Energy Savings Opportunity; The Industrial Barriers and Remedies; Worldwide Demand; and A Low Risk Strategy. I wish this presentation will help KEPCO achieve their stated aims of ensuring sound development of the national economy and enhancement of public life through the economic and stable supply of electric power. AlliedSignal Korea Ltd. in conjunction with AlliedSignal Amorphous Metals in the U.S. are here to work with KEPCO, transformer manufacturers, industry, and government agencies to achieve greater efficiency in power distribution.

  3. FY07 LDRD Final Report Precision, Split Beam, Chirped-Pulse, Seed Laser Technology

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Dawson, J W; Messerly, M J; Phan, H H; Crane, J K; Beach, R J; Siders, C W; Barty, C J

    2009-11-12

    The goal of this LDRD ER was to develop a robust and reliable technology to seed high-energy laser systems with chirped pulses that can be amplified to kilo-Joule energies and recompressed to sub-picosecond pulse widths creating extremely high peak powers suitable for petawatt class physics experiments. This LDRD project focused on the development of optical fiber laser technologies compatible with the current long pulse National Ignition Facility (NIF) seed laser. New technologies developed under this project include, high stability mode-locked fiber lasers, fiber based techniques for reduction of compressed pulse pedestals and prepulses, new compact stretchers based on chirped fiber Bragg gratings (CFBGs), new techniques for manipulation of chirped pulses prior to amplification and new high-energy fiber amplifiers. This project was highly successful and met virtually all of its goals. The National Ignition Campaign has found the results of this work to be very helpful. The LDRD developed system is being employed in experiments to engineer the Advanced Radiographic Capability (ARC) front end and the fully engineered version of the ARC Front End will employ much of the technology and techniques developed here.

  4. Cosmic Ray Interactions in Shielding Materials

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Aguayo Navarrete, Estanislao; Kouzes, Richard T.; Ankney, Austin S.; Orrell, John L.; Berguson, Timothy J.; Troy, Meredith D.

    2011-09-08

    This document provides a detailed study of materials used to shield against the hadronic particles from cosmic ray showers at Earth’s surface. This work was motivated by the need for a shield that minimizes activation of the enriched germanium during transport for the MAJORANA collaboration. The materials suitable for cosmic-ray shield design are materials such as lead and iron that will stop the primary protons, and materials like polyethylene, borated polyethylene, concrete and water that will stop the induced neutrons. The interaction of the different cosmic-ray components at ground level (protons, neutrons, muons) with their wide energy range (from kilo-electron volts to giga-electron volts) is a complex calculation. Monte Carlo calculations have proven to be a suitable tool for the simulation of nucleon transport, including hadron interactions and radioactive isotope production. The industry standard Monte Carlo simulation tool, Geant4, was used for this study. The result of this study is the assertion that activation at Earth’s surface is a result of the neutronic and protonic components of the cosmic-ray shower. The best material to shield against these cosmic-ray components is iron, which has the best combination of primary shielding and minimal secondary neutron production.

  5. SU-F-18C-15: Model-Based Multiscale Noise Reduction On Low Dose Cone Beam Projection

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Yao, W; Farr, J

    2014-06-15

    Purpose: To improve image quality of low dose cone beam CT for patient positioning in radiation therapy. Methods: In low dose cone beam CT (CBCT) imaging systems, Poisson process governs the randomness of photon fluence at x-ray source and the detector because of the independent binomial process of photon absorption in medium. On a CBCT projection, the variance of fluence consists of the variance of noiseless imaging structure and that of Poisson noise, which is proportional to the mean (noiseless) of the fluence at the detector. This requires multiscale filters to smoothen noise while keeping the structure information of the imaged object. We used a mathematical model of Poisson process to design multiscale filters and established the balance of noise correction and structure blurring. The algorithm was checked with low dose kilo-voltage CBCT projections acquired from a Varian OBI system. Results: From the investigation of low dose CBCT of a Catphan phantom and patients, it showed that our model-based multiscale technique could efficiently reduce noise and meanwhile keep the fine structure of the imaged object. After the image processing, the number of visible line pairs in Catphan phantom scanned with 4 ms pulse time was similar to that scanned with 32 ms, and soft tissue structure from simulated 4 ms patient head-and-neck images was also comparable with scanned 20 ms ones. Compared with fixed-scale technique, the image quality from multiscale one was improved. Conclusion: Use of projection-specific multiscale filters can reach better balance on noise reduction and structure information loss. The image quality of low dose CBCT can be improved by using multiscale filters.

