National Library of Energy BETA

Sample records for kg kilogram km

  1. Cellulosic emissions (kg of pollutant per km2 county area) -...

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    Cellulosic emissions (kg of pollutant per km2 county area) Data reflects projected air emissions of nitrogen oxides (NOX), ammonia (NH3), carbon monoxide (CO), sulfur oxide (SOX),...

  2. Leitner Hubert KG | Open Energy Information

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    Hubert KG Place: Bruneck (BZ), Italy Zip: I-39031 Product: Distributes PV power inverters for Magnetek and Modules for Tenospot. References: Leitner Hubert KG1 This article...

  3. Campa Sud GmbH Co KG | Open Energy Information

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    GmbH Co KG Jump to: navigation, search Name: Campa Sud GmbH & Co. KG Place: Straubing, Germany Product: Campa Sd GmbH & Co. KG was established in 2002 as a production...

  4. Fuel 21 GmbH Co KG | Open Energy Information

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    GmbH Co KG Jump to: navigation, search Name: fuel 21 GmbH & Co. KG Place: Klein Wanzleben, Germany Zip: 39164 Product: fuel 21 GmbH & Co. KG started in 2006 as a member of...

  5. Flabeg GmbH co KG | Open Energy Information

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    KG Place: Nrnberg, Germany Zip: 90441 Sector: Solar Product: Glass finishing for automotive and solar industry, especially STEG. References: Flabeg GmbH & co KG1 This article...

  6. Otag GmbH Co KG | Open Energy Information

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    Name: Otag GmbH & Co KG Place: Olsberg, Germany Zip: 59939 Product: Micro combined heat and power plant manufacturer (<2.2 kWe). References: Otag GmbH & Co KG1 This article...

  7. Campa Biodiesel GmbH Co KG | Open Energy Information

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    GmbH Co KG Jump to: navigation, search Name: Campa-Biodiesel GmbH & Co. KG Place: Ochsenfurt, Bavaria, Germany Zip: 97199 Product: Campa Biodiesel is a producer and marketer of...

  8. Marina Biodiesel GmbH Co KG | Open Energy Information

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    Marina Biodiesel GmbH Co KG Jump to: navigation, search Name: Marina Biodiesel GmbH & Co.KG Place: Brunsbttel, Schleswig-Holstein, Germany Zip: 25541 Product: Marina Biodiesel...

  9. AVANCIS GmbH Co KG | Open Energy Information

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    GmbH Co KG Jump to: navigation, search Name: AVANCIS GmbH & Co KG Place: Torgau, Germany Product: Germany-based CIS PV cell manufacturer and subsidiary of Saint Gobain....

  10. GETproject GmbH Co KG | Open Energy Information

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    search Name: GETproject GmbH & Co KG Place: Kiel, Germany Zip: 24109 Sector: Wind energy Product: Wind energy project developer. References: GETproject GmbH & Co KG1...

  11. ETBKN GmbH Co KG | Open Energy Information

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    to: navigation, search Name: ETBKN GmbH & Co KG Place: Germany Product: Germany-based biogas project developer. References: ETBKN GmbH & Co KG1 This article is a stub. You can...

  12. Renion Biogas GmbH Co KG | Open Energy Information

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    Renion Biogas GmbH Co KG Jump to: navigation, search Name: Renion Biogas GmbH & Co KG Place: Regensburg, Bavaria, Germany Zip: 93055 Product: JV between Schmack Biogas and Rewag to...

  13. Berger Lichttechnik GmbH Co KG | Open Energy Information

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    Berger Lichttechnik GmbH Co KG Jump to: navigation, search Name: Berger Lichttechnik GmbH & Co KG Place: Baierbrunn, Germany Zip: D-82065 Sector: Solar Product: German manufacturer...

  14. RIO Energie GmbH Co KG | Open Energy Information

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    RIO Energie GmbH Co KG Jump to: navigation, search Name: RIO Energie GmbH & Co KG Place: Mainz, Germany Zip: 55118 Sector: Wind energy Product: Subsidiary of the juwi group, Rio...

  15. CIS Solartechnik GmbH Co KG | Open Energy Information

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    Affinerie and the Cordes & Graefe KG formed a joint venture in order to develop the CIS solar cells. References: CIS Solartechnik GmbH & Co.KG1 This article is a stub. You can...

  16. Meihui Windpark GmbH Co KG | Open Energy Information

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    Name: Meihui Windpark GmbH & Co KG Place: Niedersachsen, Lower Saxony, Germany Sector: Wind energy Product: German-based wind farm operator, previously in ownership of Taiwan's...

  17. Fuhrlander Pfleiderer GmbH Co KG | Open Energy Information

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    Name: Fuhrlander-Pfleiderer GmbH & Co KG Place: Germany Sector: Wind energy Product: Joint venture combining the wind power activities of Furhlander AG and Pfleiderer AG....

  18. Elektrizitatswerk Goldbach Hoesbach GmbH Co KG | Open Energy...

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    search Name: Elektrizitatswerk Goldbach-Hoesbach GmbH & Co KG Place: Goldbach, Hessen, Germany Zip: 63773 Product: German power provider. Coordinates: 40.413574,...

  19. Energiefeld Bayern GmbH Co KG | Open Energy Information

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    & Co KG Place: Mnchen, Bavaria, Germany Zip: 81539 Product: JV between Schmack Biogas and Erdgas Suedbayern to constructown biogas plants and market electricity directly....

  20. Schnell Z ndstrahlmotoren AG Co KG | Open Energy Information

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    Zndstrahlmotoren is specialized on the production of dual fuel engines (CHPs) for biogas, dump and sewage gas. References: Schnell Zndstrahlmotoren AG & Co. KG1 This...

  1. Imtech Deutschland GmbH Co KG | Open Energy Information

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    & Co KG Place: Hamburg, Hamburg, Germany Zip: 22041 Product: German division of Imtech N.V. - an energy management and power engineering company. References: Imtech Deutschland...

  2. Energy age wind ltd Co KG | Open Energy Information

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    48291 Sector: Wind energy Product: Energy-age-wind aims to develop small scale vertical-axis wind turbines. References: energy-age-wind ltd & Co. KG1 This article is a stub....

  3. SGL Rotec GmbH Co KG | Open Energy Information

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    SGL Rotec GmbH & Co KG Place: Lemwerder, Hamburg, Germany Zip: 27809 Sector: Wind energy Product: Germany-based manufacturer of rotor blades for wind turbines. References: SGL...

  4. Windkraft Luhrs GmbH Co KG | Open Energy Information

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    to: navigation, search Name: Windkraft Luhrs GmbH & Co KG Place: Germany Sector: Wind energy Product: Germany-based, wind farm developer. References: Windkraft Luhrs GmbH & Co...

  5. Hoogen Bioenergie GmbH Co KG | Open Energy Information

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    Germany Zip: 1968 Product: Hoogen Bioenergie assist in building and operating biogas plants. References: Hoogen Bioenergie GmbH & Co.KG1 This article is a stub. You can...

  6. Schunk Group GmbH Co KG | Open Energy Information

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    is a worldwide technology company with a wide range of products. It manufactures bipolar plates for fuel cells. References: Schunk Group GmbH & Co KG1 This article is a...

  7. Nordwind Handels GmbH Co KG | Open Energy Information

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    to: navigation, search Name: Nordwind Handels GmbH & Co. KG Place: Germany Product: German project developer based in Beiersdorf-Freudenberg. The firm is one of Vestas largest...

  8. Performance test report for the 1000 kg melter

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Eaton, W.C.

    1995-11-01

    A multiphase program was initiated in 1994 to test commercially available melter technologies for the vitrification of the low-level waste (LLW) stream from defense wastes stored in underground tanks at the Hanford Site in southeastern Washington State. Phase 1 of the melter demonstration tests using simulated LLW was completed during fiscal year 1995. This document is the 100 kg melter offgas report on testing performed by GTS Duratek Inc., in Columbia, Maryland. GTS Duratek (one of the seven vendors selected) was chosen to demonstrate Joule heated melter technology under WHC subcontract number MMI-SVV- 384215. The document contains the complete offgas report on the 100 kg melter as prepared by Parsons Engineering Science, Inc. A summary of this report is also contained in the ``GTS Duratek, Phase 1 Hanford Low-Level Waste Melter Tests: Final Report`` (WHC-SD-VI-027).

  9. Dark matter limits froma 15 kg windowless bubble chamber

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Szydagis, Matthew Mark; /Chicago U.

    2010-12-01

    The COUPP collaboration has successfully used bubble chambers, a technology previously applied only to high-energy physics experiments, as direct dark matter detectors. It has produced the world's most stringent spin-dependent WIMP limits, and increasingly competitive spin-independent limits. These limits were achieved by capitalizing on an intrinsic rejection of the gamma background that all other direct detection experiments must address through high-density shielding and empirically-determined data cuts. The history of COUPP, including its earliest prototypes and latest results, is briefly discussed in this thesis. The feasibility of a new, windowless bubble chamber concept simpler and more inexpensive in design is discussed here as well. The dark matter limits achieved with a 15 kg windowless chamber, larger than any previous COUPP chamber (2 kg, 4 kg), are presented. Evidence of the greater radiopurity of synthetic quartz compared to natural is presented using the data from this 15 kg device, the first chamber to be made from synthetic quartz. The effective reconstruction of the three-dimensional positions of bubbles in a highly distorted optical field, with ninety-degree bottom lighting similar to cloud chamber lighting, is demonstrated. Another innovation described in this thesis is the use of the sound produced by bubbles recorded by an array of piezoelectric sensors as the primary means of bubble detection. In other COUPP chambers, cameras have been used as the primary trigger. Previous work on bubble acoustic signature differentiation using piezos is built upon in order to further demonstrate the ability to discriminate between alpha- and neutron-induced events.

  10. Sonnen Solar Park GmbH Co KG | Open Energy Information

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    Sonnen Solar Park GmbH Co KG Jump to: navigation, search Name: Sonnen Solar Park GmbH & Co KG Place: Germany Sector: Solar Product: 1.75MW solar PV park in Bavaria, developed by...

  11. Kompass Corporate Finance GmbH Co KG | Open Energy Information

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    Kompass Corporate Finance GmbH Co KG Jump to: navigation, search Name: Kompass Corporate Finance GmbH & Co KG Place: Bremen, Germany Zip: 28195 Sector: Renewable Energy Product:...

  12. Rheinische Bio Ester GmbH Co KG | Open Energy Information

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    Rheinische Bio Ester GmbH Co KG Jump to: navigation, search Name: Rheinische Bio Ester GmbH & Co.KG Place: Neuss, North Rhine-Westphalia, Germany Zip: 41460 Product: Rheinische Bio...

  13. Wurth Solar GmbH Co KG Wuerth Solar | Open Energy Information

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    Wurth Solar GmbH Co KG Wuerth Solar Jump to: navigation, search Name: Wurth Solar GmbH & Co KG (Wuerth Solar) Place: Schwabisch Hall, Baden-Wrttemberg, Germany Zip: D-74523...

  14. ABO Wind Biogas Sachsen Anhalt GmbH Co KG | Open Energy Information

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    Biogas Sachsen Anhalt GmbH Co KG Jump to: navigation, search Name: ABO Wind Biogas Sachsen-Anhalt GmbH & Co. KG Place: Wiesbaden, Saxony-Anhalt, Germany Zip: 65193 Product: Company...

  15. Green Energy Geotherm Power Fonds GmbH Co KG | Open Energy Information

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    Geotherm Power Fonds GmbH Co KG Jump to: navigation, search Name: Green Energy Geotherm Power Fonds GmbH & Co. KG Place: Hannover, Lower Saxony, Germany Zip: 30559 Sector:...

  16. Paradigma Energie und Umwelttechnik GmbH Co KG | Open Energy...

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    Paradigma Energie und Umwelttechnik GmbH Co KG Jump to: navigation, search Name: Paradigma Energie- und Umwelttechnik GmbH & Co KG Place: Karlsbad, Germany Zip: 76307 Sector: Solar...

  17. Geothermie Unterhaching GmbH und Co KG | Open Energy Information

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    Geothermie Unterhaching GmbH und Co KG Jump to: navigation, search Name: Geothermie Unterhaching GmbH und Co KG Place: Unterhaching, Bavaria, Germany Zip: 82008 Sector: Geothermal...

  18. Habdank PV Montagesysteme GmbH Co KG Habdank PV Mounting Systems...

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    Germany Zip: 73037 Product: Germany-based manufacturer of mounting systems for PV installations. References: Habdank PV-Montagesysteme GmbH & Co KG Habdank PV Mounting...

  19. GEWI Planungs und Vertriebsgesellschaft mbH Co KG | Open Energy...

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    Vertriebsgesellschaft mbH & Co KG Place: Husum Nordsee, Germany Zip: 25813 Sector: Wind energy Product: Wind energy project developer. References: GEWI Planungs- und...

  20. Bekon Energy Technologies GmbH Co KG | Open Energy Information

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    KG Place: Landshut, Bavaria, Germany Zip: 84034 Product: Planning and construction of biogas plants. Coordinates: 48.53657, 12.151775 Show Map Loading map......

  1. GEE Gesellschaft fuer Erneuerbare Energien mbH Co KG | Open Energy...

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    Erneuerbare Energien mbH & Co.KG Place: Hamburg, Hamburg, Germany Zip: 20459 Product: Wood pelletsbriquettes supplier. Coordinates: 53.553345, 9.992455 Show Map Loading...

  2. Umwelt Windrad GmbH Co KG UWR | Open Energy Information

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    UWR Jump to: navigation, search Name: Umwelt Windrad GmbH & Co KG (UWR) Place: Rheine, Germany Zip: 48431 Sector: Wind energy Product: Germany-based, subsidiary of Novera Energy...

  3. Joint Solar Silicon GmbH Co KG JSSI | Open Energy Information

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    Name: Joint Solar Silicon GmbH & Co KG (JSSI) Place: Germany Sector: Solar Product: Joint venture between Degussa and SolarWorld for the production of solar-grade silicon on...

  4. MBE Mitteldeutsche BioEnergie GmbH Co KG | Open Energy Information

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    Saxony-Anhalt, Germany Zip: 6780 Product: MBE is a Bioethanol producer for the use as biofuel. References: MBE Mitteldeutsche BioEnergie GmbH & Co. KG1 This article is a stub....

  5. CO/sub 2/ gas dynamic laser with flow rate of 10 Kg/sec

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Haitao, C.

    1982-08-01

    Using a supersonic technique in a 10 Kg/sec flow rate carbon dioxide gas dynamic laser unit to create a population inversion of the carbon dioxide particles, a 33,000 watt multiple mode continuous output was obtained. The power ratio reached 3000 watt sec/Kg. Single mode output was the P(20) branch with power of 11,200 watts and a beam diffuse angle of 4 seconds of radian. After eliminating the effect of stock wave, the diffuse angle can be reduced to 3 seconds of a radian. The results were below standards compared to those in foreign countries.

  6. Complete braided adsorbent for marine testing to demonstrate 3g-U/kg-adsorbent

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Janke, Chris; Yatsandra, Oyola; Mayes, Richard; none,; Gill, Gary; Li-Jung, Kuo; Wood, Jordana; Sadananda, Das

    2014-04-30

    ORNL has manufactured four braided adsorbents that successfully demonstrated uranium adsorption capacities ranging from 3.0-3.6 g-U/kg-adsorbent in marine testing at PNNL. Four new braided and leno woven fabric adsorbents have also been prepared by ORNL and are currently undergoing marine testing at PNNL.

  7. Voith Siemens Hydro Power Generation GmbH Co KG | Open Energy...

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    Map References: Voith Siemens Hydro Power Generation GmbH & Co KG&127;UNIQ7909a9dd6158f292-ref-0000150E-QINU&127; This article is a stub. You can help OpenEI by expanding it. Voith...

  8. GTS Duratek, Phase I Hanford low-level waste melter tests: 100-kg melter offgas report

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Eaton, W.C.

    1995-11-01

    A multiphase program was initiated in 1994 to test commercially available melter technologies for the vitrification of the low-level waste (LLW) stream from defense wastes stored in underground tanks at the Hanford Site in southeastern Washington State. Phase 1 of the melter demonstration tests using simulated LLW was completed during fiscal year 1995. This document is the 100-kg melter offgas report on testing performed by GTS Duratek, Inc., in Columbia, Maryland. GTS Duratek (one of the seven vendors selected) was chosen to demonstrate Joule heated melter technology under WHC subcontract number MMI-SVV-384215. The document contains the complete offgas report on the 100-kg melter as prepared by Parsons Engineering Science, Inc. A summary of this report is also contained in the GTS Duratek, Phase I Hanford Low-Level Waste Melter Tests: Final Report (WHC-SD-WM-VI-027).

  9. Microsoft Word - Kenya_10km_solar_country_report.doc

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    of 5x5 km. Figure 1: The solar irradiance data is derived from Meteosat a 0 (red circle) and at 63 East (orange circle). The brightened area marks the quantitatively...

  10. Microsoft Word - Nepal_10km_solar_country_report.doc

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    of 5x5 km. Figure 1: The solar irradiance data is derived from Meteosat a 0 (red circle) and at 63 East (orange circle). The brightened area marks the quantitatively...

  11. Microsoft Word - Ethiopia_10km_solar_country_report.doc

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    of 5x5 km. Figure 1: The solar irradiance data is derived from Meteosat a 0 (red circle) and at 63 East (orange circle). The brightened area marks the quantitatively...

  12. Microsoft Word - China_10km_solar_documentation.doc

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    of 5x5 km. Figure 1: The solar irradiance data is derived from Meteosat a 0 (red circle) and at 63 East (orange circle). The brightened area marks the quantitatively...

  13. Microsoft Word - Ghana_10km_solar_country_report.doc

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    of 5x5 km. Figure 1: The solar irradiance data is derived from Meteosat a 0 (red circle) and at 63 East (orange circle). The brightened area marks the quantitatively...

  14. Characterization of BG28 and KG3 filter glass for Drive Diagnostic Attenuators

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Page, R H; Weiland, T; Folta, J

    2007-11-30

    BG28 and KG3 filter glasses were tested for use as attenuators in the NIF drive diagnostic (DrD) systems. Tests were performed in the Optical Sciences Laser facility with a 351 nm, 2-step, 3-nsec pulse at fluences ranging up to {approx} 1 J/cm{sup 2}. Single-shot measurements showed no solarization when the samples were allowed to relax for a week after exposure. KG3 filters exhibited no luminescence and no transient pulse distortion. BG28 filters luminesced appreciably and imposed a 'droop' (similar to 'square-pulse distortion') on the signals. The droop parameter is estimated at 0.50 {+-} 0.11 cm{sup 2}/J. Droop is explained in terms of known copper-doped-glass spectroscopy and kinetics (buildup of triplet-state populations, with excited-state absorption). Simulation of the distortion ({approx}1.6%) expected on a 1.8 MJ Haan pulse led to a minor redesign of the Drive Diagnostic with reduced fluence on the BG28 filters to reduce the droop distortion to 0.5%.

  15. Post service examination of turbomolecular pumps after stress testing with Kg-scale tritium throughput

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Priester, F.; Roelling, M.

    2015-03-15

    Turbomolecular pumps (TMP) will be used with large amounts of tritium in future fusion machines like ITER, DEMO and in the KATRIN Experiment. In this work, a stress test of a large, magnetically levitated TMP (Leybold MAG W2800) with a tritium throughput of 1.1 kg over 384 days of operation was performed at TLK. After this, the pump was dismantled and the tritium uptake in several parts was deter-mined. Especially the non-metallic parts of the pump have absorbed large amounts of tritium and are most likely responsible for the observed pollution of the process gas. The total tritium uptake of the TMP was estimated with 0.1-1.1 TBq. No radiation-induced damages were found on the inner parts of the pump. The TMP showed no signs of functional limitations during the 384 days of operation. (authors)

  16. Milestone Report - Complete New Adsorbent Materials for Marine Testing to Demonstrate 4.5 g-U/kg Adsorbent

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Janke, Christopher James; Das, Sadananda; Oyola, Yatsandra; Mayes, Richard T.; Saito, Tomonori; Brown, Suree; Gill, Gary; Kuo, Li-Jung; Wood, Jordana

    2014-08-01

    This report describes work on the successful completion of Milestone M2FT-14OR03100115 (8/20/2014) entitled, “Complete new adsorbent materials for marine testing to demonstrate 4.5 g-U/kg adsorbent”. This effort is part of the Seawater Uranium Recovery Program, sponsored by the U.S. Department of Energy, Office of Nuclear Energy, and involved the development of new adsorbent materials at the Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL) and marine testing at the Pacific Northwest National Laboratory (PNNL). ORNL has recently developed two new families of fiber adsorbents that have demonstrated uranium adsorption capacities greater than 4.5 g-U/kg adsorbent after marine testing at PNNL. One adsorbent was synthesized by radiation-induced graft polymerization of itaconic acid and acrylonitrile onto high surface area polyethylene fibers followed by amidoximation and base conditioning. This fiber showed a capacity of 4.6 g-U/kg adsorbent in marine testing at PNNL. The second adsorbent was prepared by atom-transfer radical polymerization of t-butyl acrylate and acrylonitrile onto halide-functionalized round fibers followed by amidoximation and base hydrolysis. This fiber demonstrated uranium adsorption capacity of 5.4 g-U/kg adsorbent in marine testing at PNNL.

  17. A 233 km tunnel for lepton and hadron colliders

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Summers, D. J.; Cremaldi, L. M.; Datta, A.; Duraisamy, M.; Luo, T.; Lyons, G. T.

    2012-12-21

    A decade ago, a cost analysis was conducted to bore a 233 km circumference Very Large Hadron Collider (VLHC) tunnel passing through Fermilab. Here we outline implementations of e{sup +}e{sup -}, pp-bar , and {mu}{sup +}{mu}{sup -} collider rings in this tunnel using recent technological innovations. The 240 and 500 GeV e{sup +}e{sup -} colliders employ Crab Waist Crossings, ultra low emittance damped bunches, short vertical IP focal lengths, superconducting RF, and low coercivity, grain oriented silicon steel/concrete dipoles. Some details are also provided for a high luminosity 240 GeV e{sup +}e{sup -} collider and 1.75 TeV muon accelerator in a Fermilab site filler tunnel. The 40 TeV pp-bar collider uses the high intensity Fermilab p-bar source, exploits high cross sections for pp-bar production of high mass states, and uses 2 Tesla ultra low carbon steel/YBCO superconducting magnets run with liquid neon. The 35 TeV muon ring ramps the 2 Tesla superconducting magnets at 9 Hz every 0.4 seconds, uses 250 GV of superconducting RF to accelerate muons from 1.75 to 17.5 TeV in 63 orbits with 71% survival, and mitigates neutrino radiation with phase shifting, roller coaster motion in a FODO lattice.

  18. First Dark Matter Search Results from a 4-kg CF$_3$I Bubble Chamber Operated in a Deep Underground Site

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Behnke, E.; Behnke, J.; Brice, S.J.; Broemmelsiek, D.; Collar, J.I.; Conner, A.; Cooper, P.S.; Crisler, M.; Dahl, C.E.; Fustin, D.; Grace, E.; /Indiana U., South Bend /Fermilab

    2012-04-01

    New data are reported from the operation of a 4.0 kg CF{sub 3}I bubble chamber in the 6800 foot deep SNOLAB underground laboratory. The effectiveness of ultrasound analysis in discriminating alpha decay background events from single nuclear recoils has been confirmed, with a lower bound of >99.3% rejection of alpha decay events. Twenty single nuclear recoil event candidates and three multiple bubble events were observed during a total exposure of 553 kg-days distributed over three different bubble nucleation thresholds. The effective exposure for single bubble recoil-like events was 437.4 kg-days. A neutron background internal to the apparatus, of known origin, is estimated to account for five single nuclear recoil events and is consistent with the observed rate of multiple bubble events. This observation provides world best direct detection constraints on WIMP-proton spin-dependent scattering for WIMP masses >20 GeV/c{sup 2} and demonstrates significant sensitivity for spin-independent interactions.

  19. AmeriFlux BR-Sa3 Santarem-Km83-Logged Forest

    DOE Data Explorer [Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)]

    Goulden, Mike [University of California - Irvine

    2016-01-01

    This is the AmeriFlux version of the carbon flux data for the site BR-Sa3 Santarem-Km83-Logged Forest. Site Description - Cleared forest. Logged site is near km 83 along BR-183.

  20. Comparison And Discussion Of The 6 Km Temperature Maps Of The...

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    Stepp,Maria Richards. 2010. Comparison And Discussion Of The 6 Km Temperature Maps Of The Western Us Prepared By The Smu Geothermal Lab And The Usgs. In: () ; () ; () . () :...

  1. I?raak Nuke, NXOO Leaa Km&l, NY00

    Office of Legacy Management (LM)

    W. ti. &&n,Nor I?raak Nuke, NXOO Leaa Km&l, NY00 fjlrt~olfloatlon Camad .- ,' I i 2 Jr,' ; !

  2. Microsoft Word - Sri_Lanka_10km_solar_country_report.doc

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    of 5x5 km. Figure 1: The solar irradiance data is derived from Meteosat a 0 (red circle) and at 63 East (orange circle). The brightened area marks the quantitatively...

  3. Search for Acoustic Signals from Ultra-High Energy Neutrinos in 1500 Km^3

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    of Sea Water (Journal Article) | SciTech Connect Search for Acoustic Signals from Ultra-High Energy Neutrinos in 1500 Km^3 of Sea Water Citation Details In-Document Search Title: Search for Acoustic Signals from Ultra-High Energy Neutrinos in 1500 Km^3 of Sea Water Authors: Kurahashi, Naoko ; /Stanford U., Phys. Dept. ; Vandenbroucke, Justin ; /KIPAC, Menlo Park /SLAC ; Gratta, Giorgio ; /Stanford U., Phys. Dept. Publication Date: 2013-06-18 OSTI Identifier: 1084298 Report Number(s):

  4. KG Group | Open Energy Information

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    India Sector: Solar Product: Holding company for three yarn firms; setting up a solar thermal plant in Tamil Nadu. Coordinates: 11.01167, 76.98406 Show Map Loading map......

  5. Hydrodynamic simulations of a combined hydrogen, helium thermonuclear runaway on a 10-km neutron star

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Starrfield, S.; Kenyon, S.; Truran, J.W.; Sparks, W.M.

    1983-01-01

    We have used a Lagrangian, hydrodynamic stellar-evolution computer code to evolve a thermonuclear runaway in the accreted hydrogen rich envelope of a 1.0M, 10-km neutron star. Our simulation produced an outburst which lasted about 2000 sec and peak effective temperature was 3 keV. The peak luminosity exceeded 2 x 10/sup 5/ L. A shock wave caused a precursor in the light curve which lasted 10/sup -5/ sec.

  6. Penetration Experiments with 6061-T6511 Aluminum Targets and Spherical-Nose Steel Projectiles at Striking Velocities Between 0.5 and 3.0 km/s

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Forrestal, M.J.; Piekutowski, A.J.

    1999-02-04

    We conducted depth of penetration experiments with 7.11-mm-diameter, 74.7-mm-long, spherical-nose, 4340 steel projectiles launched into 250-mm-diameter, 6061-T6511 aluminum targets. To show the effect of projectile strength, we used projectiles that had average Rockwell harnesses of R{sub c} = 36.6, 39.5, and 46.2. A powder gun and two-stage, light-gas guns launched the 0.023 kg projectiles at striking velocities between 0.5 and 3.0 km/s. Post-test radiographs of the targets showed three response regions as striking velocities increased: (1) the projectiles remained visibly undeformed, (2) the projectiles permanently deformed without erosion, and (3) the projectiles eroded and lost mass. To show the effect of projectile strength, we compared depth-of-penetration data as a function of striking velocity for spherical-nose rods with three Rockwell harnesses at striking velocities ranging from 0.5 to 3.0 km/s. To show the effect of nose shape, we compared penetration data for the spherical-nose projectiles with previously published data for ogive-nose projectiles.

  7. Time-resolved particle velocity measurements at impact velocities of 10 km/s

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Furnish, M.D.; Chhabildas, L.C.; Reinhart, W.D.

    1998-08-01

    Hypervelocity launch capabilities (9--16 km/s) with macroscopic plates have become available in recent years. It is now feasible to conduct instrumented plane-wave tests using this capability. Successfully conducting such tests requires a planar launch and impact at hypervelocities, appropriate triggering for recording systems, and time-resolved measurements of motion or stress at a particular point or set of points within the target or projectile during impact. The authors have conducted the first time-resolved wave-profile experiments using velocity interferometric techniques at impact velocities of 10 km/s. These measurements show that aluminum continues to exhibit normal release behavior to 161 GPa shock pressure, with complete loss of strength of the shocked state. These experiments have allowed a determination of shock-wave window transparency in conditions produced by a hypervelocity impact. In particular, lithium fluoride appears to lose transparency at a shock stress of 200 GPa; this appears to be the upper limit for conventional wave profile measurements using velocity interferometric techniques.

  8. Daymet: Daily Surface Weather Data on a 1-km Grid for North America, Version 2.

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Thornton, Peter E; Thornton, Michele M; Mayer, Benjamin W; Wilhelmi, Nate; Wei, Yaxing; Devarakonda, Ranjeet; Cook, Robert B

    2014-01-01

    More information: http://daymet.ornl.gov Presenter: Ranjeet Devarakonda Environmental Sciences Division Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL) Daymet: Daily Surface Weather Data and Climatological Summaries provides gridded estimates of daily weather parameters for North America, including daily continuous surfaces of minimum and maximum temperature, precipitation occurrence and amount, humidity, shortwave radiation, snow water equivalent, and day length. The current data product (Version 2) covers the period January 1, 1980 to December 31, 2013 [1]. The prior product (Version 1) only covered from 1980-2008. Data are available on a daily time step at a 1-km x 1-km spatial resolution in Lambert Conformal Conic projection with a spatial extent that covers the conterminous United States, Mexico, and Southern Canada as meteorological station density allows. Daymet data can be downloaded from 1) the ORNL Distributed Active Archive Center (DAAC) search and order tools (http://daac.ornl.gov/cgi-bin/cart/add2cart.pl?add=1219) or directly from the DAAC FTP site (http://daac.ornl.gov/cgi-bin/dsviewer.pl?ds_id=1219) and 2) the Single Pixel Tool [2] and THREDDS (Thematic Real-time Environmental Data Services) Data Server [3]. The Single Pixel Data Extraction Tool allows users to enter a single geographic point by latitude and longitude in decimal degrees. A routine is executed that translates the (lon, lat) coordinates into projected Daymet (x,y) coordinates. These coordinates are used to access the Daymet database of daily-interpolated surface weather variables. Daily data from the nearest 1 km x 1 km Daymet grid cell are extracted from the database and formatted as a table with one column for each Daymet variable and one row for each day. All daily data for selected years are returned as a single (long) table, formatted for display in the browser window. At the top of this table is a link to the same data in a simple comma-separated text format, suitable for import into a spreadsheet or other data analysis software. The Single Pixel Data Extraction Tool also provides the option to download multiple coordinates programmatically. A multiple extractor script is freely available to download at http://daymet.ornl.gov/files/daymet.zip. The ORNL DAAC s THREDDS data server (TDS) provides customized visualization and access to Daymet time series of North American mosaics. Users can subset and download Daymet data via a variety of community standards, including OPeNDAP, NetCDF Subset service, and Open Geospatial Consortium (OGC) Web Map/Coverage Service. The ORNL DAAC TDS also exposes Daymet metadata through its ncISO service to facilitate harvesting Daymet metadata records into 3rd party catalogs. References: [1] Thornton, P.E., M.M. Thornton, B.W. Mayer, N. Wilhelmi, Y. Wei, R. Devarakonda, and R.B. Cook. 2014. Daymet: Daily Surface Weather Data on a 1-km Grid for North America, Version 2. Data set. Available on-line [http://daac.ornl.gov] from Oak Ridge National Laboratory Distributed Active Archive Center, Oak Ridge, Tennessee, USA. [2] Devarakonda R., et al. 2012. Daymet: Single Pixel Data Extraction Tool. Available on-line [http://daymet.ornl.go/singlepixel.html]. [3] Wei Y., et al. 2014. Daymet: Thematic Real-time Environmental Data Services. Available on-line [http://daymet.ornl.gov/thredds_tiles.html].

  9. Predicted Radiation Output from Several Kilograms of Plutonium...

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    Clell Jeffrey Jr. 1 ; Myers, Steven Charles 1 ; Temple, Brian Allen 1 ; Felsher, Paul D. 1 + Show Author Affiliations Los Alamos National Laboratory Publication Date:...

  10. Predicted Radiation Output from Several Kilograms of Plutonium...

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    1 ; Solomon, Clell Jeffrey Jr. 1 ; Myers, Steven Charles 1 ; Temple, Brian Allen 1 ; Felsher, Paul D. 1 + Show Author Affiliations Los Alamos National Laboratory...

  11. Practical Point-to-Point Free-Space Quantum Key Distribution over 1/2 KM

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Buttler, W.T.; Hughes, R.J.; Kwiat, P.G.; Lamoreaux, S.K.; Morgan, G.L.; Peterson, C.G.

    1999-02-01

    We have demonstrated point-to-point single-photon quantum key distribution (QKD) over a free-space optical path of {approximately}475 m under daylight conditions. This represents an increase of >1,000 times farther than any reported point-to-point demonstration, and >6 times farther than the previous folded path daylight demonstration. We expect to extend the daylight range to 2 km or more within the next few months. A brief description of the system is given here. The QKD transmitter, a.k.a. ''Alice'' (Fig. 1), consists of three thermoelectrically cooled diode lasers, a single interference filter (IF), two optical attenuators, two linear polarizers, two non-polarization beam-splitters (BSs), and a 27x beam expander. The two data-lasers' (dim-lasers') wavelengths are temperature controlled and constrained by the IF to {approximately}773 {+-} 0.5 nm, while the transmitted wavelength of the bright-laser (timing-laser) is {approximately}768 nm; the data-lasers are configured to emit a weak pulse of approximately 1 ns duration. The transmitter incorporates no active polarization switching--a first in QKD.

  12. Hyperveolcity impacts on aluminum from 6 to 11 km/s for hydrocode benchmarking.

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Saul, W. Venner; Reinhart, William Dodd; Thornhill, Tom Finley, III; Lawrence, Raymond Jeffery Jr.; Chhabildas, Lalit Chandra; Bessette, Gregory Carl; Kipp, Marlin E.

    2003-04-01

    A systematic computational and experimental study is presented on impact generated debris resulting from record-high impact speeds recently achieved on the Sandia three-stage light-gas gun. In these experiments, a target plate of aluminum is impacted by a titanium-alloy flyer plate at speeds ranging from 6.5 to 11 km/s, producing pressures from 1 Mb to over 2.3 Mb, and temperatures as high as 15000 K (>1 eV). The aluminum plate is totally melted at stresses above 1.6 Mb. Upon release, the thermodynamic release isentropes will interact with the vapor dome. The amount of vapor generated in the debris cloud will depend on many factors such as the thickness of the aluminum plate, super-cooling, vaporization kinetics, the distance, and therefore time, over which the impact-generated debris is allowed to expand. To characterize the debris cloud, the velocity history produced by stagnation of the aluminum expansion products against a witness plate is measured using velocity interferometry. X-ray measurements of the debris cloud are also recorded prior to stagnation against an aluminum witness plate. Both radiographs and witness-plate velocity measurements suggest that the vaporization process is both time-dependent and heterogeneous when the material is released from shocked states around 230 GPa. Experiments suggest that the threshold for vaporization kinetics in aluminum should become significant when expanded from shocked states over 230 GPa. Numerical simulations are conducted to compare the measured x-ray radiographs of the debris cloud and the time-resolved experimental interferometer record with calculational results using the 3-D hydrodynamic wavecode, CTH. Results of these experiments and calculations are discussed in this paper.

  13. Proposal of a new generation of Laser Beacon for time calibration in the KM3NeT neutrino telescope

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Real, Diego [IFIC, Instituto de Fsica Corpuscular, CSIC-Universidad de Valencia, C Collaboration: KM3NeT Collaboration

    2014-11-18

    The KM3NeT collaboration aims at the construction of a multi-km3 high-energy neutrino telescope in the Mediterranean Sea consisting of a matrix of pressure resistant glass spheres holding each a set (31) of small area photomultipliers. The main motivation of the telescope is to observe cosmic neutrinos through the Cherenkov light induced in sea water by charged particles produced in neutrino interactions with the surrounding medium. A relative time calibration between photomultipliers of the order of 1 ns is required to achieve an optimal performance. To this end, several time calibration subsystems have been developed. In this article, the proposal of a last generation Laser Beacon, to be used in KM3NeT and developed to measure and monitor the relative time offsets between photomultipliers, is presented.

  14. Multiphase Flow Metering: An Overview Manoj Kumar KM, Senior Scientist, Non-destructive Evaluation Lab, GE Global Research,

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Multiphase Flow Metering: An Overview Manoj Kumar KM, Senior Scientist, Non-destructive Evaluation Lab, GE Global Research, Bangalore 1 Abstract One of the challenging problems that the Oil & Gas industry has been dealing with for several years is accurate and reliable multiphase flow rate measurement in a three-phase flow. This type of flow is common while producing oil and gas wells. The wide range of operating conditions over the period of the oil well combined with a dynamic flow cross

  15. Equation of State Measurements of Materials Using a Three-Stage Gun to Impact Velocities of 11km/s

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    REINHART,WILLIAM D.; CHHABILDAS,LALIT C.; CARROLL,DANIEL E.; THORNHILL,T.G.; WINFREE,N.A.

    2000-09-26

    Understanding high pressure behavior of homogeneous as well as heterogeneous materials is necessary in order to address the physical processes associated with hypervelocity impact events related to space science applications including orbital debris impact and impact lethality. At very high impact velocities, material properties will be subjugated to phase-changes, such as melting and vaporization. These phase states cannot be obtained through conventional gun technology. These processes need to be represented accurately in hydrodynamic codes to allow credible computational analysis of impact events resulting from hypervelocity impact. In this paper, techniques that are being developed and implemented to obtain the needed shock loading parameters (Hugoniot states) for material characterization studies, namely shock velocity and particle velocity, will be described at impact velocities up to 11 km/s. What is new in this report is that these techniques are being implemented for use at engagement velocities never before attained utilizing two-stage light-gas gun technology.

