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Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "kiln alumina kiln" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
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We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
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1

Solar heated rotary kiln  

SciTech Connect

A solar heated rotary kiln utilized for decomposition of materials, such as zinc sulfate. The rotary kiln has an open end and is enclosed in a sealed container having a window positioned for directing solar energy into the open end of the kiln. The material to be decomposed is directed through the container into the kiln by a feed tube. The container is also provided with an outlet for exhaust gases and an outlet for spent solids, and rests on a tiltable base. The window may be cooled and kept clear of debris by coolant gases.

Shell, Pamela K. (Tracy, CA)

1984-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

2

Solar lumber kilns: design ideas  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

A solar kiln and its advantages are described. Drying fundamentals, design factors, and economics are discussed. Three operating solar kilns are described.

Robbins, A. M.

3

Solar-heated rotary kiln  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

A solar heated rotary kiln utilized for decomposition of materials, such as zinc sulfate is disclosed. The rotary kiln has an open end and is enclosed in a sealed container having a window positioned for directing solar energy into the open end of the kiln. The material to be decomposed is directed through the container into the kiln by a feed tube. The container is also provided with an outlet for exhaust gases and an outlet for spent solids, and rests on a tiltable base. The window may be cooled and kept clear of debris by coolant gases.

Shell, P.K.

1982-04-14T23:59:59.000Z

4

Rotary kiln seal  

SciTech Connect

A rotary seal used to prevent the escape of contaminates from a rotating kiln incinerator. The rotating seal combines a rotating disc plate which is attached to the rotating kiln shell and four sets of non-rotating carbon seal bars housed in a primary and secondary housing and which rub on the sides of the disc. A seal air system is used to create a positive pressure in a chamber between the primary and secondary seals to create a positive air flow into the contaminated gas chamber. The seal air system also employs an air inlet located between the secondary and tertiary seals to further insure that no contaminates pass the seal and enter the external environment and to provide makeup air for the air which flows into the contaminated gas chamber. The pressure exerted by the seal bars on the rotating disc is controlled by means of a preload spring. The seal is capable of operating in a thermally changing environment where the both radial expansion and axial movement of the rotating kiln do not result in the failure of the seal.

Drexler, Robert L. (Idaho Falls, ID)

1992-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

5

Rotary kiln seal  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

A rotary seal used to prevent the escape of contaminants from a rotating kiln incinerator. The rotating seal combines a rotating disc plate which is attached to the rotating kiln shell and four sets of non-rotating carbon seal bars housed in a primary and secondary housing and which rub on the sides of the disc. A seal air system is used to create a positive pressure in a chamber between the primary and secondary seals to create a positive air flow into the contaminated gas chamber. The seal air system also employs an air inlet located between the secondary and tertiary seals to further insure that no contaminants pass the seal and enter the external environment and to provide makeup air for the air which flows into the contaminated gas chamber. The pressure exerted by the seal bars on the rotating disc is controlled by means of a preload spring. The seal is capable of operating in a thermally changing environment where the both radial expansion and axial movement of the rotating kiln do not result in the failure of the seal.

Drexler, R.L.

1990-10-17T23:59:59.000Z

6

Rotary kilns - transport phenomena and transport processes  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Rotary kilns and rotating industrial drying ovens are used for a wide variety of applications including processing raw minerals and feedstocks as well as heat-treating hazardous wastes. They are particularly critical in the manufacture of Portland cement. Their design and operation is critical to their efficient usage, which if done incorrectly can result in improperly treated materials and excessive, high fuel costs. This book treats all engineering aspects of rotary kilns, including thermal and fluid principles involved in their operation, as well as how to properly design an engineering process that uses rotary kilns. Chapter 1: The Rotary Kiln Evolution and Phenomenon Chapter 2: Basic Description of Rotary Kiln Operation Chapter 3: Freeboard Aerodynamic Phenomena Chapter 4: Granular Flows in Rotary Kilns Chapter 5: Mixing and Segregation Chapter 6: Combustion and Flame - includes section on types of fuels used in rotary kilns, coal types, ranking and analysis, petroleum coke combustion, scrap tire combustion, pulverized fuel (coal/coke) firing in kilns, pulverized fuel delivery and firing systems. Chapter 7: Freeboard Heat Transfer Chapter 8: Heat Transfer Processes in the Rotary Kiln Bed Chapter 9: Mass and Energy Balance Chapter 10: Rotary Kiln Minerals Process Applications.

Boateng, A.

2008-01-15T23:59:59.000Z

7

Coal desulfurization in a rotary kiln combustor  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

The purpose of this project was to demonstrate the combustion of coal and coal wastes in a rotary kiln reactor with limestone addition for sulfur control. The rationale for the project was the perception that rotary systems could bring several advantages to combustion of these fuels, and may thus offer an alternative to fluid-bed boilers. Towards this end, an existing wood pyrolysis kiln (the Humphrey Charcoal kiln) was to be suitably refurbished and retrofitted with a specially designed version of a patented air distributor provided by Universal Energy, Inc. (UEI). As the project progressed beyond the initial stages, a number of issues were raised regarding the feasibility and the possible advantages of burning coals in a rotary kiln combustor and, in particular, the suitability of the Humphrey Charcoal kiln as a combustor. Instead, an opportunity arose to conduct combustion tests in the PEDCO Rotary Cascading-Bed Boiler (RCBB) commercial demonstration unit at the North American Rayon CO. (NARCO) in Elizabethton, TN. The tests focused on anthracite culm and had two objectives: (a) determine the feasibility of burning anthracite culms in a rotary kiln boiler and (b) obtain input for any further work involving the Humphrey Charcoal kiln combustor. A number of tests were conducted at the PEDCO unit. The last one was conducted on anthracite culm procured directly from the feed bin of a commercial circulating fluid-bed boiler. The results were disappointing; it was difficult to maintain sustained combustion even when large quantities of supplemental fuel were used. Combustion efficiency was poor, around 60 percent. The results suggest that the rotary kiln boiler, as designed, is ill-suited with respect to low-grade, hard to burn solid fuels, such as anthracite culm. Indeed, data from combustion of bituminous coal in the PEDCO unit suggest that with respect to coal in general, the rotary kiln boiler appears inferior to the circulating fluid bed boiler.

Cobb, J.T. Jr.

1992-09-11T23:59:59.000Z

8

JV Task-Long-Kiln NOx Reduction Study  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Field sampling was conducted by the Energy & Environmental Research Center at two Lafarge North America cement kiln locations in Canada. Emissions including SO{sub x}, NO{sub x}, and particulate were measured and reported at various locations throughout the kilns. At each site data were collected on two kilns during field sampling. However, only Kiln 1 at the Ravena site was utilized for modeling efforts. Experimental work was then conducted to estimate the effectiveness of various NO{sub x} control techniques on limiting both NO{sub x} and SO{sub x} emissions in cement kiln exhaust. Theory-based models were constructed to estimate both NO{sub x} and SO{sub x} emissions from cement kilns. These models were then applied to estimating the impact of various NO{sub x} control strategies on kiln exhaust emissions. The sulfur model constructed as part of this work was successful at predicting SO{sub 2} emissions and sulfur capture in the Alpena kiln. This model is designed to run as a postprocessing step that uses the output of a NO{sub x} model as input. With an accurate NO{sub x} model, the sulfur model may prove to be a valuable tool in estimating the impact of kiln modifications on sulfur emissions. The NO{sub x} model was also applied to model several operating scenarios on three of Lafarge's kilns: Alpena 20/21, Alpena 22/23, and Ravena 1. The predictions of the flue gas temperature at the kiln feed end, the kiln shell heat loss, the quality of clinker, and the excess O{sub 2} in the flue gas are consistent with the audit data. The developed simulation tool in this project has proven to be an effective way to investigate the NO{sub x} emissions, to optimize kiln performance, and to assess changes in operating condition on kiln performance.

Bruce Folkedahl; Joshua Strege; Darren Schmidt; Lingbu Kong

2008-07-01T23:59:59.000Z

9

Coal desulfurization in a rotary kiln combustor  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

BCR National Laboratory (BCRNL) has initiated a project aimed at evaluating the technical and economic feasibility of using a rotary kiln, suitably modified, to burn Pennsylvania anthracite wastes, co-fired with high-sulfur bituminous coal. Limestone will be injected into the kiln for sulfur control, to determine whether high sulfur capture levels can be achieved with high sorbent utilization. The principal objectives of this work are: (1) to prove the feasibility of burning anthracite refuse, with co-firing of high-sulfur bituminous coal and with limestone injection for sulfur emissions control, in a rotary kiln fitted with a Universal Energy International (UEI) air injector system; (2) to determine the emissions levels of SO{sub x} and NO{sub x} and specifically to identify the Ca/S ratios that are required to meet New Source Performance Standards; (3) to evaluate the technical and economic merits of a commercial rotary kiln combustor in comparison to fluidized bed combustors; and, (4) to ascertain the need for further work, including additional combustion tests, prior to commercial application, and to recommend accordingly a detailed program towards this end.

Cobb, J.T. Jr.

1990-08-15T23:59:59.000Z

10

Method of operating an oil shale kiln  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

Continuously determining the bulk density of raw and retorted oil shale, the specific gravity of the raw oil shale and the richness of the raw oil shale provides accurate means to control process variables of the retorting of oil shale, predicting oil production, determining mining strategy, and aids in controlling shale placement in the kiln for the retorting.

Reeves, Adam A. (Rifle, CO)

1978-05-23T23:59:59.000Z

11

Cement Kiln Flue Gas Recovery Scrubber Project  

SciTech Connect

The Cement Kiln Flue Gas Recovery Scrubber Project was a technical success and demonstrated the following: CKD can be used successfully as the sole reagent for removing SO2 from cement kiln flue gas, with removal efficiencies of 90 percent or greater; Removal efficiencies for HCl and VOCs were approximately 98 percent and 70 percent, respectively; Particulate emissions were low, in the range of 0.005 to 0.007 grains/standard cubic foot; The treated CKD sorbent can be recycled to the kiln after its potassium content has been reduced in the scrubber, thereby avoiding the need for landfilling; The process can yield fertilizer-grade K2SO4, a saleable by-product; and Waste heat in the flue gas can provide the energy required for evaporation and crystallization in the by-product recovery operation. The demonstration program established the feasibility of using the Recovery Scrubber{trademark} for desulfurization of flue gas from cement kilns, with generally favorable economics, assuming tipping fees are available for disposal of ash from biomass combustion. The process appears to be suitable for commercial use on any type of cement kiln. EPA has ruled that CKD is a nonhazardous waste, provided the facility meets Performance Standards for the Management of CKD (U.S. Environmental Protection Agency 1999d). Therefore, regulatory drivers for the technology focus more on reduction of air pollutants and pollution prevention, rather than on treating CKD as a hazardous waste. Application of the Recovery Scrubbe{trademark} concept to other waste-disposal operations, where pollution and waste reductions are needed, appears promising.

National Energy Technology Laboratory

2001-11-30T23:59:59.000Z

12

Community Geothermal Technology Program: Experimental lumber drying kiln. Final report  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

Goals were to demonstrate feasibility of using the geothermal waste effluent from the HGP-A well as a heat source for a kiln operation to dry hardwoods, develop drying schedules, and develop automatic systems to monitor/control the geothermally heated lumber dry kiln systems. The feasibility was demonstrated. Lumber was dried in periods of 2 to 6 weeks in the kiln, compared to 18 months air drying and 6--8 weeks using a dehumidified chamber. Larger, plate-type heat exchangers between the primary fluid and water circulation systems may enable the kiln to reach the planned temperatures (180--185 F). However, the King Koa partnership cannot any longer pursue the concept of geothermal lumber kilns.

Leaman, D.; Irwin, B.

1989-10-01T23:59:59.000Z

13

Coal desulfurization in a rotary kiln combustor  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Several issues that could have an impact on the capability to burn anthracite culm in a rotary bed boiler were identified; specifically, questions were raised concerning the specifications of the anthracite culm itself and some relating to the equipment. The anthracite culm delivered was wet, (with more than 10 percent moisture), and coarser than feed material for fluidized boilers. It was felt that using finer fuel, ensuring that it is largely dry, would aid the combustion of anthracite culm. It also appeared that if provisions were made for more efficient internal and external recycle of ash, this would also enhance the combustion of this fuel. Accordingly, the decision was made to conduct an additional campaign of tests that would incorporate these changes. The tests, conducted on July 15 and 16, 1991, involved an anthracite culm that was, in fact, obtained from a fluidized bed a heating value of 3,000 Btu/lb and came with a top size of 1/4-inch. Despite these changes, sustained combustion could not be achieved without the use of large quantities of supplemental fuel. Based on these tests, we tend to conclude that the rotary kiln is ill suited for the combustion of hard-to-burn, low-grade solid fuels like anthracite culm.

Cobb, J.T. Jr.

1991-08-29T23:59:59.000Z

14

Energy saving opportunities through heat recovery from cement processing kilns: a case study  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

This paper proposes a system for the utilization of dissipated heat from the surfaces of cement processing kilns at the Jordan Cement Factories in heating heavy fuel oil used in the burning process of these kilns. It is proposed that this can be achieved ... Keywords: Jordan, cement, energy efficiency, heat recovery, kilns

I. Al-Hinti; A. Al-Ghandoor; A. Al-Naji; M. Abu-Khashabeh; M. Joudeh; M. Al-Hattab

2008-02-01T23:59:59.000Z

15

Wood Residues as Fuel Source for Lime Kilns  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

One of the main obstacles to total energy self sufficiency of kraft mills appears to be the fossil fuel requirements of the lime kilns. If an economical technology can be developed which allows fossil fuel to be replaced in whole or in part by wood-based fuel, the savings in fossil fuel by the pulp and paper industry would be very substantial. Our study focuses around the direct in-situ combustion of hog fuel fed from the cold feed end in order to substantially reduce the fossil fuel fired from the hot product discharge end of the lime kiln. Thus far we have carried out two series of tests using two different pilot-scale kilns and dry limestone in the first test series and mill produced lime mud in the second test series. Mill scale trials have just been completed and the preliminary results indicate that our approach is potentially a very cost-effective and simple option to substantially reduce or possibly eliminate fossil-fuel usage in lime kilns.

Azarniouch, M. K.; Philp, R. J.

1984-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

16

Method and system including a double rotary kiln pyrolysis or gasification of waste material  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

A method of destructively distilling an organic material in particulate form wherein the particulates are introduced through an inlet into one end of an inner rotating kiln ganged to and coaxial with an outer rotating kiln. The inner and outer kilns define a cylindrical annular space with the inlet being positioned in registry with the axis of rotation of the ganged kilns. During operation, the temperature of the wall of the inner rotary kiln at the inlet is not less than about 500.degree. C. to heat the particulate material to a temperature in the range of from about 200.degree. C. to about 900.degree. C. in a pyrolyzing atmosphere to reduce the particulate material as it moves from the one end toward the other end. The reduced particulates including char are transferred to the annular space between the inner and the outer rotating kilns near the other end of the inner rotating kiln and moved longitudinally in the annular space from near the other end toward the one end in the presence of oxygen to combust the char at an elevated temperature to produce a waste material including ash. Also, heat is provided which is transferred to the inner kiln. The waste material including ash leaves the outer rotating kiln near the one end and the pyrolysis vapor leaves through the particulate material inlet.

McIntosh, Michael J. (Bolingbrook, IL); Arzoumanidis, Gregory G. (Naperville, IL)

1997-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

17

Method and system including a double rotary kiln pyrolysis or gasification of waste material  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

A method is described for destructively distilling an organic material in particulate form wherein the particulates are introduced through an inlet into one end of an inner rotating kiln ganged to and coaxial with an outer rotating kiln. The inner and outer kilns define a cylindrical annular space with the inlet being positioned in registry with the axis of rotation of the ganged kilns. During operation, the temperature of the wall of the inner rotary kiln at the inlet is not less than about 500 C to heat the particulate material to a temperature in the range of from about 200 C to about 900 C in a pyrolyzing atmosphere to reduce the particulate material as it moves from the one end toward the other end. The reduced particulates including char are transferred to the annular space between the inner and the outer rotating kilns near the other end of the inner rotating kiln and moved longitudinally in the annular space from near the other end toward the one end in the presence of oxygen to combust the char at an elevated temperature to produce a waste material including ash. Also, heat is provided which is transferred to the inner kiln. The waste material including ash leaves the outer rotating kiln near the one end and the pyrolysis vapor leaves through the particulate material inlet. 5 figs.

McIntosh, M.J.; Arzoumanidis, G.G.

1997-09-02T23:59:59.000Z

18

A method and system including a double rotary kiln pyrolysis or gasification of waste material  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

A method is described for destructively distilling an organic material in particulate form wherein the particulates are introduced through an inlet into one end of an inner rotating kiln ganged to and coaxial with an outer rotating kiln. The inner and outer kilns define a cylindrical annular space with the inlet being positioned in registry with the axis of rotation of the ganged kilns. During operation, the temperature of the wall of the inner rotary kiln at the inlet is not less than about 500 C to heat the particulate material to a temperature in the range of from about 200 C to about 900 C in a pyrolyzing atmosphere to reduce the particulate material as it moves from the one end toward the other end. The reduced particulates including char are transferred to the annular space between the inner and the outer rotating kilns near the other end of the inner rotating kiln and moved longitudinally in the annular space from near the other end toward the one end in the presence of oxygen to combust the char at an elevated temperature to produce a waste material including ash. Also, heat is provided which is transferred to the inner kiln. The waste material including ash leaves the outer rotating kiln near the one end and the pyrolysis vapor leaves through the particulate material inlet.

McIntosh, M.J.; Arzoumanidis, G.G.

1995-12-31T23:59:59.000Z

19

Particle Swarm Optimization of Ceramic Roller Kiln Temperature Field Uniformity Using Computational Fluid Dynamics Tools  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

In this paper ceramic roller kiln temperature field uniformity is mainly researched using computational fluid dynamics tools and particle swarm optimization (PSO). In consideration of burning and burning temperature control is key technique of burning ... Keywords: PSO, temperature field uniformity, multiple liner regression, uniform design, ceramic roller kiln design

Wenbi Rao; Peng Li

2009-06-01T23:59:59.000Z

20

Method and apparatus for maximizing throughput of indirectly heated rotary kilns  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

An apparatus and method for achieving improved throughput capacity of indirectly heated rotary kilns used to produce pyrolysis products such as shale oils or coal oils that are susceptible to decomposition by high kiln wall temperatures is disclosed. High throughput is achieved by firing the kiln such that optimum wall temperatures are maintained beginning at the point where the materials enter the heating section of the kiln and extending to the point where the materials leave the heated section. Multiple high velocity burners are arranged such that combustion products directly impact on the area of the kiln wall covered internally by the solid material being heated. Firing rates for the burners are controlled to maintain optimum wall temperatures.

Coates, Ralph L; Smoot, L. Douglas; Hatfield, Kent E

2012-10-30T23:59:59.000Z

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "kiln alumina kiln" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


21

Coal desulfurization in a rotary kiln combustor. Final report, March 15, 1990--July 31, 1991  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

The purpose of this project was to demonstrate the combustion of coal and coal wastes in a rotary kiln reactor with limestone addition for sulfur control. The rationale for the project was the perception that rotary systems could bring several advantages to combustion of these fuels, and may thus offer an alternative to fluid-bed boilers. Towards this end, an existing wood pyrolysis kiln (the Humphrey Charcoal kiln) was to be suitably refurbished and retrofitted with a specially designed version of a patented air distributor provided by Universal Energy, Inc. (UEI). As the project progressed beyond the initial stages, a number of issues were raised regarding the feasibility and the possible advantages of burning coals in a rotary kiln combustor and, in particular, the suitability of the Humphrey Charcoal kiln as a combustor. Instead, an opportunity arose to conduct combustion tests in the PEDCO Rotary Cascading-Bed Boiler (RCBB) commercial demonstration unit at the North American Rayon CO. (NARCO) in Elizabethton, TN. The tests focused on anthracite culm and had two objectives: (a) determine the feasibility of burning anthracite culms in a rotary kiln boiler and (b) obtain input for any further work involving the Humphrey Charcoal kiln combustor. A number of tests were conducted at the PEDCO unit. The last one was conducted on anthracite culm procured directly from the feed bin of a commercial circulating fluid-bed boiler. The results were disappointing; it was difficult to maintain sustained combustion even when large quantities of supplemental fuel were used. Combustion efficiency was poor, around 60 percent. The results suggest that the rotary kiln boiler, as designed, is ill-suited with respect to low-grade, hard to burn solid fuels, such as anthracite culm. Indeed, data from combustion of bituminous coal in the PEDCO unit suggest that with respect to coal in general, the rotary kiln boiler appears inferior to the circulating fluid bed boiler.

Cobb, J.T. Jr.

1992-09-11T23:59:59.000Z

22

Carbon dioxide sequestration in cement kiln dust through mineral carbonation  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Carbon sequestration through the formation of carbonates is a potential means to reduce CO{sub 2} emissions. Alkaline industrial solid wastes typically have high mass fractions of reactive oxides that may not require preprocessing, making them an attractive source material for mineral carbonation. The degree of mineral carbonation achievable in cement kiln dust (CKD) under ambient temperatures and pressures was examined through a series of batch and column experiments. The overall extent and potential mechanisms and rate behavior of the carbonation process were assessed through a complementary set of analytical and empirical methods, including mass change, thermal analysis, and X-ray diffraction. The carbonation reactions were carried out primarily through the reaction of CO{sub 2} with Ca(OH){sub 2}, and CaCO{sub 3} was observed as the predominant carbonation product. A sequestration extent of over 60% was observed within 8 h of reaction without any modifications to the waste. Sequestration appears to follow unreacted core model theory where reaction kinetics are controlled by a first-order rate constant at early times; however, as carbonation progresses, the kinetics of the reaction are attenuated by the extent of the reaction due to diffusion control, with the extent of conversion never reaching completion. 35 refs., 3 figs., 1 tab.

Deborah N. Huntzinger; John S. Gierke; S. Komar Kawatra; Timothy C. Eisele; Lawrence L. Sutter [University of Michigan, Ann Arbor, MI (United States). Department of Civil and Environmental Engineering

2009-03-15T23:59:59.000Z

23

Burning state recognition of rotary kiln using ELMs with heterogeneous features  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Image based burning state recognition plays an important role in sintering process control of rotary kiln. Although many efforts on dealing with this problem have been made over the past years, the recognition performance cannot be satisfactory due to ... Keywords: Burning state, ELM, Eigen-flame image, Latent semantic analysis, Multivariate image analysis

Weitao Li; Dianhui Wang; Tianyou Chai

2013-02-01T23:59:59.000Z

24

Coal desulfurization in a rotary kiln combustor. Quarterly report No. 1, April 16, 1990--July 15, 1990  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

BCR National Laboratory (BCRNL) has initiated a project aimed at evaluating the technical and economic feasibility of using a rotary kiln, suitably modified, to burn Pennsylvania anthracite wastes, co-fired with high-sulfur bituminous coal. Limestone will be injected into the kiln for sulfur control, to determine whether high sulfur capture levels can be achieved with high sorbent utilization. The principal objectives of this work are: (1) to prove the feasibility of burning anthracite refuse, with co-firing of high-sulfur bituminous coal and with limestone injection for sulfur emissions control, in a rotary kiln fitted with a Universal Energy International (UEI) air injector system; (2) to determine the emissions levels of SO{sub x} and NO{sub x} and specifically to identify the Ca/S ratios that are required to meet New Source Performance Standards; (3) to evaluate the technical and economic merits of a commercial rotary kiln combustor in comparison to fluidized bed combustors; and, (4) to ascertain the need for further work, including additional combustion tests, prior to commercial application, and to recommend accordingly a detailed program towards this end.

Cobb, J.T. Jr.

1990-08-15T23:59:59.000Z

25

Simulation of Combustion and Thermal-flow Inside a Petroleum Coke Rotary Calcining Kiln.  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

??Calcined coke is the best material for making carbon anodes for smelting of alumina to aluminum. Calcining is an energy intensive industry and a significant… (more)

Zhang, Zexuan

2007-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

26

Desulfurized gas production from vertical kiln pyrolysis  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

A gas, formed as a product of a pyrolysis of oil shale, is passed through hot, retorted shale (containing at least partially decomposed calcium or magnesium carbonate) to essentially eliminate sulfur contaminants in the gas. Specifically, a single chambered pyrolysis vessel, having a pyrolysis zone and a retorted shale gas into the bottom of the retorted shale zone and cleaned product gas is withdrawn as hot product gas near the top of such zone.

Harris, Harry A. (Rifle, CO); Jones, Jr., John B. (Grand Junction, CO)

1978-05-30T23:59:59.000Z

27

Cement Kiln Flue Gas Recovery Scrubber Project  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

been expensive to simulate. Performance results were sufficiently promising to justify a commercial-scale test under the CCT program. A flowsheet of the Recovery Scrubber(tm) is...

28

Development and Application of Shaft Kiln in China  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

A Solid State Thermoelectric Power Generator Prototype Designed to Recover Radiant Waste Heat ... An Overview of Energy Consumption and Waste Generation in the Recovery ... Global Primary Aluminium Industry 2010 Life Cycle Inventory.

29

The Comparison between Vertical Shaft Furnace and Rotary Kiln for ...  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Therefore, calcination of coke used for aluminum reduction by vertical shaft furnace is more competitive based on the existing quality of the green petroleum  ...

30

Integrating Coal Gasification into a Rotary Kiln Electric Furnace Plant  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Coal gasification is a potential alternative to conventional coal or natural gas- fired power plants ... Fundamentals of Spark-Plasma Sintering: Net-Shaping and Size Effects ... Investigation on a Microwave High-Temperature Air Heat Exchanger.

31

I  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

ash and blast furnace slag in kiln Use of cement kiln dust in kiln Use of calcareous oil shale in kiln Lower lime saturation factor Fuel change Switch from coal to oilnatural gas...

32

Solar kiln demonstraction project. Semi-annual progress report. [Lumber dryer  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

Drawings for the solar lumber predrier demonstration project for Sherwood Forest products Corp. in Waverly, Ohio, are presented. Drawings are included for the site plan, foundation plan, floor plan, framing plan, and structural plan. Project status is outlined: site development work was initiated during the late fall of 1980 and some materials for the project have been acquired. (WHK)

Not Available

1980-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

33

Design of fuel efficient brick kiln for ceramic water filter firing in Ghana  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Ceramic water filters are currently produced in Ghana in order to provide a household solution to contaminated water. These filters, locally branded with the name Kosim filter by originating from Potters for Peace-Nicaragua, ...

Adjorlolo, Eric (Eric James Kofi)

2007-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

34

A Pilot-plant Scale Test of Coal-based Rotary Kiln Direct Reduction ...  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

About this Abstract. Meeting, 2014 TMS Annual Meeting & Exhibition. Symposium , 5th International Symposium on High Temperature Metallurgical Processing.

35

Alumina and Bauxite  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Dry Sintering of Nepheline - A New More Energy Efficient Technology · Economic ... Value of Systems Integration to Optimize Operation in Alumina Refineries.

36

ALUMINA & BAUXITE TECHNOLOGY: IV  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

RECOVERING ALUMINA, SILICA AND BYPRODUCTS FROM COAL ASH THROUGH ... The large volume of coal combustion wastes cause a problem of great ...

37

Microporous alumina ceramic membranes  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

Several methods are disclosed for the preparation microporous alumina ceramic membranes. For the first time, porous alumina membranes are made which have mean pore sizes less than 100 Angstroms and substantially no pores larger than that size. The methods are based on improved sol-gel techniques.

Anderson, Marc A. (Madison, WI); Sheng, Guangyao (Madison, WI)

1993-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

38

Microporous alumina ceramic membranes  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

Several methods are disclosed for the preparation microporous alumina ceramic membranes. For the first time, porous alumina membranes are made which have mean pore sizes less than 100 Angstroms and substantially no pores larger than that size. The methods are based on improved sol-gel techniques.

Anderson, M.A.; Guangyao Sheng.

1993-05-04T23:59:59.000Z

39

Bayer Process Chemistry and Alumina Quality II  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Feb 16, 2010 ... Finding the way of extracting this alumina can substantionally enhance economics of alumina refineries, specially processing imported ...

40

Increasing Energy Efficiency and Reducing Emissions from China's Cement Kilns: Audit Report of Two Cement Plants in Shandong Province, China  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

dryer that uses heat from boiler exhaust gases to reduce thedrying coal in heat recovery boilers to raise steam, and forup to 6 MW power. The boilers use the heat of exhaust gases

Price, Lynn

2013-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "kiln alumina kiln" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


41

Increasing Energy Efficiency and Reducing Emissions from China's Cement Kilns: Audit Report of Two Cement Plants in Shandong Province, China  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Assessment and Survey Tool (PHAST) developed by the U.S.by using alternate source (PHAST program developed by U.S.was made by using the PHAST program, Figure 8 shows that by

Price, Lynn

2013-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

42

Increasing Energy Efficiency and Reducing Emissions from China's Cement Kilns: Audit Report of Two Cement Plants in Shandong Province, China  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

temperature Enthalpy of steam Condensate water temp fromSteam Turbine Generator Waste Heat Boilers Preheaters and Precalciner Condensate –Steam Cooling water to cooling towers Turbine Generator Waste Heat Boilers Preheaters and Precalciner Condensate –

Price, Lynn

2013-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

43

Increasing Energy Efficiency and Reducing Emissions from China's Cement Kilns: Audit Report of Two Cement Plants in Shandong Province, China  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

gases from raw meal dryer to ESP Very low (about 100 deg.electrostatic precipitators (ESPs) or fabric filtration (FF)electrostatic precipitator (ESP). 3.1 Process and Equipment

Price, Lynn

2013-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

44

Increasing Energy Efficiency and Reducing Emissions from China's Cement Kilns: Audit Report of Two Cement Plants in Shandong Province, China  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

further recover or reduce wasted energy. Exhaust air (gases)Energy use for the system can be reduced by analyzing how much heat is wasted

Price, Lynn

2013-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

45

Increasing Energy Efficiency and Reducing Emissions from China's Cement Kilns: Audit Report of Two Cement Plants in Shandong Province, China  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

system that uses steam and turbine generators to produce upwater to cooling towers Steam Turbine Generator Waste Heatcombustion (CO gas) ? Steam turbine condenser cooling water

Price, Lynn

2013-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

46

Increasing Energy Efficiency and Reducing Emissions from China's Cement Kilns: Audit Report of Two Cement Plants in Shandong Province, China  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

system that uses steam and turbine generators to produce upto cooling towers Steam Turbine Generator Waste Heat Boilerscooler ? Turbine generator that uses steam produced in

Price, Lynn

2013-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

47

Improvement of kiln design and combustion/carbonization timing to produce charcoal from agricultural waste in Developing countries  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Current economic conditions in third world countries like Haiti are so poor that the majority of the population has no access to energy sources that people in the first world take for granted. In Haiti the last two percent ...

Martinez, Jason A. (Jason Alexander)

2006-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

48

Increasing Energy Efficiency and Reducing Emissions from China's Cement Kilns: Audit Report of Two Cement Plants in Shandong Province, China  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

that could lead to reduction in coal use and reduction inreduce excess air use in coal burners, 2. reduce air leakageof power production) coal consumption from 119 kg/ton kg of

Price, Lynn

2013-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

49

Increasing Energy Efficiency and Reducing Emissions from China's Cement Kilns: Audit Report of Two Cement Plants in Shandong Province, China  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Cooling water to cooling towers Steam Turbine GeneratorPrecalciner Condensate – cooling tower etc. Hot air to waterCooling water from cooling towers Exhaust gases/air Rotary

Price, Lynn

2013-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

50

Improvement of Alumina Dissolution Rate through Alumina Feeder ...  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

... Heat Exchanger Solution for Aluminium Off-Gas Cooling and Heat Recovery ... The Effect of Calcium Fluoride on Alumina Solubility in Low Temperature ...

51

China Energy Databook - Rev. 4  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

coke produced i n industrial coke ovens. "Antique" coke isboilers Industrial boilers Kilns Producer ovens Motorovens Coke ovens and metallurgical furnaces Industrial kilns

Sinton Editor, J.E.

2010-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

52

Increasing Energy Efficiency and Reducing Emissions from China...  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

from China's Cement Kilns: Audit Report of Two Cement Plants in Shandong Province, China Title Increasing Energy Efficiency and Reducing Emissions from China's Cement Kilns:...

53

Alumina Refinery Fundamentals and Practice  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

History of Process Safety Management (PSM) and how it is applied to the Bayer process for the production of alumina. Examples will be provided. Instructors.

54

Extracting Alumina from Coal Flyash through Sodium Aluminate ...  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

About this Abstract. Meeting, 2010 TMS Annual Meeting & Exhibition. Symposium , Alumina and Bauxite. Presentation Title, Extracting Alumina from Coal Flyash ...

55

Alumina Production in Russia Part I  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

The historical development of Russia's alumina production capacity is closely connected with the development of the Soviet Union's aluminum industry, although ...

56

Synthesis of high porosity, monolithic alumina aerogels  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Many non-silica aerogels are notably weak and fragile in monolithic form. Particularly, few monolithic aerogels with densities less than 50kg/m3 have any significant strength. It is especially difficult to prepare uncracked monoliths of pure alumina aerogels that are robust and moisture stable. In this paper, we discuss the synthesis of strong, stable, monolithic, high porosity (>98% porous) alumina aerogels, using a two-step sol-gel process. The alumina aerogels have a polycrystalline morphology that results in enhanced physical properties. Most of the measured physical properties of the alumina aerogels are superior to those for silica aerogels for equivalent densities.

Poco, J F; Satcher, J H; Hrubesh, L W

2000-09-20T23:59:59.000Z

57

Alumina-forming Austenitic Alloys Licensed | ORNL  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

for alumina scales to form on the exterior of the steel, which provides significant oxidation resistance. In addition, the alloy displays excellent creep strength at high...

58

Understanding and Managing Alumina Quality Fluctuations to ...  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

... Heat Exchanger Solution for Aluminium Off-Gas Cooling and Heat Recovery ... The Effect of Calcium Fluoride on Alumina Solubility in Low Temperature ...

59

Operational Experience of Advanced Alumina Handling Technology ...  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

... Heat Exchanger Solution for Aluminium Off-Gas Cooling and Heat Recovery ... The Effect of Calcium Fluoride on Alumina Solubility in Low Temperature ...

60

Optimized Alumina Coagulants for Water Purification - Energy ...  

Emergency usage; Patents and Patent Applications. ID Number. Title and Abstract. Primary Lab. Date. Patent 8,119,011: Optimized alumina coagulants for ...

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "kiln alumina kiln" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


61

Oil shale retort apparatus  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

A retorting apparatus including a vertical kiln and a plurality of tubes for delivering rock to the top of the kiln and removal of processed rock from the bottom of the kiln so that the rock descends through the kiln as a moving bed. Distributors are provided for delivering gas to the kiln to effect heating of the rock and to disturb the rock particles during their descent. The distributors are constructed and disposed to deliver gas uniformly to the kiln and to withstand and overcome adverse conditions resulting from heat and from the descending rock. The rock delivery tubes are geometrically sized, spaced and positioned so as to deliver the shale uniformly into the kiln and form symmetrically disposed generally vertical paths, or "rock chimneys", through the descending shale which offer least resistance to upward flow of gas. When retorting oil shale, a delineated collection chamber near the top of the kiln collects gas and entrained oil mist rising through the kiln.

Reeves, Adam A. (Grand Junction, CO); Mast, Earl L. (Norman, OK); Greaves, Melvin J. (Littleton, CO)

1990-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

62

Alumina-SiC whisker composites  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

Previous results have shown that alumina reinforced with SiC whiskers is an attractive material for application in advanced heat engines. This composite exhibits excellent strength and toughness up to temperatures of approx.1000/sup 0/C and is very resistant to slow crack growth. Reinforcement of a mullite matrix by the SiC whiskers has also been demonstrated. Recent experiments have investigated other aspects to applying the SiC whisker-reinforced alumina in heat engines. The results have shown the whisker reinforced alumina to have excellent thermal shock resistance, and a good Weibull modulus (indicating good reliability). Fabrication of high toughness composites by pressureless sintering was found to be a viable process for alumina with whisker contents <20 vol %. In addition, whisker reinforcement may be combined with transformation toughening in the alumina and mullite matrix systems for improved mechanical properties. Isothermal heating tests indicated that oxidation of the SiC whiskers in an alumina matrix caused degradation of mechanical properties in currently developed materials.

Tiegs, T.N.; Becher, P.F.

1985-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

63

Energy Efficiency Improvement Opportunities for the Cement Industry  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

coal reacts with CO 2 and generates CO. More information on automation of the kiln, feed, and blending

Worrell, Ernst

2008-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

64

Guidebook for Using the Tool BEST Cement: Benchmarking and Energy Savings Tool for the Cement Industry  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

coal reacts with CO 2 and generates CO. More information on automation of the kiln, feed, and blending

Galitsky, Christina

2009-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

65

Advanced Organic Vapor Cycles for Improving Thermal Conversion Efficiency in Renewable Energy Systems  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

concepts of waste heat recovery in cement plants," in Energyfor Cement Kiln Waste Heat Recovery Power Plants. ” Cement

Ho, Tony

2012-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

66

CHARACTERIZING COSTS, SAVINGS AND BENEFITS OF A SELECTION OF ENERGY EFFICIENT EMERGING TECHNOLOGIES IN THE UNITED STATES  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Technologies. (1993a). Energy-saving roller kiln - TechnicalEnergy Savings .6  Analyses of energy savings, cost, other

Xu, T.

2011-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

67

Electrolytic Cell For Production Of Aluminum From Alumina  

SciTech Connect

An electrolytic cell for producing aluminum from alumina having a reservoir for collecting molten aluminum remote from the electrolysis.

Bradford, Donald R (Underwood, WA); Barnett, Robert J. (Goldendale, WA); Mezner, Michael B. (Sandy, OR)

2004-11-02T23:59:59.000Z

68

Modified Bayer Process for Alumina Removal from Hanford Waste  

AREVA NC Inc. Modified Bayer Process for Alumina Removal from Hanford Waste January 24, 2007 Don Geniesse AREVA NC Inc.

69

table of contents alumina & bauxite technology  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Utilization of Waste Water from Alumina Production [pp. 31-36] ..... A Kinetic Study of Demagging of Molten Aluminum by the Use of SiO2 Submerged Powder Injection [pp. 711-718] .... Vortex Charge Well with Gas Lift Pump and Gravity Furnace Charger [pp. ... Development of a Compact Deep Bed Filter for Aluminium [pp.

70

Rheological Properties of Aqueous Nanometric Alumina Suspensions  

SciTech Connect

Colloidal processing is an effective and reliable approach in the fabrication of the advanced ceramic products. Successful colloidal processing of fine ceramic powders requires accurate control of the rheological properties. The accurate control relies on the understanding the influences of various colloidal parameters on the rheological properties. Almost all research done on the rheology paid less attention to the interactions of particle and solvent. However, the interactions of the particles are usually built up through the media in which the particles are suspended. Therefore, interactions of the particle with the media, the adsorbed layers on the particle surface, and chemical and physical properties of media themselves must influence the rheology of the suspension, especially for the dense suspensions containing nanosized particles. Relatively little research work has been reported in this area. This thesis addresses the rheological properties of nanometric alumina aqueous suspensions, and paying more attention to the interactions between particle and solvent, which in turn influence the particle-particle interactions. Dense nanometric alumina aqueous suspensions with low viscosity were achieved by environmentally-benign fructose additives. The rheology of nanometric alumina aqueous suspensions and its variation with the particle volume fraction and concentration of fructose were explored by rheometry. The adsorptions of solute (fructose) and solvent (water) on the nanometric alumina particle surfaces were measured and analyzed by TG/DSC, TOC, and NMR techniques. The mobility of water molecules in the suspensions and its variation with particle volume fractions and fructose additive were determined by the {sup 17}O NMR relaxation method. The interactions between the nanometric alumina particles in water and fructose solutions were investigated by AFM. The results indicated that a large number of water layers were physically bound on the particles' surfaces in the aqueous suspension. The viscosity of the suspension increases dramatically when the solid volume fraction exceeds 30 vol.%. The overlap of physically adsorbed water layers at this level causes the sharp increase in viscosity. Fructose molecules can weaken the interactions between the particle surfaces and water molecules, as a consequence, they release some bound water layers from the surfaces to the bulk medium. It is believed that fraction of the water that is bound by the solid surface is reduced hence becoming available for flow. The oxygen-17 relaxation time decreased with the increase of particle volume fractions in the suspension. Fructose addition increased the overall water mobility in the suspension. Only part of the alumina particle surfaces was covered with fructose molecules. This adsorption of fructose molecules on the particle surfaces increased the pH of the suspension with a concomitant decrease in {zeta}-potential of the alumina nanoparticles. The interactions between the nanometric alumina particles in water to a large extent can be explained by the DLVO theory. However, the interactions between particles in fructose solutions cannot be well described by the DLVO theory. The interaction forces (magnitude and range) as well as adhesive force and surface tension between nanometric alumina particles were decreased with the fructose concentration.

Chuanping Li

2004-12-19T23:59:59.000Z

71

Alumina-SiC whisker composites  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

Alumina-SiC whisker ceramic composites have recently come into prominence for structural applications because of their potential for high strength and fracture toughness. Because of its very attractive mechanical properties, alumina reinforced with SiC whiskers is a good candidate for use in advanced heat engines. Ceramics for use in advanced heat engine applications must meet numerous property requirements. Obviously, they must be strong and tough at room and elevated temperatures and have high reliability. Because of the lifetime requirements demanded in commercial engines, the materials also need to be resistant to thermal shock, slow crack growth, creep and corrosion. For high volume/low cost production of engine parts, the ceramics have to be economically fabricable to near-net-shape and this requires the ability to pressureless sinter the materials. The SiC whisker-reinforced alumina ceramic composites developed have been examined with these criteria in mind. Other characteristics, such as wear resistance and joining to metals, are also important and are presently being determined.

Tiegs, T.N.; Becher, P.F.

1985-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

72

Alumina Dissolution Rate as Impacted by Ore Pre-treatments  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Alumina dissolution rate can be affected by the physical, morphological and ... Shape Study of the Aluminum Electrolysis Cells Using Finite Element Method.

73

Residual Heat Utilization of Live Steam Produced in Alumina Plant  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

... system and evaporator system, in the production of alumina, have been analyzed in ... 230t/h condensate water, which temperature is 64?, can flow back to ...

74

Extracting Alumina from Low Grade Bauxite with Ammonium ...  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

The alumina extracted rate can be about 82% to process low grade gibbsite from Indonesia. Proceedings Inclusion? Planned: Light Metals Volume ...

75

Particle Size Distribution Model for Leaching Kinetics of Alumina  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Presentation Title, Particle Size Distribution Model for Leaching Kinetics of Alumina. Author(s), Li Bao, Ting-an Zhang, Weimin Long, Anh V Nguyen, Guozhi Lv, ...

76

Evaluation of Alumina From Alkylation Process in Reduction Cells  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

... Heat Exchanger Solution for Aluminium Off-Gas Cooling and Heat Recovery ... The Effect of Calcium Fluoride on Alumina Solubility in Low Temperature ...

77

Fabrication of Highly Porous Alumina Prepared by Gelation ...  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Author(s), Manabu Fukushima, Sakae Tsuda, Yu-ichi Yoshizawa. On-Site Speaker (Planned), Manabu Fukushima. Abstract Scope, Macro-porous alumina

78

Ultrathin Alumina Coated Carbon Nanotubes as Anodes for High ...  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Presentation Title, Ultrathin Alumina Coated Carbon Nanotubes as Anodes for High Capacity Li-Ion Battery. Author(s), Indranil Lahiri, Wonbong Choi. On-Site ...

79

Sintering of beta-type alumina bodies using alpha-alumina encapsulation  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

A method of sintering a shaped green, beta-type alumina body comprising: (A) inserting said body into an open chamber prepared by exposing the interior surface of a container consisting essentially of at least about 50 weight percent of alpha-alumina and a remainder of other refractory material to a sodium oxide or sodium oxide producing environment; (B) sealing the chamber; and heating the chamber with the shaped body encapsulated therein to a temperature and for a time necessary to sinter said body to the desired density. The encapsulation chamber prepared as described above is also claimed.

McEntire, Bryan J. (Salt Lake City, UT); Virkar, Anil V. (Midvale, UT)

1981-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

80

Process for the recovery of alumina from fly ash  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

An improvement in the lime-sinter process for recovering alumina from pulverized coal fly ash is disclosed. The addition of from 2 to 10 weight percent carbon and sulfur to the fly ash-calcium carbonate mixture increase alumina recovery at lower sintering temperatures.

Murtha, M.J.

1983-08-09T23:59:59.000Z

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "kiln alumina kiln" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


81

Combination for electrolytic reduction of alumina  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

An electrolytic bath for use during the electrolytic reduction of alumina to aluminum. The bath comprises molten electrolyte having the following ingredients: AlF.sub.3 and at least one salt selected from the group consisting of NaF, KF, and LiF; and about 0.004 wt. % to about 0.2 wt. %, based on total weight of the molten electrolyte, of at least one transition metal or at least one compound of the metal or both. The compound is, a fluoride; oxide, or carbonate. The metal is nickel, iron, copper, cobalt, or molybdenum. The bath is employed in a combination including a vessel for containing the bath and at least one non-consumable anode and at least one dimensionally stable cathode in the bath. Employing the instant bath during electrolytic reduction of alumina to aluminum improves the wetting of aluminum on a cathode by reducing or eliminating the formation of non-metallic deposits on the cathode.

Brown, Craig W. (Seattle, WA); Brooks, Richard J. (Seattle, WA); Frizzle, Patrick B. (Lynnwood, WA); Juric, Drago D. (Bulleen, AU)

2002-04-30T23:59:59.000Z

82

Thermodynamic Optimization of Lithia-Alumina  

SciTech Connect

The optimization of thermodynamic parameters in the Li2O-Al2O3 system using available thermodynamic and assessed phase diagram data is discussed. A procedure for obtaining a suitable associate species solution model for the liquid in this system is presented. It is shown that if the eutectic near the pure alumina composition is ignored during the optimization, the optimized thermodynamic parameters in this system result in a phase diagram that is in reasonable agreement with the experimental one. Optimized thermodynamic parameters for the associate species in the associate species liquid model and the solids in this system are provided. An optimized associate-regular solution model with a reduced number of associates in the liquid is also provided as a comparison.

