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Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "kilo deca deci" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


1

So How Do THey DeciDe  

Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE:1 First Use of Energy for All Purposes (Fuel and Nonfuel),Feet) Year Jan Feb Mar Apr May JunDatastreamsmmcrcalgovInstrumentsrucLas ConchasPassiveSubmittedStatus Tom Fletcher,Future | Department of How Do THey DeciDe wHaT To

2

Kilo Geothermal Area | Open Energy Information  

Open Energy Info (EERE)

AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Google Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home5b9fcbce19 No revision hasInformation Earth's Heat JumpInc Place:Keystone Clean Air Jump to: navigation,Kilo Geothermal Area

3

Thermodynamics of Electron Flow in the Bacterial Deca-heme Cytochrome...  

Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

Electron Flow in the Bacterial Deca-heme Cytochrome MtrF. Thermodynamics of Electron Flow in the Bacterial Deca-heme Cytochrome MtrF. Abstract: Electron transporting multiheme...

4

R/V KILO MOANA SAFETY MANAGEMENT MANUAL TITLE PREPARED BY: REVISION NO. PROCEDURE NO.  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

R/V KILO MOANA SAFETY MANAGEMENT MANUAL TITLE PREPARED BY: REVISION NO. PROCEDURE NO. SHIP and safe shipboard management practices towards ensuring new crewmembers, embarked science personnel of the indoctonation and orientation process. #12;R/V KILO MOANA SAFETY MANAGEMENT MANUAL TITLE PREPARED BY: REVISION

Wang, Yuqing

5

Charcoal kilos and environmental history in the eastern Pyrenees (France). A methodological approach  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

#12;Charcoal kilos and environmental history in the eastern Pyrenees (France). A methodological years, an interdiscip1inary research prograrn on long-term forest history and the impact of metallurgy as a tool for reconstructing environmental history and ancient woodlands. Two different methods

Paris-Sud XI, Université de

6

rillEdge is a software system that provides real-time deci-sion support when drilling oil wells. Decisions are sup-  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

are combined to provide best practices for how to handle the current situation. Verdande Technology hasD rillEdge is a software system that provides real-time deci- sion support when drilling oil wells on the surface and downhole when drilling. The real-time analysis identifies symptoms of problems, which

Aamodt, Agnar

7

Molecular Structure and Free Energy Landscape for Electron Transport in the Deca-Heme Cytochrome MtrF  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

The free energy profile for electron flow through the bacterial deca-heme cytochrome MtrF has been computed using thermodynamic integration and classical molecular dynamics. The extensive calculations on two versions of the structure help validate the method and results, because differences in the profiles can be related to differences in the charged amino acids local to specific heme groups. First estimates of reorganization free energies ? yield a range consistent with expectations for partially solvent exposed cofactors, and reveal an activation energy range surmountable for electron flow. Future work will aim at increasing the accuracy of ? with polarizable force field dynamics and quantum chemical energy gap calculations, as well as quantum chemical computation of electronic coupling matrix elements.

Breuer, Marian; Zarzycki, Piotr P.; Shi, Liang; Clarke, Thomas; Edwards, Marcus; Butt, Julea N.; Richardson, David J.; Fredrickson, Jim K.; Zachara, John M.; Blumberger, Jochen; Rosso, Kevin M.

2012-12-01T23:59:59.000Z

8

SISTEMA NEURONAL R APIDO DE DECIS  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

informaâ?ºcâ?ao original. Apesar da compactaâ?ºcâ?ao da informaâ?ºcâ?ao, obtâ??em­se, ainda assim, uma elevada efici ON HIGH ENERGY CALORIMETRY Andrâ??e Rabello dos Anjos April/2001 Advisor: Josâ??e Manoel de Seixas Department: Electrical Enginnering This work develops a fast neural classifier for high energy particle discrimination

Anjos, André

9

---Choice, Deci$ion, and Mea$urement A. A. J. Marley (Ed.).  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

& Palmeri, in press). I then present some preliminary tests of the model's ability to fit highly structured. NOSOFSKY Indiana University ABSTRACT. Nosofsky and Palmeri (in press) proposed and tested an exemplar. In this chapter, after first reviewing the model, I present tests of its ability to fit categorization response

Nosofsky, Robert M.

10

SISTEMA NEURONAL RAPIDO DE DECIS~AO BASEADO EM CALORIMETRIA DE ALTAS ENERGIAS  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

¸c~ao da informa¸c~ao, obt´em-se, ainda assim, uma elevada efici^encia de discrimina¸c~ao (97% para el for the degree of Master of Science (M.Sc.) FAST NEURAL DECISION SYSTEM BASED ON HIGH ENERGY CALORIMETRY Andr develops a fast neural classifier for high energy particle discrimination (electron/jet) at the second

Anjos, André

11

Toward Kilo-instruction Processors ADRI AN CRISTAL, OLIVERIO J. SANTANA, and MATEO VALERO  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

access latencies. Categories and Subject Descriptors: C.1.1 [Processor Architectures]: Single Data Stream`ecnica de Catalunya, Edifici D6, Campus Nord, c/ Jordi Girona 1-3, 08034 Barcelona, Spain; email: {adrian

Martínez, José F.

12

Smoothed Particle Inference: A Kilo-Parametric Method for X-ray Galaxy Cluster Modeling  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

We propose an ambitious new method that models the intracluster medium in clusters of galaxies as a set of X-ray emitting smoothed particles of plasma. Each smoothed particle is described by a handful of parameters including temperature, location, size, and elemental abundances. Hundreds to thousands of these particles are used to construct a model cluster of galaxies, with the appropriate complexity estimated from the data quality. This model is then compared iteratively with X-ray data in the form of adaptively binned photon lists via a two-sample likelihood statistic and iterated via Markov Chain Monte Carlo. The complex cluster model is propagated through the X-ray instrument response using direct sampling Monte Carlo methods. Using this approach the method can reproduce many of the features observed in the X-ray emission in a less assumption-dependent way that traditional analyses, and it allows for a more detailed characterization of the density, temperature, and metal abundance structure of clusters. Multi-instrument X-ray analyses and simultaneous X-ray, Sunyaev-Zeldovich (SZ), and lensing analyses are a straight-forward extension of this methodology. Significant challenges still exist in understanding the degeneracy in these models and the statistical noise induced by the complexity of the models.

Peterson, John R.; Marshall, P.J.; /KIPAC, Menlo Park; Andersson, K.; /Stockholm U. /SLAC

2005-08-05T23:59:59.000Z

13

Thermodynamics of Electron Flow in the Bacterial Deca-heme Cytochrome MtrF.  

Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE:1 First Use of Energy for All Purposes (Fuel and Nonfuel),Feet) Year Jan Feb Mar Apr MayAtmosphericNuclear SecurityTensile Strain Switched Ferromagnetism in Layered NbS2 andThe1 MembersStability ofXPS.Solid with a| EMSL

14

Project TRACS: Empirically Investigating Transformation through Relatedness, Autonomy, and Competence Support Logic Model Rooted in Self-Determination Theory (Deci & Ryan, 2000)  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Project TRACS: Empirically Investigating Transformation through Relatedness, Autonomy appointments toolkit (R, A , C) Project TRACS PI/Director Co-Director & Manager Project Leads & Team MSU&T and hiring procedures -Modern sexism is reduced -Women faculty feel improved job satisfaction -Women intend

Dyer, Bill

15

Mechanism and Site Requirements for Ethanol Oxidation on Vanadium Oxide Domains Beata Kilos, Alexis T. Bell,* and Enrique Iglesia*  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

was then heated in dry air (Praxair, zero grade) flowing at 0.83 cm3 s-1 g-1 . The temperature was raised at 0

Bell, Alexis T.

16

33S PR I NG 2012 ENGINEERING & SCIENCE down to a depth of nearly 2,900 kilo-  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

. Synthetic seismograms are models that use wave-propagation data to help model the earth's structure earth is an incredible, dynamic system," says geophysicist Mike Gurnis, whose specialty is computa--from a variety of sources--and integrate them into a comprehensive model. Some of this data is taken from

17

DISCOVERY OF THREE z > 6.5 QUASARS IN THE VISTA KILO-DEGREE INFRARED GALAXY (VIKING) SURVEY  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Studying quasars at the highest redshifts can constrain models of galaxy and black hole formation, and it also probes the intergalactic medium in the early universe. Optical surveys have to date discovered more than 60 ...

Venemans, B. P.

