National Library of Energy BETA

Sample records for kiln alumina kiln

  1. Solar heated rotary kiln

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Shell, Pamela K. (Tracy, CA)

    1984-01-01

    A solar heated rotary kiln utilized for decomposition of materials, such as zinc sulfate. The rotary kiln has an open end and is enclosed in a sealed container having a window positioned for directing solar energy into the open end of the kiln. The material to be decomposed is directed through the container into the kiln by a feed tube. The container is also provided with an outlet for exhaust gases and an outlet for spent solids, and rests on a tiltable base. The window may be cooled and kept clear of debris by coolant gases.

  2. Kilns and Firing Structures

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Nicholson, Paul

    2010-01-01

    obviating the problem of fly ash is to use a downdraft kiln.surface might be damaged by fly ash, or blackened by sootthe reaction between the “fly ash” (literally, particles of

  3. Rotary kiln seal

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Drexler, Robert L. (Idaho Falls, ID)

    1992-01-01

    A rotary seal used to prevent the escape of contaminates from a rotating kiln incinerator. The rotating seal combines a rotating disc plate which is attached to the rotating kiln shell and four sets of non-rotating carbon seal bars housed in a primary and secondary housing and which rub on the sides of the disc. A seal air system is used to create a positive pressure in a chamber between the primary and secondary seals to create a positive air flow into the contaminated gas chamber. The seal air system also employs an air inlet located between the secondary and tertiary seals to further insure that no contaminates pass the seal and enter the external environment and to provide makeup air for the air which flows into the contaminated gas chamber. The pressure exerted by the seal bars on the rotating disc is controlled by means of a preload spring. The seal is capable of operating in a thermally changing environment where the both radial expansion and axial movement of the rotating kiln do not result in the failure of the seal.

  4. Solar-heated rotary kiln

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Shell, P.K.

    1982-04-14

    A solar heated rotary kiln utilized for decomposition of materials, such as zinc sulfate is disclosed. The rotary kiln has an open end and is enclosed in a sealed container having a window positioned for directing solar energy into the open end of the kiln. The material to be decomposed is directed through the container into the kiln by a feed tube. The container is also provided with an outlet for exhaust gases and an outlet for spent solids, and rests on a tiltable base. The window may be cooled and kept clear of debris by coolant gases.

  5. Analysis of Energy Savings by Painting a Rotary Kiln Surface 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Li, X.; Wang, T.; Tonti, R. T.; Edwards, L.

    2007-01-01

    Rotary Kilns has been widely used for processing minerals, producing cement, calcining petroleum cokes, or drying biomass and wastes. Most of rotary kilns consume energy intensively. Therefore it is desired to assess the thermal losses from the kiln...

  6. Coal desulfurization in a rotary kiln combustor

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Cobb, J.T. Jr.

    1992-09-11

    The purpose of this project was to demonstrate the combustion of coal and coal wastes in a rotary kiln reactor with limestone addition for sulfur control. The rationale for the project was the perception that rotary systems could bring several advantages to combustion of these fuels, and may thus offer an alternative to fluid-bed boilers. Towards this end, an existing wood pyrolysis kiln (the Humphrey Charcoal kiln) was to be suitably refurbished and retrofitted with a specially designed version of a patented air distributor provided by Universal Energy, Inc. (UEI). As the project progressed beyond the initial stages, a number of issues were raised regarding the feasibility and the possible advantages of burning coals in a rotary kiln combustor and, in particular, the suitability of the Humphrey Charcoal kiln as a combustor. Instead, an opportunity arose to conduct combustion tests in the PEDCO Rotary Cascading-Bed Boiler (RCBB) commercial demonstration unit at the North American Rayon CO. (NARCO) in Elizabethton, TN. The tests focused on anthracite culm and had two objectives: (a) determine the feasibility of burning anthracite culms in a rotary kiln boiler and (b) obtain input for any further work involving the Humphrey Charcoal kiln combustor. A number of tests were conducted at the PEDCO unit. The last one was conducted on anthracite culm procured directly from the feed bin of a commercial circulating fluid-bed boiler. The results were disappointing; it was difficult to maintain sustained combustion even when large quantities of supplemental fuel were used. Combustion efficiency was poor, around 60 percent. The results suggest that the rotary kiln boiler, as designed, is ill-suited with respect to low-grade, hard to burn solid fuels, such as anthracite culm. Indeed, data from combustion of bituminous coal in the PEDCO unit suggest that with respect to coal in general, the rotary kiln boiler appears inferior to the circulating fluid bed boiler.

  7. Use of hazardous waste in cement kilns backed

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Krieger, J.

    1993-07-19

    Cement kiln operators who are making use of hazardous waste as a partial substitute for fossil fuel now have a better engineering foundation for determining what is going on in the kilns and how to optimize their operations. A just-released study by a scientific advisory board of experts commissioned by the Cement Kiln Recycling Coalition (CKRC) in Washington, DC, has provided an in-depth look, at such operations and finds the practice to be a fundamentally sound' technology. Long residence times and high temperatures in cement kilns maximize the combustion efficiency for waste-derived fuels, according to the study report. The scientific advisory board notes that all organic compounds can be destroyed in a kiln at 99.9999% efficiency. Also, the behavior of metals in cement kilns can be readily measured, predicted, and controlled. Cement kilns are extremely efficient in reducing metals emissions.

  8. Use of RDF as a kiln fuel. Final report

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    1980-10-01

    Refuse derived fuel (RDF) has been experimented with and/or proposed for use in kilns for the production of portland cement, lime, and expanded shale (a form of lightweight aggregate). Technological issues affecting the use of RDF in kilns are reviewed as are the results of trials in which RDF has been used as a kiln fuel. Three future research/demonstration projects for addressing the major unresolved issues are discussed. These projects are: a lime plant trial; a trial in a pre-calcining furnace; and an extended trial in a cement kiln.

  9. Community Geothermal Technology Program: Experimental lumber drying kiln. Final report

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Leaman, D.; Irwin, B.

    1989-10-01

    Goals were to demonstrate feasibility of using the geothermal waste effluent from the HGP-A well as a heat source for a kiln operation to dry hardwoods, develop drying schedules, and develop automatic systems to monitor/control the geothermally heated lumber dry kiln systems. The feasibility was demonstrated. Lumber was dried in periods of 2 to 6 weeks in the kiln, compared to 18 months air drying and 6--8 weeks using a dehumidified chamber. Larger, plate-type heat exchangers between the primary fluid and water circulation systems may enable the kiln to reach the planned temperatures (180--185 F). However, the King Koa partnership cannot any longer pursue the concept of geothermal lumber kilns.

  10. Incinerators and cement kilns face off

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Kim, I.

    1994-04-01

    For the past few years, US incinerators have been at odds with thermal waste processors such as cement kilns. Originally, there was enough room in the industrial waste treatment market for both types of treatment. As waste generators turned to pollution prevention and onsite treatment, however, the volume of waste decreased and its composition changed. Now, each sees the other crowding it out of a tightening market, and the fight between them is growing increasingly bitter. At the center of this battle are the products of alternative thermal processes--for cement kilns, the dust formed after processing, and for other processes, a variety of materials, many of which can be used for construction. Currently, these materials are exempted from regulation under the US Resource Conservation and Recovery Act (RCRA). In addition, the alternative processes offer generators a significant cost advantage over incineration. The question that US regulators are now grappling with is whether these materials are safe enough to justify this preferential treatment. So far, the answer seems to be a qualified yes. The paper discusses these issues.

  11. Design of Refractory Linings for Balanced Energy Efficiency, Uptime, and Capacity in Lime Kilns

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Gorog, John Peter; Hemrick, James Gordon; Walker, Harold; Leary, William R; Ellis, Murray

    2014-01-01

    The rotary kilns used by the pulp and paper industry to regenerate lime in the Kraft process are very energy intensive. Throughout the 90 s, in response to increasing fuel prices, the industry used back up insulation in conjunction with the high alumina brick used to line the burning zones of their kilns. While this improved energy efficiency, the practice of installing insulating brick behind the working lining increased the inner wall temperatures. In the worst case, due to the increased temperatures, rapid brick failures occurred causing unscheduled outages and expensive repairs. Despite these issues, for the most part, the industry continued to use insulating refractory linings in that the energy savings were large enough to offset any increase in the cost of maintaining the refractory lining. Due to the dramatic decline in the price of natural gas in some areas combined with mounting pressures to increasing production of existing assets, over the last decade, many mills are focusing more on increasing the uptime of their kilns as opposed to energy savings. To this end, a growing number of mills are using basic (magnesia based) brick instead of high alumina brick to line the burning zone of the kiln since the lime mud does not react with these bricks at the operating temperatures of the burning zone of the kiln. In the extreme case, a few mills have chosen to install basic brick in the front end of the kiln running a length equivalent to 10 diameters. While the use of basic brick can increase the uptime of the kiln and reduce the cost to maintain the refractory lining, it does dramatically increase the heat losses resulting from the increased operating temperatures of the shell. Also, over long periods of time operating at these high temperatures, damage can occur in the shell. There are tradeoffs between energy efficiency, capacity and uptime. When fuel prices are very high, it makes sense to insulate the lining. When fuel prices are lower, trading some thermal efficiency for increased uptime and capacity seems reasonable. This paper considers a number of refractory linings in an effort to develop optimized operating strategies that balance these factors. In addition to considering a range of refractory materials, the paper examines other factors such as the chain area, discharge dams and other operating variables that impact the service life of the refractory lining. The paper provides recommendations that will help mill personnel develop a strategy to select a refractory lining that is optimized for their specific situation.

  12. Waste tires as auxiliary fuel for cement kilns

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Dodds, J.

    1987-01-01

    The subject I have been asked to speak about is the utilization of scrap tires as an auxiliary fuel for cement kilns. My experience with scrap tires began five years ago when we performed a technical and economic evaluation for tire pyrolysis. I work for the Idaho National Engineering Laboratory which is supported by the Department of Energy. My interest in scrap tires continued; in 1984 the Department of Energy and the Portland Cement Association jointly sponsored a conference on the utilization of scrap tires in cement kilns. Most of my remarks today are based upon that conference along with some current information in the US. Mr. Sladek requested that I speak on the combustion process, the progress to date, and the factors that impede or encourage implementation of using scrap tires in cement kilns. For discussion purposes it would help if we had a common understanding of the cement manufacturing process. Cement is made by heating a mixture of finely ground limestone and silica from clay or sand to about 1450/degree/C in a large rotating kiln. The heat causes the limestone to decarbonate and subsequently react with the silica to form calcium silicates. 5 figs.

  13. Wood Residues as Fuel Source for Lime Kilns 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Azarniouch, M. K.; Philp, R. J.

    1984-01-01

    One of the main obstacles to total energy self sufficiency of kraft mills appears to be the fossil fuel requirements of the lime kilns. If an economical technology can be developed which allows fossil fuel to be replaced in whole or in part by wood...

  14. The use of scrap tires in rotary cement kilns

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Blumenthal, M.

    1996-12-31

    The use of scrap tires as a supplemental fuel in the United States Portland cement industry has increased significantly in the past six years. In 1990, there were two kilns using tire-derived fuel (TDF), today 30 kilns use TDF. The outlook for continued and expanded use of TDF in the U.S. cement industry should be considered favorable, with 15 kilns conducting tests to determine TDF`s applicability or in the permitting process. The Council`s estimates are that by the end of 1996, the cement industry could be consuming some 75-100 million of the 253 million annually generated scrap tires in the United States. This level of TDF usage will make the cement industry the largest market segments for scrap tires in the United States. While the long-term outlook is at present positive, there are a series of factors that have, and will likely continue to adversely impact the near-term usage of TDF. These issues, as well as the factors that are likely to positively impact the cement kiln TDF market are the subject of this presentation.

  15. Evaluation of cement kiln laboratories testing hazardous waste derived fuels

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Nichols, R.E.

    1998-12-31

    Cement kiln operators wishing to burn hazardous waste derived fuels in their kilns must submit applications for Resource Conservation Recovery Act permits. One component of each permit application is a site-specific Waste Analysis Plan. These Plans describe the facilities` sampling and analysis procedures for hazardous waste derived fuels prior to receipt and burn. The Environmental Protection Agency has conducted on-site evaluations of several cement kiln facilities that were under consideration for Resource Conservation Recovery Act permits. The purpose of these evaluations was to determine if the on-site sampling and laboratory operations at each facility complied with their site-specific Waste Analysis Plans. These evaluations covered sampling, laboratory, and recordkeeping procedures. Although all the evaluated facilities were generally competent, the results of those evaluations revealed opportunities for improvement at each facility. Many findings were noted for more than one facility. This paper will discuss these findings, particularly those shared by several facilities (specific facilities will not be identified). Among the findings to be discussed are the ways that oxygen bombs were scrubbed and rinsed, the analytical quality control used, Burn Tank sampling, and the analysis of pH in hazardous waste derived fuels.

  16. Method and system including a double rotary kiln pyrolysis or gasification of waste material

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    McIntosh, M.J.; Arzoumanidis, G.G.

    1997-09-02

    A method is described for destructively distilling an organic material in particulate form wherein the particulates are introduced through an inlet into one end of an inner rotating kiln ganged to and coaxial with an outer rotating kiln. The inner and outer kilns define a cylindrical annular space with the inlet being positioned in registry with the axis of rotation of the ganged kilns. During operation, the temperature of the wall of the inner rotary kiln at the inlet is not less than about 500 C to heat the particulate material to a temperature in the range of from about 200 C to about 900 C in a pyrolyzing atmosphere to reduce the particulate material as it moves from the one end toward the other end. The reduced particulates including char are transferred to the annular space between the inner and the outer rotating kilns near the other end of the inner rotating kiln and moved longitudinally in the annular space from near the other end toward the one end in the presence of oxygen to combust the char at an elevated temperature to produce a waste material including ash. Also, heat is provided which is transferred to the inner kiln. The waste material including ash leaves the outer rotating kiln near the one end and the pyrolysis vapor leaves through the particulate material inlet. 5 figs.

  17. Method and system including a double rotary kiln pyrolysis or gasification of waste material

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    McIntosh, Michael J. (Bolingbrook, IL); Arzoumanidis, Gregory G. (Naperville, IL)

    1997-01-01

    A method of destructively distilling an organic material in particulate form wherein the particulates are introduced through an inlet into one end of an inner rotating kiln ganged to and coaxial with an outer rotating kiln. The inner and outer kilns define a cylindrical annular space with the inlet being positioned in registry with the axis of rotation of the ganged kilns. During operation, the temperature of the wall of the inner rotary kiln at the inlet is not less than about 500.degree. C. to heat the particulate material to a temperature in the range of from about 200.degree. C. to about 900.degree. C. in a pyrolyzing atmosphere to reduce the particulate material as it moves from the one end toward the other end. The reduced particulates including char are transferred to the annular space between the inner and the outer rotating kilns near the other end of the inner rotating kiln and moved longitudinally in the annular space from near the other end toward the one end in the presence of oxygen to combust the char at an elevated temperature to produce a waste material including ash. Also, heat is provided which is transferred to the inner kiln. The waste material including ash leaves the outer rotating kiln near the one end and the pyrolysis vapor leaves through the particulate material inlet.

  18. Control of Lime Kiln Heat Balance is Key to Reduced Fuel Consumption 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Kramm, D. J.

    1982-01-01

    kiln, it is possible to save hundreds of thousands of dollars in fuel annually by paying attention to the proper operating details....

  19. Kiln for hot-pressing compacts in a continuous manner

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Reynolds, Jr., Carl D. (Clinton, TN)

    1985-01-01

    The present invention is directed to a hot pressing furnace or kiln which is capable of preheating, hot pressing, and cooling a plurality of articles in a sequential and continuous manner. The hot pressing furnace of the present invention comprises an elongated, horizontally disposed furnace capable of holding a plurality of displaceable pusher plates each supporting a die body loaded with refractory or ceramic material to be hot pressed. Each of these plates and the die body supported thereby is sequentially pushed through the preheating zone, a temperature stabilizing and a hot pressing zone, and a cooling zone so as to provide a continuous hot-pressing operation of a plurality of articles.

  20. Method and apparatus for maximizing throughput of indirectly heated rotary kilns

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Coates, Ralph L; Smoot, L. Douglas; Hatfield, Kent E

    2012-10-30

    An apparatus and method for achieving improved throughput capacity of indirectly heated rotary kilns used to produce pyrolysis products such as shale oils or coal oils that are susceptible to decomposition by high kiln wall temperatures is disclosed. High throughput is achieved by firing the kiln such that optimum wall temperatures are maintained beginning at the point where the materials enter the heating section of the kiln and extending to the point where the materials leave the heated section. Multiple high velocity burners are arranged such that combustion products directly impact on the area of the kiln wall covered internally by the solid material being heated. Firing rates for the burners are controlled to maintain optimum wall temperatures.

  1. An assessment of potential environmental impacts of cement kiln dust produced in kilns co-fired with hazardous waste fuels

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Goad, P.T.; Millner, G.C.; Nye, A.C.

    1998-12-31

    The Keystone Cement Company (Keystone), located in Bath, Pennsylvania, produces cement in two kilns that are co-fired with hazardous waste-derived fuels. Beginning in the late 1970`s Keystone began storing cement kiln dust (CKD) in an aboveground storage pile located on company property adjacent to the cement kilns. Storm water runoff from the CKD pile is channeled into a storm water settling pond which in turn discharges into Monocacy Creek, a stream running along the eastern property boundary. Monocacy Creek sustains a thriving trout fishery and is routinely fished during the open recreational fishing season in pennsylvania. The CKD pile has a surface area of approximately 12 acres, with an average height of approximately 35 feet. The southern edge of the pile is contiguous with an adjacent company-owned field in which field corn is grown for cattle feed. Some of the corn on the edges of the field is actually grown in direct contact with CKD that comprises the edge of the storage pile. The CKD pile is located approximately 150 yards to the west of Monocacy Creek. In 1995--1996 water, sediment and fish (trout) samples were obtained from Monocacy Creek sampling stations upstream and downstream of the point of discharge of storm water runoff from the CKD pile. In addition, corn samples were obtained from the field contiguous with the CKD pile and from a control field located distant to the site. The sediment, water, fish, and corn samples were analyzed for various chemicals previously identified as chemicals of potential concern in CKD. These data indicate that chemical constituents of CKD are not contaminating surface water or sediment in the stream, and that bioaccumulation of organic chemicals and/or metals has not occurred in field corn grown in direct contact with undiluted CKD, or in fish living in the waters that receive CKD pile runoff.

  2. Coal desulfurization in a rotary kiln combustor. Final report, March 15, 1990--July 31, 1991

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Cobb, J.T. Jr.

    1992-09-11

    The purpose of this project was to demonstrate the combustion of coal and coal wastes in a rotary kiln reactor with limestone addition for sulfur control. The rationale for the project was the perception that rotary systems could bring several advantages to combustion of these fuels, and may thus offer an alternative to fluid-bed boilers. Towards this end, an existing wood pyrolysis kiln (the Humphrey Charcoal kiln) was to be suitably refurbished and retrofitted with a specially designed version of a patented air distributor provided by Universal Energy, Inc. (UEI). As the project progressed beyond the initial stages, a number of issues were raised regarding the feasibility and the possible advantages of burning coals in a rotary kiln combustor and, in particular, the suitability of the Humphrey Charcoal kiln as a combustor. Instead, an opportunity arose to conduct combustion tests in the PEDCO Rotary Cascading-Bed Boiler (RCBB) commercial demonstration unit at the North American Rayon CO. (NARCO) in Elizabethton, TN. The tests focused on anthracite culm and had two objectives: (a) determine the feasibility of burning anthracite culms in a rotary kiln boiler and (b) obtain input for any further work involving the Humphrey Charcoal kiln combustor. A number of tests were conducted at the PEDCO unit. The last one was conducted on anthracite culm procured directly from the feed bin of a commercial circulating fluid-bed boiler. The results were disappointing; it was difficult to maintain sustained combustion even when large quantities of supplemental fuel were used. Combustion efficiency was poor, around 60 percent. The results suggest that the rotary kiln boiler, as designed, is ill-suited with respect to low-grade, hard to burn solid fuels, such as anthracite culm. Indeed, data from combustion of bituminous coal in the PEDCO unit suggest that with respect to coal in general, the rotary kiln boiler appears inferior to the circulating fluid bed boiler.

  3. Trends in characteristics of hazardous waste-derived fuel burned for energy recovery in cement kilns

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Lusk, M.G.; Campbell, C.S.

    1996-12-31

    The Cement Kiln Recycling Coalition (CKRC) is a national trade association representing virtually all the U.S. cement companies involved in the use of waste-derived fuel in the cement manufacturing process as well as those companies involved in the collection, processing, managing, and marketing of such fuel. CKRC, in conjunction with the National Association of Chemical Recyclers (NACR), completed several data collection activities over the past two years to provide the Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) and other interested parties with industry-wide trend analyses. The analyses evaluated the content of specific metals in waste fuels utilized by cement kilns, average Btu value of substitute fuels used by kilns, and provides insight into the trends of these properties. With the exception of the data collected by NACR, the study did not evaluate materials sent to hazardous waste incinerators or materials that are combusted at {open_quotes}on-site{close_quotes} facilities.

  4. Steinway & Sons Upgrades Its Turn-of-the-Century Brick Kilns to a Quick-Dry Partial Vacuum System 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Bossis, R.

    2015-01-01

    Street, Suite 350, North Andover, MA 01845 With offices in: CA, CT, ME, NY, OR, TX, VT www.ers-inc.com PRESENTATION BY RYAN BOSSIS June 3, 2015 Steinway & Sons Upgrades Its Turn-of-the-Century Brick Kilns to a Quick-Dry Partial Vacuum System ESL...-IE-15-06-17 Proceedings of the Thrity-Seventh Industrial Energy Technology Conference New Orleans, LA. June 2-4, 2015 ?History of Steinway & Sons and manufacturing process ?Current wood-drying process ?Data collection and measurement of existing kiln’s...

  5. The necessity for a practical approach to address organic emissions from cement kilns

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Yonley, C.; Schreiber, B.; Kellerman, S.; Kellett, C.

    1998-12-31

    There is an inherent difficulty in monitoring organic emissions from hazardous waste combustion in the cement process. Data gathered by the EPA and the industry indicate that organic emissions at the main stack of cement kilns are principally from process characteristics and/or the desorption of organic constituents contained in the raw materials. Organic emissions are primarily based on the facility design and origin of the raw materials. One would generally conclude that organic emissions from fuels are essentially non-existent. To understand alternatives for monitoring organic emissions, this paper reviews some of the historical background behind the issue and reviews trends of characteristic organic emissions data. Based on this discussion and review, some approaches are presented to address organic emissions testing and monitoring when utilizing hazardous waste fuel in a cement kiln.

  6. Cement kiln flue dust as a source of lime and potassium in four East Texas soils 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Poole, Warren David

    1975-01-01

    (18) a 5. 3 (84) a 4. 8 (76) a 4. 2 (66) a 3. 8 (61) a 5. 2 (82) a 4. 1 (64) a 5. 0 (80) a *Duncan's Multiple Range Test. ? = . 05. Differences in yield due to rate of applied lime material followed by the same letter are not significantly...CEMENT KILN FLUE DUST AS A SOURCE OF LIME AND POTASSIUM IN FOUR EAST TEXAS SOILS A Thesis by WARREN DAVID POOLE Submitted to the Graduate College of Texas A&M University in partial fulfillment of the requirement for the degree of MASTER...

  7. Time-variability of NO{sub x} emissions from Portland cement kilns

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Walters, L.J. Jr.; May, M.S. III [PSM International, Dallas, TX (United States)] [PSM International, Dallas, TX (United States); Johnson, D.E. [Kansas State Univ., Manhattan, KS (United States). Dept. of Statistics] [Kansas State Univ., Manhattan, KS (United States). Dept. of Statistics; MacMann, R.S. [Penta Engineering, St. Louis, MO (United States)] [Penta Engineering, St. Louis, MO (United States); Woodward, W.A. [Southern Methodist Univ., Dallas, TX (United States). Dept. of Statistics] [Southern Methodist Univ., Dallas, TX (United States). Dept. of Statistics

    1999-03-01

    Due to the presence of autocorrelation between sequentially measured nitrogen oxide (NO{sub x}) concentrations in stack gas from portland cement kilns, the determination of the average emission rates and the uncertainty of the average has been improperly calculated by the industry and regulatory agencies. Documentation of permit compliance, establishment of permit levels, and the development and testing of control techniques for reducing NO{sub x} emissions at specific cement plants requires accurate and precise statistical estimates of parameters such as means, standard deviations, and variances. Usual statistical formulas such as for the variance of the sample mean only apply if sequential measurements of NO{sub x} emissions are independent. Significant autocorrelation of NO{sub x} emission measurements revealed that NO{sub x} concentration values measured by continuous emission monitors are not independent but can be represented by an autoregressive, moving average time series. Three orders of time-variability of NO{sub x} emission rates were determined from examination of continuous emission measurements from several cement kilns.

  8. Influence of the composition of cement kiln dust on its interaction with fly ash and slag

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Chaunsali, Piyush; Peethamparan, Sulapha

    2013-12-15

    Cement kiln dust (CKD), a by-product of the cement industry, contains significant amounts of alkali, free lime, chloride and sulfate. Wide variation reported in the chemical composition of CKDs limits their potential application as a sustainable binder component in concrete. In the current study, the performance of two different CKDs as components in a novel binder is evaluated. Several binders are developed by blending CKDs with fly ash or slag. Binders with 70% CKD were prepared at a water-to-binder ratio of 0.4, and heat-cured at 75 °C to accelerate the strength development. The hydration progress was monitored using X-ray diffraction, and morphological examination was performed using scanning electron microscopy (SEM) and transmission electron microscopy (TEM). Ettringite and calcium aluminosilicate hydrate (C-A-S-H) were identified as the main hydration products in the hardened binder system. Strength development of CKD-based binder was found to be significantly influenced by its free lime and sulfate contents. -- Highlights: •Interaction of cement kiln dust with fly ash and slag was explored. •CKD with higher free lime and sulfate content increased the strength of binder. •C-S-H like reaction gel with fibrillar morphology is observed in CKD-based binders.

  9. Reproductive and developmental health risk from dioxin-like compounds: Insignificant risk from cement kilns burning waste-derived fuels

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Holcomb, L.C.; Pedelty, J.F.

    1994-12-31

    Cement kilns burning waste-derived fuels emit low levels of dibenzodioxins and dibenzofurans and little or no PCB`s. Concern about possible effects on reproduction and development has prompted an evaluation of the research literature especially with regard to the reproductive and developmental effects of 2,3,7,8-tetrachlorodibenzo-p-dioxin (TCDD). In sufficient doses, dioxins, furans, and PCB can cause adverse health effects in some animals or humans. Calculated doses of TCDD-EQ (dioxin equivalents) are dependent on many assumptions, but where human effects have been demonstrated, doses were 100--1,000 times higher than the usual background environmental doses. This would include those environmental doses that would be received by the most-exposed individual living near cement kilns burning WDF. There is evidence to suggest that PCB`s have had an adverse impact on some wildlife although there is no evidence that these PCB`s are associated with cement kiln emissions. There is no evidence to suggest that dioxins, at environmental levels or associated with emissions from WDF-burning cement kilns, have caused adverse effects in either wildlife or humans. 63 refs., 3 tabs.

  10. Assessment of the percent status of burning refuse-derived fuel as a fuel supplement in the cement kiln industry

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    1981-09-01

    The purpose of the project was to solicit information on the use of refuse-derived fuel (RDF) in cement kilns by survey, follow up the mailed survey with telephone calls to the recipients, and assemble collected information into a report. A list of companies that had some experience with RFD was compiled and is presented in Appendix A. The procedure for conducting the survey is explained. A copy of the questionnaire is presented in Appendix B. The letters of response are reproduced in Appendix C. Two completed forms were received and clear conclusions are summarized. The effort was terminated and no final report was assembled.

  11. Testing of a Continuous Sampling Mercury CEM at the EPA-Rotary Kiln Incinerator Simulator Facility

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    D.P. Baldwin; S.J. Bajic; D.E. Eckels; D.S. Zamzow

    2002-04-12

    This report has been prepared to document the performance of the continuous sampling mercury monitoring system developed by Ames Laboratory for use as a continuous emission monitor (CEM). This work was funded by the U.S. Department of Energy, Office of Environmental Management, Office of Science and Technology, through the Mixed Waste Focus Area. The purpose of the project is to develop instrumentation and methods for spectroscopic field-monitoring applications. During FY01 this included continued development and testing of an echelle spectrometer system for the detection of mercury (Hg) by atomic absorption. Due to the relatively poor limits of detection for Hg by optical emission techniques, the CEM has been designed for the detection of elemental Hg by optical absorption. The sampling system allows continuous introduction of stack gas into the CEM for analysis of elemental and total Hg in the gas stream. A heated pyrolysis tube is used in this system to convert oxidized Hg compounds to elemental Hg prior to analysis for total Hg. The pyrolysis tube is bypassed to measure elemental Hg. The CEM is designed to measure the elemental Hg concentration of the gas sample, measure the total Hg concentration, perform a zero check (analysis of room air), and then re-zero the system (to correct for any instrumental drift that occurs over time). This is done in an automated, sequential measurement cycle to provide continuous monitoring of Hg concentrations in the stack gas. The continuous sampling Hg CEM was tested at the EPA-Rotary Kiln in Durham, NC at the beginning of FY02. This report describes the characteristics and performance of the system and the results of the field tests performed at EPA. The Hg CEM system was developed in response to the need of DOE and other organizations to monitor Hg that may be released during the processing or combustion of hazardous or mixed-waste materials. The promulgation of regulations limiting the release of Hg and requiring continuous monitoring of stack gases from combustion and treatment processes would seriously impact the operations of DOE waste treatment facilities. Therefore, it is important to develop and validate techniques that adequately meet proposed sensitivity and accuracy requirements. The most likely form of validation for such a technique involves comparison of CEM results with a reference test method for a test combustion system. Therefore, the CEM system was tested at EPA by monitoring Hg emissions in a natural gas combustion exhaust (that was spiked with Hg) while simultaneously collecting samples using the Ontario-Hydro mercury speciation method as the reference method. The CEM results were available continuously during the on-line monitoring that was performed. The results of the reference method sampling were received a number of weeks after the testing at EPA. These results are discussed in this report, with a comparison and evaluation of the reference method and Hg CEM data.

  12. Rotary Kiln for Synthetic Aggregate 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Unknown

    2011-08-17

    for the outdoor heat exchanger of ASHP system [1]. When ambient temperature is very low, the fan works with high rotary speed to increase the air flow rate through the heat exchanger, and to improve evaporating temperature and the refrigerant mass flow rate..., an intercooler, two throttling devices, a four-way valve, and a solenoid valve. Three work conditions including the single-stage compression cooling, single-stage compression heating and two-stage compression heating can be carried out by controlling four...

  13. A cement kiln flue-dust evaluated as a soil liming material 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Stacha, Raimund

    1973-01-01

    production. The present lime study includes several of the predominate acid soil types in Texas. They should aid in furnishing soil testing laboratories with information which would facilitate better lime recommendations to Texas farmers as well... not determined. The present studies which include several of the predominate acid soil types in Texas should evaluate the usefulness of this local material as well as to further lime research in Texas to benefit soil test recommendations. 14 MATERIALS...

  14. Design of fuel efficient brick kiln for ceramic water filter firing in Ghana

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Adjorlolo, Eric (Eric James Kofi)

    2007-01-01

    Ceramic water filters are currently produced in Ghana in order to provide a household solution to contaminated water. These filters, locally branded with the name Kosim filter by originating from Potters for Peace-Nicaragua, ...

  15. Indirect-Fired Kiln Conserves Scrap Aluminum and Cuts Costs | Department of

    Broader source: Energy.gov (indexed) [DOE]

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Homesum_a_epg0_fpd_mmcf_m.xls" ,"Available from WebQuantity of Natural GasAdjustmentsShirleyEnergyTher i nA Guide toIMPROVEMENT OF DESIGNEmergency2013AlaskaDepartment of

  16. Analysis of Energy-Efficiency Opportunities for the Pulp and Paper Industry in China

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Kong, Lingbo

    2014-01-01

    chemical reactions in the lime kiln and wastewater treatmentliquor concentration Lime kiln modifications Mechanicalblack liquor concentration, and lime kiln modifications, the

  17. Opportunities to improve energy efficiency and reduce greenhouse gas emissions in the U.S. pulp and paper industry

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Martin, Nathan; Anglani, N.; Einstein, D.; Khrushch, M.; Worrell, E.; Price, L.K.

    2000-01-01

    M. 1999. “Gulf States Improves Lime Kiln Performance with1998. Lewko, L. 1996. "Lime Kiln Upgrade Project at Prince27 Lime kiln

  18. Microporous alumina ceramic membranes

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Anderson, Marc A. (Madison, WI); Sheng, Guangyao (Madison, WI)

    1993-01-01

    Several methods are disclosed for the preparation microporous alumina ceramic membranes. For the first time, porous alumina membranes are made which have mean pore sizes less than 100 Angstroms and substantially no pores larger than that size. The methods are based on improved sol-gel techniques.

  19. Microporous alumina ceramic membranes

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Anderson, M.A.; Guangyao Sheng.

    1993-05-04

    Several methods are disclosed for the preparation microporous alumina ceramic membranes. For the first time, porous alumina membranes are made which have mean pore sizes less than 100 Angstroms and substantially no pores larger than that size. The methods are based on improved sol-gel techniques.

  20. Reuse of activated alumina

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Hobensack, J.E. [Martin Marietta Energy Systems, Inc., Piketon, OH (United States)

    1991-12-31

    Activated alumina is used as a trapping media to remove trace quantities of UF{sub 6} from process vent streams. The current uranium recovery method employs concentrated nitric acid which destroys the alumina pellets and forms a sludge which is a storage and disposal problem. A recently developed technique using a distilled water rinse followed by three dilute acid rinses removes on average 97% of the uranium, and leaves the pellets intact with crush strength and surface area values comparable with new material. Trapping tests confirm the effectiveness of the recycled alumina as UF{sub 6} trapping media.

  1. Increasing Energy Efficiency and Reducing Emissions from China's Cement Kilns: Audit Report of Two Cement Plants in Shandong Province, China

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Price, Lynn

    2013-01-01

    http://www.wbcsd.ch/web/projects/cement/pop-report.pdfShui Ni 1 and Shui Ni 2 cement plants in Shangdong ProvinceReferences Ash Grove Cement, n.d. , “Cement Manufacturing

  2. Increasing Energy Efficiency and Reducing Emissions from China's Cement Kilns: Audit Report of Two Cement Plants in Shandong Province, China

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Price, Lynn

    2013-01-01

    also used for drying coal in heat recovery boilers to raiseheat recovery components (boilers, raw meal dryer, coal feedheat recovery, exhaust gases include flue products from coal

  3. Increasing Energy Efficiency and Reducing Emissions from China's Cement Kilns: Audit Report of Two Cement Plants in Shandong Province, China

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Price, Lynn

    2013-01-01

    coal ash analysis The chemical composition analysis of raw meal, clinker, and the physical properties

  4. Increasing Energy Efficiency and Reducing Emissions from China's Cement Kilns: Audit Report of Two Cement Plants in Shandong Province, China

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Price, Lynn

    2013-01-01

    combustion products such as carbon dioxide (CO 2 ), carbon monoxide (combustion decreased. The concentration of carbon monoxidecombustion products that now include primarily carbon dioxide (CO 2 ) and nitrogen (N 2 ) with small amounts of carbon monoxide (

  5. Improvement of kiln design and combustion/carbonization timing to produce charcoal from agricultural waste in Developing countries

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Martinez, Jason A. (Jason Alexander)

    2006-01-01

    Current economic conditions in third world countries like Haiti are so poor that the majority of the population has no access to energy sources that people in the first world take for granted. In Haiti the last two percent ...

  6. Increasing Energy Efficiency and Reducing Emissions from China's Cement Kilns: Audit Report of Two Cement Plants in Shandong Province, China

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Price, Lynn

    2013-01-01

    system that uses steam and turbine generators to produce upwater to cooling towers Steam Turbine Generator Waste Heatcombustion (CO gas) ? Steam turbine condenser cooling water

  7. Increasing Energy Efficiency and Reducing Emissions from China's Cement Kilns: Audit Report of Two Cement Plants in Shandong Province, China

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Price, Lynn

    2013-01-01

    recovery systems such as a cogeneration plant and the heatedplant has installed a cogeneration system that uses steamequipment as well as the cogeneration system. The data were

  8. Increasing Energy Efficiency and Reducing Emissions from China's Cement Kilns: Audit Report of Two Cement Plants in Shandong Province, China

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Price, Lynn

    2013-01-01

    dryer that uses heat from boiler exhaust gases to reduce thedrying coal in heat recovery boilers to raise steam, and forup to 6 MW power. The boilers use the heat of exhaust gases

  9. Increasing Energy Efficiency and Reducing Emissions from China's Cement Kilns: Audit Report of Two Cement Plants in Shandong Province, China

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Price, Lynn

    2013-01-01

    heat, based on 60% heat recovery, is approximately 12.5 GJ/Illustration of Reburn and Heat Recovery System Arrangementto this, it also uses heat recovery systems such as a

  10. Increasing Energy Efficiency and Reducing Emissions from China's Cement Kilns: Audit Report of Two Cement Plants in Shandong Province, China

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Price, Lynn

    2013-01-01

    to this, it also uses heat recovery systems such as afor drying coal in heat recovery boilers to raise steam, andWith this degree of heat recovery, exhaust gases include

  11. Increasing Energy Efficiency and Reducing Emissions from China's Cement Kilns: Audit Report of Two Cement Plants in Shandong Province, China

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Price, Lynn

    2013-01-01

    values are represented in pie chart (Figure 3) format toin the system. The pie chart indicates that major users ofof coal. The following pie-chart (Figure 13) and Sankey

  12. Increasing Energy Efficiency and Reducing Emissions from China's Cement Kilns: Audit Report of Two Cement Plants in Shandong Province, China

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Price, Lynn

    2013-01-01

    systems such as a cogeneration plant and the heated air togenerated from the cogeneration plant and take credit forequivalent heat. The cogeneration plant produces 6 MW

  13. Alumina Technology Roadmap

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    2002-02-01

    The Alumina Technology Roadmap outlines a comprehensive long-term research and development plan that defines the industry's collective future and establishes a clear pathway forward. It emphasizes twelve high-priority R&D areas deemed most significant in addressing the strategic goals. (PDF 316 KB).

  14. ITP Aluminum: Alumina Technology Roadmap

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    The Alumina Technology Roadmap outlines a comprehensive long-term research and development plan that defines the industry’s collective future and establishes a clear pathway forward.

  15. Donald T. Clark: Early UCSC History and the Founding of the University Library

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Regional History Project, UCSC Library; Clark, Donald T.; Jarrell, Randall

    1993-01-01

    into being the printer for the Lime Kiln Press. He was well-later because after the Lime Kiln Press was established, these to fund a printer for the Lime Kiln Press, it certainly

  16. Bottom-up Representation of Industrial Energy Efficiency Technologies in Integrated Assessment Models for the U.S. Pulp and Paper Sector

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Xu, Tengfang

    2014-01-01

    black liquor evaporation Lime kiln modifications Extended black liquor evaporation Lime kiln modifications Teriary effluents ClO2 filtrate heating Lime kiln oxygen enrichement

  17. The Cowell Press and Its Legacy: 1973-2004

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Regional History Project, UCSC Library; Graalfs, Gregory; Reti, Irene

    2005-01-01

    Rice: Contact with The Lime Kiln Press page 158 Graalfs: Howthere for years. Graalfs: Well, Lime Kiln Press was in the61 William Everson & The Lime Kiln Press 64 Thoughts on Fine

  18. Rita Bottoms: Polyartist Librarian

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Bottoms, Rita; Reti, Irene; Regional History Project, UCSC Library

    2005-01-01

    William Everson and the Lime Kiln Press And the irony wasI said, “ Oh, what about Lime Kiln press? ” So I do takefor submissions for the Lime Kiln press design. If Bill had

  19. Controlling Mechanical Properties of Porous Mullite/Alumina Mixtures Via Precursor-Derived Alumina

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Zok, Frank

    Controlling Mechanical Properties of Porous Mullite/Alumina Mixtures Via Precursor-Derived Alumina- ity of a precursor-derived alumina (PDA) in controlling both the modulus and the toughness of mullite on porous mullite/alumina compacts with varying amounts of precursor-derived alumina (PDA) and com- parisons

  20. International Best Practices for Pre-Processing and Co-Processing Municipal Solid Waste and Sewage Sludge in the Cement Industry

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Hasanbeigi, Ali

    2013-01-01

    Asia Pacific Partnership Cement Task Force (APP). 2010.07(3) Utilizing Biosolids in Cement Kilns. (November). Asia-Utilising Biosolids in Cement Kilns. Final Report. Available

  1. EA-0405: Finding of No Significant Impact

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    Innovative Sulfur Dioxide Scrubbing System for Coal Burning Cement Kilns, Passamaquoddy Tribe Thomaston, Maine

  2. Method for preparing Pb-. beta. ''-alumina ceramic

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Hellstrom, E.E.

    1984-08-30

    A process is disclosed for preparing impermeable, polycrystalline samples of Pb-..beta..''-alumina ceramic from Na-..beta..''-alumina ceramic by ion exchange. The process comprises two steps. The first step is a high-temperature vapor phase exchange of Na by K, followed by substitution of Pb for K by immersing the sample in a molten Pb salt bath. The result is a polycrystalline Pb-..beta..''-alumina ceramic that is substantially crack-free.

  3. Synthesis of high porosity, monolithic alumina aerogels

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Poco, J F; Satcher, J H; Hrubesh, L W

    2000-09-20

    Many non-silica aerogels are notably weak and fragile in monolithic form. Particularly, few monolithic aerogels with densities less than 50kg/m3 have any significant strength. It is especially difficult to prepare uncracked monoliths of pure alumina aerogels that are robust and moisture stable. In this paper, we discuss the synthesis of strong, stable, monolithic, high porosity (>98% porous) alumina aerogels, using a two-step sol-gel process. The alumina aerogels have a polycrystalline morphology that results in enhanced physical properties. Most of the measured physical properties of the alumina aerogels are superior to those for silica aerogels for equivalent densities.

  4. MECS 2006 - Alumina and Aluminum | Department of Energy

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    documents Manufacturing Energy and Carbon Footprint Alumina and Aluminum More Documents & Publications Alumina and Aluminum (2010 MECS) MECS 2006 - Cement MECS 2006 - Glass...

  5. Alumina forming iron base superalloy

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Yamamoto, Yukinori; Muralidharan, Govindarajan; Brady, Michael P.

    2014-08-26

    An austenitic stainless steel alloy, consists essentially of, in weight percent 2.5 to 4 Al; 25 to 35 Ni; 12 to 19 Cr; at least 1, up to 4 total of at least one element selected from the group consisting of Nb and Ta; 0.5 to 3 Ti; less than 0.5 V; 0.1 to 1 of at least on element selected from the group consisting of Zr and Hf; 0.03 to 0.2 C; 0.005 to 0.1 B; and base Fe. The weight percent Fe is greater than the weight percent Ni. The alloy forms an external continuous scale including alumina, and contains coherent precipitates of .gamma.'-Ni.sub.3Al, and a stable essentially single phase FCC austenitic matrix microstructure. The austenitic matrix is essentially delta-ferrite-free and essentially BCC-phase-free.

  6. Study of Alumina in Austenitic Stainless Steels 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Wang, Chung

    2014-12-18

    transformation through temperature, as opposed to mechanical stresses, the martensite start temperature is calculated through the Ishida model. The addition of aluminum to an austenitic stainless steel composition can alloy for the growth of alumina oxide...

  7. Oil shale retort apparatus

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Reeves, Adam A. (Grand Junction, CO); Mast, Earl L. (Norman, OK); Greaves, Melvin J. (Littleton, CO)

    1990-01-01

    A retorting apparatus including a vertical kiln and a plurality of tubes for delivering rock to the top of the kiln and removal of processed rock from the bottom of the kiln so that the rock descends through the kiln as a moving bed. Distributors are provided for delivering gas to the kiln to effect heating of the rock and to disturb the rock particles during their descent. The distributors are constructed and disposed to deliver gas uniformly to the kiln and to withstand and overcome adverse conditions resulting from heat and from the descending rock. The rock delivery tubes are geometrically sized, spaced and positioned so as to deliver the shale uniformly into the kiln and form symmetrically disposed generally vertical paths, or "rock chimneys", through the descending shale which offer least resistance to upward flow of gas. When retorting oil shale, a delineated collection chamber near the top of the kiln collects gas and entrained oil mist rising through the kiln.

  8. Sorbent selection and design considerations for uranium trapping. [H-151 alumina, XF-100 alumina, F-1 alumina, sodium fluoride

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Schultz, R.M.; Hobbs, W.E.; Norton, J.L.; Stephenson, M.J.

    1981-07-01

    The efficient removal of UF/sub 6/ from effluent streams can be accomplished through the selection of the best solid sorbent and the implementation of good design principles. Pressure losses, sorbent capacity, reaction kinetics, sorbent regeneration/uranium recovery requirements and the effects of other system components are the performance factors which are summarized. The commonly used uranium trapping materials highlighted are sodium fluoride, H-151 alumina, XF-100 alumina, and F-1 alumina. Sorbent selection and trap design have to be made on a case-by-case basis but the theoretical modeling studies and the evaluation of the performance factors presented can be used as a guide for other chemical trap applications.

  9. Effect of Alumina Source on the Rate of Melting Demonstrated...

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    Journal Article: Effect of Alumina Source on the Rate of Melting Demonstrated with Nuclear Waste Glass Batch Citation Details In-Document Search Title: Effect of Alumina Source on...

  10. Electrolytic Cell For Production Of Aluminum From Alumina

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Bradford, Donald R (Underwood, WA); Barnett, Robert J. (Goldendale, WA); Mezner, Michael B. (Sandy, OR)

    2004-11-02

    An electrolytic cell for producing aluminum from alumina having a reservoir for collecting molten aluminum remote from the electrolysis.

  11. Degradation of alumina and zirconia toughened alumina (ZTA) hip prostheses tested under microseparation conditions in a shock device

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Uribe, Juliana; Gremillard, Laurent; Reynard, Bruno

    2013-01-01

    This paper considers the degradation of alumina and zirconia toughened alumina vs. alumina for hip implants. The materials are as assumed to be load bearing surfaces subjected to shocks in wet conditions. The load is a peak of force; 9 kN was applied over 15 ms at 2 Hz for 800,000 cycles. The volumetric wear and roughness are lower for ZTA than for alumina. The long ZTA ageing did not seem to have a direct influence on the roughness. The ageing increased the wear volumes of ZTA and it was found to have a higher wear resistance compared to alumina.

  12. Rheological Properties of Aqueous Nanometric Alumina Suspensions

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Chuanping Li

    2004-12-19

    Colloidal processing is an effective and reliable approach in the fabrication of the advanced ceramic products. Successful colloidal processing of fine ceramic powders requires accurate control of the rheological properties. The accurate control relies on the understanding the influences of various colloidal parameters on the rheological properties. Almost all research done on the rheology paid less attention to the interactions of particle and solvent. However, the interactions of the particles are usually built up through the media in which the particles are suspended. Therefore, interactions of the particle with the media, the adsorbed layers on the particle surface, and chemical and physical properties of media themselves must influence the rheology of the suspension, especially for the dense suspensions containing nanosized particles. Relatively little research work has been reported in this area. This thesis addresses the rheological properties of nanometric alumina aqueous suspensions, and paying more attention to the interactions between particle and solvent, which in turn influence the particle-particle interactions. Dense nanometric alumina aqueous suspensions with low viscosity were achieved by environmentally-benign fructose additives. The rheology of nanometric alumina aqueous suspensions and its variation with the particle volume fraction and concentration of fructose were explored by rheometry. The adsorptions of solute (fructose) and solvent (water) on the nanometric alumina particle surfaces were measured and analyzed by TG/DSC, TOC, and NMR techniques. The mobility of water molecules in the suspensions and its variation with particle volume fractions and fructose additive were determined by the {sup 17}O NMR relaxation method. The interactions between the nanometric alumina particles in water and fructose solutions were investigated by AFM. The results indicated that a large number of water layers were physically bound on the particles' surfaces in the aqueous suspension. The viscosity of the suspension increases dramatically when the solid volume fraction exceeds 30 vol.%. The overlap of physically adsorbed water layers at this level causes the sharp increase in viscosity. Fructose molecules can weaken the interactions between the particle surfaces and water molecules, as a consequence, they release some bound water layers from the surfaces to the bulk medium. It is believed that fraction of the water that is bound by the solid surface is reduced hence becoming available for flow. The oxygen-17 relaxation time decreased with the increase of particle volume fractions in the suspension. Fructose addition increased the overall water mobility in the suspension. Only part of the alumina particle surfaces was covered with fructose molecules. This adsorption of fructose molecules on the particle surfaces increased the pH of the suspension with a concomitant decrease in {zeta}-potential of the alumina nanoparticles. The interactions between the nanometric alumina particles in water to a large extent can be explained by the DLVO theory. However, the interactions between particles in fructose solutions cannot be well described by the DLVO theory. The interaction forces (magnitude and range) as well as adhesive force and surface tension between nanometric alumina particles were decreased with the fructose concentration.