  16. Milestone Report - Demonstrate Braided Material with 3.5 g U/kg Sorption Capacity under Seawater Testing Condition (Milestone M2FT-15OR0310041 - 1/30/2015)

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Janke, Christopher James; Das, Sadananda; Oyola, Yatsandra; Mayes, Richard T; Gill, Gary; Kuo, Li-Jung; Wood, Jordana

    2015-01-01

    This report describes work on the successful completion of Milestone M2FT-15OR0310041 (1/30/2015) entitled, Demonstrate braided material with 3.5 g U/kg sorption capacity under seawater testing condition . This effort is part of the Seawater Uranium Recovery Program, sponsored by the U.S. Department of Energy, Office of Nuclear Energy, and involved the development of new adsorbent braided materials at the Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL) and marine testing at the Pacific Northwest National Laboratory (PNNL). ORNL has recently developed four braided fiber adsorbents that have demonstrated uranium adsorption capacities greater than 3.5 g U/kg adsorbent after marine testing at PNNL. The braided adsorbents were synthesized by braiding or leno weaving high surface area polyethylene fibers and conducting radiation-induced graft polymerization of itaconic acid and acrylonitrile monomers onto the braided materials followed by amidoximation and base conditioning. The four braided adsorbents demonstrated capacity values ranging from 3.7 to 4.2 g U/kg adsorbent after 56 days of exposure in natural coastal seawater at 20 oC. All data are normalized to a salinity of 35 psu.

  17. Assessment of the 60 km rapid update cycle (RUC) with near real-time aircraft reports. Project report

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Cole, R.E.; Richard, C.; Kim, S.; Bailey, D.

    1998-07-15

    The National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA) is developing the Center-TRA-CON Advisory System (CTAS), a set of Air Traffic Management (ATM) Decision Support Tools (DST) for en route (Center) and terminal (TRACON) airspace designed to enable controllers to increase capacity and flight efficiency. A crucial component of the CTAS, or any ATM DST, is the computation of the time-of-flight of aircraft along flight path segments. Earlier NASA studies show that accurate knowledge of the wind through which the aircraft are flying is required to estimate time-of-flight accurately. There are current envisioned to be two sources of wind data for CTAS: The Rapid Update Cycle (RUC) for the Center airspace, a numerical model developed by the National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration (NOAA) Forecast System Laboratory (FSL) and run operationally by the National Weather Service (NWS) National Center for Environmental Prediction (NCEP); and The Integrated Terminal Weather System (ITWS) Terminal Winds (TW) for the TRACON airspace, developed at MIT Lincoln Laboratory under funding from the Federal Aviation Administration (FAA). This study has three goals: (1) determine the errors in the baseline 60 km resolution RUC forecast wind fields relative to the needs of en route DSTs such as CTAS, (2) determine the benefit of using the TW algorithm to refine the RUC forecast wind fields with near real-time Meteorological Data Collection and Reporting System (MDCRS) reports, and (3) identify factors that influence wind errors in order to improve accuracy and estimate errors in real time.

  18. Twelve-month, 12 km resolution North American WRF-Chem v3.4 air quality simulation: performance evaluation

    DOE Public Access Gateway for Energy & Science Beta (PAGES Beta)

    Tessum, C. W.; Hill, J. D.; Marshall, J. D.

    2014-12-02

    We present results from and evaluate the performance of a 12 month, 12 km horizontal resolution air pollution simulation for the contiguous United States using the WRF-Chem (Weather Research and Forecasting with Chemistry) meteorology and chemical transport model (CTM). We employ the 2005 US National Emissions Inventory, the Regional Atmospheric Chemistry Mechanism (RACM), and the Modal Aerosol Dynamics Model for Europe (MADE) with a Volatility Basis Set (VBS) secondary aerosol module. Overall, model performance is comparable to contemporary models used for regulatory and health-effects analysis, with an annual average daytime ozone (O3) mean fractional bias (MFB) of 12% and anmore » annual average fine particulate matter (PM2.5) MFB of −1%. WRF-Chem, as configured here, tends to overpredict total PM2.5 at some high concentration locations, and generally overpredicts average 24 h O3 concentrations, with better performance at predicting average daytime and daily peak O3 concentrations. Predictive performance for PM2.5 subspecies is mixed: the model overpredicts particulate sulfate (MFB = 65%), underpredicts particulate nitrate (MFB = −110%) and organic carbon (MFB = −65%), and relatively accurately predicts particulate ammonium (MFB = 3%) and elemental carbon (MFB = 3%), so that the accuracy in total PM2.5 predictions is to some extent a function of offsetting over- and underpredictions of PM2.5 subspecies. Model predictive performance for PM2.5 and its subspecies is in general worse in winter and in the western US than in other seasons and regions, suggesting spatial and temporal opportunities for future WRF-Chem model development and evaluation.« less

  19. Twelve-month, 12 km resolution North American WRF-Chem v3.4 air quality simulation: performance evaluation

    DOE Public Access Gateway for Energy & Science Beta (PAGES Beta)

    Tessum, C. W.; Hill, J. D.; Marshall, J. D.

    2015-04-07

    We present results from and evaluate the performance of a 12-month, 12 km horizontal resolution year 2005 air pollution simulation for the contiguous United States using the WRF-Chem (Weather Research and Forecasting with Chemistry) meteorology and chemical transport model (CTM). We employ the 2005 US National Emissions Inventory, the Regional Atmospheric Chemistry Mechanism (RACM), and the Modal Aerosol Dynamics Model for Europe (MADE) with a volatility basis set (VBS) secondary aerosol module. Overall, model performance is comparable to contemporary modeling efforts used for regulatory and health-effects analysis, with an annual average daytime ozone (O3) mean fractional bias (MFB) of 12%more » and an annual average fine particulate matter (PM2.5) MFB of −1%. WRF-Chem, as configured here, tends to overpredict total PM2.5 at some high concentration locations and generally overpredicts average 24 h O3 concentrations. Performance is better at predicting daytime-average and daily peak O3 concentrations, which are more relevant for regulatory and health effects analyses relative to annual average values. Predictive performance for PM2.5 subspecies is mixed: the model overpredicts particulate sulfate (MFB = 36%), underpredicts particulate nitrate (MFB = −110%) and organic carbon (MFB = −29%), and relatively accurately predicts particulate ammonium (MFB = 3%) and elemental carbon (MFB = 3%), so that the accuracy in total PM2.5 predictions is to some extent a function of offsetting over- and underpredictions of PM2.5 subspecies. Model predictive performance for PM2.5 and its subspecies is in general worse in winter and in the western US than in other seasons and regions, suggesting spatial and temporal opportunities for future WRF-Chem model development and evaluation.« less

  20. xu-km-99.PDF

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    shown), which only sampled the growing convective towers. Figure 2 shows the 90 th percentiles of updraft velocities and 10 th percentiles of downdraft velocities for both the...

  1. THE 300 km s{sup -1} STELLAR STREAM NEAR SEGUE 1: INSIGHTS FROM HIGH-RESOLUTION SPECTROSCOPY OF ITS BRIGHTEST STAR

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Frebel, Anna; Casey, Andrew R.; Lunnan, Ragnhild; Norris, John E.; Wyse, Rosemary F. G.; Gilmore, Gerard

    2013-07-01

    We present a chemical abundance analysis of 300S-1, the brightest likely member star of the 300 km s{sup -1} stream near the faint satellite galaxy Segue 1. From a high-resolution Magellan/MIKE spectrum, we determine a metallicity of [Fe/H] = -1.46 {+-} 0.05 {+-} 0.23 (random and systematic uncertainties) for star 300S-1, and find an abundance pattern similar to typical halo stars at this metallicity. Comparing our stellar parameters to theoretical isochrones, we estimate a distance of 18 {+-} 7 kpc. Both the metallicity and distance estimates are in good agreement with what can be inferred from comparing the Sloan Digital Sky Survey photometric data of the stream stars to globular cluster sequences. While several other structures overlap with the stream in this part of the sky, the combination of kinematic, chemical, and distance information makes it unlikely that these stars are associated with either the Segue 1 galaxy, the Sagittarius Stream, or the Orphan Stream. Streams with halo-like abundance signatures, such as the 300 km s{sup -1} stream, present another observational piece for understanding the accretion history of the Galactic halo.

  2. MHD waves detected by ice at distances > 28 x 10/sup 6/ km from Comet Halley: Cometary or solar wind origin

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Tsurutani, B.T.; Brinca, A.L.; Smith, E.J.; Thorne, R.M.; Scarf, F.L.; Gosling, J.T.; Ipavich, F.M.

    1986-01-01

    Spectral analyses of the high resolution magnetic field data are employed to determine if there is evidence of cometary heavy ion pickup when ICE was closest to Halley, approx.28 x 10/sup 6/ km. No evidence is found for the presence of heavy ion cyclotron waves. However, from this search, two new wave modes are discovered in the solar wind: electromagnetic ion cyclotron waves and drift mirror mode waves. Both modes have scales of 10 to 60 s (1 to 6 T/sub p/) in the spacecraft frame. The possibility of wave generation by cometary hydrogen pickup is explored. Theoretical arguments and further experimental evidence indicates that cometary origin is improbable. The most likely source is plasma instabilities associated with solar wind stream-stream interactions. VLF electrostatic emissions are found to occur in field minima or at gradients of the drift mirror structures. Possible generation mechanisms of drift mirror mode waves, cyclotron waves and electrostatic waves are discussed.

  3. Leonhard Kurz GmbH CO KG | Open Energy Information

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    is an international supplier of hot stamping technology, and researches and developers polymer electronic technology with some PV applications. Coordinates: 49.65048, 8.78048...

  4. Germania Windpark GmbH Co KG | Open Energy Information

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    project developer, covering site acquisition, planning, engineering requirements, marketing and service. Coordinates: 52.278749, 7.434676 Show Map Loading map......

  5. Bernt Lorentz GmbH Co KG | Open Energy Information

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    Henstedt-Ulzburg, Germany Zip: D-24558 Sector: Solar Product: German manufacturer of solar tracking devices, water pumps, and related electronic and hydraulic components....

  6. Fichtner GmbH Co KG | Open Energy Information

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    large scale projects in the infrastructure sector. Leading consultant for Solar Thermal Electricity Generation (STEG) projects. Coordinates: 48.767675, 9.171925 Show Map...

  7. SSB Antriebstechnik GmbH Co KG | Open Energy Information

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    for wind turbines including motors, gearboxes, control and switchgear and their maintenance. Coordinates: 52.323136, 7.347278 Show Map Loading map... "minzoom":false,"map...

  8. MT Energie GmbH Co KG | Open Energy Information

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    Saxony, Germany Zip: 27404 Sector: Services Product: MT-Energie provides both turn-key biogas plants and related components and services. Coordinates: 53.295765, 9.27964 Show...

  9. Property:Dry Mass (kg) | Open Energy Information

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    this property. M MHK TechnologiesAirWEC + 1.85 + MHK TechnologiesCanal Power + Variable + MHK TechnologiesITRI WEC + 63700 + MHK TechnologiesPLAT-O + 20000 + MHK...

  10. Mann Naturenergie GmbH Co KG | Open Energy Information

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    Biofuels, Renewable Energy Product: Mann Naturenergie is engaged in renewable energy production and distribution. It offers biofuels like wood chips, wood briquettes or...

  11. GEE Energy GmbH Co KG | Open Energy Information

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    Place: Hamburg, Germany Zip: 20459 Sector: Biomass Product: Biomass trader delivering wood pellets, wood and bark briquettes to Germany, Scandinavia, Austria, Italy and...

  12. Microsoft PowerPoint - Reporting Small Quantities to NMMSS_Brian...

    National Nuclear Security Administration (NNSA)

    Reportable Units DOE-owned Other Materials: - Enriched Lithium Kilograms Li - Deuterium 0.1 kg D 2 - Pu-242 Grams Pu, Grams Pu-242 (>20% Pu-242 by weight) - Americium-241 Grams ...

  13. Property:PotentialBiopowerSolidMass | Open Energy Information

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    for a place. Use this type to express a quantity of magnitude, or an object's resistance to acceleration. The default unit is the kilogram (kg). http:en.wikipedia.org...

  14. Property:PotentialBiopowerGaseousMass | Open Energy Information

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    for a place. Use this type to express a quantity of magnitude, or an object's resistance to acceleration. The default unit is the kilogram (kg). http:en.wikipedia.org...

  15. KM_C364e-20170629133124

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

  16. KM_C654e-20150324133840

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

  17. KM_C654e-20151119150944

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

  18. KM_C654e-20160205093059

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

  19. KM_C654e-20160428081834

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

  20. DIRECT IMAGING OF QUASI-PERIODIC FAST PROPAGATING WAVES OF {approx}2000 km s{sup -1} IN THE LOW SOLAR CORONA BY THE SOLAR DYNAMICS OBSERVATORY ATMOSPHERIC IMAGING ASSEMBLY

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Liu Wei; Title, Alan M.; Schrijver, Carolus J.; Aschwanden, Markus J.; De Pontieu, Bart; Tarbell, Theodore D.; Zhao Junwei; Ofman, Leon

    2011-07-20

    Quasi-periodic propagating fast mode magnetosonic waves in the solar corona were difficult to observe in the past due to relatively low instrument cadences. We report here evidence of such waves directly imaged in EUV by the new Atmospheric Imaging Assembly instrument on board the Solar Dynamics Observatory. In the 2010 August 1 C3.2 flare/coronal mass ejection event, we find arc-shaped wave trains of 1%-5% intensity variations (lifetime {approx}200 s) that emanate near the flare kernel and propagate outward up to {approx}400 Mm along a funnel of coronal loops. Sinusoidal fits to a typical wave train indicate a phase velocity of 2200 {+-} 130 km s{sup -1}. Similar waves propagating in opposite directions are observed in closed loops between two flare ribbons. In the k-{omega} diagram of the Fourier wave power, we find a bright ridge that represents the dispersion relation and can be well fitted with a straight line passing through the origin. This k-{omega} ridge shows a broad frequency distribution with power peaks at 5.5, 14.5, and 25.1 mHz. The strongest signal at 5.5 mHz (period 181 s) temporally coincides with quasi-periodic pulsations of the flare, suggesting a common origin. The instantaneous wave energy flux of (0.1-2.6) x 10{sup 7} erg cm{sup -2} s{sup -1} estimated at the coronal base is comparable to the steady-state heating requirement of active region loops.

  1. Process steam production from cotton gin trash

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    LePori, W.A.; Carney, D.B.; Lalk, T.R.; Anthony, R.G.

    1981-01-01

    A steam producing system based on fluidized-bed gasification of biomass materials is discussed. Limited experimental results are discussed and show that steam has been produced at rates of 334.3 kg/hr. (737 lbs/hr.) with 2.8 kg of stream produced for each kilogram of cotton gin trash (2.8 lb/lb.). ref.

  2. KSP Kluenemann Solar Projekt GmbH Co KG | Open Energy Information

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    Emsbren, Lower Saxony, Germany Zip: 48488 Product: Developer of a 3.4MW roof-mounted photovoltaic system in Zwickau, Saxony. References: KSP Kluenemann Solar-Projekt GmbH &...

  3. Offshore Burger Windpark Butendiek GmbH Co KG | Open Energy Informatio...

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    Husum, Germany Zip: 25813 Sector: Wind energy Product: Developing the 240MW Butendiek offshore wind farm. Coordinates: 45.799479, -121.486901 Show Map Loading map......

  4. KvH Projekt GmbH Co KG | Open Energy Information

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    Zip: D-20259 Sector: Biomass, Solar, Wind energy Product: Project developer in wind, solar, biomass and smart architecture. Coordinates: 53.553345, 9.992455 Show Map Loading...

  5. PV Eiwa Systemtechnik GmbH Co KG | Open Energy Information

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    Germany Zip: 94447 Product: Germany-based manufacturer of fixed mounting systems and single-axis tracking for PV modules. Coordinates: 48.778312, 12.871223 Show Map...

  6. Reis Robotics GmbH Co KG Maschinenfabrik | Open Energy Information

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    63785 Product: German manufacturer of industrial robots, robot controls, and turnkey automation systems. Coordinates: 41.839718, -75.016041 Show Map Loading map......

  7. Characterization of mercury, arsenic, and selenium in the product streams of the Pacific Northwest Laboratory 6-kg retort

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Olsen, K.B.; Evans, J.C.; Sklarew, D.S.; Girvin, D.C.; Nelson, C.L.; Lepel, E.A.; Robertson, D.E.; Sanders, R.W.

    1985-12-01

    The objective of this program is to determine how retorting process parameters affect the partitioning of Hg, As, Se, and Cd from raw oil shale to spent shale, shale oil, retort water, and offgas. For each of the elements, the objective of this study is to (1) determine the distribution coefficients for each product stream; (2) identify the chemical forms in water, gas, and oil streams, with particular emphasis on inorganic or organometallic species known to be or suspected of being carcinogenic, toxic, or otherwise harmful; (3) investigate the mechanism(s) responsible for mobilization into each product stream for toxic or labile chemical forms identified in item 2 are mobilized into each product stream; and (4) the effect of retorting rate, maximum retorting temperature, and retorting atmosphere on items 1 and 3. A Green River shale from Colorado and a New Albany shale from Kentucky were heated at 1 to 2/sup 0/C/min and at 10/sup 0/C/min to maximum temperatures of 500 and 750/sup 0/C under a nitrogen sweep gas. The product streams were analyzed using a variety of methods including Zeeman atomic absorption spectroscopy, microwave-induced helium plasma spectroscopy, x-ray fluorescence, instrumental neutron activation analysis, high-pressure liquid and silica gel column chromatography, and mercury cold vapor atomic absorption. The results obtained using these analytical methods indicate that the distribution of mercury, arsenic, and selenium in the product stream is a function of oil shale type, heating rates, and maximum retorting temperatures. 11 refs., 27 figs., 5 tabs.

  8. Microsoft Word - 802.11i Rec Practices _KM-BL final edit ver 10_.doc

    Energy Savers [EERE]

    Securing WLANs using 802.11i Draft Recommended Practice February 2007 Securing WLANs using 802.11i Draft Author: Ken Masica, Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory February 2007 for Idaho National Laboratory Critical Infrastructure Protection Center Idaho Falls, Idaho 83415 Prepared by Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory Recommended Practices Guide Securing WLANs using 802.11i Ken Masica Vulnerability & Risk Assessment Program (VRAP) Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory (LLNL) for DHS

  9. File:NREL-afg-10km-dir.pdf | Open Energy Information

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    search File File history File usage Afghanistan - Annual Direct Normal Solar Radiation Size of this preview: 776 600 pixels. Full resolution (1,650 1,275 pixels,...

  10. File:NREL-afg-10km-glo.pdf | Open Energy Information

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    search File File history File usage Afghanistan - Annual Global Horizontal Solar Radiation Size of this preview: 776 600 pixels. Full resolution (1,650 1,275 pixels,...

  11. File:NREL-afg-10km-tilt.pdf | Open Energy Information

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    tilt.pdf Jump to: navigation, search File File history File usage Afghanistan - Annual Flat Plate Tilted at Latitude Size of this preview: 776 600 pixels. Full resolution...

  12. Method to estimate the vertical dispersion parameter in a 10 Km range

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Xiaoen, L.; Xinyuan, J.; Jinte, Y.

    1983-12-01

    Based on the Monin-Batchelor Similarity Theory and the concept of effective roughness length, this paper presented an empirical vertical dispersion model in a 10 kilometer range. It could be used under a flat and homogeneous, as well as complex, topographical condition.

  13. Single-Column Modeling D. A. Randall and K.-M. Xu Colorado State...

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    been made in developing improved parameterizations of cumulus convection (Randall and Pan 1992), based on generalization of the parameterization of Arakawa and Schubert (1974)....

  14. Assessing the credibility of the calorific value of municipal solid waste

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Churney, K.L.; Domalski, E.S.; Ledford, A.E.; Colbert, J.C.; Bruce, S.S.; Buckley, T.J.; Paule, R.C.; Reilly, M.L.

    1984-02-01

    A study has been made at the National Bureau of Standards to establish the limits of reliability of the calorific value of municipal solid waste (MSW) determined by the bomb calorimetric procedure currently used in commercial test laboratories. This procedure involves using gram-size samples derived from MSW that has been processed down to a particle size of 2 mm or less. Critics of the procedure argue that gram-size samples are too small to be representative of such a large quantity of so heterogeneous a material, and that processing MSW may also alter its composition. To test the bomb calorimetric procedure, a 2.5 kg capacity combustion flow calorimeter was designed and constructed for the determination of the enthalpies of combustion of kilogram-size samples of MSW in flowing oxygen near atmospheric pressure. Calorimetric data on processed MSW were obtained using both the kilogram-size flow and a gram-size bomb calorimeter. Intercomparison of results shows that the calorific value (on a dry basis) of gram-size test samples agrees, within the uncertainty of our experiments, with the corresponding values for their kilogram-size parent samples provided that the sample division technique used to obtain the gram-size samples is that described in this work. The average difference of the parent minus gram-size sample values (on a dry basis) is -0.1% with an imprecision (95% confidence interval) of +-1.1% of the mean calorific value. The effects of processing on sample composition were determined by intercomparison of flow calorimetric results on kilogram-size samples of processed and minimally processed MSW (150 mm or less particle size) that are nominally identical. The average difference of the unprocessed minus processed values (on a dry basis) is -0.5% with an imprecision (95% confidence interval) of +-2.9% of the mean calorific value. 7 references, 4 figures, 10 tables.

  15. Influence of Water on Olivine-Wadsleyite Phase Transformation and Water Partitioning near 410-km Seismic Discontinuity

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Litasov, Konstantin D.; Ohtani, Eiji; Ghosh, Sujoy; Kagi, Hiroyuki

    2006-05-15

    In order to evaluate influence of water on the pressure and transition interval of the olivine-wadsleyite transition, synthesis experiments were carried out in hydrous Forsterite90 composition at 9-16 GPa and 1273-1873 K. Three additional starting materials, representing (a) Mg2SiO4 (b) San-Carlos olivine (Fo89) and (c) CaO-MgO-Al2O3-FeO-SiO2 peridotite, were loaded in every experimental assembly simultaneously. We observed significant expansion of olivine + wadsleyite stability loop to the lower pressure for 2-3 GPa at 1473 K, whereas there was no significant shift of the phase transition boundary at 1873 K. These results are consistent with thermodynamic calculations made by Wood and inconsistent with recent experimental data by Chen et al. We report here preliminary results on water content of coexisting phases. Water solubility of olivine increases with pressure up to 0.15 wt.% H2O at 14 GPa. At 12-15 GPa H2O content of olivine is almost the same at temperatures from 1373 to 1773 K, whereas the H2O content of wadsleyite decreases from about 2.1 wt.% at 1373 K to 0.7 wt.% at 1773 K. We determined the partition coefficient of H2O between two phases. Dwd/ol is 11.8 at 1473 K, 7.2 at 1673 K and 4.5 at 1773 K. However if we apply recent calibration of H2O content in olivine by Bell et al. these Dwd/ol values are three times lower.

  16. uav_scie

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    ... UAV capable of carrying a 100-kg payload to a maximum altitude of 7 km. The Gnat was first operated in a checkout flight at Edwards Air Force Base with a basic radiometric payload ...

  17. March market review. [Spot market prices for uranium (1993)

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Not Available

    1993-04-01

    The spot market price for uranium in unrestricted markets weakened further during March, and at month end, the NUEXCO Exchange Value had fallen $0.15, to $7.45 per pound U3O8. The Restricted American Market Penalty (RAMP) for concentrates increased $0.15, to $2.55 per pound U3O8. Ample UF6 supplies and limited demand led to a $0.50 decrease in the UF6 Value, to $25.00 per kgU as UF6, while the RAMP for UF6 increased $0.75, to $5.25 per kgU. Nine near-term uranium transactions were reported, totalling almost 3.3 million pounds equivalent U3O8. This is the largest monthly spot market volume since October 1992, and is double the volume reported in January and February. The March 31 Conversion Value was $4.25 per kgU as UF6. Beginning with the March 31 Value, NUEXCO now reports its Conversion Value in US dollars per kilogram of uranium (US$/kgU), reflecting current industry practice. The March loan market was inactive with no transactions reported. The Loan Rate remained unchanged at 3.0 percent per annum. Low demand and increased competition among sellers led to a one-dollar decrease in the SWU Value, to $65 per SWU, and the RAMP for SWU declined one dollar, to $9 per SWU.

  18. The role of precipitation size distributions in km-scale NWP simulations of intense precipitation: Evaluation of cloud properties and surface precipitation

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    VanWeverberg K.; Vogelmann A.; vanLipzig, N. P. M.; Delobbec, L.

    2012-04-01

    We investigate the sensitivity of simulated cloud properties and surface precipitation to assumptions regarding the size distributions of the precipitating hydrometeors in a one-moment bulk microphysics scheme. Three sensitivity experiments were applied to two composites of 15 convective and 15 frontal stratiform intense precipitation events observed in a coastal midlatitude region (Belgium), which were evaluated against satellite-retrieved cloud properties and radar-rain-gauge derived surface precipitation. It is found that the cloud optical thickness distribution was well captured by all experiments, although a significant underestimation of cloudiness occurred in the convective composite. The cloud-top-pressure distribution was improved most by more realistic snow size distributions (including a temperature-dependent intercept parameter and non-spherical snow for the calculation of the slope parameter), due to increased snow depositional growth at high altitudes. Surface precipitation was far less sensitive to whether graupel or hail was chosen as the rimed ice species, as compared to previous idealized experiments. This smaller difference in sensitivity could be explained by the stronger updraught velocities and higher freezing levels in the idealized experiments compared to typical coastal midlatitude environmental conditions.

  19. Evaluation of moist processes during intense precipitation in km-scale NWP models using remote sensing and in-situ data: Impact of microphysics size distribution assumptions

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    VanWeverberg, K.; vanLipzig, N. P. M.; Delobbe, L.

    2011-02-01

    This study investigates the sensitivity of moist processes and surface precipitation during three extreme precipitation events over Belgium to the representation of rain, snow and hail size distributions in a bulk one-moment microphysics parameterisation scheme. Sensitivities included the use of empirically derived relations to calculate the slope parameter and diagnose the intercept parameter of the exponential snow and rain size distributions and sensitivities to the treatment of hail/graupel. A detailed evaluation of the experiments against various high temporal resolution and spatially distributed observational data was performed to understand how moist processes responded to the implemented size distribution modifications. Net vapor consumption by microphysical processes was found to be unaffected by snow or rain size distribution modifications, while it was reduced replacing formulations for hail by those typical for graupel, mainly due to intense sublimation of graupel. Cloud optical thickness was overestimated in all experiments and all cases, likely due to overestimated snow amounts. The overestimation slightly deteriorated by modifying the rain and snow size distributions due to increased snow depositional growth, while it was reduced by including graupel. The latter was mainly due to enhanced cloud water collection by graupel and reduced snow depositional growth. Radar reflectivity and cloud optical thickness could only be realistically represented by inclusion of graupel during a stratiform case, while hail was found indispensable to simulate the vertical reflectivity profile and the surface precipitation structure. Precipitation amount was not much altered by any of the modifications made and the general overestimation was only decreased slightly during a supercell convective case.

  20. The Project Shoal Area (PSA), located about 50 km southeast of Fallon, Nevada, was the site for a 12-kiloton-ton nuclear test

    Office of Legacy Management (LM)

    NV/13609-53 Development of a Groundwater Management Model for the Project Shoal Area prepared by Gregg Lamorey, Scott Bassett, Rina Schumer, Douglas P. Boyle, Greg Pohll, and Jenny Chapman submitted to Nevada Site Office National Nuclear Security Administration U.S. Department of Energy Las Vegas, Nevada September 2006 Publication No. 45223 Reference herein to any specific commercial product, process, or service by trade name, trademark, manufacturer, or otherwise, does not necessarily

  1. Analysis on storage off-gas emissions from woody, herbaceous, and torrefied biomass

    DOE Public Access Gateway for Energy & Science Beta (PAGES Beta)

    Tumuluru, Jaya Shankar; Lim, C. Jim; Bi, Xiaotao T.; Kuang, Xingya; Melin, Staffan; Yazdanpanah, Fahimeh; Sokhansanj, Shahab

    2015-03-02

    Wood chips, torrefied wood chips, ground switchgrass, and wood pellets were tested for off-gas emissions during storage. Storage canisters with gas-collection ports were used to conduct experiments at room temperature of 20 °C and in a laboratory oven set at 40 °C. Commercially-produced wood pellets yielded the highest carbon monoxide (CO) emissions at both 20 and 40 °C (1600 and 13,000 ppmv), whereas torrefied wood chips emitted the lowest of about <200 and <2000 ppmv. Carbon dioxide (CO₂) emissions from wood pellets were 3000 ppmv and 42,000 ppmv, whereas torrefied wood chips registered at about 2000 and 25,000 ppmv, atmore » 20 and 40 °C at the end of 11 days of storage. CO emission factors (milligrams per kilogram of biomass) calculated were lowest for ground switchgrass and torrefied wood chips (2.68 and 4.86 mg/kg) whereas wood pellets had the highest CO of about 10.60 mg/kg, respectively, at 40 °C after 11 days of storage. In the case of CO₂, wood pellets recorded the lowest value of 55.46 mg/kg, whereas switchgrass recorded the highest value of 318.72 mg/kg. This study concludes that CO emission factor is highest for wood pellets, CO₂ is highest for switchgrass and CH₄ is negligible for all feedstocks except for wood pellets, which is about 0.374 mg/kg at the end of 11-day storage at 40 °C.« less

  2. Analysis on storage off-gas emissions from woody, herbaceous, and torrefied biomass

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Tumuluru, Jaya Shankar; Lim, C. Jim; Bi, Xiaotao T.; Kuang, Xingya; Melin, Staffan; Yazdanpanah, Fahimeh; Sokhansanj, Shahab

    2015-03-02

    Wood chips, torrefied wood chips, ground switchgrass, and wood pellets were tested for off-gas emissions during storage. Storage canisters with gas-collection ports were used to conduct experiments at room temperature of 20 °C and in a laboratory oven set at 40 °C. Commercially-produced wood pellets yielded the highest carbon monoxide (CO) emissions at both 20 and 40 °C (1600 and 13,000 ppmv), whereas torrefied wood chips emitted the lowest of about <200 and <2000 ppmv. Carbon dioxide (CO₂) emissions from wood pellets were 3000 ppmv and 42,000 ppmv, whereas torrefied wood chips registered at about 2000 and 25,000 ppmv, at 20 and 40 °C at the end of 11 days of storage. CO emission factors (milligrams per kilogram of biomass) calculated were lowest for ground switchgrass and torrefied wood chips (2.68 and 4.86 mg/kg) whereas wood pellets had the highest CO of about 10.60 mg/kg, respectively, at 40 °C after 11 days of storage. In the case of CO₂, wood pellets recorded the lowest value of 55.46 mg/kg, whereas switchgrass recorded the highest value of 318.72 mg/kg. This study concludes that CO emission factor is highest for wood pellets, CO₂ is highest for switchgrass and CH₄ is negligible for all feedstocks except for wood pellets, which is about 0.374 mg/kg at the end of 11-day storage at 40 °C.

  3. PDRD (SR13046) TRITIUM PRODUCTION FINAL REPORT

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Smith, P.; Sheetz, S.

    2013-09-30

    Utilizing the results of Texas A&M University (TAMU) senior design projects on tritium production in four different small modular reactors (SMR), the Savannah River National Laboratory’s (SRNL) developed an optimization model evaluating tritium production versus uranium utilization under a FY2013 plant directed research development (PDRD) project. The model is a tool that can evaluate varying scenarios and various reactor designs to maximize the production of tritium per unit of unobligated United States (US) origin uranium that is in limited supply. The primary module in the model compares the consumption of uranium for various production reactors against the base case of Watts Bar I running a nominal load of 1,696 tritium producing burnable absorber rods (TPBARs) with an average refueling of 41,000 kg low enriched uranium (LEU) on an 18 month cycle. After inputting an initial year, starting inventory of unobligated uranium and tritium production forecast, the model will compare and contrast the depletion rate of the LEU between the entered alternatives. This is an annual tritium production rate of approximately 0.059 grams of tritium per kilogram of LEU (g-T/kg-LEU). To date, the Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC) license has not been amended to accept a full load of TPBARs so the nominal tritium production has not yet been achieved. The alternatives currently loaded into the model include the three light water SMRs evaluated in TAMU senior projects including, mPower, Holtec and NuScale designs. Initial evaluations of tritium production in light water reactor (LWR) based SMRs using optimized loads TPBARs is on the order 0.02-0.06 grams of tritium per kilogram of LEU used. The TAMU students also chose to model tritium production in the GE-Hitachi SPRISM, a pooltype sodium fast reactor (SFR) utilizing a modified TPBAR type target. The team was unable to complete their project so no data is available. In order to include results from a fast reactor, the SRNL Technical Advisory Committee (TAC) ran a Monte Carlo N-Particle (MCNP) model of a basic SFR for comparison. A 600MWth core surrounded by a lithium blanket produced approximately 1,000 grams of tritium annually with a 13% enriched, 6 year core. This is similar results to a mid-1990’s study where the Fast Flux Test Facility (FFTF), a 400 MWth reactor at the Idaho National Laboratory (INL), could produce about 1,000 grams with an external lithium target. Normalized to the LWRs values, comparative tritium production for an SFR could be approximately 0.31 g-T/kg LEU.

  4. Data Release Report for Source Physics Experiments 2 and 3 (SPE-2 and SPE-3) Nevada National Security Site

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Townsend, Margaret; Obi, Curtis

    2015-01-26

    The second Source Physics Experiment shot (SPE-2) was conducted in Nevada on October 25, 2011, at 1900:00.011623 Greenwich Mean Time (GMT). The explosive source was 997 kilograms (kg) trinitrotoluene (TNT) equivalent of sensitized heavy ammonium fuel oil (SHANFO) detonated at a depth of 45.7 meters (m). The third Source Physics Experiment shot (SPE-3) was conducted in Nevada on July 24, 2012, at 1800:00.44835 GMT. The explosive source was 905 kg TNT equivalent of SHANFO detonated at a depth of 45.8 m. Both shots were recorded by an extensive set of instrumentation that includes sensors both at near-field (less than 100 m) and far-field (100 m or greater) distances. The near-field instruments consisted of three-component accelerometers deployed in boreholes at 15, 46, and 55 m depths around the shot and a set of single-component vertical accelerometers on the surface. The far-field network was composed of a variety of seismic and acoustic sensors, including short-period geophones, broadband seismometers, three-component accelerometers, and rotational seismometers at distances of 100 m to 25 kilometers. This report coincides with the release of these data for analysts and organizations that are not participants in this program. This report describes the second and third Source Physics Experiment shots and the various types of near-field and far-field data that are available.

  5. Pellet property requirements for future blast-furnace operations and other new ironmaking processes

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Agrawal, A.K.; Oshnock, T.W.

    1995-12-01

    The requirements for the physical, chemical and metallurgical properties of pellets have continued to become more stringent as blast-furnace productivity and coke rate have been rapidly improved during the last decade. In addition, the age and deterioration of the North American coke batteries, the lack of capital to sufficiently rebuild them, and the threat of increasingly more stringent environmental controls for the coke batteries has forced North American ironmakers to begin implementing pulverized coal injection to minimize the coke requirements for the blast furnace and to seriously investigate developing other ironmaking processes that use coal instead of coke. Therefore, the next major step in North American ironmaking has included injecting pulverized coal (PC) at 200 kilograms per ton of hot metal (kg/ton) [400 pounds per net ton of hot metal (lb/NTHM)] or greater which will result in the coke rate decreasing to less than 300 kg/ton (600 lb/NTHM) or less. As a result, the pellets will spend more time in the furnace and will be required to support more total weight. Pellets can also be a major iron unit source for other cokeless ironmaking processes such as the COREX process or the AISI direct ironmaking process. This paper will explore the pellet property requirements for future blast-furnace operations and cokeless ironmaking processes.

  6. Stabilization and solidification of chromium-contaminated soil

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Cherne, C.A.; Thomson, B.M.; Conway, R.

    1997-11-01

    Chromium-contaminated soil is a common environmental problem in the United States as a result of numerous industrial processes involving chromium. Hexavalent chromium [Cr(VI)] is the species of most concern because of its toxicity and mobility in groundwater. One method of diminishing the environmental impact of chromium is to reduce it to a trivalent oxidation state [Cr(III)], in which it is relatively insoluble and nontoxic. This study investigated a stabilization and solidification process to minimize the chromium concentration in the Toxicity Characteristic Leaching Procedure (TCLP) extract and to produce a solidified waste form with a compressive strength in the range of 150 to 300 pounds per square inch (psi). To minimize the chromium in the TCLP extract, the chromium had to be reduced to the trivalent oxidation state. The average used in this study was an alluvium contaminated with chromic and sulfuric acid solutions. The chromium concentration in the in the in situ soil was 1212 milligrams per kilogram (mg/kg) total chromium and 275 mg/kg Cr(VI). The effectiveness of iron, ferrous sulfate to reduce Cr(VI) was tested in batch experiments.

  7. Electrolyte Materials Available for Sampling | Argonne National...

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Scaling to kilogram or larger scale can require substantial process modifications, and until that step is developed, economics, product consistency and quality are uncertain. The ...

  8. history

    National Nuclear Security Administration (NNSA)

    several contributions over SRS's history, including large-scale production of aluminum-lithium alloys; production of kilogram quantities of radioactive waste glass; materials...

  9. Defense Nuclear Nonproliferation

    National Nuclear Security Administration (NNSA)

    span>

    WASHINGTON D.C - The Department of Energy's National Nuclear Security Administration (DOENNSA) announced today the removal of 36 kilograms...

  10. ARM - Lesson Plans: Moving Water and Waves

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    container Water Approximately 2 kilograms of sand (optional) Electric fan or a hair dryer Stopwatch or watch with a second hand Important Points to Understand Everyday we see...

  11. DOE issues Finding of No Significant Impact for the Environmental...

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    on Two Proposed Shipments of Commercial Nuclear Fuel to Idaho National Laboratory for ... to make two shipments of commercial nuclear fuel rods totaling 80 to 100 kilograms ...