  6. Radiation-driven warping of circumbinary disks around eccentric young star binaries

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Hayasaki, Kimitake; Sohn, Bong Won; Jung, Taehyun; Zhao, Guangyao; Okazaki, Atsuo T.; Naito, Tsuguya

    2014-12-10

    We study a warping instability of a geometrically thin, non-self-gravitating, circumbinary disk around young binary stars on an eccentric orbit. Such a disk is subject to both the tidal torques due to a time-dependent binary potential and the radiative torques due to radiation emitted from each star. The tilt angle between the circumbinary disk plane and the binary orbital plane is assumed to be very small. We find that there is a radius within/beyond which the circumbinary disk is unstable to radiation-driven warping, depending on the disk density and temperature gradient indices. This marginally stable warping radius is very sensitive to viscosity parameters, a fiducial disk radius and the temperature measured there, the stellar luminosity, and the disk surface density at a radius where the disk changes from optically thick to thin for the irradiation from the central stars. On the other hand, it is insensitive to the orbital eccentricity and binary irradiation parameter, which is a function of the binary mass ratio and luminosity of each star. Since the tidal torques can suppress the warping in the inner part of the circumbinary disk, the disk starts to be warped in the outer part. While the circumbinary disks are most likely to be subject to the radiation-driven warping on an AU to kilo-AU scale for binaries with young massive stars more luminous than 10{sup 4} L {sub ?}, the radiation-driven warping does not work for those around young binaries with the luminosity comparable to the solar luminosity.

  7. Properties, characterization, and decay of sticky rice–lime mortars from the Wugang Ming dynasty city wall (China)

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Xiao, Ya; Fu, Xuan; Gu, Haibing; Gao, Feng; Liu, Shaojun

    2014-04-01

    Urgent restoration of the Wugang Ming dynasty city wall brings about the need for a study of the formulation and properties of mortars. In the present paper, mortar samples from the Wugang Ming dynasty city wall were characterized in a combination of sheet polarized light optical microscopy, scanning electron microscopy with X-ray energy dispersive spectrometer, thermogravimetric/differential scanning calorimetry, X-ray powder diffraction, Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy, and inductively coupled plasma emission spectroscopy. Results show that mortars are mainly built up from inorganic calcium carbonate based organic–inorganic hybrid material with a small amount of sticky rice, which plays a crucial role in forming dense and compact microstructure of mortars and effectively hindering penetration of water and air into mortars. Analysis of decayed products shows that the detrimental soluble salts originates from ambient environment. - Highlights: • Mortars used in the Wugang city wall are a calcium carbonate-sticky rice hybrid bonding material. • Carbonation processing is extremely slow due to dense and compact microstructure of mortars. • Decying of mortars results from the appearance of soluble salt from ambient environment.

  8. Polybrominated diphenyl ethers in e-waste: Level and transfer in a typical e-waste recycling site in Shanghai, Eastern China

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Li, Yue; Duan, Yan-Ping, E-mail: duanyanping@tongji.edu.cn; Huang, Fan; Yang, Jing; Xiang, Nan; Meng, Xiang-Zhou; Chen, Ling

    2014-06-01

    Highlights: PBDEs were detected in the majority of e-waste. PBDEs were found in TVs made in China after 1990. The levels of ?PBDEs in e-waste made in Japan far exceed the threshold limit of RoHS. The inappropriate recycling and disposal of e-waste is an important source of PBDEs. - Abstract: Very few data for polybrominated diphenyl ethers (PBDEs) were available in the electronic waste (e-waste) as one of the most PBDEs emission source. This study reported concentrations of PBDEs in e-waste including printer, rice cooker, computer monitor, TV, electric iron and water dispenser, as well as dust from e-waste, e-waste dismantling workshop and surface soil from inside and outside of an e-waste recycling plant in Shanghai, Eastern China. The results showed that PBDEs were detected in the majority of e-waste, and the concentrations of ?PBDEs ranged from not detected to 175 g/kg, with a mean value of 10.8 g/kg. PBDEs were found in TVs made in China after 1990. The mean concentrations of ?PBDEs in e-waste made in Korea, Japan, Singapore and China were 1.84 g/kg, 20.5 g/kg, 0.91 g/kg, 4.48 g/kg, respectively. The levels of ?PBDEs in e-waste made in Japan far exceed the threshold limit of RoHS (1.00 g/kg). BDE-209 dominated in e-waste, accounting for over 93%. The compositional patterns of PBDEs congeners resembled the profile of Saytex 102E, indicating the source of deca-BDE. Among the samples of dust and surface soil from a typical e-waste recycling site, the highest concentrations of ?{sub 18}PBDEs and BDE-209 were found in dust in e-waste, ranging from 1960 to 340,710 ng/g and from 910 to 320,400 ng/g, which were 12 orders of magnitude higher than other samples. It suggested that PBDEs released from e-waste via dust, and then transferred to surrounding environment.

