National Library of Energy BETA

Sample records for kiln alumina kiln

  1. Solar heated rotary kiln

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Shell, Pamela K. (Tracy, CA)

    1984-01-01

    A solar heated rotary kiln utilized for decomposition of materials, such as zinc sulfate. The rotary kiln has an open end and is enclosed in a sealed container having a window positioned for directing solar energy into the open end of the kiln. The material to be decomposed is directed through the container into the kiln by a feed tube. The container is also provided with an outlet for exhaust gases and an outlet for spent solids, and rests on a tiltable base. The window may be cooled and kept clear of debris by coolant gases.

  2. Rotary kiln seal

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Drexler, Robert L. (Idaho Falls, ID)

    1992-01-01

    A rotary seal used to prevent the escape of contaminates from a rotating kiln incinerator. The rotating seal combines a rotating disc plate which is attached to the rotating kiln shell and four sets of non-rotating carbon seal bars housed in a primary and secondary housing and which rub on the sides of the disc. A seal air system is used to create a positive pressure in a chamber between the primary and secondary seals to create a positive air flow into the contaminated gas chamber. The seal air system also employs an air inlet located between the secondary and tertiary seals to further insure that no contaminates pass the seal and enter the external environment and to provide makeup air for the air which flows into the contaminated gas chamber. The pressure exerted by the seal bars on the rotating disc is controlled by means of a preload spring. The seal is capable of operating in a thermally changing environment where the both radial expansion and axial movement of the rotating kiln do not result in the failure of the seal.

  3. Solar-heated rotary kiln

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Shell, P.K.

    1982-04-14

    A solar heated rotary kiln utilized for decomposition of materials, such as zinc sulfate is disclosed. The rotary kiln has an open end and is enclosed in a sealed container having a window positioned for directing solar energy into the open end of the kiln. The material to be decomposed is directed through the container into the kiln by a feed tube. The container is also provided with an outlet for exhaust gases and an outlet for spent solids, and rests on a tiltable base. The window may be cooled and kept clear of debris by coolant gases.

  4. Coal desulfurization in a rotary kiln combustor

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Cobb, J.T. Jr.

    1992-09-11

    The purpose of this project was to demonstrate the combustion of coal and coal wastes in a rotary kiln reactor with limestone addition for sulfur control. The rationale for the project was the perception that rotary systems could bring several advantages to combustion of these fuels, and may thus offer an alternative to fluid-bed boilers. Towards this end, an existing wood pyrolysis kiln (the Humphrey Charcoal kiln) was to be suitably refurbished and retrofitted with a specially designed version of a patented air distributor provided by Universal Energy, Inc. (UEI). As the project progressed beyond the initial stages, a number of issues were raised regarding the feasibility and the possible advantages of burning coals in a rotary kiln combustor and, in particular, the suitability of the Humphrey Charcoal kiln as a combustor. Instead, an opportunity arose to conduct combustion tests in the PEDCO Rotary Cascading-Bed Boiler (RCBB) commercial demonstration unit at the North American Rayon CO. (NARCO) in Elizabethton, TN. The tests focused on anthracite culm and had two objectives: (a) determine the feasibility of burning anthracite culms in a rotary kiln boiler and (b) obtain input for any further work involving the Humphrey Charcoal kiln combustor. A number of tests were conducted at the PEDCO unit. The last one was conducted on anthracite culm procured directly from the feed bin of a commercial circulating fluid-bed boiler. The results were disappointing; it was difficult to maintain sustained combustion even when large quantities of supplemental fuel were used. Combustion efficiency was poor, around 60 percent. The results suggest that the rotary kiln boiler, as designed, is ill-suited with respect to low-grade, hard to burn solid fuels, such as anthracite culm. Indeed, data from combustion of bituminous coal in the PEDCO unit suggest that with respect to coal in general, the rotary kiln boiler appears inferior to the circulating fluid bed boiler.

  5. Use of hazardous waste in cement kilns backed

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Krieger, J.

    1993-07-19

    Cement kiln operators who are making use of hazardous waste as a partial substitute for fossil fuel now have a better engineering foundation for determining what is going on in the kilns and how to optimize their operations. A just-released study by a scientific advisory board of experts commissioned by the Cement Kiln Recycling Coalition (CKRC) in Washington, DC, has provided an in-depth look, at such operations and finds the practice to be a fundamentally sound' technology. Long residence times and high temperatures in cement kilns maximize the combustion efficiency for waste-derived fuels, according to the study report. The scientific advisory board notes that all organic compounds can be destroyed in a kiln at 99.9999% efficiency. Also, the behavior of metals in cement kilns can be readily measured, predicted, and controlled. Cement kilns are extremely efficient in reducing metals emissions.

  6. Indirect-Fired Kiln Conserves Scrap Aluminum and Cuts Costs

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    This case study examines a succesful process heating technology improvement implemented by Wabash Alloys at its East Syracuse, New York, facility. A demonstration project conducted at this plant by Energy Research Company (ERCo), of Staten Island, New York, involves a new energy-efficient kiln that heats scrap aluminum for reuse. This kiln has enabled Wabash to reduce metal loss and emissions of volatile organic compounds (VOCs) and, in addition, has reduced kiln energy use by more than half.

  7. Use of RDF as a kiln fuel. Final report

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    1980-10-01

    Refuse derived fuel (RDF) has been experimented with and/or proposed for use in kilns for the production of portland cement, lime, and expanded shale (a form of lightweight aggregate). Technological issues affecting the use of RDF in kilns are reviewed as are the results of trials in which RDF has been used as a kiln fuel. Three future research/demonstration projects for addressing the major unresolved issues are discussed. These projects are: a lime plant trial; a trial in a pre-calcining furnace; and an extended trial in a cement kiln.

  8. Community Geothermal Technology Program: Experimental lumber drying kiln. Final report

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Leaman, D.; Irwin, B.

    1989-10-01

    Goals were to demonstrate feasibility of using the geothermal waste effluent from the HGP-A well as a heat source for a kiln operation to dry hardwoods, develop drying schedules, and develop automatic systems to monitor/control the geothermally heated lumber dry kiln systems. The feasibility was demonstrated. Lumber was dried in periods of 2 to 6 weeks in the kiln, compared to 18 months air drying and 6--8 weeks using a dehumidified chamber. Larger, plate-type heat exchangers between the primary fluid and water circulation systems may enable the kiln to reach the planned temperatures (180--185 F). However, the King Koa partnership cannot any longer pursue the concept of geothermal lumber kilns.

  9. Incinerators and cement kilns face off

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Kim, I.

    1994-04-01

    For the past few years, US incinerators have been at odds with thermal waste processors such as cement kilns. Originally, there was enough room in the industrial waste treatment market for both types of treatment. As waste generators turned to pollution prevention and onsite treatment, however, the volume of waste decreased and its composition changed. Now, each sees the other crowding it out of a tightening market, and the fight between them is growing increasingly bitter. At the center of this battle are the products of alternative thermal processes--for cement kilns, the dust formed after processing, and for other processes, a variety of materials, many of which can be used for construction. Currently, these materials are exempted from regulation under the US Resource Conservation and Recovery Act (RCRA). In addition, the alternative processes offer generators a significant cost advantage over incineration. The question that US regulators are now grappling with is whether these materials are safe enough to justify this preferential treatment. So far, the answer seems to be a qualified yes. The paper discusses these issues.

  10. Design of Refractory Linings for Balanced Energy Efficiency, Uptime, and Capacity in Lime Kilns

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Gorog, John Peter; Hemrick, James Gordon; Walker, Harold; Leary, William R; Ellis, Murray

    2014-01-01

    The rotary kilns used by the pulp and paper industry to regenerate lime in the Kraft process are very energy intensive. Throughout the 90 s, in response to increasing fuel prices, the industry used back up insulation in conjunction with the high alumina brick used to line the burning zones of their kilns. While this improved energy efficiency, the practice of installing insulating brick behind the working lining increased the inner wall temperatures. In the worst case, due to the increased temperatures, rapid brick failures occurred causing unscheduled outages and expensive repairs. Despite these issues, for the most part, the industry continued to use insulating refractory linings in that the energy savings were large enough to offset any increase in the cost of maintaining the refractory lining. Due to the dramatic decline in the price of natural gas in some areas combined with mounting pressures to increasing production of existing assets, over the last decade, many mills are focusing more on increasing the uptime of their kilns as opposed to energy savings. To this end, a growing number of mills are using basic (magnesia based) brick instead of high alumina brick to line the burning zone of the kiln since the lime mud does not react with these bricks at the operating temperatures of the burning zone of the kiln. In the extreme case, a few mills have chosen to install basic brick in the front end of the kiln running a length equivalent to 10 diameters. While the use of basic brick can increase the uptime of the kiln and reduce the cost to maintain the refractory lining, it does dramatically increase the heat losses resulting from the increased operating temperatures of the shell. Also, over long periods of time operating at these high temperatures, damage can occur in the shell. There are tradeoffs between energy efficiency, capacity and uptime. When fuel prices are very high, it makes sense to insulate the lining. When fuel prices are lower, trading some thermal efficiency for increased uptime and capacity seems reasonable. This paper considers a number of refractory linings in an effort to develop optimized operating strategies that balance these factors. In addition to considering a range of refractory materials, the paper examines other factors such as the chain area, discharge dams and other operating variables that impact the service life of the refractory lining. The paper provides recommendations that will help mill personnel develop a strategy to select a refractory lining that is optimized for their specific situation.

  11. The use of scrap tires in rotary cement kilns

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Blumenthal, M.

    1996-12-31

    The use of scrap tires as a supplemental fuel in the United States Portland cement industry has increased significantly in the past six years. In 1990, there were two kilns using tire-derived fuel (TDF), today 30 kilns use TDF. The outlook for continued and expanded use of TDF in the U.S. cement industry should be considered favorable, with 15 kilns conducting tests to determine TDF`s applicability or in the permitting process. The Council`s estimates are that by the end of 1996, the cement industry could be consuming some 75-100 million of the 253 million annually generated scrap tires in the United States. This level of TDF usage will make the cement industry the largest market segments for scrap tires in the United States. While the long-term outlook is at present positive, there are a series of factors that have, and will likely continue to adversely impact the near-term usage of TDF. These issues, as well as the factors that are likely to positively impact the cement kiln TDF market are the subject of this presentation.

  12. Waste tires as auxiliary fuel for cement kilns

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Dodds, J.

    1987-01-01

    The subject I have been asked to speak about is the utilization of scrap tires as an auxiliary fuel for cement kilns. My experience with scrap tires began five years ago when we performed a technical and economic evaluation for tire pyrolysis. I work for the Idaho National Engineering Laboratory which is supported by the Department of Energy. My interest in scrap tires continued; in 1984 the Department of Energy and the Portland Cement Association jointly sponsored a conference on the utilization of scrap tires in cement kilns. Most of my remarks today are based upon that conference along with some current information in the US. Mr. Sladek requested that I speak on the combustion process, the progress to date, and the factors that impede or encourage implementation of using scrap tires in cement kilns. For discussion purposes it would help if we had a common understanding of the cement manufacturing process. Cement is made by heating a mixture of finely ground limestone and silica from clay or sand to about 1450/degree/C in a large rotating kiln. The heat causes the limestone to decarbonate and subsequently react with the silica to form calcium silicates. 5 figs.

  13. Evaluation of cement kiln laboratories testing hazardous waste derived fuels

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Nichols, R.E.

    1998-12-31

    Cement kiln operators wishing to burn hazardous waste derived fuels in their kilns must submit applications for Resource Conservation Recovery Act permits. One component of each permit application is a site-specific Waste Analysis Plan. These Plans describe the facilities` sampling and analysis procedures for hazardous waste derived fuels prior to receipt and burn. The Environmental Protection Agency has conducted on-site evaluations of several cement kiln facilities that were under consideration for Resource Conservation Recovery Act permits. The purpose of these evaluations was to determine if the on-site sampling and laboratory operations at each facility complied with their site-specific Waste Analysis Plans. These evaluations covered sampling, laboratory, and recordkeeping procedures. Although all the evaluated facilities were generally competent, the results of those evaluations revealed opportunities for improvement at each facility. Many findings were noted for more than one facility. This paper will discuss these findings, particularly those shared by several facilities (specific facilities will not be identified). Among the findings to be discussed are the ways that oxygen bombs were scrubbed and rinsed, the analytical quality control used, Burn Tank sampling, and the analysis of pH in hazardous waste derived fuels.

  14. Method and system including a double rotary kiln pyrolysis or gasification of waste material

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    McIntosh, M.J.; Arzoumanidis, G.G.

    1997-09-02

    A method is described for destructively distilling an organic material in particulate form wherein the particulates are introduced through an inlet into one end of an inner rotating kiln ganged to and coaxial with an outer rotating kiln. The inner and outer kilns define a cylindrical annular space with the inlet being positioned in registry with the axis of rotation of the ganged kilns. During operation, the temperature of the wall of the inner rotary kiln at the inlet is not less than about 500 C to heat the particulate material to a temperature in the range of from about 200 C to about 900 C in a pyrolyzing atmosphere to reduce the particulate material as it moves from the one end toward the other end. The reduced particulates including char are transferred to the annular space between the inner and the outer rotating kilns near the other end of the inner rotating kiln and moved longitudinally in the annular space from near the other end toward the one end in the presence of oxygen to combust the char at an elevated temperature to produce a waste material including ash. Also, heat is provided which is transferred to the inner kiln. The waste material including ash leaves the outer rotating kiln near the one end and the pyrolysis vapor leaves through the particulate material inlet. 5 figs.

  15. Method and system including a double rotary kiln pyrolysis or gasification of waste material

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    McIntosh, Michael J. (Bolingbrook, IL); Arzoumanidis, Gregory G. (Naperville, IL)

    1997-01-01

    A method of destructively distilling an organic material in particulate form wherein the particulates are introduced through an inlet into one end of an inner rotating kiln ganged to and coaxial with an outer rotating kiln. The inner and outer kilns define a cylindrical annular space with the inlet being positioned in registry with the axis of rotation of the ganged kilns. During operation, the temperature of the wall of the inner rotary kiln at the inlet is not less than about 500.degree. C. to heat the particulate material to a temperature in the range of from about 200.degree. C. to about 900.degree. C. in a pyrolyzing atmosphere to reduce the particulate material as it moves from the one end toward the other end. The reduced particulates including char are transferred to the annular space between the inner and the outer rotating kilns near the other end of the inner rotating kiln and moved longitudinally in the annular space from near the other end toward the one end in the presence of oxygen to combust the char at an elevated temperature to produce a waste material including ash. Also, heat is provided which is transferred to the inner kiln. The waste material including ash leaves the outer rotating kiln near the one end and the pyrolysis vapor leaves through the particulate material inlet.

  16. Method and apparatus for maximizing throughput of indirectly heated rotary kilns

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Coates, Ralph L; Smoot, L. Douglas; Hatfield, Kent E

    2012-10-30

    An apparatus and method for achieving improved throughput capacity of indirectly heated rotary kilns used to produce pyrolysis products such as shale oils or coal oils that are susceptible to decomposition by high kiln wall temperatures is disclosed. High throughput is achieved by firing the kiln such that optimum wall temperatures are maintained beginning at the point where the materials enter the heating section of the kiln and extending to the point where the materials leave the heated section. Multiple high velocity burners are arranged such that combustion products directly impact on the area of the kiln wall covered internally by the solid material being heated. Firing rates for the burners are controlled to maintain optimum wall temperatures.

  17. An assessment of potential environmental impacts of cement kiln dust produced in kilns co-fired with hazardous waste fuels

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Goad, P.T.; Millner, G.C.; Nye, A.C.

    1998-12-31

    The Keystone Cement Company (Keystone), located in Bath, Pennsylvania, produces cement in two kilns that are co-fired with hazardous waste-derived fuels. Beginning in the late 1970`s Keystone began storing cement kiln dust (CKD) in an aboveground storage pile located on company property adjacent to the cement kilns. Storm water runoff from the CKD pile is channeled into a storm water settling pond which in turn discharges into Monocacy Creek, a stream running along the eastern property boundary. Monocacy Creek sustains a thriving trout fishery and is routinely fished during the open recreational fishing season in pennsylvania. The CKD pile has a surface area of approximately 12 acres, with an average height of approximately 35 feet. The southern edge of the pile is contiguous with an adjacent company-owned field in which field corn is grown for cattle feed. Some of the corn on the edges of the field is actually grown in direct contact with CKD that comprises the edge of the storage pile. The CKD pile is located approximately 150 yards to the west of Monocacy Creek. In 1995--1996 water, sediment and fish (trout) samples were obtained from Monocacy Creek sampling stations upstream and downstream of the point of discharge of storm water runoff from the CKD pile. In addition, corn samples were obtained from the field contiguous with the CKD pile and from a control field located distant to the site. The sediment, water, fish, and corn samples were analyzed for various chemicals previously identified as chemicals of potential concern in CKD. These data indicate that chemical constituents of CKD are not contaminating surface water or sediment in the stream, and that bioaccumulation of organic chemicals and/or metals has not occurred in field corn grown in direct contact with undiluted CKD, or in fish living in the waters that receive CKD pile runoff.

  18. Coal desulfurization in a rotary kiln combustor. Final report, March 15, 1990--July 31, 1991

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Cobb, J.T. Jr.

    1992-09-11

    The purpose of this project was to demonstrate the combustion of coal and coal wastes in a rotary kiln reactor with limestone addition for sulfur control. The rationale for the project was the perception that rotary systems could bring several advantages to combustion of these fuels, and may thus offer an alternative to fluid-bed boilers. Towards this end, an existing wood pyrolysis kiln (the Humphrey Charcoal kiln) was to be suitably refurbished and retrofitted with a specially designed version of a patented air distributor provided by Universal Energy, Inc. (UEI). As the project progressed beyond the initial stages, a number of issues were raised regarding the feasibility and the possible advantages of burning coals in a rotary kiln combustor and, in particular, the suitability of the Humphrey Charcoal kiln as a combustor. Instead, an opportunity arose to conduct combustion tests in the PEDCO Rotary Cascading-Bed Boiler (RCBB) commercial demonstration unit at the North American Rayon CO. (NARCO) in Elizabethton, TN. The tests focused on anthracite culm and had two objectives: (a) determine the feasibility of burning anthracite culms in a rotary kiln boiler and (b) obtain input for any further work involving the Humphrey Charcoal kiln combustor. A number of tests were conducted at the PEDCO unit. The last one was conducted on anthracite culm procured directly from the feed bin of a commercial circulating fluid-bed boiler. The results were disappointing; it was difficult to maintain sustained combustion even when large quantities of supplemental fuel were used. Combustion efficiency was poor, around 60 percent. The results suggest that the rotary kiln boiler, as designed, is ill-suited with respect to low-grade, hard to burn solid fuels, such as anthracite culm. Indeed, data from combustion of bituminous coal in the PEDCO unit suggest that with respect to coal in general, the rotary kiln boiler appears inferior to the circulating fluid bed boiler.

  19. Trends in characteristics of hazardous waste-derived fuel burned for energy recovery in cement kilns

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Lusk, M.G.; Campbell, C.S.

    1996-12-31

    The Cement Kiln Recycling Coalition (CKRC) is a national trade association representing virtually all the U.S. cement companies involved in the use of waste-derived fuel in the cement manufacturing process as well as those companies involved in the collection, processing, managing, and marketing of such fuel. CKRC, in conjunction with the National Association of Chemical Recyclers (NACR), completed several data collection activities over the past two years to provide the Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) and other interested parties with industry-wide trend analyses. The analyses evaluated the content of specific metals in waste fuels utilized by cement kilns, average Btu value of substitute fuels used by kilns, and provides insight into the trends of these properties. With the exception of the data collected by NACR, the study did not evaluate materials sent to hazardous waste incinerators or materials that are combusted at {open_quotes}on-site{close_quotes} facilities.

  20. The necessity for a practical approach to address organic emissions from cement kilns

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Yonley, C.; Schreiber, B.; Kellerman, S.; Kellett, C.

    1998-12-31

    There is an inherent difficulty in monitoring organic emissions from hazardous waste combustion in the cement process. Data gathered by the EPA and the industry indicate that organic emissions at the main stack of cement kilns are principally from process characteristics and/or the desorption of organic constituents contained in the raw materials. Organic emissions are primarily based on the facility design and origin of the raw materials. One would generally conclude that organic emissions from fuels are essentially non-existent. To understand alternatives for monitoring organic emissions, this paper reviews some of the historical background behind the issue and reviews trends of characteristic organic emissions data. Based on this discussion and review, some approaches are presented to address organic emissions testing and monitoring when utilizing hazardous waste fuel in a cement kiln.

  1. Time-variability of NO{sub x} emissions from Portland cement kilns

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Walters, L.J. Jr.; May, M.S. III [PSM International, Dallas, TX (United States)] [PSM International, Dallas, TX (United States); Johnson, D.E. [Kansas State Univ., Manhattan, KS (United States). Dept. of Statistics] [Kansas State Univ., Manhattan, KS (United States). Dept. of Statistics; MacMann, R.S. [Penta Engineering, St. Louis, MO (United States)] [Penta Engineering, St. Louis, MO (United States); Woodward, W.A. [Southern Methodist Univ., Dallas, TX (United States). Dept. of Statistics] [Southern Methodist Univ., Dallas, TX (United States). Dept. of Statistics

    1999-03-01

    Due to the presence of autocorrelation between sequentially measured nitrogen oxide (NO{sub x}) concentrations in stack gas from portland cement kilns, the determination of the average emission rates and the uncertainty of the average has been improperly calculated by the industry and regulatory agencies. Documentation of permit compliance, establishment of permit levels, and the development and testing of control techniques for reducing NO{sub x} emissions at specific cement plants requires accurate and precise statistical estimates of parameters such as means, standard deviations, and variances. Usual statistical formulas such as for the variance of the sample mean only apply if sequential measurements of NO{sub x} emissions are independent. Significant autocorrelation of NO{sub x} emission measurements revealed that NO{sub x} concentration values measured by continuous emission monitors are not independent but can be represented by an autoregressive, moving average time series. Three orders of time-variability of NO{sub x} emission rates were determined from examination of continuous emission measurements from several cement kilns.

  2. Influence of the composition of cement kiln dust on its interaction with fly ash and slag

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Chaunsali, Piyush; Peethamparan, Sulapha

    2013-12-15

    Cement kiln dust (CKD), a by-product of the cement industry, contains significant amounts of alkali, free lime, chloride and sulfate. Wide variation reported in the chemical composition of CKDs limits their potential application as a sustainable binder component in concrete. In the current study, the performance of two different CKDs as components in a novel binder is evaluated. Several binders are developed by blending CKDs with fly ash or slag. Binders with 70% CKD were prepared at a water-to-binder ratio of 0.4, and heat-cured at 75 C to accelerate the strength development. The hydration progress was monitored using X-ray diffraction, and morphological examination was performed using scanning electron microscopy (SEM) and transmission electron microscopy (TEM). Ettringite and calcium aluminosilicate hydrate (C-A-S-H) were identified as the main hydration products in the hardened binder system. Strength development of CKD-based binder was found to be significantly influenced by its free lime and sulfate contents. -- Highlights: Interaction of cement kiln dust with fly ash and slag was explored. CKD with higher free lime and sulfate content increased the strength of binder. C-S-H like reaction gel with fibrillar morphology is observed in CKD-based binders.

  3. Reproductive and developmental health risk from dioxin-like compounds: Insignificant risk from cement kilns burning waste-derived fuels

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Holcomb, L.C.; Pedelty, J.F.

    1994-12-31

    Cement kilns burning waste-derived fuels emit low levels of dibenzodioxins and dibenzofurans and little or no PCB`s. Concern about possible effects on reproduction and development has prompted an evaluation of the research literature especially with regard to the reproductive and developmental effects of 2,3,7,8-tetrachlorodibenzo-p-dioxin (TCDD). In sufficient doses, dioxins, furans, and PCB can cause adverse health effects in some animals or humans. Calculated doses of TCDD-EQ (dioxin equivalents) are dependent on many assumptions, but where human effects have been demonstrated, doses were 100--1,000 times higher than the usual background environmental doses. This would include those environmental doses that would be received by the most-exposed individual living near cement kilns burning WDF. There is evidence to suggest that PCB`s have had an adverse impact on some wildlife although there is no evidence that these PCB`s are associated with cement kiln emissions. There is no evidence to suggest that dioxins, at environmental levels or associated with emissions from WDF-burning cement kilns, have caused adverse effects in either wildlife or humans. 63 refs., 3 tabs.

  4. Assessment of the percent status of burning refuse-derived fuel as a fuel supplement in the cement kiln industry

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    1981-09-01

    The purpose of the project was to solicit information on the use of refuse-derived fuel (RDF) in cement kilns by survey, follow up the mailed survey with telephone calls to the recipients, and assemble collected information into a report. A list of companies that had some experience with RFD was compiled and is presented in Appendix A. The procedure for conducting the survey is explained. A copy of the questionnaire is presented in Appendix B. The letters of response are reproduced in Appendix C. Two completed forms were received and clear conclusions are summarized. The effort was terminated and no final report was assembled.

  5. Testing of a Continuous Sampling Mercury CEM at the EPA-Rotary Kiln Incinerator Simulator Facility

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    D.P. Baldwin; S.J. Bajic; D.E. Eckels; D.S. Zamzow

    2002-04-12

    This report has been prepared to document the performance of the continuous sampling mercury monitoring system developed by Ames Laboratory for use as a continuous emission monitor (CEM). This work was funded by the U.S. Department of Energy, Office of Environmental Management, Office of Science and Technology, through the Mixed Waste Focus Area. The purpose of the project is to develop instrumentation and methods for spectroscopic field-monitoring applications. During FY01 this included continued development and testing of an echelle spectrometer system for the detection of mercury (Hg) by atomic absorption. Due to the relatively poor limits of detection for Hg by optical emission techniques, the CEM has been designed for the detection of elemental Hg by optical absorption. The sampling system allows continuous introduction of stack gas into the CEM for analysis of elemental and total Hg in the gas stream. A heated pyrolysis tube is used in this system to convert oxidized Hg compounds to elemental Hg prior to analysis for total Hg. The pyrolysis tube is bypassed to measure elemental Hg. The CEM is designed to measure the elemental Hg concentration of the gas sample, measure the total Hg concentration, perform a zero check (analysis of room air), and then re-zero the system (to correct for any instrumental drift that occurs over time). This is done in an automated, sequential measurement cycle to provide continuous monitoring of Hg concentrations in the stack gas. The continuous sampling Hg CEM was tested at the EPA-Rotary Kiln in Durham, NC at the beginning of FY02. This report describes the characteristics and performance of the system and the results of the field tests performed at EPA. The Hg CEM system was developed in response to the need of DOE and other organizations to monitor Hg that may be released during the processing or combustion of hazardous or mixed-waste materials. The promulgation of regulations limiting the release of Hg and requiring continuous monitoring of stack gases from combustion and treatment processes would seriously impact the operations of DOE waste treatment facilities. Therefore, it is important to develop and validate techniques that adequately meet proposed sensitivity and accuracy requirements. The most likely form of validation for such a technique involves comparison of CEM results with a reference test method for a test combustion system. Therefore, the CEM system was tested at EPA by monitoring Hg emissions in a natural gas combustion exhaust (that was spiked with Hg) while simultaneously collecting samples using the Ontario-Hydro mercury speciation method as the reference method. The CEM results were available continuously during the on-line monitoring that was performed. The results of the reference method sampling were received a number of weeks after the testing at EPA. These results are discussed in this report, with a comparison and evaluation of the reference method and Hg CEM data.

  6. Recovery of aluminum oxide by the Ames lime-soda sinter process: scale-up using a rotary kiln

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Murtha, M.J.; Burnet, G.; Harnby, N.

    1985-01-01

    The Ames Lime-Soda Sinter Process provides a means for recovering aluminum oxide from power plant fly ash while producing a residue that can be used in the manufacture of sulfate resistant (Type V) portland cement. The process has been fully researched and its feasibility is now being demonstrated through pilot plant scale investigation. This paper reports results of the pelletized feed preparation by agglomeration in a rotary pan granulator, continuous feed sintering in an electrically heated rotary kiln, and product recovery from the clinker by aqueous extraction, desilication of the filtrate, and precipitation of a hydrated aluminum oxide. Results from earlier bench-scale research have been found to apply consistently to the pilot plant scale work.

  7. Microporous alumina ceramic membranes

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Anderson, M.A.; Guangyao Sheng.

    1993-05-04

    Several methods are disclosed for the preparation microporous alumina ceramic membranes. For the first time, porous alumina membranes are made which have mean pore sizes less than 100 Angstroms and substantially no pores larger than that size. The methods are based on improved sol-gel techniques.

  8. Microporous alumina ceramic membranes

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Anderson, Marc A. (Madison, WI); Sheng, Guangyao (Madison, WI)

    1993-01-01

    Several methods are disclosed for the preparation microporous alumina ceramic membranes. For the first time, porous alumina membranes are made which have mean pore sizes less than 100 Angstroms and substantially no pores larger than that size. The methods are based on improved sol-gel techniques.

  9. Reuse of activated alumina

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Hobensack, J.E.

    1991-12-31

    Activated alumina is used as a trapping media to remove trace quantities of UF{sub 6} from process vent streams. The current uranium recovery method employs concentrated nitric acid which destroys the alumina pellets and forms a sludge which is a storage and disposal problem. A recently developed technique using a distilled water rinse followed by three dilute acid rinses removes on average 97% of the uranium, and leaves the pellets intact with crush strength and surface area values comparable with new material. Trapping tests confirm the effectiveness of the recycled alumina as UF{sub 6} trapping media.

  10. Alumina Technology Roadmap

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    none,

    2002-02-01

    The Alumina Technology Roadmap outlines a comprehensive long-term research and development plan that defines the industry's collective future and establishes a clear pathway forward. It emphasizes twelve high-priority R&D areas deemed most significant in addressing the strategic goals.

  11. EA-0405: Finding of No Significant Impact

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    Innovative Sulfur Dioxide Scrubbing System for Coal Burning Cement Kilns, Passamaquoddy Tribe Thomaston, Maine

  12. Attrition resistant gamma-alumina catalyst support

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Singleton, Alan H.; Oukaci, Rachid; Goodwin, James G.

    2006-03-14

    A .gamma.-alumina catalyst support having improved attrition resistance produced by a method comprising the steps of treating a particulate .gamma.-alumina material with an acidic aqueous solution comprising water and nitric acid and then, prior to adding any catalytic material thereto, calcining the treated .gamma.-alumina.

  13. MECS 2006 - Alumina and Aluminum | Department of Energy

    Office of Environmental Management (EM)

    Alumina and Aluminum MECS 2006 - Alumina and Aluminum Manufacturing Energy and Carbon Footprint for Alumina and Aluminum Sector (NAICS 3313) with Total Energy Input, October 2012 (MECS 2006) All available footprints and supporting documents Manufacturing Energy and Carbon Footprint PDF icon Alumina and Aluminum More Documents & Publications Alumina and Aluminum (2010 MECS) MECS 2006 - Cement MECS 2006 - Glass

  14. Oil shale retort apparatus

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Reeves, Adam A. (Grand Junction, CO); Mast, Earl L. (Norman, OK); Greaves, Melvin J. (Littleton, CO)

    1990-01-01

    A retorting apparatus including a vertical kiln and a plurality of tubes for delivering rock to the top of the kiln and removal of processed rock from the bottom of the kiln so that the rock descends through the kiln as a moving bed. Distributors are provided for delivering gas to the kiln to effect heating of the rock and to disturb the rock particles during their descent. The distributors are constructed and disposed to deliver gas uniformly to the kiln and to withstand and overcome adverse conditions resulting from heat and from the descending rock. The rock delivery tubes are geometrically sized, spaced and positioned so as to deliver the shale uniformly into the kiln and form symmetrically disposed generally vertical paths, or "rock chimneys", through the descending shale which offer least resistance to upward flow of gas. When retorting oil shale, a delineated collection chamber near the top of the kiln collects gas and entrained oil mist rising through the kiln.

  15. Synthesis of high porosity, monolithic alumina aerogels

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Poco, J F; Satcher, J H; Hrubesh, L W

    2000-09-20

    Many non-silica aerogels are notably weak and fragile in monolithic form. Particularly, few monolithic aerogels with densities less than 50kg/m3 have any significant strength. It is especially difficult to prepare uncracked monoliths of pure alumina aerogels that are robust and moisture stable. In this paper, we discuss the synthesis of strong, stable, monolithic, high porosity (>98% porous) alumina aerogels, using a two-step sol-gel process. The alumina aerogels have a polycrystalline morphology that results in enhanced physical properties. Most of the measured physical properties of the alumina aerogels are superior to those for silica aerogels for equivalent densities.

  16. Alumina forming iron base superalloy

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Yamamoto, Yukinori; Muralidharan, Govindarajan; Brady, Michael P.

    2014-08-26

    An austenitic stainless steel alloy, consists essentially of, in weight percent 2.5 to 4 Al; 25 to 35 Ni; 12 to 19 Cr; at least 1, up to 4 total of at least one element selected from the group consisting of Nb and Ta; 0.5 to 3 Ti; less than 0.5 V; 0.1 to 1 of at least on element selected from the group consisting of Zr and Hf; 0.03 to 0.2 C; 0.005 to 0.1 B; and base Fe. The weight percent Fe is greater than the weight percent Ni. The alloy forms an external continuous scale including alumina, and contains coherent precipitates of .gamma.'-Ni.sub.3Al, and a stable essentially single phase FCC austenitic matrix microstructure. The austenitic matrix is essentially delta-ferrite-free and essentially BCC-phase-free.

  17. Alumina and Aluminum (2010 MECS) | Department of Energy

    Energy Savers [EERE]

    Alumina and Aluminum (2010 MECS) Alumina and Aluminum (2010 MECS) Manufacturing Energy and Carbon Footprint for Alumina and Aluminum Sector (NAICS 3313) Energy use data source: 2010 EIA MECS (with adjustments) Footprint Last Revised: February 2014 View footprints for other sectors here. Manufacturing Energy and Carbon Footprint PDF icon Alumina and Aluminum More Documents & Publications MECS 2006 - Alumina and Aluminum Cement (2010 MECS) Glass and Glass Products

  18. Sorbent selection and design considerations for uranium trapping. [H-151 alumina, XF-100 alumina, F-1 alumina, sodium fluoride

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Schultz, R.M.; Hobbs, W.E.; Norton, J.L.; Stephenson, M.J.

    1981-07-01

    The efficient removal of UF/sub 6/ from effluent streams can be accomplished through the selection of the best solid sorbent and the implementation of good design principles. Pressure losses, sorbent capacity, reaction kinetics, sorbent regeneration/uranium recovery requirements and the effects of other system components are the performance factors which are summarized. The commonly used uranium trapping materials highlighted are sodium fluoride, H-151 alumina, XF-100 alumina, and F-1 alumina. Sorbent selection and trap design have to be made on a case-by-case basis but the theoretical modeling studies and the evaluation of the performance factors presented can be used as a guide for other chemical trap applications.

  19. Electrolytic Cell For Production Of Aluminum From Alumina

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Bradford, Donald R (Underwood, WA); Barnett, Robert J. (Goldendale, WA); Mezner, Michael B. (Sandy, OR)

    2004-11-02

    An electrolytic cell for producing aluminum from alumina having a reservoir for collecting molten aluminum remote from the electrolysis.

  20. ITP Aluminum: Alumina Technology Roadmap | Department of Energy

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Alumina Technology Roadmap ITP Aluminum: Alumina Technology Roadmap PDF icon alumina.pdf More Documents & Publications U.S. Energy Requirements for Aluminum Production ITP Aluminum: Aluminum Industry Vision: Sustainable Solutions for a Dynamic World ITP Aluminum: Aluminum Industry Technology Roadmap

  1. Method of making nanocrystalline alpha alumina

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Siegel, Richard W. (Hinsdale, IL); Hahn, Horst (Champaign, IL); Eastman, Jeffrey A. (Woodridge, IL)

    1992-01-01

    Method of making selected phases of nanocrystalline ceramic materials. Various methods of controlling the production of nanocrystalline alpha alumina and titanium oxygen phases are described. Control of the gas atmosphere and use of particular oxidation treatments give rise to the ability to control the particular phases provided in the aluminum/oxygen and titanium/oxygen system.

  2. Rheological Properties of Aqueous Nanometric Alumina Suspensions

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Chuanping Li

    2004-12-19

    Colloidal processing is an effective and reliable approach in the fabrication of the advanced ceramic products. Successful colloidal processing of fine ceramic powders requires accurate control of the rheological properties. The accurate control relies on the understanding the influences of various colloidal parameters on the rheological properties. Almost all research done on the rheology paid less attention to the interactions of particle and solvent. However, the interactions of the particles are usually built up through the media in which the particles are suspended. Therefore, interactions of the particle with the media, the adsorbed layers on the particle surface, and chemical and physical properties of media themselves must influence the rheology of the suspension, especially for the dense suspensions containing nanosized particles. Relatively little research work has been reported in this area. This thesis addresses the rheological properties of nanometric alumina aqueous suspensions, and paying more attention to the interactions between particle and solvent, which in turn influence the particle-particle interactions. Dense nanometric alumina aqueous suspensions with low viscosity were achieved by environmentally-benign fructose additives. The rheology of nanometric alumina aqueous suspensions and its variation with the particle volume fraction and concentration of fructose were explored by rheometry. The adsorptions of solute (fructose) and solvent (water) on the nanometric alumina particle surfaces were measured and analyzed by TG/DSC, TOC, and NMR techniques. The mobility of water molecules in the suspensions and its variation with particle volume fractions and fructose additive were determined by the {sup 17}O NMR relaxation method. The interactions between the nanometric alumina particles in water and fructose solutions were investigated by AFM. The results indicated that a large number of water layers were physically bound on the particles' surfaces in the aqueous suspension. The viscosity of the suspension increases dramatically when the solid volume fraction exceeds 30 vol.%. The overlap of physically adsorbed water layers at this level causes the sharp increase in viscosity. Fructose molecules can weaken the interactions between the particle surfaces and water molecules, as a consequence, they release some bound water layers from the surfaces to the bulk medium. It is believed that fraction of the water that is bound by the solid surface is reduced hence becoming available for flow. The oxygen-17 relaxation time decreased with the increase of particle volume fractions in the suspension. Fructose addition increased the overall water mobility in the suspension. Only part of the alumina particle surfaces was covered with fructose molecules. This adsorption of fructose molecules on the particle surfaces increased the pH of the suspension with a concomitant decrease in {zeta}-potential of the alumina nanoparticles. The interactions between the nanometric alumina particles in water to a large extent can be explained by the DLVO theory. However, the interactions between particles in fructose solutions cannot be well described by the DLVO theory. The interaction forces (magnitude and range) as well as adhesive force and surface tension between nanometric alumina particles were decreased with the fructose concentration.

  3. Hydrolysis of carbonyl sulfide over alumina

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Polleck, R. E.; Ledley, R. E.; Scott, K. A.

    1985-01-01

    The reaction rate for the hydrolysis of carbonyl sulfide in liquid petroleum hydrocarbons over alumina, such as propylene, is greatly increased by maintaining water in the hydrocarbons in an amount of one mole of water per mole of carbonyl sulfide to an upper limit of about ten moles of water per mole of carbonyl sulfide or about 30% of saturation of the hydrocarbons, whichever upper limit provides the lesser amount of water.

  4. A simple procedure to prepare spherical {alpha}-alumina powders

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Liu Hongyu [State Key Laboratory of Fine Chemicals, Dalian University of Technology, Dalian 116012 (China); Ning Guiling [State Key Laboratory of Fine Chemicals, Dalian University of Technology, Dalian 116012 (China)], E-mail: ninggl@dlut.edu.cn; Gan Zhihong; Lin Yuan [State Key Laboratory of Fine Chemicals, Dalian University of Technology, Dalian 116012 (China)

    2009-04-02

    Spherical {alpha}-alumina powders were prepared by the controlled hydrolysis of aluminum isopropoxide in a hydrolysis system consisting of octanol and acetonitrile. Diverse solvents to dissolve reactant formed diverse hydrolysis systems and affected particle shape of {alpha}-alumina powders. The precursors crystallized to {gamma}-alumina at 1000 deg. C and converted to {alpha}-alumina at 1150 deg. C without intermediate phases. The particle morphology of precursor was retained after it crystallized to {alpha}-alumina. The heating rate influenced the particle shape and the state of agglomeration during calcination process. The thermal properties of the precursors were characterized by thermal gravimetric and differential thermal analysis. X-ray diffraction technique was used to confirm the conversion of crystalline phase of alumina powders from amorphous to {alpha}-phase. Transmission electron microscopy was used to investigate the morphologies and size of the precursors and products.

  5. Method for preparing Pb-.beta."-alumina ceramic

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Hellstrom, Eric E. (Albuquerque, NM)

    1986-01-01

    A process is disclosed for preparing impermeable, polycrystalline samples of Pb-.beta."-alumina ceramic from Na-.beta."-alumina ceramic by ion exchange. The process comprises two steps. The first step is a high-temperature vapor phase exchange of Na by K, followed by substitution of Pb for K by immersing the sample in a molten Pb salt bath. The result is a polycrystalline Pb-.beta."-alumina ceramic that is substantially crack-free.

  6. Sintering of beta-type alumina bodies using alpha-alumina encapsulation

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    McEntire, Bryan J. (Salt Lake City, UT); Virkar, Anil V. (Midvale, UT)

    1981-01-01

    A method of sintering a shaped green, beta-type alumina body comprising: (A) inserting said body into an open chamber prepared by exposing the interior surface of a container consisting essentially of at least about 50 weight percent of alpha-alumina and a remainder of other refractory material to a sodium oxide or sodium oxide producing environment; (B) sealing the chamber; and heating the chamber with the shaped body encapsulated therein to a temperature and for a time necessary to sinter said body to the desired density. The encapsulation chamber prepared as described above is also claimed.

  7. Electrolytic cell for production of aluminum from alumina

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Bradford, Donald R; Barnett, Robert J.; Mezner, Michael B.

    2005-03-15

    Electrolysis of alumina dissolved in a molten salt electrolyte employing inert anode and cathodes, the anode having a box shape with slots for the cathodes.

  8. Porosity in plasma sprayed alumina coatings

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Ilavsky, J.; Herman, H.; Berndt, C.C.; Goland, A.N.; Long, G.G.; Krueger, S.; Allen, A.J.

    1994-03-01

    Small-angle neutron scattering (SANS) was used to study the porosity of plasma sprayed deposits of alumina in as-sprayed and heat-treated conditions. SANS results were compared with mercury intrusion porosimetry (MIP) and water immersion techniques. Multiple small-angle neutron scattering yields a volume-weighted effective pore radius (R{sub eff}), for pores with sizes between 0.08 and 10{mu}m, the pore volume in this size region, and from the Porod region, the surface area of pores of all sizes.

  9. Process for the recovery of alumina from fly ash

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Murtha, Marlyn J. (Ames, IA)

    1983-08-09

    An improvement in the lime-sinter process for recovering alumina from pulverized coal fly ash is disclosed. The addition of from 2 to 10 weight percent carbon and sulfur to the fly ash-calcium carbonate mixture increase alumina recovery at lower sintering temperatures.

  10. Combination for electrolytic reduction of alumina

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Brown, Craig W. (Seattle, WA); Brooks, Richard J. (Seattle, WA); Frizzle, Patrick B. (Lynnwood, WA); Juric, Drago D. (Bulleen, AU)

    2002-04-30

    An electrolytic bath for use during the electrolytic reduction of alumina to aluminum. The bath comprises molten electrolyte having the following ingredients: AlF.sub.3 and at least one salt selected from the group consisting of NaF, KF, and LiF; and about 0.004 wt. % to about 0.2 wt. %, based on total weight of the molten electrolyte, of at least one transition metal or at least one compound of the metal or both. The compound is, a fluoride; oxide, or carbonate. The metal is nickel, iron, copper, cobalt, or molybdenum. The bath is employed in a combination including a vessel for containing the bath and at least one non-consumable anode and at least one dimensionally stable cathode in the bath. Employing the instant bath during electrolytic reduction of alumina to aluminum improves the wetting of aluminum on a cathode by reducing or eliminating the formation of non-metallic deposits on the cathode.

  11. Optimized alumina coagulants for water treatment

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Nyman, May D.; Stewart, Thomas A.

    2012-02-21

    Substitution of a single Ga-atom or single Ge-atom (GaAl.sub.12 and GeAl.sub.12 respectively) into the center of an aluminum Keggin polycation (Al.sub.13) produces an optimal water-treatment product for neutralization and coagulation of anionic contaminants in water. GaAl.sub.12 consistently shows .about.1 order of magnitude increase in pathogen reduction, compared to Al.sub.13. At a concentration of 2 ppm, GaAl.sub.12 performs equivalently to 40 ppm alum, removing .about.90% of the dissolved organic material. The substituted GaAl.sub.12 product also offers extended shelf-life and consistent performance. We also synthesized a related polyaluminum chloride compound made of pre-hydrolyzed dissolved alumina clusters of [GaO.sub.4Al.sub.12(OH).sub.24(H.sub.2O).sub.12].sup.7+.

  12. Carbon dioxide pressure swing adsorption process using modified alumina adsorbents

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Gaffney, T.R.; Golden, T.C.; Mayorga, S.G.; Brzozowski, J.R.; Taylor, F.W.

    1999-06-29

    A pressure swing adsorption process for absorbing CO[sub 2] from a gaseous mixture containing CO[sub 2] comprises introducing the gaseous mixture at a first pressure into a reactor containing a modified alumina adsorbent maintained at a temperature ranging from 100 C and 500 C to adsorb CO[sub 2] to provide a CO[sub 2] laden alumina adsorbent and a CO[sub 2] depleted gaseous mixture and contacting the CO[sub 2] laden adsorbent with a weakly adsorbing purge fluid at a second pressure which is lower than the first pressure to desorb CO[sub 2] from the CO[sub 2] laden alumina adsorbent. The modified alumina adsorbent which is formed by depositing a solution having a pH of 3.0 or more onto alumina and heating the alumina to a temperature ranging from 100 C and 600 C, is not degraded by high concentrations of water under process operating conditions. 1 fig.

  13. Carbon dioxide pressure swing adsorption process using modified alumina adsorbents

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Gaffney, Thomas Richard (Allentown, PA); Golden, Timothy Christopher (Allentown, PA); Mayorga, Steven Gerard (Allentown, PA); Brzozowski, Jeffrey Richard (Bethlehem, PA); Taylor, Fred William (Allentown, PA)

    1999-01-01

    A pressure swing adsorption process for absorbing CO.sub.2 from a gaseous mixture containing CO.sub.2 comprising introducing the gaseous mixture at a first pressure into a reactor containing a modified alumina adsorbent maintained at a temperature ranging from 100.degree. C. and 500.degree. C. to adsorb CO.sub.2 to provide a CO.sub.2 laden alumina adsorbent and a CO.sub.2 depleted gaseous mixture and contacting the CO.sub.2 laden adsorbent with a weakly adsorbing purge fluid at a second pressure which is lower than the first pressure to desorb CO.sub.2 from the CO.sub.2 laden alumina adsorbent. The modified alumina adsorbent which is formed by depositing a solution having a pH of 3.0 or more onto alumina and heating the alumina to a temperature ranging from 100.degree. C. and 600.degree. C., is not degraded by high concentrations of water under process operating conditions.

  14. Cast alumina forming austenitic stainless steels

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Muralidharan, Govindarajan; Yamamoto, Yukinori; Brady, Michael P

    2013-04-30

    An austenitic stainless steel alloy consisting essentially of, in terms of weight percent ranges 0.15-0.5C; 8-37Ni; 10-25Cr; 2.5-5Al; greater than 0.6, up to 2.5 total of at least one element selected from the group consisting of Nb and Ta; up to 3Mo; up to 3Co; up to 1W; up to 3Cu; up to 15Mn; up to 2Si; up to 0.15B; up to 0.05P; up to 1 total of at least one element selected from the group consisting of Y, La, Ce, Hf, and Zr; <0.3Ti+V; <0.03N; and, balance Fe, where the weight percent Fe is greater than the weight percent Ni, and wherein the alloy forms an external continuous scale comprising alumina, and a stable essentially single phase FCC austenitic matrix microstructure, the austenitic matrix being essentially delta-ferrite free and essentially BCC-phase-free. A method of making austenitic stainless steel alloys is also disclosed.

  15. Process Heating: A Special Supplement to Energy Matters

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    PROCESS HEATING Indirect-Fired Kiln Conserves Scrap Aluminum and Cuts Costs O ne successful example of a waste heat recovery application is at Wabash Alloys (formerly Roth Bros.), an aluminum recycler and provider of aluminum alloy in East Syracuse, New York. A demonstration project conducted at this plant by Energy Research Company (ERCo), of Staten Island, New York, involves a new energy-efficient kiln that heats scrap aluminum for reuse. This kiln has enabled Wabash to reduce metal loss and

  16. Surface modification of zirconia-alumina composite ceramics

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Ghosh, S.K.; Chatterjee, D.K.

    1994-12-31

    Surface modification of tetragonal zirconia and {alpha}-alumina composite was accomplished by diffusion of MgO during sintering at 1500{degrees}C. {alpha}-Al{sub 2}O{sub 3} powder, 2 to 60 wt%, was thoroughly mixed with 5 wt% yttria-alloyed zirconia powder, cold pressed and sintered in contact with fine MgO powder. In the diffusion zone, {alpha}-Al{sub 2}O{sub 3} was transformed to spinel, MgAl{sub 2}O{sub 4}, and transformation of tetragonal zirconia to cubic phase depended primarily on alumina concentration. The modified surface was, therefore, a composite of spinel, tetragonal (t) and/or cubic zirconia as distinguished from the core, comprised of {alpha}-Al{sub 2}O{sub 3} and t-ZrO{sub 2}. Tribological characteristics of the modified outer surface are also reported.

  17. Measurements of prompt radiation induced conductivity of alumina and sapphire.

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Hartman, E. Frederick; Zarick, Thomas Andrew; Sheridan, Timothy J.; Preston, Eric F.

    2011-04-01

    We performed measurements of the prompt radiation induced conductivity in thin samples of Alumina and Sapphire at the Little Mountain Medusa LINAC facility in Ogden, UT. Five mil thick samples were irradiated with pulses of 20 MeV electrons, yielding dose rates of 1E7 to 1E9 rad/s. We applied variable potentials up to 1 kV across the samples and measured the prompt conduction current. Analysis rendered prompt conductivity coefficients between 1E10 and 1E9 mho/m/(rad/s), depending on the dose rate and the pulse width for Alumina and 1E7 to 6E7 mho/m/(rad/s) for Sapphire.

  18. Protective coating for alumina-silicon carbide whisker composites

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Tiegs, Terry N. (Lenoir City, TN)

    1989-01-01

    Ceramic composites formed of an alumina matrix reinforced with silicon carbide whiskers homogenously dispersed therein are provided with a protective coating for preventing fracture strength degradation of the composite by oxidation during exposure to high temperatures in oxygen-containing atmospheres. The coating prevents oxidation of the silicon carbide whiskers within the matrix by sealing off the exterior of the matrix so as to prevent oxygen transport into the interior of the matrix. The coating is formed of mullite or mullite plus silicon oxide and alumina and is formed in place by heating the composite in air to a temperature greater than 1200.degree. C. This coating is less than about 100 microns thick and adequately protects the underlying composite from fracture strength degradation due to oxidation.

  19. Conduction in alumina with atomic scale copper filaments

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Xu, Xu; Liu, Jie; Anantram, M. P.

    2014-10-28

    The conductance of atomic scale filaments with three and seven Cu atoms in ?-alumina are calculated using ab initio density functional theory. We find that the filament with 3 Cu atoms is sufficient to increase the conductance of 1.3?nm thick alumina film by more than 10{sup 3} times in linear response. As the applied voltage increases, the current quickly saturates and differential resistance becomes negative. Compared to the filament with three Cu atoms, while the conductance of the filament with seven Cu atoms is comparable in linear response, they carry as much as twenty times larger current at large biases. The electron transport is analyzed based on local density of states, and the negative differential resistance in the seven Cu filaments occurs due to their narrow bandwidth.

  20. Melt processing of Bi--2212 superconductors using alumina

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Holesinger, Terry G. (Los Alamos, NM)

    1999-01-01

    Superconducting articles and a method of forming them, where the superconducting phase of an article is Bi.sub.2 Sr.sub.2 CaCu.sub.2 O.sub.y (Bi-2212). Alumina is combined with Bi-2212 powder or Bi-2212 precursor powder and, in order to form an intimate mixture, the mixture is melted and rapidly cooled to form a glassy solid. The glassy solid is comminuted and the resulting powder is combined with a carrier. An alternative to melting is to form the mixture of nanophase alumina and material having a particle size of less than about 10 microns. The powder, with the carrier, is melt processed to form a superconducting article.

  1. Proton adsorption onto alumina: extension of multisite complexation (MUSIC) theory

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Nagashima, K.; Blum, F.D.

    1999-09-01

    The adsorption isotherm of protons onto a commercial {gamma}-alumina sample was determined in aqueous nitric acid with sodium nitrate as a background electrolyte. Three discrete regions could be discerned in the log-log plots of the proton isotherm determined at the solution pH 5 to 2. The multisite complexation (MUSIC) model was modified to analyze the simultaneous adsorption of protons onto various kinds of surface species.

  2. Effect of Alumina Source on the Rate of Melting Demonstrated with Nuclear

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    Waste Glass Batch (Journal Article) | SciTech Connect Effect of Alumina Source on the Rate of Melting Demonstrated with Nuclear Waste Glass Batch Citation Details In-Document Search Title: Effect of Alumina Source on the Rate of Melting Demonstrated with Nuclear Waste Glass Batch The melting behaviors of three glass batches formulated to vitrify high-level waste were compared. These batches, otherwise identical, differed in the alumina source: one was prepared with corundum (Al2O3), another

  3. Viscosity of aqueous and cyanate ester suspensions containing alumina nanoparticles

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Lawler, Katherine

    2009-08-05

    The viscosities of both aqueous and cyanate ester monomer (BECy) based suspensions of alumina nanoparticle were studied. The applications for these suspensions are different: aqueous suspensions of alumina nanoparticles are used in the production of technical ceramics made by slip casting or tape casting, and the BECy based suspensions are being developed for use in an injection-type composite repair resin. In the case of aqueous suspensions, it is advantageous to achieve a high solids content with low viscosity in order to produce a high quality product. The addition of a dispersant is useful so that higher solids content suspensions can be used with lower viscosities. For BECy suspensions, the addition of nanoparticles to the BECy resin is expected to enhance the mechanical properties of the cured composite. The addition of saccharides to aqueous suspensions leads to viscosity reduction. Through DSC measurements it was found that the saccharide molecules formed a solution with water and this resulted in lowering the melting temperature of the free water according to classic freezing point depression. Saccharides also lowered the melting temperature of the bound water, but this followed a different rule. The shear thinning and melting behaviors of the suspensions were used to develop a model based on fractal-type agglomeration. It is believed that the structure of the particle flocs in these suspensions changes with the addition of saccharides which leads to the resultant viscosity decrease. The viscosity of the BECy suspensions increased with solids content, and the viscosity increase was greater than predicted by the classical Einstein equation for dilute suspensions. Instead, the Mooney equation fits the viscosity behavior well from 0-20 vol% solids. The viscosity reduction achieved at high particle loadings by the addition of benzoic acid was also investigated by NMR. It appears that the benzoic acid interacts with the surface of the alumina particle which may be the cause of the viscosity reduction. The flow behavior of alumina particles in water and BECy is markedly different. Aqueous alumina suspensions are shear thinning at all alumina loadings and capable of 50 vol% loading before losing fluidity whereas BECy/alumina suspensions show Newtonian behavior up to 5 vol%, and above 5 vol% show shear thinning at all shear rates. Highly loaded suspensions (i.e. 20vol% alumina) exhibit shear thinning at low and moderate shear rates and shear thickening at higher shear rates. The maximum particle loading for a fluid suspension, in this case, appears to be about 20 vol%. The difference in the viscosity of these suspensions must be related to the solvent-particle interactions for each system. The reason is not exactly known, but there are some notable differences between BECy and water. Water molecules are {approx}0.28 nm in length and highly hydrogen bonded with a low viscosity (1 mPa's) whereas in the cyanate ester (BECy) system, the solvent molecule is about 1.2 nm, in the largest dimension, with surfaces of varied charge distribution throughout the molecule. The viscosity of the monomer is also reasonably low for organic polymer precursor, about 7 mPa's. Nanoparticles in water tend to agglomerate and form flocs which are broken with the shear force applied during viscosity measurement. The particle-particle interaction is very important in this system. In BECy, the particles appear to be well dispersed and not as interactive. The solvent-particle interaction appears to be most important. It is not known exactly how the alumina particles interact with the monomer, but NMR suggests hydrogen bonding. These hydrogen bonds between the particle and monomer could very well affect the viscosity. A conclusion that can be reached in this work is that the presence of hydroxyl groups on the surface of the alumina particles is significant and seems to affect the interactions between other particles and the solvent. Thus, the hydrogen bonding between particles, particle/additive and/or particle/solvent dictates the behavior of nanosized alumina particle suspensions. The addition of dispersants can change the particle interactions and hence reduce the suspension viscosity. This was demonstrated with saccharides in the aqueous system and with benzoic acid in suspensions with BECy.

  4. Method to produce alumina aerogels having porosities greater than 80 percent

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Poco, John F.; Hrubesh, Lawrence W.

    2003-09-16

    A two-step method for producing monolithic alumina aerogels having porosities of greater than 80 percent. Very strong, very low density alumina aerogel monoliths are prepared using the two-step sol-gel process. The method of preparing pure alumina aerogel modifies the prior known sol method by combining the use of substoichiometric water for hydrolysis, the use of acetic acid to control hydrolysis/condensation, and high temperature supercritical drying, all of which contribute to the formation of a polycrystalline aerogel microstructure. This structure provides exceptional mechanical properties of the alumina aerogel, as well as enhanced thermal resistance and high temperature stability.

  5. Method for thermal processing alumina-enriched spinel single crystals

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Jantzen, C.M.

    1995-05-09

    A process for age-hardening alumina-rich magnesium aluminum spinel to obtain the desired combination of characteristics of hardness, clarity, flexural strength and toughness comprises selection of the time-temperature pair for isothermal heating followed by quenching. The time-temperature pair is selected from the region wherein the precipitate groups have the characteristics sought. The single crystal spinel is isothermally heated and will, if heated long enough pass from its single phase through two pre-precipitates and two metastable precipitates to a stable secondary phase precipitate within the spinel matrix. Quenching is done slowly at first to avoid thermal shock, then rapidly. 12 figs.

  6. Method for thermal processing alumina-enriched spinel single crystals

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Jantzen, Carol M. (Aiken, SC)

    1995-01-01

    A process for age-hardening alumina-rich magnesium aluminum spinel to obtain the desired combination of characteristics of hardness, clarity, flexural strength and toughness comprises selection of the time-temperature pair for isothermal heating followed by quenching. The time-temperature pair is selected from the region wherein the precipitate groups have the characteristics sought. The single crystal spinel is isothermally heated and will, if heated long enough pass from its single phase through two pre-precipitates and two metastable precipitates to a stable secondary phase precipitate within the spinel matrix. Quenching is done slowly at first to avoid thermal shock, then rapidly.

  7. Particle denuded zones in alumina reinforced aluminum matrix composite weldments

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Chidambaram, A.; Bhole, S.D.

    1996-08-01

    The Welding Institute of Canada (WIC), Ontario, has been studying the weldability of different DURALCAN MMC`s. Research on alumina reinforced (20 vol.%) 6061 Al alloy GTA welds showed satisfactory tensile and yield strengths (0.2% Proof Stress) but the welds failed to pass the bend test requirements with fracture taking place in the relatively brittle heat affected zone (HAZ). Further, the welds were characterized by a region which was devoid of reinforcement particles adjacent to the fusion lines. The present study was undertaken to try and explain the formation of this particle denuded zone (PDZ) at the fusion lines.

  8. Silicon carbide whisker-zirconia reinforced mullite and alumina ceramics

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Becher, Paul F. (Oak Ridge, TN); Tiegs, Terry N. (Lenoir City, TN)

    1987-01-01

    The flexural strength and/or fracture toughness of SiC whisker-reinforced composites utilizing mullite or alumina as the matrix material for the composite are increased by the addition of zirconia in a monoclinic or tetragonal phase to the matrix. The zirconia addition also provides for a lower hot-pressing temperature and increases the flexural strength and/or fracture toughness of the SiC whisker-reinforced composites over SiC whisker-reinforced composites of the similar matrix materials reinforced with similar concentrations of SiC whiskers.

  9. Functionally graded alumina-based thin film systems

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Moore, John J.; Zhong, Dalong

    2006-08-29

    The present invention provides coating systems that minimize thermal and residual stresses to create a fatigue- and soldering-resistant coating for aluminum die casting dies. The coating systems include at least three layers. The outer layer is an alumina- or boro-carbide-based outer layer that has superior non-wettability characteristics with molten aluminum coupled with oxidation and wear resistance. A functionally-graded intermediate layer or "interlayer" enhances the erosive wear, toughness, and corrosion resistance of the die. A thin adhesion layer of reactive metal is used between the die substrate and the interlayer to increase adhesion of the coating system to the die surface.

  10. Bath for electrolytic reduction of alumina and method therefor

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Brown, Craig W. (Seattle, WA); Brooks, Richard J. (Seattle, WA); Frizzle, Patrick B. (Lynnwood, WA); Juric, Drago D. (Bulleen, AU)

    2002-11-26

    An electrolytic bath for use during the electrolytic reduction of alumina to aluminum. The bath comprises a molten electrolyte having the following ingredients: (a) AlF.sub.3 and at least one salt selected from the group consisting of NaF, KF, and LiF; and (b) about 0.004 wt. % to about 0.2 wt. %, based on total weight of the molten electrolyte, of at least one transition metal or at least one compound of the metal or both. The compound may be, for example, a fluoride, oxide, or carbonate. The metal can be nickel, iron, copper, cobalt, or molybdenum. The bath can be employed in a combination that includes a vessel for containing the bath and at least one non-consumable anode and at least one dimensionally stable cathode in the bath. Employing the bath of the present invention during electrolytic reduction of alumina to aluminum can improve the wetting of aluminum on a cathode by reducing or eliminating the formation of non-metallic deposits on the cathode. Removing sulfur from the bath can also minimize cathode deposits. Aluminum formed on the cathode can be removed directly from the cathode.

  11. Bath for electrolytic reduction of alumina and method therefor

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Brown, Craig W. (Seattle, WA); Brooks, Richard J. (Seattle, WA); Frizzle, Patrick B. (Lynnwood, WA); Juric, Drago D. (Bulleen, AU)

    2001-07-10

    An electrolytic bath for use during the electrolytic reduction of alumina to aluminum. The bath comprises a molten electrolyte having the following ingredients: (a) AlF.sub.3 and at least one salt selected from the group consisting of NaF, KF, and LiF; and (b) about 0.004 wt. % to about 0.2 wt. %, based on total weight of the molten electrolyte, of at least one transition metal or at least one compound of the metal or both. The compound may be, for example, a fluoride, oxide, or carbonate. The metal can be nickel, iron, copper, cobalt, or molybdenum. The bath can be employed in a combination that includes a vessel for containing the bath and at least one non-consumable anode and at least one dimensionally stable cathode in the bath. Employing the bath of the present invention during electrolytic reduction of alumina to aluminum can improve the wetting of aluminum on a cathode by reducing or eliminating the formation of non-metallic deposits on the cathode.