  12. Table 7. Carbon intensity of the energy supply by State (2000...

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    Carbon intensity of the energy supply by State (2000-2011)" "kilograms of energy-related carbon dioxide per million Btu" ,,,"Change" ,,,"2000 to 2011"...

  13. Cross-sectional relationships of exercise and age to adiposity in60,617 male runners

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Williams, Paul T.; Pate, Russell R.

    2004-06-01

    The objective of this report is to assess in men whether exercise affects the estimated age-related increase in adiposity, and contrariwise, whether age affects the estimated exercise-related decrease in adiposity. Cross-sectional analyses of 64,911 male runners who provided data on their body mass index (97.6 percent), waist (91.1 percent), hip (47.1 percent), and chest circumferences (77.9 percent). Between 18 to 55 years old, the decline in BMI with weekly distance run (slope+-SE) was significantly greater in men 25-55 years old (slope+-:-0.036+-0.001 kg/m2 per km/wk) than in younger men (-0.020+-0.002 kg/m 2 per km/wk). Declines in waist circumference with running distance were also significantly greater in older than younger men (P<10-9 for trend),i.e., the slopes decreased progressively from -0.035+-0.004 cm per km/wk in 18-25 year old men to -0.097+-0.003 cm per km/wk in 50-55 year old men. Increases in BMI with age were greater for men who ran under 16km/wk than for longer distance runners. Waist circumference increased with age at all running levels, but the increase appeared to diminish by running further (0.259+-0.015 cm per year if running<8 km/wk and 0.154+-0.003 cm per year for>16 km/wk). In men over 50 years old, BMI declined -0.038+-0.001 kg/m2 per km/wk run when adjusted for age and declined -0.054+-0.003 kg/m2 (increased 0.021+-0.007 cm) per year of age when adjusted for running distance. Their waist circumference declined-0.096+-0.002 cm per km/wk run when adjusted for age and increased 0.021+-0.007 cm per year of age when adjusted for running distance. These cross-sectional data suggest that age and vigorous exercise interact with each other in affecting mens adiposity, and support the proposition that vigorous physical activity must increase with age to prevent middle-age weight gain. We estimate that a man who ran 16 km/wk at age 25 would need to increase their weekly running distance by 65.7 km/wk by age 50 in order to maintain his same waist circumference.

  14. Interactive effects of age and exercise on adiposity measures of41,582 physically active women

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Williams, Paul T.; Satariano William A.

    2004-06-01

    The objective of this report is to assess in women whether exercise affects the estimated age-related increase in adiposity, and contrariwise, whether age affects the estimated exercise-related decrease in adiposity. Cross-sectional analyses of 64,911 female runners who provided data on their body mass index (97.6 percent), waist (91.1percent), and chest circumferences (77.9 percent). Age affected the relationships between vigorous exercise and adiposity. The decline in BMI per km/wk run was linear in 18-25 year olds (-0.023+-0.002 kg/m2 perkm run) and became increasingly nonlinear (convex or upwardly concave) with age. The waist, hip and chest circumferences declined significantly with running distance across all age groups, but the declines were 52-58 percent greater in older than younger women (P<10-5). The relationships between body circumferences and running distance became increasingly convexity (upward concavity) in older women. Conversely, vigorous exercise diminished the apparent increase in adiposity with age. The rise in average BMI with age was greatest in women who ran less than 8 km/week (0.065+-0.005 kg/m2 per y), intermediate of women who ran 8-16km/wk (0.025+-0.004kg/m2 per y) or 16-32 km/wk (0.022+-0.003 kg/m2 pery), and least in those who averaged over 32 km/wk (0.017+-0.001 kg/m2 pery). Before age 45, waist circumference rose 0.055+-0.026 cm in for those who ran 0-8 km/wk, showed no significant change for those who ran 8-40km./wk, and declined -0.057+-0.012 and -0.069+-0.014 cm per year in those who ran 40 -56 and over 56 km/wk. The rise in hip and chest circumferences with age were significantly greater in women who ran under eight km/wk than longer distance runners for hip (0.231+-0.018 vs0.136+-0.004 cm/year) and chest circumferences (0.137+-0.013 vs0.053+-0.003 cm/year). These cross-sectional associations suggest that in women, age and vigorous exercise interact with each other in affecting adiposity. The extent that these cross-sectional associations are causally related to vigorous exercise or are the consequence of self-selection remains to be determined.

  15. Greenhouse Gas Laser Imaging Tomography Experiment (GreenLITE): Evaluation of a new method to look at high resolution spatial/temporal distributions of carbon over key sub km sites

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Dobler, Jeremy; Zaccheo, T. Scott; Blume, Nathan; Braun, Michael; Perninit, Timothy; McGregor, Doug; Botos, Chris; Dobeck, Laura

    2015-01-01

    Recently a new laser based approach for measuring area with potential for producing 2D estimates of the concentration spatial distribution has been developed through a cooperative agreement with the National Energy and Technology Laboratory of the Department of Energy, Exelis Inc. and AER Inc. The new approach is based on a pair of continuous wave intensity modulated laser absorption spectrometer transceivers, combined with a series of retro reflectors located around the perimeter of the area being monitored. The main goal of this cooperative agreement is monitoring, reporting and verification for ground carbon capture and storage projects. The system was recently tested at the Zero Emission Research and Technology site in Bozeman, MT, with underground leak rates ranging from 0.1 – 0.3 metric ton per day (T/d), as well as a 0.8 T/d surface release. Over 200 hours of data were collected over a rectangular grid 180m x 200m between August 18th and September 9th. In addition, multiple days of in situ data were acquired for the same site, using a Licor gas analyzer systems. Initial comparisons between the laser-based system and the in situ agree very well. The system is designed to operate remotely and transmit the data via a 3G/4G connection along with weather data for the site. An all web-based system ingests the data, populates a database, performs the inversion to ppm CO2 using the Line-by-Line Radiative Transfer Model (LBLRTM), and displays plots and statistics for the retrieved data. We will present an overview of the GreenLITE measurement system, outline the retrieval and reconstruction approach, and discuss results from extensive field testing.

  16. Bioventing approach to remediate a gasoline contaminated subsurface. Book chapter

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Kampbell, D.H.; Wilson, J.T.; Griffin, C.J.

    1992-01-01

    Bioventing is a subsurface process using an air stream to enhance biodegradation of oily contaminants. Two pilot-scale bioventing systems were installed at a field site. Process operations began in October 1990. The field site is located at an air station. A spill in 1969 of about 100,000 kilograms aviation gasoline was caused by a broken underground transfer line. A major portion of the spilled product still persists as an oily-phase residue in a 80x360 meter plume. The subsurface is a uniform beach sand with the ground water level near five meters. Prior to startup of the venting systems, a grass cover was established and a nutrient solution was dispersed throughout the unsaturated subsurface. Subsurface air flow patterns are being determined with a tracer gas of sulfur hexafloride. Soil gas, core material, and underground water are being monitored to determine the extent of remediation. Objectives of the study are to demonstrate that surface emissions of gasoline are minimal, oily residue will be reduced to <100 mg fuel carbon/Kg core material, and the process will be applicable to full-scale remediation. Flow rate is based on a calculated residence time of 24 hours. Surface emission of fuel hydrocarbons have not exceeded 1 micrograms/liter soil gas.

  17. Research Reactor Preparations for the Air Shipment of Highly Enriched Uranium from Romania

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    K. J. Allen; I. Bolshinsky; L. L. Biro; M. E. Budu; N. V. Zamfir; M. Dragusin; C. Paunoiu; M. Ciocanescu

    2010-03-01

    In June 2009 two air shipments transported both unirradiated (fresh) and irradiated (spent) Russian-origin highly enriched uranium (HEU) nuclear fuel from two research reactors in Romania to the Russian Federation for conversion to low enriched uranium. The Institute for Nuclear Research at Pitesti (SCN Pitesti) shipped 30.1 kg of HEU fresh fuel pellets to Dimitrovgrad, Russia and the Horia Hulubei National Institute of Physics and Nuclear Engineering (IFIN-HH) shipped 23.7 kilograms of HEU spent fuel assemblies from the VVR S research reactor at Magurele, Romania, to Chelyabinsk, Russia. Both HEU shipments were coordinated by the Russian Research Reactor Fuel Return Program (RRRFR) as part of the U.S. Department of Energy Global Threat Reduction Initiative (GTRI), were managed in Romania by the National Commission for Nuclear Activities Control (CNCAN), and were conducted in cooperation with the Russian Federation State Corporation Rosatom and the International Atomic Energy Agency. Both shipments were transported by truck to and from respective commercial airports in Romania and the Russian Federation and stored at secure nuclear facilities in Russia until the material is converted into low enriched uranium. These shipments resulted in Romania becoming the 3rd country under the RRRFR program and the 14th country under the GTRI program to remove all HEU. This paper describes the research reactor preparations and license approvals that were necessary to safely and securely complete these air shipments of nuclear fuel.

  18. Nevada test site underground storage tank number 12-13-1: Nevada division of emergency management case number H931130E corrective action unit 450. Closure report

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    1997-01-01

    The project site was identified as an abandoned Underground Storage Tank (UST) to be closed under the Department of Energy/Nevada Operations Office (DOE/NV) Environmental Restoration Division (ERD) Program during Fiscal Year 1993. The United States Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) requires that before permanent closure is completed an assessment of the site must take place. The Nevada Division of Environmental Protection (NDEP) requires assessment and corrective actions for a petroleum substance in the soil which exceeds 100 milligrams per kilogram (mg/kg). Subsequent to the tank removal, a hydrocarbon release was identified at the site. The release was reported to the NDEP by DOE/NV on November 30, 1993. Nevada Division of Environmental Management (NDEM) Case Number H931130E was assigned. This final closure report documents the assessment and corrective actions taken for the hydrocarbon release identified at the site. The Notification of Closure, EPA Form 7530-1 dated March 22, 1994, is provided in Appendix A. A 45-day report documenting the notification for a hydrocarbon release was submitted to NDEP on April 6, 1994.

  19. Engineering-Scale Liquid Cadmium Cathode Experiments

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    D Vaden; B. R. Westphal; S. X. Li; T. A. Johnson; K. B. Davies; D. M. Pace

    2006-08-01

    Recovery of transuranic actinides (TRU) using electrorefining is a process being investigated as part of the Department of Energy (DOE) Advanced Fuel Cycle Initiative (AFCI). TRU recovery via electrorefining onto a solid cathode is very difficult as the thermodynamic properties of transuranics are not favourable for them to remain in the metal phase while significant quantities of uranium trichloride exist in the electrolyte. Theoretically, the concentration of transuranics in the electrolyte must be approximately 106 greater than the uranium concentration in the electrolyte to produce a transuranic deposit on a solid cathode. Using liquid cadmium as a cathode contained within a LiCl-KCl eutectic salt, the co-deposition of uranium and transuranics is feasible because the activity of the transuranics in liquid cadmium is very small. Depositing transuranics and uranium in a liquid cadmium cathode (LCC) theoretically requires the concentration of transuranics to be two to three times the uranium concentration in the electrolyte. Three LCC experiments were performed in an Engineering scale elecdtrorefiner, which is located in the argon hot cell of the Fuel Conditioning Facility at the Materials and Fuels Complex on the Idaho National Laboratory. Figure 1 contains photographs of the LCC assembly in the hot cell prior to the experiment and a cadmium ingot produced after the first LCC test. Figure 1. Liquid Cadmium Cathode (left) and Cadmium Ingot (right) The primary goal of the engineering-scale liquid cadmium cathode experiments was to electrochemically collect kilogram quantities of uranium and plutonium via a LCC. The secondary goal was to examine fission product contaminations in the materials collected by the LCC. Each LCC experiment used chopped spent nuclear fuel from the blanket region of the Experimental Breeder Reactor II loaded into steel baskets as the anode with the LCC containing 26 kg of cadmium metal. In each experiment, between one and two kilograms of heavy metal was collected in the LCC after passing an integrated current over 500 amp hours. Analysis of samples from the liquid cadmium cathode ingots showed detectable amounts of transuranics and rare-earth elements. Acknowledgements K. B. Davies and D. M. Pace for the mechanical and electrical engineering needed to prepare the equipment for the engineering-scale liquid cadmium cathode experiments.

  20. High upwind concentrations observed during an upslope tracer event

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Ciolek, J.T. Jr.

    1993-10-01

    In February of 1991 the Rocky Flats Plant conducted twelve tracer experiments to validate an emergency response dispersion model known as the Terrain-Responsive Atmospheric Code (TRAC) (Hodgin 1985). Experimenters released 140 to 260 kilograms of inert tracer gas (sulfur hexafloride) from the plant over an 11 hour period. During each release, one hundred and sixty-five samples, most of which formed concentric rings of 8 and 16 km radius from the plant, recorded cumulative hourly concentrations of the tracer at one meter above ground level (AGL). Figure 1 contains a depiction of the sampler location, the terrain, and the meteorological stations available within the tracer study area. Brown (1991) describes the experimental setup in more detail. The subject of this paper is an event that occurred early in the fifth experiment, on February 9, 1991. In this experiment, tracer material released from 13:00 to 17:00 LST appeared both downwind and upwind of the source, with the highest concentrations upwind. During the fifth experiment, high pressure in Utah produced mostly sunny skis around Rocky Flats. For most of the day, one could find moderate (5 to 10 ms{sup {minus}1}) northerly (from the North) flow within the 700 to 500 mb level of the atmosphere (approximately 3000 to 5500 meters above Mean Sea Level (MSL)). Synoptic scale motions were isolated enough from the surface layer and heating was great enough to produce a 1 km deep upslope flow (flow from the East to the West) by late afternoon. The winds reversed and became downslope at approximately 17:30 LST.

  1. Data Release Report for Source Physics Experiments 2 and 3 (SPE-2 and SPE-3) Nevada National Security Site

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Townsend, Margaret; Obi, Curtis

    2015-04-30

    The second Source Physics Experiment shot (SPE-2) was conducted in Nevada on October 25, 2011, at 1900:00.011623 Greenwich Mean Time (GMT). The explosive source was 997 kilograms (kg) trinitrotoluene (TNT) equivalent of sensitized heavy ammonium fuel oil (SHANFO) detonated at a depth of 45.7 meters (m). The third Source Physics Experiment shot (SPE-3) was conducted in Nevada on July 24, 2012, at 1800:00.44835 GMT. The explosive source was 905 kg TNT equivalent of SHANFO detonated at a depth of 45.8 m. Both shots were recorded by an extensive set of instrumentation that includes sensors both at near-field (less than 100 m) and far-field (100 m or greater) distances. The near-field instruments consisted of three-component accelerometers deployed in boreholes at 15, 46, and 55 m depths around the shot and a set of single-component vertical accelerometers on the surface. The far-field network was composed of a variety of seismic and acoustic sensors, including short-period geophones, broadband seismometers, three-component accelerometers, and rotational seismometers at distances of 100 m to 25 kilometers. This report coincides with the release of these data for analysts and organizations that are not participants in this program. This report describes the second and third Source Physics Experiment shots and the various types of near-field and farfield data that are available.This revised document includes reports on baseline shift corrections for the SPE-2 and SPE-3 shots that were missing from the original January 2015 version.

  2. Evaluation of Settler Tank Thermal Stability during Solidification and Disposition to ERDF

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Stephenson, David E.; Delegard, Calvin H.; Schmidt, Andrew J.

    2015-03-30

    Ten 16-foot-long and 20-inch diameter horizontal tanks currently reside in a stacked 2×5 (high) array in the ~20,000-gallon water-filled Weasel Pit of the 105-KW Fuel Storage Basin on the US-DOE Hanford Site. These ten tanks are part of the Integrated Water Treatment System used to manage water quality in the KW Basin and are called “settler” tanks because of their application in removing particles from the KW Basin waters. Based on process knowledge, the settler tanks are estimated to contain about 124 kilograms of finely divided uranium metal, 22 kg of uranium dioxide, and another 55 kg of other radioactive sludge. The Sludge Treatment Project (STP), managed by CH2MHill Plateau Remediation Company (CHPRC) is charged with managing the settler tanks and arranging for their ultimate disposal by burial in ERDF. The presence of finely divided uranium metal in the sludge is of concern because of the potential for thermal runaway reaction of the uranium metal with water and the formation of flammable hydrogen gas as a product of the uranium-water reaction. Thermal runaway can be instigated by external heating. The STP commissioned a formal Decision Support Board (DSB) to consider options and provide recommendations to manage and dispose of the settler tanks and their contents. Decision criteria included consideration of the project schedule and longer-term deactivation, decontamination, decommissioning, and demolition (D4) of the KW Basin. The DSB compared the alternatives and recommended in-situ grouting, size-reduction, and ERDF disposal as the best of six candidate options for settler tank treatment and disposal. It is important to note that most grouts contain a complement of Portland cement as the binding agent and that Portland cement curing reactions generate heat. Therefore, concern is raised that the grouting of the settler tank contents may produce heating sufficient to instigate thermal runaway reactions in the contained uranium metal sludge.

  3. Propulsion engineering study for small-scale Mars missions

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Whitehead, J.

    1995-09-12

    Rocket propulsion options for small-scale Mars missions are presented and compared, particularly for the terminal landing maneuver and for sample return. Mars landing has a low propulsive {Delta}v requirement on a {approximately}1-minute time scale, but at a high acceleration. High thrust/weight liquid rocket technologies, or advanced pulse-capable solids, developed during the past decade for missile defense, are therefore more appropriate for small Mars landers than are conventional space propulsion technologies. The advanced liquid systems are characterize by compact lightweight thrusters having high chamber pressures and short lifetimes. Blowdown or regulated pressure-fed operation can satisfy the Mars landing requirement, but hardware mass can be reduced by using pumps. Aggressive terminal landing propulsion designs can enable post-landing hop maneuvers for some surface mobility. The Mars sample return mission requires a small high performance launcher having either solid motors or miniature pump-fed engines. Terminal propulsion for 100 kg Mars landers is within the realm of flight-proven thruster designs, but custom tankage is desirable. Landers on a 10 kg scale also are feasible, using technology that has been demonstrated but not previously flown in space. The number of sources and the selection of components are extremely limited on this smallest scale, so some customized hardware is required. A key characteristic of kilogram-scale propulsion is that gas jets are much lighter than liquid thrusters for reaction control. The mass and volume of tanks for inert gas can be eliminated by systems which generate gas as needed from a liquid or a solid, but these have virtually no space flight history. Mars return propulsion is a major engineering challenge; earth launch is the only previously-solved propulsion problem requiring similar or greater performance.

  4. Energy-Related Carbon Dioxide Emissions at the State Level, 2000...

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    8 Table 7. Carbon intensity by state (2000-2013) kilograms of energy-related carbon dioxide per million Btu Change (2000-2013) State 2000 2001 2002 2003 2004 2005 2006 2007 2008 ...

  5. Biological denitrification of high concentration nitrate waste

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Francis, Chester W.; Brinkley, Frank S.

    1977-01-01

    Biological denitrification of nitrate solutions at concentrations of greater than one kilogram nitrate per cubic meter is accomplished anaerobically in an upflow column having as a packing material a support for denitrifying bacteria.

  6. EA-1123: Transfer of Normal and Low-Enriched Uranium Billets to the United Kingdom, Hanford Site, Richland, Washington

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    This EA evaluates the environmental impacts of the proposal to transfer approximately 710,000 kilograms (1,562,000 pounds) of unneeded normal and low-enriched uranium to the United Kingdom; thus,...

  7. Secretary Steven Chu Remarks as Prepared for Delivery to the...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    ... The United States is aggressively pursuing a disarmament agenda. We call on others to ... We've also down-blended 700 kilograms of highly enriched uranium from civil nuclear ...

  8. EA-1255: Project Partnership Transportation of Foreign-Owned Enriched Uranium from the Republic of Georgia

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    This EA evaluates the environmental impacts for the proposal to transport 5.26 kilograms of enriched uranium-23 5 in the form of nuclear fuel, from the Republic of Georgia to the United Kingdom.

  9. An MHD heat source based on intermetallic reactions

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Sadjian, H.; Zavitsanos, P. ); Marston, C.H. )

    1991-05-06

    The main objective of this program was the development of an MHD heat source of potential use in Space - Based Multi Megawatt, MHD Power Systems. The approach is based on extension of high temperature chemical/ion release technology developed by the General Sciences, Incorporated (GSI) team and successfully applied in other Space Applications. Solid state reactions have been identified which can deliver energy densities and electrons in excess of those from high energy explosives as well as other conventional fuels. The use of intermetallic reactions can be used to generate hot hydrogen plasma from the reaction, to create a high level of seedant ionization, can be packaged as a cartridge type fuels for discrete pulses. The estimated weight for energizing a (100 MW - 1000 sec) Pulsed MHD Power System can range from 12 to 25 {times} 10{sup 3} kg depending on reaction system and strength of the magnetic field. The program consisted of two major tasks with eight subtasks designed to systematically evaluate these concepts in order to reduce fuel weight requirements. Laboratory measurements on energy release, reaction product identification and levels of ionization were conducted in the first task to screen candidate fuels. The second task addressed the development of a reaction chamber in which conductivity, temperature and pressure were measured. Instrumentation was developed to measure these parameters under high temperature pulsed conditions in addition to computer programs to reduce the raw data. Measurements were conducted at GSI laboratories for fuel weights of up to 120 grams and at the Franklin Research Center* for fuel weights up to 1 kilogram. The results indicate that fuel weight can be scaled using modular packaging. Estimates are presented for fuel weight requirements. 15 refs.

  10. Do yield and quality of big bluestem and switchgrass feedstock decline over winter?

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Jane M.F. Johnson; Garold L. Gresham

    2014-03-01

    Switchgrass (Panicum virgatum L.) and big bluestem (Andropogon gerdardii Vitman) are potential perennial bioenergy feedstocks. Feedstock storage limitations, labor constraints for harvest, and environmental benefits provided by perennials are rationales for developing localized perennial feedstock as an alternative or in conjunction with annual feedstocks (i.e., crop residues). Little information is available on yield, mineral, and thermochemical properties of native species as related to harvest time. The studys objectives were to compare the feedstock quantity and quality between grasses harvested in the fall or the following spring. It was hypothesized that biomass yield may decline, but translocation and/or leaching of minerals from the feedstock would improve feedstock quality. Feedstock yield did not differ by crop, harvest time, or their interactions. Both grasses averaged 6.0 Mg ha-1 (fall) and 5.4 Mg ha-1 (spring) with similar high heating value (17.7 MJ kg-1). The K/(Ca + Mg) ratio, used as a quality indicator declined to below a 0.5 threshold, but energy yield (Megajoule per kilogram) decreased 13% by delaying harvest until spring. Only once during the four study-years were conditions ideal for early spring harvest, in contrast during another spring, very muddy conditions resulted in excessive soil contamination. Early spring harvest may be hampered by late snow, lodging, and muddy conditions that may delay or prevent harvest, and result in soil contamination of the feedstock. However, reducing slagging/fouling potential and the mass of mineral nutrients removed from the field without a dramatic loss in biomass or caloric content are reasons to delay harvest until spring.

  11. Comparison of explosive and vibroseis source energy penetration during COCORP deep seismic reflection profiling in the Williston basin

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Steer, D.N.; Brown, L.D.; Knapp, J.H.; Baird, D.J. [Cornell Univ., Ithaca, NY (United States)] [Cornell Univ., Ithaca, NY (United States)

    1996-01-01

    Comparison of high-fold (50) vibroseis recordings with coincident low-fold (6) explosive source data from deep reflection surveys in the Williston Basin indicates that while vibroseis generated energy decays to ambient noise levels at 7--9 s two-way traveltime (twtt) (20--30 km depth), energy from explosive sources remains above ambient levels to 35--60 s twtt (105--180 km depth). Moreover, single, moderately sized (30 kg) and well-placed charges proved to be as effective as larger (90 kg) sources at penetrating to mantle traveltimes in this area. However, the explosive source energy proved highly variable, with source-to-ground coupling being a major limiting factor in shot efficacy. Stacked results from the vibroseis sources provide superior imagery of shallow and moderate crustal levels by virtue of greater redundancy and shot-to-shot uniformity; shot statics, low fold, and ray-path distortion across the relatively large (24--30 km aperture) spreads used during the explosive recording have proven to be especially problematic in producing conventional seismic sections. In spite of these complications, the explosive source recording served its primary purpose in confirming Moho truncation and the presence of a dipping reflection fabric in the upper mantle along the western flank of the Trans-Hudson orogen buried beneath the Williston Basin.

  12. HYDROGEN STORAGE SOLUTIONS IN SUPPORT OF DOD WARFIGHTER PORTABLE POWER APPLICATIONS

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Motyka, T.

    2009-01-06

    From Personal Digital Assistants (PDAs) to cell phones our high-tech world, today, is demanding smaller, lighter weight and higher capacity portable power devices. Nowhere has this personal power surge been more evident than in today's U.S Warfighter. The modern Warfighter is estimated to carry from 65 to 95 pounds of supplies in the field with over 30 pounds of this dedicated to portable power devices. These devices include computer displays, infrared sights, Global Positioning Systems (GPS), night vision and a variety of other sensor technologies. Over 80% of the energy needed to power these devices comes from primary (disposable) batteries. It is estimated that a brigade will consume as much as 7 tons of batteries in a 72 hour mission at a cost of $700,000. A recent comprehensive study on the energy needs of the future warrior published by the National Academy of Science in 2004 made a variety of recommendations for average power systems from 20 to 1,000 watts. For lower power systems recommendations included pursuing science and technology initiatives focused on: (1) 300 watt-hours per kilogram (Wh/kg) secondary battery technologies; (2) smart hybrids; and (3) fuel cells (with greater than 6 wt% hydrogen storage). Improved secondary (rechargeable) batteries may be the ideal solution for military power systems due to their ease of use and public acceptance. However, a 3X improvement in their specific energy density is not likely anytime soon. Today's Lithium Ion batteries, at about 150 Wh/kg, fall well short of the energy density that is required. Future battery technology may not be the answer since many experts do not predict more than a 2X improvement in Lithium battery systems over the next 10 years. That is why most auto companies have abandoned all electric vehicles in favor of fuel cells and hybrid vehicles. Fuel cells have very high specific energy densities but achieving high energy values will depend on the energy density and the storage method of its fuel. Improved methods of safely and efficiently storing larger amounts of hydrogen will be a key development area for portable fuel cell power systems. Despite their high potential energy, fuel cells exhibit low power densities. That is why many systems today are going hybrid. Hybrid systems typically combine low energy and high power components with high energy and low power components. Typical configurations include capacitors and fuel cells or batteries and fuel cells. If done correctly, a hybrid system often can have both high energy and high power density even higher than any of the individual components.

  13. Space debris removal using a high-power ground-based laser

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Monroe, D.K.

    1993-12-31

    The feasibility and practicality of using a ground-based laser (GBL) to remove artificial space debris is examined. Physical constraints indicate that a reactor-pumped laser (RPL) may be best suited for this mission, because of its capabilities for multimegawatt output long run-times, and near-diffraction-limited initial beams. Simulations of a laser-powered debris removal system indicate that a 5-MW RPL with a 10-meter-diameter beam director and adaptive optics capabilities can deorbit 1-kg debris from space station altitudes. Larger debris can be deorbited or transferred to safer orbits after multiple laser engagements. A ground-based laser system may be the only realistic way to access and remove some 10,000 separate objects, having velocities in the neighborhood of 7 km/sec, and being spatially distributed over some 10{sup 10} km{sup 3} of space.

  14. Analysis of data from electric and hybrid electric vehicle student competitions

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Wipke, K.B.; Hill, N.; Larsen, R.P.

    1994-01-01

    The US Department of Energy sponsored several student engineering competitions in 1993 that provided useful information on electric and hybrid electric vehicles. The electrical energy usage from these competitions has been recorded with a custom-built digital meter installed in every vehicle and used under controlled conditions. When combined with other factors, such as vehicle mass, speed, distance traveled, battery type, and type of components, this information provides useful insight into the performance characteristics of electrics and hybrids. All the vehicles tested were either electric vehicles or hybrid vehicles in electric-only mode, and had an average energy economy of 7.0 km/kwh. Based on the performance of the ``ground-up`` hybrid electric vehicles in the 1993 Hybrid Electric Vehicle Challenge, data revealed a I km/kwh energy economy benefit for every 133 kg decrease in vehicle mass. By running all the electric vehicles at a competition in Atlanta at several different constant speeds, the effects of rolling resistance and aerodynamic drag were evaluated. On average, these vehicles were 32% more energy efficient at 40 km/h than at 72 km/h. The results of the competition data analysis confirm that these engineering competitions not only provide an educational experience for the students, but also show technology performance and improvements in electric and hybrid vehicles by setting benchmarks and revealing trends.

  15. Performance testing of the AC propulsion ELX electric vehicle

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Kramer, W.E.; MacDowall, R.D.; Burke, A.F.

    1994-06-01

    Performance testing of the AC Propulsion ELX electric vehicle is described. Test data are presented and analyzed. The ELX vehicle is the first of a series of electric vehicles of interest to the California Air Resources Board. The test series is being conducted under a Cooperative Research and Development Agreement (CRADA) between the US Department of energy and the California Air Resources Board. The tests which were conducted showed that the AC Propulsion ELX electric vehicle has exceptional acceleration and range performance. when the vehicle`s battery was fully charged, the vehicle can accelerate from 0 to 96 km/h in about 10 seconds. Energy consumption and range tests using consecutive FUDS and HWFET Driving cycles (the all-electric cycle) indicate that the energy economy of the AC Propulsion ELX electric vehicle with regenerative braking is 97 W{center_dot}h/km, with a range of 153 km (95 miles). Computer simulations performed using the SIMPLEV Program indicate that the vehicle would have a range of 327 km (203 miles) on the all-electric cycle if the lead acid batteries were replaced with NiMH batteries having an energy density of 67 W{center_dot}h/kg. Comparisons of FUDS test data with and without regenerative braking indicated that regenerative braking reduced the energy consumption of the ELX vehicle by approximately 25%.

  16. Immobilization of Rocky Flats Graphite Fines Residues

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Rudisill, T. S.

    1998-11-06

    The Savannah River Technology Center (SRTC) is developing an immobilization process for graphite fines residues generated during nuclear materials production activities at the Rocky Flats Environmental Technology Site (Rocky Flats). The continued storage of this material has been identified as an item of concern. The residue was generated during the cleaning of graphite casting molds and potentially contains reactive plutonium metal. The average residue composition is 73 wt percent graphite, 15 wt percent calcium fluoride (CaF2), and 12 wt percent plutonium oxide (PuO2). Approximately 950 kilograms of this material are currently stored at Rocky Flats. The strategy of the immobilization process is to microencapsulate the residue by mixing with a sodium borosilicate (NBS) glass frit and heating at nominally 700 degrees C. The resulting waste form would be sent to the Waste Isolation Pilot Plant (WIPP) for disposal. Since the PuO2 concentration in the residue averages 12 wt percent, the immobilization process was required to meet the intent of safeguards termination criteria by limiting plutonium recoverability based on a test developed by Rocky Flats. The test required a plutonium recovery of less than 4 g/kg of waste form when a sample was leached using a nitric acid/CaF2 dissolution flowsheet. Immobilization experiments were performed using simulated graphite fines with cerium oxide (CeO2) as a surrogate for PuO2 and with actual graphite fines residues. Small-scale surrogate experiments demonstrated that a 4:1 frit to residue ratio was adequate to prevent recovery of greater than 4 g/kg of cerium from simulated waste forms. Additional experiments investigated the impact of varying concentrations of CaF2 and the temperature/heating time cycle on the cerium recovery. Optimal processing conditions developed during these experiments were subsequently demonstrated at full-scale with surrogate materials and on a smaller scale using actual graphite fines.In general, the recovery of cerium from the full-scale waste forms was higher than for smaller scale experiments. The presence of CaF2 also caused a dramatic increase in cerium recovery not seen in the small-scale experiments. However, the results from experiments with actual graphite fines were encouraging. A 4:1 frit to residue ratio, a temperature of 700 degrees C, and a 2 hr heating time produced waste forms with plutonium recoveries of 4 plus/minus 1 g/kg. With an increase in the frit to residue ratio, waste forms fabricated at this scale should meet the Rocky Flats product specification. The scale-up of the waste form fabrication process to nominally 3 kg is expected to require a 5:1 to 6:1 frit to residue ratio and maintaining the waste form centerline temperature at 700 degrees C for 2 hr.

  17. Modifications and Applications of the HERMES model: June - October 2010

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Reaugh, J E

    2010-11-16

    The HERMES (High Explosive Response to MEchanical Stimulus) model has been developed to describe the response of energetic materials to low-velocity mechanical stimulus, referred to as HEVR (High Explosive Violent Response) or BVR (Burn to Violent Reaction). For tests performed with an HMX-based UK explosive, at sample sizes less than 200 g, the response was sometimes an explosion, but was not observed to be a detonation. The distinction between explosion and detonation can be important in assessing the effects of the HE response on nearby structures. A detonation proceeds as a supersonic shock wave supported by the release of energy that accompanies the transition from solid to high-pressure gas. For military high explosives, the shock wave velocity generally exceeds 7 km/s, and the pressure behind the shock wave generally exceeds 30 GPa. A kilogram of explosive would be converted to gas in 10 to 15 microseconds. An HEVR explosion proceeds much more slowly. Much of the explosive remains unreacted after the event. Peak pressures have been measured and calculated at less than 1 GPa, and the time for the portion of the solid that does react to form gas is about a millisecond. The explosion will, however, launch the confinement to a velocity that depends on the confinement mass, the mass of explosive converted, and the time required to form gas products. In many tests, the air blast signal and confinement velocity are comparable to those measured when an amount of explosive equal to that which is converted in an HEVR is deliberately detonated in the comparable confinement. The number of confinement fragments from an HEVR is much less than from the comparable detonation. The HERMES model comprises several submodels including a constitutive model for strength, a model for damage that includes the creation of porosity and surface area through fragmentation, an ignition model, an ignition front propagation model, and a model for burning after ignition. We have used HERMES in computer simulations of US and UK variants of the Steven Test. We have recently improved some of the submodels, and report those developments here, as well as the results of some additional applications.

  18. Feasibility Study of Hydrogen Production from Existing Nuclear Power Plants Using Alkaline Electrolysis

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Dana R. Swalla

    2008-12-31

    The mid-range industrial market currently consumes 4.2 million metric tons of hydrogen per year and has an annual growth rate of 15% industries in this range require between 100 and 1000 kilograms of hydrogen per day and comprise a wide range of operations such as food hydrogenation, electronic chip fabrication, metals processing and nuclear reactor chemistry modulation.

  19. Energy Department Completes Salt Coolant Material Transfer to Czech Republic for Advanced Reactor Research

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    The U.S. Department of Energy recently joined with the U.S. Embassy in Prague and the Czech Republic’s Ministry of Industry and Trade to complete the transfer of 75 kilograms of fluoride salt from the Department’s Oak Ridge National Laboratory to the Czech Nuclear Research Institute Řež.

  20. Magnesium oxide inserts for the LECO Carbon Analyzer

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Bagaasen, L.M.; Jensen, C.M.

    1991-01-16

    LECO carbon analysis of plutonium metal and plutonium oxide at the Rocky Flats Plant generates several hundred kilograms of high silica residues each year. The plutonium in these residues is difficult and expensive to recover using production dissolution processes. A magnesium oxide (MgO) insert has been developed that significantly lowers the plutonium recovery costs without adversely affecting accuracy of the carbon analysis.

  1. LLNL Site plan for a MOX fuel lead assembly mission in support of surplus plutonium disposition

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Bronson, M.C.

    1997-10-01

    The principal facilities that LLNL would use to support a MOX Fuel Lead Assembly Mission are Building 332 and Building 334. Both of these buildings are within the security boundary known as the LLNL Superblock. Building 332 is the LLNL Plutonium Facility. As an operational plutonium facility, it has all the infrastructure and support services required for plutonium operations. The LLNL Plutonium Facility routinely handles kilogram quantities of plutonium and uranium. Currently, the building is limited to a plutonium inventory of 700 kilograms and a uranium inventory of 300 kilograms. Process rooms (excluding the vaults) are limited to an inventory of 20 kilograms per room. Ongoing operations include: receiving SSTS, material receipt, storage, metal machining and casting, welding, metal-to-oxide conversion, purification, molten salt operations, chlorination, oxide calcination, cold pressing and sintering, vitrification, encapsulation, chemical analysis, metallography and microprobe analysis, waste material processing, material accountability measurements, packaging, and material shipping. Building 334 is the Hardened Engineering Test Building. This building supports environmental and radiation measurements on encapsulated plutonium and uranium components. Other existing facilities that would be used to support a MOX Fuel Lead Assembly Mission include Building 335 for hardware receiving and storage and TRU and LLW waste storage and shipping facilities, and Building 331 or Building 241 for storage of depleted uranium.

  2. Numerical simulations of quiet sun magnetism: On the contribution from a small-scale dynamo

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Rempel, M.

    2014-07-10

    We present a series of radiative MHD simulations addressing the origin and distribution of the mixed polarity magnetic field in the solar photosphere. To this end, we consider numerical simulations that cover the uppermost 2-6 Mm of the solar convection zone and we explore scales ranging from 2 km to 25 Mm. We study how the strength and distribution of the magnetic field in the photosphere and subsurface layers depend on resolution, domain size, and boundary conditions. We find that 50% of the magnetic energy at the τ = 1 level comes from fields with the less than 500 G strength and that 50% of the energy resides on scales smaller than about 100 km. While the probability distribution functions are essentially independent of resolution, properly describing the spectral energy distribution requires grid spacings of 8 km or smaller. The formation of flux concentrations in the photosphere exceeding 1 kG requires a mean vertical field strength greater than 30-40 G at τ = 1. The filling factor of kG flux concentrations increases with overall domain size as the magnetic field becomes organized by larger, longer-lived flow structures. A solution with a mean vertical field strength of around 85 G at τ = 1 requires a subsurface rms field strength increasing with depth at the same rate as the equipartition field strength. We consider this an upper limit for the quiet Sun field strength, which implies that most of the convection zone is magnetized close to the equipartition. We discuss these findings in view of recent high-resolution spectropolarimetric observations of quiet Sun magnetism.

  3. Results of Characterization and Retrieval Testing on Tank 241-C-110 Heel Solids

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Callaway, William S.