18

Data:381deca3-a2f1-4614-9626-fed82694ac2d | Open Energy Information  

Open Energy Info (EERE)

AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Google Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Office of48d9ff47edf3 Noc7e1a8ffef-15f046e6d97e No revision has beenbf1e-891fe0a8853a No revision709483 No revision

19

Profit Maximization of Cognitive Virtual Network Operator in A Dynamic Wireless Network  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

the transmission price (deci- sion variable) and market state (exogenous stochastics). · Realistic cognitive radio

Huang, Jianwei

20

On User Behaviour Adaptation Under Interface Change Benjamin Rosman  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

experiences in video games, etc. In typical sequential deci- sion making tasks, users execute sequences

Kohli, Pushmeet

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "kilo deca deci" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


21

Data:B1b36c2c-1417-49a9-84de-cae935fd41c0 | Open Energy Information  

Open Energy Info (EERE)

AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Google Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page onb5-dcc1fcffd1f2 No revision has38865d08 No revision has been approvededdfdcc009c No revision has been5edae14aa134

22

Data:4bc596e0-6200-468f-ab8f-deca4d60f224 | Open Energy Information  

Open Energy Info (EERE)

AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Google Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Office of48d9ff47edf3a87dcc95b No revisione66e17fc7f7d25b394bbda53c-862d-40f0-b0f3-c7fb462dbf90 No

23

Molecular Structure and Free Energy Landscape for Electron Transport...  

Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

Free Energy Landscape for Electron Transport in the Deca-Heme Cytochrome MtrF. Molecular Structure and Free Energy Landscape for Electron Transport in the Deca-Heme Cytochrome...

24

Linking Perceptions of School Belonging to Academic Motivation and Academic Achievement Amongst Student Athletes: A Comparative Study Between High-Revenue Student Athletes and Non-Revenue Student Athletes  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

60, 49-66. Ryan, R. , Stiller, J. , & Lynch, J. (1994).Powelson, 1991; Ryan, Stiller, & Lynch, 1994). Deci et al.

Anderson, Christine Marie

2010-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

25

E-Print Network 3.0 - apache indian nation Sample Search Results  

Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

in its earliest deci- sions regarding the interpretation of Indian treaties (Cherokee Nation v... upon the dependence of Indians on the federal government. Furthermore,...

26

"DECISION CAN": UMA BIBLIOTECA DE CASOS PARA TOMADA DE DECISO  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

. Este modelo permite organizar o modo como os utilizadores interagem com a base de dados, explorando, analisando e seleccionando casos. A base de dados encontra-se presentemente com 75 casos de decisão em grupo artigo descreve um sistema de suporte à tomada de decisão em grupo. O sistema baseia- se numa base de

Antunes, Pedro

27

Microsoft Word - PAD-WD-0011 R1 Waste Acceptance Criteria for...  

Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

and must be reported on the RFD: Type of equipment Manufacturer's name Identification or serial number Kilo Var rating, volume of liquid (electrical...

28

Testing and Evaluation of a Power Factor Correction for Power-Savings Potential  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

was then reduced from 13.9 to 3.0 kVAR (kilo volts amps reactive), the apparent power was decreased from 17.5 to 11.0 kVA (kilo volts amps). and the current was reduced from 23.4 to 14.5 amps. The Ministry of Electricity & Water (MEW) in Kuwait is expected...

Alotaibi, A.

2011-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

29

LBMS Facility Use Only Log in # ___ ___ ___ ___ ___ Operator:____________________  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

:_________________________ Ionization Method: ESI MALDI MALDI-TOF/TOF Separation: LC/MS LC/MS/MS Instrument: Qstar DECA STR 4700 Synapt complex PTM analysis Sample ID:__________________ Formula: _______________________ Molecular Weight

Meagher, Mary

30

Communications to the Editor Carbenic Rearrangement and Fragmentationof  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

of their transannular interactions resulting in carbon-skeleton frag- mentation to give acetylenic cycloheptatrienes of the resulting exo-7-bromobicyclo[4.3.l]deca-2,4,8-triene (12b) with lithium triethylb

RajanBabu, T. V. "Babu"

31

Total Estimated Contract Cost: Performance Period Total Fee Paid  

Office of Environmental Management (EM)

Wastren-EnergX Mission Support LLC Contract Number: DE-CI0000004 Contract Type: Cost Plus Award Fee 128,879,762 Contract Period: December 2009 - July 2015 Fee Information...

32

PUBLISHED OCCASIONALLY BY THE FRIENDS OF THE BANCROFT LIBRARY UNIVERSITY OF CALIFORNIA, BERKELEY, CALIFORNIA 94720  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

, cases and procedures in the office of the District Attorney of Alameda County, state finance, executive, with the Governor under pressure of deci- sion-making and their ensuing cabbages- and-kings conversations, that mark

California at Berkeley, University of

33

Security decision-making among interdependent organizations R. Ann Miura-Ko, Benjamin Yolken, John Mitchell, and Nicholas Bambos  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

the same passwords at several independent web sites, security deci- sions by one organization may have- ments of others. We apply this framework to investigate three examples: web site security with shared

Mitchell, John C.

34

CHARACTERIZING CONVERSATIONAL GROUP DYNAMICS USING NONVERBAL Dinesh Babu Jayagopi1,2  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

the Augmented MultiParty Corpus (AMI) corpus [10] and The Apprentice [11] (a subset of US reality TV show a remote control, the groups in the Apprentice dataset need to debate and help the boss deci

Gatica-Perez, Daniel

35

Outside Review of the Doctoral Program of the Department of Chemistry and Biochemistry of Texas Technical University (TTU)  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

observed no desire to remain static. There is also a deci- sion-making process in place to support with the internal and external reviewers present and again on February 6 among internal reviewers. The review team

Rock, Chris

36

CMNE/CILAMCE 2007 Porto, 13 a 15 de Junho, 2007  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

histórico dos dados de entrada u(n); u(n-1); ... apresentados à RNN, isto é, existe uma função E tal que x dos dados de entrada [1]. Em [1], Jaeger investigou qual poderia ser o benefício se os estados da RNN controle determina a decisão ótima com base na previsão de futuras vazões afluentes, e esta decisão é

Slatton, Clint

37

PROCEEDINGS OF THE SECOND WORKSHOP ON EXPERIMENTS AND DETECTORS FOR A RELATIVISTIC HEAVY ION COLLIDER (RHIC), LAWRENCE BERKELEY LABORATORY, MAY 25-29, 1987  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

0.1 seconds per track on a VAX 780, approximately linear into approximately 500 x VAX 780 speed (roughly a kiloVAX)coupled by Ethernet to a VAX online computer as. part of its

Ritter, Hans Georg

2010-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

38

NASA Green Flight Challenge: Conceptual Design Approaches and Technologies to Enable 200 Passenger Miles  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

-diesel, and other bio-fuel engines. The aircraft are using various technologies to improve aerodynamic, propulsionW = = = Jet Propellant Knots True Airspeed Kilo-Watt MPG = Miles Per Gallon MPGe MSL = = Miles Per Gallon

Waliser, Duane E.

39

Quality of life (QOL) is usually defined as a person's general well-being,  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

facilities (quality) Fire services quality Responsiveness of local government Sanitation services quality of kilo- watt hours of electricity. · The area has the world's largest deposit of trona, supplying 90 quality Hunting opportunities Outdoor recreation opportunities Medical facilities (amount) Medical

Torgersen, Christian

40

Original Article Exploration of the extracellular space by a large-scale  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

mechanisms that underly cell-cell interactions. The importance of intercellular signaling has long been, insulin-like growth factor; kD, kilo Dalton; LiCl, lithium chloride; NCBI, national center

De Robertis, Eddy M.

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "kilo deca deci" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


41

DARHT-II Injector Transients and the Ferrite Damper  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

If we use an equivalent beam resistance of 2 kilo-ohms, theany gaps ) is equivalent to a resistance of 60 ohms inthe equivalent circuit in Figure 3.4. This series resistance

M., Waldron, W.; Reginato, L.; Chow, K.; Houck. T.; Henestroza, E.; Yu, S.; Kang,

2008-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

42

E-Print Network 3.0 - atomic fluorescence detection Sample Search...  

Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

atom induces a signal of 16 kcps (kilo-counts per second). These laser parameters... for protection from over-exposure. 12;K. Bailey et al. Atom trap trace analysis 517 Figure...

43

Energy Management Services for the Industrial Market Segment at TVA  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

of electricity have also raised the cost of building and operating new generating plants to meet new load requirements. The economies of scale we once enjoyed--where new plants lowered the unit cost of producing electrici ty--have been reversed, and new... provided electric~ty I know you are informed about the benefits and abundantly and inexpensively for deca~es. disadvantages of tradi tional me thods for This cheap, plentiful electricity, ind~ed, generating electricity and about the future helped expand...

Hamby, R. E.; Knight, V. R.