Kulkarni, Nagraj S [ORNL; Besmann, Theodore M [ORNL; Spear, K. E. [Casitacalc

2008-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

83

Optimized alumina coagulants for water treatment  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

Substitution of a single Ga-atom or single Ge-atom (GaAl.sub.12 and GeAl.sub.12 respectively) into the center of an aluminum Keggin polycation (Al.sub.13) produces an optimal water-treatment product for neutralization and coagulation of anionic contaminants in water. GaAl.sub.12 consistently shows .about.1 order of magnitude increase in pathogen reduction, compared to Al.sub.13. At a concentration of 2 ppm, GaAl.sub.12 performs equivalently to 40 ppm alum, removing .about.90% of the dissolved organic material. The substituted GaAl.sub.12 product also offers extended shelf-life and consistent performance. We also synthesized a related polyaluminum chloride compound made of pre-hydrolyzed dissolved alumina clusters of [GaO.sub.4Al.sub.12(OH).sub.24(H.sub.2O).sub.12].sup.7+.

Nyman, May D. (Albuquerque, NM); Stewart, Thomas A. (Albuquerque, NM)

2012-02-21T23:59:59.000Z

84

Corrosion Behavior of Alumina-forming Austenitic Steels in ...  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Conference Tools for 2014 TMS Annual Meeting & Exhibition ... Behavior of Alumina-forming Austenitic Steels in Supercritical Carbon Dioxide ... in the supercritical CO2 Brayton cycle for power conversion system in Generation IV Fast Reactor.

85

Carbon dioxide pressure swing adsorption process using modified alumina adsorbents  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

A pressure swing adsorption process for absorbing CO[sub 2] from a gaseous mixture containing CO[sub 2] comprises introducing the gaseous mixture at a first pressure into a reactor containing a modified alumina adsorbent maintained at a temperature ranging from 100 C and 500 C to adsorb CO[sub 2] to provide a CO[sub 2] laden alumina adsorbent and a CO[sub 2] depleted gaseous mixture and contacting the CO[sub 2] laden adsorbent with a weakly adsorbing purge fluid at a second pressure which is lower than the first pressure to desorb CO[sub 2] from the CO[sub 2] laden alumina adsorbent. The modified alumina adsorbent which is formed by depositing a solution having a pH of 3.0 or more onto alumina and heating the alumina to a temperature ranging from 100 C and 600 C, is not degraded by high concentrations of water under process operating conditions. 1 fig.

Gaffney, T.R.; Golden, T.C.; Mayorga, S.G.; Brzozowski, J.R.; Taylor, F.W.

1999-06-29T23:59:59.000Z

86

Cast alumina forming austenitic stainless steels  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

An austenitic stainless steel alloy consisting essentially of, in terms of weight percent ranges 0.15-0.5C; 8-37Ni; 10-25Cr; 2.5-5Al; greater than 0.6, up to 2.5 total of at least one element selected from the group consisting of Nb and Ta; up to 3Mo; up to 3Co; up to 1W; up to 3Cu; up to 15Mn; up to 2Si; up to 0.15B; up to 0.05P; up to 1 total of at least one element selected from the group consisting of Y, La, Ce, Hf, and Zr; <0.3Ti+V; <0.03N; and, balance Fe, where the weight percent Fe is greater than the weight percent Ni, and wherein the alloy forms an external continuous scale comprising alumina, and a stable essentially single phase FCC austenitic matrix microstructure, the austenitic matrix being essentially delta-ferrite free and essentially BCC-phase-free. A method of making austenitic stainless steel alloys is also disclosed.

Muralidharan, Govindarajan; Yamamoto, Yukinori; Brady, Michael P

2013-04-30T23:59:59.000Z

87

IMPROVED CORROSION RESISTANCE OF ALUMINA REFRACTORIES  

SciTech Connect

In order to increase the efficiency of advanced coal-fired power systems, higher working fluid temperatures must be reached. Some system surfaces will have to be protected by covering them with corrosion-resistant refractories. Corrosion is the degradation of the material surfaces or grain boundaries by chemical reactions with melts, liquids, or gases causing loss of material and consequently a decrease in strength of the structure. In order to develop methods of reducing corrosion, the microstructure that is attacked must be identified along with the mechanism and rates of attack. Once these are identified, methods for reducing corrosion rates can be developed. In order to determine the reactivity of a refractory to the slag or glass in most industrial applications, various slag tests have been developed. The most common are the cup slag test, drip slag test (ASTM C768), gradient slag test, rotary slag test (ASTM C874), and the dip-and-spin test. Among these tests, the cup slag test is the only static test method and most commonly used. In this study, we compared the rates of corrosion of castable alumina refractory samples modified with rare earth oxides (REOs) using the static test method, then compared the static test data with data from our dynamic corrosion test method.

1998-10-01T23:59:59.000Z

88

Corrosion resistance characterization of porous alumina membrane supports  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Tubular porous alumina ceramic membrane supports were fabricated by an extrusion-drying-sintering process and then characterized in detail in terms of corrosion resistance in both H{sub 2}SO{sub 4} and NaOH aqueous solutions. Variations in the properties of the alumina supports such as mass loss percent, mechanical strength, open porosity and pore size distribution were studied before and after corrosion under different conditions. In addition, the microstructures were analyzed using scanning electron microscopy, energy dispersive spectroscopy and X-ray diffraction before and after corrosion. The fabricated porous alumina supports offer possibilities for some potential applications as micro-filtration or ultra-filtration membrane supports, as well as in the pre-treatment of strongly acidic industrial waste-liquids. - Research highlights: {yields} Porous alumina membrane supports fabricated by extrusion-drying-sintering process. {yields} Corrosion resistance in 20 wt.% H{sub 2}SO{sub 4} and 1, 5, 10 wt.% NaOH aqueous solutions. {yields} Rapid mass loss and loss of flexural strength occurred in hot NaOH solution. {yields} Resistant to strong acid corrosion with low mass loss, low flexural strength loss. {yields} Porous alumina supports have potential for treatment of strong acid waste liquids.

Dong Yingchao, E-mail: dongyc9@mail.ustc.edu.cn [Materials and Surface Science Institute (MSSI), University of Limerick, Limerick (Ireland); USTC Lab for Solid State Chemistry and Inorganic Membranes, Department of Materials Science and Engineering, University of Science and Technology of China (USTC) (China); Key Lab of Jiangxi Universities for Inorganic Membranes, National Engineering Research Center for Domestic and Building Ceramics, Jingdezhen Ceramic University (JCU) (China); Lin Bin [USTC Lab for Solid State Chemistry and Inorganic Membranes, Department of Materials Science and Engineering, University of Science and Technology of China (USTC) (China); Zhou Jianer [Key Lab of Jiangxi Universities for Inorganic Membranes, National Engineering Research Center for Domestic and Building Ceramics, Jingdezhen Ceramic University (JCU) (China); Zhang Xiaozhen [USTC Lab for Solid State Chemistry and Inorganic Membranes, Department of Materials Science and Engineering, University of Science and Technology of China (USTC) (China); Key Lab of Jiangxi Universities for Inorganic Membranes, National Engineering Research Center for Domestic and Building Ceramics, Jingdezhen Ceramic University (JCU) (China); Ling Yihan; Liu Xingqin; Meng Guangyao [USTC Lab for Solid State Chemistry and Inorganic Membranes, Department of Materials Science and Engineering, University of Science and Technology of China (USTC) (China); Hampshire, Stuart [Materials and Surface Science Institute (MSSI), University of Limerick, Limerick (Ireland)

2011-04-15T23:59:59.000Z

89

M-2: Extracting Alumina from Coal Fly Ash with Ammonium Sulfate ...  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Abstract Scope, The whole process of extracting alumina from coal fly ash ... Decrease of Heat Consumption at Nepheline Processing to Alumina and By- Products ... Flash -and CFB Calciners, History and Difficulties of Development of Two ...

90

Molecular dynamics studies of interfacial water at the alumina surface.  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

Interfacial water properties at the alumina surface were investigated via all-atom equilibrium molecular dynamics simulations at ambient temperature. Al-terminated and OH-terminated alumina surfaces were considered to assess the structural and dynamic behavior of the first few hydration layers in contact with the substrates. Density profiles suggest water layering up to {approx}10 {angstrom} from the solid substrate. Planar density distribution data indicate that water molecules in the first interfacial layer are organized in well-defined patterns dictated by the atomic terminations of the alumina surface. Interfacial water exhibits preferential orientation and delayed dynamics compared to bulk water. Water exhibits bulk-like behavior at distances greater than {approx}10 {angstrom} from the substrate. The formation of an extended hydrogen bond network within the first few hydration layers illustrates the significance of water?water interactions on the structural properties at the interface.

Argyris, Dr. Dimitrios [University of Oklahoma; Ho, Thomas [ORNL; Cole, David [Ohio State University

2011-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

91

Factors contributing to the breakdown of sodium beta-alumina  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

Clarification of the breakdown process occurring during charge transfer in sodium beta alumina solid electrolytes was derived from: (1) studying the effects of molten sodium contact at 350/sup 0/C on single crystal sodium beta alumina and polycrystalline sodium beta alumina; (2) determination of critical current density by monitoring acoustic emissions accompanying crack growth in sodium/sodium beta alumina/sodium cells subjected to linear current ramping at 1 mA cm/sup -2/ sec/sup -1/; (3) failure analysis conducted on cycled electrolytes, some from commercial sodium/sulfur cells, which had been subjected to up to 703 Ahr cm/sup -2/ of charge transfer. Gray coloration developing in beta aluminas in contact with molten sodium was found to be a consequence of formation, through reduction by sodium, of oxygen vacancies charge compensated by electrons. Electronic conductivity of the electrolyte increases as a result. No second phase formation was detected. Colored electrolytes from sodium/sulfur cells show evidence of a newly recognized degradation mechanism in which fracture occurs when sodium is reduced and deposited internally under pressure as metal in regions where an electronic conductivity gradient exists. Heating colored beta aluminas in air produces reoxidation and bleaching. Kinetics and other properties of the coloration and bleaching processes were determined. Critical current density was found to bear an inverse relation to average electrolyte grain size. Evidence was found in the cycled electrolytes for a slow crack growth mechanism and a progressive mode of degradation advancing from the sulfur electrode interface. Implications of the findings for the construction and operation of sodium/sulfur battery systems are discussed.

Buechele, A.C.

1982-05-01T23:59:59.000Z

92

NETL: Utilization Projects - Environmentally Safe, Large Volume...  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

as raw materials for kiln feed, pozzolanic concrete additive, roofing granules or blasting grit. The recycle fuel experiments will be conducted at Kingsport and will include...

93

Enabling Sustainability through Systems Modelling and Design, Life ...  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Mar 6, 2013... utility to store renewable electricity captured from wind/solar sources .... clay and sand in the feeding mill of a clinker kiln, while aggregates ...

94

Categorical Exclusion Determinations: Office of Energy Efficiency...  

Energy.gov (U.S. Department of Energy (DOE)) Indexed Site

2, 2010 CX-004383: Categorical Exclusion Determination Pine Hall Brick Company Energy Efficiency Improvements for Lighting, Kiln and Heating, Ventilation, and Air Conditioning...

95

North Carolina | Department of Energy  

Energy.gov (U.S. Department of Energy (DOE)) Indexed Site

With new pipes and controls, the natural gas kilns Highland Craftsmen uses to produce poplar bark shingles will operate about 40 percent more efficiently, saving the company...

96

CHARACTERIZING COSTS, SAVINGS AND BENEFITS OF A SELECTION OF ENERGY EFFICIENT EMERGING TECHNOLOGIES IN THE UNITED STATES  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Sustainability Defined. Ceramic Industry. Mckinley, S. (use in the Brazilian red ceramic industry. Applied Energy,However, a survey of ceramic industry kilns showed that

Xu, T.

2011-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

97

Operation of an Open Type Anode Baking Furnace with a ...  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Quality and Process Performance of Rotary Kilns and Shaft Calciners · Real Time Temperature Distribution during Sealing Process and Room Temperature Air ...

98

Effects of Physical Properties of Anode Raw Materials on the Paste ...  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Quality and Process Performance of Rotary Kilns and Shaft Calciners · Real Time Temperature Distribution during Sealing Process and Room Temperature Air ...

99

Evaluation of the Thermophysical Properties of Silicon Carbide ...  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Quality and Process Performance of Rotary Kilns and Shaft Calciners · Real Time Temperature Distribution during Sealing Process and Room Temperature Air ...

100

Life-Cycle Evaluation of Concrete Building Construction as a Strategy for Sustainable Cities  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Boilers > 100 Million Btu/hr_No. 2 oil fired Boilers oil fired Region: PacificElectricity Distillate (diesel) oil preheater kiln Natural

Stadel, Alexander

2013-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "kiln alumina kiln" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


101

Industry  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

A.T, 2001: Prospects for biogas harvesting at Sungunn WongseRenewables Biomass, Biogas, PV, Wind turbines, Hydropowermill, fluidized bed kiln Biogas, Biomass Cullet preheating

Bernstein, Lenny

2008-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

102

Optimization System of Iron Ores Proportion for Sintering Process  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

The system sets blending cost as the objective parameter, and uses sinter chemical ... A Pilot-plant Scale Test of Coal-based Rotary Kiln Direct Reduction of

103

Energy Efficiency Improvement Opportunities for the Cement Industry  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Lime Institute. 2001. Energy Efficiency Opportunity Guide inIndustry, Office of Energy Efficiency, Natural Resourcesof a Cement Kiln, Energy Efficiency Demonstration Scheme,

Worrell, Ernst

2008-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

104

Final_Tech_Session_Schedule_and_Location.xls  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

1,185 electric power plants * 447 natural gas processing facilities * 154 petroleum refineries * 53 iron & steel foundries * 124 cement kilns * 43 ethylene plants * 9 oil sands...

105

Scanning electron microscopy imaging of hydraulic cement ...  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

... Cement clinker is manufactured from a finely-ground, homogenized blend of limestone, shale and iron ore sintered in a rotary kiln to temperatures ...

2004-11-23T23:59:59.000Z

106

Shrinkage Mitigation Strategies  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

... Portions of the normal weight sand were replaced with the same volume of a manufactured rotary kilned expanded shale with a fineness modulus ...

2010-05-26T23:59:59.000Z

107

Application of internal curing for mixtures containing high ...  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

... Rotary kiln expanded shale (ie, a lightweight fine aggregate) was used with a fineness modulus of 3.97 and a specific gravity (dry) of 1.38. ...

2012-07-27T23:59:59.000Z

108

Radial Segregation of Granular Materials in Rotating Cylinders  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

... tablet manufacturing to cement production to rock cutting transportation with drilling fluids. Rotating cylinders are used as kilns, mixers, dryers and granulators .

109

Analysis of Energy-Efficiency Opportunities for the Cement Industry in Shandong Province, China  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Gomes, A. S. 1990. “Energy Saving and Environmental ImpactEnergy Consumption and Energy Saving Potential,” ProceedingsBirch, E. 1990. “Energy Savings in Cement Kiln Systems,”

Price, Lynn

2010-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

110

table of contents  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Improvements in ISP Operation with a Single Condenser at Hachinohe Smelter M . Nishikawa and T. Oshita. Treatment of Zinc Leaching Residue by Waelz Kiln

111

Analysis of Energy-Efficiency Opportunities for the Cement Industry in Shandong Province, China  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Banerjee, R. , 2005. Energy Efficiency and Demand SideKiln Systems,” Energy Efficiency in the Cement Industry (Ed.of Industrial Energy Efficiency Measures,” Proceedings of

Price, Lynn

2010-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

112

Analysis of Energy-Efficiency Opportunities for the Cement Industry in Shandong Province, China  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Banerjee, R. , 2005. Energy Efficiency and Demand SideKiln Systems,” Energy Efficiency in the Cement Industry (Ed.for Improving Energy Efficiency, Reducing Pollution and

Price, Lynn

2010-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

113

Theses and Dissertations *Haworth, E. A contribution to the geology of the Lead and MS Patrick?  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

with a capacity of distilling 100 pounds of coal or oil shale at a run. . . . A large down-draught kiln has been

Peterson, Blake R.

114

Improvement of Product Quality in Circulating Fluidized Bed ...  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Abstract Scope, Until the introduction of Circulating Fluidized Bed (CFB) Calciners by Outotec (formerly Lurgi) in 1961 rotary kilns were the standard technology ...

115

National Level Co-Control Study of the Targets for Energy Intensity and Sulfur Dioxide in China  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

and Price 2008). In addition, this scenario assumes that the share of biomassand Price 2008). Substitution of fossil fuels in cement kilns with low-sulfur biomass

Zhou, Nan

2013-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

116

URBANISM AND ENERGY IN DEVELOPING REGIONS  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

and kiln-fired red brick; propane space heating; kerosenetion spreading, cooking: propane pre­ dominates; kerosene astrucks and tricycle for propane. water very scarce and

Meier, Richard L.

2011-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

117

Energy Efficiency Improvement and Cost Saving Oportunities for the Concrete Industry  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

by i) kiln design and insulation ii) continuous or batchof energy. Install duct insulation and perform regular duct2001). Add building insulation. Adding insulation will

Kermeli, Katerina

2013-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

118

Viscosity of alumina nanoparticles dispersed in car engine coolant  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

The present paper, describes our experimental results on the viscosity of the nanofluid prepared by dispersing alumina nanoparticles (car coolant. The nanofluid prepared with calculated amount of oleic acid (surfactant) was tested to be stable for more than 80 days. The viscosity of the nanofluids is measured both as a function of alumina volume fraction and temperature between 10 and 50 C. While the pure base fluid display Newtonian behavior over the measured temperature, it transforms to a non-Newtonian fluid with addition of a small amount of alumina nanoparticles. Our results show that viscosity of the nanofluid increases with increasing nanoparticle concentration and decreases with increase in temperature. Most of the frequently used classical models severely under predict the measured viscosity. Volume fraction dependence of the nanofluid viscosity, however, is predicted fairly well on the basis of a recently reported theoretical model for nanofluids that takes into account the effect of Brownian motion of nanoparticles in the nanofluid. The temperature dependence of the viscosity of engine coolant based alumina nanofluids obeys the empirical correlation of the type: log ({mu}{sub nf}) = A exp(BT), proposed earlier by Namburu et al. (author)

Kole, Madhusree; Dey, T.K. [Thermophysical Measurements Laboratory, Cryogenic Engineering Centre, Indian Institute of Technology, Kharagpur 721 302 (India)

2010-09-15T23:59:59.000Z

119

Synthesis and textural evolution of alumina particles with mesoporous structures  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Alumina particles with mesostructures were synthesized through a chemical precipitation method by using different inorganic aluminum salts followed by a heterogeneous azeotropic distillation and calcination process. The obtained mesoporous {gamma}-alumina particles were systematically characterized by the X-ray diffraction, transmission electron microscopy and nitrogen adsorption-desorption measurement. Effects of the aluminum salt counter anion, pH value and the azeotropic distillation process on the structural or textural evolution of alumina particles were investigated. It is found that Cl{sup -} in the reaction solution can restrain the textural evolution of the resultant precipitates into two-dimensional crystallized pseudoboehmite lamellae during the heterogeneous azeotropic distillation, and then transformed into {gamma}-Al{sub 2}O{sub 3} particles with mesostructures after further calcination at 1173 K, whereas coexisting SO{sub 4}{sup 2-} can promote above morphology evolution and then transformed into {gamma}-Al{sub 2}O{sub 3} nanofibers after calcination at 1173 K. Moreover nearly all materials retain relatively high specific surface areas larger than 100 m{sup 2} g{sup -1} even after calcinations at 1173 K. - Graphical abstract: Co-existing Cl{sup -} is beneficial for the formation of {gamma}-alumina nanoparticles with mesostructures during the precipitation process. Interparticle and intraparticle mesopores can be derived from acidic solution and near neutral solution, respectively.

Liu Xun [College of Chemistry and Molecular Science, Wuhan University, Wuhan 430072 (China); Peng Tianyou, E-mail: typeng@whu.edu.c [College of Chemistry and Molecular Science, Wuhan University, Wuhan 430072 (China); Yao Jinchun; Lv Hongjin; Huang Cheng [College of Chemistry and Molecular Science, Wuhan University, Wuhan 430072 (China)

2010-06-15T23:59:59.000Z

120

The effect of grain shape on strength variability of alumina ceramics  

SciTech Connect

Fine-grained and coarse-grained aluminas containing either equiaxed or elongated grain structures were fabricated from commercial-purity and high-purity alumina powders. Compared to the high-purity aluminas, the commercial-purity aluminas having a coarse grain size and elongated grain structures exhibited significantly more pronounced flaw tolerance and T-curve behavior. T-curve behavior determined from indentation strength tests suggested that only the coarse- grained, elongated-grain alumina had a T-curve sufficient to cause stable crack extension prior to failure, a requirement for any observable improvement in reliability. In the high-purity aluminas as well as the fine-grained commercial-purity aluminas, however, it is likely that little or no stable extension occurs prior failure, suggesting that strength in these materials is dependent on the critical flaw size. Strength tests on polished specimens showed the commercial-purity aluminas had a lower means strength than the high- purity aluminas and the coarse-grained aluminas exhibited a lower mean strength compared to the fine-grained aluminas. An analysis of the mean strength versus grain size revealed that the differences in critical flaw size alone could not account for the differences in mean strength. Instead, a combination of changes in flaw size as well as T-curve behavior were shown to be responsible for the differences in strength and flaw tolerance. T-curve behavior was also found to have a profound influence on the strength variability of alumina. For example, the Weibull modulus for the coarse-grained, commercial- purity alumina was almost twice that of the fine-grained, high-purity material. Tests with indented specimens conclusively demonstrated that improvements in reliability in these materials are not due solely to changes in the critical flaw size distribution but rather a combination of flaw size distribution and T-curve behavior.

Readey, M.J.

1995-10-01T23:59:59.000Z

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "kiln alumina kiln" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


121

Melt processing of Bi--2212 superconductors using alumina  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

Superconducting articles and a method of forming them, where the superconducting phase of an article is Bi.sub.2 Sr.sub.2 CaCu.sub.2 O.sub.y (Bi-2212). Alumina is combined with Bi-2212 powder or Bi-2212 precursor powder and, in order to form an intimate mixture, the mixture is melted and rapidly cooled to form a glassy solid. The glassy solid is comminuted and the resulting powder is combined with a carrier. An alternative to melting is to form the mixture of nanophase alumina and material having a particle size of less than about 10 microns. The powder, with the carrier, is melt processed to form a superconducting article.

Holesinger, Terry G. (Los Alamos, NM)

1999-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

122

Protective coating for alumina-silicon carbide whisker composites  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

Ceramic composites formed of an alumina matrix reinforced with silicon carbide whiskers homogenously dispersed therein are provided with a protective coating for preventing fracture strength degradation of the composite by oxidation during exposure to high temperatures in oxygen-containing atmospheres. The coating prevents oxidation of the silicon carbide whiskers within the matrix by sealing off the exterior of the matrix so as to prevent oxygen transport into the interior of the matrix. The coating is formed of mullite or mullite plus silicon oxide and alumina and is formed in place by heating the composite in air to a temperature greater than 1200.degree. C. This coating is less than about 100 microns thick and adequately protects the underlying composite from fracture strength degradation due to oxidation.

Tiegs, Terry N. (Lenoir City, TN)

1989-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

123

Influence of MgO and C/A and Cooling System on Alumina Leaching ...  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

... on alumina leaching property of calcium aluminate slag were investigated by ... The Control of Fluoride Concentration in ET? Alüminyum Bayer Refinery Liquor.

124

Abart CDS - a New Compact Multi-pollutant Pot Gas and Alumina ...  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Abstract Scope, A new modular Abart CDS is developed that integrates silos, alumina handling, heat exchangers, fans, SO2 scrubber and stack into a compact

125

Alkali/ Alkaline-Earth Content Effects on Properties of High-Alumina ...  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Symposium, Materials Solutions for the Nuclear Renaissance ... Glasses tested had a high content of alumina (>20 wt%), moderate to high content of boria, and ...

126

Pressure Buildup and Brine Migration During CO2 Storage in Multilayered Aquifers  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

have extremely low liquid and gas permeabilities in the hardened state · can be modified to suit of limestone (or chalk) and clay (or shale) in a rotary kiln. The maximum kiln temperature reaches ca.1450o C The Lurgi slagging gasification process has been developed to convert coal into substitute natural gas

Zhou, Quanlin

127

Viscosity of aqueous and cyanate ester suspensions containing alumina nanoparticles  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

The viscosities of both aqueous and cyanate ester monomer (BECy) based suspensions of alumina nanoparticle were studied. The applications for these suspensions are different: aqueous suspensions of alumina nanoparticles are used in the production of technical ceramics made by slip casting or tape casting, and the BECy based suspensions are being developed for use in an injection-type composite repair resin. In the case of aqueous suspensions, it is advantageous to achieve a high solids content with low viscosity in order to produce a high quality product. The addition of a dispersant is useful so that higher solids content suspensions can be used with lower viscosities. For BECy suspensions, the addition of nanoparticles to the BECy resin is expected to enhance the mechanical properties of the cured composite. The addition of saccharides to aqueous suspensions leads to viscosity reduction. Through DSC measurements it was found that the saccharide molecules formed a solution with water and this resulted in lowering the melting temperature of the free water according to classic freezing point depression. Saccharides also lowered the melting temperature of the bound water, but this followed a different rule. The shear thinning and melting behaviors of the suspensions were used to develop a model based on fractal-type agglomeration. It is believed that the structure of the particle flocs in these suspensions changes with the addition of saccharides which leads to the resultant viscosity decrease. The viscosity of the BECy suspensions increased with solids content, and the viscosity increase was greater than predicted by the classical Einstein equation for dilute suspensions. Instead, the Mooney equation fits the viscosity behavior well from 0-20 vol% solids. The viscosity reduction achieved at high particle loadings by the addition of benzoic acid was also investigated by NMR. It appears that the benzoic acid interacts with the surface of the alumina particle which may be the cause of the viscosity reduction. The flow behavior of alumina particles in water and BECy is markedly different. Aqueous alumina suspensions are shear thinning at all alumina loadings and capable of 50 vol% loading before losing fluidity whereas BECy/alumina suspensions show Newtonian behavior up to 5 vol%, and above 5 vol% show shear thinning at all shear rates. Highly loaded suspensions (i.e. 20vol% alumina) exhibit shear thinning at low and moderate shear rates and shear thickening at higher shear rates. The maximum particle loading for a fluid suspension, in this case, appears to be about 20 vol%. The difference in the viscosity of these suspensions must be related to the solvent-particle interactions for each system. The reason is not exactly known, but there are some notable differences between BECy and water. Water molecules are {approx}0.28 nm in length and highly hydrogen bonded with a low viscosity (1 mPa's) whereas in the cyanate ester (BECy) system, the solvent molecule is about 1.2 nm, in the largest dimension, with surfaces of varied charge distribution throughout the molecule. The viscosity of the monomer is also reasonably low for organic polymer precursor, about 7 mPa's. Nanoparticles in water tend to agglomerate and form flocs which are broken with the shear force applied during viscosity measurement. The particle-particle interaction is very important in this system. In BECy, the particles appear to be well dispersed and not as interactive. The solvent-particle interaction appears to be most important. It is not known exactly how the alumina particles interact with the monomer, but NMR suggests hydrogen bonding. These hydrogen bonds between the particle and monomer could very well affect the viscosity. A conclusion that can be reached in this work is that the presence of hydroxyl groups on the surface of the alumina particles is significant and seems to affect the interactions between other particles and the solvent. Thus, the hydrogen bonding between particles, particle/additive and/or particle/solvent dictates the behavior of nanos

Lawler, Katherine

2009-08-05T23:59:59.000Z

128

Silicon carbide whisker-zirconia reinforced mullite and alumina ceramics  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

The flexural strength and/or fracture toughness of SiC whisker-reinforced composites utilizing mullite or alumina as the matrix material for the composite are increased by the addition of zirconia in a monoclinic or tetragonal phase to the matrix. The zirconia addition also provides for a lower hot-pressing temperature and increases the flexural strength and/or fracture toughness of the SiC whisker-reinforced composites over SiC whisker-reinforced composites of the similar matrix materials reinforced with similar concentrations of SiC whiskers.

Becher, Paul F. (Oak Ridge, TN); Tiegs, Terry N. (Lenoir City, TN)

1987-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

129

Measurement of the radiative transport properties of reticulated alumina foams  

SciTech Connect

This paper presents a method for determining radiative transport properties of reticulated materials. The method has both experimental and analytical components. A polar nephelometer is used to measure the scattering profile of a sample of the reticulated material. The results of a Monte Carlo simulation of the experiment are then combined with the experimental results to give the scatter albedo and extinction coefficient. This paper presents the results of using this method to determine the radiative transport properties of four different porosities (10, 20, 30, 65 pores per inch) of cylindrical reticulated alumina samples ranging in thickness form 0.5 inches to 2. 5 inches.

Hale, M.J.; Bohn, M.S.

1992-12-01T23:59:59.000Z

130

Standard Test Method for Particle Size Distribution of Alumina or Quartz Powders by Electrical Sensing Zone Technique  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Standard Test Method for Particle Size Distribution of Alumina or Quartz Powders by Electrical Sensing Zone Technique

American Society for Testing and Materials. Philadelphia

1992-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

131

Regeneration Effect of Fluoride-rich Granular Activated Alumina on Desorption Regent NaOH Solution  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

As an effective adsorbent, granular activated alumina (GAA) has been widely used in defluoridation. In order to reduce cost and operate environment-friendly, the adsorbent should be regenerated. In this paper, column experiment was done to characterize ... Keywords: adsorption, regeneration, defluoridation, granular activated alumina

Baijie Niu; Wenming Ding; Dan Dang

2012-05-01T23:59:59.000Z

132

ORNL's alumina-forming austenitic alloy family licensed to Carpenter Technology Corp.  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

ORNL's alumina-forming austenitic alloy family licensed to Carpenter Technology Corp. Carpenter Technology Corp. has licensed an alumina-forming austenitic (AFA) stainless steel alloy developed under technology from the initial conception and alloy design stage to the first successful prototype alloy

133

Development of single type copper alumina catalysts for hydrogen production from dimethyl ether (DME)  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Dimethyl ether (DME) is expected as one of clean fuels. We have been studying on DME steam reforming for hydrogen production. Copper alumina catalysts prepared by the sol-gel method produced large quantities of H2 with DME steam reforming. Aiming at ... Keywords: DME, alumina, catalyst, clean fuel, copper, dimethyl ether, hydrogen, sol-gel method, steam reforming

Kaoru Takeishi; Atsushi Ban

2010-02-01T23:59:59.000Z

134

Bath for electrolytic reduction of alumina and method therefor  

SciTech Connect

An electrolytic bath for use during the electrolytic reduction of alumina to aluminum. The bath comprises a molten electrolyte having the following ingredients: (a) AlF.sub.3 and at least one salt selected from the group consisting of NaF, KF, and LiF; and (b) about 0.004 wt. % to about 0.2 wt. %, based on total weight of the molten electrolyte, of at least one transition metal or at least one compound of the metal or both. The compound may be, for example, a fluoride, oxide, or carbonate. The metal can be nickel, iron, copper, cobalt, or molybdenum. The bath can be employed in a combination that includes a vessel for containing the bath and at least one non-consumable anode and at least one dimensionally stable cathode in the bath. Employing the bath of the present invention during electrolytic reduction of alumina to aluminum can improve the wetting of aluminum on a cathode by reducing or eliminating the formation of non-metallic deposits on the cathode.

Brown, Craig W. (Seattle, WA); Brooks, Richard J. (Seattle, WA); Frizzle, Patrick B. (Lynnwood, WA); Juric, Drago D. (Bulleen, AU)

2001-07-10T23:59:59.000Z

135

Bath for electrolytic reduction of alumina and method therefor  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

An electrolytic bath for use during the electrolytic reduction of alumina to aluminum. The bath comprises a molten electrolyte having the following ingredients: (a) AlF.sub.3 and at least one salt selected from the group consisting of NaF, KF, and LiF; and (b) about 0.004 wt. % to about 0.2 wt. %, based on total weight of the molten electrolyte, of at least one transition metal or at least one compound of the metal or both. The compound may be, for example, a fluoride, oxide, or carbonate. The metal can be nickel, iron, copper, cobalt, or molybdenum. The bath can be employed in a combination that includes a vessel for containing the bath and at least one non-consumable anode and at least one dimensionally stable cathode in the bath. Employing the bath of the present invention during electrolytic reduction of alumina to aluminum can improve the wetting of aluminum on a cathode by reducing or eliminating the formation of non-metallic deposits on the cathode. Removing sulfur from the bath can also minimize cathode deposits. Aluminum formed on the cathode can be removed directly from the cathode.

Brown, Craig W. (Seattle, WA); Brooks, Richard J. (Seattle, WA); Frizzle, Patrick B. (Lynnwood, WA); Juric, Drago D. (Bulleen, AU)

2002-11-26T23:59:59.000Z

136

High-temperature oxidation of an alumina-coated Ni-base alloy  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Alumina coatings were applied to Ni-20Cr (wt%) using combustion chemical vapor deposition (combustion CVD). Combustion CVD is an open air deposition technique performed in a flame. The oxidation kinetics of coated and uncoated specimens were measured by isothermal oxidation tests carried out in pure flowing air at temperatures of 800, 900, 1,000 and 1,100 C. The alumina coatings reduced the oxidation kinetics at all temperatures. The morphologies and compositions of the alumina coatings were characterized by transmission and scanning electron microscopy, energy dispersive x-ray spectroscopy and x-ray photoelectron spectroscopy.

Hendrick, M.R.; Hampikian, J.M.; Carter, W.B.

1996-06-01T23:59:59.000Z

137

Computational Design of Ferritic-Alumina-Strengthened Alloys  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

304-285-4721 robert.romanosky@netl.doe.gov Patricia a. Rawls Project Manager National Energy Technology Laboratory 626 Cochrans Mill Road P.O. Box 10940 Pittsburgh, PA 15236-0940 412-386-5882 patricia.rawls@netl.doe.gov Peter K. Liaw (Principal Investigator), chain t. Liu University of Tennessee - Knoxville 427-B Dougherty Engineering Building Department of Materials Science & Engineering Knoxville, TN 37996-2200 865-974-6356, 865-974-5567 pliaw@utk.edu, liuct@ornl.gov Computational Design of ferritiC- alumina-strengtheneD alloys Description Innovative, high-temperature, corrosion-resistant materials are critical to improving efficiency and lowering emissions of advanced turbine power generation systems - key elements in the development of new coal-based energy systems. Through its

138

Preparation of silica or alumina pillared crystalline titanates  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Layered crystalline titanates (CT) [Anthony and Dosch, US Patent 5 177 045 (1993)] are pillared with tetraethyl orthosilicate, 3-aminopropyltrimethoxysilane, and aluminum acetylacetonate to prepare porous and high surface area supports for sulfided NiMo catalyst. Tetra-ethyl orthosilicate or aluminum acetylacetonate intercalated CT are prepared by stepwise intercalation. First, the basal distance is increased by n-alkylammonium ions prior to intercalation with inorganic compounds. However, an aqueous solution of 3-aminopropyltrimethoxysilane could directly pillar CT without first swelling the titanate with n-alkylamine. The catalytic activities for hydrogenation of pyrene of sulfided NiMo supported silica or alumina pillared CT were higher than those of commercial catalysts (Shell324 and Amocat1C). The silicon and aluminum contents of the pillared CT, used as supports, have a considerable effect on the catalytic activities and physical properties of the supports.

Udomsak, S.; Nge, R.; Dufner, D.C.; Anthony, R.G. [Texas A and M Univ., College Station, TX (United States); Lott, S.E. [Sandia National Labs., Albuquerque, NM (United States)

1994-05-01T23:59:59.000Z

139

Separating hydrogen from coal gasification gases with alumina membranes  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

Synthesis gas produced in coal gasification processes contains hydrogen, along with carbon monoxide, carbon dioxide, hydrogen sulfide, water, nitrogen, and other gases, depending on the particular gasification process. Development of membrane technology to separate the hydrogen from the raw gas at the high operating temperatures and pressures near exit gas conditions would improve the efficiency of the process. Tubular porous alumina membranes with mean pore radii ranging from about 9 to 22 {Angstrom} have been fabricated and characterized. Based on hydrostatic tests, the burst strength of the membranes ranged from 800 to 1600 psig, with a mean value of about 1300 psig. These membranes were evaluated for separating hydrogen and other gases. Tests of membrane permeabilities were made with helium, nitrogen, and carbon dioxide. Measurements were made at room temperature in the pressure range of 15 to 589 psi. Selected membranes were tested further with mixed gases simulating a coal gasification product gas. 5 refs., 7 figs.

Egan, B.Z. (Oak Ridge National Lab., TN (USA)); Fain, D.E.; Roettger, G.E.; White, D.E. (Oak Ridge K-25 Site, TN (USA))

1991-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

140

Sodium-Beta Alumina Batteries: Status and Challenges  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

Sodium-beta alumina batteries, have been extensively developed for a few decades and encouraging progress has been achieved so far. The anode is typically molten sodium while the cathode can be molten sulfur (Na-S battery) or solid transition metal halides plus a liquid phase secondary electrolyte (e.g., ZEBRA battery). The electrolyte typically used is a ?"-Al2O3 solid membrane. The issues prohibiting broad commercialization of this type of technology are dependent on the materials used, but can be broadly described as relatively high cost, safety (particularly for the Na-S couple), and low power. This paper offers a review on materials and designs for the batteries and discusses the challenges ahead for further technology improvement.

Lu, Xiaochuan; Lemmon, John P.; Sprenkle, Vincent L.; Yang, Zhenguo

2010-09-05T23:59:59.000Z

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "kiln alumina kiln" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


141

Optical Basicity and Nepheline Crystallization in High Alumina Glasses  

SciTech Connect

The purpose of this study was to find compositions that increase waste loading of high-alumina wastes beyond what is currently acceptable while avoiding crystallization of nepheline (NaAlSiO4) on slow cooling. Nepheline crystallization has been shown to have a large impact on the chemical durability of high-level waste glasses. It was hypothesized that there would be some composition regions where high-alumina would not result in nepheline crystal production, compositions not currently allowed by the nepheline discriminator. Optical basicity (OB) and the nepheline discriminator (ND) are two ways of describing a given complex glass composition. This report presents the theoretical and experimental basis for these models. They are being studied together in a quadrant system as metrics to explore nepheline crystallization and chemical durability as a function of waste glass composition. These metrics were calculated for glasses with existing data and also for theoretical glasses to explore nepheline formation in Quadrant IV (passes OB metric but fails ND metric), where glasses are presumed to have good chemical durability. Several of these compositions were chosen, and glasses were made to fill poorly represented regions in Quadrant IV. To evaluate nepheline formation and chemical durability of these glasses, quantitative X-ray diffraction (XRD) analysis and the Product Consistency Test were conducted. A large amount of quantitative XRD data is collected here, both from new glasses and from glasses of previous studies that had not previously performed quantitative XRD on the phase assemblage. Appendix A critically discusses a large dataset to be considered for future quantitative studies on nepheline formation in glass. Appendix B provides a theoretical justification for choice of the oxide coefficients used to compute the OB criterion for nepheline formation.

Rodriguez, Carmen P.; McCloy, John S.; Schweiger, M. J.; Crum, Jarrod V.; Winschell, Abigail E.

2011-02-25T23:59:59.000Z

142

Phenomenological study of Au and Pt nanowires grown in porous alumina scaffolds  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Porous anodic aluminum oxide, commonly known as AAO, has been widely used as a scaffold to synthesize nanowires and nanotubes. The porous alumina structure can be obtained from a simple electrochemical oxidation process, ...

Shin, Yong Cheol, S.M. Massachusetts Institute of Technology

2011-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

143

Templated self-assembly of nanoporous alumina : pore formation and ordering mechanisms, methodologies, and applications  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Porous anodic aluminum oxide (AAO), also known as porous alumina, is a self-ordered nanostructured material well-suited for use in electronic, magnetic, optical and biological applications due to its small pore size (4-200nm) ...

Krishnan, Ramkumar, 1975-

2005-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

144

Extracting Alumina from Coal Fly Ash Using Acid Sintering-Leaching ...  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Presentation Title, Extracting Alumina from Coal Fly Ash Using Acid ... Coal fly- ash from coal-fired power plants is rich in Al2O3 content with potential use as a ...

145

Solvent mediated assembly of nanoparticles confined in mesoporous alumina Kyle J. Alvine,1,  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

and the alumina pore wall Fnp-wall are12,32 Fnp-np = AnnRs 12D2 , 11 Fnp-wall = AnwRs 6D2 . 12 Here, Ann and Anw

Pershan, Peter S.

146

Effect of catalyst structure on oxidative dehydrogenation of ethane and propane on alumina-supported vanadia  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

catalysts: (a) ethane ODH, (b) propane ODH (663 K, 14 kPa CDehydrogenation of Ethane and Propane on Alumina-Supporteddehydrogenation of ethane and propane. UV-visible and Raman

Argyle, Morris D.; Chen, Kaidong; Bell, Alexis T.; Iglesia, Enrique

2001-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

147

High efficiency shale oil recovery. First quarter report, January 1, 1992--March 31, 1992  

SciTech Connect

The overall project objective is to demonstrate the high efficiency of the Adams Counter-Current shale oil recovery process. The efficiency will first be demonstrated at bench-scale, in the current phase, after which the demonstration will be extended to the operation of a small pilot plant. Thus the immediate project objective is to obtain data on oil shale retorting operations in a small batch rotary kiln that will be representative of operations in the proposed continuous process pilot plant. Although a batch oil shale sample will be sealed in the batch kiln from the start until the end of the run, the process conditions for the batch will be the same as the conditions that an element of oil shale would encounter in a large continuous process kiln. For example, similar conditions of heat-up rate (20 deg F/min during the pyrolysis), oxidation of the residue and cool-down will prevail for the element in both systems. This batch kiln is a unit constructed in a 1987 Phase I SBIR tar sand retorting project. The kiln worked fairly well in that project; however, the need for certain modifications was observed. These modifications are now underway to simplify the operation and make the data and analysis more exact. The agenda for the first three months of the project consisted of the first of nine tasks and was specified as the following four items: 1. Sample acquisition and equipment alteration: Obtain seven oil shale samples, of varying grade each 10 lb or more, and samples of quartz sand. Order equipment for kiln modification. 3. Set up and modify kiln for operation, including electric heaters on the ends of the kiln. 4. Connect data logger and make other repairs and changes in rotary batch kiln.

Adams, D.C.

1992-12-01T23:59:59.000Z

148

High efficiency shale oil recovery  

SciTech Connect

The overall project objective is to demonstrate the high efficiency of the Adams Counter-Current shale oil recovery process. The efficiency will first be demonstrated at bench-scale, in the current phase, after which the demonstration will be extended to the operation of a small pilot plant. Thus the immediate project objective is to obtain data on oil shale retorting operations in a small batch rotary kiln that will be representative of operations in the proposed continuous process pilot plant. Although a batch oil shale sample will be sealed in the batch kiln from the start until the end of the run, the process conditions for the batch will be the same as the conditions that an element of oil shale would encounter in a large continuous process kiln. For example, similar conditions of heat-up rate (20 deg F/min during the pyrolysis), oxidation of the residue and cool-down will prevail for the element in both systems. This batch kiln is a unit constructed in a 1987 Phase I SBIR tar sand retorting project. The kiln worked fairly well in that project; however, the need for certain modifications was observed. These modifications are now underway to simplify the operation and make the data and analysis more exact. The agenda for the first three months of the project consisted of the first of nine tasks and was specified as the following four items: 1. Sample acquisition and equipment alteration: Obtain seven oil shale samples, of varying grade each 10 lb or more, and samples of quartz sand. Order equipment for kiln modification. 3. Set up and modify kiln for operation, including electric heaters on the ends of the kiln. 4. Connect data logger and make other repairs and changes in rotary batch kiln.

Adams, D.C.

1992-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

149

ATOMIC LAYER DEPOSITION OF TITANIUM OXIDE THIN FILMS ONNANOPOROUS ALUMINA TEMPLATES FOR MEDICAL APPLICATIONS  

SciTech Connect

Nanostructured materials may play a significant role in controlled release of pharmacologic agents for treatment of cancer. Many nanoporous polymer materials are inadequate for use in drug delivery. Nanoporous alumina provides several advantages over other materials for use in controlled drug delivery and other medical applications. Atomic layer deposition was used to coat all the surfaces of the nanoporous alumina membrane in order to reduce the pore size in a controlled manner. Both the 20 nm and 100 nm titanium oxide-coated nanoporous alumina membranes did not exhibit statistically lower viability compared to the uncoated nanoporous alumina membrane control materials. In addition, 20 nm pore size titanium oxide-coated nanoporous alumina membranes exposed to ultraviolet light demonstrated activity against Escherichia coli and Staphylococcus aureus bacteria. Nanostructured materials prepared using atomic layer deposition may be useful for delivering a pharmacologic agent at a precise rate to a specific location in the body. These materials may serve as the basis for 'smart' drug delivery devices, orthopedic implants, or self-sterilizing medical devices.

Brigmon, R.