    2013-09-30

    Nine samples of heel solids from tank 241-C-110 were delivered to the 222-S Laboratory for characterization and dissolution testing. After being drained thoroughly, the sample solids were primarily white to light-brown with minor dark-colored inclusions. The maximum dimension of the majority of the solids was <2 mm; however, numerous pieces of aggregate, microcrystalline, and crystalline solids with maximum dimensions ranging from 5-70 mm were observed. In general, the larger pieces of aggregate solids were strongly cemented. Natrophosphate [Na{sub 7}F(PO{sub 4}){sub 2}�19H{sub 2}O] was the dominant solid phase identified in the heel solids. Results of chemical analyses suggested that 85-87 wt% of the heel solids were the fluoridephosphate double salt. The average bulk density measured for the heel solids was 1.689 g/mL; the reference density of natrophosphate is 1.71 g/mL. Dissolution tests on composite samples indicate that 94 to 97 wt% of the tank 241-C-110 heel solids can be retrieved by dissolution in water. Dissolution and recovery of the soluble components in 1 kg (0.59 L) of the heel solids required the addition of ≈9.5 kg (9.5 L) of water at 15 �C and ≈4.4 kg (4.45 L) of water at 45 �C. Calculations performed using the Environmental Simulation Program indicate that dissolution of the ≈0.86 kg of natrophosphate in each kilogram of the tank 241-C-110 heel solids would require ≈9.45 kg of water at 15 �C and ≈4.25 kg of water at 45 �C. The slightly larger quantities of water determined to be required to retrieve the soluble components in 1 kg of the heel solids are consistent with that required for the dissolution of solids composed mainly of natrophosphate with a major portion of the balance consisting of highly soluble sodium salts. At least 98% of the structural water, soluble phosphate, sodium, fluoride, nitrate, carbonate, nitrite, sulfate, oxalate, and chloride in the test composites was dissolved and recovered in the dissolution tests. Most of the {sup 99}Tc and {sup 137}Cs present in the initial heel solids composites was removed in the water dissolution tests. The estimated activities/weights of {sup 129}I, {sup 234}U, {sup 235}U, {sup 236}U, and {sup 238}U in the dry residual solids were <25% of the weights/activities in the initial composite solids. Gibbsite and nordstrandite [both Al(OH){sub 3}] were the major solid phases identified in the solids remaining after completion of the dissolution tests. Chemical analysis indicated that the residual solids may have contained up to 62 wt% Al(OH){sub 3}. Significant quantities of unidentified phosphate-, iron-, bismuth-, silicon-, and strontium- bearing species were also present in the residual solids. The reference density of gibbsite (and nordstrandite) is 2.42 g/mL. The measured density of the residual solids, 2.65 g/mL, would be a reasonable value for solids containing gibbsite as the major component with minor quantities of other, higher density solids. Sieve analysis indicated that 22.2 wt% of the residual solids were discrete particles >710 μm in size, and 77.8 wt% were particulates <710 μm in size. Light-scattering measurements suggested that nearly all of the <710-μm particulates with diameters >12 μm were weakly bound aggregates of particles with diameters <2 μm. The <710-μm residual solids settled very slowly when dispersed in reagent water. The physical appearance of a suspension containing ≈0.4 vol% of the solids in pure water changed very little over a period of 46.5 hours. It should be noted that the distribution of particle sizes in the residual solids and the observed settling behavior were both strongly influenced by the procedures followed in the dissolution tests.

  4. COMET 169P/NEAT(=2002 EX{sub 12}): THE PARENT BODY OF THE {alpha}-CAPRICORNID METEOROID STREAM

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Kasuga, Toshihiro; Wiegert, Paul A.; Balam, David D.

    2010-12-15

    The Jupiter-family comet 169P/NEAT (previously known as asteroid 2002 EX{sub 12}) has a dynamical association with the {alpha}-Capricornid meteoroid stream. In this paper, we present photometric observations of comet 169P/NEAT to further investigate the physical characters of its disintegration state related to the stream. The comet shows a point-like surface brightness profile limiting contamination due to coma emission to {approx}4% at most, indicating no evidence of outgassing. An upper limit on the fraction of the surface that could be sublimating water ice of <10{sup -4} is obtained with an upper limit to the mass loss of {approx}10{sup -2} kg s{sup -1}. The effective radius of nucleus is found to be 2.3 {+-} 0.4 km. Red filter photometry yields a rotational period of 8.4096 {+-} 0.0012 hr, and the range of the amplitude 0.29 {+-} 0.02 mag is indicative of a moderately spherical shape having a projected axis ratio {approx}1.3. The comet shows redder colors than the Sun, being compatible with other dead comet candidates. The calculated lost mass per revolution is {approx}10{sup 9} kg. If it has sustained this mass loss over the estimated 5000 yr age of the {alpha}-Capricornid meteoroid stream, the total mass loss from 169P/NEAT ({approx}10{sup 13} kg) is consistent with the reported stream mass ({approx}10{sup 13}-10{sup 15} kg), suggesting that the stream is the product of steady disintegration of the parent at every return.

  5. Corrective Action Decision Document/Closure Report for Corrective Action Unit 561: Waste Disposal Areas, Nevada National Security Site, Nevada, Revision 0

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Mark Krauss

    2011-08-01

    CAU 561 comprises 10 CASs: (1) 01-19-01, Waste Dump; (2) 02-08-02, Waste Dump and Burn Area; (3) 03-19-02, Debris Pile; (4) 05-62-01, Radioactive Gravel Pile; (5) 12-23-09, Radioactive Waste Dump; (6) 22-19-06, Buried Waste Disposal Site; (7) 23-21-04, Waste Disposal Trenches ; (8) 25-08-02, Waste Dump; (9) 25-23-21, Radioactive Waste Dump; and (10) 25-25-19, Hydrocarbon Stains and Trench. The purpose of this CADD/CR is to provide justification and documentation supporting the recommendation for closure of CAU 561 with no further corrective action. The purpose of the CAI was to fulfill the following data needs as defined during the DQO process: (1) Determine whether COCs are present; (2) If COCs are present, determine their nature and extent; and (3) Provide sufficient information and data to complete appropriate corrective actions. The following contaminants were determined to be present at concentrations exceeding their corresponding FALs: (1) No contamination exceeding FALs was identified at CASs 01-19-01, 03-19-02, 05-62-01, 12-23-09, and 22-19-06. (2) The surface and subsurface soil within the burn area at CAS 02-08-02 contains arsenic and lead above the FALs of 23 milligrams per kilogram (mg/kg) and 800 mg/kg, respectively. The surface and subsurface soil within the burn area also contains melted lead slag (potential source material [PSM]). The soil within the waste piles contains polyaromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) above the FALs. The contamination within the burn area is spread throughout the area, as it was not feasible to remove all the PSM (melted lead), while at the waste piles, the contamination is confined to the piles. (3) The surface and subsurface soils within Trenches 3 and 5 at CAS 23-21-04 contain arsenic and polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) above the FALs of 23 mg/kg and 0.74 mg/kg, respectively. The soil was removed from both trenches, and the soil that remains at this CAS does not contain contamination exceeding the FALs. Lead bricks and counterweights were also removed, and the soil below these items does not contain contamination that exceeds the FAL for lead. (4) The concrete-like material at CAS 25-08-02 contains arsenic above the FAL of 23 mg/kg. This concrete-like material was removed, and the soil that remains at this CAS does not contain contamination exceeding the FALs. Lead-acid batteries were also removed, and the soil below the batteries does not contain contamination that exceeds the FAL for lead. (5) The surface soils within the main waste dump at the posted southern radioactive material area (RMA) at CAS 25-23-21 contain cesium (Cs)-137 and PCBs above the FALs of 72.9 picocuries per gram (pCi/g) and 0.74 mg/kg, respectively. The soil was removed from the RMA, and the soil that remains at this CAS does not contain contamination exceeding the FALs. (6) The surface and subsurface soils at CAS 25-25-19 do not contain contamination exceeding the FALs. In addition, lead bricks were removed, and the soil below these items does not contain contamination that exceeds the FAL for lead. The following best management practices were implemented: (1) Housekeeping debris at CASs 02-08-02, 23-21-04, 25-08-02, 25-23-21, and 25-25-19 was removed and disposed of; (2) The open trenches at CAS 23-21-04 were backfilled; (3) The waste piles at CAS 25-08-02 were removed and the area leveled to ground surface; and (4) The remaining waste piles at the main waste dump at CAS 25-23-21 were leveled to ground surface. Therefore, NNSA/NSO provides the following recommendations: (1) No further action for CASs 01-19-01, 03-19-02, 05-62-01, 12-23-09, and 22-19-06; (2) Closure in place with an FFACO use restriction (UR) at CAS 02-08-02 for the remaining PAH-, arsenic-, and lead-contaminated soil, and the melted lead PSM. The UR form and map have been filed in the NNSA/NSO Facility Information Management System, the FFACO database, and the NNSA/NSO CAU/CAS files; (3) No further corrective action at CAS 23-21-04, as the lead bricks and counterweights (PSM) have been removed, and the COCs of arsenic and PCBs in soil have been removed; (4) No further corrective action at CAS 25-08-02, as the COC of arsenic in soil has been removed, and the lead-acid batteries have been removed; (5) No further corrective action at CAS 25-23-21, as the COCs of Cs-137 and PCBs in soil have been removed, and the cast-iron pipes have been removed and disposed of; (6) No further corrective action at CAS 25-25-19, as the lead bricks (PSM) been removed; (7) A Notice of Completion to the NNSA/NSO is requested from the Nevada Division of Environmental Protection for closure of CAU 561; and (8) Corrective Action Unit 561 should be moved from Appendix III to Appendix IV of the FFACO.

  6. Microsoft PowerPoint - courtney-twpice.ppt

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    km Z7 km Z6 km Z5 km Radiative heating profiles Radiative heating profiles Webster and Stephens (1980) Webster and Stephens (1980) Mixed Anvil Ice Anvil Radiative...

  7. Property:PotentialUrbanUtilityScalePVArea | Open Energy Information

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    meter,square meters,Square Meter,Square Meters,Sq. Meters,SQUARE METERS Square Kilometers - 0.000001 km,km2,km2,square kilometer,square kilometers,square km,square...

  8. Property:Area | Open Energy Information

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    meter,square meters,Square Meter,Square Meters,Sq. Meters,SQUARE METERS Square Kilometers - 0.000001 km,km2,km2,square kilometer,square kilometers,square km,square...

  9. Property:PotentialOffshoreWindArea | Open Energy Information

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    meter,square meters,Square Meter,Square Meters,Sq. Meters,SQUARE METERS Square Kilometers - 0.000001 km,km2,km2,square kilometer,square kilometers,square km,square...

  10. Property:PotentialCSPArea | Open Energy Information

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    meter,square meters,Square Meter,Square Meters,Sq. Meters,SQUARE METERS Square Kilometers - 0.000001 km,km2,km2,square kilometer,square kilometers,square km,square...

  11. Property:PotentialOnshoreWindArea | Open Energy Information

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    meter,square meters,Square Meter,Square Meters,Sq. Meters,SQUARE METERS Square Kilometers - 0.000001 km,km2,km2,square kilometer,square kilometers,square km,square...

  12. Property:PotentialRuralUtilityScalePVArea | Open Energy Information

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    meter,square meters,Square Meter,Square Meters,Sq. Meters,SQUARE METERS Square Kilometers - 0.000001 km,km2,km2,square kilometer,square kilometers,square km,square...

  13. Texas Hydrogen Highway Fuel Cell Hybrid Bus and Fueling Infrastructure Technology Showcase - Final Scientific/Technical Report

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Hitchcock, David

    2012-06-29

    The Texas Hydrogen Highway project has showcased a hydrogen fuel cell transit bus and hydrogen fueling infrastructure that was designed and built through previous support from various public and private sector entities. The aim of this project has been to increase awareness among transit agencies and other public entities on these transportation technologies, and to place such technologies into commercial applications, such as a public transit agency. The initial project concept developed in 2004 was to show that a skid-mounted, fully-integrated, factory-built and tested hydrogen fueling station could be used to simplify the design, and lower the cost of fueling infrastructure for fuel cell vehicles. The approach was to design, engineer, build, and test the integrated fueling station at the factory then install it at a site that offered educational and technical resources and provide an opportunity to showcase both the fueling station and advanced hydrogen vehicles. The two primary technology components include: Hydrogen Fueling Station: The hydrogen fueling infrastructure was designed and built by Gas Technology Institute primarily through a funding grant from the Texas Commission on Environmental Quality. It includes hydrogen production, clean-up, compression, storage, and dispensing. The station consists of a steam methane reformer, gas clean-up system, gas compressor and 48 kilograms of hydrogen storage capacity for dispensing at 5000 psig. The station is skid-mounted for easy installation and can be relocated if needed. It includes a dispenser that is designed to provide temperaturecompensated fills using a control algorithm. The total station daily capacity is approximately 50 kilograms. Fuel Cell Bus: The transit passenger bus built by Ebus, a company located in Downey, CA, was commissioned and acquired by GTI prior to this project. It is a fuel cell plug-in hybrid electric vehicle which is ADA compliant, has air conditioning sufficient for Texas operations, and regenerative braking for battery charging. It uses a 19.3 kW Ballard PEM fuel cell, will store 12.6 kg of hydrogen at 350 Bar, and includes a 60 kWh battery storage system. The objectives of the project included the following: (a) To advance commercialization of hydrogen-powered transit buses and supporting infrastructure; (b) To provide public outreach and education by showcasing the operation of a 22-foot fuel cell hybrid shuttle bus and Texas first hydrogen fueling infrastructure; and (c) To showcase operation of zero-emissions vehicle for potential transit applications. As mentioned above, the project successfully demonstrated an early vehicle technology, the Ebus plug-in hybrid fuel cell bus, and that success has led to the acquisition of a more advanced vehicle that can take advantage of the same fueling infrastructure. Needed hydrogen station improvements have been identified that will enhance the capabilities of the fueling infrastructure to serve the new bus and to meet the transit agency needs. Over the course of this project, public officials, local government staff, and transit operators were engaged in outreach and education activities that acquainted them with the real world operation of a fuel cell bus and fueling infrastructure. Transit staff members in the Dallas/Ft. Worth region were invited to a workshop in Arlington, Texas at the North Central Texas Council of Governments to participate in a workshop on hydrogen and fuel cells, and to see the fuel cell bus in operation. The bus was trucked to the meeting for this purpose so that participants could see and ride the bus. Austin area transit staff members visited the fueling site in Austin to be briefed on the bus and to participate in a fueling demonstration. This led to further meetings to determine how a fuel cell bus and fueling station could be deployed at Capital Metro Transit. Target urban regions that expressed additional interest during the project in response to the outreach meetings and showcase events include San Antonio and Austin, Texas. In summary, the project objectives were achieved in the following ways: Through presentations and papers provided to a variety of audiences in multiple venues, the project team fulfilled its goal of providing education and outreach on hydrogen technology to statewide audiences. The project team generated interest that exists well beyond the completion of the project, and indeed, helped to generate financial support for a subsequent hydrogen vehicle project in Austin. The University of Texas, Center for ElectroMechanics operated the fuel cell-electric Ebus vehicle for over 13,000 miles in Austin, Texas in a variety of routes and loading configurations. The project took advantage of prior efforts that created a hydrogen fueling station and fuel cell electric-hybrid bus and continued to verify their technical foundation, while informing and educating potential future users of how these technologies work.

  14. Space debris removal using a high-power ground-based laser

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Monroe, D.K.

    1993-08-01

    The feasibility of utilizing a ground-based laser without an orbital mirror for space debris removal is examined. Technical issues include atmospheric transmission losses, adaptive-optics corrections of wavefront distortions, laser field of view limitations, and laser-induced impulse generation. The physical constraints require a laser with megawatt output, long run-time capability, and wavelength with good atmospheric transmission characteristics. It is found that a 5-MW reactor-pumped laser can deorbit debris having masses of the order of one kilogram from orbital altitudes to be used by Space Station Freedom. Debris under one kilogram can be deorbited after one pass over the laser site, while larger debris can be deorbited or transferred to alternate orbits after multiple passes over the site.

  15. Ulrich Wiesner > Spencer T. Olin Professor of Engineering

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Nuclear Security Administration US, Kazakhstan Cooperate to Eliminate Highly Enriched Uranium January 07, 2015 WASHINGTON D.C - The Department of Energy's National Nuclear Security Administration (DOE/NNSA) announced today the removal of 36 kilograms (approximately 80 pounds) of highly enriched uranium (HEU) spent fuel from the Institute of Nuclear Physics (INP) in Almaty, Kazakhstan. The HEU was transported via two air shipments to a secure facility in Russia for permanent disposition. This

  16. United States Department of Energy Southwestern Power Administration

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Separated Plutonium | National Nuclear Security Administration Collaborates with Switzerland to Remove Last Remaining Separated Plutonium March 03, 2016 (WASHINGTON, D.C.) - The Department of Energy's National Nuclear Security Administration (NNSA), working in collaboration with the Government of Switzerland, announced that approximately 20 kilograms of separated plutonium have been transported from Switzerland to the United States. The successful transport of this plutonium was completed

  17. The Treatment of Solar Generation in Electric Utility Resource Planning (Presentation), NREL (National Renewable Energy Laboratory)

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Thorium Fuel Cycle Pilot Experiences at Oak Ridge National Laboratory E. D. Collins, B. D. Patton, A. M. Krichinsky, and D. F. Williams Oak Ridge National Laboratory, 1 Bethel Valley Rd., Oak Ridge, TN 37831-6423 collinsed@ornl.gov INTRODUCTION Thorium-uranium-233 fuels were processed at the Oak Ridge National Laboratory Radiochemical Pilot Plant, in kilogram-scale operations from 1954 to 19861. These operations were primarily aqueous separations and allied conversion technologies and included

  18. Fabrication of thorium bearing carbide fuels

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Gutierrez, R.L.; Herbst, R.J.; Johnson, K.W.R.

    Thorium-uranium carbide and thorium-plutonium carbide fuel pellets have been fabricated by the carbothermic reduction process. Temperatures of 1750/sup 0/C and 2000/sup 0/C were used during the reduction cycle. Sintering temperatures of 1800/sup 0/C and 2000/sup 0/C were used to prepare fuel pellet densities of 87% and > 94% of theoretical, respectively. The process allows the fabrication of kilogram quantities of fuel with good reproductibility of chemical and phase composition.

  19. LANL disassembles "pits," makes mixed-oxide fuel

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    disassembles "pits" LANL disassembles "pits," makes mixed-oxide fuel LANL has successfully disassembled nuclear weapons "pits" and converted them into more than 240 kilograms of plutonium oxide. October 7, 2011 Los Alamos National Laboratory sits on top of a once-remote mesa in northern New Mexico with the Jemez mountains as a backdrop to research and innovation covering multi-disciplines from bioscience, sustainable energy sources, to plasma physics and new

  20. Symmetries in Nature A glimpse into the beauty and art of science

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Switzerland United States Collaborates with Switzerland to Remove Last Remaining Separated Plutonium (WASHINGTON, D.C.) - The Department of Energy's National Nuclear Security Administration (NNSA), working in collaboration with the Government of Switzerland, announced that approximately 20 kilograms of separated plutonium have been transported from Switzerland to the United States. The... Last HEU Removed from Switzerland under NNSA Collaboration WASHINGTON, D.C. - The Department of Energy's

  1. Switzerland | National Nuclear Security Administration

    National Nuclear Security Administration (NNSA)

    Switzerland United States Collaborates with Switzerland to Remove Last Remaining Separated Plutonium (WASHINGTON, D.C.) - The Department of Energy's National Nuclear Security Administration (NNSA), working in collaboration with the Government of Switzerland, announced that approximately 20 kilograms of separated plutonium have been transported from Switzerland to the United States. The... Last HEU Removed from Switzerland under NNSA Collaboration WASHINGTON, D.C. - The Department of Energy's

  2. russia | National Nuclear Security Administration

    National Nuclear Security Administration (NNSA)

    russia NNSA Partnership Successfully Removes All Remaining HEU from Uzbekistan WASHINGTON, DC - Today, the Department of Energy's National Nuclear Security Administration (DOE/NNSA) announced the successful return of the final 5 kilograms (approximately 11 pounds) of highly enriched uranium (HEU) spent fuel from the IIN-3M "Foton" research reactor in Tashkent, Uzbekistan to... US, Kazakhstan Cooperate to Eliminate Highly Enriched Uranium WASHINGTON D.C - The Department of Energy's

  3. 2D Monolayers Could Yield Thinnest Solar Cells Ever

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Thinnest solar cells ever 2D Monolayers Could Yield Thinnest Solar Cells Ever October 21, 2013 Contact: Kathy Kincade, +1 510 495 2124, kkincade@lbl.gov Efforts to improve solar cells have historically focused on improving energy conversion efficiencies and lowering manufacturing costs. But new computer simulations have shown how using a different type of material could yield thinner, more lightweight solar panels that provide power densities - watts per kilogram of material - orders of

  4. request.pdf

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    removal US, Kazakhstan Cooperate to Eliminate Highly Enriched Uranium WASHINGTON D.C - The Department of Energy's National Nuclear Security Administration (DOE/NNSA) announced today the removal of 36 kilograms (approximately 80 pounds) of highly enriched uranium (HEU) spent fuel from the Institute of Nuclear Physics (INP) in Almaty, Kazakhstan. The HEU was

    render safe Nuclear Forensics The National Technical Nuclear Forensics (NTNF) program is a Homeland Security Council and National Security

  5. Iyer, Woldegabriel recognized for helping New Mexico small businesses

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Security Administration Highly Enriched Uranium and Plutonium Removals March 24, 2014 Italy has been a global leader in nuclear nonproliferation, working with the United States since 1997 to eliminate more than 100 kilograms of highly enriched uranium (HEU) and separated plutonium. At the 2014 Nuclear Security Summit, the United States and Italy announced the successful removal of all eligible fresh HEU and plutonium from Italy. These shipments were completed via a joint effort between the

  6. EA-2024: Gap Material Plutonium- Transport, Receipt, and Processing

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    This environmental assessment evaluates the potential environmental impacts associated with transporting up to 900 kilograms of plutonium from foreign nations to the United States, storing the plutonium at the Savannah River Site in South Carolina, and processing it for disposition. This action would be pursued only if it is determined that there is no other reasonable pathway to assure security of this plutonium from theft or diversion.

  7. NNSA Partnership Successfully Removes All Remaining HEU from Uzbekistan |

    National Nuclear Security Administration (NNSA)

    National Nuclear Security Administration Partnership Successfully Removes All Remaining HEU from Uzbekistan September 29, 2015 WASHINGTON, DC - Today, the Department of Energy's National Nuclear Security Administration (DOE/NNSA) announced the successful return of the final 5 kilograms (approximately 11 pounds) of highly enriched uranium (HEU) spent fuel from the IIN-3M "Foton" research reactor in Tashkent, Uzbekistan to Russia. This is the eighth shipment of HEU from Uzbekistan

  8. United States Collaborates with Switzerland to Remove Last Remaining

    National Nuclear Security Administration (NNSA)

    Separated Plutonium | National Nuclear Security Administration United States Collaborates with Switzerland to Remove Last Remaining Separated Plutonium March 03, 2016 (WASHINGTON, D.C.) - The Department of Energy's National Nuclear Security Administration (NNSA), working in collaboration with the Government of Switzerland, announced that approximately 20 kilograms of separated plutonium have been transported from Switzerland to the United States. The successful transport of this plutonium

  9. EA-2024: Final Environmental Assessment | Department of Energy

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Final Environmental Assessment EA-2024: Final Environmental Assessment Gap Material Plutonium - Transport, Receipt, and Processing The U.S. Department of Energy, National Nuclear Security Administration, has prepared this environmental assessment to evaluate the potential environmental impacts associated with transporting up to 900 kilograms of plutonium from foreign nations to the United States, storing the plutonium at the Savannah River Site in South Carolina, and processing it for

  10. EA-2024: Finding of No Significant Impact | Department of Energy

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Finding of No Significant Impact EA-2024: Finding of No Significant Impact Gap Material Plutonium - Transport, Receipt, and Processing Based on the analysis in the environmental assessment, the U.S. Department of Energy, National Nuclear Security Administration (NNSA), issued this finding of no significant impact for transporting up to 900 kilograms of plutonium from foreign countries to the Savannah River Site in South Carolina for storage and processing pending final disposition. NNSA will

  11. Light-water reactors: preliminary safety and environmental information document. Volume I

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Not Available

    1980-01-01

    Information is presented concerning the reference PWR reactor system; once-through, low-enrichment uranium-235 fuel, 30 MWD per kilogram (PWR LEU(5)-OT); once-through, low-enrichment, high-burnup uranium fuel (PWR LEU(5)-Mod OT); self-generated plutonium spiked recycle (PWR LEU(5)-Pu-Spiked Recycle); denatured uranium-233/thorium cycle (PWR DU(3)-Th Recycle DU(3)); and plutonium/thorium cycle (Pu/ThO/sub 2/ Burner).

  12. Italy Highly Enriched Uranium and Plutonium Removals | National Nuclear

    National Nuclear Security Administration (NNSA)

    Security Administration Highly Enriched Uranium and Plutonium Removals March 24, 2014 Italy has been a global leader in nuclear nonproliferation, working with the United States since 1997 to eliminate more than 100 kilograms of highly enriched uranium (HEU) and separated plutonium. At the 2014 Nuclear Security Summit, the United States and Italy announced the successful removal of all eligible fresh HEU and plutonium from Italy. These shipments were completed via a joint effort between the

  13. Life Cycle Assessment of Gasoline and Diesel Produced via Fast Pyrolysis and Hydroprocessing

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Hsu, D. D.

    2011-03-01

    In this work, a life cycle assessment (LCA) estimating greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions and net energy value (NEV) of the production of gasoline and diesel from forest residues via fast pyrolysis and hydroprocessing, from production of the feedstock to end use of the fuel in a vehicle, is performed. The fast pyrolysis and hydrotreating and hydrocracking processes are based on a Pacific Northwest National Laboratory (PNNL) design report. The LCA results show GHG emissions of 0.142 kg CO2-equiv. per km traveled and NEV of 1.00 MJ per km traveled for a process using grid electricity. Monte Carlo uncertainty analysis shows a range of results, with all values better than those of conventional gasoline in 2005. Results for GHG emissions and NEV of gasoline and diesel from pyrolysis are also reported on a per MJ fuel basis for comparison with ethanol produced via gasification. Although pyrolysis-derived gasoline and diesel have lower GHG emissions and higher NEV than conventional gasoline does in 2005, they underperform ethanol produced via gasification from the same feedstock. GHG emissions for pyrolysis could be lowered further if electricity and hydrogen are produced from biomass instead of from fossil sources.

  14. Petrology and geochemistry of Alto Peak, a vapor-cored hydrothermal system, Leyte Province, Philippines

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Reyes, A.G.; Giggenbach, W.F.; Saleras, J.R.M.; Salonga, N.D.; Vergara, M.C.

    1993-10-01

    Based on detailed petrological information on secondary mineral assemblages and the composition of fluids trapped in inclusions and discharged from five wells, the Alto Peak geothermal field was found to represent a combined vapor and liquid-dominated system. A central core or chimney, with a diameter of about 1 km, a height of some 3 km and occupied by a high gas vapor (1.1 to 5.6 molal CO{sub 2}), is surrounded by an envelope of intermediate salinity water (7,000 mg/kg Cl) with temperatures between 250 and 350 C. The transition from purely vapor-dominated to liquid-dominated zones takes place via two-phase zones occupied by fluid mixtures of highly variable compositions. Much of the lower temperature, mature neutral pH Cl water is likely to have formed during an earlier stage in the evolution of the system. High temperatures of > 300 C, and associated alteration, are limited to wells AP-1D and the lower parts of AP-2D and are ascribed to re-heating by recent magmatic intrusions. The isotopic composition of the well discharges suggests that they contain some 40 to 50% of magmatic water. Alto Peak is considered a typical example of hydrothermal systems associated with many dormant volcanoes.

  15. Process for the synthesis of aliphatic alcohol-containing mixtures

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Greene, Marvin I.; Gelbein, Abraham P.

    1984-01-01

    A process for the synthesis of mixtures which include saturated aliphatic alcohols is disclosed. In the first step of the process, the first catalyst activation stage, a catalyst, which comprises the oxides of copper, zinc, aluminum, potassium and one or two additional metals selected from the group consisting of chromium, magnesium, cerium, cobalt, thorium and lanthanum, is partially activated. In this step, a reducing gas stream, which includes hydrogen and at least one inert gas, flows past the catalyst at a space velocity of up to 5,000 liters (STP) per hour, per kilogram of catalyst. The partially activated catalyst is then subjected to the second step of the process, second-stage catalyst activation. In this step, the catalyst is contacted by an activation gas stream comprising hydrogen and carbon monoxide present in a volume ratio of 0.5:1 and 4:1, respectively, at a temperature of 200.degree. to 450.degree. C. and a pressure of between 35 and 200 atmospheres. The activation gas flows at a space velocity of from 1,000 to 20,000 liters (STP) per hour, per kilogram of catalyst. Second-stage activation continues until the catalyst is contacted with at least 500,000 liters (STP) of activation gas per kilogram of catalyst. The fully activated catalyst, in the third step of the process, contacts a synthesis gas stream comprising hydrogen and carbon monoxide.

  16. Process for the synthesis of aliphatic alcohol-containing mixtures

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Greene, M.I.; Gelbein, A.P.

    1984-10-16

    A process for the synthesis of mixtures which include saturated aliphatic alcohols is disclosed. In the first step of the process, the first catalyst activation stage, a catalyst, which comprises the oxides of copper, zinc, aluminum, potassium and one or two additional metals selected from the group consisting of chromium, magnesium, cerium, cobalt, thorium and lanthanum, is partially activated. In this step, a reducing gas stream, which includes hydrogen and at least one inert gas, flows past the catalyst at a space velocity of up to 5,000 liters (STP) per hour, per kilogram of catalyst. The partially activated catalyst is then subjected to the second step of the process, second-stage catalyst activation. In this step, the catalyst is contacted by an activation gas stream comprising hydrogen and carbon monoxide present in a volume ratio of 0.5:1 and 4:1, respectively, at a temperature of 200 to 450 C and a pressure of between 35 and 200 atmospheres. The activation gas flows at a space velocity of from 1,000 to 20,000 liters (STP) per hour, per kilogram of catalyst. Second-stage activation continues until the catalyst is contacted with at least 500,000 liters (STP) of activation gas per kilogram of catalyst. The fully activated catalyst, in the third step of the process, contacts a synthesis gas stream comprising hydrogen and carbon monoxide.

  17. Optimization of a CNG series hybrid concept vehicle

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Aceves, S.M.; Smith, J.R.; Perkins, L.J.; Haney, S.W.; Flowers, D.L.

    1995-09-22

    Compressed Natural Gas (CNG) has favorable characteristics as a vehicular fuel, in terms of fuel economy as well as emissions. Using CNG as a fuel in a series hybrid vehicle has the potential of resulting in very high fuel economy (between 26 and 30 km/liter, 60 to 70 mpg) and very low emissions (substantially lower than Federal Tier II or CARB ULEV). This paper uses a vehicle evaluation code and an optimizer to find a set of vehicle parameters that result in optimum vehicle fuel economy. The vehicle evaluation code used in this analysis estimates vehicle power performance, including engine efficiency and power, generator efficiency, energy storage device efficiency and state-of-charge, and motor and transmission efficiencies. Eight vehicle parameters are selected as free variables for the optimization. The optimum vehicle must also meet two perfect requirements: accelerate to 97 km/h in less than 10 s, and climb an infinitely long hill with a 6% slope at 97 km/h with a 272 kg (600 lb.) payload. The optimizer used in this work was originally developed in the magnetic fusion energy program, and has been used to optimize complex systems, such as magnetic and inertial fusion devices, neutron sources, and mil guns. The optimizer consists of two parts: an optimization package for minimizing non-linear functions of many variables subject to several non-linear equality and/or inequality constraints and a programmable shell that allows interactive configuration and execution of the optimizer. The results of the analysis indicate that the CNG series hybrid vehicle has a high efficiency and low emissions. These results emphasize the advantages of CNG as a near-term alternative fuel for vehicles.

  18. Pan-STARRS 1 observations of the unusual active Centaur P/2011 S1(Gibbs)

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Lin, H. W.; Ip, W. H.; Chen, W. P.; Chen, Y. T.; Lacerda, P.; Holman, M.; Protopapas, P.; Burgett, W. S.; Chambers, K. C.; Flewelling, H.; Huber, M. E.; Jedicke, R.; Kaiser, N.; Magnier, E. A.; Metcalfe, N.; Price, P. A.

    2014-05-01

    P/2011 S1 (Gibbs) is an outer solar system comet or active Centaur with a similar orbit to that of the famous 29P/Schwassmann-Wachmann 1. P/2011 S1 (Gibbs) has been observed by the Pan-STARRS 1 (PS1) sky survey from 2010 to 2012. The resulting data allow us to perform multi-color studies of the nucleus and coma of the comet. Analysis of PS1 images reveals that P/2011 S1 (Gibbs) has a small nucleus <4 km radius, with colors g {sub P1} r {sub P1} = 0.5 0.02, r {sub P1} i {sub P1} = 0.12 0.02, and i {sub P1} z {sub P1} = 0.46 0.03. The comet remained active from 2010 to 2012, with a model-dependent mass-loss rate of ?100 kg s{sup 1}. The mass-loss rate per unit surface area of P/2011 S1 (Gibbs) is as high as that of 29P/Schwassmann-Wachmann 1, making it one of the most active Centaurs. The mass-loss rate also varies with time from ?40 kg s{sup 1} to 150 kg s{sup 1}. Due to its rather circular orbit, we propose that P/2011 S1 (Gibbs) has 29P/Schwassmann-Wachmann 1-like outbursts that control the outgassing rate. The results indicate that it may have a similar surface composition to that of 29P/Schwassmann-Wachmann 1. Our numerical simulations show that the future orbital evolution of P/2011 S1 (Gibbs) is more similar to that of the main population of Centaurs than to that of 29P/Schwassmann-Wachmann 1. The results also demonstrate that P/2011 S1 (Gibbs) is dynamically unstable and can only remain near its current orbit for roughly a thousand years.

  19. Corrective Action Decision Document/Closure Report for Corrective Action Unit 560: Septic Systems, Nevada Test Site, Nevada, Revision 0

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Grant Evenson

    2010-04-01

    Corrective Action Unit560 comprises seven corrective action sites (CASs): 03-51-01, Leach Pit 06-04-02, Septic Tank 06-05-03, Leach Pit 06-05-04, Leach Bed 06-59-03, Building CP-400 Septic System 06-59-04, Office Trailer Complex Sewage Pond 06-59-05, Control Point Septic System The purpose of this CADD/CR is to provide justification and documentation supporting the recommendation for closure of CAU 560 with no further corrective action. To achieve this, corrective action investigation (CAI) activities were performed from October 7, 2008, through February 24, 2010, as set forth in the Corrective Action Investigation Plan for Corrective Action Unit560: Septic Systems, Nevada Test Site, Nevada, and Record of Technical Change No.1. The purpose of the CAI was to fulfill the following data needs as defined during the data quality objective (DQO) process: Determine whether contaminants of concern (COCs) are present. If COCs are present, determine their nature and extent. Provide sufficient information and data to complete appropriate corrective actions. The CAU 560 dataset from the investigation results was evaluated based on the data quality indicator parameters. This evaluation demonstrated the quality and acceptability of the dataset for use in fulfilling the DQO data needs. Analytes detected during the CAI were evaluated against final action levels (FALs) established in this document. The following contaminants were determined to be present at concentrations exceeding their corresponding FALs: No contamination exceeding the FALs was identified at CASs 03-51-01, 06-04-02, and06-59-04. The soil at the base of the leach pit chamber at CAS06-05-03 contains arsenic above the FAL of 23 milligrams per kilogram (mg/kg) and polychlorinated biphenyl (PCBs) above the FAL of 0.74 mg/kg, confined vertically from a depth of approximately 5 to 20 feet (ft) below ground surface. The contamination is confined laterally to the walls of the leach pit chamber and leach rock. The contamination present at CAS 06-05-03 within the leach pit was not feasible to remove. The surface and subsurface soils within and surrounding the septic system at CAS 06-05-04 contained PCB concentrations above the FAL of 0.74 mg/kg. Thelateral and vertical extent of COCs was determined for this CAS. Contaminated soils were removed up to within 18 ft of the building. The remaining contamination is confined to subsurface soils adjacent to and beneath BuildingCP-162 and was not feasible to remove. The solid materials within the septic tank and soils immediately surrounding the inlet end of the tank at CAS 06-59-03 contained benzo(a)pyrene above the FAL of 0.21 mg/kg. The soils, tank contents, and tank were removed. Materials remaining at this CAS do not contain contamination exceeding FALs. The solids contained within the septic tank and inlet pipe at CAS 06-59-05 contained the following contaminants above their respective FALs: PCBs, arsenic, lead, benzo(a)pyrene, and pesticides. The tank and inlet pipe contents were removed. Materials remaining at this CAS do not contain contamination exceeding FALs. Therefore, the U.S. Department of Energy, National Nuclear Security Administration Nevada Site Office (NNSA/NSO) provides the following corrective action recommendations: No further action for CASs 03-51-01, 06-04-02, and 06-59-04, as no contaminants of potential concern were present that exceed FALs. Closure in place for CAS 06-05-03 under a corrective action with a use restriction (UR) for remaining PCB- and arsenic-impacted potential source material (PSM). The UR form and map have been filed in the NNSA/NSO Facility Information Management System, the FFACO database, and NNSA/NSO CAU/CAS files. Closure in place for CAS 06-05-04 under a corrective action with a UR for remaining PCBs in soil adjacent to and beneath Building CP-162. The UR form and map have been filed in the NNSA/NSO Facility Information Management System, the FFACO database, and NNSA/NSO CAU/CAS files. No further action for CAS 06-59-0

  20. The effects of changing exercise levels on weight and age-relatedweight gain

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Williams, Paul T.; Wood, Peter D.