  13. Carlsbad Field Office

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    D80 Landfill Acre-feet; Hectares-meter; Acres; Cubic Meters; Hectares; Cubic Yards T82 Lime Kiln D81 Land Treatment Acres or Hectares T83 Aggregate Kiln D82 Ocean Disposal Gallons...

  14. Full-Depth Pavement Reclamation with Foamed Asphalt: Final Report

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Jones, David; Fu, P.; Harvey, John T; Halles, F.

    2008-01-01

    cement, lime) and/or inert (fly ash, mineral fines) fillershydrated lime, Class-C fly ash, and cement kiln dust.lime), semi-active (e.g. , fly-ash and kiln dust), and inert

  15. Hydrolysis of carbonyl sulfide over alumina

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Polleck, R. E.; Ledley, R. E.; Scott, K. A.

    1985-01-01

    The reaction rate for the hydrolysis of carbonyl sulfide in liquid petroleum hydrocarbons over alumina, such as propylene, is greatly increased by maintaining water in the hydrocarbons in an amount of one mole of water per mole of carbonyl sulfide to an upper limit of about ten moles of water per mole of carbonyl sulfide or about 30% of saturation of the hydrocarbons, whichever upper limit provides the lesser amount of water.

  16. Alternative Energy Development and China's Energy Future

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Zheng, Nina

    2012-01-01

    Fuel Cycle Processes Thermal Energy Intensity Electricityprocess uses less energy than the dry kiln, and an average of reported thermal

  17. Emerging Energy-efficiency and CO2 Emission-reduction Technologies for Cement and Concrete Production

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Hasanbeigi, Ali

    2013-01-01

    continuous kiln operation (Perkins 2000). For example, Texas Industries has licensed its patented CemStar cement production process

  18. Solid State Electrochemical Sensors for Nitrogen Oxide (NOx) Detection in Lean Exhaust Gases

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Rheaume, Jonathan Michael

    2010-01-01

    material has refractory properties that make it also useful for kiln furniture and for thermal barrier coatings for gas turbine

  19. A simple procedure to prepare spherical {alpha}-alumina powders

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Liu Hongyu [State Key Laboratory of Fine Chemicals, Dalian University of Technology, Dalian 116012 (China); Ning Guiling [State Key Laboratory of Fine Chemicals, Dalian University of Technology, Dalian 116012 (China)], E-mail: ninggl@dlut.edu.cn; Gan Zhihong; Lin Yuan [State Key Laboratory of Fine Chemicals, Dalian University of Technology, Dalian 116012 (China)

    2009-04-02

    Spherical {alpha}-alumina powders were prepared by the controlled hydrolysis of aluminum isopropoxide in a hydrolysis system consisting of octanol and acetonitrile. Diverse solvents to dissolve reactant formed diverse hydrolysis systems and affected particle shape of {alpha}-alumina powders. The precursors crystallized to {gamma}-alumina at 1000 deg. C and converted to {alpha}-alumina at 1150 deg. C without intermediate phases. The particle morphology of precursor was retained after it crystallized to {alpha}-alumina. The heating rate influenced the particle shape and the state of agglomeration during calcination process. The thermal properties of the precursors were characterized by thermal gravimetric and differential thermal analysis. X-ray diffraction technique was used to confirm the conversion of crystalline phase of alumina powders from amorphous to {alpha}-phase. Transmission electron microscopy was used to investigate the morphologies and size of the precursors and products.

  20. Alumina-alumina and mullite-mullite joining by reaction sintering process

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Torrecillas, R. (CSIC, Llanera (Spain). Inst. Tecnologico de Materiales de Asturias); Sainz, M.A.; Moya, J.S. (CSIC, Madrid (Spain). Inst. de Ceramica y Vidrio)

    1994-10-15

    Joining of simple ceramic shapes to form complex ceramic parts can be considered as an alternative route to the difficult and expensive methods associated with fabrication of near-net-shape ceramic components. The ability to reliably joint ceramic parts to form large systems is considered nowadays as a key technology in enhancing the use of ceramics in high temperature structural applications and in dirty environments. However, as has been pointed out elsewhere, the joining of ceramics is not yet a very high developed art. Most scientific and engineering efforts have been devoted to ceramic to metal joining. Alumina and mullite are two oxides ceramics largely considered for functional as well as structural applications. The purpose of the present investigation is to join alumina-alumina and mullite-mullite ceramics through reaction sintering with zircon.

  1. Electrolytic cell for production of aluminum from alumina

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Bradford, Donald R; Barnett, Robert J.; Mezner, Michael B.

    2005-03-15

    Electrolysis of alumina dissolved in a molten salt electrolyte employing inert anode and cathodes, the anode having a box shape with slots for the cathodes.

  2. PERFORMANCE OF SODIUM-BETA ALUMINA SOLID ELECTROLYTE IN Na/S CELLS

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    De Jonghe, Lutgard C.

    2014-01-01

    SODIUM-BETA ALUMINA SOLID ELECTROLYTE IN Na/S CELLS Lutgardium-be ta alumina type solid electrolytes i s limit ed by

  3. Porosity in plasma sprayed alumina coatings

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Ilavsky, J.; Herman, H.; Berndt, C.C.; Goland, A.N.; Long, G.G.; Krueger, S.; Allen, A.J.

    1994-03-01

    Small-angle neutron scattering (SANS) was used to study the porosity of plasma sprayed deposits of alumina in as-sprayed and heat-treated conditions. SANS results were compared with mercury intrusion porosimetry (MIP) and water immersion techniques. Multiple small-angle neutron scattering yields a volume-weighted effective pore radius (R{sub eff}), for pores with sizes between 0.08 and 10{mu}m, the pore volume in this size region, and from the Porod region, the surface area of pores of all sizes.

  4. Process for the recovery of alumina from fly ash

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Murtha, M.J.

    1983-08-09

    An improvement in the lime-sinter process for recovering alumina from pulverized coal fly ash is disclosed. The addition of from 2 to 10 weight percent carbon and sulfur to the fly ash-calcium carbonate mixture increase alumina recovery at lower sintering temperatures.

  5. ORIGINAL PAPER Tunability of Propane Conversion over Alumina Supported

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    ORIGINAL PAPER Tunability of Propane Conversion over Alumina Supported Pt and Rh Catalysts William Propane conversion over alumina supported Pt and Rh (1 wt% metals loading) was examined under fuel rich conversion and almost complete propane conversion) so long as the metal particle size was sufficiently low

  6. Atomic Scale Mechanism of the Transformation of -Alumina to -Alumina Shu-Hui Cai,1,2

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Pantelides, Sokrates T.

    of the conversion rate is in excellent agreement with the experimental transformation temperature. DOI: 10.1103/Phys -alumina [4]. Second, the unit cell of -alumina is a defect-free struc- ture, whereas the unit cell rate of the thermal conversion is in ex- cellent agreement with the well-established experi- mental

  7. Optimized alumina coagulants for water treatment

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Nyman, May D. (Albuquerque, NM); Stewart, Thomas A. (Albuquerque, NM)

    2012-02-21

    Substitution of a single Ga-atom or single Ge-atom (GaAl.sub.12 and GeAl.sub.12 respectively) into the center of an aluminum Keggin polycation (Al.sub.13) produces an optimal water-treatment product for neutralization and coagulation of anionic contaminants in water. GaAl.sub.12 consistently shows .about.1 order of magnitude increase in pathogen reduction, compared to Al.sub.13. At a concentration of 2 ppm, GaAl.sub.12 performs equivalently to 40 ppm alum, removing .about.90% of the dissolved organic material. The substituted GaAl.sub.12 product also offers extended shelf-life and consistent performance. We also synthesized a related polyaluminum chloride compound made of pre-hydrolyzed dissolved alumina clusters of [GaO.sub.4Al.sub.12(OH).sub.24(H.sub.2O).sub.12].sup.7+.

  8. Compositional characterization of atomic layer deposited alumina

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Philip, Anu; Thomas, Subin; Kumar, K. Rajeev [Department of Instrumentation, Cochin University of Science and Technology, Cochin-22, Kerala (India)

    2014-01-28

    As the microelectronic industry demands feature size in the order of few and sub nanometer regime, the film composition and other film properties become critical issues and ALD has emerged as the choice of industry. Aluminum oxide is a material with wide applications in electronic and optoelectronic devices and protective and ion barrier layers. Al{sub 2}O{sub 3} is an excellent dielectric because of its large band gap (8.7eV), large band offsets with silicon. We have deposited thin layers of alumina on silicon wafer (p-type) for gate dielectric applications by ALD technique and compositional characterizations of the deposited thin films were done using EDS, XPS and FTIR spectra.

  9. Porous Alumina Based Capacitive MEMS RH Sensor

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Juhasz, L; Timar-Horvath, Veronika; Desmulliez, Marc; Dhariwal, Resh

    2008-01-01

    The aim of a joint research and development project at the BME and HWU is to produce a cheap, reliable, low-power and CMOS-MEMS process compatible capacitive type relative humidity (RH) sensor that can be incorporated into a state-of-the-art, wireless sensor network. In this paper we discuss the preparation of our new capacitive structure based on post-CMOS MEMS processes and the methods which were used to characterize the thin film porous alumina sensing layer. The average sensitivity is approx. 15 pF/RH% which is more than a magnitude higher than the values found in the literature. The sensor is equipped with integrated resistive heating, which can be used for maintenance to reduce drift, or for keeping the sensing layer at elevated temperature, as an alternative method for temperature-dependence cancellation.

  10. Fracture simulation for zirconia toughened alumina microstructure

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Kim, Kyungmok; Forest, Bernard

    2013-01-01

    Purpose - The purpose of this paper is to describe finite element modelling for fracture and fatigue behaviour of zirconia toughened alumina microstructures. Design/methodology/approach - A two-dimensional finite element model is developed with an actual $Al{_2}O{_3}$ - 10 vol% $ZrO{_2}$ microstructure. A bilinear, time-independent cohesive zone law is implemented for describing fracture behaviour of grain boundaries. Simulation conditions are similar to those found at contact between a head and a cup of hip prosthesis. Residual stresses arisen from the mismatch of thermal coefficient between grains are determined. Then, effects of a micro-void and contact stress magnitude are investigated with models containing residual stresses. For the purpose of simulating fatigue behaviour, cyclic loadings are applied to the models. Findings - Results show that crack density is gradually increased with increasing magnitude of contact stress or number of fatigue cycles. It is also identified that a micro-void brings about...

  11. Experimental and Numerical Studies of Aluminum-Alumina Composites 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Gudlur, Pradeep

    2013-07-22

    The preliminary goal of this study is to determine the effects of processing conditions, compositions and microstructural morphologies of the constituents on the physical and thermo-mechanical properties of alumina (Al_2O_3) ...

  12. Commercial applications of nanostructures created with ordered porous alumina

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Wells, Brendan Christopher, 1979-

    2004-01-01

    In the drive from microfabrication to nanofabrication, porous alumina templates may play a key role in technological evolution. Under the right processing conditions, ordered pores can grow in anodic aluminum oxide, which ...

  13. Carbon dioxide pressure swing adsorption process using modified alumina adsorbents

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Gaffney, T.R.; Golden, T.C.; Mayorga, S.G.; Brzozowski, J.R.; Taylor, F.W.

    1999-06-29

    A pressure swing adsorption process for absorbing CO[sub 2] from a gaseous mixture containing CO[sub 2] comprises introducing the gaseous mixture at a first pressure into a reactor containing a modified alumina adsorbent maintained at a temperature ranging from 100 C and 500 C to adsorb CO[sub 2] to provide a CO[sub 2] laden alumina adsorbent and a CO[sub 2] depleted gaseous mixture and contacting the CO[sub 2] laden adsorbent with a weakly adsorbing purge fluid at a second pressure which is lower than the first pressure to desorb CO[sub 2] from the CO[sub 2] laden alumina adsorbent. The modified alumina adsorbent which is formed by depositing a solution having a pH of 3.0 or more onto alumina and heating the alumina to a temperature ranging from 100 C and 600 C, is not degraded by high concentrations of water under process operating conditions. 1 fig.

  14. Cast alumina forming austenitic stainless steels

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Muralidharan, Govindarajan; Yamamoto, Yukinori; Brady, Michael P

    2013-04-30

    An austenitic stainless steel alloy consisting essentially of, in terms of weight percent ranges 0.15-0.5C; 8-37Ni; 10-25Cr; 2.5-5Al; greater than 0.6, up to 2.5 total of at least one element selected from the group consisting of Nb and Ta; up to 3Mo; up to 3Co; up to 1W; up to 3Cu; up to 15Mn; up to 2Si; up to 0.15B; up to 0.05P; up to 1 total of at least one element selected from the group consisting of Y, La, Ce, Hf, and Zr; <0.3Ti+V; <0.03N; and, balance Fe, where the weight percent Fe is greater than the weight percent Ni, and wherein the alloy forms an external continuous scale comprising alumina, and a stable essentially single phase FCC austenitic matrix microstructure, the austenitic matrix being essentially delta-ferrite free and essentially BCC-phase-free. A method of making austenitic stainless steel alloys is also disclosed.

  15. Molecular dynamics studies of interfacial water at the alumina surface.

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Argyris, Dr. Dimitrios [University of Oklahoma; Ho, Thomas [ORNL; Cole, David [Ohio State University

    2011-01-01

    Interfacial water properties at the alumina surface were investigated via all-atom equilibrium molecular dynamics simulations at ambient temperature. Al-terminated and OH-terminated alumina surfaces were considered to assess the structural and dynamic behavior of the first few hydration layers in contact with the substrates. Density profiles suggest water layering up to {approx}10 {angstrom} from the solid substrate. Planar density distribution data indicate that water molecules in the first interfacial layer are organized in well-defined patterns dictated by the atomic terminations of the alumina surface. Interfacial water exhibits preferential orientation and delayed dynamics compared to bulk water. Water exhibits bulk-like behavior at distances greater than {approx}10 {angstrom} from the substrate. The formation of an extended hydrogen bond network within the first few hydration layers illustrates the significance of water?water interactions on the structural properties at the interface.

  16. Photothermal investigation of the thermal shock behavior of alumina ceramics for engine components

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Mandelis, Andreas

    Photothermal investigation of the thermal shock behavior of alumina ceramics for engine components of alumina ceramic materials (96% Al2O3/3% SiO2/0.9% MgO) treated by applying high temperature and high pressure, a process known as ASPRO conversion technology. Alumina ceramics subjected to ASPRO treatment

  17. Colloids and Surfaces A: Physicochem. Eng. Aspects 233 (2004) 145153 Solgel transition study and pyrolysis of alumina-based gels

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Gulari, Erdogan

    2004-01-01

    and pyrolysis of alumina-based gels prepared from alumatrane precursor Bussarin Ksapabutra, Erdogan Gularib

  18. Conduction in alumina with atomic scale copper filaments

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Xu, Xu; Liu, Jie; Anantram, M. P.

    2014-10-28

    The conductance of atomic scale filaments with three and seven Cu atoms in ?-alumina are calculated using ab initio density functional theory. We find that the filament with 3 Cu atoms is sufficient to increase the conductance of 1.3?nm thick alumina film by more than 10{sup 3} times in linear response. As the applied voltage increases, the current quickly saturates and differential resistance becomes negative. Compared to the filament with three Cu atoms, while the conductance of the filament with seven Cu atoms is comparable in linear response, they carry as much as twenty times larger current at large biases. The electron transport is analyzed based on local density of states, and the negative differential resistance in the seven Cu filaments occurs due to their narrow bandwidth.

  19. Measurements of prompt radiation induced conductivity of alumina and sapphire.

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Hartman, E. Frederick; Zarick, Thomas Andrew; Sheridan, Timothy J.; Preston, Eric F.

    2011-04-01

    We performed measurements of the prompt radiation induced conductivity in thin samples of Alumina and Sapphire at the Little Mountain Medusa LINAC facility in Ogden, UT. Five mil thick samples were irradiated with pulses of 20 MeV electrons, yielding dose rates of 1E7 to 1E9 rad/s. We applied variable potentials up to 1 kV across the samples and measured the prompt conduction current. Analysis rendered prompt conductivity coefficients between 1E10 and 1E9 mho/m/(rad/s), depending on the dose rate and the pulse width for Alumina and 1E7 to 6E7 mho/m/(rad/s) for Sapphire.

  20. Protective coating for alumina-silicon carbide whisker composites

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Tiegs, Terry N. (Lenoir City, TN)

    1989-01-01

    Ceramic composites formed of an alumina matrix reinforced with silicon carbide whiskers homogenously dispersed therein are provided with a protective coating for preventing fracture strength degradation of the composite by oxidation during exposure to high temperatures in oxygen-containing atmospheres. The coating prevents oxidation of the silicon carbide whiskers within the matrix by sealing off the exterior of the matrix so as to prevent oxygen transport into the interior of the matrix. The coating is formed of mullite or mullite plus silicon oxide and alumina and is formed in place by heating the composite in air to a temperature greater than 1200.degree. C. This coating is less than about 100 microns thick and adequately protects the underlying composite from fracture strength degradation due to oxidation.

  1. Melt processing of Bi--2212 superconductors using alumina

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Holesinger, Terry G. (Los Alamos, NM)

    1999-01-01

    Superconducting articles and a method of forming them, where the superconducting phase of an article is Bi.sub.2 Sr.sub.2 CaCu.sub.2 O.sub.y (Bi-2212). Alumina is combined with Bi-2212 powder or Bi-2212 precursor powder and, in order to form an intimate mixture, the mixture is melted and rapidly cooled to form a glassy solid. The glassy solid is comminuted and the resulting powder is combined with a carrier. An alternative to melting is to form the mixture of nanophase alumina and material having a particle size of less than about 10 microns. The powder, with the carrier, is melt processed to form a superconducting article.

  2. Proton adsorption onto alumina: extension of multisite complexation (MUSIC) theory

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Nagashima, K.; Blum, F.D.

    1999-09-01

    The adsorption isotherm of protons onto a commercial {gamma}-alumina sample was determined in aqueous nitric acid with sodium nitrate as a background electrolyte. Three discrete regions could be discerned in the log-log plots of the proton isotherm determined at the solution pH 5 to 2. The multisite complexation (MUSIC) model was modified to analyze the simultaneous adsorption of protons onto various kinds of surface species.

  3. Mild hydrotreating of heavy oils with modified alumina based catalysts

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Dai, E.P.; Campbell, C.N. [Texaco Research and Development, Port Arthur, TX (United States)

    1994-12-31

    The decreasing demand for heavy fuels oils requires that refiners find ways for converting heavy hydrocarbon feedstocks to higher value mid-distillate products. To increase mid-distillate production, the refiner can choose from several processing options such as hydrocracking, fluid catalytic cracking, and coking. All of these options, however, require heavy capital investments. Because of these high investment costs, refiners are continually searching for conversion processes which may be utilized in existing units. One such process is mild hydrocracking (MHC). The general objective of this work is to identify an MHC catalyst which gives a higher conversion level for heavy hydrocarbon feedstocks, especially that fraction of the feedstock that boils above 1,000 F (538 C), while maintaining the same amount of sediment production. The conventional hydrocracking catalysts that consist of acidic cracking components such as Y zeolite, though exhibiting conversion improvements over alumina based catalysts, were not suitable for processing of heavy oils in the mild hydrocracking mode because of high sediment formation. In contrast, alumina catalysts containing basic oxides (alkali metal and alkaline earth metal) not only improve heavy oil conversion but, also maintain the sediment make at the same level as alumina based catalysts. The sediment make generally decreased with increasing macroporosity.

  4. Assessment of Energy Efficiency Improvement and CO2 Emission Reduction Potentials in the Cement Industry in China

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Hasanbeigi, Ali

    2013-01-01

    Economic Output in Chinese Cement Kilns,” Proceedings of thereduction of China’s cement industry. Energy Policy 45 (751. Kong, Xiangzhong (China Cement Association, CCA), 2009.

  5. Life-Cycle Evaluation of Concrete Building Construction as a Strategy for Sustainable Cities

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Stadel, Alexander

    2013-01-01

    of scrap tires, solvents, and waste oils show considerablySolid waste: other Water emissions: oils, phenols, COD, N, Pdiesel) oil preheater kiln Natural gas Petcoke Wastes

  6. Santa Cruz and the Cowell Ranch, 1890-9641

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Regional History Project, UCSC Library; Cardiff, George; Calciano, Elizabeth Spedding

    1965-01-01

    tile Cardiff: Yes, cement, lime, plaster, brick -- allbasement, the foundation, is lime rock, three or four feetHe bought some additional lime quarries, lime kilns. The

  7. Emerging Energy-Efficiency and Greenhouse Gas Mitigation Technologies for the Pulp and Paper Industry

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Kong, Lingbo

    2014-01-01

    greenhouse gas emissions from lime kilns at kraft pulpIn this trial, the total lime requirement has been reducedreactions instead of just lime causticizing and may cause

  8. A Comparison of Iron and Steel Production Energy Use and Energy Intensity in China and the U.S.

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Hasanbeigi, Ali

    2012-01-01

    2006 Minerals Yearbook- Lime. http://minerals.usgs.gov/iron (DRI), pellets, lime, oxygen, and ingots, blooms,Export sinter pellet, etc Lime Kiln Slab Treatment Purchased

  9. Advanced Organic Vapor Cycles for Improving Thermal Conversion Efficiency in Renewable Energy Systems

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Ho, Tony

    2012-01-01

    d Nark Mirolli. “The Kalina Cycle for Cement Kiln Waste Heatthermodynamic analysis on Kalina cycle," Frontiers of EnergyAn Introduction to the Kalina Cycle," Proceedings of the

  10. Industry

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Bernstein, Lenny

    2008-01-01

    A.T, 2001: Prospects for biogas harvesting at Sungunn WongseRenewables Biomass, Biogas, PV, Wind turbines, Hydropowermill, fluidized bed kiln Biogas, Biomass Cullet preheating

  11. Largest Producer of Steel Products in the United States Achieves...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    large capital costs and demonstrated the value of similar measures. * By upgrading burners in a kiln serving an important process line, the Minntac plant achieved significant...

  12. Largest Producer of Steel Products in the United States Achieves...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    opportunities. The assessment confirmed the energy savings from recently installed burners and determined the potential savings from retrofitting the kilns in the plant's other...

  13. International Best Practices for Pre-Processing and Co-Processing Municipal Solid Waste and Sewage Sludge in the Cement Industry

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Hasanbeigi, Ali

    2013-01-01

    burners ..before adding it to the main burner of a cement kiln. Thiscoarse fuels in the main burner is very high and the

  14. Energy Efficiency Improvement and Cost Saving Opportunities for Cement Making. An ENERGY STAR Guide for Energy and Plant Managers

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Worrell, Ernst

    2008-01-01

    Birch, E. , 1990. “Energy Savings in Cement Kiln Systems”Engineering and Energy Savings” Energy Efficiency in theGomes, A. S. , 1990. “Energy Saving and Environmental Impact

  15. Oxygen-Enriched Combustion; Industrial Technologies Program ...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Reheat, soaking pits, ladles Aluminum Melting Copper Smelting and melting Glass Melting Pulp and Paper Lime kilns, black liquor boilers Petroleum Process heaters, crackers Power...

  16. Energy Efficiency Improvement and Cost Saving Opportunities for the U.S. Iron and Steel Industry An ENERGY STAR(R) Guide for Energy and Plant Managers

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Worrell, Ernst

    2011-01-01

    and Trends in the Pulp and Paper Industry. American Councilpulp and paper (paper stock, lime kiln), petroleum refineries (process, site), and steel industries (

  17. Energy Efficiency Improvement Opportunities for the Cement Industry

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Worrell, Ernst

    2008-01-01

    Lime Institute. 2001. Energy Efficiency Opportunity Guide inIndustry, Office of Energy Efficiency, Natural Resourcesof a Cement Kiln, Energy Efficiency Demonstration Scheme,

  18. Analysis of Energy-Efficiency Opportunities for the Cement Industry in Shandong Province, China

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Price, Lynn

    2010-01-01

    Banerjee, R. , 2005. Energy Efficiency and Demand SideKiln Systems,” Energy Efficiency in the Cement Industry (Ed.for Improving Energy Efficiency, Reducing Pollution and

  19. Analysis of Energy-Efficiency Opportunities for the Cement Industry in Shandong Province, China

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Price, Lynn

    2010-01-01

    Banerjee, R. , 2005. Energy Efficiency and Demand SideKiln Systems,” Energy Efficiency in the Cement Industry (Ed.of Industrial Energy Efficiency Measures,” Proceedings of

  20. Guidebook for Using the Tool BEST Cement: Benchmarking and Energy Savings Tool for the Cement Industry

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Galitsky, Christina

    2009-01-01

    pre- crushing needed) and coal types with a higher humidityfor more abrasive coal types. • Electricity consumption forby kiln type; the amount of raw materials, coal and clinker

  1. bia-cemkiln | netl.doe.gov

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    1990) Comprehensive Report to Congress Comprehensive Report to Congress on the Clean Coal Technology Program: Cement Kiln Flue Gas Recovery Scrubber PDF-1.5MB (Nov 1989)...

  2. Guidebook for Using the Tool BEST Cement: Benchmarking and Energy Savings Tool for the Cement Industry

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Galitsky, Christina

    2009-01-01

    waste heat recovery on dioxin emissions from cement kilns (low-temperature, catalytic dioxin formation reactions. Heattime for the flue gas at the dioxin formation temperature

  3. Life-Cycle Environmental and Economic Assessment of Using Recycled Materials for Asphalt Pavements

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Horvath, Arpad

    2003-01-01

    1993] MOEE. Spent Foundry Sand - Alternative Uses Study.Flue Gas Scrubber Material Foundry Sands Kiln Dusts Mineralin highway construction is foundry sand. Silica sand coated

  4. EA-1769: Draft Environmental Assessment | Department of Energy

    Office of Environmental Management (EM)

    proposed project involves installation of a specifically designed waste heat recovery boiler on the existing kiln afterburner of an incineration unit at the CHDP facility. This...

  5. National Level Co-Control Study of the Targets for Energy Intensity and Sulfur Dioxide in China

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Zhou, Nan

    2013-01-01

    Jinan 7.5MW Waste Heat Recovery and Power Generation Projectfor kiln fan Optimize heat recovery/upgrade clinker coolertemperature waste heat recovery power generation Efficient

  6. Advanced Organic Vapor Cycles for Improving Thermal Conversion Efficiency in Renewable Energy Systems

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Ho, Tony

    2012-01-01

    for Industrial Waste Heat Recovery. c Daniel Duffy. “Betterfor Cement Kiln Waste Heat Recovery Power Plants. ” Cementoptimization of heat recovery steam generators operating

  7. Atmos. Chem. Phys., 15, 43174337, 2015 www.atmos-chem-phys.net/15/4317/2015/

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Meskhidze, Nicholas

    ) precalciner kilns with fabric filters (FF) in cement production; (3) mechanized coking ovens gas desulfuriza- tion (FGD) and selective catalyst reduction (SCR) systems in power generation; (2

  8. Energy Efficiency Improvement and Cost Saving Opportunities for Cement Making. An ENERGY STAR Guide for Energy and Plant Managers

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Worrell, Ernst

    2008-01-01

    11 Cogeneration systems can either be direct gas turbinesCogeneration. Waste gas discharged from the kiln exit gases, the clinker cooler system,

  9. Bottom-up Representation of Industrial Energy Efficiency Technologies in Integrated Assessment Models for the Cement Sector

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Sathaye, J.

    2011-01-01

    2 Cogeneration systems can either be direct gas turbinesCogeneration. Waste gas discharged from the kiln exit gases, the clinker cooler system,

  10. Energy efficiency and carbon dioxide emissions reduction opportunities in the U.S. cement industry

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Martin, Nathan; Worrell, Ernst; Price, Lynn

    1999-01-01

    into power. Cogeneration systems can either be direct gasCogeneration. Waste gas discharged from the kiln exit gases, the clinker cooler system,

  11. Advanced Organic Vapor Cycles for Improving Thermal Conversion Efficiency in Renewable Energy Systems

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Ho, Tony

    2012-01-01

    for Industrial Waste Heat Recovery. c Daniel Duffy. “Betterfor Cement Kiln Waste Heat Recovery Power Plants. ” CementRankine cycle for waste heat recovery," Energy, vol. 29, pp.

  12. Alumina catalysts for reduction of NOx from methanol fueled diesel engine

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Yamamoto, Toshiro; Noda, Akira; Sakamoto, Takashi; Sato, Yoshio [Ministry of Transport of Japan, Kumamoto (Japan)

    1996-09-01

    NOx selective reducing catalysts are expected to be used for lean-burn gasoline engines and diesel engines as an effective NOx reduction measure. The authors are interested in the combination of methanol, as a reducing agent, and alumina catalyst, and have considered the NOx reduction method using effectively much unburned methanol. In this report, in order to investigate the effect of NOx reduction by the alumina catalyst, the experiment was carried out by feeding the actual exhaust gas from the methanol engine into the alumina catalyst. As a result, it was confirmed that, without addition of any other reducing agents into the exhaust gas, the alumina catalyst has activity to reduce NOx.

  13. Method to produce alumina aerogels having porosities greater than 80 percent

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Poco, John F.; Hrubesh, Lawrence W.

    2003-09-16

    A two-step method for producing monolithic alumina aerogels having porosities of greater than 80 percent. Very strong, very low density alumina aerogel monoliths are prepared using the two-step sol-gel process. The method of preparing pure alumina aerogel modifies the prior known sol method by combining the use of substoichiometric water for hydrolysis, the use of acetic acid to control hydrolysis/condensation, and high temperature supercritical drying, all of which contribute to the formation of a polycrystalline aerogel microstructure. This structure provides exceptional mechanical properties of the alumina aerogel, as well as enhanced thermal resistance and high temperature stability.

  14. Viscosity of aqueous and cyanate ester suspensions containing alumina nanoparticles

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Lawler, Katherine

    2009-08-05

    The viscosities of both aqueous and cyanate ester monomer (BECy) based suspensions of alumina nanoparticle were studied. The applications for these suspensions are different: aqueous suspensions of alumina nanoparticles are used in the production of technical ceramics made by slip casting or tape casting, and the BECy based suspensions are being developed for use in an injection-type composite repair resin. In the case of aqueous suspensions, it is advantageous to achieve a high solids content with low viscosity in order to produce a high quality product. The addition of a dispersant is useful so that higher solids content suspensions can be used with lower viscosities. For BECy suspensions, the addition of nanoparticles to the BECy resin is expected to enhance the mechanical properties of the cured composite. The addition of saccharides to aqueous suspensions leads to viscosity reduction. Through DSC measurements it was found that the saccharide molecules formed a solution with water and this resulted in lowering the melting temperature of the free water according to classic freezing point depression. Saccharides also lowered the melting temperature of the bound water, but this followed a different rule. The shear thinning and melting behaviors of the suspensions were used to develop a model based on fractal-type agglomeration. It is believed that the structure of the particle flocs in these suspensions changes with the addition of saccharides which leads to the resultant viscosity decrease. The viscosity of the BECy suspensions increased with solids content, and the viscosity increase was greater than predicted by the classical Einstein equation for dilute suspensions. Instead, the Mooney equation fits the viscosity behavior well from 0-20 vol% solids. The viscosity reduction achieved at high particle loadings by the addition of benzoic acid was also investigated by NMR. It appears that the benzoic acid interacts with the surface of the alumina particle which may be the cause of the viscosity reduction. The flow behavior of alumina particles in water and BECy is markedly different. Aqueous alumina suspensions are shear thinning at all alumina loadings and capable of 50 vol% loading before losing fluidity whereas BECy/alumina suspensions show Newtonian behavior up to 5 vol%, and above 5 vol% show shear thinning at all shear rates. Highly loaded suspensions (i.e. 20vol% alumina) exhibit shear thinning at low and moderate shear rates and shear thickening at higher shear rates. The maximum particle loading for a fluid suspension, in this case, appears to be about 20 vol%. The difference in the viscosity of these suspensions must be related to the solvent-particle interactions for each system. The reason is not exactly known, but there are some notable differences between BECy and water. Water molecules are {approx}0.28 nm in length and highly hydrogen bonded with a low viscosity (1 mPa's) whereas in the cyanate ester (BECy) system, the solvent molecule is about 1.2 nm, in the largest dimension, with surfaces of varied charge distribution throughout the molecule. The viscosity of the monomer is also reasonably low for organic polymer precursor, about 7 mPa's. Nanoparticles in water tend to agglomerate and form flocs which are broken with the shear force applied during viscosity measurement. The particle-particle interaction is very important in this system. In BECy, the particles appear to be well dispersed and not as interactive. The solvent-particle interaction appears to be most important. It is not known exactly how the alumina particles interact with the monomer, but NMR suggests hydrogen bonding. These hydrogen bonds between the particle and monomer could very well affect the viscosity. A conclusion that can be reached in this work is that the presence of hydroxyl groups on the surface of the alumina particles is significant and seems to affect the interactions between other particles and the solvent. Thus, the hydrogen bonding between particles, particle/additive and/or particle/solvent dictates the behavior of nanos

  15. Low-temperature magnetron sputter-deposition, hardness, and electrical resistivity of amorphous and crystalline alumina thin films

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Marks, Laurence D.

    have many properties that are useful for applications in optical electronics, and cutting tool be coated with alumina. Therefore, low-temperature synthesis of crystalline alumina is of great

  16. Functionally graded alumina-based thin film systems

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Moore, John J.; Zhong, Dalong

    2006-08-29

    The present invention provides coating systems that minimize thermal and residual stresses to create a fatigue- and soldering-resistant coating for aluminum die casting dies. The coating systems include at least three layers. The outer layer is an alumina- or boro-carbide-based outer layer that has superior non-wettability characteristics with molten aluminum coupled with oxidation and wear resistance. A functionally-graded intermediate layer or "interlayer" enhances the erosive wear, toughness, and corrosion resistance of the die. A thin adhesion layer of reactive metal is used between the die substrate and the interlayer to increase adhesion of the coating system to the die surface.

  17. Method for thermal processing alumina-enriched spinel single crystals

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Jantzen, C.M.

    1995-05-09

    A process for age-hardening alumina-rich magnesium aluminum spinel to obtain the desired combination of characteristics of hardness, clarity, flexural strength and toughness comprises selection of the time-temperature pair for isothermal heating followed by quenching. The time-temperature pair is selected from the region wherein the precipitate groups have the characteristics sought. The single crystal spinel is isothermally heated and will, if heated long enough pass from its single phase through two pre-precipitates and two metastable precipitates to a stable secondary phase precipitate within the spinel matrix. Quenching is done slowly at first to avoid thermal shock, then rapidly. 12 figs.

  18. Silicon carbide whisker-zirconia reinforced mullite and alumina ceramics

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Becher, Paul F. (Oak Ridge, TN); Tiegs, Terry N. (Lenoir City, TN)

    1987-01-01

    The flexural strength and/or fracture toughness of SiC whisker-reinforced composites utilizing mullite or alumina as the matrix material for the composite are increased by the addition of zirconia in a monoclinic or tetragonal phase to the matrix. The zirconia addition also provides for a lower hot-pressing temperature and increases the flexural strength and/or fracture toughness of the SiC whisker-reinforced composites over SiC whisker-reinforced composites of the similar matrix materials reinforced with similar concentrations of SiC whiskers.

  19. Piperidine Adsorption on Hydrated r-Alumina (0001) Surface Studied by Vibrational Sum Frequency Generation

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    the alumina (0001) surface through protonation by surface hydroxyl groups. The O-H stretching region the decrease of the surface number density of alumina surface hydroxyl groups. Introduction It is well known is a secondary amine. Secondary amines are common organic pollutants due to their extensive use

  20. Solvent mediated assembly of nanoparticles confined in mesoporous alumina Kyle J. Alvine,1,

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Pershan, Peter S.

    Solvent mediated assembly of nanoparticles confined in mesoporous alumina Kyle J. Alvine,1, * Diego solvent and confined within mesoporous alumina was probed in situ with small angle x-ray scattering of solvent condensed from an under- saturated vapor. Analysis indicated that the nanoparticles self

  1. Processing and Mechanical Properties of Ti2AlC Reinforced with Alumina Fibers 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Jeon, Kwonguk

    2012-10-19

    The fabrication and mechanical properties of Ti2AlC composites reinforced with the alumina oxide fibers, such as NextelTM 720 and ALBF1, were described in this thesis. Alumina fibers and Ti2AlC powders were dispersed in the water and slip cast...

  2. Solid-state NMR studies of the adsorption of acetylene on platinum/alumina catalysts 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Lambregts, Marsha Jo Lupher

    1991-01-01

    /y-alumina and subsequently evacuated. 25 "C Bloch Decay/MAS NMR spectra of cyclohexane adsorbed onto 10%Pt/y-alumina. 27 FT mass spectra taken at a field strength of 3-Tesla. 28 CAVERN uC CP/MAS NMR spectra of an overpressure of acetylene on 10%Pt/y-alumina adsorbed... pumped two-section ion cell, an Extrel 2001 data system, and a 3-Tesla Oxford superconducting magnet. ~~ Samples were introduced into the cell by a variable leak valve (at sample pressure of 4 x 10' torr). Ionization was performed by electron impact...

  3. Acoustic phonon spectrum and thermal transport in nanoporous alumina arrays

    DOE Public Access Gateway for Energy & Science Beta (PAGES Beta)

    Kargar, Fariborz; Ramirez, Sylvester; Debnath, Bishwajit; Malekpour, Hoda; Lake, Roger; Balandin, Alexander A.

    2015-10-28

    We report results of a combined investigation of thermal conductivity and acoustic phonon spectra in nanoporous alumina membranes with the pore diameter decreasing from D=180 nm to 25 nm. The samples with the hexagonally arranged pores were selected to have the same porosity Ø ?13%. The Brillouin-Mandelstam spectroscopy measurements revealed bulk-like phonon spectrum in the samples with D=180-nm pores and spectral features, which were attributed to spatial confinement, in the samples with 25-nm and 40-nm pores. The velocity of the longitudinal acoustic phonons was reduced in the samples with smaller pores. As a result, analysis of the experimental data andmore »calculated phonon dispersion suggests that both phonon-boundary scattering and phonon spatial confinement affect heat conduction in membranes with the feature sizes D« less

  4. Optical Basicity and Nepheline Crystallization in High Alumina Glasses

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Rodriguez, Carmen P.; McCloy, John S.; Schweiger, M. J.; Crum, Jarrod V.; Winschell, Abigail E.

    2011-02-25

    The purpose of this study was to find compositions that increase waste loading of high-alumina wastes beyond what is currently acceptable while avoiding crystallization of nepheline (NaAlSiO4) on slow cooling. Nepheline crystallization has been shown to have a large impact on the chemical durability of high-level waste glasses. It was hypothesized that there would be some composition regions where high-alumina would not result in nepheline crystal production, compositions not currently allowed by the nepheline discriminator. Optical basicity (OB) and the nepheline discriminator (ND) are two ways of describing a given complex glass composition. This report presents the theoretical and experimental basis for these models. They are being studied together in a quadrant system as metrics to explore nepheline crystallization and chemical durability as a function of waste glass composition. These metrics were calculated for glasses with existing data and also for theoretical glasses to explore nepheline formation in Quadrant IV (passes OB metric but fails ND metric), where glasses are presumed to have good chemical durability. Several of these compositions were chosen, and glasses were made to fill poorly represented regions in Quadrant IV. To evaluate nepheline formation and chemical durability of these glasses, quantitative X-ray diffraction (XRD) analysis and the Product Consistency Test were conducted. A large amount of quantitative XRD data is collected here, both from new glasses and from glasses of previous studies that had not previously performed quantitative XRD on the phase assemblage. Appendix A critically discusses a large dataset to be considered for future quantitative studies on nepheline formation in glass. Appendix B provides a theoretical justification for choice of the oxide coefficients used to compute the OB criterion for nepheline formation.

  5. Resources, Conservation and Recycling 54 (2010) 878892 Contents lists available at ScienceDirect

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Aydilek, Ahmet

    2010-01-01

    stabilization Lime kiln dust Base course a b s t r a c t Fly ashes produced by power plants in the United StatesResources, Conservation and Recycling 54 (2010) 878­892 Contents lists available at Science with another recycled material, lime kiln dust (LKD). California bearing ratio (CBR) and resilient modulus

  6. Science Arts & Mtiers (SAM) is an open access repository that collects the work of Arts et Mtiers ParisTech

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Boyer, Edmond

    .03.024 #12;Model and simulation of a solar kiln with energy storage D. Luna a , J.-P. Nadeau a,*, Y. Jannot b storage Modeling Quality a b s t r a c t A solar kiln with energy storage can be used for continuous. Introduction Solar systems are currently evolving towards integrating energy storage [1], so as to resolve

  7. POSTSORTING OF HEM-FIR: A MILL STUDY MICHAEL R. MILOTA

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    in a separate kiln, The results indicate that 14 percent less total kiln time is required at a given production (presort- ing) have been only marginally success- ful, particularly with automated equipment. Presorting density. Sorting after drying (postsorting) (Fig. 1) with an in-line electric moisture meter has been

  8. Charcoal production in the Argentine Dry Chaco: Where, how and who? Carla V. Rueda a,b,

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Nacional de San Luis, Universidad

    Bioenergy Forest development Charcoal production has been widespread in the past and is still common where); together with existing environmental (forest cover/biomass), social (population density, poverty), and infrastructure (roads) data. While most of the region has low kiln densities (b1 kiln every 1000 km2 ), foci

  9. Evaluation of Composite Alumina Nanoparticle and Nitrate Eutectic Materials for use in Concentrating Solar Power Plants 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Malik, Darren R.

    2010-07-14

    The focus of this research was to create and characterize high temperature alumina and nitrate salt eutectic nanofluids for use in thermal energy storage (TES) systems. The nitrate eutectic was originally used in the TES system demonstrated as part...

  10. Effect of catalyst structure on oxidative dehydrogenation of ethane and propane on alumina-supported vanadia

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Argyle, Morris D.; Chen, Kaidong; Bell, Alexis T.; Iglesia, Enrique

    2001-01-01

    h) Figure 3. Example of ethane ODH (a) reaction rates and (x /Al 2 O 3 catalysts: (a) ethane ODH, (b) propane ODH (663Oxidative Dehydrogenation of Ethane and Propane on Alumina-

  11. The Effect of Nanoparticle Concentration on Thermo-physical Properties of Alumina-nitrate Nanofluid 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Shao, Qian

    2013-02-15

    The objective of this study was to determine how Al2O3 nanoparticle concentration affected the specific heat, heat of fusion, melting point, thermal diffusivity and thermal conductivity of Alumina-Nitrate nanofluids. Al2O3 nanoparticles were...

  12. Effect of catalyst structure on oxidative dehydrogenation of ethane and propane on alumina-supported vanadia

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Argyle, Morris D.; Chen, Kaidong; Bell, Alexis T.; Iglesia, Enrique

    2001-01-01

    catalysts: (a) ethane ODH, (b) propane ODH (663 K, 14 kPa CDehydrogenation of Ethane and Propane on Alumina-Supporteddehydrogenation of ethane and propane. UV-visible and Raman

  13. Templated self-assembly of nanoporous alumina : pore formation and ordering mechanisms, methodologies, and applications

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Krishnan, Ramkumar, 1975-

    2005-01-01

    Porous anodic aluminum oxide (AAO), also known as porous alumina, is a self-ordered nanostructured material well-suited for use in electronic, magnetic, optical and biological applications due to its small pore size (4-200nm) ...

  14. Phenomenological study of Au and Pt nanowires grown in porous alumina scaffolds

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Shin, Yong Cheol, S.M. Massachusetts Institute of Technology

    2011-01-01

    Porous anodic aluminum oxide, commonly known as AAO, has been widely used as a scaffold to synthesize nanowires and nanotubes. The porous alumina structure can be obtained from a simple electrochemical oxidation process, ...

  15. Structural studies of alumina pillared hectorite using polyvinyl alcohol as a pillaring agent 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Kroenig, Andrea N

    1997-01-01

    In the present work, the structures of a natural hectorite clay pillared with alumina were studied. Frequently, polyvinyl alcohol (PVA) was added as a pillaring agent to observe structural differences in the calcined ...

  16. Development and Characterization of Novel Alumina Based Ceramic Matrix Composites for Energy Efficient Sliding Applications 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Paluri, Rajeshwari S. Lakshmi

    2012-10-19

    where high wear resistance is required, such as pump bearings, seal rings, valve seats, piston components, gears, cutting tool inserts and artificial joints. We propose to develop a novel alumina based ceramic composite to enhance its surface...

  17. Mechanical Properties of a Graded Alumina-Zirconia Composite Prepared by Centrifugal Slip Casting

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Hara, Yasuyuki; Onda, Tetsuhiko; Hayakawa, Motozo

    2008-02-15

    Compositionally graded composite of alumina-20 vol%zirconia was fabricated by using centrifugal casting incorporated with relatively thin slip. An EPMA analysis exhibited a nearly linear variation of the alumina/zirconia ratio along the centrifugal direction; zirconia tended to accumulate in the bottom section, while alumina in the top section. Such a graded structure exhibited a considerably higher flexural strength when the alumina rich surface was subjected to a tensile stress than compositionally uniform composite of the same average composition. Fracture toughness measurement across the specimen thickness by indentation method revealed that the crack lengths along the vertical and horizontal directions were different. The anisotropy of the fracture toughness was accounted for by the variation of the residual stress across the specimen thicknesss.

  18. Method for fabricating cermets of alumina-chromium systems

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Morgan, Chester S. (Oak Ridge, TN)

    1983-01-01

    Cermet insulators resistant to thermal and mechanical shock are prepared from alumina-chromium systems by providing an Al.sub.2 O.sub.3 material of about 0.5 to 7.0 micron size with a solid-hydrocarbon overcoating by slurring an effective amount of said solid hydrocarbon in a solvent mixture containing said Al.sub.2 O.sub.3 and thereafter evaporating said solvent, contacting said coated Al.sub.2 O.sub.3 with a solution of chromium precursor compound, heating the resulting mixture in a reducing environment to a temperature above the decomposition temperature of said chromium precursor compound but less than the melting temperature of the Al.sub.2 O.sub.3 or chromium for sufficient duration to yield a particulate compound having chromium essentially dispersed throughout the Al.sub.2 O.sub.3, and then densifying said particulate to provide said cermet characterized by a theoretical density in excess of 96% and having 0.1 to 10.0 vol.% elemental chromium metal present therein as a dispersed phase at the boundaries of the Al.sub.2 O.sub.3 material. Cermet components prepared thereby are useful in high temperature equipment, advanced heat engines, and nuclear-related equipment applications where electrical or thermal insulators are required.

  19. Solvent Mediated Assembly of Nanoparticles Confined in Mesoporous Alumina

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Kyle J. Alvine; Diego Pontoni; Oleg G. Shpyrko; Peter S. Pershan; David J. Cookson; Kyusoon Shin; Thomas P. Russell; Markus Brunnbauer; Francesco Stellacci; Oleg Gang

    2006-03-24

    The controlled self-assembly of thiol stabilized gold nanocrystals in a mediating solvent and confined within mesoporous alumina was probed in situ with small angle x-ray scattering. The evolution of the self-assembly process was controlled reversibly via regulated changes in the amount of solvent condensed from an undersaturated vapor. Analysis indicated that the nanoparticles self-assembled into cylindrical monolayers within the porous template. Nanoparticle nearest-neighbor separation within the monolayer increased and the ordering decreased with the controlled addition of solvent. The process was reversible with the removal of solvent. Isotropic clusters of nanoparticles were also observed to form temporarily during desorption of the liquid solvent and disappeared upon complete removal of liquid. Measurements of the absorption and desorption of the solvent showed strong hysteresis upon thermal cycling. In addition, the capillary filling transition for the solvent in the nanoparticle-doped pores was shifted to larger chemical potential, relative to the liquid/vapor coexistence, by a factor of 4 as compared to the expected value for the same system without nanoparticles.