1984-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

44

MAIS E MENOS Q J Grande feito foi odo ciclista portu-  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

fusão da Clássica com a Técnica de Lisboa. Perfeito foi Barack Obama a comentar a decisão judicial que Tour de França, igualando o recorde de Joaquim Agostinho. Outro feito é o de Cruz Serra, que se torna

Instituto de Sistemas e Robotica

45

48 CINCIA HOJE vol. 31 n 183 Bases biolgicas  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

sustentabilidade ambiental. A decisão sobre essa questão, porém, também precisa levar em conta aspectos científicos- nômicos (expansão das ativida- des agrícolas), por um lado, e de sustentabilidade ambiental, por outro

Metzger, Jean Paul Walter

46

Estimating the Weight of Evidence in Forensic Speaker Verification Beat Pfister and Rene Beutler  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

speech database is used to calibrate the valuation scale for an individual case. 1. Introduction. Since even the best SV systems are not able to make this deci- sion 100 % correctly, the trade properties (e.g. sex, age, mental and health state, language). In order to use SV in foren- sic casework, we

47

Differentiability properties of Rank Linear Utilities G. Carlier  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Differentiability properties of Rank Linear Utilities G. Carlier April 8, 2006 Abstract We study generalize the rank dependent expected utility and are called rank-linear utilities in deci- sion theory results generalize those obtained for the rank dependent expected utility in [1]. The author wishes

Carlier, Guillaume

48

NATIONAL RADIO ASTRONOMY OBSERVATORY Green Bank, West Virginia  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

was chosen and thus noise on the BCD data lines causes only a temporary error. General Binary Coded Decimal Standard Identification Data is recorded as Binary Coded Decimal numbers. A standard frequency could location and the Binary-Coded Deci- mal Time Signals transmitted to the scopes. The second system

Groppi, Christopher

49

Nordisk kernesikkerhedsforskning Norrnar kjarnryggisrannsknir  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

................................................................................................................. 4 2 Deposition of radioactive global fallout in Norway from nuclear weapons tests....... 5 2......................................................................................................... 16 3 Accumulated 90 Sr deposition in the Faroe Islands from nuclear weapons tests ....... 19 3 is the underlying food- and dose-module in several computerised deci- sion-making systems. Key words Nuclear weapons

50

National Renewable Energy Laboratory Innovation for Our Energy Future  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

and Integration Studies Our researchers measure the impact of wind and solar power plant output and the additional to predict wind plant output remains low for short-term (hourly or daily) operation in wind power plants. We informed deci- sions when considering wind power output for power plants. Our research includes efforts

51

Atmos. Chem. Phys., 12, 42454258, 2012 www.atmos-chem-phys.net/12/4245/2012/  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

that previously the occurrence of INES 7 major accidents and the risks of radioactive contamination have been removal processes of 137Cs and 131I are quite dif- ferent, the radioactive contamination patterns over reactor accident can subject around 30 million people to radioactive contamination. The recent deci- sion

Meskhidze, Nicholas

52

Modeling the Relations Between Flow Regime Components, Species Traits, and Spawning Success of Fishes in Warmwater  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

of warmwater stream fishes and may guide deci- sions related to stream regulation and management. Keywords impoundment and regulation can reduce peak and low discharge events in terms of both frequency and magnitude (Petts 1986). Peaking hydro- electric power generation often releases discrete surges of water from

Kwak, Thomas J.

53

732 journal of law, medicine & ethics Problem Formulation  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Governance and Environmental Risk Assessment for Technologies: A Methodology for Problem Analysis by a technology whose use has poten- tial environmental risks, some form of risk analysis is typically conducted considered a decision-sup- port tool, it is now sometimes used to legitimize a deci- sion to stakeholders

Nelson, Kristen C.

54

u.s. FISHERIES: A View of Their Status & Potential John P. Wis e  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

- April 1972.) Per -Capita Consumption & Use Increased utilization and importation of fishery products is perhaps best reflected in consumption and utilization per capita (Figure 2, Table 3) . Annual per-capita consumption of fishery products since 1951 has been relatively constant at about 5 kilo- grams. Per-capita

55

Jack Dongarra A Historical Overview and  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

a performance advantage of at least one order of magnitude over conventional systems of that time. Raw mean the rate of execution for floating-point operations. Here we chart Kilo-flop (thousands the complete lifespan of modern computing-- we see an increase in performance averaging two orders of mag

Dongarra, Jack

56

Low beta diversity of herbivorous insects in tropical forests  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

LETTERS Low beta diversity of herbivorous insects in tropical forests Vojtech Novotny1 , Scott E) and fruit (fruitflies, Diptera) found a low rate of change in species composition (beta diversity) across 75 of kilo- metres. Low beta diversity was also documented in groups with differing host specificity

Basset, Yves

57

SusLabNWE: Integrating qualitative and quantitative data to understand people’s everyday energy behavior  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

design. Kybernetes, 36(9), 1301-1317 E.ON (undated). ‘What’sa (kilo)Watt? ’ Coventry: E.ON UK. Fell, D. , King, G. (or even a boy band. ” (E.ON, undated) Van Dam et al (2010)

Lockton, Dan; Bowden, Flora; Greene, Catherine; Brass, Clare; Gheerawo, Rama

2013-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

58

IEDWorking Paper 21 December 2013  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

of a prod- uct's energy consumption in physical units (kilo- watt hours), other labels focus on monetary units (for instance US$). Currently applied labels accu- mulate a product's energy use over the period of one year, while the energy consumption for a single use or for the product's expected lifetime could

Fischlin, Andreas

59

The Fisheries and Fish Trade of Portugal  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

-3 percent of the labor force is employed in fJsheries related activity (canning, cold storage, etc was over 29 kilos) and for export earnings (US$98.4 million in 1979). The industry is characterized by lack- tunities for foreign sales to Portugal and investment in Portuguese industry are expected to grow

60

www.sciencemag.org SCIENCE VOL 320 20 JUNE 2008 1593 POLICYFORUM  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

- sentation outside of the United States (e.g., liters per 100 kilo- meters)--would make the benefits that gets 14 miles per gallon instead of 12 thanks to its second, electric power source" but not to a "buyer to "assume that a person drives 10,000 miles per year and is contemplating changing from a current vehicle

Graur, Dan

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "kilo deca deci" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


61

Changes in protein expression in maturing equine testis: a quantitative DIGE analysis  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

in -80 o C while awaiting mass spectrometric analysis. LC/MS/MS analysis and database search Nanospray LC/MS/MS was performed on an LCQ DecaXP 3D Ion Trap Mass Spectrometer (ThermoFinnigan, San Jose, CA). Extracted peptides were concentrated... CHANGES IN PROTEIN EXPRESSION IN MATURING EQUINE TESTIS: A QUANTITATIVE DIGE ANALYSIS Major: Genetics April 2009 Submitted to the Office of Undergraduate Research Texas A&M University in partial fulfillment...

Roper-Foo, Pilar

2011-01-11T23:59:59.000Z

62

Version auteur 1 MODELO DE PREVISO HIDROLGICA: CRITRIOS DE AVALIO E  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

e possibilitar a assimilação de dados de vazão coletados em tempo real, o modelo responde a um modelo e suas representações matématicas como o produto operacional que servirá de base para a tomada de decisão. Palavras-Chave ­ Previsão hidrológica, modelo hidrológico, assimilação de dados em tempo real

Paris-Sud XI, Université de

63

Um quinto dos cursos tem taxa  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Eco- nómico teve acesso - que está a servir de base para a decisão das novas vagas a abrir nas uni no primeiro trimestre deste ano. � a partir destes dados, for- necidos pelo lEFP, que a tutela actualiza o os estudantes associem es- tes dados à qualidade das insti- tuições e frisa: "O que estes da- dos

Instituto de Sistemas e Robotica

64

Selected components of an oil spill contingency plan model  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

of Responsibility Section 311 of the Clean Water Act or FWPCA gave the President the responsibility for issuing the National Oil and Hazardous Substances Pollution Contingency Plan (The Plan). In turn, this task was delegated to the Council on Environmental... administratively oriented, i. e. management personnel are assigned spill-related tasks but the tools needed to carry out the response are not detailed in the plan. Other plans focus primarily an the response phase, neglecting pre-spill deci- sions. Oil spill...

Starnater, Carol Elizabeth

1985-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

65

Quantification Of Margins And Uncertainties: A Bayesian Approach (full Paper)  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Quantification of Margins and Uncertainties (QMU) is 'a formalism for dealing with the reliability of complex technical systems, and the confidence which can be placed in estimates of that reliability.' (Eardleyet al, 2005). In this paper, we show how QMU may be interpreted in the framework of Bayesian statistical inference, using a probabilistic network. The Bayesian approach clarifies the probabilistic underpinnings of the formalism, and shows how the formalism can be used for deciSion-making.