  9. SU-E-T-297: Small Field Dosimetry for Superficial Lesions

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Ying, J; Casto, B; Wang, S; Talyor, T; Wichman, A; Ku, L; Taylor, M

    2014-06-01

    Purpose: Kilo-voltage (kV) photons and low megavoltage (MeV) electrons are the most common options for treating small superficial lesions, but they present complex dosimetry. Using a tertiary lead shield may protect the surrounding critical structures. Our goal was to quantitatively evaluate the dosimetric impact resulting from applying tertiary shields on superficial lesions. Method: We directly compared the beam characteristics of 80 kV (0.8 mm Al) photon setup abutting the water phantom surface and 6 MeV electron setup at 100 cm SSD. Profiles and depth doses were acquired using a 3D scanning water tank and an ion chamber (active volume 0.01 cm{sup 3}). Beam profiles were scanned at Dmax. Three lead sheets (2 mm thickness) with 2.7, 2.2, and 1.6, cm diameter circular cutouts were fabricated and placed at the water surface for both photon and electron fields. Results: The penumbra (80% 20%) of the open 44 cm{sup 2} electron insert was 10.7 mm, compared to an average of 7.2 mm with the tertiary cutouts. The penumbra of the open kV photon beam was 2.8 mm compared to an average of 1.8 mm with the tertiary cutouts. For field widths 2.7, 2.2, and 1.6 cm, the flatness of the electron beams was 16%, 17.3%, and 21%, respectively, and for the kV photon beams was 1.4%, 2.3%, 3.3%, respectively. The electron depth dose (PDD) shifted shallower and the photon PDD shifted deeper as the field size became smaller. Conclusion: The penumbra of small electron fields can be improved by adding tertiary lead shields. Both modalities are clinically feasible; however, kV photons still offer sharper penumbra and better flatness than that of 6 MeV electrons with tertiary shielding. Thus, kV photons may still be a superior option for small superficial lesions.

  10. Building opportunities for photovoltaics in the U.S. Final report [PV BONUS

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Michael Nicklas

    1999-09-08

    The objective of the North Carolina's PV Bonus Team was to develop and demonstrate a commercially viable, building-integrated, photovoltaic system that, in addition to providing electricity, would capture and effectively utilize the thermal energy produced by the photovoltaic array. This project objective was successfully achieved by designing, testing, constructing, and monitoring two roof integrated photovoltaic systems--one on a Applebee's Restaurant in Salisbury, North Carolina and the second on a Central Carolina Bank in Bessemer City, North Carolina. The goal of Innovative Design is to now use these successful demonstrations to facilitate entry of building integrated, pv/thermal systems into the marketplace. The strategy was to develop the two systems that could be utilized in future applications. Both systems were designed and then constructed at the North Carolina Solar Center at North Carolina State University. After extensive testing at the North Carolina Solar Center, the systems were moved to the actual construction sites and implemented. The Applebee's Restaurant system was designed to substitute for the roof assembly of a low sloping, south-facing sunspace roof that typically incorporated clay tile. After monitoring the installed system for one year it was determined that the 1.2 kilowatt (peak) system produces an average peak reduction of 1 kilowatt (rated peak is 1.7 kiloWatts), saves 1,529 kilowatt-hours of electricity, and offsets 11,776 kilowatt-hours of thermal energy savings used to pre-heat water. A DC fan connected directly to eight of the thirty-two amorphous modules moves air through air passages mounted on the backside of the modules and into a closed loop duct system to a heat exchanger. This heat exchanger is, in turn, connected to a pre-heat hot water tank that is used to heat the water for the restaurant. The Central Carolina Bank system was designed to substitute for the roof assembly of the drive-in window area of the bank. The