  20. Processing of alumina-niobium interfaces via liquid-film-assistedjoining

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    McKeown, Joseph T.; Sugar, Joshua D.; Gronsky, Ronald; Glaeser,Andreas M.

    2005-02-15

    Alumina-niobium interfaces were fabricated at 1400 C via solid-state diffusion brazing of a 127-{micro}m-thick niobium foil between alumina blocks. Prior to brazing, some of the alumina mating surfaces, both polished and unpolished, were evaporation-coated with copper films {approx}1.4 {micro}m, {approx}3.0 {micro}m, and {approx}5.5 {micro}m thick to induce liquid-film-assisted joining at the brazing temperature. The effects of copper film thickness and surface roughness on fracture characteristics and ceramic-metal interfacial microstructure were investigated by room-temperature four-point bend tests, optical microscopy, profilometry, and atomic force microscopy. The average strength of bonds between niobium and polished alumina substrates increased with the introduction of copper film interlayers, and the scatter in strength tended to decrease, with an optimum combination of strength and Weibull modulus arising for a copper film thickness of 3.0 {micro}m. The strength characteristics of niobium bonded to unpolished alumina substrates were also improved by liquid-film-assisted joining, but were unaffected by the thickness of the copper interlayers.

  1. ATOMIC LAYER DEPOSITION OF TITANIUM OXIDE THIN FILMS ONNANOPOROUS ALUMINA TEMPLATES FOR MEDICAL APPLICATIONS

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Brigmon, R.

    2009-05-05

    Nanostructured materials may play a significant role in controlled release of pharmacologic agents for treatment of cancer. Many nanoporous polymer materials are inadequate for use in drug delivery. Nanoporous alumina provides several advantages over other materials for use in controlled drug delivery and other medical applications. Atomic layer deposition was used to coat all the surfaces of the nanoporous alumina membrane in order to reduce the pore size in a controlled manner. Both the 20 nm and 100 nm titanium oxide-coated nanoporous alumina membranes did not exhibit statistically lower viability compared to the uncoated nanoporous alumina membrane control materials. In addition, 20 nm pore size titanium oxide-coated nanoporous alumina membranes exposed to ultraviolet light demonstrated activity against Escherichia coli and Staphylococcus aureus bacteria. Nanostructured materials prepared using atomic layer deposition may be useful for delivering a pharmacologic agent at a precise rate to a specific location in the body. These materials may serve as the basis for 'smart' drug delivery devices, orthopedic implants, or self-sterilizing medical devices.

  2. Hydrogen and the Structure of the Transition Aluminas Karl Sohlberg,*, Stephen J. Pennycook,, and Sokrates T. Pantelides,

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Pennycook, Steve

    , catalytic reduction of automotive pollutants such as nitric oxide (NOx), as well as oxidation of carbon in the behavior of aluminas in catalytic systems. 1. Introduction -Alumina is without question an enormously for such processes as olefin isomerization,11,12 alcohol dehydra- tion,13,14 and oxidation of organics15 are also

  3. Adsorption of carbonyl sulfide from liquid hydrocarbons with activated alumina and other adsorbents

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Liu, P.K.T. (Alcoa Separations Technology Div., Aluminum Co. of America, Warrendale, PA (US))

    1988-01-01

    Contamination of Liquid hydrocarbon streams with carbonyl sulfide (COS) is not desirable; particularly in propylene. COS may poison the down stream polymerization catalyst. Thus, it is usually required to reduce the COS concentration to an extremely low level, e.g. 1 ppm or less, for polymer grade propylene. Many technologies generally available for sulfur removal, such as scrubbing and distillation are not applicable to the removal of COS from propylene. The former is not suitable for a low level removal. With the boiling point of COS (-50{sup 0}C) very close to that of propylene (-48{sup 0}C) it is difficult to achieve a very efficient separation with distillation. Adsorption technology provides a very energy efficient process in addition to its ability of the low level removal. Adsorbents selected in this study include activated carbon, molecular sieves, zinc oxide and activated alumina. The results show that activated alumina is far superior in both adsorption capacity and rate. An adsorption mechanism with activated alumina is proposed. It is believed that adsorption of COS takes place simultaneously with the hydrolysis of COS on the alumina surface. Adsorption isotherms of COS up to 100 ppm and the effect of moisture content are also addressed in this study.

  4. Materials Science and Engineering A 458 (2007) 101107 Fluxless silicon-to-alumina bonding using electroplated

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Chen, Zhongping

    2007-01-01

    electroplated Au­Sn­Au structure at eutectic composition Jong S. Kima, Won S. Choia,1, Dongwook Kima,2, Andrei successfully bonded to alumina substrates with electroplated Au/Sn/Au structure at the eutectic composition. Keywords: Fluxless bonding; Fluxless soldering; Soldering; Eutectic Au­Sn alloys; Electroplating 1

  5. Strong blue emission from anodic alumina membranes with ordered nanopore array

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Chen, Haydn H.

    Strong blue emission from anodic alumina membranes with ordered nanopore array G. S. Huang, X. L by anodization in oxalic acid showed a strong PL peak in the blue. Due to an obvious asymmetry, the PL peak can that the two blue PL bands originate from optical transitions in two kinds of different oxygen-deficient defect

  6. Molecular Dynamics Study of Silica-Alumina Interfaces Slawomir Blonski and Stephen H. Garofalini*

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Garofalini, Stephen H.

    production as well as from impurities present in the raw materials. Although the boundary phase occupies only* Department of Ceramics and Interfacial Molecular Science Laboratory, Institute for Engineered Materials ceramic materials today.1,2 Many of alumina properties are controlled by structure and stability of its

  7. Deformation Mechanisms in Compression-Loaded, Stand-Alone Plasma-Sprayed Alumina Coatings

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Trice, Rodney W.

    Deformation Mechanisms in Compression-Loaded, Stand-Alone Plasma-Sprayed Alumina Coatings Rodney W. It is proposed that the numerous defects in plasma- sprayed coatings, including porosity and microcracks, serve-SPRAYED coatings are frequently used as thermal-barrier coatings (TBCs) or wear-resistant coatings. Mechanical

  8. Electrical conductivity and current-voltage characteristics of alumina with or without neutron and electron irradiation

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Howlader, Matiar R

    irradiation. Radiation induced conductivity (RIC) was observed for all speci- mens under neutron and electron of the leading candidates for insula- tor and radiofrequency window/feedthrough applica- tions in magnetic fusion of alumina. Radiation induced conductivity (RIC) and radiation induced electrical de- gradation (RIED

  9. WRINKLING OF a-ALUMINA FILMS GROWN BY OXIDATIONII. OXIDE SEPARATION AND FAILURE

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Clarke, David R.

    of thermal cycling on these modes of separation and how they may lead to oxide spalling are discussed. # 1998WRINKLING OF a-ALUMINA FILMS GROWN BY OXIDATIONÐII. OXIDE SEPARATION AND FAILURE V. K. TOLPYGO oxidation and cooling to room temperature. One type is a form of buckling where the size of the detached

  10. Cuprous-chloride-modified nanoporous alumina membranes for ethylene-ethane separation

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Lin, Y.S.; Wang, Y.; Ji, W.; Higgins, R.J.

    1999-06-01

    This paper reports an attempt to synthesize a CuCl-modified {gamma}-alumina membrane for separation of ethylene from ethane. CuCl was effectively coated in the 4 nm pore {gamma}-alumina top layers of disk-shaped and tubular alumina membranes by the reservoir method. Permeation of a single gas and binary mixture of ethylene and ethane was measured to characterize separation properties of the modified membranes. Pure ethylene permeance of the CuCl-modified membrane is 10--40% lower than that predicted from the pure ethane permeance by the Knudsen theory. This result is explained by a model based on the adsorbed layer of ethylene via {pi}-complexation. Such an adsorbed layer hinders the diffusion of ethylene in the nanopores of CuCl-modified {gamma}-alumina. Multiple gas permeation measurements on the CuCl-modified membranes show a separation factor for ethylene over ethane larger than the Knudsen value. This confirms a positive contribution of the surface flow of ethylene to the permeance of ethylene in the multiple gas permeation system. A maximum separation factor for ethylene over ethane of 1.4 is obtained for the CuCl-modified membrane at 60 C.

  11. STRESS-DENSITY VARIATIONS IN ALUMINA SEDIMENTS: EFFECTS OF POLYMER CHEMISTRY

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Aksay, Ilhan A.

    present a novel approach for analyzing sediments by gamma-ray densitometry 1 and a fluid mechanics model151 STRESS-DENSITY VARIATIONS IN ALUMINA SEDIMENTS: EFFECTS OF POLYMER CHEMISTRY C. H. SCHILLING modification of interparticle forces by changing the chemistry of surface-adsorbed polymers or ions

  12. High-temperature hydroxylation of alumina crystalline surfaces Ramesh Chandrasekharan a

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    High-temperature hydroxylation of alumina crystalline surfaces Ramesh Chandrasekharan a , Luning- talline surfaces (a, c and r) and subsequent hydroxylation. Samples heat-treated at a higher temperature spectra showed clearer spectral features of hydroxylation and higher degree of hydroxylation for heat

  13. Beryllium Adsorption at Transition Aluminas: Implications for Environmental Science and Oxidation of Aluminum Alloys

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Sergey N. Rashkeev; Michael V. Glazoff

    2010-08-01

    It is demonstrated that?gamma- and?eta- aluminas (transition Al2O3 polytypes with defect spinel structure) can effectively capture beryllium atoms. Although the bulk crystal structures of these two oxides are characterized only by slight differences in cation vacancy distributions, the interaction of Be with the two polytypes are different. For gamma- Al2O3, the Be adsorption energy is high (~ 5 eV per atom), and all Be atoms are captured and trapped at the surface - all attempts to move Be in the subsurface region result in its expulsion back to the surface. On the other hand, for ?eta- alumina Be atoms can be captured both at the surface and in octahedrally-coordinated subsurface cation vacancies. This result implies that both alumina oxides could be successfully used for Be capture out of wastewater streams related to industrial processes of aluminum and alumina production. Also, the surface adsorption mechanism of Be at?gamma- Al2O3 explains why very small additions of Be (of the order of several ppm) to Al-Mg and Al-Mg-Si casting and wrought alloys prevent run-away oxidation of these materials in molten state, as well as ingot cracking. We also discuss possibilities to use other additives (e.g., Ca and Sr) yielding the same protective effect for aluminum alloys but which are less toxic than beryllium.

  14. Effect of testing conditions and doping on superplastic creep of alumina

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Paris-Sud XI, Université de

    716 Effect of testing conditions and doping on superplastic creep of alumina P. Gruffel, P. Carry. pressive creep tests at 1450 °C [3]. It was un- ambiguously established that: - normal grain growth took superplastic deformation. Fig. 1. Strain rate variations during creep tests in compression C and tension

  15. Surface preparation for high purity alumina ceramics enabling direct brazing in hydrogen atmospheres

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Cadden, Charles H. (Danville, CA); Yang, Nancy Yuan Chi (Lafayette, CA); Hosking, Floyd M. (Albuquerque, NM)

    2001-01-01

    The present invention relates to a method for preparing the surface of a high purity alumina ceramic or sapphire specimen that enables direct brazing in a hydrogen atmosphere using an active braze alloy. The present invention also relates to a method for directly brazing a high purity alumina ceramic or sapphire specimen to a ceramic or metal member using this method of surface preparation, and to articles produced by this brazing method. The presence of silicon, in the form of a SiO.sub.2 -containing surface layer, can more than double the tensile bond strength in alumina ceramic joints brazed in a hydrogen atmosphere using an active Au-16Ni-0.75 Mo-1.75V filler metal. A thin silicon coating applied by PVD processing can, after air firing, produce a semi-continuous coverage of the alumina surface with a SiO.sub.2 film. Room temperature tensile strength was found to be proportional to the fraction of air fired surface covered by silicon-containing films. Similarly, the ratio of substrate fracture versus interface separation was also related to the amount of surface silicon present prior to brazing. This process can replace the need to perform a "moly-manganese" metallization step.

  16. Synthesis of High Surface Area Alumina Aerogels without the Use of Alkoxide Precursors

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Baumann, T F; Gash, A E; Chinn, S C; Sawvel, A M; Maxwell, R S; Satcher Jr., J H

    2004-06-25

    Alumina aerogels were prepared through the addition of propylene oxide to aqueous or ethanolic solutions of hydrated aluminum salts, AlCl{sub 3} {center_dot} 6H{sub 2}O or Al(NO{sub 3}){sub 3} {center_dot} 9H{sub 2}O, followed by drying with supercritical CO{sub 2}. This technique affords low-density (60-130 kg/m{sup 3}), high surface area (600-700 m{sup 2}/g) alumina aerogel monoliths without the use of alkoxide precursors. The dried alumina aerogels were characterized using elemental analysis, high-resolution transmission electron microscopy, powder X-ray diffraction, solid state NMR, acoustic measurements and nitrogen adsorption/desorption analysis. Powder X-ray diffraction and TEM analysis indicated that the aerogel prepared from hydrated AlCl{sub 3} in water or ethanol possessed microstructures containing highly reticulated networks of pseudoboehmite fibers, 2-5 nm in diameter and of varying lengths, while the aerogels prepared from hydrated Al(NO{sub 3}){sub 3} in ethanol were amorphous with microstructures comprised of interconnected spherical particles with diameters in the 5-15 nm range. The difference in microstructure resulted in each type of aerogel displaying distinct physical and mechanical properties. In particular, the alumina aerogels with the weblike microstructure were far more mechanically robust than those with the colloidal network, based on acoustic measurements. Both types of alumina aerogels can be transformed to {gamma}-Al{sub 2}O{sub 3} through calcination at 800 C without a significant loss in surface area or monolithicity.

  17. Chemically sensitive polymer-mediated nanoporous alumina SAW sensors for the detection of vapor-phase analytes 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Perez, Gregory Paul

    2005-08-29

    We have investigated the chemical sensitivity of nanoporous (NP) alumina-coated surface acoustic wave (SAW) devices that have been surface-modified with polymeric mediating films. The research in this dissertation covers the refinement of the NP...

  18. The effect of competition by chloride and sulfate anions on the adsorption of arsenate ion onto activated alumina 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Janis, Patrick John

    2000-01-01

    Interactions of arsenate ions with sulfate and chloride anions in aqueous solutions containing various amounts of activated alumina were studied in the laboratory on a batch mode basis with the goal of understanding the competition of the anions...

  19. Thermal cycling effect on the nanoparticle distribution and specific heat of a carbonate eutectic with alumina nanoparticles 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Shankar, Sandhya

    2011-08-08

    The objective of this research was to measure the effect of thermal cycling on the nanoparticle distribution and specific heat of a nanocomposite material consisting of a eutectic of lithium carbonate and potassium carbonate and 1% by mass alumina...

  20. Consolidation Behavior of Flocculated Alumina Suspensions Lennart Bergstrom,*~+Christopher H. Schilling,*,iand Ilhan A. Aksay*,+

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Aksay, Ilhan A.

    . Schilling,*,iand Ilhan A. Aksay*,+ 98195 99352 Department of Materials Science and Engineering, LJniversity alumina-zirconia slurry took place during centrifugal consolidation. However, when a flocculated suspen

  1. Fischer-Tropsch activity for non-promoted cobalt-on-alumina catalysts

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Singleton, Alan H. (Baden, PA); Oukaci, Rachid (Gibsonia, PA); Goodwin, James G. (Gibsonia, PA)

    2001-01-01

    Cobalt catalysts, and processes employing these inventive catalysts, for hydrocarbon synthesis. The inventive catalyst comprises cobalt on an alumina support and is not promoted with any noble or near noble metals. In one aspect of the invention, the alumina support preferably includes a dopant in an amount effective for increasing the activity of the inventive catalyst. The dopant is preferably a titanium dopant. In another aspect of the invention, the cobalt catalyst is preferably reduced in the presence of hydrogen at a water vapor partial pressure effective to increase the activity of the cobalt catalyst for hydrocarbon synthesis. The water vapor partial pressure is preferably in the range of from 0 to about 0.1 atmospheres.

  2. Direct visualization of the hydration layer on alumina nanoparticles with the fluid cell STEM in situ

    DOE Public Access Gateway for Energy & Science Beta (PAGES Beta)

    Firlar, Emre; Ç?nar, Simge; Kashyap, Sanjay; Akinc, Mufit; Prozorov, Tanya

    2015-05-21

    Rheological behavior of aqueous suspensions containing nanometer-sized powders is of relevance to many branches of industry. Unusually high viscosities observed for suspensions of nanoparticles compared to those of micron size powders cannot be explained by current viscosity models. Formation of so-called hydration layer on alumina nanoparticles in water was hypothesized, but never observed experimentally. We report here on the direct visualization of aqueous suspensions of alumina with the fluid cell in situ. We observe the hydration layer formed over the particle aggregates and show that such hydrated aggregates constitute new particle assemblies and affect the flow behavior of the suspensions.more »We discuss how these hydrated nanoclusters alter the effective solid content and the viscosity of nanostructured suspensions. Our findings elucidate the source of high viscosity observed for nanoparticle suspensions and are of direct relevance to many industrial sectors including materials, food, cosmetics, pharmaceutical among others employing colloidal slurries with nanometer-scale particles.« less

  3. The Effect of Excimer Laser Treatment on the Surface Roughness and Fracture Strength of Alumina Substrates

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Smoot, J.E.

    1998-05-13

    The microelectronics industry requires alumina substrates with exceptionally smooth surfaces and few surface defects to allow successful deposition of metallic films for reliable electronic performance. Irradiation by a 248-nm wavelength excimer laser beam (KrF) at a fluence of 125 mJ/mm{sup 2} and at various angles of incidence is shown to significantly reduce the surface roughness of alumina substrates. However, irradiation also creates a fine particulate deposit of alumina that only partially adheres to the substrate and impedes deposition of metal films. Annealing in air between 1350 C and 1450 C was found to remove the particles by sintering. As-received material showed surface roughness average (R{sub a}) mean values of 457 nm, which was reduced to 60 nm (mean) following irradiation and 71 nm (mean) following irradiation and annealing at 1350 C. Irradiation also produced a decrease in the number and severity of surface defects. The flexural strength and Weibull modulus were both increased by laser irradiation and thermal treatment. Flexural strength went from an as-received value of 450 MPa to 560 MPa following irradiation/sintering, measured at 10% probability of failure. The Weibull modulus was increased from the as-received value of about 9, to about 13 following irradiation/sintering. It was concluded that irradiation at an angle of incidence of 60{degree} from perpendicular was most effective in producing a low surface roughness.

  4. Hydrogen Selective Thin Palladium-Copper Composite Membranes on Alumina Supports

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Lim, Hankwon; Oyama, S. Ted

    2011-08-15

    Thin and defect-free Pd–Cu composite membranes with high hydrogen permeances and selectivities were prepared by electroless plating of palladium and copper on porous alumina supports with pore sizes of 5 and 100 nm coated with intermediate layers. The intermediate layers on the 100 nm supports were prepared by the deposition of boehmite sols of different particle sizes, and provided a graded, uniform substrate for the formation of defect-free, ultra-thin palladium composite layers. The dependence of hydrogen flux on pressure difference was studied to understand the dominant mechanism of hydrogen transport through a Pd–Cu composite membrane plated on an alumina support with a pore size of 5 nm. The order in hydrogen pressure was 0.98, and indicated that bulk diffusion through the Pd–Cu layer was fast and the overall process was limited by external mass-transfer or a surface process. Scanning electron microscopy (SEM) images of the Pd–Cu composite membrane showed a uniform substrate created after depositing one intermediate layer on top of the alumina support and a dense Pd–Cu composite layer with no visible defects. Cross-sectional views of the membrane showed that the Pd–Cu composite layer had a top layer thickness of 160 nm (0.16 ?m), which is much thinner than previously reported.

  5. Department of Energy Awards $2.2 Million to Save Energy in the...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    approximately 100,000 to examine new techniques for eliminating the energy intensive lime kiln from the pulping process. Georgia Tech will contribute a 20 percent cost share to...

  6. Frank Blaisdell: Santa Cruz in the Early 1900s

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Regional History Project, UC Santa Cruz Library

    1967-01-01

    off the timber to burn lime, and then around those redwoodDavis and Jordan who had the lime kilns. And he bought outof course, for exporting his lime; now I've heard that other

  7. Industry

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Bernstein, Lenny

    2008-01-01

    the solar thermal production of lime. Energy, 29, pp. 811-821. Miller, M.M. , 2003: Lime. In 2003 Minerals Yearbook,greenhouse gas emissions from lime kilns at Kraft pulp

  8. The Majors Family and Santa Cruz County Dairying

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Regional History Project, UCSC Library; Major, Thomas; Calciano, Elizabeth Spedding

    1965-01-01

    hauling wood into his lime kiln. And he bad all Portuguesethat rock up and made lime out of it. The Cowell Familysaid you Majors: hauled lime for the Cowells? Well Cowell

  9. Energy Efficiency Improvement and Cost Saving Opportunities for Cement Making. An ENERGY STAR Guide for Energy and Plant Managers

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Worrell, Ernst

    2008-01-01

    1997 ACEEE Summer Study on Energy Efficiency in Industry.American Council for an Energy-Efficient Economy,Park, NC. Birch, E. , 1990. “Energy Savings in Cement Kiln

  10. Fact #763: January 21, 2013 Eighty-four Percent of Scrapped Tires...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    the recycled tires were used to make fuel for industries such as pulp and paper mills, cement kilns, and electric utilities. Ground rubber, which is used for sports surfacing,...

  11. A Market Based Strategy for Rural Development In Northwest Louisiana

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Employment & Sales Raw Materials Industry Structure Requirements for Growth Current & Projected #12;Industry of manufacturing processes and equipment do current companies use? Is there the presence of sawmills, dry kilns

  12. A Case Study of Steam System Evaluation in a Petroleum Refinery 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Venkatesan, V. V.; Iordanova, N.

    2003-01-01

    in the areas of: Steam generation, Steam distribution, Steam Utilization, Condensate recovery, and Combustion optimization in kilns. By implementing all the above 31 ECMs, the refinery is estimated to save $3.5 million annually. Based on our preliminary...

  13. Fuel Saving Ideas for Metal and Ceramic Processing 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Reed, R. J.

    1982-01-01

    An easy method is presented for analyzing sources of heat loss from industrial processing furnaces, kilns, and ovens; and thus for recognizing opportunities for fuel saving. This will relate to melting, heat treating and hot forming of metals...

  14. Life-Cycle Assessment of Concrete: Decision-Support Tool and Case Study Application

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Gursel, Aysegul Petek

    2014-01-01

    for bituminous and lignite coal types based on IPPC report [40 kWh/tonne depending on the type of coal used in the kiln.burning different types of coal under varying conditions.

  15. Numerical simulation of alumina spraying in argon-helium plasma jet

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Chang, C.H.

    1992-01-01

    A new numerical model is described for simulating thermal plasmas containing entrained particles, with emphasis on plasma spraying applications. The plasma is represented as a continuum multicomponent chemically reacting ideal gas, while the particles are tracked as discrete Lagrangian entities coupled to the plasma. Computational results are presented from a transient simulation of alumina spraying in a turbulent argon-helium plasma jet in air environment, including torch geometry, substrate, and multiple species with chemical reactions. Particle-plasma interactions including turbulent dispersion have been modeled in a fully self-consistent manner. Interactions between the plasma and the torch and substrate walls are modeled using wall functions. (15 refs.)

  16. Numerical simulation of alumina spraying in argon-helium plasma jet

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Chang, C.H.

    1992-08-01

    A new numerical model is described for simulating thermal plasmas containing entrained particles, with emphasis on plasma spraying applications. The plasma is represented as a continuum multicomponent chemically reacting ideal gas, while the particles are tracked as discrete Lagrangian entities coupled to the plasma. Computational results are presented from a transient simulation of alumina spraying in a turbulent argon-helium plasma jet in air environment, including torch geometry, substrate, and multiple species with chemical reactions. Particle-plasma interactions including turbulent dispersion have been modeled in a fully self-consistent manner. Interactions between the plasma and the torch and substrate walls are modeled using wall functions. (15 refs.)

  17. Hydrodesulfurization of dibenzothiophene catalyzed by alumina-supported ruthenium carbonyl complexes in a pressurized flow system

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    NONE

    1994-11-01

    Ruthenium sulfide has been found to be most active for hydrodesulfurization (HDS) of thiophenes as well as hydrogenation and hydrodenitrogenation among transition metal sulfides. When ruthenium sulfide is supported on alumina, silica, or zeolite with high surface area, highly dispersed ruthenium sulfide formed on the supports would increase the catalytic activity per a ruthenium atom. Several researchers have already reported HDS using supported ruthenium sulfides. In these works [Ru(NH{sub 3}){sub 6}]{sup +}, Ru{sub 3}(CO){sub 12}, RuCl{sub 3}, and Ru(III) acetate supported on alumina, zeoliate, carbon, etc., were used as catalyst precursors in HDS of thiophene, benzothiophene, or dibenzothiophene. Although these HDS reactions were performed under an atmospheric pressure, the activity of the catalysts derived from supported ruthenium in a pressurized flow system have not yet been understood. In the present study, HDS of DBT catalyzed by ruthenium catalysts is investigated in a pressurized flow reactor. 17 refs., 2 figs., 2 tabs.

  18. Direct visualization of the hydration layer on alumina nanoparticles with the fluid cell STEM in situ

    DOE Public Access Gateway for Energy & Science Beta (PAGES Beta)

    Firlar, Emre; Ç?nar, Simge; Kashyap, Sanjay; Akinc, Mufit; Prozorov, Tanya

    2015-05-21

    Rheological behavior of aqueous suspensions containing nanometer-sized powders is of relevance to many branches of industry. Unusually high viscosities observed for suspensions of nanoparticles compared to those of micron size powders cannot be explained by current viscosity models. Formation of so-called hydration layer on alumina nanoparticles in water was hypothesized, but never observed experimentally. We report here on the direct visualization of aqueous suspensions of alumina with the fluid cell in situ. We observe the hydration layer formed over the particle aggregates and show that such hydrated aggregates constitute new particle assemblies and affect the flow behavior of the suspensions.more »We discuss how these hydrated nanoclusters alter the effective solid content and the viscosity of nanostructured suspensions. As a result, our findings elucidate the source of high viscosity observed for nanoparticle suspensions and are of direct relevance to many industrial sectors including materials, food, cosmetics, pharmaceutical among others employing colloidal slurries with nanometer-scale particles.« less

  19. Characterization of the alumina-zirconia ceramic system by ultrasonic velocity measurements

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Carreon, Hector; Ruiz, Alberto; Medina, Ariosto; Barrera, Gerardo; Zarate, Juan

    2009-08-15

    In this work an alumina-zirconia ceramic composites have been prepared with {alpha}-Al{sub 2}O{sub 3} contents from 10 to 95 wt.%. The alumina-zirconia ceramic system was characterized by means of precise ultrasonic velocity measurements. In order to find out the factors affecting the variation in wave velocity, the ceramic composite have been examined by X-ray diffraction (XRD) and (SEM) scanning electron microscopy. It was found that the ultrasonic velocity measurements changed considerably with respect to the ceramic composite composition. In particular, we studied the behavior of the physical material property hardness, an important parameter of the ceramic composite mechanical properties, with respect to the variation in the longitudinal and shear wave velocities. Shear wave velocities exhibited a stronger interaction with microstructural and sub-structural features as compared to that of longitudinal waves. In particular, this phenomena was observed for the highest {alpha}-Al{sub 2}O{sub 3} content composite. Interestingly, an excellent correlation between ultrasonic velocity measurements and ceramic composite hardness was observed.

  20. A High Temperature Electrochemical Energy Storage System Based on Sodium Beta-Alumina Solid Electrolyte (Base)

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Anil Virkar

    2008-03-31

    This report summarizes the work done during the period September 1, 2005 and March 31, 2008. Work was conducted in the following areas: (1) Fabrication of sodium beta{double_prime} alumina solid electrolyte (BASE) using a vapor phase process. (2) Mechanistic studies on the conversion of {alpha}-alumina + zirconia into beta{double_prime}-alumina + zirconia by the vapor phase process. (3) Characterization of BASE by X-ray diffraction, SEM, and conductivity measurements. (4) Design, construction and electrochemical testing of a symmetric cell containing BASE as the electrolyte and NaCl + ZnCl{sub 2} as the electrodes. (5) Design, construction, and electrochemical evaluation of Na/BASE/ZnCl{sub 2} electrochemical cells. (6) Stability studies in ZnCl{sub 2}, SnCl{sub 2}, and SnI{sub 4} (7) Design, assembly and testing of planar stacks. (8) Investigation of the effect of porous surface layers on BASE on cell resistance. The conventional process for the fabrication of sodium ion conducting beta{double_prime}-alumina involves calcination of {alpha}-alumina + Na{sub 2}CO{sub 3} + LiNO{sub 3} at 1250 C, followed by sintering powder compacts in sealed containers (platinum or MgO) at {approx}1600 C. The novel vapor phase process involves first sintering a mixture of {alpha}-alumina + yttria-stabilized zirconia (YSZ) into a dense ceramic followed by exposure to soda vapor at {approx}1450 C to convert {alpha}-alumina into beta{double_prime}-alumina. The vapor phase process leads to a high strength BASE, which is also resistant to moisture attack, unlike BASE made by the conventional process. The PI is the lead inventor of the process. Discs and tubes of BASE were fabricated in the present work. In the conventional process, sintering of BASE is accomplished by a transient liquid phase mechanism wherein the liquid phase contains NaAlO{sub 2}. Some NaAlO{sub 2} continues to remain at grain boundaries; and is the root cause of its water sensitivity. In the vapor phase process, NaAlO{sub 2} is never formed. Conversion occurs by a coupled transport of Na{sup +} through BASE formed and of O{sup 2-} through YSZ to the reaction front. Transport to the reaction front is described in terms of a chemical diffusion coefficient of Na{sub 2}O. The conversion kinetics as a function of microstructure is under investigation. The mechanism of conversion is described in this report. A number of discs and tubes of BASE have been fabricated by the vapor phase process. The material was investigated by X-ray diffraction (XRD), optical microscopy and scanning electron microscopy (SEM), before and after conversion. Conductivity (which is almost exclusively due to sodium ion transport at the temperatures of interest) was measured. Conductivity was measured using sodium-sodium tests as well as by impedance spectroscopy. Various types of both planar and tubular electrochemical cells were assembled and tested. In some cases the objective was to determine if there was any interaction between the salt and BASE. The interaction of interest was mainly ion exchange (possible replacement of sodium ion by the salt cation). It was noted that Zn{sup 2+} did not replace Na+ over the conditions of interest. For this reason much of the work was conducted with ZnCl{sub 2} as the cathode salt. In the case of Sn-based, Sn{sup 2+} did ion exchange, but Sn{sup 4+} did not. This suggests that Sn{sup 4+} salts are viable candidates. These results and implications are discussed in the report. Cells made with Na as the anode and ZnCl{sub 2} as the cathode were successfully charged/discharged numerous times. The key advantages of the batteries under investigation here over the Na-S batteries are: (1) Steel wool can be used in the cathode compartment unlike Na-S batteries which require expensive graphite. (2) Planar cells can be constructed in addition to tubular, allowing for greater design flexibility and integration with other devices such as planar SOFC. (3) Comparable or higher open circuit voltage (OCV) than the Na-S battery. (4) Wider operating temperature range and higher temper

  1. Method for preparing configured silicon carbide whisker-reinforced alumina ceramic articles

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Tiegs, Terry N. (Lenoir City, TN)

    1987-01-01

    A ceramic article of alumina reinforced with silicon carbide whiskers suitable for the fabrication into articles of complex geometry are provided by pressureless sintering and hot isostatic pressing steps. In accordance with the method of the invention a mixture of 5 to 10 vol. % silicon carbide whiskers 0.5 to 5 wt. % of a sintering aid such as yttria and the balance alumina powders is ball-milled and pressureless sintered in the desired configuration in the desired configuration an inert atmosphere at a temperature of about 1800.degree. C. to provide a self-supporting configured composite of a density of at least about 94% theoretical density. The composite is then hot isostatically pressed at a temperature and pressure adequate to provide configured articles of at least about 98% of theoretical density which is sufficient to provide the article with sufficient strength and fracture toughness for use in most structural applications such as gas turbine blades, cylinders, and other components of advanced heat engines.

  2. Materials Science and Engineering A252 (1998) 117132 Optimization of 316 stainless steel/alumina functionally graded

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Grujicic, Mica

    1998-01-01

    Materials Science and Engineering A252 (1998) 117­132 Optimization of 316 stainless steel/alumina functionally graded material for reduction of damage induced by thermal residual stresses M. Grujicic *, H. Zhao Program in Materials Science and Engineering, Department of Mechanical Engineering, 241 Flour

  3. Electrical conductivity of Wesgo AL995 alumina under fast electron irradiation in a high voltage electron microscope

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Howlader, Matiar R

    of magnitude than its requirement for the magnetic coils in the international thermonuclear experimental to be a potential insulating mate- rial for numerous applications in fusion devices for heating and current drive degradation RIED 2 of alumina under irradiation are the critical issues for its application to fusion devices

  4. Signicance of sample thickness and surface segregation on the electrical conductivity of Wesgo AL995 alumina under ITER

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Howlader, Matiar R

    are expected to be used in fusion reactors like international thermonuclear experimental reactor (ITER insulating material in fusion reactors [1] because of its high thermal conductivity [2], high resistance of alumina are to be used in fusion reactors, no studies have ever been done on the thickness dependence

  5. Neutron Reflection Study of the Adsorption of the Phosphate Surfactant NaDEHP onto Alumina from Water

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Welbourn, Rebecca J. L.; Lee, Seung Yeon; Gutfreund, Philipp; Hughes, Arwel; Zarbakhsh, Ali; Clarke, Stuart M.

    2015-03-11

    The adsorption of a phosphorus analogue of the surfactant AOT, sodium bis(2-ethylhexyl) phosphate (NaDEHP), at the water/alumina interface is described. The material is found to adsorb as an essentially water-free bilayer from neutron reflection...

  6. Fracture and Fatigue Behavior at Ambient and Elevated Temperatures of Alumina Bonded with Copper/Niobium/Copper Interlayers

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Ritchie, Robert

    Fracture and Fatigue Behavior at Ambient and Elevated Temperatures of Alumina Bonded with Copper and Engineering, University of California, Berkeley, California 94720 Interfacial fracture toughness and cyclic temperatures, and assessed in terms of interfacial chemistry and microstructure. The mean interfacial fracture

  7. Effects of Adsorbed Pyridine Derivatives and Ultrathin Atomic-Layer-Deposited Alumina Coatings on the Conduction Band-Edge Energy

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Effects of Adsorbed Pyridine Derivatives and Ultrathin Atomic-Layer- Deposited Alumina Coatings the adsorption of t-butylpyridine and the atomic- layer deposition of ultrathin conformal coatings of insulators and the concomitant suppression of dark current does not require the coordination of surface Ti(IV) or Al(III) atoms

  8. Materials Science and Engineering A 435436 (2006) 468473 Fabrication of transparent alumina (Al2O3) nanofibers by electrospinning

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Azad, Abdul-Majeed

    2006-01-01

    3) nanofibers by electrospinning Abdul-Majeed Azad Department of Chemical and Environmental B.V. All rights reserved. Keywords: Alumina; Nanofibers; Electrospinning; Electron microscopy 1. Introduction Electrospinning (e-spinning) is one of bottom-up approaches that are gaining increasing attention

  9. Materials Science and Engineering A 493 (2008) 256260 In situ bend testing of niobium-reinforced alumina nanocomposites

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Ritchie, Robert

    2008-01-01

    pathways [5]. If the frac- ture toughness can be improved, ceramic matrix composites (CMCs) hold great the stress field around the crack tip. The addition of fibers to a brittle ceramic matrix can improve of carbon nanotubes to nanocrystalline alumina (Al2O3) bene- fits the brittle ceramic's mechanical

  10. Mechanical and Electrical Properties of Multiwalled CNT-Alumina Nanocomposites Prepared by a Sequential Two-Step Processing of Ultrasonic

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Hong, Soon Hyung

    improve the brittleness and electrical properties of ceramic materials; however, the agglomeration of CNTs during in the synthetic process and the poor interfacial bonding between CNTs and matrix materials still present challenges. Herein, multiwalled carbon nanotube (MWNT)-alumina composites were prepared

  11. Oxidation Reaction Induced Structural Changes in Sub-Nanometer Platinum Supported on Alumina

    DOE Public Access Gateway for Energy & Science Beta (PAGES Beta)

    DeBusk, Melanie Moses; Allard, Jr, Lawrence Frederick; Blom, Douglas Allen; Narula, Chaitanya Kumar

    2015-06-26

    Platinum supported on alumina is an essential component of emission treatment catalysts used in transportation. Theoretical, experimental, and mechanistic aspects of platinum particles supported on a variety of supports have been extensively studied; however, available experimental information on the behavior of single vs. sub-nanometer platinum is extremely limited. To bridge the knowledge gap between single supported platinum and well-formed supported platinum nanoparticles, we have carried out synthesis, characterization, and CO and NO oxidation studies of sub-nanometer platinum supported on ?, ?, and ?-Al2O3 and monitored changes in structure upon exposure to CO and NO oxidation conditions. We find that sub-nanometermore »Pt is highly effective for CO oxidation due to high platinum dispersion but is not very efficient as NO oxidation catalyst. Furthermore, sub-nanometer platinum agglomerates rapidly under CO or NO oxidation conditions to form nanoparticles.« less

  12. Structure, Stoichiometry and Stability in Magnetoplumbite and {beta}-Alumina Structured Type Ceramics. Final Report

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Cormack, A. N.

    2004-03-01

    Work has been completed on the atomistic simulation of hexa-aluminate ceramics with the magnetoplumbite and beta-alumina type structures. In this report, three aspects of the work are highlighted. One is the simulation of surface structures. The second concerns details of the interstitially mechanisms observed in molecular dynamics simulations. The novel result here is the observation that the lattice ion always leaves its Beevers-Ross site before the aBR interstitial begins to move towards the lattice site. It is also found that, as expected, the interstitial mechanism is the most common mechanism in the heavily disordered nonstoichiometric structure, as well as in the stoichiometric material. Finally, the disposition of trivalent europium in the phosphor material BAM has been elucidated.

  13. EXPERIMENTAL STUDY OF CRITICAL HEAT FLUX WITH ALUMINA-WATER NANOFLUIDS IN DOWNWARD-FACING CHANNELS FOR IN-VESSEL RETENTION APPLICATIONS

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Park, R.J.

    The Critical Heat Flux (CHF) of water with dispersed alumina nanoparticles was measured for the geometry and flow conditions relevant to the In-Vessel Retention (IVR) situation which can occur during core melting sequences ...

  14. Experimental study of alumina-water and zirconia-water nanofluids convective heat transfer and viscous pressure loss in Laminar regime

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Rea, Ulzie L

    2008-01-01

    The objective of this study is to evaluate experimentally the convective heat transfer and viscous pressure loss characteristics of alumina-water and zirconia-water nanofluids. Nanofluids are colloidal dispersions of ...

  15. The Effect of Braze Interlayer Thickness on the Mechanical Strength of Alumina Brazed with Ag-CuO Braze Alloys

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Erskine, Kevin M.; Meier, Alan; Joshi, Vineet V.; Pilgrim, Steven M.

    2014-12-01

    The effect of braze interlayer thickness on the strength of alumina brazed with silver-copper oxide reactive air braze (RAB) alloys was evaluated using a four point bend test configuration. The brazed samples had an average fracture strength of 180 MPa or approximately 60 percent of the average monolithic alumina strength. The joint strength values obtained exceeded the yield strength and ultimate tensile strength of the silver interlayer indicating strong ceramic to metal adhesion and the development of a triaxial stress state in the braze interlayer. The average fracture strength was relatively constant (190 ± 60 MPa) in the thickness range of 0.030 mm to 0.230 mm for all test conditions. The braze fracture strength then decreased down to 100 ± 30 MPa as the braze thickness increased from 0.230 mm to 0.430 mm indicating a loss of triaxial constraint with increasing interlayer thickness. In addition, four different fracture modes were observed.

  16. The origin of slow electron recombination processes in dye-sensitized solar cells with alumina barrier coatings

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Fabregat-Santiago, Francisco; Garcia-Canadas, Jorge; Palomares, Emilio; Clifford, John N.; Haque, Saif A.; Durrant, James R.; Garcia-Belmonte, Germa; Bisquert, Juan [Departament de Ciencies Experimentals, Universitat Jaume I, 12080 Castello (Spain); Department of Chemistry, Imperial College, London SW7 2AY (United Kingdom); Institut de Ciencia Molecular Universitat de Valencia, C. P. 46100, Dr. Moliner 50, Burjassot, Valencia (Spain); Department of Chemistry, Imperial College, London SW7 2AY (United Kingdom); Departament de Ciencies Experimentals, Universitat Jaume I, 12080 Castello (Spain)

    2004-12-01

    We investigate the effect of a thin alumina coating of nanocrystalline TiO{sub 2} films on recombination dynamics of dye-sensitized solar cells. Both coated and uncoated cells were measured by a combination of techniques: transient absorption spectroscopy, electrochemical impedance spectroscopy, and open-circuit voltage decay. It is found that the alumina barrier reduces the recombination of photoinjected electrons to both dye cations and the oxidized redox couple. It is proposed that this observed retardation can be attributed primarily to two effects: almost complete passivation of surface trap states in TiO{sub 2} that are able to inject electrons to acceptor species, and slowing down by a factor of 3-4 the rate of interfacial charge transfer from conduction-band states.

  17. Rheology and microstructure of concentrated zirconia-alumina suspensions for gelcasting composites

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Bleier, A.; Omatete, O.O.

    1992-12-31

    The relations among colloidal stability, suspension rheology, and solids loading are elucidated for zirconia-alumina mixtures containing 20 volt ZrO{sub 2}, based on solids. The lower colloidal stability of ZrO{sub 2} limits the rheological properties of this system. If the zeta potential of ZrO{sub 2} is less than 49 mV, high degrees of pseudoplasticity, high yield stress, high viscosity, and long relaxation times characterize the binary suspensions. These effects occur, despite the fact that ZrO{sub 2} is the minor ceramic constituent. If the zeta potential of ZrO{sub 2} is maintained above 49 mV, suspensions with high solids loading (55 vol%) can be prepared which behave as Newtonian fluids over the 0-to-200 s-1 shear rate range and as an elastic solid at higher rates. As the solids loading of a highly stable binary suspension is increased, the rheological properties change. They evolve from those of a near Newtonian-like fluid with nearly independent particles (40 vol%) to those of a pseudoplastic fluid with a weakly interacting particle network (50 vol%) to those of an elastic-like solid composed of crowded, strongly repulsive particles (55 vol%). Low-shear conditions for suspension-transport and mold-filling operations that ensure a homogeneous arrangement of ZrO{sub 2} and Al{sub 2}O{sub 3} particles in a gelcast ceramic seem promising.

  18. Method for fabricating cermets of alumina-chromium systems. [Patent application

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Morgan, C.S.

    1981-10-05

    Cermet insulators resistant to thermal and mechanical shock are prepared from alumina-chromium systems in the following way: by providing an Al/sub 2/O/sub 3/ material of about 0.5 to 7.0 micron size with a solid-hydrocarbon overcoating by slurrying an effective amount of said solid hydrocarbon in a solvent mixture containing said Al/sub 2/O/sub 3/ and thereafter evaporating said solvent, contacting said coated Al/sub 2/O/sub 3/ with a solution of chromium precursor compound, heating the resulting mixture in a reducing environment to a temperature above the decomposition temperature of said chromium precursor compound but less than the melting temperature of the Al/sub 2/O/sub 3/ or chromium for sufficient duration to yield a particulate compound having chromium essentially dispersed throughout the Al/sub 2/O/sub 3/, and then densifying said particulate to provide said cermet characterized by a theoretical density in excess of 96% and having 0.1 to 10.0 vol. % elemental chromium metal present therein as a dispersed phase at the boundaries of the Al/sub 2/O/sub 3/ material. Cermet components prepared thereby are useful in high temperature equipment, advanced heat engines, and nuclear-related equipment applications where electrical or thermal insulators are required.

  19. Manufacture of Alumina-Forming Austenitic Steel Alloys by Conventional Casting and Hot-Working Methods

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Brady, M.P.; Yamamoto, Y.; Magee, J.H.

    2009-03-10

    Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL) and Carpenter Technology Corporation (CarTech) participated in an in-kind cost share cooperative research and development agreement (CRADA) effort under the auspices of the Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Technology Maturation Program to explore the feasibility for scale up of developmental ORNL alumina-forming austenitic (AFA) stainless steels by conventional casting and rolling techniques. CarTech successfully vacuum melted 301b heats of four AFA alloy compositions in the range of Fe-(20-25)Ni-(12-14)Cr-(3-4)Al-(l-2.5)Nb wt.% base. Conventional hot/cold rolling was used to produce 0.5-inch thick plate and 0.1-inch thick sheet product. ORNL subsequently successfully rolled the 0.1-inch sheet to 4 mil thick foil. Long-term oxidation studies of the plate form material were initiated at 650, 700, and 800 C in air with 10 volume percent water vapor. Preliminary results indicated that the alloys exhibit comparable (good) oxidation resistance to ORNL laboratory scale AFA alloy arc casting previously evaluated. The sheet and foil material will be used in ongoing evaluation efforts for oxidation and creep resistance under related CRADAs with two gas turbine engine manufacturers. This work will be directed to evaluation of AFA alloys for use in gas turbine recuperators to permit higher-temperature operating conditions for improved efficiencies and reduced environmental emissions. AFA alloy properties to date have been obtained from small laboratory scale arc-castings made at ORNL. The goal of the ORNL-CarTech CRADA was to establish the viability for producing plate, sheet and foil of the AFA alloys by conventional casting and hot working approaches as a first step towards scale up and commercialization of the AFA alloys. The AFA alloy produced under this effort will then be evaluated in related CRADAs with two gas turbine engine manufacturers for gas turbine recuperator applications.

  20. Density dependence of the room temperature thermal conductivity of atomic layer deposition-grown amorphous alumina (Al{sub 2}O{sub 3})

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Gorham, Caroline S.; Gaskins, John T.; Hopkins, Patrick E.; Parsons, Gregory N.; Losego, Mark D.

    2014-06-23

    We report on the thermal conductivity of atomic layer deposition-grown amorphous alumina thin films as a function of atomic density. Using time domain thermoreflectance, we measure the thermal conductivity of the thin alumina films at room temperature. The thermal conductivities vary ?35% for a nearly 15% change in atomic density and are substrate independent. No density dependence of the longitudinal sound speeds is observed with picosecond acoustics. The density dependence of the thermal conductivity agrees well with a minimum limit to thermal conductivity model that is modified with a differential effective-medium approximation.

  1. Deformation Behavior of Sub-micron and Micron Sized Alumina Particles in Compression.

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Sarobol, Pylin; Chandross, Michael E.; Carroll, Jay; Mook, William; Boyce, Brad; Kotula, Paul G.; McKenzie, Bonnie B.; Bufford, Daniel Charles; Hall, Aaron Christopher.

    2014-09-01

    The ability to integrate ceramics with other materials has been limited due to high temperature (>800degC) ceramic processing. Recently, researchers demonstrated a novel process , aerosol deposition (AD), to fabricate ceramic films at room temperature (RT). In this process, sub - micro n sized ceramic particles are accelerated by pressurized gas, impacted on the substrate, plastically deformed, and form a dense film under vacuum. This AD process eliminates high temperature processing thereby enabling new coatings and device integration, in which ceramics can be deposited on metals, plastics, and glass. However, k nowledge in fundamental mechanisms for ceramic particle s to deform and form a dense ceramic film is still needed and is essential in advancing this novel RT technology. In this wo rk, a combination of experimentation and atomistic simulation was used to determine the deformation behavior of sub - micron sized ceramic particle s ; this is the first fundamental step needed to explain coating formation in the AD process . High purity, singl e crystal, alpha alumina particles with nominal size s of 0.3 um and 3.0 um were examined. Particle characterization, using transmission electron microscopy (TEM ), showed that the 0.3 u m particles were relatively defect - free single crystals whereas 3.0 u m p articles were highly defective single crystals or particles contained low angle grain boundaries. Sub - micron sized Al 2 O 3 particles exhibited ductile failure in compression. In situ compression experiments showed 0.3um particles deformed plastically, fractured, and became polycrystalline. Moreover, dislocation activit y was observed within the se particles during compression . These sub - micron sized Al 2 O 3 particles exhibited large accum ulated strain (2 - 3 times those of micron - sized particles) before first fracture. I n agreement with the findings from experimentation , a tomistic simulation s of nano - Al 2 O 3 particles showed dislocation slip and significant plastic deformation during compressi on . On the other hand, the micron sized Al 2 O 3 particles exhibited brittle f racture in compression. In situ compression experiments showed 3um Al 2 O 3 particles fractured into pieces without observable plastic deformation in compression. Particle deformation behaviors will be used to inform Al 2 O 3 coating deposition parameters and particle - particle bonding in the consolidated Al 2 O 3 coatings.