    2004-06-01

    To determine prospectively whether physical activity canprevent age-related weight gain and whether changing levels of activityaffect body weight. DESIGN/SUBJECTS: The study consisted of 8,080 maleand 4,871 female runners who completed two questionnaires an average(+/-standard deviation (s.d.)) of 3.20+/-2.30 and 2.59+/-2.17 yearsapart, respectively, as part of the National Runners' Health Study.RESULTS: Changes in running distance were inversely related to changes inmen's and women's body mass indices (BMIs) (slope+/-standard error(s.e.): -0.015+/-0.001 and -0.009+/-0.001 kg/m(2) per Deltakm/week,respectively), waist circumferences (-0.030+/-0.002 and -0.022+/-0.005 cmper Deltakm/week, respectively) and percent changes in body weight(-0.062+/-0.003 and -0.041+/-0.003 percent per Deltakm/week,respectively, all P<0.0001). The regression slopes were significantlysteeper (more negative) in men than women for DeltaBMI and Deltapercentbody weight (P<0.0001). A longer history of running diminishedthe impact of changing running distance on men's weights. When adjustedfor Deltakm/week, years of aging in men and years of aging in women wereassociated with increases of 0.066+/-0.005 and 0.056+/-0.006 kg/m(2) inBMI, respectively, increases of 0.294+/-0.019 and 0.279+/-0.028 percentin Delta percentbody weight, respectively, and increases of 0.203+/-0.016and 0.271+/-0.033 cm in waist circumference, respectively (allP<0.0001). These regression slopes suggest that vigorous exercise mayneed to increase 4.4 km/week annually in men and 6.2 km/week annually inwomen to compensate for the expected gain in weight associated with aging(2.7 and 3.9 km/week annually when correct for the attenuation due tomeasurement error). CONCLUSIONS: Age-related weight gain occurs evenamong the most active individuals when exercise is constant.Theoretically, vigorous exercise must increase significantly with age tocompensate for the expected gain in weight associated withaging.

  1. GLASS FORMULATION TESTING TO INCREASE SULFATE INCORPORATION - Final Report VSL-04R4960-1, Rev 0, 2/28/05, Vitreous State Laboratory, The Catholic University of American, Washington, D.C.

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    KRUGER AA; MATLACK KS

    2012-02-07

    About 50 million gallons of high-level mixed waste is currently in storage in underground tanks at The United States Department of Energy's (DOE's) Hanford site in the State of Washington. The Hanford Tank Waste Treatment and Immobilization Plant (WTP) will provide DOE's Office of River Protection (ORP) with a means of treating this waste by vitrification for subsequent disposal. The tank waste will be separated into low- and high-activity fractions, which will then be vitrified respectively into Immobilized Low Activity Waste (ILAW) and Immobilized High Level Waste (IHLW) products. The ILAW product will be disposed of in an engineered facility on the Hanford site while the IHLW product will be directed to the national deep geological disposal facility for high-level nuclear waste. The ILAW and IHLW products must meet a variety of requirements with respect to protection of the environment before they can be accepted for disposal. The Office of River Protection is currently examining options to optimize the Low Activity Waste (LAW) facility and the LAW glass waste form. One option under evaluation is to enhance the waste processing rate of the vitrification plant currently under construction. It is likely that the capacity of the LAW vitrification plant can be increased incrementally by implementation of a variety of low-risk, high-probability changes, either separately or in combination. These changes include: (1) Operating at the higher processing rates demonstrated at the LAW Pilot Melter; (2) Increasing the glass pool surface area within the existing external melter envelope; (3) Increasing plant availability; (4) Increasing the glass waste loading; (5) Removing sulfate from the LAW stream; (6) Operating the melter at slightly higher temperature; (7) Installing the third LAW melter into the WTP plant; and (8) Other smaller impact changes. The melter tests described in this report utilized blended feed (glass formers plus waste simulant) prepared by Optima Chemicals according to VSL specifications. Sufficient feed was prepared to produce over nineteen hundred kilograms of glass during melter tests. The nominal reductant concentration (stoichiometric ratio of 0.5 {approx} 1 mole sucrose per 16 mole NOx or 3 mole carbon per 4 mole NOx) was maintained in all the tests by the addition of sugar at VSL. The DM 10 was used to screen the optimized glass formulation with two alternative aluminum sources (kyanite and zeolite) over a wide range of target sulfur concentrations. Subsequently, based on the DM10 results, nine 12- to 34-hour DM100 tests were conducted; six with kyanite as the aluminum additive at glass sulfur concentrations ranging from 0.75 to 1.5 wt.% SO{sub 3}, and the other three with zeolite as the aluminum additive at glass sulfur concentrations ranging from 0.75 to 1.5 wt. % SO{sub 3}. The DM 100-WV melter was used in order to provide a direct comparison with the LAW tests previously conducted on the same melter. Key operating parameters such as glass temperature and production rate were held constant to investigate the sulfur incorporation into the glass and the effects of varying the aluminum additive source. The bubbling rate was adjusted to achieve a production rate of 2000 kg/m{sup 2}/day with a near-complete cold cap (90-100% of melt surface covered with feed). Quantitative measurements of glass production rates, melter operating conditions (temperatures, pressures, power, flows, etc.), and off-gas characteristics (NOx, SO{sub 2}, CO, particulate load and composition, and acid gases) were made for each test. Glass samples taken from the glass pool and the discharge chamber were inspected throughout testing to determine the limit of salt-free operation in the melter.

  2. Voluntary Reporting of Greenhouse Gases Program - Electricity...

    Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update (EIA)

    Jet Fuel ( Jet A, JP-8) 70.88 kg CO2 MMBtu 9.57 kg CO2 gallon Kerosene 72.31 kg CO2 MMBtu 9.76 kg CO2 gallon Heavy Fuel Oil (No. 5, 6 fuel oil), bunker fuel 78.80 kg CO2 ...

  3. INTEGRATED MODELING AND FIELD STUDY OF POTENTIAL MECHANISMS FOR...

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    ... 2 km by 2 km block in the horizontal plane and 5.5 km deep. ... on Geothermal Reservoir Engineering, Stanford University, ... results of after 1 year of water injection at Aidlin 11: ...

  4. PowerPoint Presentation

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    constant. Figure 2. An elongated rectangle of 10-km by 40- km oriented with its smaller dimension parallel to the coast and 20 km from the shore is the analysis area. Dates?...

  5. ARM - Midlatitude Continental Convective Clouds - Single Column...

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    with a diameter of 300 km (standard SGP forcing domain size), 150 km and 75 km, as shown in Figure 1. This is to support modeling studies on various-scale convective systems. ...

  6. Search for: All records | Data Explorer

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    domains centered at central facility with a diameter of 300 km (standard SGP forcing domain size),more 150 km and 75 km, as shown in Figure 1. This is to support modeling ...

  7. Snake River Plain Geothermal Region | Open Energy Information

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    rhyolite ignimbrite eruptions, with single eruptions producing up to 2500 cubic km of ash. Island Park Caldera, measuring 18 miles (29 km) by 23 miles (37 km), may be the...

  8. Geometry of Cenozoic extensional faulting: Dixie Valley, Nevada...

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    was also 15 km instead of the previously reported 40 km. Local microearthquakes cluster around 10-15 km. The geometrical block models indicate that crustal horst-graben...

  9. Solar Radiation Map of the U.S. - Annual (National Renewable Energy Laboratory)

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    2009-01-18

    Maps that provide monthly average daily total solar resource information on grid cells of approximately 40 km by 40 km in size.

  10. ,"F.O.B. Costs of Imported Crude Oil for Selected Crude Streams...

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    ,"Excel File Name:","petpriimc2km.xls" ,"Available from Web Page:","http:www.eia.govdnavpetpetpriimc2km.htm" ,"Source:","Energy Information Administration" ...

  11. Digital Elevation Model, 0.5-m, Barrow Environmental Observatory, Alaska, 2012

    DOE Data Explorer [Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)]

    Rowland,Joel; Gangodagamage,Chandana; Wilson,Cathy

    2013-12-08

    The dataset is a digital elevation model, DEM, of a 2km by 7km region in the vicinity of the Barrow Environmental Observatory near Barrow, Ak.

  12. EERE PowerPoint 97-2004 Template: Green Version

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    geophysical characteristics of geothermal fields * Prepare detailed geothermal potential map - 240 km x 400 km transect across Great Basin - 10 parameters incorporated * Identify...

  13. Deactivation & Decommissioning Knowledge Management Information...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Knowledge Management Information Tool (D&D KM-IT) Deactivation & Decommissioning Knowledge Management Information Tool (D&D KM-IT) Deactivation & Decommissioning Knowledge ...

  14. Slide 1

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Profilers Edward Luke Brookhaven National Lab Pavlos Kollias McGill University Steve Klein LLNL Velocity (ms) Height (km) Velocity (ms) Height (km) Cloud Base Height Velocity...

  15. Chemical Hydrogen Storage Materials

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    ... H 2 s, T 125-200C) * high hydrogen selectivities (S ... 3.2 kg Media H 2 Density mat ) ( m )( mat ) kg H 2 L 0.07 * HD polyethylene tank 6.2 kg ...

  16. Fuel economy and emissions evaluation of BMW hydrogen 7 mono-fuel demonstration vehicles.

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Wallner, T.; Lohse-Busch, H.; Gurski, S.; Duoba, M.; Thiel, W.; Martin, D.; Korn, T.; Energy Systems; BMW Group Munich Germany; BMW Group Oxnard USA

    2008-12-01

    This article summarizes the testing of two BMW Hydrogen 7 Mono-Fuel demonstration vehicles at Argonne National Laboratory's Advanced Powertrain Research Facility (APRF). The BMW Hydrogen 7 Mono-Fuel demonstration vehicles are derived from the BMW Hydrogen 7 bi-fuel vehicles and based on a BMW 760iL. The mono-fuel as well as the bi-fuel vehicle(s) is equipped with cryogenic hydrogen on-board storage and a gaseous hydrogen port fuel injection system. The BMW Hydrogen 7 Mono-Fuel demonstration vehicles were tested for fuel economy as well as emissions on the Federal Test Procedure FTP-75 cold-start test as well as the highway test. The results show that these vehicles achieve emissions levels that are only a fraction of the Super Ultra Low Emissions Vehicle (SULEV) standard for nitric oxide (NO{sub x}) and carbon monoxide (CO) emissions. For non-methane hydrocarbon (NMHC) emissions the cycle-averaged emissions are actually 0 g/mile, which require the car to actively reduce emissions compared to the ambient concentration. The fuel economy numbers on the FTP-75 test were 3.7 kg of hydrogen per 100 km, which, on an energy basis, is equivalent to a gasoline fuel consumption of 17 miles per gallon (mpg). Fuel economy numbers for the highway cycle were determined to be 2.1 kg of hydrogen per 100 km or 30 miles per gallon of gasoline equivalent (GGE). In addition to cycle-averaged emissions and fuel economy numbers, time-resolved (modal) emissions as well as air/fuel ratio data is analyzed to further investigate the root causes of the remaining emissions traces. The BMW Hydrogen 7 vehicles employ a switching strategy with lean engine operation at low engine loads and stoichiometric operation at high engine loads that avoids the NO{sub x} emissions critical operating regime with relative air/fuel ratios between 1 < {lambda} < 2. The switching between these operating modes was found to be a major source of the remaining NO{sub x} emissions. The emissions results collected during this period lead to the conclusion that the BMW Hydrogen 7 Mono-Fuel demonstration vehicles are likely the cleanest combustion engine vehicles ever tested at Argonne's APRF.

  17. A three-dimensional spatial model of plutonium in soil near Rocky Flats, Colorado

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Webb, S.B.; Ibrahim, S.A.; Whicker, F.W.

    1997-08-01

    The horizontal and depth distribution of plutonium was measured in soil east of the Rocky Flats Environmental Technology Site (formerly the Rocky Flats Plant) near Denver, Colorado, during 1992-1994. The study area was centered on the eastern plume of plutonium contamination and included transacts extending from 0.2 km east of the primary origin of the contamination (the 903 Pad) to distances of up to 19 km northeast, east, southeast and south-southeast of the 903 Pad. Soil was collected in 3 cm layers down to 21 cm at exponentially increasing distances along the four transacts. Plutonium concentrations decreased rapidly with depth, distance from the 903 Pad, and angle from due east. Depth distributions were independent of distance and angle from the 903 Pad, and our profile model can be used to adjust to a common basis, historical measurements made from sampling to different depths. Based on a total of {approximately}1,400 independent measurements, mathematical functions were developed to describe the distance, directional, and depth relationships. These equations, combined with soil density and rock measurements, provided a new method to estimate the plutonium concentration or total deposition per unit area anywhere within the study area. Total deposition per unit area measurements at 50 sites provided an independent test of the model`s predictive accuracy. Sampling coefficients of variation based on replicate samples at the main sampling locations averaged 33%, but ranged from 12 to 98%. The analytical measurement coefficient of variation averaged 8%. Mean 0-3 cm soil concentrations of {sup 239}Pu among 10 Front Range {open_quotes}background{close_quotes} and 11 community locations near Rocky Flats were 2.1 and 2.3 Bq kg{sup -1}, respectively. 45 refs., 8 figs., 1 tab.

  18. Relationship of adiposity to the population distribution of plasma triglyceride concentrations in vigorously active men and women

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Williams, Paul T.

    2002-12-21

    Context and Objective: Vigorous exercise, alcohol and weight loss are all known to increase HDL-cholesterol, however, it is not known whether these interventions raise low HDL as effectively as has been demonstrated for normal HDL. Design: Physician-supplied medical data from 7,288 male and 2,359 female runners were divided into five strata according to their self-reported usual running distance, reported alcohol intake, body mass index (BMI) or waist circumference. Within each stratum, the 5th, 10th, 25th, 50th, 75th, 90th, and 95th percentiles for HDL-cholesterol were then determined. Bootstrap resampling of least-squares regression was applied to determine the cross-sectional relationships between these factors and each percentile of the HDL-cholesterol distribution. Results: In both sexes, the rise in HDL-cholesterol per unit of vigorous exercise or alcohol intake was at least twice as great at the 95th percentile as at the 5th percentile of the HDL-distribution. There was also a significant graded increase in the slopes relating exercise (km run) and alcohol intake to HDL between the 5th and the 95th percentile. Men's HDL-cholesterol decreased in association with fatness (BMI and waist circumference) more sharply at the 95th than at the 5th percentile of the HDL-distribution. Conclusions: Although exercise, alcohol and adiposity were all related to HDL-cholesterol, the elevation in HDL per km run or ounce of alcohol consumed, and reduction in HDL per kg of body weight (men only), was least when HDL was low and greatest when HDL was high. These cross-sectional relationships support the hypothesis that men and women who have low HDL-cholesterol will be less responsive to exercise and alcohol (and weight loss in men) as compared to those who have high HDL-cholesterol.

  19. Relationships between walking and percentiles of adiposity inolder and younger men

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Williams, Paul T.

    2005-06-01

    To assess the relationship of weekly walking distance to percentiles of adiposity in elders (age {ge} 75 years), seniors (55 {le} age <75 years), middle-age men (35 {le} age <55 years), and younger men (18 {le} age <35 years old). Cross-sectional analyses of baseline questionnaires from 7,082 male participants of the National Walkers Health Study. The walkers BMIs were inversely and significantly associated with walking distance (kg/m{sup 2} per km/wk) in elders (slope {+-} SE: -0.032 {+-} 0.008), seniors (-0.045 {+-} 0.005), and middle-aged men (-0.037 {+-} 0.007), as were their waist circumferences (-0.091 {+-} 0.025, -0.045 {+-} 0.005, and -0.091 {+-} 0.015 cm per km/wk, respectively), and these slopes remained significant when adjusted statistically for reported weekly servings of meat, fish, fruit, and alcohol. The declines in BMI associated with walking distance were greater at the higher than lower percentiles of the BMI distribution. Specifically, compared to the decline at the 10th BMI percentile, the decline in BMI at the 90th percentile was 5.1-fold greater in elders, 5.9-fold greater in seniors, and 6.7-fold greater in middle-age men. The declines in waist circumference associated with walking distance were also greater among men with broader waistlines. Exercise-induced weight loss (or self-selection) causes an inverse relationship between adiposity and walking distance in men 35 and older that is substantially greater among fatter men.

  20. Direct-hydrogen-fueled proton-exchange-membrane fuel cell system for transportation applications: Conceptual vehicle design report pure fuel cell powertrain vehicle

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Oei, D.; Kinnelly, A.; Sims, R.; Sulek, M.; Wernette, D.

    1997-02-01

    In partial fulfillment of the Department of Energy (DOE) Contract No. DE-AC02-94CE50389, {open_quotes}Direct-Hydrogen-Fueled Proton-Exchange-Membrane (PEM) Fuel Cell for Transportation Applications{close_quotes}, this preliminary report addresses the conceptual design and packaging of a fuel cell-only powered vehicle. Three classes of vehicles are considered in this design and packaging exercise, the Aspire representing the small vehicle class, the Taurus or Aluminum Intensive Vehicle (AIV) Sable representing the mid-size vehicle and the E-150 Econoline representing the van-size class. A fuel cell system spreadsheet model and Ford`s Corporate Vehicle Simulation Program (CVSP) were utilized to determine the size and the weight of the fuel cell required to power a particular size vehicle. The fuel cell power system must meet the required performance criteria for each vehicle. In this vehicle design and packaging exercise, the following assumptions were made: fuel cell power system density of 0.33 kW/kg and 0.33 kg/liter, platinum catalyst loading less than or equal to 0.25 mg/cm{sup 2} total and hydrogen tanks containing gaseous hydrogen under 340 atm (5000 psia) pressure. The fuel cell power system includes gas conditioning, thermal management, humidity control, and blowers or compressors, where appropriate. This conceptual design of a fuel cell-only powered vehicle will help in the determination of the propulsion system requirements for a vehicle powered by a PEMFC engine in lieu of the internal combustion (IC) engine. Only basic performance level requirements are considered for the three classes of vehicles in this report. Each vehicle will contain one or more hydrogen storage tanks and hydrogen fuel for 560 km (350 mi) driving range. Under these circumstances, the packaging of a fuel cell-only powered vehicle is increasingly difficult as the vehicle size diminishes.

  1. Comparison of {sup 241}Am, {sup 239,240}Pu, and {sup 137}Cs concentrations in soil around Rocky Flats

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Hulse, S.E.; Ibrahim, S.A.; Whicker, F.W.; Chapman, P.L.

    1999-03-01

    Gamma spectroscopy measurements were used to estimate concentrations of {sup 241}Am and {sup 137}Cs in soil profiles to depths of 21 cm at on-site and off-site locations around the Rocky Flats Environmental Technology Site and at regional background locations east of the Front Range between Colorado`s borders with New Mexico and Wyoming. Concentrations of these radionuclides were compared with concentrations of {sup 239,240}Pu in the same samples. Concentrations of {sup 241}Am in soil from depths of 0 to 3 cm decreased in an easterly direction from more than 5.3 kBq kg{sup {minus}1} 5 to 7 km away at a rate that was nearly proportional to the inverse square of distance. Deposits of {sup 137}Cs were ubiquitous, averaging 0.12 kBq kg{sup {minus}1} in soil from depths of 0 to 3 cm, but were unevenly distributed around Rocky Flats and the regional background locations. Deviations from the uniform exponential rate at which soil concentrations of {sup 137}Cs typically decreased with depth, {minus}0.25 cm{sup {minus}1} at undisturbed sites, enabled the authors to determine that about 10% of their sampling sites had been disturbed by erosion, tillage, or other factors. The mean rate at which {sup 239,240}Pu decreased with depth was about the same, {minus}0.23 cm{sup {minus}1}, throughout the study area. Soil concentrations of {sup 241}Am decreased with depth at a similar mean rate of {minus}0.22 cm{sup {minus}1} at locations close to the 903 pad where measurements were robust. Ratios between {sup 241}Am or {sup 239,240}Pu and {sup 137}Cs proved more useful for delineating the extent and pattern of contamination from Rocky Flats than did activity concentrations in soil.

  2. New active asteroid 313P/Gibbs

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Jewitt, David; Hui, Man-To; Li, Jing; Agarwal, Jessica; Peixinho, Nuno; Weaver, Harold; Mutchler, Max; Larson, Stephen

    2015-02-01

    We present initial observations of the newly discovered active asteroid 313P/Gibbs (formerly P/2014 S4), taken to characterize its nucleus and comet-like activity. The central object has a radius ∼0.5 km (geometric albedo 0.05 assumed). We find no evidence for secondary nuclei and set (with qualifications) an upper limit to the radii of such objects near 20 m, assuming the same albedo. Both aperture photometry and a morphological analysis of the ejected dust show that mass-loss is continuous at rates ∼0.2–0.4 kg s{sup −1}, inconsistent with an impact origin. Large dust particles, with radii ∼50–100 μm, dominate the optical appearance. At 2.4 AU from the Sun, the surface equilibrium temperatures are too low for thermal or desiccation stresses to be responsible for the ejection of dust. No gas is spectroscopically detected (limiting the gas mass-loss rate to <1.8 kg s{sup −1}). However, the protracted emission of dust seen in our data and the detection of another episode of dust release near perihelion, in archival observations from 2003, are highly suggestive of an origin by the sublimation of ice. Coincidentally, the orbit of 313P/Gibbs is similar to those of several active asteroids independently suspected to be ice sublimators, including P/2012 T1, 238P/Read, and 133P/Elst–Pizarro, suggesting that ice is abundant in the outer asteroid belt.

  3. Optical and Physical Properties from Primary On-Road Vehicle ParticleEmissions And Their Implications for Climate Change

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Strawa, A.W.; Kirchstetter, T.W.; Hallar, A.G.; Ban-Weiss, G.A.; McLaughlin, J.P.; Harley, R.A.; Lunden, M.M.

    2009-01-23

    During the summers of 2004 and 2006, extinction and scattering coefficients of particle emissions inside a San Francisco Bay Area roadway tunnel were measured using a combined cavity ring-down and nephelometer instrument. Particle size distributions and humidification were also measured, as well as several gas phase species. Vehicles in the tunnel traveled up a 4% grade at a speed of approximately 60 km h{sup -1}. The traffic situation in the tunnel allows the apportionment of emission factors between light duty gasoline vehicles and diesel trucks. Cross-section emission factors for optical properties were determined for the apportioned vehicles to be consistent with gas phase and particulate matter emission factors. The absorption emission factor (the absorption cross-section per mass of fuel burned) for diesel trucks (4.4 {+-} 0.79 m{sup 2} kg{sup -1}) was 22 times larger than for light-duty gasoline vehicles (0.20 {+-} 0.05 m{sup 2} kg{sup -1}). The single scattering albedo of particles - which represents the fraction of incident light that is scattered as opposed to absorbed - was 0.2 for diesel trucks and 0.3 for light duty gasoline vehicles. These facts indicate that particulate matter from motor vehicles exerts a positive (i.e., warming) radiative climate forcing. Average particulate mass absorption efficiencies for diesel trucks and light duty gasoline vehicles were 3.14 {+-} 0.88 m{sup 2} g{sub PM}{sup -1} and 2.9 {+-} 1.07 m{sup 2} g{sub PM}{sup -1}, respectively. Particle size distributions and optical properties were insensitive to increases in relative humidity to values in excess of 90%, reinforcing previous findings that freshly emitted motor vehicle particulate matter is hydrophobic.

  4. Supercapacitor Materials and Devices: Nickel-Cobalt Supercapacitors...

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    The common measures of performance are the energy density (energy per kg) and power density (power per kg). This technology is based on specific metal oxide compositions ...

  5. Lightweighting and Propulsion Materials Roadmapping Workshop...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    ... Emissions (kg CO2kg Mg) Production volume (ktonsyr) Magnesium Metrics - Production, Cost, Emissions Production volume Emissions Mg cost 2X Al Mg cost Al Mg cost steel ...

  6. untitled

    National Nuclear Security Administration (NNSA)

    DRAFT ENVIRONMENTAL ASSESSMENT FOR THE TRANSFER OF THE KANSAS CITY PLANT, KANSAS CITY, MISSOURI U.S. Department of Energy National Nuclear Security Administration February 2013 DOE/EA-1947 CONVERSION FACTORS Metric to English English to Metric Multiply by To get Multiply by To get Area Square kilometers 247.1 Acres Square kilometers 0.3861 Square miles Square meters 10.764 Square feet Concentration Kilograms/sq. meter 0.16667 Tons/acre Milligrams/liter 1 a Parts/million Micrograms/liter 1 a

  7. SAS Output

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    3. Carbon Dioxide Uncontrolled Emission Factors Fuel EIA Fuel Code Factor (Kilograms of CO2 Per Million Btu)*** Notes Bituminous Coal BIT 93.3 Distillate Fuel Oil DFO 73.16 Geothermal GEO 7.71 Jet Fuel JF 70.9 Kerosene KER 72.3 Lignite Coal LIG 97.7 Municipal Solid Waste MSW 41.69 Natural Gas NG 53.07 Petroleum Coke PC 102.1 Propane Gas PG 63.07 Residual Fuel Oil RFO 78.79 Coal-Derived Synthesis Gas SGC 53.07 Assumed to have emissions similar to Natural Gas Synthesis Gas from Petroleum Coke SGP

  8. Beyond Orbital-Motion-Limited theory effects for dust transport in tokamaks

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Delzanno, Gian Luca; Tang, Xianzhu

    2015-05-29

    Dust transport in tokamaks is very important for ITER. Can many kilograms of dust really accumulate in the device? Can the dust survive? The conventional dust transport model is based on Orbital-Motion-Limited theory (OML). But OML can break in the limit where the dust grain becomes positively charged due to electron emission processes because it overestimates the dust collected power. An OML+ approximation of the emitted electrons trapped/passing boundary is shown to be in good agreement with PIC simulations.

  9. Final Report for Monitoring of Reactor Antineutrinos with Compact Germanium Detectors

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Orrell, John L.; Collar, J. I.

    2009-07-01

    This 2008 NCMR project has pursued measurement of the antineutrino-nucleus coherent scattering interaction using a low-energy threshold germanium gamma-ray spectrometer of roughly one-half kilogram total mass. These efforts support development of a compact system for monitoring the antineutrino emission from nuclear reactor cores. Such a monitoring system is relevant to nuclear safeguards and nuclear non-proliferation in general by adding a strong method for assuring quantitative material balance of special nuclear material in the nuclear fuel cycle used in electricity generation.

  10. Monitoring the fate of chlorine from MSW sampling through combustion. Part II. Combustion studies

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Domalski, E.S.; Churney, K.L.; Ledford, A.E. Jr.; Bruce, S.S.; Buckley, T.J.; Parris, R.M.; Chesler, S.N.

    1984-01-01

    Combustion measurements were carried out in a multi-kilogram capacity flow calorimeter on cellulose and cellulose/sand samples in 100% oxygen and several oxygen/nitrogen mixtures. Some measurements were made on cellulose/sand samples, which had 1 mass % of polyvinylchloride (PVC) as part of their composition, to study the conditions related to the formation/destruction of chlorinated organic compounds as combustion products. Qualitative identifications of a significant variety of chlorinated organic compounds have been made. 2 refs., 2 figs., 7 tabs.

  11. V

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Uzbekistan NNSA Partnership Successfully Removes All Remaining HEU from Uzbekistan WASHINGTON, DC - Today, the Department of Energy's National Nuclear Security Administration (DOE/NNSA) announced the successful return of the final 5 kilograms (approximately 11 pounds) of highly enriched uranium (HEU) spent fuel from the IIN-3M "Foton" research reactor in Tashkent, Uzbekistan to

    > 111 \il :^ a. \ii 1 1 < z a. 0 u. J < U iL 0 > h 0) or UJ > z D UCRL- 1 5 1 0

  12. gtri | National Nuclear Security Administration

    National Nuclear Security Administration (NNSA)

    Home gtri Joint Statement by the United States and Italy on the 2014 Nuclear Security Summit See a fact sheet here. The White HouseOffice of the Press Secretary Italy and the United States of America are pleased to announce that they have jointly completed the removal of approximately 20 kilograms of excess highly enriched uranium (HEU) and separated plutonium from Italy. At the 2012... Joint Statement by President Obama and Prime Minister Elio Di Rupo of Belgium on the 2014 Nuclear Security

  13. DRAFT

    National Nuclear Security Administration (NNSA)

    Tons (short) Acres 0.0040469 Square kilometers Square miles 2.59 Square kilometers Square feet 0.092903 Square meters Tons/acre 0.5999 Kilograms/sq. meter Parts/million 1 a Milligrams/liter Parts/billion 1 a Micrograms/liter Parts/trillion 1 a Micrograms/cu. meter Pounds/cu. ft. 0.016018 Grams/cu. centimeter Pounds/cu. ft. 16,025.6 Grams/cu. meter Inches 2.54 Centimeters Feet 0.3048 Meters Inches 25,400 Micrometers Inches 25.40 Millimeters Miles 1.6093 Kilometers Degrees F - 32 0.55556 Degrees C

  14. Microsoft Word - KCP Final EA Draft 042913 CLEAN for Concurrence-R2.docx

    National Nuclear Security Administration (NNSA)

    Tons (short) Acres 0.0040469 Square kilometers Square miles 2.59 Square kilometers Square feet 0.092903 Square meters Tons/acre 0.5999 Kilograms/sq. meter Parts/million 1 a Milligrams/liter Parts/billion 1 a Micrograms/liter Parts/trillion 1 a Micrograms/cu. meter Pounds/cu. ft. 0.016018 Grams/cu. centimeter Pounds/cu. ft. 16,025.6 Grams/cu. meter Inches 2.54 Centimeters Feet 0.3048 Meters Inches 25,400 Micrometers Inches 25.40 Millimeters Miles 1.6093 Kilometers Degrees F - 32 0.55556 Degrees C

  15. Property:USGSEstReservoirVol | Open Energy Information

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    - 1 m,m3,m3,cubic meter,cubic meters,Cubic Meter,Cubic Meters,CUBIC METERS Cubic Kilometers - 0.000000001 km,km3,km3,cubic kilometer,cubic kilometers,cubic km,Cubic...

  16. Property:Volume | Open Energy Information

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    - 1 m,m3,m3,cubic meter,cubic meters,Cubic Meter,Cubic Meters,CUBIC METERS Cubic Kilometers - 0.000000001 km,km3,km3,cubic kilometer,cubic kilometers,cubic km,Cubic...

  17. Impacts of an oil well blowout near Trecate, Italy on ecological resources

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Brandt, C.; Becker, J.; Dauble, D.

    1995-12-31

    An ecological risk assessment (ERA) was conducted after the February 1995 blowout of an oil well near Trecate, Italy to quantify injuries to terrestrial and aquatic biological resources from effects of oil and habitat changes. Avian surveys were conducted on a surrogate area near Varallino to estimate species and numbers potentially exposed to oil and displaced by habitat alteration in the affected area. Of the 43 avian species observed, 20 are considered protected by European Community laws. The most abundant species were passero domestico, fringuello, cornacchia grigia, rondine, piccione torraiolo, and cardellino. These species likely suffered the greatest losses due to inhalation of volatile aromatics, dermal loading of oil, and/or habitat loss in the affected area. Based on CHARM model outputs, inhalation exposures to volatile aromatics and oil aerosols occurred above LOELs for all receptors within 2 km of the blowout. The most significant exposure pathway to large birds was dermal loading, which likely exceeded LC50 levels within 900m of the well. Terrestrial insects seldom contained detectable levels of PAHs, consistent with their shorter life span and residence time in the contaminated area. The highest concentrations of PAHs were found in dike vegetation, frogs, and benthic invertebrates. Ingestion exposures of woodmice to PAHs exceeded toxic reference levels at one site and mice had EHQ = >1 at soil PAH concentrations >4.2 mg/kg. Based on known body burdens causing narcotic response, neither fish nor benthic invertebrates experienced toxic consequences from exposure to PAHs in irrigation canal sediments.

  18. Isotopic Tracking of Hanford 300 Area Derived Uranium in the Columbia River

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Christensen, John N.; Dresel, P. Evan; Conrad, Mark E.; Patton, Gregory W.; DePaolo, Donald J.

    2010-10-31

    Our objectives in this study are to quantify the discharge rate of uranium (U) to the Columbia River from the Hanford Site's 300 Area, and to follow that U down river to constrain its fate. Uranium from the Hanford Site has variable isotopic composition due to nuclear industrial processes carried out at the site. This characteristic makes it possible to use high-precision isotopic measurements of U in environmental samples to identify even trace levels of contaminant U, determine its sources, and estimate discharge rates. Our data on river water samples indicate that as much as 3.2 kg/day can enter the Columbia River from the 300 Area, which is only a small fraction of the total load of dissolved natural background U carried by the Columbia River. This very low-level of Hanford derived U can be discerned, despite dilution to < 1 percent of natural background U, 350 km downstream from the Hanford Site. These results indicate that isotopic methods can allow the amounts of U from the 300 Area of the Hanford Site entering the Columbia River to be measured accurately to ascertain whether they are an environmental concern, or are insignificant relative to natural uranium background in the Columbia River.

  19. NUMERICAL MODELING OF THE DISRUPTION OF COMET D/1993 F2 SHOEMAKER-LEVY 9 REPRESENTING THE PROGENITOR BY A GRAVITATIONALLY BOUND ASSEMBLAGE OF RANDOMLY SHAPED POLYHEDRA

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Movshovitz, Naor; Asphaug, Erik; Korycansky, Donald

    2012-11-10

    We advance the modeling of rubble-pile solid bodies by re-examining the tidal breakup of comet Shoemaker-Levy 9, an event that occurred during a 1.33 R encounter with Jupiter in 1992 July. Tidal disruption of the comet nucleus led to a chain of sub-nuclei {approx}100-1000 m diameter; these went on to collide with the planet two years later. They were intensively studied prior to and during the collisions, making SL9 the best natural benchmark for physical models of small-body disruption. For the first time in the study of this event, we use numerical codes treating rubble piles as collections of polyhedra. This introduces forces of dilatation and friction, and inelastic response. As in our previous studies we conclude that the progenitor must have been a rubble pile, and we obtain approximately the same pre-breakup diameter ({approx}1.5 km) in our best fits to the data. We find that the inclusion of realistic fragment shapes leads to grain locking and dilatancy, so that even in the absence of friction or other dissipation we find that disruption is overall more difficult than in our spheres-based simulations. We constrain the comet's bulk density at {rho}{sub bulk} {approx} 300-400 kg m{sup -3}, half that of our spheres-based predictions and consistent with recent estimates derived from spacecraft observations.

  20. Preliminary reservoir engineering studies of the Miravalles geothermal field, Costa Rica

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Haukwa, C.; Bodvarsson, G.S.; Lippmann, M.J.; Mainieri, A.

    1992-01-01

    The Earth Sciences Division of Lawrence Berkeley Laboratory in cooperation with the Instituto Costarricense de Electricidad is conducting a reservoir engineering study of the Miravalles geothermal field, Costa Rica. Using data from eight exploration wells, a two-dimensional areal, natural-state model of Miravalles has been developed. The model was calibrated by fitting the observed temperature and pressure distributions and requires a geothermal upflow zone in the northern part of the field, associated with the Miravalles volcano and an outflow towards the south. The total hot (about 260 C) water recharge is 130 kg/s, corresponding to a thermal input of about 150 MWt. On the basis of the natural-state model a two-dimensional exploitation model was developed. The field has a production area of about 10 km{sup 2}, with temperatures exceeding 220 C. The model indicated that power generation of 55 MWe can be maintained for 30 years, with or without injection of the separated geothermal brine. Generation of 110 MWe could be problematic. Until more information becomes available on the areal extent of the field and the properties of the reservoir rocks, especially their relative permeability characteristics, it is difficult to ascertain if 110 MWe can be sustained during a 30-year period.

  1. Development potential of the Dauin geothermal prospect, Negros Oriental, Philippines

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Bayrante, L.F.; Hermoso, D.Z.; Candelaria, M.R.

    1997-12-31

    The Dauin geothermal prospect, situated 5 km southeast of the Palinpinon I and II sectors, was drilled between 1982 and 1983 to test its viability for development. Drilling results indicated that DN-1 was drilled closer to the source region than DN-2 where permeability, temperature, and alteration mineralogy were generally unpromising. DN-1 encountered temperatures of at least 240{degrees}C and a neutral-pH fluid with reservoir chloride of 3000 mg/kg. In particular, the presence of sulphur in the DN-1 discharge provoked debates and many speculation on the nature of the fluid in the area. The area was re-evaluated in 1996 for the following reasons: (1) Renewed interests on other geothermal prospects within Negros Island from an economic point of view and the success of modular plant developments are Pal II and other areas in the Philippines; (2) Reinterpretation of the genesis of sulphur contained in the DN-1 discharge fluid; (3) Encouraging temperature, permeability and neutral-pH alterations at depth and the neutral character of DN-1 discharge fluid; and (4) Reinterpretation of the hydrological model from a geochemical and geological point of view. The study indicates good potential for modular power development.

  2. Transportation of foreign-owned enriched uranium from the Republic of Georgia. Environmental assessment for Project Partnership

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    1998-03-31

    The Department of Energy (DOE) Office of Nonproliferation and National Security (NN) has prepared a classified environmental assessment to evaluate the potential environmental impact for the transportation of 5.26 kilograms of enriched uranium-235 in the form of nuclear fuel, from the Republic of Georgia to the United Kingdom. The nuclear fuel consists of primarily fresh fuel, but also consists of a small quantity (less than 1 kilogram) of partially-spent fuel. Transportation of the enriched uranium fuel would occur via US Air Force military aircraft under the control of the Defense Department European Command (EUCOM). Actions taken in a sovereign nation (such as the Republic of Georgia and the United Kingdom) are not subject to analysis in the environmental assessment. However, because the action would involve the global commons of the Black Sea and the North Sea, the potential impact to the global commons has been analyzed. Because of the similarities in the two actions, the Project Sapphire Environmental Assessment was used as a basis for assessing the potential impacts of Project Partnership. However, because Project Partnership involves a small quantity of partially-spent fuel, additional analysis was conducted to assess the potential environmental impacts and to consider reasonable alternatives as required by NEPA. The Project Partnership Environmental Assessment found the potential environmental impacts to be well below those from Project Sapphire.

  3. Operation of a bushing melter system designed for actinide vitrification

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Ramsey, W.G.