Wallstrom, Timothy C [Los Alamos National Laboratory

2008-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

66

Unidades de Energa Energa mecanica  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

refrescos) = 11.7 kilowatt-hora (1 foco prendido 117 hrs)] Energa solar Radiacion solar en la tierra: 1 kilowatt por metro cuadrado (max.) [El promedio es la 1/4 parte. Un calentador solar da 60 %; celda-watt-segundo ; 1 cerrillo que se quema = 1 kilo-joule; 1 latido de corazon = 0.5 joules Mas informacion: http://es.wikipedia.org/wiki/Energia

Bor, Gil

67

Characterization of PP2A regulatory B subunits in Fusarium verticillioides  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

my parents and parents-in-law for their encouragement and support. vii NOMENCLATURE PP2A Protein Phosphatase type 2A FB1 Fumonisin B1 PDA Potato Dextrose Agar PDB Potato Dextrose Broth YEPD Yeast Extract Peptone Dextrose kb kilo base pair... and mutant strains on various solid media; PDA, V8 agar, and Defined Medium (DM) ... 31 Figure 11 Growth and morphology of the wild type and mutant strains on YEPD agar and in YEPD broth...

Shin, Joonhee

2012-07-16T23:59:59.000Z

68

Comparative Genomics of Gossypium spp. through GBS and Candidate Genes – Delving into the Controlling Factors behind Photoperiodic Flowering  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

COMPARATIVE GENOMICS OF GOSSYPIUM SPP. THROUGH GBS AND CANDIDATE GENES ? DELVING INTO THE CONTROLLING FACTORS BEHIND PHOTOPERIODIC FLOWERING A Dissertation by CARLA JO LOGAN YOUNG Submitted to the Office of Graduate Studies of Texas A.../Deletion Polymorphism IPGB Institute for Plant Genomics and Biotechnology Ka Non-synonymous Nucleotide Substitution Rate kb Kilobase(s) kDa KiloDalton Ks Synonymous Nucleotide Substitution Rate LD Long Day LD Linkage Disequilibrium MAS Marker Assisted...

Young, Carla Jo Logan

2013-08-09T23:59:59.000Z

69

Operational characteristics of the three-level diamond interchange  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

driver bshsvtor. cscora ?es placed the ~ disCsnce in front of the off-resp that ?ould percdt visibility of ths off rsep. The position of chs senora ~ sc each locatioe, is sho?n in pig?res 3 through $, 4, police accident reports for tho off...~. An analysis oi accidents ?as usda 54l an effort co decercLtno those design features ?hich coatributed to hsssrdous drivieg practices and accidents, iccident records ?ere collected for the nost rscset year for ?hich deca ?ere available (1961), 12 CHAPTER...

McCann, Charles Howard Wesley

1963-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

70

An investigation of Araldite 6060 as a model material for photoelastic stress analysis  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

, the hardener HR 901 deca not act as a normal type oatalyst, but becomes aa actual part of the resia. Since the reaction between the resin and the hardeaer is not exothermic, there need not and should not be aay variatioa in the amouat of hardener used... regardless of the size of the castiag. Since some plastics such as Castelite(4), a polyester resia, have aa exothermic hard- eaiag reactioa, the amount of catalyst used must be varied according to the size of the castiag to be made. This varia- tien ia...

Anderson, Byron Hubert

1956-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

71

Use of Information Theory Concepts for Developing Contaminated Site Detection Method: Case for Fission Product and Actinides Accumulation Modeling  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Information theory concepts and their fundamental importance for environmental pollution analysis in light of experience of Chernobyl accident in Belarus are discussed. An information and dynamic models of the radionuclide composition formation in the fuel of the Nuclear Power Plant are developed. With the use of code DECA numerical calculation of actinides (58 isotopes are included) and fission products (650 isotopes are included) activities has been carried out and their dependence with the fuel burn-up of the RBMK-type reactor have been investigated. (authors)

Harbachova, N.V.; Sharavarau, H.A. [Joint Institute of Power and Nuclear Research - 'Sosny' National Academy of Sciences, 99 Academic, A.K. Krasin Str., 220109 Minsk (Belarus)

2006-07-01T23:59:59.000Z

72

Total plastic strain and electrical resistivity in high purity aluminum cyclically strained at 4.2 K  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

at any point and travel clockwise (relative to the center of the loop) around the loop until returning to the start point. The total strain for one cycle is two times the strain range (25c) and the total elastic and plastic strain are 26e, and 26ev... is the summation of the plastic strain per cycle for each hysteresis loop. C. Edd Current Deca Method of Resistivit Measurement One way to measure the resistivity of a metal is the eddy current decay method. This technique is based upon the time dependent decay...

Gehan, James Terence

1988-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

73

Revista Iguanazul, Number 1  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

A L gura ahorró suficiente dinero y compró una pistola en el mercado negro de armas. Una noche al salir del trabajo, el guardia de la maquiladora no la acompañó, así que deci- dió esperar un taxi, el cual no llegaba; deses- perada caminó; de repente... cortinas del escenario. VOZ: Este nuevo ente es in- clasificable pues rompe con la taxonomía empleada hasta hoy por los parapsicólogos. Inicia la proyección de la película « Naná» (Gorostiza, 1943) en blanco y negro, y audio rayado. RO BLES (enérgico): En...

Santopietro, Judith

74

Social Activities | Argonne National Laboratory  

Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE:1 First Use of Energy for All Purposes (Fuel and Nonfuel),Feet) Year Jan Feb Mar Apr May JunDatastreamsmmcrcalgovInstrumentsrucLas ConchasPassiveSubmittedStatus Tom Fletcher,Future | Department of How Do THey DeciDe wHaT

75

The Crystal Structure of the Extracellular 11-heme Cytochrome UndA Reveals a Conserved 10-heme Motif and Defined Binding Site for Soluble Iron Chelates.  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Members of the genus Shewanella translocate deca- or undeca-heme cytochromes to the external cell surface thus enabling respiration using extracellular minerals and polynuclear Fe(III) chelates. The high resolution structure of the first undeca-heme outer membrane cytochrome, UndA, reveals a crossed heme chain with four potential electron ingress/egress sites arranged within four domains. Sequence and structural alignment of UndA and the deca-heme MtrF reveals the extra heme of UndA is inserted between MtrF hemes 6 and 7. The remaining UndA hemes can be superposed over the heme chain of the decaheme MtrF, suggesting that a ten heme core is conserved between outer membrane cytochromes. The UndA structure is the first outer membrane cytochrome to be crystallographically resolved in complex with substrates, an Fe(III)-nitrilotriacetate dimer or an Fe(III)-citrate trimer. The structural resolution of these UndA-Fe(III)-chelate complexes provides a rationale for previous kinetic measurements on UndA and other outer membrane cytochromes.

Edwards, Marcus; Hall, Andrea; Shi, Liang; Fredrickson, Jim K.; Zachara, John M.; Butt, Julea N.; Richardson, David; Clarke, Thomas A.

2012-07-03T23:59:59.000Z

76

The application of bi-level non-linear programming to the aluminum industry  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

In this paper a bi-level non-linear mathematical model of an aluminum smelter is described. The model is based on the Portland Aluminum smelter and aims at maximizing the aluminum production while minimizing the costs associated with the production of this maximum output. The model has two variables, the power input (kilo-Amperes) and the setting cycle (of the anode replacement). The solution algorithm, based on a grid search which enumerates the appropriate intersections of the resource and other constraints is then discussed. Additionally, some of the areas currently being developed, including sensitivity analysis and the incorporation of dependencies between some of the variables and coefficients are considered.

Nicholls, M.

1994-12-31T23:59:59.000Z

77

Kimball Wind Project Wind Farm | Open Energy Information  

Open Energy Info (EERE)

AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Google Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home5b9fcbce19 No revision hasInformation Earth's Heat JumpInc Place:Keystone Clean Air Jump to: navigation,Kilo Geothermal

78

Kinden Corporation | Open Energy Information  

Open Energy Info (EERE)

AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Google Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home5b9fcbce19 No revision hasInformation Earth's Heat JumpInc Place:Keystone Clean Air Jump to: navigation,Kilo

79

Kinematic model for postorogenic Basin and Range extension | Open Energy  

Open Energy Info (EERE)

AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Google Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home5b9fcbce19 No revision hasInformation Earth's Heat JumpInc Place:Keystone Clean Air Jump to: navigation,KiloInformation

80

Kinematics of compressional and extensional ductile shearing deformation in  

Open Energy Info (EERE)

AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Google Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home5b9fcbce19 No revision hasInformation Earth's Heat JumpInc Place:Keystone Clean Air Jump to: navigation,KiloInformationa

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "kilo deca deci" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
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81

Detonation of Meta-stable Clusters  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

We consider the energy accumulation in meta-stable clusters. This energy can be much larger than the typical chemical bond energy (~;;1 ev/atom). For example, polymeric nitrogen can accumulate 4 ev/atom in the N8 (fcc) structure, while helium can accumulate 9 ev/atom in the excited triplet state He2* . They release their energy by cluster fission: N8 -> 4N2 and He2* -> 2He. We study the locus of states in thermodynamic state space for the detonation of such meta-stable clusters. In particular, the equilibrium isentrope, starting at the Chapman-Jouguet state, and expanding down to 1 atmosphere was calculated with the Cheetah code. Large detonation pressures (3 and 16 Mbar), temperatures (12 and 34 kilo-K) and velocities (20 and 43 km/s) are a consequence of the large heats of detonation (6.6 and 50 kilo-cal/g) for nitrogen and helium clusters respectively. If such meta-stable clusters could be synthesized, they offer the potential for large increases in the energy density of materials.