  12. Acoustic phonon spectrum and thermal transport in nanoporous alumina arrays

    DOE Public Access Gateway for Energy & Science Beta (PAGES Beta)

    Kargar, Fariborz; Ramirez, Sylvester; Debnath, Bishwajit; Malekpour, Hoda; Lake, Roger; Balandin, Alexander A.

    2015-10-28

    We report results of a combined investigation of thermal conductivity and acoustic phonon spectra in nanoporous alumina membranes with the pore diameter decreasing from D=180 nm to 25 nm. The samples with the hexagonally arranged pores were selected to have the same porosity Ø ≈13%. The Brillouin-Mandelstam spectroscopy measurements revealed bulk-like phonon spectrum in the samples with D=180-nm pores and spectral features, which were attributed to spatial confinement, in the samples with 25-nm and 40-nm pores. The velocity of the longitudinal acoustic phonons was reduced in the samples with smaller pores. As a result, analysis of the experimental data andmore » calculated phonon dispersion suggests that both phonon-boundary scattering and phonon spatial confinement affect heat conduction in membranes with the feature sizes D<40 nm.« less

  13. Acoustic phonon spectrum and thermal transport in nanoporous alumina arrays

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Kargar, Fariborz; Ramirez, Sylvester; Debnath, Bishwajit; Malekpour, Hoda; Lake, Roger; Balandin, Alexander A.

    2015-10-28

    We report results of a combined investigation of thermal conductivity and acoustic phonon spectra in nanoporous alumina membranes with the pore diameter decreasing from D=180 nm to 25 nm. The samples with the hexagonally arranged pores were selected to have the same porosity Ø ?13%. The Brillouin-Mandelstam spectroscopy measurements revealed bulk-like phonon spectrum in the samples with D=180-nm pores and spectral features, which were attributed to spatial confinement, in the samples with 25-nm and 40-nm pores. The velocity of the longitudinal acoustic phonons was reduced in the samples with smaller pores. As a result, analysis of the experimental data and calculated phonon dispersion suggests that both phonon-boundary scattering and phonon spatial confinement affect heat conduction in membranes with the feature sizes D<40 nm.

  14. Optical Basicity and Nepheline Crystallization in High Alumina Glasses

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Rodriguez, Carmen P.; McCloy, John S.; Schweiger, M. J.; Crum, Jarrod V.; Winschell, Abigail E.

    2011-02-25

    The purpose of this study was to find compositions that increase waste loading of high-alumina wastes beyond what is currently acceptable while avoiding crystallization of nepheline (NaAlSiO4) on slow cooling. Nepheline crystallization has been shown to have a large impact on the chemical durability of high-level waste glasses. It was hypothesized that there would be some composition regions where high-alumina would not result in nepheline crystal production, compositions not currently allowed by the nepheline discriminator. Optical basicity (OB) and the nepheline discriminator (ND) are two ways of describing a given complex glass composition. This report presents the theoretical and experimental basis for these models. They are being studied together in a quadrant system as metrics to explore nepheline crystallization and chemical durability as a function of waste glass composition. These metrics were calculated for glasses with existing data and also for theoretical glasses to explore nepheline formation in Quadrant IV (passes OB metric but fails ND metric), where glasses are presumed to have good chemical durability. Several of these compositions were chosen, and glasses were made to fill poorly represented regions in Quadrant IV. To evaluate nepheline formation and chemical durability of these glasses, quantitative X-ray diffraction (XRD) analysis and the Product Consistency Test were conducted. A large amount of quantitative XRD data is collected here, both from new glasses and from glasses of previous studies that had not previously performed quantitative XRD on the phase assemblage. Appendix A critically discusses a large dataset to be considered for future quantitative studies on nepheline formation in glass. Appendix B provides a theoretical justification for choice of the oxide coefficients used to compute the OB criterion for nepheline formation.

  15. Mechanical Properties of a Graded Alumina-Zirconia Composite Prepared by Centrifugal Slip Casting

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Hara, Yasuyuki; Onda, Tetsuhiko; Hayakawa, Motozo

    2008-02-15

    Compositionally graded composite of alumina-20 vol%zirconia was fabricated by using centrifugal casting incorporated with relatively thin slip. An EPMA analysis exhibited a nearly linear variation of the alumina/zirconia ratio along the centrifugal direction; zirconia tended to accumulate in the bottom section, while alumina in the top section. Such a graded structure exhibited a considerably higher flexural strength when the alumina rich surface was subjected to a tensile stress than compositionally uniform composite of the same average composition. Fracture toughness measurement across the specimen thickness by indentation method revealed that the crack lengths along the vertical and horizontal directions were different. The anisotropy of the fracture toughness was accounted for by the variation of the residual stress across the specimen thicknesss.

  16. Lightweight alumina refractory aggregate: Phase 3, Full-scale demonstration

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Swansiger, T.G.; Pearson, A.

    1996-07-16

    Technical problems (higher than target fired density, and poor intermediate strength after burnout but before sintering) were addressed and solved; solution involved use of large loading of CP-5 alumina (controlled pore, rehydratable), increased loading of one of the binders, and a steam aging step. Resistance of the lightweight aggregate in a brick formulation to steel slag penetration was assessed in a preliminary test and found to be almost as good as that of T-64. Pelletized process economic feasibility study was updated, based on production levels of 10,000 and 20,000 mt/year, the most up- to-date raw material costs, and the assumption of a retrofit into the Arkansas plant tabular production facility. For the 10,000 mt/y production level, the required selling price of 35% more than the T- 64 selling price exceeds the {le}25% objective. The market survey will determine whether to proceed with the full scale demonstration that will produce at least 54.4 mt (120,000 lb) of the aggregate for incorporation into products, followed by end-user testing and evaluation.

  17. ATOMIC LAYER DEPOSITION OF TITANIUM OXIDE THIN FILMS ONNANOPOROUS ALUMINA TEMPLATES FOR MEDICAL APPLICATIONS

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Brigmon, R.

    2009-05-05

    Nanostructured materials may play a significant role in controlled release of pharmacologic agents for treatment of cancer. Many nanoporous polymer materials are inadequate for use in drug delivery. Nanoporous alumina provides several advantages over other materials for use in controlled drug delivery and other medical applications. Atomic layer deposition was used to coat all the surfaces of the nanoporous alumina membrane in order to reduce the pore size in a controlled manner. Both the 20 nm and 100 nm titanium oxide-coated nanoporous alumina membranes did not exhibit statistically lower viability compared to the uncoated nanoporous alumina membrane control materials. In addition, 20 nm pore size titanium oxide-coated nanoporous alumina membranes exposed to ultraviolet light demonstrated activity against Escherichia coli and Staphylococcus aureus bacteria. Nanostructured materials prepared using atomic layer deposition may be useful for delivering a pharmacologic agent at a precise rate to a specific location in the body. These materials may serve as the basis for 'smart' drug delivery devices, orthopedic implants, or self-sterilizing medical devices.

  18. Sol-spray preparation, particulate characteristics, and sintering of alumina powders

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Varma, H.K.; Mani, T.V.; Damodaran, A.D.; Warrier, K.G.K.; Balachandran, U.

    1993-07-01

    Fine alumina powders of spherical morphology and narrow particle-size distribution have been synthesized by a technique that uses precipitation/peptization/spray drying of boehmite sol prepared from aluminum nitrate. The spray-dried powder was further washed with solvents of varying polarities, such as acetone, isopropanol, and tert-butanol. This post-spray-drying treatment changed the powder`s particle-size distribution, morphology, density, and compaction characteristics. Microstructure, dielectric properties, and effect of post-treatment on the boehmite-sol-derived alumina powders in reducing agglomeration are discussed.

  19. bia-cemkiln | netl.doe.gov

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Comprehensive Report to Congress Comprehensive Report to Congress on the Clean Coal Technology Program: Cement Kiln Flue Gas Recovery Scrubber PDF-1.5MB (Nov 1989) Prepared by ...

  20. Surface preparation for high purity alumina ceramics enabling direct brazing in hydrogen atmospheres

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Cadden, Charles H. (Danville, CA); Yang, Nancy Yuan Chi (Lafayette, CA); Hosking, Floyd M. (Albuquerque, NM)

    2001-01-01

    The present invention relates to a method for preparing the surface of a high purity alumina ceramic or sapphire specimen that enables direct brazing in a hydrogen atmosphere using an active braze alloy. The present invention also relates to a method for directly brazing a high purity alumina ceramic or sapphire specimen to a ceramic or metal member using this method of surface preparation, and to articles produced by this brazing method. The presence of silicon, in the form of a SiO.sub.2 -containing surface layer, can more than double the tensile bond strength in alumina ceramic joints brazed in a hydrogen atmosphere using an active Au-16Ni-0.75 Mo-1.75V filler metal. A thin silicon coating applied by PVD processing can, after air firing, produce a semi-continuous coverage of the alumina surface with a SiO.sub.2 film. Room temperature tensile strength was found to be proportional to the fraction of air fired surface covered by silicon-containing films. Similarly, the ratio of substrate fracture versus interface separation was also related to the amount of surface silicon present prior to brazing. This process can replace the need to perform a "moly-manganese" metallization step.

  1. Adsorption of carbonyl sulfide from liquid hydrocarbons with activated alumina and other adsorbents

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Liu, P.K.T. (Alcoa Separations Technology Div., Aluminum Co. of America, Warrendale, PA (US))

    1988-01-01

    Contamination of Liquid hydrocarbon streams with carbonyl sulfide (COS) is not desirable; particularly in propylene. COS may poison the down stream polymerization catalyst. Thus, it is usually required to reduce the COS concentration to an extremely low level, e.g. 1 ppm or less, for polymer grade propylene. Many technologies generally available for sulfur removal, such as scrubbing and distillation are not applicable to the removal of COS from propylene. The former is not suitable for a low level removal. With the boiling point of COS (-50{sup 0}C) very close to that of propylene (-48{sup 0}C) it is difficult to achieve a very efficient separation with distillation. Adsorption technology provides a very energy efficient process in addition to its ability of the low level removal. Adsorbents selected in this study include activated carbon, molecular sieves, zinc oxide and activated alumina. The results show that activated alumina is far superior in both adsorption capacity and rate. An adsorption mechanism with activated alumina is proposed. It is believed that adsorption of COS takes place simultaneously with the hydrolysis of COS on the alumina surface. Adsorption isotherms of COS up to 100 ppm and the effect of moisture content are also addressed in this study.

  2. Cuprous-chloride-modified nanoporous alumina membranes for ethylene-ethane separation

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Lin, Y.S.; Wang, Y.; Ji, W.; Higgins, R.J.

    1999-06-01

    This paper reports an attempt to synthesize a CuCl-modified {gamma}-alumina membrane for separation of ethylene from ethane. CuCl was effectively coated in the 4 nm pore {gamma}-alumina top layers of disk-shaped and tubular alumina membranes by the reservoir method. Permeation of a single gas and binary mixture of ethylene and ethane was measured to characterize separation properties of the modified membranes. Pure ethylene permeance of the CuCl-modified membrane is 10--40% lower than that predicted from the pure ethane permeance by the Knudsen theory. This result is explained by a model based on the adsorbed layer of ethylene via {pi}-complexation. Such an adsorbed layer hinders the diffusion of ethylene in the nanopores of CuCl-modified {gamma}-alumina. Multiple gas permeation measurements on the CuCl-modified membranes show a separation factor for ethylene over ethane larger than the Knudsen value. This confirms a positive contribution of the surface flow of ethylene to the permeance of ethylene in the multiple gas permeation system. A maximum separation factor for ethylene over ethane of 1.4 is obtained for the CuCl-modified membrane at 60 C.

  3. Advanced materials for sodium-beta alumina batteries: Status, challenges and perspectives

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Lu, XC; Xia, GG; Lemmon, JP; Yang, ZG

    2010-05-01

    The increasing penetration of renewable energy and the trend toward clean, efficient transportation have spurred growing interests in sodium-beta alumina batteries that store electrical energy via sodium ion transport across a beta ''-Al(2)O(3) solid electrolyte at elevated temperatures (typically 300-350 degrees C ). Currently, the negative electrode or anode is metallic sodium in molten state during battery operation; the positive electrode or cathode can be molten sulfur (Na-S battery) or solid transition metal halides plus a liquid phase secondary electrolyte (e.g., ZEBRA battery). Since the groundbreaking works in the sodium-beta alumina batteries a few decades ago, encouraging progress has been achieved in improving battery performance, along with cost reduction. However, there remain issues that hinder broad applications and market penetration of the technologies. To better the Na-beta alumina technologies require further advancement in materials along with component and system design and engineering. This paper offers a comprehensive review on materials of electrodes and electrolytes for the Na-beta alumina batteries and discusses the challenges ahead for further technology improvement. (C) 2009 Published by Elsevier B.V.

  4. Synthesis of High Surface Area Alumina Aerogels without the Use of Alkoxide Precursors

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Baumann, T F; Gash, A E; Chinn, S C; Sawvel, A M; Maxwell, R S; Satcher Jr., J H

    2004-06-25

    Alumina aerogels were prepared through the addition of propylene oxide to aqueous or ethanolic solutions of hydrated aluminum salts, AlCl{sub 3} {center_dot} 6H{sub 2}O or Al(NO{sub 3}){sub 3} {center_dot} 9H{sub 2}O, followed by drying with supercritical CO{sub 2}. This technique affords low-density (60-130 kg/m{sup 3}), high surface area (600-700 m{sup 2}/g) alumina aerogel monoliths without the use of alkoxide precursors. The dried alumina aerogels were characterized using elemental analysis, high-resolution transmission electron microscopy, powder X-ray diffraction, solid state NMR, acoustic measurements and nitrogen adsorption/desorption analysis. Powder X-ray diffraction and TEM analysis indicated that the aerogel prepared from hydrated AlCl{sub 3} in water or ethanol possessed microstructures containing highly reticulated networks of pseudoboehmite fibers, 2-5 nm in diameter and of varying lengths, while the aerogels prepared from hydrated Al(NO{sub 3}){sub 3} in ethanol were amorphous with microstructures comprised of interconnected spherical particles with diameters in the 5-15 nm range. The difference in microstructure resulted in each type of aerogel displaying distinct physical and mechanical properties. In particular, the alumina aerogels with the weblike microstructure were far more mechanically robust than those with the colloidal network, based on acoustic measurements. Both types of alumina aerogels can be transformed to {gamma}-Al{sub 2}O{sub 3} through calcination at 800 C without a significant loss in surface area or monolithicity.

  5. bia-cemkiln | netl.doe.gov

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    2 Cement Kiln Flue Gas Recovery Scrubber - Project Brief [PDF-247KB] Passamaquoddy Technology Limited Partnership, Thomaston, ME Program Publications Final Reports Passamaquoddy Technology Recovery Scrubber(tm) Final Report, Volume 1 [PDF-5.4MB] (Feb 1994) Final Report, Volume 2 and Appendices A - M [PDF-10.4MB] (Feb 1994) CCT Reports: Project Performance Summaries, Post-Project Assessments, & Topical Reports Cement Kiln Flue Gas Recovery Scrubber Project: A DOE Assessment [PDF-246KB] (Nov

  6. Direct visualization of the hydration layer on alumina nanoparticles with the fluid cell STEM in situ

    DOE Public Access Gateway for Energy & Science Beta (PAGES Beta)

    Firlar, Emre; ?nar, Simge; Kashyap, Sanjay; Akinc, Mufit; Prozorov, Tanya

    2015-05-21

    Rheological behavior of aqueous suspensions containing nanometer-sized powders is of relevance to many branches of industry. Unusually high viscosities observed for suspensions of nanoparticles compared to those of micron size powders cannot be explained by current viscosity models. Formation of so-called hydration layer on alumina nanoparticles in water was hypothesized, but never observed experimentally. We report here on the direct visualization of aqueous suspensions of alumina with the fluid cell in situ. We observe the hydration layer formed over the particle aggregates and show that such hydrated aggregates constitute new particle assemblies and affect the flow behavior of the suspensions.moreWe discuss how these hydrated nanoclusters alter the effective solid content and the viscosity of nanostructured suspensions. Our findings elucidate the source of high viscosity observed for nanoparticle suspensions and are of direct relevance to many industrial sectors including materials, food, cosmetics, pharmaceutical among others employing colloidal slurries with nanometer-scale particles.less

  7. Fischer-Tropsch activity for non-promoted cobalt-on-alumina catalysts

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Singleton, Alan H. (Baden, PA); Oukaci, Rachid (Gibsonia, PA); Goodwin, James G. (Gibsonia, PA)

    2001-01-01

    Cobalt catalysts, and processes employing these inventive catalysts, for hydrocarbon synthesis. The inventive catalyst comprises cobalt on an alumina support and is not promoted with any noble or near noble metals. In one aspect of the invention, the alumina support preferably includes a dopant in an amount effective for increasing the activity of the inventive catalyst. The dopant is preferably a titanium dopant. In another aspect of the invention, the cobalt catalyst is preferably reduced in the presence of hydrogen at a water vapor partial pressure effective to increase the activity of the cobalt catalyst for hydrocarbon synthesis. The water vapor partial pressure is preferably in the range of from 0 to about 0.1 atmospheres.

  8. The Effect of Excimer Laser Treatment on the Surface Roughness and Fracture Strength of Alumina Substrates

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Smoot, J.E.

    1998-05-13

    The microelectronics industry requires alumina substrates with exceptionally smooth surfaces and few surface defects to allow successful deposition of metallic films for reliable electronic performance. Irradiation by a 248-nm wavelength excimer laser beam (KrF) at a fluence of 125 mJ/mm{sup 2} and at various angles of incidence is shown to significantly reduce the surface roughness of alumina substrates. However, irradiation also creates a fine particulate deposit of alumina that only partially adheres to the substrate and impedes deposition of metal films. Annealing in air between 1350 C and 1450 C was found to remove the particles by sintering. As-received material showed surface roughness average (R{sub a}) mean values of 457 nm, which was reduced to 60 nm (mean) following irradiation and 71 nm (mean) following irradiation and annealing at 1350 C. Irradiation also produced a decrease in the number and severity of surface defects. The flexural strength and Weibull modulus were both increased by laser irradiation and thermal treatment. Flexural strength went from an as-received value of 450 MPa to 560 MPa following irradiation/sintering, measured at 10% probability of failure. The Weibull modulus was increased from the as-received value of about 9, to about 13 following irradiation/sintering. It was concluded that irradiation at an angle of incidence of 60{degree} from perpendicular was most effective in producing a low surface roughness.

  9. Preparation of powders suitable for conversion to useful .beta.-aluminas

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Morgan, Peter E. D. (Thousand Oaks, CA)

    1982-01-01

    A process for forming a precursor powder which, when suitably pressed and sintered forms highly pure, densified .beta.- or .beta."-alumina, comprising the steps of: (1) forming a suspension (or slurry) of Bayer-derived Al(OH).sub.3 in a water-miscible solvent; (2) adding an aqueous solution of a Mg compound, a Li compound, a Na compound or mixtures thereof to the Bayer-derived Al(OH).sub.3 suspension while agitating the mixture formed thereby, to produce a gel; (3) drying the gel at a temperature above the normal boiling point of water to produce a powder material; (4) lightly ball milling and sieving said powder material; and (5) heating the ball-milled and sieved powder material at a temperature of between 350.degree. to 900.degree. C. to form the .beta.- or .beta."-alumina precursor powder. The precursor powder, thus formed, may be subsequently isopressed at a high pressure and sintered at an elevated temperature to produce .beta.- or .beta."-alumina. BACKGROUND OF THE INVENTION

  10. Hydrogen Selective Thin Palladium-Copper Composite Membranes on Alumina Supports

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Lim, Hankwon; Oyama, S. Ted

    2011-08-15

    Thin and defect-free PdCu composite membranes with high hydrogen permeances and selectivities were prepared by electroless plating of palladium and copper on porous alumina supports with pore sizes of 5 and 100 nm coated with intermediate layers. The intermediate layers on the 100 nm supports were prepared by the deposition of boehmite sols of different particle sizes, and provided a graded, uniform substrate for the formation of defect-free, ultra-thin palladium composite layers. The dependence of hydrogen flux on pressure difference was studied to understand the dominant mechanism of hydrogen transport through a PdCu composite membrane plated on an alumina support with a pore size of 5 nm. The order in hydrogen pressure was 0.98, and indicated that bulk diffusion through the PdCu layer was fast and the overall process was limited by external mass-transfer or a surface process. Scanning electron microscopy (SEM) images of the PdCu composite membrane showed a uniform substrate created after depositing one intermediate layer on top of the alumina support and a dense PdCu composite layer with no visible defects. Cross-sectional views of the membrane showed that the PdCu composite layer had a top layer thickness of 160 nm (0.16 ?m), which is much thinner than previously reported.

  11. Numerical simulation of alumina spraying in argon-helium plasma jet

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Chang, C.H.

    1992-01-01

    A new numerical model is described for simulating thermal plasmas containing entrained particles, with emphasis on plasma spraying applications. The plasma is represented as a continuum multicomponent chemically reacting ideal gas, while the particles are tracked as discrete Lagrangian entities coupled to the plasma. Computational results are presented from a transient simulation of alumina spraying in a turbulent argon-helium plasma jet in air environment, including torch geometry, substrate, and multiple species with chemical reactions. Particle-plasma interactions including turbulent dispersion have been modeled in a fully self-consistent manner. Interactions between the plasma and the torch and substrate walls are modeled using wall functions. (15 refs.)

  12. Numerical simulation of alumina spraying in argon-helium plasma jet

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Chang, C.H.

    1992-08-01

    A new numerical model is described for simulating thermal plasmas containing entrained particles, with emphasis on plasma spraying applications. The plasma is represented as a continuum multicomponent chemically reacting ideal gas, while the particles are tracked as discrete Lagrangian entities coupled to the plasma. Computational results are presented from a transient simulation of alumina spraying in a turbulent argon-helium plasma jet in air environment, including torch geometry, substrate, and multiple species with chemical reactions. Particle-plasma interactions including turbulent dispersion have been modeled in a fully self-consistent manner. Interactions between the plasma and the torch and substrate walls are modeled using wall functions. (15 refs.)

  13. Manufacturing Energy and Carbon Footprint - Sector: Alumina and Aluminum (NAICS 3313), January 2014 (MECS 2010)

    Office of Environmental Management (EM)

    Alumina and Aluminum (NAICS 3313) Process Energy Electricity and Steam Generation Losses Process Losses 3 Nonprocess Losses 456 105 Steam Distribution Losses 3 7 Nonprocess Energy 99 Electricity Generation Steam Generation 456 5 Prepared for the U.S. Department of Energy, Advanced Manufacturing Office by Energetics Incorporated 16 198 116 Generation and Transmission Losses Generation and Transmission Losses 2 234 214 207 13 220 351 7 10 0.4 20.3 20.8 4.2 24.0 1.3 26 5.3 26.1 0.4 Fuel Total

  14. Direct visualization of the hydration layer on alumina nanoparticles with the fluid cell STEM in situ

    DOE Public Access Gateway for Energy & Science Beta (PAGES Beta)

    Firlar, Emre; Çınar, Simge; Kashyap, Sanjay; Akinc, Mufit; Prozorov, Tanya

    2015-05-21

    Rheological behavior of aqueous suspensions containing nanometer-sized powders is of relevance to many branches of industry. Unusually high viscosities observed for suspensions of nanoparticles compared to those of micron size powders cannot be explained by current viscosity models. Formation of so-called hydration layer on alumina nanoparticles in water was hypothesized, but never observed experimentally. We report here on the direct visualization of aqueous suspensions of alumina with the fluid cell in situ. We observe the hydration layer formed over the particle aggregates and show that such hydrated aggregates constitute new particle assemblies and affect the flow behavior of the suspensions.more » We discuss how these hydrated nanoclusters alter the effective solid content and the viscosity of nanostructured suspensions. As a result, our findings elucidate the source of high viscosity observed for nanoparticle suspensions and are of direct relevance to many industrial sectors including materials, food, cosmetics, pharmaceutical among others employing colloidal slurries with nanometer-scale particles.« less

  15. Hydrodesulfurization of dibenzothiophene catalyzed by alumina-supported ruthenium carbonyl complexes in a pressurized flow system

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    NONE

    1994-11-01

    Ruthenium sulfide has been found to be most active for hydrodesulfurization (HDS) of thiophenes as well as hydrogenation and hydrodenitrogenation among transition metal sulfides. When ruthenium sulfide is supported on alumina, silica, or zeolite with high surface area, highly dispersed ruthenium sulfide formed on the supports would increase the catalytic activity per a ruthenium atom. Several researchers have already reported HDS using supported ruthenium sulfides. In these works [Ru(NH{sub 3}){sub 6}]{sup +}, Ru{sub 3}(CO){sub 12}, RuCl{sub 3}, and Ru(III) acetate supported on alumina, zeoliate, carbon, etc., were used as catalyst precursors in HDS of thiophene, benzothiophene, or dibenzothiophene. Although these HDS reactions were performed under an atmospheric pressure, the activity of the catalysts derived from supported ruthenium in a pressurized flow system have not yet been understood. In the present study, HDS of DBT catalyzed by ruthenium catalysts is investigated in a pressurized flow reactor. 17 refs., 2 figs., 2 tabs.

  16. Characterization of the alumina-zirconia ceramic system by ultrasonic velocity measurements

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Carreon, Hector; Ruiz, Alberto; Medina, Ariosto; Barrera, Gerardo; Zarate, Juan

    2009-08-15

    In this work an alumina-zirconia ceramic composites have been prepared with {alpha}-Al{sub 2}O{sub 3} contents from 10 to 95 wt.%. The alumina-zirconia ceramic system was characterized by means of precise ultrasonic velocity measurements. In order to find out the factors affecting the variation in wave velocity, the ceramic composite have been examined by X-ray diffraction (XRD) and (SEM) scanning electron microscopy. It was found that the ultrasonic velocity measurements changed considerably with respect to the ceramic composite composition. In particular, we studied the behavior of the physical material property hardness, an important parameter of the ceramic composite mechanical properties, with respect to the variation in the longitudinal and shear wave velocities. Shear wave velocities exhibited a stronger interaction with microstructural and sub-structural features as compared to that of longitudinal waves. In particular, this phenomena was observed for the highest {alpha}-Al{sub 2}O{sub 3} content composite. Interestingly, an excellent correlation between ultrasonic velocity measurements and ceramic composite hardness was observed.

  17. A High Temperature Electrochemical Energy Storage System Based on Sodium Beta-Alumina Solid Electrolyte (Base)

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Anil Virkar

    2008-03-31

    This report summarizes the work done during the period September 1, 2005 and March 31, 2008. Work was conducted in the following areas: (1) Fabrication of sodium beta{double_prime} alumina solid electrolyte (BASE) using a vapor phase process. (2) Mechanistic studies on the conversion of {alpha}-alumina + zirconia into beta{double_prime}-alumina + zirconia by the vapor phase process. (3) Characterization of BASE by X-ray diffraction, SEM, and conductivity measurements. (4) Design, construction and electrochemical testing of a symmetric cell containing BASE as the electrolyte and NaCl + ZnCl{sub 2} as the electrodes. (5) Design, construction, and electrochemical evaluation of Na/BASE/ZnCl{sub 2} electrochemical cells. (6) Stability studies in ZnCl{sub 2}, SnCl{sub 2}, and SnI{sub 4} (7) Design, assembly and testing of planar stacks. (8) Investigation of the effect of porous surface layers on BASE on cell resistance. The conventional process for the fabrication of sodium ion conducting beta{double_prime}-alumina involves calcination of {alpha}-alumina + Na{sub 2}CO{sub 3} + LiNO{sub 3} at 1250 C, followed by sintering powder compacts in sealed containers (platinum or MgO) at {approx}1600 C. The novel vapor phase process involves first sintering a mixture of {alpha}-alumina + yttria-stabilized zirconia (YSZ) into a dense ceramic followed by exposure to soda vapor at {approx}1450 C to convert {alpha}-alumina into beta{double_prime}-alumina. The vapor phase process leads to a high strength BASE, which is also resistant to moisture attack, unlike BASE made by the conventional process. The PI is the lead inventor of the process. Discs and tubes of BASE were fabricated in the present work. In the conventional process, sintering of BASE is accomplished by a transient liquid phase mechanism wherein the liquid phase contains NaAlO{sub 2}. Some NaAlO{sub 2} continues to remain at grain boundaries; and is the root cause of its water sensitivity. In the vapor phase process, NaAlO{sub 2} is never formed. Conversion occurs by a coupled transport of Na{sup +} through BASE formed and of O{sup 2-} through YSZ to the reaction front. Transport to the reaction front is described in terms of a chemical diffusion coefficient of Na{sub 2}O. The conversion kinetics as a function of microstructure is under investigation. The mechanism of conversion is described in this report. A number of discs and tubes of BASE have been fabricated by the vapor phase process. The material was investigated by X-ray diffraction (XRD), optical microscopy and scanning electron microscopy (SEM), before and after conversion. Conductivity (which is almost exclusively due to sodium ion transport at the temperatures of interest) was measured. Conductivity was measured using sodium-sodium tests as well as by impedance spectroscopy. Various types of both planar and tubular electrochemical cells were assembled and tested. In some cases the objective was to determine if there was any interaction between the salt and BASE. The interaction of interest was mainly ion exchange (possible replacement of sodium ion by the salt cation). It was noted that Zn{sup 2+} did not replace Na+ over the conditions of interest. For this reason much of the work was conducted with ZnCl{sub 2} as the cathode salt. In the case of Sn-based, Sn{sup 2+} did ion exchange, but Sn{sup 4+} did not. This suggests that Sn{sup 4+} salts are viable candidates. These results and implications are discussed in the report. Cells made with Na as the anode and ZnCl{sub 2} as the cathode were successfully charged/discharged numerous times. The key advantages of the batteries under investigation here over the Na-S batteries are: (1) Steel wool can be used in the cathode compartment unlike Na-S batteries which require expensive graphite. (2) Planar cells can be constructed in addition to tubular, allowing for greater design flexibility and integration with other devices such as planar SOFC. (3) Comparable or higher open circuit voltage (OCV) than the Na-S battery. (4) Wider operating temperature range and higher temper

  18. Method for preparing configured silicon carbide whisker-reinforced alumina ceramic articles

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Tiegs, Terry N. (Lenoir City, TN)

    1987-01-01

    A ceramic article of alumina reinforced with silicon carbide whiskers suitable for the fabrication into articles of complex geometry are provided by pressureless sintering and hot isostatic pressing steps. In accordance with the method of the invention a mixture of 5 to 10 vol. % silicon carbide whiskers 0.5 to 5 wt. % of a sintering aid such as yttria and the balance alumina powders is ball-milled and pressureless sintered in the desired configuration in the desired configuration an inert atmosphere at a temperature of about 1800.degree. C. to provide a self-supporting configured composite of a density of at least about 94% theoretical density. The composite is then hot isostatically pressed at a temperature and pressure adequate to provide configured articles of at least about 98% of theoretical density which is sufficient to provide the article with sufficient strength and fracture toughness for use in most structural applications such as gas turbine blades, cylinders, and other components of advanced heat engines.

  19. Highly fluorescent silver nanoclusters in alumina-silica composite optical fiber

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Halder, A.; Chattopadhyay, R.; Majumder, S.; Paul, M. C.; Das, S.; Bhadra, S. K.; Bysakh, S.; Unnikrishnan, M.

    2015-01-05

    An efficient visible fluorescent optical fiber embedded with silver nanoclusters (Ag-NCs) having size ∼1 nm, uniformly distributed in alumina-silica composite core glass, is reported. Fibers are fabricated in a repetitive controlled way through modified chemical vapour deposition process associated with solution doping technique. Fibers are drawn from the transparent preforms by conventional fiber drawing process. Structural characteristics of the doped fibers are studied using transmission electron microscopy and electron probe micro analysis. The oxidation state of Ag within Ag-NCs is investigated by X-ray photo electron spectroscopy. The observed significant fluorescence of the metal clusters in fabricated fibers is correlated with electronic model. The experimentally observed size dependent absorption of the metal clusters in fabricated fibers is explained with the help of reported results calculated by ab-initio density functional theory. These optical fibers may open up an opportunity of realizing tunable wavelength fiber laser without the help of rare earth elements.

  20. Oxidation Reaction Induced Structural Changes in Sub-Nanometer Platinum Supported on Alumina

    DOE Public Access Gateway for Energy & Science Beta (PAGES Beta)

    DeBusk, Melanie Moses; Allard, Jr, Lawrence Frederick; Blom, Douglas Allen; Narula, Chaitanya Kumar

    2015-06-26

    Platinum supported on alumina is an essential component of emission treatment catalysts used in transportation. Theoretical, experimental, and mechanistic aspects of platinum particles supported on a variety of supports have been extensively studied; however, available experimental information on the behavior of single vs. sub-nanometer platinum is extremely limited. To bridge the knowledge gap between single supported platinum and well-formed supported platinum nanoparticles, we have carried out synthesis, characterization, and CO and NO oxidation studies of sub-nanometer platinum supported on α, θ, and γ-Al2O3 and monitored changes in structure upon exposure to CO and NO oxidation conditions. We find that sub-nanometermore »Pt is highly effective for CO oxidation due to high platinum dispersion but is not very efficient as NO oxidation catalyst. Furthermore, sub-nanometer platinum agglomerates rapidly under CO or NO oxidation conditions to form nanoparticles.« less

  1. Thermally conductive alumina/organic composites for photovoltaic concentrator cell isolation

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Beavis, L.C.; Panitz, J.K.G.; Sharp, D.J.

    1988-01-01

    Electrophoretically deposited styrene-acrylate films were studied. These yield marginally useful thermal conductivities of 0.1--0.2 watts/meter-Kelvin, but have useful dielectric strengths over 2500 volts for 40 micrometer thick coatings. Thin, 25 micrometer, coatings of anodically grown Al/sub 2/O/sub 3/ films were also investigated. These films have thermal conductivities of approximately 6--8 watts/meter-Kelvin. Although these Al/sub 2/O/sub 3/ films have greater thermal conductivity than the polymer films, they exhibit porosity which typically limits their dielectric strength to less than 1000 volts. In the current study we have determined that styrene-acrylate can be electrophoretically deposited in porous anodic aluminum oxide films to form an alumina-organic composite with improved electrical breakdown strengths as well as higher thermal conductivity than styrene-acrylate films. 7 refs., 2 tabs.

  2. Structure, Stoichiometry and Stability in Magnetoplumbite and {beta}-Alumina Structured Type Ceramics. Final Report

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Cormack, A. N.

    2004-03-01

    Work has been completed on the atomistic simulation of hexa-aluminate ceramics with the magnetoplumbite and beta-alumina type structures. In this report, three aspects of the work are highlighted. One is the simulation of surface structures. The second concerns details of the interstitially mechanisms observed in molecular dynamics simulations. The novel result here is the observation that the lattice ion always leaves its Beevers-Ross site before the aBR interstitial begins to move towards the lattice site. It is also found that, as expected, the interstitial mechanism is the most common mechanism in the heavily disordered nonstoichiometric structure, as well as in the stoichiometric material. Finally, the disposition of trivalent europium in the phosphor material BAM has been elucidated.

  3. Oxidation Reaction Induced Structural Changes in Sub-Nanometer Platinum Supported on Alumina

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    DeBusk, Melanie Moses; Allard, Jr, Lawrence Frederick; Blom, Douglas Allen; Narula, Chaitanya Kumar

    2015-06-26

    Platinum supported on alumina is an essential component of emission treatment catalysts used in transportation. Theoretical, experimental, and mechanistic aspects of platinum particles supported on a variety of supports have been extensively studied; however, available experimental information on the behavior of single vs. sub-nanometer platinum is extremely limited. To bridge the knowledge gap between single supported platinum and well-formed supported platinum nanoparticles, we have carried out synthesis, characterization, and CO and NO oxidation studies of sub-nanometer platinum supported on ?, ?, and ?-Al2O3 and monitored changes in structure upon exposure to CO and NO oxidation conditions. We find that sub-nanometer Pt is highly effective for CO oxidation due to high platinum dispersion but is not very efficient as NO oxidation catalyst. Furthermore, sub-nanometer platinum agglomerates rapidly under CO or NO oxidation conditions to form nanoparticles.

  4. Sealing 304L to lithia-alumina-silica (LAS) glass-ceramics

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Moddeman, W.E.; Pence, R.E.; Massey, R.T.; Cassidy, R.T.; Kramer, D.P.

    1989-12-31

    The formation of a crack-free between 300 series stainless steel and a glass-ceramic is difficult owing to the high coefficients of thermal expansion of the stainless steels. Lithia-alumina-silica (LAS) glass-ceramics were successfully developed and sealed to 304L stainless steel. These crack-free seals were fabricated by two techniques: by adjusting the parent glass composition (reducing the Al{sub 2}O{sub 3} content), or by adjusting the sealing/crystallization cycle. All seals were hermetic, with leak rates < 10{sup -8} cc/sec STP helium. CTE and alloy yield strengths are given which show the feasibility of using these materials to make feedthroughs, pyrotechnic components, etc. Metallography, SEM, and wavelength dispersive spectroscopy show the quality and integrity of the glass-ceramic/stainless steel interface. These data are compared to those on the Inconel 718/LAS-glass seal system.

  5. On the physical and chemical details of alumina atomic layer deposition: A combined experimental and numerical approach

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Pan, Dongqing; Ma, Lulu; Xie, Yuanyuan; Yuan, Chris; Jen, Tien Chien

    2015-03-15

    Alumina thin film is typically studied as a model atomic layer deposition (ALD) process due to its high dielectric constant, high thermal stability, and good adhesion on various wafer surfaces. Despite extensive applications of alumina ALD in microelectronics industries, details on the physical and chemical processes are not yet well understood. ALD experiments are not able to shed adequate light on the detailed information regarding the transient ALD process. Most of current numerical approaches lack detailed surface reaction mechanisms, and their results are not well correlated with experimental observations. In this paper, the authors present a combined experimental and numerical study on the details of flow and surface reactions in alumina ALD using trimethylaluminum and water as precursors. Results obtained from experiments and simulations are compared and correlated. By experiments, growth rate on five samples under different deposition conditions is characterized. The deposition rate from numerical simulation agrees well with the experimental results. Details of precursor distributions in a full cycle of ALD are studied numerically to bridge between experimental observations and simulations. The 3D transient numerical model adopts surface reaction kinetics and mechanisms based on atomic-level studies to investigate the surface deposition process. Surface deposition is shown as a strictly self-limited process in our numerical studies. ALD is a complex strong-coupled fluid, thermal and chemical process, which is not only heavily dependent on the chemical kinetics and surface conditions but also on the flow and material distributions.

  6. Method for fabricating cermets of alumina-chromium systems. [Patent application

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Morgan, C.S.

    1981-10-05

    Cermet insulators resistant to thermal and mechanical shock are prepared from alumina-chromium systems in the following way: by providing an Al/sub 2/O/sub 3/ material of about 0.5 to 7.0 micron size with a solid-hydrocarbon overcoating by slurrying an effective amount of said solid hydrocarbon in a solvent mixture containing said Al/sub 2/O/sub 3/ and thereafter evaporating said solvent, contacting said coated Al/sub 2/O/sub 3/ with a solution of chromium precursor compound, heating the resulting mixture in a reducing environment to a temperature above the decomposition temperature of said chromium precursor compound but less than the melting temperature of the Al/sub 2/O/sub 3/ or chromium for sufficient duration to yield a particulate compound having chromium essentially dispersed throughout the Al/sub 2/O/sub 3/, and then densifying said particulate to provide said cermet characterized by a theoretical density in excess of 96% and having 0.1 to 10.0 vol. % elemental chromium metal present therein as a dispersed phase at the boundaries of the Al/sub 2/O/sub 3/ material. Cermet components prepared thereby are useful in high temperature equipment, advanced heat engines, and nuclear-related equipment applications where electrical or thermal insulators are required.

  7. Optical performance and durability of solar reflectors protected by an alumina coating

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Kennedy, C.E.; Smilgys, R.V.; Kirkpatrick, D.A.; Ross, J.S.

    1996-07-01

    Solar thermal electric power systems use large solar reflectors to concentrate sunlight to generate electricity. The economic viability of these systems depends on developing a durable, low-cost reflector. The goals for such a reflector are specular reflectance above 90% for at least 10 years under outdoor service conditions and a large-volume manufacturing cost of less than $10.8/m{sup 2} ($1.00/ft{sup 2}). Currently, the best candidate materials for solar reflectors are silver-coated, low-iron glass and silvered polymer films. Polymer reflectors are lighter in weight, offer greater system design flexibility, and have the potential for lower cost than glass reflectors. A promising low-cost reflector consists of a silvered polymer protected by an optically transparent alumina coating. The coating is deposited by an ion-beam-assisted physical vapor deposition (IBAD) technique. Samples of this reflector have maintained high optical performance in accelerated testing at the National Renewable Energy Laboratory for more than 3000 hours. Solar reflectors produced using this technique may represent an opportunity to bring solar power generation to reality.

  8. Rheology and microstructure of concentrated zirconia-alumina suspensions for gelcasting composites

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Bleier, A.; Omatete, O.O.

    1992-12-31

    The relations among colloidal stability, suspension rheology, and solids loading are elucidated for zirconia-alumina mixtures containing 20 volt ZrO{sub 2}, based on solids. The lower colloidal stability of ZrO{sub 2} limits the rheological properties of this system. If the zeta potential of ZrO{sub 2} is less than 49 mV, high degrees of pseudoplasticity, high yield stress, high viscosity, and long relaxation times characterize the binary suspensions. These effects occur, despite the fact that ZrO{sub 2} is the minor ceramic constituent. If the zeta potential of ZrO{sub 2} is maintained above 49 mV, suspensions with high solids loading (55 vol%) can be prepared which behave as Newtonian fluids over the 0-to-200 s-1 shear rate range and as an elastic solid at higher rates. As the solids loading of a highly stable binary suspension is increased, the rheological properties change. They evolve from those of a near Newtonian-like fluid with nearly independent particles (40 vol%) to those of a pseudoplastic fluid with a weakly interacting particle network (50 vol%) to those of an elastic-like solid composed of crowded, strongly repulsive particles (55 vol%). Low-shear conditions for suspension-transport and mold-filling operations that ensure a homogeneous arrangement of ZrO{sub 2} and Al{sub 2}O{sub 3} particles in a gelcast ceramic seem promising.

  9. Energy Efficiency Improvement Opportunities for the Cement Industry

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Price, Lynn; Worrell, Ernst; Galitsky, Christina; Price, Lynn

    2008-01-31

    This report provides information on the energy savings, costs, and carbon dioxide emissions reductions associated with implementation of a number of technologies and measures applicable to the cement industry. The technologies and measures include both state-of-the-art measures that are currently in use in cement enterprises worldwide as well as advanced measures that are either only in limited use or are near commercialization. This report focuses mainly on retrofit measures using commercially available technologies, but many of these technologies are applicable for new plants as well. Where possible, for each technology or measure, costs and energy savings per tonne of cement produced are estimated and then carbon dioxide emissions reductions are calculated based on the fuels used at the process step to which the technology or measure is applied. The analysis of cement kiln energy-efficiency opportunities is divided into technologies and measures that are applicable to the different stages of production and various kiln types used in China: raw materials (and fuel) preparation; clinker making (applicable to all kilns, rotary kilns only, vertical shaft kilns only); and finish grinding; as well as plant wide measures and product and feedstock changes that will reduce energy consumption for clinker making. Table 1 lists all measures in this report by process to which they apply, including plant wide measures and product or feedstock changes. Tables 2 through 8 provide the following information for each technology: fuel and electricity savings per tonne of cement; annual operating and capital costs per tonne of cement or estimated payback period; and, carbon dioxide emissions reductions for each measure applied to the production of cement. This information was originally collected for a report on the U.S. cement industry (Worrell and Galitsky, 2004) and a report on opportunities for China's cement kilns (Price and Galitsky, in press). The information provided in this report is based on publicly-available reports, journal articles, and case studies from applications of technologies around the world.

  10. High efficiency shale oil recovery. Fourth quarterly report, October 1, 1992--December 31, 1992

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Adams, D.C.

    1992-12-31

    The overall project objective is to demonstrate the high efficiency of the Adams Counter-Current shale oil recovery process. The efficiency will first be demonstrated on a small scale, in the current phase, after which the demonstration will be extended to the operation of a small pilot plant. Thus the immediate project objective is to obtain data on oil shale retorting operations in a small batch rotary kiln that will be representative of operations in the proposed continuous process pilot plant. Although an oil shale batch sample is sealed in the batch kiln from the start until the end of the run, the process conditions for the batch are the same as the conditions that an element of oil shale would encounter in a continuous process kiln. Similar chemical and physical (heating, mixing) conditions exist in both systems. The two most important data objectives in this phase of the project are to demonstrate (1) that the heat recovery projected for this project is reasonable and (2) that an oil shale kiln will run well and not plug up due to sticking and agglomeration. The following was completed and is reported on this quarter: (1) A software routine was written to eliminate intermittently inaccurate temperature readings. (2) We completed the quartz sand calibration runs, resolving calibration questions from the 3rd quarter. (3) We also made low temperature retorting runs to identify the need for certain kiln modifications and kiln modifications were completed. (4) Heat Conductance data on two Pyrolysis runs were completed on two samples of Occidental oil shale.

  11. High efficiency shale oil recovery

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Adams, D.C.

    1992-01-01

    The overall project objective is to demonstrate the high efficiency of the Adams Counter-Current shale oil recovery process. The efficiency will first be demonstrated on a small scale, in the current phase, after which the demonstration will be extended to the operation of a small pilot plant. Thus the immediate project objective is to obtain data on oil shale retorting operations in a small batch rotary kiln that will be representative of operations in the proposed continuous process pilot plant. Although an oil shale batch sample is sealed in the batch kiln from the start until the end of the run, the process conditions for the batch are the same as the conditions that an element of oil shale would encounter in a continuous process kiln. Similar chemical and physical (heating, mixing) conditions exist in both systems. The two most important data objectives in this phase of the project are to demonstrate (1) that the heat recovery projected for this project is reasonable and (2) that an oil shale kiln will run well and not plug up due to sticking and agglomeration. The following was completed and is reported on this quarter: (1) A software routine was written to eliminate intermittently inaccurate temperature readings. (2) We completed the quartz sand calibration runs, resolving calibration questions from the 3rd quarter. (3) We also made low temperature retorting runs to identify the need for certain kiln modifications and kiln modifications were completed. (4) Heat Conductance data on two Pyrolysis runs were completed on two samples of Occidental oil shale.

  12. Manufacture of Alumina-Forming Austenitic Steel Alloys by Conventional Casting and Hot-Working Methods

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Brady, M.P.; Yamamoto, Y.; Magee, J.H.

    2009-03-10

    Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL) and Carpenter Technology Corporation (CarTech) participated in an in-kind cost share cooperative research and development agreement (CRADA) effort under the auspices of the Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Technology Maturation Program to explore the feasibility for scale up of developmental ORNL alumina-forming austenitic (AFA) stainless steels by conventional casting and rolling techniques. CarTech successfully vacuum melted 301b heats of four AFA alloy compositions in the range of Fe-(20-25)Ni-(12-14)Cr-(3-4)Al-(l-2.5)Nb wt.% base. Conventional hot/cold rolling was used to produce 0.5-inch thick plate and 0.1-inch thick sheet product. ORNL subsequently successfully rolled the 0.1-inch sheet to 4 mil thick foil. Long-term oxidation studies of the plate form material were initiated at 650, 700, and 800 C in air with 10 volume percent water vapor. Preliminary results indicated that the alloys exhibit comparable (good) oxidation resistance to ORNL laboratory scale AFA alloy arc casting previously evaluated. The sheet and foil material will be used in ongoing evaluation efforts for oxidation and creep resistance under related CRADAs with two gas turbine engine manufacturers. This work will be directed to evaluation of AFA alloys for use in gas turbine recuperators to permit higher-temperature operating conditions for improved efficiencies and reduced environmental emissions. AFA alloy properties to date have been obtained from small laboratory scale arc-castings made at ORNL. The goal of the ORNL-CarTech CRADA was to establish the viability for producing plate, sheet and foil of the AFA alloys by conventional casting and hot working approaches as a first step towards scale up and commercialization of the AFA alloys. The AFA alloy produced under this effort will then be evaluated in related CRADAs with two gas turbine engine manufacturers for gas turbine recuperator applications.

  13. Density dependence of the room temperature thermal conductivity of atomic layer deposition-grown amorphous alumina (Al{sub 2}O{sub 3})

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Gorham, Caroline S.; Gaskins, John T.; Hopkins, Patrick E.; Parsons, Gregory N.; Losego, Mark D.

    2014-06-23

    We report on the thermal conductivity of atomic layer deposition-grown amorphous alumina thin films as a function of atomic density. Using time domain thermoreflectance, we measure the thermal conductivity of the thin alumina films at room temperature. The thermal conductivities vary ?35% for a nearly 15% change in atomic density and are substrate independent. No density dependence of the longitudinal sound speeds is observed with picosecond acoustics. The density dependence of the thermal conductivity agrees well with a minimum limit to thermal conductivity model that is modified with a differential effective-medium approximation.

  14. Deformation Behavior of Sub-micron and Micron Sized Alumina Particles in Compression.

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Sarobol, Pylin; Chandross, Michael E.; Carroll, Jay; Mook, William; Boyce, Brad; Kotula, Paul G.; McKenzie, Bonnie B.; Bufford, Daniel Charles; Hall, Aaron Christopher.

    2014-09-01

    The ability to integrate ceramics with other materials has been limited due to high temperature (>800degC) ceramic processing. Recently, researchers demonstrated a novel process , aerosol deposition (AD), to fabricate ceramic films at room temperature (RT). In this process, sub - micro n sized ceramic particles are accelerated by pressurized gas, impacted on the substrate, plastically deformed, and form a dense film under vacuum. This AD process eliminates high temperature processing thereby enabling new coatings and device integration, in which ceramics can be deposited on metals, plastics, and glass. However, k nowledge in fundamental mechanisms for ceramic particle s to deform and form a dense ceramic film is still needed and is essential in advancing this novel RT technology. In this wo rk, a combination of experimentation and atomistic simulation was used to determine the deformation behavior of sub - micron sized ceramic particle s ; this is the first fundamental step needed to explain coating formation in the AD process . High purity, singl e crystal, alpha alumina particles with nominal size s of 0.3 um and 3.0 um were examined. Particle characterization, using transmission electron microscopy (TEM ), showed that the 0.3 u m particles were relatively defect - free single crystals whereas 3.0 u m p articles were highly defective single crystals or particles contained low angle grain boundaries. Sub - micron sized Al 2 O 3 particles exhibited ductile failure in compression. In situ compression experiments showed 0.3um particles deformed plastically, fractured, and became polycrystalline. Moreover, dislocation activit y was observed within the se particles during compression . These sub - micron sized Al 2 O 3 particles exhibited large accum ulated strain (2 - 3 times those of micron - sized particles) before first fracture. I n agreement with the findings from experimentation , a tomistic simulation s of nano - Al 2 O 3 particles showed dislocation slip and significant plastic deformation during compressi on . On the other hand, the micron sized Al 2 O 3 particles exhibited brittle f racture in compression. In situ compression experiments showed 3um Al 2 O 3 particles fractured into pieces without observable plastic deformation in compression. Particle deformation behaviors will be used to inform Al 2 O 3 coating deposition parameters and particle - particle bonding in the consolidated Al 2 O 3 coatings.

  15. Room temperature deformation mechanisms of alumina particles observed from in situ micro-compression and atomistic simulations.

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Sarobol, Pylin; Chandross, Michael E.; Carroll, Jay D.; Mook, William M.; Bufford, Daniel Charles; Boyce, Brad L.; Hattar, Khalid Mikhiel; Kotula, Paul G.; Hall, Aaron Christopher

    2015-09-22

    Aerosol deposition (AD) is a solid-state deposition technology that has been developed to fabricate ceramic coatings nominally at room temperature. Sub-micron ceramic particles accelerated by pressurized gas impact, deform, and consolidate on substrates under vacuum. Ceramic particle consolidation in AD coatings is highly dependent on particle deformation and bonding; these behaviors are not well understood. In this work, atomistic simulations and in situ micro-compressions in the scanning electron microscope, and the transmission electron microscope (TEM) were utilized to investigate fundamental mechanisms responsible for plastic deformation/fracture of particles under applied compression. Results showed that highly defective micron-sized alumina particles, initially containing numerous dislocations or a grain boundary, exhibited no observable shape change before fracture/fragmentation. Simulations and experimental results indicated that particles containing a grain boundary only accommodate low strain energy per unit volume before crack nucleation and propagation. In contrast, nearly defect-free, sub-micron, single crystal alumina particles exhibited plastic deformation and fracture without fragmentation. Dislocation nucleation/motion, significant plastic deformation, and shape change were observed. Simulation and TEM in situ micro-compression results indicated that nearly defect-free particles accommodate high strain energy per unit volume associated with dislocation plasticity before fracture. As a result, the identified deformation mechanisms provide insight into feedstock design for AD.

  16. Selective catalytic reduction of nitric oxide with ethanol/gasoline blends over a silver/alumina catalyst

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Pihl, Josh A; Toops, Todd J; Fisher, Galen; West, Brian H

    2014-01-01

    Lean gasoline engines running on ethanol/gasoline blends and equipped with a silver/alumina catalyst for selective catalytic reduction (SCR) of NO by ethanol provide a pathway to reduced petroleum consumption through both increased biofuel utilization and improved engine efficiency relative to the current stoichiometric gasoline engines that dominate the U.S. light duty vehicle fleet. A pre-commercial silver/alumina catalyst demonstrated high NOx conversions over a moderate temperature window with both neat ethanol and ethanol/gasoline blends containing at least 50% ethanol. Selectivity to NH3 increases with HC dosing and ethanol content in gasoline blends, but appears to saturate at around 45%. NO2 and acetaldehyde behave like intermediates in the ethanol SCR of NO. NH3 SCR of NOx does not appear to play a major role in the ethanol SCR reaction mechanism. Ethanol is responsible for the low temperature SCR activity observed with the ethanol/gasoline blends. The gasoline HCs do not deactivate the catalyst ethanol SCR activity, but they also do not appear to be significantly activated by the presence of ethanol.

  17. Direct visualization of the hydration layer on alumina nanoparticles with the fluid cell STEM in situ

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Firlar, Emre; ?nar, Simge; Kashyap, Sanjay; Akinc, Mufit; Prozorov, Tanya

    2015-05-21

    Rheological behavior of aqueous suspensions containing nanometer-sized powders is of relevance to many branches of industry. Unusually high viscosities observed for suspensions of nanoparticles compared to those of micron size powders cannot be explained by current viscosity models. Formation of so-called hydration layer on alumina nanoparticles in water was hypothesized, but never observed experimentally. We report here on the direct visualization of aqueous suspensions of alumina with the fluid cell in situ. We observe the hydration layer formed over the particle aggregates and show that such hydrated aggregates constitute new particle assemblies and affect the flow behavior of the suspensions. We discuss how these hydrated nanoclusters alter the effective solid content and the viscosity of nanostructured suspensions. As a result, our findings elucidate the source of high viscosity observed for nanoparticle suspensions and are of direct relevance to many industrial sectors including materials, food, cosmetics, pharmaceutical among others employing colloidal slurries with nanometer-scale particles.

  18. Room temperature deformation mechanisms of alumina particles observed from in situ micro-compression and atomistic simulations.

    DOE Public Access Gateway for Energy & Science Beta (PAGES Beta)

    Sarobol, Pylin; Chandross, Michael E.; Carroll, Jay D.; Mook, William M.; Bufford, Daniel Charles; Boyce, Brad L.; Hattar, Khalid Mikhiel; Kotula, Paul G.; Hall, Aaron Christopher

    2015-09-22

    Aerosol deposition (AD) is a solid-state deposition technology that has been developed to fabricate ceramic coatings nominally at room temperature. Sub-micron ceramic particles accelerated by pressurized gas impact, deform, and consolidate on substrates under vacuum. Ceramic particle consolidation in AD coatings is highly dependent on particle deformation and bonding; these behaviors are not well understood. In this work, atomistic simulations and in situ micro-compressions in the scanning electron microscope, and the transmission electron microscope (TEM) were utilized to investigate fundamental mechanisms responsible for plastic deformation/fracture of particles under applied compression. Results showed that highly defective micron-sized alumina particles, initially containingmore » numerous dislocations or a grain boundary, exhibited no observable shape change before fracture/fragmentation. Simulations and experimental results indicated that particles containing a grain boundary only accommodate low strain energy per unit volume before crack nucleation and propagation. In contrast, nearly defect-free, sub-micron, single crystal alumina particles exhibited plastic deformation and fracture without fragmentation. Dislocation nucleation/motion, significant plastic deformation, and shape change were observed. Simulation and TEM in situ micro-compression results indicated that nearly defect-free particles accommodate high strain energy per unit volume associated with dislocation plasticity before fracture. As a result, the identified deformation mechanisms provide insight into feedstock design for AD.« less

  19. Obtaining aluminas from the thermal decomposition of their different precursors: An {sup 27}Al MAS NMR and X-ray powder diffraction studies

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Chagas, L.H.; De Carvalho, G.S.G.; San Gil, R.A.S.; Chiaro, S.S.X.; Leito, A.A.; Diniz, R.

    2014-01-01

    Graphical abstract: - Highlights: We synthesized three precursors of alumina from different methods. The calcination of the precursors generated several alumina polymorphs. XRD and NMR were used for structural investigation of the polymorphs. The synthesis route determines the structural and textural properties of the solids. - Abstract: A commercial sample of Boehmite was used as precursor of alumina polymorphs. For comparison, three other precursors were synthesized from different methods. Particularly, the use of excess of urea promoted a very crystalline form of basic aluminum carbonate. The characteristics of the four precursors were investigated by thermal, vibrational and X-ray powder diffraction (XRD) analysis. Additionally, the nuclear magnetic resonance, with magic angle spinning ({sup 27}Al MAS NMR), was used to verify the coordination of aluminum cations. Each precursor was calcined at various temperatures generating alumina polymorphs, which were structurally analyzed by XRD and {sup 27}Al MAS NMR. Due to interest in catalysis supports, special attention was given to the ?-Al{sub 2}O{sub 3} phase, which in addition to structural investigation was subjected to textural analysis. The results showed that, from different synthesis procedures and common route of calcination, one can obtain materials with the same composition but with different structural and textural properties, which in turn can significantly influence the performance of a supported catalyst.

  20. Formation of calcium aluminates in the lime sinter process. [Extraction of alumina from fly ash

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Chou, K.S.

    1980-03-01

    A study of the formation of several calcium aluminates from pure components in the lime sinter process was undertaken to determine the kinetics of formation and subsequent leaching using a dilute sodium carbonate solution. The composition CaO 61.98%, SiO/sub 2/ 26.67%, and Al/sub 2/O/sub 3/ 11.53% was used. Isothermal sintering runs of 0.2 to 10.0 h were carried out at 1200, 1250, 1300, and 1350/sup 0/C. When the sintering temperature was below the eutectic temperature (1335/sup 0/C), the ternary mixture behaved like two binary systems, i.e. CaO-Al/sub 2/O/sub 3/ and CaO-SiO/sub 2/. Only one compound, 3CaO.SiO/sub 2/, was formed between CaO and SiO/sub 2/. With lower sintering temperature and shorter sintering time, the ..beta..-phase was dominant. However, when both temperature and time increased, more and more of the ..beta..-C/sub 2/S was transformed into the ..gamma..-phase. Several different aluminates were formed during the sintering of CaO and Al/sub 2/O/sub 3/. The compounds CaO.Al/sub 2/O/sub 3/ and 3CaO.Al/sub 2/O/sub 3/ were observed at all tested sintering temperatures, while the 5CaO.3Al/sub 2/O/sub 3/ phase was found only at 1200/sup 0/C and 12CaO.7Al/sub 2/O/sub 3/ at 1250/sup 0/C or higher. The first compound formed between CaO and Al/sub 2/O/sub 3/ was probably 12CaO.7Al/sub 2/O/sub 3/, but the amount did not increase immediately with time. The first dominant compound between CaO and Al/sub 2/O/sub 3/ was CaO.3Al/sub 2/O/sub 3/. When the calcium ion diffused through the product layer of CaO.Al/sub 2/O/sub 3/, 3CaO.Al/sub 2/O/sub 3/ was formed. If unreacted Al/sub 2/O/sub 3/ were present after the formation of CaO.Al/sub 2/O/sub 3/, CaO.2Al/sub 2/O/sub 3/ would form. Subsequent leaching of the sinters showed that the extractable alumina in the products increased with both sintering temperature and time, reaching a max of about 90%. These extraction data corresponded very well to the quantities of aluminates in the sinters. 59 figures, 13 tables.

  1. Development of value-added products from alumina industry mineral wastes using low-temperature-setting phosphate ceramics

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Wagh, A.S.; Jeong, Seung-Young; Singh, D.

    1996-01-01

    A room-temperature process for stabilizing mineral waste streams has been developed, based on acid-base reaction between MgO and H3PO4 or acid phosphate solution. The resulting waste form sets into a hard ceramic in a few hours. In this way, various alumina industry wastes, such as red mud and treated potliner waste, can be solidified into ceramics which can be used as structural materials in waste management and construction industry. Red mud ceramics made by this process were low-porosity materials ({approx}2 vol%) with a compression strength equal to portland cement concrete (4944 psi). Bonding mechanism appears to be result of reactions of boehmite, goethite, and bayerite with the acid solution, and also encapsulation of red mud particles in Mg phosphate matrix. Possible applications include liners for ponds and thickned tailings disposal, dikes for waste ponds, and grouts. Compatability problems arising at the interface of the liner and the waste are avoided.

  2. Effect of palladium dispersion on the capture of toxic components from fuel gas by palladium-alumina sorbents

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Baltrus, John P.; Granite, Evan J.; Rupp, Erik C.; Stanko, Dennis C.; Howard, Bret; Pennline, Henry W.

    2011-05-01

    The dispersion and location of Pd in alumina-supported sorbents prepared by different methods was found to influence the performance of the sorbents in the removal of mercury, arsine, and hydrogen selenide from a simulated fuel gas. When Pd is well dispersed in the pores of the support, contact interaction with the support is maximized, Pd is less susceptible to poisoning by sulfur, and the sorbent has better long-term activity for adsorption of arsine and hydrogen selenide, but poorer adsorption capacity for Hg. As the contact interaction between Pd and the support is lessened the Pd becomes more susceptible to poisoning by sulfur, resulting in higher capacity for Hg, but poorer long-term performance for adsorption of arsenic and selenium.

  3. Effect of palladium dispersion on the capture of toxic components from fuel gas by palladium-alumina sorbents

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Baltrus, J.P.; Granite, E.J.; Rupp, E.C.; Stanko, D.C.; Howard, B.; Pennline, H.W.