    1996-03-01

    The Westinghouse Savannah River Company is developing a melter system to vitrify actinide materials. The melter system will used to vitrify the americium and curium solution which is currently stored in one of the Savannah River Site`s (SRS) processing canyons. This solution is one of the materials designated by the Defense Nuclear Facilities Safety Board (DNFSB) to be dispositioned as part of the DNFSB recommendation 94-1. The Am/Cm solution contains an extremely large fraction (>2 kilograms of Cm and 10 kilograms of Am) of t he United States`s total inventory of both elements. They have an estimated value on the order of one billion dollars - if they are processed through the DOE Isotope Sales program at the Oak Ridge National Laboratory. It is therefore deemed highly desirable to transfer the material to Oak Ridge in a form which can allow for recovery of the material. A commercial glass composition has been demonstrated to be compatible with up to 40 weight percent of the Am/Cm solution contents. This glass is also selectively attacked by nitric acid. This allows the actinide to be recovered by common separation processes.

  4. Gas turbine fuel from low-rank coal

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Maas, D.J.; Smith, F.J.

    1986-06-01

    Five low-rank coals from the western United States were cleaned in a bench-scale heavy media separation procedures followed by acid leaching and hydrothermal processing. The objective of these cleaning steps was to determine the amenability of preparing gas turbine quality fuel from low-rank coal. The best candidate for scale-up was determined to be a Wyoming subbituminous coal from the eagle Butte mine. Two hundred thirty kilograms of cleaned and micronized coal/water fuel were prepared in pilot-scale equipment to determine process parameters and fuel characteristics. After establishing operating conditions, two thousand kilograms of cleaned and micronized coal/water and powdered coal fuel were produced for testing in a pilot-scale gas turbine combustor. An economic analysis was completed for a commercial-scale plant designed to produce clean gas turbine fuel from low-rank coal using the most promising process steps identified form the bench- and pilot-scale studies. 21 refs., 12 figs., 20 tabs.

  5. ARM_Mayor_Poster_FINAL5.ai

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Raman-shifted Eye-safe Aerosol Lidar (REAL) Shane Mayor, Scott Spuler, Bruce Morley National Center for Atmospheric Research (NCAR) Boulder, Colorado 3 March 2006 00:16:12 UTC 2 km 4 km T-REX: March-April 2006 T-REX The NCAR REAL is available for use. Please contact shane@ucar.edu or go to www.lidar.ucar.edu 1km 2km 1km 2km Dry BG Wet MS2 BACKSCATTER INTENSITY DEPOLARIZATION RATIO Dry BG Wet MS2 1.54-microns wavelength, rapid-scanning, eye-safe, aerosol lidar CHATS: March-June 2007 Independence,

  6. ARM - Data Announcements Article

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    16, 2014 [Data Announcements] Forcing Data for MC3E Updated Bookmark and Share Multi-scale domains for MC3E, with diameters of 300 km, 150 km, and 75 km. The red triangles denote sounding locations. The green diamonds denote the locations of scanning cloud radars. Multi-scale domains for MC3E, with diameters of 300 km, 150 km, and 75 km. The red triangles denote sounding locations. The green diamonds denote the locations of scanning cloud radars. Large-scale forcing data from the Midlatitude

  7. 2007 TY430: A COLD CLASSICAL KUIPER BELT TYPE BINARY IN THE PLUTINO POPULATION

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Sheppard, Scott S.; Ragozzine, Darin; Trujillo, Chadwick

    2012-03-15

    Kuiper Belt object 2007 TY430 is the first wide, equal-sized, binary known in the 3:2 mean motion resonance with Neptune. The two components have a maximum separation of about 1 arcsec and are on average less than 0.1 mag different in apparent magnitude with identical ultra-red colors (g - i = 1.49 {+-} 0.01 mag). Using nearly monthly observations of 2007 TY430 from 2007 to 2011, the orbit of the mutual components was found to have a period of 961.2 {+-} 4.6 days with a semi-major axis of 21000 {+-} 160 km and eccentricity of 0.1529 {+-} 0.0028. The inclination with respect to the ecliptic is 15.68 {+-} 0.22 deg and extensive observations have allowed the mirror orbit to be eliminated as a possibility. The total mass for the binary system was found to be 7.90 {+-} 0.21 Multiplication-Sign 10{sup 17} kg. Equal-sized, wide binaries and ultra-red colors are common in the low-inclination 'cold' classical part of the Kuiper Belt and likely formed through some sort of three-body interactions within a much denser Kuiper Belt. To date 2007 TY430 is the only ultra-red, equal-sized binary known outside of the classical Kuiper Belt population. Numerical simulations suggest 2007 TY430 is moderately unstable in the outer part of the 3:2 resonance and thus 2007 TY430 is likely an escaped 'cold' classical object that later got trapped in the 3:2 resonance. Similar to the known equal-sized, wide binaries in the cold classical population, the binary 2007 TY430 requires a high albedo and very low density structure to obtain the total mass found for the pair. For a realistic minimum density of 0.5 g cm{sup -3} the albedo of 2007 TY430 would be greater than 0.17. For reasonable densities, the radii of either component should be less than 60 km, and thus the relatively low eccentricity of the binary is interesting since no tides should be operating on the bodies at their large distances from each other. The low prograde inclination of the binary also makes it unlikely that the Kozai mechanism could have altered the orbit, making the 2007 TY430 binary orbit likely one of the few relatively unaltered primordial binary orbits known. Under some binary formation models, the low-inclination prograde orbit of the 2007 TY430 binary indicates formation within a relatively high velocity regime in the Kuiper Belt.

  8. Characterization of 618-11 solid waste burial ground, disposed waste, and description of the waste generating facilities

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Hladek, K.L.

    1997-10-07

    The 618-11 (Wye or 318-11) burial ground received transuranic (TRTJ) and mixed fission solid waste from March 9, 1962, through October 2, 1962. It was then closed for 11 months so additional burial facilities could be added. The burial ground was reopened on September 16, 1963, and continued operating until it was closed permanently on December 31, 1967. The burial ground received wastes from all of the 300 Area radioactive material handling facilities. The purpose of this document is to characterize the 618-11 solid waste burial ground by describing the site, burial practices, the disposed wastes, and the waste generating facilities. This document provides information showing that kilogram quantities of plutonium were disposed to the drum storage units and caissons, making them transuranic (TRU). Also, kilogram quantities of plutonium and other TRU wastes were disposed to the three trenches, which were previously thought to contain non-TRU wastes. The site burial facilities (trenches, caissons, and drum storage units) should be classified as TRU and the site plutonium inventory maintained at five kilograms. Other fissile wastes were also disposed to the site. Additionally, thousands of curies of mixed fission products were also disposed to the trenches, caissons, and drum storage units. Most of the fission products have decayed over several half-lives, and are at more tolerable levels. Of greater concern, because of their release potential, are TRU radionuclides, Pu-238, Pu-240, and Np-237. TRU radionuclides also included slightly enriched 0.95 and 1.25% U-231 from N-Reactor fuel, which add to the fissile content. The 618-11 burial ground is located approximately 100 meters due west of Washington Nuclear Plant No. 2. The burial ground consists of three trenches, approximately 900 feet long, 25 feet deep, and 50 feet wide, running east-west. The trenches constitute 75% of the site area. There are 50 drum storage units (five 55-gallon steel drums welded together) buried in three rows in the northeast comer. In addition, five eight-foot diameter caissons are located at the west end of the center row of the drum storage units. Initially, wastes disposed to the caissons and drum storage units were from the 325 and 327 building hot cells. Later, a small amount of remote-handled (RH) waste from the 309 building Plutonium Recycle Test Reactor (PRTR) cells, and the newly built 324 building hot cells, was disposed at the site.

  9. Pre-shot simulations of far-field ground motion for the Source Physics Experiment (SPE) Explosions at the Climax Stock, Nevada National Security Site: SPE2

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Mellors, R J; Rodgers, A; Walter, W; Ford, S; Xu, H; Matzel, E; Myers, S; Petersson, N A; Sjogreen, B; Hauk, T; Wagoner, J

    2011-10-18

    The Source Physics Experiment (SPE) is planning a 1000 kg (TNT equivalent) shot (SPE2) at the Nevada National Security Site (NNSS) in a granite borehole at a depth (canister centroid) of 45 meters. This shot follows an earlier shot of 100 kg in the same borehole at a depth 60 m. Surrounding the shotpoint is an extensive array of seismic sensors arrayed in 5 radial lines extending out 2 km to the north and east and approximately 10-15 to the south and west. Prior to SPE1, simulations using a finite difference code and a 3D numerical model based on the geologic setting were conducted, which predicted higher amplitudes to the south and east in the alluvium of Yucca Flat along with significant energy on the transverse components caused by scattering within the 3D volume along with some contribution by topographic scattering. Observations from the SPE1 shot largely confirmed these predictions although the ratio of transverse energy relative to the vertical and radial components was in general larger than predicted. A new set of simulations has been conducted for the upcoming SPE2 shot. These include improvements to the velocity model based on SPE1 observations as well as new capabilities added to the simulation code. The most significant is the addition of a new source model within the finite difference code by using the predicted ground velocities from a hydrodynamic code (GEODYN) as driving condition on the boundaries of a cube embedded within WPP which provides a more sophisticated source modeling capability linked directly to source site materials (e.g. granite) and type and size of source. Two sets of SPE2 simulations are conducted, one with a GEODYN source and 3D complex media (no topography node spacing of 5 m) and one with a standard isotropic pre-defined time function (3D complex media with topography, node spacing of 5 m). Results were provided as time series at specific points corresponding to sensor locations for both translational (x,y,z) and rotational components. Estimates of spectral scaling for SPE2 are provided using a modified version of the Mueller-Murphy model. An estimate of expected aftershock probabilities were also provided, based on the methodology of Ford and Walter, [2010].

  10. Multiple Ruptures For Long Valley Microearthquakes- A Link To...

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    located and analyzed as a function of azimuth, offset, and source characteristics. Eight prime examples lie within two, 7 km-deep clusters of seismicity separated by about 1 km,...

  11. varble_arm09.pdf

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    km Altitude km RH Regime Anom. Pressure hPa Pressure hPa Climatological Context for TWP-ICE Convective Precipitation Features Adam Varble and Ed Zipser Department of...

  12. Offshore Wind Potential Tables

    Wind Powering America (EERE)

    Offshore wind resource by state and wind speed interval within 50 nm of shore. Wind Speed at 90 m (m/s) 7.0 - 7.5 7.5 - 8.0 8.0 - 8.5 8.5 - 9.0 9.0 - 9.5 9.5 - 10.0 >10.0 Total >7.0 State Area km 2 (MW) Area km 2 (MW) Area km 2 (MW) Area km 2 (MW) Area km 2 (MW) Area km 2 (MW) Area km 2 (MW) Area km 2 (MW) California 11,439 (57,195) 24,864 (124,318) 23,059 (115,296) 22,852 (114,258) 13,185 (65,924) 15,231 (76,153) 6,926 (34,629) 117,555 (587,773) Connecticut 530 (2,652) 702 (3,508) 40

  13. Offshore Wind RD&D: Large Offshore Rotor Development

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Offshore wind resource by state and wind speed interval within 50 nm of shore. Wind Speed at 90 m (m/s) 7.0 - 7.5 7.5 - 8.0 8.0 - 8.5 8.5 - 9.0 9.0 - 9.5 9.5 - 10.0 >10.0 Total >7.0 State Area km 2 (MW) Area km 2 (MW) Area km 2 (MW) Area km 2 (MW) Area km 2 (MW) Area km 2 (MW) Area km 2 (MW) Area km 2 (MW) California 11,439 (57,195) 24,864 (124,318) 23,059 (115,296) 22,852 (114,258) 13,185 (65,924) 15,231 (76,153) 6,926 (34,629) 117,555 (587,773) Connecticut 530 (2,652) 702 (3,508) 40

  14. Section 58

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    1 3 km m 3km 0 N(h)dh Session Papers 253 Figure 1. Distribution of the aerosol number density over (1) the former USSR. Results of Long-term Airborne Research of Aerosol...

  15. Section 17

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    to simulate this period on a 60-km domain with 20- and 6.67-km nests centered on Lamont, OK. Simulations are being run with data assimilation by the nudging technique (Kuo and Guo...

  16. DOE/EA-1381

    National Nuclear Security Administration (NNSA)

    ... Economically, 15 percent of the households within a 16-km (10-mi) radius have annual incomes below the defined poverty level of 12,674. Within an 80 km (50-mi) radius of the site, ...

  17. Pathways for Algal Biofuels

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    km 2 of suitable land for algae cultivation with potential for 58 BGY of algal oil production * Optimizing to maximize productivity and minimize water use identifies 10,000 km ...

  18. The Mean and Scatter of the Velocity Dispersion-Optical Richness...

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    The mean velocity dispersion increases from 202 +- 10 km ssup -1 for small groups to more than 854 +- 102 km ssup -1 for large clusters. We show the scatter to be at most ...

  19. Search for: All records | SciTech Connect

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    ... where for systems with large AC (radius>120-km) they are 24% and 20% higher, respectively, than those with small AC (radius20 km). less December 2012 Corrigendum to Aerosol ...

  20. Refraction Survey At Kilauea East Rift Geothermal Area (Thomas...

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    along the East Rift Zone to develop a cross-sectional model of the rift zone near well HGP-A. A 12- 17 km wide dike complex lying at a depth of 2 to 3 km was discovered....

  1. ARM - Datastreams - gms5

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    below or call us at 1-888-ARM-DATA. Send Datastream : GMS5 GMS-5: visible 1.25-km res., IR 5-km resolution Active Dates 1996.10.11 - 2003.02.16 Measurement Categories Radiometric...

  2. Section 28

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    of Mexico. Grid 2 covers the Southern Plains. Grid 3 is a 360 km x 300 km rectangular box that encompasses the entire ARM Southern Great Plains (SGP) CART site, and finally,...

  3. Three-dimensional P and S waves velocity structures of the Coso...

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    synthetic modeling of a cross model at critical locations, is estimated to be 0.35 km for V (sub p ) and 0.5 km for V (sub s ) . Model uncertainties are estimated by a jackknife...

  4. Kiran Mathew > Graduate Student - Hennig Group > Researchers, Postdocs &

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Graduates > The Energy Materials Center at Cornell Kiran Mathew Graduate Student - Hennig Group km4

  5. ARM Dev Workshop Plenary Presentation Gustafson 201507.pptx

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Development of the LES ARM Symbiotic Simulation and Observation (LASSO) Workflow William I. Gustafson, Principal Investigator Pacific Northwest National Laboratory Andrew M. Vogelmann, Co-principal Investigator Brookhaven National Laboratory January 2014 Measurement Strategy Large-Eddy Simulation Scale (1 to 200 m) Cloud-Resolving Model Scale (1 to 4 km) Mesoscale Model Scale (4 to 20 km) Single-Column Model (100 km) General Circulation Model Scale (10 to 100 km, NCEP/ ECMWF Forcing) ARM

  6. The Mechanics of Unrest at Long Valley Caldera, California: 1...

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    of 0.086 km3 (95% bounds are 0.06-0.13 km3). Failure to account for the ellipsoidal nature of the source biases the estimated source depth by 2.1 km (35%), and the source volume...

  7. Development of Exploration Methods for Engineered Geothermal System through Integrated Geoscience Interpretation

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    DOE Geothermal Peer Review 2010 - Presentation. This project will deploy, test and calibrate Non-invasive EGS Exploration Methodology integrating geoscience data to predict temperature and rock type at a scale of 5km x 5km at depths of 1-5km.

  8. The discovery of cometary activity in near-Earth asteroid (3552) Don Quixote

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Mommert, Michael; Harris, Alan W.; Hora, Joseph L.; Smith, Howard A.; Reach, William T.; Emery, Joshua P.; Thomas, Cristina A.; Mueller, Michael; Cruikshank, Dale P.; Trilling, David E.; Delbo, Marco

    2014-01-20

    The near-Earth object (NEO) population, which mainly consists of fragments from collisions between asteroids in the main asteroid belt, is thought to include contributions from short-period comets as well. One of the most promising NEO candidates for a cometary origin is near-Earth asteroid (3552) Don Quixote, which has never been reported to show activity. Here we present the discovery of cometary activity in Don Quixote based on thermal-infrared observations made with the Spitzer Space Telescope in its 3.6 and 4.5 ?m bands. Our observations clearly show the presence of a coma and a tail in the 4.5 ?m but not in the 3.6 ?m band, which is consistent with molecular band emission from CO{sub 2}. Thermal modeling of the combined photometric data on Don Quixote reveals a diameter of 18.4{sub ?0.4}{sup +0.3} km and an albedo of 0.03{sub ?0.01}{sup +0.02}, which confirms Don Quixote to be the third-largest known NEO. We derive an upper limit on the dust production rate of 1.9 kg s{sup 1} and derive a CO{sub 2} gas production rate of (1.1 0.1) 10{sup 26} molecules s{sup 1}. Spitzer Infrared Spectrograph spectroscopic observations indicate the presence of fine-grained silicates, perhaps pyroxene rich, on the surface of Don Quixote. Our discovery suggests that CO{sub 2} can be present in near-Earth space over a long time. The presence of CO{sub 2} might also explain that Don Quixote's cometary nature remained hidden for nearly three decades.

  9. Delineating Bukit Bunuh impact crater boundary by geophysical and geotechnical investigation

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Azwin, I. N. Rosli, S.; Nordiana, M. M.; Ragu, R. R.; Mark, J.; Mokhtar, S.

    2015-03-30

    Evidences of crater morphology and shock metamorphism in Bukit Bunuh, Lenggong, Malaysia were found during the archaeological research conducted by the Centre for Global Archaeological Research Malaysia, Universiti Sains Malaysia. In order to register Bukit Bunuh as one of the world meteorite impact site, detailed studies are needed to verify the boundary of the crater accordingly. Geophysical study was conducted utilising the seismic refraction and 2-D electrical resistivity method. Seismic refraction survey was done using ABEM MK8 24 channel seismograph with 14Hz geophones and 40kg weight drop while 2-D electrical resistivity survey was performed using ABEM SAS4000 Terrameter and ES10-64C electrode selector with pole-dipole array. Bedrock depths were digitized from the sections obtained. The produced bedrock topography map shows that there is low bedrock level circulated by high elevated bedrock and interpreted as crater and rim respectively with diameter approximately 8km. There are also few spots of high elevated bedrock appear at the centre of the crater which interpreted as rebounds zone. Generally, the research area is divided into two layers where the first layer with velocity 400-1100?m/s and resistivity value of 10-800 Om predominantly consists of alluvium mix with gravel and boulders. Second layer represents granitic bedrock with depth of 5-50m having velocity >2100?m/s and resistivity value of >1500 Om. This research is strengthen by good correlation between geophysical data and geotechnical borehole records executed inside and outside of the crater, on the rim, as well as at the rebound area.

  10. Hour-by-Hour Cost Modeling of Optimized Central Wind-Based Water...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    ... costs of 2.76kg to 4.79kg 5. The combined effects of the production tax credit (PTC), Investment Tax Credit (ITC), and Treasury Grant reduce wind electricity prices 0.02kWh. ...

  11. Slide 1

    Broader source: Energy.gov (indexed) [DOE]

    is part of decision on breeders *Sea water has huge amount though very dilute. *Japan leading and cost now is estimated at 900kg *At 250kg electricity costs go up by...

  12. UQM Patents Non-Rare Earth Magnet Motor under DOE-Supported Project...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    While most plug-in electric vehicles (PEVs) use motors with rare earth metals, these materials are expensive, their prices have been highly volatile (from 80kg to 750kg), and ...

  13. In situ remediation of plutonium from glovebox exhaust ducts at the Department of Energy`s Rocky Flats Plant

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Dugdale, J.S.; Humiston, T.J.; Omer, G.E.

    1993-10-01

    Plutonium and other miscellaneous hold-up materials have been accumulating in the glovebox exhaust ducts at the Rocky Flats Plant over the 40 years of weapons production at the site. The Duct Remediation Project was undertaken to assess the safety impacts of this material, and to remove it from the ductwork. The project necessitated the development of specialized tools, equipment and methods to remediate the material from continuously operating ventilation systems. Special engineered access locations were also required to provide access to the ductwork, and to ensure that safety and system operability were not degraded as a result of the remediation efforts. Operations personnel underwent significant training and development, and became an important asset to the success of the project. In total, the project succeeded in removing over 40 kilograms of plutonium-bearing material from one of the major weapons production buildings at the plant.

  14. Real-World Hydrogen Technology Validation: Preprint

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Sprik, S.; Kurtz, J.; Wipke, K.; Ramsden, T.; Ainscough, C.; Eudy, L.; Saur, G.

    2012-03-01

    The Department of Energy, the Department of Defense's Defense Logistics Agency, and the Department of Transportation's Federal Transit Administration have funded learning demonstrations and early market deployments to provide insight into applications of hydrogen technologies on the road, in the warehouse, and as stationary power. NREL's analyses validate the technology in real-world applications, reveal the status of the technology, and facilitate the development of hydrogen and fuel cell technologies, manufacturing, and operations. This paper presents the maintenance, safety, and operation data of fuel cells in multiple applications with the reported incidents, near misses, and frequencies. NREL has analyzed records of more than 225,000 kilograms of hydrogen that have been dispensed through more than 108,000 hydrogen fills with an excellent safety record.

  15. Pyro-processing progress at Idaho national laboratory

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Benedict, R.W.; Solbrig, C.; Westphal, B.; Johnson, T.A.; Li, S.X.; Marsden, K.; Goff, K.M.

    2007-07-01

    At the end of May 2007, 830 and 2600 kilograms of EBR-II driver and blanket metal fuel have been treated by a pyro-process since spent fuel operations began in June 1996. A new metal waste furnace has completed out-of-cell testing and is being installed in the Hot Fuel Examination Facility. Also, ceramic waste process development and qualification is progressing so integrated nuclear fuel separations and high level waste processes will exist at Idaho National Laboratory. These operations have provided important scale-up and performance data on engineering scale operations. Idaho National Laboratory is also increasing their laboratory scale capabilities so new process improvements and new concepts can be tested before implementation at engineering scale. This paper provides an overview of recent achievements and provides the interested reader references for more details. (authors)

  16. CARBON FIBER COMPOSITES IN HIGH VOLUME

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Warren, Charles David; Das, Sujit; Jeon, Dr. Saeil

    2014-01-01

    Vehicle lightweighting represents one of several design approaches that automotive and heavy truck manufacturers are currently evaluating to improve fuel economy, lower emissions, and improve freight efficiency (tons-miles per gallon of fuel). With changes in fuel efficiency and environmental regulations in the area of transportation, the next decade will likely see considerable vehicle lightweighting throughout the ground transportation industry. Greater use of carbon fiber composites and light metals is a key component of that strategy. This paper examines the competition between candidate materials for lightweighting of heavy vehicles and passenger cars. A 53-component, 25 % mass reduction, body-in-white cost analysis is presented for each material class, highlighting the potential cost penalty for each kilogram of mass reduction and then comparing the various material options. Lastly, as the cost of carbon fiber is a major component of the elevated cost of carbon fiber composites, a brief look at the factors that influence that cost is presented.

  17. A new tribological test for candidate brush seal materials evaluation

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Fellenstein, J.A.; DellaCorte, C.

    1994-10-01

    A new tribological test for candidate brush seal materials evaluation has been developed. The sliding contact between the brush seal wires and their mating counterface journal is simulated by testing a small tuft of wire against the outside diameter of a high speed rotating shaft. The test configuration is similar to a standard block on ring geometry. The new tester provides the capability to measure both the friction and wear of candidate wire and counterface materials under controlled loading conditions in the gram to kilogram range. A wide test condition latitude of speeds (1 to 27 m/s), temperatures (25 to 700C), and loads (0.5 to 10 N) enables the simulation of many of the important tribological parameters found in turbine engine brush seals. This paper describes the new test rig and specimen configuration and presents initial data for candidate seal materials comparing tuft test results and wear surface morphology to field tested seal components.

  18. Fabrication of thorium bearing carbide fuels

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Gutierrez, Rueben L.; Herbst, Richard J.; Johnson, Karl W. R.

    1981-01-01

    Thorium-uranium carbide and thorium-plutonium carbide fuel pellets have been fabricated by the carbothermic reduction process. Temperatures of 1750.degree. C. and 2000.degree. C. were used during the reduction cycle. Sintering temperatures of 1800.degree. C. and 2000.degree. C. were used to prepare fuel pellet densities of 87% and >94% of theoretical, respectively. The process allows the fabrication of kilogram quantities of fuel with good reproducibility of chemicals and phase composition. Methods employing liquid techniques that form carbide microspheres or alloying-techniques which form alloys of thorium-uranium or thorium-plutonium suffer from limitation on the quantities processed of because of criticality concerns and lack of precise control of process conditions, respectively.

  19. SHIELDING AND DETECTOR RESPONSE CALCULATIONS PERTAINING TO CATEGORY 1 QUANTITIES OF PLUTONIUM AND HAND-HELD PLASTIC SCINTILLATORS

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Couture, A.

    2013-06-07

    Nuclear facilities sometimes use hand-held plastic scintillator detectors to detect attempts to divert special nuclear material in situations where portal monitors are impractical. MCNP calculations have been performed to determine the neutron and gamma radiation field arising from a Category I quantity of weapons-grade plutonium in various shielding configurations. The shields considered were composed of combinations of lead and high-density polyethylene such that the mass of the plutonium plus shield was 22.7 kilograms. Monte-Carlo techniques were also used to determine the detector response to each of the shielding configurations. The detector response calculations were verified using field measurements of high-, medium-, and low- energy gamma-ray sources as well as a Cf-252 neutron source.

  20. Operating experience during high-level waste vitrification at the West Valley Demonstration Project

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Valenti, P.J.; Elliott, D.I.

    1999-01-01

    This report provides a summary of operational experiences, component and system performance, and lessons learned associated with the operation of the Vitrification Facility (VF) at the West Valley Demonstration Project (WVDP). The VF was designed to convert stored high-level radioactive waste (HLW) into a stable waste form (borosilicate glass) suitable for disposal in a federal repository. Following successful completion on nonradioactive test, HLW processing began in July 1995. Completion of Phase 1 of HLW processing was reached on 10 June 1998 and represented the processing of 9.32 million curies of cesium-137 (Cs-137) and strontium-90 (Sr-90) to fill 211 canisters with over 436,000 kilograms of glass. With approximately 85% of the total estimated curie content removed from underground waste storage tanks during Phase 1, subsequent operations will focus on removal of tank heel wastes.

  1. Stable Isotope Enrichment Capabilities at ORNL

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Egle, Brian; Aaron, W Scott; Hart, Kevin J

    2013-01-01

    The Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL) and the US Department of Energy Nuclear Physics Program have built a high-resolution Electromagnetic Isotope Separator (EMIS) as a prototype for reestablishing a US based enrichment capability for stable isotopes. ORNL has over 60 years of experience providing enriched stable isotopes and related technical services to the international accelerator target community, as well as medical, research, industrial, national security, and other communities. ORNL is investigating the combined use of electromagnetic and gas centrifuge isotope separation technologies to provide research quantities (milligram to several kilograms) of enriched stable isotopes. In preparation for implementing a larger scale production facility, a 10 mA high-resolution EMIS prototype has been built and tested. Initial testing of the device has simultaneously collected greater than 98% enriched samples of all the molybdenum isotopes from natural abundance feedstock.

  2. Process for gamma ray induced degradation of polychlorinated biphenyls

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Meikrantz, D.H.; Mincher, B.J.; Arbon, R.E.

    1998-08-25

    The invention is a process for the in-situ destruction of polychlorinated biphenyl (PCB) compounds in transformer oils and transformers. These compounds are broken down selectively by irradiation of the object or mixture using spent nuclear fuel or any isotopic source of high energy gamma radiation. For example, the level of applied dose required to decompose 400 ppm of polychlorinated biphenyl in transformer oil to less than 50 ppm is 500 kilograms. Destruction of polychlorinated biphenyls to levels of less than 50 ppm renders the transformer oil or transformer non-PCB contaminated under current regulations. Therefore, this process can be used to treat PCB contaminated oil and equipment to minimize or eliminate the generation of PCB hazardous waste. 5 figs.

  3. Zirconia-coated carbonyl-iron-particle-based magnetorheological fluid for polishing optical glasses and ceramics

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Shafrir, Shai N.; Romanofsky, Henry J.; Skarlinski, Michael; Wang, Mimi; Miao, Chunlin; Salzman, Sivan; Chartier, Taylor; Mici, Joni; Lambropoulos, John C.; Shen Rui; Yang Hong; Jacobs, Stephen D.

    2009-12-10

    We report on magnetorheological finishing (MRF) spotting experiments performed on glasses and ceramics using a zirconia-coated carbonyl-iron (CI)-particle-based magnetorheological (MR) fluid. The zirconia-coated magnetic CI particles were prepared via sol-gel synthesis in kilogram quantities. The coating layer was {approx}50-100 nm thick, faceted in surface structure, and well adhered. Coated particles showed long-term stability against aqueous corrosion. ''Free'' nanocrystalline zirconia polishing abrasives were cogenerated in the coating process, resulting in an abrasive-charged powder for MRF. A viable MR fluid was prepared simply by adding water. Spot polishing tests were performed on a variety of optical glasses and ceramics over a period of nearly three weeks with no signs of MR fluid degradation or corrosion. Stable material removal rates and smooth surfaces inside spots were obtained.

  4. Assessment of alternatives for management of ORNL retrievable transuranic waste. Nuclear Waste Program: transuranic waste (Activity No. AR 05 15 15 0; ONL-WT04)

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Not Available

    1980-10-01

    Since 1970, solid waste with TRU or U-233 contamination in excess of 10 ..mu..Ci per kilogram of waste has been stored in a retrievable fashion at ORNL, such as in ss drums, concrete casks, and ss-lined wells. This report describes the results of a study performed to identify and evaluate alternatives for management of this waste and of the additional waste projected to be stored through 1995. The study was limited to consideration of the following basic strategies: Strategy 1: Leave waste in place as is; Strategy 2: Improve waste confinement; and Strategy 3: Retrieve waste and process for shipment to a Federal repository. Seven alternatives were identified and evaluated, one each for Strategies 1 and 2 and five for Strategy 3. Each alternative was evaluated from the standpoint of technical feasibility, cost, radiological risk and impact, regulatory factors and nonradiological environmental impact.

  5. Novel Solid State Magnetocaloric Air Conditioner

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    Lead Performer: Oak Ridge National Laboratory, Oak Ridge, TN Partners: Vaccumschmelze GmbH & Co. KG., Hanau, Germany

  6. Fast Flux Test Facility (FFTF) Briefing Book 1 Summary

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    WJ Apley

    1997-12-01

    This report documents the results of evaluations preformed during 1997 to determine what, if an, future role the Fast Flux Test Facility (FFTF) might have in support of the Department of Energy’s tritium productions strategy. An evaluation was also conducted to assess the potential for the FFTF to produce medical isotopes. No safety, environmental, or technical issues associated with producing 1.5 kilograms of tritium per year in the FFTF have been identified that would change the previous evaluations by the Department of Energy, the JASON panel, or Putnam, Hayes & Bartlett. The FFTF can be refitted and restated by July 2002 for a total expenditure of $371 million, with an additional $64 million of startup expense necessary to incorporate the production of medical isotopes. Therapeutic and diagnostic applications of reactor-generated medical isotopes will increase dramatically over the next decade. Essential medical isotopes can be produced in the FFTF simultaneously with tritium production, and while a stand-alone medical isotope mission for the facility cannot be economically justified given current marker conditions, conservative estimates based on a report by Frost &Sullivan indicate that 60% of the annual operational costs (reactor and fuel supply) could be offset by revenues from medical isotope production within 10 yeas of restart. The recommendation of the report is for the Department of Energy to continue to maintain the FFTF in standby and proceed with preparation of appropriate Nations Environmental Policy Act documentation in full consultation with the public to consider the FFTF as an interim tritium production option (1.5 kilograms/year) with a secondary mission of producing medical isotopes.

  7. Development of a plasma arc system for the destruction of U.S. Department of Defense hazardous waste

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Sartwell, B.D.; Gehrman, F.H. Jr.; Telfer, T.R.

    1999-07-01

    The Naval Base, Norfolk, located in the northern portion of the city of Norfolk, Virginia, is the world's largest naval base and home of the Atlantic Fleet. Activities at the naval base generate approximately 1.4 million kilograms (3.0 million pounds) of industrial waste (hazardous and non-hazardous) annually. Significant components of the waste stream include used paint, cleaning rags, cleaning compounds, solvents, and other chemicals used in industrial operations. The costs of disposing of this waste are significant and are currently over $4 million annually, representing an average of $3.30 per kilogram ($1.50 per pound). Plasma arc technology has been identified as having the potential to cost-effectively treat and destroy various types of waste materials, including contaminated soil, ordnance, pyrotechnics, and low-level radioactive waste. There are currently several pilot-scale plasma arc units being tested in the United States, but at present there are no fully-permitted production-scale units in operation. In July 1995 a project was awarded to the Naval Research Laboratory and Norfolk Naval Base under the DOD Environmental Security Technology Certification Program with the objective of establishing a production scale demonstration plasma arc hazardous waste treatment facility (PAHWTF) at the Naval Base that would be capable of destroying both solid and liquid waste on a production basis and obtaining operational data necessary to determine the cost effectiveness of the process. This paper provides a detailed description of the PAHWTF, which was designed and built by Retech in Ukiah, CA, and also provides results of treatability tests. Information is also provided on the status of an Environmental Impact Statement and of RCRA Research, Development, and Demonstration, and air permits.

  8. Heat Flow and Gas Hydrates on the Continental Margin of India: Building on Results from NGHP Expedition 01

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Trehu, Anne; Kannberg, Peter

    2011-06-30

    The Indian National Gas Hydrate Program (NGHP) Expedition 01 presented the unique opportunity to constrain regional heat flow derived from seismic observations by using drilling data in three regions on the continental margin of India. The seismic bottom simulating reflection (BSR) is a well-documented feature in hydrate bearing sediments, and can serve as a proxy for apparent heat flow if data are available to estimate acoustic velocity and density in water and sediments, thermal conductivity, and seafloor temperature. Direct observations of temperature at depth and physical properties of the sediment obtained from drilling can be used to calibrate the seismic observations, decreasing the uncertainty of the seismically-derived estimates. Anomalies in apparent heat flow can result from a variety of sources, including sedimentation, erosion, topographic refraction and fluid flow. We constructed apparent heat flow maps for portions of the Krishna-Godavari (K-G) basin, the Mahanadi basin, and the Andaman basin and modeled anomalies using 1-D conductive thermal models. Apparent heat flow values in the Krishna-Godavari (K-G) basin and Mahanadi basin are generally 0.035 to 0.055 watts per square meter (W/m2). The borehole data show an increase in apparent heat flow as water depth increases from 900 to 1500 m. In the SW part of the seismic grid, 1D modeling of the effect of sedimentation on heat flow shows that ~50% of the observed increase in apparent heat flow with increasing water depth can be attributed to trapping of sediments behind a "toe-thrust" ridge that is forming along the seaward edge of a thick, rapidly accumulating deltaic sediment pile. The remainder of the anomaly can be explained either by a decrease in thermal conductivity of the sediments filling the slope basin or by lateral advection of heat through fluid flow along stratigraphic horizons within the basin and through flexural faults in the crest of the anticline. Such flow probably plays a role in bringing methane into the ridge formed by the toe-thrust. Because of the small anomaly due to this process and the uncertainty in thermal conductivity, we did not model this process explicitly. In the NE part of the K-G basin seismic grid, a number of local heat flow lows and highs are observed, which can be attributed to topographic refraction and to local fluid flow along faults, respectively. No regional anomaly can be resolved. Because of lack of continuity between the K-G basin sites within the seismic grid and those ~70 km to the NE in water depths of 1200 to 1500 m, we do not speculate on the reason for higher heat flow at these depths. The Mahanadi basin results, while limited in geographic extent, are similar to those for the KG basin. The Andaman basin exhibits much lower apparent heat flow values, ranging from 0.015 to 0.025 W/m2. Heat flow here also appears to increase with increasing water depth. The very low heat flow here is among the lowest heat flow observed anywhere and gives rise to a very thick hydrate stability zone in the sediments. Through 1D models of sedimentation (with extremely high sedimentation rates as a proxy for tectonic thickening), we concluded that the very low heat flow can probably be attributed to the combined effects of high sedimentation rate, low thermal conductivity, tectonic thickening of sediments and the cooling effect of a subducting plate in a subduction zone forearc. Like for the K-G basin, much of the local variability can be attributed to topography. The regional increase in heat flow with water depth remains unexplained because the seismic grid available to us did not extend far enough to define the local tectonic setting of the slope basin controlling this observational pattern. The results are compared to results from other margins, both active and passive. While an increase in apparent heat flow with increasing water depth is widely observed, it is likely a result of different processes in different places. The very low heat flow due to sedimentation and tectonics in the Andaman basin is at the low end of glob

  9. Heat Flow and Gas Hydrates on the Continental Margin of India: Building on Results from NGHP Expedition 01

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Anne Trehu; Peter Kannberg

    2011-06-30

    The Indian National Gas Hydrate Program (NGHP) Expedition 01 presented the unique opportunity to constrain regional heat flow derived from seismic observations by using drilling data in three regions on the continental margin of India. The seismic bottom simulating reflection (BSR) is a well-documented feature in hydrate bearing sediments, and can serve as a proxy for apparent heat flow if data are available to estimate acoustic velocity and density in water and sediments, thermal conductivity, and seafloor temperature. Direct observations of temperature at depth and physical properties of the sediment obtained from drilling can be used to calibrate the seismic observations, decreasing the uncertainty of the seismically-derived estimates. Anomalies in apparent heat flow can result from a variety of sources, including sedimentation, erosion, topographic refraction and fluid flow. We constructed apparent heat flow maps for portions of the Krishna-Godavari (K-G) basin, the Mahanadi basin, and the Andaman basin and modeled anomalies using 1-D conductive thermal models. Apparent heat flow values in the Krishna-Godavari (K-G) basin and Mahanadi basin are generally 0.035 to 0.055 watts per square meter (W/m{sup 2}). The borehole data show an increase in apparent heat flow as water depth increases from 900 to 1500 m. In the SW part of the seismic grid, 1D modeling of the effect of sedimentation on heat flow shows that {approx}50% of the observed increase in apparent heat flow with increasing water depth can be attributed to trapping of sediments behind a 'toe-thrust' ridge that is forming along the seaward edge of a thick, rapidly accumulating deltaic sediment pile. The remainder of the anomaly can be explained either by a decrease in thermal conductivity of the sediments filling the slope basin or by lateral advection of heat through fluid flow along stratigraphic horizons within the basin and through flexural faults in the crest of the anticline. Such flow probably plays a role in bringing methane into the ridge formed by the toe-thrust. Because of the small anomaly due to this process and the uncertainty in thermal conductivity, we did not model this process explicitly. In the NE part of the K-G basin seismic grid, a number of local heat flow lows and highs are observed, which can be attributed to topographic refraction and to local fluid flow along faults, respectively. No regional anomaly can be resolved. Because of lack of continuity between the K-G basin sites within the seismic grid and those {approx}70 km to the NE in water depths of 1200 to 1500 m, we do not speculate on the reason for higher heat flow at these depths. The Mahanadi basin results, while limited in geographic extent, are similar to those for the K-G basin. The Andaman basin exhibits much lower apparent heat flow values, ranging from 0.015 to 0.025 W/m{sup 2}. Heat flow here also appears to increase with increasing water depth. The very low heat flow here is among the lowest heat flow observed anywhere and gives rise to a very thick hydrate stability zone in the sediments. Through 1D models of sedimentation (with extremely high sedimentation rates as a proxy for tectonic thickening), we concluded that the very low heat flow can probably be attributed to the combined effects of high sedimentation rate, low thermal conductivity, tectonic thickening of sediments and the cooling effect of a subducting plate in a subduction zone forearc. Like for the K-G basin, much of the local variability can be attributed to topography. The regional increase in heat flow with water depth remains unexplained because the seismic grid available to us did not extend far enough to define the local tectonic setting of the slope basin controlling this observational pattern. The results are compared to results from other margins, both active and passive. While an increase in apparent heat flow with increasing water depth is widely observed, it is likely a result of different processes in different places. The very low heat flow due to sedimentation and tectonics in the Andaman basi

  10. Evaluate Potential Means of Rebuilding Sturgeon Populations in the Snake River between Lower Granite and Hells Canyon Dams, 2001 Annual Report.