  2. Selective catalytic reduction of nitric oxide with ethanol/gasoline blends over a silver/alumina catalyst

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Pihl, Josh A; Toops, Todd J; Fisher, Galen; West, Brian H

    2014-01-01

    Lean gasoline engines running on ethanol/gasoline blends and equipped with a silver/alumina catalyst for selective catalytic reduction (SCR) of NO by ethanol provide a pathway to reduced petroleum consumption through both increased biofuel utilization and improved engine efficiency relative to the current stoichiometric gasoline engines that dominate the U.S. light duty vehicle fleet. A pre-commercial silver/alumina catalyst demonstrated high NOx conversions over a moderate temperature window with both neat ethanol and ethanol/gasoline blends containing at least 50% ethanol. Selectivity to NH3 increases with HC dosing and ethanol content in gasoline blends, but appears to saturate at around 45%. NO2 and acetaldehyde behave like intermediates in the ethanol SCR of NO. NH3 SCR of NOx does not appear to play a major role in the ethanol SCR reaction mechanism. Ethanol is responsible for the low temperature SCR activity observed with the ethanol/gasoline blends. The gasoline HCs do not deactivate the catalyst ethanol SCR activity, but they also do not appear to be significantly activated by the presence of ethanol.

  3. Passamaquoddy Technology Recovery Scrubber{trademark} at the Dragon Products, Inc. Cement Plant located in Thomaston, Maine. 1990 Annual technical report

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Not Available

    1990-12-31

    The background and process of the Passamaquoddy Technology Recovery Scrubber{trademark} are described. The Scrubber was developed for Dragon Cement Plant in Thomaston, Maine and facilitates a number of process improvements. The exhaust gas is scrubbed of SO{sub 2} with better than 90% efficiency. The kiln dust is cleaned of alkalines and so can be returned to kiln feed instead of dumped to landfill. Potassium sulfate in commercial quantity and purity can be recovered. Distilled water is recovered which also has commercial potential. Thus, various benefits are accrued and no waste streams remain for disposal. The process is applicable to both wet and dry process cement kilns and appears to have potential in any industry which generates acidic gaseous exhausts and/or basic solid or liquid wastes.

  4. Obtaining aluminas from the thermal decomposition of their different precursors: An {sup 27}Al MAS NMR and X-ray powder diffraction studies

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Chagas, L.H.; De Carvalho, G.S.G.; San Gil, R.A.S.; Chiaro, S.S.X.; Leitão, A.A.; Diniz, R.

    2014-01-01

    Graphical abstract: - Highlights: • We synthesized three precursors of alumina from different methods. • The calcination of the precursors generated several alumina polymorphs. • XRD and NMR were used for structural investigation of the polymorphs. • The synthesis route determines the structural and textural properties of the solids. - Abstract: A commercial sample of Boehmite was used as precursor of alumina polymorphs. For comparison, three other precursors were synthesized from different methods. Particularly, the use of excess of urea promoted a very crystalline form of basic aluminum carbonate. The characteristics of the four precursors were investigated by thermal, vibrational and X-ray powder diffraction (XRD) analysis. Additionally, the nuclear magnetic resonance, with magic angle spinning ({sup 27}Al MAS NMR), was used to verify the coordination of aluminum cations. Each precursor was calcined at various temperatures generating alumina polymorphs, which were structurally analyzed by XRD and {sup 27}Al MAS NMR. Due to interest in catalysis supports, special attention was given to the ?-Al{sub 2}O{sub 3} phase, which in addition to structural investigation was subjected to textural analysis. The results showed that, from different synthesis procedures and common route of calcination, one can obtain materials with the same composition but with different structural and textural properties, which in turn can significantly influence the performance of a supported catalyst.

  5. High efficiency shale oil recovery. Fourth quarterly report, October 1, 1992--December 31, 1992

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Adams, D.C.

    1992-12-31

    The overall project objective is to demonstrate the high efficiency of the Adams Counter-Current shale oil recovery process. The efficiency will first be demonstrated on a small scale, in the current phase, after which the demonstration will be extended to the operation of a small pilot plant. Thus the immediate project objective is to obtain data on oil shale retorting operations in a small batch rotary kiln that will be representative of operations in the proposed continuous process pilot plant. Although an oil shale batch sample is sealed in the batch kiln from the start until the end of the run, the process conditions for the batch are the same as the conditions that an element of oil shale would encounter in a continuous process kiln. Similar chemical and physical (heating, mixing) conditions exist in both systems. The two most important data objectives in this phase of the project are to demonstrate (1) that the heat recovery projected for this project is reasonable and (2) that an oil shale kiln will run well and not plug up due to sticking and agglomeration. The following was completed and is reported on this quarter: (1) A software routine was written to eliminate intermittently inaccurate temperature readings. (2) We completed the quartz sand calibration runs, resolving calibration questions from the 3rd quarter. (3) We also made low temperature retorting runs to identify the need for certain kiln modifications and kiln modifications were completed. (4) Heat Conductance data on two Pyrolysis runs were completed on two samples of Occidental oil shale.

  6. Energy Efficiency Improvement Opportunities for the Cement Industry

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Price, Lynn; Worrell, Ernst; Galitsky, Christina; Price, Lynn

    2008-01-31

    This report provides information on the energy savings, costs, and carbon dioxide emissions reductions associated with implementation of a number of technologies and measures applicable to the cement industry. The technologies and measures include both state-of-the-art measures that are currently in use in cement enterprises worldwide as well as advanced measures that are either only in limited use or are near commercialization. This report focuses mainly on retrofit measures using commercially available technologies, but many of these technologies are applicable for new plants as well. Where possible, for each technology or measure, costs and energy savings per tonne of cement produced are estimated and then carbon dioxide emissions reductions are calculated based on the fuels used at the process step to which the technology or measure is applied. The analysis of cement kiln energy-efficiency opportunities is divided into technologies and measures that are applicable to the different stages of production and various kiln types used in China: raw materials (and fuel) preparation; clinker making (applicable to all kilns, rotary kilns only, vertical shaft kilns only); and finish grinding; as well as plant wide measures and product and feedstock changes that will reduce energy consumption for clinker making. Table 1 lists all measures in this report by process to which they apply, including plant wide measures and product or feedstock changes. Tables 2 through 8 provide the following information for each technology: fuel and electricity savings per tonne of cement; annual operating and capital costs per tonne of cement or estimated payback period; and, carbon dioxide emissions reductions for each measure applied to the production of cement. This information was originally collected for a report on the U.S. cement industry (Worrell and Galitsky, 2004) and a report on opportunities for China's cement kilns (Price and Galitsky, in press). The information provided in this report is based on publicly-available reports, journal articles, and case studies from applications of technologies around the world.

  7. Parameters identification in strain-rate and thermal sensitive visco-plastic material model for an alumina dispersion strengthened copper

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Scapin, M; Peroni, M

    2011-01-01

    The main objective of this paper is getting strain-hardening, thermal and strain-rate parameters for a material model in order to correctly reproduce the deformation process that occurs in high strain-rate scenario, in which the material reaches also high levels of plastic deformation and temperature. In particular, in this work the numerical inverse method is applied to extract material strength parameters from experimental data obtained via mechanical tests at different strain-rates (from quasi-static loading to high strain-rate) and temperatures (between 20 C and 1000 C) for an alumina dispersion strengthened copper material, which commercial name is GLIDCOP. Thanks to its properties GLIDCOP finds several applications in particle accelerator technologies, where problems of thermal management, combined with structural requirements, play a key role. Currently, it is used for the construction of structural and functional parts of the particle beam collimation system. Since the extreme condition in which the m...

  8. Effect of palladium dispersion on the capture of toxic components from fuel gas by palladium-alumina sorbents

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Baltrus, John P.; Granite, Evan J.; Rupp, Erik C.; Stanko, Dennis C.; Howard, Bret; Pennline, Henry W.

    2011-05-01

    The dispersion and location of Pd in alumina-supported sorbents prepared by different methods was found to influence the performance of the sorbents in the removal of mercury, arsine, and hydrogen selenide from a simulated fuel gas. When Pd is well dispersed in the pores of the support, contact interaction with the support is maximized, Pd is less susceptible to poisoning by sulfur, and the sorbent has better long-term activity for adsorption of arsine and hydrogen selenide, but poorer adsorption capacity for Hg. As the contact interaction between Pd and the support is lessened the Pd becomes more susceptible to poisoning by sulfur, resulting in higher capacity for Hg, but poorer long-term performance for adsorption of arsenic and selenium.

  9. Effect of palladium dispersion on the capture of toxic components from fuel gas by palladium-alumina sorbents

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Baltrus, J.P.; Granite, E.J.; Rupp, E.C.; Stanko, D.C.; Howard, B.; Pennline, H.W.

    2011-01-01

    The dispersion and location of Pd in alumina-supported sorbents prepared by different methods was found to influence the performance of the sorbents in the removal of mercury, arsine, and hydrogen selenide from a simulated fuel gas. When Pd is well dispersed in the pores of the support, contact interaction with the support is maximized, Pd is less susceptible to poisoning by sulfur. and the sorbent has better long-term activity for adsorption of arsine and hydrogen selenide. but poorer adsorption capacity for Hg. As the contact interaction between Pd and the support is lessened the Pd becomes more susceptible to poisoning by sulfur. resulting in higher capacity for Hg, but poorer long-term performance for adsorption of arsenic and selenium.

  10. Case Study Impact Evaluations of the Industrial Energy Savings Plan 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Lilly, P.; Pearson, D.

    1999-01-01

    , the type of fuel being burned in the kiln, and change in the chemical composition of the cement ingredients. The data gathering effort needed to complete these emissions regression models at Lafarge was as great as that needed to complete the kW and k... for: I. the raw mill drive motor 2. the indirect, but attributable effects on finish mill #2 3. the effects of the ASD on the slurry pump motor 4. the indirect effects of the raw mill conversion on the cement kiln drying process, and 5...

  11. Liquid-Metal Electrode to Enable Ultra-Low Temperature Sodium-Beta Alumina Batteries for Renewable Energy Storage

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Lu, Xiaochuan; Li, Guosheng; Kim, Jin Yong; Mei, Donghai; Lemmon, John P.; Sprenkle, Vincent L.; Liu, Jun

    2014-08-01

    Metal electrodes have a high capacity for energy storage but have found limited applications in batteries because of dendrite formation and other problems. In this paper, we report a new alloying strategy that can significantly reduce the melting temperature and improve wetting with the electrolyte to allow the use of liquid metal as anode in sodium-beta alumina batteries (NBBs) at much lower temperatures (e.g., 95 to 175°C). Commercial NBBs such as sodium-sulfur (Na-S) battery and sodium-metal halide (ZEBRA) batteries typically operate at relatively high temperatures (e.g., 300-350°C) due to poor wettability of sodium on the surface of ?"-Al2O3. Our combined experimental and computational studies suggest that Na-Cs alloy can replace pure sodium as the anode material, which provides a significant improvement in wettability, particularly at lower temperatures (i.e., <200°C). Single cells with the Na-Cs alloy anode exhibit excellent cycling life over those with pure sodium anode at 175 and 150°C. The cells can even operate at 95°C, which is below the melting temperature of pure sodium. These results demonstrate that NBB can be operated at ultra lower temperatures with successfully solving the wetting issue. This work also suggests a new strategy to use liquid metal as the electrode materials for advanced batteries that can avoid the intrinsic safety issues associated with dendrite formation on the anode.

  12. Manufacture of Alumina-Forming Austenitic Stainless Steel Alloys by Conventional Casting and Hot-Working Methods

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Brady, M.P.; Yamamoto, Y.; Magee, J.H. (Carpenter Technol. Corp.)

    2009-03-23

    Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL) and Carpenter Technology Corporation (CarTech) participated in an in-kind cost share cooperative research and development agreement (CRADA) effort under the auspices of the Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Technology Maturation program to explore the feasibility for scale up of developmental ORNL alumina-forming austenitic (AFA) stainless steels by conventional casting and rolling techniques. CarTech successfully vacuum melted 30lb heats of four AFA alloy compositions in the range of Fe-(20-25)Ni-(12-14)Cr-(3-4)Al-(1-2.5)Nb wt.% base. Conventional hot/cold rolling was used to produce 0.5-inch thick plate and 0.1-inch thick sheet product. ORNL subsequently successfully rolled the 0.1-inch sheet to 4 mil thick foil. Long-term oxidation studies of the plate form material were initiated at 650, 700, and 800 C in air with 10 volume percent water vapor. Preliminary results indicated that the alloys exhibit comparable (good) oxidation resistance to ORNL laboratory scale AFA alloy arc casting previously evaluated. The sheet and foil material will be used in ongoing evaluation efforts for oxidation and creep resistance under related CRADAs with two gas turbine engine manufacturers. This work will be directed to evaluation of AFA alloys for use in gas turbine recuperators to permit higher-temperature operating conditions for improved efficiencies and reduced environmental emissions.

  13. X-ray Absorption Measurements on Nickel Cathode of Sodium-beta Alumina batteries: Fe-Ni-CI Chemical Associations

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Bowden, Mark E.; Alvine, Kyle J.; Fulton, John L.; Lemmon, John P.; Lu, Xiaochuan; Webb-Robertson, Bobbie-Jo M.; Heald, Steve M.; Balasubramanian, Mahalingam; Mortensen, Devon R.; Seidler, Gerald T.; Hess, Nancy J.

    2014-02-01

    Sections of Na-Al-NiCl2 cathodes from sodium-beta alumina ZEBRA batteries have been characterized with X-ray fluorescence mapping, and XANES measurements to probe the microstructure, elemental correlation, and chemical speciation after voltage cycling. Cycling was performed under identical load conditions at either 240 or 280 °C operating temperature and subsequently quenched in either the charged or discharged state. X-ray fluorescence mapping and XANES measurements were made adjacent to the current collector and ?"-Al2O3 solid electrolyte interfaces to detect possible gradients in chemical properties across the cathode. An FeS additive, introduced during battery synthesis, was found to be present as either Fe metal or an Fe(II) chloride in all cathode samples. X-ray fluorescence mapping reveals an operating temperature and charge-state dependent spatial correlation between Fe, Ni, and Cl concentration. XANES measurements indicate that both Ni and Fe are chemically reactive and shift between metallic and chloride phases in the charged and discharged states, respectively. However the percentage of chemically active Ni and Fe is significantly less in the cell operated at lower temperature. Additionally, the cathode appeared chemically homogeneous at the scale of our X-ray measurements.

  14. Integrated thermal treatment system study: Phase 1 results. Appendix B, Flow sheets and material balances: Volume 2

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Feizollahi, F.; Quapp, W.J.; Hempill, H.G.; Groffie, F.J.

    1994-07-01

    This document accompanies a full report which describes the testing and evaluation of ten different methods for incinerating mixed low-level radioactive wastes. It consists of flowsheets and diagrams of a rotary kiln, pyrolysis methods, a plasma furnace, a fixed hearth, and thermal desorption methods.

  15. UW-Approved Waste Disposal, Recycling and Treatment Sites Hazardous waste disposal at the University of Washington is coordinated by the EH&S Environmental Programs Office

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Wilcock, William

    solid waste, use the approved facilities listed below. This document is primarily intended & sludge Seattle, WA Ventilation Power Cleaning Vactor & parking garage waste Seattle, WA King County Treatment Plant Liquids & sludge Seattle, WA La Farge Cement Kiln Liquids & sludge Seattle, WA Cemex Liquids

  16. JOURNAL DE PHYSIQUE Colloque C2, suppl&mentau no3, Tome 40, mars 1979, page C2-483 ESTIMATION OF FIRING TEMPERATURES OF ANCIENT ROOFING TILES BY Fe-57 MOSSBAUER

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Paris-Sud XI, Université de

    OF FIRING TEMPERATURES OF ANCIENT ROOFING TILES BY Fe- 57 MOSSBAUER SPECTROSCOPY M. Takeda, 0. Kawakami, H temperature of ancient ceramic artifacts manufactured in reducing atmospheres. 1. Introduction.- Roofing tiles that the ancient Japanese roofing tiles excavated at the sites of Taga castle and Hinodeyama ancient kilns (8-10th

  17. CEWEP -Confederation of European Waste-to-Energy Plants Boulevard Clovis 12A

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    processing is already a significant source of renewable energy in many countries and there is major potential Recovered Fuel) as a fuel in both cement kilns and power plants, dedicated Biomass Energy Plants (BEP . We estimate that about 95 TWh of this gap could potentially be provided by Energy from Waste (using

  18. SOLID WOOD PRODUCTS I TECHNICAL NOTE CALIBRATION OF MOISTURE METERS FOR

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    tanks, and boats, the kiln and allowed to cool. They were content (MC) of wood. However, the cor in the velop these factors for both electrical re- calculate the specific gravity of each lumber trade in LeMoyen, La., for the type mete1: It was placed at the center of lowish-brown to dark chocolate brown

  19. U .3. Weather Bureau. Hurricane Betsy, September 2-11, 1961.. ,

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    U .3. Weather Bureau. Hurricane Betsy, September 2-11, 1961.. , I b #12;--- c3cqdga 3 Y I Administration Weather Bureau Hurricane Series ERRATA NOTICE One or more conditions of the original document may Imaging Contractor 12200Kiln Court Beltsville, MD 20704-1387 November 6,2007 #12;HURRICANE BETSY

  20. U. S. Weather Bureau. Hurriaane Beulah, August 20-27, 1963;

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    , and lost its tropical characterist:tcsover the cold waters east of Newfoundland. The hurricane appear Administration Weather Bureau Hurricane Series ERRATA NOTICE One or more conditions of the original document may Services Imaging Contractor 12200Kiln Court Beltsville, MD 20704-1387 November 6,2007 #12;Hurricane BEULAH

  1. A Case Study to Illustrate the Use of Non-Convex Membership Functions for Linguistic Terms

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Garibaldi, Jon

    , car speed control, power systems, nuclear reactor control, fuzzy memory devices and the fuzzy computer been applied to a huge and diverse range of problems such as aircraft flight control, robot control, control of a cement kiln, focusing of a camcorder, climate control for buildings, shower control

  2. Targeted removal of ant colonies in ecological experiments, using hot water

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    of a charcoal-fired kiln made from a 55-gal. oil drum lined with a sand-fireclay mixture is described Commons Attribution 2.5 license that permits unrestricted use, provided that the paper is properly-2442 Journal of Insect Science: Vol. 7 | Article 41 1 #12;Figure 1A. Oil drum and lid, before lining with fire

  3. MEDIA RELEASE February 20, 2014

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Pedersen, Tom

    be lost if a lack of industry coordination means competition between biomass users, such wood pellet-like substance created from burning organic matter (biomass) such as waste-wood in a high temperature kiln under an immediate opportunity to reduce net carbon emissions. "BC has enough excess forest residue and wood waste

  4. Modeling ofHybrid (Heat Radiation and Microwave) High Temperature Processing ofLimestone

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Yakovlev, Vadim

    Modeling ofHybrid (Heat Radiation and Microwave) High Temperature Processing ofLimestone Shawn M (electromagnetic and thermal) modeling to cover practically valuable scenarios of hybrid (heat radiation is applied to the process of hybrid heating of cylindrical samples of limestone in Ceralink's MAT TM kiln

  5. Smoke emissions in an ecologically sound dryer for coconut

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Lozada, E.P.; Timmins, W.H.; Metcalfe, E. [and others

    1997-12-31

    There are about a million smoke kilns in the world that are being used to dry coconuts produced from over 7,000,000 hectares. Smoke emissions from these kilns are known to contain large quantities of greenhouse and acid rain gases. To minimize the generation of these gases, kilns with better combustion characteristics and heat utilization efficiencies must be used. A possible alternative is a direct-fired, free convection dryer known as the Los Banos (Lozada) Multicrop Dryer. Developed at the University of the Philippines Los Banos, the multicrop dryer consists of a simple burner, a heat distributor and a drying bin. The burner burns coconut shell, corn cob and wood pieces with extremely high efficiency, thus, minimizing fuel consumption and dramatically reducing the release of airborne pollutants. The resulting copra (dried coconut kernel) is practically smoke-free with low levels of poly-aromatic hydrocarbons (PAH`s). Tests have also shown that the gas emissions from the dryer, when compared to that of the traditional smoke kiln, have lower concentrations of CO{sub 2} (1% vs 6%), of CO (50 ppm vs 2000-3000 ppm), of NO{sub x} (5 ppm vs 400 ppm) and SO{sub x} (5 ppm vs 400 ppm).

  6. www.eprg.group.cam.ac.uk EPRGWORKINGPAPERNON-TECHNICALSUMMARY

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    de Gispert, Adrià

    , most cement kilns today use coal and petroleum coke as primary fuels, whereas aluminum smelters-energy purposes, such as coking coal, petrochemical feedstocks, or lubricants, have few available substitutes are based on electrochemical operational processes. Therefore, observable substitution of coal

  7. Acknowledgments: UNEP/WMO, IIASA, JRC, US EPA, SEI, Scripps, Middlebury, U York,

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    (particle filters+) ­ Replacing coal in residential stoves ­ Replacing residential wood burning in Industrialized countries ­ Clean-burning cookstoves in developing countries ­ Modern brick kilns ­ Modern coke + Sri Lanka South East Asia China Rice paddies Livestock manure Wastewater Municipal waste Coal mines

  8. JOURNALDE PHYSIQUE IV ColloqueC7, supplkmentau Journal de Physique 111, Volume3,novembre 1993

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Paris-Sud XI, Université de

    to that of a mixture of light benzene and bitumious coal tar if the pyrolysis gas is used as fluidizing gas. The other in the gas conditioning. Furthermore, the pollutants are concentrated in a coke-like residue surrounding them in melting vessels, blast furnaces, autoclaves, tube reactors, rotary kilns, coking chambers and fluidized

  9. Engi 9601, In Class Assignment, 25 Sept. 2012 Shindell et al., 2012, Simultaneously Mitigating Near-Term Climate Change and Improving Human

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Coles, Cynthia

    ) Coal mining, oil and gas production, long distance gas transmission, municipal waste and landfills, wastewater, livestock manure, rice paddies, diesel vehicles, clean-burning biomass stoves, brick kilns, coke Change. (3 marks) coal mining in China, oil and gas production in Central Africa, the Middle East

  10. Multidisciplinary Capstone Design Projects College of Engineering School of Mechanical Engineering

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Colton, Jonathan S.

    , and fabricate, test and refine prototypes. They truly do the entire design, build, test, and optimize cycle charcoal kiln), Climate Healers (Rajasthan, India ­ Solar energy storage cooks stove), Seedr L3C (Cold net energy solar health care clinics and regional vaccine stores), S2O (South Africa ­ Community

  11. The extraction of bitumen from western oil sands. Final report, July 1989--September 1993

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Oblad, A.G.; Bunger, J.W.; Dahlstrom, D.A.; Deo, M.D.; Fletcher, J.V.; Hanson, F.V.; Miller, J.D.; Seader, J.D.

    1994-03-01

    Research and development of surface extraction and upgrading processes of western tar sands are described. Research areas included modified hot water, fluidized bed, and rotary kiln pyrolysis of tar sands for extraction of bitumen. Bitumen upgrading included solvent extraction of bitumen, and catalytic hydrotreating of bitumen. Characterization of Utah tar sand deposits is also included.

  12. HARDWOOD LUMBER MANUFACTURING IN THE UNITED STATES Leonard Guss Associates, Inc.

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    significantly over the past few decades, from more than 4,000 small, often family-owned mills, to an estimated 2 or if the company owns several mills, send their lumber to a common location which has a dry kiln. Otherwise to be dried at another company site. It buys higher grade logs and saws for the highest grade, which it sells

  13. An examination of the role of plasma treatment for lean NOx reduction over sodium zeolite Y and gamma alumina Part 2. Formation of nitrogen

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Yoon, Steven; Panov, Alexander G.; Tonkyn, Russell G.; Ebeling, Ana C.; Barlow, Stephan E.; Balmer, Mari Lou

    2002-03-15

    NOx reduction with NO2 as the NOx gas in the absence of plasma was compared to plasma treated lean NOx exhaust where NO is converted to NO2 in the plasma. Product nitrogen was measured to prove true chemical reduction of NOx to N2. With plasma treatment, NO as the NOx gas, and a NaY catalyst, the maximum conversion to nitrogen was 50% between 180-230?C. The activity decreased at higher and lower temperatures. At 130?C a complete nitrogen balance could be obtained, however between 164-227?C less than 20% of the NOx is converted to a nitrogen-containing compound or compounds not readily detected by GC or FTIR analysis. With plasma treatment, NO2 as the NOx gas, and a NaY catalyst, a complete nitrogen balance is obtained with a maximum conversion to nitrogen of 55% at 225?C. For gamma alumina, with plasma treatment and NO2 as the NOx gas, 59% of the NOx is converted to nitrogen at 340?C. A complete nitrogen balance was obtained at these conditions. As high as 80% NOx removal over gamma alumina was measured by a chemiluminescent NOx meter with plasma treatment and NO as the NOx gas. When NO is replaced with NO2 and the simulated exhaust gases are not plasma treated, the maximum NOx reduction activity of NaY and gamma alumina decreases to 26% and 10%, respectively. This is a large reduction in activity compared to similar conditions where the simulated exhaust was plasma treated. Therefore, in addition to NO2, other plasma-generated species are required to maximize NOx reduction.

  14. Ceramic Technology Project database: September 1990 summary report. [SiC, SiN, whisker-reinforced SiN, ZrO-toughened aluminas, zirconias, joints

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Keyes, B.L.P.

    1992-06-01

    Data generated within the Ceramic Technology Project (CTP) represent a valuable resource for both research and industry. The CTP database was created to provide easy access to this information in electronic and hardcopy forms by using a computerized database and by issuing periodic hardcopy reports on the database contents. This report is the sixth in a series of semiannual database summaries and covers recent additions to the database, including joined brazed specimen test data. It covers 1 SiC, 34 SiN, 10 whisker-reinforced SiN, 2 zirconia-toughened aluminas, 8 zirconias, and 34 joints.

  15. Pyrolysis of waste tyres: A review

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Williams, Paul T.

    2013-08-15

    Graphical abstract: - Highlights: • Pyrolysis of waste tyres produces oil, gas and char, and recovered steel. • Batch, screw kiln, rotary kiln, vacuum and fluidised-bed are main reactor types. • Product yields are influenced by reactor type, temperature and heating rate. • Pyrolysis oils are complex and can be used as chemical feedstock or fuel. • Research into higher value products from the tyre pyrolysis process is reviewed. - Abstract: Approximately 1.5 billion tyres are produced each year which will eventually enter the waste stream representing a major potential waste and environmental problem. However, there is growing interest in pyrolysis as a technology to treat tyres to produce valuable oil, char and gas products. The most common reactors used are fixed-bed (batch), screw kiln, rotary kiln, vacuum and fluidised-bed. The key influence on the product yield, and gas and oil composition, is the type of reactor used which in turn determines the temperature and heating rate. Tyre pyrolysis oil is chemically very complex containing aliphatic, aromatic, hetero-atom and polar fractions. The fuel characteristics of the tyre oil shows that it is similar to a gas oil or light fuel oil and has been successfully combusted in test furnaces and engines. The main gases produced from the pyrolysis of waste tyres are H{sub 2}, C{sub 1}–C{sub 4} hydrocarbons, CO{sub 2}, CO and H{sub 2}S. Upgrading tyre pyrolysis products to high value products has concentrated on char upgrading to higher quality carbon black and to activated carbon. The use of catalysts to upgrade the oil to a aromatic-rich chemical feedstock or the production of hydrogen from waste tyres has also been reported. Examples of commercial and semi-commercial scale tyre pyrolysis systems show that small scale batch reactors and continuous rotary kiln reactors have been developed to commercial scale.

  16. Method and system for the combination of non-thermal plasma and metal/metal oxide doped .gamma.-alumina catalysts for diesel engine exhaust aftertreatment system

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Aardahl, Christopher L. (Richland, WA); Balmer-Miller, Mari Lou (West Richland, WA); Chanda, Ashok (Peoria, IL); Habeger, Craig F. (West Richland, WA); Koshkarian, Kent A. (Peoria, IL); Park, Paul W. (Peoria, IL)

    2006-07-25

    The present disclosure pertains to a system and method for treatment of oxygen rich exhaust and more specifically to a method and system that combines non-thermal plasma with a metal doped .gamma.-alumina catalyst. Current catalyst systems for the treatment of oxygen rich exhaust are capable of achieving only approximately 7 to 12% NO.sub.x reduction as a passive system and only 25 40% reduction when a supplemental hydrocarbon reductant is injected into the exhaust stream. It has been found that treatment of an oxygen rich exhaust initially with a non-thermal plasma and followed by subsequent treatment with a metal doped .gamma.-alumina prepared by the sol gel method is capable of increasing the NO.sub.x reduction to a level of approximately 90% in the absence of SO.sub.2 and 80% in the presence of 20 ppm of SO.sub.2. Especially useful metals have been found to be indium, gallium, and tin.

  17. Temperature dependent dielectric function in the near-infrared to vacuum-ultraviolet ultraviolet spectral range of alumina and yttria stabilized zirconia thin films

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Schmidt-Grund, R. Lühmann, T.; Böntgen, T.; Franke, H.; Lorenz, M.; Grundmann, M.; Opper, D.

    2013-12-14

    The dielectric function of nano-/polycrystalline alumina and yttria stabilised zirconia thin films has been investigated in a wide spectral range from 1.0?eV to 7.5?eV and temperatures between 10?K and room temperature. In the near band-edge spectral range, we found a broad distribution of optical transitions within the band gap, the so-called Urbach absorption tail which is typical for amorphous or polycrystalline materials due to the lack of long range order in the crystal structure. The coupling properties of the electronic system to the optical phonon bath and thermal lattice vibrations strongly depend on the ratio of the spectral extent of these disorder states to the main phonon energy, which we correlate with the different crystalline structure of our samples. The films have been grown at room temperature and 650?°C by pulsed laser deposition.

  18. An examination of the role of plasma treatment for lean NOx reduction over sodium zeolite Y and gamma alumina: Part 1. Plasma assisted NOx reduction over NaY and Al2O3

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Yoon, Ilsop S.; Panov, Alexander G.; Tonkyn, Russell G.; Ebeling, Ana C.; Barlow, Stephan E.; Balmer, Mari Lou

    2002-03-15

    The role of plasma processing on NOx reduction over gammma-alumina and a basic zeolite, NaY was examined. During the plasma treatment NO is oxidized to NO2 and propylene is partially oxidized to CO, CO2, acetaldehyde, and formaldehyde. With plasma treatment, NO as the NOx gas, and a NaY catalyst, the maximum NOx conversion was 70% between 180 and 230?C. The activity decreased at higher and lower temperatures. As high as 80% NOx removal over gamma alumina was measured by a chemiluminescent NOx meter with plasma treatment and NO as the NOx gas. For both catalysts a simultaneous decrease in NOx and aldehydes concentrations was observed, which suggests that aldehyde may be important components for NOx reduction in plasma-treated exhaust.

  19. Development of Surface Complexation Models of Cr(VI) Adsorption on Soils, Sediments and Model Mixtures of Kaolinite, Montmorillonite, ?-Alumina, Hydrous Manganese and Ferric Oxides and Goethite

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Koretsky, Carla [Western Michigan University] [Western Michigan University

    2013-11-29

    Hexavalent chromium is a highly toxic contaminant that has been introduced into aquifers and shallow sediments and soils via many anthropogenic activities. Hexavalent chromium contamination is a problem or potential problem in the shallow subsurface at several DOE sites, including Hanford, Idaho National Laboratory, Los Alamos National Laboratory and the Oak Ridge Reservation (DOE, 2008). To accurately quantify the fate and transport of hexavalent chromium at DOE and other contaminated sites, robust geochemical models, capable of correctly predicting changes in chromium chemical form resulting from chemical reactions occurring in subsurface environments are needed. One important chemical reaction that may greatly impact the bioavailability and mobility of hexavalent chromium in the subsurface is chemical binding to the surfaces of particulates, termed adsorption or surface complexation. Quantitative thermodynamic surface complexation models have been derived that can correctly calculate hexavalent chromium adsorption on well-characterized materials over ranges in subsurface conditions, such pH and salinity. However, models have not yet been developed for hexavalent chromium adsorption on many important constituents of natural soils and sediments, such as clay minerals. Furthermore, most of the existing thermodynamic models have been developed for relatively simple, single solid systems and have rarely been tested for the complex mixtures of solids present in real sediments and soils. In this study, the adsorption of hexavalent chromium was measured as a function of pH (3-10), salinity (0.001 to 0.1 M NaNO3), and partial pressure of carbon dioxide(0-5%) on a suite of naturally-occurring solids including goethite (FeOOH), hydrous manganese oxide (MnOOH), hydrous ferric oxide (Fe(OH)3), ?-alumina (Al2O3), kaolinite (Al2Si2O5(OH)4), and montmorillonite (Na3(Al, Mg)2Si4O10(OH)2?nH2O). The results show that all of these materials can bind substantial quantities of hexavalent chromium, especially at low pH. Unexpectedly, experiments with the clay minerals kaolinite and montmorillonite suggest that hexavalent chromium may interact with these solids over much longer periods of time than expected. Furthermore, hexavalent chromium may irreversibly bind to these solids, perhaps because of oxidation-reduction reactions occurring on the surfaces of the clay minerals. More work should be done to investigate and quantify these chemical reactions. Experiments conducted with mixtures of goethite, hydrous manganese oxide, hydrous ferric oxide, ?-alumina, montmorillonite and kaolinite demonstrate that it is possible to correctly predict hexavalent chromium binding in the presence of multiple minerals using thermodynamic models derived for the simpler systems. Further, these models suggest that of the six solid considered in this study, goethite is typically the solid to which most of the hexavalent chromium will bind. Experiments completed with organic-rich and organic-poor natural sediments demonstrate that in organic-rich substrates, organic matter is likely to control uptake of the hexavalent chromium. The models derived and tested in this study for hexavalent chromium binding to ?-alumina, hydrous manganese oxide, goethite, hydrous ferric oxide and clay minerals can be used to better predict changes in hexavalent chromium bioavailability and mobility in contaminated sediments and soils.

  20. Laser damage by ns and sub-ps pulses on hafnia/silica anti-reflection coatings on fused silica double-sided polished using zirconia or ceria and washed with or without an alumina wash step.

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Bellum, John Curtis; Rambo, Patrick K.; Schwarz, Jens; Kletecka, Damon; Atherton, Briggs W.; Kimmel, Mark W.; Smith, Ian Craig; Smith, Douglas; Hobbs, Zachary

    2010-10-01

    Sandia's Large Optics Coating Operation has extensive results of laser induced damage threshold (LIDT) testing of its anti-reflection (AR) and high reflection coatings on substrates pitch polished using ceria and washed in a process that includes an alumina wash step. The purpose of the alumina wash step is to remove residual polishing compound to minimize its role in laser damage. These LIDT tests are for multi longitudinal mode, ns class pulses at 1064 nm and 532 nm (NIF-MEL protocol) and mode locked, sub-ps class pulses at 1054 nm (Sandia measurements), and show reasonably high and adequate laser damage resistance for coatings in the beam trains of Sandia's Z-Backlighter terawatt and petawatt lasers. An AR coating in addition to coatings of our previous reports confirms this with LIDTs of 33.0 J/cm{sup 2} for 3.5 ns pulses and 1.8 J/cm{sup 2} for 350 fs pulses. In this paper, we investigate both ceria and zirconia in doublesided polishing (common for large flat Z-Backlighter laser optics) as they affect LIDTs of an AR coating on fused silica substrates washed with or without the alumina wash step. For these AR coated, double-sided polished surfaces, ceria polishing in general affords better resistance to laser damage than zirconia polishing and laser damage is less likely with the alumina wash step than without it. This is supported by specific results of laser damage tests with 3.5 ns, multi longitudinal mode, single shot pulses at 1064 nm and 532 nm, with 7.0 ns, single and multi longitudinal mode, single and multi shot pulses at 532 nm, and with 350 fs, mode-locked, single shot pulses at 1054 nm.

  1. Small-Angle Neutron Scattering and Electron Microscopy Study of the Wet and Dry High-Temperature Oxidation of Alumina- and Chromia- Forming Stainless Steels

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Rother, Gernot [ORNL; Keiser, James R [ORNL; Brady, Michael P [ORNL; Unocic, Kinga A [ORNL; Anovitz, Lawrence {Larry} M [ORNL; Littrell, Ken [ORNL; Meisner, Roberta Ann [ORNL; Santella, Michael L [ORNL; Wesolowski, David J [ORNL; Cole, David R [ORNL

    2012-01-01

    Foils of T347 stainless steel and a developmental alumina-forming austenitic (AFA) stainless steel were oxidized at 800 C in dry air, air with 10% H2O, and air with 10% D2O. The T347 foils exhibited a transition to rapid Fe-base oxide formation between 24 and 72 h of exposure in H2O and D2O, but exhibited protective Cr-rich oxide formation in dry air. In contrast, only thin, protective Al-rich oxide surfaces were observed for the AFA alloy foils under all conditions studied. Changes in the small angle neutron scattering (SANS) signal were observed for the T347 stainless steel as a function of oxidation time in dry air, attributed to oxide grain growth and porosity formation/partial scale detachment associated with spinel phase at the scale/gas interface. For the AFA alloy, only minor changes in scattering as a result of oxidation time were observed. For both T347 and AFA, similar scattering was observed in dry and wet air (H2O and D2O) exposure. This finding indicates that water vapor exposure did not induce significant morphological changes in the oxide scales (such as increased porosity) in the 5-300 nm size regime accessed by SANS.

  2. Initial activity of reduced chromia/alumina catalyst in n-butane dehydrogenation monitored by on-line FT-IR gas analysis

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Hakuli, A.; Kytoekivi, A.; Suntola, T.

    1996-06-01

    The initial activity of chromia/alumina catalyst (13 wt% Cr) in n-butane dehydrogenation was studied in a flow reactor at 853 K. The initial activity was determined by on-line FT-IR gas analysis, which enabled sampling of the gaseous product mixture at a time resolution of seconds. The catalysts were processed in repeated cycles of oxidation, reduction, and dehydrogenation using n-butane, methane, hydrogen, or carbon monoxide as reducing agents. With n-butane, methane, and hydrogen and dehydrogenation activity was associated with Cr{sup 3+} species apparently formed in the reduction of high-valence Cr species. The catalyst reduced with carbon monoxide at 853 K showed poor initial selectivity for butenes and, relative to the other catalysts. Simultaneous data relating the initial activity, coke content, and some of the physicochemical properties of the catalyst indicated that the surfaces of all catalysts were modified to some extent by the successive reaction cycles. 33 refs., 7 figs., 2 tabs.

  3. The effect of rhenium, sulfur and alumina on the conversion of hydrocarbons over platinum single crystals: Surface science and catalytic studies

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Kim, C.

    1992-04-01

    Conversion reactions of hydrocarbons over Pt-Re model catalyst surfaces modified by sulfur and alumina have been studied. A plasma deposition source has been developed to deposit Pt, Re, and Al on metal substrates variable coverage in ultrahigh vacuum without excessive heating. Conversion of n-hexane was performed over the Re-covered Pt and Pt-covered Re surfaces. The presence of the second metal increased hydrogenolysis activity of both Pt-Re surfaces. Addition of sulfur on the model Catalyst surfaces suppressed hydrogenolysis activity and increased the cyclization rate of n-hexane to methylcyclopentane over Pt-Re surfaces. Sulfiding also increased the dehydrogenation rate of cyclohexane to benzene Over Pt-Re surfaces. It has been proposed that the PtRe bimetallic catalysts show unique properties when combined with sulfur, and electronic interactions exist between platinum, rhenium and sulfur. Decomposition of hydrocarbons on the sulfur-covered Pt-Re surfaces supported that argument. For the conversion of 1-butene over the planar Pt/AlO[sub x], the addition of Pt increased the selectivity of hydrogenation over isomerization.

  4. The effect of rhenium, sulfur and alumina on the conversion of hydrocarbons over platinum single crystals: Surface science and catalytic studies

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Kim, C.

    1992-04-01

    Conversion reactions of hydrocarbons over Pt-Re model catalyst surfaces modified by sulfur and alumina have been studied. A plasma deposition source has been developed to deposit Pt, Re, and Al on metal substrates variable coverage in ultrahigh vacuum without excessive heating. Conversion of n-hexane was performed over the Re-covered Pt and Pt-covered Re surfaces. The presence of the second metal increased hydrogenolysis activity of both Pt-Re surfaces. Addition of sulfur on the model Catalyst surfaces suppressed hydrogenolysis activity and increased the cyclization rate of n-hexane to methylcyclopentane over Pt-Re surfaces. Sulfiding also increased the dehydrogenation rate of cyclohexane to benzene Over Pt-Re surfaces. It has been proposed that the PtRe bimetallic catalysts show unique properties when combined with sulfur, and electronic interactions exist between platinum, rhenium and sulfur. Decomposition of hydrocarbons on the sulfur-covered Pt-Re surfaces supported that argument. For the conversion of 1-butene over the planar Pt/AlO{sub x}, the addition of Pt increased the selectivity of hydrogenation over isomerization.

  5. Research and Development of a New Silica-Alumina Based Cementitious Material Largely Using Coal Refuse for Mine Backfill, Mine Sealing and Waste Disposal Stabilization

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Henghu Sun; Yuan Yao

    2012-06-29

    Coal refuse and coal combustion byproducts as industrial solid waste stockpiles have become great threats to the environment. To activate coal refuse is one practical solution to recycle this huge amount of solid waste as substitute for Ordinary Portland Cement (OPC). The central goal of this project is to investigate and develop a new silica-alumina based cementitious material largely using coal refuse as a constituent that will be ideal for durable construction, mine backfill, mine sealing and waste disposal stabilization applications. This new material is an environment-friendly alternative to Ordinary Portland Cement. The main constituents of the new material are coal refuse and other coal wastes including coal sludge and coal combustion products (CCPs). Compared with conventional cement production, successful development of this new technology could potentially save energy and reduce greenhouse gas emissions, recycle vast amount of coal wastes, and significantly reduce production cost. A systematic research has been conducted to seek for an optimal solution for enhancing pozzolanic reactivity of the relatively inert solid waste-coal refuse in order to improve the utilization efficiency and economic benefit as a construction and building material.

  6. Compliant alkali silicate sealing glass for solid oxide fuel cell applications: the effect of protective alumina coating on electrical stability in dual environment

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Chou, Y. S.; Choi, Jung-Pyung; Stevenson, Jeffry W.

    2012-12-01

    An alkali-containing silicate glass was recently proposed as a potential sealant for solid oxide fuel cells (SOFC). The glass contains appreciable amount of alkalis and retains its glassy microstructure at elevated temperatures over time. It is more compliant as compared to conventional glass-ceramics sealants and could potentially heal cracks during thermal cycling. In previous papers the thermal cycle stability, thermal stability and chemical compatibility were reported with yttria-stabilized zirconia (YSZ) electrolyte and YSZ-coated ferritic stainless steel interconnect. In this paper, we report the electrical stability of the compliant glass with aluminized AISI441 interconnect material under DC load in dual environment at 700-800oC. Apparent electrical resistivity was measured with a 4-point method for the glass sealed between two aluminized AISI441 metal coupons as well as plain AISI441 substrates. The results showed good electrical stability with the aluminized AISI441 substrate, while unstable behavior was observed for un-coated substrates. In addition, interfacial microstructure was examined with scanning electron microscopy and correlated with the measured resistivity results. Overall, the alumina coating demonstrated good chemical stability with the alkali-containing silicate sealing glass under DC loading.

  7. A comparison of normal and worst case cement plant emissions

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Woodford, J.; Gossman, D.; Johnson, N.

    1996-12-31

    Lone Star Industries, Inc. in Cape Girardeau, Missouri conducted a trial burn in October, 1995. Two metals emissions test days were conducted. One of the test days was a worst case metals spiking day and one of the test days was a normal emissions day. This paper examines and compares the emissions from these two test days. Much has been made of metals emissions from hazardous waste burning cement kilns, but for the most part, this has been due to the worst case metals emissions data that became available from the 1992 BIF compliance testing performed and reported by 24 cement plants. By comparison, very little data exists on normal cement kiln emissions. This paper provides one comparison.

  8. For building and construction. Technical notes

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Bansal, G.D.; Sharma, D.; Prakash, C.; Rao, K.R.; Jain, S.P.

    1981-01-01

    Sixteen technical notes are compiled coveering: Apertures other than Northlights; Design of pile caps; thermal insulation of roofs of industrial buildings; room heating by solar energy; charging device for small capacity lime kilns; waste water disposal system for rural areas; low cost sound absorbing materials; solar space heating system; pedestal piles for low cost houses; solar timber seasoning kiln; design of cold storage for fruits and vegetables; techniques for improved thatch roofs; resilient floors for structural noise reduction; plastic composite panels for partition claddings and flush doors; chimney design for domestic kitchens; and a cheap and effective fire retardant treatment for paddy thatch/coconut leaves/palmyrah thatch. The notes give brief descriptions of the design and use of the materials and techniques covered.

  9. Selective Catalytic Reduction of Oxides of Nitrogen with Ethanol/Gasoline Blends over a Silver/Alumina Catalyst on Lean Gasoline Engine

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Prikhodko, Vitaly Y; Pihl, Josh A; Toops, Todd J; Thomas, John F; Parks, II, James E; West, Brian H

    2015-01-01

    Ethanol is a very effective reductant of nitrogen oxides (NOX) over silver/alumina (Ag/Al2O3) catalysts in lean exhaust environment. With the widespread availability of ethanol/gasoline-blended fuel in the USA, lean gasoline engines equipped with an Ag/Al2O3 catalyst have the potential to deliver higher fuel economy than stoichiometric gasoline engines and to increase biofuel utilization while meeting exhaust emissions regulations. In this work a pre-commercial 2 wt% Ag/Al2O3 catalyst was evaluated on a 2.0-liter BMW lean burn gasoline direct injection engine for the selective catalytic reduction (SCR) of NOX with ethanol/gasoline blends. The ethanol/gasoline blends were delivered via in-pipe injection upstream of the Ag/Al2O3 catalyst with the engine operating under lean conditions. A number of engine conditions were chosen to provide a range of temperatures and space velocities for the catalyst performance evaluations. High NOX conversions were achieved with ethanol/gasoline blends containing at least 50% ethanol; however, higher C1/N ratio was needed to achieve greater than 90% NOX conversion, which also resulted in significant HC slip. Temperature and HC dosing were important in controlling selectivity to NH3 and N2O. At high temperatures, NH3 and N2O yields increased with increased HC dosing. At low temperatures, NH3 yield was very low, however, N2O levels became significant. The ability to generate NH3 under lean conditions has potential for application of a dual SCR approach (HC SCR + NH3 SCR) to reduce fuel consumption needed for NOX reduction and/or increased NOX conversion, which is discussed in this work.

  10. Puna Geothermal Research Facility technology transfer program. Final report, August 23, 1985--August 23, 1989

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Takahashi, P.

    1989-12-31

    The funds were used in a series of small grants to entrepreneurs demonstrating the direct use of geothermal heat supplied by Hawaii`s HGP-A well; this effort was known as the Community Geothermal Technology Program. Summaries are presented of the nine completed projects: fruit dehydration, greenhouse bottom heating, lumber kiln, glass making, cloth dyeing, aquaculture (incomplete), nursery growing media pasteurization, bronze casting, and electrodeposition from geothermal brine.