    2011-01-01

    The dispersion and location of Pd in alumina-supported sorbents prepared by different methods was found to influence the performance of the sorbents in the removal of mercury, arsine, and hydrogen selenide from a simulated fuel gas. When Pd is well dispersed in the pores of the support, contact interaction with the support is maximized, Pd is less susceptible to poisoning by sulfur. and the sorbent has better long-term activity for adsorption of arsine and hydrogen selenide. but poorer adsorption capacity for Hg. As the contact interaction between Pd and the support is lessened the Pd becomes more susceptible to poisoning by sulfur. resulting in higher capacity for Hg, but poorer long-term performance for adsorption of arsenic and selenium.

  4. Integrated thermal treatment system study: Phase 1 results. Appendix B, Flow sheets and material balances: Volume 2

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Feizollahi, F.; Quapp, W.J.; Hempill, H.G.; Groffie, F.J.

    1994-07-01

    This document accompanies a full report which describes the testing and evaluation of ten different methods for incinerating mixed low-level radioactive wastes. It consists of flowsheets and diagrams of a rotary kiln, pyrolysis methods, a plasma furnace, a fixed hearth, and thermal desorption methods.

  5. CX-004383: Categorical Exclusion Determination

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    Pine Hall Brick Company Energy Efficiency Improvements for Lighting, Kiln and Heating, Ventilation, and Air Conditioning SystemsCX(s) Applied: B5.1Date: 11/02/2010Location(s): North CarolinaOffice(s): Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy, National Energy Technology Laboratory

  6. The extraction of bitumen from western oil sands. Final report, July 1989--September 1993

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Oblad, A.G.; Bunger, J.W.; Dahlstrom, D.A.; Deo, M.D.; Fletcher, J.V.; Hanson, F.V.; Miller, J.D.; Seader, J.D.

    1994-03-01

    Research and development of surface extraction and upgrading processes of western tar sands are described. Research areas included modified hot water, fluidized bed, and rotary kiln pyrolysis of tar sands for extraction of bitumen. Bitumen upgrading included solvent extraction of bitumen, and catalytic hydrotreating of bitumen. Characterization of Utah tar sand deposits is also included.

  7. Pyrolysis of waste tyres: A review

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Williams, Paul T.

    2013-08-15

    Graphical abstract: - Highlights: Pyrolysis of waste tyres produces oil, gas and char, and recovered steel. Batch, screw kiln, rotary kiln, vacuum and fluidised-bed are main reactor types. Product yields are influenced by reactor type, temperature and heating rate. Pyrolysis oils are complex and can be used as chemical feedstock or fuel. Research into higher value products from the tyre pyrolysis process is reviewed. - Abstract: Approximately 1.5 billion tyres are produced each year which will eventually enter the waste stream representing a major potential waste and environmental problem. However, there is growing interest in pyrolysis as a technology to treat tyres to produce valuable oil, char and gas products. The most common reactors used are fixed-bed (batch), screw kiln, rotary kiln, vacuum and fluidised-bed. The key influence on the product yield, and gas and oil composition, is the type of reactor used which in turn determines the temperature and heating rate. Tyre pyrolysis oil is chemically very complex containing aliphatic, aromatic, hetero-atom and polar fractions. The fuel characteristics of the tyre oil shows that it is similar to a gas oil or light fuel oil and has been successfully combusted in test furnaces and engines. The main gases produced from the pyrolysis of waste tyres are H{sub 2}, C{sub 1}C{sub 4} hydrocarbons, CO{sub 2}, CO and H{sub 2}S. Upgrading tyre pyrolysis products to high value products has concentrated on char upgrading to higher quality carbon black and to activated carbon. The use of catalysts to upgrade the oil to a aromatic-rich chemical feedstock or the production of hydrogen from waste tyres has also been reported. Examples of commercial and semi-commercial scale tyre pyrolysis systems show that small scale batch reactors and continuous rotary kiln reactors have been developed to commercial scale.

  8. Application of non-porous alumina based ceramics as structural material for devices handling tritium at elevated temperatures

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Yukhimchuk, A.A.; Maksimkin, I.P.; Baluev, V.V.; Boitsov, I.E.; Vertey, A.V.; Malkov, I.L.; Musyaev, R.K.; Popov, V.V.; Sitdikov, D.T.; Khapov, A.S.; Grishechkin, S.K.; Kiselev, V.G.

    2015-03-15

    The article presents results of comparative tests for the determination of deuterium fluxes permeating through walls of austenitic stainless steel AISI304 (DIN 1.4301) chamber and Al{sub 2}O{sub 3} based ceramic F99.7 chamber. Both chambers represent a piece of φ(ext)=26*φ(int)=22*117 mm{sup 3} tube with spherical bottom ending. It is shown that at 773 K and deuterium pressure of 1200 mbar the permeated deuterium flux through the stainless steel chamber constituted 8*10{sup -5} cm{sup 3}/s, while the flux through ceramic one it did not exceed the sensitivity of the measurement method threshold, namely about 1.5*10{sup -7} cm{sup 3}/s. The ceramic chamber turned out to survive more than 10{sup 3} cycles of heating up to 773 K with no damages. It did not lose its tightness up to 10 bar of internal deuterium pressure. The authors also present test results of a prototype bed for reversible tritium storage. The bed's case was made of alumina based ceramic F99.7, titanium being used as tritide making metal and high frequency induction used for heating the tritide metal. (authors)

  9. Liquid-Metal Electrode to Enable Ultra-Low Temperature Sodium-Beta Alumina Batteries for Renewable Energy Storage

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Lu, Xiaochuan; Li, Guosheng; Kim, Jin Yong; Mei, Donghai; Lemmon, John P.; Sprenkle, Vincent L.; Liu, Jun

    2014-08-01

    Metal electrodes have a high capacity for energy storage but have found limited applications in batteries because of dendrite formation and other problems. In this paper, we report a new alloying strategy that can significantly reduce the melting temperature and improve wetting with the electrolyte to allow the use of liquid metal as anode in sodium-beta alumina batteries (NBBs) at much lower temperatures (e.g., 95 to 175C). Commercial NBBs such as sodium-sulfur (Na-S) battery and sodium-metal halide (ZEBRA) batteries typically operate at relatively high temperatures (e.g., 300-350C) due to poor wettability of sodium on the surface of ?"-Al2O3. Our combined experimental and computational studies suggest that Na-Cs alloy can replace pure sodium as the anode material, which provides a significant improvement in wettability, particularly at lower temperatures (i.e., <200C). Single cells with the Na-Cs alloy anode exhibit excellent cycling life over those with pure sodium anode at 175 and 150C. The cells can even operate at 95C, which is below the melting temperature of pure sodium. These results demonstrate that NBB can be operated at ultra lower temperatures with successfully solving the wetting issue. This work also suggests a new strategy to use liquid metal as the electrode materials for advanced batteries that can avoid the intrinsic safety issues associated with dendrite formation on the anode.

  10. Manufacture of Alumina-Forming Austenitic Stainless Steel Alloys by Conventional Casting and Hot-Working Methods

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Brady, M.P.; Yamamoto, Y.; Magee, J.H. (Carpenter Technol. Corp.)

    2009-03-23

    Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL) and Carpenter Technology Corporation (CarTech) participated in an in-kind cost share cooperative research and development agreement (CRADA) effort under the auspices of the Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Technology Maturation program to explore the feasibility for scale up of developmental ORNL alumina-forming austenitic (AFA) stainless steels by conventional casting and rolling techniques. CarTech successfully vacuum melted 30lb heats of four AFA alloy compositions in the range of Fe-(20-25)Ni-(12-14)Cr-(3-4)Al-(1-2.5)Nb wt.% base. Conventional hot/cold rolling was used to produce 0.5-inch thick plate and 0.1-inch thick sheet product. ORNL subsequently successfully rolled the 0.1-inch sheet to 4 mil thick foil. Long-term oxidation studies of the plate form material were initiated at 650, 700, and 800 C in air with 10 volume percent water vapor. Preliminary results indicated that the alloys exhibit comparable (good) oxidation resistance to ORNL laboratory scale AFA alloy arc casting previously evaluated. The sheet and foil material will be used in ongoing evaluation efforts for oxidation and creep resistance under related CRADAs with two gas turbine engine manufacturers. This work will be directed to evaluation of AFA alloys for use in gas turbine recuperators to permit higher-temperature operating conditions for improved efficiencies and reduced environmental emissions.

  11. Ceramic Technology Project database: September 1990 summary report. [SiC, SiN, whisker-reinforced SiN, ZrO-toughened aluminas, zirconias, joints

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Keyes, B.L.P.

    1992-06-01

    Data generated within the Ceramic Technology Project (CTP) represent a valuable resource for both research and industry. The CTP database was created to provide easy access to this information in electronic and hardcopy forms by using a computerized database and by issuing periodic hardcopy reports on the database contents. This report is the sixth in a series of semiannual database summaries and covers recent additions to the database, including joined brazed specimen test data. It covers 1 SiC, 34 SiN, 10 whisker-reinforced SiN, 2 zirconia-toughened aluminas, 8 zirconias, and 34 joints.

  12. Method and system for the combination of non-thermal plasma and metal/metal oxide doped .gamma.-alumina catalysts for diesel engine exhaust aftertreatment system

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Aardahl, Christopher L. (Richland, WA); Balmer-Miller, Mari Lou (West Richland, WA); Chanda, Ashok (Peoria, IL); Habeger, Craig F. (West Richland, WA); Koshkarian, Kent A. (Peoria, IL); Park, Paul W. (Peoria, IL)

    2006-07-25

    The present disclosure pertains to a system and method for treatment of oxygen rich exhaust and more specifically to a method and system that combines non-thermal plasma with a metal doped .gamma.-alumina catalyst. Current catalyst systems for the treatment of oxygen rich exhaust are capable of achieving only approximately 7 to 12% NO.sub.x reduction as a passive system and only 25 40% reduction when a supplemental hydrocarbon reductant is injected into the exhaust stream. It has been found that treatment of an oxygen rich exhaust initially with a non-thermal plasma and followed by subsequent treatment with a metal doped .gamma.-alumina prepared by the sol gel method is capable of increasing the NO.sub.x reduction to a level of approximately 90% in the absence of SO.sub.2 and 80% in the presence of 20 ppm of SO.sub.2. Especially useful metals have been found to be indium, gallium, and tin.

  13. Temperature dependent dielectric function in the near-infrared to vacuum-ultraviolet ultraviolet spectral range of alumina and yttria stabilized zirconia thin films

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Schmidt-Grund, R. Lhmann, T.; Bntgen, T.; Franke, H.; Lorenz, M.; Grundmann, M.; Opper, D.

    2013-12-14

    The dielectric function of nano-/polycrystalline alumina and yttria stabilised zirconia thin films has been investigated in a wide spectral range from 1.0?eV to 7.5?eV and temperatures between 10?K and room temperature. In the near band-edge spectral range, we found a broad distribution of optical transitions within the band gap, the so-called Urbach absorption tail which is typical for amorphous or polycrystalline materials due to the lack of long range order in the crystal structure. The coupling properties of the electronic system to the optical phonon bath and thermal lattice vibrations strongly depend on the ratio of the spectral extent of these disorder states to the main phonon energy, which we correlate with the different crystalline structure of our samples. The films have been grown at room temperature and 650?C by pulsed laser deposition.

  14. A comparison of normal and worst case cement plant emissions

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Woodford, J.; Gossman, D.; Johnson, N.

    1996-12-31

    Lone Star Industries, Inc. in Cape Girardeau, Missouri conducted a trial burn in October, 1995. Two metals emissions test days were conducted. One of the test days was a worst case metals spiking day and one of the test days was a normal emissions day. This paper examines and compares the emissions from these two test days. Much has been made of metals emissions from hazardous waste burning cement kilns, but for the most part, this has been due to the worst case metals emissions data that became available from the 1992 BIF compliance testing performed and reported by 24 cement plants. By comparison, very little data exists on normal cement kiln emissions. This paper provides one comparison.

  15. Largest Producer of Steel Products in the United States Achieves

    Broader source: Energy.gov (indexed) [DOE]

    Significant Energy Savings at its Minntac Plant | Department of Energy case study looks at the results of a DOE energy assessment at U.S. Steel's Minntac plant in Mt. Iron, Minnesota, to analyze the efficiency of the plant's process heating systems and determine energy savings opportunities. The assessment confirmed the energy savings from recently installed burners and determined the potential savings from retrofitting the kilns in the plant's other process lines with such burner systems.

  16. Solar-Powered Charging Systems to Help Hurricane Recovery Efforts - News

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Releases | NREL Solar-Powered Charging Systems to Help Hurricane Recovery Efforts September 23, 2005 Golden, Colo. - The U.S. Department of Energy's National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL), working in partnership with the Florida Solar Energy Center (FSEC), is providing solar electric charging stations to help residents of Kiln, Miss., recover from the devastation of Hurricane Katrina. The systems will provide much needed power to this town of about 2,000 people, located 13 miles north

  17. Assessment of Replicable Innovative Industrial Cogeneration Applications,

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    June 2001 | Department of Energy Replicable Innovative Industrial Cogeneration Applications, June 2001 Assessment of Replicable Innovative Industrial Cogeneration Applications, June 2001 U.S. industrial facilities utilize a wide array of thermal process equipment, including hot water heaters, thermal liquid heaters, ovens, furnaces, kilns, dryers, chillers, and boilers. This report provides a market assessment of innovative industrial distributed generation cogeneration systems that are less

  18. Assessment of incineration and melting treatment technologies for RWMC buried waste

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Geimer, R.; Hertzler, T.; Gillins, R.; Anderson, G.L.

    1992-02-01

    This report provides an identification, description, and ranking evaluation of the available thermal treatment technologies potentially capable of treating the Idaho National Engineering Laboratory Radioactive Waste Management Complex (RWMC) buried mixed waste. The ranking evaluation focused separately upon incinerators for treatment of combustible wastes and melters for noncombustible wastes. The highest rank incinerators are rotary kilns and controlled air furnaces, while the highest rank melters are the hearth configuration plasma torch, graphite electrode arc, and joule-heated melters. 4 refs.

  19. Puna Geothermal Research Facility technology transfer program. Final report, August 23, 1985--August 23, 1989

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Takahashi, P.

    1989-12-31

    The funds were used in a series of small grants to entrepreneurs demonstrating the direct use of geothermal heat supplied by Hawaii`s HGP-A well; this effort was known as the Community Geothermal Technology Program. Summaries are presented of the nine completed projects: fruit dehydration, greenhouse bottom heating, lumber kiln, glass making, cloth dyeing, aquaculture (incomplete), nursery growing media pasteurization, bronze casting, and electrodeposition from geothermal brine.

  20. EA-1769: Draft Environmental Assessment | Department of Energy

    Office of Environmental Management (EM)

    69: Draft Environmental Assessment EA-1769: Draft Environmental Assessment Battleground Energy Recovery Project Harris County, Texas The proposed project is consistent with DOE's goal of increased use of energy efficiency and renewable energy generation projects. The proposed project involves installation of a specifically designed waste heat recovery boiler on the existing kiln afterburner of an incineration unit at the CHDP facility. This boiler would use heat from the incinerator flue gases

  1. Development of an advanced continuous mild gasification process for the production of co-products. Quarterly report, January--March, 1996

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    O`Neal, G.W.

    1996-04-01

    Determination of the best furnace for a commercial coke plant is underway. A shuttle or tunnel kiln has economic advantage over a rotary hearth design. Production of 20 tons of coke in a small shuttle kiln is near completion which will provide experience for this design. Twenty tons of CTC continuous coke are being produced for testing at a General Motors` foundry. The production is approximately 75 percent complete. During this production, variables of the process are being studied to aid in design of a commercial coke plant. Raw material composition, blending, briquetting variables, and calcining heat profile are the major areas of interest. Western SynCoal Company produces a dried coal product from sub-bituminous coal. This upgraded product was evaluated for producing coke products by blending char from this coal product with the coal product along with suitable binders. The green briquettes were then calcined to produce coke. The resulting coke was judged to be usable as part of a cupola coke charge or as a fuel in cement kilns and sugar beet furnaces.

  2. Gas pollution control apparatus and method and wood drying system employing same

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Eatherton, J.R.

    1984-02-14

    Pollution control apparatus and method are disclosed in which hot exhaust gas containing pollutants including solid particles and hydrocarbon vapors is treated by transmitting such exhaust gas through a container containing wood members, such as wood chips, which serve as a filter media for filtering out such pollutants by causing such solids to deposit and such hydrocarbon vapors to condense upon the surface of the wood members. The contaminated wood chips are discharged from the filter and further processed into chip board or other commercial wood products thereby disposing of the pollutants. Lumber may be used as the wood members of the filter in a lumber kiln by deposition of solid particles on the rough surface of such lumber. The contaminated surfaces of the lumber are removed by a planer which produces a smooth finished lumber and contaminated wood chips that may be processed into chip board or other commercial wood products. A wood drying system employing such pollution control apparatus and method includes a hot air dryer for wood or other organic material, such as a wood chip rotary dryer or a wood veneer dryer, which produces hot exhaust gases containing pollutants including hydrocarbon vapors and solid particles. This hot exhaust air is transmitted through a lumber kiln to dry lumber thereby conserving heat energy and causing solid particle pollutants to deposit on the surface of the lumber. The kiln exhaust air containing solid and hydrocarbon vapor pollutants is then transmitted up through a filter stack of wood chips.

  3. NUCLEAR POWERED CO2 CAPTURE FROM THE ATMOSPHERE

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Sherman, S

    2008-09-22

    A process for capturing CO{sub 2} from the atmosphere was recently proposed. This process uses a closed cycle of sodium and calcium hydroxide, carbonate, and oxide transformations to capture dilute CO{sub 2} from the atmosphere and to generate a concentrated stream of CO{sub 2} that is amenable to sequestration or subsequent chemical transformations. In one of the process steps, a fossil-fueled lime kiln is needed, which reduces the net CO{sub 2} capture of the process. It is proposed to replace the fossil-fueled lime kiln with a modified kiln heated by a high-temperature nuclear reactor. This will have the effect of eliminating the use of fossil fuels for the process and increasing the net CO{sub 2} capture. Although the process is suitable to support sequestration, the use of a nuclear power source for the process provides additional capabilities, and the captured CO{sub 2} may be combined with nuclear-produced hydrogen to produce liquid fuels via Fischer-Tropsch synthesis or other technologies. Conceivably, such plants would be carbon-neutral, and could be placed virtually anywhere without being tied to fossil fuel sources or geological sequestration sites.

  4. Laser damage by ns and sub-ps pulses on hafnia/silica anti-reflection coatings on fused silica double-sided polished using zirconia or ceria and washed with or without an alumina wash step.

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Bellum, John Curtis; Rambo, Patrick K.; Schwarz, Jens; Kletecka, Damon; Atherton, Briggs W.; Kimmel, Mark W.; Smith, Ian Craig; Smith, Douglas; Hobbs, Zachary

    2010-10-01

    Sandia's Large Optics Coating Operation has extensive results of laser induced damage threshold (LIDT) testing of its anti-reflection (AR) and high reflection coatings on substrates pitch polished using ceria and washed in a process that includes an alumina wash step. The purpose of the alumina wash step is to remove residual polishing compound to minimize its role in laser damage. These LIDT tests are for multi longitudinal mode, ns class pulses at 1064 nm and 532 nm (NIF-MEL protocol) and mode locked, sub-ps class pulses at 1054 nm (Sandia measurements), and show reasonably high and adequate laser damage resistance for coatings in the beam trains of Sandia's Z-Backlighter terawatt and petawatt lasers. An AR coating in addition to coatings of our previous reports confirms this with LIDTs of 33.0 J/cm{sup 2} for 3.5 ns pulses and 1.8 J/cm{sup 2} for 350 fs pulses. In this paper, we investigate both ceria and zirconia in doublesided polishing (common for large flat Z-Backlighter laser optics) as they affect LIDTs of an AR coating on fused silica substrates washed with or without the alumina wash step. For these AR coated, double-sided polished surfaces, ceria polishing in general affords better resistance to laser damage than zirconia polishing and laser damage is less likely with the alumina wash step than without it. This is supported by specific results of laser damage tests with 3.5 ns, multi longitudinal mode, single shot pulses at 1064 nm and 532 nm, with 7.0 ns, single and multi longitudinal mode, single and multi shot pulses at 532 nm, and with 350 fs, mode-locked, single shot pulses at 1054 nm.

  5. Research and Development of a New Silica-Alumina Based Cementitious Material Largely Using Coal Refuse for Mine Backfill, Mine Sealing and Waste Disposal Stabilization

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Henghu Sun; Yuan Yao

    2012-06-29

    Coal refuse and coal combustion byproducts as industrial solid waste stockpiles have become great threats to the environment. To activate coal refuse is one practical solution to recycle this huge amount of solid waste as substitute for Ordinary Portland Cement (OPC). The central goal of this project is to investigate and develop a new silica-alumina based cementitious material largely using coal refuse as a constituent that will be ideal for durable construction, mine backfill, mine sealing and waste disposal stabilization applications. This new material is an environment-friendly alternative to Ordinary Portland Cement. The main constituents of the new material are coal refuse and other coal wastes including coal sludge and coal combustion products (CCPs). Compared with conventional cement production, successful development of this new technology could potentially save energy and reduce greenhouse gas emissions, recycle vast amount of coal wastes, and significantly reduce production cost. A systematic research has been conducted to seek for an optimal solution for enhancing pozzolanic reactivity of the relatively inert solid waste-coal refuse in order to improve the utilization efficiency and economic benefit as a construction and building material.

  6. Initial activity of reduced chromia/alumina catalyst in n-butane dehydrogenation monitored by on-line FT-IR gas analysis

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Hakuli, A.; Kytoekivi, A.; Suntola, T.

    1996-06-01

    The initial activity of chromia/alumina catalyst (13 wt% Cr) in n-butane dehydrogenation was studied in a flow reactor at 853 K. The initial activity was determined by on-line FT-IR gas analysis, which enabled sampling of the gaseous product mixture at a time resolution of seconds. The catalysts were processed in repeated cycles of oxidation, reduction, and dehydrogenation using n-butane, methane, hydrogen, or carbon monoxide as reducing agents. With n-butane, methane, and hydrogen and dehydrogenation activity was associated with Cr{sup 3+} species apparently formed in the reduction of high-valence Cr species. The catalyst reduced with carbon monoxide at 853 K showed poor initial selectivity for butenes and, relative to the other catalysts. Simultaneous data relating the initial activity, coke content, and some of the physicochemical properties of the catalyst indicated that the surfaces of all catalysts were modified to some extent by the successive reaction cycles. 33 refs., 7 figs., 2 tabs.

  7. The effect of rhenium, sulfur and alumina on the conversion of hydrocarbons over platinum single crystals: Surface science and catalytic studies

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Kim, C.

    1992-04-01

    Conversion reactions of hydrocarbons over Pt-Re model catalyst surfaces modified by sulfur and alumina have been studied. A plasma deposition source has been developed to deposit Pt, Re, and Al on metal substrates variable coverage in ultrahigh vacuum without excessive heating. Conversion of n-hexane was performed over the Re-covered Pt and Pt-covered Re surfaces. The presence of the second metal increased hydrogenolysis activity of both Pt-Re surfaces. Addition of sulfur on the model Catalyst surfaces suppressed hydrogenolysis activity and increased the cyclization rate of n-hexane to methylcyclopentane over Pt-Re surfaces. Sulfiding also increased the dehydrogenation rate of cyclohexane to benzene Over Pt-Re surfaces. It has been proposed that the PtRe bimetallic catalysts show unique properties when combined with sulfur, and electronic interactions exist between platinum, rhenium and sulfur. Decomposition of hydrocarbons on the sulfur-covered Pt-Re surfaces supported that argument. For the conversion of 1-butene over the planar Pt/AlO[sub x], the addition of Pt increased the selectivity of hydrogenation over isomerization.

  8. The effect of rhenium, sulfur and alumina on the conversion of hydrocarbons over platinum single crystals: Surface science and catalytic studies

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Kim, C.

    1992-04-01

    Conversion reactions of hydrocarbons over Pt-Re model catalyst surfaces modified by sulfur and alumina have been studied. A plasma deposition source has been developed to deposit Pt, Re, and Al on metal substrates variable coverage in ultrahigh vacuum without excessive heating. Conversion of n-hexane was performed over the Re-covered Pt and Pt-covered Re surfaces. The presence of the second metal increased hydrogenolysis activity of both Pt-Re surfaces. Addition of sulfur on the model Catalyst surfaces suppressed hydrogenolysis activity and increased the cyclization rate of n-hexane to methylcyclopentane over Pt-Re surfaces. Sulfiding also increased the dehydrogenation rate of cyclohexane to benzene Over Pt-Re surfaces. It has been proposed that the PtRe bimetallic catalysts show unique properties when combined with sulfur, and electronic interactions exist between platinum, rhenium and sulfur. Decomposition of hydrocarbons on the sulfur-covered Pt-Re surfaces supported that argument. For the conversion of 1-butene over the planar Pt/AlO{sub x}, the addition of Pt increased the selectivity of hydrogenation over isomerization.

  9. Compliant alkali silicate sealing glass for solid oxide fuel cell applications: the effect of protective alumina coating on electrical stability in dual environment

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Chou, Y. S.; Choi, Jung-Pyung; Stevenson, Jeffry W.

    2012-12-01

    An alkali-containing silicate glass was recently proposed as a potential sealant for solid oxide fuel cells (SOFC). The glass contains appreciable amount of alkalis and retains its glassy microstructure at elevated temperatures over time. It is more compliant as compared to conventional glass-ceramics sealants and could potentially heal cracks during thermal cycling. In previous papers the thermal cycle stability, thermal stability and chemical compatibility were reported with yttria-stabilized zirconia (YSZ) electrolyte and YSZ-coated ferritic stainless steel interconnect. In this paper, we report the electrical stability of the compliant glass with aluminized AISI441 interconnect material under DC load in dual environment at 700-800oC. Apparent electrical resistivity was measured with a 4-point method for the glass sealed between two aluminized AISI441 metal coupons as well as plain AISI441 substrates. The results showed good electrical stability with the aluminized AISI441 substrate, while unstable behavior was observed for un-coated substrates. In addition, interfacial microstructure was examined with scanning electron microscopy and correlated with the measured resistivity results. Overall, the alumina coating demonstrated good chemical stability with the alkali-containing silicate sealing glass under DC loading.

  10. Analysis of Energy-Efficiency Opportunities for the Cement Industry in Shandong Province, China

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Price, Lynn; Hasanbeigi, Ali; Lu, Hongyou; Wang, Lan

    2009-10-01

    China's cement industry, which produced 1,388 million metric tons (Mt) of cement in 2008, accounts for almost half of the world's total cement production. Nearly 40% of China's cement production is from relatively obsolete vertical shaft kiln (VSK) cement plants, with the remainder from more modern rotary kiln cement plants, including plants equipped with new suspension pre-heater and pre-calciner (NSP) kilns. Shandong Province is the largest cement-producing Province in China, producing 10% of China's total cement output in 2008. This report documents an analysis of the potential to improve the energy efficiency of NSP kiln cement plants in Shandong Province. Sixteen NSP kiln cement plants were surveyed regarding their cement production, energy consumption, and current adoption of 34 energy-efficient technologies and measures. Plant energy use was compared to both domestic (Chinese) and international best practice using the Benchmarking and Energy Saving Tool for Cement (BEST-Cement). This benchmarking exercise indicated an average technical potential primary energy savings of 12% would be possible if the surveyed plants operated at domestic best practice levels in terms of energy use per ton of cement produced. Average technical potential primary energy savings of 23% would be realized if the plants operated at international best practice levels. Energy conservation supply curves for both fuel and electricity savings were then constructed for the 16 surveyed plants. Using the bottom-up electricity conservation supply curve model, the cost-effective electricity efficiency potential for the studied cement plants in 2008 is estimated to be 373 gigawatt hours (GWh), which accounts for 16% of total electricity use in the 16 surveyed cement plants in 2008. Total technical electricity-saving potential is 915 GWh, which accounts for 40% of total electricity use in the studied plants in 2008. The fuel conservation supply curve model shows the total technical fuel efficiency potential equal to 7,949 terajoules (TJ), accounting for 8% of total fuel used in the studied cement plants in 2008. All the fuel efficiency potential is shown to be cost effective. Carbon dioxide (CO{sub 2}) emission reduction potential associated with cost-effective electricity saving is 383 kiloton (kt) CO{sub 2}, while total technical potential for CO{sub 2} emission reduction from electricity-saving is 940 ktCO{sub 2}. The CO{sub 2} emission reduction potentials associated with fuel-saving potentials is 950 ktCO{sub 2}.

  11. Selective Catalytic Reduction of Oxides of Nitrogen with Ethanol/Gasoline Blends over a Silver/Alumina Catalyst on Lean Gasoline Engine

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Prikhodko, Vitaly Y; Pihl, Josh A; Toops, Todd J; Thomas, John F; Parks, II, James E; West, Brian H

    2015-01-01

    Ethanol is a very effective reductant of nitrogen oxides (NOX) over silver/alumina (Ag/Al2O3) catalysts in lean exhaust environment. With the widespread availability of ethanol/gasoline-blended fuel in the USA, lean gasoline engines equipped with an Ag/Al2O3 catalyst have the potential to deliver higher fuel economy than stoichiometric gasoline engines and to increase biofuel utilization while meeting exhaust emissions regulations. In this work a pre-commercial 2 wt% Ag/Al2O3 catalyst was evaluated on a 2.0-liter BMW lean burn gasoline direct injection engine for the selective catalytic reduction (SCR) of NOX with ethanol/gasoline blends. The ethanol/gasoline blends were delivered via in-pipe injection upstream of the Ag/Al2O3 catalyst with the engine operating under lean conditions. A number of engine conditions were chosen to provide a range of temperatures and space velocities for the catalyst performance evaluations. High NOX conversions were achieved with ethanol/gasoline blends containing at least 50% ethanol; however, higher C1/N ratio was needed to achieve greater than 90% NOX conversion, which also resulted in significant HC slip. Temperature and HC dosing were important in controlling selectivity to NH3 and N2O. At high temperatures, NH3 and N2O yields increased with increased HC dosing. At low temperatures, NH3 yield was very low, however, N2O levels became significant. The ability to generate NH3 under lean conditions has potential for application of a dual SCR approach (HC SCR + NH3 SCR) to reduce fuel consumption needed for NOX reduction and/or increased NOX conversion, which is discussed in this work.

  12. Alumina-based ceramic composite

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Alexander, Kathleen B. (Oak Ridge, TN); Tiegs, Terry N. (Lenoir City, TN); Becher, Paul F. (Oak Ridge, TN); Waters, Shirley B. (Knoxville, TN)

    1996-01-01

    An improved ceramic composite comprising oxide ceramic particulates, nonoxide ceramic particulates selected from the group consisting of carbides, borides, nitrides of silicon and transition metals and mixtures thereof, and a ductile binder selected from the group consisting of metallic, intermetallic alloys and mixtures thereof is described. The ceramic composite is made by blending powders of the ceramic particulates and the ductile to form a mixture and consolidating the mixture of under conditions of temperature and pressure sufficient to produce a densified ceramic composite.

  13. Alumina-based ceramic composite

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Alexander, K.B.; Tiegs, T.N.; Becher, P.F.; Waters, S.B.

    1996-07-23

    An improved ceramic composite comprising oxide ceramic particulates, nonoxide ceramic particulates selected from the group consisting of carbides, borides, nitrides of silicon and transition metals and mixtures thereof, and a ductile binder selected from the group consisting of metallic, intermetallic alloys and mixtures thereof is described. The ceramic composite is made by blending powders of the ceramic particulates and the ductile to form a mixture and consolidating the mixture of under conditions of temperature and pressure sufficient to produce a densified ceramic composite. 5 figs.

  14. Energy Efficient Microwave Hybrid Processing of Lime for Cement, Steel, and Glass Industries

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Fall, Morgana L; Yakovlev, Vadim; Sahi, Catherine; Baranova, Inessa; Bowers, Johnney G; Esquenazi , Gibran L

    2012-02-10

    In this study, the microwave materials interactions were studied through dielectric property measurements, process modeling, and lab scale microwave hybrid calcination tests. Characterization and analysis were performed to evaluate material reactions and energy usage. Processing parameters for laboratory scale and larger scale calcining experiments were developed for MAT limestone calcination. Early stage equipment design concepts were developed, with a focus on microwave post heating treatment. The retrofitting of existing rotary calcine equipment in the lime industry was assessed and found to be feasible. Ceralink sought to address some of the major barriers to the uptake of MAT identified as the need for (1) team approach with end users, technology partners, and equipment manufacturers, (2) modeling that incorporates kiln materials and variations to the design of industrial microwave equipment. This project has furthered the commercialization effort of MAT by working closely with an industrial lime manufacturer to educate them regarding MAT, identifying equipment manufacturer to supply microwave equipment, and developing a sophisticated MAT modeling with WPI, the university partner. MAT was shown to enhance calcining through lower energy consumption and faster reaction rates compared to conventional processing. Laboratory testing concluded that a 23% reduction in energy was possible for calcining small batches (5kg). Scale-up testing indicated that the energy savings increased as a function of load size and 36% energy savings was demonstrated (22 kg). A sophisticated model was developed which combines simultaneous microwave and conventional heating. Continued development of this modeling software could be used for larger scale calcining simulations, which would be a beneficial low-cost tool for exploring equipment design prior to actual building. Based on these findings, estimates for production scale MAT calcining benefits were calculated, assuming uptake of MAT in the US lime industry. This estimate showed that 7.3 TBTU/year could be saved, with reduction of 270 MMlbs of CO2 emissions, and $29 MM/year in economic savings. Taking into account estimates for MAT implementation in the US cement industry, an additional 39 TBTU/year, 3 Blbs of CO2 and $155 MM/year could be saved. One of the main remaining barriers to commercialization of MAT for the lime and cement industries is the sheer size of production. Through this project, it was realized that a production size MAT rotary calciner was not feasible, and a different approach was adapted. The concept of a microwave post heat section located in the upper portion of the cooler was devised and appears to be a more realistic approach for MAT implementation. Commercialization of this technology will require (1) continued pilot scale calcining demonstrations, (2) involvement of lime kiln companies, and (3) involvement of an industrial microwave equipment provider. An initial design concept for a MAT post-heat treatment section was conceived as a retrofit into the cooler sections of existing lime rotary calciners with a 1.4 year payback. Retrofitting will help spur implementation of this technology, as the capital investment will be minimal for enhancing the efficiency of current rotary lime kilns. Retrofits would likely be attractive to lime manufacturers, as the purchase of a new lime kiln is on the order of a $30 million dollar investment, where as a MAT retrofit is estimated on the order of $1 million. The path for commercialization lies in partnering with existing lime kiln companies, who will be able to implement the microwave post heat sections in existing and new build kilns. A microwave equipment provider has been identified, who would make up part of the continued development and commercialization team.

  15. Center for Coal-Derived Low Energy Materials for Sustainable Construction

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Jewell, Robert; Robl, Tom; Rathbone, Robert

    2012-06-30

    The overarching goal of this project was to create a sustained center to support the continued development of new products and industries that manufacture construction materials from coal combustion by-products or CCB’s (e.g., cements, grouts, wallboard, masonry block, fillers, roofing materials, etc). Specific objectives includes the development of a research kiln and associated system and the formulation and production of high performance low-energy, low-CO2 emitting calcium sulfoaluminate (CAS) cement that utilize coal combustion byproducts as raw materials.

  16. Waste combustion in boilers and industrial furnaces

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    1997-12-31

    This set of conference papers deals with the combustion of hazardous wastes in boilers and industrial furnaces. The majority of the papers pertain specifically to cement industry kiln incinerators and focus on environmental issues. In particular, stack emission requirements currently enforced or under consideration by the U.S. EPA are emphasized. The papers were drawn from seven areas: (1) proposed Maximum Achievable Control Technology rule, (2) trial burn planning and experience, (3) management and beneficial use of materials, (4) inorganic emissions and continuous emission monitoring, (5) organic emissions, (6) boiler and industrial furnace operations, and (7) risk assessment and communication.

  17. Groundwater Chemistry Changes as a Result of CO2 Injection at the ZERT Field Site in Bozeman, Montana

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Apps, J.A.; Birkholzer, J.T.; Spycher, N.; Zheng, L.; Herkelrath, W.N.; Kharaka, Y.K.; Thordsen, J.J.; Kakouros, E.; Beers, S; Gullickson, K.S.; Spangler, L.H.; Ambats, G.

    2009-11-01

    Combustion of fossil fuels produces CO{sub 2}, a common greenhouse gas linked to global climate change. Separation of CO{sub 2}from emissions produced by large industrial point sources like power plants, cement kilns and refineries, and injection deep nderground into geologic formations is one method of preventing CO{sub 2} releases into the atmosphere. This process is referred to as Carbon Capture and Storage (CCS). CCS is one of several solutions being considered to mitigate global climate change. Other solutions nclude increased energy efficiency, renewables, nuclear power, advanced coal, and plug-in hybrid electric vehicles.

  18. DOE SUNY Cobleskill Final Report 3/5

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    2012-03-31

    This research evaluated a rotary kiln gasification system utilizing agricultural wastes to generate syn gas. The goal of the project was to develop an efficient methodology for harnessing energy from agricultural waste. Objectives included: installation and cold testing of the gasification system; hot testing the gasification system with two agricultural wastes; development of an operations plan, including a data procurement and analysis plan; development of a predictive model and validation of the model; developing process improvement recommendations; and construction of two deployment pathway models (e.g., institutional and farm).

  19. Wood energy and preservation of woodlands in semi-arid developing countries. The case of Dodoma region, Tanzania

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Allen, J.C.

    1985-01-01

    At present little land and labour resources are expended on energy production, but the woodlands in Dodoma are disappearing, causing villagers to save time by switching from fuelwood collected on foot to charcoal shipped in by truck. Results of a linear program show that if the costs of growing the wood for charcoal are counted the switch to charcoal saves time only in areas where population is relatively dense and natural woodland remote. Woodland preservation in Dodoma will require more plantations, increased plantation productivity, improved efficiency of charcoal kilns or stoves and ultimately a switch to some other fuel than wood.

  20. DOE SUNY Cobleskill Final Report - Part 1/5

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    2012-03-31

    This research evaluated a rotary kiln gasification system utilizing agricultural wastes to generate syn gas. The goal of the project was to develop an efficient methodology for harnessing energy from agricultural waste. Objectives included: installation and cold testing of the gasification system; hot testing the gasification system with two agricultural wastes; development of an operations plan, including a data procurement and analysis plan; development of a predictive model and validation of the model; developing process improvement recommendations; and construction of two deployment pathway models (e.g., institutional and farm).

  1. DOE SUNY Cobleskill Final Report Part 4/5

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    2012-03-31

    This research evaluated a rotary kiln gasification system utilizing agricultural wastes to generate syn gas. The goal of the project was to develop an efficient methodology for harnessing energy from agricultural waste. Objectives included: installation and cold testing of the gasification system; hot testing the gasification system with two agricultural wastes; development of an operations plan, including a data procurement and analysis plan; development of a predictive model and validation of the model; developing process improvement recommendations; and construction of two deployment pathway models (e.g., institutional and farm).

  2. DOE SUNY Cobleskill Final Report Part 5/5

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    2012-03-31

    This research evaluated a rotary kiln gasification system utilizing agricultural wastes to generate syn gas. The goal of the project was to develop an efficient methodology for harnessing energy from agricultural waste. Objectives included: installation and cold testing of the gasification system; hot testing the gasification system with two agricultural wastes; development of an operations plan, including a data procurement and analysis plan; development of a predictive model and validation of the model; developing process improvement recommendations; and construction of two deployment pathway models (e.g., institutional and farm).

  3. Fact #763: January 21, 2013 Eighty-four Percent of Scrapped Tires Are

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Recycled | Department of Energy 3: January 21, 2013 Eighty-four Percent of Scrapped Tires Are Recycled Fact #763: January 21, 2013 Eighty-four Percent of Scrapped Tires Are Recycled There were 263 million tires scrapped in 2009 (latest available data) which amounts to more than 4.7 million tons of waste. Fortunately, 84% of that waste was recycled. Most of the recycled tires were used to make fuel for industries such as pulp and paper mills, cement kilns, and electric utilities. Ground

  4. SEP Success Story: Back to the Basics of Sustainability -- Houses of Bark

    Energy Savers [EERE]

    and Energy of Sunshine | Department of Energy Back to the Basics of Sustainability -- Houses of Bark and Energy of Sunshine SEP Success Story: Back to the Basics of Sustainability -- Houses of Bark and Energy of Sunshine August 2, 2012 - 9:25am Addthis With new pipes and controls, the natural gas kilns Highland Craftsmen uses to produce poplar bark shingles will operate about 40 percent more efficiently, saving the company $5,000 a year in energy costs. | Photo courtesy of Highland

  5. Solar solids reactor

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Yudow, B.D.

    1986-02-24

    A solar powered kiln is provided, that is of relatively simple design and which efficiently uses solar energy. The kiln or solids reactor includes a stationary chamber with a rearward end which receives solid material to be reacted and a forward end through which reacted material is disposed of, and a screw conveyor extending along the bottom of the chamber for slowly advancing the material between the chamber ends. Concentrated solar energy is directed to an aperture at the forward end of the chamber to heat the solid material moving along the bottom of the chamber. The solar energy can be reflected from a mirror facing at an upward incline, through the aperture and against a heat-absorbing material near the top of the chamber, which moves towards the rear of the chamber to distribute heat throughout the chamber. Pumps at the forward and rearward ends of the chamber pump heated sweep gas through the length of the chamber, while minimizing the flow of gas through an open aperture through which concentrated sunlight is received.

  6. Final Technical Report for Alternative Fuel Source Study-An Energy Efficient and Environmentally Friendly Approach

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Zee, Ralph; Schindler, Anton; Duke, Steve; Burch, Thom; Bransby, David; Stafford, Don

    2010-08-31

    The objective of this project is to conduct research to determine the feasibility of using alternate fuel sources for the production of cement. Successful completion of this project will also be beneficial to other commercial processes that are highly energy intensive. During this report period, we have completed all the subtasks in the preliminary survey. Literature searches focused on the types of alternative fuels currently used in the cement industry around the world. Information was obtained on the effects of particular alternative fuels on the clinker/cement product and on cement plant emissions. Federal regulations involving use of waste fuels were examined. Information was also obtained about the trace elements likely to be found in alternative fuels, coal, and raw feeds, as well as the effects of various trace elements introduced into system at the feed or fuel stage on the kiln process, the clinker/cement product, and concrete made from the cement. The experimental part of this project involves the feasibility of a variety of alternative materials mainly commercial wastes to substitute for coal in an industrial cement kiln in Lafarge NA and validation of the experimental results with energy conversion consideration.

  7. Solar solids reactor

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Yudow, Bernard D. (Chicago, IL)

    1987-01-01

    A solar powered kiln is provided, that is of relatively simple design and which efficiently uses solar energy. The kiln or solids reactor includes a stationary chamber with a rearward end which receives solid material to be reacted and a forward end through which reacted material is disposed of, and a screw conveyor extending along the bottom of the chamber for slowly advancing the material between the chamber ends. Concentrated solar energy is directed to an aperture at the forward end of the chamber to heat the solid material moving along the bottom of the chamber. The solar energy can be reflected from a mirror facing at an upward incline, through the aperture and against a heat-absorbing material near the top of the chamber, which moves towards the rear of the chamber to distribute heat throughout the chamber. Pumps at the forward and rearward ends of the chamber pump heated sweep gas through the length of the chamber, while minimizing the flow of gas through an open aperture through which concentrated sunlight is received.

  8. IMPROVED CORROSION RESISTANCE OF ALUMINA REFRACTORIES

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    John P. Hurley; Patty L. Kleven

    2001-09-30

    The initial objective of this project was to do a literature search to define the problems of refractory selection in the metals and glass industries. The problems fall into three categories: Economic--What do the major problems cost the industries financially? Operational--How do the major problems affect production efficiency and impact the environment? and Scientific--What are the chemical and physical mechanisms that cause the problems to occur? This report presents a summary of these problems. It was used to determine the areas in which the EERC can provide the most assistance through bench-scale and laboratory testing. The final objective of this project was to design and build a bench-scale high-temperature controlled atmosphere dynamic corrosion application furnace (CADCAF). The furnace will be used to evaluate refractory test samples in the presence of flowing corrodents for extended periods, to temperatures of 1600 C under controlled atmospheres. Corrodents will include molten slag, steel, and glass. This test should prove useful for the glass and steel industries when faced with the decision of choosing the best refractory for flowing corrodent conditions.

  9. Optimized Alumina Coagulants for Water Purification - Energy...

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    purification. By inserting a single gallium atom in the center of an aluminum oxide cluster, the stability and efficacy of the reagent is greatly improved. This stability also...

  10. Identification and quantification of organic chemicals in supplemental fuel blends

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Salter, F.

    1996-12-31

    Continental Cement Company, Inc. (Continental) burns waste fuels to supplement coal in firing the kiln. It is to be expected that federal and state agencies want an accounting of the chemicals burned. As rules and regulations become more plentiful, a company such as Continental must demonstrate that it has made a reasonable attempt to identify and quantify many specific organic compounds. The chemicals on the SARA 313 list can change frequently. Also the number and concentrations of compounds that can disqualify a material from consideration as a supplemental fuel at Continental continues to change. A quick and reliable method of identifying and quantifying organics in waste fuel blends is therefore crucial. Using a Hewlett-Packard 5972 GC/MS system Continental has developed a method of generating values for the total weight of compounds burned. A similar procedure is used to verify that waste streams meet Continental`s acceptance criteria.

  11. Solarnorth '81 by Tymura Solardesigns: diverse residential, commercial and industrial projects at and above the 48th parallel in Ontario, Canada

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Tymura, E.J.

    1981-01-01

    Solar Energy Heating Applications are On the Rise in and above the Northwestern City of Thunder Bay, on the northern shore of Lake Superior. Unique in their diversifications, the architectural commissions range from pure passive residential design thru hybrid systems; residential Greenhouse-Solarium active swimming pool and commercial hotel pool to inexpensive hybrid system for Canada's First Commercial Solar Lumber Drying Kiln; as well as combined earth sheltered with solar system design for a dormitory complex and shopping center. By May 1981, 7 buildings designed by Tymura Solardesigns in the Thunder Bay area will have been subjected to the Extreme Canadian climate (10,500/sup 0/F degree days, yearly temperature maximums from -41/sup 0/F to 90/sup 0/F, and solar fractions vary from 50% to 75%, with economic payback periods ranging between 7 and 10 years.

  12. Development and commercialization of a biomass gasification/power generation system

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Paisley, M.A.; Farris, G.

    1995-11-01

    The US Department of Energy (DOE) has been a leader in the promotion and development of alternative fuel supplies based on renewable energy crops. One promising power generation technology is biomass gasification coupled with either a gas turbine in a combined cycle system or a fuel cell. The gasification of biomass can efficiently and economically produce a renewable source of a clean gaseous fuel suitable for use in these high efficiency power systems or as a substitute fuel in other combustion devices such as boilers, kilns, or other natural gas fired equipment. This paper discusses the development and commercialization of the Battelle high-throughput gasification process for gas turbine based power generation systems. Projected process economics for a gas turbine combined cycle plant are presented along with a description of integrated system operation coupling a 200kW gas turbine power generation system to a 10 ton per day gasifier, and current commercialization activities.

  13. Gas turbine power generation from biomass gasification

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Paisley, M.A.; Litt, R.D.; Overend, R.P.; Bain, R.L.

    1994-12-31

    The Biomass Power Program of the US Department of Energy (DOE) has as a major goal the development of cost-competitive technologies for the production of power from renewable biomass crops. The gasification of biomass provides the potential to meet this goal by efficiently and economically producing a renewable source of a clean gaseous fuel suitable for use in high efficiency gas turbines or as a substitute fuel in other combustion devices such as boilers, kilns, or other natural gas fired equipment. This paper discusses the development of the use of the Battelle high-throughput gasification process for power generation systems. Projected process economics are presented along with a description of current experimental operations coupling a gas turbine power generation system to the research scale gasifier.

  14. Power production from renewable resources in a gasification power system

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Paisley, M.A.; Farris, G.; Bain, R.

    1996-12-31

    The US Department of Energy (DOE) has been a leader in the promotion and development of alternative fuel supplies based on renewable energy crops. One promising power generation technology is biomass gasification coupled with either a gas turbine in a combined cycle system or a fuel cell. The gasification of biomass can efficiently and economically produce a renewable source of a clean gaseous fuel suitable for use in these high efficiency power systems or as a substitute fuel in other combustion devices such as boilers, kilns, or other natural gas fired equipment. This paper discusses the development and commercialization of the Battelle high-throughput gasification process for gas turbine based power generation systems. Projected process economics for a gas turbine combined cycle plant are presented along with a description of integrated system operation coupling a 200kW gas turbine power generation system to a 10 ton per day gasifier, and current commercialization activities. 6 refs., 3 figs., 1 tab.

  15. Follow that mercury!

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Linero, A.A.

    2008-07-01

    The article discusses one technology option for avoiding release of mercury captured by power plant pollution control equipment in order to render it usable in concrete. This is the use of selective catalytic reduction for NOx control and lime spray dryer absorbers (SDA) for SO{sub 2} control prior to particulate collection by fabric filters. In this scenario all mercury removed is trapped in the fabric filter baghouse. The US EPA did not establish mercury emission limits for existing cement plants in the latest regulation 40 CFR 63, Subpart LLL (December 2006) and was sued by the Portland Cement Association because of the Hg limits established for new kilns and by several states and environmental groups for the lack of limits on existing ones. A full version of this article is available on www.acaa-usa.org/AshatWork.htm. 2 figs.

  16. Waste Heat to Power Market Assessment

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Elson, Amelia; Tidball, Rick; Hampson, Anne

    2015-03-01

    Waste heat to power (WHP) is the process of capturing heat discarded by an existing process and using that heat to generate electricity. In the industrial sector, waste heat streams are generated by kilns, furnaces, ovens, turbines, engines, and other equipment. In addition to processes at industrial plants, waste heat streams suitable for WHP are generated at field locations, including landfills, compressor stations, and mining sites. Waste heat streams are also produced in the residential and commercial sectors, but compared to industrial sites these waste heat streams typically have lower temperatures and much lower volumetric flow rates. The economic feasibility for WHP declines as the temperature and flow rate decline, and most WHP technologies are therefore applied in industrial markets where waste heat stream characteristics are more favorable. This report provides an assessment of the potential market for WHP in the industrial sector in the United States.

  17. Compilation of RCRA closure plan conditions applicable to boilers and industrial furnaces at cement plants

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Raymond, A.N.

    1998-12-31

    A prudent approach to closure plan development will assist preparers of closure plans to ensure that a cement kiln BIF unit and associated Resources conservation and Recovery Act (RCRA) units are effectively closed in a manner that minimizes potential threats to human health and the environment, as well as facilitating closure in an economical and timely manner. Cement kilns burning hazardous waste-derived-fuel (HWDF) must comply with the general facility standards of Subpart G Closure and Post-Closure requirements of 40 CFR parts 264 or 265 in addition to the RCRA Part b permitting requirements of 40 CFR parts 270.13 and 270.22 (e) and (f). As a result, approved closure plans for BIF facilities (or individual BIF units) will contain general and site-specific permit conditions that will mandate numerous closure activities be conducted to successfully implement the partial or final closure of a permitted or interim status BIF unit or facility. Currently, a scarce amount of published information is available to the cement industry in the form of agency guidance documents that would assist facilities with BIF unit closures. A review of seven approved or implemented closure plans revealed significant differences between plans approved recently versus a few years ago as well as observed differences in acceptable closure criteria between EPA regions and various states agencies. The intent of this paper is to first familiarize readers with general closure plan requirements, followed by a detailed discussion of closure requirements that are pertinent to BIF unit facilities. Comparisons are presented to provide an overview of typical components of BIF unit closure plans.

  18. HIGHLY ENERGY EFFICIENT D-GLU (DIRECTED-GREEN LIQ-UOR UTILIZATION) PULPING

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Lucia, Lucian A

    2013-04-19

    Purpose: The purpose of the project was to retrofit the front end (pulp house) of a commercial kraft pulping mill to accommodate a mill green liquor (GL) impregna-tion/soak/exposure and accrue downstream physical and chemical benefits while prin-cipally reducing the energy footprint of the mill. A major player in the mill contrib-uting to excessive energy costs is the lime kiln. The project was intended to offload the energy (oil or natural gas) demands of the kiln by by-passing the causticization/slaking site in the recovery area and directly using green liquor as a pulping medium for wood. Scope: The project was run in two distinct, yet mutually compatible, phases: Phase 1 was the pre-commercial or laboratory phase in which NC State University and the Insti-tute of Paper Science and Technology (at the Georgia Institute of Technology) ran the pulping and associated experiments, while Phase 2 was the mill scale trial. The first tri-al was run at the now defunct Evergreen Pulp Mill in Samoa, CA and lead to a partial retrofit of the mill that was not completed because it went bankrupt and the work was no longer the low-hanging fruit on the tree for the new management. The second trial was run at the MeadWestvaco Pulp Mill in Evedale, TX which for all intents and pur-poses was a success. They were able to fully retrofit the mill, ran the trial, studied the pulp properties, and gave us conclusions.

  19. Disposal techniques with energy recovery for scrapped vehicle tires

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Sladek, T.A.; Demos, E.K.

    1987-06-01

    The scrap tire disposal problem is serious and widespread. However there are a number of promising management options, especially using the rubber as a supplemental fuel for existing combustors. The most cost-effective approach to dealing with Denver's tire stockpile appears to be shredding to a coarse size range, storing the shreds in a secure area, and marketing the rubber to nearby cement kilns, lime kilns, and boilers. This interim step would greatly reduce the volume of the pile, facilitate the Superfund evaluation, reduce fire and disease hazards, and simplify subsequent materials handling. Further processing to obtain rubber chips or crumbs may also be practical. However the industry and the markets would have to emerge over time. New power plants or pyrolysis facilities would be impeded by the low energy prices in Denver and the need for elaborate pollution controls. Landfilling could be considered as a last resort. Landfilling costs would be minimized if the tires are shredded. Chapter 2 discusses the tire disposal problem and the general options for tire management. Chapter 3 describes the methodology used to analyze Denver's situation and presents the results and conclusions obtained. This includes evaluation of strategies to implement the more promising resource recovery options in the Denver area. Chapter 4 summarizes the lessons learned and identifies impediments and uncertainties that need to be addressed in any future studies. The Appendix contains additional acknowledgments, a list of references, definitions for the acronyms and units used in the text, the agenda for the tire workshop, and a brief description of a stockpile fire near Denver in June 1987. 111 refs., 6 tabs.

  20. Asphalt Roofing Shingles Into Energy Project Summary Report

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Jameson, Rex, PE

    2008-04-28

    Based on a widely cited September, 1999 report by the Vermont Agency of Natural Resources, nearly 11 million tons of asphalt roofing shingle wastes are produced in the United States each year. Recent data suggests that the total is made up of about 9.4 million tons from roofing tear-offs and about 1.6 million tons from manufacturing scrap. Developing beneficial uses for these materials would conserve natural resources, promote protection of the environment and strengthen the economy. This project explored the feasibility of using chipped asphalt shingle materials in cement manufacturing kilns and circulating fluidized bed (CFB) boilers. A method of enhancing the value of chipped shingle materials for use as fuel by removing certain fractions for use as substitute raw materials for the manufacture of new shingles was also explored. Procedures were developed to prevent asbestos containing materials from being processed at the chipping facilities, and the frequency of the occurrence of asbestos in residential roofing tear-off materials was evaluated. The economic feasibility of each potential use was evaluated based on experience gained during the project and on a review of the well established use of shingle materials in hot mix asphalt. This project demonstrated that chipped asphalt shingle materials can be suitable for use as fuel in circulating fluidized boilers and cement kilns. More experience would be necessary to determine the full benefits that could be derived and to discover long term effects, but no technical barriers to full scale commercial use of chipped asphalt shingle materials in these applications were discovered. While the technical feasibility of various options was demonstrated, only the use of asphalt shingle materials in hot mix asphalt applications is currently viable economically.

  1. Integrated thermal treatment system study -- Phase 2 results. Revision 1

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Feizollahi, F.; Quapp, W.J.

    1996-02-01

    This report presents the second phase of a study on thermal treatment technologies. The study consists of a systematic assessment of nineteen thermal treatment alternatives for the contact-handled mixed low-level waste (MLLW) currently stored in the US Department of Energy complex. The treatment alternatives consist of widely varying technologies for safely destroying the hazardous organic components, reducing the volume, and preparing for final disposal of the MLLW. The alternatives considered in Phase 2 were innovative thermal treatments with nine types of primary processing units. Other variations in the study examined the effect of combustion gas, air pollution control system design, and stabilization technology for the treatment residues. The Phase 1 study examined ten initial thermal treatment alternatives. The Phase 2 systems were evaluated in essentially the same manner as the Phase 1 systems. The alternatives evaluated were: rotary kiln, slagging kiln, plasma furnace, plasma gasification, molten salt oxidation, molten metal waste destruction, steam gasification, Joule-heated vitrification, thermal desorption and mediated electrochemical oxidation, and thermal desorption and supercritical water oxidation. The quantities, and physical and chemical compositions, of the input waste used in the Phase 2 systems differ from those in the Phase 1 systems, which were based on a preliminary waste input database developed at the onset of the Integrated Thermal Treatment System study. The inventory database used in the Phase 2 study incorporates the latest US Department of Energy information. All systems, both primary treatment systems and subsystem inputs, have now been evaluated using the same waste input (2,927 lb/hr). 28 refs., 88 figs., 41 tabs.

  2. A comparative assessment of waste incinerators in the UK

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Nixon, J.D.; Wright, D.G.; Dey, P.K.; Ghosh, S.K.; Davies, P.A.

    2013-11-15

    Highlights: We evaluate operational municipal solid waste incinerators in the UK. The supply chain of four case study plants are examined and compared in detail. Technical, financial and operational data has been gathered for the four plants. We suggest the best business practices for waste incinerators. Appropriate strategy choices are the major difficulties for waste to energy plants. - Abstract: The uptake in Europe of Energy from Waste (EfW) incinerator plants has increased rapidly in recent years. In the UK, 25 municipal waste incinerators with energy recovery are now in operation; however, their waste supply chains and business practices vary significantly. With over a hundred more plant developments being considered it is important to establish best business practices for ensuring efficient environmental and operational performance. By reviewing the 25 plants we identify four suitable case study plants to compare technologies (moving grate, fluidised bed and rotary kiln), plant economics and operations. Using data collected from annual reports and through interviews and site visits we provide recommendations for improving the supply chain for waste incinerators and highlight the current issues and challenges faced by the industry. We find that plants using moving grate have a high availability of 8792%. However, compared to the fluidised bed and rotary kiln, quantities of bottom ash and emissions of hydrogen chloride and carbon monoxide are high. The uptake of integrated recycling practices, combined heat and power, and post incineration non-ferrous metal collections needs to be increased among EfW incinerators in the UK. We conclude that one of the major difficulties encountered by waste facilities is the appropriate selection of technology, capacity, site, waste suppliers and heat consumers. This study will be of particular value to EfW plant developers, government authorities and researchers working within the sector of waste management.

  3. Value recovery from spent alumina-base catalyst

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Hyatt, David E. (Northglenn, CO)

    1987-01-01

    A process for the recovery of aluminum and at least one other metal selected from the group consisting of molybdenum, nickel and cobalt from a spent hydrogenation catalyst comprising (1) adding about 1 to 3 parts H.sub.2 SO.sub.4 to each part of spent catalyst in a reaction zone of about 20.degree. to 200.degree. C. under sulfide gas pressure between about 1 and about 35 atmospheres, (2) separating the resultant Al.sub.2 (SO.sub.4).sub.3 solution from the sulfide precipitate in the mixture, (3) oxidizing the remaining sulfide precipitate as an aqueous slurry at about 20.degree. to 200.degree. C. in an oxygen-containing atmosphere at a pressure between about 1 and about 35 atmospheres, (4) separating the slurry to obtain solid molybdic acid and a sulfate liquor containing said at least one metal, and (5) recovering said at least one metal from the sulfate liquor in marketable form.

  4. Improved Alumina Loading in High-Level Waste Glasses

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Kim, D.; Vienna, J.D. [Pacific Northwest National Laboratory, Richland, WA (United States); Peeler, D.K.; Fox, K.M. [Savannah River National Laboratory, Aiken, SC (United States); Aloy, A.; Trofimenko, A.V. [V.G. Khlopin Radium Institute, St. Petersburg (Russian Federation); Gerdes, K.D. [EM-21, Office of Waste Processing, U.S. Department of Energy, Washington, DC (United States)

    2008-07-01

    Recent tank retrieval, blending, and treatment strategies at both the Savannah River Site (SRS) and Hanford have identified increased amounts of high-Al{sub 2}O{sub 3} waste streams that are scheduled to be processed through their respective high-level waste (HLW) vitrification facilities. It is well known that the addition of small amounts of Al{sub 2}O{sub 3} to borosilicate glasses generally enhances the durability of the waste glasses. However, at higher Al{sub 2}O{sub 3} concentrations nepheline (NaAlSiO{sub 4}) formation can result in a severe deterioration of the chemical durability of the slowly cooled glass near the center of the canister. Additionally, higher concentrations of Al{sub 2}O{sub 3} generally increase the liquidus temperature of the melt and decrease the processing rate. Pacific Northwest National Laboratory (PNNL), Savannah River National Laboratory (SRNL), and Khlopin Radium Institute (KRI) are jointly performing laboratory and scaled-melter tests, through US Department of Energy, EM-21 Office of Waste Processing program, to develop glass formulations with increased Al{sub 2}O{sub 3} concentrations. These glasses are formulated for specific DOE waste compositions at Hanford and Savannah River Site. The objectives are to avoid nepheline formation while maintaining or meeting waste loading and/or waste throughput expectations as well as satisfying critical process and product performance related constraints such as viscosity, liquidus temperature, and glass durability. This paper summarizes the results of recent tests of simulated Hanford HLW glasses containing up to 26 wt% Al{sub 2}O{sub 3} in glass. In summary: Glasses with Al{sub 2}O{sub 3} loading ranging from 25 to 27 wt% were formulated and tested at a crucible scale. Successful glass formulations with up to 26 wt% Al{sub 2}O{sub 3} that do not precipitate nepheline during CCC treatment and had spinel crystals 1 vol% or less after 24 hr heat treatment at 950 deg. C were obtained. The selected glass, HAL-17 with 26 wt% Al{sub 2}O{sub 3}, had viscosity and electrical conductivity within the boundaries for adequate processing in the Joule heated melters operated at 1150 deg. C. This HAL-17 glass was successfully processed using small-scale (SMK) and larger scale (EP-5) melters. There was no indication of spinel settling during processing. The product glass samples from these melter tests contained 1 to 4 vol% spinel crystals that are likely formed during cooling. The PCT tests on the product glasses are underway. The present study demonstrated that it is possible to formulate the glasses with up to 26 wt% Al{sub 2}O{sub 3} that satisfy the property requirements and is processable with Joule-heated melters operated at 1150 deg. C. The 'nepheline discriminator' for HAL-17 glass is 0.45, which supports that claim that the current rule ('nepheline discriminator' < 0.62) is too restrictive. Considering that the cost of HLW treatment is highly dependent on loading of waste in glass, this result provides a potential for significant cost saving for Hanford. The maximum Al{sub 2}O{sub 3} loading that can be achieved will also depend on concentrations of other components in wastes. For example, the loading of waste used in this study was also limited by the spinel crystallization after 950 deg. C 24 hr heat treatment, which suggests that the concentrations of spinel-forming components such as Fe{sub 2}O{sub 3}, Cr{sub 2}O{sub 3}, NiO, ZnO, and MnO would be critical in addition to Al{sub 2}O{sub 3} for the maximum Al{sub 2}O{sub 3} loading achievable. The observed glass production rate per unit melter surface area of 0.75 MT/(d.m{sup 2}) for SMK test is comparable to the design capacity of WTP HLW melters at 0.8 MT/(d.m{sup 2}). However, the test with EP-5 melter achieved 0.38 MT/(d.m{sup 2}), which is roughly a half of the WTP design capacity. This result may imply that the glass with 26 wt% Al{sub 2}O{sub 3} may not achieve the WTP design production rate. However, this hypothesis is not conclusive because of unknown effects of melter size and operation

  5. Effect of Alumina Source on the Rate of Melting Demonstrated...

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    ...SA-76805 EY4049110 DOE Contract Number: AC05-76RL01830 Resource Type: Journal Article Resource Relation: Journal Name: International Journal of Applied Glass Science, 3(1):59-68 ...