Kuhl, Allen; Kuhl, Allen L.; Fried, Laurence E.; Howard, W. Michael; Seizew, Michael R.; Bell, John B.; Beckner, Vincent; Grcar, Joseph F.

2008-05-31T23:59:59.000Z

82

An instrument system for measuring atmospheric turbulence and the errors inherent in using it  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

: AZ GZ, "Z TZ bRUSH bcpngPE 6 CHAS'IE' S "C- 6 t HXE S bi=~IT O'A=K. SS CCKHE iEP;0 CH AS=( CO'ITROLI. ER CCNSQ). E SELL CONNECTEQ TQ SRI' H RECOR E ASR-35 TELET"PE MAGNE IC A Pc TRAN, QR CP-5:6 Co'll RQ' LER OMC L ASR ? 35... with an SK memory, a high speed arithmetic unit, a one kilo- hertz real time clock (RTC), and a data multiplex control (DMC) channel. Input/output devices include an ASR-35 teletype, two Honeywell magnetic tape transports and a specially designed Flux...

Darby, Franklin Sheehan

1972-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

83

Many Molecular Properties from One Kernel in Chemical Space  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

We introduce property-independent kernels for machine learning modeling of arbitrarily many molecular properties. The kernels encode molecular structures for training sets of varying size, as well as similarity measures sufficiently diffuse in chemical space to sample over all training molecules. Corresponding molecular reference properties provided, they enable the instantaneous generation of ML models which can systematically be improved through the addition of more data. This idea is exemplified for single kernel based modeling of internal energy, enthalpy, free energy, heat capacity, polarizability, electronic spread, zero-point vibrational energy, energies of frontier orbitals, HOMO-LUMO gap, and the highest fundamental vibrational wavenumber. Models of these properties are trained and tested using 112 kilo organic molecules of similar size. Resulting models are discussed as well as the kernels' use for generating and using other property models.

Ramakrishnan, Raghunathan

2015-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

84

Generation and Characterization of Electron Bunches with Ramped Current Profiles in a Dual-Frequency Superconducting Linear Accelerator  

DOE Public Access Gateway for Energy & Science Beta (PAGES Beta)

We report on the successful experimental generation of electron bunches with ramped current profiles. The technique relies on impressing nonlinear correlations in the longitudinal phase space using a superconducing radiofrequency linear accelerator operating at two frequencies and a current-enhancing dispersive section. The produced {approx} 700-MeV bunches have peak currents of the order of a kilo-Ampere. Data taken for various accelerator settings demonstrate the versatility of the method and in particular its ability to produce current profiles that have a quasi-linear dependency on the longitudinal (temporal) coordinate. The measured bunch parameters are shown, via numerical simulations, to produce gigavolt-per-meter peak accelerating electric fields with transformer ratios larger than 2 in dielectric-lined waveguides.

Piot, P [Northern Illinois U.; Fermilab; Behrens, C; Gerth, C; Dohlus, M [DESY; Lemery, F; Mihalcea, D [Northern Illinois U.; Stoltz, P [Tech-X, Boulder; Vogt, M [DESY

2011-09-07T23:59:59.000Z

85

Ferroelectric opening switches for large-scale pulsed power drivers.  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Fast electrical energy storage or Voltage-Driven Technology (VDT) has dominated fast, high-voltage pulsed power systems for the past six decades. Fast magnetic energy storage or Current-Driven Technology (CDT) is characterized by 10,000 X higher energy density than VDT and has a great number of other substantial advantages, but it has all but been neglected for all of these decades. The uniform explanation for neglect of CDT technology is invariably that the industry has never been able to make an effective opening switch, which is essential for the use of CDT. Most approaches to opening switches have involved plasma of one sort or another. On a large scale, gaseous plasmas have been used as a conductor to bridge the switch electrodes that provides an opening function when the current wave front propagates through to the output end of the plasma and fully magnetizes the plasma - this is called a Plasma Opening Switch (POS). Opening can be triggered in a POS using a magnetic field to push the plasma out of the A-K gap - this is called a Magnetically Controlled Plasma Opening Switch (MCPOS). On a small scale, depletion of electron plasmas in semiconductor devices is used to affect opening switch behavior, but these devices are relatively low voltage and low current compared to the hundreds of kilo-volts and tens of kilo-amperes of interest to pulsed power. This work is an investigation into an entirely new approach to opening switch technology that utilizes new materials in new ways. The new materials are Ferroelectrics and using them as an opening switch is a stark contrast to their traditional applications in optics and transducer applications. Emphasis is on use of high performance ferroelectrics with the objective of developing an opening switch that would be suitable for large scale pulsed power applications. Over the course of exploring this new ground, we have discovered new behaviors and properties of these materials that were here to fore unknown. Some of these unexpected discoveries have lead to new research directions to address challenges.

Brennecka, Geoffrey L.; Rudys, Joseph Matthew; Reed, Kim Warren; Pena, Gary Edward; Tuttle, Bruce Andrew; Glover, Steven Frank

2009-11-01T23:59:59.000Z

86

Unmanned airships for near earth remote sensing missions  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

In recent years the study of Earth processes has increased significantly. Conventional aircraft have been employed to a large extent in gathering much of this information. However, with this expansion of research has come the need to investigate and measure phenomena that occur beyond the performance capabilities of conventional aircraft. Where long dwell times or observations at very low attitudes are required there are few platforms that can operate safely, efficiently, and cost-effectively. One type of aircraft that meets all three parameters is the unmanned, autonomously operated airship. The UAV airship is smaller than manned airships but has similar performance characteristics. It`s low speed stability permits high resolution observations and provides a low vibration environment for motion sensitive instruments. Maximum airspeed is usually 30mph to 35mph and endurance can be as high as 36 hours. With scientific payload capacities of 100 kilos and more, the UAV airship offers a unique opportunity for carrying significant instrument loads for protracted periods at the air/surface interface. The US Army has operated UAV airships for several years conducting border surveillance and monitoring, environmental surveys, and detection and mapping of unexploded ordinance. The technical details of UAV airships, their performance, and the potential of such platforms for more advanced research roles will be presented. 3 refs., 5 figs.

Hochstetler, R.D. [Research Adventures,Inc., Kensington, MD (United States)

1996-10-01T23:59:59.000Z

87

Electric Power Delivery Testing Feasibility Study Task 6 Final Report  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

This Final Report is covers the completion of the Electric Power Delivery Testing Feasibility Study. The objective of this project was to research, engineer, and demonstrate high-power laboratory testing protocols to accurately reproduce the conditions on the electric power grid representing both normal load switching and abnormalities such as short-circuit fault protection. Test circuits, equipment, and techniques were developed and proven at reduced power levels to determine the feasibility of building a large-scale high-power testing laboratory capable of testing equipment and systems at simulated high-power conditions of the U.S. power grid at distribution levels up through 38 kiloVolts (kV) and transmission levels up through 230 kV. The project delivered demonstrated testing techniques, high-voltage test equipment for load testing and synthetic short-circuit testing, and recommended designs for future implementation of a high-power testing laboratory to test equipment and systems, enabling increased reliability of the electric transmission and distribution grid.

Thomas Tobin

2009-07-01T23:59:59.000Z

88

Transformation of the Bennet distribution in a rarefied gas  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

The usual Bennet distribution of particles in a beam is characterized by a density which decreases comparatively slowly with increasing radius. This is a negative factor in the solution of problems associated with the formation of a thin, powerful, quasistationary, relativistic electron beam. Under sufficiently high pressure of the residual gas the effect of the current of secondary electrons of the plasma, produced by the ionization of the gas by the beam, on the state of the main beam must be taken into account. As a result of this effect, an equilibrium state of the relativistic beam with a drop in the particle density deeper than in the case of the Bennet distribution toward the periphery of the beam can form. For sufficiently high currents in the beam, say in excess of 1 kilo amp, the average Larmor radius of the electrons of the secondary plasma is shorter than the mean-free-path length and the flow of secondary electrons acquires, owing to the magnetization, a longitudinal component which can change the parameters of the beam if the secondary-electron current is comparable to the beam current. This paper examines these phenomena in a kinetic description of the beam and a magnetohydrodynamic description of the plasma.

Movsesyants, Yu.B.; Chikhachev, A.S.