2009-05-05T23:59:59.000Z

150

A two-stage intelligent optimization system for the raw slurry preparing process of alumina sintering production  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

The raw slurry preparing is a key process to guarantee product for alumina sintering production. To obtain the qualified raw slurry in the presence of uncertainty, a two-stage intelligent optimization system, which weakens uncertainty effects through ... Keywords: Alumina sintering production, Expert reasoning, Integrated modeling, Intelligent optimization, Raw slurry preparing, Uncertainty

Chunhua Yang; Weihua Gui; Lingshuang Kong; Yalin Wang

2009-06-01T23:59:59.000Z

151

1170-MW(t) HTGR-PS/C plant application-study report: alumina-plant application  

SciTech Connect

This report considers the HTGR-PS/C application to producing alumina from bauxite. For the size alumina plant considered, the 1170-MW(t) HTGR-PS/C supplies 100% of the process steam and electrical power requirements and produces surplus electrical power and/or process steam, which can be used for other process users or electrical power production. Presently, the bauxite ore is reduced to alumina in plants geographically separated from the electrolysis plant. The electrolysis plants are located near economical electric power sources. However, with the integration of an 1170-MW(t) HTGR-PS/C unit in a commercial alumina plant, the excess electric power available (approx. 233 MW(e)) could be used for alumina electrolysis.

Rao, R.; McMain, A.T. Jr.; Stanley, J.D.

1981-05-01T23:59:59.000Z

152

Sol-spray preparation, particulate characteristics, and sintering of alumina powders  

SciTech Connect

Fine alumina powders of spherical morphology and narrow particle-size distribution have been synthesized by a technique that uses precipitation/peptization/spray drying of boehmite sol prepared from aluminum nitrate. The spray-dried powder was further washed with solvents of varying polarities, such as acetone, isopropanol, and tert-butanol. This post-spray-drying treatment changed the powder`s particle-size distribution, morphology, density, and compaction characteristics. Microstructure, dielectric properties, and effect of post-treatment on the boehmite-sol-derived alumina powders in reducing agglomeration are discussed.

Varma, H.K.; Mani, T.V.; Damodaran, A.D.; Warrier, K.G.K. [Regional Research Lab., Trivandrum (India); Balachandran, U. [Argonne National Lab., IL (United States)

1993-07-01T23:59:59.000Z

153

The Mechanical Properties of Alumina Films Formed by Plasma Deposition and by Ion Irradiation of Sapphire  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

This paper examines the correlation between mechanical properties and the density, phase, and hydrogen content of deposited alumina layers, and compares them to those of sapphire and amorphous alumina synthesized through ion-beam irradiation of sapphire. Alumina films were deposited using electron beam evaporation of aluminum and co-bombardment with O{sub 2}{sup +} ions (30-230 eV) from an electron cyclotron resonance (ECR) plasma. The H content and phase were controlled by varying the deposition temperature and the ion energy. Sapphire was amorphized at 84 K by irradiation with Al and O ions (in stoichiometric ratio) to a defect level of 4 dpa in order to form an amorphous layer 370 nm thick. Nanoindentation was performed to determine the elastic modulus, yield strength and hardness of all materials. Sapphire and amorphized sapphire have a higher density and exhibit superior mechanical properties in comparison to the deposited alumina films. Density was determined to be the primary factor affecting the mechanical properties, which showed only a weak correlation to the hydrogen content.

Barbour, J.C.; Follstaedt, D.M.; Knapp, J.A.; Linam, D.L.; Mayer, T.M.; Minor, K.G.

1999-07-16T23:59:59.000Z

154

Silica-alumina trihydrate filled epoxy castings resistant to arced SF.sub.6  

SciTech Connect

A cured, insulating, casting composition, having a coefficient of linear thermal expansion of below about 38 .times. 10.sup.-6 in./in./.degree. C and being resistant to arced sulfur hexafluoride gas, in contact with a metal surface in a sulfur hexafluoride gas environment, is made from hydantoin epoxy resin, anhydride curing agent and a filler combination of fused silica and alumina trihydrate.

Chenoweth, Terrence E. (Monroeville, PA); Yeoman, Frederick A. (Murrysville, PA)

1978-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

155

Advanced Materials for Sodium-Beta Alumina Batteries: Status, Challenges and Perspectives  

SciTech Connect

The increasing penetration of renewable energy and the trend toward clean, efficient transportation have spurred growing interests in sodium-beta alumina batteries that store electrical energy via sodium ion transport across a ?"-Al2O3 solid electrolyte at elevated temperatures (typically 300~350°C). Currently, the negative electrode or anode is metallic sodium in molten state during battery operation; the positive electrode or cathode can be molten sulfur (Na-S battery) or solid transition metal halides plus a liquid phase secondary electrolyte (e.g., ZEBRA battery). Since the groundbreaking works in the sodium-beta alumina batteries a few decades ago, encouraging progress has been achieved in improving battery performance, along with cost reduction. However there remain issues that hinder broad applications and market penetration of the technologies. To better the Na-beta alumina technologies require further advancement in materials along with component and system design and engineering. This paper offers a comprehensive review on materials of electrodes and electrolytes for the Na-beta alumina batteries and discusses the challenges ahead for further technology improvement.

Lu, Xiaochuan; Xia, Guanguang; Lemmon, John P.; Yang, Zhenguo

2010-05-01T23:59:59.000Z

156

Differential Pair Distribution Function Study of the Structure of Arsenate Adsorbed on Nanocrystalline [gamma]-Alumina  

SciTech Connect

Structural information is important for understanding surface adsorption mechanisms of contaminants on metal (hydr)oxides. In this work, a novel technique was employed to study the interfacial structure of arsenate oxyanions adsorbed on {gamma}-alumina nanoparticles, namely, differential pair distribution function (d-PDF) analysis of synchrotron X-ray total scattering. The d-PDF is the difference of properly normalized PDFs obtained for samples with and without arsenate adsorbed, otherwise identically prepared. The real space pattern contains information on atomic pair correlations between adsorbed arsenate and the atoms on {gamma}-alumina surface (Al, O, etc.). PDF results on the arsenate adsorption sample on {gamma}-alumina prepared at 1 mM As concentration and pH 5 revealed two peaks at 1.66 {angstrom} and 3.09 {angstrom}, corresponding to As-O and As-Al atomic pair correlations. This observation is consistent with those measured by extended X-ray absorption fine structure (EXAFS) spectroscopy, which suggests a first shell of As-O at 1.69 {+-} 0.01 {angstrom} with a coordination number of 4 and a second shell of As-Al at 3.13 {+-} 0.04 {angstrom} with a coordination number of 2. These results are in agreement with a bidentate binuclear coordination environment to the octahedral Al of {gamma}-alumina as predicted by density functional theory (DFT) calculation.

Li, Wei; Harrington, Richard; Tang, Yuanzhi; Kubicki, James D.; Aryanpour, Masoud; Reeder, Richard J.; Parise, John B.; Phillips, Brian L. (SBU); (Penn)

2012-03-15T23:59:59.000Z

157

Alumina reduction by laser sustained plasma for aluminum-based renewable energy cycling  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

A novel alumina (Al 2O3) reduction technique for a renewable energy cycling system based on aluminum is proposed. Al 2O3 powder was fed into laser-sustained plasma and thermally dissociated. The produced Al was expanded to supersonic speeds through a nozzle. From the Al and argon line distributions in the flow direction

2013-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

158

Safe Operating Procedure (Revised 3/11)  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

. · Installation of a cooling tower, a discharge permit must be obtained from NDEQ unless the discharge the installation of fuel-burning boilers, kilns, incinerators, or cooling towers, etc., UNL may be required to seek

Farritor, Shane

159

Engines - Argonne-developed Cerium-Oxide Catalyst Helps Eliminate...  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

equipment, boats, etc.) as well as industrial sources such as power plants, industrial boilers, cement kilns, and turbines. NOx often appears as a brownish gas. It is a strong...

160

A Study of Coal-Based Direct Reduction of Composite Binder ...  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Abstract Scope, A study of the coal-based direct reduction behaviors of composite ... pellets was carried out in a simulating coal-based grate-rotary kiln process.

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "kiln alumina kiln" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


161

U.S. DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY - NETL CATEGORICAL EXCLUSION (CX) DESIGNATIO...  

Energy.gov (U.S. Department of Energy (DOE)) Indexed Site

Durham, NC (Research Triangle Park) Cemex Commercial-scale CO2 Capture and Sequestration for the Cement Industry Evaluation of RTI's dry sorbent (under cement kiln conditions)at...

162

Analysis of Energy-Efficiency Opportunities for the Cement Industry in Shandong Province, China  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Birch, E. 1990. “Energy Savings in Cement Kiln Systems,”11 C. Benchmarking and Energy-Saving Tool for Cement (BEST-26 B. Benchmarking and Energy-Saving Tool for Cement (BEST-

Price, Lynn

2010-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

163

Recipient: 2003 Champion H. Mathewson Award  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Paper: “Coal Pyrolysis in a Rotary Kiln: Part I. Model of the Pyrolysis of a Single Grain” and “Part II. Overall Model of the Furnace” Biography: Fabrice Patisson is ...

164

Energy Efficiency Improvement and Cost Saving Opportunities for Cement Making. An ENERGY STAR Guide for Energy and Plant Managers  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

1997 ACEEE Summer Study on Energy Efficiency in Industry.American Council for an Energy-Efficient Economy,Park, NC. Birch, E. , 1990. “Energy Savings in Cement Kiln

Worrell, Ernst

2008-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

165

Electrochemically Preparing of Ni-Fe Alloys in Molten Sodium ...  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

A Pilot-plant Scale Test of Coal-based Rotary Kiln Direct Reduction of Laterite Ore for Fe-Ni Production · A Pilot-plant Scale Test on DRI Preparation from ...

166

Synthesis of High Surface Area Alumina Aerogels without the Use of Alkoxide Precursors  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Alumina aerogels were prepared through the addition of propylene oxide to aqueous or ethanolic solutions of hydrated aluminum salts, AlCl{sub 3} {center_dot} 6H{sub 2}O or Al(NO{sub 3}){sub 3} {center_dot} 9H{sub 2}O, followed by drying with supercritical CO{sub 2}. This technique affords low-density (60-130 kg/m{sup 3}), high surface area (600-700 m{sup 2}/g) alumina aerogel monoliths without the use of alkoxide precursors. The dried alumina aerogels were characterized using elemental analysis, high-resolution transmission electron microscopy, powder X-ray diffraction, solid state NMR, acoustic measurements and nitrogen adsorption/desorption analysis. Powder X-ray diffraction and TEM analysis indicated that the aerogel prepared from hydrated AlCl{sub 3} in water or ethanol possessed microstructures containing highly reticulated networks of pseudoboehmite fibers, 2-5 nm in diameter and of varying lengths, while the aerogels prepared from hydrated Al(NO{sub 3}){sub 3} in ethanol were amorphous with microstructures comprised of interconnected spherical particles with diameters in the 5-15 nm range. The difference in microstructure resulted in each type of aerogel displaying distinct physical and mechanical properties. In particular, the alumina aerogels with the weblike microstructure were far more mechanically robust than those with the colloidal network, based on acoustic measurements. Both types of alumina aerogels can be transformed to {gamma}-Al{sub 2}O{sub 3} through calcination at 800 C without a significant loss in surface area or monolithicity.

Baumann, T F; Gash, A E; Chinn, S C; Sawvel, A M; Maxwell, R S; Satcher Jr., J H

2004-06-25T23:59:59.000Z

167

TEMPERATURE-PROGRAMMED DESORPTION AND REACTION OF CO AND H2 ON ALUMINA-SUPPORTED RUTHENIUM CATALYST  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

over Group VIII Metal Catalysts" J.T. Kummer and P.H.and Fischer- Iron Catalyst", to be published. P.R. Wentrek,on Alumina-supported Ruthenium Catalyst" to be published. M.

Low, Gordon Gongngai

2011-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

168

Fischer-Tropsch activity for non-promoted cobalt-on-alumina catalysts  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

Cobalt catalysts, and processes employing these inventive catalysts, for hydrocarbon synthesis. The inventive catalyst comprises cobalt on an alumina support and is not promoted with any noble or near noble metals. In one aspect of the invention, the alumina support preferably includes a dopant in an amount effective for increasing the activity of the inventive catalyst. The dopant is preferably a titanium dopant. In another aspect of the invention, the cobalt catalyst is preferably reduced in the presence of hydrogen at a water vapor partial pressure effective to increase the activity of the cobalt catalyst for hydrocarbon synthesis. The water vapor partial pressure is preferably in the range of from 0 to about 0.1 atmospheres.

Singleton, Alan H. (Baden, PA); Oukaci, Rachid (Gibsonia, PA); Goodwin, James G. (Gibsonia, PA)

2001-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

169

R-curve response of silicon carbide whisker-reinforced alumina: Microstructural influence  

SciTech Connect

Rising fracture resistance with crack extension (R-curve response) can lead to improvements in the mechanical reliability of ceramics. To understand how microstructures influence the R-curve behavior, direct observations of crack interactions with microstructural features were conducted on SiC whisker-reinforced alumina. The contribution of the dominant toughening mechanisms to the R-curve behavior of these composites is discussed using experimental and theoretical studies.

Sun, E.Y.; Hsueh, C.H.; Becher, P.F.

1995-12-31T23:59:59.000Z

170

Industrial recovery capability. Final report. [Claus alumina catalyst for sulfur production  

SciTech Connect

This report provides an evaluation of the vulnerability - to a nuclear strike, terrorist attack, or natural disaster - of our national capacity to produce chlorine, beryllium, and a particular specialty alumina catalyst required for the production of sulfur. All of these industries are of critical importance to the United States economy. Other industries that were examined and found not to be particularly vulnerable are medicinal drugs and silicon wafers for electronics. Thus, only the three more vulnerable industries are addressed in this report.

Gregg, D.W.

1984-12-01T23:59:59.000Z

171

Hydrogen Selective Thin Palladium-Copper Composite Membranes on Alumina Supports  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

Thin and defect-free Pd–Cu composite membranes with high hydrogen permeances and selectivities were prepared by electroless plating of palladium and copper on porous alumina supports with pore sizes of 5 and 100 nm coated with intermediate layers. The intermediate layers on the 100 nm supports were prepared by the deposition of boehmite sols of different particle sizes, and provided a graded, uniform substrate for the formation of defect-free, ultra-thin palladium composite layers. The dependence of hydrogen flux on pressure difference was studied to understand the dominant mechanism of hydrogen transport through a Pd–Cu composite membrane plated on an alumina support with a pore size of 5 nm. The order in hydrogen pressure was 0.98, and indicated that bulk diffusion through the Pd–Cu layer was fast and the overall process was limited by external mass-transfer or a surface process. Scanning electron microscopy (SEM) images of the Pd–Cu composite membrane showed a uniform substrate created after depositing one intermediate layer on top of the alumina support and a dense Pd–Cu composite layer with no visible defects. Cross-sectional views of the membrane showed that the Pd–Cu composite layer had a top layer thickness of 160 nm (0.16 ?m), which is much thinner than previously reported.

Lim, Hankwon; Oyama, S. Ted

2011-08-15T23:59:59.000Z

172

Preparation of powders suitable for conversion to useful .beta.-aluminas  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

A process for forming a precursor powder which, when suitably pressed and sintered forms highly pure, densified .beta.- or .beta."-alumina, comprising the steps of: (1) forming a suspension (or slurry) of Bayer-derived Al(OH).sub.3 in a water-miscible solvent; (2) adding an aqueous solution of a Mg compound, a Li compound, a Na compound or mixtures thereof to the Bayer-derived Al(OH).sub.3 suspension while agitating the mixture formed thereby, to produce a gel; (3) drying the gel at a temperature above the normal boiling point of water to produce a powder material; (4) lightly ball milling and sieving said powder material; and (5) heating the ball-milled and sieved powder material at a temperature of between 350.degree. to 900.degree. C. to form the .beta.- or .beta."-alumina precursor powder. The precursor powder, thus formed, may be subsequently isopressed at a high pressure and sintered at an elevated temperature to produce .beta.- or .beta."-alumina. BACKGROUND OF THE INVENTION

Morgan, Peter E. D. (Thousand Oaks, CA)

1982-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

173

Acidity and catalytic activity of zeolite catalysts bound with silica and alumina  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Zeolites ZSM-5 (SiO2/Al2O3=30~280) and Y(SiO2/Al2O3=5.2~80) are bound with silica gel (Ludox HS-40 and Ludox AS-40) and alumina (?- Al2O3 and boehmite) by different binding methods, namely, gel-mixing, powder-mixing and powder-wet-mixing methods. The acidities of the bound catalysts and the zeolite powder are determined by NH3-TPD and FTIR. The textures of these catalysts are analyzed on a BET machine with nitrogen as a probe molecule. The micropore surface area and micropore volume are determined by t-plot method. Micropore volume distribution is determined by Horvath-Kawazoe approach with a cylindrical pore model. Mesopore volume distribution is determined by BJH method from the nitrogen desorption isotherm. Silica from the binder may react with extra-framework alumina in zeolites to form a new protonic acid. SiO2-bound catalysts have less strong acidity, Bronsted acidity and Lewis acidity than the zeolite powder. Also, the strength of strong acid sites of the zeolites is reduced when silica is embedded. Micropore surface area and micropore volume are reduced by about 19% and 18%, respectively, indicating some micropores of ZSM-5 are blocked on binding with silica. SiO2-bound ZSM-5 catalysts have less catalytic activity for butane transformation (cracking and disproportionation) and ethylene oligomerization than ZSM-5 powder. When alumina is used as a binder, both the total acid sites and Lewis acid sites are increased. Micropore surface area and micropore volume of ZSM-5 powder are reduced by 26% and 23%, respectively, indicating some micropores of ZSM-5 are blocked by the alumina binder. Alumina-bound catalysts showed a lower activity for butane transformation and ethylene oligomerization than ZSM-5 powder. Alkaline metals content in the binder is a crucial factor that influences the acidity of a bound catalyst. The metal cations neutralize more selectively Bronsted acid sites than Lewis acid sites. Alkaline metal cations in the binder and micropore blockage cause the bound catalysts to have a lower catalytic activity than the zeolite powder.

Wu, Xianchun

2003-12-01T23:59:59.000Z

174

Evaluation of Composite Alumina Nanoparticle and Nitrate Eutectic Materials for use in Concentrating Solar Power Plants  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

The focus of this research was to create and characterize high temperature alumina and nitrate salt eutectic nanofluids for use in thermal energy storage (TES) systems. The nitrate eutectic was originally used in the TES system demonstrated as part of the Solar Two power tower and is currently employed as the TES material at Andasol 1 in Spain. Concentrations of alumina nanoparticles between 0.1% and 10% by weight were introduced into the base material in an effort to create nanofluids which would exhibit improved specific heat capacity to reduce the $/kWht thermal energy storage system costs. The composite materials were created using an aqueous mixing method in which both the nanoparticles and nitrate eutectic were placed into solution using acidic water. This solution was then sonicated in an ultrasonic bath in an effort to reduce nanoparticle agglomeration and to improve homogeneity. After boiling off the excess water, the nanoparticle-nitrate eutectic composite was recovered for characterization. The thermal properties of both the composite and base materials were characterized using the differential scanning calorimetry techniques outlined in ASTM E 1269. The created nanofluids were not stable and did not offer a cost-effective alternative to the current nitrate eutectic TES material. Despite these setbacks, a positive correlation between alumina concentration and nanofluid specific heat was demonstrated. Additionally, the specific heat capacities of the created nanofluids exceeded that predicted by the current theoretical models. These findings suggest that further work in the field of high temperature nanofluids for use in TES systems is warranted.

Malik, Darren R.

2010-05-01T23:59:59.000Z

175

A High Temperature Electrochemical Energy Storage System Based on Sodium Beta-Alumina Solid Electrolyte (Base)  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

This report summarizes the work done during the period September 1, 2005 and March 31, 2008. Work was conducted in the following areas: (1) Fabrication of sodium beta{double_prime} alumina solid electrolyte (BASE) using a vapor phase process. (2) Mechanistic studies on the conversion of {alpha}-alumina + zirconia into beta{double_prime}-alumina + zirconia by the vapor phase process. (3) Characterization of BASE by X-ray diffraction, SEM, and conductivity measurements. (4) Design, construction and electrochemical testing of a symmetric cell containing BASE as the electrolyte and NaCl + ZnCl{sub 2} as the electrodes. (5) Design, construction, and electrochemical evaluation of Na/BASE/ZnCl{sub 2} electrochemical cells. (6) Stability studies in ZnCl{sub 2}, SnCl{sub 2}, and SnI{sub 4} (7) Design, assembly and testing of planar stacks. (8) Investigation of the effect of porous surface layers on BASE on cell resistance. The conventional process for the fabrication of sodium ion conducting beta{double_prime}-alumina involves calcination of {alpha}-alumina + Na{sub 2}CO{sub 3} + LiNO{sub 3} at 1250 C, followed by sintering powder compacts in sealed containers (platinum or MgO) at {approx}1600 C. The novel vapor phase process involves first sintering a mixture of {alpha}-alumina + yttria-stabilized zirconia (YSZ) into a dense ceramic followed by exposure to soda vapor at {approx}1450 C to convert {alpha}-alumina into beta{double_prime}-alumina. The vapor phase process leads to a high strength BASE, which is also resistant to moisture attack, unlike BASE made by the conventional process. The PI is the lead inventor of the process. Discs and tubes of BASE were fabricated in the present work. In the conventional process, sintering of BASE is accomplished by a transient liquid phase mechanism wherein the liquid phase contains NaAlO{sub 2}. Some NaAlO{sub 2} continues to remain at grain boundaries; and is the root cause of its water sensitivity. In the vapor phase process, NaAlO{sub 2} is never formed. Conversion occurs by a coupled transport of Na{sup +} through BASE formed and of O{sup 2-} through YSZ to the reaction front. Transport to the reaction front is described in terms of a chemical diffusion coefficient of Na{sub 2}O. The conversion kinetics as a function of microstructure is under investigation. The mechanism of conversion is described in this report. A number of discs and tubes of BASE have been fabricated by the vapor phase process. The material was investigated by X-ray diffraction (XRD), optical microscopy and scanning electron microscopy (SEM), before and after conversion. Conductivity (which is almost exclusively due to sodium ion transport at the temperatures of interest) was measured. Conductivity was measured using sodium-sodium tests as well as by impedance spectroscopy. Various types of both planar and tubular electrochemical cells were assembled and tested. In some cases the objective was to determine if there was any interaction between the salt and BASE. The interaction of interest was mainly ion exchange (possible replacement of sodium ion by the salt cation). It was noted that Zn{sup 2+} did not replace Na+ over the conditions of interest. For this reason much of the work was conducted with ZnCl{sub 2} as the cathode salt. In the case of Sn-based, Sn{sup 2+} did ion exchange, but Sn{sup 4+} did not. This suggests that Sn{sup 4+} salts are viable candidates. These results and implications are discussed in the report. Cells made with Na as the anode and ZnCl{sub 2} as the cathode were successfully charged/discharged numerous times. The key advantages of the batteries under investigation here over the Na-S batteries are: (1) Steel wool can be used in the cathode compartment unlike Na-S batteries which require expensive graphite. (2) Planar cells can be constructed in addition to tubular, allowing for greater design flexibility and integration with other devices such as planar SOFC. (3) Comparable or higher open circuit voltage (OCV) than the Na-S battery. (4) Wider operating temperature range and higher temper

Anil Virkar

2008-03-31T23:59:59.000Z

176

Thermal analysis and in vitro bioactivity of bioactive glass-alumina composites  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Bioactive glass-alumina composite (BA) pellets were fabricated in the range 95/5-60/40 wt.% respectively and were heat-treated under a specific thermal treatment up to 950 {sup o}C. Control (unheated) and heat-treated pellets were immersed in Simulated Body Fluid (SBF) for bioactivity testing. All pellets before and after immersion in SBF were studied by Fourier Transform Infrared spectroscopy (FTIR), Scanning Electron Microscopy (SEM-EDS) and X-ray Diffraction (XRD) analysis. All composite pellets presented bioactive response. On the surface of the heat-treated pellets the development of a rich biological hydroxyapatite (HAp) layer was delayed for one day, compared to the respective control pellets. Independent of the proportion of the two components, all composites of each group (control and heat-treated) presented the same bioactive response as a function of immersion time in SBF. It was found that by the applied methodology, Al{sub 2}O{sub 3} can be successfully applied in bioactive glass composites without obstructing their bioactive response. - Research Highlights: {yields} Isostatically pressed glass-alumina composites presented apatite-forming ability. {yields} The interaction with SBF resulted in an aluminium phosphate phase formation. {yields} The formation of an aluminium phosphate phase enhanced the in vitro apatite growth.

Chatzistavrou, Xanthippi, E-mail: x.chatzistavrou@imperial.ac.uk [Solid State Physics Section, Physics Department, Aristotle University of Thessaloniki, 54124 Thessaloniki (Greece); Kantiranis, Nikolaos, E-mail: kantira@geo.auth.gr [School of Geology, Aristotle University of Thessaloniki, 54124 Thessaloniki (Greece); Kontonasaki, Eleana, E-mail: kont@dent.auth.gr [School of Dentistry, Department of Fixed Prosthesis and Implant Prosthodontics, Aristotle University of Thessaloniki, 54124 Thessaloniki (Greece); Chrissafis, Konstantinos, E-mail: hrisafis@physics.auth.gr [Solid State Physics Section, Physics Department, Aristotle University of Thessaloniki, 54124 Thessaloniki (Greece); Papadopoulou, Labrini, E-mail: lambrini@geo.auth.gr [School of Geology, Aristotle University of Thessaloniki, 54124 Thessaloniki (Greece); Koidis, Petros, E-mail: pkoidis@dent.auth.gr [School of Dentistry, Department of Fixed Prosthesis and Implant Prosthodontics, Aristotle University of Thessaloniki, 54124 Thessaloniki (Greece); Boccaccini, Aldo R., E-mail: a.boccaccini@imperial.ac.uk [Department of Materials, Faculty of Engineering, Imperial College, SW7 2AZ London (United Kingdom); Paraskevopoulos, Konstantinos M., E-mail: kpar@auth.gr [Solid State Physics Section, Physics Department, Aristotle University of Thessaloniki, 54124 Thessaloniki (Greece)

2011-01-15T23:59:59.000Z

177

SYNTHESIS OF OXYGENATED PRODUCTS FROM CARBON MONOXIDE AND HYDROGEN OVER SILICA- AND ALUMINA-SUPPORTED RUTHENIUM CATALYSTS  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Formation Over a 1.01; Ru/A1 o Catalyst at 498K H/CO P (atm)a silica-supported Ru catalyst Fig. 2 Effect of feed flowan alumina-supported Ru catalyst Fig. 3 Effect of reaction

Kellner, C.Stephen

2013-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

178

Two-dimensional finite element simulation of fracture and fatigue behaviours of alumina microstructures for hip prosthesis  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

, finite element, fatigue, fracture, ceramic, microstructure * Corresponding author. Email address: geringer@emse.fr #12;2 1. Introduction Alumina is known as a primary ceramic material in biomedical industry. Particularly, Al2O3 is widely used as the material of a femoral head and an acetabular cup of hip

Paris-Sud XI, Université de

179

Durability of Solar Reflective Materials with an Alumina Hard Coat Produced by Ion-Beam-Assisted Deposition: Preprint  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

A promising low-cost reflector material for solar concentrating power (CSP) generation is a silvered substrate protected by an alumina coating several microns thick. The alumina hard coat is deposited under high vacuum by ion-beam-assisted-deposition (IBAD). Samples of this material have been produced both by batch and continuous roll-coating processes. The substrate materials investigated were polyethylene terephthalate (PET), PET laminated to stainless-steel foil, and chrome-plated carbon steel strip. The advantage of steel strip compared to PET is that it withstands a higher process temperature and lowers the final product installation costs. In this paper, we compare the durability of batch and roll-coated reflective materials with an alumina deposition rate as high as 10 nm/s. In general, the durability of the samples is found to be excellent. Comparisons between accelerated and outdoor exposure testing results indicate that these front-surface mirrors are more susceptible to weather conditions not simulated by accelerated tests (i.e., rain, sleet, snow, etc.) than other types of solar reflectors. For long-term durability, edge protection will be necessary, and durability could be improved by the addition of an adhesion-promoting layer between the silver and alumina.

Kennedy, C. E.; Smilgys, R. V.

2002-10-01T23:59:59.000Z

180

Formation of Si-based nano-island array on porous anodic alumina  

SciTech Connect

Si-based nano-island arrays were fabricated on porous anodic alumina by two methods. In the first method, a thick silicon film was first deposited onto the surface with highly ordered bowl array prepared by anodizing an Al foil, followed by the formation of a polycrystalline silicon nano-island array on the surface close to the bowl array after dissolving aluminum. In the second method, porous anodization was performed on an Al thin film on Si and a SiO{sub 2} nano-island array was subsequently formed electrochemically. Time-resolved atomic force microscopy and photoluminescence were used to investigate the growth process as well as the mechanism of the growth process. Our proposed mechanism as well as assumptions made to formulate the model were found to be in agreement with the experimental results.

Mei, Y.F. [Department of Physics and Materials Science, City University of Hong Kong, Kowloon, Hong Kong (China)]. E-mail: yf.mei@plink.cityu.edu.hk; Huang, G.S. [National Laboratory of Solid State Microstructures and Department of Physics, Nanjing University, Nanjing 210093 (China); Li, Z.M. [Department of Physics, Hong Kong University of Science and Technology, Clear Water Bay, Kowloon, Hong Kong (China); Siu, G.G. [Department of Physics and Materials Science, City University of Hong Kong, Kowloon, Hong Kong (China); Fu, Ricky K.Y. [Department of Physics and Materials Science, City University of Hong Kong, Kowloon, Hong Kong (China); Yang, Y.M. [National Laboratory of Solid State Microstructures and Department of Physics, Nanjing University, Nanjing 210093 (China); Wu, X.L. [National Laboratory of Solid State Microstructures and Department of Physics, Nanjing University, Nanjing 210093 (China); Tang, Z.K. [Department of Physics, Hong Kong University of Science and Technology, Clear Water Bay, Kowloon, Hong Kong (China); Chu, Paul K. [Department of Physics and Materials Science, City University of Hong Kong, Kowloon, Hong Kong (China)

2004-11-08T23:59:59.000Z

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "kiln alumina kiln" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


181

The Effect of Nanoparticle Concentration on Thermo-physical Properties of Alumina-nitrate Nanofluid  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

The objective of this study was to determine how Al2O3 nanoparticle concentration affected the specific heat, heat of fusion, melting point, thermal diffusivity and thermal conductivity of Alumina-Nitrate nanofluids. Al2O3 nanoparticles were dispersed in a eutectic of sodium nitrate and potassium nitrate (60:40 for mole fraction) to create nanofluids using a hot plate evaporation method and an air dryer method. The nominal Al2O3 (alumina) mass fraction was between 0 and 2%, and was determined as the ratio of the mass of Al2O3 nanoparticles to the total mass of the nanofluid. After the preparation of the nanofluids, Neutron Activation Analysis (NAA) was used to measure the actual Al2O3 mass fraction in the nanofluids. The specific heat, heat of fusion, and melting point were measured with a Modulated Differential Scanning Calorimeter (MDSC). The thermal diffusivity and thermal conductivity were measured with Laser Flash Analysis (LFA). The MDSC results showed that the addition of Al2O3 nanoparticles enhanced the specific heat of the nanofluids synthesize from both methods. There was a parabolic relation between the specific heat and the Al2O3 mass fraction for the nanofluids synthesized from the hot plate evaporation method, with a maximum 31% enhancement at 0.78% Al2O3 mass fraction. The nanofluids synthesized from the air dryer method also resulted in enhanced specific heats which were higher at the same Al2O3 mass fraction than those of the nanofluids synthesized from the hot plate evaporation method. It was not determined why this enhancement occurred. The results also showed that the introduction of Al2O3 nanoparticles had no significant effect on the heat of fusion and melting point of the nanofluids synthesized from either method. The LFA results showed that adding Al2O3 nanoparticles decreased the thermal diffusivity and the thermal conductivity of the nitrate eutectic.

Shao, Qian

2013-05-01T23:59:59.000Z

182

EA-0405: Final Environmental Assessment | Department of Energy  

Energy.gov (U.S. Department of Energy (DOE)) Indexed Site

5: Final Environmental Assessment 5: Final Environmental Assessment EA-0405: Final Environmental Assessment Innovative Sulfur Dioxide Scrubbing System for Coal-Burning Cement Kilns This Environmental Assessment evaluates the environmental impacts of a clean coal technology demonstration project that is proposed for cost-shared federal funding by Department of Energy under the Innovative Clean Coal Technology program. The proposed action is the design, construction, and operation of a sulfur dioxide scrubbing system for coal burning cement kilns to be conducted at the Dragon Products Company Cement Plant in Thomaston, Maine. Environmental Assessment Innovative Sulfur Dioxide Scrubbing System for Coal-Burning Cement Kilns, DOE/EA-0405, March 1990 More Documents & Publications EA-0405: Finding of No Significant Impact

183

EA-0405: Finding of No Significant Impact | Department of Energy  

Energy.gov (U.S. Department of Energy (DOE)) Indexed Site

5: Finding of No Significant Impact 5: Finding of No Significant Impact EA-0405: Finding of No Significant Impact Innovative Sulfur Dioxide Scrubbing System for Coal Burning Cement Kilns, Passamaquoddy Tribe Thomaston, Maine The Department of Energy prepared EA-0405 for the Innovative Sulfur Dioxide Scrubbing System for Coal-Burning Cement Kilns at Dragon Products Cement Plant at Thomaston, Maine and determined it is not a major threat to the quality of the environment and issued a Finding of No Significant Impact. Finding of No Significant Impact for the Innovative Sulfur Dioxide Scrubbing System for Coal-Burning Cement Kilns at Dragon Products Cement Plant at Thomaston, Maine More Documents & Publications EA-0405: Final Environmental Assessment Department of Energy Technical Support Document National Environmental

184

NETL: Clean Coal Technology Demonstration Program (CCTDP) - Round 2  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

2 2 Industrial Applications Cement Kiln Flue Gas Recovery Scrubber - Project Brief [PDF-247KB] Passamaquoddy Technology Limited Partnership, Thomaston, ME Program Publications Final Reports Passamaquoddy Technology Recovery Scrubber(tm) Final Report, Volume 1 [PDF-5.4MB] (Feb 1994) Final Report, Volume 2 and Appendices A - M [PDF-10.4MB] (Feb 1994) CCT Reports: Project Performance Summaries, Post-Project Assessments, & Topical Reports Cement Kiln Flue Gas Recovery Scrubber Project: A DOE Assessment [PDF-246KB] (Nov 2001) Cement Kiln Flue Gas Recovery Scrubber, Project Performance Summary [PDF-2MB] (June 1999) Design Reports Passamaquoddy Technology Recovery Scrubber(tm) Public Design Report (Oct 1993) [PDF-2.7MB) Interim Reports Interim Technical Report [PDF-973KB] (Mar 1992)

185

Reverse engineering the ancient ceramic technology based on X-ray fluorescence spectromicroscopy  

SciTech Connect

We present results of X-ray fluorescence (XRF) microprobe analyses of ancient ceramic cross-sections aiming at deciphering the different firing protocols used for their production. Micro-focused XRF elemental mapping, Fe chemical mapping and Fe K-edge X-ray absorption near edge structure spectroscopy were performed on pre-sigillata ceramics from southern Gaul, and terra Sigillata vessels from Italy and southern Gaul. Pieces from the different workshops and regions showed significant difference in the starting clay material, clay conditioning and kiln firing condition. By contrast, sherds from the same workshop exhibited more subtle differences and possible misfirings. Understanding the precise firing conditions and protocols would allow recreation of kilns for various productions. Furthermore, evolution and modification of kiln design would shed some light on how ancient potters devised solutions to diverse technological problems they encountered.

Sciau, Philippe; Leon, Yoanna; Goudeau, Philippe; Fakra, Sirine C.; Webb, Sam; Mehta, Apurva

2011-07-06T23:59:59.000Z

186

R-curve and subcritical crack growth behavior at elevated temperatures in coarse grain alumina  

SciTech Connect

The effect of temperature and subcritical crack growth on the R-curve of a 99.5% purity coarse grained alumina was studied using chevron-notched, short-bar specimens. Constant loading rate tests were used to measure toughness as a function of crack length and static load tests were used to measure subcritical crack growth as a function of time. It was found that the intrinsic toughness decreased monotonically from 20 to 1200 C while the bridging contribution to the R-curve remained relatively constant over this temperature range. The constant load tests at 700, 1000 and 1200 C showed that substantial subcritical crack growth occurs under static loading. Using the subcritical crack growth parameters derived from these static load tests, the effect of loading rate on R-curve measurement was predicted and compared to experiment. The predicted decrease in the magnitude of the R-curve with a decrease in over five orders of magnitude in loading rate was relatively small compared to experimental scatter.

Webb, J.E.; Jakus, K.; Ritter, J.E. [Univ. of Massachusetts, Amherst, MA (United States). Dept. of Mechanical Engineering

1996-06-01T23:59:59.000Z

187

Tribological properties of alumina-boria-silicate fabric from 25 C to 850 C  

SciTech Connect

Demanding tribological properties are required of the materials used for the sliding seal between the sidewalls and the lower wall of the variable area hypersonic engine. Temperatures range from room temperature and below to operating temperatures of 1000 C in an environment of air, hydrogen, and water vapor. Candidate sealing materials for this application are an alumina-boria-silicate, ceramic, fabric rope sliding against the engine walls which may be made from copper- or nickel-based alloys. Using a pin-on-disk tribometer, the friction and wear properties of some of these potential materials and possible lubrication methods are evaluated. The ceramic fabric rope displayed unacceptably high friction coefficients (0.6 to 1.3) and, thus, requires lubrication. Sputtered thin films of gold, silver, and CaF2 reduced the friction by a factor of two. Sprayed coatings of boride nitride did not effectively lubricate the fabric. Static heat treatment tests at 950 C indicate that the fabric is chemically attacked by large quantities of silver, CaF2, and boron nitride. Sputtered films or powder impregnation of the fabric with gold may provide adequate lubrication up to 1000 C without showing any chemical attack. 8 refs.

Dellacorte, C. (NASA, Lewis Research Center, Cleveland, OH (USA))

1989-07-01T23:59:59.000Z

188

Thermal shock behavior of alumina/MoSi2 plasma sprayed laminated composites  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Alumina (Al{sub 2}O{sub 3}) is very susceptible to thermal shock, which leads to strength degradation. By reinforcing Al{sub 2}O{sub 3} with molybdenum disilicide (MoSi{sub 2}) layers, the tolerance to damage caused by thermal shock can be improved. The thermal shock resistance of plasma sprayed Al{sub 2}O{sub 3}/MoSi{sub 2} laminated composites were investigated. Three laminate microstructures having different layer thickness were fabricated by atmospheric plasma spraying while maintaining a 50/50-volume fraction. Quenching experiments done on 4-point bend bars showed a gradual decrease in the strength as the change in temperature ({Delta}T) increased. Thermal shock resistant parameters (R{prime} and R-quadruple prime) provided a representative numerical value of the thermal shock resistance for the laminated composites. The corresponding material properties for the different microstructures were determined experimentally in order to calculate the R{prime} and R quadruple prime values. The intermediate layered composite showed the highest R-quadruple prime va1ue at 1061 {micro}m, while the thin layered composite had the highest R{prime} value at 474 W/m.

Castro, R. G. (Richard G.); Petrovic, J. J.; Vaidya, R. U. (Rajendra U.); Mendoza, D. (Daniel)

2001-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

189

Method for fabricating cermets of alumina-chromium systems. [Patent application  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

Cermet insulators resistant to thermal and mechanical shock are prepared from alumina-chromium systems in the following way: by providing an Al/sub 2/O/sub 3/ material of about 0.5 to 7.0 micron size with a solid-hydrocarbon overcoating by slurrying an effective amount of said solid hydrocarbon in a solvent mixture containing said Al/sub 2/O/sub 3/ and thereafter evaporating said solvent, contacting said coated Al/sub 2/O/sub 3/ with a solution of chromium precursor compound, heating the resulting mixture in a reducing environment to a temperature above the decomposition temperature of said chromium precursor compound but less than the melting temperature of the Al/sub 2/O/sub 3/ or chromium for sufficient duration to yield a particulate compound having chromium essentially dispersed throughout the Al/sub 2/O/sub 3/, and then densifying said particulate to provide said cermet characterized by a theoretical density in excess of 96% and having 0.1 to 10.0 vol. % elemental chromium metal present therein as a dispersed phase at the boundaries of the Al/sub 2/O/sub 3/ material. Cermet components prepared thereby are useful in high temperature equipment, advanced heat engines, and nuclear-related equipment applications where electrical or thermal insulators are required.

Morgan, C.S.

1981-10-05T23:59:59.000Z

190

Energy Efficiency Improvement Opportunities for the Cement Industry  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

This report provides information on the energy savings, costs, and carbon dioxide emissions reductions associated with implementation of a number of technologies and measures applicable to the cement industry. The technologies and measures include both state-of-the-art measures that are currently in use in cement enterprises worldwide as well as advanced measures that are either only in limited use or are near commercialization. This report focuses mainly on retrofit measures using commercially available technologies, but many of these technologies are applicable for new plants as well. Where possible, for each technology or measure, costs and energy savings per tonne of cement produced are estimated and then carbon dioxide emissions reductions are calculated based on the fuels used at the process step to which the technology or measure is applied. The analysis of cement kiln energy-efficiency opportunities is divided into technologies and measures that are applicable to the different stages of production and various kiln types used in China: raw materials (and fuel) preparation; clinker making (applicable to all kilns, rotary kilns only, vertical shaft kilns only); and finish grinding; as well as plant wide measures and product and feedstock changes that will reduce energy consumption for clinker making. Table 1 lists all measures in this report by process to which they apply, including plant wide measures and product or feedstock changes. Tables 2 through 8 provide the following information for each technology: fuel and electricity savings per tonne of cement; annual operating and capital costs per tonne of cement or estimated payback period; and, carbon dioxide emissions reductions for each measure applied to the production of cement. This information was originally collected for a report on the U.S. cement industry (Worrell and Galitsky, 2004) and a report on opportunities for China's cement kilns (Price and Galitsky, in press). The information provided in this report is based on publicly-available reports, journal articles, and case studies from applications of technologies around the world.

Price, Lynn; Worrell, Ernst; Galitsky, Christina; Price, Lynn

2008-01-31T23:59:59.000Z

191

High efficiency shale oil recovery. Fifth quarterly report, January 1, 1993--March 31, 1993  

SciTech Connect

The overall project objective is to demonstrate the high efficiency of the Adams Counter-Current shale oil recovery process. The efficiency will first be demonstrated on a small scale, in the current phase, after which the demonstration will be extended to the operation of a small pilot plant. Thus the immediate project objective is to obtain data on oil shale retorting operations in a small batch rotary kiln that will be representative of operations in the proposed continuous process pilot plant. Although an oil shale batch sample is sealed in the batch kiln from the start until the end of the run, the process conditions for the batch are the same as the conditions that an element of oil shale would encounter in a continuous process kiln. Similar chemical and physical conditions (heating, mixing, pyrolysis, oxidation) exist in both systems.The two most important data objectives in this phase of the project are to demonstrate (1) that the heat recovery projected for this project is reasonable and (2) that an oil shale kiln will run well and not plug up due to sticking and agglomeration. The following was completed this quarter. (1) Twelve pyrolysis runs were made on five different oil shales. All of the runs exhibited a complete absence of any plugging, tendency. Heat transfer for Green River oil shale in the rotary kiln was 84.6 Btu/hr/ft{sup 2}/{degrees}F, and this will provide for ample heat exchange in the Adams kiln. (2) One retorted residue sample was oxidized at 1000{degrees}F. Preliminary indications are that the ash of this run appears to have been completely oxidized. (3) Further minor equipment repairs and improvements were required during the course of the several runs.

Adams, D.C.

1993-04-22T23:59:59.000Z

192

High efficiency shale oil recovery  

SciTech Connect

The overall project objective is to demonstrate the high efficiency of the Adams Counter-Current shale oil recovery process. The efficiency will first be demonstrated on a small scale, in the current phase, after which the demonstration will be extended to the operation of a small pilot plant. Thus the immediate project objective is to obtain data on oil shale retorting operations in a small batch rotary kiln that will be representative of operations in the proposed continuous process pilot plant. Although an oil shale batch sample is sealed in the batch kiln from the start until the end of the run, the process conditions for the batch are the same as the conditions that an element of oil shale would encounter in a continuous process kiln. Similar chemical and physical conditions (heating, mixing, pyrolysis, oxidation) exist in both systems.The two most important data objectives in this phase of the project are to demonstrate (1) that the heat recovery projected for this project is reasonable and (2) that an oil shale kiln will run well and not plug up due to sticking and agglomeration. The following was completed this quarter. (1) Twelve pyrolysis runs were made on five different oil shales. All of the runs exhibited a complete absence of any plugging, tendency. Heat transfer for Green River oil shale in the rotary kiln was 84.6 Btu/hr/ft[sup 2]/[degrees]F, and this will provide for ample heat exchange in the Adams kiln. (2) One retorted residue sample was oxidized at 1000[degrees]F. Preliminary indications are that the ash of this run appears to have been completely oxidized. (3) Further minor equipment repairs and improvements were required during the course of the several runs.

Adams, D.C.

1993-04-22T23:59:59.000Z

193

High efficiency shale oil recovery  

SciTech Connect

The overall project objective is to demonstrate the high efficiency of the Adams Counter-Current shale oil recovery process. The efficiency will first be demonstrated on a small scale, in the current phase, after which the demonstration will be extended to the operation of a small pilot plant. Thus the immediate project objective is to obtain data on oil shale retorting operations in a small batch rotary kiln that will be representative of operations in the proposed continuous process pilot plant. Although an oil shale batch sample is sealed in the batch kiln from the start until the end of the run, the process conditions for the batch are the same as the conditions that an element of oil shale would encounter in a continuous process kiln. Similar chemical and physical (heating, mixing) conditions exist in both systems. The two most important data objectives in this phase of the project are to demonstrate (1) that the heat recovery projected for this project is reasonable and (2) that an oil shale kiln will run well and not plug up due to sticking and agglomeration. The following was completed and is reported on this quarter: (1) A software routine was written to eliminate intermittently inaccurate temperature readings. (2) We completed the quartz sand calibration runs, resolving calibration questions from the 3rd quarter. (3) We also made low temperature retorting runs to identify the need for certain kiln modifications and kiln modifications were completed. (4) Heat Conductance data on two Pyrolysis runs were completed on two samples of Occidental oil shale.