  6. Properties of a solar alumina-borosilicate sheet glass

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Coyle, R.T.; Lind, M.A.; Shelby, J.E.; Vitko, J.; Shoemaker, A.F.

    1980-01-01

    Solar energy applications place unique requirements on sheet glass including very low solar absorption, outstanding stability of absorption in the outdoor environment, low cost, and elastic formability for making concentrating mirrors. The Solar Energy Research Institute and Corning Glass Works have developed a new solar sheet glass. In evaluations reported the new glass has shown outstanding chemical durability and optical and mechanical properties.

  7. Lithium battery electrodes with ultra-thin alumina coatings

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Se-Hee, Lee; George, Steven M.; Cavanagh, Andrew S.; Yoon Seok, Jung; Dillon, Anne C.

    2015-11-24

    Electrodes for lithium batteries are coated via an atomic layer deposition process. The coatings can be applied to the assembled electrodes, or in some cases to particles of electrode material prior to assembling the particles into an electrode. The coatings can be as thin as 2 .ANG.ngstroms thick. The coating provides for a stable electrode. Batteries containing the electrodes tend to exhibit high cycling capacities.

  8. CO2-selective, Hybrid Membranes by Silation of Alumina

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Luebke, D.R.; Pennline, H.W.

    2007-09-01

    Hybrid membranes are feasible candidates for the separation of CO2 from gas produced in coal-based power generation since they have the potential to combine the high selectivity of polymer membranes and the high permeability of inorganic membranes. An interesting method for producing hybrid membranes is the silation of an inorganic membrane. In this method, trichloro- or alkoxy-silanes interact with hydroxyl groups on the surface of ?-AlO3 or TiO2, binding organic groups to that surface. By varying the length of these organic groups on the organosilane, it should be possible to tailor the effective pore size of the membrane. Similarly, the addition of CO2-phillic groups to the silating agent allows for the careful control of surface affinity and the enhancement of surface diffusion mechanisms. This method of producing hybrid membranes selective to CO2 was first attempted by Hyun [1] who silated TiO2 with phenyltriethoxysilane. Later, Way [2] silated ?-AlO3 with octadecyltrichlorosilane. Both researchers were successful in producing membranes with improved selectivity toward CO2, but permeability was not maintained at a commercially applicable level. XPS data indicated that the silating agent did not penetrate into the membrane pores and separation actually occurred in a thin polymer-like surface layer. The present study attempts to overcome the mass transfer problems associated with this technique by producing the desired monolayer coverage of silane, and thus develop a highly-permeable CO2-selective hybrid membrane.

  9. Steam-Coal Gasification Using CaO and KOH for in Situ Carbon and Sulfur Capture

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Siefert, Nicholas S.; Shekhawat, Dushyant; Litster, Shawn; Berry, David A.

    2013-08-15

    We present experimental results of coal gasification with and without the addition of calcium oxide and potassium hydroxide as dual-functioning catalyst-capture agents. Using two different coal types and temperatures between 700 and 900 °C, we studied the effect of these catalyst-capture agents on (1) the syngas composition, (2) CO2 and H2S capture, and (3) the steam-coal gasification kinetic rate. The syngas composition from the gasifier was roughly 20% methane, 70% hydrogen, and 10% other species when a CaO/C molar ratio of 0.5 was added. We demonstrated significantly enhanced steam–coal gasification kinetic rates when adding small amounts of potassium hydroxide to coal when operating a CaO-CaCO3 chemical looping gasification reactor. For example, the steam–coal gasification kinetic rate increased 250% when dry mixing calcium oxide at a Ca/C molar ratio of 0.5 with a sub-bituminous coal, and the kinetic rate increased 1000% when aqueously mixing calcium oxide at a Ca/C molar ratio of 0.5 along with potassium hydroxide at a K/C molar ratio of 0.06. In addition, we conducted multi-cycle studies in which CaCO3 was calcined by heating to 900 °C to regenerate the CaO, which was then reused in repeated CaO-CaCO3 cycles. The increased steam-coal gasification kinetics rates for both CaO and CaO + KOH persisted even when the material was reused in six cycles of gasification and calcination. The ability of CaO to capture carbon dioxide decreased roughly 2-4% per CaO-CaCO3 cycle. We also discuss an important application of this combined gasifier-calciner to electricity generation and selling the purge stream as a precalcined feedstock to a cement kiln. In this scenario, the amount of purge stream required is fixed not by the degradation in the capture ability but rather by the requirements at the cement kiln on the amount of CaSO4 and ash in the precalcined feedstock.

  10. Agricultural, industrial and municipal waste management

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Not Available

    1985-01-01

    It is right that consideration of the environment is of prime importance when agricultural and industrial processes are being developed. This book compiles the papers presented at the Institution of Mechanical Engineers conference. The contents include: The use of wastes for land reclamation and restoration; landfill, an environmentally acceptable method of waste disposal and an economic source of energy; control of leachate from waste disposal landfill sites using bentonite; landfill gas migration from operational landfill sites, monitoring and prevention; monitoring of emissions from hazardous waste incineration; hazardous wastes management in Hong Kong, a summary of a report and recommendations; the techniques and problems of chemical analysis of waste waters and leachate from waste tips; a small scale waste burning combustor; energy recovery from municipal waste by incineration; anaerobic treatment of industrial waste; a review of developments in the acid hydrolysis of cellulosic wastes; reduction of slag deposits by magnesium hydroxide injection; integrated rural energy centres (for agriculture-based economies); resource recovery; straw as a fuel in the UK; the computer as a tool for predicting the financial implications of future municipal waste disposal and recycling projects; solid wastes as a cement kiln fuel; monitoring and control of landfill gas; the utilization of waste derived fuels; the economics of energy recovery from municipal and industrial wastes; the development and construction of a municipal waste reclamation plant by a local authority.

  11. Potential for energy conservation in the cement industry

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Garrett-Price, B.A.

    1985-02-01

    This report assesses the potential for energy conservation in the cement industry. Energy consumption per ton of cement decreased 20% between 1972 and 1982. During this same period, the cement industry became heavily dependent on coal and coke as its primary fuel source. Although the energy consumed per ton of cement has declined markedly in the past ten years, the industry still uses more than three and a half times the fuel that is theoretically required to produce a ton of clinker. Improving kiln thermal efficiency offers the greatest opportunity for saving fuel. Improving the efficiency of finish grinding offers the greatest potential for reducing electricity use. Technologies are currently available to the cement industry to reduce its average fuel consumption per ton by product by as much as 40% and its electricity consumption per ton by about 10%. The major impediment to adopting these technologies is the cement industry's lack of capital as a result of low or no profits in recent years.

  12. Opportunities for Energy Efficiency and Demand Response in the California Cement Industry

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Olsen, Daniel; Goli, Sasank; Faulkner, David; McKane, Aimee

    2010-12-22

    This study examines the characteristics of cement plants and their ability to shed or shift load to participate in demand response (DR). Relevant factors investigated include the various equipment and processes used to make cement, the operational limitations cement plants are subject to, and the quantities and sources of energy used in the cement-making process. Opportunities for energy efficiency improvements are also reviewed. The results suggest that cement plants are good candidates for DR participation. The cement industry consumes over 400 trillion Btu of energy annually in the United States, and consumes over 150 MW of electricity in California alone. The chemical reactions required to make cement occur only in the cement kiln, and intermediate products are routinely stored between processing stages without negative effects. Cement plants also operate continuously for months at a time between shutdowns, allowing flexibility in operational scheduling. In addition, several examples of cement plants altering their electricity consumption based on utility incentives are discussed. Further study is needed to determine the practical potential for automated demand response (Auto-DR) and to investigate the magnitude and shape of achievable sheds and shifts.

  13. Plasma destruction of North Carolina`s hazardous waste based on hazardous waste generated between the years of 1989 and 1992

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Williams, D.L.

    1994-12-31

    The purpose of this research is to analyze the applicability of the plasma waste destruction technology to North Carolina hazardous waste streams. This study outlines the current regulations, existing technologies, and innovative technologies being considered as hazardous waste treatment alternatives. From this foundation, the study proceeds to identify the superiority of the plasma waste destruction technology. Specific areas of discussion include: temperature capabilities, waste residence time requirements, destruction removal efficiencies, operational efficiencies, economic issues, safety, and maintenance. This study finds the plasma destruction technology to be fully effective and superior to conventional facilities. The technology completely destroys hydrocarbons and can reduce the volume of many other hazardous wastes on the order of one part per million. The required residence time of waste in a plasma facility for effective destruction is a fraction of a second, while the rotary kiln incinerator maintains an average residence time of approximately 5 seconds. Also mass and heat balance calculations are performed to quantify the effectiveness and efficiency of this technology. It is found that one day`s average amount of hazardous waste generated in the state of North Carolina can be destroyed in approximately thirty seconds using a standard one megawatt power source. Yet, before this technology is adopted as North Carolina`s primary hazardous waste destruction technology, further study is needed so that all issues considered in this research can be conducted in great detail.

  14. UTILIZATION OF LIGHTWEIGHT MATERIALS MADE FROM COAL GASIFICATION SLAGS

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Vas Choudhry; Stephen Kwan; Steven R. Hadley

    2001-07-01

    The objective of the project entitled ''Utilization of Lightweight Materials Made from Coal Gasification Slags'' was to demonstrate the technical and economic viability of manufacturing low-unit-weight products from coal gasification slags which can be used as substitutes for conventional lightweight and ultra-lightweight aggregates. In Phase I, the technology developed by Praxis to produce lightweight aggregates from slag (termed SLA) was applied to produce a large batch (10 tons) of expanded slag using pilot direct-fired rotary kilns and a fluidized bed calciner. The expanded products were characterized using basic characterization and application-oriented tests. Phase II involved the demonstration and evaluation of the use of expanded slag aggregates to produce a number of end-use applications including lightweight roof tiles, lightweight precast products (e.g., masonry blocks), structural concrete, insulating concrete, loose fill insulation, and as a substitute for expanded perlite and vermiculite in horticultural applications. Prototypes of these end-use applications were made and tested with the assistance of commercial manufacturers. Finally, the economics of expanded slag production was determined and compared with the alternative of slag disposal. Production of value-added products from SLA has a significant potential to enhance the overall gasification process economics, especially when the avoided costs of disposal are considered.

  15. VACASULF operation at Citizens Gas and Coke Utility

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Currey, J.H.

    1995-12-01

    Citizens Gas and Coke Utility is a Public Charitable Trust which operates as the Department of Utilities of the City of Indianapolis, Indiana. Indianapolis Coke, the trade name for the Manufacturing Division of the Utility, operates a by-products coke plant in Indianapolis, Indiana. The facility produces both foundry and blast furnace coke. Surplus Coke Oven gas, generated by the process, is mixed with Natural Gas for sale to industrial and residential customers. In anticipation of regulatory developments, beginning in 1990, Indianapolis Coke undertook the task to develop an alternate Coke Oven Gas desulfurization technology for its facility. The new system was intended to perform primary desulfurization of the gas, dramatically extending the oxide bed life, thus reducing disposal liabilities. Citizens Gas chose the VACASULF technology for its primary desulfurization system. VACASULF requires a single purchased material, Potassium Hydroxide (KOH). The KOH reacts with Carbon Dioxide in the coke Oven Gas to form Potassium Carbonate (potash) which in turn absorbs the Hydrogen Sulfide. The rich solution releases the absorbed sulfide under strong vacuum in the desorber column. Operating costs are reduced through utilization of an inherent heat source which is transferred indirectly via attendant reboilers. The Hydrogen Sulfide is transported by the vacuum pumps to the Claus Kiln and Reactor for combustion, reaction, and elemental Sulfur recovery. Regenerated potash solution is returned to the Scrubber.

  16. SkyMine Carbon Mineralization Pilot Project

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Christenson, Norm; Walters, Jerel

    2014-12-31

    This Topical Report addresses accomplishments achieved during Phase 2b of the SkyMine® Carbon Mineralization Pilot Project. The primary objectives of this project are to design, construct, and operate a system to capture CO2 from a slipstream of flue gas from a commercial coal-fired cement kiln, convert that CO2 to products having commercial value (i.e., beneficial use), show the economic viability of the CO2 capture and conversion process, and thereby advance the technology to the point of readiness for commercial scale demonstration and deployment. The overall process is carbon negative, resulting in mineralization of CO2 that would otherwise be released into the atmosphere. The project will also substantiate market opportunities for the technology by sales of chemicals into existing markets, and identify opportunities to improve technology performance and reduce costs at the commercial scale. The project is being conducted in two phases. The primary objectives of Phase 1 were to evaluate proven SkyMine® process chemistry for commercial pilot-scale operation and complete the preliminary design for the pilot plant to be built and operated in Phase 2, complete a NEPA evaluation, and develop a comprehensive carbon life cycle analysis. The objective of Phase 2b was to build the pilot plant to be operated and tested in Phase 2c.

  17. The extraction of bitumen from western oil sands: Volume 2. Final report

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Oblad, A.G.; Dahlstrom, D.A.; Deo, M.D.; Fletcher, J.V.; Hanson, F.V.; Miller, J.D.; Seader, J.D.

    1997-11-26

    The program is composed of 20 projects, of which 17 are laboratory bench or laboratory pilot scale processes or computer process simulations that are performed in existing facilities on the University of Utah campus in north-east Salt Lake City. These tasks are: (1) coupled fluidized-bed bitumen recovery and coked sand combustion; (2) water-based recovery of bitumen; (3) oil sand pyrolysis in a continuous rotary kiln reactor; (4) oil sand pyrolysis in a large diameter fluidized bed reactor; (5) oil sand pyrolysis in a small diameter fluidized bed reactor; (6) combustion of spent sand in a transport reactor; (7) recovery and upgrading of oil sand bitumen using solvent extraction methods; (8) fixed-bed hydrotreating of Uinta Basin bitumens and bitumen-derived hydrocarbon liquids; (9) ebullieted bed hydrotreating of bitumen and bitumen derived liquids; (10) bitumen upgrading by hydropyrolysis; (11) evaluation of Utah`s major oil sand deposits for the production of asphalt, high-energy jet fuels and other specialty products; (12) characterization of the bitumens and reservoir rocks from the Uinta Basin oil sand deposits; (13) bitumen upgrading pilot plant recommendations; (14) liquid-solid separation and fine tailings thickening; (15) in-situ production of heavy oil from Uinta Basin oil sand deposits; (16) oil sand research and development group analytical facility; and (17) process economics. This volume contains reports on nine of these projects, references, and a bibliography. 351 refs., 192 figs., 65 tabs.

  18. Space Heaters, Computers, Cell Phone Chargers: How Plugged In AreCommercial Buildings?

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Sanchez, Marla; Webber, Carrie; Brown, Richard; Busch, John; Pinckard, Margaret; Roberson, Judy

    2007-02-28

    Evidenceof electric plug loads in commercial buildings isvisible everyday: space heaters, portable fans, and the IT technician'stwo monitors connected to one PC. The Energy Information Administrationestimates that office and miscellaneous equipment together will consume2.18 quads in 2006, nearly 50 percent of U.S. commercial electricity use.Although the importance of commercial plug loads is documented, its verynature (diverse product types, products not installed when buildinginitially constructed, and products often hidden in closets) makes itdifficult to accurately count and categorize the end use.We auditedsixteen buildings in three cities (San Francisco, Atlanta, Pittsburgh)including office, medical and education building types. We inventoriedthe number and types of office and miscellaneous electric equipment aswell as estimated total energy consumption due to these product types. Intotal, we audited approximately 4,000 units of office equipment and 6,000units of miscellaneous equipment and covered a diverse range of productsranging from electric pencil sharpeners with a unit energy consumption(UEC) of 1 kWh/yr to a kiln with a UEC of 7,000 kWh/yr. Our paperpresents a summary of the density and type of plug load equipment foundas well as the estimated total energy consumption of the equipment.Additionally, we present equipment trends observed and provide insightsto how policy makers can target energy efficiency for this growing enduse.

  19. The extraction of bitumen from western oil sands: Volume 1. Final report

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Oblad, A.G.; Dahlstrom, D.A.; Deo, M.D.; Fletcher, J.V.; Hanson, F.V.; Miller, J.D.; Seader, J.D.

    1997-11-26

    The program is composed of 20 projects, of which 17 are laboratory bench or laboratory pilot scale processes or computer process simulations that are performed in existing facilities on the University of Utah campus in north-east Salt Lake City. These tasks are: (1) coupled fluidized-bed bitumen recovery and coked sand combustion; (2) water-based recovery of bitumen; (3) oil sand pyrolysis in a continuous rotary kiln reactor; (4) oil sand pyrolysis in a large diameter fluidized bed reactor; (5) oil sand pyrolysis in a small diameter fluidized bed reactor; (6) combustion of spent sand in a transport reactor; (7) recovery and upgrading of oil sand bitumen using solvent extraction methods; (8) fixed-bed hydrotreating of Uinta Basin bitumens and bitumen-derived hydrocarbon liquids; (9) ebullieted bed hydrotreating of bitumen and bitumen derived liquids; (10) bitumen upgrading by hydropyrolysis; (11) evaluation of Utah`s major oil sand deposits for the production of asphalt, high-energy jet fuels and other specialty products; (12) characterization of the bitumens and reservoir rocks from the Uinta Basin oil sand deposits; (13) bitumen upgrading pilot plant recommendations; (14) liquid-solid separation and fine tailings thickening; (15) in-situ production of heavy oil from Uinta Basin oil sand deposits; (16) oil sand research and development group analytical facility; and (17) process economics. This volume contains an executive summary and reports for five of these projects. 137 figs., 49 tabs.

  20. Controlling NOx emission from industrial sources

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Srivastava, R.K.; Nueffer, W.; Grano, D.; Khan, S.; Staudt, J.E.; Jozewicz, W.

    2005-07-01

    A number of regulatory actions focused on reducing NOx emissions from stationary combustion sources have been taken in the United States in the last decade. These actions include the Acid Rain NOx regulations, the Ozone Transport Commission's NOx Budget Program, and the NOx SIP Call rulemakings. In addition to these regulations, the recent Interstate Air Quality Rulemaking proposal and other bills in the Congress are focusing on additional reductions of NOx. Industrial combustion sources accounted for about 18016 of NOx emissions in the United States in 2000 and constituted the second largest emitting source category within stationary sources, only behind electric utility sources. Based on these data, reduction of NOx emissions from industrial combustion sources is an important consideration in efforts undertaken to address the environmental concerns associated with NOx. This paper discusses primary and secondary NOx control technologies applicable to various major categories of industrial sources. The sources considered in this paper include large boilers, furnaces and fired heaters, combustion turbines, large IC engines, and cement kilns. For each source category considered in this paper, primary NOx controls are discussed first, followed by a discussion of secondary NOx controls.

  1. Preventing the self-destruction of the indirect coal firing system

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Bush, C.W.; Rayner, C.C.

    1983-07-01

    The most widely used fuel in the cement industry is pulverized coal. The current trend is to burn coal through the use of an indirect firing system, as opposed to direct firing which was formerly standard for cement kilns. Indirect firing is favored for precalciners and to improve thermal efficiency, but the benefits are sometimes overshadowed by increased hazard potential. Thoughtful design and careful operating practices are essential for safe operation. The hazards are primarily a result of the explosive mixture of coal and air which can be formed in various parts of the system and the tendency for coal to self-heat and undergo spontaneous combustion. The systems for indirect coal firing are reviewed, with emphasis on the potential fire and explosion hazards. The effectiveness of various methods to extinguish a fire or suppress an explosion is discussed, together with their applicability and related operating problems. The available alarm systems are evaluated according to their ability to signal impending danger in time for corrective action. Some parameters of safe design and operating practices are outlined as a guide to avoiding the types of problems that have been experienced at some existing installations.

  2. Comparative dermotoxicity of shale oils

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Holland, L.M.; Wilson, J.S.; Foreman, M.E.

    1980-01-01

    When shale oils are applied at higher dose levels the standard observation of tumor production and latency are often obscured by a severe inflammatory response leading to epidermal degeneration. The two experiments reported here are still in progress, however the interim results are useful in assessing both the phlogistic and tumorigenic properties of three shale oils. Three shale oils were tested in these experiments. The first crude oil (OCSO No. 6) was produced in a modified in situ report at Occidental Oil Company's Logan Wash site near Debeque, Colorado. The second crude oil (PCSO II) was produced in the above ground Paraho vertical-kiln retort located at Anvil Points near Rifle, Colorado and the third oil was the hydrotreated daughter product of the Paraho crude (PCSO-UP). Experiment I was designed to determine the highest dose level at which tumor latency could be measured without interference from epidermal degeneration. Experiment II was designed to determine the effect of application frequency on both tumor response and inflammatory phenomena. Complete epidermal degeneration was used as the only measure of severe inflammation. Relative tumorigenicity was based on the number of tumor bearing mice without regard to multiple tumors on individual animals. In both experiments, tumor occurrence was confirmed one week after initial appearance. The sex-related difference in inflammatory response is striking and certanly has significance for experimental design. An increased phlogistic sensitivity expressed in male mice could affect the meaning of an experiment where only one sex was used.

  3. Handbook of synfuels technology

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Meyers, R.A.

    1984-01-01

    This book explores various methods of producing synthetic fuels. Topics considered include coal liquefaction, Exxon Donor Solvent Coal Liquefaction Process, the H-Coal Process, the SRC-I Coal Liquefaction Process, the coal hydrogenation plant at Bottrop, production of liquid fuels from coal-derived synthesis gas, the Sasol plant, the ICI low pressure methanol process, Mobil Methanol-to-Gasoline (MTG) Process, the Lurgi low pressure methanol process, coal gasification the Texaco Coal Gasification Process, the Shell Coal Gasification Process, the Combustion Engineering Coal Gasification Process, British Gas/Lurgi Slagging Gasifier, KBW Coal Gasification, fluidized-bed coal gasification process (type Winkler), Lurgi coal gasification (dry bottom gasifier), Foster Wheeler Stoic Process, the WD-GI two stage coal gasifier, the Saarberg/Otto Coal Gasification Process, Allis-Chalmers KILnGAS Process, the purification of gases derived from coal, shale oil, Lurgi-Ruhrgas Process, the Tosco II Process, Paraho oil shale retorting processes, Occidental Modified In-Situ (MIS) Process, the geokinetics in-situ retorting process, oil shale pre-beneficiation, additional oil shale technologies, oil from oil sand, Suncor Hot Water Process, emerging technologies for oil from oil sands, synfuels upgrading and refining, Exxon fluid coking/flexicoking processes for synfuels upgrading applications, H-Oil processes, LC-Fining Process, and The Modified Litol Process for benzene production.

  4. Perspectives for pilot scale study of RDF in Istanbul, Turkey

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Kara, Mustafa; Guenay, Esin; Tabak, Yasemin; Yildiz, Senol

    2009-12-15

    Municipal solid waste (MSW) is one of the most important environmental problems arising from rapid urbanization and industrialization. The use of alternative fuels in rotary kilns of cement plants is very important for reducing cost, saving fossil fuels and also eliminating waste materials, accumulated during production or after using these materials. Cement industries has an important potential for supplying preferable solutions to the waste management. Energy recovery from waste is also important for the reduction of CO{sub 2} emissions. This paper presents an investigation of the development of refuse derived fuel (RDF) materials from non-recycling wastes and the determination of its potential use as an alternative fuel in cement production in Istanbul, Turkey. RDF produced from MSW was analyzed and its effects on cement production process were examined. For this purpose, the produced RDF was mixed with the main fuel (LPG) in ratios of 0%, 5%, 10%, 15% and 20%. Then chemical and mineralogical analyses of the produced clinker were carried out. It is believed that successful results of this study will be a good example for municipalities and cement industries in order to achieve both economic and environmental benefits.

  5. Great Western Malting Company geothermal project, Pocatello, Idaho. Final report

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Christensen, N.T.; McGeen, M.A.; Corlett, D.F.; Urmston, R.

    1981-12-23

    The Great Western Malting Company recently constructed a barley malting facility in Pocatello, Idaho, designed to produce 6.0 million bushels per year of brewing malt. This facility uses natural gas to supply the energy for germination and kilning processes. The escalating cost of natural gas has prompted the company to look at alternate and more economical sources of energy. Trans Energy Systems has investigated the viabiity of using geothermal energy at the new barley processing plant. Preliminary investigations show that a geothermal resource probably exists, and payback on the installation of a system to utilize the resource will occur in under 2 years. The Great Western Malting plant site has geological characteristics which are similar to areas where productive geothermal wells have been established. Geological investigations indicate that resource water temperatures will be in the 150 to 200/sup 0/F range. Geothermal energy of this quality will supply 30 to 98% of the heating requirements currently supplied by natural gas for this malting plant. Trans Energy Systems has analyzed several systems of utilizing the geothermal resource at the Great Western barley malting facility. These systems included: direct use of geothermal water; geothermal energy heating process water through an intermediary heat exchanger; coal or gas boosted geothermal systems; and heat pump boosted geothermal system. The analysis examined the steps that are required to process the grain.

  6. Mixed waste characterization reference document

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    1997-09-01

    Waste characterization and monitoring are major activities in the management of waste from generation through storage and treatment to disposal. Adequate waste characterization is necessary to ensure safe storage, selection of appropriate and effective treatment, and adherence to disposal standards. For some wastes characterization objectives can be difficult and costly to achieve. The purpose of this document is to evaluate costs of characterizing one such waste type, mixed (hazardous and radioactive) waste. For the purpose of this document, waste characterization includes treatment system monitoring, where monitoring is a supplement or substitute for waste characterization. This document establishes a cost baseline for mixed waste characterization and treatment system monitoring requirements from which to evaluate alternatives. The cost baseline established as part of this work includes costs for a thermal treatment technology (i.e., a rotary kiln incinerator), a nonthermal treatment process (i.e., waste sorting, macronencapsulation, and catalytic wet oxidation), and no treatment (i.e., disposal of waste at the Waste Isolation Pilot Plant (WIPP)). The analysis of improvement over the baseline includes assessment of promising areas for technology development in front-end waste characterization, process equipment, off gas controls, and monitoring. Based on this assessment, an ideal characterization and monitoring configuration is described that minimizes costs and optimizes resources required for waste characterization.

  7. SkyMine Carbon Mineralization Pilot Project

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Joe Jones; Clive Barton; Mark Clayton; Al Yablonsky; David Legere

    2010-09-30

    This Topical Report addresses accomplishments achieved during Phase 1 of the SkyMine{reg_sign} Carbon Mineralization Pilot Project. The primary objectives of this project are to design, construct, and operate a system to capture CO{sub 2} from a slipstream of flue gas from a commercial coal-fired cement kiln, convert that CO{sub 2} to products having commercial value (i.e., beneficial use), show the economic viability of the CO{sub 2} capture and conversion process, and thereby advance the technology to a point of readiness for commercial scale demonstration and proliferation. The project will also substantiate market opportunities for the technology by sales of chemicals into existing markets, and identify opportunities to improve technology performance and reduce costs at commercial scale. The primary objectives of Phase 1 of the project were to elaborate proven SkyMine{reg_sign} process chemistry to commercial pilot-scale operation and complete the preliminary design ('Reference Plant Design') for the pilot plant to be built and operated in Phase 2. Additionally, during Phase 1, information necessary to inform a DOE determination regarding NEPA requirements for the project was developed, and a comprehensive carbon lifecycle analysis was completed. These items were included in the formal application for funding under Phase 2. All Phase 1 objectives were successfully met on schedule and within budget.

  8. A Review of Major Non-Power-Related Carbon Dioxide Stream Compositions

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Last, George V.; Schmick, Mary T.

    2015-07-01

    A critical component in the assessment of long-term risk from geologic sequestration of carbon dioxide (CO2) is the ability to predict mineralogical and geochemical changes within storage reservoirs as a result of rock-brine-CO2 reactions. Impurities and/or other constituents in CO2 source streams selected for sequestration can affect both the chemical and physical (e.g., density, viscosity, interfacial tension) properties of CO2 in the deep subsurface. The nature and concentrations of these impurities are a function of both the industrial source(s) of CO2, as well as the carbon capture technology used to extract the CO2 and produce a concentrated stream for subsurface injection and geologic sequestration. This article reviews the relative concentrations of CO2 and other constituents in exhaust gases from major non-energy-related industrial sources of CO2. Assuming that carbon capture technology would remove most of the incondensable gases N2, O2, and Ar, leaving SO2 and NOx as the main impurities, the authors then summarize the relative proportions of the remaining impurities assumed to be present in CO2 source streams that could be targeted for geologic sequestration. The summary is presented relative to five potential sources of CO2: 1) Flue Gas with Flue Gas Desulfurization, 2) Combustion Stack from Coke Production, 3) Portland Cement Kilns, 4) Natural Gas Combustion, and 5) Lime Production.

  9. Experimental and numerical analysis of metal leaching from fly ash-amended highway bases

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Cetin, Bora; Aydilek, Ahmet H.; Li, Lin

    2012-05-15

    Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer This study is the evaluation of leaching potential of fly ash-lime mixed soils. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer This objective is met with experimental and numerical analysis. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Zn leaching decreases with increase in fly ash content while Ba, B, Cu increases. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Decrease in lime content promoted leaching of Ba, B and Cu while Zn increases. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Numerical analysis predicted lower field metal concentrations. - Abstract: A study was conducted to evaluate the leaching potential of unpaved road materials (URM) mixed with lime activated high carbon fly ashes and to evaluate groundwater impacts of barium, boron, copper, and zinc leaching. This objective was met by a combination of batch water leach tests, column leach tests, and computer modeling. The laboratory tests were conducted on soil alone, fly ash alone, and URM-fly ash-lime kiln dust mixtures. The results indicated that an increase in fly ash and lime content has significant effects on leaching behavior of heavy metals from URM-fly ash mixture. An increase in fly ash content and a decrease in lime content promoted leaching of Ba, B and Cu whereas Zn leaching was primarily affected by the fly ash content. Numerically predicted field metal concentrations were significantly lower than the peak metal concentrations obtained in laboratory column leach tests, and field concentrations decreased with time and distance due to dispersion in soil vadose zone.

  10. Health-hazard evaluation report HETA 84-033-1576, Airco Carbon, St. Marys, Pennsylvania

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Hartle, R.W.; Morawetz, J.S.

    1985-09-01

    Environmental and breathing-zone samples were analyzed for polynuclear aromatic hydrocarbons (PAH), total particulates, and respirable free silica at the Airco Company (SIC-3624), Saint Marys, Pennsylvania in January, 1984. The evaluation was requested confidentially because of concern over exposures to soot, coal tar pitch volatiles, and sand in the car bottom and sagger bake operations. Forty-three employees were interviewed. Two of 19 total particulate samples exceeded the OSHA standard of 15 milligrams per cubic meter (mg/m3), 17.3 and 32.7 mg/m3. Benzene soluble fractions ranged from 0.5 to 5.0 mg/m3. The OSHA standard for benzene soluble fractions is 0.2 mg/m3. Two of seven samples of silica were above the limit of detection, 0.09 and 0.06 mg/m3. In bulk samples, the benzene soluble fractions ranged from 0.44 to 860 mg/gram and the PAH content from 0 to 26,124 micrograms per gram. Employees working in the bake areas reported a significant excess incidence of symptoms such as skin, nose and eye irritation, cough, sore or dry throat, chest tightness, and breathing difficulty. The authors conclude that a health hazard exists at the facility. Recommendations include enclosing vehicles used in moving electrodes, cleaning up spilled dust, and controlling fumes emitted from the sagger kilns.

  11. Quantities and characteristics of the contact-handled low-level mixed waste streams for the DOE complex

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Huebner, T.L.; Wilson, J.M.; Ruhter, A.H.; Bonney, S.J.

    1994-08-01

    This report supports the Integrated Thermal Treatment System (ITTS) Study initiated by the Department of Energy (DOE) Office of Technology Development (EM-50), which is a system engineering assessment of a variety of mixed waste treatment process. The DOE generates and stores large quantities of mixed wastes that are contaminated with both chemically hazardous and radioactive species. The treatment of these mixed wastes requires meeting the standards established by the Environmental Protection Agency for the specific hazardous contaminants regulated under the Resource Conservation and Recovery Act while also providing adequate control of the radionuclides. The thrust of the study is to develop preconceptual designs and life-cycle cost estimates for integrated thermal treatment systems ranging from conventional incinerators, such as rotary kiln and controlled air systems, to more innovative but not yet established technologies, such as molten salt and molten metal waste destruction systems. Prior to this engineering activity, the physical and chemical characteristics of the DOE low-level mixed waste streams to be treated must be defined or estimated. This report describes efforts to estimate the DOE waste stream characteristics.

  12. Pilot-scale testing of paint-waste incineration. Final report

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Not Available

    1989-07-01

    Operations at the U.S. Army depots generate large quantities of paint removal and application wastes. These wastes, many of which are hazardous, are currently disposed of off site. Off-site disposal of solids is often by landfilling, which will be banned or highly restricted in the future. Several research activities have been initiated by USATHAMA to evaluate alternative technologies for management of paint wastes. The project described in this report involved pilot-scale incineration testing of two paint wastes: spent plastic blast media and spent agricultural blast media (ground walnut shells). The objective of this task was to continue development of incineration as an alternative treatment technology for paint wastes through pilot-scale rotary-kiln incineration testing. The results of the pilot test were evaluated to assess how the paint waste characteristics and incinerator operating conditions affected the following: characteristics of ash residue volume reduction achieved, destruction and removal efficiencies (DRE's) for organic compound and characteristics of stack gases.

  13. Technologies and Materials for Recovering Waste Heat in Harsh Environments

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Nimbalkar, Sachin U.; Thekdi, Arvind; Rogers, Benjamin M.; Kafka, Orion L.; Wenning, Thomas J.

    2014-12-15

    A large amount (7,204 TBtu/year) of energy is used for process heating by the manufacturing sector in the United States (US). This energy is in the form of fuels mostly natural gas with some coal or other fuels and steam generated using fuels such as natural gas, coal, by-product fuels, and some others. Combustion of these fuels results in the release of heat, which is used for process heating, and in the generation of combustion products that are discharged from the heating system. All major US industries use heating equipment such as furnaces, ovens, heaters, kilns, and dryers. The hot exhaust gases from this equipment, after providing the necessary process heat, are discharged into the atmosphere through stacks. This report deals with identification of industries and industrial heating processes in which the exhaust gases are at high temperature (>1200 F), contain all of the types of reactive constituents described, and can be considered as harsh or contaminated. It also identifies specific issues related to WHR for each of these processes or waste heat streams.

  14. Process and technological aspects of municipal solid waste gasification. A review

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Arena, Umberto

    2012-04-15

    Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Critical assessment of the main commercially available MSW gasifiers. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Detailed discussion of the basic features of gasification process. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Description of configurations of gasification-based waste-to-energy units. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Environmental performance analysis, on the basis of independent sources data. - Abstract: The paper proposes a critical assessment of municipal solid waste gasification today, starting from basic aspects of the process (process types and steps, operating and performance parameters) and arriving to a comparative analysis of the reactors (fixed bed, fluidized bed, entrained bed, vertical shaft, moving grate furnace, rotary kiln, plasma reactor) as well as of the possible plant configurations (heat gasifier and power gasifier) and the environmental performances of the main commercially available gasifiers for municipal solid wastes. The analysis indicates that gasification is a technically viable option for the solid waste conversion, including residual waste from separate collection of municipal solid waste. It is able to meet existing emission limits and can have a remarkable effect on reduction of landfill disposal option.

  15. The estimation of N{sub 2}O emissions from municipal solid waste incineration facilities: The Korea case

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Park, Sangwon; Choi, Jun-Ho; Park, Jinwon

    2011-08-15

    The greenhouse gases (GHGs) generated in municipal solid waste (MSW) incineration are carbon dioxide (CO{sub 2}), methane (CH{sub 4}), and nitrous oxide (N{sub 2}O). In South Korea case, the total of GHGs from the waste incineration facilities has been increasing at an annual rate 10%. In these view, waste incineration facilities should consider to reduce GHG emissions. This study is designed to estimate the N{sub 2}O emission factors from MSW incineration plants, and calculate the N{sub 2}O emissions based on these factors. The three MSW incinerators examined in this study were either stoker or both stoker and rotary kiln facilities. The N{sub 2}O concentrations from the MSW incinerators were measured using gas chromatography-electron capture detection (GC-ECD) equipment. The average of the N{sub 2}O emission factors for the M01 plant, M02 plant, and M03 plant are 71, 75, and 153 g-N{sub 2}O/ton-waste, respectively. These results showed a significant difference from the default values of the intergovernmental panel on climate change (IPCC), while approaching those values derived in Japan and Germany. Furthermore, comparing the results of this study to the Korea Energy Economics Institute (KEEI) (2007) data on waste incineration, N{sub 2}O emissions from MSW incineration comprised 19% of the total N{sub 2}O emissions.

  16. Manufacturing Energy and Carbon Footprint - Sector: Alumina and Aluminum (NAICS 3313), October 2012 (MECS 2006)

    Broader source: Energy.gov (indexed) [DOE]

    5 Nonprocess Losses 603 134 Steam Distribution Losses 3 7 Nonprocess Energy 118 Electricity Generation Steam Generation 603 3 Prepared for the Advanced Manufacturing Office (AMO) by Energetics Incorporated 16 250 152 Generation and Transmission Losses Generation and Transmission Losses 1 329 Onsite Generation 265 255 18 273 481 4 13 0.3 29.0 29.3 1.0 1.0 5.0 33.0 1.6 36 6.3 35.6 0.3 Fuel Total Energy Total Primary Energy Use: Total Combustion Emissions: TBtu MMT CO 2 e Energy use data source:

  17. TEST PROGRAM FOR ALUMINA REMOVAL AND SODIUM HYDROXIDE REGENERATION FROM HANFORD WASTE BY LITHIUM HYDROTALCITE PRECIPITATION

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    SAMS TL; GEINESSE D

    2011-01-28

    This test program sets a multi-phased development path to support the development of the Lithium Hydrotalcite process, in order to raise its Technology Readiness Level from 3 to 6, based on tasks ranging from laboratory scale scientific research to integrated pilot facilities.

  18. Slip casting and green body evaluation of 6% yttria, 2% alumina silicon nitride. Final report

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Quinn, J.

    1991-12-01

    The superior high temperature properties of silicon nitride are well known. It has good strength, excellent high temperature strength, oxidation resistance, and is resistant to thermal shock. These properties make silicon nitride a good choice for many structural ceramics. Additionally, its high thermal conductivity and low dielectric constant make it a possible candidate for electronic substrates. Knowledge in the areas of characterization, machining, and proper firing parameters is growing and crucial to the production of modern ceramics. Such knowledge also makes it increasingly evident that a poor initial green body cannot result in a good final product. Many fabrication problems can be traced back to the processes such as casting and green body preparation and attention is being concentrated in these areas.

  19. Strains in Thermally Growing Alumina Films Measured in-situ usingSynchrotron X-rays

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Hou, P.Y.; Paulikas, A.P.; Veal, B.W.

    2006-01-02

    Strains in thermally grown oxides have been measured in-situ, as the oxides develop and evolve. Extensive data have been acquired from oxides grown in air at elevated temperatures on different model alloys that form Al{sub 2}O{sub 3}. Using synchrotron x-rays at the Advanced Photon Source (Beamline 12BM, Argonne National Laboratory), Debye-Scherrer diffraction patterns from the oxidizing specimen were recorded every 5 minutes during oxidation and subsequent cooling. The diffraction patterns were analyzed to determine strains in the oxides, as well as phase changes and the degree of texture. To study a specimen's response to stress perturbation, the oxidizing temperature was quickly cooled from 1100 to 950 C to impose a compressive thermal stress in the scale. This paper describes this new experimental approach and gives examples from oxidized {beta}-NiAl, Fe-20Cr-10Al, Fe-28Al-5Cr and H{sub 2}-annealed Fe-28Al-5Cr (all at. %) alloys to illustrate some current understanding of the development and relaxation of growth stresses in Al{sub 2}O{sub 3}.

  20. Effects of low velocity air flow over alumina-silica insulating boards in solar environments

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Maxwell, C.R.; Mulholland, G.P.; Couch, W.A.

    1987-01-01

    Results are reported from an experiment designed to determine whether low velocity air flow over insulating boards can increase their survivability in severe solar environments. The experiment was conducted at the Flux Gage Calibration Station located at Sandia National Laboratories' Solar Thermal Test Facility. Preliminary results indicate that the useful life for these boards can be significantly increased by air flowing over the hot surface of the board.

  1. Hydrolysis of COS and CS{sub 2} over alumina catalysts at lower temperature

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Shangguan Ju; Li Chunhu; Guo Hanxian [Taiyuan Univ. of Technology, Shanxi (China). Research Inst. of Chemical Engineering for Coal

    1997-12-31

    Carbonyl sulfide (COS) and carbon disulfide (CS{sub 2}) widely exist in chemical processing gases from natural gas, coal, Claus tail gas, and petroleum. Those sulfur compound are a major factor of deactivation of synthesis catalysts. Since it is difficult to remove COS and CS{sub 2} completely by the conventional desulfurization, a hydrolysis process has been developed in recent years. The activity of COS and CS{sub 2} hydrolysis was measured in a fixed bed reactor and the surface basicity was studied by CO{sub 2}-TPD. The results showed that the apparent reaction activation energies of COS over three catalysts are 57.80, 52.50 and 44.71 kJ/mol at lower temperature, and those of CS{sub 2}, 55.53, 38.70 and 35.30 kJ/mol, respectively. The apparent activation energies of desorption for weak type basic center over three catalysts were 25.97, 27.92 and 29.77kJ/mol respectively. The surface basicity on catalysts played an important role in the hydrolysis of COS and CS{sub 2}.The weak basic center was the catalytic active center of COS hydrolysis, while the weak and the weaker basic centers took part in catalytic reaction of CS{sub 2} hydrolysis. The K{sub 2}O and Pt loaded on active {gamma}-Al{sub 2}O{sub 3} could greatly change the distribution of surface basicity over catalysts and increase organic sulfide catalytic hydrolysis.

  2. On characterisation of wire-arc-plasma-sprayed Ni on alumina substrate

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Laik, A.; Chakravarthy, D.P.; Kale, G.B. . E-mail: gbkale@apsara.barc.ernet.in

    2005-08-15

    A study was carried out on metal-ceramic bonding produced by the technique of wire-arc-plasma spraying of Ni on Al{sub 2}O{sub 3} substrate. The Ni layer and the Ni/Al{sub 2}O{sub 3} interface were characterised using optical and electro-optic techniques. The plasma-deposited Ni layer shows a uniform lamellar microstructure throughout the cross-section. The metal-ceramic interface was found to be well bonded with no pores, flaws or cracks in the as-sprayed condition. The optical metallography and concentration profiles established with the help of an electron probe microanalyser confirmed the absence of any intermediate phase at the interface. An annealing treatment at 1273 K for 24 h on the plasma-coated samples did not result in formation of any intermetallic compound or spinel at the Ni/Al{sub 2}O{sub 3} interface. This indicates that the oxygen picked up by Ni during the spraying operation is less than the threshold value required to form the spinel NiAl{sub 2}O{sub 4}.

  3. Refractory Materials based on Magnesia-Alumina Spinel for Improved Performance in Coal Gasification Environments

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Hemrick, James Gordon; Armstrong, Beth L; Rodrigues-Schroer, Angela; Colavito,; Smith, Jeffrey D; O'Hara, Kelley

    2013-01-01

    As part of a larger project to develop novel refractory systems and techniques to reduce energy consumption of refractory lined vessels, a team composed of Oak Ridge National Laboratory, refractory manufacturer Minteq International, Inc., and academic partner Missouri University of Science and Technology have developed new refractory materials and coating systems specifically for application in coal gasification environments. Materials were developed under this U.S. DOE funded project to address the need for innovative refractory compositions by developing MgO-Al2O3 spinel gunnable refractory compositions utilizing new aggregate materials, bond systems, protective coatings, and phase formation techniques. Work was conducted to develop and deploy these new materials and to develop and apply low cost coatings using a colloidal approach for protection against attack of the refractory brick by the serviced environment. Additionally, a light-weight back-up refractory system was developed to help offset the high thermal conductivity inherent in spinel materials. This paper discusses the efforts involved in the development of these materials, along with the laboratory testing and evaluation of these materials leading to relevant results achieved toward the reduction of chemical reactions and mechanical degradation by the service environment though compositional and processing modifications.

  4. Characteristics of alumina powders prepared by spray-drying of boehmite sol

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Varma, H.K.; Mani, T.V.; Damodaran, A.D.; Warrier, K.G. ); Balachandran, U. . Energy Technology Div.)

    1994-06-01

    Boehmite sol prepared from aluminum nitrate has been spray-dried to obtain micrometer-size spherical particles consisting of submicrometer crystallites. The spray-dried powder was further washed with solvents of varying polarities such as acetone, 2-propanol, and 2-methyl-2-propanol. Particle-size distribution, morphology, density, compaction, and sintering characteristics of powders washed with different solvents are reported. The effect of post treatments on the boehmite-sol-derived powders toward reducing agglomeration and obtaining high-density bodies is discussed.

  5. Method And Reactor For Production Of Aluminum By Carbothermic Reduction Of Alumina

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Aune, Jan Arthur (Ytre Enebakk, NO); Johansen, Kai (Kristiansand, NO)

    2004-10-19

    A hollow partition wall is employed to feed carbon material to an underflow of a carbothermic reduction furnace used to make aluminum. The partition wall divides a low temperature reaction zone where aluminum oxide is reacted with carbon to form aluminum carbide and a high temperature reaction zone where the aluminum carbide and remaining aluminum oxide are reacted to form aluminum and carbon monoxide.

  6. Preparation of ceramic matrix and alumina fiber composites for use as solid electrolytes

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Dudney, N.J.

    1987-04-30

    A process for making solid electrolytes using a fibrous stabilizing dispersed second phase for enhanced conductivity of the electrolyte after deformation and annealing. 1 tab.

  7. JV Task 90 - Activated Carbon Production from North Dakota Lignite

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Steven Benson; Charlene Crocker; Rokan Zaman; Mark Musich; Edwin Olson

    2008-03-31

    The Energy & Environmental Research Center (EERC) has pursued a research program for producing activated carbon from North Dakota lignite that can be competitive with commercial-grade activated carbon. As part of this effort, small-scale production of activated carbon was produced from Fort Union lignite. A conceptual design of a commercial activated carbon production plant was drawn, and a market assessment was performed to determine likely revenue streams for the produced carbon. Activated carbon was produced from lignite coal in both laboratory-scale fixed-bed reactors and in a small pilot-scale rotary kiln. The EERC was successfully able to upgrade the laboratory-scale activated carbon production system to a pilot-scale rotary kiln system. The activated carbon produced from North Dakota lignite was superior to commercial grade DARCO{reg_sign} FGD and Rheinbraun's HOK activated coke product with respect to iodine number. The iodine number of North Dakota lignite-derived activated carbon was between 600 and 800 mg I{sub 2}/g, whereas the iodine number of DARCO FGD was between 500 and 600 mg I{sub 2}/g, and the iodine number of Rheinbraun's HOK activated coke product was around 275 mg I{sub 2}/g. The EERC performed both bench-scale and pilot-scale mercury capture tests using the activated carbon made under various optimization process conditions. For comparison, the mercury capture capability of commercial DARCO FGD was also tested. The lab-scale apparatus is a thin fixed-bed mercury-screening system, which has been used by the EERC for many mercury capture screen tests. The pilot-scale systems included two combustion units, both equipped with an electrostatic precipitator (ESP). Activated carbons were also tested in a slipstream baghouse at a Texas power plant. The results indicated that the activated carbon produced from North Dakota lignite coal is capable of removing mercury from flue gas. The tests showed that activated carbon with the greatest iodine number was superior to commercial DARCO FGD for mercury capture. The results of the activated carbon market assessment indicate an existing market for water treatment and an emerging application for mercury control. That market will involve both existing and new coal-fired plants. It is expected that 20% of the existing coal-fired plants will implement activated carbon injection by 2015, representing about 200,000 tons of annual demand. The potential annual demand by new plants is even greater. In the mercury control market, two characteristics are going to dominate the customer's buying habit-performance and price. As continued demonstration testing of activated carbon injection at the various coal-fired power plants progresses, the importance of fuel type and plant configuration on the type of activated carbon best suited is being identified.

  8. Guidebook for Using the Tool BEST Cement: Benchmarking and Energy Savings Tool for the Cement Industry

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Galitsky, Christina; Price, Lynn; Zhou, Nan; Fuqiu , Zhou; Huawen, Xiong; Xuemin, Zeng; Lan, Wang

    2008-07-30

    The Benchmarking and Energy Savings Tool (BEST) Cement is a process-based tool based on commercially available efficiency technologies used anywhere in the world applicable to the cement industry. This version has been designed for use in China. No actual cement facility with every single efficiency measure included in the benchmark will likely exist; however, the benchmark sets a reasonable standard by which to compare for plants striving to be the best. The energy consumption of the benchmark facility differs due to differences in processing at a given cement facility. The tool accounts for most of these variables and allows the user to adapt the model to operational variables specific for his/her cement facility. Figure 1 shows the boundaries included in a plant modeled by BEST Cement. In order to model the benchmark, i.e., the most energy efficient cement facility, so that it represents a facility similar to the user's cement facility, the user is first required to input production variables in the input sheet (see Section 6 for more information on how to input variables). These variables allow the tool to estimate a benchmark facility that is similar to the user's cement plant, giving a better picture of the potential for that particular facility, rather than benchmarking against a generic one. The input variables required include the following: (1) the amount of raw materials used in tonnes per year (limestone, gypsum, clay minerals, iron ore, blast furnace slag, fly ash, slag from other industries, natural pozzolans, limestone powder (used post-clinker stage), municipal wastes and others); the amount of raw materials that are preblended (prehomogenized and proportioned) and crushed (in tonnes per year); (2) the amount of additives that are dried and ground (in tonnes per year); (3) the production of clinker (in tonnes per year) from each kiln by kiln type; (4) the amount of raw materials, coal and clinker that is ground by mill type (in tonnes per year); (5) the amount of production of cement by type and grade (in tonnes per year); (6) the electricity generated onsite; and, (7) the energy used by fuel type; and, the amount (in RMB per year) spent on energy. The tool offers the user the opportunity to do a quick assessment or a more detailed assessment--this choice will determine the level of detail of the energy input. The detailed assessment will require energy data for each stage of production while the quick assessment will require only total energy used at the entire facility (see Section 6 for more details on quick versus detailed assessments). The benchmarking tool provides two benchmarks--one for Chinese best practices and one for international best practices. Section 2 describes the differences between these two and how each benchmark was calculated. The tool also asks for a target input by the user for the user to set goals for the facility.

  9. Evaluation of cement production using a pressurized fluidized-bed combustor

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    DeLallo, M.; Eshbach, R.

    1994-01-01

    There are several primary conclusions which can be reached and used to define research required in establishing the feasibility of using PFBC-derived materials as cement feedstock. 1. With appropriate blending almost any material containing the required cement-making materials can be utilized to manufacture cement. However, extensive blending with multiple materials or the use of ash in relatively small quantities would compromise the worth of this concept. 2. The composition of a potential feedstock must be considered not only with respect to the presence of required materials, but just as significantly, with respect to the presence and concentration of known deleterious materials. 3. The processing costs for rendering the feedstock into an acceptable composition and the energy costs associated with both processing and burning must be considered. It should be noted that the cost of energy to produce cement, expressed as a percentage of the price of the product is higher than for any other major industrial product. Energy consumption is, therefore, a major issue. 4. The need for conformance to environmental regulations has a profound effect on the cement industry since waste materials can neither be discharged to the atmosphere or be shipped to a landfill. 5. Fifth, the need for achieving uniformity in the composition of the cement is critical to controlling its quality. Unfortunately, certain materials in very small concentrations have the capability to affect the rate and extent to which the cementitious compound in portland cement are able to form. Particularly critical are variations in the ash, the sulfur content of the coal or the amount and composition of the stack dust returned to the kiln.

  10. 1997 Performance Testing of Multi-Metal Continuous Emissions Monitors

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Sky +, Inc.

    1998-09-01

    Five prototype and two commercially available multi-metals continuous emissions monitors (CEMs) were tested in September 1997 at the Rotary Kiln Incinerator Simulator facility at the EPA National Risk Management Research Laboratory, Research Triangle Park, North Carolina. The seven CEMs were tested side by side in a long section of duct following the secondary combustion chamber of the RKIS. Two different concentrations of six toxic metals were introduced into the incinerator-approximately 15 and 75 g/dscm of arsenic, beryllium, cadmium, chromium, lead, and mercury (We also tested for antimony but we are not reporting on it here because EPA recently dropped antimony from the list of metals addressed by the draft MACT rule). These concentrations were chosen to be close to emission standards in the draft MACT rule and the estimated Method Detection Limit (MDL) required of a CEM for regulatory compliance purposes. Results from this test show that no CEMs currently meet the performance specifications in the EPA draft MACT rule for hazardous waste incinerators. Only one of the CEMs tested was able to measure all six metals at the concentrations tested. Even so, the relative accuracy of this CEM varied between 35% and 100%, not 20% or less as required in the EPA performance specification. As a result, we conclude that no CEM is ready for long-term performance validation for compliance monitoring applications. Because sampling and measuring Hg is a recurring problem for multi-metal CEMs as well as Hg CEMs, we recommended that developers participate in a 1998 DOE-sponsored workshop to solve these and other common CEM measurement issues.

  11. Material and Energy Flows in the Materials Production, Assembly, and End-of-Life Stages of the Automotive Lithium-Ion Battery Life Cycle

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Dunn, Jennifer B.; Gaines, Linda; Barnes, Matthew; Sullivan, John L.; Wang, Michael

    2014-01-01

    This document contains material and energy flows for lithium-ion batteries with an active cathode material of lithium manganese oxide (LiMn₂O₄). These data are incorporated into Argonne National Laboratory’s Greenhouse gases, Regulated Emissions, and Energy use in Transportation (GREET) model, replacing previous data for lithium-ion batteries that are based on a nickel/cobalt/manganese (Ni/Co/Mn) cathode chemistry. To identify and determine the mass of lithium-ion battery components, we modeled batteries with LiMn₂O₄ as the cathode material using Argonne’s Battery Performance and Cost (BatPaC) model for hybrid electric vehicles, plug-in hybrid electric vehicles, and electric vehicles. As input for GREET, we developed new or updated data for the cathode material and the following materials that are included in its supply chain: soda ash, lime, petroleum-derived ethanol, lithium brine, and lithium carbonate. Also as input to GREET, we calculated new emission factors for equipment (kilns, dryers, and calciners) that were not previously included in the model and developed new material and energy flows for the battery electrolyte, binder, and binder solvent. Finally, we revised the data included in GREET for graphite (the anode active material), battery electronics, and battery assembly. For the first time, we incorporated energy and material flows for battery recycling into GREET, considering four battery recycling processes: pyrometallurgical, hydrometallurgical, intermediate physical, and direct physical. Opportunities for future research include considering alternative battery chemistries and battery packaging. As battery assembly and recycling technologies develop, staying up to date with them will be critical to understanding the energy, materials, and emissions burdens associated with batteries.

  12. Material and energy flows in the materials production, assembly, and end-of-life stages of the automotive lithium-ion battery life cycle

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Dunn, J.B.; Gaines, L.; Barnes, M.; Wang, M.; Sullivan, J.

    2012-06-21

    This document contains material and energy flows for lithium-ion batteries with an active cathode material of lithium manganese oxide (LiMn{sub 2}O{sub 4}). These data are incorporated into Argonne National Laboratory's Greenhouse gases, Regulated Emissions, and Energy use in Transportation (GREET) model, replacing previous data for lithium-ion batteries that are based on a nickel/cobalt/manganese (Ni/Co/Mn) cathode chemistry. To identify and determine the mass of lithium-ion battery components, we modeled batteries with LiMn{sub 2}O{sub 4} as the cathode material using Argonne's Battery Performance and Cost (BatPaC) model for hybrid electric vehicles, plug-in hybrid electric vehicles, and electric vehicles. As input for GREET, we developed new or updated data for the cathode material and the following materials that are included in its supply chain: soda ash, lime, petroleum-derived ethanol, lithium brine, and lithium carbonate. Also as input to GREET, we calculated new emission factors for equipment (kilns, dryers, and calciners) that were not previously included in the model and developed new material and energy flows for the battery electrolyte, binder, and binder solvent. Finally, we revised the data included in GREET for graphite (the anode active material), battery electronics, and battery assembly. For the first time, we incorporated energy and material flows for battery recycling into GREET, considering four battery recycling processes: pyrometallurgical, hydrometallurgical, intermediate physical, and direct physical. Opportunities for future research include considering alternative battery chemistries and battery packaging. As battery assembly and recycling technologies develop, staying up to date with them will be critical to understanding the energy, materials, and emissions burdens associated with batteries.

  13. Clean Coal Technology Demonstration Program. Program update 1994

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    1995-04-01

    The Clean Coal Technology Demonstration Program (CCT Program) is a $7.14 billion cost-shared industry/government technology development effort. The program is to demonstrate a new generation of advanced coal-based technologies, with the most promising technologies being moved into the domestic and international marketplace. Clean coal technologies being demonstrated under the CCT program are creating the technology base that allows the nation to meet its energy and environmental goals efficiently and reliably. The fact that most of the demonstrations are being conducted at commercial scale, in actual user environments, and under conditions typical of commercial operations allows the potential of the technologies to be evaluated in their intended commercial applications. The technologies are categorized into four market sectors: advanced electric power generation systems; environmental control devices; coal processing equipment for clean fuels; and industrial technologies. Sections of this report describe the following: Role of the Program; Program implementation; Funding and costs; The road to commercial realization; Results from completed projects; Results and accomplishments from ongoing projects; and Project fact sheets. Projects include fluidized-bed combustion, integrated gasification combined-cycle power plants, advanced combustion and heat engines, nitrogen oxide control technologies, sulfur dioxide control technologies, combined SO{sub 2} and NO{sub x} technologies, coal preparation techniques, mild gasification, and indirect liquefaction. Industrial applications include injection systems for blast furnaces, coke oven gas cleaning systems, power generation from coal/ore reduction, a cyclone combustor with S, N, and ash control, cement kiln flue gas scrubber, and pulse combustion for steam coal gasification.

  14. Alumina-Forming Austenitics: A New Approach to Thermal and Degradation Resistant Stainless Steels for Industrial Use

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    David A Helmick; John H Magee; Michael P Brady

    2012-05-31

    A series of developmental AFA alloys was selected for study based on: 25 Ni wt.% (alloys A-F), 20 wt% Ni (alloys G-H), and 12 Ni wt.% (alloys I-L). An emphasis in this work was placed on the lower alloy content direction for AFA alloys to reduce alloy raw material cost, rather than more highly alloyed and costly AFA alloys for higher temperature performance. Alloys A-D explored the effects of Al (3-4 wt.%) and C (0.05-0.2 wt.%) in the Fe-25Ni-14Cr-2Mn-2Mo-1W-1Nb wt.% base range; alloys E and F explored the effects of removing costly Mo and W additions in a Fe-25Ni-14Cr-4Al-2.5Nb-2Mn-0.2C base, alloys G and H examined Nb (1-2.5wt.%) and removal of Mo, W in a Fe-20Ni-14Cr-3Al-2Mn-0.2 C wt.% base; and alloys I-L examined effects of C (0.1-0.2 wt.%) and Mn (5-10 wt.%) on a low cost Fe-14Cr-12Ni-3Cu-2.5Al wt.% base (no Mo, W additions). Creep testing resulted in elemental trends that included the beneficial effect of higher carbon and lower niobium in 20-25%Ni AFA alloys and, the beneficial of lower Mn in 12%Ni AFA alloys. Corrosion tests in steam and sulfidation-oxidation environments showed, in general, these alloys were capable of a ten-fold improvement in performance when compared to conventional austenitic stainless steels. Also, corrosion test results in metal-dusting environments were promising and, warrant further investigation.

  15. Catalysts for the selective hydrogenation of unsaturated compounds consisting of alumina particles with a regular palladium distribution

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Beren Glyum, A.S.; Goranskaya, T.P.; Karel'skii, V.V.; Lakhman, L.I.; Mund, S.L.; Zolotukhin, V.E.

    1986-08-01

    A study was carried out on the possibility of preparation of heterogeneous palladium catalysts for the selective hydrogenation of unsaturated compounds with different distributions of the active component on ..gamma..-Al/sub 2/O/sub 3/ granules. A regression equation was obtained relating the parameters of the preparation of these catalysts (palladium concentration in solution, temperature, impregnation time and pH) with the extent of the penetration of palladium into the support granule (l). A relationship was established between the parameters (l), palladium concentration in the catalyst, activity and selectivity in the hydrogenation of dienes in liquid pyrolysis products. The extremal curves for activity and selectivity are explained with the framework of a model taking account of the effect on the concentration of the active component, its dispersion, and the reaction conditions on the hydrogenation parameters.