  11. UBC Social Ecological Economic Development Studies (SEEDS) Student Report Life Cycle Assessment of the George F. Curtis Addition Building

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    III Glass Felt 13442.883 m2 5/8" Regular Gypsum Board 8937.0811 m2 #15 Organic Felt 6721.4413 m2-Rated Type X Gypsum Board 42.4443 m2 Water Based Latex Paint 35.7273 L Glazing Panel 33.0513 Tonnes Aluminum Lumber, kiln-dried 4.1861 m3 Galvanized Sheet 4.0585 Tonnes Nails 1.9998 Tonnes Solvent Based Alkyd Paint

  12. Marketing aspects of range sheep production in Texas 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Blackwell, James Wayne

    1958-01-01

    NNrrieiicEll ~ ~ ~ ~ ~ ~ a ~ ~ ~ ~ ~ ~ ~ il&li+Tepfg ~ ~ ~ & ~ ~ ~ ~ ~ ~ ~ ~ ~ e ~ ~ ~ ~ s t ~ PJ, 85 nappe +0 ~ ~ ~ ~ ~ ~ ~ ~ ~ ~ i ~ ~ ~ ~ ~ ~ ~ ~ ~ 1 ~ Siae or sample dr?an in each CONty, tXy flock ciao, 1956 ' ~ ~ ~ ~ ~ ~ ~ ~ ~ ~ ~ ~ ~ ~ ~ ~ ~ ~ ~ ~ ~ ~ ~ 7 2.... Distribution of contract sales by tees of buyer, b month of contracte 1, 56e ~ ~ ~ ~ ~ ~ ~ ~ ~ e ~ ~ ~ ~ ~ ~ ~ 20e e. &lichens )refcrerrcp . 0 zlarbo . . :Mlr~hl IM rfa' anC stlx'kiln 55 1+Be 1956 ~ ~ ~ ~ ~ ~ ~ e ~ ~ ~ ~ ~ ~ ~ ~ ~ e ~ ~ e ~ ~ 2I e pj...

  13. Supplement of Atmos. Chem. Phys., 14, 56175638, 2014 http://www.atmos-chem-phys.net/acp-14-5617-2014/

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Meskhidze, Nicholas

    .2 Industry Combustion Coal/Boiler, Kilns Liu et al. (2008), 1185 1185 1701.2 Coke Oven Blast Furnace Gas/Boiler 5 217 297.7 Biofuel/Boiler Tsai et al. (2003), Liu et al. (2008), Wang et al. (2009), 1167, 4420.8 Printing Cleaning Gasoline Solvent Liu et al. (2008), 1195 1022 430.3 Residential Combustion Coal/Boiler

  14. The Role of Analog Instrumentation in Energy Management 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Moore, J. A.

    1979-01-01

    and improve combustion efficiency are shown in Figure 2. A steam generating boiler is used to illustrate combustion control, although the same control philosophy applies to furnaces, kilns, and fuel fired dryers. Figure 2 shows controls that could be applied... because it can be done by adding instrumentation to existing plant and equipment. Naturally, in the application of control, the areas of greatest savi~gs are. those where fuel is directly consumed, the combustion processes. U. S. Department of Commerce...

  15. Use of Thermal Energy Storage to Enhance the Recovery and Utilization of Industrial Waste Heat 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    McChesney, H. R.; Bass, R. W.; Landerman, A. M.; Obee, T. N.; Sgamboti, C. T.

    1982-01-01

    in Table 2. Generalized source media included combustion gases at various temperatures from oil/gas fired furnaces, kilns, etc., condensing vapors and various liquid steams at 200 D F (90?C) or below. Generalized sink processes/media included process... applications). Potential fuel energy savings for industry level applications are pre sented in Table 7 and are derived from industry cross-correlation data similar to that shown in Table 2. Intra-industry level energy savings were used subsequent ly...

  16. Embodied Energy of Fired Bricks: The Case of Uganda and Tanzania

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Hashemi, Arman; Cruickshank, Heather

    2015-07-30

    and wastes the energy while too little air flow will stop the fuel from burning properly. Providing dampers and wind breaks to control/protect the fire could greatly improve the fuel efficiency of kilns (Practical Action). 5. BRICK SUPPLIERS Artisans... , small- and medium-scale manufactures are the three major types of suppliers of bricks in Uganda (Table 2). Bricks produced by artisans take a larger share of the market compared to small- and medium-scale manufactured bricks. The handmade bricks...

  17. Application of pulse combustion to solid and hazardous-waste incineration

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Stewart, C.R.; Lemieux, P.M.; Zinn, B.T.

    1991-01-01

    The paper discusses the application of pulse combustion to solid and hazardous waste incineration. A rotary kiln incinerator simulator was retrofitted with a frequency-tunable pulse combustor to enhance the efficiency of combustion. The pulse combustor excites pulsations in the kiln and increases the completeness of combustion by promoting better mixing within the system. Tests were performed using toluene sorbed onto a ground corn cob sorbent and placed in cardboard containers. The burner was operated in a non-pulse mode as a baseline condition, and then in a pulse mode in which the frequency of the pulse combustor was adjusted to the natural frequency of the combustion chamber, creating resonant pulsations of large magnitude. The test was also performed using polyethylene tube bundles to simulate a solid waste and to investigate a surrogate which produces different puff characteristics. The addition of turbulence in the rotary kiln due to high amplitude acoustic pulsations has a strong tendency to reduce the amount of soot and/or semivolatile and non-volatile hydrocarbons. Mass emissions of soot were consistently reduced in all tests. Carbon monoxide increased during acoustic pulsations in the toluene tests. The paper also discusses unsatisfied oxygen demand and carbon penetration and how pulsations affect them.

  18. NUCLEAR POWERED CO2 CAPTURE FROM THE ATMOSPHERE

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Sherman, S

    2008-09-22

    A process for capturing CO{sub 2} from the atmosphere was recently proposed. This process uses a closed cycle of sodium and calcium hydroxide, carbonate, and oxide transformations to capture dilute CO{sub 2} from the atmosphere and to generate a concentrated stream of CO{sub 2} that is amenable to sequestration or subsequent chemical transformations. In one of the process steps, a fossil-fueled lime kiln is needed, which reduces the net CO{sub 2} capture of the process. It is proposed to replace the fossil-fueled lime kiln with a modified kiln heated by a high-temperature nuclear reactor. This will have the effect of eliminating the use of fossil fuels for the process and increasing the net CO{sub 2} capture. Although the process is suitable to support sequestration, the use of a nuclear power source for the process provides additional capabilities, and the captured CO{sub 2} may be combined with nuclear-produced hydrogen to produce liquid fuels via Fischer-Tropsch synthesis or other technologies. Conceivably, such plants would be carbon-neutral, and could be placed virtually anywhere without being tied to fossil fuel sources or geological sequestration sites.

  19. Alumina-based ceramic composite

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Alexander, K.B.; Tiegs, T.N.; Becher, P.F.; Waters, S.B.

    1996-07-23

    An improved ceramic composite comprising oxide ceramic particulates, nonoxide ceramic particulates selected from the group consisting of carbides, borides, nitrides of silicon and transition metals and mixtures thereof, and a ductile binder selected from the group consisting of metallic, intermetallic alloys and mixtures thereof is described. The ceramic composite is made by blending powders of the ceramic particulates and the ductile to form a mixture and consolidating the mixture of under conditions of temperature and pressure sufficient to produce a densified ceramic composite. 5 figs.

  20. Alumina-based ceramic composite

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Alexander, Kathleen B. (Oak Ridge, TN); Tiegs, Terry N. (Lenoir City, TN); Becher, Paul F. (Oak Ridge, TN); Waters, Shirley B. (Knoxville, TN)

    1996-01-01

    An improved ceramic composite comprising oxide ceramic particulates, nonoxide ceramic particulates selected from the group consisting of carbides, borides, nitrides of silicon and transition metals and mixtures thereof, and a ductile binder selected from the group consisting of metallic, intermetallic alloys and mixtures thereof is described. The ceramic composite is made by blending powders of the ceramic particulates and the ductile to form a mixture and consolidating the mixture of under conditions of temperature and pressure sufficient to produce a densified ceramic composite.

  1. Energy Efficient Microwave Hybrid Processing of Lime for Cement, Steel, and Glass Industries

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Fall, Morgana L; Yakovlev, Vadim; Sahi, Catherine; Baranova, Inessa; Bowers, Johnney G; Esquenazi , Gibran L

    2012-02-10

    In this study, the microwave materials interactions were studied through dielectric property measurements, process modeling, and lab scale microwave hybrid calcination tests. Characterization and analysis were performed to evaluate material reactions and energy usage. Processing parameters for laboratory scale and larger scale calcining experiments were developed for MAT limestone calcination. Early stage equipment design concepts were developed, with a focus on microwave post heating treatment. The retrofitting of existing rotary calcine equipment in the lime industry was assessed and found to be feasible. Ceralink sought to address some of the major barriers to the uptake of MAT identified as the need for (1) team approach with end users, technology partners, and equipment manufacturers, (2) modeling that incorporates kiln materials and variations to the design of industrial microwave equipment. This project has furthered the commercialization effort of MAT by working closely with an industrial lime manufacturer to educate them regarding MAT, identifying equipment manufacturer to supply microwave equipment, and developing a sophisticated MAT modeling with WPI, the university partner. MAT was shown to enhance calcining through lower energy consumption and faster reaction rates compared to conventional processing. Laboratory testing concluded that a 23% reduction in energy was possible for calcining small batches (5kg). Scale-up testing indicated that the energy savings increased as a function of load size and 36% energy savings was demonstrated (22 kg). A sophisticated model was developed which combines simultaneous microwave and conventional heating. Continued development of this modeling software could be used for larger scale calcining simulations, which would be a beneficial low-cost tool for exploring equipment design prior to actual building. Based on these findings, estimates for production scale MAT calcining benefits were calculated, assuming uptake of MAT in the US lime industry. This estimate showed that 7.3 TBTU/year could be saved, with reduction of 270 MMlbs of CO2 emissions, and $29 MM/year in economic savings. Taking into account estimates for MAT implementation in the US cement industry, an additional 39 TBTU/year, 3 Blbs of CO2 and $155 MM/year could be saved. One of the main remaining barriers to commercialization of MAT for the lime and cement industries is the sheer size of production. Through this project, it was realized that a production size MAT rotary calciner was not feasible, and a different approach was adapted. The concept of a microwave post heat section located in the upper portion of the cooler was devised and appears to be a more realistic approach for MAT implementation. Commercialization of this technology will require (1) continued pilot scale calcining demonstrations, (2) involvement of lime kiln companies, and (3) involvement of an industrial microwave equipment provider. An initial design concept for a MAT post-heat treatment section was conceived as a retrofit into the cooler sections of existing lime rotary calciners with a 1.4 year payback. Retrofitting will help spur implementation of this technology, as the capital investment will be minimal for enhancing the efficiency of current rotary lime kilns. Retrofits would likely be attractive to lime manufacturers, as the purchase of a new lime kiln is on the order of a $30 million dollar investment, where as a MAT retrofit is estimated on the order of $1 million. The path for commercialization lies in partnering with existing lime kiln companies, who will be able to implement the microwave post heat sections in existing and new build kilns. A microwave equipment provider has been identified, who would make up part of the continued development and commercialization team.

  2. Groundwater Chemistry Changes as a Result of CO2 Injection at the ZERT Field Site in Bozeman, Montana

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Apps, J.A.; Birkholzer, J.T.; Spycher, N.; Zheng, L.; Herkelrath, W.N.; Kharaka, Y.K.; Thordsen, J.J.; Kakouros, E.; Beers, S; Gullickson, K.S.; Spangler, L.H.; Ambats, G.

    2009-11-01

    Combustion of fossil fuels produces CO{sub 2}, a common greenhouse gas linked to global climate change. Separation of CO{sub 2}from emissions produced by large industrial point sources like power plants, cement kilns and refineries, and injection deep nderground into geologic formations is one method of preventing CO{sub 2} releases into the atmosphere. This process is referred to as Carbon Capture and Storage (CCS). CCS is one of several solutions being considered to mitigate global climate change. Other solutions nclude increased energy efficiency, renewables, nuclear power, advanced coal, and plug-in hybrid electric vehicles.

  3. DOE SUNY Cobleskill Final Report Part 2/5

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    None

    2012-03-31

    This research evaluated a rotary kiln gasification system utilizing agricultural wastes to generate syn gas. The goal of the project was to develop an efficient methodology for harnessing energy from agricultural waste. Objectives included: installation and cold testing of the gasification system; hot testing the gasification system with two agricultural wastes; development of an operations plan, including a data procurement and analysis plan; development of a predictive model and validation of the model; developing process improvement recommendations; and construction of two deployment pathway models (e.g., institutional and farm).

  4. Wood energy and preservation of woodlands in semi-arid developing countries. The case of Dodoma region, Tanzania

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Allen, J.C.

    1985-01-01

    At present little land and labour resources are expended on energy production, but the woodlands in Dodoma are disappearing, causing villagers to save time by switching from fuelwood collected on foot to charcoal shipped in by truck. Results of a linear program show that if the costs of growing the wood for charcoal are counted the switch to charcoal saves time only in areas where population is relatively dense and natural woodland remote. Woodland preservation in Dodoma will require more plantations, increased plantation productivity, improved efficiency of charcoal kilns or stoves and ultimately a switch to some other fuel than wood.

  5. DOE SUNY Cobleskill Final Report 3/5

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    2012-03-31

    This research evaluated a rotary kiln gasification system utilizing agricultural wastes to generate syn gas. The goal of the project was to develop an efficient methodology for harnessing energy from agricultural waste. Objectives included: installation and cold testing of the gasification system; hot testing the gasification system with two agricultural wastes; development of an operations plan, including a data procurement and analysis plan; development of a predictive model and validation of the model; developing process improvement recommendations; and construction of two deployment pathway models (e.g., institutional and farm).

  6. Katherine Oral History

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Albin, Tami

    2014-03-13

    't think of the name of that organization—Range Society meetings. And the three of us who went together—our boss and Richard and I, we all got sick. We all got some form of flu. And by the time we got back home all three of us were sick. I stayed... of Louise, and there were Brahman cattle and rice still being produced that were my grandmother's. She was also an artist. She threw pots. She had her own kiln. She made all of our clothes—my mother's clothes, my clothes, from the time I was—that I...

  7. DOE SUNY Cobleskill Final Report - Part 1/5

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    2012-03-31

    This research evaluated a rotary kiln gasification system utilizing agricultural wastes to generate syn gas. The goal of the project was to develop an efficient methodology for harnessing energy from agricultural waste. Objectives included: installation and cold testing of the gasification system; hot testing the gasification system with two agricultural wastes; development of an operations plan, including a data procurement and analysis plan; development of a predictive model and validation of the model; developing process improvement recommendations; and construction of two deployment pathway models (e.g., institutional and farm).

  8. Waste combustion in boilers and industrial furnaces

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    1997-12-31

    This set of conference papers deals with the combustion of hazardous wastes in boilers and industrial furnaces. The majority of the papers pertain specifically to cement industry kiln incinerators and focus on environmental issues. In particular, stack emission requirements currently enforced or under consideration by the U.S. EPA are emphasized. The papers were drawn from seven areas: (1) proposed Maximum Achievable Control Technology rule, (2) trial burn planning and experience, (3) management and beneficial use of materials, (4) inorganic emissions and continuous emission monitoring, (5) organic emissions, (6) boiler and industrial furnace operations, and (7) risk assessment and communication.

  9. DOE SUNY Cobleskill Final Report Part 5/5

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    2012-03-31

    This research evaluated a rotary kiln gasification system utilizing agricultural wastes to generate syn gas. The goal of the project was to develop an efficient methodology for harnessing energy from agricultural waste. Objectives included: installation and cold testing of the gasification system; hot testing the gasification system with two agricultural wastes; development of an operations plan, including a data procurement and analysis plan; development of a predictive model and validation of the model; developing process improvement recommendations; and construction of two deployment pathway models (e.g., institutional and farm).

  10. Wood Gasification: Where It's At, Where It's Going 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Murphy, M. L.

    1981-01-01

    the proven combustion system. With other applications such as the firing of lime kilns in the pul p and pape r indus try where the opti ons, other than fossil fuel s and gasification, are non existent and the economics for gasification are very similar... in biomass gasifi cation. As early as 1839, processes were in operation on coal, wood or other residues in which a combustible off-gas, or producer gas as it was aptly dubbed, was generated by the incomplete fuel oxidatior, \

  11. Center for Coal-Derived Low Energy Materials for Sustainable Construction

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Jewell, Robert; Robl, Tom; Rathbone, Robert

    2012-06-30

    The overarching goal of this project was to create a sustained center to support the continued development of new products and industries that manufacture construction materials from coal combustion by-products or CCB’s (e.g., cements, grouts, wallboard, masonry block, fillers, roofing materials, etc). Specific objectives includes the development of a research kiln and associated system and the formulation and production of high performance low-energy, low-CO2 emitting calcium sulfoaluminate (CAS) cement that utilize coal combustion byproducts as raw materials.

  12. Idle Spots

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Eddings, James Richard

    2009-06-02

    reacts with the clay and creates a unique glaze on the surface of the piece. Wood firing is similar to soda firing except that wood is the fuel to fire the kiln and the wood ash reacts with the clay to create a glaze on the surface of the piece. Through... soda or wood ash. The pasing of flame and the addition of soda are visualy recorded on the surface of the piece. Sandblasting, like natural erosion, takes away the outer skin and reveals the subsurface and cone 04 oxidation and painting increase...

  13. DOE SUNY Cobleskill Final Report Part 4/5

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    2012-03-31

    This research evaluated a rotary kiln gasification system utilizing agricultural wastes to generate syn gas. The goal of the project was to develop an efficient methodology for harnessing energy from agricultural waste. Objectives included: installation and cold testing of the gasification system; hot testing the gasification system with two agricultural wastes; development of an operations plan, including a data procurement and analysis plan; development of a predictive model and validation of the model; developing process improvement recommendations; and construction of two deployment pathway models (e.g., institutional and farm).

  14. Solar solids reactor

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Yudow, B.D.

    1986-02-24

    A solar powered kiln is provided, that is of relatively simple design and which efficiently uses solar energy. The kiln or solids reactor includes a stationary chamber with a rearward end which receives solid material to be reacted and a forward end through which reacted material is disposed of, and a screw conveyor extending along the bottom of the chamber for slowly advancing the material between the chamber ends. Concentrated solar energy is directed to an aperture at the forward end of the chamber to heat the solid material moving along the bottom of the chamber. The solar energy can be reflected from a mirror facing at an upward incline, through the aperture and against a heat-absorbing material near the top of the chamber, which moves towards the rear of the chamber to distribute heat throughout the chamber. Pumps at the forward and rearward ends of the chamber pump heated sweep gas through the length of the chamber, while minimizing the flow of gas through an open aperture through which concentrated sunlight is received.

  15. Solar solids reactor

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Yudow, Bernard D. (Chicago, IL)

    1987-01-01

    A solar powered kiln is provided, that is of relatively simple design and which efficiently uses solar energy. The kiln or solids reactor includes a stationary chamber with a rearward end which receives solid material to be reacted and a forward end through which reacted material is disposed of, and a screw conveyor extending along the bottom of the chamber for slowly advancing the material between the chamber ends. Concentrated solar energy is directed to an aperture at the forward end of the chamber to heat the solid material moving along the bottom of the chamber. The solar energy can be reflected from a mirror facing at an upward incline, through the aperture and against a heat-absorbing material near the top of the chamber, which moves towards the rear of the chamber to distribute heat throughout the chamber. Pumps at the forward and rearward ends of the chamber pump heated sweep gas through the length of the chamber, while minimizing the flow of gas through an open aperture through which concentrated sunlight is received.

  16. Final Technical Report for Alternative Fuel Source Study-An Energy Efficient and Environmentally Friendly Approach

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Zee, Ralph; Schindler, Anton; Duke, Steve; Burch, Thom; Bransby, David; Stafford, Don

    2010-08-31

    The objective of this project is to conduct research to determine the feasibility of using alternate fuel sources for the production of cement. Successful completion of this project will also be beneficial to other commercial processes that are highly energy intensive. During this report period, we have completed all the subtasks in the preliminary survey. Literature searches focused on the types of alternative fuels currently used in the cement industry around the world. Information was obtained on the effects of particular alternative fuels on the clinker/cement product and on cement plant emissions. Federal regulations involving use of waste fuels were examined. Information was also obtained about the trace elements likely to be found in alternative fuels, coal, and raw feeds, as well as the effects of various trace elements introduced into system at the feed or fuel stage on the kiln process, the clinker/cement product, and concrete made from the cement. The experimental part of this project involves the feasibility of a variety of alternative materials mainly commercial wastes to substitute for coal in an industrial cement kiln in Lafarge NA and validation of the experimental results with energy conversion consideration.

  17. Development and commercialization of a biomass gasification/power generation system

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Paisley, M.A.; Farris, G.

    1995-11-01

    The US Department of Energy (DOE) has been a leader in the promotion and development of alternative fuel supplies based on renewable energy crops. One promising power generation technology is biomass gasification coupled with either a gas turbine in a combined cycle system or a fuel cell. The gasification of biomass can efficiently and economically produce a renewable source of a clean gaseous fuel suitable for use in these high efficiency power systems or as a substitute fuel in other combustion devices such as boilers, kilns, or other natural gas fired equipment. This paper discusses the development and commercialization of the Battelle high-throughput gasification process for gas turbine based power generation systems. Projected process economics for a gas turbine combined cycle plant are presented along with a description of integrated system operation coupling a 200kW gas turbine power generation system to a 10 ton per day gasifier, and current commercialization activities.

  18. Gas turbine power generation from biomass gasification

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Paisley, M.A.; Litt, R.D.; Overend, R.P.; Bain, R.L.

    1994-12-31

    The Biomass Power Program of the US Department of Energy (DOE) has as a major goal the development of cost-competitive technologies for the production of power from renewable biomass crops. The gasification of biomass provides the potential to meet this goal by efficiently and economically producing a renewable source of a clean gaseous fuel suitable for use in high efficiency gas turbines or as a substitute fuel in other combustion devices such as boilers, kilns, or other natural gas fired equipment. This paper discusses the development of the use of the Battelle high-throughput gasification process for power generation systems. Projected process economics are presented along with a description of current experimental operations coupling a gas turbine power generation system to the research scale gasifier.

  19. Power production from renewable resources in a gasification power system

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Paisley, M.A.; Farris, G.; Bain, R.

    1996-12-31

    The US Department of Energy (DOE) has been a leader in the promotion and development of alternative fuel supplies based on renewable energy crops. One promising power generation technology is biomass gasification coupled with either a gas turbine in a combined cycle system or a fuel cell. The gasification of biomass can efficiently and economically produce a renewable source of a clean gaseous fuel suitable for use in these high efficiency power systems or as a substitute fuel in other combustion devices such as boilers, kilns, or other natural gas fired equipment. This paper discusses the development and commercialization of the Battelle high-throughput gasification process for gas turbine based power generation systems. Projected process economics for a gas turbine combined cycle plant are presented along with a description of integrated system operation coupling a 200kW gas turbine power generation system to a 10 ton per day gasifier, and current commercialization activities. 6 refs., 3 figs., 1 tab.

  20. Follow that mercury!

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Linero, A.A.

    2008-07-01

    The article discusses one technology option for avoiding release of mercury captured by power plant pollution control equipment in order to render it usable in concrete. This is the use of selective catalytic reduction for NOx control and lime spray dryer absorbers (SDA) for SO{sub 2} control prior to particulate collection by fabric filters. In this scenario all mercury removed is trapped in the fabric filter baghouse. The US EPA did not establish mercury emission limits for existing cement plants in the latest regulation 40 CFR 63, Subpart LLL (December 2006) and was sued by the Portland Cement Association because of the Hg limits established for new kilns and by several states and environmental groups for the lack of limits on existing ones. A full version of this article is available on www.acaa-usa.org/AshatWork.htm. 2 figs.

  1. Identification and quantification of organic chemicals in supplemental fuel blends

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Salter, F.

    1996-12-31

    Continental Cement Company, Inc. (Continental) burns waste fuels to supplement coal in firing the kiln. It is to be expected that federal and state agencies want an accounting of the chemicals burned. As rules and regulations become more plentiful, a company such as Continental must demonstrate that it has made a reasonable attempt to identify and quantify many specific organic compounds. The chemicals on the SARA 313 list can change frequently. Also the number and concentrations of compounds that can disqualify a material from consideration as a supplemental fuel at Continental continues to change. A quick and reliable method of identifying and quantifying organics in waste fuel blends is therefore crucial. Using a Hewlett-Packard 5972 GC/MS system Continental has developed a method of generating values for the total weight of compounds burned. A similar procedure is used to verify that waste streams meet Continental`s acceptance criteria.

  2. Solarnorth '81 by Tymura Solardesigns: diverse residential, commercial and industrial projects at and above the 48th parallel in Ontario, Canada

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Tymura, E.J.

    1981-01-01

    Solar Energy Heating Applications are On the Rise in and above the Northwestern City of Thunder Bay, on the northern shore of Lake Superior. Unique in their diversifications, the architectural commissions range from pure passive residential design thru hybrid systems; residential Greenhouse-Solarium active swimming pool and commercial hotel pool to inexpensive hybrid system for Canada's First Commercial Solar Lumber Drying Kiln; as well as combined earth sheltered with solar system design for a dormitory complex and shopping center. By May 1981, 7 buildings designed by Tymura Solardesigns in the Thunder Bay area will have been subjected to the Extreme Canadian climate (10,500/sup 0/F degree days, yearly temperature maximums from -41/sup 0/F to 90/sup 0/F, and solar fractions vary from 50% to 75%, with economic payback periods ranging between 7 and 10 years.

  3. Waste Heat to Power Market Assessment

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Elson, Amelia; Tidball, Rick; Hampson, Anne

    2015-03-01

    Waste heat to power (WHP) is the process of capturing heat discarded by an existing process and using that heat to generate electricity. In the industrial sector, waste heat streams are generated by kilns, furnaces, ovens, turbines, engines, and other equipment. In addition to processes at industrial plants, waste heat streams suitable for WHP are generated at field locations, including landfills, compressor stations, and mining sites. Waste heat streams are also produced in the residential and commercial sectors, but compared to industrial sites these waste heat streams typically have lower temperatures and much lower volumetric flow rates. The economic feasibility for WHP declines as the temperature and flow rate decline, and most WHP technologies are therefore applied in industrial markets where waste heat stream characteristics are more favorable. This report provides an assessment of the potential market for WHP in the industrial sector in the United States.

  4. USDOE Innovative Clean Coal Technology Demonstration Project: Passamaquoddy Technology Recovery Scrubber{trademark}. Final report: Volume 1

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Not Available

    1994-02-01

    This Final Report provides available design, operational, and maintenance information, and marketing plans, on the Passamaquoddy Technology Recovery Scrubber{trademark} demonstration Project at the Dragon Products company`s cement plant at Thomaston, Maine. In addition, data on pollutant removal efficiencies and system economics are reviewed. The Recovery Scrubber was developed to simultaneously address the emission of acid gas pollutants and the disposal of alkaline solid waste at a cement plant. The process, however, has general application to other combustion processes including waste or fossil fuel fired boilers. Selected chemistry of the exhaust gas, (before and after treatment by the Recovery Scrubber), selected chemistry of the cement plant kiln baghouse dust catch (before and after treatment by the Recovery Scrubber), and Dragon cement plant economics are presented. current marketing efforts and potential markets for the Recovery Scrubber in several industries are discussed.

  5. Disposal techniques with energy recovery for scrapped vehicle tires

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Sladek, T.A.; Demos, E.K.

    1987-06-01

    The scrap tire disposal problem is serious and widespread. However there are a number of promising management options, especially using the rubber as a supplemental fuel for existing combustors. The most cost-effective approach to dealing with Denver's tire stockpile appears to be shredding to a coarse size range, storing the shreds in a secure area, and marketing the rubber to nearby cement kilns, lime kilns, and boilers. This interim step would greatly reduce the volume of the pile, facilitate the Superfund evaluation, reduce fire and disease hazards, and simplify subsequent materials handling. Further processing to obtain rubber chips or crumbs may also be practical. However the industry and the markets would have to emerge over time. New power plants or pyrolysis facilities would be impeded by the low energy prices in Denver and the need for elaborate pollution controls. Landfilling could be considered as a last resort. Landfilling costs would be minimized if the tires are shredded. Chapter 2 discusses the tire disposal problem and the general options for tire management. Chapter 3 describes the methodology used to analyze Denver's situation and presents the results and conclusions obtained. This includes evaluation of strategies to implement the more promising resource recovery options in the Denver area. Chapter 4 summarizes the lessons learned and identifies impediments and uncertainties that need to be addressed in any future studies. The Appendix contains additional acknowledgments, a list of references, definitions for the acronyms and units used in the text, the agenda for the tire workshop, and a brief description of a stockpile fire near Denver in June 1987. 111 refs., 6 tabs.

  6. Asphalt Roofing Shingles Into Energy Project Summary Report

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Jameson, Rex, PE

    2008-04-28

    Based on a widely cited September, 1999 report by the Vermont Agency of Natural Resources, nearly 11 million tons of asphalt roofing shingle wastes are produced in the United States each year. Recent data suggests that the total is made up of about 9.4 million tons from roofing tear-offs and about 1.6 million tons from manufacturing scrap. Developing beneficial uses for these materials would conserve natural resources, promote protection of the environment and strengthen the economy. This project explored the feasibility of using chipped asphalt shingle materials in cement manufacturing kilns and circulating fluidized bed (CFB) boilers. A method of enhancing the value of chipped shingle materials for use as fuel by removing certain fractions for use as substitute raw materials for the manufacture of new shingles was also explored. Procedures were developed to prevent asbestos containing materials from being processed at the chipping facilities, and the frequency of the occurrence of asbestos in residential roofing tear-off materials was evaluated. The economic feasibility of each potential use was evaluated based on experience gained during the project and on a review of the well established use of shingle materials in hot mix asphalt. This project demonstrated that chipped asphalt shingle materials can be suitable for use as fuel in circulating fluidized boilers and cement kilns. More experience would be necessary to determine the full benefits that could be derived and to discover long term effects, but no technical barriers to full scale commercial use of chipped asphalt shingle materials in these applications were discovered. While the technical feasibility of various options was demonstrated, only the use of asphalt shingle materials in hot mix asphalt applications is currently viable economically.

  7. Compilation of RCRA closure plan conditions applicable to boilers and industrial furnaces at cement plants

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Raymond, A.N.

    1998-12-31

    A prudent approach to closure plan development will assist preparers of closure plans to ensure that a cement kiln BIF unit and associated Resources conservation and Recovery Act (RCRA) units are effectively closed in a manner that minimizes potential threats to human health and the environment, as well as facilitating closure in an economical and timely manner. Cement kilns burning hazardous waste-derived-fuel (HWDF) must comply with the general facility standards of Subpart G Closure and Post-Closure requirements of 40 CFR parts 264 or 265 in addition to the RCRA Part b permitting requirements of 40 CFR parts 270.13 and 270.22 (e) and (f). As a result, approved closure plans for BIF facilities (or individual BIF units) will contain general and site-specific permit conditions that will mandate numerous closure activities be conducted to successfully implement the partial or final closure of a permitted or interim status BIF unit or facility. Currently, a scarce amount of published information is available to the cement industry in the form of agency guidance documents that would assist facilities with BIF unit closures. A review of seven approved or implemented closure plans revealed significant differences between plans approved recently versus a few years ago as well as observed differences in acceptable closure criteria between EPA regions and various states agencies. The intent of this paper is to first familiarize readers with general closure plan requirements, followed by a detailed discussion of closure requirements that are pertinent to BIF unit facilities. Comparisons are presented to provide an overview of typical components of BIF unit closure plans.

  8. HIGHLY ENERGY EFFICIENT D-GLU (DIRECTED-GREEN LIQ-UOR UTILIZATION) PULPING

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Lucia, Lucian A

    2013-04-19

    Purpose: The purpose of the project was to retrofit the front end (pulp house) of a commercial kraft pulping mill to accommodate a mill green liquor (GL) impregna-tion/soak/exposure and accrue downstream physical and chemical benefits while prin-cipally reducing the energy footprint of the mill. A major player in the mill contrib-uting to excessive energy costs is the lime kiln. The project was intended to offload the energy (oil or natural gas) demands of the kiln by by-passing the causticization/slaking site in the recovery area and directly using green liquor as a pulping medium for wood. Scope: The project was run in two distinct, yet mutually compatible, phases: Phase 1 was the pre-commercial or laboratory phase in which NC State University and the Insti-tute of Paper Science and Technology (at the Georgia Institute of Technology) ran the pulping and associated experiments, while Phase 2 was the mill scale trial. The first tri-al was run at the now defunct Evergreen Pulp Mill in Samoa, CA and lead to a partial retrofit of the mill that was not completed because it went bankrupt and the work was no longer the low-hanging fruit on the tree for the new management. The second trial was run at the MeadWestvaco Pulp Mill in Evedale, TX which for all intents and pur-poses was a success. They were able to fully retrofit the mill, ran the trial, studied the pulp properties, and gave us conclusions.

  9. A comparative assessment of waste incinerators in the UK

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Nixon, J.D.; Wright, D.G.; Dey, P.K.; Ghosh, S.K.; Davies, P.A.

    2013-11-15

    Highlights: • We evaluate operational municipal solid waste incinerators in the UK. • The supply chain of four case study plants are examined and compared in detail. • Technical, financial and operational data has been gathered for the four plants. • We suggest the best business practices for waste incinerators. • Appropriate strategy choices are the major difficulties for waste to energy plants. - Abstract: The uptake in Europe of Energy from Waste (EfW) incinerator plants has increased rapidly in recent years. In the UK, 25 municipal waste incinerators with energy recovery are now in operation; however, their waste supply chains and business practices vary significantly. With over a hundred more plant developments being considered it is important to establish best business practices for ensuring efficient environmental and operational performance. By reviewing the 25 plants we identify four suitable case study plants to compare technologies (moving grate, fluidised bed and rotary kiln), plant economics and operations. Using data collected from annual reports and through interviews and site visits we provide recommendations for improving the supply chain for waste incinerators and highlight the current issues and challenges faced by the industry. We find that plants using moving grate have a high availability of 87–92%. However, compared to the fluidised bed and rotary kiln, quantities of bottom ash and emissions of hydrogen chloride and carbon monoxide are high. The uptake of integrated recycling practices, combined heat and power, and post incineration non-ferrous metal collections needs to be increased among EfW incinerators in the UK. We conclude that one of the major difficulties encountered by waste facilities is the appropriate selection of technology, capacity, site, waste suppliers and heat consumers. This study will be of particular value to EfW plant developers, government authorities and researchers working within the sector of waste management.

  10. Manufacturing Energy and Carbon Footprint - Sector: Alumina and...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Electricity Export 10 Combustion Emissions (MMT CO 2 e Million Metric Tons Carbon Dioxide Equivalent) Total Emissions Offsite Emissions + Onsite Emissions Energy (TBtu ...

  11. Improved Alumina Loading in High-Level Waste Glasses

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Kim, D.; Vienna, J.D. [Pacific Northwest National Laboratory, Richland, WA (United States); Peeler, D.K.; Fox, K.M. [Savannah River National Laboratory, Aiken, SC (United States); Aloy, A.; Trofimenko, A.V. [V.G. Khlopin Radium Institute, St. Petersburg (Russian Federation); Gerdes, K.D. [EM-21, Office of Waste Processing, U.S. Department of Energy, Washington, DC (United States)

    2008-07-01

    Recent tank retrieval, blending, and treatment strategies at both the Savannah River Site (SRS) and Hanford have identified increased amounts of high-Al{sub 2}O{sub 3} waste streams that are scheduled to be processed through their respective high-level waste (HLW) vitrification facilities. It is well known that the addition of small amounts of Al{sub 2}O{sub 3} to borosilicate glasses generally enhances the durability of the waste glasses. However, at higher Al{sub 2}O{sub 3} concentrations nepheline (NaAlSiO{sub 4}) formation can result in a severe deterioration of the chemical durability of the slowly cooled glass near the center of the canister. Additionally, higher concentrations of Al{sub 2}O{sub 3} generally increase the liquidus temperature of the melt and decrease the processing rate. Pacific Northwest National Laboratory (PNNL), Savannah River National Laboratory (SRNL), and Khlopin Radium Institute (KRI) are jointly performing laboratory and scaled-melter tests, through US Department of Energy, EM-21 Office of Waste Processing program, to develop glass formulations with increased Al{sub 2}O{sub 3} concentrations. These glasses are formulated for specific DOE waste compositions at Hanford and Savannah River Site. The objectives are to avoid nepheline formation while maintaining or meeting waste loading and/or waste throughput expectations as well as satisfying critical process and product performance related constraints such as viscosity, liquidus temperature, and glass durability. This paper summarizes the results of recent tests of simulated Hanford HLW glasses containing up to 26 wt% Al{sub 2}O{sub 3} in glass. In summary: Glasses with Al{sub 2}O{sub 3} loading ranging from 25 to 27 wt% were formulated and tested at a crucible scale. Successful glass formulations with up to 26 wt% Al{sub 2}O{sub 3} that do not precipitate nepheline during CCC treatment and had spinel crystals 1 vol% or less after 24 hr heat treatment at 950 deg. C were obtained. The selected glass, HAL-17 with 26 wt% Al{sub 2}O{sub 3}, had viscosity and electrical conductivity within the boundaries for adequate processing in the Joule heated melters operated at 1150 deg. C. This HAL-17 glass was successfully processed using small-scale (SMK) and larger scale (EP-5) melters. There was no indication of spinel settling during processing. The product glass samples from these melter tests contained 1 to 4 vol% spinel crystals that are likely formed during cooling. The PCT tests on the product glasses are underway. The present study demonstrated that it is possible to formulate the glasses with up to 26 wt% Al{sub 2}O{sub 3} that satisfy the property requirements and is processable with Joule-heated melters operated at 1150 deg. C. The 'nepheline discriminator' for HAL-17 glass is 0.45, which supports that claim that the current rule ('nepheline discriminator' < 0.62) is too restrictive. Considering that the cost of HLW treatment is highly dependent on loading of waste in glass, this result provides a potential for significant cost saving for Hanford. The maximum Al{sub 2}O{sub 3} loading that can be achieved will also depend on concentrations of other components in wastes. For example, the loading of waste used in this study was also limited by the spinel crystallization after 950 deg. C 24 hr heat treatment, which suggests that the concentrations of spinel-forming components such as Fe{sub 2}O{sub 3}, Cr{sub 2}O{sub 3}, NiO, ZnO, and MnO would be critical in addition to Al{sub 2}O{sub 3} for the maximum Al{sub 2}O{sub 3} loading achievable. The observed glass production rate per unit melter surface area of 0.75 MT/(d.m{sup 2}) for SMK test is comparable to the design capacity of WTP HLW melters at 0.8 MT/(d.m{sup 2}). However, the test with EP-5 melter achieved 0.38 MT/(d.m{sup 2}), which is roughly a half of the WTP design capacity. This result may imply that the glass with 26 wt% Al{sub 2}O{sub 3} may not achieve the WTP design production rate. However, this hypothesis is not conclusive because of unknown effects of melter size and operation

  12. Development of Alumina-Forming Austenitic (AFA) Stainless Steels

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Pennycook, Steve

    Power Steam Turbine, Boiler Tubing Initial target(s) Tubing in chemical/process industry, etc. also resistance Solar Turbines 4.6 MW Mercury 50 recuperated low NOx gas turbine engine Recuperator, Casing Fossil

  13. Reactive Spreading of a Lead-Free Solder on Alumina

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Gremillard, L.; Saiz, E.; Radmilovic, V.R.; Tomsia, A.P.

    2008-01-01

    below 550°C, a solid oxide layer encapsulates the liquidoxidation of tin, a tin oxide layer around the metallic dropto the formation of an oxide layer encapsulating the metal.

  14. CO2-selective, Hybrid Membranes by Silation of Alumina

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Luebke, D.R.; Pennline, H.W.

    2007-09-01

    Hybrid membranes are feasible candidates for the separation of CO2 from gas produced in coal-based power generation since they have the potential to combine the high selectivity of polymer membranes and the high permeability of inorganic membranes. An interesting method for producing hybrid membranes is the silation of an inorganic membrane. In this method, trichloro- or alkoxy-silanes interact with hydroxyl groups on the surface of ?-AlO3 or TiO2, binding organic groups to that surface. By varying the length of these organic groups on the organosilane, it should be possible to tailor the effective pore size of the membrane. Similarly, the addition of “CO2-phillic” groups to the silating agent allows for the careful control of surface affinity and the enhancement of surface diffusion mechanisms. This method of producing hybrid membranes selective to CO2 was first attempted by Hyun [1] who silated TiO2 with phenyltriethoxysilane. Later, Way [2] silated ?-AlO3 with octadecyltrichlorosilane. Both researchers were successful in producing membranes with improved selectivity toward CO2, but permeability was not maintained at a commercially applicable level. XPS data indicated that the silating agent did not penetrate into the membrane pores and separation actually occurred in a thin “polymer-like” surface layer. The present study attempts to overcome the mass transfer problems associated with this technique by producing the desired monolayer coverage of silane, and thus develop a highly-permeable CO2-selective hybrid membrane.

  15. Nanotube fracture during the failure of carbon nanotube/ alumina composites

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    -based ceramic composites, leading to improved fracture toughness. Ó 2011 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved. 1 problem, incorporation of particulates, flakes and short/long fibers into ceramics matrix, as a second, chemical and electrical properties [3­7], motivating their use in ceramic composite materials as a fibrous

  16. Microfluidic Investigation of Tracer Dye Diffusion in Alumina Nanofluids 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Ozturk, Serdar 1979-

    2012-10-05

    on enhanced mass diffusion and the possibility of tailoring mass transport by direct manipulation of molecular diffusion. Therefore, a microfluidic approach capable of directly probing tracer diffusion between nanoparticle-laden fluid streams was developed...

  17. The calcined macroporous alumina was amorphous, exhibiting a considerably high-

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    than the zirconia or titania samples. The walls of this sample appeared to be amorphous films by ED and TEM (Fig. 3), yet the 3D packing of the macro- pores in this sample was similar to that for zirconia Engineering (CIE) at the University of Minnesota for a CIE-NSF graduate fellowship. 7 April 1998; accepted 5

  18. Behavior of alumina particles in atmospheric pressure plasma jets

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Fincke, J.R.; Swank, W.D.

    1990-01-01

    The distribution of Al{sub 2}O{sub 3} particle size, velocity and temperature was mapped over the flow field of a 31.5 kW plasma torch. The effects of varying the powder loading were studied. The powder feed rate was varied between .45 and 2.05 kg/hr independent of the carrier gas flow rate. The particle flow field was non-symmetric due to the method of particle injection. The data indicate that powder feed rate does not significantly affect either the temperature or velocity of the particles, for typical plasma spray conditions, and that the assumption of a dilute particle flow field is valid. 1 ref., 7 figs.

  19. Lithium battery electrodes with ultra-thin alumina coatings

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Se-Hee, Lee; George, Steven M.; Cavanagh, Andrew S.; Yoon Seok, Jung; Dillon, Anne C.

    2015-11-24

    Electrodes for lithium batteries are coated via an atomic layer deposition process. The coatings can be applied to the assembled electrodes, or in some cases to particles of electrode material prior to assembling the particles into an electrode. The coatings can be as thin as 2 .ANG.ngstroms thick. The coating provides for a stable electrode. Batteries containing the electrodes tend to exhibit high cycling capacities.

  20. Value recovery from spent alumina-base catalyst

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Hyatt, David E. (Northglenn, CO)

    1987-01-01

    A process for the recovery of aluminum and at least one other metal selected from the group consisting of molybdenum, nickel and cobalt from a spent hydrogenation catalyst comprising (1) adding about 1 to 3 parts H.sub.2 SO.sub.4 to each part of spent catalyst in a reaction zone of about 20.degree. to 200.degree. C. under sulfide gas pressure between about 1 and about 35 atmospheres, (2) separating the resultant Al.sub.2 (SO.sub.4).sub.3 solution from the sulfide precipitate in the mixture, (3) oxidizing the remaining sulfide precipitate as an aqueous slurry at about 20.degree. to 200.degree. C. in an oxygen-containing atmosphere at a pressure between about 1 and about 35 atmospheres, (4) separating the slurry to obtain solid molybdic acid and a sulfate liquor containing said at least one metal, and (5) recovering said at least one metal from the sulfate liquor in marketable form.

  1. Comment on ``Capillary Filling of Anodized Alumina Nanopore Arrays''

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Caupin, Frédéric

    partial with a contact angle , Tm is lowered [2]. The hysteresis width is multiplied by 2 cos ÿ 1; 53, this Comment questions some conclusions of Ref. [1]. Adsorption is usually measured at constant temperature the liquid volume fraction V as a function of p P=PsatT. Alvine et al. measure V as a function

  2. Optimized Alumina Coagulants for Water Purification - Energy Innovation

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Homesum_a_epg0_fpd_mmcf_m.xls" ,"Available from WebQuantityBonneville Power Administration wouldMass mapSpeeding access toOctober 1996TechnologiesDistribution, andSpectroscopy

  3. Alumina and Aluminum (2010 MECS) | Department of Energy

    Broader source: Energy.gov (indexed) [DOE]

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Homesum_a_epg0_fpd_mmcf_m.xls" ,"Available from WebQuantity of Natural GasAdjustmentsShirleyEnergyTher i n c i p a l De p u t y AEfficiency RebateFederal Energy

  4. Steam-Coal Gasification Using CaO and KOH for in Situ Carbon and Sulfur Capture

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Siefert, Nicholas S.; Shekhawat, Dushyant; Litster, Shawn; Berry, David, A

    2013-08-01

    We present experimental results of coal gasification with and without the addition of calcium oxide and potassium hydroxide as dual-functioning catalyst–capture agents. Using two different coal types and temperatures between 700 and 900 °C, we studied the effect of these catalyst–capture agents on (1) the syngas composition, (2) CO{sub 2} and H{sub 2}S capture, and (3) the steam–coal gasification kinetic rate. The syngas composition from the gasifier was roughly 20% methane, 70% hydrogen, and 10% other species when a CaO/C molar ratio of 0.5 was added. We demonstrated significantly enhanced steam–coal gasification kinetic rates when adding small amounts of potassium hydroxide to coal when operating a CaO–CaCO{sub 3} chemical looping gasification reactor. For example, the steam–coal gasification kinetic rate increased 250% when dry mixing calcium oxide at a Ca/C molar ratio of 0.5 with a sub-bituminous coal, and the kinetic rate increased 1000% when aqueously mixing calcium oxide at a Ca/C molar ratio of 0.5 along with potassium hydroxide at a K/C molar ratio of 0.06. In addition, we conducted multi-cycle studies in which CaCO{sub 3} was calcined by heating to 900 °C to regenerate the CaO, which was then reused in repeated CaO–CaCO{sub 3} cycles. The increased steam–coal gasification kinetics rates for both CaO and CaO + KOH persisted even when the material was reused in six cycles of gasification and calcination. The ability of CaO to capture carbon dioxide decreased roughly 2–4% per CaO–CaCO{sub 3} cycle. We also discuss an important application of this combined gasifier–calciner to electricity generation and selling the purge stream as a precalcined feedstock to a cement kiln. In this scenario, the amount of purge stream required is fixed not by the degradation in the capture ability but rather by the requirements at the cement kiln on the amount of CaSO{sub 4} and ash in the precalcined feedstock.

  5. VACASULF operation at Citizens Gas and Coke Utility

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Currey, J.H. [Citizens Gas and Coke Utility, Indianapolis, IN (United States)

    1995-12-01

    Citizens Gas and Coke Utility is a Public Charitable Trust which operates as the Department of Utilities of the City of Indianapolis, Indiana. Indianapolis Coke, the trade name for the Manufacturing Division of the Utility, operates a by-products coke plant in Indianapolis, Indiana. The facility produces both foundry and blast furnace coke. Surplus Coke Oven gas, generated by the process, is mixed with Natural Gas for sale to industrial and residential customers. In anticipation of regulatory developments, beginning in 1990, Indianapolis Coke undertook the task to develop an alternate Coke Oven Gas desulfurization technology for its facility. The new system was intended to perform primary desulfurization of the gas, dramatically extending the oxide bed life, thus reducing disposal liabilities. Citizens Gas chose the VACASULF technology for its primary desulfurization system. VACASULF requires a single purchased material, Potassium Hydroxide (KOH). The KOH reacts with Carbon Dioxide in the coke Oven Gas to form Potassium Carbonate (potash) which in turn absorbs the Hydrogen Sulfide. The rich solution releases the absorbed sulfide under strong vacuum in the desorber column. Operating costs are reduced through utilization of an inherent heat source which is transferred indirectly via attendant reboilers. The Hydrogen Sulfide is transported by the vacuum pumps to the Claus Kiln and Reactor for combustion, reaction, and elemental Sulfur recovery. Regenerated potash solution is returned to the Scrubber.