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Everett, Scott R.; Tuell, Michael A.

    2003-03-01

    The specific research goal of this project is to identify means to restore and rebuild the Snake River white sturgeon (Acipenser transmontanus) population to support a sustainable annual subsistence harvest equivalent to 5 kg/ha/yr (CBFWA 1997). Based on data collected, a white sturgeon adaptive management plan will be developed. This 2001 annual report covers the fifth year of sampling of this multi-year study. In 2001 white sturgeon were captured, marked, and population data were collected in the Snake and Salmon rivers. The Snake River was sampled between Lower Granite Dam (rkm 174) and the mouth of the Salmon River (rkm 303), and the Salmon River was sampled from its mouth upstream to Hammer Creek (rkm 84). A total of 45,907 hours of setline effort and 186 hours of hook-and-line effort was employed in 2001. A total of 390 white sturgeon were captured and tagged in the Snake River and 12 in the Salmon River. Since 1997, 36.1 percent of the tagged white sturgeon have been recaptured. In the Snake River, white sturgeon ranged in total length from 42 cm to 307 cm and averaged 107 cm. In the Salmon River, white sturgeon ranged in total length from 66 cm to 235 cm and averaged 160 cm. Using the Jolly-Seber model, the abundance of white sturgeon <60 cm, between Lower Granite Dam and the mouth of the Salmon River, was estimated at 2,483 fish, with a 95% confidence interval of 1,208-7,477. An additional 10 white sturgeon were fitted with radio-tags during 2001. The locations of 17 radio-tagged white sturgeon were monitored in 2001. The movement of these fish ranged from 38.6 km (24 miles) downstream to 54.7 km (34 miles) upstream; however, 62.6 percent of the detected movement was less than 0.8 km (0.5 mile). Both radio-tagged fish and recaptured white sturgeon in Lower Granite Reservoir appear to move more than fish in the free-flowing segment of the Snake River. No seasonal movement pattern was detected, and no movement pattern was detected for different size fish. Differences were detected in the length frequency distributions of white sturgeon in Lower Granite Reservoir and the free-flowing Snake River (Chi-Square test, P<0.05). The proportion of white sturgeon greater than 92 cm (total length) in the free-flowing Snake River has shown an increase of 30 percent since the 1970's. Analysis of the length-weight relationship indicated that white sturgeon in Lower Granite Reservoir had a higher relative weight factor than white sturgeon in the free-flowing Snake River. A von Bertalanffy growth curve was fitted to 309 aged white sturgeon. The results suggest fish are currently growing faster than fish historically inhabiting the study area, as well as other Columbia River basin white sturgeon populations. Artificial substrate mats were used to document white sturgeon spawning. A total of 14 white sturgeon eggs were recovered in the Snake River in 2001.

  11. Evaluate Potential Means of Rebuilding Sturgeon Populations in the Snake River between Lower Granite and Hells Canyon Dams, 2000 Annual Report.

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Everett, Scott R.; Tuell, Michael A.

    2003-03-01

    The specific research goal of this project is to identify means to restore and rebuild the Snake River white sturgeon (Acipenser transmontanus) population to support a sustainable annual subsistence harvest equivalent to 5 kg/ha/yr (CBFWA 1997). Based on data collected, a white sturgeon adaptive management plan will be developed. This 2000 annual report covers the fourth year of sampling of this multi-year study. In 2000 white sturgeon were captured, marked, and population data were collected in the Snake and Salmon rivers. The Snake River was sampled between Lower Granite Dam (rkm 174) and the mouth of the Salmon River (rkm 303), and the Salmon River was sampled from its mouth upstream to Hammer Creek (rkm 84). A total of 53,277 hours of setline effort and 630 hours of hook-and-line effort was employed in 2000. A total of 538 white sturgeon were captured and tagged in the Snake River and 25 in the Salmon River. Since 1997, 32.8 percent of the tagged white sturgeon have been recaptured. In the Snake River, white sturgeon ranged in total length from 48 cm to 271 cm and averaged 107 cm. In the Salmon River, white sturgeon ranged in total length from 103 cm to 227 cm and averaged 163 cm. Using the Jolly-Seber open population estimator, the abundance of white sturgeon <60 cm, between Lower Granite Dam and the mouth of the Salmon River, was estimated at 2,725 fish, with a 95% confidence interval of 1,668-5,783. A total of 10 white sturgeon were fitted with radio-tags. The movement of these fish ranged from 54.7 km (34 miles) downstream to 78.8 km (49 miles) upstream; however, 43.6 percent of the detected movement was less than 0.8 km (0.5 mile). Both radio-tagged fish and recaptured white sturgeon in Lower Granite Reservoir appear to move more than fish in the free-flowing segment of the Snake River. No seasonal movement pattern was detected, and no movement pattern was detected for different size fish. Differences were detected in the length frequency distributions of white sturgeon in Lower Granite Reservoir and the free-flowing Snake River (Chi-Square test, P<0.05). The proportion of white sturgeon greater than 92 cm (total length) in the free-flowing Snake River has shown an increase of 31 percent since the 1970's. Analysis of the length-weight relationship indicated that white sturgeon in Lower Granite Reservoir had a higher relative weight factor than white sturgeon in the free-flowing Snake River. A von Bertalanffy growth curve was fitted to 138 aged white sturgeon. The results suggests fish are currently growing faster than fish historically inhabiting the study area, as well as other Columbia River basin white sturgeon populations. Artificial substrate mats were used to document white sturgeon spawning. A total of 34 white sturgeon eggs were recovered: 27 in the Snake River, and seven in the Salmon River.

  12. Evaluate Potenial Means of Rebuilding Sturgeon Populations in the Snake River between Lower Granite and Hells Canyon Dams, 2002 Annual Report.

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Everett, Scott R.; Tuell, Michael A.; Hesse, Jay A.

    2004-02-01

    The specific research goal of this project is to identify means to restore and rebuild the Snake River white sturgeon (Acipenser transmontanus) population to support a sustainable annual subsistence harvest equivalent to 5 kg/ha/yr (CBFWA 1997). Based on data collected, a white sturgeon adaptive management plan will be developed. This report presents a summary of results from the 1997-2002 Phase II data collection and represents the end of phase II. From 1997 to 2001 white sturgeon were captured, marked, and population data were collected in the Snake and Salmon. A total of 1,785 white sturgeon were captured and tagged in the Snake River and 77 in the Salmon River. Since 1997, 25.8 percent of the tagged white sturgeon have been recaptured. Relative density of white sturgeon was highest in the free-flowing segment of the Snake River, with reduced densities of fish in Lower Granite Reservoir, and low densities the Salmon River. Differences were detected in the length frequency distributions of white sturgeon in Lower Granite Reservoir, the free-flowing Snake River and the Salmon River (Chi-Square test, P<0.05). The proportion of white sturgeon greater than 92 cm (total length) in the free-flowing Snake River has shown an increase of 30 percent since the 1970's. Using the Jolly-Seber model, the abundance of white sturgeon <60 cm, between Lower Granite Dam and the mouth of the Salmon River, was estimated at 2,483 fish, with a 95% confidence interval of 1,208-7,477. Total annual mortality rate was estimated to be 0.14 (95% confidence interval of 0.12 to 0.17). A total of 35 white sturgeon were fitted with radio-tags during 1999-2002. The movement of these fish ranged from 53 km (33 miles) downstream to 77 km (48 miles) upstream; however, 38.8 percent of the detected movement was less than 0.8 km (0.5 mile). Both radio-tagged fish and recaptured white sturgeon in Lower Granite Reservoir appear to move more than fish in the free-flowing segment of the Snake River. No seasonal movement pattern was detected, and no movement pattern was detected for different size fish. Analysis of the length-weight relationship indicated that white sturgeon in Lower Granite Reservoir had a higher relative weight factor than white sturgeon in the free-flowing Snake River. The results suggest fish are currently growing faster than fish historically inhabiting the study area, as well as other Columbia River basin white sturgeon populations. Artificial substrate egg mats documented white sturgeon spawning in four consecutive years. A total of 49 white sturgeon eggs were recovered in the Snake River from 1999-2002, and seven from the Salmon River during 2000.

  13. Deactivation & Decommissioning Knowledge Management Information Tool (D&D

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    KM-IT) | Department of Energy Knowledge Management Information Tool (D&D KM-IT) Deactivation & Decommissioning Knowledge Management Information Tool (D&D KM-IT) Deactivation & Decommissioning Knowledge Management Information Tool (D&D KM-IT) The Deactivation and Decommissioning Knowledge Management Information Tool (D&D KM-IT) serves as a centralized repository providing a common interface for all D&D related activities. It assists users in gathering, analyzing,

  14. baepgfb-mac4a | netl.doe.gov

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Kruempel et al., (Midwest Power), Second Annual Clean Coal Technology Conference, Atlanta, GA Process Performance of Ahlstrom Pyroflow PCFB Pilot Plant (May 1993) K.M. Sellakumar, ...

  15. Microsoft Word - ARM report final DE-FG02-05ER63954.doc

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    ... of precipitating cloud parameters form satellite remote sensors. 3 1. Brief description ... system when the satellite ground track is at its closest to the ARM sensors ( 56 km). ...

  16. Airborne Electromagnetic Survey At Chena Geothermal Area (Kolker...

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    Phase I) Notes Fugro, Inc. performed an airborne geophysical survey using the DIGHEM (Digital Helicopter ElectroMagnetics) aircraft over a 937 km2 survey grid. An coplanar...

  17. Radiometrics At Chena Geothermal Area (Kolker, 2008) | Open Energy...

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    Phase I) Notes Fugro, Inc. performed an airborne geophysical survey using the DIGHEM (Digital Helicopter ElectroMagnetics) aircraft over a 937 km2 survey grid. Airborne gamma...

  18. stamnes-99.PDF

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    ... pressure and temperature, flow rates, film speed, condensation nuclei concentration (r > 0.02 micrometer) * max altitude: 2500 m with battery pack, 1 km on powered tether * ...

  19. 1

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    km horizontally, which may have a large influence on the energy budget of the atmosphere. ... of Platt and Dilley (1981) with modifications described in Comstock and Sassen (2001). ...

  20. File:SWERA-247.pdf | Open Energy Information

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    navigation, search File File history File usage Solar: monthly global horizontal (GHI) GIS data at 40km resolution for Bangladesh from NREL Size of this preview: 776 600...

  1. Microsoft Word - Xie-SC.doc

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Yio Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory Livermore, California K.-M. Xu National Aeronautics and Space Administration Langley Research Center Hampton, Virginia Introduction...

  2. PowerPoint Presentation

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    ... Hour Hour Height (km) Comparison of Microbase, Mace and Marchand Products References: Mace, GG, et al. 2006. "Cloud radiative forcing at the ARM Climate Research Facility: Part 1. ...

  3. Hydrothermal Reservoirs | Open Energy Information

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    5 km below the Earth's surface where there is heat, water and a permeable material (permeability in rock formations results from fractures, joints, pores, etc.). Often,...

  4. File:INL-geothermal-rdl-07-21-05-us-003.pdf | Open Energy Information

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    to: navigation, search File File history File usage Estimated geothermal temperature at 5 km with sediment thickness Size of this preview: 800 518 pixels. Full resolution...

  5. Analytical-Numerical Modeling Of Komatiite Lava Emplacement And...

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    submarine tuff. Flow distances must have been long (tens to hundreds of kilometers) and flow volumes must have been very high (hundreds to thousands of km3). Lava...

  6. Property:FirstWellDepth | Open Energy Information

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    their conversions) are: Meters - 1 m, meter, meters Meter, Meters, METER, METERS Kilometers - 0.001 km, kilometer, kilometers, Kilometer, Kilometers, KILOMETERS, KILOMETERS...

  7. Search for: All records | SciTech Connect

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    ... along with calibration, engineering flight test, and ... Total columnar amounts of water vapor, nitrogen dioxide ... Changes in the above-aircraft AOD across 3-km-deep spirals ...

  8. Assessing Your Renewable Energy Resources

    Energy Savers [EERE]

    Screening Approach NATIONAL RENEWABLE ENERGY LABORATORY Solar Resource Screening Analysis All Solar ... with direct normal solar resource estimates derived from 10 km satellite data. ...

  9. Ohaaki Geothermal Power Station | Open Energy Information

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    Station General Information Name Ohaaki Geothermal Power Station Sector Geothermal energy Location Information Location 20km NE of Taupo, Waikato, New Zealand Coordinates...

  10. Rotokawa Geothermal Power Plant | Open Energy Information

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    Power Plant General Information Name Rotokawa Geothermal Power Plant Sector Geothermal energy Location Information Location 14km NE of Taupo, Waikato, New Zealand Coordinates...

  11. Search for: All records | SciTech Connect

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    Energy Technology Engineering Center (ETEC), Canoga ... Km3 of Sea Water Kurahashi, Naoko ; Stanford U., Phys. ... noise measured in the deep ocean is studied in the ...

  12. Precipitation characteristics of CAM5 physics at mesoscale resolution...

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    during the Midlatitude Continental Convective Clouds ... behavior at 32 km grid spacing to better ... ISSN 1942-2466 Publisher: American Geophysical Union (AGU) ...

  13. Mineral Deformation at Earth's Core-Mantle Boundary

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    core-mantle boundary (CMB), 2900 km deep, seismologists have discovered that seismic waves travel faster in certain directions. This seismic anisotropy appears to be related to...

  14. Template:GeothermalRegion | Open Energy Information

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    area is located, in km. IdentifiedHydrothermalPotential - The identified hydrothermal electricity generation potential in megawatts, from the USGS resource estimate....

  15. SHIPROCK, NEW MEXICO

    Office of Legacy Management (LM)

    ... RADIOCHEMICAL ANALYSIS The determination of gross alpha was performed using gas ... Mill tailings; Al Alluvium; Km Mancos shale; Nr No recovery of data Surface ITater ...

  16. SHIPROCK, NEW MEXICO

    Office of Legacy Management (LM)

    ... RADIOCHEMICAL ANALYSIS The determination of gross alpha was performed using gas ... FI Fill material; Km Mancos Shale; Qa Quaternary 253: 2 34 R 3 X ;?AbJ ...

  17. SHIPROCK, NEW MEXICO

    Office of Legacy Management (LM)

    ... RADIOCHEMICAL ANALYSIS The determination of gross alpha was performed using gas ... Alluvium; F1 Fill material; Km Mancos Shale; Qa Quaternary RECORD COPY. , @ Pnntedm ...

  18. Hydrothermal Exploration Data Gap Analysis Update

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    ... geothermal plants (with 10-km radius) Urban areas Slopes >30% Preliminary Demand ...agencies * Remote sensing vendors * Mining companies * OilGas companies http:...

  19. United States Environmental Monitoring EPAJ60014-901016 Environmental...

    Office of Legacy Management (LM)

    ... 8 General Land Use Within 300 km of the ... and no exposure above natural background to the ... Trends were evaluated in the Noble Gas and Tritium, Milk ...

  20. ARM - Evaluation Product - Merged Sounding VAP

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    altitude - 20 km above mean sea level - is attained. Data Details Contact Michael Jensen Brookhaven National Laboratory mjensen@bnl.gov (631) 344-7021 30 Bell Avenue,...

  1. Conceptual Model At Dixie Valley Geothermal Area (Bell, Et Al...

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    to interpret the subsurface down to 20 km. References Elaine J. Bell, Lawrence T. Larson, Russell W. Juncal (1980) Geothermal Reservoir Assessment Case Study, Northern Basin...

  2. Initial Results of Magnetotelluric Array Surveying at the Dixie...

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    (1-12 km) southeastward from the topographic scarp of the Stillwater Range. Author Philip E. Wannamaker Published Journal Geothermal Resources Council, TRANSACTIONS, 2003 DOI...

  3. Workbook Contents

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    Gas Co (Pony Express Pipeline)","Central","Central","Kansas","Decatur","Nebraska","Red Wallow",0 2015,"KM Interstate Gas Co (Pony Express Pipeline)","Central","Central","Kans...

  4. Refraction Survey | Open Energy Information

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    The scale ranges from 20-55 km depth with blue representing thicker crust and red showing thinner crust.1 Great Basin crustal thickness map interpreted from seismic...

  5. Search for: All records | SciTech Connect

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    (2) dna damages (2) engineering (2) environmental ... a single species ecosystem deep within the Earth Chivian, ... low biodiversity fracture water collected at 2.8 km depth ...

  6. Sustaining knowledge in the neutron generator community and benchmarking study.

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Barrentine, Tameka C.; Kennedy, Bryan C.; Saba, Anthony W.; Turgeon, Jennifer L.; Schneider, Julia Teresa; Stubblefield, William Anthony; Baldonado, Esther

    2008-03-01

    In 2004, the Responsive Neutron Generator Product Deployment department embarked upon a partnership with the Systems Engineering and Analysis knowledge management (KM) team to develop knowledge management systems for the neutron generator (NG) community. This partnership continues today. The most recent challenge was to improve the current KM system (KMS) development approach by identifying a process that will allow staff members to capture knowledge as they learn it. This 'as-you-go' approach will lead to a sustainable KM process for the NG community. This paper presents a historical overview of NG KMSs, as well as research conducted to move toward sustainable KM.

  7. File:SWERA-277.pdf | Open Energy Information

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    horizontal (GHI) map at 40km resolution for Southern Mexico (Oaxaca, Veracruz, and Chiapas) from NREL Size of this preview: 776 600 pixels. Full resolution (1,650 ...

  8. Microsoft Word - NRAP-TRS-III-001-2013_Well Leakage from CO2...

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    and boundary conditions. 1500 m well, 5-cm radius shale reservoir 100 m 2-km radius ground surface, constant temperature and pressure constant temperature, pressure, and...

  9. DC Resistivity Survey (Wenner Array) At Mt Princeton Hot Springs...

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    and produced 12 resistivity profiles, each approximately 1.3 km in length. Equilibrium temperature data from wells and shallow (305 cm) holes was correlated to geoelectrical...

  10. Temporal Shifts in the Geochemistry and Microbial Community Structure of an Ultradeep Mine Borehole Following Isolation

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Moser, Duane P. ); Onstott, T C.; Fredrickson, Jim K. ); Brockman, Fred J. ); Balkwill, David L.; Drake, G R.; Pfiffner, S; White, D C.; Takai, K Project Japan); Pratt, L M.; Fong, J; Lollar, B S.; Slater, G; Phelps, T J. ); Spoelstra, N ); Deflaun, M; Southam, G; Welty, A T.; Baker, B J.; Hoek, J

    2003-12-01

    A borehole draining a water-bearing dyke fracture at 3.2 km depth in a South African Au mine was isolated from the open mine environment...

  11. Opportunities for Field Research | Savannah River Ecology Laboratory

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    pine (P. palustris) forests; orangesreds upland hardwoods; pinkviolet forested wetlands; dark blue water. SRS vegetation map RESEARCH SITES Ninety percent (720km2) of the...

  12. Evaluate Potential Means of Rebuilding Sturgeon Populations in the Snake River between Lower Granite and Hells Canyon Dams, 1999 Annual Report.

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Tuell, Michael A.; Everett, Scott R.

    2003-03-01

    The specific research goal of this project is to identify means to restore and rebuild the Snake River white sturgeon (Acipenser transmontanus) population to support a sustainable annual subsistence harvest equivalent to 5 kg/ha/yr (CBFWA 1997). Based on data collected, a white sturgeon adaptive management plan will be developed. This 1999 annual report covers the third year of sampling of this multi-year study. In 1999 white sturgeon were captured, marked and population data were collected in the Snake and Salmon rivers. A total of 33,943 hours of setline effort and 2,112 hours of hook-and-line effort was employed in 1999. A total of 289 white sturgeon were captured and tagged in the Snake River and 29 in the Salmon River. Since 1997, 11.1 percent of the tagged white sturgeon have been recaptured. In the Snake River, white sturgeon ranged in total length from 27 cm to 261 cm and averaged 110 cm. In the Salmon River, white sturgeon ranged in total length from 98 cm to 244 cm and averaged 183.5 cm. Using the Jolly-Seber model, the abundance of white sturgeon < 60 cm, between Lower Granite Dam and the mouth of the Salmon River, was estimated at 1,823 fish, with a 95% confidence interval of 1,052-4,221. A total of 15 white sturgeon were fitted with radio-tags. The movement of these fish ranged from 6.4 km (4 miles) downstream to 13.7 km (8.5 miles) upstream; however, 83.6 percent of the detected movement was less than 0.8 kilometers (0.5 miles). Both radio-tagged fish and recaptured white sturgeon in Lower Granite Reservoir appear to move more than fish in the free-flowing segment of the Snake River. No seasonal movement pattern was detected, and no movement pattern was detected for different size fish. Differences were detected in the length frequency distributions of white sturgeon in Lower Granite Reservoir and the free-flowing Snake River (Chi-Square test, P < 0.05). The proportion of white sturgeon greater than 92 cm (total length) in the free-flowing Snake River has shown an increase of 29 percent since the 1970's. Analysis of the length-weight relationship indicated that white sturgeon in Lower Granite Reservoir were slightly larger than white sturgeon in the free-flowing Snake River. A von Bertalanffy growth curve was fitted to 49 aged white sturgeon. The results suggests the fish are currently growing faster than fish historicly inhabiting the study area, as well as other Columbia River basin white sturgeon populations. Artificial substrate mats were used to document white sturgeon spawning. Five white sturgeon eggs were recovered in the Snake River.

  13. Validation of an Integrated Hydrogen Energy Station

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Edward C. Heydorn

    2012-10-26

    This report presents the results of a 10-year project conducted by Air Products and Chemicals, Inc. (Air Products) to determine the feasibility of coproducing hydrogen with electricity. The primary objective was to demonstrate the technical and economic viability of a hydrogen energy station using a high-temperature fuel cell designed to produce power and hydrogen. This four-phase project had intermediate go/no-go decisions and the following specific goals: • Complete a technical assessment and economic analysis of the use of high-temperature fuel cells, including solid oxide and molten carbonate, for the co-production of power and hydrogen (energy park concept). • Build on the experience gained at the Las Vegas H2 Energy Station and compare/contrast the two approaches for co-production. • Determine the applicability of co-production from a high-temperature fuel cell for the existing merchant hydrogen market and for the emerging hydrogen economy. • Demonstrate the concept on natural gas for six months at a suitable site with demand for both hydrogen and electricity. • Maintain safety as the top priority in the system design and operation. • Obtain adequate operational data to provide the basis for future commercial activities, including hydrogen fueling stations. Work began with the execution of the cooperative agreement with DOE on 30 September 2001. During Phase 1, Air Products identified high-temperature fuel cells as having the potential to meet the coproduction targets, and the molten carbonate fuel cell system from FuelCell Energy, Inc. (FuelCell Energy) was selected by Air Products and DOE following the feasibility assessment performed during Phase 2. Detailed design, construction and shop validation testing of a system to produce 250 kW of electricity and 100 kilograms per day of hydrogen, along with site selection to include a renewable feedstock for the fuel cell, were completed in Phase 3. The system also completed six months of demonstration operation at the wastewater treatment facility operated by Orange County Sanitation District (OCSD, Fountain Valley, CA). As part of achieving the objective of operating on a renewable feedstock, Air Products secured additional funding via an award from the California Air Resources Board. The South Coast Air Quality Management District also provided cost share which supported the objectives of this project. System operation at OCSD confirmed the results from shop validation testing performed during Phase 3. Hydrogen was produced at rates and purity that met the targets from the system design basis, and coproduction efficiency exceeded the 50% target set in conjunction with input from the DOE. Hydrogen production economics, updated from the Phase 2 analysis, showed pricing of $5 to $6 per kilogram of hydrogen using current gas purification systems. Hydrogen costs under $3 per kilogram are achievable if next-generation electrochemical separation technologies become available.

  14. THE RETURN OF THE ANDROMEDIDS METEOR SHOWER

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Wiegert, Paul A.; Brown, Peter G.; Weryk, Robert J.; Wong, Daniel K.

    2013-03-15

    The Andromedid meteor shower underwent spectacular outbursts in 1872 and 1885, producing thousands of visual meteors per hour and described as ''stars fell like rain'' in Chinese records of the time. The shower originates from comet 3D/Biela whose disintegration in the mid-1800's is linked to the outbursts, but the shower has been weak or absent since the late 19th century. This shower returned in 2011 December with a zenithal hourly rate of approximately 50, the strongest return in over a hundred years. Some 122 probable Andromedid orbits were detected by the Canadian Meteor Orbit Radar while one possible brighter Andromedid member was detected by the Southern Ontario Meteor Network and several single station possible Andromedids by the Canadian Automated Meteor Observatory. The shower outburst occurred during 2011 December 3-5. The radiant at R.A. +18 Degree-Sign and decl. +56 Degree-Sign is typical of the ''classical'' Andromedids of the early 1800s, whose radiant was actually in Cassiopeia. Numerical simulations of the shower were necessary to identify it with the Andromedids, as the observed radiant differs markedly from the current radiant associated with that shower. The shower's orbital elements indicate that the material involved was released before 3D/Biela's breakup prior to 1846. The observed shower in 2011 had a slow geocentric speed (V{sub G} = 16 km s{sup -1}) and was comprised of small particles: the mean measured mass from the radar is {approx}5 Multiplication-Sign 10{sup -7} kg, corresponding to radii of 0.5 mm at a bulk density of 1000 kg m{sup -3}. Numerical simulations of the parent comet indicate that the meteoroids of the 2011 return of the Andromedids shower were primarily ejected during 3D/Biela's 1649 perihelion passage. The orbital characteristics, radiant, and timing as well as the absence of large particles in the streamlet are all broadly consistent with simulations. However, simulations of the 1649 perihelion passage necessitate going back five Lyapunov times (which is only 25 yr for the highly perturbed parent). As a result, the stream evolution is somewhat uncertain and some discrepancy with the observations is to be expected: the radiant is 8 Degree-Sign off, the inclination 3 Degree-Sign higher, and the peak of the shower occurs a day earlier than predicted. Predictions are made regarding other appearances of the shower in the years 2000-2047 based on our numerical model. We note that the details of the 2011 return can, in principle, be used to better constrain the orbit of 3D/Biela prior to the comets first recorded return in 1772 and we address this issue briefly as well.

  15. The pulsed linear induction motor concept for high-speed trains

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Turman, B.N.; Marder, B.M.; Rohwein, G.J.; Aeschliman, D.P.; Kelley, J.B.; Cowan, M.; Zimmerman, R.M.

    1995-06-01

    The SERAPBIM (SEgmented RAil PHased Induction Motor) concept is a linear induction motor concept which uses rapidly-pulsed magnetic fields and a segmented reaction rail, as opposed to low-frequency fields and continuous reaction rails found in conventional linear induction motors. These improvements give a high-traction, compact, and efficient linear motor that has potential for advanced high speed rail propulsion. In the SERAPBIM concept, coils on the vehicle push against a segmented aluminum rail, which is mounted on the road bed. Current is pulsed as the coils cross an edge of the segmented rail, inducing surface currents which repel the coil. The coils must be pulsed in synchronization with the movement by reaction rail segments. This is provided by a sense-and-fire circuit that controls the pulsing of the power modulators. Experiments were conducted to demonstrate the feasibility of the pulsed induction motor and to collect data that could be used for scaling calculations. A 14.4 kg aluminum plate was accelerated down a 4 m track to speeds of over 15 m/sec with peak thrust up to 18 kN per coilset. For a trainset capable of 200 mph speed, the SERAPHIM concept design is based on coils which are each capable of producing up to 3.5 kN thrust, and 30 coil pairs are mounted on each power car. Two power cars, one at each end of the train, provide 6 MW from two gas turbine prime power units. The thrust is about 210.000 N and is essentially constant up to 200 km/hr since wheel slippage does not limit thrust as with conventional wheeled propulsion. A key component of the SERAPHIM concept is the use of passive wheel-on-rah support for the high speed vehicle. Standard steel wheels are capable of handling over 200 mph. The SERAPHIM cost is comparable to that for steel-wheel high-speed rail, and about 10% to 25% of the projected costs for a comparable Maglev system.

  16. Hydrogen production and delivery analysis in US markets : cost, energy and greenhouse gas emissions.

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Mintz, M.; Gillette, J.; Elgowainy, A.

    2009-01-01

    Hydrogen production cost conclusions are: (1) Steam Methane Reforming (SMR) is the least-cost production option at current natural gas prices and for initial hydrogen vehicle penetration rates, at high production rates, SMR may not be the least-cost option; (2) Unlike coal and nuclear technologies, the cost of natural gas feedstock is the largest contributor to SMR production cost; (3) Coal- and nuclear-based hydrogen production have significant penalties at small production rates (and benefits at large rates); (4) Nuclear production of hydrogen is likely to have large economies of scale, but because fixed O&M costs are uncertain, the magnitude of these effects may be understated; and (5) Given H2A default assumptions for fuel prices, process efficiencies and labor costs, nuclear-based hydrogen is likely to be more expensive to produce than coal-based hydrogen. Carbon taxes and caps can narrow the gap. Hydrogen delivery cost conclusions are: (1) For smaller urban markets, compressed gas delivery appears most economic, although cost inputs for high-pressure gas trucks are uncertain; (2) For larger urban markets, pipeline delivery is least costly; (3) Distance from hydrogen production plant to city gate may change relative costs (all results shown assume 100 km); (4) Pipeline costs may be reduced with system 'rationalization', primarily reductions in service pipeline mileage; and (5) Liquefier and pipeline capital costs are a hurdle, particularly at small market sizes. Some energy and greenhouse gas Observations: (1) Energy use (per kg of H2) declines slightly with increasing production or delivery rate for most components (unless energy efficiency varies appreciably with scale, e.g., liquefaction); (2) Energy use is a strong function of production technology and delivery mode; (3) GHG emissions reflect the energy efficiency and carbon content of each component in a production-delivery pathway; (4) Coal and natural gas production pathways have high energy consumption and significant GHG emissions (in the absence of carbon caps, taxes or sequestration); (5) Nuclear pathway is most favorable from energy use and GHG emissions perspective; (6) GH2 Truck and Pipeline delivery have much lower energy use and GHG emissions than LH2 Truck delivery; and (7) For LH2 Truck delivery, the liquefier accounts for most of the energy and GHG emissions.

  17. Ambient H sub 2 S monitoring in the vicinity of Hawaii's first geothermal power plant

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Morrow, J.W. ); Thomas, D.M. ); Burkard, H.D. )

    1988-01-01

    In December, 1975, work began on Hawaii's first successful geothermal well in the East Rift Zone of Kilauea Volcano on the Island of Hawaii (Figure 1). By July, 1976, the well, named Hawaii Geothermal Project - A (HGP-A), was complete to a depth of almost 2 km and had encountered a volcanically driven hydrothermal system having a temperature in excess of 358{degrees} C and a fluid chemistry composed of a mixture of seawater, meteoric water, and volcanic volatiles. The principal chemical constituents of the fluid are listed in Table I. Note the relatively high H{sub 2}S concentration which ranged 900 - 1,000 ppmw. During the early testing of the well, the superheated geothermal fluid was allowed to flash at normal atmospheric pressure with steam and noncondensable gases being released unabated into the atmosphere. The high H{sub 2}S and noise (120 dBA) levels and the close proximity of the Leilani Estates residential subdivision were cause for concern and efforts were thus made to mitigate these impacts. Certain elements of the initial test protocol required that the well be allowed to flow freely and unabated. During these periods public notice and prewarning were the most feasible means of mitigation. At other times, the mixed fluid is separated into steam and brine phases with the steam phase being treated with NaOH and then released through a rock muffler. The brine phase is released through a separate muffling system. Chemical treatment of the stream with NaOH converts the H{sub 2}S into a soluble sulfide salt through the following reaction: H{sub 2}S(g) + NaOH {r arrow} NaHS(s) + H{sub 2}O. This paper discusses early flow testing revealed that the well was able to produce a steady flow of approximately 50,000 kg per hour of steam and water at a pressure of 1200 kPA and thus appeared suitable for power generation.

  18. CLEAN HYDROGEN TECHNOLOGY FOR 3-WHEEL TRANSPORTATION IN INDIA

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Krishna Sapru

    2005-11-15

    Hydrogen is a clean burning, non-polluting transportation fuel. It is also a renewable energy carrier that can be produced from non-fossil fuel resources such as solar, wind and biomass. Utilizing hydrogen as an alternative fuel for vehicles will diversify the resources of energy, and reduce dependence on oil in the transportation sector. Additionally, clean burning hydrogen fuel will also alleviate air pollution that is a very severe problem in many parts of world, especially major metropolitan areas in developing countries, such as India and China. In our efforts to foster international collaborations in the research, development, and demonstration of hydrogen technologies, through a USAID/DOE cost-shared project, Energy Conversion Devices, Inc.,(www.ovonic.com) a leading materials and alternative energy company, in collaboration with Bajaj Auto Limited, India's largest three-wheeler taxi manufacturer, has successfully developed and demonstrated prototype hydrogen ICE three-wheelers in the United States and India. ECD's proprietary Ovonic solid-state hydrogen storage technology is utilized on-board to provide a means of compact, low pressure, and safe hydrogen fuel. These prototype hydrogen three-wheelers have demonstrated comparable performance to the original CNG version of the vehicle, achieving a driving range of 130 km. The hydrogen storage system capable of storing 1 kg hydrogen can be refilled to 80% of its capacity in about 15 minutes at a pressure of 300 psi. The prototype vehicles developed under this project have been showcased and made available for test rides to the public at exhibits such as the 16th NHA annual meeting in April 2005, Washington, DC, and the SIAM (Society of Indian Automotive Manufacturers) annual conference in August 2005, New Delhi, India. Passengers have included members of the automotive industry, founders of both ECD and Bajaj, members of the World Bank, the Indian Union Minister for Finance, the President of the Asia Development Bank, members of USAID, USDOE and many other individuals, all of whom have had praise for the vehicle and the technology. The progress made through this phase I work and the importance of hydrogen three-wheelers has also resulted in extensive press coverage by the news media around the world.

  19. Section 7

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    ... Values in parentheses are (contour interval, maximum value) in g kg . Horizontal scale ... in precipitation efficiency are much less than the changes in cloud water production. ...

  20. U.S. DOE Webinar Series - 2011-2012 Hydrogen Student Design Contest

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    ... Total manure available per day is 27,387 kg. * 95% of rice production in California takes ... * Catalyst is Zeolite, Activated Carbon, Silica Gel * Cycling Schedule: Pressurization, ...

  1. Distributed Hydrogen Production from Natural Gas: Independent Review Panel Report

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE)

    Independent review report on the available information concerning the technologies needed for forecourts producing 150 kg/day of hydrogen from natural gas.

  2. Pathways to Hydrocarbon Biofuels: Update on the Office's Techno...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Pathway TEA - Sustainability Coordination Design Report Environmental Sustainability Metrics GHG emissions kg CO2eGJ Conversion Plant Fossil Energy Consumption MJMJ ...

  3. DOE-STD-1090-2004; Hoisting and Rigging (Formerly Hoisting and...

    Energy Savers [EERE]

    (4,500 kg) or More for Nuclear Materials." 14.1 GENERAL ... 14.2.6 Testing......shall be documented in the equipment history file. b. ...

  4. Hoisting and Rigging

    Energy Savers [EERE]

    (4,500 kg) or More for Nuclear Materials." 14.1 GENERAL ... 14.2.6 Testing......shall be documented in the equipment history file. b. ...

  5. EERE Success Story-Lightweight Technology Resolved Challenge...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    underbody of a vehicle while carrying its crash loads, developed an underbody 13 kg ... When researchers tested the underbody through a simulated 40 mph crash, they found it ...

  6. Distributed Hydrogen Production from Natural Gas: Independent Review

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Fletcher, J.; Callaghan, V.

    2006-10-01

    Independent review report on the available information concerning the technologies needed for forecourts producing 150 kg/day of hydrogen from natural gas.

  7. Soda Lake Geothermal Area | Open Energy Information

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    of Reservoir: 1219 m1.219 km 0.757 mi 3,999.344 ft 1,333.111 yd 1 Average Depth to Reservoir: 762 m0.762 km 0.473 mi 2,500 ft 833.331 yd Use the "Edit with Form" button at...

  8. SHIPROCK, NEW MEXICO

    Office of Legacy Management (LM)

    ...081999 NW1 KM N 10 U R 10 - Alkalinity sa CaC03 men 08W Om41999 0001 KM 0 1318 L - ... Y LPbastwf M n e d (USEPA CLP upnlc) q d h k , .sa oo.s mnsStm. > R w l t p b o v a u p p ...