  16. Aluminium doped ceriazirconia supported palladium-alumina catalyst with high oxygen storage capacity and CO oxidation activity

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Dong, Qiang; Yin, Shu Guo, Chongshen; Wu, Xiaoyong; Kimura, Takeshi; Sato, Tsugio

    2013-12-15

    Graphical abstract: Ce{sub 0.5}Zr{sub 0.3}Al{sub 0.2}O{sub 1.9}/Pd/?-Al{sub 2}O{sub 3} possessed high OSC and CO oxidation activity at low temperature. - Highlights: A new OSC material of Ce{sub 0.5}Zr{sub 0.3}Al{sub 0.2}O{sub 1.9}/Pd/?-Al{sub 2}O{sub 3} is prepared via a mechanochemical method. Ce{sub 0.5}Zr{sub 0.3}Al{sub 0.2}O{sub 1.9}/Pd/?-Al{sub 2}O{sub 3} showed high OSC even after calcination at 1000 C for 20 h. Ce{sub 0.5}Zr{sub 0.3}Al{sub 0.2}O{sub 1.9}/Pd/?-Al{sub 2}O{sub 3} exhibited the highest CO oxidation activity at low temperature correlates with enhanced OSC. - Abstract: The Ce{sub 0.5}Zr{sub 0.3}Al{sub 0.2}O{sub 1.9}/Pd-?-Al{sub 2}O{sub 3} catalyst prepared by a mechanochemical route and calcined at 1000 C for 20 h in air atmosphere to evaluate the thermal stability. The prepared Ce{sub 0.5}Zr{sub 0.3}Al{sub 0.2}O{sub 1.9}/Pd-?-Al{sub 2}O{sub 3} catalyst was characterized for the oxygen storage capacity (OSC) and CO oxidation activity in automotive catalysis. For the characterization, X-ray diffraction, transmission electron microscopy and the BrunauerEmmetTeller (BET) technique were employed. The OSC values of all samples were measured at 600 C using thermogravimetric-differential thermal analysis. Ce{sub 0.5}Zr{sub 0.3}Al{sub 0.2}O{sub 1.9}/Pd-?-Al{sub 2}O{sub 3} catalyst calcined at 1000 C for 20 h with a BET surface area of 41 m{sup 2} g{sup ?1} exhibited the considerably high OSC of 583 ?mol-O g{sup ?1} and good OSC performance stability. The same synthesis route was employed for the preparation of the CeO{sub 2}/Pd-?-Al{sub 2}O{sub 3} and Ce{sub 0.5}Zr{sub 0.5}O{sub 2}/Pd-?-Al{sub 2}O{sub 3} for comparison.

  17. Novel High Strength Ceria-Zirconia Toughened Alumina Ceramic with Superior High Temperature Corrosion and Erosion Resistance. Final Report

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Giulio, R.; Butcher, K.

    2004-01-13

    Composite CeTZP/A1{sub 2}O{sub 3} (CeZTA) foams were developed and tested to determine their suitability as particulate filters in hot gaseous conditions generated by coal combustion in electric power plants. Exposure to these extreme corrosive conditions did not cause significant degradation in strength. Superior properties of these foams suggests they could be used for a variety of applications in environment, energy and chemical fields.

  18. Surface characterizatin of palladium-alumina sorbents for high-temperature capture of mercury and arsenic from fuel gas

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Baltrus, J.P.; Granite, E.J.; Pennline, H.W.; Stanko, D.; Hamilton, H.; Rowsell, L.; Poulston, S.; Smith, A.; Chu, W.

    2010-01-01

    Coal gasification with subsequent cleanup of the resulting fuel gas is a way to reduce the impact of mercury and arsenic in the environment during power generation and on downstream catalytic processes in chemical production, The interactions of mercury and arsenic with PdlAl2D3 model thin film sorbents and PdlAh03 powders have been studied to determine the relative affinities of palladium for mercury and arsenic, and how they are affected by temperature and the presence of hydrogen sulfide in the fuel gas. The implications of the results on strategies for capturing the toxic metals using a sorbent bed are discussed.

  19. Tire Development for Effective Transportation and Utilization of Used Tires, CRADA 01-N044, Final Report

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Susan M. Maley

    2004-03-31

    Scrap tires represent a significant disposal and recycling challenge for the United States. Over 280 million tires are generated on an annual basis, and several states have large stockpiles or abandoned tire piles that are slated for remediation. While most states have programs to address the accumulation and generation of scrap tires, most of these states struggle with creating and sustaining recycling or beneficial end use markets. One of the major issues with market development has been the costs associated with transporting and processing the tires into material for recycling or disposal. According to a report by the Rubber Manufactures Association tire-derived fuel (TDF) represents the largest market for scrap tires, and approximately 115 million tires were consumed in 2001 as TDF (U.S. Scrap Tire Markets, 2001, December 2002, www.rma.org/scraptires). This market is supported primarily by cement kilns, followed by various industries including companies that operate utility and industrial boilers. However the use of TDF has not increased and the amount of TDF used by boiler operators has declined. The work completed through this cooperative research and development agreement (CRADA) has shown the potential of a mobile tire shredding unit to economically produce TDF and to provide an alterative low cost fuel to suitable coal-fired power systems. This novel system addresses the economic barriers by processing the tires at the retailer, thereby eliminating the costs associated with hauling whole tires. The equipment incorporated into the design allow for small 1-inch chunks of TDF to be produced in a timely fashion. The TDF can then be co-fired with coal in suitable combustion systems, such as a fluidized bed. Proper use of TDF has been shown to boost efficiency and reduce emissions from power generation systems, which is beneficial to coal utilization in existing power plants. Since the original scope of work outlined in the CRADA could not be completed because of lack of progress by the CRADA members, the agreement was not extended beyond February 2004. The work completed included the detailed design of the mobile unit, a general economic analysis of the operating the system, and outreach activities.

  20. Production of cements from Illinois coal ash. Final technical report, September 1, 1995--August 31, 1996

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Wagner, J.C.; Bhatty, J.L.; Mishulovich, A.

    1997-05-01

    The objective of this program is to convert Illinois coal combustion residues, such as fly ash, bottom ash, and boiler slag, into novel cementitious materials for use in the construction industry. These residues are composed largely of SiO{sub 2}, Al{sub 2}O{sub 3}, Fe{sub 2}O{sub 3}, MgO, and CaO, which are also the major components of cement. Since the residues are used as an integral component of the cement and not just as additives to concrete, larger amounts of the residues can be utilized. The process uses submerged combustion to melt blends of coal combustion residues with lime, clay, and/or sand. The submerged combustion melter utilizes natural gas-oxidant firing directly into a molten bath to provide efficient melting of mineral-like materials. Use of this melter for cement production has many advantages over rotary kilns including very little, if any, grinding of the feed material, very low emissions, and compact size. During the first year of the program, samples of coal combustion residues were blended and mixed, as needed; with lime, clay, and/or sand to adjust the composition. Six mixtures, three with fly ash and three with bottom ash, were melted in a laboratory-scale furnace. The resultant products were used in mortar cubes and bars which were subjected to ASTM standard tests of cementitious properties. In the hydraulic activity test, mortar cubes were found to have a strength comparable to standard mortar cements. In the compressive strength test, mortar cubes were found to have strengths that exceeded ASTM blended cement performance specifications. In the ASR expansion test, mortar bars were subjected to alkali-silica reaction-induced expansion, which is a problem for siliceous aggregate-based concretes that are exposed to moisture. The mortar bars made with the products inhibited 85 to 97% of this expansion. These results show that residue-based products have an excellent potential as ASR-preventing additions in concretes.

  1. Development and Testing of the Advanced CHP System Utilizing the Off-Gas from the Innovative Green Coke Calcining Process in Fluidized Bed

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Chudnovsky, Yaroslav; Kozlov, Aleksandr

    2013-08-15

    Green petroleum coke (GPC) is an oil refining byproduct that can be used directly as a solid fuel or as a feedstock for the production of calcined petroleum coke. GPC contains a high amount of volatiles and sulfur. During the calcination process, the GPC is heated to remove the volatiles and sulfur to produce purified calcined coke, which is used in the production of graphite, electrodes, metal carburizers, and other carbon products. Currently, more than 80% of calcined coke is produced in rotary kilns or rotary hearth furnaces. These technologies provide partial heat utilization of the calcined coke to increase efficiency of the calcination process, but they also share some operating disadvantages. However, coke calcination in an electrothermal fluidized bed (EFB) opens up a number of potential benefits for the production enhancement, while reducing the capital and operating costs. The increased usage of heavy crude oil in recent years has resulted in higher sulfur content in green coke produced by oil refinery process, which requires a significant increase in the calcinations temperature and in residence time. The calorific value of the process off-gas is quite substantial and can be effectively utilized as an opportunity fuel for combined heat and power (CHP) production to complement the energy demand. Heat recovered from the product cooling can also contribute to the overall economics of the calcination process. Preliminary estimates indicated the decrease in energy consumption by 35-50% as well as a proportional decrease in greenhouse gas emissions. As such, the efficiency improvement of the coke calcinations systems is attracting close attention of the researchers and engineers throughout the world. The developed technology is intended to accomplish the following objectives: - Reduce the energy and carbon intensity of the calcined coke production process. - Increase utilization of opportunity fuels such as industrial waste off-gas from the novel petroleum coke calcination process. - Increase the opportunity of heat (chemical and physical) utilization from process off-gases and solid product. - Develop a design of advanced CHP system utilizing off-gases as an opportunity fuel for petroleum coke calcinations and sensible heat of calcined coke. A successful accomplishment of the aforementioned objectives will contribute toward the following U.S. DOE programmatic goals: - Drive a 25% reduction in U. S. industrial energy intensity by 2017 in support of EPAct 2005; - Contribute to an 18% reduction in U.S. carbon intensity by 2012 as established by the Administrations National Goal to Reduce Emissions Intensity. 8

  2. Implementing Strategies for Drying and Pressing Wood Without Emissions Controls

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Sujit Banerjee; Terrance Conners

    2007-09-07

    Drying and pressing wood for the manufacture of lumber, particleboard, oriented strand board (OSB), veneer and medium density fiberboard (MDF) release volatile organic compounds (VOCs) into the atmosphere. These emissions require control equipment that are capital-intensive and consume significant quantities of natural gas and electricity. The objective of our work was to understand the mechanisms through which volatile organic compounds are generated and released and to develop simple control strategies. Of the several strategies developed, two have been implemented for OSB manufacture over the course of this study. First, it was found that increasing final wood moisture by about 2-4 percentage points reduced the dryer emissions of hazardous air pollutants by over 70%. As wood dries, the escaping water evaporatively cools the wood. This cooling tapers off wood when the wood is nearly dry and the wood temperature rises. Thermal breakdown of the wood tissue occurs and VOCs are released. Raising the final wood moisture by only a few percentage points minimizes the temperature rise and reduces emissions. Evaporative cooling also impacts has implications for VOC release from wood fines. Flaking wood for OSB manufacture inevitable generates fines. Fines dry out rapidly because of their high surface area and evaporative cooling is lost more rapidly than for flakes. As a result, fines emit a disproportionate quantity of VOCs. Fines can be reduced in two ways: through screening of the green furnish and through reducing their generation during flaking. The second approach is preferable because it also increased wood yield. A procedure to do this by matching the sharpness angle of the flaker knife to the ambient temperature was also developed. Other findings of practical interests are as follows: Dielectric heating of wood under low-headspace conditions removes terpenes and other extractives from softwood; The monoterpene content in trees depend upon temperature and seasonal effects; Method 25A emissions from lumber drying can be modeled from a knowledge of the airflow through the kiln; A heat transfer model shows that VOCs released during hot-pressing mainly originate from the surface of the board; and Boiler ash can be used to adsorb formaldehyde from air streams.

  3. Environmentally Safe, Large Volume Utilization Applications for Gasification Byproducts

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    J.G. Groppo; R. Rathbone

    2008-06-30

    Samples of gasification by-products produced at Polk Station and Eastman Chemical were obtained and characterized. Bulk samples were prepared for utilization studies by screening at the appropriate size fractions where char and vitreous frit distinctly partitioned. Vitreous frit was concentrated in the +20 mesh fraction while char predominated in the -20+100 mesh fraction. The vitreous frit component derived from each gasifier slag source was evaluated for use as a pozzolan and as aggregate. Pozzolan testing required grinding the frit to very fine sizes which required a minimum of 60 kwhr/ton. Grinding studies showed that the energy requirement for grinding the Polk slag were slightly higher than for the Eastman slag. Fine-ground slag from both gasifiers showed pozzoalnic activity in mortar cube testing and met the ASTM C618 strength requirements after only 3 days. Pozzolanic activity was further examined using British Standard 196-5, and results suggest that the Polk slag was more reactive than the Eastman slag. Neither aggregate showed significant potential for undergoing alkali-silica reactions when used as concrete aggregate with ASTM test method 1260. Testing was conducted to evaluate the use of the frit product as a component of cement kiln feed. The clinker produced was comprised primarily of the desirable components Ca{sub 3}SiO{sub 5} and Ca{sub 2}SiO{sub 4} after raw ingredient proportions were adjusted to reduce the amount of free lime present in the clinker. A mobile processing plant was designed to produce 100 tons of carbon from the Eastman slag to conduct evaluations for use as recycle fuel. The processing plant was mounted on a trailer and hauled to the site for use. Two product stockpiles were generated; the frit stockpile contained 5% LOI while the carbon stockpile contained 62% LOI. The products were used to conduct recycle fuel tests. A processing plant was designed to separate the slag produced at Eastman into 3 usable products. The coarse frit has been shown to be suitable for use as clinker feed for producing Portland cement. The intermediate-size product is enriched in carbon (58-62% C) and may be used as recycle fuel either in the gasifier or in a PC boiler. The fines product contains 30-40% C and may also be used as a recycle gasifier fuel, as is presently done at TECO's Polk Station, however, due to gasifier operating requirements for the production of syngas, this is not feasible at Eastman.

  4. Energy implications of mechanical and mechanicalbiological treatment compared to direct waste-to-energy

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Cimpan, Ciprian Wenzel, Henrik

    2013-07-15

    Highlights: Compared systems achieve primary energy savings between 34 and 140 MJ{sub primary}/100 MJ{sub input} {sub waste.} Savings magnitude is foremost determined by chosen primary energy and materials production. Energy consumption and process losses can be upset by increased technology efficiency. Material recovery accounts for significant shares of primary energy savings. Direct waste-to-energy is highly efficient if cogeneration (CHP) is possible. - Abstract: Primary energy savings potential is used to compare five residual municipal solid waste treatment systems, including configurations with mechanical (MT) and mechanicalbiological (MBT) pre-treatment, which produce waste-derived fuels (RDF and SRF), biogas and/or recover additional materials for recycling, alongside a system based on conventional mass burn waste-to-energy and ash treatment. To examine the magnitude of potential savings we consider two energy efficiency levels (state-of-the-art and best available technology), the inclusion/exclusion of heat recovery (CHP vs. PP) and three different background end-use energy production systems (coal condensing electricity and natural gas heat, Nordic electricity mix and natural gas heat, and coal CHP energy quality allocation). The systems achieved net primary energy savings in a range between 34 and 140 MJ{sub primary}/100 MJ{sub input} {sub waste}, in the different scenario settings. The energy footprint of transportation needs, pre-treatment and reprocessing of recyclable materials was 39.5%, 118% and 18% respectively, relative to total energy savings. Mass combustion WtE achieved the highest savings in scenarios with CHP production, nonetheless, MBT-based systems had similarly high performance if SRF streams were co-combusted with coal. When RDF and SRF was only used in dedicated WtE plants, MBT-based systems totalled lower savings due to inherent system losses and additional energy costs. In scenarios without heat recovery, the biodrying MBS-based system achieved the highest savings, on the condition of SRF co-combustion. As a sensitivity scenario, alternative utilisation of SRF in cement kilns was modelled. It supported similar or higher net savings for all pre-treatment systems compared to mass combustion WtE, except when WtE CHP was possible in the first two background energy scenarios. Recovery of plastics for recycling before energy recovery increased net energy savings in most scenario variations, over those of full stream combustion. Sensitivity to assumptions regarding virgin plastic substitution was tested and was found to mostly favour plastic recovery.

  5. THERMOCHEMICAL HEAT STORAGE FOR CONCENTRATED SOLAR POWER

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    PROJECT STAFF

    2011-10-31

    Thermal energy storage (TES) is an integral part of a concentrated solar power (CSP) system. It enables plant operators to generate electricity beyond on sun hours and supply power to the grid to meet peak demand. Current CSP sensible heat storage systems employ molten salts as both the heat transfer fluid and the heat storage media. These systems have an upper operating temperature limit of around 400 C. Future TES systems are expected to operate at temperatures between 600 C to 1000 C for higher thermal efficiencies which should result in lower electricity cost. To meet future operating temperature and electricity cost requirements, a TES concept utilizing thermochemical cycles (TCs) based on multivalent solid oxides was proposed. The system employs a pair of reduction and oxidation (REDOX) reactions to store and release heat. In the storage step, hot air from the solar receiver is used to reduce the oxidation state of an oxide cation, e.g. Fe3+ to Fe2+. Heat energy is thus stored as chemical bonds and the oxide is charged. To discharge the stored energy, the reduced oxide is re-oxidized in air and heat is released. Air is used as both the heat transfer fluid and reactant and no storage of fluid is needed. This project investigated the engineering and economic feasibility of this proposed TES concept. The DOE storage cost and LCOE targets are $15/kWh and $0.09/kWh respectively. Sixteen pure oxide cycles were identified through thermodynamic calculations and literature information. Data showed the kinetics of re-oxidation of the various oxides to be a key barrier to implementing the proposed concept. A down selection was carried out based on operating temperature, materials costs and preliminary laboratory measurements. Cobalt oxide, manganese oxide and barium oxide were selected for developmental studies to improve their REDOX reaction kinetics. A novel approach utilizing mixed oxides to improve the REDOX kinetics of the selected oxides was proposed. It partially replaces some of the primary oxide cations with selected secondary cations. This causes a lattice charge imbalance and increases the anion vacancy density. Such vacancies enhance the ionic mass transport and lead to faster re-oxidation. Reoxidation fractions of Mn3O4 to Mn2O3 and CoO to Co3O4 were improved by up to 16 fold through the addition of a secondary oxide. However, no improvement was obtained in barium based mixed oxides. In addition to enhancing the short term re-oxidation kinetics, it was found that the use of mixed oxides also help to stabilize or even improve the TES properties after long term thermal cycling. Part of this improvement could be attributed to a reduced grain size in the mixed oxides. Based on the measurement results, manganese-iron, cobalt-aluminum and cobalt iron mixed oxides have been proposed for future engineering scale demonstration. Using the cobalt and manganese mixed oxides, we were able to demonstrate charge and discharge of the TES media in both a bench top fixed bed and a rotary kiln-moving bed reactor. Operations of the fixed bed configuration are straight forward but require a large mass flow rate and higher fluid temperature for charging. The rotary kiln makes direct solar irradiation possible and provides significantly better heat transfer, but designs to transport the TES oxide in and out of the reactor will need to be defined. The final reactor and system design will have to be based on the economics of the CSP plant. A materials compatibility study was also conducted and it identified Inconel 625 as a suitable high temperature engineering material to construct a reactor holding either cobalt or manganese mixed oxides. To assess the economics of such a CSP plant, a packed bed reactor model was established as a baseline. Measured cobalt-aluminum oxide reaction kinetics were applied to the model and the influences of bed properties and process parameters on the overall system design were investigated. The optimal TES system design was found to be a network of eight fixed bed reactors at 18.75 MWth each with charge and discharge temperatures between 1200 C and 600 C, which provides a constant output temperature of 900 C. The charge and discharge time are 8 hours each respectively. This design was integrated into a process flowsheet of a CSP plant and the system's economics were determined using AspenPlus and NREL's Solar Advisory Model. Storage cost is very sensitive to materials cost and was calculated to be based around $40/kWh for cobalt based mixed oxide. It can potentially decrease to $10/kWh based on reduced materials cost on a bulk scale. The corresponding calculated LCOE was between $0.22 and 0.30/kW-h. The high LCOE is a result of the high charging temperature required in this first design and the cost of cobalt oxide. It is expected that a moving bed reactor using manganese oxide will significantly improve the economics of the proposed concept.

  6. Chemical composition analysis and product consistency tests to support enhanced Hanford waste glass models. Results for the third set of high alumina outer layer matrix glasses

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Fox, K. M.; Edwards, T. B.

    2015-12-01

    In this report, the Savannah River National Laboratory provides chemical analyses and Product Consistency Test (PCT) results for 14 simulated high level waste glasses fabricated by the Pacific Northwest National Laboratory. The results of these analyses will be used as part of efforts to revise or extend the validation regions of the current Hanford Waste Treatment and Immobilization Plant glass property models to cover a broader span of waste compositions. The measured chemical composition data are reported and compared with the targeted values for each component for each glass. All of the measured sums of oxides for the study glasses fell within the interval of 96.9 to 100.8 wt %, indicating recovery of all components. Comparisons of the targeted and measured chemical compositions showed that the measured values for the glasses met the targeted concentrations within 10% for those components present at more than 5 wt %. The PCT results were normalized to both the targeted and measured compositions of the study glasses. Several of the glasses exhibited increases in normalized concentrations (NCi) after the canister centerline cooled (CCC) heat treatment. Five of the glasses, after the CCC heat treatment, had NCB values that exceeded that of the Environmental Assessment (EA) benchmark glass. These results can be combined with additional characterization, including X-ray diffraction, to determine the cause of the higher release rates.

  7. Alternative Fuel for Portland Cement Processing

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Anton K. Schindler; Steve R. Duke; Thomas E. Burch; Edward W. Davis; Ralph H. Zee; David I. Bransby; Carla Hopkins; Rutherford L. Thompson; Jingran Duan; Vignesh Venkatasubramanian; Stephen Giles.

    2012-06-30

    The production of cement involves a combination of numerous raw materials, strictly monitored system processes, and temperatures on the order of 1500 °C. Immense quantities of fuel are required for the production of cement. Traditionally, energy from fossil fuels was solely relied upon for the production of cement. The overarching project objective is to evaluate the use of alternative fuels to lessen the dependence on non-renewable resources to produce portland cement. The key objective of using alternative fuels is to continue to produce high-quality cement while decreasing the use of non-renewable fuels and minimizing the impact on the environment. Burn characteristics and thermodynamic parameters were evaluated with a laboratory burn simulator under conditions that mimic those in the preheater where the fuels are brought into a cement plant. A drop-tube furnace and visualization method were developed that show potential for evaluating time- and space-resolved temperature distributions for fuel solid particles and liquid droplets undergoing combustion in various combustion atmospheres. Downdraft gasification has been explored as a means to extract chemical energy from poultry litter while limiting the throughput of potentially deleterious components with regards to use in firing a cement kiln. Results have shown that the clinkering is temperature independent, at least within the controllable temperature range. Limestone also had only a slight effect on the fusion when used to coat the pellets. However, limestone addition did display some promise in regards to chlorine capture, as ash analyses showed chlorine concentrations of more than four times greater in the limestone infused ash as compared to raw poultry litter. A reliable and convenient sampling procedure was developed to estimate the combustion quality of broiler litter that is the best compromise between convenience and reliability by means of statistical analysis. Multi-day trial burns were conducted at a full-scale cement plant with alternative fuels to examine their compatibility with the cement production process. Construction and demolition waste, woodchips, and soybean seeds were used as alternative fuels at a full-scale cement production facility. These fuels were co-fired with coal and waste plastics. The alternative fuels used in this trial accounted for 5 to 16 % of the total energy consumed during these burns. The overall performance of the portland cement produced during the various trial burns performed for practical purposes very similar to the cement produced during the control burn. The cement plant was successful in implementing alternative fuels to produce a consistent, high-quality product that increased cement performance while reducing the environmental footprint of the plant. The utilization of construction and demolition waste, woodchips and soybean seeds proved to be viable replacements for traditional fuels. The future use of these fuels depends on local availability, associated costs, and compatibility with a facility??s production process.

  8. Recovery Act: Innovative CO2 Sequestration from Flue Gas Using Industrial Sources and Innovative Concept for Beneficial CO2 Use

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Dando, Neal; Gershenzon, Mike; Ghosh, Rajat

    2012-07-31

    field testing of a biomimetic in-duct scrubbing system for the capture of gaseous CO2 coupled with sequestration of captured carbon by carbonation of alkaline industrial wastes. The Phase 2 project, reported on here, combined efforts in enzyme development, scrubber optimization, and sequestrant evaluations to perform an economic feasibility study of technology deployment. The optimization of carbonic anhydrase (CA) enzyme reactivity and stability are critical steps in deployment of this technology. A variety of CA enzyme variants were evaluated for reactivity and stability in both bench scale and in laboratory pilot scale testing to determine current limits in enzyme performance. Optimization of scrubber design allowed for improved process economics while maintaining desired capture efficiencies. A range of configurations, materials, and operating conditions were examined at the Alcoa Technical Center on a pilot scale scrubber. This work indicated that a cross current flow utilizing a specialized gas-liquid contactor offered the lowest system operating energy. Various industrial waste materials were evaluated as sources of alkalinity for the scrubber feed solution and as sources of calcium for precipitation of carbonate. Solids were mixed with a simulated sodium bicarbonate scrubber blowdown to comparatively examine reactivity. Supernatant solutions and post-test solids were analyzed to quantify and model the sequestration reactions. The best performing solids were found to sequester between 2.3 and 2.9 moles of CO2 per kg of dry solid in 1-4 hours of reaction time. These best performing solids were cement kiln dust, circulating dry scrubber ash, and spray dryer absorber ash. A techno-economic analysis was performed to evaluate the commercial viability of the proposed carbon capture and sequestration process in full-scale at an aluminum smelter and a refinery location. For both cases the in-duct scrubber technology was compared to traditional amine- based capture. Incorporation of the laboratory results showed that for the application at the aluminum smelter, the in-duct scrubber system is more economical than traditional methods. However, the reverse is true for the refinery case, where the bauxite residue is not effective enough as a sequestrant, combined with challenges related to contaminants in the bauxite residue accumulating in and fouling the scrubber absorbent. Sensitivity analyses showed that the critical variables by which process economics could be improved are enzyme concentration, efficiency, and half-life. At the end of the first part of the Phase 2 project, a gate review (DOE Decision Zero Gate Point) was conducted to decide on the next stages of the project. The original plan was to follow the pre-testing phase with a detailed design for the field testing. Unfavorable process economics, however, resulted in a decision to conclude the project before moving to field testing. It is noted that CO2 Solutions proposed an initial solution to reduce process costs through more advanced enzyme management, however, DOE program requirements restricting any technology development extending beyond 2014 as commercial deployment timeline did not allow this solution to be undertaken.

  9. SOx/NOx sorbent and process of use

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Ziebarth, M.S.; Hager, M.J.; Beeckman, J.W.; Plecha, S.

    1993-01-19

    An alumina sorbent capable of adsorbing NOx and SOx from waste gases and being regenerated by heating above 600 C. is made by incorporating an alumina stabilizing agent into the sorbent. A preferred method is to add the stabilizer when the alumina is precipitated. The precipitated powder is formed subsequently into a slurry, milled and dripped to form the stabilizing spheroidal alumina particles. These particles are impregnated with an alkali metal or alkaline earth metal to form the stabilized sorbent. Alumina stabilizers include one or more of silica, lanthana, other rare earths, titania, zirconia and alkaline earths.

  10. USE OF ATOMIC LAYER DEPOSITION OF FUNCTIONALIZATION OF NANOPOROUS BIOMATERIALS

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Brigmon, R.; Narayan, R.; Adiga, S.; Pellin, M.; Curtiss, L.; Stafslien, S.; Chisholm, B.; Monteiro-Riviere, N.; Elam, J.

    2010-02-08

    Due to its chemical stability, uniform pore size, and high pore density, nanoporous alumina is being investigated for use in biosensing, drug delivery, hemodialysis, and other medical applications. In recent work, we have examined the use of atomic layer deposition for coating the surfaces of nanoporous alumina membranes. Zinc oxide coatings were deposited on nanoporous alumina membranes using atomic layer deposition. The zinc oxide-coated nanoporous alumina membranes demonstrated antimicrobial activity against Escherichia coli and Staphylococcus aureus bacteria. These results suggest that atomic layer deposition is an attractive technique for modifying the surfaces of nanoporous alumina membranes and other nanostructured biomaterials.

  11. SOx/NOx sorbent and process of use

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Ziebarth, Michael S. (Columbia, MD); Hager, Michael J. (Baltimore, MD); Beeckman, Jean W. (Columbia, MD); Plecha, Stanislaw (Baltimore, MD)

    1993-01-19

    An alumina sorbent capable of adsorbing NOx and SOx from waste gases and being regenerated by heating above 600.degree. C. is made by incorporating an alumina stabilizing agent into the sorbent. A preferred method is to add the stabilizer when the alumina is precipitated. The precipitated powder is formed subsequently into a slurry, milled and dripped to form the stabilizing spheroidal alumina particles. These particles are impregnated with an alkali metal or alkaline earth metal to form the stabilized sorbent. Alumina stabilizers include one or more of silica, lanthana, other rare earths, titania, zirconia and alkaline earths.

  12. Sox/Nox Sorbent And Process Of Use

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Ziebarth, Michael S. (Columbia, MD); Hager, Michael J. (Coraopolis, PA); Beeckman, Jean W. (Columbia, MD); Plecha, Stanislaw (Baltimore, MD)

    1996-12-17

    An alumina sorbent capable of adsorbing NOx and SOx from waste gases and being regenerated by heating above 650.degree. C. is made by incorporating an alumina stabilizing agent into the sorbent. A preferred method is to add the stabilizer when the alumina is precipitated. The precipitated powder is formed subsequently into a slurry, milled and spray dried to form the stabilized spheroidal alumina particles having a particle size of less than 500 microns. These particles are impregnated with an alkali metal or alkaline earth metal to form the stabilized sorbent. Alumina stabilizers include one or more of silica, lanthana, other rare earths, titania, zirconia and alkaline earths.

  13. Sox/Nox Sorbent And Process Of Use

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Ziebarth, Michael S. (Columbia, MD); Hager, Michael J. (Caraopolis, PA); Beeckman, Jean W. (Columbia, MD); Plecha, Stanislaw (Baltimore, MD)

    1995-06-27

    An alumina sorbent capable of adsorbing NOx and SOx from waste gases and being regenerated by heating above 650.degree. C. is made by incorporating an alumina stabilizing agent into the sorbent. A preferred method is to add the stabilizer when the alumina is precipitated. The precipitated powder is formed subsequently into a slurry, milled and spray dried to form the stabilized spheroidal alumina particles having a particle size of less than 500 microns. These particles are impregnated with an alkali metal or alkaline earth metal to form the stabilized sorbent. Alumina stabilizers include one or more of silica, lanthana, other rare earths, titania, zirconia and alkaline earths.

  14. SOX/NOX sorbent and process of use

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Ziebarth, M.S.; Hager, M.J.; Beeckman, J.W.; Plecha, S.

    1995-05-09

    An alumina sorbent capable of adsorbing NOx and SOx from waste gases and being regenerated by heating above 600 C is made by incorporating an alumina stabilizing agent into the sorbent. A preferred method is to add the stabilizer when the alumina is precipitated. The precipitated powder is formed subsequently into a slurry, milled and dripped to form the stabilized spheroidal alumina particles. These particles are impregnated with an alkali metal or alkaline earth metal to form the stabilized sorbent. Alumina stabilizers include one or more of silica, lanthana, other rare earths, titania, zirconia and alkaline earths. 3 figs.

  15. SOX/NOX sorbent and process of use

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Ziebarth, Michael S. (Columbia, MD); Hager, Michael J. (Baltimore, MD); Beeckman, Jean W. (Columbia, MD); Plecha, Stanislaw (Baltimore, MD)

    1995-01-01

    An alumina sorbent capable of adsorbing NOx and SOx from waste gases and being regenerated by heating above 600.degree. C. is made by incorporating an alumina stabilizing agent into the sorbent. A preferred method is to add the stabilizer when the alumina is precipitated. The precipitated powder is formed subsequently into a slurry, milled and dripped to form the stabilized spheroidal alumina particles. These particles are impregnated with an alkali metal or alkaline earth metal to form the stabilized sorbent. Alumina stabilizers include one or more of silica, lanthana, other rare earths, titania, zirconia and alkaline earths.

  16. Microprobes aluminosilicate ceramic membranes

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Anderson, Marc A. (2114 Chadbourne Ave., Madison, WI 53705); Sheng, Guangyao (45 N. Orchard St., Madison, WI 53715)

    1993-01-01

    Methods have been developed to make mixed alumina-silicate and aluminosilicate particulate microporous ceramic membranes. One method involves the making of separate alumina and silica sols which are then mixed. Another method involves the creation of a combined sol with aluminosilicate particles. The resulting combined alumina and silica membranes have high surface area, a very small pore size, and a very good temperature stability.

  17. Maintaining molten salt electrolyte concentration in aluminum-producing electrolytic cell

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Barnett, Robert J.; Mezner, Michael B.; Bradford, Donald R

    2005-01-04

    A method of maintaining molten salt concentration in a low temperature electrolytic cell used for production of aluminum from alumina dissolved in a molten salt electrolyte contained in a cell free of frozen crust wherein volatile material is vented from the cell and contacted and captured on alumina being added to the cell. The captured volatile material is returned with alumina to cell to maintain the concentration of the molten salt.

  18. Direct metal brazing to cermet feedthroughs

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Not Available

    1982-07-29

    An improved method for brazing metallic components to a cermet surface in an alumina substrate eliminates the prior art metallized layer over the cermet via and adjoining alumina surfaces. Instead, a nickel layer is applied over the cermet surface only and metallic components are brazed directly to this nickel coated cermet surface. As a result, heretofore unachievable tensile strength joints are produced. In addition, cermet vias with their brazed metal components can be spaced more closely in the alumina substrate because of the elimination of the prior art metallized alumina surfaces.

  19. Direct metal brazing to cermet feedthroughs

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Hopper, Jr., Albert C.

    1984-12-18

    An improved method for brazing metallic components to a cermet surface in an alumina substrate eliminates the prior art metallized layer over the cermet via and adjoining alumina surfaces. Instead, a nickel layer is applied over the cermet surface only and metallic components are brazed directly to this nickel coated cermet surface. As a result, heretofore unachievable tensile strength joints are produced. In addition, cermet vias with their brazed metal components can be spaced more closely in the alumina substrate because of the elimination of the prior art metallized alumina surfaces.

  20. Center for Nanophase Materials Sciences (CNMS) - CNMS Research

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    and microwires were successfully released from the hard templates via chemical etching of the porous alumina membranes. Released mesoporous carbon microwires and nanowires...

  1. U.S. DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY * SAVANNAH RIVER SITE * AIKEN * SC

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    patterns using a highly ordered porous anodic alumina membrane as a selective dry etching mask for large-area pattern transfer. Applicable uses This technology would be useful...

  2. ITP Aluminum: Aluminum Industry Vision: Sustainable Solutions...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Solutions for a Dynamic World PDF icon alumvision.pdf More Documents & Publications ITP Aluminum: Alumina Technology Roadmap U.S. Energy Requirements for Aluminum Production...

  3. Leatec Fine Ceramics Co Ltd | Open Energy Information

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    Place: Tao-Yuan Hsien, Taiwan Product: Taiwan-based manufacturer of chip alumina fine ceramic substrates. The firm also produces PV junction boxes. References: Leatec Fine...

  4. Microwave sintering of sol-gel derived abrasive grain

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Plovnick, Ross (St. Louis Park, MN); Celikkaya, Ahmet (Woodbury, MN); Blake, Rodger D. (Tuscon, AZ)

    1997-01-01

    A method is provided for making microwave-sintered, free flowing alpha alumina-based ceramic abrasive grain, under conditions effective to couple microwaves with calcined alpha alumina-based abrasive gain precursor and sinter it at a temperature of at least about 1150.degree. C.

  5. Attrition resistant Fischer-Tropsch catalyst and support

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Singleton, Alan H.; Oukaci, Rachid; Goodwin, James G.

    2004-05-25

    A catalyst support having improved attrition resistance and a catalyst produced therefrom. The catalyst support is produced by a method comprising the step of treating calcined .gamma.-alumina having no catalytic material added thereto with an acidic aqueous solution having an acidity level effective for increasing the attrition resistance of the calcined .gamma.-alumina.

  6. Atomic layer deposition of nanoporous biomaterials.

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Narayan, R. J.; Adiga, S. P.; Pellin, M. J.; Curtiss, L. A.; Stafslien, S.; Chisholm, B.; Monteiro-Riviere, N. A.; Brigmon, R. L.; Elam, J. W.; Univ. of North Carolina; North Carolina State Univ.; Eastman Kodak Co.; North Dakota State Univ.; SRL

    2010-03-01

    Due to its chemical stability, uniform pore size, and high pore density, nanoporous alumina is being investigated for use in biosensing, drug delivery, hemodialysis, and other medical applications. In recent work, we have examined the use of atomic layer deposition for coating the surfaces of nanoporous alumina membranes. Zinc oxide coatings were deposited on nanoporous alumina membranes using atomic layer deposition. The zinc oxide-coated nanoporous alumina membranes demonstrated antimicrobial activity against Escherichia coli and Staphylococcus aureus bacteria. These results suggest that atomic layer deposition is an attractive technique for modifying the surfaces of nanoporous alumina membranes and other nanostructured biomaterials. Nanoporous alumina, also known as anodic aluminum oxide (AAO), is a nanomaterial that exhibits several unusual properties, including high pore densities, straight pores, small pore sizes, and uniform pore sizes. In 1953, Keller et al. showed that anodizing aluminum in acid electrolytes results in a thick layer of nearly cylindrical pores, which are arranged in a close-packed hexagonal cell structure. More recently, Matsuda & Fukuda demonstrated preparation of highly ordered platinum and gold nanohole arrays using a replication process. In this study, a negative structure of nanoporous alumina was initially fabricated and a positive structure of a nanoporous metal was subsequently fabricated. Over the past fifteen years, nanoporous alumina membranes have been used as templates for growth of a variety of nanostructured materials, including nanotubes, nanowires, nanorods, and nanoporous membranes.

  7. Microwave sintering of multiple articles

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Blake, Rodger D. (Santa Fe, NM); Katz, Joel D. (Los Alamos, NM)

    1993-01-01

    Apparatus and method for producing articles of alumina and of alumina and silicon carbide in which the articles are sintered at high temperatures using microwave radiation. The articles are placed in a sintering container which is placed in a microwave cavity for heating. The rates at which heating and cooling take place is controlled.

  8. Adsorption study for uranium in Rocky Flats groundwater

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Laul, J.C.; Rupert, M.C.; Harris, M.J.; Duran, A.

    1995-01-01

    Six adsorbents were studied to determine their effectiveness in removing uranium in Rocky Flats groundwater. The bench column and batch (Kd) tests showed that uranium can be removed (>99.9%) by four adsorbents. Bone Charcoal (R1O22); F-1 Alumina (granular activated alumina); BIOFIX (immobilized biological agent); SOPBPLUS (mixed metal oxide); Filtrasorb 300 (granular activated carbon); and Zeolite (clinoptilolite).

  9. Reduced temperature aluminum production in an electrolytic cell having an inert anode

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Dawless, Robert K. (Monroeville, PA); Ray, Siba P. (Murrysville, PA); Hosler, Robert B. (Sarver, PA); Kozarek, Robert L. (Apollo, PA); LaCamera, Alfred F. (Trafford, PA)

    2000-01-01

    Aluminum is produced by electrolytic reduction of alumina in a cell having a cathode, an inert anode and a molten salt bath containing metal fluorides and alumina. The inert anode preferably contains copper, silver and oxides of iron and nickel. Reducing the molten salt bath temperature to about 900-950.degree. C. lowers corrosion on the inert anode constituents.

  10. Surface modification of silicon nitride powder with aluminum

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Han, K.R.; Lim, C.S.; Hong, M.J.; Choi, S.K.; Kwon, S.H.

    1996-02-01

    Surface modification of Si{sub 3}N{sub 4} with alumina was tried. It was achieved by simply mixing Si{sub 3}N{sub 4} powder with an alumina sol up to {approximately}2 wt% as alumina in an aqueous medium, dried, and followed by calcination at 400 C for 1 h. A TEM micrograph showed a coating layer of {approximately} 15 nm thickness. The isoelectric point of the modified Si{sub 3}N{sub 4} powder with porous alumina was at 0H 7.8, which is different from 5.8 and 8.6 for Si{sub 3}N{sub 4} and amorphous alumina, respectively.

  11. Reducing fischer-tropsch catalyst attrition losses in high agitation reaction systems

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Singleton, Alan H. (Baden, PA); Oukaci, Rachid (Gibsonia, PA); Goodwin, James G. (Cranberry Township, PA)

    2001-01-01

    A method for reducing catalyst attrition losses in hydrocarbon synthesis processes conducted in high agitation reaction systems; a method of producing an attrition-resistant catalyst; a catalyst produced by such method; a method of producing an attrition-resistant catalyst support; and a catalyst support produced by such method. The inventive method of reducing catalyst attrition losses comprises the step of reacting a synthesis gas in a high agitation reaction system in the presence of a catalyst. In one aspect, the catalyst preferably comprises a .gamma.-alumina support including an amount of titanium effective for increasing the attrition resistance of the catalyst. In another aspect, the catalyst preferably comprises a .gamma.-alumina support which has been treated, after calcination, with an acidic, aqueous solution. The acidic aqueous solution preferably has a pH of not more than about 5. In another aspect, the catalyst preferably comprises cobalt on a .gamma.-alumina support wherein the cobalt has been applied to the .gamma.-alumina support by totally aqueous, incipient wetness-type impregnation. In another aspect, the catalyst preferably comprises cobalt on a .gamma.-alumina support with an amount of a lanthana promoter effective for increasing the attrition resistance of the catalyst. In another aspect, the catalyst preferably comprises a .gamma.-alumina support produced from boehmite having a crystallite size, in the 021 plane, in the range of from about 30 to about 55 .ANG.ngstrons. In another aspect, the inventive method of producing an attrition-resistant catalyst comprises the step of treating a .gamma.-alumina support, after calcination of and before adding catalytic material to the support, with an acidic solution effective for increasing the attrition resistance of the catalyst. In another aspect, the inventive method of producing an attrition-resistant catalyst support comprises the step of treating calcined .gamma.-alumina with an acidic, aqueous solution effective for increasing the attrition resistance of the .gamma.-alumina.

  12. Composition and process for making an insulating refractory material

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Pearson, Alan (Murrysville, PA); Swansiger, Thomas G. (Apollo, PA)

    1998-04-28

    A composition and process for making an insulating refractory material. The composition includes calcined alumina powder, flash activated alumina powder, an organic polymeric binder and a liquid vehicle which is preferably water. Starch or modified starch may also be added. A preferred insulating refractory material made with the composition has a density of about 2.4-2.6 g/cm.sup.3 with reduced thermal conductivity, compared with tabular alumina. Of importance, the formulation has good abrasion resistance and crush strength during intermediate processing (commercial sintering) to attain full strength and refractoriness, good abrasion resistance and crush strength.

  13. Composition and process for making an insulating refractory material

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Pearson, A.; Swansiger, T.G.

    1998-04-28

    A composition and process are disclosed for making an insulating refractory material. The composition includes calcined alumina powder, flash activated alumina powder, an organic polymeric binder and a liquid vehicle which is preferably water. Starch or modified starch may also be added. A preferred insulating refractory material made with the composition has a density of about 2.4--2.6 g/cm{sup 3} with reduced thermal conductivity, compared with tabular alumina. Of importance, the formulation has good abrasion resistance and crush strength during intermediate processing (commercial sintering) to attain full strength and refractoriness.

  14. Superplasticity and joining of zirconia-based ceramics

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Dominguez-Rodriguez, A.; Gutierrez-Mora, F.; Jimenez-Melendo, M.; Chaim, R.; Routbort, J. L.

    1999-12-10

    Steady-state creep and joining of alumina/zirconia composites containing alumina volume fractions of 20, 60, and 85% have been investigated between 1,250 and 1,350 C. Superplasticity of these compounds is controlled by grain-boundary sliding and the creep rate is a function of alumina volume fraction, not grain size. Using the principles of superplasticity, pieces of the composite have been joined by applying the stress required to achieve 5 to 10% strain to form a strong interface at temperatures as low as 1,200 C.

  15. System and process for aluminization of metal-containing substrates

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Chou, Yeong-Shyung; Stevenson, Jeffry W

    2015-11-03

    A system and method are detailed for aluminizing surfaces of metallic substrates, parts, and components with a protective alumina layer in-situ. Aluminum (Al) foil sandwiched between the metallic components and a refractory material when heated in an oxidizing gas under a compression load at a selected temperature forms the protective alumina coating on the surface of the metallic components. The alumina coating minimizes evaporation of volatile metals from the metallic substrates, parts, and components in assembled devices during operation at high temperature that can degrade performance.

  16. Catalysis by Design: Bridging the Gap Between Theory and Experiments...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    by Design: Bridging the Gap Between Theory and Experiments at Nanoscale Level Studies on a simple platinum-alumina system constitute a first step toward a "catalyst by design" ...

  17. Electronically and ionically conducting electrodes for thermoelectric generators

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Novak, Robert F. (Farmington Hills, MI); Weber, Neill (Murray, UT)

    1987-01-01

    A composite article comprising a porous cermet electrode on a dense solid electrolyte and method of making same. The cerment electrode comprises beta-type-alumina and refractory metal.

  18. Catalysts to reduce NO.sub.x in an exhaust gas stream and methods of preparation

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Castellano, Christopher R. (Ringoes, NJ); Moini, Ahmad (Princeton, NJ); Koermer, Gerald S. (Basking Ridge, NJ); Furbeck, Howard (Hamilton, NJ); Schmieg, Steven J. (Troy, MI); Blint, Richard J. (Shelby Township, MI)

    2011-05-17

    Catalysts, systems and methods are described to reduce NO.sub.x emissions of an internal combustion engine. In one embodiment, an emissions treatment system for an exhaust stream is provided having a catalyst comprising silver and a platinum group metal on a particulate alumina support, the atomic fraction of the platinum group metal being less than or equal to about 0.25. Methods of manufacturing catalysts are described in which silver is impregnated on alumina particles.

  19. Catalysts to reduce NO.sub.x in an exhaust gas stream and methods of preparation

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Koermer, Gerald S. (Basking Ridge, NJ); Moini, Ahmad (Princeton, NJ); Furbeck, Howard (Hamilton, NJ); Castellano, Christopher R. (Ringoes, NJ)

    2012-05-08

    Catalysts, systems and methods are described to reduce NO.sub.x emissions of an internal combustion engine. In one embodiment, an emissions treatment system for an exhaust stream is provided having a catalyst comprising silver on a particulate alumina support, the silver having a diameter of less than about 20 nm. Methods of manufacturing catalysts are described in which ionic silver is impregnated on particulate hydroxylated alumina particles.

  20. Process for removing carbonyl-sulfide from liquid hydrocarbon feedstocks

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Debras, G.L.G.; DeClippeleir, G.E.M.J.; Cahen, R.M.

    1986-09-23

    A process is described for removing carbonyl sulfide from a liquid olefinic hydrocarbon feedstock comprising: (a) passing the hydrocarbon feedstock over an absorbent material comprising zinc oxide and a promoter selected from the group consisting of alumina, silico-aluminas and any combination thereof wherein the promoter is present in amounts from about 3 to about 15 percent by weight of the absorbent material; and (b) recovering a liquid olefinic hydrocarbon stream having a substantially reduced carbonyl sulfide content.

  1. Gas impermeable glaze for sealing a porous ceramic surface

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Reed, Scott T.; Stone, Ronald G.; Nenoff, Tina M.; Trudell, Daniel E.; Thoma, Steven G.

    2004-04-06

    A process for fabricating a gas impermeable seal on a porous ceramic surface using a thin, glass-based, pinhole free glaze. The process can be used to fabricate gas impermeable end seals on porous alumina tubes used as filter media. The porous alumina tubes can have an inorganic microporous thin film separation membrane on the inner surface, which can be used for high temperature gas separation processes.

  2. Non Invasive estimation of aluminum concentration in Hall-Heroult reduction cells

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    David Bell

    2004-03-01

    The present best practice for the preparation of primary aluminum is by electrolysis of alumina in the traditional Hall-Heroult reduction cell. The process conditions in the electrolyte of this cell required for the reduction to proceed are sufficiently harsh to have precluded the implementation of in situ sensing of the electrolyte composition, specifically the concentration of the ionized alumina. This report reveals the theoretical basis for a non-invasive method for estimation of the ionized alumina concentration which does not require the use of any sensor in direct contact with the cell electrolyte. The proposed method can in principle be applied with equal efficacy to the so-called drained cathode cell designs and to cells having any anode composition, because only knowledge of the electrolyte conduction behavior is required a priori. For an operating cell, the proposed method requires only readily available electrical measurements and the facilities to process the acquired signals. The proposed method rests on the ability to identify certain characteristics of the transients in the reduction cell terminal voltages caused by the quasiperiodic introduction of alumina. It will be shown that these voltage transients manifest measurable properties, in a statistical sense, that should permit estimation of the ionized alumina concentration with a delay of one alumina feed cycle. The next logical step following the present work, consistent with the Aluminum Technology Roadmap [1], is to experimentally verify the predictions made here; no doubt practical refinements to the proposed approach will evolve during the course of experimentation. Successful verification of the proposed estimation method will permit the design of reduction cell control algorithms based directly on the mass balance of alumina in the electrolyte. This report assumes that the reader understands certain basic concepts important to the operation of electrolytic cells, and the Hall-Heroult cell in particular. References [2,3] provide such concepts in a manner accessible to the technically educated reader; reference [6] is a more thorough treatment.

  3. Cu--Ni--Fe anode for use in aluminum producing electrolytic cell

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Bergsma, S. Craig; Brown, Craig W.; Bradford, Donald R; Barnett, Robert J.; Mezner, Michael B.

    2006-07-18

    A method of producing aluminum in an electrolytic cell containing alumina dissolved in an electrolyte, the method comprising the steps of providing a molten salt electrolyte at a temperature of less than 900.degree. C. having alumina dissolved therein in an electrolytic cell having a liner for containing the electrolyte, the liner having a bottom and walls extending upwardly from said bottom. A plurality of non-consumable Cu--Ni--Fe anodes and cathodes are disposed in a vertical direction in the electrolyte, the cathodes having a plate configuration and the anodes having a flat configuration to compliment the cathodes. The anodes contain apertures therethrough to permit flow of electrolyte through the apertures to provide alumina-enriched electrolyte between the anodes and the cathodes. Electrical current is passed through the anodes and through the electrolyte to the cathodes, depositing aluminum at the cathodes and producing gas at the anodes.

  4. Highly dispersed SiOx/Al2O3 catalysts illuminate the reactivity of isolated silanol sites

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Mouat, Aidan R.; George, Cassandra; Kobayashi, Takeshi; Pruski, Marek; van?Duyne, Richard P.; Marks, Tobin J.; Stair, Peter C.

    2015-09-23

    The reaction of ?-alumina with tetraethylorthosilicate (TEOS) vapor at low temperatures selectively yields monomeric SiOx species on the alumina surface. These isolated (-AlO)3Si(OH) sites are characterized by PXRD, XPS, DRIFTS of adsorbed NH3, CO, and pyridine, and 29Si and 27Al DNP-enhanced solid-state NMR spectroscopy. The formation of isolated sites suggests that TEOS reacts preferentially at strong Lewis acid sites on the ?-Al2O3 surface, functionalizing the surface with mild Brnsted acid sites. As a result, for liquid-phase catalytic cyclohexanol dehydration, these SiOx sites exhibit up to 3.5-fold higher specific activity than the parent alumina with identical selectivity.

  5. Highly dispersed SiOx/Al2O3 catalysts illuminate the reactivity of isolated silanol sites

    DOE Public Access Gateway for Energy & Science Beta (PAGES Beta)

    Mouat, Aidan R.; George, Cassandra; Kobayashi, Takeshi; Pruski, Marek; van Duyne, Richard P.; Marks, Tobin J.; Stair, Peter C.

    2015-09-23

    The reaction of γ-alumina with tetraethylorthosilicate (TEOS) vapor at low temperatures selectively yields monomeric SiOx species on the alumina surface. These isolated (-AlO)3Si(OH) sites are characterized by PXRD, XPS, DRIFTS of adsorbed NH3, CO, and pyridine, and 29Si and 27Al DNP-enhanced solid-state NMR spectroscopy. The formation of isolated sites suggests that TEOS reacts preferentially at strong Lewis acid sites on the γ-Al2O3 surface, functionalizing the surface with “mild” Brønsted acid sites. As a result, for liquid-phase catalytic cyclohexanol dehydration, these SiOx sites exhibit up to 3.5-fold higher specific activity than the parent alumina with identical selectivity.

  6. Electrolyte treatment for aluminum reduction

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Brown, Craig W. (Seattle, WA); Brooks, Richard J. (Seattle, WA); Frizzle, Patrick B. (Seattle, WA); Juric, Drago D. (Bulleen, AU)

    2002-01-01

    A method of treating an electrolyte for use in the electrolytic reduction of alumina to aluminum employing an anode and a cathode, the alumina dissolved in the electrolyte, the treating improving wetting of the cathode with molten aluminum during electrolysis. The method comprises the steps of providing a molten electrolyte comprised of ALF.sub.3 and at least one salt selected from the group consisting of NaF, KF and LiF, and treating the electrolyte by providing therein 0.004 to 0.2 wt. % of a transition metal or transition metal compound for improved wettability of the cathode with molten aluminum during subsequent electrolysis to reduce alumina to aluminum.

  7. Electrical insulator assembly with oxygen permeation barrier

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Van Der Beck, Roland R. (Lansdale, PA); Bond, James A. (Exton, PA)

    1994-01-01

    A high-voltage electrical insulator (21) for electrically insulating a thermoelectric module (17) in a spacecraft from a niobium-1% zirconium alloy wall (11) of a heat exchanger (13) filled with liquid lithium (16) while providing good thermal conductivity between the heat exchanger and the thermoelectric module. The insulator (21) has a single crystal alumina layer (SxAl.sub.2 O.sub.3, sapphire) with a niobium foil layer (32) bonded thereto on the surface of the alumina crystal (26) facing the heat exchanger wall (11), and a molybdenum layer (31) bonded to the niobium layer (32) to act as an oxygen permeation barrier to preclude the oxygen depleting effects of the lithium from causing undesirable niobium-aluminum intermetallic layers near the alumina-niobium interface.

  8. Electrical insulator assembly with oxygen permeation barrier

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Van Der Beck, R.R.; Bond, J.A.

    1994-03-29

    A high-voltage electrical insulator for electrically insulating a thermoelectric module in a spacecraft from a niobium-1% zirconium alloy wall of a heat exchanger filled with liquid lithium while providing good thermal conductivity between the heat exchanger and the thermoelectric module. The insulator has a single crystal alumina layer (SxAl[sub 2]O[sub 3], sapphire) with a niobium foil layer bonded thereto on the surface of the alumina crystal facing the heat exchanger wall, and a molybdenum layer bonded to the niobium layer to act as an oxygen permeation barrier to preclude the oxygen depleting effects of the lithium from causing undesirable niobium-aluminum intermetallic layers near the alumina-niobium interface. 3 figures.

  9. Displacement of Hexanol by the Hexanoic Acid Overoxidation Product in Alcohol Oxidation on a Model Supported Palladium Nanoparticle Catalyst

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Buchbinder, Avram M. [Northwestern Univ., Evanston, IL (United States). Dept. of Chemistry; Center for Catalysis and Surface Science; Inst. for Catalysis in Energy Processes; Ray, Natalie A. [Northwestern Univ., Evanston, IL (United States). Dept. of Chemistry; Center for Catalysis and Surface Science; Lu, Junling [Argonne National Lab. (ANL), Argonne, IL (United States). Energy System Division; Van Duyne, Richard P. [Northwestern Univ., Evanston, IL (United States). Dept. of Chemistry; Center for Catalysis and Surface Science; Inst. for Catalysis in Energy Processes; Stair, Peter C. [Northwestern Univ., Evanston, IL (United States). Dept. of Chemistry; Center for Catalysis and Surface Science; Inst. for Catalysis in Energy Processes; Argonne National Lab. (ANL), Argonne, IL (United States). Chemical Sciences and Engineering Division; Weitz, Eric [Northwestern Univ., Evanston, IL (United States). Dept. of Chemistry; Center for Catalysis and Surface Science; Inst. for Catalysis in Energy Processes; Geiger, Franz M. [Northwestern Univ., Evanston, IL (United States). Dept. of Chemistry; Center for Catalysis and Surface Science; Inst. for Catalysis in Energy Processes

    2011-11-09

    This work characterizes the adsorption, structure, and binding mechanism of oxygenated organic species from cyclohexane solution at the liquid/solid interface of optically flat alumina-supported palladium nanoparticle surfaces prepared by atomic layer deposition (ALD). The surface-specific nonlinear optical vibrational spectroscopy, sum-frequency generation (SFG), was used as a probe for adsorption and interfacial molecular structure. 1-Hexanoic acid is an overoxidation product and possible catalyst poison for the aerobic heterogeneous oxidation of 1-hexanol at the liquid/solid interface of Pd/Al?O? catalysts. Single component and competitive adsorption experiments show that 1-hexanoic acid adsorbs to both ALD-prepared alumina surfaces and alumina surfaces with palladium nanoparticles, that were also prepared by ALD, more strongly than does 1-hexanol. Furthermore, 1-hexanoic acid adsorbs with conformational order on ALD-prepared alumina surfaces, but on surfaces with palladium particles the adsorbates exhibit relative disorder at low surface coverage and become more ordered, on average, at higher surface coverage. Although significant differences in binding constant were not observed between surfaces with and without palladium nanoparticles, the palladium particles play an apparent role in controlling adsorbate structures. The disordered adsorption of 1-hexanoic acid most likely occurs on the alumina support, and probably results from modification of binding sites on the alumina, adjacent to the particles. In addition to providing insight on the possibility of catalyst poisoning by the overoxidation product and characterizing changes in its structure that result in only small adsorption energy changes, this work represents a step toward using surface science techniques that bridge the complexity gap between fundamental studies and realistic catalyst models.

  10. Cu-Ni-Fe anodes having improved microstructure

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Bergsma, S. Craig; Brown, Craig W.

    2004-04-20

    A method of producing aluminum in a low temperature electrolytic cell containing alumina dissolved in an electrolyte. The method comprises the steps of providing a molten electrolyte having alumina dissolved therein in an electrolytic cell containing the electrolyte. A non-consumable anode and cathode is disposed in the electrolyte, the anode comprised of Cu--Ni--Fe alloys having single metallurgical phase. Electric current is passed from the anode, through the electrolyte to the cathode thereby depositing aluminum on the cathode, and molten aluminum is collected from the cathode.

  11. Developmemt, characterization, production, and demonstration of nanofluids for industrial cooling applications. Quarterly report #7.

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Routbort, J.; Singh, D.; Timofeeva, E.; Yu, W.; France, D.

    2010-07-30

    Pumping power measurements have been made on a series of 40-nm boehmite (AlOOH) alumina ''bricks'' (2 - 8 vol. percent in water). The alumina nanoparticles were obtained from Sasol and are designated as ''Catapal-200''. The pH of all compositions was adjusted to 3.2{+-}0.5. A complete characterization of the particles and their nanofluid thermal properties has been published in Journal of Applied Physics 106, 014304 (2009). While the nanofluid doesn't show large enhancements, it nevertheless serves as good comparisons between the experimental results and calculated results.

  12. Ground plane insulating coating for proximity focused devices

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Power, Gary D. (Manteca, CA)

    1998-01-01

    A thin layer of alumina (aluminum oxide) is coated onto the ground plane of a microchannel plate (MCP) without covering the pores of the MCP so it does not effect the performance. The coating is sputtered onto the ground plane at a very steep angle. The addition of the thin dielectric coating of alumina greatly improves the spatial resolution of proximity focused image intensifiers using a narrow gap between the phosphor screen and the MCP. With the coating on the ground plane and the same gap the phosphor screen can be ran at 9000 volts, as compared to 3 kV without the coating.

  13. Carbothermic Aluminum Production Using Scrap Aluminum As A Coolant

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    LaCamera, Alfred F. (Trafford, PA)

    2002-11-05

    A process for producing aluminum metal by carbothermic reduction of alumina ore. Alumina ore is heated in the presence of carbon at an elevated temperature to produce an aluminum metal body contaminated with about 10-30% by wt. aluminum carbide. Aluminum metal or aluminum alloy scrap then is added to bring the temperature to about 900-1000.degree. C. and precipitate out aluminum carbide. The precipitated aluminum carbide is filtered, decanted, or fluxed with salt to form a molten body having reduced aluminum carbide content.

  14. Electrolytic Cell For Production Of Aluminum Employing Planar Anodes.

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Barnett, Robert J. (Goldendale, WA); Mezner, Michael B. (Sandy, OR); Bradford, Donald R (Underwood, WA)

    2004-10-05

    A method of producing aluminum in an electrolytic cell containing alumina dissolved in an electrolyte, the method comprising providing a molten salt electrolyte having alumina dissolved therein in an electrolytic cell. A plurality of anodes and cathodes having planar surfaces are disposed in a generally vertical orientation in the electrolyte, the anodes and cathodes arranged in alternating or interleaving relationship to provide anode planar surfaces disposed opposite cathode planar surfaces, the anode comprised of carbon. Electric current is passed through anodes and through the electrolyte to the cathodes depositing aluminum at the cathodes and forming carbon containing gas at the anodes.

  15. Ground plane insulating coating for proximity focused devices

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Power, G.D.

    1998-07-14

    A thin layer of alumina (aluminum oxide) is coated onto the ground plane of a microchannel plate (MCP) without covering the pores of the MCP so it does not effect the performance. The coating is sputtered onto the ground plane at a very steep angle. The addition of the thin dielectric coating of alumina greatly improves the spatial resolution of proximity focused image intensifiers using a narrow gap between the phosphor screen and the MCP. With the coating on the ground plane and the same gap the phosphor screen can be ran at 9000 volts, as compared to 3 kV without the coating. 3 figs.

  16. Copper vapor laser acoustic thermometry system

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Galkowski, Joseph J. (Livermore, CA)

    1987-01-01

    A copper vapor laser (CVL) acoustic thermometry system is disclosed. The invention couples an acoustic pulse a predetermined distance into a laser tube by means of a transducer and an alumina rod such that an echo pulse is returned along the alumina rod to the point of entry. The time differential between the point of entry of the acoustic pulse into the laser tube and the exit of the echo pulse is related to the temperature at the predetermined distance within the laser tube. This information is processed and can provide an accurate indication of the average temperature within the laser tube.

  17. Ceramic-bonded abrasive grinding tools

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Holcombe, C.E. Jr.; Gorin, A.H.; Seals, R.D.

    1994-11-22

    Abrasive grains such as boron carbide, silicon carbide, alumina, diamond, cubic boron nitride, and mullite are combined with a cement primarily comprised of zinc oxide and a reactive liquid setting agent and solidified into abrasive grinding tools. Such grinding tools are particularly suitable for grinding and polishing stone, such as marble and granite.

  18. Microwave sintering of single plate-shaped articles

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Katz, J.D.; Blake, R.D.

    1995-07-11

    Apparatus and method are disclosed for high temperature sintering of plate-shaped articles of alumina, magnesia, silica, yttria, zirconia, and mixtures thereof using microwave radiation. An article is placed within a sintering structure located within a sintering container which is placed in a microwave cavity for heating. The rates at which heating and cooling take place is controlled. 2 figs.