Adams, D.C.

1992-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

194

High efficiency shale oil recovery. Fourth quarterly report, October 1, 1992--December 31, 1992  

SciTech Connect

The overall project objective is to demonstrate the high efficiency of the Adams Counter-Current shale oil recovery process. The efficiency will first be demonstrated on a small scale, in the current phase, after which the demonstration will be extended to the operation of a small pilot plant. Thus the immediate project objective is to obtain data on oil shale retorting operations in a small batch rotary kiln that will be representative of operations in the proposed continuous process pilot plant. Although an oil shale batch sample is sealed in the batch kiln from the start until the end of the run, the process conditions for the batch are the same as the conditions that an element of oil shale would encounter in a continuous process kiln. Similar chemical and physical (heating, mixing) conditions exist in both systems. The two most important data objectives in this phase of the project are to demonstrate (1) that the heat recovery projected for this project is reasonable and (2) that an oil shale kiln will run well and not plug up due to sticking and agglomeration. The following was completed and is reported on this quarter: (1) A software routine was written to eliminate intermittently inaccurate temperature readings. (2) We completed the quartz sand calibration runs, resolving calibration questions from the 3rd quarter. (3) We also made low temperature retorting runs to identify the need for certain kiln modifications and kiln modifications were completed. (4) Heat Conductance data on two Pyrolysis runs were completed on two samples of Occidental oil shale.

Adams, D.C.

1992-12-31T23:59:59.000Z

195

Electrochemical corrosion of iron-magnesium-alumina spinel (FMAS) in molten potassium salts and coal slag  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

Iron, magnesium-alumina spinel (FMAS) (0.25 Fe/sub 3/O/sub 4/ . 0.75 MgAl/sub 2/O/sub 4/) has been considered for use as an electrode in magnetohydrodynamic (MHD) generator channels. Predominantly an electronic conductor, FMAS has adequate electrical conductivity (>1 S/m) above 520/sup 0/K. In addition, FMAS can be easily fabricated into a form and sintered in air to >90% theoretical density and has a melting point of 2124 +- 20/sup 0/K. Laboratory tests to measure both the electrochemical and chemical corrosion of FMAS in molten K/sub 2/CO/sub 3/, K/sub 2/SO/sub 4/ and coal slags were developed at the Pacific Northwest Laboratory to evaluate the relative corrosion of FMAS. Under isothermal conditions, a direct electric current was passed between an anode and a cathode through a molten electrolyte. The molten coal slags were synthetic high-calcium, low-iron Montana Rosebud and low-calcium, high-iron Illinois No. 6. Evaluations of electrochemical corrosion were made as functions of current density, temperature, and slag composition. These results were compared to those of FMAS tested without electric current. The corrosion rates and reaction products were investigated by optical microscopy and scanning electron microscopy. Overall, FMAS has too-high an electrochemical corrosion rate to be considered as MHD electrodes in Montana Rosebud coal slag or in systems where only molten potassium salts are present. However, FMAS may be considered for use in high-iron coal slags although the corrosion rates are still quite high even in these slags.

Marchant, D.D.; Griffin, C.W.; Bates, J.L.

1981-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

196

CX-004383: Categorical Exclusion Determination | Department of Energy  

Energy.gov (U.S. Department of Energy (DOE)) Indexed Site

83: Categorical Exclusion Determination 83: Categorical Exclusion Determination CX-004383: Categorical Exclusion Determination Pine Hall Brick Company Energy Efficiency Improvements for Lighting, Kiln and Heating, Ventilation, and Air Conditioning Systems CX(s) Applied: B5.1 Date: 11/02/2010 Location(s): North Carolina Office(s): Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy, National Energy Technology Laboratory Involves installing more efficient lighting, replacing old heating, ventilation, and air conditioning systems, upgrading kiln pressure controls, and changing operational processes, to increase energy efficiency and reduce energy needs. DOCUMENT(S) AVAILABLE FOR DOWNLOAD CX-004383.pdf More Documents & Publications CX-001793: Categorical Exclusion Determination CX-000382: Categorical Exclusion Determination

197

Evidence of a barrier oxidation dependence on the interfacialmagnetism in co/alumina based magnetic tunnel junctions  

SciTech Connect

Soft x-ray absorption spectroscopy and magnetic circular dichroism at the Co L{sub 2,3} edge have been applied to explore the near-interfacial magnetism of Co electrodes in Co/alumina based magnetic tunnel junctions. By taking into account the formation of CoO at the FM/barrier interface, the change in the total magnetic moment on metallic Co atoms as a function of barrier oxidation has been determined. The results demonstrate a strong correlation between the Co moments and measured TMR values, and an enhancement in the Co moments for moderate oxidation times.

Telling, N.D.; van der Laan, G.; Ladak, S.; Hicken, R.J.; Arenholz, E.

2005-09-29T23:59:59.000Z

198

Thermal cycling effect on the nanoparticle distribution and specific heat of a carbonate eutectic with alumina nanoparticles  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

The objective of this research was to measure the effect of thermal cycling on the nanoparticle distribution and specific heat of a nanocomposite material consisting of a eutectic of lithium carbonate and potassium carbonate and 1% by mass alumina nanoparticles. The material was subjected to thermal cycling in a stainless steel tube using a temperature controlled furnace. After thermal cycling, the stainless steel tube was sectioned into three equal parts – top, middle and bottom. Composite material samples were taken from the central region and near the wall region of each section. The specific heat of this material in the temperature range of 290°C-397°C was measured using the Modulated Differential Scanning Calorimeter (MDSC) method. The concentration of alumina nanoparticles in this material was measured using neutron activation analysis. The average specific heat of the uncycled material was found to be 1.37 J/g°C.The average specific heat of the thermally cycled material was between 1.7-2.1 J/g°C. It was found that the concentration of the nanoparticle varied along the height of the sample tube. The nanoparticles tended to settle towards the bottom of the tube with thermal cycling. There was also migration of nanoparticles towards the wall of the sample tube with thermal cycling. Despite these gross movements of nanoparticles, there was no significant change in the specific heat of the nanocomposite due to thermal cycling.

Shankar, Sandhya

2011-05-01T23:59:59.000Z

199

Effect of palladium dispersion on the capture of toxic components from fuel gas by palladium-alumina sorbents  

SciTech Connect

The dispersion and location of Pd in alumina-supported sorbents prepared by different methods was found to influence the performance of the sorbents in the removal of mercury, arsine, and hydrogen selenide from a simulated fuel gas. When Pd is well dispersed in the pores of the support, contact interaction with the support is maximized, Pd is less susceptible to poisoning by sulfur. and the sorbent has better long-term activity for adsorption of arsine and hydrogen selenide. but poorer adsorption capacity for Hg. As the contact interaction between Pd and the support is lessened the Pd becomes more susceptible to poisoning by sulfur. resulting in higher capacity for Hg, but poorer long-term performance for adsorption of arsenic and selenium.

Baltrus, J.P.; Granite, E.J.; Rupp, E.C.; Stanko, D.C.; Howard, B.; Pennline, H.W.

2011-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

200

Catalyzed steam gasification of biomass. Phase II. Final research report  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

The Wright-Malta gasification process is characterized by low-temperature, catalyzed steam gasification in a pressurized rotary kiln. Fresh biomass moves slowly and continuously through the kiln, where it is gradually heated to around 1200/sup 0/F in an atmosphere of 300 psi steam. During its traverse, pyrolysis and reaction of steam with the nascent char convert nearly all of the organic solids to the gaseous phase. The volatile pyrolysis products pass through the kiln co-currently with the solids and are similarly cracked and steam-reformed within the kiln to fixed gases. Heat for the gasification process is provided by sensible heat recovered from the product gas and the wood decomposition exotherm, making the process inherently very energy-efficient. This report summarizes the work done during the experimental, laboratory-scale phase of development of the W-M biomass gasification process. Two bench-scale experimental gasifiers were constructed and tested: the ''minikiln'', a batch-feed, rotating autoclave; and the ''biogasser'', a stationary, continuous-feed, tubular reactor with zone heating and auger transport. Studies were carried out in these reactors to determine the extent of conversion of biomass solids to gas, and the makeup of the product gas, over a wide range of process conditions. The process variables that were investigated included reactor pressure and temperature, catalyst type and concentration, moisture content and type of biomass feed.

Hooverman, R.H.

1979-05-01T23:59:59.000Z

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "kiln alumina kiln" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


201

The Economics of Ethanol from Sweet Sorghum Using the MixAlco Process  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

source Pump Drain pipe Liner Cover Biomass Gravel Sugar JuiceGrain LeavesBagasse Fermentation Fermentation Co-generation Other uses DDGS Ethanol Ethanol Electricity Heat Sweet Sorghum Pretreatment fermentation Dewater Acid springing Hydrogenation Lime kiln Biomass Lime Calcium carbonate Carboxylate salts

202

Fuzzy vs. "manual" control in a FeNi plant  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

In this paper the effect on energy consumption and pollution of fuzzy automatic control of a rotary kiln is investigated. The computer-based fuzzy control system is installed at the Larko ferronickel plant in Larymna, Greece, by the Danish firm F.L. ...

A. Pouliezos; D. Papadimitriou; G. Tselentis

2000-08-01T23:59:59.000Z

203

7, 1324313269, 2007 EC fluxes of sea  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

for each residue. The conditioning tower has sixteen spray noz zles to control gas temperature. To give to handle several #12;PACKED TOWER SCRUBBER VISCOUS LIQUIDS/EMULSIONS AFTERBURNER SOLIDS ROTARY KILN they pass into a condi tioning tower mounted on top of the oxixizer. The conditioning tower is approximately

Paris-Sud XI, Université de

204

Chlorinated Aromatic Hydrocarbons Dr. K. Squibb  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

- cement kilns - iron ore sintering, steel production and scrap metal recovery #12;Polychlorinated banned in 1977 For use in: electrical capacitors and transformers (977 kg/transformer) heat exchangers: Very stable, chemically and thermally Resistant to acids and alkalis Excellent conductor of heat Low

Kane, Andrew S.

205

Recycling of Thermoset-Matrix Composites  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Table 1   Thermoset composites recycling processes...Ref 14 ) Polyurethane foams, ASR Gas, oil, solid waste Hydrolysis ( Ref 10 , 11 ) Foams, RIM resin, and elastomers Monomers of the input material Fluidized bed combustion ( Ref 14 ) RIM Energy recovery, solid and gaseous wastes Rotary kiln combustion ( Ref 13 ) RIM Energy recovery, solid and gaseous...

206

The extraction of bitumen from western oil sands. Final report, July 1989--September 1993  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Research and development of surface extraction and upgrading processes of western tar sands are described. Research areas included modified hot water, fluidized bed, and rotary kiln pyrolysis of tar sands for extraction of bitumen. Bitumen upgrading included solvent extraction of bitumen, and catalytic hydrotreating of bitumen. Characterization of Utah tar sand deposits is also included.

Oblad, A.G.; Bunger, J.W.; Dahlstrom, D.A.; Deo, M.D.; Fletcher, J.V.; Hanson, F.V.; Miller, J.D.; Seader, J.D.

1994-03-01T23:59:59.000Z

207

BIOMINERALIZATION FOR CARBON SEQUESTRATION T. J. Phelps and Y. Roh  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

of the controlling factors, rate and extent of carbonate mineral precipitation will significantly advance our while carbon dioxide is liberated to the atmosphere. While previous strategies dealt the sulfur in the coal) and/or reject kiln dust. Carbon dioxide from the plant could be bubbled through

208

Deterministic Operations Research Updated: October 6, 2011  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

(from the top of the page), the word "flower" should read "flour". Chapter 2 1. (pg. 22) Line -7 (from, the mill can handle only 50 logs (not 1000) and its kiln can dry at most 7500 board feet of lumber (not 30

Phillips, David

209

Processed Engineered Fuels Derived From Paper and Plastics --Techno-Economic Factors and Regulatory Issues in a Competitive Market  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

boilers, cement kilns, and emerging gasification technologies, and concluded that co firing ASR with MSW on the performance of PEF in industrial and utility boilers is limited. Test burns of densified PEF co-fired. The same paper reported favorable results co-firing a similar paper derived fuel with coal at the Otter

Columbia University

210

CRADA NFE-08-01456 Evaluation of Alumina-Forming Austenitic Stainless Steel Alloys in Industrial Gas Turbines  

SciTech Connect

Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL) and Solar Turbines Incorporated (Solar) participated in an in-kind cost share cooperative research and development agreement (CRADA) effort under the auspices of the Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Technology Maturation Program to explore the feasibility for use of developmental ORNL alumina-forming austenitic (AFA) stainless steels as a material of construction for industrial gas turbine recuperator components. ORNL manufactured lab scale foil of three different AFA alloy compositions and delivered them to Solar for creep properties evaluation. One AFA composition was selected for a commercial trial foil batch. Both lab scale and the commercial trial scale foils were evaluated for oxidation and creep behavior. The AFA foil exhibited a promising combination of properties and is of interest for future scale up activities for turbine recuperators. Some issues were identified in the processing parameters used for the first trial commercial batch. This understanding will be used to guide process optimization of future AFA foil material production.

Brady, Michael P [ORNL; Pint, Bruce A [ORNL; Unocic, Kinga A [ORNL; Yamamoto, Yukinori [ORNL; Kumar, Deepak [ORNL; Lipschutz, Mark D. [Solar Turbines, Inc.

2011-09-01T23:59:59.000Z

211

Mechanical behavior at 20 and 1200 C of Nicalon-silicon-carbide-fiber-reinforced alumina-matrix composites  

SciTech Connect

Tensile and fracture tests were conducted at 20 and 1,200 C on a ceramic-matrix composite that was composed of an alumina (Al{sub 2}O{sub 3}) matrix that was bidirectionally reinforced with 37 vol% silicon carbide (SiC) Nicalon fibers. The composite presented nonlinear behavior at both temperatures; however, the strength and toughness were significantly reduced at 1,200 C. In accordance with this behavior, matrix cracks were usually stopped or deflected at the fiber/matrix interface, and fiber pullout was observed on the fracture surfaces at 20 and 1,200 C. The interfacial sliding resistance at ambient and elevated temperatures was estimated from quantitative microscopy analyses of the saturation crack spacing in the matrix. The in situ fiber strength was determined both from the defect morphology on the fibers and from the size of the mirror region on the fiber fracture surfaces. It was shown that composite degradation at elevated temperature was due to the growth of defects on the fiber surface during high-temperature exposure.

Celemin, J.A.; Pastor, J.Y.; Llorca, J.; Elices, M. [Polytechnic Univ. of Madrid (Spain). Dept. of Materials Science

1997-10-01T23:59:59.000Z

212

Hydrotreating studies involving NiMo/silica-doped hydrous titanium oxide (HTO:Si)-coated alumina catalysts  

SciTech Connect

For hydrotreating a petroleum-derived liquid feed at 400 C, LHSV = 2. 5 g/g{sub cat}/h, and 1500 psig hydrogen (H) pressure, both HDS and HDN activities were roughly equivalent for a name/TO:Si-coated Amocat catalyst and a commercial alumina-supported name catalyst (Amocat 1C). Superior HDN performance was exhibited by the name/TO: Si-coated Amocat catalyst at low H pressure (500 psig) and after H pressure cycling (1500-500-1500 psig) relative to Amocat 1C. Consistent with previous results obtained on a coal-derived liquid feed, the HDS/HDN results with the petroleum-derived liquid showed that the performance of the name/TO:Si-coated Amocat catalyst on an active metals weight basis exceeded the performance of Amocat 1C at all test conditions. The name/TO:Si-coated Amocat catalyst also showed potentially increased hydrogenation activity, increased resistance to deactivation, and increased yields of lower boiling point distillate fractions, although further work is needed.

Gardner, T.J.; Miller, J.E.; McLaughlin, L.I.; Trudell, D.E.

1996-07-01T23:59:59.000Z

213

Product technology and market assessment for silicon carbide whisker reinforced alumina heat-exchanger tubes. Final report  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

This report describes a study designed to develop an assessment of key performance features, desirable technical specifications and market potential for silicon carbide whisker-reinforced alumina (henceforth SCWRA) tubes for heat exchanger applications in a number of industries. The results of the first stage of a Delphi study conducted in the US market are presented. The second phase of the study is in progress. The first stage results suggest that there is a small market for SCWRA tubes in heat exchanger applications. The market is expected to grow steadily during the 1990`s. With appropriate performance specifications and competitive pricing, growth should come from (a) new applications that permit recovery in cases that were previously infeasible and (b) selective, partial substitution and replacement of current ceramics and metal/ceramic composites in existing applications. We identify key performance factors and detailed specifications needed in six designated industries (primary metals, fabricated metals, chemicals, glass, utility and incinerators). Reliability, durability and low maintenance costs emerge as critical performance factors across these industries. The data show that although ceramics are recognized as having better properties, enhancing reliability and durability and thus improving maintenance cost performance is a key priority. Such improvements, reflected in the objectives for SCWRA tubes, should facilitate adoption in both new and existing applications. At this time, we are unable to assess market size directly. However, expert judgment provided indices tracking the projected market for heat exchanger tubes from 1990 to 2005.

Loutfy, R.O.; Withers, J.C. [Materials and Electrochemical Research Corp., Tucson, AZ (United States); Chakravarti, D. [Arizona Univ., Tucson, AZ (United States)

1993-10-01T23:59:59.000Z

214

Ceramic Technology Project database: September 1990 summary report. [SiC, SiN, whisker-reinforced SiN, ZrO-toughened aluminas, zirconias, joints  

SciTech Connect

Data generated within the Ceramic Technology Project (CTP) represent a valuable resource for both research and industry. The CTP database was created to provide easy access to this information in electronic and hardcopy forms by using a computerized database and by issuing periodic hardcopy reports on the database contents. This report is the sixth in a series of semiannual database summaries and covers recent additions to the database, including joined brazed specimen test data. It covers 1 SiC, 34 SiN, 10 whisker-reinforced SiN, 2 zirconia-toughened aluminas, 8 zirconias, and 34 joints.

Keyes, B.L.P.

1992-06-01T23:59:59.000Z

215

Method and system for the combination of non-thermal plasma and metal/metal oxide doped .gamma.-alumina catalysts for diesel engine exhaust aftertreatment system  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

The present disclosure pertains to a system and method for treatment of oxygen rich exhaust and more specifically to a method and system that combines non-thermal plasma with a metal doped .gamma.-alumina catalyst. Current catalyst systems for the treatment of oxygen rich exhaust are capable of achieving only approximately 7 to 12% NO.sub.x reduction as a passive system and only 25 40% reduction when a supplemental hydrocarbon reductant is injected into the exhaust stream. It has been found that treatment of an oxygen rich exhaust initially with a non-thermal plasma and followed by subsequent treatment with a metal doped .gamma.-alumina prepared by the sol gel method is capable of increasing the NO.sub.x reduction to a level of approximately 90% in the absence of SO.sub.2 and 80% in the presence of 20 ppm of SO.sub.2. Especially useful metals have been found to be indium, gallium, and tin.

Aardahl, Christopher L. (Richland, WA); Balmer-Miller, Mari Lou (West Richland, WA); Chanda, Ashok (Peoria, IL); Habeger, Craig F. (West Richland, WA); Koshkarian, Kent A. (Peoria, IL); Park, Paul W. (Peoria, IL)

2006-07-25T23:59:59.000Z

216

alumina and bauxite  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

R. Krishnamohan, John B. Herbich, Lloyd R. Hossner, and Fred S. Williams. Bauxite in the Amazon Region, Possible with a Minimal Environment Impact [pp.

217

Low Grade Alumina Sources  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Mar 7, 2013 ... Increasing amount of research institutes and industrial companies in the .... with an activation energy of 23.7kJ/mol and 18.0kJ/mol respectively; ...

218

Alumina and Bauxite  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Jul 31, 2011 ... Kinetics of Boehmite Precipitation from Supersaturated Sodium Aluminates Solutions with Ethanol-Water Solvent · M-1: Acid Cleaning of ...

219

ALUMINA & BAUXITE TECHNOLOGY: II  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Additional experiments using ultrasonic radiation show an enhanced ... red mud was studied in laboratory and pilot plant scale between 260 and 320°C as a ...

220

Alumina and Bauxite  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Aug 2, 2010 ... Methods to Reduce Operating Costs in Circulating Fluidized Bed Calcination · New Development Model for Bauxite Deposits · One Green Field ...

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "kiln alumina kiln" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


221

Alumina and Bauxite  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

... Mining and Operating Strategies, Sustainability and Environmental issues, ... Operations and Maintenance for Plant Integrity and Safety; Sustainability and ...

222

ALUMINA & BAUXITE TECHNOLOGY: I  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

... minerals, using modern XRF instrumentation yields better than 0.1% reproducibility at a rate ... Given its accuracy, it greatly facilitates mine exploitation control.

223

Alumina and Bauxite  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Improve the Classification System in Hydro Alunorte Lines 4/5 ... MAX HT® Bayer Sodalite Scale Inhibiter: A Green Solution To Energy Consumption.

224

Bangladesh-World Bank Climate Projects | Open Energy Information  

Open Energy Info (EERE)

Bangladesh-World Bank Climate Projects Bangladesh-World Bank Climate Projects Agency/Company /Organization World Bank Sector Energy Focus Area Energy Efficiency, Renewable Energy, Solar Topics Market analysis, Background analysis Country Bangladesh Southern Asia References World Bank Project Database - Bangladesh[1] Contents 1 World Bank Active Climate Projects in Bangladesh 1.1 Solar Home Systems project 1.2 EGY SEC ADJ CREDIT SUPPLEMENT 1.3 Bangladesh - Brick Kiln Efficiency 1.4 Renewable Energy Development Project 1.5 Grameen Shakti Solar Homes Project 1.6 Rural Electrification and Renewable Energy Development 2 References World Bank Active Climate Projects in Bangladesh Solar Home Systems project (1M - Active) EGY SEC ADJ CREDIT SUPPLEMENT (2.3M Active) Bangladesh - Brick Kiln Efficiency (N/A Active)

225

Back to the Basics of Sustainability -- Houses of Bark and Energy of  

Energy.gov (U.S. Department of Energy (DOE)) Indexed Site

Back to the Basics of Sustainability -- Houses of Bark and Energy Back to the Basics of Sustainability -- Houses of Bark and Energy of Sunshine Back to the Basics of Sustainability -- Houses of Bark and Energy of Sunshine August 2, 2012 - 2:23pm Addthis With new pipes and controls, the natural gas kilns Highland Craftsmen uses to produce poplar bark shingles will operate about 40 percent more efficiently, saving the company $5,000 a year in energy costs. | Photo courtesy of Highland Craftsmen. With new pipes and controls, the natural gas kilns Highland Craftsmen uses to produce poplar bark shingles will operate about 40 percent more efficiently, saving the company $5,000 a year in energy costs. | Photo courtesy of Highland Craftsmen. Julie McAlpin Communications Liaison, State Energy Program What are the key facts? With funds from the State Energy Program, Highland Craftsmen

226

passamaq.p65  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

CEMENT KILN FLUE GAS RECOVERY SCRUBBER(tm) CEMENT KILN FLUE GAS RECOVERY SCRUBBER(tm) PASSAMAQUODDY TRIBE DOE/FE-0393 Disclaimer This report was prepared using publically available information, including the Final Technical Report and other reports prepared pursuant to a cooperative agreement partially funded by the U.S. Department of Energy. Neither the United States Government nor any agency, employee, contractor, or representative thereof, makes any warranty, express or implied, or assumes any legal liability or responsibility for the accuracy, completeness, or usefulness of any information, apparatus, product, or process disclosed, or represents that its use would not infringe upon privately owned rights. Reference herein to any specific commercial product, process, or service by trade name, trademark, manufacturer, or

227

Microwave Moisture Measurement System for Hardwood Lumber Drying  

SciTech Connect

The goal of this project was to develop a prototype microwave-based moisture sensor system suitable for the kiln drying of hardwood lumber. The moisture sensors developed are battery powered and are capable of communicating with a host kiln control system via spread spectrum wireless communications. We have developed two designs of the sensors working at 4.5 to 6 GHz with linear response to moisture content (MC) over a range of 6-100%. These sensors allow us to make a swept frequency microwave transmission measurement through a small area of a board. Using the prototype electronics and sensors, we have obtained measurements of MC over the above MC range for red oak and yellow poplar with standard deviations of less than 1.5% MC. We have developed data for board thickness corrections and for temperature corrections for the MC measurement system.

Moschler, William W [University of Tennessee, Knoxville (UTK); Hanson, Gregory R [ORNL

2008-09-01T23:59:59.000Z

228

JV Task 95-Particulate Control Consulting for Minnesota Ore Operations  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

The purpose of the project was to assist U.S. Steel in the evaluation, selection, planning, design, and testing of potential approaches to help meet U.S. Steel's goal for low-particulate matter emissions and regulatory compliance. The energy-intensive process for producing iron pellets includes treating the pellets in high-temperature kilns in which the iron is converted from magnetite to hematite. The kilns can be fired with either natural gas or a combination of gas and coal or biomass fuel and are equipped with wet venturi scrubbers for particulate control. Particulate measurements at the inlet and outlet of the scrubbers and analysis of size-fractionated particulate samples led to an understanding of the effect of process variables on the measured emissions and an approach to meet regulatory compliance.

Stanley Miller

2008-10-31T23:59:59.000Z

229

Process modeling study of the CIF incinerator  

SciTech Connect

The Savannah River Site (SRS) plans to begin operating the Consolidated Incineration Facility (CIF) in 1996. The CIF will treat liquid and solid low-level radioactive, mixed and RCRA hazardous wastes generated at SRS. In addition to experimental test programs, process modeling was applied to provide guidance in areas of safety, environmental regulation compliances, process improvement and optimization. A steady-state flowsheet model was used to calculate material/energy balances and to track key chemical constituents throughout the process units. Dynamic models were developed to predict the CIF transient characteristics in normal and abnormal operation scenarios. Predictions include the rotary kiln heat transfer, dynamic responses of the CIF to fluctuations in the solid waste feed or upsets in the system equipments, performance of the control system, air inleakage in the kiln, etc. This paper reviews the modeling study performed to assist in the deflagration risk assessment.

Hang, T.

1995-02-01T23:59:59.000Z

230

Solids decomposition kinetics for LASL bismuth sulfate cycle  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

The LASL Bismuth Sulfate Cycle includes a solid-decomposition step as an alternative to the high-temperature evaporation and decomposition of concentrated sulfuric acid, with its attendant drying and materials problems. A solids decomposition facility was constructed and used to study the handling of solid sulfates and the kinetics of their decomposition. The decomposition of Bi/sub 2/O(SO/sub 4/)/sub 2/ has been measured as a function of temperature and transit time through a laboratory-scale rotary kiln, constructed from quartz. Temperatures from 973 to 1143/sup 0/K were investigated. The transit time was controlled by varying the slope of the kiln, its rotational speed, and the rate of feed of a bismuth oxysulfate prepared in the prescribed manner. The preparation and characterization of this solid, which has reasonable feeding properties and minimal solution retention, are described. Significant amounts of decomposition were measured in short reaction times at the temperatures investigated.

Peterson, C.L.; Bowman, M.G.

1980-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

231

Puna Geothermal Research Facility technology transfer program. Final report, August 23, 1985--August 23, 1989  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

The funds were used in a series of small grants to entrepreneurs demonstrating the direct use of geothermal heat supplied by Hawaii`s HGP-A well; this effort was known as the Community Geothermal Technology Program. Summaries are presented of the nine completed projects: fruit dehydration, greenhouse bottom heating, lumber kiln, glass making, cloth dyeing, aquaculture (incomplete), nursery growing media pasteurization, bronze casting, and electrodeposition from geothermal brine.

Takahashi, P.

1989-12-31T23:59:59.000Z

232

Users to fight rule on wider gas surcharge  

SciTech Connect

Industrial users are seeking judicial, administrative, and legislative responses to a court ruling that applies the incremental-price surcharge on natural gas to non-boiler use. The ruling has an economic impact on firms using gas in processes, feedstocks, kilns, and furnaces because it places a heavier burden of decontrol on industry. Users have appealed to the Supreme Court to review the case, the Federal Energy Regulatory Commission the ruling, and Congress to repeal the incremental-pricing rule. (DCK)

Betts, M.

1982-02-08T23:59:59.000Z

233

Assessment of incineration and melting treatment technologies for RWMC buried waste  

SciTech Connect

This report provides an identification, description, and ranking evaluation of the available thermal treatment technologies potentially capable of treating the Idaho National Engineering Laboratory Radioactive Waste Management Complex (RWMC) buried mixed waste. The ranking evaluation focused separately upon incinerators for treatment of combustible wastes and melters for noncombustible wastes. The highest rank incinerators are rotary kilns and controlled air furnaces, while the highest rank melters are the hearth configuration plasma torch, graphite electrode arc, and joule-heated melters. 4 refs.

Geimer, R.; Hertzler, T.; Gillins, R. (Science Applications International Corp., Idaho Falls, ID (United States)); Anderson, G.L. (EG and G Idaho, Inc., Idaho Falls, ID (United States))

1992-02-01T23:59:59.000Z

234

Improved Materials for Use as Components in Kraft Black Liquor Recovery Boilers  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

This Cooperative Research and Development Agreement (CRADA) was undertaken to evaluate current and improved materials and materials processing conditions for use as components in kraft black liquor recovery boilers and other unit processes. The main areas addressed were: (1) Improved Black Liquor Nozzles, (2) Weld Overlay of Composite Floor Tubes, and (3) Materials for Lime Kilns. Iron aluminide was evaluated as an alternate material for the nozzles used to inject an aqueous solution known as black liquor into recovery boilers as well for the uncooled lining in the ports used for the nozzles. Although iron aluminide is known to have much better sulfidation resistance in gases than low alloy and stainless steels, it did not perform adequately in the environment where it came into contact with molten carbonate, sulfide and sulfate salts. Weld overlaying carbon steel tubes with a layer of stainless weld metal was a proposed method of extending the life of recovery boiler floor tubes that have experienced considerable fireside corrosion. After exposure under service conditions, sections of weld overlaid floor tubes were removed from a boiler floor and examined metallographically. Examination results indicated satisfactory performance of the tubes. Refractory-lined lime kilns are a critical component of the recovery process in kraft pulp mills, and the integrity of the lining is essential to the successful operation of the kiln. A modeling study was performed to determine the cause of, and possible solutions for, the repeated loss of the refractory lining from the cooled end of a particular kiln. The evaluation showed that the temperature, the brick shape and the coefficient of friction between the bricks were the most important parameters influencing the behavior of the refractory lining.

Keiser, J.R.

2000-04-18T23:59:59.000Z

235

Selective Catalytic Reduction Catalyst Recycle and Re-Use Options  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Given the widespread implementation of selective catalytic reduction (SCR) technology, there is a great deal of interest in finding viable recycle/re-use routes for spent catalyst as an alternative to landfilling. The current effort has focused on detailed evaluation of several recycle/re-use processes that were identified in previous EPRI studies. These recycle/re-use technologies include mineral filler applications, incorporation into wet-bottom boiler slag, cement kiln co-processing, and use in iron/s...

2010-12-21T23:59:59.000Z

236

Laser damage by ns and sub-ps pulses on hafnia/silica anti-reflection coatings on fused silica double-sided polished using zirconia or ceria and washed with or without an alumina wash step.  

SciTech Connect

Sandia's Large Optics Coating Operation has extensive results of laser induced damage threshold (LIDT) testing of its anti-reflection (AR) and high reflection coatings on substrates pitch polished using ceria and washed in a process that includes an alumina wash step. The purpose of the alumina wash step is to remove residual polishing compound to minimize its role in laser damage. These LIDT tests are for multi longitudinal mode, ns class pulses at 1064 nm and 532 nm (NIF-MEL protocol) and mode locked, sub-ps class pulses at 1054 nm (Sandia measurements), and show reasonably high and adequate laser damage resistance for coatings in the beam trains of Sandia's Z-Backlighter terawatt and petawatt lasers. An AR coating in addition to coatings of our previous reports confirms this with LIDTs of 33.0 J/cm{sup 2} for 3.5 ns pulses and 1.8 J/cm{sup 2} for 350 fs pulses. In this paper, we investigate both ceria and zirconia in doublesided polishing (common for large flat Z-Backlighter laser optics) as they affect LIDTs of an AR coating on fused silica substrates washed with or without the alumina wash step. For these AR coated, double-sided polished surfaces, ceria polishing in general affords better resistance to laser damage than zirconia polishing and laser damage is less likely with the alumina wash step than without it. This is supported by specific results of laser damage tests with 3.5 ns, multi longitudinal mode, single shot pulses at 1064 nm and 532 nm, with 7.0 ns, single and multi longitudinal mode, single and multi shot pulses at 532 nm, and with 350 fs, mode-locked, single shot pulses at 1054 nm.

Bellum, John Curtis; Rambo, Patrick K.; Schwarz, Jens; Kletecka, Damon; Atherton, Briggs W.; Kimmel, Mark W.; Smith, Ian Craig; Smith, Douglas (Plymouth Grating Laboratory, Carver, MA); Hobbs, Zachary (Sydor Optics, Inc., Rochester, NY)

2010-10-01T23:59:59.000Z

237

NUCLEAR POWERED CO2 CAPTURE FROM THE ATMOSPHERE  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

A process for capturing CO{sub 2} from the atmosphere was recently proposed. This process uses a closed cycle of sodium and calcium hydroxide, carbonate, and oxide transformations to capture dilute CO{sub 2} from the atmosphere and to generate a concentrated stream of CO{sub 2} that is amenable to sequestration or subsequent chemical transformations. In one of the process steps, a fossil-fueled lime kiln is needed, which reduces the net CO{sub 2} capture of the process. It is proposed to replace the fossil-fueled lime kiln with a modified kiln heated by a high-temperature nuclear reactor. This will have the effect of eliminating the use of fossil fuels for the process and increasing the net CO{sub 2} capture. Although the process is suitable to support sequestration, the use of a nuclear power source for the process provides additional capabilities, and the captured CO{sub 2} may be combined with nuclear-produced hydrogen to produce liquid fuels via Fischer-Tropsch synthesis or other technologies. Conceivably, such plants would be carbon-neutral, and could be placed virtually anywhere without being tied to fossil fuel sources or geological sequestration sites.

Sherman, S

2008-09-22T23:59:59.000Z

238

Research and Development of a New Silica-Alumina Based Cementitious Material Largely Using Coal Refuse for Mine Backfill, Mine Sealing and Waste Disposal Stabilization  

SciTech Connect

Coal refuse and coal combustion byproducts as industrial solid waste stockpiles have become great threats to the environment. To activate coal refuse is one practical solution to recycle this huge amount of solid waste as substitute for Ordinary Portland Cement (OPC). The central goal of this project is to investigate and develop a new silica-alumina based cementitious material largely using coal refuse as a constituent that will be ideal for durable construction, mine backfill, mine sealing and waste disposal stabilization applications. This new material is an environment-friendly alternative to Ordinary Portland Cement. The main constituents of the new material are coal refuse and other coal wastes including coal sludge and coal combustion products (CCPs). Compared with conventional cement production, successful development of this new technology could potentially save energy and reduce greenhouse gas emissions, recycle vast amount of coal wastes, and significantly reduce production cost. A systematic research has been conducted to seek for an optimal solution for enhancing pozzolanic reactivity of the relatively inert solid waste-coal refuse in order to improve the utilization efficiency and economic benefit as a construction and building material.

Henghu Sun; Yuan Yao

2012-06-29T23:59:59.000Z

239

Compliant alkali silicate sealing glass for solid oxide fuel cell applications: the effect of protective alumina coating on electrical stability in dual environment  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

An alkali-containing silicate glass was recently proposed as a potential sealant for solid oxide fuel cells (SOFC). The glass contains appreciable amount of alkalis and retains its glassy microstructure at elevated temperatures over time. It is more compliant as compared to conventional glass-ceramics sealants and could potentially heal cracks during thermal cycling. In previous papers the thermal cycle stability, thermal stability and chemical compatibility were reported with yttria-stabilized zirconia (YSZ) electrolyte and YSZ-coated ferritic stainless steel interconnect. In this paper, we report the electrical stability of the compliant glass with aluminized AISI441 interconnect material under DC load in dual environment at 700-800oC. Apparent electrical resistivity was measured with a 4-point method for the glass sealed between two aluminized AISI441 metal coupons as well as plain AISI441 substrates. The results showed good electrical stability with the aluminized AISI441 substrate, while unstable behavior was observed for un-coated substrates. In addition, interfacial microstructure was examined with scanning electron microscopy and correlated with the measured resistivity results. Overall, the alumina coating demonstrated good chemical stability with the alkali-containing silicate sealing glass under DC loading.

Chou, Y. S.; Choi, Jung-Pyung; Stevenson, Jeffry W.

2012-12-01T23:59:59.000Z

240

Analysis of Energy-Efficiency Opportunities for the Cement Industry in Shandong Province, China  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

China's cement industry, which produced 1,388 million metric tons (Mt) of cement in 2008, accounts for almost half of the world's total cement production. Nearly 40% of China's cement production is from relatively obsolete vertical shaft kiln (VSK) cement plants, with the remainder from more modern rotary kiln cement plants, including plants equipped with new suspension pre-heater and pre-calciner (NSP) kilns. Shandong Province is the largest cement-producing Province in China, producing 10% of China's total cement output in 2008. This report documents an analysis of the potential to improve the energy efficiency of NSP kiln cement plants in Shandong Province. Sixteen NSP kiln cement plants were surveyed regarding their cement production, energy consumption, and current adoption of 34 energy-efficient technologies and measures. Plant energy use was compared to both domestic (Chinese) and international best practice using the Benchmarking and Energy Saving Tool for Cement (BEST-Cement). This benchmarking exercise indicated an average technical potential primary energy savings of 12% would be possible if the surveyed plants operated at domestic best practice levels in terms of energy use per ton of cement produced. Average technical potential primary energy savings of 23% would be realized if the plants operated at international best practice levels. Energy conservation supply curves for both fuel and electricity savings were then constructed for the 16 surveyed plants. Using the bottom-up electricity conservation supply curve model, the cost-effective electricity efficiency potential for the studied cement plants in 2008 is estimated to be 373 gigawatt hours (GWh), which accounts for 16% of total electricity use in the 16 surveyed cement plants in 2008. Total technical electricity-saving potential is 915 GWh, which accounts for 40% of total electricity use in the studied plants in 2008. The fuel conservation supply curve model shows the total technical fuel efficiency potential equal to 7,949 terajoules (TJ), accounting for 8% of total fuel used in the studied cement plants in 2008. All the fuel efficiency potential is shown to be cost effective. Carbon dioxide (CO{sub 2}) emission reduction potential associated with cost-effective electricity saving is 383 kiloton (kt) CO{sub 2}, while total technical potential for CO{sub 2} emission reduction from electricity-saving is 940 ktCO{sub 2}. The CO{sub 2} emission reduction potentials associated with fuel-saving potentials is 950 ktCO{sub 2}.

Price, Lynn; Hasanbeigi, Ali; Lu, Hongyou; Wang, Lan

2009-10-01T23:59:59.000Z

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "kiln alumina kiln" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


241

CO Oxidation on supported single Pt atoms - Experimental and Ab Initio density functional studies of CO interaction with Pt atom on theta-alumina(010) surface  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Although there are only a few known examples of supported single atoms, they are unique because they bridge the gap between homogenous and heterogeneous catalysis. The metal center is single supported atoms can be isoelectronic with their homogenous catalyst counterpart and may allow mechanistic pathways normally seen in homogenous catalysts. Here, we report CO oxidation activity of mono-disperse single Pt atoms supported on an inert substrate, -alumina (Al2O3), in the presence of stoichiometric oxygen. Since CO oxidation on single Pt atoms cannot occur via a conventional Langmuir-Hinshelwood scheme (L-H scheme) which requires at least one Pt-Pt bond, we have carried out a first principles density functional theoretical study of a proposed pathway which is a variation on the conventional L-H scheme and is inspired by organometallic chemistry of platinum. We find that a single supported Pt atom prefers to bond to O2 over CO. The CO then bonds with the oxygenated Pt atom and forms a carbonate which dissociates to liberate CO2, leaving an oxygen atom on Pt. A subsequent reaction with another CO molecule regenerates the single atom catalyst. An in-situ diffuse reflectance infrared study of CO adsorption on the catalyst s supported single atoms has been carried out to infer information on CO absorption modes and compare the observed spectra with calculated ones for intermediates in the proposed CO oxidation pathway. Our results clearly show that supported Pt single atoms are catalytically active and that this catalytic activity can occur without involving the substrate. Characterization by electron microscopy and X-ray absorption studies of the mono-disperse Pt/ -Al2O3, synthesized by solution methods, are also presented.

Narula, Chaitanya Kumar [ORNL; Debusk, Melanie Moses [ORNL; Yoon, Mina [ORNL; Allard Jr, Lawrence Frederick [ORNL; Mullins, David R [ORNL; Wu, Zili [ORNL; Yang, Xiaofan [ORNL; Veith, Gabriel M [ORNL; Stocks, George Malcolm [ORNL

2013-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

242

EXPGUI Alumina Tutorial, part #3  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

... laboratory alpha-1,2, and even energy-dispersive x-ray ... where detectors are grouped into banks and the results for each bank are included in a ...

243

EXPGUI Alumina Tutorial, part #2  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

... be selected by clicking on the "Phase" tab in the ... to press the "Add Phase" button in the upper left. ... the file format button in the lower right-hand corner ...

244

EXPGUI Alumina Tutorial, part #3  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

... The Histogram panel is selected by clicking on the Histogram tab, as is shown ... The "Add New Histogram" button, at the lower right, is used to add ...

245

Energy Efficient Microwave Hybrid Processing of Lime for Cement, Steel, and Glass Industries  

SciTech Connect

In this study, the microwave materials interactions were studied through dielectric property measurements, process modeling, and lab scale microwave hybrid calcination tests. Characterization and analysis were performed to evaluate material reactions and energy usage. Processing parameters for laboratory scale and larger scale calcining experiments were developed for MAT limestone calcination. Early stage equipment design concepts were developed, with a focus on microwave post heating treatment. The retrofitting of existing rotary calcine equipment in the lime industry was assessed and found to be feasible. Ceralink sought to address some of the major barriers to the uptake of MAT identified as the need for (1) team approach with end users, technology partners, and equipment manufacturers, (2) modeling that incorporates kiln materials and variations to the design of industrial microwave equipment. This project has furthered the commercialization effort of MAT by working closely with an industrial lime manufacturer to educate them regarding MAT, identifying equipment manufacturer to supply microwave equipment, and developing a sophisticated MAT modeling with WPI, the university partner. MAT was shown to enhance calcining through lower energy consumption and faster reaction rates compared to conventional processing. Laboratory testing concluded that a 23% reduction in energy was possible for calcining small batches (5kg). Scale-up testing indicated that the energy savings increased as a function of load size and 36% energy savings was demonstrated (22 kg). A sophisticated model was developed which combines simultaneous microwave and conventional heating. Continued development of this modeling software could be used for larger scale calcining simulations, which would be a beneficial low-cost tool for exploring equipment design prior to actual building. Based on these findings, estimates for production scale MAT calcining benefits were calculated, assuming uptake of MAT in the US lime industry. This estimate showed that 7.3 TBTU/year could be saved, with reduction of 270 MMlbs of CO2 emissions, and $29 MM/year in economic savings. Taking into account estimates for MAT implementation in the US cement industry, an additional 39 TBTU/year, 3 Blbs of CO2 and $155 MM/year could be saved. One of the main remaining barriers to commercialization of MAT for the lime and cement industries is the sheer size of production. Through this project, it was realized that a production size MAT rotary calciner was not feasible, and a different approach was adapted. The concept of a microwave post heat section located in the upper portion of the cooler was devised and appears to be a more realistic approach for MAT implementation. Commercialization of this technology will require (1) continued pilot scale calcining demonstrations, (2) involvement of lime kiln companies, and (3) involvement of an industrial microwave equipment provider. An initial design concept for a MAT post-heat treatment section was conceived as a retrofit into the cooler sections of existing lime rotary calciners with a 1.4 year payback. Retrofitting will help spur implementation of this technology, as the capital investment will be minimal for enhancing the efficiency of current rotary lime kilns. Retrofits would likely be attractive to lime manufacturers, as the purchase of a new lime kiln is on the order of a $30 million dollar investment, where as a MAT retrofit is estimated on the order of $1 million. The path for commercialization lies in partnering with existing lime kiln companies, who will be able to implement the microwave post heat sections in existing and new build kilns. A microwave equipment provider has been identified, who would make up part of the continued development and commercialization team.

Fall, Morgana L; Yakovlev, Vadim; Sahi, Catherine; Baranova, Inessa; Bowers, Johnney G; Esquenazi , Gibran L

2012-02-10T23:59:59.000Z

246

DOE SUNY Cobleskill Final Report Part 4/5  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

This research evaluated a rotary kiln gasification system utilizing agricultural wastes to generate syn gas. The goal of the project was to develop an efficient methodology for harnessing energy from agricultural waste. Objectives included: installation and cold testing of the gasification system; hot testing the gasification system with two agricultural wastes; development of an operations plan, including a data procurement and analysis plan; development of a predictive model and validation of the model; developing process improvement recommendations; and construction of two deployment pathway models (e.g., institutional and farm).

None

2012-03-31T23:59:59.000Z

247

Geothermal feasibility study for Malting Investments Inc  

SciTech Connect

The engineering feasibility of using geothermal heat in the kilning, germination, and steep water cooling processes for a malting facility is determined. The study is based upon a malting facility with an annual capacity of malting three million bushels of clean graded barley per year or 8220 bushels per day. Capital cost figures used in the feasibility study are budget prices for the basic equipment only, they do not include any other costs such as installation, instrumentation or design and engineering costs. Utility prices are based upon $0.03 per kilowatt hour and $0.4548 per therm for natural gas.