1986-09-01T23:59:59.000Z

89

Reducing auxiliary power consumption with F. D. fans  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

On June 6, 1988, the Unit No. 1-A forced draft fan at Cayuga station failed in service. This failure and the subsequent replacement of the 1-A F.D. fan and 1.-B F.D. fan with a more energy efficient design, resulted in a reduction in auxiliary power consumption by 2,000 Kilo watts/hr. Annual savings are projected to be $129,000.00 for 1989. Cayuga station was designed and constructed with pressurized boilers. The forced draft fans supplied combustion air, and also were designed to force this air through the entire boiler. In 1975, induced draft (I.D.) fans were installed. This design change modified the boiler to a balanced draft system, which reduced the force or pressure of the air that the F.D. fans were required to supply. Operating as a balance draft unit, the station had considerably more F.D. fan capacity than was necessary. After the failure, a system and economic evaluation warranted a change in design specifications for the F.D. fans, with the quantity of air remaining unchanged, but supplied at a lower pressure. This paper deals with the cause of failure, economic details and justification of the new design fans, as well as the final testing of the fans after being placed in service.

Henson, G.E. (PSI Energy, Cayuga Generating Station, Cayuga, IN (US))

1990-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

90

Generation of Coherent X-Ray Radiation Through Modulation Compression  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

In this letter, we propose a scheme to generate tunable coherent X-ray radiation for future light source applications. This scheme uses an energy chirped electron beam, a laser modulators, a laser chirper and two bunch compressors to generate a prebunched kilo-Ampere current electron beam from a few tens Ampere electron beam out of a linac. The initial modulation energy wavelength can be compressed by a factor of $1+h_b R_{56}^a$ in phase space, where $h_b$ is the energy bunch length chirp introduced by the laser chirper, $R_{56}^a$ is the momentum compaction factor of the first bunch compressor. As an illustration, we present an example to generate more than $400$ MW, $170$ atto-seconds pulse, $1$ nm coherent X-ray radiation using a $60$ Ampere electron beam out of the linac and $200$ nm laser seed. Both the final wavelength and the radiation pulse length in the proposed scheme are tunable by adjusting the compression factor and the laser parameters.

Qiang, Ji

2010-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

91

Cosmic Ray Interactions in Shielding Materials  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

This document provides a detailed study of materials used to shield against the hadronic particles from cosmic ray showers at Earth’s surface. This work was motivated by the need for a shield that minimizes activation of the enriched germanium during transport for the MAJORANA collaboration. The materials suitable for cosmic-ray shield design are materials such as lead and iron that will stop the primary protons, and materials like polyethylene, borated polyethylene, concrete and water that will stop the induced neutrons. The interaction of the different cosmic-ray components at ground level (protons, neutrons, muons) with their wide energy range (from kilo-electron volts to giga-electron volts) is a complex calculation. Monte Carlo calculations have proven to be a suitable tool for the simulation of nucleon transport, including hadron interactions and radioactive isotope production. The industry standard Monte Carlo simulation tool, Geant4, was used for this study. The result of this study is the assertion that activation at Earth’s surface is a result of the neutronic and protonic components of the cosmic-ray shower. The best material to shield against these cosmic-ray components is iron, which has the best combination of primary shielding and minimal secondary neutron production.

Aguayo Navarrete, Estanislao; Kouzes, Richard T.; Ankney, Austin S.; Orrell, John L.; Berguson, Timothy J.; Troy, Meredith D.

2011-09-08T23:59:59.000Z

92

Generation of Coherent X-Ray Radiation Through Modulation Compression  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

In this letter, we propose a scheme to generate tunable coherent X-ray radiation for future light source applications. This scheme uses an energy chirped electron beam, a laser modulators, a laser chirper and two bunch compressors to generate a prebunched kilo-Ampere current electron beam from a few tens Ampere electron beam out of a linac. The initial modulation energy wavelength can be compressed by a factor of 1 + h{sub b}R{sub 56}{sup a} phase space, where h{sub b} is the energy bunch length chirp introduced by the laser chirper, R{sub 56}{sup a} is the momentum compaction factor of the first bunch compressor. As an illustration, we present an example to generate more than 400 MW, 170 atto-seconds pulse, 1 nm coherent X-ray radiation using a 60 Ampere electron beam out. of the linac and 200 nm laser seed. Both the final wavelength and the radiation pulse length in the proposed scheme are tunable by adjusting the compression factor and the laser parameters.

Qiang, Ji; Wu, Juhao

2010-12-14T23:59:59.000Z

93

CPT conservation and atmospheric neutrinos in the MINOS far detector  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

The MINOS Far Detector is a 5400 ton iron calorimeter located at the Soudan state park in Soudan Minnesota. The MINOS far detector can observe atmospheric neutrinos and separate charge current {nu}{sub {mu}} and {bar {nu}}{sub {mu}} interactions by using a 1.4 T magnetic field to identify the charge of the produced muon. The CPT theorem requires that neutrinos and anti-neutrinos oscillate in the same way. In a fiducial exposure of 5.0 kilo-ton years a total of 41 candidate neutrino events are observed with an expectation of 53.1 {+-} 7.6(system.) {+-} 7.2(stat.) unoscillated events or 31.6 {+-} 4.7(system.) {+-} 5.6(stat.) events with {Delta}m{sup 2} = 2.4 x 10{sup -3} eV{sup 2}, sin{sup 2}(2{theta}) = 1.0 as oscillation parameters. These include 28 events which can have there charge identified with high confidence. These 28 events consist of 18 events consistent with being produced by {nu}{sub {mu}} and 10 events being consistent with being produced by {bar {nu}}{sub {mu}}. No evidence of CPT violation is observed.

Becker, Bernard Raymond; /Minnesota U.

2006-02-01T23:59:59.000Z

94

Strength and conformance testing of a GCL used in a solid waste landfill lining system  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

This paper describes strength and conformance tests conducted on a Bentomat ST geosynthetic clay liner (GCL) used in a composite lining system for the Cells 4 and 5 expansion of the Anchorage Regional Landfill in Anchorage, Alaska. The Cells 4 and 5 lining system included use of an 80-mil, high-density polyethylene (HDPE) liner overlying a GCL on both the sideslopes and base of the cells. The use of this lining system in a Seismic Zone 4 area on relatively steep side slopes required careful evaluation of both internal shear strength of the GCL and interface friction between the GCL and textured HDPE. Laboratory tests were carried out to evaluate both peak and residual GCL internal strengths at normal loads up to 552 kiloPascals (80 pounds per square inch). Laboratory tests also were conducted to evaluate the interface strength between the GCL and Serrot box and point textured HDPE. Interface strengths between both woven and nonwoven sides of the GCL and the textured HDPE were evaluated. Considerations related to use of peak or residual strengths for various interim stability cases are described in this paper. Stability analyses using stress-dependent interface and internal strengths for the GCL are addressed. The quality assurance and conformance testing program adopted for the project on GCL is discussed also.

Merrill, K.S. [CH2M Hill, Anchorage, AK (United States); O`Brien, A.J. [CH2M Hill, Sacramento, CA (United States)

1997-11-01T23:59:59.000Z

95

BRIGHT 'MERGER-NOVA' FROM THE REMNANT OF A NEUTRON STAR BINARY MERGER: A SIGNATURE OF A NEWLY BORN, MASSIVE, MILLISECOND MAGNETAR  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

A massive millisecond magnetar may survive the merger of a neutron star (NS) binary, which would continuously power the merger ejecta. We develop a generic dynamic model for the merger ejecta with energy injection from the central magnetar. The ejecta emission (the {sup m}erger-nova{sup )} powered by the magnetar peaks in the UV band and the peak of the light curve, progressively shifts to an earlier epoch with increasing frequency. A magnetar-powered merger-nova could have an optical peak brightness comparable to a supernova, which is a few tens or hundreds times brighter than the radioactive-powered merger-novae (the so-called macro-nova or kilo-nova). On the other hand, such a merger-nova would peak earlier and have a significantly shorter duration than that of a supernova. An early collapse of the magnetar could suppress the brightness of the optical emission and shorten its duration. Such millisecond-magnetar-powered merger-novae may be detected from NS-NS merger events without an observed short gamma-ray burst, and could be a bright electromagnetic counterpart for gravitational wave bursts due to NS-NS mergers. If detected, it suggests that the merger leaves behind a massive NS, which has important implications for the equation-of-state of nuclear matter.