  19. Photonic crystal scintillators and methods of manufacture

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Torres, Ricardo D.; Sexton, Lindsay T.; Fuentes, Roderick E.; Cortes-Concepcion, Jose

    2015-08-11

    Photonic crystal scintillators and their methods of manufacture are provided. Exemplary methods of manufacture include using a highly-ordered porous anodic alumina membrane as a pattern transfer mask for either the etching of underlying material or for the deposition of additional material onto the surface of a scintillator. Exemplary detectors utilizing such photonic crystal scintillators are also provided.

  20. Materials and Molecular Research Division. Annual report 1981

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Not Available

    1982-08-01

    Progress is reported in the areas of materials sciences, chemical sciences, nuclear sciences, fossil energy, advanced (laser) isotope separation technology, energy storage, superconducting magnets, and nuclear waste management. Work for others included phase equilibria for coal gasification products and ..beta..-alumina electrolytes for storage batteries. (DLC)

  1. The thermodynamic properties of hydrated γ-Al{sub 2}O{sub 3} nanoparticles

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Spencer, Elinor C.; Ross, Nancy L.; Huang, Baiyu; Woodfield, Brian F.; Parker, Stewart F.; Kolesnikov, Alexander I.

    2013-12-28

    In this paper we report a combined calorimetric and inelastic neutron scattering (INS) study of hydrated γ-Al{sub 2}O{sub 3} (γ-alumina) nanoparticles. These complementary techniques have enabled a comprehensive evaluation of the thermodynamic properties of this technological and industrially important metal oxide to be achieved. The isobaric heat capacity (C{sub p}) data presented herein provide further critical insights into the much-debated chemical composition of γ-alumina nanoparticles. Furthermore, the isochoric heat capacity (C{sub v}) of the surface water, which is so essential to the stability of all metal-oxides at the nanoscale, has been extracted from the high-resolution INS data and differs significantly from that of ice‑Ih due to the dominating influence of strong surface-water interactions. This study also encompassed the analysis of four γ-alumina samples with differing pore diameters [4.5 (1), 13.8 (2), 17.9 (3), and 27.2 nm (4)], and the results obtained allow us to unambiguously conclude that the water content and pore size have no influence on the thermodynamic behaviour of hydrated γ-alumina nanoparticles.

  2. The thermodynamic properties of hydrated -Al2O3 nanoparticles

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Spencer, Elinor; Huang, Baiyu; Parker, Stewart F.; Kolesnikov, Alexander I; Ross, Dr. Nancy; Woodfield, Brian

    2013-01-01

    In this paper we report a combined calorimetric and inelastic neutron scattering (INS) study of hydrated -Al2O3 ( -alumina) nanoparticles. These complementary techniques have enabled a comprehensive evaluation of the thermodynamic properties of this technological and industrially important metal oxide to be achieved. The isobaric heat capacity (Cp) data presented herein provide further critical insights into the much-debated chemical composition of -alumina nanoparticles. Furthermore, the isochoric heat capacity (Cv) of the surface water, which is so essential to the stability of all metal-oxides at the nanoscale, has been extracted from the high-resolution INS data and differs significantly from that of ice Ih due to the dominating influence of strong surface-water interactions. This study also encompassed the analysis of four -alumina samples with differing pore diameters [4.5 (1), 13.8 (2), 17.9 (3), and 27.2 nm (4)], and the results obtained allow us to unambiguously conclude that the water content and pore size have no influence on the thermodynamic behaviour of hydrated -alumina nanoparticles.

  3. Stabilized chromium oxide film

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Nyaiesh, A.R.; Garwin, E.L.

    1986-08-04

    Stabilized air-oxidized chromium films deposited on high-power klystron ceramic windows and sleeves having a thickness between 20 and 150A are useful in lowering secondary electron emission yield and in avoiding multipactoring and window failure due to overheating. The ceramic substrate for the film is chosen from alumina, sapphire or beryllium oxide.

  4. Stabilized chromium oxide film

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Garwin, Edward L. (Los Altos, CA); Nyaiesh, Ali R. (Palo Alto, CA)

    1988-01-01

    Stabilized air-oxidized chromium films deposited on high-power klystron ceramic windows and sleeves having a thickness between 20 and 150.ANG. are useful in lowering secondary electron emission yield and in avoiding multipactoring and window failure due to overheating. The ceramic substrate for the film is chosen from alumina, sapphire or beryllium oxide.

  5. Ceramic tamper-revealing seals

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Kupperman, D.S.; Raptis, A.C.; Sheen, S.H.

    1992-12-08

    A flexible metal or ceramic cable is described with composite ceramic ends, or a U-shaped ceramic connecting element attached to a binding element plate or block cast from alumina or zirconium, and connected to the connecting element by shrink fitting. 7 figs.

  6. Alcohol synthesis from CO or CO.sub.2

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Hu, Jianli [Kennewick, WA; Dagle, Robert A [Richland, WA; Holladay, Jamelyn D [Kennewick, WA; Cao, Chunshe [Houston, TX; Wang, Yong [Richland, WA; White, James F [Richland, WA; Elliott, Douglas C [Richland, WA; Stevens, Don J [Richland, WA

    2010-12-28

    Methods for producing alcohols from CO or CO.sub.2 and H.sub.2 utilizing a palladium-zinc on alumina catalyst are described. Methods of synthesizing alcohols over various catalysts in microchannels are also described. Ethanol, higher alcohols, and other C.sub.2+ oxygenates can produced utilizing Rh--Mn or a Fisher-Tropsch catalyst.

  7. Process for producing dimethyl ether from synthesis gas

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Pierantozzi, R.

    1985-06-04

    This invention pertains to a Fischer Tropsch process for converting synthesis gas to an oxygenated hydrocarbon with particular emphasis on dimethyl ether. Synthesis gas comprising carbon monoxide and hydrogen are converted to dimethyl ether by carrying out the reaction in the presence of an alkali metal-manganese-iron carbonyl cluster incorporated onto a zirconia-alumina support.

  8. Attrition resistant, zinc titanate-containing, reduced sulfur sorbents

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Vierheilig, Albert A.; Gupta, Raghubir P.; Turk, Brian S.

    2004-11-02

    The disclosure is directed to sorbent compositions for removing reduced sulfur species (e.g., H.sub.2 S, COS and CS.sub.2) a feed stream. The sorbent is formed from a multi-phase composition including a zinc titanate phase and a zinc oxide-aluminate phase. The sorbent composition is substantially free of unreacted alumina.

  9. ITP Aluminum: Aluminum Industry Vision: Sustainable Solutions for a Dynamic

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    World | Department of Energy Aluminum Industry Vision: Sustainable Solutions for a Dynamic World ITP Aluminum: Aluminum Industry Vision: Sustainable Solutions for a Dynamic World PDF icon alum_vision.pdf More Documents & Publications ITP Aluminum: Alumina Technology Roadmap U.S. Energy Requirements for Aluminum Production

  10. Ceramic-bonded abrasive grinding tools

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Holcombe, Jr., Cressie E. (Farragut, TN); Gorin, Andrew H. (Knoxville, TN); Seals, Roland D. (Oak Ridge, TN)

    1994-01-01

    Abrasive grains such as boron carbide, silicon carbide, alumina, diamond, cubic boron nitride, and mullite are combined with a cement primarily comprised of zinc oxide and a reactive liquid setting agent and solidified into abrasive grinding tools. Such grinding tools are particularly suitable for grinding and polishing stone, such as marble and granite.

  11. Electronic circuits having NiAl and Ni.sub.3 Al substrates

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Deevi, Seetharama C. (Midlothian, VA); Sikka, Vinod K. (Oak Ridge, TN)

    1999-01-01

    An electronic circuit component having improved mechanical properties and thermal conductivity comprises NiAl and/or Ni.sub.3 Al, upon which an alumina layer is formed prior to applying the conductive elements. Additional layers of copper-aluminum alloy or copper further improve mechanical strength and thermal conductivity.

  12. Method For Making Electronic Circuits Having Nial And Ni3al Substrates

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Deevi, Seetharama C. (Midlothian, VA); Sikka, Vinod K. (Oak Ridge, TN)

    2001-01-30

    A method for making electronic circuit component having improved mechanical properties and thermal conductivity comprises steps of providing NiAl and/or Ni.sub.3 Al, and forming an alumina layer thereupon prior to applying the conductive elements. Additional layers of copper-aluminum alloy or copper further improve mechanical strength and thermal conductivity.

  13. Ceramic wash-coat for catalyst support

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Kulkarni, Anand A.; Subramanian, Ramesh; Sabol, Stephen M.

    2012-08-14

    Abstract A wash-coat (16) for use as a support for an active catalyst species (18) and a catalytic combustor component (10) incorporating such wash-coat. The wash-coat is a solid solution of alumina or alumina-based material (Al.sub.2O.sub.3-0-3 wt % La.sub.2O.sub.3) and a further oxide exhibiting a coefficient of thermal expansion that is lower than that exhibited by alumina. The further oxide may be silicon dioxide (2-30 wt % SiO.sub.2), zirconia silicate (2-30 wt % ZrSiO.sub.4), neodymium oxide (0-4 wt %), titania (Al.sub.2O.sub.3-3-40% TiO.sub.2) or alumina-based magnesium aluminate spinel (Al.sub.2O.sub.3-25 wt % MgO) in various embodiments. The active catalyst species may be palladium and a second metal in a concentration of 10-50% of the concentration of the palladium.

  14. Near zero coefficient of thermal expansion of beta-eucryptite without microcracking

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Reimanis, Ivar; Ramalingam, Subramanian

    2015-06-16

    The present invention is drawn to a lithia alumina silica material that exhibits a low CTE over a broad temperature range and a method of making the same. The low CTE of the material allows for a decrease in microcracking within the material.

  15. Microwave sintering of single plate-shaped articles

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Katz, Joel D. (Los Alamos, NM); Blake, Rodger D. (Tucson, AZ)

    1995-01-01

    Apparatus and method for high temperature sintering of plate-shaped articles of alumina, magnesia, silica, yttria, zirconia, and mixtures thereof using microwave radiation. An article is placed within a sintering structure located within a sintering container which is placed in a microwave cavity for heating. The rates at which heating and cooling take place is controlled.

  16. Method of preparing doped oxide catalysts for lean NOx exhaust

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Park, Paul W.

    2004-03-09

    The lean NOx catalyst includes a substrate, an oxide support material, preferably .gamma.-alumina deposited on the substrate and a metal or metal oxide promoter or dopant introduced into the oxide support material. The metal promoters or dopants are selected from the group consisting of indium, gallium, tin, silver, germanium, gold, nickel, cobalt, copper, iron, manganese, molybdenum, chromium cerium, and vanadium, and oxides thereof, and any combinations thereof. The .gamma.-alumina preferably has a pore volume of from about 0.5 to about 2.0 cc/g; a surface area of between 80 and 350 m.sup.2 /g; an average pore size diameter of between about 3 to 30 nm; and an impurity level of less than or equal to about 0.2 weight percent. In a preferred embodiment the .gamma.-alumina is prepared by a sol-gel method, with the metal doping of the .gamma.-alumina preferably accomplished using an incipient wetness impregnation technique.

  17. Metal/metal oxide doped oxide catalysts having high deNOx selectivity for lean NOx exhaust aftertreatment systems

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Park, Paul W.

    2004-03-16

    A lean NOx catalyst and method of preparing the same is disclosed. The lean NOx catalyst includes a ceramic substrate, an oxide support material, preferably .gamma.-alumina, deposited on the substrate and a metal promoter or dopant introduced into the oxide support material. The metal promoters or dopants are selected from the group consisting of indium, gallium, tin, silver, germanium, gold, nickel, cobalt, copper, iron, manganese, molybdenum, chromium, cerium, vanadium, oxides thereof, and combinations thereof. The .gamma.-alumina preferably has a pore volume of from about 0.5 to about 2.0 cc/g; a surface area of between about 80 to 350 m.sup.2 /g; an average pore size diameter of between about 3 to 30 nm; and an impurity level of less than or equal to 0.2 weight percent. In a preferred embodiment the .gamma.-alumina is prepared by a sol-gel method, with the metal doping of the .gamma.-alumina preferably accomplished using an incipient wetness impregnation technique.

  18. A study of competitive adsorption of organic molecules onto mineral oxides using DRIFTS

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Joan E. Thomas, Michael J. Kelley

    2010-02-01

    Analysis of DRIFTS spectra was used for a quantitative study of competitive adsorption of myristic and salicylic acids onto kaolinite or {gamma}-alumina. Peaks unique to the ring or the chain were selected and single molecule studies used as calibration. Samples were exposed to hexane solution containing equal molecular quantities of each acid. The surface loading of salicylic acid was not influenced by the presence of myristic acid on either mineral but the maximum loading of myristic acid was decreased (46-50%) by salicylic acid. Displacement of myristic acid from {gamma}-alumina, but not kaolinite, was observed when excess salicylic acid remained in solution. A 25% increase in the maximum loading was observed for kaolinite, but not for{gamma}-alumina. On {gamma}-alumina, after a loading of 1 molecule per nm{sup 2}, increased exposure resulted in salicylic acid adsorption only, this value is approximately the same for salicylic acid adsorption from aqueous solution or for water washed hexane treated samples. Thus a set of sites for adsorption of either acid is indicated together with other energetically less favorable sites, which can be occupied by salicylic, but not by myristic, acid.

  19. Process for producing dimethyl ether form synthesis gas

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Pierantozzi, Ronald (Macungie, PA)

    1985-01-01

    This invention pertains to a Fischer Tropsch process for converting synthesis gas to an oxygenated hydrocarbon with particular emphasis on dimethyl ether. Synthesis gas comprising carbon monoxide and hydrogen are converted to dimethyl ether by carrying out the reaction in the presence of an alkali metal-manganese-iron carbonyl cluster incorporated onto a zirconia-alumina support.

  20. Catalytic oxidative dehydrogenation process

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Schmidt, Lanny D.; Huff, Marylin

    2002-01-01

    A process for the production of a mono-olefin from a gaseous paraffinic hydrocarbon having at least two carbon atoms or mixtures thereof comprising reacting said hydrocarbons and molecular oxygen in the presence of a platinum catalyst. The catalyst consist essentially of platinum supported on alumina or zirconia monolith, preferably zirconia and more preferably in the absence of palladium, rhodium and gold.

  1. Process for fabrication of cermets

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Landingham, Richard L. (Livermore, CA)

    2011-02-01

    Cermet comprising ceramic and metal components and a molten metal infiltration method and process for fabrication thereof. The light weight cermets having improved porosity, strength, durability, toughness, elasticity fabricated from presintered ceramic powder infiltrated with a molten metal or metal alloy. Alumina titanium cermets biocompatible with the human body suitable for bone and joint replacements.

  2. Cathode for a hall-heroult type electrolytic cell for producing aluminum

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Brown, Craig W.

    2004-04-13

    A method of producing aluminum from alumina in an electrolytic cell including using a cathode comprised of a base material having low electrical conductivity and wettable with molten aluminum to form a reaction layer having a high electrical conductivity on said base layer and a cathode bar extending from said reaction layer through said base material to conduct electrical current from said reaction layer.

  3. MECS 2006 - All Manufacturing | Department of Energy

    Office of Environmental Management (EM)

    All Manufacturing MECS 2006 - All Manufacturing Manufacturing Energy and Carbon Footprint - Sector: All Manufacturing (NAICS 31-33) with Total Energy Input, October 2012 (MECS 2006) All available footprints and supporting documents Manufacturing Energy and Carbon Footprint PDF icon All Manufacturing (NAICS 31-33) More Documents & Publications All Manufacturing (2010 MECS) MECS 2006 - Alumina and Aluminum MECS 2006 - Cement

  4. MECS 2006 - Chemicals | Department of Energy

    Office of Environmental Management (EM)

    Chemicals MECS 2006 - Chemicals Manufacturing Energy and Carbon Footprint for Chemicals Sector (NAICS 325) with Total Energy Input, October 2012 (MECS 2006) All available footprints and supporting documents Manufacturing Energy and Carbon Footprint PDF icon Chemicals More Documents & Publications Chemicals (2010 MECS) MECS 2006 - Alumina and Aluminum MECS 2006 - Cement

  5. MECS 2006 - Food and Beverage | Department of Energy

    Office of Environmental Management (EM)

    Food and Beverage MECS 2006 - Food and Beverage Manufacturing Energy and Carbon Footprint for Food and Beverage (NAICS 311, 312) Sector with Total Energy Input, October 2012 (MECS 2006) All available footprints and supporting documents Manufacturing Energy and Carbon Footprint PDF icon Food and Beverage More Documents & Publications Food and Beverage (2010 MECS) MECS 2006 - Alumina and Aluminum MECS 2006 - Cement

  6. MECS 2006 - Petroleum Refining | Department of Energy

    Office of Environmental Management (EM)

    Petroleum Refining MECS 2006 - Petroleum Refining Manufacturing Energy and Carbon Footprint for Petroleum Refining (NAICS 324110) Sector with Total Energy Input, October 2012 (MECS 2006) All available footprints and supporting documents Manufacturing Energy and Carbon Footprint PDF icon Petroleum Refining More Documents & Publications Petroleum Refining (2010 MECS) MECS 2006 - Alumina and Aluminum MECS 2006 - Cement

  7. Glass ceramics for explosive device headers

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Ballard, C. P.; Eagan, R. J.; Kjeldgaard, E. A.

    1980-01-01

    The desired features of a header for our advanced explosive devices include small size; 700 Mpa static burst strength; corrosion resistant alloys for electrodes, bridgewire, and housing; integral charge holder; high thermal conductivity (approaching that of alumina ceramic); no braze around the electrodes; design flexibility and quick turnaround time for fabrication of development prototypes; and low cost.

  8. Processing and characterization of multi-cellular monolithic bioceramics for bone regenerative scaffolds

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Ari-Wahjoedi, Bambang; Ginta, Turnad Lenggo; Parman, Setyamartana; Abustaman, Mohd Zikri Ahmad

    2014-10-24

    Multicellular monolithic ceramic body is a ceramic material which has many gas or liquid passages partitioned by thin walls throughout the bulk material. There are many currently known advanced industrial applications of multicellular ceramics structures i.e. as supports for various catalysts, electrode support structure for solid oxide fuel cells, refractories, electric/electronic materials, aerospace vehicle re-entry heat shields and biomaterials for dental as well as orthopaedic implants by naming only a few. Multicellular ceramic bodies are usually made of ceramic phases such as mullite, cordierite, aluminum titanate or pure oxides such as silica, zirconia and alumina. What make alumina ceramics is excellent for the above functions are the intrinsic properties of alumina which are hard, wear resistant, excellent dielectric properties, resists strong acid and alkali attacks at elevated temperatures, good thermal conductivities, high strength and stiffness as well as biocompatible. In this work the processing technology leading to truly multicellular monolithic alumina ceramic bodies and their characterization are reported. Ceramic slip with 66 wt.% solid loading was found to be optimum as impregnant to the polyurethane foam template. Mullitic ceramic composite of alumina-sodium alumino disilicate-Leucite-like phases with bulk and true densities of 0.852 and 1.241 g cm{sup ?3} respectively, pore linear density of 35 cm{sup ?1}, linear and bulk volume shrinkages of 7-16% and 32 vol.% were obtained. The compressive strength and elastic modulus of the bioceramics are ?0.5-1.0 and ?20 MPa respectively.

  9. Bridging the Gap between Theory and Experiments - Nano-structural Changes in Supported Catalysts under Operating Conditions

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Narula, Chaitanya Kumar; Allard Jr, Lawrence Frederick; Blom, Douglas Allen; Debusk, Melanie Moses

    2008-01-01

    Computational approaches have been limited to examining catalytic processes using models that have been greatly simplified in comparison to real catalysts. Experimental studies, especially on emission treatment catalysts, have primarily focused on fully formulated systems. Thus, there remains a knowledge gap between theory and experiments. We combine the power of theory and experiment for atomistic design of catalytically active sites that can translate the fundamental insights gained directly to a catalyst system suitable for technical deployment. In this article, we describe our results on a model platinum-alumina catalyst that is a common constituent of emission treatment catalysts such as three-way, NO/dx trap, oxidation, and HC-SCR catalysts. We present theoretical and experimental studies of the oxidation and reactivity of Pt catalyst clusters towards O, CO, and NO/dx. Our theoretical studies indicate that the reaction energetics are strongly dependent on the size of the clusters as well as the extent of oxidation of the clusters, and the energetics of CO and NO oxidation may be more favorable on the oxidized clusters than metallic clusters because of the weakened adsorption of O, CO and NO. Experimentally, we have observed that the aberration-corrected HA-ADF STEM images of Pt/gg-alumina support show that there are single atoms, 2-3 atom clusters, and several 10-20 atom clusters of Pt. We also found that the Pt particles size has an impact on CO oxidation initiation and completion temperatures. Substrate effects were studied for equivalent Pt particle size distributions on both gu-alumina and gg-alumina supports. Particle size effects were investigated on Pt/gg-alumina catalysts with Pt particle size distribution centered at 1 nm and 12 nm, respectively. We will describe our results on substrate and Pt particle size effects. In addition, we will also present our study of nano-structural changes in model catalysts on exposure to various reaction conditions.

  10. Topical report to Morgantown Energy Technology Center for the interfacial coatings for ceramic-matrix composites

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    1997-01-09

    This report summarizes the task conducted to examine various activities on interface development for ceramic-matrix composites (CMCs) intended for high-temperature applications. While several articles have been published on the subject of CMC interfaces, the purpose of this report is to describe the various ongoing efforts on interface concepts, material selection, and issues related to processing methods employed for developing interface coatings. The most exciting and new development in the field is the discovery of monazite as a potential interface material for mullite- and alumina-based composites. Monazite offers two critical properties to the CMC system; a weakly bonded layer due to its non-wetting behavior and chemical compatibility with both alumina and mullite up to very high temperatures (> 1,600 C). A description of the Department of Energy-related activities and some thoughts on processing issues, interface testing, and effects of processing on fiber strength are given.

  11. Process for recovery of aluminum from carbonaceous waste products

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Kapolyi, L.

    1984-03-13

    A carbonaceous waste product, preferably containing 30 to 60% mineral substances, 35 to 55% carbonaceous materials, 5 to 20% water, and having a calorific value of 2,000 to 3,500 k cal/kg is fired to produce thermal energy and a combustion residue. The residue is adjusted, if necessary, by addition of mineral containing additives so that it contains 15 to 50% alumina, 15 to 20% silica and 13 to 45% other oxides (mainly iron oxide, manganese oxide and calcium oxide). Sufficient limestone is added to produce a mixture containing 1.8 to 2.2 moles of calcium oxide per mole of silica and 1.1 to 1.3 moles of calcium oxide per mole of alumina. The mixture is then sintered. The total energy requirements of the sintering step are supplied by the energy generated in the firing step. Useful products such as cement and cast stone can be produced from the sintered product.

  12. Calibration models for measuring moisture in unsaturated formations by neutron logging

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Engelman, R.E.; Lewis, R.E.; Stromswold, D.C.

    1995-10-01

    Calibration models containing known amounts of hydrogen have been constructed to simulate unsaturated earth formations for calibrating neutron well logging tools. The models are made of dry mixtures of hydrated alumina (Al(OH){sub 3}) with either silica sand (SiO{sub 2}) or aluminum oxide (Al{sub 2}O{sub 3}). Hydrogen in the hydrated alumina replaces the hydrogen in water for neutron scattering, making it possible to simulate partially saturated formations. The equivalent water contents for the models are 5%, 12%, 20%, and 40% by volume in seven tanks that have a diameter of 1.5 m and a height of 1.8 m. Steel casings of inside diameter 15.4 cm (for three models) and diameter 20.3 cm (for four models) allow logging tool access to simulate logging through cased boreholes.

  13. High temperature insulation for ceramic matrix composites

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Merrill, Gary B.; Morrison, Jay Alan

    2004-01-13

    A ceramic composition is provided to insulate ceramic matrix composites under high temperature, high heat flux environments. The composition comprises a plurality of hollow oxide-based spheres of various dimensions, a phosphate binder, and at least one oxide filler powder, whereby the phosphate binder partially fills gaps between the spheres and the filler powders. The spheres are situated in the phosphate binder and the filler powders such that each sphere is in contact with at least one other sphere. The spheres may be any combination of Mullite spheres, Alumina spheres, or stabilized Zirconia spheres. The filler powder may be any combination of Alumina, Mullite, Ceria, or Hafnia. Preferably, the phosphate binder is Aluminum Ortho-Phosphate. A method of manufacturing the ceramic insulating composition and its application to CMC substrates are also provided.

  14. Nanostructure multilayer dielectric materials for capacitors and insulators

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Barbee, T.W. Jr.; Johnson, G.W.

    1998-04-21

    A capacitor is formed of at least two metal conductors having a multilayer dielectric and opposite dielectric-conductor interface layers in between. The multilayer dielectric includes many alternating layers of amorphous zirconium oxide (ZrO{sub 2}) and alumina (Al{sub 2}O{sub 3}). The dielectric-conductor interface layers are engineered for increased voltage breakdown and extended service life. The local interfacial work function is increased to reduce charge injection and thus increase breakdown voltage. Proper material choices can prevent electrochemical reactions and diffusion between the conductor and dielectric. Physical vapor deposition is used to deposit the zirconium oxide (ZrO{sub 2}) and alumina (Al{sub 2}O{sub 3}) in alternating layers to form a nano-laminate. 1 fig.

  15. Nanostructure multilayer dielectric materials for capacitors and insulators

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Barbee, Jr., Troy W. (Palo Alto, CA); Johnson, Gary W. (Livermore, CA)

    1998-04-21

    A capacitor is formed of at least two metal conductors having a multilayer dielectric and opposite dielectric-conductor interface layers in between. The multilayer dielectric includes many alternating layers of amorphous zirconium oxide (ZrO.sub.2) and alumina (Al.sub.2 O.sub.3). The dielectric-conductor interface layers are engineered for increased voltage breakdown and extended service life. The local interfacial work function is increased to reduce charge injection and thus increase breakdown voltage. Proper material choices can prevent electrochemical reactions and diffusion between the conductor and dielectric. Physical vapor deposition is used to deposit the zirconium oxide (ZrO.sub.2) and alumina (Al.sub.2 O.sub.3) in alternating layers to form a nano-laminate.

  16. Carbon nanotube forests growth using catalysts from atomic layer deposition

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Chen, Bingan; Zhang, Can; Esconjauregui, Santiago; Xie, Rongsi; Zhong, Guofang; Robertson, John; Bhardwaj, Sunil; Cepek, Cinzia

    2014-04-14

    We have grown carbon nanotubes using Fe and Ni catalyst films deposited by atomic layer deposition. Both metals lead to catalytically active nanoparticles for growing vertically aligned nanotube forests or carbon fibres, depending on the growth conditions and whether the substrate is alumina or silica. The resulting nanotubes have narrow diameter and wall number distributions that are as narrow as those grown from sputtered catalysts. The state of the catalyst is studied by in-situ and ex-situ X-ray photoemission spectroscopy. We demonstrate multi-directional nanotube growth on a porous alumina foam coated with Fe prepared by atomic layer deposition. This deposition technique can be useful for nanotube applications in microelectronics, filter technology, and energy storage.

  17. Short-Term Oxidation Studies on Nicrofer- 6025HT in Air at Elevated Temperatures for Advanced Coal Based Power Plants

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Joshi, Vineet V.; Meier, Alan; Darsell, Jens T.; Nachimuthu, Ponnusamy; Bowden, Mark E.; Weil, K. Scott

    2013-04-01

    Several advanced air separation unit (ASU) designs being considered for use in coal gasification rely on the use of solid state mixed ionic and electronic conductors. Nicrofer-6025HT, a nickel-based alloy, has been identified as a potential manifold material to transport the hot gases into the ASUs. In the current study, isothermal oxidation tests were conducted on Nicrofer-6025HT in the temperature range of 700900 C for up to 24 h. The evolution of oxide scale was evaluated using SEM, XRD, and XPS. The composite surface oxide layer that formed consisted of an outer chromia-rich scale and an inner alumina scale. For the longer times at the higher temperatures evaluated, a NiCr2O4 spinel phase was located at the interface between the alumina and chromia. Based on the experimental results a four-step oxidation model was proposed.

  18. Method for the preparation of catalyst composition for use in cracking hydrocarbons

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Nishimura, Y.; Ogata, M.; Ida, T.

    1987-01-13

    A method is described for preparing a catalyst composition for cracking hydrocarbons, which consists essentially of: spray drying an aqueous slurry containing (i) flash calcined alumina particles which have been prepared by contacting aluminum hydroxide which has been made by the Bayer process, with hot air having a temperature in the range of 350/sup 0/ to 700/sup 0/C., for 5 seconds or less, (ii) kaolin, (iii) a precursor of a siliceous inorganic oxide matrix, and (iv) a crystalline aluminosilicate zeolite, to obtain catalyst particles consisting essentially of from 10 to 30 wt. % of the flash-calcined alumina, from 30 to 55 wt. % of the kaolin, from 3 to 40 wt. % crystalline aluminosilicate zeolite and the balance is the siliceous inorganic oxide matrix. A method is also described in which the zeolite is rare earth exchange zeolite Y or hydrogen exchanged zeolite Y.

  19. Active alignment/contact verification system

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Greenbaum, William M. (Modesto, CA)

    2000-01-01

    A system involving an active (i.e. electrical) technique for the verification of: 1) close tolerance mechanical alignment between two component, and 2) electrical contact between mating through an elastomeric interface. For example, the two components may be an alumina carrier and a printed circuit board, two mating parts that are extremely small, high density parts and require alignment within a fraction of a mil, as well as a specified interface point of engagement between the parts. The system comprises pairs of conductive structures defined in the surfaces layers of the alumina carrier and the printed circuit board, for example. The first pair of conductive structures relate to item (1) above and permit alignment verification between mating parts. The second pair of conductive structures relate to item (2) above and permit verification of electrical contact between mating parts.

  20. High temperature insulation for ceramic matrix composites

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Merrill, Gary B. (Monroeville, PA); Morrison, Jay Alan (Orlando, FL)

    2000-01-01

    A ceramic composition is provided to insulate ceramic matrix composites under high temperature, high heat flux environments. The composite comprises a plurality of hollow oxide-based spheres of varios dimentions, a phosphate binder, and at least one oxide filler powder, whereby the phosphate binder partially fills gaps between the spheres and the filler powders. The spheres are situated in the phosphate binder and the filler powders such that each sphere is in contact with at least one other sphere. The spheres may be any combination of Mullite spheres, Alumina spheres, or stabilized Zirconia spheres. The filler powder may be any combination of Alumina, Mullite, Ceria, or Hafnia. Preferably, the phosphate binder is Aluminum Ortho-Phosphate. A method of manufacturing the ceramic insulating composition and its application to CMC substates are also provided.

  1. High temperature insulation for ceramic matrix composites

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Merrill, Gary B. (Monroeville, PA); Morrison, Jay Alan (Orlando, FL)

    2001-01-01

    A ceramic composition is provided to insulate ceramic matrix composites under high temperature, high heat flux environments. The composition comprises a plurality of hollow oxide-based spheres of various dimensions, a phosphate binder, and at least one oxide filler powder, whereby the phosphate binder partially fills gaps between the spheres and the filler powders. The spheres are situated in the phosphate binder and the filler powders such that each sphere is in contact with at least one other sphere. The spheres may be any combination of Mullite spheres, Alumina spheres, or stabilized Zirconia spheres. The filler powder may be any combination of Alumina, Mullite, Ceria, or Hafnia. Preferably, the phosphate binder is Aluminum Ortho-Phosphate. A method of manufacturing the ceramic insulating composition and its application to CMC substrates are also provided.

  2. Method of preparing electrolyte for use in fuel cells

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Kinoshita, Kimio; Ackerman, John P.

    1978-01-01

    An electrolyte compact for fuel cells includes a particulate support material of lithium aluminate that contains a mixture of alkali metal compounds, such as carbonates or hydroxides, as the active electrolyte material. The porous lithium aluminate support structure is formed by mixing alumina particles with a solution of lithium hydroxide and another alkali metal hydroxide, evaporating the solvent from the solution and heating to a temperature sufficient to react the lithium hydroxide with alumina to form lithium aluminate. Carbonates are formed by reacting the alkali metal hydroxides with carbon dioxide gas in an exothermic reaction which may proceed simultaneously with the formation with the lithium aluminate. The mixture of lithium aluminate and alkali metal in an electrolyte active material is pressed or otherwise processed to form the electrolyte structure for assembly into a fuel cell.

  3. Technology development for cobalt F-T catalysts. Topical report No.3, Zirconia promotion of Fischer-Tropsch cobalt catalysts: Behavior in fixed-bed and slurry bubble column reactors

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Oukaci, R.; Marcelin, G.; Goodwin, J.G. Jr.

    1995-01-17

    A series of cobalt-based F-T catalysts supported on alumina and silica were prepared with different loadings of Zr and different sequences of impregnation of Co and Zr. All catalysts were extensively characterized by different methods. The catalysts were evaluated in terms of their activity and selectivity both in fixed bed and slurry bubble column reactors. Addition of ZrO{sub 2} to both Co/SiO{sub 2} and Co/Al{sub 2}O{sub 3} catalysts resulted in at least a twofold increase in the catalyst activity for F-T synthesis in the fixed bed reactor. In the slurry bubble column reactor, a similar promotion effect was observed for the SiO{sub 2}-supported catalysts, while the addition of Zr to a cobalt/alumina catalyst had a less significant effect.

  4. Anode film formation and control

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Koski, O.; Marschman, S.C.

    1990-05-01

    A protective film is created about the anode within a cryolite-based electrolyte during electrolytic production of aluminum from alumina. The film functions to minimize corrosion of the anode by the cryolitic electrolyte and thereby extend the life of the anode. Various operating parameters of the electrolytic process are controlled to maintain the protective film about the anode in a protective state throughout the electrolytic reduction of alumina. Such parameters include electrolyte temperature, electrolyte ratio, current density, and Al[sub 2]O[sub 3] concentration. An apparatus is also disclosed to enable identification of the onset of anode corrosion due to disruption of the film to provide real time information regarding the state of the film. 3 figs.

  5. Impermeable thin AI2O3 overlay for TBC protection from sulfate and vanadate attack in gas turbines

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Scott X. Mao

    2005-04-30

    {alpha} - Al{sub 2}O{sub 3} overlay has been deposited on the YSZ surface by the composite-sol-gel route (CSG). Hot corrosion tests were carried out on the TBCs with and without Al{sub 2}O{sub 3} coating in molten salt mixtures (Na{sub 2}SO{sub 4} + 5%V{sub 2}O{sub 5}). The results showed that besides a thin and dense alumina overlay with the thickness of about 100-500 nm formed on the YSZ surface, the microcracks and porous near the surface in YSZ was also occupied by alumina because of penetration of the low viscosity precursor.

  6. Interaction of mineral surfaces with simple organci molecules by diffuse reflectance IR spectroscopy (DRIFT)

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Joan Thomas; Michael Kelley

    2007-06-18

    Diffuse reflectance Fourier-transform infrared spectroscopy (DRIFTS) was used to characterize multi-layers of lysine, glutamic acid and salicylic acid on ?-alumina and kaolinite surfaces. The results agreed well with those previously obtained by ATR-IR in aqueous media where available, indicating that DRIFT may be regarded as effectively an in-situ spectroscopy for these materials. In the case of salicylic acid adsorption onto ?-alumina, DRIFTS was used to identify monolayer coverage and to detect molecules down to coverage of 3% of a monolayer. The spectroscopic results as to coverage were confirmed by analysis of the solutions used for treatment. The spectra obtained allowed identification of changes in the bonding environment with increasing surface coverage. DRIFTS, offers several advantages in terms of materials, experimental technique and data treatment, motivating further investigations.

  7. Anode film formation and control

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Koski, Oscar (Richland, WA); Marschman, Steven C. (Richland, WA)

    1990-01-01

    A protective film is created about the anode within a cryolite-based electrolyte during electrolytic production of aluminum from alumina. The film function to minimize corrosion of the anode by the cryolitic electrolyte and thereby extend the life of the anode. Various operating parameters of the electrolytic process are controlled to maintain the protective film about the anode in a protective state throughout the electrolytic reduction of alumina. Such parameters include electrolyte temperature, electrolyte ratio, current density, and Al.sub.2 O.sub.3 concentration. An apparatus is also disclosed to enable identification of the onset of anode corrosion due to disruption of the film to provide real time information regarding the state of the film.

  8. Lapping slurry

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Simandl, R.F.; Upchurch, V.S.; Leitten, M.E.

    1999-01-05

    Improved lapping slurries provide for easier and more thorough cleaning of alumina work pieces, as well as inhibit corrosion of the lapping table and provide for easier cleaning of the lapping equipment. The unthickened lapping slurry comprises abrasive grains such as diamond abrasive dispersed in a carrier comprising water, glycerine, and triethanolamine. The thickened lapping slurry comprises abrasive grains such as diamond abrasive dispersed in a carrier comprising water, glycerine, triethanolamine, a water soluble silicate, and acid. 1 fig.

  9. Electrochemical cell

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Redey, Laszlo I.; Vissers, Donald R.; Prakash, Jai

    1994-01-01

    An electrochemical cell having an alkali metal negative electrode such as sodium and a positive electrode including Ni or transition metals, separated by a .beta." alumina electrolyte and NaAlCl.sub.4 or other compatible material. Various concentrations of a bromine, iodine and/or sulfur containing additive and pore formers are disclosed, which enhance cell capacity and power. The pore formers may be the ammonium salts of carbonic acid or a weak organic acid or oxamide or methylcellulose.

  10. advanced-fuels-synthesis-index | netl.doe.gov

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Advanced Fuels Synthesis The Advanced Fuels Synthesis Key Technology is focused on catalyst and reactor optimization for producing liquid hydrocarbon fuels and valuable by-products from coal/coal-biomass mixtures. The current focus is on making significant improvements in fuels synthesis product distribution, i.e., by developing catalysts that are not bound by the Anderson-Shultz-Flory distributions characteristic of conventional silica-, alumina- or zeolite-supported iron or cobalt

  11. Fabrication of high temperature materials by exothermic synthesis and subsequent dynamic consolidation

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Rabin, Barry H.; Korth, Gary E.; Wright, Richard N.; Williamson, Richard L.

    1992-01-01

    An apparatus for synthesizing a composite material such as titanium carbide and alumina from exothermic reaction of a sample followed by explosive induced consolidation of the reacted sample. The apparatus includes a lower base for holding a powdered composite sample, an igniter and igniter powder for igniting the sample to initiate an exothermic reaction and a piston for dynamically compressing the sample utilizing an explosive reaction.

  12. FUEL ELEMENTS FOR THERMAL-FISSION NUCLEAR REACTORS

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Flint, O.

    1961-01-10

    Fuel elements for thermal-fission nuclear reactors are described. The fuel element is comprised of a core of alumina, a film of a metal of the class consisting of copper, silver, and nickel on the outer face of the core, and a coating of an oxide of a metal isotope of the class consisting of Un/sup 235/, U/ sup 233/, and Pu/sup 239/ on the metal f ilm.

  13. Stacked vapor fed amtec modules

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Sievers, Robert K. (North Huntingdon, PA)

    1989-01-01

    The present invention pertains to a stacked AMTEC module. The invention includes a tubular member which has an interior. The member is comprised of a ion conductor that substantially conducts ions relative to electrons, preferably a beta"-alumina solid electrolyte, positioned about the interior. A porous electrode for conducting electrons and allowing sodium ions to pass therethrough, and wherein electrons and sodium ions recombine to form sodium is positioned about the beta"-alumina solid electrolyte. The electrode is operated at a temperature and a pressure that allows the recombined sodium to vaporize. Additionally, an outer current collector grid for distributing electrons throughout the porous electrode is positioned about and contacts the porous electrode. Also included in the invention is transporting means for transporting liquid sodium to the beta"-alumina solid electrolyte of the tubular member. A transition piece is positioned about the interior of the member and contacts the transporting means. The transition piece divides the member into a first cell and a second cell such that each first and second cell has a beta"-alumina solid electrolyte, a first and second porous electrode and a grid. The transition piece conducts electrons from the interior of the tubular member. There is supply means for supplying sodium to the transporting means. Preferably the supply means is a shell which surrounds the tubular member and is operated at a temperature such that the vaporized sodium condenses thereon. Returning means for returning the condensed sodium from the shell to the transporting means provides a continuous supply of liquid sodium to the transporting means. Also, there are first conducting means for conducting electric current from the transition piece which extends through the shell, and second conducting means for conducting electric current to the grid of the first cell which extends through the shell.

  14. Roadmap for Process Heating Technology | Department of Energy

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Roadmap for Process Heating Technology Roadmap for Process Heating Technology This roadmap identifies priority research & development goals and near-term non-research goals to improve industrial process heating. PDF icon Roadmap for Process Heating Technology (March 2001) More Documents & Publications Process Heating Roadmap to Help U.S. Industries Be Competitive ITP Chemicals: Vision 2020 Technology Roadmap for Combinatroial Methods; September 2001 ITP Aluminum: Alumina Technology

  15. Radio frequency coaxial feedthrough device

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Owens, Thomas L.; Baity, Frederick W.; Hoffman, Daniel J.; Whealton, John H.

    1987-01-01

    A radio frequency coaxial vacuum feedthrough is provided which utilizes a cylindrical ceramic vacuum break formed of an alumina ceramic. The cylinder is coaxially disposed and brazed between tapered coaxial conductors to form a vacuum sealed connection between a pressurized upstream coaxial transmission line and a utilization device located within a vacuum container. The feedthrough provides 50 ohm matched impedance RF feedthrough up to about 500 MHz at power levels in the multimegawatt range.

  16. Lapping slurry

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Simandl, Ronald F. (Farragut, TN); Upchurch, Victor S. (Powell, TN); Leitten, Michael E. (Frederick, MD)

    1999-01-01

    Improved lapping slurries provide for easier and more thorough cleaning of alumina workpieces, as well as inhibit corrosion of the lapping table and provide for easier cleaning of the lapping equipment. The unthickened lapping slurry comprises abrasive grains such as diamond abrasive dispersed in a carrier comprising water, glycerine, and triethanolamine. The thickened lapping slurry comprises abrasive grains such as diamond abrasive dispersed in a carrier comprising water, glycerine, triethanolamine, a water soluble silicate, and acid.

  17. Decrease in carbonyl sulfide in the feed to Claus converters by shift catalysts

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Gens, T.A. (BOC Group Technical Center, Murray Hill, NJ (United States))

    1994-07-01

    The principal reaction in the burner in a Claus plant is the combustion of part of the hydrogen sulfide to form sulfur dioxide, which can react with more hydrogen sulfide to form sulfur. Alumina or commercial shift catalysts were used downstream of a Claus burner to shift carbon monoxide to carbon dioxide before it could react to form carbonyl sulfide. The shift catalysts were effective in preventing formation of carbonyl sulfide, thereby decreasing sulfur losses.

  18. low-cost-sorbent | netl.doe.gov

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Low Cost Sorbent for Capturing CO2 Emissions Generated by Existing Coal-Fired Power Plants Project No.: DE-NT0005497 TDA sorbent test equipment TDA sorbent test equipment. TDA Research Inc. will produce and evaluate a low-cost solid sorbent developed in prior laboratory testing. The process uses an alkalized alumina adsorbent to capture carbon dioxide (CO2) at intermediate temperature and near ambient pressure. The physical adsorbent is regenerated with low-pressure steam. Although the

  19. Molten-Salt Batteries for Medium and Large-Scale Energy Storage

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Lu, Xiaochuan; Yang, Zhenguo

    2014-12-01

    This chapter discusses two types of molten salt batteries. Both of them are based on a beta-alumina solid electrolyte and molten sodium anode, i.e., sodium-sulfur (Na-S) battery and sodium-metal halide (ZEBRA) batteries. The chapter first reviews the basic electrochemistries and materials for various battery components. It then describes the performance of state-of-the-art batteries and future direction in material development for these batteries.

  20. Aluminum reduction cell electrode

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Goodnow, W.H.; Payne, J.R.

    1982-09-14

    The invention is directed to cathode modules comprised of refractory hard metal materials, such as TiB[sub 2], for an electrolytic cell for the reduction of alumina wherein the modules may be installed and replaced during operation of the cell and wherein the structure of the cathode modules is such that the refractory hard metal materials are not subjected to externally applied forces or rigid constraints. 9 figs.

  1. Acetone sensor based on zinc oxide hexagonal tubes

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Hastir, Anita Singh, Onkar Anand, Kanika Singh, Ravi Chand

    2014-04-24

    In this work hexagonal tubes of zinc oxide have been synthesized by co-precipitation method. For structural, morphological, elemental and optical analysis synthesized powders were characterized by using x-ray diffraction, field emission scanning microscope, EDX, UV-visible and FTIR techniques. For acetone sensing thick films of zinc oxide have been deposited on alumina substrate. The fabricated sensors exhibited maximum sensing response towards acetone vapour at an optimum operating temperature of 400C.

  2. Nanoporous Al2O3 as a "Getter" for Volatile Radionuclides into

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Nanostructued Glass-Ceramic Waste Forms - Energy Innovation Portal Nanoporous Al2O3 as a "Getter" for Volatile Radionuclides into Nanostructued Glass-Ceramic Waste Forms Sandia National Laboratories Contact SNL About This Technology Publications: PDF Document Publication Market Sheet (738 KB) Technology Marketing SummaryThe first phase of this project is capture and encapsulation which is achieved by using nanoporous alumina to confine gaseous iodine, for example, from fission or

  3. Method for scavenging mercury

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Chang, Shih-ger (El Cerrito, CA); Liu, Shou-heng (Kaohsiung, TW); Liu, Zhao-rong (Beijing, CN); Yan, Naiqiang (Berkeley, CA)

    2009-01-20

    Disclosed herein is a method for removing mercury from a gas stream comprising contacting the gas stream with a getter composition comprising bromine, bromochloride, sulphur bromide, sulphur dichloride or sulphur monochloride and mixtures thereof. In one preferred embodiment the getter composition is adsorbed onto a sorbent. The sorbent may be selected from the group consisting of flyash, limestone, lime, calcium sulphate, calcium sulfite, activated carbon, charcoal, silicate, alumina and mixtures thereof. Preferred is flyash, activated carbon and silica.

  4. Method for scavenging mercury

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Chang, Shih-Ger (El Cerrito, CA); Liu, Shou-Heng (Kaohsiung, TW); Liu, Zhao-Rong (Beijing, CN); Yan, Naiqiang (Berkeley, CA)

    2011-08-30

    Disclosed herein is a method for removing mercury from a gas stream comprising contacting the gas stream with a getter composition comprising bromine, bromochloride, sulphur bromide, sulphur dichloride or sulphur monochloride and mixtures thereof. In one preferred embodiment the getter composition is adsorbed onto a sorbent. The sorbent may be selected from the group consisting of flyash, limestone, lime, calcium sulphate, calcium sulfite, activated carbon, charcoal, silicate, alumina and mixtures thereof. Preferred is flyash, activated carbon and silica.

  5. Method for scavenging mercury

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Chang, Shih-ger (El Cerrito, CA); Liu, Shou-heng (Kaohsiung, TW); Liu, Zhao-rong (Bejing, CN); Yan, Naiqiang (Burkeley, CA)

    2010-07-13

    Disclosed herein is a method for removing mercury from a gas stream comprising contacting the gas stream with a getter composition comprising bromine, bromochloride, sulphur bromide, sulphur dichloride or sulphur monochloride and mixtures thereof. In one preferred embodiment the getter composition is adsorbed onto a sorbent. The sorbent may be selected from the group consisting flyash, limestone, lime, calcium sulphate, calcium sulfite, activated carbon, charcoal, silicate, alumina and mixtures thereof. Preferred is flyash, activated carbon and silica.

  6. Aluminum reduction cell electrode

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Goodnow, Warren H. (Palo Alto, CA); Payne, John R. (Pleasanton, CA)

    1982-01-01

    The invention is directed to cathode modules comprised of refractory hard metal materials, such as TiB.sub.2, for an electrolytic cell for the reduction of alumina wherein the modules may be installed and replaced during operation of the cell and wherein the structure of the cathode modules is such that the refractory hard metal materials are not subjected to externally applied forces or rigid constraints.

  7. Catalysis by Design: Bridging the Gap Between Theory and Experiments at

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Nanoscale Level | Department of Energy Between Theory and Experiments at Nanoscale Level Catalysis by Design: Bridging the Gap Between Theory and Experiments at Nanoscale Level Studies on a simple platinum-alumina system constitute a first step toward a "catalyst by design" approach. PDF icon deer08_narula.pdf More Documents & Publications Catalysis by Design: Bridging the Gap between Theory and Experiments Catalyst by Design - Theoretical, Nanostructural, and Experimental

  8. Modelling aging effects on a thermal cycling absorption process column

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Laquerbe, C.; Contreras, S.; Demoment, J.

    2008-07-15

    Palladium coated on alumina is used in hydrogen separation systems operated at CEA/Valduc, and more particularly in Thermal Cycling Absorption Process columns. With such materials, tritium decay is known to induce aging effects which have direct side effects on hydrogen isotopes absorption isotherms. Furthermore in a TCAP column, aging occurs in an heterogeneous way. The possible impacts of these intrinsic material evolutions on the separation performances are investigated here through a numerical approach. (authors)

  9. Electrochemical cell having an alkali-metal-nitrate electrode

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Roche, M.F.; Preto, S.K.

    1982-06-04

    A power-producing secondary electrochemical cell includes a molten alkali metal as the negative-electrode material and a molten-nitrate salt as the positive-electrode material. The molten material in the respective electrodes are separated by a solid barrier of alkali-metal-ion conducting material. A typical cell includes active materials of molten sodium separated from molten sodium nitrate and other nitrates in mixture by a layer of sodium ..beta..'' alumina.

  10. Microporous microchannel plates and method of manufacturing same

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Beetz, Jr., Charles P. (New Milford, CT); Boerstler, Robert W. (Woodbury, CT); Steinbeck, John (Fitzwilliam, NH); Winn, David R. (Wilton, CT)

    2000-01-01

    A microchannel plate and method of manufacturing same is provided. The microchannel plate includes a plate consisting of an anodized material and a plurality of channels which are formed during the anodization of the material and extend between the two sides of the plate. Electrodes are also disposed on each side of the plate for generating an electrical field within the channels. Preferably, the material is alumina and the channels are activated such that the channel walls are conductive and highly secondary emissive.

  11. Sonic resonator control and method for determining component concentration in multiple component molten liquids

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Shen, Sin-Yan (Woodridge, IL)

    1984-01-01

    This invention teaches a control to be used in smelting aluminum by the electrolysis breakdown of alumina (A1.sub.2 O.sub.3) in a molten electrolyte heated to approximately 950.degree.-1000.degree. C. The invention provides a sonic resonator and control that can accurately detect the resonant frequency of the resonator in the molten electrolyte. The resonator preferably is made with tubular side wall 1/4 of the sonic wavelength, or is a quarter wave resonator. A wave generator inputs a signal having a range of frequencies that includes the resonant frequency, so that a peak resonant output at the resonant frequency can be detected on an oscilloscope or like detector. This instantaneous resonant frequency is then checked against an accurate data base correlating the resonant frequencies of the resonator in the electrolyte at specific alumina concentrations normally experienced throughout the electrolysis cycle. The electrolysis cycle can thus be controlled and recharged at any predetermined low alumina concentration greater than where the anode effect phase of the cycle normally might begin.

  12. Production of hydrogen by thermocatalytic cracking of natural gas. Task 4 report; Annual report

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    1995-10-01

    The conventional methods of hydrogen production from natural gas, for example, steam reforming (SR), are complex multi-step processes. These processes also result in the emission of large quantities of CO{sub 2} into the atmosphere. One alternative is the single-step thermocatalytic cracking (TCC) (or decomposition) of natural gas into hydrogen and carbon. The comparative assessment of SR and TCC processes was conducted. Thermocatalytic cracking of methane over various catalysts and supports in a wide range of temperatures (500--900 C) and flow rates was conducted. Two types of fix bed catalytic reactors were designed, built and tested: continuous flow and pulse reactors. Ni-Mo/Alumina and Fe-catalysts demonstrated relatively high efficiency in the methane cracking reaction at the range of temperatures 600--800 C. Fe-catalyst demonstrated fairly good stability, whereas alumina-supported Pt-catalyst rapidly lost its catalytic activity. Methane decomposition reaction over Ni-Mo/alumina was studied over wide range of space velocities in a continuous flow fixed bed catalytic reactor. The experimental results indicate that the hydrogen yield decreases noticeably with an increase in the space velocity of methane. The pulse type catalytic reactor was used to test the activity of the catalysts. It was found that induction period on the kinetic curve of hydrogen production corresponded to the reduction of metal oxide to metallic form of the catalyst. SEM method was used to study the structure of the carbon deposited on the catalyst surface.

  13. Corrosion performance of Fe-Cr-Al and Fe aluminide alloys in complex gas environments

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Natesan, K.; Johnson, R.N.

    1995-05-01

    Alumina-forming structural alloys can offer superior resistance to corrosion in the presence of sulfur-containing environments, which are prevalent in coal-fired fossil energy systems. Further, Fe aluminides are being developed for use as structural materials and/or cladding alloys in these systems. Extensive development has been in progress on Fe{sub 3}Al-based alloys to improve their engineering ductility. In addition, surface coatings of Fe aluminide are being developed to impart corrosion resistance to structural alloys. This paper describes results from an ongoing program that is evaluating the corrosion performance of alumina-forming structural alloys, Fe-Al and Fe aluminide bulk alloys, and Fe aluminide coatings in environments typical of coal-gasification and combustion atmospheres. Experiments were conducted at 650-1000{degrees}C in simulated oxygen/sulfur gas mixtures. Other aspects of the program are corrosion evaluation of the aluminides in the presence of HCl-containing gases. Results are used to establish threshold Al levels in the alloys for development of protective alumina scales and to determine the modes of corrosion degradation that occur in the materials when they are exposed to S/Cl-containing gaseous environments.

  14. Power-plant fly-ash utilization: a chemical processing perspective

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Burnet, G.; Murtha, M.J.

    1981-01-01

    The 1976 Resource Conservation and Recovery Act (RCRA) deals with the management of solid and hazardous wastes, and encourages energy and resource recovery. Recent research has indicated that solid wastes from coal combustion, including fly ash, could be classified as hazardous under present EPA definitions. The seriousness of this possibility has been recognized and new rules for coal ash waste disposal are being considered. Ames Laboratory research on fly ash utilization as an alternative to disposal includes extraction of metals from the ash and discovery of uses for the process residues. Recovery of alumina and iron oxides by physical and chemical processing would permit large scale utilization of fly ash and help reduce dependency on imports. One of the processes investigated uses a lime-soda sinter method to form soluble aluminate compounds from mixtures of fly ash, limestone, and soda ash. The aluminates are extracted, treated to remove silicates, and precipitated: the precipitate is calcined to metallurgical grade alumina. The extract residue shows promise as a raw material for the production of Portland cement. Process economics are presented, and the effects of alumina and silica contents of the fly ash, sintering temperatures and time, and sales credits for by-products are discussed.

  15. A low cost, high energy density and long cycle life potassium-sulfur battery for grid-scale energy storage

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Lu, Xiaochuan; Bowden, Mark E.; Sprenkle, Vincent L.; Liu, Jun

    2015-08-15

    Alkali metal-sulfur batteries are attractive for energy storage applications because of their high energy density. Among the batteries, lithium-sulfur batteries typically use liquid in the battery electrolyte, which causes problems in both performance and safety. Sodium-sulfur batteries can use a solid electrolyte such as beta alumina but this requires a high operating temperature. Here we report a novel potassium-sulfur battery with K+-conducting beta-alumina as the electrolyte. Our studies indicate that liquid potassium exhibits much better wettability on the surface of beta-alumina compared to liquid sodium at lower temperatures. Based on this observation, we develop a potassium-sulfur battery that can operate at as low as 150C with excellent performance. In particular, the battery shows excellent cycle life with negligible capacity fade in 1000 cycles because of the dense ceramic membrane. This study demonstrates a new battery with a high energy density, long cycle life, low cost and high safety, which is ideal for grid-scale energy storage.

  16. Zr doped anatase supported reticulated ceramic foams for photocatalytic water purification

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Plesch, G.; Vargov, M.; Vogt, U.F.; Department of Crystallography, University of Freiburg, D-79104 Freiburg ; Gorbr, M.; Jesenk, K.

    2012-07-15

    Highlights: ? Thick photocatalytic anatase films on macroporous reticulated ceramic foams. ? Alumina and aluminamullite macroporous reticulated foams as photocatalyst support. ? Zr doping significantly improves the TiO{sub 2} film activity in phenol photomineralization. ? Comparison of photocatalytic activity of thick films and powder suspensions. -- Abstract: Titanium dioxide films were deposited on macroporous reticulated Al{sub 2}O{sub 3} and aluminamullite foams with pore sizes of 15 ppi (pores per inch). Coatings were prepared from suspensions of precursor powders of Aeroxide{sup } P25 nanopowder and precipitated TiO{sub 2} by using a dip coating process. The TiO{sub 2} forms films with a thickness of ?220 ?m. The photocatalytic activity was characterized as the mineralization rate of an aqueous phenol solution under UVA irradiation by the TOC technique. Precipitated TiO{sub 2} films have nearly the same photocatalytic activity as a titania suspension, in which powder aggregates have a size comparable with the thickness of the films. Samples made of Aeroxide{sup } P25 nanopowder, in which the size of aggregates is ?0.1 ?m show higher efficiency of photodecomposition in suspensions with films. The doping of precipitated anatase with Zr(IV) in the atomic ratio Zr/Ti = 0.008 significantly improves the photocatalytic activity of the foam supported titania. Zr doped anatase films show better performance as the films prepared only from Aeroxide{sup } P25 nanopowder.

  17. Aluminum doped zirconia nanopowders: Wet-chemical synthesis and structural analysis by Rietveld refinement

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Srdic, Vladimir V. Rakic, Srdan; Cvejic, Zeljka

    2008-10-02

    Alumina/zirconia nanopowders, with up to 20 mol% Al{sub 2}O{sub 3}, were prepared by wet-chemical synthesis technique, using controlled hydrolysis of alkoxides. The as-synthesized powders are amorphous, have very high specific surface area and the corresponding particle size smaller than 4 nm. Amorphous powders with 0, 10 and 20 mol% Al{sub 2}O{sub 3} crystallize at 460, 692 and 749 deg. C, respectively, as a single-phase tetragonal zirconia, without any traces of alumina phases. Rietvled refinement of X-ray diffraction data, used for the detailed structural analysis of annealed nanopowders, showed that the high-temperature zirconia phase is stabilized due to the formation of ZrO{sub 2}/Al{sub 2}O{sub 3} solid solutions. High solubility of alumina in the tetragonal zirconia (up to 28.6 at% Al{sup 3+}) and stabilization of tetragonal zirconia solid solution up to high temperature (as high as 1150 deg. C) were also confirmed.

  18. Cryogenic properties of dispersion strengthened copper for high magnetic fields

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Toplosky, V. J.; Han, K.; Walsh, R. P. [National High Magnetic Field Laboratory, Tallahassee, FL 32310 (United States); Swenson, C. A. [Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory, Berkeley, CA 94720 (United States)

    2014-01-27

    Cold deformed copper matrix composite conductors, developed for use in the 100 tesla multi-shot pulsed magnet at the National High Magnetic Field Laboratory (NHMFL), have been characterized. The conductors are alumina strengthened copper which is fabricated by cold drawing that introduces high dislocation densities and high internal stresses. Both alumina particles and high density of dislocations provide us with high tensile strength and fatigue endurance. The conductors also have high electrical conductivities because alumina has limited solubility in Cu and dislocations have little scattering effect on conduction electrons. Such a combination of high strength and high conductivity makes it an excellent candidate over other resistive magnet materials. Thus, characterization is carried out by tensile testing and fully reversible fatigue testing. In tensile tests, the material exceeds the design criteria parameters. In the fatigue tests, both the load and displacement were measured and used to control the amplitude of the tests to simulate the various loading conditions in the pulsed magnet which is operated at 77 K in a non-destructive mode. In order to properly simulate the pulsed magnet operation, strain-controlled tests were more suitable than load controlled tests. For the dispersion strengthened coppers, the strengthening mechanism of the aluminum oxide provided better tensile and fatigue properties over convention copper.

  19. Solar Cell Nanotechnology Final Technical Report

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Das, Biswajit

    2014-05-07

    The objective of this project is to develop a low cost nonlithographic nanofabrication technology for the fabrication of thin film porous templates as well as uniform arrays of semiconductor nanostructures for the implementation of high efficiency solar cells. Solar cells based on semiconductor nanostructures are expected to have very high energy conversion efficiencies due to the increased absorption coefficients of semiconductor nanostructures. In addition, the thin film porous template can be used for optimum surface texturing of solar cells leading to additional enhancement in energy conversion efficiency. An important requirement for these applications is the ability to synthesize nanostructure arrays of different dimensions with good size control. This project employed nanoporous alumina templates created by the anodization of aluminum thin films deposited on glass substrates for the fabrication of the nanostructures and optimized the process parameters to obtain uniform pore diameters. An additional requirement is uniformity or regularity of the nanostructure arrays. While constant current anodization was observed to provide controlled pore diameters, constant voltage anodization was needed for regularity of the nanostructure arrays. Thus a two-step anodization process was investigated and developed in this project for improving the pore size distribution and pore periodicity of the nanoporous alumina templates. CdTe was selected to be the active material for the nanowires, and the process for the successful synthesis of CdTe nanowires was developed in this project. Two different synthesis approaches were investigated in this project, electrochemical and electrophoretic deposition. While electrochemical synthesis was successfully employed for the synthesis of nanowires inside the pores of the alumina templates, the technique was determined to be non-optimum due to the need of elevated temperature that is detrimental to the structural integrity of the nanoporous alumina templates. In order to eliminate this problem, electrophoretic deposition was selected as the more appropriate technique, which involves the guided deposition of semiconductor nanoparticles in the presence of ultrasonic energy to form the crystalline nanowires. Extensive experimental research was carried out to optimize the process parameters for formation of crystalline nanowires. It was observed that the environmental bath temperature plays a critical role in determining the structural integrity of the nanowires and hence their lengths. Investigation was carried out for the formation of semitransparent ohmic contacts on the nanowires to facilitate photocurrent spectroscopy measurements as well as for solar cell implementation. Formation of such ohmic contacts was found to be challenging and a process involving mechanical and electrochemical polishing was developed to facilitate such contacts. The use of nanoporous alumina templates for the surface texturing of mono- and multi-crystalline solar cells was extensively investigated by electrochemical etching of the silicon through the pores of the nanoporous templates. The processes for template formation as well as etching were optimized and the alumina/silicon interface was investigated using capacitance-voltage characterization. The process developed was found to be viable for improving solar cell performance.