  6. The extraction of bitumen from western oil sands: Volume 1. Final report

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Oblad, A.G.; Dahlstrom, D.A.; Deo, M.D.; Fletcher, J.V.; Hanson, F.V.; Miller, J.D.; Seader, J.D.

    1997-11-26

    The program is composed of 20 projects, of which 17 are laboratory bench or laboratory pilot scale processes or computer process simulations that are performed in existing facilities on the University of Utah campus in north-east Salt Lake City. These tasks are: (1) coupled fluidized-bed bitumen recovery and coked sand combustion; (2) water-based recovery of bitumen; (3) oil sand pyrolysis in a continuous rotary kiln reactor; (4) oil sand pyrolysis in a large diameter fluidized bed reactor; (5) oil sand pyrolysis in a small diameter fluidized bed reactor; (6) combustion of spent sand in a transport reactor; (7) recovery and upgrading of oil sand bitumen using solvent extraction methods; (8) fixed-bed hydrotreating of Uinta Basin bitumens and bitumen-derived hydrocarbon liquids; (9) ebullieted bed hydrotreating of bitumen and bitumen derived liquids; (10) bitumen upgrading by hydropyrolysis; (11) evaluation of Utah`s major oil sand deposits for the production of asphalt, high-energy jet fuels and other specialty products; (12) characterization of the bitumens and reservoir rocks from the Uinta Basin oil sand deposits; (13) bitumen upgrading pilot plant recommendations; (14) liquid-solid separation and fine tailings thickening; (15) in-situ production of heavy oil from Uinta Basin oil sand deposits; (16) oil sand research and development group analytical facility; and (17) process economics. This volume contains an executive summary and reports for five of these projects. 137 figs., 49 tabs.

  7. Opportunities for Energy Efficiency and Demand Response in the California Cement Industry

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Olsen, Daniel; Goli, Sasank; Faulkner, David; McKane, Aimee

    2010-12-22

    This study examines the characteristics of cement plants and their ability to shed or shift load to participate in demand response (DR). Relevant factors investigated include the various equipment and processes used to make cement, the operational limitations cement plants are subject to, and the quantities and sources of energy used in the cement-making process. Opportunities for energy efficiency improvements are also reviewed. The results suggest that cement plants are good candidates for DR participation. The cement industry consumes over 400 trillion Btu of energy annually in the United States, and consumes over 150 MW of electricity in California alone. The chemical reactions required to make cement occur only in the cement kiln, and intermediate products are routinely stored between processing stages without negative effects. Cement plants also operate continuously for months at a time between shutdowns, allowing flexibility in operational scheduling. In addition, several examples of cement plants altering their electricity consumption based on utility incentives are discussed. Further study is needed to determine the practical potential for automated demand response (Auto-DR) and to investigate the magnitude and shape of achievable sheds and shifts.

  8. Process and technological aspects of municipal solid waste gasification. A review

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Arena, Umberto

    2012-04-15

    Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Critical assessment of the main commercially available MSW gasifiers. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Detailed discussion of the basic features of gasification process. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Description of configurations of gasification-based waste-to-energy units. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Environmental performance analysis, on the basis of independent sources data. - Abstract: The paper proposes a critical assessment of municipal solid waste gasification today, starting from basic aspects of the process (process types and steps, operating and performance parameters) and arriving to a comparative analysis of the reactors (fixed bed, fluidized bed, entrained bed, vertical shaft, moving grate furnace, rotary kiln, plasma reactor) as well as of the possible plant configurations (heat gasifier and power gasifier) and the environmental performances of the main commercially available gasifiers for municipal solid wastes. The analysis indicates that gasification is a technically viable option for the solid waste conversion, including residual waste from separate collection of municipal solid waste. It is able to meet existing emission limits and can have a remarkable effect on reduction of landfill disposal option.

  9. Space Heaters, Computers, Cell Phone Chargers: How Plugged In AreCommercial Buildings?

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Sanchez, Marla; Webber, Carrie; Brown, Richard; Busch, John; Pinckard, Margaret; Roberson, Judy

    2007-02-28

    Evidenceof electric plug loads in commercial buildings isvisible everyday: space heaters, portable fans, and the IT technician'stwo monitors connected to one PC. The Energy Information Administrationestimates that office and miscellaneous equipment together will consume2.18 quads in 2006, nearly 50 percent of U.S. commercial electricity use.Although the importance of commercial plug loads is documented, its verynature (diverse product types, products not installed when buildinginitially constructed, and products often hidden in closets) makes itdifficult to accurately count and categorize the end use.We auditedsixteen buildings in three cities (San Francisco, Atlanta, Pittsburgh)including office, medical and education building types. We inventoriedthe number and types of office and miscellaneous electric equipment aswell as estimated total energy consumption due to these product types. Intotal, we audited approximately 4,000 units of office equipment and 6,000units of miscellaneous equipment and covered a diverse range of productsranging from electric pencil sharpeners with a unit energy consumption(UEC) of 1 kWh/yr to a kiln with a UEC of 7,000 kWh/yr. Our paperpresents a summary of the density and type of plug load equipment foundas well as the estimated total energy consumption of the equipment.Additionally, we present equipment trends observed and provide insightsto how policy makers can target energy efficiency for this growing enduse.

  10. Perspectives for pilot scale study of RDF in Istanbul, Turkey

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Kara, Mustafa; Guenay, Esin; Tabak, Yasemin; Yildiz, Senol

    2009-12-15

    Municipal solid waste (MSW) is one of the most important environmental problems arising from rapid urbanization and industrialization. The use of alternative fuels in rotary kilns of cement plants is very important for reducing cost, saving fossil fuels and also eliminating waste materials, accumulated during production or after using these materials. Cement industries has an important potential for supplying preferable solutions to the waste management. Energy recovery from waste is also important for the reduction of CO{sub 2} emissions. This paper presents an investigation of the development of refuse derived fuel (RDF) materials from non-recycling wastes and the determination of its potential use as an alternative fuel in cement production in Istanbul, Turkey. RDF produced from MSW was analyzed and its effects on cement production process were examined. For this purpose, the produced RDF was mixed with the main fuel (LPG) in ratios of 0%, 5%, 10%, 15% and 20%. Then chemical and mineralogical analyses of the produced clinker were carried out. It is believed that successful results of this study will be a good example for municipalities and cement industries in order to achieve both economic and environmental benefits.

  11. Controlling landfill closure costs

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Millspaugh, M.P.; Ammerman, T.A. [Spectra Engineering, Latham, NY (United States)

    1995-05-01

    Landfill closure projects are significant undertakings typically costing well over $100,000/acre. Innovative designs, use of alternative grading and cover materials, and strong project management will substantially reduce the financial impact of a landfill closure project. This paper examines and evaluates the various elements of landfill closure projects and presents various measures which can be employed to reduce costs. Control measures evaluated include: the beneficial utilization of alternative materials such as coal ash, cement kiln dust, paper mill by-product, construction surplus soils, construction debris, and waste water treatment sludge; the appropriate application of Mandate Relief Variances to municipal landfill closures for reduced cover system requirements and reduced long-term post closure monitoring requirements; equivalent design opportunities; procurement of consulting and contractor services to maximize project value; long-term monitoring strategies; and grant loan programs. An analysis of closure costs under differing assumed closure designs based upon recently obtained bid data in New York State, is also provided as a means for presenting the potential savings which can be realized.

  12. SkyMine Carbon Mineralization Pilot Project

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Joe Jones; Clive Barton; Mark Clayton; Al Yablonsky; David Legere

    2010-09-30

    This Topical Report addresses accomplishments achieved during Phase 1 of the SkyMine{reg_sign} Carbon Mineralization Pilot Project. The primary objectives of this project are to design, construct, and operate a system to capture CO{sub 2} from a slipstream of flue gas from a commercial coal-fired cement kiln, convert that CO{sub 2} to products having commercial value (i.e., beneficial use), show the economic viability of the CO{sub 2} capture and conversion process, and thereby advance the technology to a point of readiness for commercial scale demonstration and proliferation. The project will also substantiate market opportunities for the technology by sales of chemicals into existing markets, and identify opportunities to improve technology performance and reduce costs at commercial scale. The primary objectives of Phase 1 of the project were to elaborate proven SkyMine{reg_sign} process chemistry to commercial pilot-scale operation and complete the preliminary design ('Reference Plant Design') for the pilot plant to be built and operated in Phase 2. Additionally, during Phase 1, information necessary to inform a DOE determination regarding NEPA requirements for the project was developed, and a comprehensive carbon lifecycle analysis was completed. These items were included in the formal application for funding under Phase 2. All Phase 1 objectives were successfully met on schedule and within budget.

  13. Plasma destruction of North Carolina`s hazardous waste based on hazardous waste generated between the years of 1989 and 1992

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Williams, D.L.

    1994-12-31

    The purpose of this research is to analyze the applicability of the plasma waste destruction technology to North Carolina hazardous waste streams. This study outlines the current regulations, existing technologies, and innovative technologies being considered as hazardous waste treatment alternatives. From this foundation, the study proceeds to identify the superiority of the plasma waste destruction technology. Specific areas of discussion include: temperature capabilities, waste residence time requirements, destruction removal efficiencies, operational efficiencies, economic issues, safety, and maintenance. This study finds the plasma destruction technology to be fully effective and superior to conventional facilities. The technology completely destroys hydrocarbons and can reduce the volume of many other hazardous wastes on the order of one part per million. The required residence time of waste in a plasma facility for effective destruction is a fraction of a second, while the rotary kiln incinerator maintains an average residence time of approximately 5 seconds. Also mass and heat balance calculations are performed to quantify the effectiveness and efficiency of this technology. It is found that one day`s average amount of hazardous waste generated in the state of North Carolina can be destroyed in approximately thirty seconds using a standard one megawatt power source. Yet, before this technology is adopted as North Carolina`s primary hazardous waste destruction technology, further study is needed so that all issues considered in this research can be conducted in great detail.

  14. The extraction of bitumen from western oil sands: Volume 2. Final report

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Oblad, A.G.; Dahlstrom, D.A.; Deo, M.D.; Fletcher, J.V.; Hanson, F.V.; Miller, J.D.; Seader, J.D.

    1997-11-26

    The program is composed of 20 projects, of which 17 are laboratory bench or laboratory pilot scale processes or computer process simulations that are performed in existing facilities on the University of Utah campus in north-east Salt Lake City. These tasks are: (1) coupled fluidized-bed bitumen recovery and coked sand combustion; (2) water-based recovery of bitumen; (3) oil sand pyrolysis in a continuous rotary kiln reactor; (4) oil sand pyrolysis in a large diameter fluidized bed reactor; (5) oil sand pyrolysis in a small diameter fluidized bed reactor; (6) combustion of spent sand in a transport reactor; (7) recovery and upgrading of oil sand bitumen using solvent extraction methods; (8) fixed-bed hydrotreating of Uinta Basin bitumens and bitumen-derived hydrocarbon liquids; (9) ebullieted bed hydrotreating of bitumen and bitumen derived liquids; (10) bitumen upgrading by hydropyrolysis; (11) evaluation of Utah`s major oil sand deposits for the production of asphalt, high-energy jet fuels and other specialty products; (12) characterization of the bitumens and reservoir rocks from the Uinta Basin oil sand deposits; (13) bitumen upgrading pilot plant recommendations; (14) liquid-solid separation and fine tailings thickening; (15) in-situ production of heavy oil from Uinta Basin oil sand deposits; (16) oil sand research and development group analytical facility; and (17) process economics. This volume contains reports on nine of these projects, references, and a bibliography. 351 refs., 192 figs., 65 tabs.

  15. Handbook of synfuels technology

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Meyers, R.A.

    1984-01-01

    This book explores various methods of producing synthetic fuels. Topics considered include coal liquefaction, Exxon Donor Solvent Coal Liquefaction Process, the H-Coal Process, the SRC-I Coal Liquefaction Process, the coal hydrogenation plant at Bottrop, production of liquid fuels from coal-derived synthesis gas, the Sasol plant, the ICI low pressure methanol process, Mobil Methanol-to-Gasoline (MTG) Process, the Lurgi low pressure methanol process, coal gasification the Texaco Coal Gasification Process, the Shell Coal Gasification Process, the Combustion Engineering Coal Gasification Process, British Gas/Lurgi Slagging Gasifier, KBW Coal Gasification, fluidized-bed coal gasification process (type Winkler), Lurgi coal gasification (dry bottom gasifier), Foster Wheeler Stoic Process, the WD-GI two stage coal gasifier, the Saarberg/Otto Coal Gasification Process, Allis-Chalmers KILnGAS Process, the purification of gases derived from coal, shale oil, Lurgi-Ruhrgas Process, the Tosco II Process, Paraho oil shale retorting processes, Occidental Modified In-Situ (MIS) Process, the geokinetics in-situ retorting process, oil shale pre-beneficiation, additional oil shale technologies, oil from oil sand, Suncor Hot Water Process, emerging technologies for oil from oil sands, synfuels upgrading and refining, Exxon fluid coking/flexicoking processes for synfuels upgrading applications, H-Oil processes, LC-Fining Process, and The Modified Litol Process for benzene production.

  16. Preventing the self-destruction of the indirect coal firing system

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Bush, C.W.; Rayner, C.C.

    1983-07-01

    The most widely used fuel in the cement industry is pulverized coal. The current trend is to burn coal through the use of an indirect firing system, as opposed to direct firing which was formerly standard for cement kilns. Indirect firing is favored for precalciners and to improve thermal efficiency, but the benefits are sometimes overshadowed by increased hazard potential. Thoughtful design and careful operating practices are essential for safe operation. The hazards are primarily a result of the explosive mixture of coal and air which can be formed in various parts of the system and the tendency for coal to self-heat and undergo spontaneous combustion. The systems for indirect coal firing are reviewed, with emphasis on the potential fire and explosion hazards. The effectiveness of various methods to extinguish a fire or suppress an explosion is discussed, together with their applicability and related operating problems. The available alarm systems are evaluated according to their ability to signal impending danger in time for corrective action. Some parameters of safe design and operating practices are outlined as a guide to avoiding the types of problems that have been experienced at some existing installations.

  17. Agricultural, industrial and municipal waste management

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Not Available

    1985-01-01

    It is right that consideration of the environment is of prime importance when agricultural and industrial processes are being developed. This book compiles the papers presented at the Institution of Mechanical Engineers conference. The contents include: The use of wastes for land reclamation and restoration; landfill, an environmentally acceptable method of waste disposal and an economic source of energy; control of leachate from waste disposal landfill sites using bentonite; landfill gas migration from operational landfill sites, monitoring and prevention; monitoring of emissions from hazardous waste incineration; hazardous wastes management in Hong Kong, a summary of a report and recommendations; the techniques and problems of chemical analysis of waste waters and leachate from waste tips; a small scale waste burning combustor; energy recovery from municipal waste by incineration; anaerobic treatment of industrial waste; a review of developments in the acid hydrolysis of cellulosic wastes; reduction of slag deposits by magnesium hydroxide injection; integrated rural energy centres (for agriculture-based economies); resource recovery; straw as a fuel in the UK; the computer as a tool for predicting the financial implications of future municipal waste disposal and recycling projects; solid wastes as a cement kiln fuel; monitoring and control of landfill gas; the utilization of waste derived fuels; the economics of energy recovery from municipal and industrial wastes; the development and construction of a municipal waste reclamation plant by a local authority.

  18. Potential for energy conservation in the cement industry

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Garrett-Price, B.A.

    1985-02-01

    This report assesses the potential for energy conservation in the cement industry. Energy consumption per ton of cement decreased 20% between 1972 and 1982. During this same period, the cement industry became heavily dependent on coal and coke as its primary fuel source. Although the energy consumed per ton of cement has declined markedly in the past ten years, the industry still uses more than three and a half times the fuel that is theoretically required to produce a ton of clinker. Improving kiln thermal efficiency offers the greatest opportunity for saving fuel. Improving the efficiency of finish grinding offers the greatest potential for reducing electricity use. Technologies are currently available to the cement industry to reduce its average fuel consumption per ton by product by as much as 40% and its electricity consumption per ton by about 10%. The major impediment to adopting these technologies is the cement industry's lack of capital as a result of low or no profits in recent years.

  19. UTILIZATION OF LIGHTWEIGHT MATERIALS MADE FROM COAL GASIFICATION SLAGS

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Vas Choudhry; Stephen Kwan; Steven R. Hadley

    2001-07-01

    The objective of the project entitled ''Utilization of Lightweight Materials Made from Coal Gasification Slags'' was to demonstrate the technical and economic viability of manufacturing low-unit-weight products from coal gasification slags which can be used as substitutes for conventional lightweight and ultra-lightweight aggregates. In Phase I, the technology developed by Praxis to produce lightweight aggregates from slag (termed SLA) was applied to produce a large batch (10 tons) of expanded slag using pilot direct-fired rotary kilns and a fluidized bed calciner. The expanded products were characterized using basic characterization and application-oriented tests. Phase II involved the demonstration and evaluation of the use of expanded slag aggregates to produce a number of end-use applications including lightweight roof tiles, lightweight precast products (e.g., masonry blocks), structural concrete, insulating concrete, loose fill insulation, and as a substitute for expanded perlite and vermiculite in horticultural applications. Prototypes of these end-use applications were made and tested with the assistance of commercial manufacturers. Finally, the economics of expanded slag production was determined and compared with the alternative of slag disposal. Production of value-added products from SLA has a significant potential to enhance the overall gasification process economics, especially when the avoided costs of disposal are considered.

  20. Controlling NOx emission from industrial sources

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Srivastava, R.K.; Nueffer, W.; Grano, D.; Khan, S.; Staudt, J.E.; Jozewicz, W.

    2005-07-01

    A number of regulatory actions focused on reducing NOx emissions from stationary combustion sources have been taken in the United States in the last decade. These actions include the Acid Rain NOx regulations, the Ozone Transport Commission's NOx Budget Program, and the NOx SIP Call rulemakings. In addition to these regulations, the recent Interstate Air Quality Rulemaking proposal and other bills in the Congress are focusing on additional reductions of NOx. Industrial combustion sources accounted for about 18016 of NOx emissions in the United States in 2000 and constituted the second largest emitting source category within stationary sources, only behind electric utility sources. Based on these data, reduction of NOx emissions from industrial combustion sources is an important consideration in efforts undertaken to address the environmental concerns associated with NOx. This paper discusses primary and secondary NOx control technologies applicable to various major categories of industrial sources. The sources considered in this paper include large boilers, furnaces and fired heaters, combustion turbines, large IC engines, and cement kilns. For each source category considered in this paper, primary NOx controls are discussed first, followed by a discussion of secondary NOx controls.

  1. Production of carbon molecular sieves from Illinois coal. [Quarterly] technical report, December 1, 1993--February 28, 1994

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Lizzio, A.A.; Rostam-Abadi, M. [Illinois State Geological Survey, Champaign, IL (United States); Vyas, S.N. [Indian Institute of Technology, Bombay (India)

    1994-06-01

    Carbon molecular sieves (CMS) have become an increasingly important class of adsorbents for use in gas separation and recovery processes. The overall objective of this project is to determine whether Illinois coal is a suitable feedstock for the production of CMS and to evaluate the potential application of the products in commercial gas separation processes. In Phase I of this project, gram quantities of char were produced from IBC-102 coal in a fixed-bed reactor under a wide range of pyrolysis and activation conditions. The kinetics of adsorption of various gases, i.e., O{sub 2}, N{sub 2}, CO{sub 2}, CH{sub 4} and H{sub 2}, on these chars at 25{degree}C was studied. Several chars showed good potential for efficient O{sub 2}/N{sub 2}, CO{sub 2}/CH{sub 4}, CO{sub 2}H{sub 2} and CH{sub 4}/H{sub 2} separation; both high adsorption capacities and selectivities were achieved. The full potential of these materials in commercial gas separations has yet to be realized. In Phase II, the optimal char preparation conditions determined in Phase I are applied to production of larger quantities of CMS in a batch fluidized-bed reactor (FBR) and a continuous rotary tube kiln (RTFK).

  2. Integrated methods for production of clean char and its combustion properties. [Quarterly] technical report, March 1, 1993--May 31, 1993

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    DeBarr, J.A.; Rostam-Abadi, M. [Illinois State Geological Survey, Champaign, IL (United States); Gullett, B.K. [Environmental Protection Agency, Research Triangle Park, NC (United States); Benson, S.A. [North Dakota Univ., Grand Forks, ND (United States). Energy and Environmental Research Center

    1993-09-01

    An integrated method consisting of physical coal cleaning, mild gasification (MG) and low temperature oxidation (LTO) is proposed to produce chars with SO{sub 2} emissions at least 50% lower than those of their parent coals. MG and char desulfurization studies are conducted in both a batch fluidized-bed reactor (FBR) and in a continuous rotary tube kiln (RTK). Combustion properties and ash deposition behaviors of desulfurized chars are determined at the US EPA in a 14 kill pilotscale combustor and at UNDEERC in a drop tube furnace (DTF). This project is cost-shared with the US EPA and the US DOE through UNDEERC. During the first year of this two year project, six coals from the IBC sample program (IBC-101, 102, 104, 105, 106 and 109) were studied. Under non-optimized conditions in the FBR, desulfurized chars were made with SO{sub 2} emissions 60--71% lower than the parent coals, depending on the coal. Chars prepared from four of the six coals had SO{sub 2} emissions less than 2.5 lbs SO{sub 2}/MMBtu. Under optimum conditions, SO{sub 2} emissions of one of the coals were reduced nearly 67%, from 4.60 to 1.49 lbs SO{sub 2}/MMBtu. MG reduced the chlorine content of one coal 93%.

  3. Integrated methods for production of clean char and its combustion properties. Technical report, December 1, 1991--February 29, 1992

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    DeBarr, J.A.; Rostam-Abadi, M. [Illinois State Geological Survey, Champaign, IL (United States); Gullett, B.K. [Environmental Protection Agency, Research Triangle, NC (United States); Benson, S.A.; Toman, D.L. [Univ. of North Dakota Energy and Environmental Research Center, Grand Forks (United States)

    1992-08-01

    The overall objective of this two-year program is to produce low sulfur char using an integrated process scheme which combines physical coal cleaning, mild gasification and char desulfurization. The goal of the project is to produce chars with 50% or more lower sulfur emissions than that of the parent coal, and at minimum meet 1995 emission standards of 2.5 lbs S0{sub 2}/MMBtu. This project is a cooperative effort between the ISGS, UNDEERC and the US EPA and is cost-shared with the US EPA and the US DOE through UNDEERC. Mild gasification and char desulfurization studies are conducted with six coals selected from the Illinois Basin Coal (IBC) Sample Program in a batch fluidized-bed reactor at the ISGS. Pound quantities of chars for combustion testing are prepared in a continuous rotary kiln reactor under optimized conditions of mild gasification and char desulfurization. Burning characteristics and ash deposition behaviors of desulfurized chars are determined at the US EPA in a 14 kill pilot-scale combustor and at UNDEERC in a drop tube furnace (DTF). In some tests, methane is examined as an auxiliary fuel, and high-surface-area hydrated lime developed at ISGS is used to further reduce S0{sub 2} emissions. Complete analyses of the fuels are obtained to aid char desulfurization studies and help explain combustion and S0{sub 2} emission characteristics of the char.

  4. Production of carbon molecular sieves from Illinois coal. [Quarterly] technical report, March 1, 1993--May 31, 1993

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Lizzio, A.A.; Rostam-Abadi, M. [Illinois State Geological Survey, Champaign, IL (United States)

    1993-09-01

    Carbon molecular sieves (CMS) have become an increasingly important class of adsorbents for use in gas separation and recover processes. The overall objective of this project is to determine whether Illinois Basin coals are suitable feedstocks for the production of CMS and to evaluate the potential application of these products in commercial gas separation processes. In Phase I of this project, gram quantities of char were prepared from Illinois coal in a fixed-bed reactor under a wide range of pyrolysis and activation conditions. Chars having surface areas of 1500--2100 m{sup 2}/g were produced by chemical activation using potassium hydroxide (KOH) as the activant. These high surface area chars had more than twice the adsorption capacity of commercial molecular sieves. The kinetics of adsorption of various gases, e.g., N{sub 2}, O{sub 2}, CO{sub 2}, CH{sub 4}, CO and H{sub 2}, on these chars at 25{degrees}C was determined. Several chars showed good potential for efficient O{sub 2}/N{sub 2}, CO{sub 2}/CH{sub 4} and CH{sub 4}/H{sub 2} separation; both a high adsorption capacity and selectivity were achieved. The full potential of these materials in commercial gas separations has yet to be realized. In Phase II of this project, larger quantities of char are being prepared from Illinois coal in a batch fluidized-bed reactor and in a continuous rotary tube kiln.

  5. Improvement of the IRIS Process for Incineration of Various Radioactive Waste Compositions

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Lemort, F.; Charvillat, J. P.

    2003-02-26

    Incineration represents a promising weight and volume reduction technique for alpha-contaminated organic waste. Following several years of laboratory research initiated in 1983 on a nonradioactive prototype unit at the CEA's Rhone Valley (Marcoule) Research Center, an innovative process, IRIS, has been developed to meet the need for processing nuclear glove box waste containing large amounts of chlorine. In March 1999, the first highly chlorinated alpha-contaminated waste was incinerated in the industrial facility based on the IRIS process at the CEA's Valduc Center. The nonradioactive prototype at Marcoule and the radioactive facility at Valduc demonstrated that the process is highly effective with a continuously fed rotating tubular kiln and with a very effective control of corrosion by pyrolytic decomposition of the waste initially at 550 C. The ash quality meets specification requirements (< 1% carbon, < 1% chlorine) and the volume and weight reduction factors are sufficient (around 30). The offgas treatment system exhibits very high operating efficiency complying with gaseous emission standards.

  6. Health-hazard evaluation report HETA 84-033-1576, Airco Carbon, St. Marys, Pennsylvania

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Hartle, R.W.; Morawetz, J.S.

    1985-09-01

    Environmental and breathing-zone samples were analyzed for polynuclear aromatic hydrocarbons (PAH), total particulates, and respirable free silica at the Airco Company (SIC-3624), Saint Marys, Pennsylvania in January, 1984. The evaluation was requested confidentially because of concern over exposures to soot, coal tar pitch volatiles, and sand in the car bottom and sagger bake operations. Forty-three employees were interviewed. Two of 19 total particulate samples exceeded the OSHA standard of 15 milligrams per cubic meter (mg/m3), 17.3 and 32.7 mg/m3. Benzene soluble fractions ranged from 0.5 to 5.0 mg/m3. The OSHA standard for benzene soluble fractions is 0.2 mg/m3. Two of seven samples of silica were above the limit of detection, 0.09 and 0.06 mg/m3. In bulk samples, the benzene soluble fractions ranged from 0.44 to 860 mg/gram and the PAH content from 0 to 26,124 micrograms per gram. Employees working in the bake areas reported a significant excess incidence of symptoms such as skin, nose and eye irritation, cough, sore or dry throat, chest tightness, and breathing difficulty. The authors conclude that a health hazard exists at the facility. Recommendations include enclosing vehicles used in moving electrodes, cleaning up spilled dust, and controlling fumes emitted from the sagger kilns.

  7. Mixed waste characterization reference document

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    1997-09-01

    Waste characterization and monitoring are major activities in the management of waste from generation through storage and treatment to disposal. Adequate waste characterization is necessary to ensure safe storage, selection of appropriate and effective treatment, and adherence to disposal standards. For some wastes characterization objectives can be difficult and costly to achieve. The purpose of this document is to evaluate costs of characterizing one such waste type, mixed (hazardous and radioactive) waste. For the purpose of this document, waste characterization includes treatment system monitoring, where monitoring is a supplement or substitute for waste characterization. This document establishes a cost baseline for mixed waste characterization and treatment system monitoring requirements from which to evaluate alternatives. The cost baseline established as part of this work includes costs for a thermal treatment technology (i.e., a rotary kiln incinerator), a nonthermal treatment process (i.e., waste sorting, macronencapsulation, and catalytic wet oxidation), and no treatment (i.e., disposal of waste at the Waste Isolation Pilot Plant (WIPP)). The analysis of improvement over the baseline includes assessment of promising areas for technology development in front-end waste characterization, process equipment, off gas controls, and monitoring. Based on this assessment, an ideal characterization and monitoring configuration is described that minimizes costs and optimizes resources required for waste characterization.

  8. Great Western Malting Company geothermal project, Pocatello, Idaho. Final report

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Christensen, N.T.; McGeen, M.A.; Corlett, D.F.; Urmston, R.

    1981-12-23

    The Great Western Malting Company recently constructed a barley malting facility in Pocatello, Idaho, designed to produce 6.0 million bushels per year of brewing malt. This facility uses natural gas to supply the energy for germination and kilning processes. The escalating cost of natural gas has prompted the company to look at alternate and more economical sources of energy. Trans Energy Systems has investigated the viabiity of using geothermal energy at the new barley processing plant. Preliminary investigations show that a geothermal resource probably exists, and payback on the installation of a system to utilize the resource will occur in under 2 years. The Great Western Malting plant site has geological characteristics which are similar to areas where productive geothermal wells have been established. Geological investigations indicate that resource water temperatures will be in the 150 to 200/sup 0/F range. Geothermal energy of this quality will supply 30 to 98% of the heating requirements currently supplied by natural gas for this malting plant. Trans Energy Systems has analyzed several systems of utilizing the geothermal resource at the Great Western barley malting facility. These systems included: direct use of geothermal water; geothermal energy heating process water through an intermediary heat exchanger; coal or gas boosted geothermal systems; and heat pump boosted geothermal system. The analysis examined the steps that are required to process the grain.

  9. Experimental and numerical analysis of metal leaching from fly ash-amended highway bases

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Cetin, Bora; Aydilek, Ahmet H.; Li, Lin

    2012-05-15

    Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer This study is the evaluation of leaching potential of fly ash-lime mixed soils. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer This objective is met with experimental and numerical analysis. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Zn leaching decreases with increase in fly ash content while Ba, B, Cu increases. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Decrease in lime content promoted leaching of Ba, B and Cu while Zn increases. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Numerical analysis predicted lower field metal concentrations. - Abstract: A study was conducted to evaluate the leaching potential of unpaved road materials (URM) mixed with lime activated high carbon fly ashes and to evaluate groundwater impacts of barium, boron, copper, and zinc leaching. This objective was met by a combination of batch water leach tests, column leach tests, and computer modeling. The laboratory tests were conducted on soil alone, fly ash alone, and URM-fly ash-lime kiln dust mixtures. The results indicated that an increase in fly ash and lime content has significant effects on leaching behavior of heavy metals from URM-fly ash mixture. An increase in fly ash content and a decrease in lime content promoted leaching of Ba, B and Cu whereas Zn leaching was primarily affected by the fly ash content. Numerically predicted field metal concentrations were significantly lower than the peak metal concentrations obtained in laboratory column leach tests, and field concentrations decreased with time and distance due to dispersion in soil vadose zone.

  10. Technologies and Materials for Recovering Waste Heat in Harsh Environments

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Nimbalkar, Sachin U.; Thekdi, Arvind; Rogers, Benjamin M.; Kafka, Orion L.; Wenning, Thomas J.

    2014-12-15

    A large amount (7,204 TBtu/year) of energy is used for process heating by the manufacturing sector in the United States (US). This energy is in the form of fuels mostly natural gas with some coal or other fuels and steam generated using fuels such as natural gas, coal, by-product fuels, and some others. Combustion of these fuels results in the release of heat, which is used for process heating, and in the generation of combustion products that are discharged from the heating system. All major US industries use heating equipment such as furnaces, ovens, heaters, kilns, and dryers. The hot exhaust gases from this equipment, after providing the necessary process heat, are discharged into the atmosphere through stacks. This report deals with identification of industries and industrial heating processes in which the exhaust gases are at high temperature (>1200 F), contain all of the types of reactive constituents described, and can be considered as harsh or contaminated. It also identifies specific issues related to WHR for each of these processes or waste heat streams.

  11. SkyMine Carbon Mineralization Pilot Project

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Christenson, Norm; Walters, Jerel

    2014-12-31

    This Topical Report addresses accomplishments achieved during Phase 2b of the SkyMine® Carbon Mineralization Pilot Project. The primary objectives of this project are to design, construct, and operate a system to capture CO2 from a slipstream of flue gas from a commercial coal-fired cement kiln, convert that CO2 to products having commercial value (i.e., beneficial use), show the economic viability of the CO2 capture and conversion process, and thereby advance the technology to the point of readiness for commercial scale demonstration and deployment. The overall process is carbon negative, resulting in mineralization of CO2 that would otherwise be released into the atmosphere. The project will also substantiate market opportunities for the technology by sales of chemicals into existing markets, and identify opportunities to improve technology performance and reduce costs at the commercial scale. The project is being conducted in two phases. The primary objectives of Phase 1 were to evaluate proven SkyMine® process chemistry for commercial pilot-scale operation and complete the preliminary design for the pilot plant to be built and operated in Phase 2, complete a NEPA evaluation, and develop a comprehensive carbon life cycle analysis. The objective of Phase 2b was to build the pilot plant to be operated and tested in Phase 2c.

  12. KT Monograph Section F01 Appendix

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Bending, J

    2004-05-20

    I19/50 2802 Constr. IA IIf 18.2 1/ 1 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 3 2 5 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 6 40 46 1 0 0 5 0 0 0 13 I19/52 2802 Kiln MIA IIf 10.1 1/ 8 8 2 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 3 0 14 8 4 17 0 56 5 0 0 2 0 7 90 158 205 453 10 0 0 8 0 0 0 14 I19... lia cf .V ici ae rv ili a V. er vi lia /L ath yr us sa tiv us La th yr us sa tiv us cf .L ath yr us sa tiv us sm all 'L ath yr us sa tiv us Pi su m sa tiv um Pi su m sp . cf .P isu m Le ns sp . cf .L en ss p. Pi su m /L en s La rg el eg um ei nd et. 0...

  13. Pilot-scale testing of paint-waste incineration. Final report

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Not Available

    1989-07-01

    Operations at the U.S. Army depots generate large quantities of paint removal and application wastes. These wastes, many of which are hazardous, are currently disposed of off site. Off-site disposal of solids is often by landfilling, which will be banned or highly restricted in the future. Several research activities have been initiated by USATHAMA to evaluate alternative technologies for management of paint wastes. The project described in this report involved pilot-scale incineration testing of two paint wastes: spent plastic blast media and spent agricultural blast media (ground walnut shells). The objective of this task was to continue development of incineration as an alternative treatment technology for paint wastes through pilot-scale rotary-kiln incineration testing. The results of the pilot test were evaluated to assess how the paint waste characteristics and incinerator operating conditions affected the following: characteristics of ash residue volume reduction achieved, destruction and removal efficiencies (DRE's) for organic compound and characteristics of stack gases.

  14. Quantities and characteristics of the contact-handled low-level mixed waste streams for the DOE complex

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Huebner, T.L.; Wilson, J.M.; Ruhter, A.H.; Bonney, S.J.

    1994-08-01

    This report supports the Integrated Thermal Treatment System (ITTS) Study initiated by the Department of Energy (DOE) Office of Technology Development (EM-50), which is a system engineering assessment of a variety of mixed waste treatment process. The DOE generates and stores large quantities of mixed wastes that are contaminated with both chemically hazardous and radioactive species. The treatment of these mixed wastes requires meeting the standards established by the Environmental Protection Agency for the specific hazardous contaminants regulated under the Resource Conservation and Recovery Act while also providing adequate control of the radionuclides. The thrust of the study is to develop preconceptual designs and life-cycle cost estimates for integrated thermal treatment systems ranging from conventional incinerators, such as rotary kiln and controlled air systems, to more innovative but not yet established technologies, such as molten salt and molten metal waste destruction systems. Prior to this engineering activity, the physical and chemical characteristics of the DOE low-level mixed waste streams to be treated must be defined or estimated. This report describes efforts to estimate the DOE waste stream characteristics.

  15. Hydrolysis of COS and CS{sub 2} over alumina catalysts at lower temperature

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Shangguan Ju; Li Chunhu; Guo Hanxian [Taiyuan Univ. of Technology, Shanxi (China). Research Inst. of Chemical Engineering for Coal

    1997-12-31

    Carbonyl sulfide (COS) and carbon disulfide (CS{sub 2}) widely exist in chemical processing gases from natural gas, coal, Claus tail gas, and petroleum. Those sulfur compound are a major factor of deactivation of synthesis catalysts. Since it is difficult to remove COS and CS{sub 2} completely by the conventional desulfurization, a hydrolysis process has been developed in recent years. The activity of COS and CS{sub 2} hydrolysis was measured in a fixed bed reactor and the surface basicity was studied by CO{sub 2}-TPD. The results showed that the apparent reaction activation energies of COS over three catalysts are 57.80, 52.50 and 44.71 kJ/mol at lower temperature, and those of CS{sub 2}, 55.53, 38.70 and 35.30 kJ/mol, respectively. The apparent activation energies of desorption for weak type basic center over three catalysts were 25.97, 27.92 and 29.77kJ/mol respectively. The surface basicity on catalysts played an important role in the hydrolysis of COS and CS{sub 2}.The weak basic center was the catalytic active center of COS hydrolysis, while the weak and the weaker basic centers took part in catalytic reaction of CS{sub 2} hydrolysis. The K{sub 2}O and Pt loaded on active {gamma}-Al{sub 2}O{sub 3} could greatly change the distribution of surface basicity over catalysts and increase organic sulfide catalytic hydrolysis.

  16. Refractory Materials based on Magnesia-Alumina Spinel for Improved Performance in Coal Gasification Environments

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Hemrick, James Gordon [ORNL; Armstrong, Beth L [ORNL; Rodrigues-Schroer, Angela [Minteq International, Inc.; Colavito, [Minteq International, Inc.; Smith, Jeffrey D [ORNL; O'Hara, Kelley [University of Missouri, Rolla

    2013-01-01

    As part of a larger project to develop novel refractory systems and techniques to reduce energy consumption of refractory lined vessels, a team composed of Oak Ridge National Laboratory, refractory manufacturer Minteq International, Inc., and academic partner Missouri University of Science and Technology have developed new refractory materials and coating systems specifically for application in coal gasification environments. Materials were developed under this U.S. DOE funded project to address the need for innovative refractory compositions by developing MgO-Al2O3 spinel gunnable refractory compositions utilizing new aggregate materials, bond systems, protective coatings, and phase formation techniques. Work was conducted to develop and deploy these new materials and to develop and apply low cost coatings using a colloidal approach for protection against attack of the refractory brick by the serviced environment. Additionally, a light-weight back-up refractory system was developed to help offset the high thermal conductivity inherent in spinel materials. This paper discusses the efforts involved in the development of these materials, along with the laboratory testing and evaluation of these materials leading to relevant results achieved toward the reduction of chemical reactions and mechanical degradation by the service environment though compositional and processing modifications.

  17. NMR studies of superionic 03B2-aluminas J. L. Bjorkstam

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Paris-Sud XI, Université de

    importance as the ion conduction medium in high energy density electrical storage systems and the unusual fluctuations responsible for relaxa- tion. A minimum in T1 is expected when mo i - 1 (where mo is the NMR measuring frequency). In this case, T 1 vs. T measurements in solid electrolytes provide a way

  18. Effect of heat treatment on the catalytic activity of activated alumina 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Farrar, Gerald Leland

    1950-01-01

    and constant feed com- position: to dxc Iko f(xc) ko' f'(xc)j a s L 8f fraction reactant converted k ~ forward reaction rate constant k a L s k'~ reverse reaction rate constant ko' a L s Wc weight of catalyst nt mole of feed ner unit time a ~ area per... unit mass of catalyst L active spots per unit area s ~ number of equidistant~ active spots ad)acent to each spot, needed by and available for reaction (assumed constant in this case) Let [ko f(xc) k ' f'(x )] 15(xc) Separating variables...

  19. Micro Catalytic Combustor with Pd/Nano-porous Alumina for High-Temperature Application

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Kasagi, Nobuhide

    . A heat exchanger with a temperature efficiency of 0.78 is assumed for heat recirculation. Thus as high as 850 o C and extremely high heat generation density of 2-5x108 W/m3 has been achieved been made for radial-flow-type combustors using Fluent 6 (Fluent Inc.). Figure 1 shows a radial-flow-type

  20. Method And Reactor For Production Of Aluminum By Carbothermic Reduction Of Alumina

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Aune, Jan Arthur (Ytre Enebakk, NO); Johansen, Kai (Kristiansand, NO)

    2004-10-19

    A hollow partition wall is employed to feed carbon material to an underflow of a carbothermic reduction furnace used to make aluminum. The partition wall divides a low temperature reaction zone where aluminum oxide is reacted with carbon to form aluminum carbide and a high temperature reaction zone where the aluminum carbide and remaining aluminum oxide are reacted to form aluminum and carbon monoxide.

  1. Hybrid Filtration Membranes incorporating Nanoporous Silica within a Nanoscale Alumina Fibre Scaffold

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Su, Veronica Mei Tiing; Clyne, Trevor William

    2015-06-11

    peristaltic pump. The pressure drop across the membrane was approximately 0.1-0.7 bar. Corresponding volumetric flow rates were measured. Fig.1 Schematic depiction of the set-up employed for measurement of the membrane permeability and the filtration... thoroughly with DI water. A vacuum pump was used to draw out trapped air within the bundles and promote water penetration. Excess water was removed with a pipette and the samples were dried at 80?C overnight. The volume fraction of fibre in the assembly...

  2. Ordered mesoporous crystalline aluminas from self-assembly of ABC triblock terpolymer

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Gruner, Sol M.

    of metal oxide a Department of Materials Science and Engineering, Cornell University, Ithaca, New York for various high temperature catalysis, separation, and energy- related applications. Introduction Porous-b-PPO-b-PEO) triblock copolymers and Al2O3 sol precursors with controlled hydrolysis rates.21 An alternative route

  3. ORNL's alumina-forming austenitic alloy family licensed to Carpenter Technology Corp.

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Pennycook, Steve

    exchangers for CHP (Combined Heat and Power) turbines able to operate reliably at higher temperature, thereby with excellent high temperature oxidation resistance. Increased deployment of AFA steels can lead to heat-walled heat exchangers (recuperators) which is an especially demanding application for creep and corrosion

  4. Alumina-Supported Trirhenium Clusters: Stable High-Temperature Catalysts for Methylcyclohexane Conversion

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Lobo-Lapidus, R.J.; McCall, M.J.; Lanuza, M.; Tonnesen, S.; Bare, S.R.; Gates, B.C.

    2009-05-19

    Samples prepared from H{sub 3}Re{sub 3}(CO){sub 12} adsorbed on porous {gamma}-Al{sub 2}O{sub 3} were decarbonylated at 773 K in flowing H{sub 2} and characterized by X-ray absorption spectroscopy (XAS). X-ray absorption near-edge spectra show that rhenium in the treated sample was cationic, and extended X-ray absorption fine structure spectra show a Re-Re first-shell coordination number of approximately 2, consistent with trirhenium clusters bonded to the support. The samples were tested as catalysts for the conversion of methylcyclohexane in the presence of H{sub 2} at atmospheric pressure and at 723 and at 773 K in a flow reactor. A range of hydrocarbon products was observed, indicating the occurrence of dehydrogenation, isomerization, ring opening, and hydrocracking reactions. The catalyst used at 723 K underwent deactivation over a period of several hours, during which the selectivity for the major dehydrogenation product (toluene) increased significantly. At 773 K, the catalyst underwent activation, during which the product distribution changed. This increase in activity was retained when the temperature was reduced to 723 K, resulting in higher activity and different selectivity relative to what had been observed before at this temperature. The fresh and used catalyst samples were characterized by X-ray absorption spectroscopy, which showed that the trirhenium framework remained intact after catalysis, although changes in the rhenium coordination were observed. The catalytically active species are inferred to be trirhenium.

  5. Strains in Thermally Growing Alumina Films Measured in-situ usingSynchrotron X-rays

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Hou, P.Y.; Paulikas, A.P.; Veal, B.W.

    2006-01-02

    Strains in thermally grown oxides have been measured in-situ, as the oxides develop and evolve. Extensive data have been acquired from oxides grown in air at elevated temperatures on different model alloys that form Al{sub 2}O{sub 3}. Using synchrotron x-rays at the Advanced Photon Source (Beamline 12BM, Argonne National Laboratory), Debye-Scherrer diffraction patterns from the oxidizing specimen were recorded every 5 minutes during oxidation and subsequent cooling. The diffraction patterns were analyzed to determine strains in the oxides, as well as phase changes and the degree of texture. To study a specimen's response to stress perturbation, the oxidizing temperature was quickly cooled from 1100 to 950 C to impose a compressive thermal stress in the scale. This paper describes this new experimental approach and gives examples from oxidized {beta}-NiAl, Fe-20Cr-10Al, Fe-28Al-5Cr and H{sub 2}-annealed Fe-28Al-5Cr (all at. %) alloys to illustrate some current understanding of the development and relaxation of growth stresses in Al{sub 2}O{sub 3}.

  6. Alumina Nanoparticle Pre-coated Tubing Ehancing Subcooled Flow Boiling Cricital Heat Flux

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Truong, Bao H.

    Nanofluids are engineered colloidal dispersions of nano-sized particle in common base fluids. Previous pool boiling studies have shown that nanofluids can improve critical heat flux (CHF) up to 200% for pool boiling and ...

  7. On characterisation of wire-arc-plasma-sprayed Ni on alumina substrate

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Laik, A.; Chakravarthy, D.P.; Kale, G.B. . E-mail: gbkale@apsara.barc.ernet.in

    2005-08-15

    A study was carried out on metal-ceramic bonding produced by the technique of wire-arc-plasma spraying of Ni on Al{sub 2}O{sub 3} substrate. The Ni layer and the Ni/Al{sub 2}O{sub 3} interface were characterised using optical and electro-optic techniques. The plasma-deposited Ni layer shows a uniform lamellar microstructure throughout the cross-section. The metal-ceramic interface was found to be well bonded with no pores, flaws or cracks in the as-sprayed condition. The optical metallography and concentration profiles established with the help of an electron probe microanalyser confirmed the absence of any intermediate phase at the interface. An annealing treatment at 1273 K for 24 h on the plasma-coated samples did not result in formation of any intermetallic compound or spinel at the Ni/Al{sub 2}O{sub 3} interface. This indicates that the oxygen picked up by Ni during the spraying operation is less than the threshold value required to form the spinel NiAl{sub 2}O{sub 4}.

  8. Why ion-doped, PZC-altered silica and alumina fail to influence platinum adsorption

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Regalbuto, John R.

    the adsorption of either cationic amine or anionic chloride complexes of Pt(IV) [1]. This follow-up work explored]. The hydroxyl groups that populate oxide surfaces become protonated and so positively charged or depro- tonated

  9. Electrodeposition of Indium Antimonide Nanowires in Porous Anodic Alumina Asaduzzaman Mohammad1

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Chen, Yong P.

    uses a reverse anodization technique to penetrate the hemispherical pore bottom barrier oxide layer to break through the pore bottom barrier oxide layer including chemical or plasma etching processes [5, 9

  10. Effects of specimen thickness and impurity on the conductivity of alumina under electron irradiation

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Howlader, Matiar R

    windows in the International Thermonuclear Experimental Reactor (ITER), where the electrical conductivity believed to be critical issues for the application of a-Al2O3 to insulators in fusion reac- tors. The RIC

  11. Acidity and catalytic activity of zeolite catalysts bound with silica and alumina 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Wu, Xianchun

    2004-09-30

    . The acidities of the bound catalysts and the zeolite powder are determined by NH3-TPD and FTIR. The textures of these catalysts are analyzed on a BET machine with nitrogen as a probe molecule. The micropore surface area and micropore volume are determined by t...