1981-10-01T23:59:59.000Z

248

Proceedings of the DOE/Industry Sensor Working Group meeting, Austin, Texas  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

This paper report contains topics presented at a sensor workshop group meeting. The topics describe measuring instruments of use in the pulp and paper industry. Topics include: measurement of solids fraction; process instrumentation research for the pulp paper industry; real-time non-contact optical surface motion monitor; on-machine sensors to measure paper mechanical properties; hierarchical intelligent control of industrial processes -- an in-parallel lime kiln application; proposal for research on lignin concentration measurement in pulping liquors; and advanced polymeric sensor materials for industrial drying.

Not Available

1988-11-01T23:59:59.000Z

249

DOE SUNY Cobleskill Final Report 3/5  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

This research evaluated a rotary kiln gasification system utilizing agricultural wastes to generate syn gas. The goal of the project was to develop an efficient methodology for harnessing energy from agricultural waste. Objectives included: installation and cold testing of the gasification system; hot testing the gasification system with two agricultural wastes; development of an operations plan, including a data procurement and analysis plan; development of a predictive model and validation of the model; developing process improvement recommendations; and construction of two deployment pathway models (e.g., institutional and farm).

None

2012-03-31T23:59:59.000Z

250

Groundwater Chemistry Changes as a Result of CO2 Injection at the ZERT Field Site in Bozeman, Montana  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Combustion of fossil fuels produces CO{sub 2}, a common greenhouse gas linked to global climate change. Separation of CO{sub 2}from emissions produced by large industrial point sources like power plants, cement kilns and refineries, and injection deep nderground into geologic formations is one method of preventing CO{sub 2} releases into the atmosphere. This process is referred to as Carbon Capture and Storage (CCS). CCS is one of several solutions being considered to mitigate global climate change. Other solutions nclude increased energy efficiency, renewables, nuclear power, advanced coal, and plug-in hybrid electric vehicles.

Apps, J.A.; Birkholzer, J.T.; Spycher, N.; Zheng, L.; Herkelrath, W.N.; Kharaka, Y.K.; Thordsen, J.J.; Kakouros, E.; Beers, S; Gullickson, K.S.; Spangler, L.H.; Ambats, G.

2009-11-01T23:59:59.000Z

251

DOE SUNY Cobleskill Final Report Part 2/5  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

This research evaluated a rotary kiln gasification system utilizing agricultural wastes to generate syn gas. The goal of the project was to develop an efficient methodology for harnessing energy from agricultural waste. Objectives included: installation and cold testing of the gasification system; hot testing the gasification system with two agricultural wastes; development of an operations plan, including a data procurement and analysis plan; development of a predictive model and validation of the model; developing process improvement recommendations; and construction of two deployment pathway models (e.g., institutional and farm).

None

2012-03-31T23:59:59.000Z

252

DOE SUNY Cobleskill Final Report Part 5/5  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

This research evaluated a rotary kiln gasification system utilizing agricultural wastes to generate syn gas. The goal of the project was to develop an efficient methodology for harnessing energy from agricultural waste. Objectives included: installation and cold testing of the gasification system; hot testing the gasification system with two agricultural wastes; development of an operations plan, including a data procurement and analysis plan; development of a predictive model and validation of the model; developing process improvement recommendations; and construction of two deployment pathway models (e.g., institutional and farm).

None

2012-03-31T23:59:59.000Z

253

DOE SUNY Cobleskill Final Report - Part 1/5  

SciTech Connect

This research evaluated a rotary kiln gasification system utilizing agricultural wastes to generate syn gas. The goal of the project was to develop an efficient methodology for harnessing energy from agricultural waste. Objectives included: installation and cold testing of the gasification system; hot testing the gasification system with two agricultural wastes; development of an operations plan, including a data procurement and analysis plan; development of a predictive model and validation of the model; developing process improvement recommendations; and construction of two deployment pathway models (e.g., institutional and farm).

None

2012-03-31T23:59:59.000Z

254

The extraction of bitumen from western tar sands. Annual report, July 1990--July 1991  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Contents of this report include the following: executive summary; characterization of the native bitumen from the Whiterocks oil sand deposit; influence of carboxylic acid content on bitumen viscosity; water based oil sand separation technology; extraction of bitumen from western oil sands by an energy-efficient thermal method; large- diameter fluidized bed reactor studies; rotary kiln pyrolysis of oil sand; catalytic upgrading of bitumen and bitumen derived liquids; ebullieted bed hydrotreating and hydrocracking; super critical fluid extraction; bitumen upgrading; 232 references; Appendix A--Whiterocks tar sand deposit bibliography; Appendix B--Asphalt Ridge tar sand deposit bibliography; and Appendix C--University of Utah tar sands bibliography.

Oblad, A.G.; Bunger, J.W.; Deo, M.D.; Hanson, F.V.; Miller, J.D.; Seader, J.D.

1992-04-01T23:59:59.000Z

255

Center for Coal-Derived Low Energy Materials for Sustainable Construction  

SciTech Connect

The overarching goal of this project was to create a sustained center to support the continued development of new products and industries that manufacture construction materials from coal combustion by-products or CCB’s (e.g., cements, grouts, wallboard, masonry block, fillers, roofing materials, etc). Specific objectives includes the development of a research kiln and associated system and the formulation and production of high performance low-energy, low-CO2 emitting calcium sulfoaluminate (CAS) cement that utilize coal combustion byproducts as raw materials.

Jewell, Robert; Robl, Tom; Rathbone, Robert

2012-06-30T23:59:59.000Z

256

Role of the nature of the support (alumina or silica), of the support porosity, and of the Pt dispersion in the selective reduction of NO by C{sub 3}H{sub 6} under lean-burn conditions  

SciTech Connect

During selective reduction of NO{sub x} under lean-burn conditions, a Pt particle size dependency has previously been observed with various supports. In this study, the authors have examined the influence of various parameters over a large range of initial metal dispersion: nature of the support (silica or alumina), support porosity, presence of impurities (particularly chlorine or sulfur), nature of the platinum precursor salt, and Pt particle size distribution. Furthermore, the authors have considered the mean particle size after sintering under the reactant mixture up to 773 K. Of the factors considered, only the Pt dispersion is of key importance. The intrinsic activity increases with decreasing dispersion (measured initially or after reaction) for each of the main reactions: reduction of NO into N{sub 2} or N{sub 2}O, oxidation of NO into NO{sub 2}, or oxidation of C{sub 3}H{sub 6} into CO{sub 2}. The dispersion does not clearly affect the selectivity.

Denton, P.; Giroir-Fendler, A.; Praliaud, H.; Primet, M.

2000-01-25T23:59:59.000Z

257

DEVELOPMENT AND TESTING OF A CERIA-ZIRCONIA TOUGHENED ALUMINA PROTOTYPE FILTER ELEMENT MADE OF RETICULATED CERAMIC FOAM COATED WITH A CERAMIC MEMBRANE ACTING AS BARRIER FILTER FOR FLY ASH  

SciTech Connect

The objective of this work was to fabricate subscale candle filters using a Ce-ZTA reticulated foam material. Specifically Selee fabricated 60mm diameter cylinders with one closed end and one flanged end. Selee Corporation developed a small pore size (5-10 {micro}m) filtration membrane which was applied to the reticulated foam surface to provide a barrier filter surface. The specific tasks to be performed were as follows: (Task 1) Filter Element Development--To fabricate subscale filter elements from zirconia toughened alumina using the reticulated foam manufacturing process. The filter elements were required to meet dimensional tolerances specified by an appropriate filter system supplier. The subscale filter elements were fabricated with integral flanges and end caps, that is, with no glued joints. (Task 2) Membrane Development--To develop a small pore filtration membrane that is to be applied to the reticulated foam material. This membrane was to provide filtration characteristics that meet gas turbine requirements and pressure drop or permeability requirements specified by the filter system supplier. (Task 3) Subscale Filter Element Fabrication--To fabricate six subscale filter elements with integral flanges and closed ends, as well as fine pore size filtration membranes. Three filters were to have a central clean gas channel, while three would have no central channel. The filters were to be provided to FETC for testing in laboratory systems or pilot scale exposure systems as appropriate. The candles were to meet dimensional tolerances as provided by filter system suppliers.

Guilio A. Rossi; Kenneth R. Butcher; Stacia M. Wagner

1999-02-19T23:59:59.000Z

258

A Case Study of Steam System Evaluation in a Petroleum Refinery  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

ASI conducted a steam system evaluation study at a multinational petroleum Refinery located in the Eastern UK during June-July, 1999. At this refinery, Steam, Fuel and Electricity systems are inter-connected. Steam is generated from direct fuel fired boilers as well from Furnace and Kiln waste heat. Steam is also supplied from the CHP waste heat boilers. Steam generation averages 1,500,000 lbs/hr and does not change significantly between winter and summer since steam needs for process and power generation dominates way above comfort heating. To generate steam, the refinery spends about £28 million per year ($46 million). The system evaluation study identified 31 Energy & steam system cost savings measures (ECM) to save fuel, steam and condensate in the areas of: Steam generation, Steam distribution, Steam Utilization, Condensate recovery, and Combustion optimization in kilns. By implementing all the above 31 ECMs, the refinery is estimated to save $3.5 million annually. Based on our preliminary investment estimate the average payback would be within 2 years. The refinery also would reduce 5600 metric tons Carbon emission to environment. Some of the opportunities address the installation defects of the steam system components that would improve the system reliability and longevity.

Venkatesan, V. V.; Iordanova, N.

2003-05-01T23:59:59.000Z

259

Solar solids reactor  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

A solar powered kiln is provided, that is of relatively simple design and which efficiently uses solar energy. The kiln or solids reactor includes a stationary chamber with a rearward end which receives solid material to be reacted and a forward end through which reacted material is disposed of, and a screw conveyor extending along the bottom of the chamber for slowly advancing the material between the chamber ends. Concentrated solar energy is directed to an aperture at the forward end of the chamber to heat the solid material moving along the bottom of the chamber. The solar energy can be reflected from a mirror facing at an upward incline, through the aperture and against a heat-absorbing material near the top of the chamber, which moves towards the rear of the chamber to distribute heat throughout the chamber. Pumps at the forward and rearward ends of the chamber pump heated sweep gas through the length of the chamber, while minimizing the flow of gas through an open aperture through which concentrated sunlight is received.

Yudow, Bernard D. (Chicago, IL)

1987-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

260

Development of mineral wool from industrial wastes. Phase i. Final report 1 Sep 80-28 Feb 81  

SciTech Connect

The feasibility of using unprocessed industrial wastes to produce mineral wool was investigated by literature and patent searches and by experimental production of mineral wool. Slag ash from coal burning utilities and cement kiln waste from cement companies were combined in batch formulations having acid to alkali ratios of 0.8 to 1.2, then melted, fiberized, and analyzed for physical, thermal, chemical, and optical properties. Cement kiln waste added to the slag ash in controlled quantities served as a fluxing agent, and lowered the melting point of the slag ash from 2800 degrees F to 2500 degrees F. The softening point of the fibers was between 1250 degrees F and 1480 degrees F. The surface of the fibers was smooth at a magnification of 800x, and X-ray analysis showed no crystallization. The glasses were chemically stable, and possessed the rheological properties necessary to produce mineral wool. Potential applications include using the mineral wool for insulation. Immersion in cement slurry for 24 hours did not affect the fibers, indicating that they might also be used as alkali resistant components for fiber-reinforced concrete.

Ali, M.A.

1981-02-01T23:59:59.000Z

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "kiln alumina kiln" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


261

Anodic Electrochemical Behavior in Low Alumina Concentration ...  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Cryoscopic Data for Hall-Héroult Bath Containing Magnesium Fluoride, Calcium Fluoride, Potassium Cryolite, and Sodium Chloride · Current Distribution and ...

262

CAST ALUMINA FORMING AUSTENITIC STAINLESS STEELS - Energy ...  

Wind Energy; Partners (27) Visual Patent Search; Success Stories; News; Events; ... and a stable essentially single phase FCC austenitic matrix microstructure, ...

263

Oxidation Modeling, Synthesis and Performance of Alumina ...  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Oct 18, 2011... Duin2; Michael Gao1; Jeffrey Hawk3; 1National Energy Technology Lab - URS ; 2Penn State University; 3National Energy Technology Lab

264

Enhanced Planar Beta Alumina Solid Electrolytes  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

... sources into the grid (such as wind and solar) and control energy storage and delivery. ... Data showing the results of ionic conductivity testing for MAT vs.

265

Manufacture of Calcium Sulfoaluminate with Alumina Waste  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

A Study on Waste Packaging Containers Generated by Household in Taiwan · Addition of Electric Arc Furnace Dusts in Hot Metal · Advantages of Long Term Al

266

Temperature history and microstructure of alumina  

SciTech Connect

A simple process for the attainment of fully dense and improved microstructure for Al{sub 2}O{sub 3} ceramics has been developed. Pure, narrow size distribution, submicron powder is used. Homogenization heat treatment of Al{sub 2}O{sub 3} powder compacts at 800{degree}C for 50 hours produces more uniform pore structure and higher green strength. Pore size distribution becomes narrower. Near fully dense, fine-grained (< 1.2{mu}m) and uniform grain size-distribution, undoped Al{sub 2}O{sub 3} ceramics can be produced using a high quality powder, a high-pressure cold isostatic forming method, and a two-step sintering technique. Improvements in the microstructure of Al{sub 2}O{sub 3} ceramics homogenized at 800{degree}C/50 h include a smaller pore size and a more uniform pore size distribution. Prevention of differential densification in the early stages and delay of pore channel closure to the later stages of sintering are believed to be the primary mechanisms for the microstructure improvement in two-step sintering. Two-step sintering is an alternate way to improve the microstructure of Al{sub 2}O{sub 3} ceramics compared to fast firing or MgO doping. When a homogenization heat treatment and the fast firing are combined, the final density is higher than from fast firing alone. However, the two-step sintering technique is simple and there is no size limit. Generalization of two-step sintering to more systems is needed. For 250 ppM MgO-doped Al{sub 2}O{sub 3} ceramics, homogenization of powder compacts at 800{degree}C for 50 hours produces 0.80{mu}m. This improvement is explained by the distribution of MgO becoming more uniform during the homogenization heat treatment, which enhances the effectiveness of MgO doping.

Lin, Jiang Tsair.

1992-05-01T23:59:59.000Z

267

Alumina Plant –Third Generations “Greenfield & Computerized”  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Synthesis and Characterization of Plasma Polymerized Thin Films Deposited from Benzene and Hexamethyldisiloxane Using (PECVD) Method · Synthesis and ...

268

Increased Operational Flexibility in CFB Alumina Calcination  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

In Outotec's Smart Feed (R) system, the feed and fuel control is automated to reduce temperature fluctuations in the circulating fluidized bed (CFB) furnace.

269

Key Physical Properties of Smelter Grade Alumina  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

... Metals Volume. Keywords, Advanced Materials, ... A Numerical Approach for the Design of Anode Beam Mechanical Systems ... Anode Effect Phenomena during Conventional AEs, Low Voltage Propagating AEs & Non-propagating AEs ... Dubal Cell Voltage Drop Initiatives towards Low Energy High Amperage Cells.

270

Information Technology Solutions Optimized Alumina Coagulants for  

the world, and in emergency situations. The key benefit to this technology is the efficiency of the coagulation process as a front-end treatment means ...

271

OPTIMIZED ALUMINA OAGULANTS FOR WATER PURIFI ATION  

and in emergency situations. The key benefit to this technology is the efficiency of the coagulation process as a front-end

272

NOVEL REFRACTORY MATERIALS FOR HIGH ALKALI, HIGH TEMPERATURE ENVIRONMENTS  

SciTech Connect

A project was led by Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL) in collaboration with a research team comprised of the academic institution Missouri University of Science and Technology (MS&T), and the industrial company MINTEQ International, Inc. (MINTEQ), along with representatives from the aluminum, chemical, glass, and forest products industries. The project was to address the need for new innovative refractory compositions by developing a family of novel MgO-Al 2O3, MgAl2O4, or other similar spinel structured or alumina-based unshaped refractory compositions (castables, gunnables, shotcretes, etc.) utilizing new aggregate materials, bond systems, protective coatings, and phase formation techniques (in-situ phase formation, altered conversion temperatures, accelerated reactions, etc). This family of refractory compositions would then be tailored for use in high-temperature, high-alkaline industrial environments like those found in the aluminum, chemical, forest products, glass, and steel industries. Both practical refractory development experience and computer modeling techniques were used to aid in the design of this new family of materials. The newly developed materials were expected to offer alternative material choices for high-temperature, high-alkali environments that were capable of operating at higher temperatures (goal of increasing operating temperature by 100-200oC depending on process) or for longer periods of time (goal of twice the life span of current materials or next process determined service increment). This would lead to less process down time, greater energy efficiency for associated manufacturing processes (more heat kept in process), and materials that could be installed/repaired in a more efficient manner. The overall project goal was a 5% improvement in energy efficiency (brought about through a 20% improvement in thermal efficiency) resulting in a savings of 3.7 TBtu/yr (7.2 billion ft3 natural gas) by the year 2030. Additionally, new application techniques and systems were developed as part of this project to optimize the installation of this new family of refractory materials to maximize the properties of installed linings and to facilitate nuances such as hot installation and repair. Under this project, seven new shotcrete materials were developed for both primary and repair applications in aluminum, black liquor, coal gasification, and lime kiln environments. Developed materials were based on alumino-silicate, magnesia, and spinel forming systems. One of the developed materials was an insulating shotcrete to be used behind the high conductivity spinel linings developed under this project. Fundamental research work was carried out at MS&T throughout the life of the project to provide support for the development and production of the experimental refractory materials being developed. Work was also ongoing at ORNL and MS&T through the duration of the project on the measurement and characterization of key refractory properties as identified during year one of the project. Both materials currently being used in the industrial processes as identified and supplied by the industrial partners of this project and new materials being provided and developed by MINTEQ were evaluated as necessary. Additionally, energy savings estimates based on measured properties of the experimentally developed refractory systems from this project were made at MINTEQ to validate the energy savings estimates originally proposed for the project. As another part of the project, on-line inspection and hot repair techniques were considered. It was determined that although repair materials were successfully developed under this project for aluminum, black liquor, and coal gasification systems which enable hot repair, there was only minor interest from industry in implementing these materials. On-line inspection techniques were also identified under this project which are currently used in the steel industry, but implementation of these techniques in applications such as black liquor and coal gasification where higher temperature

Hemrick, James Gordon [ORNL; Smith, Jeffrey D [ORNL; O'Hara, Kelley [University of Missouri, Rolla; Rodrigues-Schroer, Angela [Minteq International, Inc.; Colavito, [Minteq International, Inc.

2012-08-01T23:59:59.000Z

273

International Best Practices for Pre- Processing and Co-Processing  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

International Best Practices for Pre- Processing and Co-Processing International Best Practices for Pre- Processing and Co-Processing Municipal Solid Waste and Sewage Sludge in the Cement Industry Title International Best Practices for Pre- Processing and Co-Processing Municipal Solid Waste and Sewage Sludge in the Cement Industry Publication Type Report Year of Publication 2012 Authors Hasanbeigi, Ali, Hongyou Lu, Christopher J. Williams, and Lynn K. Price Date Published July 2012 Publisher Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory Keywords cement industry, china energy, china energy group, co-processing, energy analysis and environmental impacts department, industrial energy efficiency, Low Emission & Efficient Industry, policy studies, pre-processing, sewage sludge, solid waste Abstract Co-processing municipal solid waste (MSW) and sewage sludge in cement kilns can both reduce the cementindustry's growing fossil fuel use and carbon dioxide (CO2) emissions and help address the increasing needfor safe and environmentally sensitive municipal waste treatment and disposal.

274

EA-1769: Draft Environmental Assessment | Department of Energy  

Energy.gov (U.S. Department of Energy (DOE)) Indexed Site

Draft Environmental Assessment Draft Environmental Assessment EA-1769: Draft Environmental Assessment Battleground Energy Recovery Project Harris County, Texas The proposed project is consistent with DOE's goal of increased use of energy efficiency and renewable energy generation projects. The proposed project involves installation of a specifically designed waste heat recovery boiler on the existing kiln afterburner of an incineration unit at the CHDP facility. This boiler would use heat from the incinerator flue gases to generate high pressure superheated steam. The adjacent Dow Chemical plant would periodically consume part of the steam for process needs, replacing natural gas firing of existing boilers. The majority of the steam, however, would be piped to a new steam turbine-generator (STG).

275

Categorical Exclusion Determinations: B5.1 | Department of Energy  

Energy.gov (U.S. Department of Energy (DOE)) Indexed Site

3, 2010 3, 2010 CX-004359: Categorical Exclusion Determination New Mexico-Tribe-Santa Ana Pueblo CX(s) Applied: B5.1 Date: 11/03/2010 Location(s): Santa Ana Pueblo, New Mexico Office(s): Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy November 3, 2010 CX-004358: Categorical Exclusion Determination New Mexico-Tribe-Pueblo of Laguna Utility Authority CX(s) Applied: A9, B2.5, B5.1 Date: 11/03/2010 Location(s): Laguna, New Mexico Office(s): Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy November 2, 2010 CX-004383: Categorical Exclusion Determination Pine Hall Brick Company Energy Efficiency Improvements for Lighting, Kiln and Heating, Ventilation, and Air Conditioning Systems CX(s) Applied: B5.1 Date: 11/02/2010 Location(s): North Carolina Office(s): Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy, National Energy

276

Recovery Act | Department of Energy  

Energy.gov (U.S. Department of Energy (DOE)) Indexed Site

August 23, 2012 August 23, 2012 New Report Highlights Growth of America's Clean Energy Job Sector Taking a moment to break-down key findings from the latest Clean Energy Jobs Roundup. August 13, 2012 INFOGRAPHIC: Wind Energy in America August 3, 2012 A worker suppresses dust during the final demolition stages of the historic DP West site, located at Los Alamos National Laboratory's (LANL) Technical Area 21. The demolition was funded by the American Recovery and Reinvestment Act (ARRA) and is part of $212 million in ARRA funds the Lab received for environmental remediation. | Photo courtesy of Los Alamos National Laboratory. Photo of the Week: August 3, 2012 Check out our favorite energy-related photos! August 2, 2012 With new pipes and controls, the natural gas kilns Highland Craftsmen uses to produce poplar bark shingles will operate about 40 percent more efficiently, saving the company $5,000 a year in energy costs. | Photo courtesy of Highland Craftsmen.

277

Categorical Exclusion Determinations: Office of Energy Efficiency and  

Energy.gov (U.S. Department of Energy (DOE)) Indexed Site

2, 2010 2, 2010 CX-004383: Categorical Exclusion Determination Pine Hall Brick Company Energy Efficiency Improvements for Lighting, Kiln and Heating, Ventilation, and Air Conditioning Systems CX(s) Applied: B5.1 Date: 11/02/2010 Location(s): North Carolina Office(s): Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy, National Energy Technology Laboratory November 2, 2010 CX-004382: Categorical Exclusion Determination Van Wingerden International Energy Efficiency Improvements for Climate Control System CX(s) Applied: B5.1 Date: 11/02/2010 Location(s): North Carolina Office(s): Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy, National Energy Technology Laboratory November 2, 2010 CX-004378: Categorical Exclusion Determination Genetic Improvement of Switchgrass CX(s) Applied: B3.6 Date: 11/02/2010

278

Economic study of low temperature geothermal energy in Lassen and Modoc Counties, California  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

The feasibility of using low cost, low temperature geothermal energy in job-producing industries to increase employment and encourage economic development was investigated. The study, encompassing all of Lassen and Modoc Counties, was to be site-specific, referencing candidate geothermal applications to known hot wells and springs as previously determined, or to new wells with specific characteristics as defined in the Scope of Work. The emphasis was to be placed on economically practical and readily achievable applications from known resources. Although both positive and negative findings were found in specific areas of investigation, it is felt that the overall long term prognosis for geothermal energy stimulus to industry in the area is excellent. The applications studied were; greenhouse heating, kiln drying, onion dehydration, feedlots, and aquaculture.

Not Available

1977-04-01T23:59:59.000Z

279

Estimate HRSG performance quickly  

SciTech Connect

Heat recovery steam generators (HRSG) are coupled to a heat recovery source which exhausts hot gases, such as gas turbines, furnaces, kilns, etc., to generate steam for the plant's process or power needs. When two pieces of equipment are coupled, their performances may not match their respective design or maximum efficiency points due to varying plant load or steam demand. In addition, many plants require the HRSG to operate effectively over the entire operating range of the plant. In chemical and fertilizer plants, hot gas is cooled in the HRSG to the required limiting temperature. In plants using gas turbines, even ambient conditions will affect HRSG performance indirectly. So a plant engineer should be able to predict the HRSG performance at any design point called for by the plant's load or steam demand.

Kuppuraj, K.

1986-07-01T23:59:59.000Z

280

Geoenvironmental and engineering properties of rock, soil, and aggregate. Transportation research record  

SciTech Connect

Partial Contents: Use of Waste Materials in Highway Construction: State of the Practice and Evaluation of the Selected Waste Products; Physical and Environmental Properties of Asphalt-Amended Bottom Ash; Use of Cement Kiln Dust, Fly Ash, and Recycling Technique in Low-Volume Road Rehabilitation; Use of By-Product Phosphogypsum in Road Construction; Stabilization of Water Treatment Plant Sludge for Possible Use as Embankment Material; Construction and Performance of a Shredded Waste Tire Test Embankment; Corrosion of Steel Piles in Some Waste Fills; Recycled Plastics for Highway Agencies; Effect of Chloride and Sulfate Contamination in Soils on Corrosion of Steel and Concrete; Permeability and Leaching Characteristics of Fly Ash Liner Materials; Evaluation of Recycled Concrete, Open-Graded Aggregate, and Large Top-Size Aggregate Bases; Engineering Properties of Phosphogypsum-Based Slag Aggregate.

Not Available

1992-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "kiln alumina kiln" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


281

One temperature model for effective ovens  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Most of the thermodynamic analysis of ovens are focused on efficiency, but they need to behaves under real-life conditions, then the effectiveness of the ovens plays a crucial role in their design. In this paper we present a thermodynamical model able to describe the temperature evolution in ovens, furnaces or kilns to harden, burn or dry different products and which provides a methodology to design these heating devices. We use the required temperature evolution for each product and process as main ingredient in the methodology and procedure to design ovens and we place in the right role the efficiency criteria. We use global energy balance equation for the oven under transient situation as the thermodynamic starting point for developing the model. Our approach is able to consider different configurations for these heating devices, or recirculating or open situations, etc.

Tapia, Saul

2011-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

282

Fuel Saving Ideas for Metal and Ceramic Processing  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

An easy method is presented for analyzing sources of heat loss from industrial processing furnaces, kilns, and ovens; and thus for recognizing opportunities for fuel saving. This will relate to melting, heat treating and hot forming of metals such as steel, aluminum and copper; plus firing of glass and ceramic material such as structural clay products, sanitary wear, containers, porcelain and electronic ceramics. Fuel saving methods will be discussed as prescriptions for remedying the above-mentioned losses, including precise fuel/air ratio control, furnace pressure control, and heat recovery systems applicable to these high temperature furnaces. Special attention will be devoted to use of flue gases to generate steam and to preheat combustion air.

Reed, R. J.

1982-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

283

Waste Equals Food: Developing a Sustainable Agriculture Support Cluster for a Proposed Resource Recovery Park in Puerto Rico  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

This paper analyzes and makes recommendations for plans to develop an eco-industrial park (EIP) in Puerto Rico. This project began with two basic goals: first, to supply cheaper energy to the island, which has suffered economic losses due to expensive energy; and second, to deal with the solid waste management problem. Thus, a proposal for a waste-to-energy (WTE) facility entered the picture, and close behind came an ambitious plan to convert the surrounding area into an EIP to be called the Renova Resource Recovery Park (RRRP). The EIP has been designed to include industries such as an existing paper mill, a steel casting plant, and a cement kiln. However, given the fact that the proposed site of RRRP is on abandoned sugar cane land, a new member was proposed – a sustainable agriculture cluster.

Alethea Abuyuan; Iona Hawken; Michael Newkirk; Roger Williams

1999-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

284

Technical and economic feasibility of thermal energy storage. Thermal energy storage application to the brick/ceramic industry. Final report  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

An initial project to study the technical and economic feasibility of thermal energy storage (TES) in the three major consumer markets, namely, the residential, commercial and industrial sectors is described. A major objective of the study was to identify viable TES applications from which a more concise study could be launched, leading to a conceptual design and in-depth validation of the TES energy impacts. This report documents one such program. The brick/ceramic industries commonly use periodic kilns which by their operating cycle require time-variant energy supply and consequently variable heat rejection. This application was one of the numerous TES opportunities that emerged from the first study, now available from the ERDA Technical Information Center, Oak Ridge, Tennessee, identified as Report No. COO-2558-1.

Glenn, D.R.

1976-10-01T23:59:59.000Z

285

Recommended guidelines for solid fuel use in cement plants  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Pulverized solid fuel use at cement plants in North America is universal and includes bituminous and sub-bituminous coal, petroleum coke, and any combination of these materials. Provided are guidelines for the safe use of pulverized solid fuel systems in cement plants, including discussion of the National Fire Protection Association and FM Global fire and explosion prevention standards. Addressed are fire and explosion hazards related to solid fuel use in the cement industry, fuel handling and fuel system descriptions, engineering design theory, kiln system operations, electrical equipment, instrumentation and safety interlock issues, maintenance and training, and a brief review of code issues. New technology on fire and explosion prevention including deflagration venting is also presented.

Young, G.L.; Jayaraman, H.; Tseng, H. (and others)

2007-07-01T23:59:59.000Z

286

Health-hazard evaluation report HETA 85-018-1759, American Crystal Sugar Company, Moorhead, Minnesota  

SciTech Connect

A sugar-beet mill owned by the American Crystal Sugar Company (ACSCO) was evaluated for worker exposure to airborne contaminants during beet processing and welding fumes during facility maintenance, following a request from ACSCO management and the American Federation of Grain Millers International Union. Total and respirable dusts were measured in personal and general air samples, and personal welding filter samples were analyzed. Analytical methods included spectroscopy, x-ray diffraction, gravimetry, and chromatography. Quartz was detected in settled dust and high volume air samples; beet pulp was considered to be a potential health risk. Exposures in excess of the most stringent environmental criteria were found for calcium-oxide in lime kiln workers, formaldehyde in diffuser area workers, and total welding fumes, nickel, and iron-oxide during welding operations. Exposures to nickel and formaldehyde presented potential cancer risks. The authors recommend formaldehyde replacement, particulate containment, ventilation improvement, and use of appropriate respiratory protection.

Almaguer, D.; Boiano, J.M.

1986-12-01T23:59:59.000Z

287

An RTD study for the flow of lignite particles through a pilot rotary dryer. Part 1: Bare drum case  

SciTech Connect

In Part 1 of the present work a pilot rotating cylindrical drum, without an internal lifting flight system (bare), has been employed for the study of lignite motion through it, at ambient temperature. Tracer pulse stimulus-response experiments have been carried out to deduce residence time distribution (RTD) data and relate them to the operating conditions (slope, speed of revolution, etc.). Mean residence time, space-time and solids hold-up have been correlated with the drum operating conditions. Experimental data of mean axial velocity of solids have been compared with theoretical predictions and found to deviate within a {+-}15% margin. A size segregation of particles during their motion through the kiln under a variety of operating conditions has been confirmed and quantified. An average maximum divergence of 20% between the residence time of the smallest and that of the largest nominal particle sizes has been assessed.

Hatzilyberis, K.S.; Androutsopoulos, G.P. [National Technical Univ. of Athens (Greece). Dept. of Chemical Engineering

1999-04-01T23:59:59.000Z

288

Cogeneration Waste Heat Recovery at a Coke Calcining Facility  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

PSE Inc. recently completed the design, construction and start-up of a cogeneration plant in which waste heat in the high temperature flue gases of three existing coke calcining kilns is recovered to produce process steam and electrical energy. The heat previously exhausted to the atmosphere is now converted to steam by waste heat recovery boilers. Eighty percent of the steam produced is metered for sale to a major oil refinery, while the remainder passes through a steam turbine generator and is used for deaeration and feedwater heating. The electricity produced is used for the plant auxiliaries and sold to the local utility. Many design concepts were incorporated into the plant which provided for high plant availability, reliability and energy efficiency. This paper will show how these concepts were implemented and incorporated into the detailed design of the plant while making cogeneration a cost effective way to save conventional fuels. Operating data since plant start-up will also be presented.

Coles, R. L.

1986-06-01T23:59:59.000Z

289

Asphalt Roofing Shingles Into Energy Project Summary Report  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

Based on a widely cited September, 1999 report by the Vermont Agency of Natural Resources, nearly 11 million tons of asphalt roofing shingle wastes are produced in the United States each year. Recent data suggests that the total is made up of about 9.4 million tons from roofing tear-offs and about 1.6 million tons from manufacturing scrap. Developing beneficial uses for these materials would conserve natural resources, promote protection of the environment and strengthen the economy. This project explored the feasibility of using chipped asphalt shingle materials in cement manufacturing kilns and circulating fluidized bed (CFB) boilers. A method of enhancing the value of chipped shingle materials for use as fuel by removing certain fractions for use as substitute raw materials for the manufacture of new shingles was also explored. Procedures were developed to prevent asbestos containing materials from being processed at the chipping facilities, and the frequency of the occurrence of asbestos in residential roofing tear-off materials was evaluated. The economic feasibility of each potential use was evaluated based on experience gained during the project and on a review of the well established use of shingle materials in hot mix asphalt. This project demonstrated that chipped asphalt shingle materials can be suitable for use as fuel in circulating fluidized boilers and cement kilns. More experience would be necessary to determine the full benefits that could be derived and to discover long term effects, but no technical barriers to full scale commercial use of chipped asphalt shingle materials in these applications were discovered. While the technical feasibility of various options was demonstrated, only the use of asphalt shingle materials in hot mix asphalt applications is currently viable economically.

Jameson, Rex, PE

2008-04-28T23:59:59.000Z

290

High efficiency shale oil recovery. Final report, January 1, 1992--June 30, 1993  

SciTech Connect

The Adams Counter-current shale oil recovery process is an improved retorting technology enabling highly efficient oil recovery from oil shale. The high efficiency results primarily from the following facts: it (1) recovers the ash heat to preheat the feed ore; (2) burns and uses the coke energy and (3) operates without using hot ash recycling as a heat carrier. This latter feature is doubly important, contributing to high oil yield and to the generation of highly reactive coke which can be burned below 1000{degree}F, avoiding the endothermal calcination of the mineral carbonates and helping to clean the ash of contaminants. This project demonstrates that oil shale can be retorted under the specified conditions and achieve the objectives of very high efficiency. The project accomplished the following: 51 quartz sand rotary kiln runs provided significant engineering data. A heat transfer value of 107 Btu/hr/ft{sup 2}/{degree}F was obtained at optimum RPM; eight oil shale samples were obtained and preliminary shakedown runs were made. Five of the samples were selected for kiln processing and twelve pyrolysis runs were made on the five different oil shales;average off recovery was 109% of Fisher Assay; retorted residue from all five samples was oxidized at approximately 1000{degree}F. The ash from these runs was oxidized to varying extents, depending on the oil shale and oxidizing temperatures. While 1000{degree}F is adequately hot to provide process heat from coke combustion for these ores, some Eastern oil shales, without mineral carbonates, may be oxidized at higher temperatures, perhaps 100--300 degrees hotter, to obtain a more complete oxidation and utilization of the coke.

Adams, D.C.

1993-09-29T23:59:59.000Z

291

Integrated thermal treatment system study -- Phase 2 results. Revision 1  

SciTech Connect

This report presents the second phase of a study on thermal treatment technologies. The study consists of a systematic assessment of nineteen thermal treatment alternatives for the contact-handled mixed low-level waste (MLLW) currently stored in the US Department of Energy complex. The treatment alternatives consist of widely varying technologies for safely destroying the hazardous organic components, reducing the volume, and preparing for final disposal of the MLLW. The alternatives considered in Phase 2 were innovative thermal treatments with nine types of primary processing units. Other variations in the study examined the effect of combustion gas, air pollution control system design, and stabilization technology for the treatment residues. The Phase 1 study examined ten initial thermal treatment alternatives. The Phase 2 systems were evaluated in essentially the same manner as the Phase 1 systems. The alternatives evaluated were: rotary kiln, slagging kiln, plasma furnace, plasma gasification, molten salt oxidation, molten metal waste destruction, steam gasification, Joule-heated vitrification, thermal desorption and mediated electrochemical oxidation, and thermal desorption and supercritical water oxidation. The quantities, and physical and chemical compositions, of the input waste used in the Phase 2 systems differ from those in the Phase 1 systems, which were based on a preliminary waste input database developed at the onset of the Integrated Thermal Treatment System study. The inventory database used in the Phase 2 study incorporates the latest US Department of Energy information. All systems, both primary treatment systems and subsystem inputs, have now been evaluated using the same waste input (2,927 lb/hr). 28 refs., 88 figs., 41 tabs.

Feizollahi, F.; Quapp, W.J.

1996-02-01T23:59:59.000Z

292

Effect of Dispersion by Carbon Dioxide on Secondary Alumina ...  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Chemical Enrichment of Precious Metals in Iron Sulfides Using Microwave Energy · Chloridizing ... Co-Gasification Behavior of Metallurgical Coke with High and Low Reactivity .... Thermal Plasma Torches for Metallurgical Applications.

293

Oxidation Behavior of Alumina-Forming Austenitic Steel in Steam  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Symposium, Properties, Processing, and Performance of Steels and Ni-Based Alloys for Advanced Steam Conditions. Presentation Title, Oxidation Behavior of  ...

294

055 Processing of Alumina-Rich Spinel Nanopowders Made by ...  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

... of LiMnxFe1-xPO4 Glass and Glass-Ceramics for Lithium Ion Battery .... and Comparing the Inhibition Effect of Chromate, Bromate and Molybdate on the ...

295

031 Alumina-Based Composites Reinforced with Titanium ...  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

... of LiMnxFe1-xPO4 Glass and Glass-Ceramics for Lithium Ion Battery .... and Comparing the Inhibition Effect of Chromate, Bromate and Molybdate on the ...

296

Experimental and Theoretical Study on the Fluidization of Alumina ...  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Maximize Efficiency and Safety of Smelters through Advanced Multipurpose Simulator ... Multivariate Statistical Investigation of Carbon Consumption for HSS  ...

297

Development of Planar Sodium-Beta Alumina Battery Modules for ...  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Symposium, Energy Storage: Materials, Systems, and Applications ... For broad market penetration, however, the SBB technologies need further improved ... Analysis of Cycling Induced Fatigue in Electrode Materials for Lithium Ion Batteries.

298

026- Room Temperature Properties of Electrical Contacts to Alumina ...  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

125- Influence of Gas Flow Rate Ratio on the Structural Properties of a-SiC:H Prepared by ... 145- The Synergy of XRD and XRF in a Shale and Slate Analysis.

299

Coal Fly Ash as Alternative Source of Smelter Grade Alumina  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

About this Abstract. Meeting, COM 2011. Symposium, COM 2011 (held with the World Gold Conference), POSTER SESSION. Presentation Title, Coal Fly Ash as

300

Intermetallic Strengthened Alumina-Forming Austenitic Steels for ...  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

... turbines in power generation systems, materials are required that are strong, .... Predicting Combined Operational and Residual Stress Fields and Critical and ...

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "kiln alumina kiln" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


301

A Study on ? Alumina Washcoated Porous Metallic Foams as ...  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Catalytic Properties of Ni3Al Foils for Methane Steam Reforming · Characterization of the Crystallographic Textures and Mechanical Anisotropy Factors in Two ...

302

Chemisorption of catechol on gibbsite, boehmite, and noncrystalline alumina surfaces  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

The mechanism of bonding of catechol and related phenolic compounds on aluminum oxides was elucidated from sorption behavior in the presence of competing adsorbates and the nature of the infrared spectra of the surface-bound molecules. The surfaces demonstrated a high degree of selectivity toward catechol, adsorbing the molecule in the presence of a large excess of chloride. Phosphate competed effectively with catechol for sorption sites while acetate did not. Dispersive and Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy verified that catechol bound on the aluminum oxide surfaces was chemically perturbed in much the same manner as catechol chelated by Al/sup 3 +/, suggesting that the dominant sorption process involved the formation of a 1:1 bidentate complex with surface Al. The mechanisms of bonding was similar for all the aluminum oxides, but the dominant crystal surfaces of the crystalline oxides were unreactive toward catechol, and adsorption was attributed to -AlOH groups situated on edge faces. As a result, the noncrystalline oxide was more reactive per unit of surface area than the crystalline minerals boehmite and gibbsite.

McBride, M.B.; Wesselink, L.G.

1988-06-01T23:59:59.000Z

303

Electroless fabrication of cobalt alloys nanowires within alumina template  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

A new method of nanowire fabrication based on electroless deposition process is described. The method is novel compared to the current electroless procedure used in making nanowires as it involves growing nanowires from the bottom up. The length of the ...

Nazila Dadvand; Georges J. Kipouros

2007-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

304

Hydro-chemical Process for Alumina Production from Low Grade ...  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

The process is a hydro-chemical treatment for the residue after the typical Bayer ... LNG Power Plant:Trihydrate (150°C Dgs.) & Monohydrate (250°C Dgs.)*.

305

The Effect of Calcium Fluoride on Alumina Solubility in Low ...  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

About this Abstract. Meeting, 2013 TMS Annual Meeting & Exhibition. Symposium , Aluminum Reduction Technology. Presentation Title, The Effect of Calcium ...

306

Development of Advanced Low-Temperature Sodium Beta-Alumina ...  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Characterization of Mn-Co Electrodeposition for SOFC Interconnect Applications by ... Degradation of SOFC anodes and SOFC performance in coal syngas ...

307

Development of Planar Sodium-Beta Alumina Battery Modules for ...  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

For broad market penetration, however, the current technologies need further ... over several years of investigation on solid oxide fuel cell (SOFC) at PNNL.

308

A13: In Vivo Evaluation of Zirconia Toughened Alumina Ceramics  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

G8: Low-Cost Corrosion Monitoring Sensors Based on Radio Frequency Identification (RFID) Technology · G9: The Protection of Iron Reducing Bacteria (

309

Comparative Study on the Metal Aluminum Produced from Alumina ...  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Chemical Enrichment of Precious Metals in Iron Sulfides Using Microwave Energy · Chloridizing ... Co-Gasification Behavior of Metallurgical Coke with High and Low Reactivity .... Thermal Plasma Torches for Metallurgical Applications.

310

Development of a New Improved Dry Alumina Scrubber for Emission ...  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

This system uses a cooling tower, an in-duct initial adsorption process, and a fluidized bed and bag house for secondary and final adsorptive process, in order to ...

311

A Low Cost Method for Manufacturing of Aluminum/Alumina ...  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

How to Control Strength and Grain Structure of 304L Stainless Steel during Forging · Improved ... Process Modeling and Reduction of Copper Loss in Smelting Slag ... Use of Polymeric Residues from the Footwear Industry in Layers of Asphalt ...

312

Alumina Refiner's 21st. Century Greenfield & DCS Systems & Waste ...  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Century Greenfield & DCS Systems & Waste Water Plant Zero Waste & LNG Power ... Total Energy consumption was 6766 Mj/t for Tropical Bauxite & 7930 for  ...

313

High Purity Alumina Powders Extracted from Aluminum Dross by the ...  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Designing a Collaborative System for Socio-Environmental Management of ... Oils Post-Consumption Residential and Commercial Clay with Two Brazilian.

314

Desulfurization of Hot Metal Using Alumina Industry Waste  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Selective Recovery of Gold from E-wastes by Using Cellulosic Wastes · Stabilization of Chromium-Based Slags with FeS2 and FeSO4 · Sulphide Precipitation ...

315

Gold Nano-Engineered Mercury Sensor for Alumina Refineries  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

About this Abstract. Meeting, 2010 TMS Annual Meeting & Exhibition. Symposium , 2010 Functional and Structural Nanomaterials: Fabrication, Properties, ...

316

Development of Alumina-Forming Austenitic (AFA) Stainless Steels  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

resistance Solar Turbines 4.6 MW Mercury 50 recuperated low NOx gas turbine engine Recuperator, Casing Fossil toward improved understanding of AFA microstructure, oxidation, and creep to provide basis for further alloy development -long-term studies of creep and oxidation to provide basis for transition to industry

317

Value of Systems Integration to Optimize Operation in Alumina ...  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

When fully commissioned, new and especially old plants are facing significant ... LNG Power Plant" *Trihydrate (150°C Dgs.) & Monohydrate (250°C Dgs.)* ...

318

Alumina Plants 21st Century “Greenfield & Computerized & Zero ...  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

... (Digestion Unite, 2796, LP Steam 1249, Calciner 2942 & Electrical Power 720). ... Experience with Commissioning New Generation Gas Suspension Calciner.

319

Density and Thermal Conductivity of Boron Nitride-alumina Mixed ...  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Synthesis and Characterization of Plasma Polymerized Thin Films Deposited from Benzene and Hexamethyldisiloxane Using (PECVD) Method · Synthesis and ...

320

Beta-alumina: Synthesis and Characterization of a Solid Electrolyte  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Abstract Scope, Solar and wind energies are clean, powerful and alternative sources of energy, despite intermittent. To provide a constant energy supply, one  ...