Yu, Yun-Wei [Institute of Astrophysics, Central China Normal University, Wuhan 430079 (China)] [Institute of Astrophysics, Central China Normal University, Wuhan 430079 (China); Zhang, Bing; Gao, He, E-mail: yuyw@mail.ccnu.edu.cn, E-mail: zhang@physics.unlv.edu [Department of Physics and Astronomy, University of Nevada, Las Vegas, NV 89154 (United States)] [Department of Physics and Astronomy, University of Nevada, Las Vegas, NV 89154 (United States)

2013-10-20T23:59:59.000Z

96

Polybrominated diphenyl ethers in e-waste: Level and transfer in a typical e-waste recycling site in Shanghai, Eastern China  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Highlights: • PBDEs were detected in the majority of e-waste. • PBDEs were found in TVs made in China after 1990. • The levels of ?PBDEs in e-waste made in Japan far exceed the threshold limit of RoHS. • The inappropriate recycling and disposal of e-waste is an important source of PBDEs. - Abstract: Very few data for polybrominated diphenyl ethers (PBDEs) were available in the electronic waste (e-waste) as one of the most PBDEs emission source. This study reported concentrations of PBDEs in e-waste including printer, rice cooker, computer monitor, TV, electric iron and water dispenser, as well as dust from e-waste, e-waste dismantling workshop and surface soil from inside and outside of an e-waste recycling plant in Shanghai, Eastern China. The results showed that PBDEs were detected in the majority of e-waste, and the concentrations of ?PBDEs ranged from not detected to 175 g/kg, with a mean value of 10.8 g/kg. PBDEs were found in TVs made in China after 1990. The mean concentrations of ?PBDEs in e-waste made in Korea, Japan, Singapore and China were 1.84 g/kg, 20.5 g/kg, 0.91 g/kg, 4.48 g/kg, respectively. The levels of ?PBDEs in e-waste made in Japan far exceed the threshold limit of RoHS (1.00 g/kg). BDE-209 dominated in e-waste, accounting for over 93%. The compositional patterns of PBDEs congeners resembled the profile of Saytex 102E, indicating the source of deca-BDE. Among the samples of dust and surface soil from a typical e-waste recycling site, the highest concentrations of ?{sub 18}PBDEs and BDE-209 were found in dust in e-waste, ranging from 1960 to 340,710 ng/g and from 910 to 320,400 ng/g, which were 1–2 orders of magnitude higher than other samples. It suggested that PBDEs released from e-waste via dust, and then transferred to surrounding environment.

Li, Yue; Duan, Yan-Ping, E-mail: duanyanping@tongji.edu.cn; Huang, Fan; Yang, Jing; Xiang, Nan; Meng, Xiang-Zhou; Chen, Ling

2014-06-01T23:59:59.000Z

97

Stability and support issues in the construction of large span caverns for physics  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

New physics experiments, proposed to study neutrinos and protons, call for the use of large underground particle detectors. In the United States, such detectors would be housed in the US Deep Underground Science and Engineering Laboratory (DUSEL), sited within the footprint of the defunct Homestake Mine, South Dakota. Although the experimental proposals differ in detail, all rely heavily upon the ability of the mined and reinforced rock mass to serve as a stable host for the detector facilities. Experimental proposals, based on the use of Water Cherenkov detector technology, specify rock caverns with excavated volumes in excess of half a million cubic meters, spans of at least 50 m, sited at depths of approximately one to 1.5 kilometers. Although perhaps sited at shallower depth, proposals based on the use of Liquid Argon (LAr) detector technology are no less challenging. LAr proposals not only call for the excavation of large span caverns, but have an additional need for the safe management of large quantities (kilo-tonnes) of cryogenic liquid, including critical provisions for the fail-safe egress of underground personnel and the reliable exhaust of Argon gas in the event of a catastrophic release. These multi-year, high value physics experiments will provide the key experimental data needed to support the research of a new generation of physicists as they probe the behavior of basic particles and the fundamental laws of nature. The rock engineer must deliver caverns that will reliably meet operational requirements and remain stable for periods conservatively estimated to be in excess of twenty years. This paper provides an overview of the DUSEL site conditions and discusses key end-user requirements and design criteria likely to dominate in determining the viability of experimental options. The paper stresses the paramount importance of collecting adequate site-specific data to inform early siting, dimensioning and layout decisions. Given the large-scale of the excavation and likely timeline to construction, the paper also strongly suggests that there are exciting opportunities for the rock mechanics and engineering community to identify and efficiently integrate research components into the design and construction process.

Laughton, C.; /Fermilab

2008-05-01T23:59:59.000Z

98

Comparison of Activity Determination of Radium 226 in FUSRAP Soil using Various Energy Lines - 12299  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Gamma spectroscopy is used at the Formerly Utilized Sites Remedial Action Program (FUSRAP) Maywood Superfund Site as the primary radioanalytical tool for quantization of activities of the radionuclides of concern in site soil. When selecting energy lines in gamma spectroscopy, a number of factors are considered including assumptions concerning secondary equilibrium, interferences, and the strength of the lines. The case of the Maywood radionuclide of concern radium-226 (Ra-226) is considered in this paper. At the FUSRAP Maywood Superfund Site, one of the daughters produced from radioactive decay of Ra-226, lead-214 (Pb- 214), is used to quantitate Ra-226. Another Ra-226 daughter, bismuth-214 (Bi-214), also may be used to quantitate Ra-226. In this paper, a comparison of Ra-226 to Pb-214 activities and Ra-226 to Bi-214 activities, obtained using gamma spectrometry for a large number of soil samples, was performed. The Pb-214, Bi-214, and Ra-226 activities were quantitated using the 352 kilo electron volt (keV), 609 keV, and 186 keV lines, respectively. The comparisons were made after correcting the Ra-226 activities by a factor of 0.571 and both ignoring and accounting for the contribution of a U-235 interfering line to the Ra-226 line. For the Pb-214 and Bi-214 activities, a mean in-growth factor was employed. The gamma spectrometer was calibrated for efficiency and energy using a mixed gamma standard and an energy range of 59 keV to 1830 keV. The authors expect other sites with Ra-226 contamination in soil may benefit from the discussions and points in this paper. Proper use of correction factors and comparison of the data from three different gamma-emitting radionuclides revealed agreement with expectations and provided confidence that using such correction factors generates quality data. The results indicate that if contamination is low level and due to NORM, the Ra-226 can be measured directly if corrected to subtract the contribution from U-235. If there is any indication that technologically enhanced uranium may be present, the preferred measurement approach for quantitation of Ra-226 activity is detection of one of the Ra-226 daughters, Pb-214 or Bi-214, using a correction factor obtained from an in-growth curve. The results also show that the adjusted Ra-226 results compare very well with both the Pb-214 and Bi-214 results obtained using an in-growth curve correction factor. (authors)

Tucker, Brian [Shaw Environmental and Infrastructure, Stoughton, MA 02072 (United States); Donakowski, Jough [Unites States Army Corps of Engineers, Kansas City, MO 64106 (United States); Hays, David [United States Army Corps of Engineers, Maywood, NJ 07607 (United States)

2012-07-01T23:59:59.000Z

99

Distributed Sensor Coordination for Advanced Energy Systems  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

The ability to collect key system level information is critical to the safe, efficient and reli- able operation of advanced energy systems. With recent advances in sensor development, it is now possible to push some level of decision making directly to computationally sophisticated sensors, rather than wait for data to arrive to a massive centralized location before a decision is made. This type of approach relies on networked sensors (called “agents” from here on) to actively collect and process data, and provide key control deci- sions to significantly improve both the quality/relevance of the collected data and the as- sociating decision making. The technological bottlenecks for such sensor networks stem from a lack of mathematics and algorithms to manage the systems, rather than difficulties associated with building and deploying them. Indeed, traditional sensor coordination strategies do not provide adequate solutions for this problem. Passive data collection methods (e.g., large sensor webs) can scale to large systems, but are generally not suited to highly dynamic environments, such as ad- vanced energy systems, where crucial decisions may need to be reached quickly and lo- cally. Approaches based on local decisions on the other hand cannot guarantee that each agent performing its task (maximize an agent objective) will lead to good network wide solution (maximize a network objective) without invoking cumbersome coordination rou- tines. There is currently a lack of algorithms that will enable self-organization and blend the efficiency of local decision making with the system level guarantees of global decision making, particularly when the systems operate in dynamic and stochastic environments. In this work we addressed this critical gap and provided a comprehensive solution to the problem of sensor coordination to ensure the safe, reliable, and robust operation of advanced energy systems. The differentiating aspect of the proposed work is in shift- ing the focus towards “what to observe” rather than “how to observe” in large sensor networks, allowing the agents to actively determine both the structure of the network and the relevance of the information they are seeking to collect. In addition to providing an implicit coordination mechanism, this approach allows the system to be reconfigured in response to changing needs (e.g., sudden external events requiring new responses) or changing sensor network characteristics (e.g., sudden changes to plant condition). Outcome Summary: All milestones associated with this project have been completed. In particular, private sensor objective functions were developed which are aligned with the global objective function, sensor effectiveness has been improved by using “sensor teams,” system efficiency has been improved by 30% using difference evaluation func- tions, we have demonstrated system reconfigurability for 20% changes in system con- ditions, we have demonstrated extreme scalability of our proposed algorithm, we have demonstrated that sensor networks can overcome disruptions of up to 20% in network conditions, and have demonstrated system reconfigurability to 20% changes in system conditions in hardware-based simulations. This final report summarizes how each of these milestones was achieved, and gives insight into future research possibilities past the work which has been completed. The following publications support these milestones [6, 8, 9, 10, 16, 18, 19].