  12. SubstrateSubstrate Commercially available high density -alumina plate (14x14 mm2)

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Azad, Abdul-Majeed

    440 450 460 470 480 490 500 510 520 530 540 OHM SubstrateSubstrate Commercially available high followed by oxidation in a well-defined pO2 regime near the M-MOx proximity line by a suitable buffer gas Model. Fig. 4. Thermodynamic criteria for several M/MOx coexistence and practical pO2 regimes for phase

  13. Chemical bath method to grow precipitated nanorods of iridium oxide on alumina membranes

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Chiao, Jung-Chih

    and chemical stability, such as ZnO, OsO2, RuO2, TiO2 and IrO2 have been used as materials for durableO2 on high-density carbon nanotubes (CNTs) to form IrO2/CNT nanocomposites. Although the growth

  14. Epoxy-based carbon films with high electrical conductivity attached to an alumina substrate

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Chung, Deborah D.L.

    of nanotubes. The carbon film with 2.5 vol.% nickel showed resistivity 6 · 10À3 X cm. Ó 2008 Elsevier Ltd. All, and multiwalled carbon nanotube (MWCNT) were used as conductive fillers. Nickel nanoparticle (Inco 210 H, Inco Ltd gave crack-free and scratch resistant carbon films. Interconnected filamentary nickel nanoparticles

  15. Strengthening and toughening of carbon nanotube reinforced alumina nanocomposite fabricated by

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Hong, Soon Hyung

    rights reserved. Keywords: Carbon nanotube; Ceramic matrix composite; Molecular level mixing; Spark: one is the weak bonding between CNTs and ceramic matrix and the other is the inhomogeneous distribution of CNTs within the ceramic matrix. Recently, CNTs have been homoge- neously dispersed within

  16. Mullite/Alumina Mixtures for Use as Porous Matrices in Oxide Fiber Composites

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Zok, Frank

    ceramic composites. Conditions for the deflection of a matrix crack at a fiber-matrix interface are used to enable damage tolerance in continuous-fiber ceramic composites (CFCCs) has emerged as a new paradigm between matrix structure and composite performance are understood presently at only a rudimentary level

  17. Analysis of the Temporal Evolution of Thermal Conductivity in Alumina-Water Nanofluid 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Fortenberry, Stephen

    2009-09-30

    of several months. This corresponded to a change in the thermal conductivity enhancement realized due to the suspension of nanoparticles in fluid from an initial value of 11.2% to a final value of 7.2%. Temporal evolution of the nanofluid’s thermal...

  18. 1/2 CREEP FRACTURE IN CERAMIC POLYCRYSTALS I. CREEP CAVITATION EFFECTS IN POLYCRYSTALLINE ALUMINA

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Porter, J.R.

    2013-01-01

    Met. , 28: ilure Mechanisms in Ceramics J. M. Dynys et al. ,Deformation Mechanisms in Ceramics, 11 R. C. Bradt and R. LEvans, Creep Fracture in Ceramic Polycrystals II. Effect of

  19. 1/2 CREEP FRACTURE IN CERAMIC POLYCRYSTALS I. CREEP CAVITATION EFFECTS IN POLYCRYSTALLINE ALUMINA

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Porter, J.R.

    2013-01-01

    non-linearity of creep in the test is found to be minimal.creep deformation under various conditions of stress and temperature. RESULTS AND OBSERVAT Deformation tests

  20. DOI: 10.1002/cphc.200600060 Cu2O Nanowires in an Alumina Template

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Okamoto, Koichi

    performed to estimate the optical band gap of Cu2O [a] Dr. J. Lee Fuel Cell Research Center, Korea Institute] Dr. J. Choi Nanomaterials Application Division Korea Institute of Ceramic Engineering and Technology, attractive properties, as well as their unique applications compared with bulk materi- als.[1

  1. Preparation of ceramic matrix and alumina fiber composites for use as solid electrolytes

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Dudney, N.J.

    1987-04-30

    A process for making solid electrolytes using a fibrous stabilizing dispersed second phase for enhanced conductivity of the electrolyte after deformation and annealing. 1 tab.

  2. Effects of Slurry Chemistry on the Rate of Agglomeration of Alumina Nanoparticles for Chemical Mechanical Planarization /

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Brahma, Neil Anjan

    2013-01-01

    A, 85, 19-27 13. P. H. Tewari and A. W. McLean, J. ColloidA, 85, 19-27 15. P. H. Tewari and A. W. McLean, J. Colloidwith increasing temperature [14]. Tewari and McLean reported

  3. Effect of Alumina Source on the Rate of Melting Demonstrated with Nuclear

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Homesum_a_epg0_fpd_mmcf_m.xls" ,"Available from WebQuantity of NaturalDukeWakefieldSulfate Reducing(Journal Article) | SciTech ConnectExperimentsGAMMA-RAY ATTENUATION UPWaste Glass

  4. Nanolithographic Fabrication and Heterogeneous Reaction Studies of Two-Dimensional Platinum Model Catalyst Systems

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Contreras, A.M.

    2006-01-01

    of silica, alumina, zirconia, and ceria. These nanowirea) alumina support; (b) zirconia-support; (c) ceria-are silica, alumina, zirconia and ceria…………………109 Table 5.1

  5. 34 JOM May 2001 Inert Anodes

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Sadoway, Donald Robert

    nobler than alumina (and almost every- thing is nobler than alumina) will be electrolyzed along with it

  6. Guidebook for Using the Tool BEST Cement: Benchmarking and Energy Savings Tool for the Cement Industry

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Galitsky, Christina; Price, Lynn; Zhou, Nan; Fuqiu , Zhou; Huawen, Xiong; Xuemin, Zeng; Lan, Wang

    2008-07-30

    The Benchmarking and Energy Savings Tool (BEST) Cement is a process-based tool based on commercially available efficiency technologies used anywhere in the world applicable to the cement industry. This version has been designed for use in China. No actual cement facility with every single efficiency measure included in the benchmark will likely exist; however, the benchmark sets a reasonable standard by which to compare for plants striving to be the best. The energy consumption of the benchmark facility differs due to differences in processing at a given cement facility. The tool accounts for most of these variables and allows the user to adapt the model to operational variables specific for his/her cement facility. Figure 1 shows the boundaries included in a plant modeled by BEST Cement. In order to model the benchmark, i.e., the most energy efficient cement facility, so that it represents a facility similar to the user's cement facility, the user is first required to input production variables in the input sheet (see Section 6 for more information on how to input variables). These variables allow the tool to estimate a benchmark facility that is similar to the user's cement plant, giving a better picture of the potential for that particular facility, rather than benchmarking against a generic one. The input variables required include the following: (1) the amount of raw materials used in tonnes per year (limestone, gypsum, clay minerals, iron ore, blast furnace slag, fly ash, slag from other industries, natural pozzolans, limestone powder (used post-clinker stage), municipal wastes and others); the amount of raw materials that are preblended (prehomogenized and proportioned) and crushed (in tonnes per year); (2) the amount of additives that are dried and ground (in tonnes per year); (3) the production of clinker (in tonnes per year) from each kiln by kiln type; (4) the amount of raw materials, coal and clinker that is ground by mill type (in tonnes per year); (5) the amount of production of cement by type and grade (in tonnes per year); (6) the electricity generated onsite; and, (7) the energy used by fuel type; and, the amount (in RMB per year) spent on energy. The tool offers the user the opportunity to do a quick assessment or a more detailed assessment--this choice will determine the level of detail of the energy input. The detailed assessment will require energy data for each stage of production while the quick assessment will require only total energy used at the entire facility (see Section 6 for more details on quick versus detailed assessments). The benchmarking tool provides two benchmarks--one for Chinese best practices and one for international best practices. Section 2 describes the differences between these two and how each benchmark was calculated. The tool also asks for a target input by the user for the user to set goals for the facility.

  7. JV Task 90 - Activated Carbon Production from North Dakota Lignite

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Steven Benson; Charlene Crocker; Rokan Zaman; Mark Musich; Edwin Olson

    2008-03-31

    The Energy & Environmental Research Center (EERC) has pursued a research program for producing activated carbon from North Dakota lignite that can be competitive with commercial-grade activated carbon. As part of this effort, small-scale production of activated carbon was produced from Fort Union lignite. A conceptual design of a commercial activated carbon production plant was drawn, and a market assessment was performed to determine likely revenue streams for the produced carbon. Activated carbon was produced from lignite coal in both laboratory-scale fixed-bed reactors and in a small pilot-scale rotary kiln. The EERC was successfully able to upgrade the laboratory-scale activated carbon production system to a pilot-scale rotary kiln system. The activated carbon produced from North Dakota lignite was superior to commercial grade DARCO{reg_sign} FGD and Rheinbraun's HOK activated coke product with respect to iodine number. The iodine number of North Dakota lignite-derived activated carbon was between 600 and 800 mg I{sub 2}/g, whereas the iodine number of DARCO FGD was between 500 and 600 mg I{sub 2}/g, and the iodine number of Rheinbraun's HOK activated coke product was around 275 mg I{sub 2}/g. The EERC performed both bench-scale and pilot-scale mercury capture tests using the activated carbon made under various optimization process conditions. For comparison, the mercury capture capability of commercial DARCO FGD was also tested. The lab-scale apparatus is a thin fixed-bed mercury-screening system, which has been used by the EERC for many mercury capture screen tests. The pilot-scale systems included two combustion units, both equipped with an electrostatic precipitator (ESP). Activated carbons were also tested in a slipstream baghouse at a Texas power plant. The results indicated that the activated carbon produced from North Dakota lignite coal is capable of removing mercury from flue gas. The tests showed that activated carbon with the greatest iodine number was superior to commercial DARCO FGD for mercury capture. The results of the activated carbon market assessment indicate an existing market for water treatment and an emerging application for mercury control. That market will involve both existing and new coal-fired plants. It is expected that 20% of the existing coal-fired plants will implement activated carbon injection by 2015, representing about 200,000 tons of annual demand. The potential annual demand by new plants is even greater. In the mercury control market, two characteristics are going to dominate the customer's buying habit-performance and price. As continued demonstration testing of activated carbon injection at the various coal-fired power plants progresses, the importance of fuel type and plant configuration on the type of activated carbon best suited is being identified.

  8. Material and Energy Flows in the Materials Production, Assembly, and End-of-Life Stages of the Automotive Lithium-Ion Battery Life Cycle

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Dunn, Jennifer B.; Gaines, Linda; Barnes, Matthew; Sullivan, John L.; Wang, Michael

    2014-01-01

    This document contains material and energy flows for lithium-ion batteries with an active cathode material of lithium manganese oxide (LiMn?O?). These data are incorporated into Argonne National Laboratory’s Greenhouse gases, Regulated Emissions, and Energy use in Transportation (GREET) model, replacing previous data for lithium-ion batteries that are based on a nickel/cobalt/manganese (Ni/Co/Mn) cathode chemistry. To identify and determine the mass of lithium-ion battery components, we modeled batteries with LiMn?O? as the cathode material using Argonne’s Battery Performance and Cost (BatPaC) model for hybrid electric vehicles, plug-in hybrid electric vehicles, and electric vehicles. As input for GREET, we developed new or updated data for the cathode material and the following materials that are included in its supply chain: soda ash, lime, petroleum-derived ethanol, lithium brine, and lithium carbonate. Also as input to GREET, we calculated new emission factors for equipment (kilns, dryers, and calciners) that were not previously included in the model and developed new material and energy flows for the battery electrolyte, binder, and binder solvent. Finally, we revised the data included in GREET for graphite (the anode active material), battery electronics, and battery assembly. For the first time, we incorporated energy and material flows for battery recycling into GREET, considering four battery recycling processes: pyrometallurgical, hydrometallurgical, intermediate physical, and direct physical. Opportunities for future research include considering alternative battery chemistries and battery packaging. As battery assembly and recycling technologies develop, staying up to date with them will be critical to understanding the energy, materials, and emissions burdens associated with batteries.

  9. Material and energy flows in the materials production, assembly, and end-of-life stages of the automotive lithium-ion battery life cycle

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Dunn, J.B.; Gaines, L.; Barnes, M.; Wang, M.; Sullivan, J.

    2012-06-21

    This document contains material and energy flows for lithium-ion batteries with an active cathode material of lithium manganese oxide (LiMn{sub 2}O{sub 4}). These data are incorporated into Argonne National Laboratory's Greenhouse gases, Regulated Emissions, and Energy use in Transportation (GREET) model, replacing previous data for lithium-ion batteries that are based on a nickel/cobalt/manganese (Ni/Co/Mn) cathode chemistry. To identify and determine the mass of lithium-ion battery components, we modeled batteries with LiMn{sub 2}O{sub 4} as the cathode material using Argonne's Battery Performance and Cost (BatPaC) model for hybrid electric vehicles, plug-in hybrid electric vehicles, and electric vehicles. As input for GREET, we developed new or updated data for the cathode material and the following materials that are included in its supply chain: soda ash, lime, petroleum-derived ethanol, lithium brine, and lithium carbonate. Also as input to GREET, we calculated new emission factors for equipment (kilns, dryers, and calciners) that were not previously included in the model and developed new material and energy flows for the battery electrolyte, binder, and binder solvent. Finally, we revised the data included in GREET for graphite (the anode active material), battery electronics, and battery assembly. For the first time, we incorporated energy and material flows for battery recycling into GREET, considering four battery recycling processes: pyrometallurgical, hydrometallurgical, intermediate physical, and direct physical. Opportunities for future research include considering alternative battery chemistries and battery packaging. As battery assembly and recycling technologies develop, staying up to date with them will be critical to understanding the energy, materials, and emissions burdens associated with batteries.

  10. 1997 Performance Testing of Multi-Metal Continuous Emissions Monitors

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Sky +, Inc.

    1998-09-01

    Five prototype and two commercially available multi-metals continuous emissions monitors (CEMs) were tested in September 1997 at the Rotary Kiln Incinerator Simulator facility at the EPA National Risk Management Research Laboratory, Research Triangle Park, North Carolina. The seven CEMs were tested side by side in a long section of duct following the secondary combustion chamber of the RKIS. Two different concentrations of six toxic metals were introduced into the incinerator-approximately 15 and 75 µg/dscm of arsenic, beryllium, cadmium, chromium, lead, and mercury (We also tested for antimony but we are not reporting on it here because EPA recently dropped antimony from the list of metals addressed by the draft MACT rule). These concentrations were chosen to be close to emission standards in the draft MACT rule and the estimated Method Detection Limit (MDL) required of a CEM for regulatory compliance purposes. Results from this test show that no CEMs currently meet the performance specifications in the EPA draft MACT rule for hazardous waste incinerators. Only one of the CEMs tested was able to measure all six metals at the concentrations tested. Even so, the relative accuracy of this CEM varied between 35% and 100%, not 20% or less as required in the EPA performance specification. As a result, we conclude that no CEM is ready for long-term performance validation for compliance monitoring applications. Because sampling and measuring Hg is a recurring problem for multi-metal CEMs as well as Hg CEMs, we recommended that developers participate in a 1998 DOE-sponsored workshop to solve these and other common CEM measurement issues.

  11. Production Scale-Up or Activated Carbons for Ultracapacitors

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Dr. Steven D. Dietz

    2007-01-10

    Transportation use accounts for 67% of the petroleum consumption in the US. Electric and hybrid vehicles are promising technologies for decreasing our dependence on petroleum, and this is the objective of the FreedomCAR & Vehicle Technologies Program. Inexpensive and efficient energy storage devices are needed for electric and hybrid vehicle to be economically viable, and ultracapacitors are a leading energy storage technology being investigated by the FreedomCAR program. The most important parameter in determining the power and energy density of a carbon-based ultracapacitor is the amount of surface area accessible to the electrolyte, which is primarily determined by the pore size distribution. The major problems with current carbons are that their pore size distribution is not optimized for liquid electrolytes and the best carbons are very expensive. TDA Research, Inc. (TDA) has developed methods to prepare porous carbons with tunable pore size distributions from inexpensive carbohydrate based precursors. The use of low-cost feedstocks and processing steps greatly lowers the production costs. During this project with the assistance of Maxwell Technologies, we found that an impurity was limiting the performance of our carbon and the major impurity found was sulfur. A new carbon with low sulfur content was made and found that the performance of the carbon was greatly improved. We also scaled-up the process to pre-production levels and we are currently able to produce 0.25 tons/year of activated carbon. We could easily double this amount by purchasing a second rotary kiln. More importantly, we are working with MeadWestvaco on a Joint Development Agreement to scale-up the process to produce hundreds of tons of high quality, inexpensive carbon per year based on our processes.

  12. Evaluation of cement production using a pressurized fluidized-bed combustor

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    DeLallo, M.; Eshbach, R.

    1994-01-01

    There are several primary conclusions which can be reached and used to define research required in establishing the feasibility of using PFBC-derived materials as cement feedstock. 1. With appropriate blending almost any material containing the required cement-making materials can be utilized to manufacture cement. However, extensive blending with multiple materials or the use of ash in relatively small quantities would compromise the worth of this concept. 2. The composition of a potential feedstock must be considered not only with respect to the presence of required materials, but just as significantly, with respect to the presence and concentration of known deleterious materials. 3. The processing costs for rendering the feedstock into an acceptable composition and the energy costs associated with both processing and burning must be considered. It should be noted that the cost of energy to produce cement, expressed as a percentage of the price of the product is higher than for any other major industrial product. Energy consumption is, therefore, a major issue. 4. The need for conformance to environmental regulations has a profound effect on the cement industry since waste materials can neither be discharged to the atmosphere or be shipped to a landfill. 5. Fifth, the need for achieving uniformity in the composition of the cement is critical to controlling its quality. Unfortunately, certain materials in very small concentrations have the capability to affect the rate and extent to which the cementitious compound in portland cement are able to form. Particularly critical are variations in the ash, the sulfur content of the coal or the amount and composition of the stack dust returned to the kiln.

  13. Integrated methods for production of clean char and its combustion properties

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    DeBarr, J.A.

    1991-01-01

    The overall objective of this two-year program is to produce clean char using an integrated process scheme which combines physical coal cleaning, mild gasification and char oxydesulfurization. Low sulfur chars which could be used in utility boilers to meet 1995 emission standards of 2.5 lbs DO{sub 2}/MMBtu are produced from Illinois coals having emissions of >5 lbs SO{sub 2}/MMBtu. Mild gasification and low temperature oxidation studies for sulfur removal are conducted with selected coals from the Illinois Basin Coal (IBC) Sample Program in a batch fixed-bed reactor at the ISGS. Pound quantities of chars for combustion testing are prepared in a continuous rotary kiln reactor under optimized conditions of mild gasification and oxydesulfurization. Burning characteristics and ash deposition behaviors of desulfurized chars are determined to ensure that a useable fuel is produced. These tests are done at the University of North Dakota Energy and Environmental Research Center (UNDEERC) in a drop tube furnace (DTF), and at the US EPA in a 14 kW pilot-scale combustor. In some tests, methane is examined as an auxiliary fuel, and high-surface-area hydrated lime developed at ISGS is used to further reduce SO{sub 2} emissions. Complete analyses of the fuels are obtained to aid char desulfurization studies and help explain combustion and SO{sub 2} emission characteristics of the char. This project is a cooperative effort between the ISGS, UNDEERC and the US EPA and is cost-shared with US EPA and the US DOE through UNDEERC.

  14. Production of carbon molecular sieves from Illinois coal; [Quarterly] technical report, September 1, 1993--November 30, 1993

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Lizzio, A.A.; Rostam-Abadi, M. [Illinois State Geological Survey, Champaign, IL (United States); Vyas, S.N. [Indian Institute of Technology, Bombay (India)

    1994-03-01

    Carbon molecular sieves (CMS) have become an increasingly important class of adsorbents for use in gas separation and recovery processes. The overall objective of this project is to determine whether Illinois Basin coal is a suitable feedstock for the production of CMS and to evaluate the potential application of these products in commercial gas separation processes. In Phase I of this project, gram quantities of char were produced from IBC-102 coal in a fixed-bed reactor under a wide range of pyrolysis and activation conditions. Chars having surface areas. of 1500--2100 m{sup 2}/g were produced by chemical activation using potassium hydroxide as the activant. These high surface area chars had more than twice the adsorption capacity of commercial molecular sieves. The kinetics of adsorption of various gases, i.e., O{sub 2}, N{sub 2}, CO{sub 2}, CH{sub 4} and H{sub 2} on these chars at 25{degree}C was studied. Several chars showed good potential for efficient O{sub 2}/N{sub 2}, CO{sub 2}/CH{sub 4}, CO{sub 2}/H{sub 2} and CH{sub 4}/H{sub 2} separation; both high adsorption capacities and selectivities were achieved. The full potential of these materials in commercial gas separations has yet to be realized. In Phase II, the optimal preparation conditions determined in Phase I will be applied to production of larger quantities of CMS in a batch fluidized-bed reactor (FBR) and continuous rotary tube kiln (RTK).

  15. Integrated methods for production of clean char and its combustion properties. Technical report, September 1, 1991--November 30, 1991

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    DeBarr, J.A.

    1991-12-31

    The overall objective of this two-year program is to produce clean char using an integrated process scheme which combines physical coal cleaning, mild gasification and char oxydesulfurization. Low sulfur chars which could be used in utility boilers to meet 1995 emission standards of 2.5 lbs DO{sub 2}/MMBtu are produced from Illinois coals having emissions of >5 lbs SO{sub 2}/MMBtu. Mild gasification and low temperature oxidation studies for sulfur removal are conducted with selected coals from the Illinois Basin Coal (IBC) Sample Program in a batch fixed-bed reactor at the ISGS. Pound quantities of chars for combustion testing are prepared in a continuous rotary kiln reactor under optimized conditions of mild gasification and oxydesulfurization. Burning characteristics and ash deposition behaviors of desulfurized chars are determined to ensure that a useable fuel is produced. These tests are done at the University of North Dakota Energy and Environmental Research Center (UNDEERC) in a drop tube furnace (DTF), and at the US EPA in a 14 kW pilot-scale combustor. In some tests, methane is examined as an auxiliary fuel, and high-surface-area hydrated lime developed at ISGS is used to further reduce SO{sub 2} emissions. Complete analyses of the fuels are obtained to aid char desulfurization studies and help explain combustion and SO{sub 2} emission characteristics of the char. This project is a cooperative effort between the ISGS, UNDEERC and the US EPA and is cost-shared with US EPA and the US DOE through UNDEERC.

  16. Production of carbon molecular sieves from Illinois coal. Final technical report, 1 September, 1992--31 August 1993

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Lizzio, A.A.; Rostam-Abadi, M. [Illinois State Geological Survey, Champaign, IL (United States)

    1993-12-31

    Carbon molecular sieves (CMS) have become an increasingly important class of adsorbents for use in gas separation and recovery processes. The overall objective of this project is to determine whether Illinois Basin coals are a suitable feedstock for the production of CMS and to evaluate the potential application of these products in commercial gas separation processes. In Phase 1 of this project, gram quantities of char were prepared from Illinois coal in a fixed-bed reactor under a wide range of pyrolysis and activation conditions. Chars having surface areas of 1,500--2,100 m{sup 2}/g were produced by chemical activation using potassium hydroxide (KOH) as the chemical activant. These high surface area (HSA) chars had more than twice the adsorption capacity of commercial molecular sieves. The kinetics of adsorption of various gases, e.g., O{sub 2}, N{sub 2}, CO{sub 2}, CH{sub 4}, and H{sub 2}, on these chars at 25 C was determined. Several chars showed good potential for efficient O{sub 2}/N{sub 2}, CO{sub 2}/CH{sub 4} and CH{sub 4}/H{sub 2} separation. In Phase 2 of this project, larger quantities of char are being prepared from Illinois coal in a batch fluidized-bed reactor and in a continuous rotary tube kiln. The ability of these chars to separate binary gas mixtures is tested in an adsorption column/gas chromatography system. Oxygen and nitrogen breakthrough curves obtained for selected chars were compared to those of a commercial zeolite. Selected chars were subjected to a nitric acid oxidation treatment. The air separation capability of nitric acid treated char was strongly dependent on the outgassing conditions used prior to an O{sub 2}/N{sub 2} adsorption experiment. An outgassing temperature of 130--160 C produced chars with the most favorable air separation properties. 61 refs.

  17. Dehumidification Grain Dryer

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Lula, J.W.; Bohnert, G.W.

    1998-05-13

    A new technique developed during this project dries grain with mildly heated, dehumidified air in a closed-loop process. This proposed technique uses about one-tenth the energy and dries grain at a lower temperature, producing less damage to the kernels.Approximately 250 million automotive and truck tires are discarded each year in the U.S. The very properties that ensure a safe ride and long service life make the disposal of these scrap tires difficult. In spite of this, scrap tire recycling/reuse has rapidly grown from 10% in 1985 to over 90% today. The majority of scrap tires that are recycled/reused are burned for fuel in power plants and cement kilns. Since tires have somewhat higher heating value than coal, this would at first seem to be an acceptable option. But burning scrap tires recovers only 25% of the energy originally used to manufacture the rubber. An alternative is to use the scrap tires in the form of crumb rubber, by which 98% of the original energy is recovered. This project sought to explore potential formulations of crumb rubber with various thermoplastic binders, with one goal being developing a material for a low-cost, high-performance roofing composition. What was the state-of-the-art of the product/process prior to initiation of the project? Why was the project needed (e.g., performance, quality, cost, time to market)? Describe the strengths and interests of each party and how they are complementary with respect to the project. What KCP expertise was needed and how did it complement the partner's capabilities?

  18. Clean Coal Technology Demonstration Program. Program update 1994

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    1995-04-01

    The Clean Coal Technology Demonstration Program (CCT Program) is a $7.14 billion cost-shared industry/government technology development effort. The program is to demonstrate a new generation of advanced coal-based technologies, with the most promising technologies being moved into the domestic and international marketplace. Clean coal technologies being demonstrated under the CCT program are creating the technology base that allows the nation to meet its energy and environmental goals efficiently and reliably. The fact that most of the demonstrations are being conducted at commercial scale, in actual user environments, and under conditions typical of commercial operations allows the potential of the technologies to be evaluated in their intended commercial applications. The technologies are categorized into four market sectors: advanced electric power generation systems; environmental control devices; coal processing equipment for clean fuels; and industrial technologies. Sections of this report describe the following: Role of the Program; Program implementation; Funding and costs; The road to commercial realization; Results from completed projects; Results and accomplishments from ongoing projects; and Project fact sheets. Projects include fluidized-bed combustion, integrated gasification combined-cycle power plants, advanced combustion and heat engines, nitrogen oxide control technologies, sulfur dioxide control technologies, combined SO{sub 2} and NO{sub x} technologies, coal preparation techniques, mild gasification, and indirect liquefaction. Industrial applications include injection systems for blast furnaces, coke oven gas cleaning systems, power generation from coal/ore reduction, a cyclone combustor with S, N, and ash control, cement kiln flue gas scrubber, and pulse combustion for steam coal gasification.

  19. Measurement and Model Correlation of Specific Heat Capacity of Water-Based Nanofluids With Silica, Alumina and Copper Oxide Nanoparticles

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    O’Hanley, Harry

    Nanofluids are being considered for heat transfer applications. However, their thermo-physical properties are poorly known. Here we focus on nanofluid specific heat capacity. Currently, there exist two models to predict a ...

  20. The effects of chemistry on the colloidal behavior of alumina slurries and copper nanohardness for copper chemical mechanical planarization

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Ihnfeldt, Robin Veronica

    2008-01-01

    Int. J. Manufacturing Technology and Management, 7 (5),Journal of Manufacturing Technology and Management, 7 , (Int. J. Manufacturing Technology and Management, 7 (5),

  1. Integration of Self-Assembled Porous Alumina and Distributed Bragg Reflector for Light Trapping in Si Photovoltaic Devices

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Sheng, Xing

    Light trapping is an important issue for thin film silicon photovoltaic cells due to the limited absorption coefficient for near infrared light. In this letter, we present a photonic structure that combines porous anodic ...

  2. Oxidation of Pdn (n=17, 10) clusters supported on alumina/NiAl(110) R. Robles and S. N. Khanna*

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Rodriguez, Roberto

    .5 One could thus regard the oxide layer as consider- ably reduced. A realistic model of atomic positions selected clusters were deposited on the oxide layer and they measured the shift in the XPS levels

  3. ELSEVIER Journal of Nuclear Materials 239 (1996) 245-252 In situ measurement of electrical conductivity of alumina under

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Howlader, Matiar R

    1996-01-01

    the effects of flux, electric field and temperature and may lessen their performance in fusion reactors affect the performance of ct-A1203 in fusion reactors. A significant surface conductivity is confirmed, it is emphasized that RIC and RIED of et-A1203 are not severe for insulators in the International Thermonuclear

  4. Synthesis of silver-zeolite films on micropatterned porous alumina and its application as an antimicrobial substrate

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Dutta, Prabir K.

    into a variety of systems, including fabrics, biomaterials, filters and thus can serve a wide range of uses. Ó, crystalline solids with well-defined structure [1,2]. Ion exchange, thermal stability, catalytic properties is not possible with conventional methods of ceramic forming such as dry pressing, whereas with soft lithography

  5. Ballistic impact response of an UHMWPE fiber reinforced laminate encasing of an aluminum-alumina hybrid panel

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    O'Masta, MR; Compton, BG; Gamble, EA; Zok, FW; Deshpande, VS; Wadley, HNG

    2015-01-01

    response of hybridized thermoplastic laminates. Aberdeenbers are combined with thermoplastic polymer matrices to

  6. Surface characterization of palladium–alumina sorbents for high-temperature capture of mercury and arsenic from fuel gas

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Baltrus, John P. [National Energy Technology Lab. (NETL), Pittsburgh, PA, (United States); Granite, Evan J. [National Energy Technology Lab. (NETL), Pittsburgh, PA, (United States); Pennline, Henry W. [National Energy Technology Lab. (NETL), Pittsburgh, PA, (United States); Stanko, Dennis [National Energy Technology Lab. (NETL), Pittsburgh, PA, (United States); Hamilton, Hugh [Johnson Matthey Plc, Technology Centre, Reading (United Kingdom); Rowsell, Liz [Johnson Matthey Plc, Technology Centre, Reading (United Kingdom); Poulston, Stephen [Johnson Matthey Plc, Technology Centre, Reading (United Kingdom); Smith, Andrew [Johnson Matthey Plc, Technology Centre, Reading (United Kingdom); Chu, Wilson [Johnson Matthey, Malvern, PA (United States)

    2010-06-01

    Coal gasification with subsequent cleanup of the resulting fuel gas is a way to reduce the impact of mercury and arsenic in the environment during power generation and on downstream catalytic processes in chemical production. The interactions of mercury and arsenic with Pd/Al2O3 model thin film sorbents and Pd/Al2O3 powders have been studied to determine the relative affinities of palladium for mercury and arsenic, and how they are affected by temperature and the presence of hydrogen sulfide in the fuel gas. The implications of the results on strategies for capturing the toxic metals using a sorbent bed are discussed.

  7. Aluminium doped ceria–zirconia supported palladium-alumina catalyst with high oxygen storage capacity and CO oxidation activity

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Dong, Qiang; Yin, Shu Guo, Chongshen; Wu, Xiaoyong; Kimura, Takeshi; Sato, Tsugio

    2013-12-15

    Graphical abstract: Ce{sub 0.5}Zr{sub 0.3}Al{sub 0.2}O{sub 1.9}/Pd/?-Al{sub 2}O{sub 3} possessed high OSC and CO oxidation activity at low temperature. - Highlights: • A new OSC material of Ce{sub 0.5}Zr{sub 0.3}Al{sub 0.2}O{sub 1.9}/Pd/?-Al{sub 2}O{sub 3} is prepared via a mechanochemical method. • Ce{sub 0.5}Zr{sub 0.3}Al{sub 0.2}O{sub 1.9}/Pd/?-Al{sub 2}O{sub 3} showed high OSC even after calcination at 1000 °C for 20 h. • Ce{sub 0.5}Zr{sub 0.3}Al{sub 0.2}O{sub 1.9}/Pd/?-Al{sub 2}O{sub 3} exhibited the highest CO oxidation activity at low temperature correlates with enhanced OSC. - Abstract: The Ce{sub 0.5}Zr{sub 0.3}Al{sub 0.2}O{sub 1.9}/Pd-?-Al{sub 2}O{sub 3} catalyst prepared by a mechanochemical route and calcined at 1000 °C for 20 h in air atmosphere to evaluate the thermal stability. The prepared Ce{sub 0.5}Zr{sub 0.3}Al{sub 0.2}O{sub 1.9}/Pd-?-Al{sub 2}O{sub 3} catalyst was characterized for the oxygen storage capacity (OSC) and CO oxidation activity in automotive catalysis. For the characterization, X-ray diffraction, transmission electron microscopy and the Brunauer–Emmet–Teller (BET) technique were employed. The OSC values of all samples were measured at 600 °C using thermogravimetric-differential thermal analysis. Ce{sub 0.5}Zr{sub 0.3}Al{sub 0.2}O{sub 1.9}/Pd-?-Al{sub 2}O{sub 3} catalyst calcined at 1000 °C for 20 h with a BET surface area of 41 m{sup 2} g{sup ?1} exhibited the considerably high OSC of 583 ?mol-O g{sup ?1} and good OSC performance stability. The same synthesis route was employed for the preparation of the CeO{sub 2}/Pd-?-Al{sub 2}O{sub 3} and Ce{sub 0.5}Zr{sub 0.5}O{sub 2}/Pd-?-Al{sub 2}O{sub 3} for comparison.

  8. Novel High Strength Ceria-Zirconia Toughened Alumina Ceramic with Superior High Temperature Corrosion and Erosion Resistance. Final Report

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Giulio, R.; Butcher, K.

    2004-01-13

    Composite CeTZP/A1{sub 2}O{sub 3} (CeZTA) foams were developed and tested to determine their suitability as particulate filters in hot gaseous conditions generated by coal combustion in electric power plants. Exposure to these extreme corrosive conditions did not cause significant degradation in strength. Superior properties of these foams suggests they could be used for a variety of applications in environment, energy and chemical fields.

  9. Effect of design on the performance of steel-alumina bilayers and trilayers subject to ballistic impact

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    2015-01-01

    of penetration and perforation. Int. J. Eng. Sci. 16, 793–absorbed during ballistic perforation of composite armours.

  10. Ballistic impact response of an UHMWPE fiber reinforced laminate encasing of an aluminum-alumina hybrid panel

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    O'Masta, MR; Compton, BG; Gamble, EA; Zok, FW; Deshpande, VS; Wadley, HNG

    2015-01-01

    residual velocities after perforation are also shown. Fig.Plate bulging prior to perforation pre-accelerates the reara prism apex resulted in full perforation with a debris exit

  11. Effect of design on the performance of steel-alumina bilayers and trilayers subject to ballistic impact

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    2015-01-01

    Inelastic deformation and energy dissipation in ceramics: aAn investigation into the energy absorbed during ballisticresistance Impact Trilayer Energy absorption Damage a b s t

  12. Alumina-Forming Austenitics: A New Approach to Thermal and Degradation Resistant Stainless Steels for Industrial Use

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    David A Helmick; John H Magee; Michael P Brady

    2012-05-31

    A series of developmental AFA alloys was selected for study based on: 25 Ni wt.% (alloys A-F), 20 wt% Ni (alloys G-H), and 12 Ni wt.% (alloys I-L). An emphasis in this work was placed on the lower alloy content direction for AFA alloys to reduce alloy raw material cost, rather than more highly alloyed and costly AFA alloys for higher temperature performance. Alloys A-D explored the effects of Al (3-4 wt.%) and C (0.05-0.2 wt.%) in the Fe-25Ni-14Cr-2Mn-2Mo-1W-1Nb wt.% base range; alloys E and F explored the effects of removing costly Mo and W additions in a Fe-25Ni-14Cr-4Al-2.5Nb-2Mn-0.2C base, alloys G and H examined Nb (1-2.5wt.%) and removal of Mo, W in a Fe-20Ni-14Cr-3Al-2Mn-0.2 C wt.% base; and alloys I-L examined effects of C (0.1-0.2 wt.%) and Mn (5-10 wt.%) on a low cost Fe-14Cr-12Ni-3Cu-2.5Al wt.% base (no Mo, W additions). Creep testing resulted in elemental trends that included the beneficial effect of higher carbon and lower niobium in 20-25%Ni AFA alloys and, the beneficial of lower Mn in 12%Ni AFA alloys. Corrosion tests in steam and sulfidation-oxidation environments showed, in general, these alloys were capable of a ten-fold improvement in performance when compared to conventional austenitic stainless steels. Also, corrosion test results in metal-dusting environments were promising and, warrant further investigation.

  13. The effects of chemistry on the colloidal behavior of alumina slurries and copper nanohardness for copper chemical mechanical planarization

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Ihnfeldt, Robin Veronica

    2008-01-01

    9 , 64 (2005). M. Pourbaix, Atlas of ElectrochemicalYork, New York (1993). M. Pourbaix, Atlas of Electrochemical389 , 254 (2001). M. Pourbaix, Atlas of Electrochemical

  14. Surface characterizatin of palladium-alumina sorbents for high-temperature capture of mercury and arsenic from fuel gas

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Baltrus, J.P.; Granite, E.J.; Pennline, H.W.; Stanko, D.; Hamilton, H.; Rowsell, L.; Poulston, S.; Smith, A.; Chu, W.

    2010-01-01

    Coal gasification with subsequent cleanup of the resulting fuel gas is a way to reduce the impact of mercury and arsenic in the environment during power generation and on downstream catalytic processes in chemical production, The interactions of mercury and arsenic with PdlAl2D3 model thin film sorbents and PdlAh03 powders have been studied to determine the relative affinities of palladium for mercury and arsenic, and how they are affected by temperature and the presence of hydrogen sulfide in the fuel gas. The implications of the results on strategies for capturing the toxic metals using a sorbent bed are discussed.

  15. The significance of crack-resistance curves to the mixed-mode fracture toughness of human cortical bone

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Zimmermann, Elizabeth A.

    2010-01-01

    36], alumina [16], and zirconia [16]. The G c toughnessand wood, alumina, and zirconia, and the mode II toughness,36], alumina [16], and zirconia [16]. The G c toughness

  16. SAND2010-5901

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    onto fluorinated alumina surface. ..... 50 10 Tables Table 1- BET surface area, pore volume, and pore size of synthesized nanoporous alumina ...... 21 Table 2- Sorption...

  17. Development and Testing of the Advanced CHP System Utilizing the Off-Gas from the Innovative Green Coke Calcining Process in Fluidized Bed

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Chudnovsky, Yaroslav; Kozlov, Aleksandr

    2013-08-15

    Green petroleum coke (GPC) is an oil refining byproduct that can be used directly as a solid fuel or as a feedstock for the production of calcined petroleum coke. GPC contains a high amount of volatiles and sulfur. During the calcination process, the GPC is heated to remove the volatiles and sulfur to produce purified calcined coke, which is used in the production of graphite, electrodes, metal carburizers, and other carbon products. Currently, more than 80% of calcined coke is produced in rotary kilns or rotary hearth furnaces. These technologies provide partial heat utilization of the calcined coke to increase efficiency of the calcination process, but they also share some operating disadvantages. However, coke calcination in an electrothermal fluidized bed (EFB) opens up a number of potential benefits for the production enhancement, while reducing the capital and operating costs. The increased usage of heavy crude oil in recent years has resulted in higher sulfur content in green coke produced by oil refinery process, which requires a significant increase in the calcinations temperature and in residence time. The calorific value of the process off-gas is quite substantial and can be effectively utilized as an “opportunity fuel” for combined heat and power (CHP) production to complement the energy demand. Heat recovered from the product cooling can also contribute to the overall economics of the calcination process. Preliminary estimates indicated the decrease in energy consumption by 35-50% as well as a proportional decrease in greenhouse gas emissions. As such, the efficiency improvement of the coke calcinations systems is attracting close attention of the researchers and engineers throughout the world. The developed technology is intended to accomplish the following objectives: - Reduce the energy and carbon intensity of the calcined coke production process. - Increase utilization of opportunity fuels such as industrial waste off-gas from the novel petroleum coke calcination process. - Increase the opportunity of heat (chemical and physical) utilization from process off-gases and solid product. - Develop a design of advanced CHP system utilizing off-gases as an “opportunity fuel” for petroleum coke calcinations and sensible heat of calcined coke. A successful accomplishment of the aforementioned objectives will contribute toward the following U.S. DOE programmatic goals: - Drive a 25% reduction in U. S. industrial energy intensity by 2017 in support of EPAct 2005; - Contribute to an 18% reduction in U.S. carbon intensity by 2012 as established by the Administration’s “National Goal to Reduce Emissions Intensity.” 8

  18. Tire Development for Effective Transportation and Utilization of Used Tires, CRADA 01-N044, Final Report

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Susan M. Maley

    2004-03-31

    Scrap tires represent a significant disposal and recycling challenge for the United States. Over 280 million tires are generated on an annual basis, and several states have large stockpiles or abandoned tire piles that are slated for remediation. While most states have programs to address the accumulation and generation of scrap tires, most of these states struggle with creating and sustaining recycling or beneficial end use markets. One of the major issues with market development has been the costs associated with transporting and processing the tires into material for recycling or disposal. According to a report by the Rubber Manufactures Association tire-derived fuel (TDF) represents the largest market for scrap tires, and approximately 115 million tires were consumed in 2001 as TDF (U.S. Scrap Tire Markets, 2001, December 2002, www.rma.org/scraptires). This market is supported primarily by cement kilns, followed by various industries including companies that operate utility and industrial boilers. However the use of TDF has not increased and the amount of TDF used by boiler operators has declined. The work completed through this cooperative research and development agreement (CRADA) has shown the potential of a mobile tire shredding unit to economically produce TDF and to provide an alterative low cost fuel to suitable coal-fired power systems. This novel system addresses the economic barriers by processing the tires at the retailer, thereby eliminating the costs associated with hauling whole tires. The equipment incorporated into the design allow for small 1-inch chunks of TDF to be produced in a timely fashion. The TDF can then be co-fired with coal in suitable combustion systems, such as a fluidized bed. Proper use of TDF has been shown to boost efficiency and reduce emissions from power generation systems, which is beneficial to coal utilization in existing power plants. Since the original scope of work outlined in the CRADA could not be completed because of lack of progress by the CRADA members, the agreement was not extended beyond February 2004. The work completed included the detailed design of the mobile unit, a general economic analysis of the operating the system, and outreach activities.

  19. Implementing Strategies for Drying and Pressing Wood Without Emissions Controls

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Sujit Banerjee; Terrance Conners

    2007-09-07

    Drying and pressing wood for the manufacture of lumber, particleboard, oriented strand board (OSB), veneer and medium density fiberboard (MDF) release volatile organic compounds (VOCs) into the atmosphere. These emissions require control equipment that are capital-intensive and consume significant quantities of natural gas and electricity. The objective of our work was to understand the mechanisms through which volatile organic compounds are generated and released and to develop simple control strategies. Of the several strategies developed, two have been implemented for OSB manufacture over the course of this study. First, it was found that increasing final wood moisture by about 2-4 percentage points reduced the dryer emissions of hazardous air pollutants by over 70%. As wood dries, the escaping water evaporatively cools the wood. This cooling tapers off wood when the wood is nearly dry and the wood temperature rises. Thermal breakdown of the wood tissue occurs and VOCs are released. Raising the final wood moisture by only a few percentage points minimizes the temperature rise and reduces emissions. Evaporative cooling also impacts has implications for VOC release from wood fines. Flaking wood for OSB manufacture inevitable generates fines. Fines dry out rapidly because of their high surface area and evaporative cooling is lost more rapidly than for flakes. As a result, fines emit a disproportionate quantity of VOCs. Fines can be reduced in two ways: through screening of the green furnish and through reducing their generation during flaking. The second approach is preferable because it also increased wood yield. A procedure to do this by matching the sharpness angle of the flaker knife to the ambient temperature was also developed. Other findings of practical interests are as follows: Dielectric heating of wood under low-headspace conditions removes terpenes and other extractives from softwood; The monoterpene content in trees depend upon temperature and seasonal effects; Method 25A emissions from lumber drying can be modeled from a knowledge of the airflow through the kiln; A heat transfer model shows that VOCs released during hot-pressing mainly originate from the surface of the board; and Boiler ash can be used to adsorb formaldehyde from air streams.

  20. Integrated methods for production of clean char and its combustion properties. [Quarterly] report, March 1, 1992--May 31, 1992

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    DeBarr, J.A.; Rostam-Abadi, M. [Illinois State Geological Survey, Champaign, IL (United States); Gullett, B.K. [Environmental Protection Agency, Research Triangle Park, NC (United States); Benson, S.A.; Toman, D.L. [North Dakota Univ., Grand Forks, ND (United States). Energy and Environmental Research Center

    1992-10-01

    The objective of this program is to produce chars with SO{sub 2} emissions at least 50% lower than those of the parent coals, and which at minimum meet the year 1995 emission standard of 2.5 lbs SO{sub 2}/MMBtu. This will be accomplished using an integrated process which combines physical coal cleaning, mild gasification and char desulfurization. This project is a cooperative effort between the ISGS, UNDEERC and the US EPA and is cost-shared with the US EPA and the US DOE through UNDEERC. Mild gasification and char desulfurization studies are conducted in a batch fluidized-bed reactor and a continuous rotary kiln reactor using six coals selected from the Illinois Basin Coal (IBC) Sample Program. Burning characteristics and ash deposition behaviors of desulfurized chars are determined at the US EPA in a 14 kill pilot-scale combustor and at UNDEERC in a drop tube furnace (DTF). Complete analyses of the fuels are obtained to aid char desulfurization studies and help explain combustion and SO{sub 2} emission characteristics of the chars. During this reporting period, preliminary low temperature oxidation (LTO) studies were conducted to desulfurize chars derived from mild gasification. Under non-optimized conditions, SO{sub 2} emissions (lbs SO{sub 2}/MMBtu) of the six coals were reduced over 60%. Physical coal cleaning, mild gasification and char desulfurization reduced the SO{sub 2} emissions of two of the coals nearly 70%. Chars prepared from four of the six coals tested had SO{sub 2} emissions of less than 2.5 lbs SO{sub 2}/MMBtu. The average yield of low sulfur char obtained after pyrolysis and LTO was nearly 64% by weight of the original coal. Thermogravimetric (TG) experiments showed that LTO chars are easier to burn than mild gasification chars, due to an increase in surface areas of desulfurized chars during oxygen treatment. Surface areas measured by nitrogen adsorption were 126 to 234 m{sup 2}/g for LTO chars and <5 m{sup 2}/g for mild gasification chars.

  1. Energy implications of mechanical and mechanical–biological treatment compared to direct waste-to-energy

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Cimpan, Ciprian Wenzel, Henrik

    2013-07-15

    Highlights: • Compared systems achieve primary energy savings between 34 and 140 MJ{sub primary}/100 MJ{sub input} {sub waste.} • Savings magnitude is foremost determined by chosen primary energy and materials production. • Energy consumption and process losses can be upset by increased technology efficiency. • Material recovery accounts for significant shares of primary energy savings. • Direct waste-to-energy is highly efficient if cogeneration (CHP) is possible. - Abstract: Primary energy savings potential is used to compare five residual municipal solid waste treatment systems, including configurations with mechanical (MT) and mechanical–biological (MBT) pre-treatment, which produce waste-derived fuels (RDF and SRF), biogas and/or recover additional materials for recycling, alongside a system based on conventional mass burn waste-to-energy and ash treatment. To examine the magnitude of potential savings we consider two energy efficiency levels (state-of-the-art and best available technology), the inclusion/exclusion of heat recovery (CHP vs. PP) and three different background end-use energy production systems (coal condensing electricity and natural gas heat, Nordic electricity mix and natural gas heat, and coal CHP energy quality allocation). The systems achieved net primary energy savings in a range between 34 and 140 MJ{sub primary}/100 MJ{sub input} {sub waste}, in the different scenario settings. The energy footprint of transportation needs, pre-treatment and reprocessing of recyclable materials was 3–9.5%, 1–18% and 1–8% respectively, relative to total energy savings. Mass combustion WtE achieved the highest savings in scenarios with CHP production, nonetheless, MBT-based systems had similarly high performance if SRF streams were co-combusted with coal. When RDF and SRF was only used in dedicated WtE plants, MBT-based systems totalled lower savings due to inherent system losses and additional energy costs. In scenarios without heat recovery, the biodrying MBS-based system achieved the highest savings, on the condition of SRF co-combustion. As a sensitivity scenario, alternative utilisation of SRF in cement kilns was modelled. It supported similar or higher net savings for all pre-treatment systems compared to mass combustion WtE, except when WtE CHP was possible in the first two background energy scenarios. Recovery of plastics for recycling before energy recovery increased net energy savings in most scenario variations, over those of full stream combustion. Sensitivity to assumptions regarding virgin plastic substitution was tested and was found to mostly favour plastic recovery.