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "kiln alumina kiln" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


321

Low Temperature Reduction of Alumina Using Fluorine Containing Ionic Liquids  

SciTech Connect

The major objective of the project is to establish the feasibility of using specific ionic liquids capable of sustaining aluminum electrolysis near room temperature at laboratory and batch recirculation scales. It will explore new technologies for aluminum and other valuable metal extraction and process methods. The new technology will overcome many of the limitations associated with high temperatures processes such as high energy consumption and corrosion attack. Furthermore, ionic liquids are non-toxic and could be recycled after purification, thus minimizing extraction reagent losses and environmental pollutant emissions. Ionic liquids are mixture of inorganic and organic salts which are liquid at room temperature and have wide operational temperature range. During the last several years, they were emerging as novel electrolytes for extracting and refining of aluminum metals and/or alloys, which are otherwise impossible using aqueous media. The superior high temperature characteristics and high solvating capabilities of ionic liquids provide a unique solution to high temperature organic solvent problems associated with device internal pressure build-up, corrosion, and thermal stability. However their applications have not yet been fully implemented due to the insufficient understanding of the electrochemical mechanisms involved in processing of aluminum with ionic liquids. Laboratory aluminum electrodeposition in ionic liquids has been investigated in chloride and bis (trifluoromethylsulfonyl) imide based ionic liquids. The electrowinning process yielded current density in the range of 200-500 A/m2, and current efficiency of about 90%. The results indicated that high purity aluminum (>99.99%) can be obtained as cathodic deposits. Cyclic voltammetry and chronoamperometry studies have shown that initial stages of aluminum electrodeposition in ionic liquid electrolyte at 30°C was found to be quasi-reversible, with the charge transfer coefficient (0.40). Nucleation phenomena involved in aluminum deposition on copper in AlCl3-BMIMCl electrolyte was found to be instantaneous followed by diffusion controlled three-dimensional growth of nuclei. Diffusion coefficient (Do) of the electroactive species Al2Cl7¯ ion was in the range from 6.5 to 3.9×10–7 cm2?s–1 at a temperature of 30°C. Relatively little research efforts have been made toward the fundamental understanding and modeling of the species transport and transformation information involved in ionic liquid mixtures, which eventually could lead to quantification of electrochemical properties. Except that experimental work in this aspect usually is time consuming and expensive, certain characteristics of ionic liquids also made barriers for such analyses. Low vapor pressure and high viscosity make them not suitable for atomic absorption spectroscopic measurement. In addition, aluminum electrodeposition in ionic liquid electrolytes are considered to be governed by multi-component mass, heat and charge transport in laminar and turbulent flows that are often multi-phase due to the gas evolution at the electrodes. The kinetics of the electrochemical reactions is in general complex. Furthermore, the mass transfer boundary layer is about one order of magnitude smaller than the thermal and hydrodynamic boundary layer (Re=10,000). Other phenomena that frequently occur are side reactions and temperature or concentration driven natural convection. As a result of this complexity, quantitative knowledge of the local parameters (current densities, ion concentrations, electrical potential, temperature, etc.) is very difficult to obtain. This situation is a serious obstacle for improving the quality of products, efficiency of manufacturing and energy consumption. The gap between laboratory/batch scale processing with global process control and nanoscale deposit surface and materials specifications needs to be bridged. A breakthrough can only be realized if on each scale the occurring phenomena are understood and quantified. Multiscale numerical modeling nevertheless can help t

Dr. R. G. Reddy

2007-09-01T23:59:59.000Z

322

and Alumina-forming Alloys in CO 2 -H  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Abstract Scope, Severe surface degradation of materials employed in coal-fired power plants stems from the presence of multi-oxidant environments as part of ...

323

ORNL's Alumina-forming Austenitic Alloys Licensed to Carpenter...  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

specialty metals as well as castwrought titanium alloys. The new alloy, developed at ORNL by Phil Maziasz, Bruce Pint, Michael Brady, Zhaoping Lu, Chain-tsuan Liu, and Yukinori...

324

Investigation on Alumina Discharge into Red Mud Pond at Nalco's ...  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Methods to Reduce Operating Costs in Circulating Fluidized Bed Calcination · New Development Model for Bauxite Deposits · One Green Field Megaton Grade  ...

325

Attrition of Alumina in Smelter Handling and Scrubbing Systems  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Methods to Reduce Operating Costs in Circulating Fluidized Bed Calcination · New Development Model for Bauxite Deposits · One Green Field Megaton Grade  ...

326

Evaluation Of Alumina From Alkylation Process In Reduction Cells  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Design and Manufacture of Fluidized Bed Reactor in Pilot Scale for Multiple ..... The Effect of Circulating Coal Slurry Water Hardness on Coal Preparation.

327

Improved Performance of Red Mud Settlers at Worsley Alumina  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Improvement of Product Quality in Circulating Fluidized Bed Calcination · New Polymers for Improved Flocculation of High DSP-Containing Muds · Reduction ...

328

Microfluidic Investigation of Tracer Dye Diffusion in Alumina Nanofluids  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Nanofluids, a new class of fluids engineered by suspending nanometer-sized particles in a host liquid, are offered as a new strategy in order to improve heat and mass transfer efficiency. My research was motivated by previous exciting studies on enhanced mass diffusion and the possibility of tailoring mass transport by direct manipulation of molecular diffusion. Therefore, a microfluidic approach capable of directly probing tracer diffusion between nanoparticle-laden fluid streams was developed. Under conditions matching previously reported studies, strong complexation interactions between the dye and nanoparticles at the interface between fluid streams was observed. When the tracer dye and surfactant were carefully chosen to minimize the collective effects of the interactions, no significant change in tracer dye diffusivity was observed in the presence of nanoparticles. Next, adapting tracer dyes for studies involving colloidal nanomaterials was explored. Addition of these charged tracers poses a myriad of challenges because of their propensity to disrupt the delicate balance among physicochemical interactions governing suspension stability. Here it was shown how important it is to select the compatible combinations of dye, nanoparticle, and stabilizing surfactant to overcome these limitations in low volume fraction (< 1 vol%) aqueous suspensions of Al2O3 nanoparticles. A microfluidic system was applied as a stability probe that unexpectedly revealed how rapid aggregation could be readily triggered in the presence of local chemical gradients. Suspension stability was also assessed in conjunction with coordinated measurements of zeta potential, steady shear viscosity and bulk thermal conductivity. These studies also guided our efforts to prepare new refrigerant formulations containing dispersed nanomaterials, including graphene nanosheets, carbon nanotubes and metal oxide and nitride. The influence of key parameters such as particle type, size and volume fraction on the suspension's thermal conductivity was investigated using a standard protocol. Our findings showed that thermal conductivity values of carbon nanotube and graphene nanosheet suspensions were higher than TiO2 nanoparticles, despite some nanoparticles with large particle sizes provided noticeable thermal conductivity enhancements. Significantly, the graphene containing suspensions uniquely matched the thermal conductivity enhancements attained in nanotube suspensions without accompanying viscosity, thus making them an attractive new coolant for demanding applications such as electronics and reactor cooling.

Ozturk, Serdar 1979-

2012-12-01T23:59:59.000Z

329

031- Superplasticity and Machinability in a Four-Phase Alumina ...  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

144- The Role of Mn Content on Microstructure and Phases of High Alloyed White Cast Irons · 145- The Synergy of XRD and XRF in a Shale and Slate Analysis.

330

In-Situ Processing of Alumina Reinforced Aluminum Bronze  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Functional Composites: Fluorescent Carbon Nanotubes in Silica Aerogel ... Novel Metallo-Organic Derived Ti-Si-Cr-C-N Nanocomposite Coatings: Part II ...

331

CO2-selective, Hybrid Membranes by Silation of Alumina  

SciTech Connect

Hybrid membranes are feasible candidates for the separation of CO2 from gas produced in coal-based power generation since they have the potential to combine the high selectivity of polymer membranes and the high permeability of inorganic membranes. An interesting method for producing hybrid membranes is the silation of an inorganic membrane. In this method, trichloro- or alkoxy-silanes interact with hydroxyl groups on the surface of ?-AlO3 or TiO2, binding organic groups to that surface. By varying the length of these organic groups on the organosilane, it should be possible to tailor the effective pore size of the membrane. Similarly, the addition of “CO2-phillic” groups to the silating agent allows for the careful control of surface affinity and the enhancement of surface diffusion mechanisms. This method of producing hybrid membranes selective to CO2 was first attempted by Hyun [1] who silated TiO2 with phenyltriethoxysilane. Later, Way [2] silated ?-AlO3 with octadecyltrichlorosilane. Both researchers were successful in producing membranes with improved selectivity toward CO2, but permeability was not maintained at a commercially applicable level. XPS data indicated that the silating agent did not penetrate into the membrane pores and separation actually occurred in a thin “polymer-like” surface layer. The present study attempts to overcome the mass transfer problems associated with this technique by producing the desired monolayer coverage of silane, and thus develop a highly-permeable CO2-selective hybrid membrane.

Luebke, D.R.; Pennline, H.W.

2007-09-01T23:59:59.000Z

332

Numerical Simulation of Alumina Sintering - Programmaster.org  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

This includes mass transport phenomena which may occur via diffusion.The spatial ... A Study on the Stress Test of Truck Frames for Freight Trains · A Study on ...

333

LIGHT METALS 2007 Volume 1: Alumina and Bauxite TABLE OF ...  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

The Use of Independant Audits in the Management of Aluminium Related Businesses [pp. 27-34] Anthony ... Energy Consumption in Bayer Process [pp. 55 -60

334

Improved Thermal Shock Resistance of Shaped Alumina-Chromia ...  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Synthesis and Characterization of Pb Free Piezoelectric Ceramics - Barium ... Thermographic Characterization of Tensile Behavior in Railway Bogie Materials.

335

ORIGINAL PAPER Tunability of Propane Conversion over Alumina Supported  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

of this material for syngas products when prepared by procedures similar to those for Pt. Overall, the tunability of the anode for the production of syngas, which can subse- quently be electrochemically oxidized [7

336

Direct reduction of iron takes root in the U.S.  

SciTech Connect

After relying on spot purchases for growing metallic needs, US mills are now making permanent commitments to direct reduced iron (DRI). There is clearly a wave of DRI expansion under way. It`s well to remember, however, that past domestic waves fizzled when the steel market slumped and scrap prices sagged. Forty years after direct reduction was first hailed as the coming thing, only one DRI plant is actually operating in the US--at Georgetown steel Crop. One thing is certain: nearly 10 million additional tons of DRI or premium scrap will be needed when all the new electric furnace plants are operating. With mini mills moving into high-quality products, DRI is seen as more than an occasional hedge against high scrap prices. It`s an integral part of the supply of metallics to the electric furnace. Although natural gas seems plentiful, people are still looking for a reduction process that would use the abundant coal resources of North America. Years of looking have yet to produce a commercial coal system in the US or Canada. Stelco Inc. considered the SL/RN rotary kiln when it was building Lake Erie works, but decided to go with a blast furnace. Now, the first coal-based DRI plant may be near. Kobe Steel Ltd., and Mitsui and Co. are studying possible use of the FASTMET process in the US. The process forms pulverized coal and ore fines into pellets. The pellets are then reduced in a rotary hearth furnace. The FASTMET process is being tested in a 20,000-ton/year plant at the Kakogawa works of Kobe. If test results are favorable, Mitsui and Kobe plan to build a 900,00-ton/year HBI plant in the US. In South Africa, Davy International is building a coal-based DRI plant for SCAW Metals. A rotary kiln will be used to produced 150,000 tons of reduced iron a year. Other developments are discussed.

McManus, G.J.

1995-10-01T23:59:59.000Z

337

Impact evaluation of an Energy $avings Plan project at Holnam Incorporated  

SciTech Connect

This impact evaluation of four energy conservation measures (ECMs) that were recently installed at Holnam Incorporated (Holnam) was conducted for the Bonneville Power Administration (Bonneville) as part of an evaluation of its Energy $avings Plan (E$P) Program. The Program makes acquisition payments to firms that install energy conservation measures in their industrial processes. The objective of this impact evaluation was to assess how much electrical energy is being saved at Holnam as a result of the E$P and to determine how much the savings cost Bonneville and the region. The impact of the ECMs was evaluated with a combination of engineering analysis, financial analysis, site visit and interview, and review of previous program submittals (Holnam`s Proposals and Completion Reports). The four ECMs were all electronic power control devices that replaced less efficient technologies for controlling power to the kiln drive motors, cooler grate drive motors, cooler fan motors, and kiln stack gas precipitators. Energy savings from this project are expected to be 1,782,000 kWh/yr or 0.20 average megawatts. On a unit production basis, this project will save 3.4 kWh/ton of cement, based on Holnam`s projected average annual future production rate. The four ECMs cost a total of $248,232 to install, and Holnam received payment of $115,615 from Bonneville for the acquisition of energy savings. Program administrative costs incurred by Bonneville, Pacific Northwest Laboratory (PNL), and Seattle City Light (SCL) were estimated to be $29,362. The real levelized cost (1992 $) of these energy savings to Bonneville will be 6.2 mills/kWh over the project`s expected 15-year life, and the real levelized cost (1992 $) to the region will be 14.1 mills/kWh. Based on expected ECM installation costs and energy savings benefits alone, none of the four ECMs would have been implemented by Holnam without the E$P acquisition payment.

Brown, D.R.; Spanner, G.E.

1993-05-01T23:59:59.000Z

338

Impact evaluation of an Energy $avings Plan project at Holnam Incorporated  

SciTech Connect

This impact evaluation of four energy conservation measures (ECMs) that were recently installed at Holnam Incorporated (Holnam) was conducted for the Bonneville Power Administration (Bonneville) as part of an evaluation of its Energy $avings Plan (E$P) Program. The Program makes acquisition payments to firms that install energy conservation measures in their industrial processes. The objective of this impact evaluation was to assess how much electrical energy is being saved at Holnam as a result of the E$P and to determine how much the savings cost Bonneville and the region. The impact of the ECMs was evaluated with a combination of engineering analysis, financial analysis, site visit and interview, and review of previous program submittals (Holnam's Proposals and Completion Reports). The four ECMs were all electronic power control devices that replaced less efficient technologies for controlling power to the kiln drive motors, cooler grate drive motors, cooler fan motors, and kiln stack gas precipitators. Energy savings from this project are expected to be 1,782,000 kWh/yr or 0.20 average megawatts. On a unit production basis, this project will save 3.4 kWh/ton of cement, based on Holnam's projected average annual future production rate. The four ECMs cost a total of $248,232 to install, and Holnam received payment of $115,615 from Bonneville for the acquisition of energy savings. Program administrative costs incurred by Bonneville, Pacific Northwest Laboratory (PNL), and Seattle City Light (SCL) were estimated to be $29,362. The real levelized cost (1992 $) of these energy savings to Bonneville will be 6.2 mills/kWh over the project's expected 15-year life, and the real levelized cost (1992 $) to the region will be 14.1 mills/kWh. Based on expected ECM installation costs and energy savings benefits alone, none of the four ECMs would have been implemented by Holnam without the E$P acquisition payment.

Brown, D.R.; Spanner, G.E.

1993-05-01T23:59:59.000Z

339

Experience with improved charcoal and wood stoves for households and institutions in Kenya  

SciTech Connect

Efforts at promoting more fuel-efficient charcoal stoves to replace traditional charcoal stoves in Kenya offer some lessons for the dissemination of appropriate technologies. This paper looks at the market-based approach which has made the Kenyan charcoal stoves project a success. Trends in woodfuels (wood and charcoal) consumption in Kenya are identified; the traditional technology for charcoal combustion and the upgraded traditional technologies are described; production achievement and the dissemination and promotion strategy used are examined; and a financial and economic analysis is performed with social, health and environmental effects assessed. Other ways to achieve a more favourable balance between woodfuels consumption and supply are then discussed looking at more efficient charcoal kilns and household woodstoves, improved institutional stoves and increased wood production. The replication potential of the Kenya experiment in other countries is also explored. The lessons learnt from the the Kenya experience concern the relationship between technology, choice and delivery systems as they interact with, economic, institutional, and policy factors. In this case, the design work accepted the traditional technology as a starting point which helped ensure widespread acceptance by households. The potential desirability of relying on local artisans to manufacture consumer durables using existing private sector channels to market these goods is also shown. It also highlights the importance of going beyond a laissez-faire approach and supporting training, demonstration, and publicity to faciliate the workings of the private sector. In the Kenyan case, technology choice was relatively unsubsidized and left ot the preferences of consumers.

Hyman, E.L.

1985-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

340

LASL bismuth sulfate thermochemical hydrogen cycle  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

The LASL bismuth sulfate cycle is one of a generic class of solid sulfate cycles in which a metal sulfate is substituted for sulfuric acid in a hybrid (partly electrochemical) cycle. This technique avoids the serious materials and heat penalty problems associated with the handling of concentrated acid solutions, and if the electrolyzer is operated at acid concentrations below 50% it may, in principle, lead to a lower cell voltage with subsequent energy savings. Experiment verification of all steps in the cycle has been obtained, particularly for the decomposition of normal bismuth sulfate and lower bismuth oxysulfates. For the substance, Bi/sub 2/O/sub 3/ 2SO/sub 3/, an endothermic requirement of 172 kJ/mol was obtained, which is considerably less than that for other metal sulfate systems. A rotary kiln was used for continuous experiments and our results show decomposition of this compound to Bi/sub 2/O/sub 3/ SO/sub 3/ in under 8 minutes residence time at 1023 K. Preliminary analysis of the cycle's energy balance shows an overall thermal efficiency of greater than 50% when the maximum cycle reaction temperature is 1500 K. The cycle has potential for hydrogen production when coupled with an energy source such as solar or fusion energy.

Cox, K.E.; Jones, W.M.; Peterson, C.L.

1980-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "kiln alumina kiln" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


341

Wastes as co-fuels: the policy framework for solid recovered fuel (SRF) in Europe, with UK implications  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

European Union (EU) member states are adopting the mechanical-biological treatment (MBT) of municipal solid waste (MSW) to comply with EU Landfill Directive (LD) targets on landfill diversion. We review the policy framework for MSW-derived solid recovered fuel (SRF), composed of paper, plastic, and textiles, in the energy-intensive industries. A comparatively high calorific value (15-18 MJ/kg) fuel, SRF has the potential to partially replace fossil fuel in energy-intensive industries, alongside MSW in dedicated combustion facilities. Attempts by the European standards organization (CEN) to classify fuel properties consider net calorific value (CV) and chlorine and mercury content. However, the particle size, moisture content, and fuel composition also require attention and future studies must address these parameters. We critically review the implications of using SRF as a co-fuel in thermal processes. A thermodynamic analysis provides insight into the technical and environmental feasibility of co-combusting SRF in coal-fired power plants and cement kilns. Results indicate the use of SRF as co-fuel can reduce global warming and acidification potential significantly. This policy analysis is of value to waste managers, policy specialists, regulators, and the waste management research community. 63 refs., 3 figs., 3 tabs.

Anurag Garg; Richard Smith; Daryl Hill; Nigel Simms; Simon Pollard [Cranfield University, Cranfield (United Kingdom). Sustainable Systems Department, School of Applied Sciences

2007-07-15T23:59:59.000Z

342

Thermochemical processes for hydrogen production by water decomposition. Progress report, April 1--December 31, 1975  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

The interest in hydrogen as a chemical feedstock and as a possible non-polluting fuel has continued to be high, affected by recent estimates of 1980 prices for imported natural gas in the range of $3.00/MM Btu. Our exhaustive survey of multi-step thermochemical and hybrid cycles concluded that the most promising prospects to date are (1) a modification of Abraham's ANL-4 cycle, and (2) the Rohm and Haas multi-reaction, single reactor cycle. Both sequences utilize iodine-based oxidation-reduction chemistry and each ultimately produces hydrogen via an iodide vapor decomposition, in the first case from NH/sub 4/I, in the second from HI. Process feasibility depends on demonstration of separation steps of relatively low energy requirements. Further research is proposed along four lines: (1) modeling and computation focusing on selectivity in gas-solid reactions, (2) experimental studies of solids flow and mixing, as well as mass transfer and chemical reaction in rotating and/or oscillating kiln reactors, (3) kinetics of the crucial reactions in the ANL-4 and Rohm and Haas cycles, and gas separations associated with these processes, and (4) flow sheet evaluations and preliminary economics.

Perlmutter, D.D.; Myers, A.L.

1975-12-01T23:59:59.000Z

343

Opportunities for Energy Efficiency and Demand Response in the California Cement Industry  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

This study examines the characteristics of cement plants and their ability to shed or shift load to participate in demand response (DR). Relevant factors investigated include the various equipment and processes used to make cement, the operational limitations cement plants are subject to, and the quantities and sources of energy used in the cement-making process. Opportunities for energy efficiency improvements are also reviewed. The results suggest that cement plants are good candidates for DR participation. The cement industry consumes over 400 trillion Btu of energy annually in the United States, and consumes over 150 MW of electricity in California alone. The chemical reactions required to make cement occur only in the cement kiln, and intermediate products are routinely stored between processing stages without negative effects. Cement plants also operate continuously for months at a time between shutdowns, allowing flexibility in operational scheduling. In addition, several examples of cement plants altering their electricity consumption based on utility incentives are discussed. Further study is needed to determine the practical potential for automated demand response (Auto-DR) and to investigate the magnitude and shape of achievable sheds and shifts.

Olsen, Daniel; Goli, Sasank; Faulkner, David; McKane, Aimee

2010-12-22T23:59:59.000Z

344

UTILIZATION OF LIGHTWEIGHT MATERIALS MADE FROM COAL GASIFICATION SLAGS  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

The objective of the project entitled ''Utilization of Lightweight Materials Made from Coal Gasification Slags'' was to demonstrate the technical and economic viability of manufacturing low-unit-weight products from coal gasification slags which can be used as substitutes for conventional lightweight and ultra-lightweight aggregates. In Phase I, the technology developed by Praxis to produce lightweight aggregates from slag (termed SLA) was applied to produce a large batch (10 tons) of expanded slag using pilot direct-fired rotary kilns and a fluidized bed calciner. The expanded products were characterized using basic characterization and application-oriented tests. Phase II involved the demonstration and evaluation of the use of expanded slag aggregates to produce a number of end-use applications including lightweight roof tiles, lightweight precast products (e.g., masonry blocks), structural concrete, insulating concrete, loose fill insulation, and as a substitute for expanded perlite and vermiculite in horticultural applications. Prototypes of these end-use applications were made and tested with the assistance of commercial manufacturers. Finally, the economics of expanded slag production was determined and compared with the alternative of slag disposal. Production of value-added products from SLA has a significant potential to enhance the overall gasification process economics, especially when the avoided costs of disposal are considered.

Vas Choudhry; Stephen Kwan; Steven R. Hadley

2001-07-01T23:59:59.000Z

345

Great Western Malting Company geothermal project, Pocatello, Idaho. Final report  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

The Great Western Malting Company recently constructed a barley malting facility in Pocatello, Idaho, designed to produce 6.0 million bushels per year of brewing malt. This facility uses natural gas to supply the energy for germination and kilning processes. The escalating cost of natural gas has prompted the company to look at alternate and more economical sources of energy. Trans Energy Systems has investigated the viabiity of using geothermal energy at the new barley processing plant. Preliminary investigations show that a geothermal resource probably exists, and payback on the installation of a system to utilize the resource will occur in under 2 years. The Great Western Malting plant site has geological characteristics which are similar to areas where productive geothermal wells have been established. Geological investigations indicate that resource water temperatures will be in the 150 to 200/sup 0/F range. Geothermal energy of this quality will supply 30 to 98% of the heating requirements currently supplied by natural gas for this malting plant. Trans Energy Systems has analyzed several systems of utilizing the geothermal resource at the Great Western barley malting facility. These systems included: direct use of geothermal water; geothermal energy heating process water through an intermediary heat exchanger; coal or gas boosted geothermal systems; and heat pump boosted geothermal system. The analysis examined the steps that are required to process the grain.

Christensen, N.T.; McGeen, M.A.; Corlett, D.F.; Urmston, R.

1981-12-23T23:59:59.000Z

346

Production of charcoal and activated carbon at elevated pressure  

SciTech Connect

With its wide range of properties, charcoal finds many commercial applications for domestic cooking, refining of metals (steel, copper, bronze, nickel, aluminum and electro-manganese), production of chemicals (carbon disulfide, calcium carbide, silicon carbide, sodium cyanide, carbon black, fireworks, gaseous chemicals, absorbents, soil conditioners and pharmaceuticals), as well as production of activated carbon and synthesis gas. In 1991, the world production of charcoal was 22.8 million cubic meters (3.8 million metric tons) as shown in Table 1. Brazil is the world`s largest charcoal producer --- 5.9 million cubic meters or one million metric tons was produced in 1991, most of which is used in steel and iron industry. African countries produced 45% of the world total amount of charcoal, where 86% of the wood-based energy is for domestic use, most of which is inefficiently used. Charcoal is produced commercially in kilns with a 25% to 30% yield by mass on a 7 to 12 day operating cycle. Until recently, the highest yield of good quality charcoal reported in the literature was 38%. In this paper, and ASME code rated experimental system is presented for producing charcoal and activated carbon from biomass.

Dai, Xiangfeng; Norberg, N.; Antal, M.J. Jr. [Univ. of Hawaii at Manoa, Honolulu, HI (United States)

1995-12-31T23:59:59.000Z

347

Process and technological aspects of municipal solid waste gasification. A review  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Critical assessment of the main commercially available MSW gasifiers. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Detailed discussion of the basic features of gasification process. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Description of configurations of gasification-based waste-to-energy units. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Environmental performance analysis, on the basis of independent sources data. - Abstract: The paper proposes a critical assessment of municipal solid waste gasification today, starting from basic aspects of the process (process types and steps, operating and performance parameters) and arriving to a comparative analysis of the reactors (fixed bed, fluidized bed, entrained bed, vertical shaft, moving grate furnace, rotary kiln, plasma reactor) as well as of the possible plant configurations (heat gasifier and power gasifier) and the environmental performances of the main commercially available gasifiers for municipal solid wastes. The analysis indicates that gasification is a technically viable option for the solid waste conversion, including residual waste from separate collection of municipal solid waste. It is able to meet existing emission limits and can have a remarkable effect on reduction of landfill disposal option.

Arena, Umberto, E-mail: umberto.arena@unina2.it [Department of Environmental Sciences, Second University of Naples, Via A. Vivaldi, 43, 81100 Caserta (Italy)

2012-04-15T23:59:59.000Z

348

Production of carbon molecular sieves from Illinois coal. [Quarterly] technical report, March 1, 1993--May 31, 1993  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

Carbon molecular sieves (CMS) have become an increasingly important class of adsorbents for use in gas separation and recover processes. The overall objective of this project is to determine whether Illinois Basin coals are suitable feedstocks for the production of CMS and to evaluate the potential application of these products in commercial gas separation processes. In Phase I of this project, gram quantities of char were prepared from Illinois coal in a fixed-bed reactor under a wide range of pyrolysis and activation conditions. Chars having surface areas of 1500--2100 m{sup 2}/g were produced by chemical activation using potassium hydroxide (KOH) as the activant. These high surface area chars had more than twice the adsorption capacity of commercial molecular sieves. The kinetics of adsorption of various gases, e.g., N{sub 2}, O{sub 2}, CO{sub 2}, CH{sub 4}, CO and H{sub 2}, on these chars at 25{degrees}C was determined. Several chars showed good potential for efficient O{sub 2}/N{sub 2}, CO{sub 2}/CH{sub 4} and CH{sub 4}/H{sub 2} separation; both a high adsorption capacity and selectivity were achieved. The full potential of these materials in commercial gas separations has yet to be realized. In Phase II of this project, larger quantities of char are being prepared from Illinois coal in a batch fluidized-bed reactor and in a continuous rotary tube kiln.

Lizzio, A.A.; Rostam-Abadi, M. [Illinois State Geological Survey, Champaign, IL (United States)

1993-09-01T23:59:59.000Z

349

Perspectives for pilot scale study of RDF in Istanbul, Turkey  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Municipal solid waste (MSW) is one of the most important environmental problems arising from rapid urbanization and industrialization. The use of alternative fuels in rotary kilns of cement plants is very important for reducing cost, saving fossil fuels and also eliminating waste materials, accumulated during production or after using these materials. Cement industries has an important potential for supplying preferable solutions to the waste management. Energy recovery from waste is also important for the reduction of CO{sub 2} emissions. This paper presents an investigation of the development of refuse derived fuel (RDF) materials from non-recycling wastes and the determination of its potential use as an alternative fuel in cement production in Istanbul, Turkey. RDF produced from MSW was analyzed and its effects on cement production process were examined. For this purpose, the produced RDF was mixed with the main fuel (LPG) in ratios of 0%, 5%, 10%, 15% and 20%. Then chemical and mineralogical analyses of the produced clinker were carried out. It is believed that successful results of this study will be a good example for municipalities and cement industries in order to achieve both economic and environmental benefits.

Kara, Mustafa, E-mail: mustafa.kara@mam.gov.t [TUBITAK MRC (Marmara Research Center) Materials Institute, Gebze, P.O. Box 21, 41470 Kocaeli (Turkey); Guenay, Esin; Tabak, Yasemin [TUBITAK MRC (Marmara Research Center) Materials Institute, Gebze, P.O. Box 21, 41470 Kocaeli (Turkey); Yildiz, Senol [ISTAC, Istanbul Metropolitan Municipality Environmental Protection and Waste Materials Valuation Industry and Trade Co., Kasimpasa, Istanbul (Turkey)

2009-12-15T23:59:59.000Z

350

Potential for energy conservation in the cement industry  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

This report assesses the potential for energy conservation in the cement industry. Energy consumption per ton of cement decreased 20% between 1972 and 1982. During this same period, the cement industry became heavily dependent on coal and coke as its primary fuel source. Although the energy consumed per ton of cement has declined markedly in the past ten years, the industry still uses more than three and a half times the fuel that is theoretically required to produce a ton of clinker. Improving kiln thermal efficiency offers the greatest opportunity for saving fuel. Improving the efficiency of finish grinding offers the greatest potential for reducing electricity use. Technologies are currently available to the cement industry to reduce its average fuel consumption per ton by product by as much as 40% and its electricity consumption per ton by about 10%. The major impediment to adopting these technologies is the cement industry's lack of capital as a result of low or no profits in recent years.

Garrett-Price, B.A.

1985-02-01T23:59:59.000Z

351

SkyMine Carbon Mineralization Pilot Project  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

This Topical Report addresses accomplishments achieved during Phase 1 of the SkyMine{reg_sign} Carbon Mineralization Pilot Project. The primary objectives of this project are to design, construct, and operate a system to capture CO{sub 2} from a slipstream of flue gas from a commercial coal-fired cement kiln, convert that CO{sub 2} to products having commercial value (i.e., beneficial use), show the economic viability of the CO{sub 2} capture and conversion process, and thereby advance the technology to a point of readiness for commercial scale demonstration and proliferation. The project will also substantiate market opportunities for the technology by sales of chemicals into existing markets, and identify opportunities to improve technology performance and reduce costs at commercial scale. The primary objectives of Phase 1 of the project were to elaborate proven SkyMine{reg_sign} process chemistry to commercial pilot-scale operation and complete the preliminary design ('Reference Plant Design') for the pilot plant to be built and operated in Phase 2. Additionally, during Phase 1, information necessary to inform a DOE determination regarding NEPA requirements for the project was developed, and a comprehensive carbon lifecycle analysis was completed. These items were included in the formal application for funding under Phase 2. All Phase 1 objectives were successfully met on schedule and within budget.

Joe Jones; Clive Barton; Mark Clayton; Al Yablonsky; David Legere

2010-09-30T23:59:59.000Z

352

The originating Section of this publication in the IAEA was: Industrial Applications and Chemistry Section International Atomic Energy Agency  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

developed and validated procedures and protocols for investigation of major industrial processes, including fluidized beds, sugar crystallizers, trickle bed reactors, cement rotary kilns, flotation cells, grinding mills, incinerators, wastewater treatment units and interwell communications in oil fields. Over the years, the IAEA has contributed substantial funding and effort to industrial applications of radiotracer technology. Significant progress has been made, enabling IAEA Member States to introduce the technology in well defined industrial processing fields and establish national and private radiotracer groups with the indigenous capacity to sustain and further develop the technology. There are currently more than 50 radiotracer groups in the developing Member States of the IAEA applying radiotracers in routine service to end users. This publication is the output of the above mentioned CRP. It provides the principles and state of the art of radiotracer methodology and technology as applied to industry and environment. It is expected to provide wider interest for further development of skills and confidence prior to carrying out field work. It facilitates transfer of technology from developed to developing countries and from nuclear research institutions to industrial end

Radiotracer Technology; Wagramer Strasse

2001-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

353

Gulf Coast geopressured-geothermal program summary report compilation. Volume 3: Applied and direct uses, resource feasibility, economics  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

The US Department of Energy established a geopressured-geothermal energy program in the mid 1970`s as one response to America`s need to develop alternate energy resources in view of the increasing dependence on imported fossil fuel energy. This program continued for 17 years and approximately two hundred million dollars were expended for various types of research and well testing to thoroughly investigate this alternative energy source. This volume describes the following studies: Geopressured-geothermal hybrid cycle power plant: design, testing, and operation summary; Feasibility of hydraulic energy recovery from geopressured-geothermal resources: economic analysis of the Pelton turbine; Brine production as an exploration tool for water drive gas reservoirs; Study of supercritical Rankine cycles; Application of the geopressured-geothermal resource to pyrolytic conversion or decomposition/detoxification processes; Conclusions on wet air oxidation, pyrolytic conversion, decomposition/detoxification process; Co-location of medium to heavy oil reservoirs with geopressured-geothermal resources and the feasibility of oil recovery using geopressured-geothermal fluids; Economic analysis; Application of geopressured-geothermal resources to direct uses; Industrial consortium for the utilization of the geopressured-geothermal resource; Power generation; Industrial desalination, gas use and sales, pollutant removal, thermal EOR, sulfur frasching, oil and natural gas pipelining, coal desulfurization and preparation, lumber and concrete products kilning; Agriculture and aquaculture applications; Paper and cane sugar industries; Chemical processing; Environmental considerations for geopressured-geothermal development. 27 figs., 25 tabs.

John, C.J.; Maciasz, G.; Harder, B.J.

1998-06-01T23:59:59.000Z

354

The extraction of bitumen from western oil sands: Volume 2. Final report  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

The program is composed of 20 projects, of which 17 are laboratory bench or laboratory pilot scale processes or computer process simulations that are performed in existing facilities on the University of Utah campus in north-east Salt Lake City. These tasks are: (1) coupled fluidized-bed bitumen recovery and coked sand combustion; (2) water-based recovery of bitumen; (3) oil sand pyrolysis in a continuous rotary kiln reactor; (4) oil sand pyrolysis in a large diameter fluidized bed reactor; (5) oil sand pyrolysis in a small diameter fluidized bed reactor; (6) combustion of spent sand in a transport reactor; (7) recovery and upgrading of oil sand bitumen using solvent extraction methods; (8) fixed-bed hydrotreating of Uinta Basin bitumens and bitumen-derived hydrocarbon liquids; (9) ebullieted bed hydrotreating of bitumen and bitumen derived liquids; (10) bitumen upgrading by hydropyrolysis; (11) evaluation of Utah`s major oil sand deposits for the production of asphalt, high-energy jet fuels and other specialty products; (12) characterization of the bitumens and reservoir rocks from the Uinta Basin oil sand deposits; (13) bitumen upgrading pilot plant recommendations; (14) liquid-solid separation and fine tailings thickening; (15) in-situ production of heavy oil from Uinta Basin oil sand deposits; (16) oil sand research and development group analytical facility; and (17) process economics. This volume contains reports on nine of these projects, references, and a bibliography. 351 refs., 192 figs., 65 tabs.

Oblad, A.G.; Dahlstrom, D.A.; Deo, M.D.; Fletcher, J.V.; Hanson, F.V.; Miller, J.D.; Seader, J.D.

1997-11-26T23:59:59.000Z

355

Multi-Megawatt Organic Rankine Engine power plant (MORE). Phase IA final report: system design of MORE power plant for industrial energy conservation emphasizing the cement industry  

SciTech Connect

The Multi-Megawatt Organic Rankine Engine (MORE) program is directed towards the development of a large, organic Rankine power plant for energy conservation from moderate temperature industrial heat streams. Organic Rankine power plants are ideally suited for use with heat sources in the temperature range below 1100/sup 0/F. Cement manufacture was selected as the prototype industry for the MORE system because of the range of parameters which can be tested in a cement application. This includes process exit temperatures of 650/sup 0/F to 1110/sup 0/F for suspension preheater and long dry kilns, severe dust loading, multi-megawatt power generation potential, and boiler exhaust gas acid dew point variations. The work performed during the Phase IA System Design contract period is described. The System Design task defines the complete MORE system and its installation to the level necessary to obtain detailed performance maps, equipment specifications, planning of supporting experiments, and credible construction and hardware cost estimates. The MORE power plant design is based upon installation in the Black Mountain Quarry Cement Plant near Victorville, California.

Bair, E.K.; Breindel, B.; Collamore, F.N.; Hodgson, J.N.; Olson, G.K.

1980-01-31T23:59:59.000Z

356

Mixed waste characterization reference document  

SciTech Connect

Waste characterization and monitoring are major activities in the management of waste from generation through storage and treatment to disposal. Adequate waste characterization is necessary to ensure safe storage, selection of appropriate and effective treatment, and adherence to disposal standards. For some wastes characterization objectives can be difficult and costly to achieve. The purpose of this document is to evaluate costs of characterizing one such waste type, mixed (hazardous and radioactive) waste. For the purpose of this document, waste characterization includes treatment system monitoring, where monitoring is a supplement or substitute for waste characterization. This document establishes a cost baseline for mixed waste characterization and treatment system monitoring requirements from which to evaluate alternatives. The cost baseline established as part of this work includes costs for a thermal treatment technology (i.e., a rotary kiln incinerator), a nonthermal treatment process (i.e., waste sorting, macronencapsulation, and catalytic wet oxidation), and no treatment (i.e., disposal of waste at the Waste Isolation Pilot Plant (WIPP)). The analysis of improvement over the baseline includes assessment of promising areas for technology development in front-end waste characterization, process equipment, off gas controls, and monitoring. Based on this assessment, an ideal characterization and monitoring configuration is described that minimizes costs and optimizes resources required for waste characterization.

1997-09-01T23:59:59.000Z

357

Space Heaters, Computers, Cell Phone Chargers: How Plugged In AreCommercial Buildings?  

SciTech Connect

Evidenceof electric plug loads in commercial buildings isvisible everyday: space heaters, portable fans, and the IT technician'stwo monitors connected to one PC. The Energy Information Administrationestimates that office and miscellaneous equipment together will consume2.18 quads in 2006, nearly 50 percent of U.S. commercial electricity use.Although the importance of commercial plug loads is documented, its verynature (diverse product types, products not installed when buildinginitially constructed, and products often hidden in closets) makes itdifficult to accurately count and categorize the end use.We auditedsixteen buildings in three cities (San Francisco, Atlanta, Pittsburgh)including office, medical and education building types. We inventoriedthe number and types of office and miscellaneous electric equipment aswell as estimated total energy consumption due to these product types. Intotal, we audited approximately 4,000 units of office equipment and 6,000units of miscellaneous equipment and covered a diverse range of productsranging from electric pencil sharpeners with a unit energy consumption(UEC) of 1 kWh/yr to a kiln with a UEC of 7,000 kWh/yr. Our paperpresents a summary of the density and type of plug load equipment foundas well as the estimated total energy consumption of the equipment.Additionally, we present equipment trends observed and provide insightsto how policy makers can target energy efficiency for this growing enduse.

Sanchez, Marla; Webber, Carrie; Brown, Richard; Busch, John; Pinckard, Margaret; Roberson, Judy

2007-02-28T23:59:59.000Z

358

The estimation of N{sub 2}O emissions from municipal solid waste incineration facilities: The Korea case  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

The greenhouse gases (GHGs) generated in municipal solid waste (MSW) incineration are carbon dioxide (CO{sub 2}), methane (CH{sub 4}), and nitrous oxide (N{sub 2}O). In South Korea case, the total of GHGs from the waste incineration facilities has been increasing at an annual rate 10%. In these view, waste incineration facilities should consider to reduce GHG emissions. This study is designed to estimate the N{sub 2}O emission factors from MSW incineration plants, and calculate the N{sub 2}O emissions based on these factors. The three MSW incinerators examined in this study were either stoker or both stoker and rotary kiln facilities. The N{sub 2}O concentrations from the MSW incinerators were measured using gas chromatography-electron capture detection (GC-ECD) equipment. The average of the N{sub 2}O emission factors for the M01 plant, M02 plant, and M03 plant are 71, 75, and 153 g-N{sub 2}O/ton-waste, respectively. These results showed a significant difference from the default values of the intergovernmental panel on climate change (IPCC), while approaching those values derived in Japan and Germany. Furthermore, comparing the results of this study to the Korea Energy Economics Institute (KEEI) (2007) data on waste incineration, N{sub 2}O emissions from MSW incineration comprised 19% of the total N{sub 2}O emissions.

Park, Sangwon; Choi, Jun-Ho [Department of Chemical and Biomolecular Engineering, Yonsei University, 262 Seongsanno, Seodaemun-gu, Seoul 120-749 (Korea, Republic of); Park, Jinwon, E-mail: jwpark@yonsei.ac.kr [Department of Chemical and Biomolecular Engineering, Yonsei University, 262 Seongsanno, Seodaemun-gu, Seoul 120-749 (Korea, Republic of)

2011-08-15T23:59:59.000Z

359

An RTD study for the flow of lignite particles through a pilot rotary dryer. Part 2: Flighted drum case  

SciTech Connect

In Part 2 of this work a flighted pilot rotating cylindrical drum, intended to be used as either a dryer or calciner (kiln), has been used to investigate the flow, through it, of pulverized moist lignite. Tracer pulse input-response experiments have been performed. Residence Time Distribution (RTD) data have been deduced for three types of flight geometry, namely: Rectangular (RA), Equal Angular Distribution (EAD) and Equal Horizontal Distribution (EHD). For each flight shape, mean residence time {bar t} has been correlated with drum operating conditions. The sequence {bar t}{sub EAD} < {bar t}{sub RA} < {bar t}{sub EHD} has been validated. A comparison between the residence time predictions for the flighted and the bare drum has indicated that {bar t} for the former may be higher by up to 3.5 times than that for the latter. Exceptionally high solids hold-up values (i.e., Z = 0.13--0.42) have been observed and compared to theoretical predictions. Particle size segregation during lignite flow through the flighted drum was not confirmed.

Hatzilyberis, K.S.; Androutsopoulos, G.P. [National Technical Univ. of Athens (Greece). Dept. of Chemical Engineering

1999-04-01T23:59:59.000Z

360

Environmental assessment of remedial action at the inactive uraniferous lignite ashing sites at Belfield and Bowman, North Dakota  

SciTech Connect

The Uranium Mill Tailings Radiation Control Act (UMTRCA) of 1978 authorized the US Department of Energy (DOE) to perform remedial actions at Belfield and Bowman inactive lignite ashing sites in southwestern North Dakota to reduce the potential public health impacts from the residual radioactivity remaining at the sites. The US Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) promulgated standards (40 CFR 192) that contain measures to control the residual radioactive materials and other contaminated materials, and proposed standards to protect the groundwater from further degradation. Remedial action at the Belfield and Bowman sites must be performed in accordance with these standards and with the concurrence of the US Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC) and the state of North Dakota. The Belfield and Bowman designated sites were used by Union Carbide and Kerr-McGee, respectively, to process uraniferous lignite in the 1960s. Uranium-rich ash from rotary kiln processing of the lignite was loaded into rail cars and transported to uranium mills in Rifle, Colorado, and Ambrosia Lake, New Mexico, respectively. As a result of the ashing process, there is a total of 158,400 cubic yards (yd{sup 3}) [121,100 cubic meters (m{sup 3})] of radioactive ash-contaminated soils at the two sites. Windblown ash-contaminated soil covers an additional 21 acres (8.5 ha) around the site, which includes grazing land, wetlands, and a wooded habitat.

1993-09-01T23:59:59.000Z

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "kiln alumina kiln" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


361

Theoretical Predictions and Experimental Assessments of the Performance of Alumina RF Windows  

SciTech Connect

Radio frequency (RF) windows are the most likely place for catastrophic failure to occur in input power couplers for particle accelerators. Reliable RF windows are essential for the success of the Accelerator Production of Tritium (APT) program because there are over 1000 windows on the accelerator, and it takes more than one day to recover from a window failure. The goals of this research are to analytically predict the lifetime of the windows, to develop a conditioning procedure, and to evaluate the performance of the RF windows. The analytical goal is to predict the lifetime of the windows. The probability of failure is predicted by the combination of a finite element model of the window, Weibull probabilistic analysis, and fracture mechanics. The window assembly is modeled in a finite element electromagnetic code in order to calculate the electric fields in the window. The geometry (i.e. mesh) and electric fields are input into a translator program to generate the mesh and boundary conditions for a finite element thermal structural code. The temperatures and stresses are determined in the thermal/structural code. The geometry and thermal structural results are input into another translator program to generate an input file for the reliability code. Material, geometry and service data are also input into the reliability code. To obtain accurate Weibull and fatigue data for the analytical model, four point bend tests were done. The analytical model is validated by comparing the measurements to the calculations. The lifetime of the windows is then determined using the reliability code. The analytical model shows the window has a good thermal mechanical design and that fast fracture is unlikely to occur below a power level of 9 Mw. The experimental goal is to develop a conditioning procedure and evaluate the performance of RF windows. During the experimental evaluation, much was learned about processing of the windows to improve the RF performance. Methods of processing included grit blasting and using various coatings.

Karen Ann Cummings

1998-07-01T23:59:59.000Z

362

Preparation of mesoporous Ni–alumina catalyst by one-step  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

sol–gel method: control of textural properties and catalytic application to the hydrodechlorination of o-dichlorobenzene

unknown authors

2005-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

363

Effect of catalyst structure on oxidative dehydrogenation of ethane and propane on alumina-supported vanadia  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

olefin yields are obtained on catalysts containing isolatededge energies for VO x /Al 2 O 3 catalysts Figure 2. Ramanspectra for VO x /Al 2 O 3 catalysts (obtained at 298 K in

Argyle, Morris D.; Chen, Kaidong; Bell, Alexis T.; Iglesia, Enrique

2001-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

364

Towards On-Line Monitoring of Alumina Properties at a Pot Level  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Maximize Efficiency and Safety of Smelters through Advanced Multipurpose Simulator ... Multivariate Statistical Investigation of Carbon Consumption for HSS  ...