Tumer, Kagan

2013-07-31T23:59:59.000Z

100

Building opportunities for photovoltaics in the U.S. Final report [PV BONUS  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

The objective of the North Carolina's PV Bonus Team was to develop and demonstrate a commercially viable, building-integrated, photovoltaic system that, in addition to providing electricity, would capture and effectively utilize the thermal energy produced by the photovoltaic array. This project objective was successfully achieved by designing, testing, constructing, and monitoring two roof integrated photovoltaic systems--one on a Applebee's Restaurant in Salisbury, North Carolina and the second on a Central Carolina Bank in Bessemer City, North Carolina. The goal of Innovative Design is to now use these successful demonstrations to facilitate entry of building integrated, pv/thermal systems into the marketplace. The strategy was to develop the two systems that could be utilized in future applications. Both systems were designed and then constructed at the North Carolina Solar Center at North Carolina State University. After extensive testing at the North Carolina Solar Center, the systems were moved to the actual construction sites and implemented. The Applebee's Restaurant system was designed to substitute for the roof assembly of a low sloping, south-facing sunspace roof that typically incorporated clay tile. After monitoring the installed system for one year it was determined that the 1.2 kilowatt (peak) system produces an average peak reduction of 1 kilowatt (rated peak is 1.7 kiloWatts), saves 1,529 kilowatt-hours of electricity, and offsets 11,776 kilowatt-hours of thermal energy savings used to pre-heat water. A DC fan connected directly to eight of the thirty-two amorphous modules moves air through air passages mounted on the backside of the modules and into a closed loop duct system to a heat exchanger. This heat exchanger is, in turn, connected to a pre-heat hot water tank that is used to heat the water for the restaurant. The Central Carolina Bank system was designed to substitute for the roof assembly of the drive-in window area of the bank. The design featured a triangulated truss that incorporated ten crystalline photovoltaic modules on one side of the truss and a reflective panel on the opposite side. The system used a utility interactive, programmable inverter and a 18.9 kilowatt-hour battery bank. The system is designed so that a DC fan, connected to one of the modules, forces ambient air across the back side of the modules. In the summer this heat is vented to the outside but in the winter this heated, fresh air is introduced into the building as ventilation air. Like the Applebee's system, the design allowed the entire roof assembly to be constructed off-site, tested, and then shipped to the site in pie-assembled, large components. During the first full year of operation, the 2.2 kilowatt (rated peak is 2.7 kilowatts) system contributed to an average peak reduction of .9 kilowatts. The system, as designed, saves 2,576 kilowatt-hours of electricity and offsets 3,473 kilowatt hours (of a potential thermal benefit of 10,172 collected kWhs) of thermal energy savings that is used as fresh air make-up in the colder months. This report is a summary of their conclusions.

Michael Nicklas

1999-09-08T23:59:59.000Z

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "kilo deca deci" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
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101

130 LPW 1000 Lm Warm White LED for Illumination  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

An illumination-grade warm-white LED, having correlated color temperature (CCT) between 2700 and 3500 K and capable of producing 1000 lm output at over 130 lm/W at room temperature, has been developed in this program. The high-power warm-white LED is an ideal source for use in indoor and outdoor lighting applications. Over the two year period, we have made the following accomplishments: • Developed a low-cost high-power white LED package and commercialized a series of products with CCT ranging from 2700 to 5700 K under the product name LUXEON M; • Demonstrated a record efficacy of 124.8 lm/W at a flux of 1023 lm, CCT of 3435 K and color rendering index (CRI) over 80 at room temperature in the productized package; • Demonstrated a record efficacy of 133.1 lm/W at a flux of 1015 lm, CCT of 3475 K and CRI over 80 at room temperature in an R&D package. The new high-power LED package is a die-on-ceramic surface mountable LED package. It has four 2 mm2 InGaN pump dice, flip-chip attached to a ceramic submount in a 2x2 array configuration. The submount design utilizes a design approach that combines a high-thermal- conductivity ceramic core for die attach and a low-cost and low-thermal-conductivity ceramic frame for mechanical support and as optical lens carrier. The LED package has a thermal resistance of less than 1.25 K/W. The white LED fabrication also adopts a new batch level (instead of die-by-die) phosphor deposition process with precision layer thickness and composition control, which provides not only tight color control, but also low cost. The efficacy performance goal was achieved through the progress in following key areas: (1) high-efficiency royal blue pump LED development through active region design and epitaxial growth quality improvement (funded by internal programs); (2) improvement in extraction efficiency from the LED package through improvement of InGaN-die-level and package-level optical extraction efficiency; and (3) improvement in phosphor system efficiency by improving the lumen equivalent (LE) and phosphor package efficiency (PPE) through improvement in phosphor-package interactions. The high-power warm-white LED product developed has been proven to have good reliability through extensive reliability tests. The new kilo-lumen package has been commercialized under the product name LUXEON M. As of the end of the program, the LUXEON M product has been released in the following CCT/CRI combinations: 3000K/70, 4000K/70, 5000K/70, 5700K/70, 2700K/80, 3000K/80 and 4000K/80. LM-80 tests for the products with CCTs of 4000 K and higher have reached 8500 hours, and per IESNA TM-21-11 have established an L70 lumen maintenance value of >51,000 hours at A drive current and up to 120 °C board temperature.

Soer, Wouter

2012-06-14T23:59:59.000Z

102

Scaling Up: Kilolumen Solid-State Lighting Exceeding 100 LPW via Remote Phosphor  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

This thirty-month project was successful in attaining its ambitious objectives of demonstrating a radically novel 'remote-phosphor' LED light source that can out-perform conventional conformal coated phosphor LED sources. Numerous technical challenges were met with innovative techniques and optical configurations. This product development program for a new generation of solid-state light sources has attained unprecedented luminosity (over 1 kilo-lumen) and efficacy (based on the criterion lumens per 100mw radiant blue). LPI has successfully demonstrated its proprietary technology for optical synthesis of large uniform sources out of the light output of an array of separated LEDs. Numerous multiple blue LEDs illuminate single a phosphor patch. By separating the LEDs from the phosphor, the phosphor and LEDs operate cooler and with higher efficiency over a wide range of operating conditions (from startup to steady state). Other benefits of the system include: better source uniformity, more types of phosphor can be used (chemical interaction and high temperatures are no longer an issue), and the phosphor can be made up from a pre-manufactured sheet (thereby lowering cost and complexity of phosphor deposition). Several laboratory prototypes were built and operated at the expected high performance level. The project fully explored two types of remote phosphor system: transmissive and reflective. The first was found to be well suited for a replacement for A19 type incandescent bulbs, as it was able to replicate the beam pattern of a traditional filament bulb. The second type has the advantages that it is pre-collimate source that has an adjustable color temperature. The project was divided in two phases: Phase I explored a transmissive design and Phase II of the project developed reflective architectures. Additionally, in Phase II the design of a spherical emitting transmissive remote phosphor bulb was developed that is suitable for replacement of A19 and similar light bulbs. In Phase II several new reflective remote phosphor systems were developed and patents applied for. This research included the development of reflective systems in which the short-pass filter operated at a nominal incidence angle of 15{sup o}, a major advancement of this technology. Another goal of the project was to show that it is possible to align multiple optics to multiple LEDs (spaced apart for better thermal management) to within an accuracy in the z-direction of 10 microns or less. This goal was achieved. A further goal was to show it is possible to combine and homogenize the output from multiple LEDs without any flux loss or significant increase in etendue. This goal also was achieved. The following color-coded computer drawing of the Phase 2 reflective remote phosphor prototype gives an idea of the accuracy challenges encountered in such an assembly. The actual setup has less functional clarity due to the numerous items of auxiliary equipment involved. Not only did 10 degrees of freedoms alignment have to be supplied to the LEDs and component prisms as well, but there were also micro-titrating glue dispensers and vacuum hoses. The project also utilized a recently introduced high-index glass, available in small customized prisms. This prototype also embodies a significant advance in thin-film design, by which an unprecedented 98% single-pass efficiency was attained over a 30 degree range of incidence angle (Patents Pending). Such high efficiency is especially important since it applies to the blue light going to the phosphor and then again to the phosphor's light, so that the 'system' efficiency associated with short-pass filter was 95.5%. Other losses have to be kept equally small, towards which a new type of ultra-clear injection-moldable acrylic was discovered and used to make ultra-transparent CPC optics. Several transmissive remote phosphor prototypes were manufactured that could replace screw-in type incandescent bulbs. The CRI of the white light from these prototypes varied from 55 to 93. The system efficiency achieved was between 27 to 29.5

Waqidi Falicoff

2008-09-15T23:59:59.000Z