  2. Environmentally Safe, Large Volume Utilization Applications for Gasification Byproducts

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    J.G. Groppo; R. Rathbone

    2008-06-30

    Samples of gasification by-products produced at Polk Station and Eastman Chemical were obtained and characterized. Bulk samples were prepared for utilization studies by screening at the appropriate size fractions where char and vitreous frit distinctly partitioned. Vitreous frit was concentrated in the +20 mesh fraction while char predominated in the -20+100 mesh fraction. The vitreous frit component derived from each gasifier slag source was evaluated for use as a pozzolan and as aggregate. Pozzolan testing required grinding the frit to very fine sizes which required a minimum of 60 kwhr/ton. Grinding studies showed that the energy requirement for grinding the Polk slag were slightly higher than for the Eastman slag. Fine-ground slag from both gasifiers showed pozzoalnic activity in mortar cube testing and met the ASTM C618 strength requirements after only 3 days. Pozzolanic activity was further examined using British Standard 196-5, and results suggest that the Polk slag was more reactive than the Eastman slag. Neither aggregate showed significant potential for undergoing alkali-silica reactions when used as concrete aggregate with ASTM test method 1260. Testing was conducted to evaluate the use of the frit product as a component of cement kiln feed. The clinker produced was comprised primarily of the desirable components Ca{sub 3}SiO{sub 5} and Ca{sub 2}SiO{sub 4} after raw ingredient proportions were adjusted to reduce the amount of free lime present in the clinker. A mobile processing plant was designed to produce 100 tons of carbon from the Eastman slag to conduct evaluations for use as recycle fuel. The processing plant was mounted on a trailer and hauled to the site for use. Two product stockpiles were generated; the frit stockpile contained 5% LOI while the carbon stockpile contained 62% LOI. The products were used to conduct recycle fuel tests. A processing plant was designed to separate the slag produced at Eastman into 3 usable products. The coarse frit has been shown to be suitable for use as clinker feed for producing Portland cement. The intermediate-size product is enriched in carbon (58-62% C) and may be used as recycle fuel either in the gasifier or in a PC boiler. The fines product contains 30-40% C and may also be used as a recycle gasifier fuel, as is presently done at TECO's Polk Station, however, due to gasifier operating requirements for the production of syngas, this is not feasible at Eastman.

  3. Alumina nanoparticle/polymer nanocomposite dielectric for flexible amorphous indium-gallium-zinc oxide thin film transistors on plastic substrate with superior stability

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Lai, Hsin-Cheng [Department of Electrical Engineering, National Chung Hsing University, Taichung 40227, Taiwan (China); Pei, Zingway, E-mail: zingway@dragon.nchu.edu.tw [Department of Electrical Engineering, National Chung Hsing University, Taichung 40227, Taiwan (China); Graduate Institute of Optoelectronic Engineering, National Chung Hsing University, Taichung 40227, Taiwan (China); Center of Nanoscience and Nanotechnology, National Chung Hsing University, Taichung 40227, Taiwan (China); Jian, Jyun-Ruri; Tzeng, Bo-Jie [Graduate Institute of Optoelectronic Engineering, National Chung Hsing University, Taichung 40227, Taiwan (China)

    2014-07-21

    In this study, the Al{sub 2}O{sub 3} nanoparticles were incorporated into polymer as a nono-composite dielectric for used in a flexible amorphous Indium-Gallium-Zinc Oxide (a-IGZO) thin-film transistor (TFT) on a polyethylene naphthalate substrate by solution process. The process temperature was well below 100?°C. The a-IGZO TFT exhibit a mobility of 5.13?cm{sup 2}/V s on the flexible substrate. After bending at a radius of 4?mm (strain?=?1.56%) for more than 100 times, the performance of this a-IGZO TFT was nearly unchanged. In addition, the electrical characteristics are less altered after positive gate bias stress at 10?V for 1500?s. Thus, this technology is suitable for use in flexible displays.

  4. Investigation of porous alumina as a self-assembled diffractive element to facilitate light trapping in thin film silicon solar cells

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Coronel, Naomi (Naomi Cristina)

    2009-01-01

    Thin film solar cells are currently being investigated as an affordable alternative energy source because of the reduced material cost. However, these devices suffer from low efficiencies, compared to silicon wafer solar ...

  5. Martha L. Mecartney, Ph.D. Outreach and Highlights of Research for

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Mease, Kenneth D.

    different compositions - alumina/zirconia/mullite (aluminosilicate) and alumina/zirconia/nickel spinel to as superplasticity. By dispersing a nanometer scale second phase in yttria stabilized cubic zirconia, this ceramic Deformation of Alumina-based Composites (Alumina-Zirconia-Mullite) 0 20 40 60 80 100 1E-5 1E-4 1E-3 0.01 1425

  6. THERMOCHEMICAL HEAT STORAGE FOR CONCENTRATED SOLAR POWER

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    PROJECT STAFF

    2011-10-31

    Thermal energy storage (TES) is an integral part of a concentrated solar power (CSP) system. It enables plant operators to generate electricity beyond on sun hours and supply power to the grid to meet peak demand. Current CSP sensible heat storage systems employ molten salts as both the heat transfer fluid and the heat storage media. These systems have an upper operating temperature limit of around 400 C. Future TES systems are expected to operate at temperatures between 600 C to 1000 C for higher thermal efficiencies which should result in lower electricity cost. To meet future operating temperature and electricity cost requirements, a TES concept utilizing thermochemical cycles (TCs) based on multivalent solid oxides was proposed. The system employs a pair of reduction and oxidation (REDOX) reactions to store and release heat. In the storage step, hot air from the solar receiver is used to reduce the oxidation state of an oxide cation, e.g. Fe3+ to Fe2+. Heat energy is thus stored as chemical bonds and the oxide is charged. To discharge the stored energy, the reduced oxide is re-oxidized in air and heat is released. Air is used as both the heat transfer fluid and reactant and no storage of fluid is needed. This project investigated the engineering and economic feasibility of this proposed TES concept. The DOE storage cost and LCOE targets are $15/kWh and $0.09/kWh respectively. Sixteen pure oxide cycles were identified through thermodynamic calculations and literature information. Data showed the kinetics of re-oxidation of the various oxides to be a key barrier to implementing the proposed concept. A down selection was carried out based on operating temperature, materials costs and preliminary laboratory measurements. Cobalt oxide, manganese oxide and barium oxide were selected for developmental studies to improve their REDOX reaction kinetics. A novel approach utilizing mixed oxides to improve the REDOX kinetics of the selected oxides was proposed. It partially replaces some of the primary oxide cations with selected secondary cations. This causes a lattice charge imbalance and increases the anion vacancy density. Such vacancies enhance the ionic mass transport and lead to faster re-oxidation. Reoxidation fractions of Mn3O4 to Mn2O3 and CoO to Co3O4 were improved by up to 16 fold through the addition of a secondary oxide. However, no improvement was obtained in barium based mixed oxides. In addition to enhancing the short term re-oxidation kinetics, it was found that the use of mixed oxides also help to stabilize or even improve the TES properties after long term thermal cycling. Part of this improvement could be attributed to a reduced grain size in the mixed oxides. Based on the measurement results, manganese-iron, cobalt-aluminum and cobalt iron mixed oxides have been proposed for future engineering scale demonstration. Using the cobalt and manganese mixed oxides, we were able to demonstrate charge and discharge of the TES media in both a bench top fixed bed and a rotary kiln-moving bed reactor. Operations of the fixed bed configuration are straight forward but require a large mass flow rate and higher fluid temperature for charging. The rotary kiln makes direct solar irradiation possible and provides significantly better heat transfer, but designs to transport the TES oxide in and out of the reactor will need to be defined. The final reactor and system design will have to be based on the economics of the CSP plant. A materials compatibility study was also conducted and it identified Inconel 625 as a suitable high temperature engineering material to construct a reactor holding either cobalt or manganese mixed oxides. To assess the economics of such a CSP plant, a packed bed reactor model was established as a baseline. Measured cobalt-aluminum oxide reaction kinetics were applied to the model and the influences of bed properties and process parameters on the overall system design were investigated. The optimal TES system design was found to be a network of eight fixed bed reactors at 18.75 MWth each with charge and

  7. WETTING, SPREADING AND REACTIONS AT LIQUID/SOLID INTERFACES

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Pask, J.A.

    2010-01-01

    Midland, Mich. , Sept. 30, 1967. GRAPHITE FURNACE P ,ALUMINA FURNACE CONTACT ANGLE = 10" atm. WEIGHT L05S OF Na/of 2 x 10 atm in two furnaces: "alumina furnace" witn a pOp

  8. A predictive model for particle size distribution and yield for Bayer precipitation and classification 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Kapraun, Christopher Michael

    1996-01-01

    This project implements a dynamic alumina hydrate continuous precipitation and classification model in an alumina refining operation to allow the forecasting of a number of relevant process parameters, such as the particle size distribution...

  9. Examination of Uranium(VI) Leaching During Ligand Promoted Dissolution of Waste Tank Sludge Surrogates

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Powell, Brian A.

    2008-01-01

    Effects of phosphate on uranium(VI) adsorption to goethite-and ionic strength upon uranium(VI) sorption onto alumina asD. R. , Leslie, B. W. , Uranium sorption on a-alumina:

  10. Solid State Electrochemical Sensors for Nitrogen Oxide (NOx) Detection in Lean Exhaust Gases

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Rheaume, Jonathan Michael

    2010-01-01

    Serge, Electrochemistry of Zirconia Gas Sensors, New York:and A. C. Young, "Gelcast Zirconia-Alumina Composites", 15thand A. C. Young, "Gelcast Zirconia-Alumina Composites", 15th

  11. Template synthesis of polymer-insulated colloidal gold nanowires with reactive Jong-Sung Yu,*a Jeong Yeon Kim,a Seungho Lee,a Jeremiah K. N. Mbindyo,b Benjamin R. Martinb and

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    the electrochemical replication of porous alumina and polycarbonate membranes, allows one to make cylindrical wires of the alumina membrane to make the membrane electrically conductive (ca. 200 nm thick Ag). Ag

  12. Catalysis by Design: Bridging the Gap Between Theory and Experiments at Nanoscale Level

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    Studies on a simple platinum-alumina system constitute a first step toward a "catalyst by design" approach.

  13. Semiconductor Nanowires and Nanotubes for Energy Conversion

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Fardy, Melissa Anne

    2010-01-01

    Low-temperature Al2O3 atomic layer deposition. Chemistry of58] . Overall, atomic layer deposition of alumina resulted

  14. Method for removing fluoride contamination from nitric acid

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Pruett, David J. (Knoxville, TN); Howerton, William B. (Kingston, TN)

    1982-01-01

    Fluoride ions are removed from nitric acid solution by contacting the vaporized solution with alumina or zirconium.

  15. MATERIALS AND MOLECULAR RESEARCH DIVISION ANNUAL REPORT 1979

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Authors, Various

    2013-01-01

    bend (XBL 7912-13527) creep test. into the alumina duringmullite respectively. Creep tests have been initiated on the

  16. Recovery Act: Innovative CO2 Sequestration from Flue Gas Using Industrial Sources and Innovative Concept for Beneficial CO2 Use

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Dando, Neal; Gershenzon, Mike; Ghosh, Rajat

    2012-07-31

    field testing of a biomimetic in-duct scrubbing system for the capture of gaseous CO2 coupled with sequestration of captured carbon by carbonation of alkaline industrial wastes. The Phase 2 project, reported on here, combined efforts in enzyme development, scrubber optimization, and sequestrant evaluations to perform an economic feasibility study of technology deployment. The optimization of carbonic anhydrase (CA) enzyme reactivity and stability are critical steps in deployment of this technology. A variety of CA enzyme variants were evaluated for reactivity and stability in both bench scale and in laboratory pilot scale testing to determine current limits in enzyme performance. Optimization of scrubber design allowed for improved process economics while maintaining desired capture efficiencies. A range of configurations, materials, and operating conditions were examined at the Alcoa Technical Center on a pilot scale scrubber. This work indicated that a cross current flow utilizing a specialized gas-liquid contactor offered the lowest system operating energy. Various industrial waste materials were evaluated as sources of alkalinity for the scrubber feed solution and as sources of calcium for precipitation of carbonate. Solids were mixed with a simulated sodium bicarbonate scrubber blowdown to comparatively examine reactivity. Supernatant solutions and post-test solids were analyzed to quantify and model the sequestration reactions. The best performing solids were found to sequester between 2.3 and 2.9 moles of CO2 per kg of dry solid in 1-4 hours of reaction time. These best performing solids were cement kiln dust, circulating dry scrubber ash, and spray dryer absorber ash. A techno-economic analysis was performed to evaluate the commercial viability of the proposed carbon capture and sequestration process in full-scale at an aluminum smelter and a refinery location. For both cases the in-duct scrubber technology was compared to traditional amine- based capture. Incorporation of the laboratory results showed that for the application at the aluminum smelter, the in-duct scrubber system is more economical than traditional methods. However, the reverse is true for the refinery case, where the bauxite residue is not effective enough as a sequestrant, combined with challenges related to contaminants in the bauxite residue accumulating in and fouling the scrubber absorbent. Sensitivity analyses showed that the critical variables by which process economics could be improved are enzyme concentration, efficiency, and half-life. At the end of the first part of the Phase 2 project, a gate review (DOE Decision Zero Gate Point) was conducted to decide on the next stages of the project. The original plan was to follow the pre-testing phase with a detailed design for the field testing. Unfavorable process economics, however, resulted in a decision to conclude the project before moving to field testing. It is noted that CO2 Solutions proposed an initial solution to reduce process costs through more advanced enzyme management, however, DOE program requirements restricting any technology development extending beyond 2014 as commercial deployment timeline did not allow this solution to be undertaken.

  17. Alternative Fuel for Portland Cement Processing

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Anton K. Schindler; Steve R. Duke; Thomas E. Burch; Edward W. Davis; Ralph H. Zee; David I. Bransby; Carla Hopkins; Rutherford L. Thompson; Jingran Duan; Vignesh Venkatasubramanian; Stephen Giles.

    2012-06-30

    The production of cement involves a combination of numerous raw materials, strictly monitored system processes, and temperatures on the order of 1500 °C. Immense quantities of fuel are required for the production of cement. Traditionally, energy from fossil fuels was solely relied upon for the production of cement. The overarching project objective is to evaluate the use of alternative fuels to lessen the dependence on non-renewable resources to produce portland cement. The key objective of using alternative fuels is to continue to produce high-quality cement while decreasing the use of non-renewable fuels and minimizing the impact on the environment. Burn characteristics and thermodynamic parameters were evaluated with a laboratory burn simulator under conditions that mimic those in the preheater where the fuels are brought into a cement plant. A drop-tube furnace and visualization method were developed that show potential for evaluating time- and space-resolved temperature distributions for fuel solid particles and liquid droplets undergoing combustion in various combustion atmospheres. Downdraft gasification has been explored as a means to extract chemical energy from poultry litter while limiting the throughput of potentially deleterious components with regards to use in firing a cement kiln. Results have shown that the clinkering is temperature independent, at least within the controllable temperature range. Limestone also had only a slight effect on the fusion when used to coat the pellets. However, limestone addition did display some promise in regards to chlorine capture, as ash analyses showed chlorine concentrations of more than four times greater in the limestone infused ash as compared to raw poultry litter. A reliable and convenient sampling procedure was developed to estimate the combustion quality of broiler litter that is the best compromise between convenience and reliability by means of statistical analysis. Multi-day trial burns were conducted at a full-scale cement plant with alternative fuels to examine their compatibility with the cement production process. Construction and demolition waste, woodchips, and soybean seeds were used as alternative fuels at a full-scale cement production facility. These fuels were co-fired with coal and waste plastics. The alternative fuels used in this trial accounted for 5 to 16 % of the total energy consumed during these burns. The overall performance of the portland cement produced during the various trial burns performed for practical purposes very similar to the cement produced during the control burn. The cement plant was successful in implementing alternative fuels to produce a consistent, high-quality product that increased cement performance while reducing the environmental footprint of the plant. The utilization of construction and demolition waste, woodchips and soybean seeds proved to be viable replacements for traditional fuels. The future use of these fuels depends on local availability, associated costs, and compatibility with a facilityâ??s production process.

  18. electronic reprint Crystallography

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Winter, Rudolf

    SAXS studies of the morphological changes of an alumina­zirconia­silicate ceramic during its formation et al. ¯ Alumina­zirconia­silicate ceramic #12;research papers J. Appl. Cryst. (2006). 39, 589 ­ all rights reserved In situ SAXS studies of the morphological changes of an alumina­zirconia

  19. USE OF ATOMIC LAYER DEPOSITION OF FUNCTIONALIZATION OF NANOPOROUS BIOMATERIALS

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Brigmon, R.; Narayan, R.; Adiga, S.; Pellin, M.; Curtiss, L.; Stafslien, S.; Chisholm, B.; Monteiro-Riviere, N.; Elam, J.

    2010-02-08

    Due to its chemical stability, uniform pore size, and high pore density, nanoporous alumina is being investigated for use in biosensing, drug delivery, hemodialysis, and other medical applications. In recent work, we have examined the use of atomic layer deposition for coating the surfaces of nanoporous alumina membranes. Zinc oxide coatings were deposited on nanoporous alumina membranes using atomic layer deposition. The zinc oxide-coated nanoporous alumina membranes demonstrated antimicrobial activity against Escherichia coli and Staphylococcus aureus bacteria. These results suggest that atomic layer deposition is an attractive technique for modifying the surfaces of nanoporous alumina membranes and other nanostructured biomaterials.

  20. SOx/NOx sorbent and process of use

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Ziebarth, M.S.; Hager, M.J.; Beeckman, J.W.; Plecha, S.

    1993-01-19

    An alumina sorbent capable of adsorbing NOx and SOx from waste gases and being regenerated by heating above 600 C. is made by incorporating an alumina stabilizing agent into the sorbent. A preferred method is to add the stabilizer when the alumina is precipitated. The precipitated powder is formed subsequently into a slurry, milled and dripped to form the stabilizing spheroidal alumina particles. These particles are impregnated with an alkali metal or alkaline earth metal to form the stabilized sorbent. Alumina stabilizers include one or more of silica, lanthana, other rare earths, titania, zirconia and alkaline earths.

  1. SOX/NOX sorbent and process of use

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Ziebarth, Michael S. (Columbia, MD); Hager, Michael J. (Baltimore, MD); Beeckman, Jean W. (Columbia, MD); Plecha, Stanislaw (Baltimore, MD)

    1995-01-01

    An alumina sorbent capable of adsorbing NOx and SOx from waste gases and being regenerated by heating above 600.degree. C. is made by incorporating an alumina stabilizing agent into the sorbent. A preferred method is to add the stabilizer when the alumina is precipitated. The precipitated powder is formed subsequently into a slurry, milled and dripped to form the stabilized spheroidal alumina particles. These particles are impregnated with an alkali metal or alkaline earth metal to form the stabilized sorbent. Alumina stabilizers include one or more of silica, lanthana, other rare earths, titania, zirconia and alkaline earths.

  2. SOx/NOx sorbent and process of use

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Ziebarth, Michael S. (Columbia, MD); Hager, Michael J. (Baltimore, MD); Beeckman, Jean W. (Columbia, MD); Plecha, Stanislaw (Baltimore, MD)

    1993-01-19

    An alumina sorbent capable of adsorbing NOx and SOx from waste gases and being regenerated by heating above 600.degree. C. is made by incorporating an alumina stabilizing agent into the sorbent. A preferred method is to add the stabilizer when the alumina is precipitated. The precipitated powder is formed subsequently into a slurry, milled and dripped to form the stabilizing spheroidal alumina particles. These particles are impregnated with an alkali metal or alkaline earth metal to form the stabilized sorbent. Alumina stabilizers include one or more of silica, lanthana, other rare earths, titania, zirconia and alkaline earths.

  3. SOX/NOX sorbent and process of use

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Ziebarth, M.S.; Hager, M.J.; Beeckman, J.W.; Plecha, S.

    1995-05-09

    An alumina sorbent capable of adsorbing NOx and SOx from waste gases and being regenerated by heating above 600 C is made by incorporating an alumina stabilizing agent into the sorbent. A preferred method is to add the stabilizer when the alumina is precipitated. The precipitated powder is formed subsequently into a slurry, milled and dripped to form the stabilized spheroidal alumina particles. These particles are impregnated with an alkali metal or alkaline earth metal to form the stabilized sorbent. Alumina stabilizers include one or more of silica, lanthana, other rare earths, titania, zirconia and alkaline earths. 3 figs.

  4. Sox/Nox Sorbent And Process Of Use

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Ziebarth, Michael S. (Columbia, MD); Hager, Michael J. (Coraopolis, PA); Beeckman, Jean W. (Columbia, MD); Plecha, Stanislaw (Baltimore, MD)

    1996-12-17

    An alumina sorbent capable of adsorbing NOx and SOx from waste gases and being regenerated by heating above 650.degree. C. is made by incorporating an alumina stabilizing agent into the sorbent. A preferred method is to add the stabilizer when the alumina is precipitated. The precipitated powder is formed subsequently into a slurry, milled and spray dried to form the stabilized spheroidal alumina particles having a particle size of less than 500 microns. These particles are impregnated with an alkali metal or alkaline earth metal to form the stabilized sorbent. Alumina stabilizers include one or more of silica, lanthana, other rare earths, titania, zirconia and alkaline earths.

  5. Sox/Nox Sorbent And Process Of Use

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Ziebarth, Michael S. (Columbia, MD); Hager, Michael J. (Caraopolis, PA); Beeckman, Jean W. (Columbia, MD); Plecha, Stanislaw (Baltimore, MD)

    1995-06-27

    An alumina sorbent capable of adsorbing NOx and SOx from waste gases and being regenerated by heating above 650.degree. C. is made by incorporating an alumina stabilizing agent into the sorbent. A preferred method is to add the stabilizer when the alumina is precipitated. The precipitated powder is formed subsequently into a slurry, milled and spray dried to form the stabilized spheroidal alumina particles having a particle size of less than 500 microns. These particles are impregnated with an alkali metal or alkaline earth metal to form the stabilized sorbent. Alumina stabilizers include one or more of silica, lanthana, other rare earths, titania, zirconia and alkaline earths.

  6. An Archaeological Survey of an Alternate Dredge Decant Line and Drop Structure in Northern Calhoun County, Texas for the Alcoa World Alumina LLC, Point Comfort Operations Located in Point Comfort, Texas 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Moore, William

    2015-07-07

    An archaeological survey of the location of the site of a proposed dredge decant line and drop structure in northern Calhoun County, Texas was performed by Brazos Valley Research Associates (BVRA) on April 30, 2003 and May 22, 2003 under United...

  7. Maintaining molten salt electrolyte concentration in aluminum-producing electrolytic cell

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Barnett, Robert J.; Mezner, Michael B.; Bradford, Donald R

    2005-01-04

    A method of maintaining molten salt concentration in a low temperature electrolytic cell used for production of aluminum from alumina dissolved in a molten salt electrolyte contained in a cell free of frozen crust wherein volatile material is vented from the cell and contacted and captured on alumina being added to the cell. The captured volatile material is returned with alumina to cell to maintain the concentration of the molten salt.

  8. Microprobes aluminosilicate ceramic membranes

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Anderson, Marc A. (2114 Chadbourne Ave., Madison, WI 53705); Sheng, Guangyao (45 N. Orchard St., Madison, WI 53715)

    1993-01-01

    Methods have been developed to make mixed alumina-silicate and aluminosilicate particulate microporous ceramic membranes. One method involves the making of separate alumina and silica sols which are then mixed. Another method involves the creation of a combined sol with aluminosilicate particles. The resulting combined alumina and silica membranes have high surface area, a very small pore size, and a very good temperature stability.

  9. Nanograin Copper Deposition Using an Impinging Jet Electrode

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Swingle, Karen Diane

    copper. In Modern Electroplating, Fifth Edition; Paunovic,W. S. , Talbot, J. B. Electroplating of Copper-AluminaTechnical Background Electroplating is a widely-used method

  10. USS Previous Speakers

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    XANES to Understand the Origin of Catalytic Acitivty: Supported Gold Catalysts 71903 Elliot Specht ORNL UNI High-temperature measurement of growth stress in alumina scale 71903...

  11. Direct metal brazing to cermet feedthroughs

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Not Available

    1982-07-29

    An improved method for brazing metallic components to a cermet surface in an alumina substrate eliminates the prior art metallized layer over the cermet via and adjoining alumina surfaces. Instead, a nickel layer is applied over the cermet surface only and metallic components are brazed directly to this nickel coated cermet surface. As a result, heretofore unachievable tensile strength joints are produced. In addition, cermet vias with their brazed metal components can be spaced more closely in the alumina substrate because of the elimination of the prior art metallized alumina surfaces.

  12. MECS 2006 - All Manufacturing | Department of Energy

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Footprint All Manufacturing (NAICS 31-33) More Documents & Publications All Manufacturing (2010 MECS) Plastics and Rubber Products (2010 MECS) MECS 2006 - Alumina and Aluminum...

  13. Success Stories | ornl.gov

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    and American industry will tackle some of the most critical challenges facing lithium ion battery production. ORNL's Alumina-forming Austenitic Alloys Licensed to Carpenter...

  14. Using Solution Phase Self-Assembly to Control the Properties of Magnetic and Magnetoelectric Nanostructures

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Schelhas, Laura Theresa

    2013-01-01

    lithography and atomic layer deposition. Nanotechnology 22,dimensions via atomic layer deposition on block copolymers.ion etching, atomic layer deposition (ALD) of alumina is

  15. Preparations, properties, and applications of periodic nano arrays using anodized aluminum oxide and di-block copolymer

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Noh, Kunbae

    2011-01-01

    alumina nanotubes by atomic layer deposition. Nano Letters,example, by using atomic layer deposition of aluminum oxidedeposition or atomic layer deposition, for various other

  16. Phase Change Material Tower

    Office of Environmental Management (EM)

    transfer of pulverized coal Assortment of available fabrication methods (shrink fit, adhesive, casting) & liner materials (i.e. alumina, SiC, etc.) Pyrotek molten metal transfer...

  17. Catalysis by Design: Bridging the Gap Between Theory and Experiments...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Between Theory and Experiments at Nanoscale Level Catalysis by Design: Bridging the Gap Between Theory and Experiments at Nanoscale Level Studies on a simple platinum-alumina...

  18. Bicrystal-Array Fabrication

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Trahanovsky, Mary Elizabeth

    2012-01-01

    distribution in alumina and zirconia ceramics," Ceramicsyttria-stabilized cubic zirconia bicrystal," Philosophicalboundary in yttria-doped zirconia bicrystals," Journal of

  19. Partial-Transient-Liquid-Phase Bonding of Advanced Ceramics Using Surface-Modified Interlayers

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Reynolds, Thomas Bither

    2012-01-01

    Wang, J. & Stevens, R. "Zirconia-Toughened Alumina (ZTA)Witek, S. & Butler, E. "Zirconia Particle Coarsening andthe Effects of Zirconia Additions on the Mechanical

  20. International Journal of Fracture 125: 307333, 2004. 2004 Kluwer Academic Publishers. Printed in the Netherlands.

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Yosibash, Zohar

    Pearlstone Center for Aeronautical Engineering Studies, Department of Mechanical Engineering, Ben) and Alumina-7%Zirconia (ceramic) V-notched specimens. Because all realistic V-notched reentrant corners

  1. SPARK! 2013 | ornl.gov

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    plastics from renewable sources PDF Video Fact Sheet Cast alumina forming austenitic stainless steel for high temperature and corrosive environments PDF Video Fact Sheet...

  2. Direct metal brazing to cermet feedthroughs

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Hopper, Jr., Albert C. (St. Petersburg, FL)

    1984-12-18

    An improved method for brazing metallic components to a cermet surface in an alumina substrate eliminates the prior art metallized layer over the cermet via and adjoining alumina surfaces. Instead, a nickel layer is applied over the cermet surface only and metallic components are brazed directly to this nickel coated cermet surface. As a result, heretofore unachievable tensile strength joints are produced. In addition, cermet vias with their brazed metal components can be spaced more closely in the alumina substrate because of the elimination of the prior art metallized alumina surfaces.

  3. Microwave sintering of multiple articles

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Blake, Rodger D. (Santa Fe, NM); Katz, Joel D. (Los Alamos, NM)

    1993-01-01

    Apparatus and method for producing articles of alumina and of alumina and silicon carbide in which the articles are sintered at high temperatures using microwave radiation. The articles are placed in a sintering container which is placed in a microwave cavity for heating. The rates at which heating and cooling take place is controlled.

  4. Experimental Fabrication of PPy Nanoparticles: For the synthesis of the PPy

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Velev, Orlin D.

    of the micro- emulsion polymerization were precarbonized at 800 C for 3 h under Ar gas flow (0.2 L min±1 with a larger diameter alumina tube (6 cm in diameter). The valve of the quartz tube was opened and the alumina. F. Curl, R. E. Smalley, Nature 1985, 318, 162. [2] W. Krätschmer, L. D. Lamb, K. Fostiropoulos, D. R

  5. POLYMER PROGRAM SEMINAR "Ultra-low Wear Fluoropolymer Composites

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Alpay, S. Pamir

    on Teflon* PTFE 7C (a granular molding resin) and certain alumina "nanoparticles." These materials of the PTFE composite by over four orders of magnitude. It is believed that the "nano" sized alumina somehow shuts down the flaky wear mechanism of the PTFE, and stabilizes the formation of a persistent transfer

  6. Microwave sintering of sol-gel derived abrasive grain

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Plovnick, Ross (St. Louis Park, MN); Celikkaya, Ahmet (Woodbury, MN); Blake, Rodger D. (Tuscon, AZ)

    1997-01-01

    A method is provided for making microwave-sintered, free flowing alpha alumina-based ceramic abrasive grain, under conditions effective to couple microwaves with calcined alpha alumina-based abrasive gain precursor and sinter it at a temperature of at least about 1150.degree. C.

  7. Fluoride removal in the presence of organophosphates: application to chemical warfare agent destruction 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Wenaas, Christopher Eric

    1996-01-01

    affinity for alumina, even at high pH, and in the presence of IMPA and MPA. A design using multiple columns containing fluidized beds of alumina placed prior to biological treatment was chosen as a likely reactor configuration. By placing the fluoride...

  8. Recent Journal Articles on Current Research Professor Martha Mecartney

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Mease, Kenneth D.

    , zirconia composites Author(s): Dillon RP (Dillon, R. Peter)1 , Kim DK (Kim, Dong-Kyu)2 , Trujillo JE of zircon during high temperature deformation of zirconia-silica composites with alumina additions Author of a fine grain three-phase alumina-zirconia-mullite ceramic composite Author(s): Chen TD, Mecartney ML

  9. International Journal of Fracture 122: 121, 2003. 2003 Kluwer Academic Publishers. Printed in the Netherlands.

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Yosibash, Zohar

    material (Alumina/Zirconia) show that it is less sensitive to small notch tip radii. A remaining small experiments on PMMA and Alumina-Zirconia (AZ) notched specimens (Yosibash et al., 2003). These tests allowed)) and a scaling coefficient ¯K On Sabbatical leave from the Department of Mechanical Engineering, Ben

  10. 209th ECS Meeting, Abstract #1265, copyright ECS MICROMACHINED CERAMIC PLATFORM FOR

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Pace, Norman

    209th ECS Meeting, Abstract #1265, copyright ECS MICROMACHINED CERAMIC PLATFORM FOR LIVING NEURONAL ceramic chips for guided growth of living neurons and their interfacing into functional networks. Our core-organized nanoporous alumina, micromachining alumina ceramic to create patterns for guided neuronal growth

  11. Adsorption study for uranium in Rocky Flats groundwater

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Laul, J.C.; Rupert, M.C.; Harris, M.J.; Duran, A.

    1995-01-01

    Six adsorbents were studied to determine their effectiveness in removing uranium in Rocky Flats groundwater. The bench column and batch (Kd) tests showed that uranium can be removed (>99.9%) by four adsorbents. Bone Charcoal (R1O22); F-1 Alumina (granular activated alumina); BIOFIX (immobilized biological agent); SOPBPLUS (mixed metal oxide); Filtrasorb 300 (granular activated carbon); and Zeolite (clinoptilolite).

  12. Transport properties and micromagnetic modeling of magnetic nanowires with multiple constrictions

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Adeyeye, Adekunle

    of alumina and polycarbonate membranes, with the diameter around 200 nm and 30 nm, respectively. To study use in high-density magnetic recording. Electroplating through po- rous alumina and polycarbonate and anisotropy magnetic resistance (AMR). Studies on nanowires of different physical aspect have been conducted

  13. Fate of Mercury in Synthetic Gypsum Used for Wallboard Production

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Jessica Sanderson; Gary M. Blythe; Mandi Richardson

    2006-12-01

    This report presents and discusses results from Task 6 of the study 'Fate of Mercury in Synthetic Gypsum Used for Wallboard Production,' performed at a full-scale commercial wallboard plant. Synthetic gypsum produced by wet flue gas desulfurization (FGD) systems on coal-fired power plants is commonly used in the manufacture of wallboard. This practice has long benefited the environment by recycling the FGD gypsum byproduct, which is becoming available in increasing quantities, decreasing the need to landfill this material, and increasing the sustainable design of the wallboard product. However, new concerns have arisen as recent mercury control strategies involve the capture of mercury in FGD systems. The objective of this study is to determine whether any mercury is released into the atmosphere when the synthetic gypsum material is used as a feedstock for wallboard production. The project is being co-funded by the U.S. DOE National Energy Technology Laboratory (Cooperative Agreement DE-FC26-04NT42080), USG Corporation, and EPRI. USG Corporation is the prime contractor, and URS Group is a subcontractor. The project scope now includes six discrete tasks, each conducted at various USG wallboard plants using synthetic gypsum from different FGD systems. The project was originally composed of five tasks, which were to include (1) a baseline test, then variations representing differing power plant: (2) emissions control configurations, (3) treatment of fine gypsum particles, (4) coal types, and (5) FGD reagent types. However, Task 5, which was to include testing with an alternate FGD reagent, could not be conducted as planned. Instead, Task 5 was conducted at conditions similar to Task 3, although with gypsum from an alternate FGD system. Subsequent to conducting Task 5 under these revised conditions, an opportunity arose to test gypsum produced at the same FGD system, but with an additive (Degussa Corporation's TMT-15) being used in the FGD system. TMT-15 was expected to impact the stability of mercury in synthetic gypsum used to produce wallboard, so Task 6 was added to the project to test this theory. In this project, process stacks in the wallboard plant have been sampled using the Ontario Hydro method. For every task, the stack locations sampled have included a dryer for the wet gypsum as it enters the plant and a gypsum calciner. For Tasks 1, 4, 5 and 6, the stack of the dryer for the wet wallboard product was also tested. Also at each site, in-stream process samples were collected and analyzed for mercury concentration before and after each significant step in wallboard production. The Ontario Hydro results, process sample mercury concentration data, and process data were used to construct mercury mass balances across the wallboard plants. Task 6 was conducted at a wallboard plant processing synthetic gypsum from a power plant that fires Eastern bituminous coal. The power plant has a single-loop, open spray tower limestone forced oxidation FGD system, with the forced oxidation conducted in the reaction tank integral with the FGD absorber. The FGD system has gypsum fines blow down as part of the dewatering step. The power plant is equipped with a selective catalytic reduction (SCR) system for NOX emissions control, and the SCR was in service during the time period the gypsum tested was produced. Also, as mentioned above, Degussa additive TMT-15 was being added to the FGD system when this gypsum was produced. The results of the Task 6 stack testing, as measured by the Ontario Hydro method, detected that an average of 55% of the incoming mercury was emitted during wallboard production. These losses were distributed as about 4% across the dryer mill, 6% across the board dryer kiln, and 45% across the kettle calciner. Emissions were similar to what Task 5 results showed on a percentage basis, but about 30% lower on a mass basis. The same power plant FGD system produced the synthetic gypsum used in Task 5 (with no use of TMT-15) and in Task 6 (with TMT-15 added to the FGD system). The lower emissions on a mass basis appeared

  14. Fate of Mercury in Synthetic Gypsum Used for Wallboard Production

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Jessica Marshall Sanderson

    2006-06-01

    This report presents and discusses results from Task 5 of the study ''Fate of Mercury in Synthetic Gypsum Used for Wallboard Production,'' performed at a full-scale commercial wallboard plant. Synthetic gypsum produced by wet flue gas desulfurization (FGD) systems on coal-fired power plants is commonly used in the manufacture of wallboard. The FGD process is used to control the sulfur dioxide emissions which would result in acid rain if not controlled. This practice has long benefited the environment by recycling the FGD gypsum byproduct, which is becoming available in increasing quantities, decreasing the need to landfill this material, and increasing the sustainable design of the wallboard product. However, new concerns have arisen as recent mercury control strategies developed for power plants involve the capture of mercury in FGD systems. The objective of this study is to determine whether any mercury is released into the atmosphere when the synthetic gypsum material is used as a feedstock for wallboard production. The project is being co-funded by the U.S. DOE National Energy Technology Laboratory (Cooperative Agreement DE-FC26-04NT42080), USG Corporation, and EPRI. USG Corporation is the prime contractor, and URS Group is a subcontractor. The project scope includes five discrete tasks, each conducted at various USG wallboard plants using synthetic gypsum from different FGD systems. The five tasks were to include (1) a baseline test, then variations representing differing power plant (2) emissions control configurations, (3) treatment of fine gypsum particles, (4) coal types, and (5) FGD reagent types. However, Task 5, which was to evaluate gypsum produced from an alternate FGD reagent, could not be conducted as planned. Instead, Task 5 was conducted at conditions similar to a previous task, Task 3, although with gypsum from an alternate FGD system. In this project, process stacks in the wallboard plant have been sampled using the Ontario Hydro method. The stack locations sampled for each task include a dryer for the wet gypsum as it enters the plant and a gypsum calciner. The stack of the dryer for the wet wallboard product was also tested as part of this task, and was tested as part of Tasks 1 and 4. Also at each site, in-stream process samples were collected and analyzed for mercury concentration before and after each significant step in wallboard production. The Ontario Hydro results, process sample mercury concentration data, and process data were used to construct mercury mass balances across the wallboard plants. Task 5 was conducted at a wallboard plant processing synthetic gypsum from a power plant that fires Eastern bituminous coal. The power plant is equipped with a selective catalytic reduction (SCR) system for NOX emissions control, but the SCR was bypassed during the time period the gypsum tested was produced. The power plant has a single-loop, open spray tower, limestone reagent FGD system, with forced oxidation conducted in a reaction tank integral with the FGD absorber. The FGD system has gypsum fines blow down as part of the dewatering step. Gypsum fines blow down is believed to be an important variable that impacts the amount of mercury in the gypsum byproduct and possibly its stability during the wallboard process. The results of the Task 5 stack testing, as measured by the Ontario Hydro method, detected that an average of 51% of the incoming mercury in the FGD gypsum was emitted during wallboard production. These losses were distributed as 2% or less each across the wet gypsum dryer and product wallboard dryer, and about 50% across the gypsum calciner. Emissions were similar to what Task 3 results showed, on both a percentage and a mass basis, for gypsum produced by a power plant firing bituminous coal and also having gypsum fines blow down as part of the FGD dewatering scheme. As was seen in the Task 1 through 4 results, most of the mercury detected in the stack testing on the wet gypsum dryer and kettle calciner was in the form of elemental mercury. In the wallboard dryer kiln, a more signific

  15. Hydrocracking process and catalyst therefor

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Ward, J. W.; Carlson, T. L.

    1985-05-14

    A hydrocracking process, of especial use in the production of a relatively high yield of middle distillate products along with a smaller but still significant yield of gasoline from high boiling gas oils and the like, comprises contacting a gas oil or other hydrocarbon feedstock under hydrocracking conditions with a novel catalyst comprising one or more hydrogenation components on a support material comprising, in combination, a dispersion of silica-alumina in alumina and a zeolite to the Y crystalline structure but having a silica-to-alumina ratio above 6.0.

  16. Superplasticity and joining of zirconia-based ceramics

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Dominguez-Rodriguez, A.; Gutierrez-Mora, F.; Jimenez-Melendo, M.; Chaim, R.; Routbort, J. L.

    1999-12-10

    Steady-state creep and joining of alumina/zirconia composites containing alumina volume fractions of 20, 60, and 85% have been investigated between 1,250 and 1,350 C. Superplasticity of these compounds is controlled by grain-boundary sliding and the creep rate is a function of alumina volume fraction, not grain size. Using the principles of superplasticity, pieces of the composite have been joined by applying the stress required to achieve 5 to 10% strain to form a strong interface at temperatures as low as 1,200 C.

  17. System and process for aluminization of metal-containing substrates

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Chou, Yeong-Shyung; Stevenson, Jeffry W

    2015-11-03

    A system and method are detailed for aluminizing surfaces of metallic substrates, parts, and components with a protective alumina layer in-situ. Aluminum (Al) foil sandwiched between the metallic components and a refractory material when heated in an oxidizing gas under a compression load at a selected temperature forms the protective alumina coating on the surface of the metallic components. The alumina coating minimizes evaporation of volatile metals from the metallic substrates, parts, and components in assembled devices during operation at high temperature that can degrade performance.

  18. Biotemplated Hierarchical Nanostructure of Layered Double

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Wang, Zhong L.

    such as bubbles, colloids,4 polymers,5,6 surfactant,7 and porous anodic alumina8,9 have been widely used. However demonstrated as an effective and recyclable photocatalyst for the decomposition of dyes in water, owing to its

  19. A new lower hybrid launcher built in collaboration with PPPL...

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    for its approximate thermal expansion match to the alumina material used for the vacuum windows. Since plasma operation resumed in February, over 200 kW of lower hybrid power...

  20. Robnett, Thomason, Pannell, Kimbrough 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Unknown

    2011-08-17

    The focus of this research was to create and characterize high temperature alumina and nitrate salt eutectic nanofluids for use in thermal energy storage (TES) systems. The nitrate eutectic was originally used in the TES ...

  1. Freezing colloidal suspensions: periodic ice lenses and compaction

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Anderson, Anthony M.; Worster, M. Grae

    2014-10-14

    Recent directional solidification experiments with aqueous suspensions of alumina particles (Anderson & Worster 2012) motivate a model for freezing colloidal suspensions that builds upon a theoretical framework developed by Rempel et al. (2004...

  2. Hybrid membranes and their use in volatile organic compound/air separations 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Krohn, John Eric

    2001-01-01

    Hybrid organic/inorganic membranes were produced by chemical grafting of octadecyltrichlorosilane onto ?-alumina membranes. Separation factors are presented showing strong evidence of capillary condensation in ungrafted membranes. The grafted...

  3. Microsoft Word - AlSource34

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    a silica-glass viewing window and heated at 5Cmin on an alumina plate to 1000C. Pellets were photographed at regular intervals, and their profile areas were measured with...

  4. Development of a selective substrate metallization process via electorless gel plating

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Arndt, Kenneth C

    1996-01-01

    Advanced hybrid microelectronics require high performance packaging materials and components. Alumina, the most widely used ceramic material in microelectronics, is being replaced by new high performance materials such as ...

  5. Design and Fabrication of the Lithium Beam Ion Injector for NDCX-II

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Takakuwa, J.

    2011-01-01

    research utilizing a lithium ion (Li+) beam with a currentthe alumina- silicate lithium ion source being, among otherand Fabrication of the Lithium Beam Ion Injector for NDCX-II

  6. Aqueous alteration of potassium-bearing aluminosilicate minerals: from mechanism to processing

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Skorina, Taisiya

    The anticipated increase in demand for potassium fertilizers and alumina from developing nations experiencing a high-rate of population growth brings a global sustainability concern. Most of these countries do not have ...

  7. THE INFLUENCE OF WATER ON THE DEGRADATION AND WEAR OF AL2O3 SURFACES 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Pickett, Ammon T.

    2010-01-16

    As alumina plays ever more important roles in advanced technologies, such as substrates for in vivo biological sensors, catalysts for water purification and components of novel fuel devices, it is exposed to various ...

  8. Sintering and joining of low temperature co-fired tungsten and aluminum oxide

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Boonyongmaneerat, Yuttanant

    2006-01-01

    Conventional methods used to fabricate co-fired tungsten/alumina composites usually rely on high temperature processing (>1500C). As it would be beneficial or even necessary for some applications to produce such composites ...

  9. Mechanical testing of rapid-prototyping refractory ceramic print media

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Martin, Rachel (Rachel M.)

    2013-01-01

    Additively manufactured (3D-printed) refractory alumina-silica ceramics were mechanically tested to ascertain their ultimate tensile strengths and observed to determine their dimensional consistency over the printing and ...

  10. NICOM 4: 4th International Symposium on Nanotechnology in Construction Effect of Nanosilica on Cement Hydration under High Temperature and

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Al-Majed, Abdulaziz Abdullah

    ]. Moreover, nanoparticles such as TiO2, ZnO2, fullerenes, carbon nanotubes, silica, alumina, magnesium, nanoalumina and carbon nanotubes [1-3]. Developments in nanotechnology over the past few years have paved

  11. INNOVATIONS www.engr.wisc.edu/me

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Wisconsin at Madison, University of

    less energy to move--saving fuel, reducing greenhouse gas emissions, and more practically, reducing, or tiny clusters of substances such as silicon carbide or aluminum oxide (alumina), can improve

  12. Critical Materials Workshop

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    alumina and bauxite production 360 Tellurium 630 210 Recovery as byproduct from copper anode slimes 840 Cobalt 90,000 91,000 Mines 180,000 Lithium Carbonate Equivalent 150,000...

  13. Curvature-directed Crystallization of Polymer Dielectrics in Nanopores 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Reid, Dariya

    2013-11-26

    The formation of isotactic poly(propylene) (iPP) and polycarbonate (PC) nanowires of tunable diameter was demonstrated by melt-wetting the polymer into nanoporous anodic alumina. The crystallization process was analyzed using differential scanning...

  14. Ceramic tamper-revealing seals

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Kupperman, David S. (Oak Park, IL); Raptis, Apostolos C. (Downers Grove, IL); Sheen, Shuh-Haw (Naperville, IL)

    1992-01-01

    A flexible metal or ceramic cable with composite ceramic ends, or a u-shaped ceramic connecting element attached to a binding element plate or block cast from alumina or zirconium, and connected to the connecting element by shrink fitting.

  15. DEVELOPMENT OF THE HIGH-TEMPERATURE, SOLID-STATE, ELECTROMOTIVE FORCE TECHNIQUE TO STUDY THE THERMODYNAMICS OF LEWIS-ACID-BASE TRANSITION METAL ALLOYS

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Bullard, Gary Lloyd

    2011-01-01

    ceramics such as alumina, zirconia, or thoria, as well asare calcia- stabilized-zirconia (Zr0 2·CaO) and yttria-a large number of stabilized zirconia mixing balls (Zircoa)

  16. 332 Journal of The Anterican Ceranaic Society -Aksay et al. Vol. 62, NO.7-8 "H.Marchandise. "Thermal Conductivity of Uranium Dioxide." Commission of

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Aksay, Ilhan A.

    . E. Youngblwd. "Thermal DiffusivityiConductivity of Alumina with a Zirconia Dispersed Phase." Am, Lawrence Berkeley Laboratory and Department of Materials Science and Mineral Engineering, College of Engineering, University of California, Berkeley, California 94720 ROBERT F. DAVIS*$' Department of Materials

  17. "Pushing the boundaries in state-of-the-art thermal management

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Zhigilei, Leonid V.

    @virginia.edu pamelanorris.wordpress.com/ Dept. of Mechanical & Aerospace Engineering University of Virginia Charlottesville, alumina, or zirconia can have densities as low as just three times that of air. Aerogel is an extremely

  18. Hydrothermal growth and photoluminescence property of textured CdWO4 scintillator films

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Cao, Guozhong

    and Y. Wang Department of Materials Science and Engineering, University of Washington, Seattle Department of Materials Science and Engineering, University of Washington, Seattle, Washington 98195 Received alumina,18 zirconia,19 barium titanate,20 and bioceramics21 , composites,22 ultrafine particles

  19. Population balance modeling -an application in particle technology

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Ehrman, Sheryl H.

    Engineering, DuPont, Wilmington DE, USA · Matlab code: Brendan Hoffman, Kelly Tipton, Yechun Wang, Matt Mc today in sunscreen ­ High surface area catalyst supports (alumina, zirconia, etc..) ­ Chemical

  20. MATERIALS AND MOLECULAR RESEARCH DIVISION ANNUAL REPORT 1979

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Authors, Various

    2013-01-01

    High-Temperature Solid-Electrolyte Electromotive Cellof Sodiun Beta Alumina Solid Electrolytes L. C. De Jonghe,to the Study of the Solid- Electrolyte Interface, Snoh~nass,