365

Growth strains and stress relaxation in alumina scales during high temperature oxidation  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

combine with thermal stresses that develop during cooling toConsequently, thermal stresses build up on cooling withoutduring cooling and that the stresses resulting from thermal

Hou, P.Y.; Paulikas, A.P.; Veal, B.W.

2004-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

366

The Performance of Pt-Modified Alumina-Forming Coatings and ...  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

sponsored at ORNL by the U.S. Department of Energy, Office of. Coal and Power R&D, Office of Fossil Energy, (R. Dennis program manager) under contract ...

367

Yittria and Alumina Nano-scale Oxide-dispersion-strengthened (ODS)  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Effect of Oxide Dispersion Strengthening on Spark Plasma Sintering Kinetics of 13Cr-2Mo ... Synthesis of TiN Nanorods by Thermal Decomposition of Solid/Gas

368

XAS of uranium(VI) sorbed onto silica, alumina, and montmorillonite  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

The purpose of this work is to determine the speciation (oxidation state and molecular structure) of uranium sorbed onto surfaces of silica

E. R. Sylwester; P. G. Allen; E. A. Hudson

2000-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

369

A Pilot-plant Scale Test on DRI Preparation from High-alumina ...  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

... by Microwave Heating · Large Eddy Simulation for Turbulent Flow in a Dissipative Ladle Shroud ... Thermochemical Simulation of Cu-Ni Smelting Operations.

370

Refractory Materials based on Magnesia-Alumina Spinel for Improved Performance in Coal Gasification Environments  

SciTech Connect

As part of a larger project to develop novel refractory systems and techniques to reduce energy consumption of refractory lined vessels, a team composed of Oak Ridge National Laboratory, refractory manufacturer Minteq International, Inc., and academic partner Missouri University of Science and Technology have developed new refractory materials and coating systems specifically for application in coal gasification environments. Materials were developed under this U.S. DOE funded project to address the need for innovative refractory compositions by developing MgO-Al2O3 spinel gunnable refractory compositions utilizing new aggregate materials, bond systems, protective coatings, and phase formation techniques. Work was conducted to develop and deploy these new materials and to develop and apply low cost coatings using a colloidal approach for protection against attack of the refractory brick by the serviced environment. Additionally, a light-weight back-up refractory system was developed to help offset the high thermal conductivity inherent in spinel materials. This paper discusses the efforts involved in the development of these materials, along with the laboratory testing and evaluation of these materials leading to relevant results achieved toward the reduction of chemical reactions and mechanical degradation by the service environment though compositional and processing modifications.

Hemrick, James Gordon [ORNL; Armstrong, Beth L [ORNL; Rodrigues-Schroer, Angela [Minteq International, Inc.; Colavito, [Minteq International, Inc.; Smith, Jeffrey D [ORNL; O'Hara, Kelley [University of Missouri, Rolla

2013-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

371

The Dissolution Rate of Solid Alumina Inclusion into Molten CaF2 ...  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

About this Abstract. Meeting, 2014 TMS Annual Meeting & Exhibition. Symposium , 5th International Symposium on High Temperature Metallurgical Processing.

372

Evolved Gas Analysis for High-alumina HLW (High Level Waste) Feed  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Using the thermogravimetry coupled with gas chromatography-mass spectrometer, ... Tungstic Acid for Sorption of Uranium from Natural and Waste Waters and ...

373

Chemical Relaxation and Double Layer Model Analysis of Boron Adsorption on Alumina  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

with a DIA-RPM Wheatstone bridge, and DIA-RRC analog-to-digital converter (Dia-log Co., Diis- seldorf

Sparks, Donald L.

374

Interfacial and near interfacial crack growth phenomena in metal bonded alumina  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Metal/ceramic interfaces can be found in many engineering applications including microelectronic packaging, multi-layered films, coatings, joints, and composite materials. In order to design reliable engineering systems that contain metal/ceramic interfaces, a comprehensive understanding of interfacial and near interfacial failure mechanisms is necessary.

Kruzic, Jamie Joseph

2002-03-01T23:59:59.000Z

375

Evaluation of Cadmium-Free Thick Film Materials on Alumina Substrates  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

A new cadmium-free material system was successfully evaluated for the fabrication of thick film hybrid microcircuits at Honeywell Federal Manufacturing & Technologies (FM&T). The characterization involved screen printing, drying and firing two groups of resistor networks which were made using the current material system and the cadmium-free material system. Electrical, environmental and adhesion tests were performed on both groups to determine the more suitable material system. Additionally, untrimmed test coupons were evaluated to further characterize the new materials. The cadmiumfree material system did as well or better than the current material system. Therefore, the new cadmium-free material system was approved for use on production thick film product.

L. H. Perdieu

2009-09-01T23:59:59.000Z

376

Corrosion of cermet anodes during low temperature electrolysis of alumina. Final report  

SciTech Connect

Successful development of inert anodes to replace carbon anodes in Hall cells has the potential benefits of lower energy consumption,lower operating costs, and reduced CO{sub 2} and CO emissions. Using inert anodes at reduced current density and reduced operating temperature (800 C) has potential for decreasing the corrosion rate of inert anodes. It may also permit the use of new materials for containment and insulation. This report describes the fabrication characteristics and the corrosion performance of 5324-17% Cu Cermet anodes in 100 hour tests. Although some good results were achieved, the corrosion rate at low temperature (800 C) is varied and not significantly lower than typical results at high temperature ({approximately} 960 C). This report also describes several attempts at 200 hour tests, with one anode achieving 177 hours of continuous operation and another achieving a total of 235 hours but requiring three separate tests of the same anode. The longest run did show a lower wear rate in the last test; but a high resistance layer developed on the anode surface and forced an unacceptably low current density. It is recommended that intermediate temperatures be explored as a more optimal environment for inert anodes. Other electrolyte chemistries and anode compositions (especially high conductivity anodes) should be considered to alleviate problems associated with lower temperature operation.

Kozarek, R.L.; Ray, S.P.; Dawless, R.K.; LaCamera, A.F.

1997-09-26T23:59:59.000Z

377

Multi-phase Strengthening Of Alumina-forming, Creep-resistant ...  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Research sponsored by the U.S. DOE, Office of EERE Industrial Technologies Program, under contract DE-AC05-00OR22725 with UT-Battelle, LLC.

378

Gel-casting of Positively Charged Alumina Suspension by Gellan Gum  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

J10: Mechanical Properties and Welding Conditions of Monopile and Transition for Offshore Wind Plant · J12: Microstructure and Mechanical Properties of ...

379

SubstrateSubstrate Commercially available high density -alumina plate (14x14 mm2)  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

supported on MOx·H2O supported on carbon Pt MOx e- carbon H+ OO H+ H+ Nafion H+ O2 O H2O Catalyst development via electrochemical and structural analysis #12;Naval Research Lab DOE review 19May2003 Pt-MOx

Azad, Abdul-Majeed

380

Thermally Evaporated Iron (Oxide) on an Alumina Barrier Layer, by XPS  

SciTech Connect

We report the XPS characterization of a thermally evaporated iron thin film (6 nm) deposited on an Si/SiO_2/Al_2O_3 substrate using Al Ka X-rays. An XPS survey spectrum, narrow Fe 2p scan, narrow O 1s, and valence band scan are shown.

Madaan, Nitesh; Kanyal, Supriya S.; Jensen, David S.; Vail, Michael A.; Dadson, Andrew; Engelhard, Mark H.; Linford, Matthew R.

2013-09-06T23:59:59.000Z

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "kiln alumina kiln" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


381

Electrical conductivity and current-voltage characteristics of alumina with or without neutron and electron irradiation  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

prompted a reassessment of this picture. First, the accelerated embrittlement of the HFIR reactor pressure irradiation #12;embrittlement mechanisms. Analysis showed that the special characteristics of the HFIR reactor of pressure vessel steels in HFIR [4], and in which the gamma contribution was explained on a straight

Howlader, Matiar R

382

Micro Catalytic Combustor with Pd/Nano-porous Alumina for High-Temperature Application  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

surface reaction of butane. In combustion experiments with a prototype combustor, the wall temperature is proportional to the butane concentration, is employed to characterize the activity of the catalyst layer for n-butane profile of butane-air mixture is assumed at the inlet. The volumetric flow rate QB is kept at 10 sccm

Kasagi, Nobuhide

383

Preparation of ceramic matrix and alumina fiber composites for use as solid electrolytes  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

A process for making solid electrolytes using a fibrous stabilizing dispersed second phase for enhanced conductivity of the electrolyte after deformation and annealing. 1 tab.

Dudney, N.J.

1987-04-30T23:59:59.000Z

384

Mechanical and In-Vitro Behaviour of Alumina and Zirconia Based ...  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Fabrication of a Cellulosic Nanocomposite Scaffold with Improved Supermolecular Structure as a Potential Cardiovascular Tissue-Engineered Graft .

385

TEST PROGRAM FOR ALUMINA REMOVAL AND SODIUM HYDROXIDE REGENERATION FROM HANFORD WASTE BY LITHIUM HYDROTALCITE PRECIPITATION  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

This test program sets a multi-phased development path to support the development of the Lithium Hydrotalcite process, in order to raise its Technology Readiness Level from 3 to 6, based on tasks ranging from laboratory scale scientific research to integrated pilot facilities.

SAMS TL; GEINESSE D

2011-01-28T23:59:59.000Z

386

Partial oxidation of propane on ceria-and alumina-supported platinum catalysts.  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

??Three Pt/CeO2 catalysts and Pt/Al2O3 catalyst were studied for partial oxidation of propane. The 1 % Pt/CeO2 (C) catalyst which was prepared using CeO2 prepared… (more)

Bansode, Vijaya Anil.

2006-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

387

Alumina Nanoparticle Pre-coated Tubing Ehancing Subcooled Flow Boiling Cricital Heat Flux  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Nanofluids are engineered colloidal dispersions of nano-sized particle in common base fluids. Previous pool boiling studies have shown that nanofluids can improve critical heat flux (CHF) up to 200% for pool boiling and ...

Truong, Bao H.

388

D1: Conductivity Measurement of b”-Alumina for AMTEC Application  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

A18: Effect of Local Alendronate Delivery on In Vivo Osteogenesis From PCL ... A7: On-the-fly System Design for High Precision/Ultra Fast/Wide Area Fabrication .... C19: Dissolution Behavior of Cu Under Bump Metallization in Ball Grid Array ... High Volume and Fast Turnaround Automated Inline TEM Sample Preparation.

389

CORRELATION OF MICROSTRUCTURE OF SINTERED MULLITE BODIES WITH THEIR STRESS-STRAIN BEHAVIOR IN COMPRESSION LOADING AT 1200oC  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Grinding. (a) (b) Alumina/Flint Grinding Media AluminaI. Grinding with Alumina and Flint . Grinding with Aluminaalumina cylinders and flint pebbles. The mullite/alcohol

Sacks, M.D.

2010-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

390

JV Task 90 - Activated Carbon Production from North Dakota Lignite  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

The Energy & Environmental Research Center (EERC) has pursued a research program for producing activated carbon from North Dakota lignite that can be competitive with commercial-grade activated carbon. As part of this effort, small-scale production of activated carbon was produced from Fort Union lignite. A conceptual design of a commercial activated carbon production plant was drawn, and a market assessment was performed to determine likely revenue streams for the produced carbon. Activated carbon was produced from lignite coal in both laboratory-scale fixed-bed reactors and in a small pilot-scale rotary kiln. The EERC was successfully able to upgrade the laboratory-scale activated carbon production system to a pilot-scale rotary kiln system. The activated carbon produced from North Dakota lignite was superior to commercial grade DARCO{reg_sign} FGD and Rheinbraun's HOK activated coke product with respect to iodine number. The iodine number of North Dakota lignite-derived activated carbon was between 600 and 800 mg I{sub 2}/g, whereas the iodine number of DARCO FGD was between 500 and 600 mg I{sub 2}/g, and the iodine number of Rheinbraun's HOK activated coke product was around 275 mg I{sub 2}/g. The EERC performed both bench-scale and pilot-scale mercury capture tests using the activated carbon made under various optimization process conditions. For comparison, the mercury capture capability of commercial DARCO FGD was also tested. The lab-scale apparatus is a thin fixed-bed mercury-screening system, which has been used by the EERC for many mercury capture screen tests. The pilot-scale systems included two combustion units, both equipped with an electrostatic precipitator (ESP). Activated carbons were also tested in a slipstream baghouse at a Texas power plant. The results indicated that the activated carbon produced from North Dakota lignite coal is capable of removing mercury from flue gas. The tests showed that activated carbon with the greatest iodine number was superior to commercial DARCO FGD for mercury capture. The results of the activated carbon market assessment indicate an existing market for water treatment and an emerging application for mercury control. That market will involve both existing and new coal-fired plants. It is expected that 20% of the existing coal-fired plants will implement activated carbon injection by 2015, representing about 200,000 tons of annual demand. The potential annual demand by new plants is even greater. In the mercury control market, two characteristics are going to dominate the customer's buying habit-performance and price. As continued demonstration testing of activated carbon injection at the various coal-fired power plants progresses, the importance of fuel type and plant configuration on the type of activated carbon best suited is being identified.

Steven Benson; Charlene Crocker; Rokan Zaman; Mark Musich; Edwin Olson

2008-03-31T23:59:59.000Z

391

Guidebook for Using the Tool BEST Cement: Benchmarking and Energy Savings Tool for the Cement Industry  

SciTech Connect

The Benchmarking and Energy Savings Tool (BEST) Cement is a process-based tool based on commercially available efficiency technologies used anywhere in the world applicable to the cement industry. This version has been designed for use in China. No actual cement facility with every single efficiency measure included in the benchmark will likely exist; however, the benchmark sets a reasonable standard by which to compare for plants striving to be the best. The energy consumption of the benchmark facility differs due to differences in processing at a given cement facility. The tool accounts for most of these variables and allows the user to adapt the model to operational variables specific for his/her cement facility. Figure 1 shows the boundaries included in a plant modeled by BEST Cement. In order to model the benchmark, i.e., the most energy efficient cement facility, so that it represents a facility similar to the user's cement facility, the user is first required to input production variables in the input sheet (see Section 6 for more information on how to input variables). These variables allow the tool to estimate a benchmark facility that is similar to the user's cement plant, giving a better picture of the potential for that particular facility, rather than benchmarking against a generic one. The input variables required include the following: (1) the amount of raw materials used in tonnes per year (limestone, gypsum, clay minerals, iron ore, blast furnace slag, fly ash, slag from other industries, natural pozzolans, limestone powder (used post-clinker stage), municipal wastes and others); the amount of raw materials that are preblended (prehomogenized and proportioned) and crushed (in tonnes per year); (2) the amount of additives that are dried and ground (in tonnes per year); (3) the production of clinker (in tonnes per year) from each kiln by kiln type; (4) the amount of raw materials, coal and clinker that is ground by mill type (in tonnes per year); (5) the amount of production of cement by type and grade (in tonnes per year); (6) the electricity generated onsite; and, (7) the energy used by fuel type; and, the amount (in RMB per year) spent on energy. The tool offers the user the opportunity to do a quick assessment or a more detailed assessment--this choice will determine the level of detail of the energy input. The detailed assessment will require energy data for each stage of production while the quick assessment will require only total energy used at the entire facility (see Section 6 for more details on quick versus detailed assessments). The benchmarking tool provides two benchmarks--one for Chinese best practices and one for international best practices. Section 2 describes the differences between these two and how each benchmark was calculated. The tool also asks for a target input by the user for the user to set goals for the facility.

Galitsky, Christina; Price, Lynn; Zhou, Nan; Fuqiu , Zhou; Huawen, Xiong; Xuemin, Zeng; Lan, Wang

2008-07-30T23:59:59.000Z

392

Direct Causticizing for Black Liquor Gasification in a Circulating Fluidized Bed  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Gasification of black liquor (BLG) has distinct advantages over direct combustion in Tomlinson recovery boilers. In this project we seek to resolve causticizing issues in order to make pressurized BLG even more efficient and cost-effective. One advantage of BLG is that the inherent partial separation of sulfur and sodium during gasification lends itself to the use of proven high yield variants to conventional kraft pulping which require just such a separation. Processes such as polysulfide, split sulfidity, ASAQ, and MSSAQ can increase pulp yield from 1% to 10% over conventional kraft but require varying degrees of sulfur/sodium separation, which requires additional [and costly] processing in a conventional Tomlinson recovery process. However during gasification, the sulfur is partitioned between the gas and smelt phases, while the sodium all leaves in the smelt; thus creating the opportunity to produce sulfur-rich and sulfur-lean white liquors for specialty pulping processes. A second major incentive of BLG is the production of a combustible product gas, rich in H2 and CO. This product gas (a.k.a. “syngas”) can be used in gas turbines for combined cycle power generation (which is twice as efficient as the steam cycle alone), or it can be used as a precursor to form liquid fuels, such as dimethyl ether or Fischer Tropsh diesel. There is drawback to BLG, which has the potential to become a third major incentive if this work is successful. The causticizing load is greater for gasification of black liquor than for combustion in a Tomlinson boiler. So implementing BLG in an existing mill would require costly increases to the causticizing capacity. In situ causticizing [within the gasifier] would handle the entire causticizing load and therefore eliminate the lime cycle entirely. Previous work by the author and others has shown that titanate direct causticizing (i.e. in situ) works quite well for high-temperature BLG (950°C), but was limited to pressures below about 5 bar. It is desirable however to operate BLG at 20-30 bar for efficiency reasons related to either firing the syngas in a turbine, or catalytically forming liquid fuels. This work focused on achieving high direct causticizing yields at 20 bars pressure. The titanate direct causticizing reactions are inhibited by CO2. Previous work has shown that the partial pressure of CO2 should be kept below about 0.5 bar in order for the process to work. This translates to a total reactor pressure limit of about 5 bar for airblown BLG, and only 2 bar for O2-blown BLG. In this work a process was developed in which the CO2 partial pressure could be manipulated to a level under 0.5 bar with the total system pressure at 10 bar during O2-blown BLG. This fell short of our 20 bar goal but still represents a substantial increase in the pressure limit. A material and energy balance was performed, as well as first-pass economics based on capital and utilities costs. Compared to a reference case of using BLG with a conventional lime cycle [Larson, 2003], the IRR and NVP were estimated for further replacing the lime kiln with direct causticizing. The economics are strongly dependent on the price of lime kiln fuel. At $6/mmBTU the lime cycle is the clear choice. At $8/mmBTU the NPV is $10M with IRR of 17%. At $12/mmBTU the NPV is $45M with IRR of 36%. To further increase the total allowable pressure, the CO2 could be further decreased by further decreasing the temperature. Testing should be done at 750C. Also a small pilot should be built.

Scott Sinquefield; Xiaoyan Zeng, Alan Ball

2010-03-02T23:59:59.000Z

393

Production of carbon molecular sieves from Illinois coal. Technical report, December 1, 1992--February 28, 1993  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

Carbon molecular sieves (CMS) have become an increasingly important class of adsorbents for use in gas separation and recovery processes. The overall objective of this project is to determine whether Illinois Basin coals are suitable feedstocks for the production of CMS and to evaluate the potential application of these products in commercial gas separation processes. In Phase 1 of this project, gram quantities of char were prepared from Illinois coal in a fixed-bed reactor under a wide range of pyrolysis and activation conditions. Chars having surface areas of 1500--2100 M{sup 2}/g were produced by chemical activation using potassium hydroxide (KOH) as the activant. These high surface area chars had more than twice the adsorption capacity of commercial molecular sieves. The kinetics of adsorption of various gases, e.g., N{sub 2}, O{sub 2}, CO{sub 2}, CH{sub 4}, CO and H{sub 2}, on these chars at 25{degrees}C was determined. Several chars showed good potential for efficient O{sub 2}/N{sub 2}, CO{sub 2}/CH{sub 4}, CO{sub 2}/H{sub 2} and CH{sub 4}/H{sub 2} separation; both a high adsorption capacity and selectivity were achieved. The full potential of these materials in commercial gas separations has yet to be realized. In Phase 2 of this project, currently in progress, larger quantities of char are being prepared from Illinois coal in a batch fluidized-bed reactor (FBR) and in a continuous rotary tube kiln (RTK). The pore structure of the prepared chars will be tailored for a specific gas separation process by activation in CO{sub 2} and H{sub 2}O and/or carbon deposition with CH{sub 4}.

Lizzio, A.A.; Rostam-Abadi, M. [Illinois Dept. of Energy and Natural Resources, Springfield, IL (United States). Geological Survey; Banerjee, D.D. [Illinois Clean Coal Inst., Carterville, IL (United States)

1993-05-01T23:59:59.000Z

394

Opportunities for Energy Efficiency and Demand Response in the California  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

Opportunities for Energy Efficiency and Demand Response in the California Opportunities for Energy Efficiency and Demand Response in the California Cement Industry Title Opportunities for Energy Efficiency and Demand Response in the California Cement Industry Publication Type Report LBNL Report Number LBNL-4849E Year of Publication 2010 Authors Olsen, Daniel, Sasank Goli, David Faulkner, and Aimee T. McKane Date Published 12/2010 Publisher CEC/LBNL Keywords cement industry, cement sector, demand response, electricity use, energy efficiency, market sectors, mineral manufacturing, technologies Abstract This study examines the characteristics of cement plants and their ability to shed or shift load to participate in demand response (DR). Relevant factors investigated include the various equipment and processes used to make cement, the operational limitations cement plants are subject to, and the quantities and sources of energy used in the cement-making process. Opportunities for energy efficiency improvements are also reviewed. The results suggest that cement plants are good candidates for DR participation. The cement industry consumes over 400 trillion Btu of energy annually in the United States, and consumes over 150 MW of electricity in California alone. The chemical reactions required to make cement occur only in the cement kiln, and intermediate products are routinely stored between processing stages without negative effects. Cement plants also operate continuously for months at a time between shutdowns, allowing flexibility in operational scheduling. In addition, several examples of cement plants altering their electricity consumption based on utility incentives are discussed. Further study is needed to determine the practical potential for automated demand response (Auto-DR) and to investigate the magnitude and shape of achievable sheds and shifts.

395

Test plan, the Czechowice Oil Refinery bioremediation demonstration of a process waste lagoon. Revision 1  

SciTech Connect

The overall objective of the bioremediation project is to provide a cost effective bioremediation demonstration of petroleum contaminated soil at the Czechowice Oil Refinery. Additional objectives include training of personnel, and transfer of this technology by example to Poland, and the Risk Abatement Center for Central and Eastern Europe (RACE). The goal of the remediation is to reduce the risk of PAH compounds in soil and provide a green zone (grassy area) adjacent to the site boundary. Initial project discussions with the Czechowice Oil Refinery resulted in helping the refinery find an immediate cost effective solution for the dense organic sludge in the lagoons. They found that when mixed with other waste materials, the sludge could be sold as a fuel source to local cement kilns. Thus the waste was incinerated and provided a revenue stream for the refinery to cleanup the lagoon. This allowed the bioremediation project to focus on remediation of contaminated soil that unusable as fuel, less recalcitrant and easier to handle and remediate. The assessment identified 19 compounds at the refinery that represented significant risk and would require remediation. These compounds consisted of metals, PAH`s, and BTEX. The contaminated soil to be remediated in the bioremediation demonstration contains only PAH (BTEX and metals are not significantly above background concentrations). The final biopile design consists of (1) dewatering and clearing lagoon A to clean clay, (2) adding a 20 cm layer of dolomite with pipes for drainage, leachate collection, air injection, and pH adjustment, (3) adding a 1.1 m layer of contaminated soil mixed with wood chips to improve permeability, and (4) completing the surface with 20 cm of top soil planted with grass.

Altman, D.J.; Hazen, T.C.; Tien, A.J. [Westinghouse Savannah River Co., Aiken, SC (United States). Savannah River Technology Center; Worsztynowicz, A.; Ulfig, K. [Inst. for Ecology of Industrial Areas, Katowice (Poland)

1997-05-10T23:59:59.000Z

396

Limitations for heavy metal release during thermo-chemical treatment of sewage sludge ash  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Phosphate recycling from sewage sludge can be achieved by heavy metal removal from sewage sludge ash (SSA) producing a fertilizer product: mixing SSA with chloride and treating this mixture (eventually after granulation) in a rotary kiln at 1000 {+-} 100 deg. C leads to the formation of volatile heavy metal compounds that evaporate and to P-phases with high bio-availability. Due to economical and ecological reasons, it is necessary to reduce the energy consumption of this technology. Generally, fluidized bed reactors are characterized by high heat and mass transfer and thus promise the saving of energy. Therefore, a rotary reactor and a fluidized bed reactor (both laboratory-scale and operated in batch mode) are used for the treatment of granulates containing SSA and CaCl{sub 2}. Treatment temperature, residence time and - in case of the fluidized bed reactor - superficial velocity are varied between 800 and 900 deg. C, 10 and 30 min and 3.4 and 4.6 m s{sup -1}. Cd and Pb can be removed well (>95 %) in all experiments. Cu removal ranges from 25% to 84%, for Zn 75-90% are realized. The amount of heavy metals removed increases with increasing temperature and residence time which is most pronounced for Cu. In the pellet, three major reactions occur: formation of HCl and Cl{sub 2} from CaCl{sub 2}; diffusion and reaction of these gases with heavy metal compounds; side reactions from heavy metal compounds with matrix material. Although, heat and mass transfer are higher in the fluidized bed reactor, Pb and Zn removal is slightly better in the rotary reactor. This is due the accelerated migration of formed HCl and Cl{sub 2} out of the pellets into the reactor atmosphere. Cu is apparently limited by the diffusion of its chloride thus the removal is higher in the fluidized bed unit.

Nowak, Benedikt, E-mail: benedikt.nowak@tuwien.ac.at [Institute of Chemical Engineering, Vienna University of Technology, Getreidemarkt 9/166, A-1060 Vienna (Austria); Perutka, Libor [Institute of Chemical Engineering, Vienna University of Technology, Getreidemarkt 9/166, A-1060 Vienna (Austria); Aschenbrenner, Philipp [Institute for Water Quality, Resource and Waste Management, Vienna University of Technology, Karlsplatz 13/226, A-1040 Vienna (Austria); Kraus, Petra [ASH DEC Umwelt AG, Donaufelderstrasse 101/4/5, A-1210 Vienna (Austria); Rechberger, Helmut [Institute for Water Quality, Resource and Waste Management, Vienna University of Technology, Karlsplatz 13/226, A-1040 Vienna (Austria); Winter, Franz, E-mail: franz.winter@tuwien.ac.at [Institute of Chemical Engineering, Vienna University of Technology, Getreidemarkt 9/166, A-1060 Vienna (Austria)

2011-06-15T23:59:59.000Z

397

Production of carbon molecular sieves from Illinois coal. Final technical report, 1 September, 1992--31 August 1993  

SciTech Connect

Carbon molecular sieves (CMS) have become an increasingly important class of adsorbents for use in gas separation and recovery processes. The overall objective of this project is to determine whether Illinois Basin coals are a suitable feedstock for the production of CMS and to evaluate the potential application of these products in commercial gas separation processes. In Phase 1 of this project, gram quantities of char were prepared from Illinois coal in a fixed-bed reactor under a wide range of pyrolysis and activation conditions. Chars having surface areas of 1,500--2,100 m{sup 2}/g were produced by chemical activation using potassium hydroxide (KOH) as the chemical activant. These high surface area (HSA) chars had more than twice the adsorption capacity of commercial molecular sieves. The kinetics of adsorption of various gases, e.g., O{sub 2}, N{sub 2}, CO{sub 2}, CH{sub 4}, and H{sub 2}, on these chars at 25 C was determined. Several chars showed good potential for efficient O{sub 2}/N{sub 2}, CO{sub 2}/CH{sub 4} and CH{sub 4}/H{sub 2} separation. In Phase 2 of this project, larger quantities of char are being prepared from Illinois coal in a batch fluidized-bed reactor and in a continuous rotary tube kiln. The ability of these chars to separate binary gas mixtures is tested in an adsorption column/gas chromatography system. Oxygen and nitrogen breakthrough curves obtained for selected chars were compared to those of a commercial zeolite. Selected chars were subjected to a nitric acid oxidation treatment. The air separation capability of nitric acid treated char was strongly dependent on the outgassing conditions used prior to an O{sub 2}/N{sub 2} adsorption experiment. An outgassing temperature of 130--160 C produced chars with the most favorable air separation properties. 61 refs.

Lizzio, A.A.; Rostam-Abadi, M. [Illinois State Geological Survey, Champaign, IL (United States)

1993-12-31T23:59:59.000Z

398

Effluent testing for the Oak Ridge Toxic Substances Control Act mixed waste incinerator emissions tests of January 16 and 18, 1991  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

On January 16 and 18, 1991, special emissions tests were conducted at the Oak Ridge, K-25 Site Toxic Substances Control Act (TSCA) Incinerator. Both tests were approximately 6 h long and were performed at TSCA temperatures [1200{degrees}C, secondary combustion chamber (SSC)]. Liquid feed and effluent samples were collected every 30 min. A filter was used to collect particles from stack gases to study morphology and composition during the first test. Isokinetic air samples were also taken during the second test. Metals emissions from the second test were evaluated using the Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) Method 5 sampling train. The aqueous waste was collected and fed in batches to the Central Neutralization Facility (CNF), where it was treated by iron coprecipitation and polymer flocculation and data were collected. In the first test (1-16-91), the aqueous and organic wastes were fed directly to the kiln or primary combustion chamber (PCC). In the second test (1-18-91), the remaining organic waste from the first test was fed into the SSC, and other organic waste was fed into the PCC. One objective of the two tests was to determine if feeding the same organic waste into the two combustion chambers made a difference in a partitioning of uranium and other metals. No evaluation of radionuclides other than uranium was made. The partition coefficient of uranium to the quench water was 0.3 on January 16 and 0.35 on January 18; so directing Tank 306A to the feed to the primary vs the secondary combustion chamber appears to have made little difference. The partition coefficient of uranium to the stack on January 18 was 0.0039. 5 refs., 15 figs., 26 tabs.

Shor, J.T. [Oak Ridge National Lab., TN (United States); Bostick, W.D.; Coroneos, A.C.; Bunch, D.H.; Gibson, L.V.; Hoffmann, D.P.; Shoemaker, J.L. [Oak Ridge K-25 Site, TN (United States)

1992-02-01T23:59:59.000Z

399

Effluent testing for the Oak Ridge Toxic Substances Control Act mixed waste incinerator emissions tests of January 16 and 18, 1991  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

On January 16 and 18, 1991, special emissions tests were conducted at the Oak Ridge, K-25 Site Toxic Substances Control Act (TSCA) Incinerator. Both tests were approximately 6 h long and were performed at TSCA temperatures (1200{degrees}C, secondary combustion chamber (SSC)). Liquid feed and effluent samples were collected every 30 min. A filter was used to collect particles from stack gases to study morphology and composition during the first test. Isokinetic air samples were also taken during the second test. Metals emissions from the second test were evaluated using the Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) Method 5 sampling train. The aqueous waste was collected and fed in batches to the Central Neutralization Facility (CNF), where it was treated by iron coprecipitation and polymer flocculation and data were collected. In the first test (1-16-91), the aqueous and organic wastes were fed directly to the kiln or primary combustion chamber (PCC). In the second test (1-18-91), the remaining organic waste from the first test was fed into the SSC, and other organic waste was fed into the PCC. One objective of the two tests was to determine if feeding the same organic waste into the two combustion chambers made a difference in a partitioning of uranium and other metals. No evaluation of radionuclides other than uranium was made. The partition coefficient of uranium to the quench water was 0.3 on January 16 and 0.35 on January 18; so directing Tank 306A to the feed to the primary vs the secondary combustion chamber appears to have made little difference. The partition coefficient of uranium to the stack on January 18 was 0.0039. 5 refs., 15 figs., 26 tabs.

Shor, J.T. (Oak Ridge National Lab., TN (United States)); Bostick, W.D.; Coroneos, A.C.; Bunch, D.H.; Gibson, L.V.; Hoffmann, D.P.; Shoemaker, J.L. (Oak Ridge K-25 Site, TN (United States))

1992-02-01T23:59:59.000Z

400

Production Scale-Up or Activated Carbons for Ultracapacitors  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

Transportation use accounts for 67% of the petroleum consumption in the US. Electric and hybrid vehicles are promising technologies for decreasing our dependence on petroleum, and this is the objective of the FreedomCAR & Vehicle Technologies Program. Inexpensive and efficient energy storage devices are needed for electric and hybrid vehicle to be economically viable, and ultracapacitors are a leading energy storage technology being investigated by the FreedomCAR program. The most important parameter in determining the power and energy density of a carbon-based ultracapacitor is the amount of surface area accessible to the electrolyte, which is primarily determined by the pore size distribution. The major problems with current carbons are that their pore size distribution is not optimized for liquid electrolytes and the best carbons are very expensive. TDA Research, Inc. (TDA) has developed methods to prepare porous carbons with tunable pore size distributions from inexpensive carbohydrate based precursors. The use of low-cost feedstocks and processing steps greatly lowers the production costs. During this project with the assistance of Maxwell Technologies, we found that an impurity was limiting the performance of our carbon and the major impurity found was sulfur. A new carbon with low sulfur content was made and found that the performance of the carbon was greatly improved. We also scaled-up the process to pre-production levels and we are currently able to produce 0.25 tons/year of activated carbon. We could easily double this amount by purchasing a second rotary kiln. More importantly, we are working with MeadWestvaco on a Joint Development Agreement to scale-up the process to produce hundreds of tons of high quality, inexpensive carbon per year based on our processes.

Dr. Steven D. Dietz

2007-01-10T23:59:59.000Z

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "kiln alumina kiln" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


401

LASL thermochemical hydrogen status on September 30, 1979  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

The work described in this report was accomplished during the period October 1, 1978 to September 30, 1979. Most of the effort was applied to a study of the Los Alamos Scientific Laboratory (LASL) hybrid bismuth sulfate cycle. The work included a conceptual design of the cycle and experimental work to verify the design conditions. Key findings were: a 50.8% efficiency was obtained when an improved cycle design was coupled to a fusion energy source at 1500 K; experimental results showed an endothermic heat requirement of +172 kJ/mol for the decomposition of Bi/sub 2/O/sub 3/.2SO/sub 3/ to Bi/sub 2/O/sub 3/.SO/sub 3/, and SO/sub 3/; reaction times for bismuth sulfate decomposition were determined as a function of temperature. At 1240 K, < 1.5 min were required for the first two stages of decomposition from Bi/sub 2/O/sub 3/.3SO/sub 3/ to Bi/sub 2/O/sub 3/; tests made to determine the feasibility of decomposing Bi/sub 2/O/sub 3/.2SO/sub 3/ in a 1 inch diameter rotary kiln showed that Bi/sub 2/O/sub 3/.2SO/sub 3/ could be decomposed continuously. In related work, support was given to the DOE Thermochemical Cycle Evaluation Panel (Funk). The Second Annual International Energy Agency (IEA) Workshop on Thermochemical Hydrogen Production from Water met on September 24 to 27, 1979 at Los Alamos.

Cox, K.E.

1979-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

402

Target Strength of Southern Resident Killer Whales (Orcinus orca): Measurement and Modeling  

SciTech Connect

A major criterion for tidal power licensing in Washington’s Puget Sound is the management of the risk of injury to killer whales due to collision with moving turbine blades. An active monitoring system is being proposed for killer whale detection, tracking, and alerting that links to and triggers temporary turbine shutdown when there is risk of collision. Target strength (TS) modeling of the killer whale is critical to the design and application of any active monitoring system. A 1996 study performed a high-resolution measurement of acoustic reflectivity as a function of frequency of a female bottlenose dolphin (2.2 m length) at broadside aspect and TS as a function of incident angle at 67 kHz frequency. Assuming that killer whales share similar morphology structure with the bottlenose dolphin, we extrapolated the TS of an adult killer whale 7.5 m in length at 67 kHz frequency with -8 dB at broadside aspect and -28 dB at tail side. The backscattering data from three Southern Resident killer whales were analyzed to obtain the TS measurement. These data were collected at Lime Kiln State Park using a split-beam system deployed from a boat. The TS of the killer whale at higher frequency (200 kHz) was estimated based on a three-layer model for plane wave reflection from the lung of the whale. The TS data of killer whales were in good agreement with our model. In this paper, we also discuss and explain possible causes for measurement estimation error.

Xu, Jinshan; Deng, Zhiqun; Carlson, Thomas J.; Moore, Brian

2012-04-04T23:59:59.000Z

403

Production and use of activated char for combined SO{sub 2}/NO{sub x} removal. Technical report, March 1, 1994--May 31, 1994  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Carbon adsorbents have been shown to remove sulfur oxides from flue gas, and also serve as a catalyst for reduction of nitrogen oxides at temperatures between 80 and 150{degrees}C. The overall objective of this project is to determine whether Illinois coal is a suitable feedstock for the production of activated char which could be used as a catalyst for combined SO{sub 2}/NO{sub x} removal, and to evaluate the potential application of the products in flue gas cleanup. Key production variables will be identified to help design and engineer activated char with the proper pore structure and surface chemistry to enable the development of an effective SO{sub 2}/NO{sub x} removal catalyst. The ISGS agreed to provide 500 pounds of activated char to STEAG for tests in a demonstration unit to clean flue gas from a U.S. waste incinerator. The STEAG process requires an activated char with a N{sub 2} BET surface area < 300 m{sup 2}/g, i.e., lower than that of most commercially available activated carbons. An extensive series of tests was conducted to determine process conditions for making such an adsorbent from a Colchester No. 2 coal (Industry Mine coal). Using a 4 in. ID continuous rotary tube kiln (RTK) and a continuous feed charring oven, pound quantities of activated char were produced that matched well the properties of the adsorbent currently used by STEAG. A three step process, which included preoxidation, pyrolysis, and activation, was devised to produce a suitable char from this caking coal.

Lizzio, A.A.; DeBarr, J.A.; Kruse, C.W.; Rostam-Abadi, M.; Donnals, G.L.; Rood, M.J.

1994-09-01T23:59:59.000Z

404

Production of carbon molecular sieves from Illinois coal. Technical report, March 1, 1994--May 31, 1994  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

Carbon molecular sieves (CMS) have become an increasingly important class of adsorbents for use in gas separation and recovery processes. The overall objective of this project is to determine whether Illinois coal is a suitable feedstock for the production of CMS and to evaluate the potential application of the products in commercial gas separation processes. The full potential of these materials in commercial gas separations has yet to be realized. In Phase II, the optimal char preparation conditions determined in Phase I are being applied to production of larger quantities of CMS in a 2 in. ID batch fluidized-bed reactor (FBR) and a 4 in. ID continuous rotary tube kiln (RTK). In the previous reporting period, an invention disclosure describing a novel CMS preparation technique (oxygen deposition) was prepared and submitted to Research Corporation Technologies for evaluation. During this reporting period, work continued on the development of the oxygen deposition process. Carbon deposition as a means to narrow pore size was also investigated. Pound quantities of CMS were prepared from IBC-102 coal in the TRK. A meeting was arranged between the ISGS and Carbo Tech Industieservice GmbH, one of two companies in the world that produce CMS from coal, to discuss possible shipment of Illinois coal to Germany for CMS production. A secrecy agreement between the ISGS and Carbo Tech is in preparation. Several large scale char production runs using Industry Mine coal were conducted in an 18 in. ID batch and 8 in. ID continuous RTK at Allis Mineral Systems, Milwaukee, WI. The molecular sieve properties of the chars have yet to be determined.

Lizzio, A.A.; Rostam-Abadi, M.; Feizoulof, C.A.; Vyas, S.N.

1994-09-01T23:59:59.000Z

405

Material and energy flows in the materials production, assembly, and end-of-life stages of the automotive lithium-ion battery life cycle  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

This document contains material and energy flows for lithium-ion batteries with an active cathode material of lithium manganese oxide (LiMn{sub 2}O{sub 4}). These data are incorporated into Argonne National Laboratory's Greenhouse gases, Regulated Emissions, and Energy use in Transportation (GREET) model, replacing previous data for lithium-ion batteries that are based on a nickel/cobalt/manganese (Ni/Co/Mn) cathode chemistry. To identify and determine the mass of lithium-ion battery components, we modeled batteries with LiMn{sub 2}O{sub 4} as the cathode material using Argonne's Battery Performance and Cost (BatPaC) model for hybrid electric vehicles, plug-in hybrid electric vehicles, and electric vehicles. As input for GREET, we developed new or updated data for the cathode material and the following materials that are included in its supply chain: soda ash, lime, petroleum-derived ethanol, lithium brine, and lithium carbonate. Also as input to GREET, we calculated new emission factors for equipment (kilns, dryers, and calciners) that were not previously included in the model and developed new material and energy flows for the battery electrolyte, binder, and binder solvent. Finally, we revised the data included in GREET for graphite (the anode active material), battery electronics, and battery assembly. For the first time, we incorporated energy and material flows for battery recycling into GREET, considering four battery recycling processes: pyrometallurgical, hydrometallurgical, intermediate physical, and direct physical. Opportunities for future research include considering alternative battery chemistries and battery packaging. As battery assembly and recycling technologies develop, staying up to date with them will be critical to understanding the energy, materials, and emissions burdens associated with batteries.

Dunn, J.B.; Gaines, L.; Barnes, M.; Wang, M.; Sullivan, J. (Energy Systems)

2012-06-21T23:59:59.000Z

406

Impact evaluation of an Energy $avings Plan project at Columbia Harbor Lumber Company  

SciTech Connect

This impact evaluation of an energy conservation measure (ECM) that was recently installed at Columbia Harbor Lumber Company (Columbia Harbor Lumber), Chehalis, Washington, was conducted for the Bonneville Power Administration (Bonneville) as part of an evaluation of its Energy Savings Plan (ESP) Program. The Program makes acquisition payments to firms that install energy conservation measures in their industrial processes. The objective of this impact evaluation was to assess how much electrical energy is being saved at Columbia Harbor Lumber as a result of the ESP and to determine how much the savings cost Bonneville and the region. The impact of the ECM was evaluated with a combination of engineering analysis, financial analysis, interviews, and submittal reviews (Columbia Harbor Lumber's Completion Report and Proposal). The ECM itself consists of an adjustable speed drive for controlling the speed of nine fans on a lumber drying kiln. Energy savings resulting from this ECM are expected to be 286,500 kWh/yr. On a per unit of output basis, this ECM will save 0.053 kWh/board foot, a 48% reduction. The ECM cost $24,086 to install, and Columbia Harbor Lumber received payment of $19,269 from Bonneville for the acquisition of energy savings. In all likelihood, this ECM would have been installed even without the acquisition payment from Bonneville. The levelized cost of these energy savings to Bonneville will be 5.6 mills/kWh over the ECM's expected 15-year life, and the levelized cost to the region will be 7.4 mills/kWh.

Spanner, G.E.; Sullivan, G.P.

1992-02-01T23:59:59.000Z

407

Impact evaluation of an Energy $avings Plan project at Columbia Harbor Lumber Company  

SciTech Connect

This impact evaluation of an energy conservation measure (ECM) that was recently installed at Columbia Harbor Lumber Company (Columbia Harbor Lumber), Chehalis, Washington, was conducted for the Bonneville Power Administration (Bonneville) as part of an evaluation of its Energy Savings Plan (ESP) Program. The Program makes acquisition payments to firms that install energy conservation measures in their industrial processes. The objective of this impact evaluation was to assess how much electrical energy is being saved at Columbia Harbor Lumber as a result of the ESP and to determine how much the savings cost Bonneville and the region. The impact of the ECM was evaluated with a combination of engineering analysis, financial analysis, interviews, and submittal reviews (Columbia Harbor Lumber`s Completion Report and Proposal). The ECM itself consists of an adjustable speed drive for controlling the speed of nine fans on a lumber drying kiln. Energy savings resulting from this ECM are expected to be 286,500 kWh/yr. On a per unit of output basis, this ECM will save 0.053 kWh/board foot, a 48% reduction. The ECM cost $24,086 to install, and Columbia Harbor Lumber received payment of $19,269 from Bonneville for the acquisition of energy savings. In all likelihood, this ECM would have been installed even without the acquisition payment from Bonneville. The levelized cost of these energy savings to Bonneville will be 5.6 mills/kWh over the ECM`s expected 15-year life, and the levelized cost to the region will be 7.4 mills/kWh.

Spanner, G.E.; Sullivan, G.P.

1992-02-01T23:59:59.000Z

408

Clean Coal Technology Demonstration Program. Program update 1994  

SciTech Connect

The Clean Coal Technology Demonstration Program (CCT Program) is a $7.14 billion cost-shared industry/government technology development effort. The program is to demonstrate a new generation of advanced coal-based technologies, with the most promising technologies being moved into the domestic and international marketplace. Clean coal technologies being demonstrated under the CCT program are creating the technology base that allows the nation to meet its energy and environmental goals efficiently and reliably. The fact that most of the demonstrations are being conducted at commercial scale, in actual user environments, and under conditions typical of commercial operations allows the potential of the technologies to be evaluated in their intended commercial applications. The technologies are categorized into four market sectors: advanced electric power generation systems; environmental control devices; coal processing equipment for clean fuels; and industrial technologies. Sections of this report describe the following: Role of the Program; Program implementation; Funding and costs; The road to commercial realization; Results from completed projects; Results and accomplishments from ongoing projects; and Project fact sheets. Projects include fluidized-bed combustion, integrated gasification combined-cycle power plants, advanced combustion and heat engines, nitrogen oxide control technologies, sulfur dioxide control technologies, combined SO{sub 2} and NO{sub x} technologies, coal preparation techniques, mild gasification, and indirect liquefaction. Industrial applications include injection systems for blast furnaces, coke oven gas cleaning systems, power generation from coal/ore reduction, a cyclone combustor with S, N, and ash control, cement kiln flue gas scrubber, and pulse combustion for steam coal gasification.

NONE

1995-04-01T23:59:59.000Z

409

light metals  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Alumina Refinery Design and Development; Alumina Refinery Safety and Integrity ... Environmental and Plant Improvements; Process Control Developments.