  20. Development of a Catalyst/Sorbent for Methane Reforming

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    B.H. Shans; T.D. Wheelock; Justinus Satrio; Karl Albrecht; Tanya Harris Janine Keeley; Ben Silva; Aaron Shell; Molly Lohry; Zachary Beversdorf

    2008-12-31

    This project led to the further development of a combined catalyst and sorbent for improving the process technology required for converting CH{sub 4} and/or CO into H{sub 2} while simultaneously separating the CO{sub 2} byproduct all in a single step. The new material is in the form of core-in-shell pellets such that each pellet consists of a CaO core surrounded by an alumina-based shell capable of supporting a Ni catalyst. The Ni is capable of catalyzing the reactions of steam with CH{sub 4} or CO to produce H{sub 2} and CO{sub 2}, whereas the CaO is capable of absorbing the CO{sub 2} as it is produced. The absorption of CO{sub 2} eliminates the reaction inhibiting effects of CO{sub 2} and provides a means for recovering the CO{sub 2} in a useful form. The present work showed that the lifecycle performance of the sorbent can be improved either by incorporating a specific amount of MgO in the material or by calcining CaO derived from limestone at 1100 C for an extended period. It also showed how to prepare a strong shell material with a large surface area required for supporting an active Ni catalyst. The method combines graded particles of {alpha}-alumina with noncrystalline alumina having a large specific surface area together with a strength promoting additive followed by controlled calcination. Two different additives produced good results: 3 {micro}m limestone and lanthanum nitrate which were converted to their respective oxides upon calcination. The oxides partially reacted with the alumina to form aluminates which probably accounted for the strength enhancing properties of the additives. The use of lanthanum made it possible to calcine the shell material at a lower temperature, which was less detrimental to the surface area, but still capable of producing a strong shell. Core-in-shell pellets made with the improved shell materials and impregnated with a Ni catalyst were used for steam reforming CH{sub 4} at different temperatures and pressures. Under all conditions tested, the CH{sub 4} conversion was large (>80%) and nearly equal to the predicted thermodynamic equilibrium level as long as CO{sub 2} was being rapidly absorbed. Similar results were obtained with both shell material additives. Limited lifecycle tests of the pellets also produced similar results that were not affected by the choice of additive. However, during each lifecycle test the period during which CO{sub 2} was rapidly absorbed declined from cycle to cycle which directly affected the corresponding period when CH{sub 4} was reformed rapidly. Therefore, the results showed a continuing need for improving the lifecycle performance of the sorbent. Core-in-shell pellets with the improved shell materials were also utilized for conducting the water gas shift reaction in a single step. Three different catalyst formulations were tested. The best results were achieved with a Ni catalyst, which proved capable of catalyzing the reaction whether CO{sub 2} was being absorbed or not. The calcined alumina shell material by itself also proved to be a very good catalyst for the reaction as long as CO{sub 2} was being fully absorbed by the core material. However, neither the alumina nor a third formulation containing Fe{sub 2}O{sub 3} were good catalysts for the reaction when CO{sub 2} was not absorbed by the core material. Furthermore, the Fe{sub 2}O{sub 3}-containing catalyst was not as good as the other two catalysts when CO{sub 2} was being absorbed.

  1. Technology to Facilitate the Use of Impaired Waters in Cooling Towers

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Colborn, Robert

    2012-04-30

    The project goal was to develop an effective silica removal technology and couple that with existing electro-dialysis reversal (EDR) technology to achieve a cost effective treatment for impaired waters to allow for their use in the cooling towers of coal fired power plants. A quantitative target of the program was a 50% reduction in the fresh water withdrawal at a levelized cost of water of $3.90/Kgal. Over the course of the program, a new molybdenum-modified alumina was developed that significantly outperforms existing alumina materials in silica removal both kinetically and thermodynamically. The Langmuir capacity is 0.11g silica/g adsorbent. Moreover, a low cost recycle/regeneration process was discovered to allow for multiple recycles with minimal loss in activity. On the lab scale, five runs were carried out with no drop in performance between the second and fifth run in ability to absorb the silica from water. The Mo-modified alumina was successfully prepared on a multiple kilogram scale and a bench scale model column was used to remove 100 ppm of silica from 400 liters of simulated impaired water. Significant water savings would result from such a process and the regeneration process could be further optimized to reduce water requirements. Current barriers to implementation are the base cost of the adsorbent material and the fine powder form that would lead to back pressure on a large column. If mesoporous materials become more commonly used in other areas and the price drops from volume and process improvements, then our material would also lower in price because the amount of molybdenum needed is low and no additional processing is required. There may well be engineering solutions to the fine powder issue; in a simple concept experiment, we were able to pelletize our material with Boehmite, but lost performance due to a dramatic decrease in surface area.

  2. Hot coal gas desulfurization with manganese-based sorbents. Annual report, September 1992--September 1993

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Hepworth, M.T.

    1993-12-01

    The focus of work being performed on Hot Coal Gas Desulfurization at the Morgantown Energy Technology Center is primarily in the use of zinc ferrite and zinc titanate sorbents; however, prior studies at the US Steel Fundamental Research Laboratories in Monroeville, PA, by E. T. Turkdogan indicated that an alternate sorbent, manganese dioxide-containing ore in mixture with alumina (75 wt % ore + 25 wt % Al{sub 2}O{sub 3}) may be a viable alternative to zinc-based sorbents. Manganese, for example, has a lower vapor pressure in the elemental state than zinc hence it is not as likely to undergo depletion from the sorbent surface upon loading and regeneration cycles. Also manganese oxide is less readily reduced to the elemental state than iron hence the range of reduction potentials for oxygen is somewhat greater than for zinc ferrite. In addition, thermodynamic analysis of the manganese-oxygen-sulfur system shows it to be less amenable to sulfation than zinc ferrite. Potential also exists for utilization of manganese at higher temperatures than zinc ferrite or zinc titanate. This Annual Topical Report documents progress in pelletizing and testing via thermo-gravimetric analysis of individual pellet formulations of manganese ore/ alumina combinations and also manganese carbonate/alumina with two binders, dextrin and bentonite. It includes the prior Quarterly Technical Reports which indicate that the manganese carbonate material, being of higher purity than the manganese ore, has a higher degree of sulfur capacity and more rapid absorption kinetics. A 2-inch fixed-bed reactor has been fabricated and is now ready for subjecting pellets to cyclic loading and regeneration.

  3. Vitrification of NAC process residue

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Merrill, R.A.; Whittington, K.F.; Peters, R.D. [Pacific Northwest Lab., Richland, WA (United States)

    1995-12-31

    Vitrification tests have been performed with simulated waste compositions formulated to represent the residue which would be obtained from the treatment of low-level, nitrate wastes from Hanford and Oak Ridge by the nitrate to ammonia and ceramic (NAC) process. The tests were designed to demonstrate the feasibility of vitrifying NAC residue and to quantify the impact of the NAC process on the volume of vitrified waste. The residue from NAC treatment of low-level nitrate wastes consists primarily of oxides of aluminum and sodium. High alumina glasses were formulated to maximize the waste loading of the NAC product. Transparent glasses with up to 35 wt% alumina, and even higher contents in opaque glasses, were obtained at melting temperatures of 1,200 C to 1,400 C. A modified TCLP leach test showed the high alumina glasses to have good chemical durability, leaching significantly less than either the ARM-1 or the DWPF-EA high-level waste reference glasses. A significant increase in the final waste volume would be a major result of the NAC process on LLW vitrification. For Hanford wastes, NAC-treatment of nitrate wastes followed by vitrification of the residue will increase the final volume of vitrified waste by 50% to 90%; for Melton Valley waste from Oak Ridge, the increase in final glass volume will be 260% to 280%. The increase in volume is relative to direct vitrification of the waste in a 20 wt% Na{sub 2}O glass formulation. The increase in waste volume directly affects not only disposal costs, but also operating and/or capital costs. Larger plant size, longer operating time, and additional energy and additive costs are direct results of increases in waste volume. Such increases may be balanced by beneficial impacts on the vitrification process; however, those effects are outside the scope of this report.

  4. Vitrification of NAC process residue

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Merrill, R.A.; Whittington, K.F.; Peters, R.D.

    1995-09-01

    Vitrification tests have been performed with simulated waste compositions formulated to represent the residue which would be obtained from the treatment of low-level, nitrate wastes from Hanford and Oak Ridge by the nitrate to ammonia and ceramic (NAC) process. The tests were designed to demonstrate the feasibility of vitrifying NAC residue and to quantify the impact of the NAC process on the volume of vitrified waste. The residue from NAC treatment of low-level nitrate wastes consists primarily of oxides of aluminum and sodium. High alumina glasses were formulated to maximize the waste loading of the NAC product. Transparent glasses with up to 35 wt% alumina, and even higher contents in opaque glasses, were obtained at melting temperatures of 1200{degrees}C to 1400{degrees}C. A modified TCLP leach test showed the high alumina glasses to have good chemical durability, leaching significantly less than either the ARM-1 or the DWPF-EA high-level waste reference glasses. A significant increase in the final waste volume would be a major result of the NAC process on LLW vitrification. For Hanford wastes, NAC-treatment of nitrate wastes followed by vitrification of the residue will increase the final volume of vitrified waste by 50% to 90%; for Melton Valley waste from Oak Ridge, the increase in final glass volume will be 260% to 280%. The increase in volume is relative to direct vitrification of the waste in a 20 wt% Na{sub 2}O glass formulation. The increase in waste volume directly affects not only disposal costs, but also operating and/or capital costs. Larger plant size, longer operating time, and additional energy and additive costs are direct results of increases in waste volume. Such increases may be balanced by beneficial impacts on the vitrification process; however, those effects are outside the scope of this report.

  5. Dissecting the steps of CO2 reduction: 2. The interaction of CO and CO2 with Pd/?-Al2O3: an in situ FTIR study

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Szanyi, Janos; Kwak, Ja Hun

    2014-08-07

    Alumina supported Pd catalysts with metal loadings of 0.5, 2.5 and 10 wt% were investigated by in situ FTIR spectroscopy in order to understand the nature of adsorbed species formed during their exposure to CO2 and CO. Exposing the annealed samples to CO2 at 295 K resulted in the formation of alumina support-bound surface species only: linear adsorbed CO2, bidentate carbonates and bicarbonates. Room temperature exposure of all three samples to CO produced IR features characteristic of both ionic and metallic Pd, as well as bands we observed upon CO2 adsorption (alumina support-bound species). Low temperature (100 K) adsorption of CO on the three samples provided information about the state of Pd after oxidation and reduction. Oxidized samples contained exclusively ionic Pd, while mostly metallic Pd was present in the reduced samples. Subsequent annealing of the CO-saturated samples revealed the facile (low temperature) reduction of PdOx species by adsorbed CO. This process was evidenced by the variations in IR bands characteristic of ionic and metallic Pd-bound CO, as well as by the appearance of IR bands associated with CO2 adsorption as a function of annealing temperature. Samples containing oxidized Pd species (oxidized, annealed or reduced) always produced CO2 upon their exposure to CO, while CO2-related surface entities were observed on samples having only fully reduced (metallic) Pd. Acknowledgements: The catalyst preparation was supported by a Laboratory Directed Research and Development (LDRD) project. This work was supported by the US Department of Energy Basic Energy Sciences, Division of Chemical Sciences, Geosciences & Biosciences. Pacific Northwest National Laboratory is operated by Battelle for the US Department of Energy. JHK also acknowledges the support of this work by the 2013 Research Fund of UNIST (Ulsan National Institute of Science and Technology, Ulsan, Korea).

  6. Plasma vitrification of waste materials

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    McLaughlin, D.F.; Dighe, S.V.; Gass, W.R.

    1997-06-10

    This invention provides a process wherein hazardous or radioactive wastes in the form of liquids, slurries, or finely divided solids are mixed with finely divided glassformers (silica, alumina, soda, etc.) and injected directly into the plume of a non-transferred arc plasma torch. The extremely high temperatures and heat transfer rates makes it possible to convert the waste-glassformer mixture into a fully vitrified molten glass product in a matter of milliseconds. The molten product may then be collected in a crucible for casting into final wasteform geometry, quenching in water, or further holding time to improve homogeneity and eliminate bubbles. 4 figs.

  7. Surface selective membranes for carbon dioxide separation

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Luebke, D.R.; Pennline, H.W.; Myers, C.R.

    2005-09-01

    In this study, hybrid membranes have been developed for the selective separation of CO2 from mixtures containing H2. Beginning with commercially available Pall alumina membrane tubes with nominal pore diameter of 5 nm, hybrids were produced by silation with a variety of functionalities designed to facilitate the selective adsorption of CO2 onto the pore surface. The goal is to produce a membrane which can harness the power of surface diffusion to give the selectivity of polymer membranes with the permeance of inorganic membranes.

  8. Oxidation resistant high creep strength austenitic stainless steel

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Brady, Michael P.; Pint, Bruce A.; Liu, Chain-Tsuan; Maziasz, Philip J.; Yamamoto, Yukinori; Lu, Zhao P.

    2010-06-29

    An austenitic stainless steel displaying high temperature oxidation and creep resistance has a composition that includes in weight percent 15 to 21 Ni, 10 to 15 Cr, 2 to 3.5 Al, 0.1 to 1 Nb, and 0.05 to 0.15 C, and that is free of or has very low levels of N, Ti and V. The alloy forms an external continuous alumina protective scale to provide a high oxidation resistance at temperatures of 700 to 800.degree. C. and forms NbC nanocarbides and a stable essentially single phase fcc austenitic matrix microstructure to give high strength and high creep resistance at these temperatures.

  9. Metal matrix composite of an iron aluminide and ceramic particles and method thereof

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Schneibel, Joachim H. (Maryville, TN)

    1997-01-01

    A metal matrix composite comprising an iron aluminide binder phase and a ceramic particulate phase such as titanium diboride, zirconium diboride, titanium carbide and tungsten carbide is made by heating a mixture of iron aluminide powder and particulates of one of the ceramics such as titanium diboride, zirconium diboride, titanium carbide and tungsten carbide in a alumina crucible at about 1450.degree. C. for about 15 minutes in an evacuated furnace and cooling the mixture to room temperature. The ceramic particulates comprise greater than 40 volume percent to about 99 volume percent of the metal matrix composite.

  10. Early results of microwave transmission experiments through an overly dense rectangular plasma sheet with microparticle injection

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Gillman, Eric D.; Amatucci, W. E.

    2014-06-15

    These experiments utilize a linear hollow cathode to create a dense, rectangular plasma sheet to simulate the plasma layer surrounding vehicles traveling at hypersonic velocities within the Earth's atmosphere. Injection of fine dielectric microparticles significantly reduces the electron density and therefore lowers the electron plasma frequency by binding a significant portion of the bulk free electrons to the relatively massive microparticles. Measurements show that microwave transmission through this previously overly dense, impenetrable plasma layer increases with the injection of alumina microparticles approximately 60 ?m in diameter. This method of electron depletion is a potential means of mitigating the radio communications blackout experienced by hypersonic vehicles.

  11. Effects of exchange bias on magnetotransport in permalloy kagome artificial spin ice

    DOE Public Access Gateway for Energy & Science Beta (PAGES Beta)

    Le, B. L.; Rench, D. W.; Misra, R.; O’Brien, L.; Leighton, C.; Samarth, N.; Schiffer, P.

    2015-02-01

    We investigate the magnetotransport properties of connected kagome artificial spin ice networks composed of permalloy nanowires. Our data show clear evidence of magnetic switching among the wires, both in the longitudinal and transverse magnetoresistance. An unusual asymmetry with field sweep direction appears at temperatures below about 20 K that appears to be associated with exchange bias resulting from surface oxidation of permalloy, and which disappears in alumina-capped samples. These results demonstrate that exchange bias is a phenomenon that must be considered in understanding the physics of such artificial spin ice systems, and that opens up new possibilities for their control.

  12. Fabrication of Al{sub 2}O{sub 3}-20 vol.% Al nanocomposite powders using high energy milling and their sinterability

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Zawrah, M.F.; Abdel-kader, H.; Elbaly, N.E.

    2012-03-15

    Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Al{sub 2}O{sub 3}/Al nanocomposite powders were prepared via high energy ball milling. After 20 h milling, the size of Al{sub 2}O{sub 3}-20 vol.% Al nanocomposite particles was in the range of 23-29 nm. A uniform distribution of nanosized Al reinforcement throughout the Al{sub 2}O{sub 3} matrix, coating the particles was successfully obtained. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer There was no any sign of phase changes during the milling. A competition between the cold welding mechanism and the fracturing mechanism were found during milling and finally the above two mechanisms reached an equilibrium. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer The highest value of relative density was obtained for the sintered bodies at 1500 Degree-Sign C. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer The harness of the sintered composite was decreased while the fracture toughness was improved after addition Al into alumina. -- Abstract: In this study, alumina-based matrix nanocomposite powders reinforced with Al particles were fabricated and investigated. The sinterability of the prepared nanocomposite powder at different firing temperature was also conducted. Their mechanical properties in terms of hardness and toughness were tested. Alumina and aluminum powder mixtures were milled in a planetary ball mill for various times up to 30 h in order to produce Al{sub 2}O{sub 3}-20% Al nanocomposite. The phase composition, morphological and microstructural changes during mechanical milling of the nanocomposite particles were characterized by X-ray diffraction (XRD), transmission electron microscope (TEM), scanning electron microscope (SEM) techniques, respectively. The crystallite size and internal strain were evaluated by XRD patterns using Scherrer methods. A uniform distribution of the Al reinforcement in the Al{sub 2}O{sub 3} matrix was successfully obtained after milling the powders. The results revealed that there was no any sign of phase changes during the milling. The crystal size decreased with the prolongation of milling times, while the internal strain increased. A simple model is presented to illustrate the mechanical alloying of a ductile-brittle component system. A competition between the cold welding mechanism and the fracturing mechanism were found during powder milling and finally the above two mechanisms reached an equilibrium. The maximum relative density was obtained at 1500 Degree-Sign C. The harness of the sintered composite was decreased while the fracture toughness was improved after addition Al into alumina.

  13. Molten salt bath circulation design for an electrolytic cell

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Dawless, R.K.; LaCamera, A.F.; Troup, R.L.; Ray, S.P.; Hosler, R.B.

    1999-08-17

    An electrolytic cell for reduction of a metal oxide to a metal and oxygen has an inert anode and an upwardly angled roof covering the inert mode. The angled roof diverts oxygen bubbles into an upcomer channel, thereby agitating a molten salt bath in the upcomer channel and improving dissolution of a metal oxide in the molten salt bath. The molten salt bath has a lower velocity adjacent the inert anode in order to minimize corrosion by substances in the bath. A particularly preferred cell produces aluminum by electrolysis of alumina in a molten salt bath containing aluminum fluoride and sodium fluoride. 4 figs.

  14. Molten salt bath circulation design for an electrolytic cell

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Dawless, Robert K.; LaCamera, Alfred F.; Troup, R. Lee; Ray, Siba P.; Hosler, Robert B.

    1999-01-01

    An electrolytic cell for reduction of a metal oxide to a metal and oxygen has an inert anode and an upwardly angled roof covering the inert mode. The angled roof diverts oxygen bubbles into an upcomer channel, thereby agitating a molten salt bath in the upcomer channel and improving dissolution of a metal oxide in the molten salt bath. The molten salt bath has a lower velocity adjacent the inert anode in order to minimize corrosion by substances in the bath. A particularly preferred cell produces aluminum by electrolysis of alumina in a molten salt bath containing aluminum fluoride and sodium fluoride.

  15. Electrocatalytic cermet sensor

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Shoemaker, E.L.; Vogt, M.C.

    1998-06-30

    A sensor is described for O{sub 2} and CO{sub 2} gases. The gas sensor includes a plurality of layers driven by a cyclic voltage to generate a unique plot characteristic of the gas in contact with the sensor. The plurality of layers includes an alumina substrate, a reference electrode source of anions, a lower electrical reference electrode of Pt coupled to the reference source of anions, a solid electrolyte containing tungsten and coupled to the lower reference electrode, a buffer layer for preventing flow of Pt ions into the solid electrolyte and an upper catalytically active Pt electrode coupled to the buffer layer. 16 figs.

  16. Method for formation of subsurface barriers using viscous colloids

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Apps, J.A.; Persoff, P.; Moridis, G.; Pruess, K.

    1998-11-17

    A method is described for formation of subsurface barriers using viscous liquids where a viscous liquid solidifies at a controlled rate after injection into soil and forms impermeable isolation of the material enclosed within the subsurface barriers. The viscous liquid is selected from the group consisting of polybutenes, polysiloxanes, colloidal silica and modified colloidal silica of which solidification is controlled by gelling, cooling or cross-linking. Solidification timing is controlled by dilution, addition of brines, coating with alumina, stabilization with various agents and by temperature. 17 figs.

  17. Method for formation of subsurface barriers using viscous colloids

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Apps, John A. (Lafayette, CA); Persoff, Peter (Piedmont, CA); Moridis, George (Oakland, CA); Pruess, Karsten (Berkeley, CA)

    1998-01-01

    A method for formation of subsurface barriers using viscous liquids where a viscous liquid solidifies at a controlled rate after injection into soil and forms impermeable isolation of the material enclosed within the subsurface barriers. The viscous liquid is selected from the group consisting of polybutenes, polysilotanes, colloidal silica and modified colloidal silica of which solidification is controlled by gelling, cooling or cross-linking. Solidification timing is controlled by dilution, addition of brines, coating with alumina, stabilization with various agents and by temperature.

  18. Electrochemical cell

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Redey, L.I.; Vissers, D.R.; Prakash, J.

    1994-08-23

    An electrochemical cell is described having an alkali metal negative electrode such as sodium and a positive electrode including Ni or transition metals, separated by a [beta] alumina electrolyte and NaAlCl[sub 4] or other compatible material. Various concentrations of a bromine, iodine and/or sulfur containing additive and pore formers are disclosed, which enhance cell capacity and power. The pore formers may be the ammonium salts of carbonic acid or a weak organic acid or oxamide or methylcellulose. 6 figs.

  19. Method of removing sulfur emissions from a fluidized-bed combustion process

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Vogel, Gerhard John (Elmhurst, IL); Jonke, Albert A. (Elmhurst, IL); Snyder, Robert B. (Naperville, IL)

    1978-01-01

    Alkali metal or alkaline earth metal oxides are impregnated within refractory support material such as alumina and introduced into a fluidized-bed process for the combustion of coal. Sulfur dioxide produced during combustion reacts with the metal oxide to form metal sulfates within the porous support material. The support material is removed from the process and the metal sulfate regenerated to metal oxide by chemical reduction. Suitable pore sizes are originally developed within the support material by heat-treating to accommodate both the sulfation and regeneration while still maintaining good particle strength.

  20. Advantages of Microscopy Method for Imaging Nanocatalysts | Argonne

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    National Laboratory Advantages of Microscopy Method for Imaging Nanocatalysts February 11, 2016 Tweet EmailPrint Aberration-corrected (AC) STEM, AC-TEM and in situ X-ray absorption fine structure spectroscopy (XAFS) were used by users from UOP-Honeywell, working with researchers in the CNM Electron Microscopy Center and APS, to characterize Pt clusters on a 0.35 wt % Pt on g-alumina support after reduction in hydrogen at 700oC. STEM high-angle annular dark field imaging shows that cluster

  1. Ceramic nanostructures and methods of fabrication

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Ripley, Edward B. (Knoxville, TN); Seals, Roland D. (Oak Ridge, TN); Morrell, Jonathan S. (Knoxville, TN)

    2009-11-24

    Structures and methods for the fabrication of ceramic nanostructures. Structures include metal particles, preferably comprising copper, disposed on a ceramic substrate. The structures are heated, preferably in the presence of microwaves, to a temperature that softens the metal particles and preferably forms a pool of molten ceramic under the softened metal particle. A nano-generator is created wherein ceramic material diffuses through the molten particle and forms ceramic nanostructures on a polar site of the metal particle. The nanostructures may comprise silica, alumina, titania, or compounds or mixtures thereof.

  2. Molybdenum sulfide/carbide catalysts

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Alonso, Gabriel (Chihuahua, MX); Chianelli, Russell R. (El Paso, TX); Fuentes, Sergio (Ensenada, MX); Torres, Brenda (El Paso, TX)

    2007-05-29

    The present invention provides methods of synthesizing molybdenum disulfide (MoS.sub.2) and carbon-containing molybdenum disulfide (MoS.sub.2-xC.sub.x) catalysts that exhibit improved catalytic activity for hydrotreating reactions involving hydrodesulfurization, hydrodenitrogenation, and hydrogenation. The present invention also concerns the resulting catalysts. Furthermore, the invention concerns the promotion of these catalysts with Co, Ni, Fe, and/or Ru sulfides to create catalysts with greater activity, for hydrotreating reactions, than conventional catalysts such as cobalt molybdate on alumina support.

  3. Catalysts, systems and methods to reduce NOX in an exhaust gas stream

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Castellano, Christopher R. (Ringoes, NJ); Moini, Ahmad (Princeton, NJ); Koermer, Gerald S. (Basking Ridge, NJ); Furbeck, Howard (Hamilton, NJ)

    2010-07-20

    Catalysts, systems and methods are described to reduce NO.sub.x emissions of an internal combustion engine. In one embodiment, an emissions treatment system for an exhaust stream is provided having an SCR catalyst comprising silver tungstate on an alumina support. The emissions treatment system may be used for the treatment of exhaust streams from diesel engines and lean burn gasoline engines. An emissions treatment system may further comprise an injection device operative to dispense a hydrocarbon reducing agent upstream of the catalyst.

  4. Solid phases of spatially nanoconfined oxygen: A neutron scattering study

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Kojda, Danny [Helmholtz-Zentrum Berlin fr Materialien und Energie GmbH, 14109 Berlin (Germany) [Helmholtz-Zentrum Berlin fr Materialien und Energie GmbH, 14109 Berlin (Germany); Freie Universitt Berlin, 14195 Berlin (Germany); Wallacher, Dirk; Hofmann, Tommy, E-mail: tommy.hofmann@helmholtz-berlin.de [Helmholtz-Zentrum Berlin fr Materialien und Energie GmbH, 14109 Berlin (Germany)] [Helmholtz-Zentrum Berlin fr Materialien und Energie GmbH, 14109 Berlin (Germany); Baudoin, Simon; Hansen, Thomas [Institut Laue-Langevin, BP 156, 38042 Grenoble Cedex 9 (France)] [Institut Laue-Langevin, BP 156, 38042 Grenoble Cedex 9 (France); Huber, Patrick [Technische Universitt Hamburg-Harburg, 21073 Hamburg (Germany)] [Technische Universitt Hamburg-Harburg, 21073 Hamburg (Germany)

    2014-01-14

    We present a comprehensive neutron scattering study on solid oxygen spatially confined in 12 nm wide alumina nanochannels. Elastic scattering experiments reveal a structural phase sequence known from bulk oxygen. With decreasing temperature cubic ?-, orthorhombic ?- and monoclinic ?-phases are unambiguously identified in confinement. Weak antiferromagnetic ordering is observed in the confined monoclinic ?-phase. Rocking scans reveal that oxygen nanocrystals inside the tubular channels do not form an isotropic powder. Rather, they exhibit preferred orientations depending on thermal history and the very mechanisms, which guide the structural transitions.

  5. Influence of pump wavelength and core size on stimulated Brillouin scattering spectra of acoustically antiguiding optical fibres

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Likhachev, M E; Alekseev, V V; Bubnov, M M [Fiber Optics Research Center, Russian Academy of Sciences, Moscow (Russian Federation); Yashkov, M V; Vechkanov, N N; Gur'yanov, A N [G.G.Devyatykh Institute of Chemistry of High-Purity Substances, Russian Academy of Sciences, Nizhnii Novgorod (Russian Federation); Peyhambarian, N; Temyanko, V; Nagel, J [College of Optical Sciences University of Arizona, 1630 E. University Blvd.Tucson, AZ 85721 (United States)

    2014-11-30

    Optical fibres having an acoustically antiguiding structure produced by alumina doping of their core have been fabricated and investigated. The stimulated Brillouin scattering (SBS) spectra of the fibres have been measured and calculated theoretically. The results demonstrate that the shape of the SBS spectrum of the acoustically antiguiding fibres strongly depends on the pump wavelength, core size and dopant profile across the fibre. A considerable broadening of the SBS gain spectrum is only possible at certain guidance parameters of the fibre and a fixed operating wavelength. (fibre and integrated-optical structures)

  6. A robust platform cooled by superconducting electronic refrigerators

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Nguyen, H. Q.; Meschke, M.; Pekola, J. P.

    2015-01-05

    A biased tunnel junction between a superconductor and a normal metal can cool the latter electrode. Based on a recently developed cooler with high power and superior performance, we have integrated it with a dielectric silicon nitride membrane, and cooled phonons from 305?mK down to 200?mK. Without perforation and covered under a thin alumina layer, the membrane is rigorously transformed into a cooling platform that is robust and versatile for multiple practical purposes. We discussed our results and possibilities to further improve the device.

  7. Fluxing agent for metal cast joining

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Gunkel, Ronald W. (Lower Burrell, PA); Podey, Larry L. (Greensburg, PA); Meyer, Thomas N. (Murrysville, PA)

    2002-11-05

    A method of joining an aluminum cast member to an aluminum component. The method includes the steps of coating a surface of an aluminum component with flux comprising cesium fluoride, placing the flux coated component in a mold, filling the mold with molten aluminum alloy, and allowing the molten aluminum alloy to solidify thereby joining a cast member to the aluminum component. The flux preferably includes aluminum fluoride and alumina. A particularly preferred flux includes about 60 wt. % CsF, about 30 wt. % AlF.sub.3, and about 10 wt. % Al.sub.2 O.sub.3.

  8. Cascade impactor and jet plate for same

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Dahlin, Robert S.; Farthing, William E.; Landham Jr., Edward C.

    2004-02-03

    A sampling system and method for sampling particulate matter from a high-temperature, high-pressure gas stream. A cyclone sampler for use at high temperatures and pressures, and having threadless sacrificial connectors is disclosed. Also disclosed is an improved cascade impactor including jet plates with integral spacers, and alignment features provided for aligning the jet plates with their associated collection substrates. An activated bauxite alkali collector is disclosed, and includes an alumina liner. The sampling system can be operated remotely or locally, and can be permanently installed or configured as a portable system.

  9. Method for hot gas conditioning

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Paisley, M.A.

    1996-02-27

    A method is described for cracking and shifting a synthesis gas by the steps of providing a catalyst consisting essentially of alumina in a reaction zone; contacting the catalyst with a substantially oxygen free mixture of gases comprising water vapor and hydrocarbons having one or more carbon atoms, at a temperature between about 530 C (1000 F) to about 980 C (1800 F); and whereby the hydrocarbons are cracked to form hydrogen, carbon monoxide and/or carbon dioxide and the hydrogen content of the mixture increases with a corresponding decrease in carbon monoxide, and carbon formation is substantially eliminated. 3 figs.

  10. Alternative Liquid Fuel Effects on Cooled Silicon Nitride Marine Gas Turbine Airfoils

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Holowczak, J.

    2002-03-01

    With prior support from the Office of Naval Research, DARPA, and U.S. Department of Energy, United Technologies is developing and engine environment testing what we believe to be the first internally cooled silicon nitride ceramic turbine vane in the United States. The vanes are being developed for the FT8, an aeroderivative stationary/marine gas turbine. The current effort resulted in further manufacturing and development and prototyping by two U.S. based gas turbine grade silicon nitride component manufacturers, preliminary development of both alumina, and YTRIA based environmental barrier coatings (EBC's) and testing or ceramic vanes with an EBC coating.

  11. Sodium-tetravalent sulfur molten chloroaluminate cell

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Mamantov, Gleb (Knoxville, TN)

    1985-04-02

    A sodium-tetravalent sulfur molten chloroaluminate cell with a .beta."-alumina sodium ion conductor having a S-Al mole ratio of above about 0.15 in an acidic molten chloroaluminate cathode composition is disclosed. The cathode composition has an AlCl.sub.3 -NaCl mole percent ratio of above about 70-30 at theoretical full charge. The cell provides high energy densities at low temperatures and provides high energy densities and high power densities at moderate temperatures.

  12. FCC LPG olefinicity and branching enhanced by octane catalysts

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Keyworth, D.A.; Reid, T.A.; Kreider, K.R.; Yatsu, C.A.

    1989-05-29

    Refiners are increasingly recognizing the downstream opportunities for fluid catalytic cracking LPG olefins for the production of methyl tertiary butyl ether (MTBE), ethyl tertiary butyl ether (ETBE, if the ethanol subsidy is extended to the production of ETBE), and as petrochemical feedstocks. Some of new gasoline FCC octane-enhancing catalysts can support those opportunities because their low non-framework alumina (low NFA) preserve both LPG olefinicity and promote branching of the LPG streams from the FCCU. The combined effect results in more isobutane for alkylate feed, more propylene in the propane/propylene stream, and more isobutene - which makes the addition of an MTBE unit very enticing.

  13. Monolayer coated aerogels and method of making

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Zemanian, Thomas Samuel (Richland, WA); Fryxell, Glen (Kennwick, WA); Ustyugov, Oleksiy A. (Spokane, WA)

    2006-03-28

    Aerogels having a monolayer coating are described. The aerogel and a monolayer forming precursor are provided in a supercritical fluid, whereupon the aerogel and the monolayer forming precursor are reacted in said supercritical fluid to form a covalent bond between the aerogel and the monolayer forming precursor. Suitable aerogels are ceramic oxides such as silica, alumina, aluminosilicate, and combinations thereof. Suitable monolayer forming precursors include alkyl silanes, chlorosilanes, boranes, chloroboranes, germanes, and combinations thereof. The method may also include providing a surface preparation agent such as water, or hydroetching an aerogel to enhance the coating of the monolayer.

  14. Low temperature aluminum reduction cell using hollow cathode

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Brown, Craig W. (Seattle, WA); Frizzle, Patrick B. (Seattle, WA)

    2002-08-20

    A method of producing aluminum in an electrolytic cell containing alumina dissolved in an electrolyte. A plurality of non-consumable anodes are disposed substantially vertically in the electrolyte along with a plurality of monolithic hollow cathodes. Each cathode has a top and bottom and the cathodes are disposed vertically in the electrolyte and the anodes and the cathodes are arranged in alternating relationship. Each of the cathodes is comprised of a first side facing a first opposing anode and a second side facing a second opposing anode. The first and second sides are joined by ends to form a reservoir in the hollow cathode for collecting aluminum therein deposited at the cathode.

  15. Method and apparatus to selectively reduce NO.sub.x in an exhaust gas feedstream

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Schmieg, Steven J. (Troy, MI); Blint, Richard J. (Shelby Township, MI); Den, Ling (Sterling Heights, MI); Viola, Michael B. (Macomb Township, MI); Lee, Jong-Hwan (Rochester Hills, MI)

    2011-08-30

    A method and apparatus are described to selectively reduce NO.sub.x emissions of an internal combustion engine. An exhaust aftertreatment system includes an injection device operative to dispense a hydrocarbon reductant upstream of a silver-alumina catalytic reactor device. A control system determines a NO.sub.x concentration and hydrocarbon/NOx ratio based upon selected parameters of the exhaust gas feedstream and dispenses hydrocarbon reductant during lean engine operation. Included is a method to control elements of the feedstream during lean operation. The hydrocarbon reductant may include engine fuel.

  16. Ceramic Technology Project database: September 1990 summary report

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Keyes, B.L.P.

    1992-06-01

    Data generated within the Ceramic Technology Project (CTP) represent a valuable resource for both research and industry. The CTP database was created to provide easy access to this information in electronic and hardcopy forms by using a computerized database and by issuing periodic hardcopy reports on the database contents. This report is the sixth in a series of semiannual database summaries and covers recent additions to the database, including joined brazed specimen test data. It covers 1 SiC, 34 SiN, 10 whisker-reinforced SiN, 2 zirconia-toughened aluminas, 8 zirconias, and 34 joints.

  17. Resistance heater for use in a glass melter

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Routt, K.R.; Porter, M.A.

    1984-01-01

    A resistance heating element that includes: a resistance heating medium of a mixture of electrically conductive and insulative particles in powdered form mixed together in predetermined proportions to achieve a given resistivity; a hollow outer electrode surrounding the resistance heating medium; and an inner electrode coaxially disposed within said outer electrode. In its preferred embodiments, the electrically conductive powder is selected from the group consisting essentially of graphite, Inconel alloy, molybdenum, nichrome alloy and stainless steel, while the insulator powder is silicon dioxide or alumina. The resistance heating element, being resistant to damage from mechanical shock and corrosion at elevated temperatures, is used in a glass melter.

  18. Recovery of olefin monomers

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Golden, Timothy Christoph; Weist, Jr., Edward Landis; Johnson, Charles Henry

    2004-03-16

    In a process for the production of a polyolefin, an olefin monomer is polymerised said polyolefin and residual monomer is recovered. A gas stream comprising the monomer and nitrogen is subjected to a PSA process in which said monomer is adsorbed on a periodically regenerated silica gel or alumina adsorbent to recover a purified gas stream containing said olefin and a nitrogen rich stream containing no less than 99% nitrogen and containing no less than 50% of the nitrogen content of the gas feed to the PSA process.

  19. Technology development for cobalt F-T catalysts. Topical report No.2, Comparison of patented F-T cobalt catalysts

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Oukaci, R.; Marcelin, G.; Goodwin, J.G. Jr.

    1995-01-17

    Based on the information provided in patents assigned to Gulf, Shell, Exxon, and Statoil, a series of catalysts has been prepared consisting of 12--20 wt. % cobalt, a second metal promoter (Ru or Re), and an oxide promoter such as lanthana, zirconia, or alkali oxide, the support being alumina, silica, or titania. All catalysts have been extensively characterized by different methods. The catalysts have been evaluated in terms of their activity, selectivity both in a fixed bed reactor and in a slurry bubble column reactor, and the results correlated with their physico-chemical properties.

  20. Dissecting the steps of CO2 reduction: 1. The interaction of CO and CO2 with ?-Al2O3: an in situ FTIR study

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Szanyi, Janos; Kwak, Ja Hun

    2014-08-07

    The adsorption of CO2 and CO was investigated on a pure ?-Al2O3 support material that has been used for the preparation of Pd and Ru catalysts for the catalytic reduction of CO2. The adsorption of CO2 resulted in the formation of carbonates, bicarbonates and linearly adsorbed CO2 species. The amount and the nature of the adsorbed species were dependent on the annealing temperature of the alumina support. On ?-Al2O3 annealed at 473 K mostly bicarbonates formed, while no adsorbed CO2 was seen on this highly hydroxylated surface. With increasing calcinations temperature, i.e., increasing extent of dehydroxylation, the amounts of both surface nitrates and linear adsorbed CO2 increased, but still the most abundant surface species were bicarbonates. Surface carbonates and adsorbed CO2 can readily be removed from the alumina surface, while bicarbonates are stable to elevated temperatures. The interaction of CO with ?-Al2O3 is much weaker than that of CO2. At room temperatures CO adsorbs only on Lewis acid sites, and can be readily removed by evacuation. At 100 K CO can probe different defect sites on the alumina surface (both Lewis acid sites and surface hydroxyls). Under no conditions we have observed the formation of any carbonates or bicarbonates upon the interaction of CO with the pure alumina support. In co-adsorption experiments CO competes for adsorption sites with the linearly adsorbed CO2 on the 773 K-annealed ?-Al2O3 surface; but it does not result in the desorption of CO2, rather in the increase of weakly-held carbonate production. After the removal of adsorbed CO, CO2 moves back to its original adsorption sites, i.e., Lewis acidic Al3+ centers. The exposure of a CO2-saturated ?-Al2O3 to H2O did not affect any of the adsorbed surface species. The findings of this study will be used to rationalize the results of our ongoing in situ and in operando studies on the reduction of CO2 on supported Pd and Ru catalysts. Acknowledgements: We gratefully acknowledge the US Department of Energy Basic Energy Sciences, Division of Chemical Sciences, Geosciences & Biosciences for the support of this work. The synthesis and catalyst pre-treatment portion of the work described in this manuscript was supported by a Laboratory Directed Research and Development (LDRD) project at the Pacific Northwest National Laboratory (PNNL). PNNL is operated for the US DOE by Battelle Memorial Institute. J.H.K. also acknowledges the support of this work by the 2013 Research Fund of UNIST (Ulsan National Institute of Science and Technology, Ulsan, Korea).

  1. Plasma vitrification of waste materials

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    McLaughlin, David F. (Oakmont, PA); Dighe, Shyam V. (North Huntingdon, PA); Gass, William R. (Plum Boro, PA)

    1997-01-01

    This invention provides a process wherein hazardous or radioactive wastes in the form of liquids, slurries, or finely divided solids are mixed with finely divided glassformers (silica, alumina, soda, etc.) and injected directly into the plume of a non-transferred arc plasma torch. The extremely high temperatures and heat transfer rates makes it possible to convert the waste-glassformer mixture into a fully vitrified molten glass product in a matter of milliseconds. The molten product may then be collected in a crucible for casting into final wasteform geometry, quenching in water, or further holding time to improve homogeneity and eliminate bubbles.

  2. Method and apparatus for combination catalyst for reduction of NO.sub.x in combustion products

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Socha, Richard F. (Newtown, PA); Vartuli, James C. (Schwenksville, PA); El-Malki, El-Mekki (Princeton, NJ); Kalyanaraman, Mohan (Media, PA); Park, Paul W. (Peoria, IL)

    2010-09-28

    A method and apparatus for catalytically processing a gas stream passing therethrough to reduce the presence of NO.sub.x therein, wherein the apparatus includes a first catalyst composed of a silver containing alumina that is adapted for catalytically processing the gas stream at a first temperature range, and a second catalyst composed of a copper containing zeolite located downstream from the first catalyst, wherein the second catalyst is adapted for catalytically processing the gas stream at a lower second temperature range relative to the first temperature range.

  3. Electrocatalytic cermet sensor

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Shoemaker, Erika L. (Westmont, IL); Vogt, Michael C. (Westmont, IL)

    1998-01-01

    A sensor for O.sub.2 and CO.sub.2 gases. The gas sensor includes a plurality of layers driven by a cyclic voltage to generate a unique plot characteristic of the gas in contact with the sensor. The plurality of layers includes an alumina substrate, a reference electrode source of anions, a lower electrical reference electrode of Pt coupled to the reference source of anions, a solid electrolyte containing tungsten and coupled to the lower reference electrode, a buffer layer for preventing flow of Pt ions into the solid electrolyte and an upper catalytically active Pt electrode coupled to the buffer layer.

  4. Efficient, air-stable colloidal quantum dot solar cells encapsulated using atomic layer deposition of a nanolaminate barrier

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Ip, Alexander H.; Labelle, Andr J.; Sargent, Edward H.

    2013-12-23

    Atomic layer deposition was used to encapsulate colloidal quantum dot solar cells. A nanolaminate layer consisting of alternating alumina and zirconia films provided a robust gas permeation barrier which prevented device performance degradation over a period of multiple weeks. Unencapsulated cells stored in ambient and nitrogen environments demonstrated significant performance losses over the same period. The encapsulated cell also exhibited stable performance under constant simulated solar illumination without filtration of harsh ultraviolet photons. This monolithically integrated thin film encapsulation method is promising for roll-to-roll processed high efficiency nanocrystal solar cells.

  5. Recovery of iron oxide from coal fly ash

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Dobbins, Michael S. (Ames, IA); Murtha, Marlyn J. (Ames, IA)

    1983-05-31

    A high quality iron oxide concentrate, suitable as a feed for blast and electric reduction furnaces is recovered from pulverized coal fly ash. The magnetic portion of the fly ash is separated and treated with a hot strong alkali solution which dissolves most of the silica and alumina in the fly ash, leaving a solid residue and forming a precipitate which is an acid soluble salt of aluminosilicate hydrate. The residue and precipitate are then treated with a strong mineral acid to dissolve the precipitate leaving a solid residue containing at least 90 weight percent iron oxide.

  6. Aluminum reduction cell electrode

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Payne, John R. (Pleasanton, CA)

    1983-09-20

    The invention is directed to an anode-cathode structure for an electrolytic cell for the reduction of alumina wherein the structure is comprised of a carbon anode assembly which straddles a wedge-shaped refractory hard metal cathode assembly having steeply sloped cathodic surfaces, each cathodic surface being paired in essentially parallel planar relationship with an anode surface. The anode-cathode structure not only takes into account the structural weakness of refractory hard metal materials but also permits the changing of the RHM assembly during operation of the cell. Further, the anode-cathode structure enhances the removal of anode gas from the interpolar gap between the anode and cathode surfaces.

  7. Oxidative decomposition of methanol on subnanometer palladium clusters : the effect of catalyst size and support composition.

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Lee, S.; Lee, B.; Mehmood, F.; Seifert, S.; Libera, J. A.; Elam, J. W.; Greeley, J.; Zapol, P.; Curtiss, L. A.; Pellin, M. J.; Stair, P. C.; Winans, R. E; Vajda, S.; Northwestern Univ.

    2010-06-17

    Size and support effects in the oxidative decomposition of methanol on amorphous alumina supported subnanometer palladium clusters were studied under realistic reaction conditions of pressure and temperature. The smaller Pd{sub 8-12} clusters were found to promote the decomposition channel to CO and hydrogen, however with mediocre activity due to poisoning. The larger Pd{sub 15-18} clusters preferentially produce dimethyl ether and formaldehyde, without signs of posioning. A thin titania overcoat applied on the Pd{sub 15-18} improves the sintering-resistance of the catalyst. Accompanying density functional calculations confirm the posioning of small Pd clusters by CO.

  8. Oxidative Decomposition of Methanol on Subnanometer Palladium Clusters: The Effect of Catalyst Size and Support Composition

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Lee, Sungsik; Lee, Byeongdu; Mehmood, Faisal; Seifert, Soenke; Libera, Joseph A.; Elam, J. W.; Greeley, Jeffrey P.; Zapol, Peter; Curtiss, Larry A.; Pellin, M. J.; Stair, Peter C.; Winans, R. E.; Vajda, S.

    2010-05-31

    Size and support effects in the oxidative decomposition of methanol on amorphous alumina supported subnanometer palladium clusters were studied under realistic reaction conditions of pressure and temperature. The smaller Pd8-12 clusters were found to promote the decomposition channel to CO and hydrogen, however with mediocre activity due to poisoning. The larger Pd15-18 clusters preferentially produce dimethyl ether and formaldehyde, without signs of posioning. A thin titania overcoat applied on the Pd15-18 improves the sintering-resistance of the catalyst. Accompanying density functional calculations confirm the posioning of small Pd clusters by CO.

  9. Metal matrix composite of an iron aluminide and ceramic particles and method thereof

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Schneibel, J.H.

    1997-06-10

    A metal matrix composite comprising an iron aluminide binder phase and a ceramic particulate phase such as titanium diboride, zirconium diboride, titanium carbide and tungsten carbide is made by heating a mixture of iron aluminide powder and particulates of one of the ceramics such as titanium diboride, zirconium diboride, titanium carbide and tungsten carbide in a alumina crucible at about 1,450 C for about 15 minutes in an evacuated furnace and cooling the mixture to room temperature. The ceramic particulates comprise greater than 40 volume percent to about 99 volume percent of the metal matrix composite.

  10. Cathode for aluminum producing electrolytic cell

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Brown, Craig W.

    2004-04-13

    A method of producing aluminum in an electrolytic cell comprising the steps of providing an anode in a cell, preferably a non-reactive anode, and also providing a cathode in the cell, the cathode comprised of a base material having low electrical conductivity reactive with molten aluminum to provide a highly electrically conductive layer on the base material. Electric current is passed from the anode to the cathode and alumina is reduced and aluminum is deposited at the cathode. The cathode base material is selected from boron carbide, and zirconium oxide.

  11. Non-consumable anode and lining for aluminum electrolytic reduction cell

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Beck, Theodore R. (Seattle, WA); Brooks, Richard J. (Seattle, WA)

    1994-01-01

    An oxidation resistant, non-consumable anode, for use in the electrolytic reduction of alumina to aluminum, has a composition comprising copper, nickel and iron. The anode is part of an electrolytic reduction cell comprising a vessel having an interior lined with metal which has the same composition as the anode. The electrolyte is preferably composed of a eutectic of AlF.sub.3 and either (a) NaF or (b) primarily NaF with some of the NaF replaced by an equivalent molar amount of KF or KF and LiF.

  12. Comparison of EGS5 Simulations with Experiment

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Nelson, W.Ralph; Field, Clive; ,

    2006-12-01

    Simulations, made using EGS5, of the longitudinal and radial distributions of energy deposition of electrons of various energies are compared with experimental results in the literature. Energies and materials are: 1 GeV in water and aluminum; 6 GeV in aluminum, copper and lead; and (longitudinal only) 28.5 GeV in alumina (Al{sub 2}O{sub 3}). There is general agreement within a few percent over most of the shower profile. Substantial discrepancies are noted at depths far beyond shower maximum, reaching {approx}30-50% in the cases of lead and copper at 6 GeV.

  13. Y-Ba-Cu-O films prepared by a paint-on method

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Shih, I.; Qiu, C.X.

    1988-02-29

    Polycrystalline films of Y-Ba-Cu-O with a thickness of about 20--40 ..mu..m have been prepared on alumina substrates using a paint-on method. The liquid source used was obtained by mixing powder of Y/sub 2/O/sub 3/, BaCO/sub 3/, and CuO in liquid triethanolamine. Several Y-Ba-Cu-O films with an onset temperature of about 100 K and a zero resistance temperature of 85 K have been obtained after a short heat treatment at 1000 /sup 0/C in flowing O/sub 2/.

  14. Magnetic Resonance Imaging of Gel-cast Ceramic Composites

    DOE R&D Accomplishments [OSTI]

    Dieckman, S. L.; Balss, K. M.; Waterfield, L. G.; Jendrzejczyk, J. A.; Raptis, A. C.

    1997-01-16

    Magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) techniques are being employed to aid in the development of advanced near-net-shape gel-cast ceramic composites. MRI is a unique nondestructive evaluation tool that provides information on both the chemical and physical properties of materials. In this effort, MRI imaging was performed to monitor the drying of porous green-state alumina - methacrylamide-N.N`-methylene bisacrylamide (MAM-MBAM) polymerized composite specimens. Studies were performed on several specimens as a function of humidity and time. The mass and shrinkage of the specimens were also monitored and correlated with the water content.

  15. Catalytic Templating Approaches for Three-Dimensional Hollow Carbon/Graphene Oxide Nano-Architectures

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Moon, Gun-Hee; Shin, Yongsoon; Choi, Daiwon; Arey, Bruce W.; Exarhos, Gregory J.; Wang, Chong M.; Choi, Wonyong; Liu, Jun

    2013-01-01

    We report a catalytic templating method to synthesize well-controlled, three-dimensional (3D) nano-architectures with graphene oxide sheets. The 3D composites are prepared via self-assembly of carbon, GO, and spherical alumina-coated silica (ACS) templates during a catalytic reaction porcess. By changing the GO content, we can systematically tune the architecture from layered composites to 3D hollow structures to microporous materials. The composites show a synergistic effect with significantly superior properties than either pure carbon or r-GO prepared with a significant enhancement to its capacitance at high current density.

  16. Fact Sheet: Sodium-Beta Batteries (October 2012)

    Office of Environmental Management (EM)

    Sodium-Beta Batteries Improving the performance and reducing the cost of sodium-beta batteries for large-scale energy storage Sodium-beta batteries (Na-beta batteries or NBBs) use a solid beta-alumina (ß˝-Al 2 O 3 ) electrolyte membrane that selectively allows sodium ion transport between a positive electrode (e.g., a metal halide) and a negative sodium electrode. NBBs typically operate at temperatures near 350˚C. They are increasingly used in renewable storage and utility applications due to

  17. Improvement of performance and emissions of a compression ignition methanol engine with dimethyl ether

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Guo, J.; Chikahisa, Takemi; Murayama, Tadashi; Miyano, Masaharu

    1994-10-01

    Dimethyl ether (DME) has very good compression ignition characteristics and can be converted from methanol using a {gamma}-alumina catalyst. In this study a torch ignition chamber (TIC) head with TIC close to the center of the main combustion chamber was designed for the TIC method. The possibility of improvements in reducing the quantities of DME and emission were investigated by optimizing the TIC position, methanol injection timing, DME injection timing, and intake and exhaust throttling. It was found that the necessary amount of DME was greatly reduced when optimizing methanol and DME injection timings. 2 refs., 16 figs., 1 tab.

  18. Method for hot gas conditioning

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Paisley, Mark A.

    1996-02-27

    A method for cracking and shifting a synthesis gas by the steps of providing a catalyst consisting essentially of alumina in a reaction zone; contacting the catalyst with a substantially oxygen free mixture of gases comprising water vapor and hydrocarbons having one or more carbon atoms, at a temperature between about 530.degree. C. (1000.degree. F.) to about 980.degree. C. (1800.degree. F.); and whereby the hydrocarbons are cracked to form hydrogen, carbon monoxide and/or carbon dioxide and the hydrogen content of the mixture increases with a corresponding decrease in carbon monoxide, and carbon formation is substantially eliminated.

  19. Hydrogen Isotope Exchange Properties of Porous Solids Containing Hydrogen

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    HEUNG, LEUNGK.

    2004-08-18

    Porous solids such as activated alumina, silica and molecular sieves generally contain significant amounts of hydrogen atoms in the form of H2O or OH even at high temperature and low humidity environment. A significant amount of this hydrogen is available for reversible isotopic exchange. This exchange reaction is slow under normal conditions and does not render itself to practical applications. But if the exchange kinetics is improved this reaction has the potential to be used for tritium removal from gas streams or for hydrogen isotopic separation.The use of catalysts to improve the exchange kinetics between hydrogen isotope in the gas phase and that in the solid phase was investigated. Granules of alumina, silica and molecular sieve were coated with platinum or palladium as the catalyst. The granules were packed in a 2-cm diameter column for isotope exchange tests. Gas streams containing different concentrations of deuterium in nitrogen or argon were fed through the protium saturated column. Isotope concentration in column effluent was monitored to generate isotope break-through curves. The curves were analyzed to produce information on the kinetics and capacity of the material. The results showed that all materials tested provided some extent of isotope exchange but some were superior both in kinetics and capacity. This paper will present the test results.

  20. Tribological properties of CrN coatings deposited by nitro-chromizing treatment on AISI D2 steel

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Durmaz, M. Abakay, E.; Sen, U.; Sen, S.; Kilinc, B.

    2015-03-30

    In this work, the wear test of uncoated and chromium nitride coated AISI D2 cold work tool steel against alumina ball realized at 0.1?m/s sliding speeds and under the loads of 2.5N, 5N and 10N. Steel samples were nitrided at 575C for 8?h in the first step of the coating process, and then chromium nitride coating was performed thermo-reactive deposition technique (TRD) in a powder mixture consisting of ferro-chromium, ammonium chloride and alumina at 1000C for 2?h. Nitro-chromized samples were characterized by X-Ray diffraction analysis (XRD), scanning electron microscopy (SEM), micro-hardness and ball on disk wear tests. The coating layer formed on the AISI D2 steel was compact and homogeneous. X-ray studies showed that the phase formed in the coated layer is Cr{sub 2}N. The depth of the layer was 8.15?m. The average hardness of the layer was 216015 HV{sub 0.025}. For uncoated and chromium nitride materials, wear rate increased with increasing load. The results of friction coefficient and wear rate of the tested materials showed that the CrN coating presents the lowest results.

  1. Electrochemical cell

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Redey, Laszlo I.; Myles, Kevin M.; Vissers, Donald R.; Prakash, Jai

    1996-01-01

    An electrochemical cell with a positive electrode having an electrochemically active layer of at least one transition metal chloride. A negative electrode of an alkali metal and a compatible electrolyte including an alkali metal salt molten at cell operating temperature is included in the cell. The electrolyte is present at least partially as a corrugated .beta." alumina tube surrounding the negative electrode interior to the positive electrode. The ratio of the volume of liquid electrolyte to the volume of the positive electrode is in the range of from about 0.1 to about 3. A plurality of stacked electrochemical cells is disclosed each having a positive electrode, a negative electrode of an alkali metal molten at cell operating temperature, and a compatible electrolyte. The electrolyte is at least partially present as a corrugated .beta." alumina sheet separating the negative electrode and interior to the positive electrodes. The alkali metal is retained in a porous electrically conductive ceramic, and seals for sealing the junctures of the electrolyte and the adjacent electrodes at the peripheries thereof.

  2. Ferromagnetic tunnel contacts to graphene: Contact resistance and spin signal

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Cubukcu, M.; Laczkowski, P.; Vergnaud, C.; Marty, A.; Attan, J.-P.; Notin, L.; Vila, L. Jamet, M.; Martin, M.-B.; Seneor, P.; Anane, A.; Deranlot, C.; Fert, A.; Auffret, S.; Ducruet, C.

    2015-02-28

    We report spin transport in CVD graphene-based lateral spin valves using different magnetic contacts. We compared the spin signal amplitude measured on devices where the cobalt layer is directly in contact with the graphene to the one obtained using tunnel contacts. Although a sizeable spin signal (up to ?2 ?) is obtained with direct contacts, the signal is strongly enhanced (?400 ?) by inserting a tunnel barrier. In addition, we studied the resistance-area product (R.A) of a variety of contacts on CVD graphene. In particular, we compared the R.A products of alumina and magnesium oxide tunnel barriers grown by sputtering deposition of aluminum or magnesium and subsequent natural oxidation under pure oxygen atmosphere or by plasma. When using an alumina tunnel barrier on CVD graphene, the R.A product is high and exhibits a large dispersion. This dispersion can be highly reduced by using a magnesium oxide tunnel barrier, as for the R.A value. This study gives insight in the material quest for reproducible and efficient spin injection in CVD graphene.

  3. Role of metal-support interactions on the activity of Pt and Rh catalysts for reforming methane and butane.

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Rossignol, C.; Krause, T.; Krumpelt, M.

    2002-01-11

    For residential fuel cell systems, reforming of natural gas is one option being considered for providing the H{sub 2} necessary for the fuel cell to operate. Industrially, natural gas is reformed using Ni-based catalysts supported on an alumina substrate, which has been modified to inhibit coke formation. At Argonne National Laboratory, we have developed a new family of catalysts derived from solid oxide fuel cell technology for reforming hydrocarbon fuels to generate H{sub 2}. These catalysts consist of a transition metal supported on an oxide-ion-conducting substrate, such as ceria, that has been doped with a small amount of a non-reducible element, such as gadolinium, samarium, or zirconium. Unlike alumina, the oxide-ion-conducting substrate has been shown to induce strong metal-support interactions. Metal-support interactions are known to play an important role in influencing the catalytic activity of many metals supported on oxide supports. Based on results from temperature-programmed reduction/oxidation and kinetic reaction studies, this paper discusses the role of the metal and the substrate in the metal-support interactions, and how these interactions influence the activity and the selectivity of the catalyst in reforming methane and butane to hydrogen for use in fuel cell power systems.

  4. Progress toward achieving a commercially viable solar reflective material

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Kennedy, C.E.; Smilgys, R.V. |

    1998-06-01

    Solar thermal technologies use large mirrors to concentrate sunlight for renewable power generation. The development of advanced reflector materials is important to the viability of electricity production by solar thermal energy systems. The reflector materials must be low in cost and maintain high specular reflectance for extended lifetimes under severe outdoor environments. Production processes associated with candidate materials must be scalable to mass production techniques. A promising low-cost construction uses a stainless steel foil substrate with a silver reflective layer protected by an optically transparent oxide topcoat. Thick (2 to 4 micron), dense alumina coatings provide durable protective layers. The excellent performance of alumina-coated reflector materials in outdoor and accelerated testing suggests that a larger field trial of the material is warranted. The key to producing a greater quantity of material for field deployment and testing without incurring substantial capital is the use of a chilled drum coater. An existing chamber is being modified, and the deposition rate will be increased prior to the installation of a drum coater to produce 1-ft wide by 10-ft long strips of solar reflector material. The production and performance of these materials are discussed.

  5. Evaluation of ceramic filter material, selection for application

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Alvin, M.A.; Tressler, R.E.; Lippert, T.E.; Diaz, E.S.

    1993-09-01

    Field testing in several of the Westinghouse Advanced Particulate Filtration (APF) systems has indicated that the oxide-based materials are more susceptible to thermal shock which results from system transients (i.e., combustion of char or reducing gases; system startup/turbine transients). The current clay bonded silicon carbide filter materials have a higher thermal shock resistance, but appear to be more susceptible to high temperature creep, as well as to changes that occur within the binder phase(s). Strength has frequently been used to assess what effects advanced coal fired process systems have on the stability and projected life of the various porous ceramic filter materials (Tables 1 and 2). Based on the numerous phase changes that occur, and the influence of pulse cleaning on the thermal fatigue characteristics of both the alumina/mullite and clay bonded silicon carbide filter materials, alternate material properties as thermal conductivity, thermal coefficient of expansion, elastic modulus, fracture toughness, and emissivity as a function of thermal/chemical aging are now being considered as critical factors for projecting filter durability and operating life. Table 3 provides a summary of the as-manufactured material properties for the alumina/mullite and clay bonded silicon carbide filter materials which have been used in the Westinghouse`s APF systems. Effort is currently being directed to determine how these properties change during thermal aging of the filters in various subpilot and pilot plant systems.

  6. Functionalized inorganic membranes for gas separation

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Ku, Anthony Yu-Chung (Rexford, NY); Ruud, James Anthony (Delmar, NY); Molaison, Jennifer Lynn (Marietta, GA); Schick, Louis Andrew ,(Delmar, NY); Ramaswamy, Vidya (Niskayuna, NY)

    2008-07-08

    A porous membrane for separation of carbon dioxide from a fluid stream at a temperature higher than about 200.degree. C. with selectivity higher than Knudsen diffusion selectivity. The porous membrane comprises a porous support layer comprising alumina, silica, zirconia or stabilized zirconia; a porous separation layer comprising alumina, silica, zirconia or stabilized zirconia, and a functional layer comprising a ceramic oxide contactable with the fluid stream to preferentially transport carbon dioxide. In particular, the functional layer may be MgO, CaO, SrO, BaO, La.sub.2O.sub.3, CeO.sub.2, ATiO.sub.3, AZrO.sub.3, AAl.sub.2O.sub.4, A.sup.1FeO.sub.3, A.sup.1MnO.sub.3, A.sup.1CoO.sub.3, A.sup.1NiO.sub.3, A.sup.2HfO.sub.3, A.sup.3CeO.sub.3, Li.sub.2ZrO.sub.3, Li.sub.2SiO.sub.3, Li.sub.2TiO.sub.3 or a mixture thereof; wherein A is Mg, Ca, Sr or Ba; A.sup.1 is La, Ca, Sr or Ba; A.sup.2 is Ca, Sr or Ba; and A.sup.3 is Sr or Ba.

  7. Final Scientific/Technical Report

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Chang, Yale

    2014-07-01

    JHU/APL conducted solid propellant fire characterization tests in warm, humid, ambient conditions near sea level. Yttria and ceria surrogate materials were placed in the fires. The substrates simulating ground surfaces were concrete from a Kennedy Space Center launch pad, and steel covered with a protective ablative material representing a launch platform. In-situ instrumentation consisted of witness materials, thermocouples, air handlers, filters, and cascade impactors; remote instrumentation consisted of optical cameras and spectrometers. Test and analysis team members included the Naval Air Warfare Center Aircraft Division, Sandia National Laboratories (SNL), Alliant Techsystems, and the Johns Hopkins University. Test data were analyzed, reported, and delivered, including plume rise and transport captured on video. Derivation of the alumina particle size distributions formed the basis for condensing vapor and agglomeration estimates. Assessment of alumina mass in the plume, along with the surrogate fraction from filter forensics, provided an estimate of airborne surrogate mass. Technical interchange meetings were held with SNL and the Jet Propulsion Laboratory. Specifications for the fire environment were developed and delivered. A thermochemistry model that simultaneously provides the maximum temperature and heat flux was developed and delivered. An SPIE paper on 3D pyrometry of the fire was written and presented.