  11. System Modeling of kJ-class Petawatt Lasers at LLNL

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Shverdin, M Y; Rushford, M; Henesian, M A; Boley, C; Haefner, C; Heebner, J E; Crane, J K; Siders, C W; Barty, C P

    2010-04-14

    Advanced Radiographic Capability (ARC) project at the National Ignition Facility (NIF) is designed to produce energetic, ultrafast x-rays in the range of 70-100 keV for backlighting NIF targets. The chirped pulse amplification (CPA) laser system will deliver kilo-Joule pulses at an adjustable pulse duration from 1 ps to 50 ps. System complexity requires sophisticated simulation and modeling tools for design, performance prediction, and comprehension of experimental results. We provide a brief overview of ARC, present our main modeling tools, and describe important performance predictions. The laser system (Fig. 1) consists of an all-fiber front end, including chirped-fiber Bragg grating (CFBG) stretchers. The beam after the final fiber amplifier is split into two apertures and spatially shaped. The split beam first seeds a regenerative amplifier and is then amplified in a multi-pass Nd:glass amplifier. Next, the preamplified chirped pulse is split in time into four identical replicas and injected into one NIF Quad. At the output of the NIF beamline, each of the eight amplified pulses is compressed in an individual, folded, four-grating compressor. Compressor grating pairs have slightly different groove densities to enable compact folding geometry and eliminate adjacent beam cross-talk. Pulse duration is adjustable with a small, rack-mounted compressor in the front-end. We use non-sequential ray-tracing software, FRED for design and layout of the optical system. Currently, our FRED model includes all of the optical components from the output of the fiber front end to the target center (Fig. 2). CAD designed opto-mechanical components are imported into our FRED model to provide a complete system description. In addition to incoherent ray tracing and scattering analysis, FRED uses Gaussian beam decomposition to model coherent beam propagation. Neglecting nonlinear effects, we can obtain a nearly complete frequency domain description of the ARC beam at different stages

  12. 130 LPW 1000 Lm Warm White LED for Illumination

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Soer, Wouter

    2012-06-14

    system efficiency by improving the lumen equivalent (LE) and phosphor package efficiency (PPE) through improvement in phosphor-package interactions. The high-power warm-white LED product developed has been proven to have good reliability through extensive reliability tests. The new kilo-lumen package has been commercialized under the product name LUXEON M. As of the end of the program, the LUXEON M product has been released in the following CCT/CRI combinations: 3000K/70, 4000K/70, 5000K/70, 5700K/70, 2700K/80, 3000K/80 and 4000K/80. LM-80 tests for the products with CCTs of 4000 K and higher have reached 8500 hours, and per IESNA TM-21-11 have established an L70 lumen maintenance value of >51,000 hours at A drive current and up to 120 °C board temperature.

  13. Distributed Sensor Coordination for Advanced Energy Systems

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Tumer, Kagan

    2013-07-31

    The ability to collect key system level information is critical to the safe, efficient and reli- able operation of advanced energy systems. With recent advances in sensor development, it is now possible to push some level of decision making directly to computationally sophisticated sensors, rather than wait for data to arrive to a massive centralized location before a decision is made. This type of approach relies on networked sensors (called agents from here on) to actively collect and process data, and provide key control deci- sions to significantly improve both the quality/relevance of the collected data and the as- sociating decision making. The technological bottlenecks for such sensor networks stem from a lack of mathematics and algorithms to manage the systems, rather than difficulties associated with building and deploying them. Indeed, traditional sensor coordination strategies do not provide adequate solutions for this problem. Passive data collection methods (e.g., large sensor webs) can scale to large systems, but are generally not suited to highly dynamic environments, such as ad- vanced energy systems, where crucial decisions may need to be reached quickly and lo- cally. Approaches based on local decisions on the other hand cannot guarantee that each agent performing its task (maximize an agent objective) will lead to good network wide solution (maximize a network objective) without invoking cumbersome coordination rou- tines. There is currently a lack of algorithms that will enable self-organization and blend the efficiency of local decision making with the system level guarantees of global decision making, particularly when the systems operate in dynamic and stochastic environments. In this work we addressed this critical gap and provided a comprehensive solution to the problem of sensor coordination to ensure the safe, reliable, and robust operation of advanced energy systems. The differentiating aspect of the proposed work is in shift- ing the