410

Integration of Self-Assembled Porous Alumina and Distributed Bragg Reflector for Light Trapping in Si Photovoltaic Devices  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Light trapping is an important issue for thin film silicon photovoltaic cells due to the limited absorption coefficient for near infrared light. In this letter, we present a photonic structure that combines porous anodic ...

Sheng, Xing

411

NO{sub X} REDUCTION BEHAVIOR OF ALUMINA AND ZEOLITE CATALYSTS IN COMBINATION WITH NON-THERMAL PLASMA  

SciTech Connect

Lean burn gasoline and diesel engines provide improved fuel economy when compared to engines operating under stoichiometric fuel/air conditions. At the same time, lean burn and diesel engines present a problem for emission control. Because they operate under oxidizing conditions, the conventional three-way catalyst is not effective in NOx reduction [1,2]. In addition, the wide temperature range of automobile exhaust gases present a challenge for catalyst design. The temperature of exhaust gases from a light duty diesel engine can vary from 150 to 500 C, depending on the operating conditions. To date, a catalyst that operates with high NOx conversion efficiency over the entire operating range has not been found. Non-thermal plasma assisted catalysis has been shown to be a promising technology for NOx reduction in lean burn and diesel exhaust gases [3,4]. The approach exploited in this paper is to use a plasma in combination with several catalysts, each of which are active over unique temperature ranges. It was reported in the literature, that the one of the essential roles of plasma treatment is to oxidize NO to easier reducible NO2 [7]. In this contribution, the other important function of plasma treatment, namely partial oxidation of propylene, will be demonstrated.

Panov, A.G.

2000-08-20T23:59:59.000Z

412

Surface characterizatin of palladium-alumina sorbents for high-temperature capture of mercury and arsenic from fuel gas  

SciTech Connect

Coal gasification with subsequent cleanup of the resulting fuel gas is a way to reduce the impact of mercury and arsenic in the environment during power generation and on downstream catalytic processes in chemical production, The interactions of mercury and arsenic with PdlAl2D3 model thin film sorbents and PdlAh03 powders have been studied to determine the relative affinities of palladium for mercury and arsenic, and how they are affected by temperature and the presence of hydrogen sulfide in the fuel gas. The implications of the results on strategies for capturing the toxic metals using a sorbent bed are discussed.

Baltrus, J.P.; Granite, E.J.; Pennline, H.W.; Stanko, D.; Hamilton, H.; Rowsell, L.; Poulston, S.; Smith, A.; Chu, W.

2010-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

413

Characterization and Hydrodesulfurization Activity of CoMo Catalysts Supported on Boron-Doped Sol-Gel Alumina  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

desulfurization character of the CoMo catalysts supported on the B- Al2O3 supports, because high hydrogenation, the catalysts were kept in a closed vessel during two hours for aging, and then dried overnight in an oven.29 in the HDS of Kuwait gas oil [14], heavy Kuwait residue oil [15], and Kuwait crude oil [25]. They correlated

Paris-Sud XI, Université de

414

Temperature-programmed desorption and reaction of CO and H/sub 2/ on alumina-supported ruthenium catalyst  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

The temperature-programmed desorption of CO and temperature-programmed reaction of CO in flowing H/sub 2/ has been studied on a 5 wt% Ru/Al/sub 2/O/sub 3/ catalyst. CO adsorbs molecularly on Ru/Al/sub 2/O/sub 3/ at room temperature. Two distinct CO desorption peaks were observed. The activation energies of desorption were calculated to be 27 and 37 kcal/mole. Upon heating CO dissociates on Ru/Al/sub 2/O/sub 3/ at approximately 415/sup 0/K to form CO/sub 2/ and carbon. The carbon remaining on the catalyst surface enhanced the strength of adsorption of CO, probably by donating electrons to increase the degree of back bonding of the adsorbed CO. The surface carbon reacted reaidly with H/sub 2/ at 303/sup 0/C, forming CH/sub 4/ and small amounts of C/sub 2/H/sub 6/, whereas absorbed CO was inert to H/sub 2/ at this temperature. The surface carbon could easily be deactivated by heat treatment, and a very high temperature was required to remove the deactivated carbon from the catalyst surface with H/sub 2/. These results strongly suggest that carbon is a reactive intermediate and that the dissociation of CO is a necessary step in methanation and Fischer--Tropsch synthesis.

Low, G.G.

1978-08-01T23:59:59.000Z

415

TEMPERATURE-PROGRAMMED DESORPTION AND REACTION OF CO AND H2 ON ALUMINA-SUPPORTED RUTHENIUM CATALYST  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

and R. Anderson, "The Fischer-Tropsch Related Synthesis",carbide theory of Fischer and Tropsch postulated that thereactions are still (Fischer-Tropsch synthesis) from CO and

Low, Gordon Gongngai

2011-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

416

SYNTHESIS OF OXYGENATED PRODUCTS FROM CARBON MONOXIDE AND HYDROGEN OVER SILICA- AND ALUMINA-SUPPORTED RUTHENIUM CATALYSTS  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

R. B. , "The Fischer-Tropsch and Related Syntheses", Wiley,with hydrocarbons during Fischer-Tropsch synthesis over iron

Kellner, C.Stephen

2013-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

417

INTERNATIONAL STUDIES OF ENHANCED WASTE LOADING AND IMPROVED MELT RATE FOR HIGH ALUMINA CONCENTRATION NUCLEAR WASTE GLASSES  

SciTech Connect

The goal of this study was to determine the impacts of glass compositions with high aluminum concentrations on melter performance, crystallization and chemical durability for Savannah River Site (SRS) and Hanford waste streams. Glass compositions for Hanford targeted both high aluminum concentrations in waste sludge and a high waste loading in the glass. Compositions for SRS targeted Sludge Batch 5, the next sludge batch to be processed in the Defense Waste Processing Facility (DWPF), which also has a relatively high aluminum concentration. Three frits were selected for combination with the SRS waste to evaluate their impact on melt rate. The glasses were melted in two small-scale test melters at the V. G. Khlopin Radium Institute. The results showed varying degrees of spinel formation in each of the glasses. Some improvements in melt rate were made by tailoring the frit composition for the SRS feeds. All of the Hanford and SRS compositions had acceptable chemical durability.

Fox, K; David Peeler, D; James Marra, J

2008-09-11T23:59:59.000Z

418

Alumina-Forming Austenitics: A New Approach to Thermal and Degradation Resistant Stainless Steels for Industrial Use  

SciTech Connect

A series of developmental AFA alloys was selected for study based on: 25 Ni wt.% (alloys A-F), 20 wt% Ni (alloys G-H), and 12 Ni wt.% (alloys I-L). An emphasis in this work was placed on the lower alloy content direction for AFA alloys to reduce alloy raw material cost, rather than more highly alloyed and costly AFA alloys for higher temperature performance. Alloys A-D explored the effects of Al (3-4 wt.%) and C (0.05-0.2 wt.%) in the Fe-25Ni-14Cr-2Mn-2Mo-1W-1Nb wt.% base range; alloys E and F explored the effects of removing costly Mo and W additions in a Fe-25Ni-14Cr-4Al-2.5Nb-2Mn-0.2C base, alloys G and H examined Nb (1-2.5wt.%) and removal of Mo, W in a Fe-20Ni-14Cr-3Al-2Mn-0.2 C wt.% base; and alloys I-L examined effects of C (0.1-0.2 wt.%) and Mn (5-10 wt.%) on a low cost Fe-14Cr-12Ni-3Cu-2.5Al wt.% base (no Mo, W additions). Creep testing resulted in elemental trends that included the beneficial effect of higher carbon and lower niobium in 20-25%Ni AFA alloys and, the beneficial of lower Mn in 12%Ni AFA alloys. Corrosion tests in steam and sulfidation-oxidation environments showed, in general, these alloys were capable of a ten-fold improvement in performance when compared to conventional austenitic stainless steels. Also, corrosion test results in metal-dusting environments were promising and, warrant further investigation.

David A Helmick; John H Magee; Michael P Brady

2012-05-31T23:59:59.000Z

419

SYNTHESIS OF OXYGENATED PRODUCTS FROM CARBON MONOXIDE AND HYDROGEN OVER SILICA- AND ALUMINA-SUPPORTED RUTHENIUM CATALYSTS  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

is consistent with the projection discussed above. Theis consistent with the projection given recently by Wilson (

Kellner, C.Stephen

2013-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

420

Influence of Ceria and Nickel Addition to Alumina-Supported Rhodium Catalyst for Propane Steam Reforming at Low Temperatures.  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

??This work aims to develop a fundamental understanding of the catalyst composition-structure-activity relationships for propane steam reforming over supported Rh catalysts. The work investigates the… (more)

Li, Yan

2009-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "kiln alumina kiln" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


421

Tire Development for Effective Transportation and Utilization of Used Tires, CRADA 01-N044, Final Report  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Scrap tires represent a significant disposal and recycling challenge for the United States. Over 280 million tires are generated on an annual basis, and several states have large stockpiles or abandoned tire piles that are slated for remediation. While most states have programs to address the accumulation and generation of scrap tires, most of these states struggle with creating and sustaining recycling or beneficial end use markets. One of the major issues with market development has been the costs associated with transporting and processing the tires into material for recycling or disposal. According to a report by the Rubber Manufactures Association tire-derived fuel (TDF) represents the largest market for scrap tires, and approximately 115 million tires were consumed in 2001 as TDF (U.S. Scrap Tire Markets, 2001, December 2002, www.rma.org/scraptires). This market is supported primarily by cement kilns, followed by various industries including companies that operate utility and industrial boilers. However the use of TDF has not increased and the amount of TDF used by boiler operators has declined. The work completed through this cooperative research and development agreement (CRADA) has shown the potential of a mobile tire shredding unit to economically produce TDF and to provide an alterative low cost fuel to suitable coal-fired power systems. This novel system addresses the economic barriers by processing the tires at the retailer, thereby eliminating the costs associated with hauling whole tires. The equipment incorporated into the design allow for small 1-inch chunks of TDF to be produced in a timely fashion. The TDF can then be co-fired with coal in suitable combustion systems, such as a fluidized bed. Proper use of TDF has been shown to boost efficiency and reduce emissions from power generation systems, which is beneficial to coal utilization in existing power plants. Since the original scope of work outlined in the CRADA could not be completed because of lack of progress by the CRADA members, the agreement was not extended beyond February 2004. The work completed included the detailed design of the mobile unit, a general economic analysis of the operating the system, and outreach activities.

Susan M. Maley

2004-03-31T23:59:59.000Z

422

Sugarcane juice extraction and preservation, and long-term lime pretreatment of bagasse  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

New technologies, such as an efficient vapor-compression evaporator, a stationary lime kiln (SLK), and the MixAlco process, compelled us to re-evaluate methods for producing sugar from cane. These technologies allow more water and lime to be used, and they add more value to bagasse. Extracting and preserving the sugars, and lime pretreating the bagasse to enhance biodigestibility, all at the same time in a pile, was demonstrated to be unfeasible; therefore, sugar extraction must occur before lime treating the bagasse. Sugar extraction should occur countercurrently by lixiviation, where liquid moves in stages opposite to the soaked bagasse (megasse), which is conveyed by screw-press conveyors that gently squeeze the fiber in each stage, improving extraction. The performance of a pilot-scale screw-press conveyor was tested for dewatering capabilities and power consumption. The unoptimized equipment decreased megasse moisture from 96 to 89%. Simulation of the process suggested that eight stages are necessary to achieve 98% recovery from typical sugarcane. The cumulative power for the screw-press conveyor system was 17.0±2.1 hp?h/ton dry fiber. Thin raw juice preserved with lime for several months showed no sucrose degradation and no quality deterioration, except for reducing sugar destruction. The lime loading needed for 1-year preservation is 0.20 g Ca(OH)2/g sucrose. Shorter times require less lime. After preservation, the juice was carbonated and filtered, and the resulting sludge pelletized. Due to their high organic content, the pellets were too weak for calcination temperatures used in the SLK. The organics must be decreased prior to pelletization and sodium must be supplemented as a binding agent. Long-term lime pretreatment of bagasse showed two delignification phases: bulk (rapid) and residual (slow). These were modeled by two simultaneous first-order reactions. Treatments with air purging and higher temperatures (50 ? 57oC) delignified more effectively, especially during the residual phase, thus yielding higher cellulase-enzyme digestibilities after 2 ? 8 weeks of treatment. At temperatures > 60oC, pure oxygen purging is preferred. Fresh bagasse was of better quality than old bagasse. Treatment with NaOH yielded a larger bulk delignification phase than Ca(OH)2. Long-term lime pulping of bagasse was unsuitable for copy-quality paper, but it was appropriate for strawboard and other filler applications.

Granda Cotlear, Cesar Benigno

2004-12-01T23:59:59.000Z

423

Implementing Strategies for Drying and Pressing Wood Without Emissions Controls  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

Drying and pressing wood for the manufacture of lumber, particleboard, oriented strand board (OSB), veneer and medium density fiberboard (MDF) release volatile organic compounds (VOCs) into the atmosphere. These emissions require control equipment that are capital-intensive and consume significant quantities of natural gas and electricity. The objective of our work was to understand the mechanisms through which volatile organic compounds are generated and released and to develop simple control strategies. Of the several strategies developed, two have been implemented for OSB manufacture over the course of this study. First, it was found that increasing final wood moisture by about 2-4 percentage points reduced the dryer emissions of hazardous air pollutants by over 70%. As wood dries, the escaping water evaporatively cools the wood. This cooling tapers off wood when the wood is nearly dry and the wood temperature rises. Thermal breakdown of the wood tissue occurs and VOCs are released. Raising the final wood moisture by only a few percentage points minimizes the temperature rise and reduces emissions. Evaporative cooling also impacts has implications for VOC release from wood fines. Flaking wood for OSB manufacture inevitable generates fines. Fines dry out rapidly because of their high surface area and evaporative cooling is lost more rapidly than for flakes. As a result, fines emit a disproportionate quantity of VOCs. Fines can be reduced in two ways: through screening of the green furnish and through reducing their generation during flaking. The second approach is preferable because it also increased wood yield. A procedure to do this by matching the sharpness angle of the flaker knife to the ambient temperature was also developed. Other findings of practical interests are as follows: Dielectric heating of wood under low-headspace conditions removes terpenes and other extractives from softwood; The monoterpene content in trees depend upon temperature and seasonal effects; Method 25A emissions from lumber drying can be modeled from a knowledge of the airflow through the kiln; A heat transfer model shows that VOCs released during hot-pressing mainly originate from the surface of the board; and Boiler ash can be used to adsorb formaldehyde from air streams.

Sujit Banerjee; Terrance Conners

2007-09-07T23:59:59.000Z

424

Alunorte Global Energy Efficiency  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

The plant has a specific energy consumption of less than 8 GJ per ton of alumina which defines the world-wide benchmark for energy efficiency in alumina ...

425

Technical Program  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Mar 1, 2007 ... Alumina and Bauxite: Alumina Refinery Design and Development . ...... fluid and Royco 787 turbine lubricating oil The combinations were ...

426

3-Dimensional Materials Science  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Mar 13, 2008 ... Ewarton Alumina Refinery: Patrick Harris1; 1West Indies Alumina Company ..... assumed that the friction of MGs made slippy with the oil slick, ...

427

2009  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Feb 18, 2009 ... alumina content, has a great impact on alumina refinery operations and ...... inducing protein aggregation and alternatives to the silicone oil, i.e. ...

428

Perspective on Bayer Process Energy  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Alumina energy cost will rise more than other costs as energy prices increase and energy related environmental issues impact alumina production.

429

About this Abstract  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Metallurgical grade sandy alumina, ferric hydroxide and residue with high silica were gotten. The alumina extracted rate can be about 82% to process low grade

430

SOLAR POWER  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

Thermal energy storage (TES) is an integral part of a concentrated solar power (CSP) system. It enables plant operators to generate electricity beyond on sun hours and supply power to the grid to meet peak demand. Current CSP sensible heat storage systems employ molten salts as both the heat transfer fluid and the heat storage media. These systems have an upper operating temperature limit of around 400 C. Future TES systems are expected to operate at temperatures between 600 C to 1000 C for higher thermal efficiencies which should result in lower electricity cost. To meet future operating temperature and electricity cost requirements, a TES concept utilizing thermochemical cycles (TCs) based on multivalent solid oxides was proposed. The system employs a pair of reduction and oxidation (REDOX) reactions to store and release heat. In the storage step, hot air from the solar receiver is used to reduce the oxidation state of an oxide cation, e.g. Fe3+ to Fe2+. Heat energy is thus stored as chemical bonds and the oxide is charged. To discharge the stored energy, the reduced oxide is re-oxidized in air and heat is released. Air is used as both the heat transfer fluid and reactant and no storage of fluid is needed. This project investigated the engineering and economic feasibility of this proposed TES concept. The DOE storage cost and LCOE targets are $15/kWh and $0.09/kWh respectively. Sixteen pure oxide cycles were identified through thermodynamic calculations and literature information. Data showed the kinetics of re-oxidation of the various oxides to be a key barrier to implementing the proposed concept. A down selection was carried out based on operating temperature, materials costs and preliminary laboratory measurements. Cobalt oxide, manganese oxide and barium oxide were selected for developmental studies to improve their REDOX reaction kinetics. A novel approach utilizing mixed oxides to improve the REDOX kinetics of the selected oxides was proposed. It partially replaces some of the primary oxide cations with selected secondary cations. This causes a lattice charge imbalance and increases the anion vacancy density. Such vacancies enhance the ionic mass transport and lead to faster re-oxidation. Reoxidation fractions of Mn3O4 to Mn2O3 and CoO to Co3O4 were improved by up to 16 fold through the addition of a secondary oxide. However, no improvement was obtained in barium based mixed oxides. In addition to enhancing the short term re-oxidation kinetics, it was found that the use of mixed oxides also help to stabilize or even improve the TES properties after long term thermal cycling. Part of this improvement could be attributed to a reduced grain size in the mixed oxides. Based on the measurement results, manganese-iron, cobalt-aluminum and cobalt iron mixed oxides have been proposed for future engineering scale demonstration. Using the cobalt and manganese mixed oxides, we were able to demonstrate charge and discharge of the TES media in both a bench top fixed bed and a rotary kiln-moving bed reactor. Operations of the fixed bed configuration are straight forward but require a large mass flow rate and higher fluid temperature for charging. The rotary kiln makes direct solar irradiation possible and provides significantly better heat transfer, but designs to transport the TES oxide in and out of the reactor will need to be defined. The final reactor and system design will have to be based on the economics of the CSP plant. A materials compatibility study was also conducted and it identified Inconel 625 as a suitable high temperature engineering material to construct a reactor holding either cobalt or manganese mixed oxides. To assess the economics of such a CSP plant, a packed bed reactor model was established as a baseline. Measured cobalt-aluminum oxide reaction kinetics were applied to the model and the influences of bed properties and process parameters on the overall system design were investigated. The optimal TES system design was found to be a network of eight fixed bed reactors at 18.75 MWth each with charge and

PROJECT STAFF

2011-10-31T23:59:59.000Z

431

THERMOCHEMICAL HEAT STORAGE FOR CONCENTRATED SOLAR POWER  

SciTech Connect

Thermal energy storage (TES) is an integral part of a concentrated solar power (CSP) system. It enables plant operators to generate electricity beyond on sun hours and supply power to the grid to meet peak demand. Current CSP sensible heat storage systems employ molten salts as both the heat transfer fluid and the heat storage media. These systems have an upper operating temperature limit of around 400 C. Future TES systems are expected to operate at temperatures between 600 C to 1000 C for higher thermal efficiencies which should result in lower electricity cost. To meet future operating temperature and electricity cost requirements, a TES concept utilizing thermochemical cycles (TCs) based on multivalent solid oxides was proposed. The system employs a pair of reduction and oxidation (REDOX) reactions to store and release heat. In the storage step, hot air from the solar receiver is used to reduce the oxidation state of an oxide cation, e.g. Fe3+ to Fe2+. Heat energy is thus stored as chemical bonds and the oxide is charged. To discharge the stored energy, the reduced oxide is re-oxidized in air and heat is released. Air is used as both the heat transfer fluid and reactant and no storage of fluid is needed. This project investigated the engineering and economic feasibility of this proposed TES concept. The DOE storage cost and LCOE targets are $15/kWh and $0.09/kWh respectively. Sixteen pure oxide cycles were identified through thermodynamic calculations and literature information. Data showed the kinetics of re-oxidation of the various oxides to be a key barrier to implementing the proposed concept. A down selection was carried out based on operating temperature, materials costs and preliminary laboratory measurements. Cobalt oxide, manganese oxide and barium oxide were selected for developmental studies to improve their REDOX reaction kinetics. A novel approach utilizing mixed oxides to improve the REDOX kinetics of the selected oxides was proposed. It partially replaces some of the primary oxide cations with selected secondary cations. This causes a lattice charge imbalance and increases the anion vacancy density. Such vacancies enhance the ionic mass transport and lead to faster re-oxidation. Reoxidation fractions of Mn3O4 to Mn2O3 and CoO to Co3O4 were improved by up to 16 fold through the addition of a secondary oxide. However, no improvement was obtained in barium based mixed oxides. In addition to enhancing the short term re-oxidation kinetics, it was found that the use of mixed oxides also help to stabilize or even improve the TES properties after long term thermal cycling. Part of this improvement could be attributed to a reduced grain size in the mixed oxides. Based on the measurement results, manganese-iron, cobalt-aluminum and cobalt iron mixed oxides have been proposed for future engineering scale demonstration. Using the cobalt and manganese mixed oxides, we were able to demonstrate charge and discharge of the TES media in both a bench top fixed bed and a rotary kiln-moving bed reactor. Operations of the fixed bed configuration are straight forward but require a large mass flow rate and higher fluid temperature for charging. The rotary kiln makes direct solar irradiation possible and provides significantly better heat transfer, but designs to transport the TES oxide in and out of the reactor will need to be defined. The final reactor and system design will have to be based on the economics of the CSP plant. A materials compatibility study was also conducted and it identified Inconel 625 as a suitable high temperature engineering material to construct a reactor holding either cobalt or manganese mixed oxides. To assess the economics of such a CSP plant, a packed bed reactor model was established as a baseline. Measured cobalt-aluminum oxide reaction kinetics were applied to the model and the influences of bed properties and process parameters on the overall system design were investigated. The optimal TES system design was found to be a network of eight fixed bed reactors at 18.75 MWth each with charge and

PROJECT STAFF

2011-10-31T23:59:59.000Z

432

Influence of pH of the impregnation solution on the catalytic properties of Co/{gamma}-alumina for Fischer-Tropsch synthesis  

SciTech Connect

The Co/{gamma}-Al{sub 2}O{sub 3} catalysts were prepared by the slurry impregnation of an aqueous solution of cobalt(II) nitrate precursor. Nitric acid or ammonium hydroxide was added to the cobalt nitrate solution, during impregnation, to give an acidic or basic environment. The changes in the particle size of cobalt species were estimated by X-ray diffraction (XRD) and hydrogen chemisorption. The reduction degree of cobalt oxides was measured by temperature-programmed reduction (TPR). The catalysts prepared under acidic conditions showed a higher reduction degree compared to those prepared at higher pH because of the reduced salt-support interaction. During the Fischer-Tropsch synthesis at 220{sup o}C, employing the catalysts prepared at a different pH (0.80, 4.94, 9.96, and 11.12), a considerable difference in the initial activity was observed, depending upon the cobalt metal surface area. However, after stabilization, all of the catalysts attained a similar level of conversion, possibly because of the active-site rearrangement, deactivation, and wax formation on the catalyst surface. At a higher reaction temperature of 240{sup o}C, the catalysts prepared at lower solution pH exhibited higher conversion than those prepared at higher solution pH. The cobalt species on the catalysts prepared under acidic conditions had a heterogeneous particle size distribution, showing higher steady-state activity, because of the reduced interaction with the support. The product distribution revealed a higher selectivity to C{sub 1} and C{sub 8+} on the catalyst prepared with a higher solution pH. 44 refs., 6 figs., 3 tabs.

Jong Wook Bae; Yun-Jo Lee; Jo-Yong Park; Ki-Won Jun [Korea Research Institute of Chemical Technology (KRICT), Daejeon (Republic of Korea). Alternative Chemicals/Fuel Research Center

2008-09-15T23:59:59.000Z

433

Li{sup +} ion emission from a hot-plate alumina-silicate source stimulated by flash heating with an infrared laser  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

The Neutralized Drift Compression Experiment-II accelerator under construction at Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory has been designed to employ a lithium-doped alumino-silicate (Al-Si) hot-plate surface-ionization ion source. In order to achieve the design 1 mA/cm{sup 2} current density, the emitter must be constantly kept at a high temperature, leading to the accelerated loss of Li material as ions or neutrals. As a result, the estimated lifetime of the source is 50 h. This lifetime can be extended if the source is kept at low temperature during standby, and pulse heated to the high temperature during the ion extraction phase only. A pulsed heating technique based on an infrared laser (CO{sub 2} gas discharge, {lambda}= 10.6 {mu}m) is described in this paper. The feasibility of ion current emission stimulated by flash heating with an infrared (IR) laser was demonstrated. High repeatability of the laser-stimulated ion current was observed, creating an opportunity for modulation and gating of the ion current with a laser pulse. It was found that with the available low power ({approx_equal}115 W/cm{sup 2}) IR laser, current densities as high as 0.8 mA/cm{sup 2} could be achieved with a 2.8 mm diameter source. Various approaches for scaling to a larger (10 cm diameter) source and the application of short pulse, high power lasers are discussed. The results and conclusions of this paper may apply to various species of hot-plate ion sources.

Ni, P. A.; Kwan, J. W.; Roy, P. K.; Waldron, W. L. [Lawrence Berkeley National Laboraotry, University of California, Berkeley, California (United States)

2011-02-15T23:59:59.000Z

434

Diffusion Coatings for Gas Turbine Engine Hot Section Parts  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

...ammonium chloride, and alumina was described in 1954 (Ref 12). Siliconizing of nickel and cobalt superalloys

435

Recent Results and Fabrication of Micro-Pocket Fission Detectors (MPFD)  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

and Peter Scheuer from Honeywell, Kansas City Plant for their assistance with Alumina Tape firing. All

Shultis, J. Kenneth

436

Alternative Fuel for Portland Cement Processing  

SciTech Connect

The production of cement involves a combination of numerous raw materials, strictly monitored system processes, and temperatures on the order of 1500 °C. Immense quantities of fuel are required for the production of cement. Traditionally, energy from fossil fuels was solely relied upon for the production of cement. The overarching project objective is to evaluate the use of alternative fuels to lessen the dependence on non-renewable resources to produce portland cement. The key objective of using alternative fuels is to continue to produce high-quality cement while decreasing the use of non-renewable fuels and minimizing the impact on the environment. Burn characteristics and thermodynamic parameters were evaluated with a laboratory burn simulator under conditions that mimic those in the preheater where the fuels are brought into a cement plant. A drop-tube furnace and visualization method were developed that show potential for evaluating time- and space-resolved temperature distributions for fuel solid particles and liquid droplets undergoing combustion in various combustion atmospheres. Downdraft gasification has been explored as a means to extract chemical energy from poultry litter while limiting the throughput of potentially deleterious components with regards to use in firing a cement kiln. Results have shown that the clinkering is temperature independent, at least within the controllable temperature range. Limestone also had only a slight effect on the fusion when used to coat the pellets. However, limestone addition did display some promise in regards to chlorine capture, as ash analyses showed chlorine concentrations of more than four times greater in the limestone infused ash as compared to raw poultry litter. A reliable and convenient sampling procedure was developed to estimate the combustion quality of broiler litter that is the best compromise between convenience and reliability by means of statistical analysis. Multi-day trial burns were conducted at a full-scale cement plant with alternative fuels to examine their compatibility with the cement production process. Construction and demolition waste, woodchips, and soybean seeds were used as alternative fuels at a full-scale cement production facility. These fuels were co-fired with coal and waste plastics. The alternative fuels used in this trial accounted for 5 to 16 % of the total energy consumed during these burns. The overall performance of the portland cement produced during the various trial burns performed for practical purposes very similar to the cement produced during the control burn. The cement plant was successful in implementing alternative fuels to produce a consistent, high-quality product that increased cement performance while reducing the environmental footprint of the plant. The utilization of construction and demolition waste, woodchips and soybean seeds proved to be viable replacements for traditional fuels. The future use of these fuels depends on local availability, associated costs, and compatibility with a facilityâ??s production process.

Anton K. Schindler; Steve R. Duke; Thomas E. Burch; Edward W. Davis; Ralph H. Zee; David I. Bransby; Carla Hopkins; Rutherford L. Thompson; Jingran Duan; Vignesh Venkatasubramanian; Stephen Giles.

2012-06-30T23:59:59.000Z

437

EARLY ENTRANCE COPRODUCTION PLANT  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

The overall objective of this project is the three phase development of an Early Entrance Coproduction Plant (EECP) which uses petroleum coke to produce at least one product from at least two of the following three categories: (1) electric power (or heat), (2) fuels, and (3) chemicals using ChevronTexaco's proprietary gasification technology. The objective of Phase I is to determine the feasibility and define the concept for the EECP located at a specific site; develop a Research, Development, and Testing (RD&T) Plan to mitigate technical risks and barriers; and prepare a Preliminary Project Financing Plan. The objective of Phase II is to implement the work as outlined in the Phase I RD&T Plan to enhance the development and commercial acceptance of coproduction technology. The objective of Phase III is to develop an engineering design package and a financing and testing plan for an EECP located at a specific site. The project's intended result is to provide the necessary technical, economic, and environmental information needed by industry to move the EECP forward to detailed design, construction, and operation. The partners in this project are Texaco Energy Systems LLC or TES (a subsidiary of ChevronTexaco), General Electric (GE), Praxair, and Kellogg Brown & Root (KBR) in addition to the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE). TES is providing gasification technology and Fischer-Tropsch (F-T) technology developed by Rentech, GE is providing combustion turbine technology, Praxair is providing air separation technology, and KBR is providing engineering. During Phase I the team identified several potential methods to reduce or minimize the environmental impact of the proposed EECP. The EECP Project Team identified F-T catalyst disposal, beneficial gasifier slag usage (other than landfill), and carbon dioxide recovery for the gas turbine exhaust for study under this task. Successfully completing the Task 2.10 RD&T provides additional opportunities for the EECP to meet the goals of DOE's Vision 21 Program. The gasification section offers several opportunities to maximize the environmental benefits of an EECP. The spent F-T catalyst can be sent to landfills or to the gasification section. Testing in Phase II shows that the spent F-T catalyst with a small wax coating can safely meet federal landfill requirements. As an alternative to landfilling, it has been proposed to mix the spent F-T catalyst with the petroleum coke and feed this mixture to the gasification unit. Based on ChevronTexaco's experience with gasification and the characteristics of the spent F-T catalyst this appears to be an excellent opportunity to reduce one potential waste stream. The slag from the gasification unit can be commercially marketed for construction or fuel (such as cement kiln fuel) uses. The technical and economic benefits of these options must be reviewed for the final EECP before incorporating a specific alternative into the design basis. Reducing greenhouse gas emissions, particularly carbon dioxide, is an important goal of the EECP. The Texaco gasification process provides opportunities to capture high purity streams of carbon dioxide. For Phase II, a carbon fiber composite molecular sieve (CFCMS) was tested to determine its potential to remove high purity carbon dioxide from the exhaust of a gas turbine. Testing on with a simulated gas turbine exhaust shows that the CFCMS is able to remove high purity carbon dioxide from the exhaust. However, more development is required to optimize the system.

John H. Anderson; Charles Benham; Earl R. Berry; Ming He; Charles H. Schrader; Lalit S. Shah; O.O. Omatete; T.D. Burchell

2004-01-12T23:59:59.000Z

438

Characterization of Bauxite and its Minerals by Means of ...  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Decrease of Heat Consumption at Nepheline Processing to Alumina and By- Products ... Extracting Alumina from Coal Fly Ash Using Acid Sintering-Leaching Process ... Flash -and CFB Calciners, History and Difficulties of Development of Two ...

439

The Economical Flexibility for Processing Diasporic Bauxite  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Decrease of Heat Consumption at Nepheline Processing to Alumina and By- Products ... Extracting Alumina from Coal Fly Ash Using Acid Sintering-Leaching Process ... Flash -and CFB Calciners, History and Difficulties of Development of Two ...

440

Mechanical Activation of Al-Oxyhydroxide Minerals  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Decrease of Heat Consumption at Nepheline Processing to Alumina and By- Products ... Extracting Alumina from Coal Fly Ash Using Acid Sintering-Leaching Process ... Flash -and CFB Calciners, History and Difficulties of Development of Two ...

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "kiln alumina kiln" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


441

Examination of Uranium(VI) Leaching During Ligand Promoted Dissolution of Waste Tank Sludge Surrogates  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Effects of phosphate on uranium(VI) adsorption to goethite-and ionic strength upon uranium(VI) sorption onto alumina asD. R. , Leslie, B. W. , Uranium sorption on a-alumina:

Powell, Brian A.

2008-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

442

The Control of Fluoride Concentration in ET? Alüminyum Bayer ...  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

About this Abstract. Meeting, 2013 TMS Annual Meeting & Exhibition. Symposium , Alumina and Bauxite. Presentation Title, The Control of Fluoride ...

443

Method for removing fluoride contamination from nitric acid  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

Fluoride ions are removed from nitric acid solution by contacting the vaporized solution with alumina or zirconium.

Pruett, David J. (Knoxville, TN); Howerton, William B. (Kingston, TN)

1982-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

444

TMS 2009 Annual Meeting and Exhibition: News Page  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

... and access to significant bauxite reserves, competitive alumina refining, low- cost hydro power, leading smelting technology, innovative engineered solutions,  ...

445

Exhibitor: Hencon  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

... Alumina Feeders; Anode Covering Vehicles; Anode Briquette Feeders; Crust Breakers; Bath Cleaning Machines; Combined Feeding Trucks; Anode Changing  ...

446

Exhibitor: HENCON, B.V.  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

... Alumina Feeders; Anode Covering Vehicles; Anode Briquette Feeders; Crust Breakers; Bath Cleaning Machines; Combined Feeding Trucks; Anode Changing  ...

447

2001 TMS Annual Meeting Exhibitor  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

... Anode Changing Machines; Alumina/Fluoride/Soda/Bath Feeding Trucks; Anode Covering Trucks; Cavity Cleaners; Crust Breakers; Anode Briquette Feeders ...

448

Design, Commissioning and Operational Aspects of a Novel Oxalate ...  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

About this Abstract. Meeting, 2013 TMS Annual Meeting & Exhibition. Symposium , Alumina and Bauxite. Presentation Title, Design, Commissioning and ...

449

Experience with Commissioning New Generation Gas Suspension ...  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

About this Abstract. Meeting, 2013 TMS Annual Meeting & Exhibition. Symposium , Alumina and Bauxite. Presentation Title, Experience with Commissioning ...

451

Environmentally Safe Operation of Barometric Condensers  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

About this Abstract. Meeting, 2013 TMS Annual Meeting & Exhibition. Symposium , Alumina and Bauxite. Presentation Title, Environmentally Safe Operation of ...

452

Dynamic Behavior of Materials VI  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Capturing Microstructural Features Related to Dynamic Damage Nucleation ... Structural Alumina during Low Velocity Impact Used in Protective Systems.

453

Advancing the Hall Heroult Electrolytic Process  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

These secondary processes, including reactions associated with impurities and anodes consumption, those leading to onset of anode effect, and alumina ...

454

USE OF ATOMIC LAYER DEPOSITION OF FUNCTIONALIZATION OF NANOPOROUS BIOMATERIALS  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Due to its chemical stability, uniform pore size, and high pore density, nanoporous alumina is being investigated for use in biosensing, drug delivery, hemodialysis, and other medical applications. In recent work, we have examined the use of atomic layer deposition for coating the surfaces of nanoporous alumina membranes. Zinc oxide coatings were deposited on nanoporous alumina membranes using atomic layer deposition. The zinc oxide-coated nanoporous alumina membranes demonstrated antimicrobial activity against Escherichia coli and Staphylococcus aureus bacteria. These results suggest that atomic layer deposition is an attractive technique for modifying the surfaces of nanoporous alumina membranes and other nanostructured biomaterials.

Brigmon, R.; Narayan, R.; Adiga, S.; Pellin, M.; Curtiss, L.; Stafslien, S.; Chisholm, B.; Monteiro-Riviere, N.; Elam, J.

2010-02-08T23:59:59.000Z

455

SOx/NOx sorbent and process of use  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

An alumina sorbent capable of adsorbing NOx and SOx from waste gases and being regenerated by heating above 600 C. is made by incorporating an alumina stabilizing agent into the sorbent. A preferred method is to add the stabilizer when the alumina is precipitated. The precipitated powder is formed subsequently into a slurry, milled and dripped to form the stabilizing spheroidal alumina particles. These particles are impregnated with an alkali metal or alkaline earth metal to form the stabilized sorbent. Alumina stabilizers include one or more of silica, lanthana, other rare earths, titania, zirconia and alkaline earths.

Ziebarth, M.S.; Hager, M.J.; Beeckman, J.W.; Plecha, S.

1993-01-19T23:59:59.000Z

456

Improving high-capacity Li1.2Ni0.15Mn0.55Co0.1O2-based lithium-ion cells by modifiying the positive electrode with alumina  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

;1. Introduction For lithium-ion batteries to widely power plug-in hybrid electric and all-electric vehicles (PHEVs-cell degradation during extended cycling. a r t i c l e i n f o Article history: Received 7 December 2012 Received

Spila, Timothy P.

457

Using a surface-sensitive chemical probe and a bulk structure technique to monitor the ?- to ?-Al2O3 phase transformation  

SciTech Connect

In this work, we investigated the phase transformation of ? Al2O3 to ? Al2O3 by ethanol TPD and XRD. Ethanol TPD showed remarkable sensitivity toward the surface structures of the aluminas studied. Maximum desorption rates for the primary product of ethanol adsorption, ethylene, were observed at 225°C, 245°C and 320°C over ?-, ?-, and ?-Al2O3, respectively. Ethanol TPD over a ? Al2O3 sample calcined at 800 °C clearly show that the surface of the resulting material possesses ?-alumina characteristics, even though only the ?-alumina phase was detected by XRD. These results strongly suggest that the ?-to-? phase transformation of alumina initiates at oxide particle surfaces. The results obtained are also consistent with our previous finding that the presence of penta-coordinated Al3+ sites, formed on the (100) facets of the alumina surface, are strongly correlated with the thermal stability of ?-alumina.

Kwak, Ja Hun; Peden, Charles HF; Szanyi, Janos

2011-06-30T23:59:59.000Z

458

Microprobes aluminosilicate ceramic membranes  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

Methods have been developed to make mixed alumina-silicate and aluminosilicate particulate microporous ceramic membranes. One method involves the making of separate alumina and silica sols which are then mixed. Another method involves the creation of a combined sol with aluminosilicate particles. The resulting combined alumina and silica membranes have high surface area, a very small pore size, and a very good temperature stability.

Anderson, Marc A. (2114 Chadbourne Ave., Madison, WI 53705); Sheng, Guangyao (45 N. Orchard St., Madison, WI 53715)

1993-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

459

Catalytic reforming catalyst  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

An improved catalyst, having a reduced fouling rate when used in a catalytic reforming process, said catalyst comprising platinum disposed on an alumina support wherein the alumina support is obtained by removing water from aluminum hydroxide produced as a by-product from a ziegler higher alcohol synthesis reaction, and wherein the alumina is calcined at a temperature of 1100-1400/sup 0/F so as to have a surface area of 165 to 215 square meters per gram.

Buss, W.C.; Kluksdahl, H.E.

1980-12-09T23:59:59.000Z

460

Processing Effects on the Fatigue of EBPVD TBCs on MCrAlY and ...  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

coats were prepared by grit blasting using alumina powder prior to. TBC deposition. Photographs showing the as processed TBCs with MCrAlY bond coats are ...

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "kiln alumina kiln" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


461

Dedicated Compact Refinery - Programmaster.org  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Meeting, 2013 TMS Annual Meeting & Exhibition ... capital cost per tonne of alumina (tA) capacity; * Compact plant production capacity, resulting in a simple and ...

462

Ceramic Matrix Composites  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Sung R Choi, Naval Air Systems Command ... Integration/Joining ... Phases and Microstructure of Alumina Composites for Energy Efficient Sliding Systems.

463

Tests on Comprehensive Recovery of Iron Minerals and Bauxite ...  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

In comparison with high temperature smelting process, the energy consumption is ... Value of Systems Integration to Optimize Operation in Alumina Refineries.

464

Alloy Modification  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

...Ilmenite Alumina Silica flour Iron powder Fluorspar Feldspar Manganese dioxide Asbestos (up to 50%) was used as a slag former, but has been phased

465

Advances on Sintering II  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Oct 29, 2013... Metal-like Grain Boundary Complexions in Cu/Ti Doped Alumina: Abigail Lawrence1; Animesh Kundu1; Martin Harmer1; 1Lehigh University

466

Energy and Environmental Challenges in Aluminium Industry  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Presentation Title, Energy and Environmental Challenges in Aluminium Industry - A Review ... A projection based on the present global Alumina and Aluminium ...

467

Energy and Environment  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Mar 2, 2011 ... Alunorte Global Energy Efficiency: Arthur Monteiro1; Reiner Wischnewski2; Cleto Azevedo1; Emerson Moraes1; 1Alumina do Norte do Brasil ...

468

Liquid Phase Sintering of Nickel Base Superalloys  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

does not seem to be a requisite, the liquid phase being responsible for particle ..... using standard silicate bonded casting molds rather than alum.ina. 413 ...

469

Microstructure Characterization of Welds in a Haynes 282 Casting  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Corrosion and Materials Degradation in Microturbines · Development of Cast Alumina-Forming Austenitic Stainless Steel Alloys · Effect of Al-Substitution and ...

470

Thermodynamic and Transport Properties of Abundant-Vacancy Pd  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Corrosion and Materials Degradation in Microturbines · Development of Cast Alumina-Forming Austenitic Stainless Steel Alloys · Effect of Al-Substitution and ...

471

About this Abstract  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Corrosion and Materials Degradation in Microturbines · Development of Cast Alumina-Forming Austenitic Stainless Steel Alloys · Effect of Al-Substitution and ...

472

Phase Transitions of Nano-scaffold Confined Ammonia Borane ...  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Corrosion and Materials Degradation in Microturbines · Development of Cast Alumina-Forming Austenitic Stainless Steel Alloys · Effect of Al-Substitution and ...

473

Impact of Casting Superheat on the Mechanical Properties of ...  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Corrosion and Materials Degradation in Microturbines · Development of Cast Alumina-Forming Austenitic Stainless Steel Alloys · Effect of Al-Substitution and ...

474

Gross Wash Project in Washers of Red Mud Filtration  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

About this Abstract. Meeting, 2013 TMS Annual Meeting & Exhibition. Symposium , Alumina and Bauxite. Presentation Title, Gross Wash Project in Washers of ...

475

Bauxite Resources and Utilisation  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Feb 28, 2011... bauxite deposit generally includes constructing an alumina refinery. ... Driven by desire to diversify its economy in an oil rich country and by ...

476

cast shop technology i  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Upgradation of Alumina Refinery at Hindalco Renukoot (India) R.P. Shah and .... The Influence of Crude Oil Desalting on Calcined Coke Quality (abstract only)

477

05AM Thursday.p65  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Feb 17, 2005 ... Alumina Quality Improvements at the Alpart Refinery, Nain,. St Elizabeth, Ja ...... under oil lubricant test, a friction coefficient, ¨¬ of the AZ31 alloy.

478

TUESD A Y AM TUESDAY AM  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Feb 17, 1998 ... mina industry. The comparison with others such as Oil and Gas will be ... control to various processes within an alumina refinery together with.

479

Investigation on Formation Mechanism of Non-Anode Effect Related ...  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

NAE-PFC will emit when there is not enough alumina under some or other anode's ... PFC and CO2 Emissions from an Australian Aluminium Smelter Using  ...

480

Hall-Héroult Cell: Raw Materials and Process Control  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Feb 18, 2010 ... At present, there is no easy-to-use method for performing rapid analysis of ... Alumina Dissolution Rate as Impacted by Ore Pre-treatments: ...

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "kiln alumina kiln" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


481

Aluminium Dissolution Kinetics in Caustic Media  

• Žuti?, V. and Stumm, W. (1984) Effect of organic acids and fluoride on the dissolution kinetics of hydrous alumina. A model study using the rotating disk

482

Microsoft Word - 25A2685 Continued  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

operation (300-350C) that limit widespread adoption of this technology into the market. Here we propose to develop and demonstrate a modular sodium "-alumina battery...

483

Energy and Environmental Profile of the US Aluminum Industry - TMS  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Jun 30, 2008 ... This report was prepared by Energetics, Inc. for the U.S. DOE to study the energy and environmental impact of alumina production, anode ...

484

Nanoporous Al2O3 as a “Getter” for Volatile Radionuclides ...  

The first phase of this project is capture and encapsulation which is achieved by using nanoporous alumina to confine gaseous iodine, for example, ...

485

MT@TMS  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Feb 3, 2010 ... BRaDD covers data from alumina refineries around the world and has been developed as a comparative tool enabling identification of trends ...

486

The First Results of the Industrial Application of the EcoSoderberg ...  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

The Effect of Calcium Fluoride on Alumina Solubility in Low Temperature Cryolite Melts · The First Results of the Industrial Application of the EcoSoderberg ...

487

Reduction in HF Emission Through Improvement in Operational ...  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

The Effect of Calcium Fluoride on Alumina Solubility in Low Temperature Cryolite Melts · The First Results of the Industrial Application of the EcoSoderberg ...

488

Start of an Aluminum Reduction Cell without Liquid Bath  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

The Effect of Calcium Fluoride on Alumina Solubility in Low Temperature Cryolite Melts · The First Results of the Industrial Application of the EcoSoderberg ...

489

On the Mechanism Behind Low Voltage PFC Emissions  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

The Effect of Calcium Fluoride on Alumina Solubility in Low Temperature Cryolite Melts · The First Results of the Industrial Application of the EcoSoderberg ...