  8. Production of Solar Reflective Materials Using a Laboratory-Scale Roll Coater: Final Subcontract Report, September 30, 2004

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Smilgys, R.

    2005-01-01

    This report summarizes work performed by Science Applications International Corporation (SAIC) in fulfillment of a contract with the National Renewable Energy Laboratory. The work described here is a continuation of work performed on an earlier contract (YAR-5-15005-01). The goal of the work has been to demonstrate that it is possible to produce a durable low-cost reflector for solar-thermal-electric power systems. The core technology is a technique called ion-beam-assisted physical vapor deposition to produce a silvered reflector with a protective alumina coating. In the previous contract, SAIC optimized the coating process for batch coating. In this contract, we transitioned the coating process from batch coating to roll coating. In the course of the contract, we successfully designed and built a laboratory-scale web handling machine; integrated the machine into the existing SAIC coating chamber; and roll-coated material using an alumina deposition rate as high as 20 nm/s. For a set of optimized parameters, the reflective material was highly reflective and well adhered.

  9. Use of frit-disc crucibles for routine and exploratory solution growth of single crystalline samples

    DOE Public Access Gateway for Energy & Science Beta (PAGES Beta)

    Canfield, Paul C.; Kong, Tai; Kaluarachchi, Udhara S.; Jo, Na Hyun

    2016-01-05

    Solution growth of single crystals from high temperature solutions often involves the separation of residual solution from the grown crystals. For many growths of intermetallic compounds, this separation has historically been achieved with the use of plugs of silica wool. Whereas this is generally efficient in a mechanical sense, it leads to a significant contamination of the decanted liquid with silica fibres. In this paper, we present a simple design for frit-disc alumina crucible sets that has made their use in the growth single crystals from high temperature solutions both simple and affordable. An alumina frit-disc allows for the cleanmore » separation of the residual liquid from the solid phase. This allows for the reuse of the decanted liquid, either for further growth of the same phase, or for subsequent growth of other, related phases. In this article, we provide examples of the growth of isotopically substituted TbCd6 and icosahedral i-RCd quasicrystals, as well as the separation of (i) the closely related Bi2Rh3S2 and Bi2Rh3.5S2 phases and (ii) and PrZn11 and PrZn17.« less

  10. Effect of sulfur isotopic composition of zinc and lead sulfides on the E. M. F. of electrochemical cells

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Lusk, J.; Krouse, H.R.; Batts, B.D.

    1988-03-01

    A new effect is reported in which unexpectedly large voltages are produced by electrochemical cells containing sulfides at natural isotopic abundance levels. Room temperature experiments were undertaken to determine whether electrochemical cells employing silver bromide and silver beta alumina as solid electrolytes would be sufficiently sensitive to detect small variations in sulfur isotopic composition for zinc and lead sulfides. Voltages obtained for silver bromide cells tended to increase progressively over at least 20 days, and increased in a regular fashion with increasing differences in isotopic composition between charges. Voltages exceeding 150 mV were obtained for /sup delta/S/sup 3,4/ differences up to 85 per mil for zinc sulfide, but reached only about 20 mV for lead sulfide. Silver beta alumina cells with opposing zinc and lead sulfide charges yielded larger voltages and E.M.F. minimum corresponding to a +8(/plus minus/2) per mil difference. This value shows reasonable agreement with interpolated 20/degrees/C equilibrium values of between +7.5 to +9.8 obtained from the literature. Matured silver bromide cells with opposed zinc and lead sulfide charges behaved similarly but yielded lower voltages. Silver concentration cells of the opposed type are thus able to detect isotopic equilibrium and this will permit calibration of sulfur isotope thermometers down to unexpectedly low temperatures.

  11. Electrochemical cell

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Redey, L.I.; Myles, K.M.; Vissers, D.R.; Prakash, J.

    1996-07-02

    An electrochemical cell is described with a positive electrode having an electrochemically active layer of at least one transition metal chloride. A negative electrode of an alkali metal and a compatible electrolyte including an alkali metal salt molten at cell operating temperature is included in the cell. The electrolyte is present at least partially as a corrugated {beta}{double_prime} alumina tube surrounding the negative electrode interior to the positive electrode. The ratio of the volume of liquid electrolyte to the volume of the positive electrode is in the range of from about 0.1 to about 3. A plurality of stacked electrochemical cells is disclosed each having a positive electrode, a negative electrode of an alkali metal molten at cell operating temperature, and a compatible electrolyte. The electrolyte is at least partially present as a corrugated {beta}{double_prime} alumina sheet separating the negative electrode and interior to the positive electrodes. The alkali metal is retained in a porous electrically conductive ceramic, and seals for sealing the junctures of the electrolyte and the adjacent electrodes at the peripheries thereof. 8 figs.

  12. Engineering catalytic activity via ion beam bombardment of catalyst supports for vertically aligned carbon nanotube growth

    DOE Public Access Gateway for Energy & Science Beta (PAGES Beta)

    Islam, A. E.; Zakharov, D.; Stach, E. A.; Nikoleav, P.; Amama, P. B.; Sargent, G.; Saber, S.; Huffman, D.; Erford, M.; Semiatin, S. L.; et al

    2015-09-16

    Carbon nanotube growth depends on the catalytic activity of metal nanoparticles on alumina or silica supports. The control on catalytic activity is generally achieved by variations in water concentration, carbon feed, and sample placement on a few types of alumina or silica catalyst supports obtained via thin film deposition. We have recently expanded the choice of catalyst supports by engineering inactive substrates like c-cut sapphire via ion beam bombardment. The deterministic control on the structure and chemistry of catalyst supports obtained by tuning the degree of beam-induced damage have enabled better regulation of the activity of Fe catalysts only inmore » the ion beam bombarded areas and hence enabled controllable super growth of carbon nanotubes. A wide range of surface characterization techniques were used to monitor the catalytically active surface engineered via ion beam bombardment. The proposed method offers a versatile way to control carbon nanotube growth in patterned areas and also enhances the current understanding of the growth process. As a result, with the right choice of water concentration, carbon feed and sample placement, engineered catalyst supports may extend the carbon nanotube growth yield to a level that is even higher than the ones reported here, and thus offers promising applications of carbon nanotubes in electronics, heat exchanger, and energy storage.« less

  13. ALUMINUM REMOVAL FROM HANFORD WASTE BY LITHIUM HYDROTALCITE PRECIPITATION - LABORATORY SCALE VALIDATION ON WASTE SIMULANTS TEST REPORT

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    SAMS T; HAGERTY K

    2011-01-27

    To reduce the additional sodium hydroxide and ease processing of aluminum bearing sludge, the lithium hydrotalcite (LiHT) process has been invented by AREV A and demonstrated on a laboratory scale to remove alumina and regenerate/recycle sodium hydroxide prior to processing in the WTP. The method uses lithium hydroxide (LiOH) to precipitate sodium aluminate (NaAI(OH){sub 4}) as lithium hydrotalcite (Li{sub 2}CO{sub 3}.4Al(OH){sub 3}.3H{sub 2}O) while generating sodium hydroxide (NaOH). In addition, phosphate substitutes in the reaction to a high degree, also as a filterable solid. The sodium hydroxide enriched leachate is depleted in aluminum and phosphate, and is recycled to double-shell tanks (DSTs) to leach aluminum bearing sludges. This method eliminates importing sodium hydroxide to leach alumina sludge and eliminates a large fraction of the total sludge mass to be treated by the WTP. Plugging of process equipment is reduced by removal of both aluminum and phosphate in the tank wastes. Laboratory tests were conducted to verify the efficacy of the process and confirm the results of previous tests. These tests used both single-shell tank (SST) and DST simulants.

  14. Advanced research and technology, direct utilization: recovery of minerals from coal fly ash. Fossil energy program. Technical progress report, 1 October 1980-31 December 1980

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Burnet, G.; Weiss, S.J.; Murtha, M.J.

    1981-02-01

    The purpose of this research is to develop methods to process fly ash for the separation and use of an iron-rich fraction, for the recovery of metals, primarily Al and Ti, and for use of the process residues. Research during this report period of the HiChlor process for the extraction of alumina and titania by high-temperature chlorination of a fly ash-reductant mixture included investigation of the simulation of the reactions as a design tool, the assembly of a unit to measure reaction kinetic rates and particle specific surface areas and porosities, and the design of equipment to measure necessary chloride product separation data. A pretreatment chlorination reaction using CO and Cl/sub 2/ was found to be capable of removing 80% of the iron with only minimal alumina and silica reaction. Development of the lime-soda sinter process includes the collection of data on the phenomenon of auto-disintegration of lime-fly ash sinters. Results indicate that it is the presence of minor constituents having +5 pr +6 valence cations of a size that can enter the lattice of the calcium silicate which prevent sinter auto-disintegration.

  15. High performance materials in coal conversion utilization. Final report, October 1, 1993--September 30, 1996

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    McCay, T.D.; Boss, W.H.; Dahotre, N.

    1996-12-01

    This report describes the research conducted at the University of Tennessee Space Institute on high performance materials for use in corrosive environments. The work was supported by a US Department of Energy University Coal Research grant. Particular attention was given to the silicon carbide particulate reinforced alumina matrix ceramic composite manufactured by Lanxide Corporation as a potential tubular component in a coal-fired recuperative high-temperature air heater. Extensive testing was performed to determine the high temperature corrosion effects on the strength of the material. A computer modeling of the corrosion process was attempted but the problem proved to be too complex and was not successful. To simplify the situation, a computer model was successfully produced showing the corrosion thermodynamics involved on a monolithic ceramic under the High Performance Power System (HIPPS) conditions (see Appendix A). To seal the material surface and thus protect the silicon carbide particulate from corrosive attack, a dense non porous alumina coating was applied to the material surface. The coating was induced by a defocused carbon dioxide laser beam. High temperature corrosion and strength tests proved the effectiveness of the coating. The carbon dioxide laser was also used to successfully join two pieces of the Lanxide material, however, resources did not allow for the testing of the resulting joint.

  16. Impact Of Particle Agglomeration On Accumulation Rates In The Glass Discharge Riser Of HLW Melter

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Kruger, A. A.; Rodriguez, C. A.; Matyas, J.; Owen, A. T.; Jansik, D. P.; Lang, J. B.

    2012-11-12

    The major factor limiting waste loading in continuous high-level radioactive waste (HLW) melters is an accumulation of particles in the glass discharge riser during a frequent and periodic idling of more than 20 days. An excessive accumulation can produce robust layers a few centimeters thick, which may clog the riser, preventing molten glass from being poured into canisters. Since the accumulation rate is driven by the size of particles we investigated with x-ray microtomography, scanning electron microscopy, and image analysis the impact of spinel forming components, noble metals, and alumina on the size, concentration, and spatial distribution of particles, and on the accumulation rate. Increased concentrations of Fe and Ni in the baseline glass resulted in the formation of large agglomerates that grew over the time to an average size of ~185+-155 {mu}m, and produced >3 mm thick layer after 120 h at 850 deg C. The noble metals decreased the particle size, and therefore significantly slowed down the accumulation rate. Addition of alumina resulted in the formation of a network of spinel dendrites which prevented accumulation of particles into compact layers.

  17. Preparation of Al{sub 2}O{sub 3}/Mo nanocomposite powder via chemical route and spray drying

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Lo, M.; Cheng, F.; Wei, W.J.

    1996-08-01

    A route to prepare nanometer-sized Mo particulates in Al{sub 2}O{sub 3} was attempted by a combination of solution reactions in molecular scale and forcing precipitation by a spray-drying technique. MoO{sub 3} was first dissolved in ammonia water and then added in the slurry with high purity, submicrometer Al{sub 2}O{sub 3} powder. Mixed suspension was spray-dried, and then the dried granules were reduced by hydrogen gas and further hot-pressing to a bulky composite at various temperatures. Dissolution of Mo oxide, adsorption reactions on alumina surface, and surface potential of alumina particles in homogeneous ammonia suspension were studied. Characterization of the granules, including compactability, flowing properties, surface morphology, grain growth of Mo and Al{sub 2}O{sub 3}, and mixing homogeneity, were examined. Homogeneity of the spray-dried granules was determined by the calculation of mixing index and the observation of the microstructure of sintered body. The existence of intergranular, intragranular, and nanosized Mo particulates within Al{sub 2}O{sub 3} grains was observed by transmission electron microscopy (TEM). All the evidences revealed that homogeneous composites with nanometer-sized Mo had been successfully prepared by this attempt with the proposed chemical route and following spray-drying process. {copyright}{ital 1996 Materials Research Society.}

  18. Lightweight proppants for deep-gas-well stimulation. Third annual report, July 1, 1981-June 30, 1982

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Cutler, R.A.; Enniss, D.O.; Swartz, G.C.; Jones, A.H.

    1983-04-01

    The need exists for lower-density, less-expensive proppants for use in hydraulic-fracturing treatments. Ceramics, fabricated as fully sintered or hollow spheres, are the best materials for obtaining economical proppants with adequate strength. Fabrication techniques are described for fabricating solid-porcelain proppants and hollow-ceramic proppants. Porcelain proppants made by mix-pelletization techniques have good characteristics for propping wells with closure stresses to 96.5 MPa (14,000 psi). The properties of porcelain proppants are compared with twelve commercially available or experimental proppants. Several of the proppants evaluated had adequate conductivity for most hydraulic-fracturing jobs and are less expensive than bauxite. A single-fluid nozzle, counter-current spray-drying technique was used to make hollow, spherical proppants. Alumina was used as the ceramic raw material for these spray-drying experiments, but the same technique can be used with other ceramic materials. Hollow proppants with strengths comparable to sand have been spray dried but further optimization of spray drying parameters is needed to achieve proppants with concentric voids and improved strength. Bauxite, mullite, alumina and mullite rods were fast fired in a plasma in order to see if it is feasible to sinter these materials rapidly. Fast firing appears to be an alternative method of sintering proppants and may reduce costs, thereby making proppants more cost competitive with sand. 42 figures, 20 tables.

  19. High Temperature Tolerant Ceramic Composites Having Porous Interphases

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Kriven, Waltraud M. (Champaign, IL); Lee, Sang-Jin (Chonnam, KR)

    2005-05-03

    In general, this invention relates to a ceramic composite exhibiting enhanced toughness and decreased brittleness, and to a process of preparing the ceramic composite. The ceramic composite comprises a first matrix that includes a first ceramic material, preferably selected from the group including alumina (Al2O3), mullite (3Al2O3.2SiO2), yttrium aluminate garnet (YAG), yttria stabilized zirconia (YSZ), celsian (BaAl2Si2O8) and nickel aluminate (NiAl2O4). The ceramic composite also includes a porous interphase region that includes a substantially non-sinterable material. The non-sinterable material can be selected to include, for example, alumina platelets. The platelets lie in random 3-D orientation and provide a debonding mechanism, which is independent of temperature in chemically compatible matrices. The non-sinterable material induces constrained sintering of a ceramic powder resulting in permanent porosity in the interphase region. For high temperature properties, addition of a sinterable ceramic powder to the non-sinterable material provides sufficiently weak debonding interphases. The ceramic composite can be provided in a variety of forms including a laminate, a fibrous monolith, and a fiber-reinforced ceramic matrix. In the laminated systems, intimate mixing of strong versus tough microstructures were tailored by alternating various matrix-to-interphase thickness ratios to provide the bimodal laminate.

  20. Arsenic Re-Mobilization in Water Treatment Adsorbents Under Reducing Conditions: Part II, XAS and Modeling Study

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Liu,S.; Jing, C.; Meng, X.

    2008-01-01

    The mechanism of arsenic re-mobilization in spent adsorbents under reducing conditions was studied using X-ray absorption spectroscopy and surface complexation model calculations. X-ray absorption near edge structure (XANES) spectroscopy demonstrated that As(V) was partially reduced to As(III) in spent granular ferric hydroxide (GFH), titanium dioxide (TiO2), activated alumina (AA) and modified activated alumina (MAA) adsorbents after 2 years of anaerobic incubation. As(V) was completely reduced to As(III) in spent granular ferric oxide (GFO) under 2-year incubation. The extended X-ray absorption fine structure (EXAFS) spectroscopy analysis showed that As(III) formed bidentate binuclear surface complexes on GFO as evidenced by an average As(III)-O bond distance of 1.78 Angstroms and As(III)-Fe distance of 3.34 Angstroms . The release of As from the spent GFO and TiO2 was simulated using the charge distribution multi-site complexation (CD-MUSIC) model. The observed redox ranges for As release and sulfate mobility were described by model calculations.

  1. Magnetic field annealing for improved creep resistance

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Brady, Michael P.; Ludtka, Gail M.; Ludtka, Gerard M.; Muralidharan, Govindarajan; Nicholson, Don M.; Rios, Orlando; Yamamoto, Yukinori

    2015-12-22

    The method provides heat-resistant chromia- or alumina-forming Fe-, Fe(Ni), Ni(Fe), or Ni-based alloys having improved creep resistance. A precursor is provided containing preselected constituents of a chromia- or alumina-forming Fe-, Fe(Ni), Ni(Fe), or Ni-based alloy, at least one of the constituents for forming a nanoscale precipitate MaXb where M is Cr, Nb, Ti, V, Zr, or Hf, individually and in combination, and X is C, N, O, B, individually and in combination, a=1 to 23 and b=1 to 6. The precursor is annealed at a temperature of 1000-1500.degree. C. for 1-48 h in the presence of a magnetic field of at least 5 Tesla to enhance supersaturation of the M.sub.aX.sub.b constituents in the annealed precursor. This forms nanoscale M.sub.aX.sub.b precipitates for improved creep resistance when the alloy is used at service temperatures of 500-1000.degree. C. Alloys having improved creep resistance are also disclosed.

  2. Pre-converted nitric oxide gas in catalytic reduction system

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Hsiao, Mark C. (Livermore, CA); Merritt, Bernard T. (Livermore, CA); Penetrante, Bernardino M. (San Ramon, CA); Vogtlin, George E. (Fremont, CA)

    1999-01-01

    A two-stage catalyst comprises an oxidative first stage and a reductive second stage. The first stage is intended to convert NO to NO.sub.2 in the presence of O.sub.2. The second stage serves to convert NO.sub.2 to environmentally benign gases that include N2, CO2, and H.sub.2 O. By preconverting NO to NO.sub.2 in the first stage, the efficiency of the second stage for NO.sub.x reduction is enhanced. For example, an internal combustion engine exhaust is connected by a pipe to a first chamber. An oxidizing first catalyst converts NO to NO.sub.2 in the presence of O.sub.2 and includes platinum/alumina, e.g., Pt/Al.sub.2 O.sub.3 catalyst. A flow of hydrocarbons (C.sub.x H.sub.y) is input from a pipe into a second chamber. For example, propene can be used as a source of hydrocarbons. The NO.sub.2 from the first catalyst mixes with the hydrocarbons in the second chamber. The mixture proceeds to a second reduction catalyst that converts NO.sub.2 to N2, CO2, and H.sub.2 O, and includes a gamma-alumina .gamma.-Al.sub.2 O.sub.3. The hydrocarbons and NO.sub.x are simultaneously reduced while passing through the second catalyst.

  3. High temperature alkali corrosion of ceramics in coal gas: Final report

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Pickrell, G.R.; Sun, T.; Brown, J.J. Jr.

    1994-12-31

    There are several ceramic materials which are currently being considered for use as structural elements in coal combustion and coal conversion systems because of their thermal and mechanical properties. These include alumina (refractories, membranes, heat engines); silicon carbide and silicon nitride (turbine engines, internal combustion engines, heat exchangers, particulate filters); zirconia (internal combustion engines, turbine engines, refractories); and mullite and cordierite (particulate filters, refractories, heat exchangers). High temperature alkali corrosion has been known to cause premature failure of ceramic components used in advanced high temperature coal combustion systems such as coal gasification and clean-up, coal fired gas turbines, and high efficiency heat engines. The objective of this research is to systematically evaluate the alkali corrosion resistance of the most commonly used structural ceramics including silicon carbide, silicon nitride, cordierite, mullite, alumina, aluminum titanate, and zirconia. The study consists of identification of the alkali reaction products and determination of the kinetics of the alkali reactions as a function of temperature and time. 145 refs., 29 figs., 12 tabs.

  4. Characterization and possible uses of ashes from wastewater treatment plants

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Merino, Ignacio; Arevalo, Luis F. . E-mail: fromero@ehu.es

    2005-07-01

    This work, on the ashes from the wastewater treatment plant of Galindo (Vizcaya, Spain), has been outlined with the purpose of finding their physico-chemical properties and suggesting possible applications. Ashes contain important quantities of iron, calcium, silica, alumina and phosphates. X-Ray diffraction data make it possible to estimate the mineralogical compositions of the original ashes and also, after thermal treatment at 1200 and 1300 deg. C, the main reactions occurring in thermal treatment. Particle size analysis makes it possible to classify ashes as a very fine powdered material. The thermal treatment leads to a densification of the material and provokes losses of weight mainly due to the elimination of water, carbon dioxide and sulphur trioxide. Application tests show that ashes are not suitable for landfill and similar applications, because of their plastic properties. Testing for pozzolanic character, after the ashes had been heated at 1200 deg. C, did not lead to a strong material probably due to low contents in silica and alumina or to requiring a higher heating temperature. Thermal treatment leads to densification of the material with a considerable increase of compressive strength of the probes. The use of additives (clays and powdered glass) to improve ceramic properties of ashes will be the aim of a future work.

  5. Engineering catalytic activity via ion beam bombardment of catalyst supports for vertically aligned carbon nanotube growth

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Islam, A. E.; Zakharov, D.; Stach, E. A.; Nikoleav, P.; Amama, P. B.; Sargent, G.; Saber, S.; Huffman, D.; Erford, M.; Semiatin, S. L.; Maruyama, B.

    2015-09-16

    Carbon nanotube growth depends on the catalytic activity of metal nanoparticles on alumina or silica supports. The control on catalytic activity is generally achieved by variations in water concentration, carbon feed, and sample placement on a few types of alumina or silica catalyst supports obtained via thin film deposition. We have recently expanded the choice of catalyst supports by engineering inactive substrates like c-cut sapphire via ion beam bombardment. The deterministic control on the structure and chemistry of catalyst supports obtained by tuning the degree of beam-induced damage have enabled better regulation of the activity of Fe catalysts only in the ion beam bombarded areas and hence enabled controllable super growth of carbon nanotubes. A wide range of surface characterization techniques were used to monitor the catalytically active surface engineered via ion beam bombardment. The proposed method offers a versatile way to control carbon nanotube growth in patterned areas and also enhances the current understanding of the growth process. As a result, with the right choice of water concentration, carbon feed and sample placement, engineered catalyst supports may extend the carbon nanotube growth yield to a level that is even higher than the ones reported here, and thus offers promising applications of carbon nanotubes in electronics, heat exchanger, and energy storage.

  6. Uranium transport in Topopah spring tuff; An ion-microscope investigation

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    McKeegan, K.D.; Phinney, D.; Oversby, V.M.; Buchholtz-tenBrink, M.; Smith, D.K.

    1989-12-31

    The authors discuss their investigation of the effect of different methods of surface preparation on ion-microscope profiles of uranium concentration (added to the sample by diffusion from an aqueous solution) vs depth in a welded, devitrified, tuffaceous rock from Yucca Mountain. The concentration profiles were used to study transport of uranium in the tuff. Four wafers of rock were prepared from primary drill core material and finished by polishing with increasingly finer abrasive material. Final polishes were made with 400 grit SiC, 600 grit SiC, 0.3{mu}m alumina, and 0.05{mu}m alumina. The polished tuff wafers were exposed for eight hours to a solution of groundwater doped with 2 ppm 235-U. The wafers were then examined by SEM and the ion microscope was used to measure the lateral and depth distributions of 235-U and other isotopes in the wafer. No systematic correlation of the measured 235-U concentration- vs-depth profiles with the degree of surface finish was observed, indicating that the polishing does not affect the measurable transport of U in the tuff.

  7. Microstructural Development and Mechanical Properties for Reactive Air Brazing of ZTA to Ni Alloys using Ag-CuO Braze Alloys

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Prevost, Erica; DeMarco, A.Joseph; MacMichael, Beth; Joshi, Vineet V.; Meier, Alan; Hoffman, John W.; Walker, William J.

    2014-12-01

    Reactive air brazing (RAB) is a potential joining technique to join metal alloys to ceramics for a variety of applications. In the current study, nickel (Ni) alloys were heat treated to form an oxide layer prior to RAB joining to zirconia toughened alumina (ZTA). The Ni alloys evaluated were Nicrofer 6025 HT, Inconel 600, Inconel 693, Haynes 214 and Inconel 601. The ZTA studied had compositions of 0 to 15 wt% zirconia and 0 to 14 wt% glass. Four point-bend tests were performed to evaluate the joint strength of ZTA/ZTA and ZTA/nickel alloys brazed with Ag-2wt% CuO braze alloys. It was determined that the joint strength is not a function of the ZTA composition, but that the strength is a strong function of the chemistry and microstructure of the oxide layer formed on the nickel alloy. It was determined that an increase in the aluminum content of the Ni alloy resulted in an increase of the thickness of alumina in the oxide layer and was directly proportional to the bond strength with the exception of Inconel 601 which exhibited relatively high joint strengths even though it had a relatively low aluminum content.

  8. Dimethyl ether synthesis from syngas in slurry phase

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Han, Y.Z.; Fujimoto, K.; Shikata, T.

    1997-12-31

    Dimethyl ether (DME) is one of the important chemicals derived from synthesis gas. It can be widely used in syngas conversion, production of olefins, or MTG gasoline. Recently, is has been noticed as a substitute of LPG used as home fuel. In the present study, dimethyl ether was effectively synthesized from CO rich syngas (H{sub 2}/CO=1/1) over hybrid catalyst containing a Cu-Zn-Al(O) based methanol synthesis catalyst and {gamma}-alumina in an agitated slurry reactor under relatively mild reaction conditions: temperature 230--300 C, pressure 2.0--5.0 MPa, contact time 2.0--10 gram-cat.-h/mol. The catalysts used as the methanol active components were commercially available Cu-Zn-Al(O) based catalysts, BASF S385 and ICI 51-2. Two kinds of {gamma}-alumina ALO4 (standard catalyst of the Catalysis Society of Japan) and N612N (NIKKI Co., Japan) were used as the methanol dehydration components. The slurry was prepared by mixing the fine powder (<100 mesh) of catalyst components with purified n-hexadecane. The catalysts were reduced by a mixing gas containing 20% syngas and 80% nitrogen with a three-hour programmed temperature raising from room temperature to the final temperature. All products were analyzed by gas chromatographs. Results are given and discussed.

  9. Development of alternative fuels from coal derived syngas. Topical report: Task 2.2, Demonstration of a one-step slurry-phase process for the production of dimethyl ether/methanol mixtures at the LaPorte Alternative Fuels Development Unit

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Not Available

    1993-06-01

    This report documents engineering, modification, and operations efforts of demonstration of dimethyl-ether/methanol coproduction in a slurry-phase reactor, carried out in a 2-ft diameter bubble column reactor. Equipment modifications made it possible to remove the product DME and by-product CO{sub 2} from the reactor effluent. Coproduction of dimethyl-ether (DME) and methanol (MeOH) was accomplished in the slurry reactor by physically mixing two different catalysts. The catalyst used to produce MeOH from syngas was manufactured by BASF (type S3-86); the catalyst used to convert MeOH to DME was Catapal {gamma}-alumina. Ratio of MeOH to DME catalysts determined the selectivity towards DME. The demonstration sought to study effect of cocatalyst ratio on product selectivity. Three different proportions of DME catalyst were examined: 0, 6.6, and 19.3 wt % alumina. At each catalyst proportion, the plant was operated at two different gas space velocities. Some process variables were maintained at fixed conditions; most important variables included: reactor temperature (482F), reactor pressure (750 psig), and reactor feed gas composition (35% H{sub 2}, 51% CO,13% CO{sub 2} 1% other, nominal-molar basis).

  10. Tribology of improved transformation-toughened ceramics-heat engine test. Final report: DOE/ORNL Ceramic Technology Project

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Lilley, E.; Rossi, G.A.; Pelletier, P.J.

    1992-04-01

    A short term study has been carried out to evaluate the suitability as cam roller followers of three ceria zirconia toughened aluminas and two yttria stabilized tetragonal zirconias (YTZPs) previously enhanced in programs supported by ORNL. Norton Si{sub 3}N{sub 4} (NBD-100) was also included in this study as a reference material, because it was known from work at Northwestern University that Si{sub 3}N{sub 4} to experienced little or no wear in this application, and NBD-100 is currently a successful commercial bearing material. The tribological studies were subcontracted to the Torrington Company. They found that in cam roller follower simulated tests that there was essentially no wear after 1 hour and 5 hours of testing detectable by weighing and concluded that all of these ceramics are, therefore, candidate materials. Because of the minute amounts of wear it was not possible to identify the wear mechanism or to make any correlations with the other physical properties which were evaluated such as MOR, K{sub IC} hardness, density and grain size. Phase transformation during rolling has been of interest in the tribology of zirconia contain materials. The least stable of the ceria zirconia toughened aluminas resulted in as much as 33% monoclinic phase after testing whereas the yttria stabilized (TTZ) contained very little of this transformed phase. The results of this study show that oxide materials can now be considered as candidates for cam roller followers in heat engines.

  11. Tribology of improved transformation-toughened ceramics-heat engine test

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Lilley, E.; Rossi, G.A.; Pelletier, P.J. . Advanced Ceramics Div.)

    1992-04-01

    A short term study has been carried out to evaluate the suitability as cam roller followers of three ceria zirconia toughened aluminas and two yttria stabilized tetragonal zirconias (YTZPs) previously enhanced in programs supported by ORNL. Norton Si{sub 3}N{sub 4} (NBD-100) was also included in this study as a reference material, because it was known from work at Northwestern University that Si{sub 3}N{sub 4} to experienced little or no wear in this application, and NBD-100 is currently a successful commercial bearing material. The tribological studies were subcontracted to the Torrington Company. They found that in cam roller follower simulated tests that there was essentially no wear after 1 hour and 5 hours of testing detectable by weighing and concluded that all of these ceramics are, therefore, candidate materials. Because of the minute amounts of wear it was not possible to identify the wear mechanism or to make any correlations with the other physical properties which were evaluated such as MOR, K{sub IC} hardness, density and grain size. Phase transformation during rolling has been of interest in the tribology of zirconia contain materials. The least stable of the ceria zirconia toughened aluminas resulted in as much as 33% monoclinic phase after testing whereas the yttria stabilized (TTZ) contained very little of this transformed phase. The results of this study show that oxide materials can now be considered as candidates for cam roller followers in heat engines.

  12. An Optically Stimulated Luminescence Uranium Enrichment Monitor

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Miller, Steven D.; Tanner, Jennifer E.; Simmons, Kevin L.; Conrady, Matthew M.; Benz, Jacob M.; Greenfield, Bryce A.

    2010-08-11

    The Pacific Northwest National Laboratory (PNNL) has pioneered the use of Optically Stimulated Luminescence (OSL) technology for use in personnel dosimetry and high dose radiation processing dosimetry. PNNL has developed and patented an alumina-based OSL dosimeter that is being used by the majority of medical X-ray and imaging technicians worldwide. PNNL has conceived of using OSL technology to passively measure the level of UF6 enrichment by attaching the prototype OSL monitor to pipes containing UF6 gas within an enrichment facility. The prototype OSL UF6 monitor utilizes a two-element approach with the first element open and unfiltered to measure both the low energy and high energy gammas from the UF6, while the second element utilizes a 3-mm thick tungsten filter to eliminate the low energy gammas and pass only the high energy gammas from the UF6. By placing a control monitor in the room away from the UF6 pipes and other ionizing radiation sources, the control readings can be subtracted from the UF6 pipe monitor measurements. The ratio of the shielded to the unshielded net measurements provides a means to estimate the level of uranium enrichment. PNNL has replaced the commercially available MicroStar alumina-based dosimeter elements with a composite of polyethylene plastic, high-Z glass powder, and BaFBr:Eu OSL phosphor powder at various concentrations. The high-Z glass was added in an attempt to raise the average Z of the composite dosimeter and increase the response. Additionally, since BaFBr:Eu OSL phosphor is optimally excited and emits light at different wavelengths compared to alumina, the commercially available MicroStar reader was modified for reading BaFBr:Eu in a parallel effort to increase reader sensitivity. PNNL will present the design and performance of our novel OSL uranium enrichment monitor based on a combination of laboratory and UF6 test loop measurements. PNNL will also report on the optimization effort to achieve the highest possible performance from both the OSL enrichment monitor and the new custom OSL reader modified for this application. This project has been supported by the US Department of Energys National Nuclear Security Administrations Office of Dismantlement and Transparency (DOE/NNSA/NA-241).

  13. 8. Innovative Technologies: Two-Phase Heat Transfer in Water-Based Nanofluids for Nuclear Applications Final Report

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Buongiorno, Jacopo; Hu, Lin-wen

    2009-07-31

    Abstract Nanofluids are colloidal dispersions of nanoparticles in water. Many studies have reported very significant enhancement (up to 200%) of the Critical Heat Flux (CHF) in pool boiling of nanofluids (You et al. 2003, Vassallo et al. 2004, Bang and Chang 2005, Kim et al. 2006, Kim et al. 2007). These observations have generated considerable interest in nanofluids as potential coolants for more compact and efficient thermal management systems. Potential Light Water Reactor applications include the primary coolant, safety systems and severe accident management strategies, as reported in other papers (Buongiorno et al. 2008 and 2009). However, the situation of interest in reactor applications is often flow boiling, for which no nanofluid data have been reported so far. In this project we investigated the potential of nanofluids to enhance CHF in flow boiling. Subcooled flow boiling heat transfer and CHF experiments were performed with low concentrations of alumina, zinc oxide, and diamond nanoparticles in water (? 0.1 % by volume) at atmospheric pressure. It was found that for comparable test conditions the values of the nanofluid and water heat transfer coefficient (HTC) are similar (within ?20%). The HTC increased with mass flux and heat flux for water and nanofluids alike, as expected in flow boiling. The CHF tests were conducted at 0.1 MPa and at three different mass fluxes (1500, 2000, 2500 kg/m2s) under subcooled conditions. The maximum CHF enhancement was 53%, 53% and 38% for alumina, zinc oxide and diamond, respectively, always obtained at the highest mass flux. A post-mortem analysis of the boiling surface reveals that its morphology is altered by deposition of the particles during nanofluids boiling. A confocal-microscopy-based examination of the test section revealed that nanoparticles deposition not only changes the number of micro-cavities on the surface, but also the surface wettability. A simple model was used to estimate the ensuing nucleation site density changes, but no definitive correlation between the nucleation site density and the heat transfer coefficient data could be found. Wettability of the surface was substantially increased for heater coupons boiled in alumina and zinc oxide nanofluids, and such wettability increase seems to correlate reasonably well with the observed marked CHF enhancement for the respective nanofluids. Interpretation of the experimental data was conducted in light of the governing surface parameters (surface area, contact angle, roughness, thermal conductivity) and existing models. It was found that no single parameter could explain the observed HTC or CHF phenomena.

  14. Indirect synthesis of Al{sub 2}O{sub 3}via radiation- or photochemical formation of its hydrated precursors

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Barta, Jan Pospisil, Milan; Cuba, Vaclav

    2014-01-01

    Graphical abstract: - Highlights: Al{sub 2}O{sub 3} precursors were produced by UV/e-beam irradiation of aqueous solutions. Depending on the aluminium salt (Cl{sup ?} or NO{sub 3}{sup ?}), either ?-AlOOH or Al(OH){sub 3} is formed. The mechanism involved strongly depends on the presence of formate anion. Prepared mesoporous solid phase has high specific surface area (<190 m{sup 2} g{sup ?1}). Calcination of the precursor leads to the formation of ?-/?-, ?- and ?-Al{sub 2}O{sub 3}. - Abstract: ?-, ?- and ?-modifications of aluminium oxide (alumina) were successfully prepared by calcination of precursor solid phase obtained by irradiation of clear aqueous solutions by UV light or electron beam. For the precipitate to form, formate anion must be present in the solution in sufficient concentration. According to X-ray diffraction, the precipitate was found to consist of ?-AlOOH or a mixture of ?- and ?-Al(OH){sub 3}, when aluminium chloride or aluminium nitrate was used, respectively. The addition of hydrogen peroxide as a OH radical source and sensitizer markedly improved the efficiency of the preparation. Some hints for the apparently very complex mechanism involved were listed and discussed. Calcination of the dried precipitate at 500800 C produced highly porous ?-alumina with high specific surface area (ca. 150 m{sup 2} g{sup ?1}). Mixture of ?- and ?-transition aluminas was obtained at 1000 C and pure, stable corundum ?-Al{sub 2}O{sub 3} formed at 1200 C. Samples were further investigated by means of scanning electron microscopy and specific surface area or porosity measurement. According to N{sub 2} adsorption isotherm, the precipitate contains mostly mesopores with average pore size 7 nm with specific surface area of ca. 100 m{sup 2} g{sup ?1}. Possible applications of the material as sorbent or catalyst as well as a pure matrix for thermoluminescence dosimetry were briefly contemplated. Strong light-induced thermoluminescence was observed in both ?- and ?-Al{sub 2}O{sub 3} samples at 300400 C, whereas in the absence of light, only an inexpressive glow peak at 179 C was observed.

  15. Stainless steel corrosion by molten nitrates : analysis and lessons learned.

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Kruizenga, Alan Michael

    2011-09-01

    A secondary containment vessel, made of stainless 316, failed due to severe nitrate salt corrosion. Corrosion was in the form of pitting was observed during high temperature, chemical stability experiments. Optical microscopy, scanning electron microscopy and energy dispersive spectroscopy were all used to diagnose the cause of the failure. Failure was caused by potassium oxide that crept into the gap between the primary vessel (alumina) and the stainless steel vessel. Molten nitrate solar salt (89% KNO{sub 3}, 11% NaNO{sub 3} by weight) was used during chemical stability experiments, with an oxygen cover gas, at a salt temperature of 350-700 C. Nitrate salt was primarily contained in an alumina vessel; however salt crept into the gap between the alumina and 316 stainless steel. Corrosion occurred over a period of approximately 2000 hours, with the end result of full wall penetration through the stainless steel vessel; see Figures 1 and 2 for images of the corrosion damage to the vessel. Wall thickness was 0.0625 inches, which, based on previous data, should have been adequate to avoid corrosion-induced failure while in direct contact with salt temperature at 677 C (0.081-inch/year). Salt temperatures exceeding 650 C lasted for approximately 14 days. However, previous corrosion data was performed with air as the cover gas. High temperature combined with an oxygen cover gas obviously drove corrosion rates to a much higher value. Corrosion resulted in the form of uniform pitting. Based on SEM and EDS data, pits contained primarily potassium oxide and potassium chromate, reinforcing the link between oxides and severe corrosion. In addition to the pitting corrosion, a large blister formed on the side wall, which was mainly composed of potassium, chromium and oxygen. All data indicated that corrosion initiated internally and moved outward. There was no evidence of intergranular corrosion nor were there any indication of fast pathways along grain boundaries. Much of the pitting occurred near welds; however this was the hottest region in the chamber. Pitting was observed up to two inches above the weld, indicating independence from weld effects.

  16. High efficiency turbine blade coatings.

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Youchison, Dennis L.; Gallis, Michail A.

    2014-06-01

    The development of advanced thermal barrier coatings (TBCs) of yttria stabilized zirconia (YSZ) that exhibit lower thermal conductivity through better control of electron beam - physical vapor deposition (EB-PVD) processing is of prime interest to both the aerospace and power industries. This report summarizes the work performed under a two-year Lab-Directed Research and Development (LDRD) project (38664) to produce lower thermal conductivity, graded-layer thermal barrier coatings for turbine blades in an effort to increase the efficiency of high temperature gas turbines. This project was sponsored by the Nuclear Fuel Cycle Investment Area. Therefore, particular importance was given to the processing of the large blades required for industrial gas turbines proposed for use in the Brayton cycle of nuclear plants powered by high temperature gas-cooled reactors (HTGRs). During this modest (~1 full-time equivalent (FTE)) project, the processing technology was developed to create graded TBCs by coupling ion beam-assisted deposition (IBAD) with substrate pivoting in the alumina-YSZ system. The Electron Beam - 1200 kW (EB-1200) PVD system was used to deposit a variety of TBC coatings with micron layered microstructures and reduced thermal conductivity below 1.5 W/m.K. The use of IBAD produced fully stoichiometric coatings at a reduced substrate temperature of 600 oC and a reduced oxygen background pressure of 0.1 Pa. IBAD was also used to successfully demonstrate the transitioning of amorphous PVD-deposited alumina to the -phase alumina required as an oxygen diffusion barrier and for good adhesion to the substrate Ni2Al3 bondcoat. This process replaces the time consuming thermally grown oxide formation required before the YSZ deposition. In addition to the process technology, Direct Simulation Monte Carlo plume modeling and spectroscopic characterization of the PVD plumes were performed. The project consisted of five tasks. These included the production of layered periodic microstructures in the coating, the Direct Simulation Monte Carlo (DSMC) modeling of particle transport in the PVD plume, functional graded layer development, the deposition of all layers to form a complete coating, and materials characterization including thermal testing. Ion beam-assisted deposition, beam sharing through advanced digital rastering, substrate pivoting, hearth calorimetry, infrared imaging, fiber optic-enabled optical emission spectroscopy and careful thermal management were used to achieve all the milestones outlined in the FY02 LDRD proposal.

  17. Rectangular Dielectric-lined Accelerator Structure

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Wang Changbiao; Yakovlev, V.P.; Hirshfield, J.L.

    2004-12-07

    Results are reported from analysis of a rectangular X-band dielectric-lined accelerator structure operating in the symmetric LSM-11 mode that has a number of favorable attributes, by comparison with dielectric-lined cylindrical structures. These attributes include use of two planar one-piece precision-ground TiN coated dielectric slabs free of joints, open slots along two opposing metallic faces to suppress all anti-symmetric higher-order modes and to facilitate high-speed pumping, and significant reduction of wall losses by use of evanescent vacuum gaps beyond the dielectric slabs. It is shown that a structure operating at 11.424 GHz can be built with a shunt impedance > 60 M{omega}/m using low-loss alumina as the dielectric.

  18. Remarkable NO oxidation on single supported platinum atoms

    DOE Public Access Gateway for Energy & Science Beta (PAGES Beta)

    Narula, Chaitanya K.; Allard, Lawrence F.; Stocks, G. M.; Moses-DeBusk, Melanie

    2014-01-01

    Our first-principles density functional theoretical modeling suggests that NO oxidation is feasible on fully oxidized single θ-alumina-supported platinum atoms via a modified Langmuir-Hinshelwood pathway. This is in contrast to the known decrease in NO oxidation activity of supported platinum with decreasing Pt particle size believed to be due to increased platinum oxidation. In order to validate our theoretical study, we evaluated single θ-Al2O3-supported platinum atoms and found them to exhibit remarkable NO oxidation activity. A comparison of turnover frequencies (TOF) of single supported Pt atoms with those of platinum particles for NO oxidation shows that single supported Pt atoms aremore » as active as fully formed platinum particles. The overall picture of NO oxidation on supported Pt is that NO oxidation activity decreases with decreasing Pt particle size but accelerates when Pt is present only as single atoms.« less

  19. Ceramic composite coating

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Wicks, George G. (Aiken, SC)

    1997-01-01

    A thin, room-temperature-curing, ceramic composite for coating and patching etal substrates comprises a sol gel silica glass matrix filled with finely ground particles or fibers, preferably alumina. The sol gel glass is made by adding ethanol to water to form a first mixture, then separately adding ethanol to tetraethyl orthosilicate to form a second mixture, then slowly adding the first to the second mixture to make a third mixture, and making a slurry by adding the finely ground particles or fibers to the third mixture. The composite can be applied by spraying, brushing or trowelling. If applied to patch fine cracks, densification of the ceramic composite may be obtained to enhance sealing by applying heat during curing.

  20. Ceramic composite coating

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Wicks, G.G.

    1997-01-21

    A thin, room-temperature-curing, ceramic composite for coating and patching metal substrates comprises a sol gel silica glass matrix filled with finely ground particles or fibers, preferably alumina. The sol gel glass is made by adding ethanol to water to form a first mixture, then separately adding ethanol to tetraethyl orthosilicate to form a second mixture, then slowly adding the first to the second mixture to make a third mixture, and making a slurry by adding the finely ground particles or fibers to the third mixture. The composite can be applied by spraying, brushing or trowelling. If applied to patch fine cracks, densification of the ceramic composite may be obtained to enhance sealing by applying heat during curing.

  1. ALD Functionalized Nanoporous Gold: Thermal Stability, Mechanical Properties, and Catalytic Activity

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Biener, M M; Biener, J; Wichmann, A; Wittstock, A; Baumann, T F; Baeumer, M; Hamza, A V

    2011-03-24

    Nanoporous metals have many technologically promising applications but their tendency to coarsen limits their long-term stability and excludes high temperature applications. Here, we demonstrate that atomic layer deposition (ALD) can be used to stabilize and functionalize nanoporous metals. Specifically, we studied the effect of nanometer-thick alumina and titania ALD films on thermal stability, mechanical properties, and catalytic activity of nanoporous gold (np-Au). Our results demonstrate that even only one-nm-thick oxide films can stabilize the nanoscale morphology of np-Au up to 1000 C, while simultaneously making the material stronger and stiffer. The catalytic activity of np-Au can be drastically increased by TiO{sub 2} ALD coatings. Our results open the door to high temperature sensor, actuator, and catalysis applications and functionalized electrodes for energy storage and harvesting applications.

  2. Evaluation of bisphenol E cyanate ester for the resin-injection repair of advanced composites

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Wilber Yaote Lio

    2009-12-19

    This thesis is a compilation of a general introduction and literature review that ties together the subsequent chapters which consist of two journal articles that have yet to be submitted for publication. The overall topic relates to the evaluation and application of a new class of cyanate ester resin with unique properties that lend it applicable to use as a resin for injection repair of high glass transition temperature polymer matrix composites. The first article (Chapter 2) details the evaluation and optimization of adhesive properties of this cyanate ester and alumina nanocomposites under different conditions. The second article (Chapter 3) describes the development and evaluation of an injection repair system for repairing delaminations in polymer matrix composites.

  3. Reactions of platinum in oxygen- and hydrogen-treated Pt/. gamma. -Al/sub 2/O/sub 3/ catalysts. I. Temperature-programmed reduction, adsorption, and redispersion of platinum

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Lieske, H.; Lietz, G.; Spindler, H.; Voelter, J.

    1983-05-01

    Alumina-supported platinum (Pt/..gamma..-Al/sub 2/O/sub 3/) catalysts with and without chloride (Cl) were treated at different temperatures in oxygen (O) or hydrogen (H/sub 2/) and were studied by temperature-programmed reduction and by hydrogen adsorption. Two surface oxides, ..cap alpha..- and ..beta..-(PtO/sub 2/)/sub s/, and two chloride-containing surface complexes, (Pt/sup IV/(OH)/sub x/Cl/sub y/)/sub s/ and (Pt/sup IV/O/sub x/Cl/sub y/)/sub s/, could be found and a comprehensive scheme of surface reactions is proposed. Redispersion of Pt in oxygen is possible only in the presence of chloride and is connected with the formation of (Pt/sup IV/O/sub x/Cl/sub y/)/sub s/. A model for the redispersion is proposed. 7 figures.

  4. Reactions of platinum in oxygen- and hydrogen-treated Pt/. gamma. -Al/sub 2/O/sub 3/ catalysts. II. Ultraviolet-visible studies, sintering of platinum, and soluble platinum

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Lietz, G.; Lieske, H.; Spindler, H.; Hanke, W.; Voelter, J.

    1983-05-01

    Alumina-supported platinum (Pt/..gamma..-Al/sub 2/O/sub 3/) catalysts treated in oxygen between 100 and 600/sup 0/C and in hydrogen at 500/sup 0/C were studied by uv-vis reflectance spectroscopy. The formation of different oxidized Pt surface species previously indicated by temperature programmed reduction (TPR) studies (H. Lieske, G. Lietz, H. Spindler, and J. Voelter, J. Catal. 81, 8(1983)) was confirmed by characteristic uv-vis spectra. The results are used as the basis for a model describing the types of surface reactions and details of the platinum surface species formed in oxygen and in hydrogen, and for a model of the sintering in oxygen. The amount of soluble platinum was found to correspond with the amount of highly dispersed platinum. Hence, only surface platinum atoms are soluble. 16 figures.

  5. Reaction of iron and steel slags with refractories

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Banerjee, S.; Anderson, M.W.

    1993-04-01

    Slag corrosion and erosion has been a major wear factor for refractories wear in contact with molten iron and steel. In blast furnace ironmaking, the slag/iron interface plays a more important role than does the slag/refractory interface. On the other hand in steelmaking, the slag in the ladles and tundish predominantly affect refractory wear. This paper presents the results of a detailed microstructural evaluation of (a) slag and slag/iron interactions with A1{sub 2}O{sub 3}-SiC-C refractories for ironmaking in blast furnaces, (b) basic oxygen furnace and ladle slag interactions with alumina spinel refractories for steelmaking, and (c) slag interactions with working refractory lining for continuous casting tundishes. Results will also be presented on refractory wear/failure due to simultaneous corrosion and penetration by the slag.

  6. Microenergetic research involving a coupled experimental and computational approach to evaluate microstructural effects on detonation and combustion at sub-millimeter geometries.

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Nogan, John; Palmer, Jeremy Andrew; Brundage, Aaron L.; Long, Gregory T.; Wroblewski, Brian D.; Tappan, Alexander Smith; Renlund, Anita Mariana; Kravitz, Stanley H.; Baer, Melvin R.

    2006-07-01

    A new approach to explosive sample preparation is described in which microelectronics-related processing techniques are utilized. Fused silica and alumina substrates were prepared utilizing laser machining. Films of PETN were deposited into channels within the substrates by physical vapor deposition. Four distinct explosive behaviors were observed with high-speed framing photography by driving the films with a donor explosive. Initiation at hot spots was directly observed, followed by either energy dissipation leading to failure, or growth to a detonation. Unsteady behavior in velocity and structure was observed as reactive waves failed due to decreasing channel width. Mesoscale simulations were performed to assist in experiment development and understanding. We have demonstrated the ability to pattern these films of explosives and preliminary mesoscale simulations of arrays of voids showed effects dependent on void size and that detonation would not develop with voids below a certain size. Future work involves experimentation on deposited films with regular patterned porosity to elucidate mesoscale explosive behavior.

  7. Nanosize electropositive fibrous adsorbent

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Tepper, Frederick; Kaledin, Leonid

    2005-01-04

    Aluminum hydroxide fibers approximately 2 nanometers in diameter and with surface areas ranging from 200 to 650 m.sup.2 /g have been fount to be highly electropositive. When dispersed in water they are able to attach to and retain electronegative particles. When combined into a composite filter with other fibers or particles they can filter bacteria and nano size particulates such as viruses and colloidal particles at high flux through the filter. Such filters can be used for purification and sterilization of water, biological, medical and pharmaceutical fluids, and as a collector/concentrator for detection and assay of mirobes and viruses. The alumina fibers are also capable of filtering sub-micron inorganic and metallic particles to produce ultra pure water. The fibers are suitable as a substrate for growth of cells. Macromolicules such as proteins may be separated from each other based on their electronegative charges.

  8. Sub-micron filter

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Tepper, Frederick; Kaledin, Leonid

    2009-10-13

    Aluminum hydroxide fibers approximately 2 nanometers in diameter and with surface areas ranging from 200 to 650 m.sup.2/g have been found to be highly electropositive. When dispersed in water they are able to attach to and retain electronegative particles. When combined into a composite filter with other fibers or particles they can filter bacteria and nano size particulates such as viruses and colloidal particles at high flux through the filter. Such filters can be used for purification and sterilization of water, biological, medical and pharmaceutical fluids, and as a collector/concentrator for detection and assay of microbes and viruses. The alumina fibers are also capable of filtering sub-micron inorganic and metallic particles to produce ultra pure water. The fibers are suitable as a substrate for growth of cells. Macromolecules such as proteins may be separated from each other based on their electronegative charges.

  9. Precursors for the Immobilization of Radioactive Cesium and Strontium from Spent Nuclear Fuel

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Ortega, Luis H.; McDeavitt, Sean M.

    2007-07-01

    Next generation processes for the recycling of spent nuclear fuel are being developed by the US Department of Energy; this includes solvent extraction methods developed to isolate Cs and Sr fission products and immobilize them in a stable storage form. In this study, simulated (i.e., non-radioactive) cesium and strontium bearing liquid wastes were created and treated with carbon, silica, and alumina at 700 deg. C. The overall goal of this 2006 Nuclear Energy Research Initiative (NERI) project is to synthesize candidate ceramics for Cs and Sr storage and characterize their behavior. The initial results described here confirm the formation of stable compounds resembling strontianite (SrCO{sub 3}) and cesium-aluminosilicate (CsAlSi{sub 2}O{sub 4}). (authors)

  10. Cesium trapping characteristics on fly ash filter according to different carrier gases

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Shin, Jin-Myeong; Park, Jang-Jin; Song, Kee-Chan

    2007-07-01

    Fly ash, which is a kind of waste from a coal fired power plant, has been used as a trapping material because it contains silica and alumina suitable for forming pollucite (CsAlSi{sub 2}O{sub 6}). Fly ash is sintered in order to fabricate it into a self-standing filter. The effect of a carrier gas on a cesium trapping quantity is investigated to analyze the cesium trapping characteristics by the fly ash filter in a lab-scale experimental apparatus. The chemical form of the cesium trapped on the filter after trapping cesium is identified to be a pollucite phase regardless of the type of carrier gas. The trapping efficiency of cesium by the fly ash filter under the air and NO{sub x}/air conditions is up to 99.0 %. However, the trapping efficiency of the cesium under the SO{sub x} condition was decreased to 80.0 %. (authors)

  11. Process for solvent refining of coal using a denitrogenated and dephenolated solvent

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Garg, Diwakar (Macungie, PA); Givens, Edwin N. (Bethlehem, PA); Schweighardt, Frank K. (Allentown, PA)

    1984-01-01

    A process is disclosed for the solvent refining of non-anthracitic coal at elevated temperatures and pressure in a hydrogen atmosphere using a hydrocarbon solvent which before being recycled in the solvent refining process is subjected to chemical treatment to extract substantially all nitrogenous and phenolic constituents from the solvent so as to improve the conversion of coal and the production of oil in the solvent refining process. The solvent refining process can be either thermal or catalytic. The extraction of nitrogenous compounds can be performed by acid contact such as hydrogen chloride or fluoride treatment, while phenolic extraction can be performed by caustic contact or contact with a mixture of silica and alumina.

  12. Tetraethyl orthosilicate-based glass composition and method

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Wicks, George G. (Aiken, SC); Livingston, Ronald R. (Aiken, SC); Baylor, Lewis C. (North Augusta, SC); Whitaker, Michael J. (North Augusta, SC); O'Rourke, Patrick E. (Martinez, GA)

    1997-01-01

    A tetraethyl orthosilicate-based, sol-gel glass composition with additives selected for various applications. The composition is made by mixing ethanol, water, and tetraethyl orthosilicate, adjusting the pH into the acid range, and aging the mixture at room temperature. The additives, such as an optical indicator, filler, or catalyst, are then added to the mixture to form the composition which can be applied to a substrate before curing. If the additive is an indicator, the light-absorbing characteristics of which vary upon contact with a particular analyte, the indicator can be applied to a lens, optical fiber, reagant strip, or flow cell for use in chemical analysis. Alternatively, an additive such as alumina particles is blended into the mixture to form a filler composition for patching cracks in metal, glass, or ceramic piping.

  13. Tetraethyl orthosilicate-based glass composition and method

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Wicks, G.G.; Livingston, R.R.; Baylor, L.C.; Whitaker, M.J.; O`Rourke, P.E.

    1997-06-10

    A tetraethyl orthosilicate-based, sol-gel glass composition with additives selected for various applications is described. The composition is made by mixing ethanol, water, and tetraethyl orthosilicate, adjusting the pH into the acid range, and aging the mixture at room temperature. The additives, such as an optical indicator, filler, or catalyst, are then added to the mixture to form the composition which can be applied to a substrate before curing. If the additive is an indicator, the light-absorbing characteristics of which vary upon contact with a particular analyte, the indicator can be applied to a lens, optical fiber, reagent strip, or flow cell for use in chemical analysis. Alternatively, an additive such as alumina particles is blended into the mixture to form a filler composition for patching cracks in metal, glass, or ceramic piping. 12 figs.

  14. Cermet materials

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Kong, Peter C. (Idaho Falls, ID)

    2008-12-23

    A self-cleaning porous cermet material, filter and system utilizing the same may be used in filtering particulate and gaseous pollutants from internal combustion engines having intermetallic and ceramic phases. The porous cermet filter may be made from a transition metal aluminide phase and an alumina phase. Filler materials may be added to increase the porosity or tailor the catalytic properties of the cermet material. Additionally, the cermet material may be reinforced with fibers or screens. The porous filter may also be electrically conductive so that a current may be passed therethrough to heat the filter during use. Further, a heating element may be incorporated into the porous cermet filter during manufacture. This heating element can be coated with a ceramic material to electrically insulate the heating element. An external heating element may also be provided to heat the cermet filter during use.

  15. Methods of producing cermet materials and methods of utilizing same

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Kong, Peter C. (Idaho Falls, ID)

    2008-12-30

    Methods of fabricating cermet materials and methods of utilizing the same such as in filtering particulate and gaseous pollutants from internal combustion engines having intermetallic and ceramic phases. The cermet material may be made from a transition metal aluminide phase and an alumina phase. The mixture may be pressed to form a green compact body and then heated in a nitrogen-containing atmosphere so as to melt aluminum particles and form the cermet. Filler materials may be added to increase the porosity or tailor the catalytic properties of the cermet material. Additionally, the cermet material may be reinforced with fibers or screens. The cermet material may also be formed so as to pass an electrical current therethrough to heat the material during use.

  16. Enhancement of hole injection and electroluminescence by ordered Ag nanodot array on indium tin oxide anode in organic light emitting diode

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Jung, Mi E-mail: Dockha@kist.re.kr; Mo Yoon, Dang; Kim, Miyoung; Kim, Chulki; Lee, Taikjin; Hun Kim, Jae; Lee, Seok; Woo, Deokha E-mail: Dockha@kist.re.kr; Lim, Si-Hyung

    2014-07-07

    We report the enhancement of hole injection and electroluminescence (EL) in an organic light emitting diode (OLED) with an ordered Ag nanodot array on indium-tin-oxide (ITO) anode. Until now, most researches have focused on the improved performance of OLEDs by plasmonic effects of metal nanoparticles due to the difficulty in fabricating metal nanodot arrays. A well-ordered Ag nanodot array is fabricated on the ITO anode of OLED using the nanoporous alumina as an evaporation mask. The OLED device with Ag nanodot arrays on the ITO anode shows higher current density and EL enhancement than the one without any nano-structure. These results suggest that the Ag nanodot array with the plasmonic effect has potential as one of attractive approaches to enhance the hole injection and EL in the application of the OLEDs.

  17. Carbon monoxide sensor and method of use

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Dutta, Prabir K.; Swartz, Scott L.; Holt, Christopher T.; Revur, Ramachandra Rao

    2006-01-10

    A sensor and method of use for detection of low levels of carbon monoxide in gas mixtures. The approach is based on the change in an electrical property (for example: resistance) that occurs when carbon monoxide is selectively absorbed by a film of copper chloride (or other metal halides). The electrical property change occurs rapidly with both increasing and decreasing CO contents, varies with the amount of CO from the gas stream, and is insensitive to the presence of hydrogen. To make a sensor using this approach, the metal halide film will deposited onto an alumina substrate with electrodes. The sensor may be maintained at the optimum temperature with a thick film platinum heater deposited onto the opposite face of the substrate. When the sensor is operating at an appropriate (and constant) temperature, the magnitude of the electrical property measured between the interdigital electrodes will provide a measure of the carbon monoxide content of the gas.

  18. Enhanced Dry Reforming of Methane on Ni and Ni-Pt Catalysts Synthesized by Atomic Layer Deposition

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Gould, Troy D.; Montemore, Matthew M.; Lubers, Alia M.; Ellis, Lucas D.; Weimer, Alan; Falconer, John L.; Medlin, James W.

    2015-02-25

    Atomic layer deposition (ALD) was used to deposit Ni and Pt on alumina supports to form monometallic and bimetallic catalysts with initial particle sizes of 12.4 nm. The ALD catalysts were more active (per mass of metal) than catalysts prepared by incipient wetness (IW) for dry reforming of methane (DRM), and they did not form carbon whiskers during reaction due to their sufficiently small size. Catalysts modified by Pt ALD had higher rates of reaction per mass of metal and inhibited coking, whereas NiPt catalysts synthesized by IW still formed carbon whiskers. Temperature-programmed reduction of Ni catalysts modified by Pt ALD indicated the presence of bimetallic interaction. Density functional theory calculations suggested that under reaction conditions, the NiPt surfaces form Ni-terminated surfaces that are associated with higher DRM rates (due to their C and O adsorption energies, as well as the CO formation and CH4 dissociation energies).

  19. Cermet materials, self-cleaning cermet filters, apparatus and systems employing same

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Kong, Peter C.

    2005-07-19

    A self-cleaning porous cermet material, filter and system utilizing the same may be used in filtering particulate and gaseous pollutants from internal combustion engines having intermetallic and ceramic phases. The porous cermet filter may be made from a transition metal aluminide phase and an alumina phase. Filler materials may be added to increase the porosity or tailor the catalytic properties of the cermet material. Additionally, the cermet material may be reinforced with fibers or screens. The porous filter may also be electrically conductive so that a current may be passed therethrough to heat the filter during use. Further, a heating element may be incorporated into the porous cermet filter during manufacture. This heating element can be coated with a ceramic material to electrically insulate the heating element. An external heating element may also be provided to heat the cermet filter during use.

  20. Process for removing sulfur from sulfur-containing gases: high calcium fly-ash

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Rochelle, Gary T. (Austin, TX); Chang, John C. S. (Cary, NC)

    1991-01-01

    The present disclosure relates to improved processes for treating hot sulfur-containing flue gas to remove sulfur therefrom. Processes in accordance with the present invention include preparing an aqueous slurry composed of a calcium alkali source and a source of reactive silica and/or alumina, heating the slurry to above-ambient temperatures for a period of time in order to facilitate the formation of sulfur-absorbing calcium silicates or aluminates, and treating the gas with the heat-treated slurry components. Examples disclosed herein demonstrate the utility of these processes in achieving improved sulfur-absorbing capabilities. Additionally, disclosure is provided which illustrates preferred configurations for employing the present processes both as a dry sorbent injection and for use in conjunction with a spray dryer and/or bagfilter. Retrofit application to existing systems is also addressed.