  9. Property:EstReservoirVol | Open Energy Information

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    km 1.799 mi 264,860,000,407.5 ft 9,809,629,642.5 yd 7,500,000,000,000 L + B Bac-Man Laguna Geothermal Area + 27,500,000,000 m27.5 km 6.598 mi 971,153,334,827.5 ft...

  10. Property:AvgReservoirDepth | Open Energy Information

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    yd + Amedee Geothermal Area + 213 m0.213 km 0.132 mi 698.819 ft 232.939 yd + B Bac-Man Laguna Geothermal Area + 1,500 m1.5 km 0.932 mi 4,921.26 ft 1,640.415 yd + Bad Blumau...

  11. Scaling of interceptors for theater defense

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Canavan, G.H.

    1993-11-01

    For nominal GBI and SBI cost parameters GNIs are preferred for missile ranges under {approx} 1.000 km; for multiple theaters breakeven ranges decreases to {approx} 500 km. Penalties for using GBIs rather than SBIs for long-range missiles are {approx} factor of 2; penalties for using SBIs for short-range missiles an be larger.

  12. Sustaining knowledge in the neutron generator community and benchmarking study. Phase II.

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Huff, Tameka B.; Stubblefield, William Anthony; Cole, Benjamin Holland, II; Baldonado, Esther

    2010-08-01

    This report documents the second phase of work under the Sustainable Knowledge Management (SKM) project for the Neutron Generator organization at Sandia National Laboratories. Previous work under this project is documented in SAND2008-1777, Sustaining Knowledge in the Neutron Generator Community and Benchmarking Study. Knowledge management (KM) systems are necessary to preserve critical knowledge within organizations. A successful KM program should focus on people and the process for sharing, capturing, and applying knowledge. The Neutron Generator organization is developing KM systems to ensure knowledge is not lost. A benchmarking study involving site visits to outside industry plus additional resource research was conducted during this phase of the SKM project. The findings presented in this report are recommendations for making an SKM program successful. The recommendations are activities that promote sharing, capturing, and applying knowledge. The benchmarking effort, including the site visits to Toyota and Halliburton, provided valuable information on how the SEA KM team could incorporate a KM solution for not just the neutron generators (NG) community but the entire laboratory. The laboratory needs a KM program that allows members of the workforce to access, share, analyze, manage, and apply knowledge. KM activities, such as communities of practice (COP) and sharing best practices, provide a solution towards creating an enabling environment for KM. As more and more people leave organizations through retirement and job transfer, the need to preserve knowledge is essential. Creating an environment for the effective use of knowledge is vital to achieving the laboratory's mission.

  13. Implementation Plan for the Office of Nuclear Energy Knowledge Management Program

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Kimberlyn C. Mousseau

    2011-12-01

    The primary purpose of the Department of Energy (DOE), Office of Nuclear Energy (NE) Knowledge Management (KM) Program is to capture, share, disseminate, and ensure the ability to apply the knowledge created by the major nuclear energy Research and Development (R&D) programs. In support of the KM program, the Implementation Plan for the Office of NE KM Program outlines the knowledge management and distributed data environment that is required for its success. In addition to enumerating some strategic goals and objectives, this document characterizes the initial program and identifies computer-based areas of investment required for increased knowledge sharing and collaboration. It identifies and addresses investments already in existence and describes how these investments can be further enhanced and implemented to support a distributed KM program. The Idaho National Laboratory (INL) is leading the effort to identify and address these investments through the implementation of a distributed KM program that includes participants from ten of the major DOE national laboratories.

  14. Development of dense-phase pneumatic transport of coal

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Horisaka, S.; Ikemiya, H.; Kajiwara, T.

    1996-12-31

    Dense phase pneumatic transport system has been developed to reduce entrained particles as is seen in the belt conveyor system. High mass flow rate and dense phase (Loading ratio = 50--100kg-coal/kg-N{sub 2}) transport has been achieved by applying this plug flow system to pneumatic conveying of coal (Average particle diameter = 2.5 mm).

  15. Reference Designs for Hydrogen Fueling Stations

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    ... (2,6) - B2B fills 19 Cost of hydrogen typically varies from 40kg to a low of 6kg G - gaseous L - liquid B - booster C - cascade (1,2) - Num Hoses (2,6) - B2B fills 20 Full ...

  16. Geochemical simulation of dissolution of West Valley and DWPF [Defense Waste Product Facility] glasses in J-13 water at 90{sup 0}C.

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Bruton, C.J.

    1987-11-01

    Dissolution of West Valley and Defense Waste Product Facility (DWPF) glasses in J-13 water at 90{sup 0}C at the candidate Yucca Mountain, Nevada repository was simulated using the EQ3/6 computer code package. The objectives of the study were to attempt to predict the concentrations of radionuclides and other glass components in solution resulting from glass dissolution, and to identify potential precipitates that sequester glass components. Modified projected inventories of 10,000 year-old West Valley and DWPF SRL-165 frit glasses were used as starting glass compositions. J-13 water was considered to be representative of groundwater at Yucca Mountain. A total of 10 grams of each glass was assumed to dissolve congruently into a kilogram of J-13 water in a closed system. No inhibitions to precipitation, except for crystalline SiO{sub 2} polymorphs, were assumed to exist. Radiolysis and materials interactions were not considered. Simulation results predict that radionuclides and other glass components precipitate predominantly in the form of oxides and hydroxides, together with carbonates, silicates and phosphates. Precipitates appear to be effective in limiting the concentrations of radionuclides and other elements in solution. The general compositional trends in precipitates and solution chemistry are the same in the West Valley and DWPF simulations, except for variations arising from differences in glass chemistry. 20 refs., 7 figs., 3 tabs.

  17. Combustion synthesis and engineering nanoparticles for electronic, structural and superconductor applications. Final report, May 31, 1992--May 30, 1996

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Stangle, G.C.; Schulze, W.A.; Amarakoon, V.R.W.

    1996-05-30

    Dense, nanocrystalline ceramic articles of doped ZrO{sub 2} (for use in solid electrolytes, oxygen sensors, electrode materials, thermal barrier coatings, etc.), BaTiO{sub 3} (for capacitor applications), and YBa{sub 2}Cu{sub 3}O{sub 7-x} (a high-temperature superconductor with uses, e.g., in magnetic flux trapping and high-speed capacitor applications) were prepared by the new nanofabrication process that has been developed in this research program. The process consists of two steps: synthesis of ceramic nanoparticles, and fabrication of dense ceramic articles that possess nanocrystalline features. The synthesis step is capable of producing 10-nanometer-diameter crystallites of doped ZrO{sub 2}, and of being scaled up to kilogram/hour production rates. The fabrication step produced dense, ultrafine-grained articles at significantly reduced sintering temperatures and times--representing a factor of 10-100 reduction in process energy requirements. The process has thus been shown to be technically feasible, while a preliminary engineering cost analysis of a pilot plant-scale version of the process indicates that it is both a cost- and an energy-efficient method of producing nanoparticles and nanocrystalline ceramics from those nanoparticles. One U.S. patent for this process has been allowed, and an additional five (continuation-in-part) applications have been filed. Technology transfer efforts have begun, through ongoing discussions with representatives from three manufacturing concerns.

  18. Metal Hydrides for High-Temperature Power Generation

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Ronnebro, Ewa; Whyatt, Greg A.; Powell, Michael R.; Westman, Matthew P.; Zheng, Feng; Fang, Zhigang Zak

    2015-08-10

    Metal hydrides can be utilized for hydrogen storage and for thermal energy storage (TES) applications. By using TES with solar technologies, heat can be stored from sun energy to be used later which enables continuous power generation. We are developing a TES technology based on a dual-bed metal hydride system, which has a high-temperature (HT) metal hydride operating reversibly at 600-800°C to generate heat as well as a low-temperature (LT) hydride near room temperature that is used for hydrogen storage during sun hours until there is a need to produce electricity, such as during night time, a cloudy day, or during peak hours. We proceeded from selecting a high-energy density, low-cost HT-hydride based on performance characterization on gram size samples, to scale-up to kilogram quantities and design, fabrication and testing of a 1.5kWh, 200kWh/m3 bench-scale TES prototype based on a HT-bed of titanium hydride and a hydrogen gas storage instead of a LT-hydride. COMSOL Multiphysics was used to make performance predictions for cylindrical hydride beds with varying diameters and thermal conductivities. Based on experimental and modeling results, a bench-scale prototype was designed and fabricated and we successfully showed feasibility to meet or exceed all performance targets.

  19. Forecast of Standard Atomic Weights for the Mononuclidic Elements – 2011

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Holden, N.E.; Holden, N.; Holden,N.E.

    2011-07-27

    In this short report, I will provide an early warning about potential changes to the standard atomic weight values for the twenty mononuclidic and the so-called pseudo-mononuclidic ({sup 232}Th and {sup 231}Pa) chemical elements due to the estimated changes in the mass values to be published in the next Atomic Mass Tables within the next two years. There have been many new measurements of atomic masses, since the last published Atomic Mass Table. The Atomic Mass Data Center has released an unpublished version of the present status of the atomic mass values as a private communication. We can not update the Standard Atomic Weight Table at this time based on these unpublished values but we can anticipate how many changes are probably going to be expected in the next few years on the basis of the forthcoming publication of the Atomic Mass Table. I will briefly discuss the procedures that the Atomic Weights Commission used in deriving the recommended Standard Atomic Weight values and their uncertainties from the atomic mass values. I will also discuss some concern raised about a proposed change in the definition of the mole. The definition of the mole is now connected directly to the mass of a {sup 12}C isotope (which is defined as 12 exactly) and to the kilogram. A change in the definition of the mole will probably impact the mass of {sup 12}C.

  20. A review of battery life-cycle analysis : state of knowledge and critical needs.

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Sullivan, J. L.; Gaines, L.; Energy Systems

    2010-12-22

    A literature review and evaluation has been conducted on cradle-to-gate life-cycle inventory studies of lead-acid, nickel-cadmium, nickel-metal hydride, sodium-sulfur, and lithium-ion battery technologies. Data were sought that represent the production of battery constituent materials and battery manufacture and assembly. Life-cycle production data for many battery materials are available and usable, though some need updating. For the remaining battery materials, lifecycle data either are nonexistent or, in some cases, in need of updating. Although battery manufacturing processes have occasionally been well described, detailed quantitative information on energy and material flows is missing. For all but the lithium-ion batteries, enough constituent material production energy data are available to approximate material production energies for the batteries, though improved input data for some materials are needed. Due to the potential benefit of battery recycling and a scarcity of associated data, there is a critical need for life-cycle data on battery material recycling. Either on a per kilogram or per watt-hour capacity basis, lead-acid batteries have the lowest production energy, carbon dioxide emissions, and criteria pollutant emissions. Some process-related emissions are also reviewed in this report.

  1. Site wide integration of the Rocky Flats closure project

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Burdge, L.F.; Golan, P.

    1998-06-01

    The prime contractor for the Rocky Flats Closure Project (RFCP), Kaiser-Hill, in concert with the Department of Energy--Rocky Flats Field Office (DOE-RFFO) has applied a fully integrated, life-cycle, critical path schedule and work planning system to manage the work that is required to close the Site. The closure of the Site is complex, in that it houses over 700 facilities, 19,600 kilograms of Special Nuclear Material (Plutonium and Uranium), and over 160,000 cubic meters of Transuranic, Low Level, and Hazardous Waste. The deactivation, decommissioning, decontaminating, and demolition of this large number of facilities, while at the same time accommodating difficult on-going activities, significantly increases the sophistication required in the planning process. The Rocky Flats team has overcome these difficulties by establishing a money oriented critical path process, to provide a least-cost avenue to supporting on-going activities and a line-of-balance process for production oriented activities. These processes, when integrated with a typical activity-based project planning system, guide the way to the shortest and most cost-effective course for the closure of the Rocky Flats Site.

  2. Hydrogen storage composition and method

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Wicks, G.G.; Heung, L.K.

    1994-01-01

    A hydrogen storage composition based on a metal hydride dispersed in an aerogel prepared by a sol-gel process. The starting material for the aerogel is an organometallic compound, including the alkoxysilanes, organometals of the form M(OR){sub X} where R is an organic ligand of the form C{sub n}H{sub 2n+1}, and organometals of the form MO{sub x}Ry where R is an alkyl group, where M is an oxide-forming metal, n, x and y are integers and y is two less than the valence of M. A sol is prepared by combining the starting material, alcohol, water, and an acid. The sol is conditioned to the proper viscosity and a hydride in the form of a fine powder is added. The mixture is polymerized and dried under supercritical conditions. The final product is a composition having a hydride uniformly dispersed throughout an inert, stable and highly porous matrix. It is capable of absorbing up to 30 motes of hydrogen per kilogram at room temperature and pressure, rapidly and reversibly. Hydrogen absorbed by the composition can be readily be recovered by heat or evacuation.

  3. Hydrogen storage composition and method

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Heung, Leung K; Wicks, George G.

    2003-01-01

    A hydrogen storage composition based on a metal hydride dispersed in an aerogel prepared by a sol-gel process. The starting material for the aerogel is an organometallic compound, including the alkoxysilanes, organometals of the form M(OR)x and MOxRy, where R is an alkyl group of the form C.sub.n H.sub.2n+1, M is an oxide-forming metal, n, x, and y are integers, and y is two less than the valence of M. A sol is prepared by combining the starting material, alcohol, water, and an acid. The sol is conditioned to the proper viscosity and a hydride in the form of a fine powder is added. The mixture is polymerized and dried under supercritical conditions. The final product is a composition having a hydride uniformly dispersed throughout an inert, stable and highly porous matrix. It is capable of absorbing up to 30 moles of hydrogen per kilogram at room temperature and pressure, rapidly and reversibly. Hydrogen absorbed by the composition can be readily be recovered by heat or evacuation.

  4. A COMPLETE HISTORY OF THE HIGH-LEVEL WASTE PLANT AT THE WEST VALLEY DEMONSTRATION PROJECT

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Petkus, Lawrence L.; Paul, James; Valenti, Paul J.; Houston, Helene; May, Joseph

    2003-02-27

    The West Valley Demonstration Project (WVDP) vitrification melter was shut down in September 2002 after being used to vitrify High Level Waste (HLW) and process system residuals for six years. Processing of the HLW occurred from June 1996 through November 2001, followed by a program to flush the remaining HLW through to the melter. Glass removal and shutdown followed. The facility and process equipment is currently in a standby mode awaiting deactivation. During HLW processing operations, nearly 24 million curies of radioactive material were vitrified into 275 canisters of HLW glass. At least 99.7% of the curies in the HLW tanks at the WVDP were vitrified using the melter. Each canister of HLW holds approximately 2000 kilograms of glass with an average contact dose rate of over 2600 rem per hour. After vitrification processing ended, two more cans were filled using the Evacuated Canister Process to empty the melter at shutdown. This history briefly summarizes the initial stages of process development and earlier WVDP experience in the design and operation of the vitrification systems, followed by a more detailed discussion of equipment availability and failure rates during six years of operation. Lessons learned operating a system that continued to function beyond design expectations also are highlighted.

  5. Selective Filtration of Gadolinium Trichloride for Use in Neutron Detection in Large Water Cherenkov Detectors

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Vagins, Mark R.

    2013-04-10

    Water Cherenkov detectors have been used for many years as inexpensive, effective detectors for neutrino interactions and nucleon decay searches. While many important measurements have been made with these detectors a major drawback has been their inability to detect the absorption of thermal neutrons. We believe an inexpensive, effective technique could be developed to overcome this situation via the addition to water of a solute with a large neutron cross section and energetic gamma daughters which would make neutrons detectable. Gadolinium seems an excellent candidate especially since in recent years it has become very inexpensive, now less than $8 per kilogram in the form of commercially-available gadolinium trichloride, GdCl{sub 3}. This non-toxic, non-reactive substance is highly soluble in water. Neutron capture on gadolinium yields a gamma cascade which would be easily seen in detectors like Super-Kamiokande. We have been investigating the use of GdCl{sub 3} as a possible upgrade for the Super-Kamiokande detector with a view toward improving its performance as a detector for atmospheric neutrinos, supernova neutrinos, wrong-sign solar neutrinos, reactor neutrinos, proton decay, and also as a target for the coming T2K long-baseline neutrino experiment. This focused study of selective water filtration and GdCl{sub 3} extraction techniques, conducted at UC Irvine, followed up on highly promising benchtop-scale and kiloton-scale work previously carried out with the assistance of 2003 and 2005 Advanced Detector Research Program grants.

  6. Relative Economic Incentives for Hydrogen from Nuclear, Renewable, and Fossil Energy Sources

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Forsberg, Charles W [ORNL] [ORNL; Gorensek, M. B. [Savannah River National Laboratory (SRNL)] [Savannah River National Laboratory (SRNL)

    2007-01-01

    The specific hydrogen market determines the value of hydrogen from different sources. Each hydrogen production technology has its own distinct characteristics. For example, steam reforming of natural gas produces only hydrogen. In contrast, nuclear and solar hydrogen production facilities produce hydrogen together with oxygen as a by-product or co-product. For a user who needs both oxygen and hydrogen, the value of hydrogen from nuclear and solar plants is higher than that from a fossil plant because 'free' oxygen is produced as a by-product. Six factors that impact the relative economics of fossil, nuclear, and solar hydrogen production to the customer are identified: oxygen by-product, avoidance of carbon dioxide emissions, hydrogen transport costs, storage costs, availability of low-cost heat, and institutional factors. These factors imply that different hydrogen production technologies will be competitive in different markets and that the first markets for nuclear and solar hydrogen will be those markets in which they have a unique competitive advantage. These secondary economic factors are described and quantified in terms of dollars per kilogram of hydrogen.

  7. RELATIVE ECONOMIC INCENTIVES FOR HYDROGEN FROM NUCLEAR, RENEWABLE, AND FOSSIL ENERGY SOURCES

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Gorensek, M; Charles W. Forsberg, C

    2008-08-04

    The specific hydrogen market determines the value of hydrogen from different sources. Each hydrogen production technology has its own distinct characteristics. For example, steam reforming of natural gas produces only hydrogen. In contrast, nuclear and solar hydrogen production facilities produce hydrogen together with oxygen as a by-product or co-product. For a user who needs both oxygen and hydrogen, the value of hydrogen from nuclear and solar plants is higher than that from a fossil plant because 'free' oxygen is produced as a by-product. Six factors that impact the relative economics of fossil, nuclear, and solar hydrogen production to the customer are identified: oxygen by-product, avoidance of carbon dioxide emissions, hydrogen transport costs, storage costs, availability of low-cost heat, and institutional factors. These factors imply that different hydrogen production technologies will be competitive in different markets and that the first markets for nuclear and solar hydrogen will be those markets in which they have a unique competitive advantage. These secondary economic factors are described and quantified in terms of dollars per kilogram of hydrogen.

  8. The plasma centrifuge: A compact, low cost, stable isotope separator. Phase 2 final technical report, September 15, 1991--September 14, 1995

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Guss, W.

    1996-09-05

    Enriched stable isotopes are required for production of radionuclides as well as for research and diagnostic uses. Science Research Laboratory (SRL) has developed a plasma centrifuge for moderate throughput of enriched stable isotopes, such as {sup 13}C, {sup 17}O, {sup 18}O, and {sup 203}Tl, for medical as well as other applications. Dwindling isotope stocks have restricted the use of enriched isotopes and their associated labeled organic molecules in medical imaging to very few research facilities because of high costs of isotope separation. With the introduction of the plasma centrifuge separator, the cost per separated gram of even rarely occurring isotopes ({le} 1% natural abundance) is potentially many times lower than with other separation technologies (cryogenic distillation and calutrons). The centrifuge is a simple, robust, pulsed electrical discharge device that has successfully demonstrated isotope separation of small (mg) quantities of {sup 26}Mg. Based on the results of the Phase 2 program, modest enhancements to the power supplies and cooling systems, a centrifuge separator will have high repetition rate (60 pps) and high duty cycle (60%) to produce in one month kilogram quantities of highly enriched stable isotopes. The centrifuge may be used in stand-alone operation or could be used as a high-throughput pre-separation stage with calutrons providing the final separation.

  9. Evaluation of Metal Halide, Plasma, and LED Lighting Technologies for a Hydrogen Fuel Cell Mobile Light (H 2 LT)

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Miller, L. B.; Donohoe, S. P.; Jones, M. H.; White, W. A.; Klebanoff, L. E.; Velinsky, S. A.

    2015-04-22

    This article reports on the testing and comparison of a prototype hydrogen fuel cell light tower (H2LT) and a conventional diesel-powered metal halide light trailer for use in road maintenance and construction activities. The prototype was originally outfitted with plasma lights and then with light-emitting diode (LED) luminaires. Light output and distribution, lighting energy efficiency (i.e., efficacy), power source thermal efficiency, and fuel costs are compared. The metal halide luminaires have 2.2 and 3.1 times more light output than the plasma and LED luminaires, respectively, but they require more power/lumen to provide that output. The LED luminaires have 1.6 times better light efficacy than either the metal halide or plasma luminaires. The light uniformity ratios produced by the plasma and LED towers are acceptable. The fuel cell thermal efficiency at the power required to operate the plasma lights is 48%, significantly higher than the diesel generator efficiency of 23% when operating the metal halide lights. Due to the increased efficiency of the fuel cell and the LED lighting, the fuel cost per lumen-hour of the H2LT is 62% of the metal halide diesel light tower assuming a kilogram of hydrogen is twice the cost of a gallon of diesel fuel.

  10. OPERATION OF A TRITIUM GLOVEBOX CLEAN-UP SYSTEM USING ZIRCONIUM MANGANESE IRON AND ZIRCONIUM TWO IRON METAL GETTERS

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    E. LARSON; K. COOK

    2000-08-01

    A metal hydride-based tritium clean-up system has been successfully operated for more than four years on an 11 m{sup 3} helium/nitrogen glovebox which was used for handling metal tritide powders. The clean-up system consists of two beds: (1) a Zr-Mn-Fe (in a 10% by weight Al binder, SAES ST909) bed operating at 675 C followed by (2) a Zr{sub 2}Fe (SAES ST198) bed operating at 250 C. The Zr-Mn-Fe bed serves to condition the gas stream by cracking hydrogenous impurities (such as H{sub 2}O and hydrocarbons) and absorbing oxygen and carbon. The Zr{sub 2}Fe bed absorbs the hydrogen isotopes from the flowing stream by forming a solid hydride compound. These beds contain 3 kilograms of Zr{sub 2}Fe and have been loaded routinely with 230-250 STP liters of hydrogen isotopes in earlier trials. The Zr-Mn-Fe alloy exhibits an anomaly during activation, namely an exotherm upon initial exposure to nitrogen. The purpose of this work is to better understand this reaction. Nitrogen absorption studies were done in order to quantify the nitrogen taken up by the getter and to characterize the reaction kinetics. In addition, ST909 phases before and after the reaction were studied with x-ray diffraction.

  11. DETECTION OF SEMIMAJOR AXIS DRIFTS IN 54 NEAR-EARTH ASTEROIDS: NEW MEASUREMENTS OF THE YARKOVSKY EFFECT

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Nugent, C. R.; Margot, J. L.; Chesley, S. R.; Vokrouhlicky, D.

    2012-08-15

    We have identified and quantified semimajor axis drifts in near-Earth asteroids (NEAs) by performing orbital fits to optical and radar astrometry of all numbered NEAs. We focus on a subset of 54 NEAs that exhibit some of the most reliable and strongest drift rates. Our selection criteria include a Yarkovsky sensitivity metric that quantifies the detectability of semimajor axis drift in any given data set, a signal-to-noise metric, and orbital coverage requirements. In 42 cases, the observed drifts ({approx}10{sup -3} AU Myr{sup -1}) agree well with numerical estimates of Yarkovsky drifts. This agreement suggests that the Yarkovsky effect is the dominant non-gravitational process affecting these orbits, and allows us to derive constraints on asteroid physical properties. In 12 cases, the drifts exceed nominal Yarkovsky predictions, which could be due to inaccuracies in our knowledge of physical properties, faulty astrometry, or modeling errors. If these high rates cannot be ruled out by further observations or improvements in modeling, they would be indicative of the presence of an additional non-gravitational force, such as that resulting from a loss of mass of order a kilogram per second. We define the Yarkovsky efficiency f{sub Y} as the ratio of the change in orbital energy to incident solar radiation energy, and we find that typical Yarkovsky efficiencies are {approx}10{sup -5}.

  12. Data Release Report for Source Physics Experiment 1 (SPE-1), Nevada National Security Site

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Townsend, Margaret; Mercadente, Jennifer

    2014-04-28

    The first Source Physics Experiment shot (SPE-1) was conducted in May 2011. The explosive source was a ~100-kilogram TNT-equivalent chemical set at a depth of 60 meters. It was recorded by an extensive set of instrumentation that includes sensors both at near-field (less than 100 meters) and far-field (more than 100 meters) distances. The near-field instruments consisted of three-component accelerometers deployed in boreholes around the shot and a set of singlecomponent vertical accelerometers on the surface. The far-field network comprised a variety of seismic and acoustic sensors, including short-period geophones, broadband seismometers, three-component accelerometers, and rotational seismometers at distances of 100 meters to 25 kilometers. This report coincides with the release of these data for analysts and organizations that are not participants in this program. This report describes the first Source Physics Experiment and the various types of near-field and far-field data that are available.

  13. Air Shipment of Highly Enriched Uranium Spent Nuclear Fuel from Romania

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    K. J. Allen; I. Bolshinsky; L. L. Biro; M. E. Budu; N. V. Zamfir; M. Dragusin

    2010-07-01

    Romania safely air shipped 23.7 kilograms of Russian origin highly enriched uranium (HEU) spent nuclear fuel from the VVR S research reactor at Magurele, Romania, to the Russian Federation in June 2009. This was the worlds first air shipment of spent nuclear fuel transported in a Type B(U) cask under existing international laws without special exceptions for the air transport licenses. This shipment was coordinated by the Russian Research Reactor Fuel Return Program (RRRFR), part of the U.S. Department of Energy Global Threat Reduction Initiative (GTRI), in cooperation with the Romania National Commission for Nuclear Activities Control (CNCAN), the Horia Hulubei National Institute of Physics and Nuclear Engineering (IFIN-HH), and the Russian Federation State Corporation Rosatom. The shipment was transported by truck to and from the respective commercial airports in Romania and the Russian Federation and stored at a secure nuclear facility in Russia where it will be converted into low enriched uranium. With this shipment, Romania became the 3rd country under the RRRFR program and the 14th country under the GTRI program to remove all HEU. This paper describes the work, equipment, and approvals that were required to complete this spent fuel air shipment.

  14. Anaerobic digestion of municipal, industrial, and livestock wastes for energy recovery and disposal

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Sax, R.I.; Lusk, P.D.

    1995-11-01

    The degradation of carbonaceous organic material by anaerobic bacteria leads to the production of methane gas (biogas) at the theoretical stoichiometric conversion rate of 0.35-cubic meters of methane per kilogram of Chemical Oxygen Demand (COD) reasonably close proximity to the site of this digestion process. The untreated biogas generated from anaerobic digestion typically contains from 55% to 75% methane content, with the balance consisting mainly of carbon dioxide and a small, but important, amount of hydrogen sulfide. The untreated biogas is normally saturated with water vapor at the temperature of the digestion process which typically is in the mesophilic range 25 to 38 degrees Celsius. This overview paper describes the types of anaerobic technologies which are presently used for the digestion of various type of municipal, industrial and livestock manure wastes, summarizes the principal developments which have taken place in the field during the past several years, and discusses the energy recovery economics for each of the three usage applications. The paper stratifies the use of anaerobic digestion technology for the treatment of wastewaters from industry (an application which has increased dramatically during the past decade) by geographical region, by industry type, very various categories of food processing, and by technology type, in all cases taking account of system size to emphasize the economics of energy production.

  15. Evaluation of Ultra-Low Background Materials for Uranium and Thorium Using ICP-MS

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Hoppe, Eric W.; Overman, Nicole R.; LaFerriere, Brian D.

    2013-08-08

    An increasing number of physics experiments require low background materials for their construction. The presence of Uranium and Thorium and their progeny in these materials present a variety of unwanted background sources for these experiments. The sensitivity of the experiments continues to drive the necessary levels of detection ever lower as well. This requirement for greater sensitivity has rendered direct radioassay impractical in many cases requiring large quantities of material, frequently many kilograms, and prolonged counting times, often months. Other assay techniques have been employed such as Neutron Activation Analysis but this requires access to expensive facilities and instrumentation and can be further complicated and delayed by the formation of unwanted radionuclides. Inductively Coupled Plasma Mass Spectrometry (ICP-MS) is a useful tool and recent advancements have increased the sensitivity particularly in the elemental high mass range of U and Th. Unlike direct radioassay, ICP-MS is a destructive technique since it requires the sample to be in liquid form which is aspirated into a high temperature plasma. But it benefits in that it usually requires a very small sample, typically about a gram. Here we will discuss how a variety of low background materials such as copper, polymers, and fused silica are made amenable to ICP-MS assay and how the arduous task of maintaining low backgrounds of U and Th is achieved.

  16. Evaluation of ultra-low background materials for uranium and thorium using ICP-MS

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Hoppe, E. W.; Overman, N. R.; LaFerriere, B. D.

    2013-08-08

    An increasing number of physics experiments require low background materials for their construction. The presence of Uranium and Thorium and their progeny in these materials present a variety of unwanted background sources for these experiments. The sensitivity of the experiments continues to drive the necessary levels of detection ever lower as well. This requirement for greater sensitivity has rendered direct radioassay impractical in many cases requiring large quantities of material, frequently many kilograms, and prolonged counting times, often months. Other assay techniques have been employed such as Neutron Activation Analysis but this requires access to expensive facilities and instrumentation and can be further complicated and delayed by the formation of unwanted radionuclides. Inductively Coupled Plasma Mass Spectrometry (ICP-MS) is a useful tool and recent advancements have increased the sensitivity particularly in the elemental high mass range of U and Th. Unlike direct radioassay, ICP-MS is a destructive technique since it requires the sample to be in liquid form which is aspirated into a high temperature plasma. But it benefits in that it usually requires a very small sample, typically about a gram. This paper discusses how a variety of low background materials such as copper, polymers, and fused silica are made amenable to ICP-MS assay and how the arduous task of maintaining low backgrounds of U and Th is achieved.

  17. Processing Tritiated Water at the Savannah Rivver Site: A Production Scale Demonstration

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Sessions, K

    2004-11-04

    The Palladium Membrane Reactor (PMR) process was installed in the Tritium Facilities at the Savannah River Site to perform a production-scale demonstration for the recovery of tritium from tritiated water adsorbed on molecular sieve (zeolite). Unlike the current recovery process that utilizes magnesium, the PMR offers a means to process tritiated water in a more cost effective and environmentally friendly manner. The design and installation of the large-scale PMR process was part of a collaborative effort between the Savannah River Site and Los Alamos National Laboratory. The PMR process operated at the Savannah River Site between May 2001 and April 2003. During the initial phase of operation the PMR processed thirty-four kilograms of tritiated water from the Princeton Plasma Physics Laboratory. The water was processed in fifteen separate batches to yield approximately 34,400 liters (STP) of hydrogen isotopes. Each batch consisted of round-the-clock operations for approximately nine days. In April 2003 the reactor's palladium-silver membrane ruptured resulting in the shutdown of the PMR process. Reactor performance, process performance and operating experiences have been evaluated and documented. A performance comparison between PMR and current magnesium process is also documented.

  18. Processing Tritiated Water at the Savannah River Site: A Production-Scale Demonstration of a Palladium Membrane Reactor

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Sessions, Kevin L. [Westinghouse Savannah River Company (United States)

    2005-07-15

    The Palladium Membrane Reactor (PMR) process was installed in the Tritium Facilities at the Savannah River Site to perform a production-scale demonstration for the recovery of tritium from tritiated water adsorbed on molecular sieve (zeolite). Unlike the current recovery process that utilizes magnesium, the PMR offers a means to process tritiated water in a more cost effective and environmentally friendly manner. The design and installation of the large-scale PMR process was part of a collaborative effort between the Savannah River Site and Los Alamos National Laboratory.The PMR process operated at the Savannah River Site between May 2001 and April 2003. During the initial phase of operation the PMR processed thirty-four kilograms of tritiated water from the Princeton Plasma Physics Laboratory. The water was processed in fifteen separate batches to yield approximately 34,400 liters (STP) of hydrogen isotopes. Each batch consisted of round-the-clock operations for approximately nine days. In April 2003 the reactor's palladium-silver membrane ruptured resulting in the shutdown of the PMR process. Reactor performance, process performance and operating experiences have been evaluated and documented. A performance comparison between PMR and current magnesium process is also documented.

  19. Facility Effluent Monitoring Plan for the 325 Radiochemical Processing Laboratory

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Shields, K.D.; Ballinger, M.Y.

    1999-04-02

    This Facility Effluent Monitoring Plan (FEMP) has been prepared for the 325 Building Radiochemical Processing Laboratory (RPL) at the Pacific Northwest National Laboratory (PNNL) to meet the requirements in DOE Order 5400.1, ''General Environmental Protection Programs.'' This FEMP has been prepared for the RPL primarily because it has a ''major'' (potential to emit >0.1 mrem/yr) emission point for radionuclide air emissions according to the annual National Emission Standards for Hazardous Air Pollutants (NESHAP) assessment performed. This section summarizes the airborne and liquid effluents and the inventory based NESHAP assessment for the facility. The complete monitoring plan includes characterization of effluent streams, monitoring/sampling design criteria, a description of the monitoring systems and sample analysis, and quality assurance requirements. The RPL at PNNL houses radiochemistry research, radioanalytical service, radiochemical process development, and hazardous and radioactive mixed waste treatment activities. The laboratories and specialized facilities enable work ranging from that with nonradioactive materials to work with picogram to kilogram quantities of fissionable materials and up to megacurie quantities of other radionuclides. The special facilities within the building include two shielded hot-cell areas that provide for process development or analytical chemistry work with highly radioactive materials and a waste treatment facility for processing hazardous, mixed radioactive, low-level radioactive, and transuranic wastes generated by PNNL activities.

  20. Facility effluent monitoring plan for the 325 Facility

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    1998-12-31

    The Applied Chemistry Laboratory (325 Facility) houses radiochemistry research, radioanalytical service, radiochemical process development, and hazardous and mixed hazardous waste treatment activities. The laboratories and specialized facilities enable work ranging from that with nonradioactive materials to work with picogram to kilogram quantities of fissionable materials and up to megacurie quantities of other radionuclides. The special facilities include two shielded hot-cell areas that provide for process development or analytical chemistry work with highly radioactive materials, and a waste treatment facility for processing hazardous, mixed, low-level, and transuranic wastes generated by Pacific Northwest Laboratory. Radioactive material storage and usage occur throughout the facility and include a large number of isotopes. This material is in several forms, including solid, liquid, particulate, and gas. Some of these materials are also heated during testing which can produce vapors. The research activities have been assigned to the following activity designations: High-Level Hot Cell, Hazardous Waste Treatment Unit, Waste Form Development, Special Testing Projects, Chemical Process Development, Analytical Hot Cell, and Analytical Chemistry. The following summarizes the airborne and liquid effluents and the results of the Facility Effluent Monitoring Plan (FEMP) determination for the facility. The complete monitoring plan includes characterization of effluent streams, monitoring/sampling design criteria, a description of the monitoring systems and sample analysis, and quality assurance requirements.

  1. Process for the removal of impurities from combustion fullerenes

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Alford, J. Michael; Bolskar, Robert

    2005-08-02

    The invention generally relates to purification of carbon nanomaterials, particularly fullerenes, by removal of PAHs and other hydrocarbon impurities. The inventive process involves extracting a sample containing carbon nanomaterials with a solvent in which the PAHs are substantially soluble but in which the carbon nanomaterials are not substantially soluble. The sample can be repeatedly or continuously extracted with one or more solvents to remove a greater amount of impurities. Preferred solvents include ethanol, diethyl ether, and acetone. The invention also provides a process for efficiently separating solvent extractable fullerenes from samples containing fullerenes and PAHs wherein the sample is extracted with a solvent in which both fullerenes and PAHs are substantially soluble and the sample extract then undergoes selective extraction to remove PAHs. Suitable solvents in which both fullerenes and PAHs are soluble include o-xylene, toluene, and o-dichlorobenzene. The purification process is capable of treating quantities of combustion soot in excess of one kilogram and can produce fullerenes or fullerenic soot of suitable purity for many applications.

  2. Treatability study on the use of by-product sulfur in Kazakhstan for the stabilization of hazardous and radioactive wastes

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Kalb, P.D.; Milian, L.W.; Yim, S.P.; Dyer, R.S.; Michaud, W.R.

    1997-12-01

    The Republic of Kazakhstan generates significant quantities of excess elemental sulfur from the production and refining of petroleum reserves. In addition, the country also produces hazardous, and radioactive wastes which require treatment/stabilization. In an effort to find secondary uses for the elemental sulfur, and simultaneously produce a material which could be used to encapsulate, and reduce the dispersion of harmful contaminants into the environment, BNL evaluated the use of the sulfur polymer cement (SPC) produced from by-product sulfur in Kazakhstan. This thermoplastic binder material forms a durable waste form with low leaching properties and is compatible with a wide range of waste types. Several hundred kilograms of Kazakhstan sulfur were shipped to the US and converted to SPC (by reaction with 5 wt% organic modifiers) for use in this study. A phosphogypsum sand waste generated in Kazakhstan during the purification of phosphate fertilizer was selected for treatment. Waste loadings of 40 wt% were easily achieved. Waste form performance testing included compressive strength, water immersion, and Accelerated Leach Testing.

  3. Treatability study on the use of by-product sulfur in Kazakhstan for the stabilization of hazardous and radioactive wastes

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Yim, Sung Paal; Kalb, P.D.; Milian, L.W.

    1997-08-01

    The Republic of Kazakhstan generates significant quantities of excess sulfur from the production and refining of petroleum reserves. In addition, the country also produces hazardous, and radioactive wastes which require treatment/stabilization. In an effort to find secondary uses for the elemental sulfur, and simultaneously produce a material which could be used to encapsulate, and reduce the dispersion of harmful contaminants into the environment, BNL evaluated the use of the sulfur polymer cement (SPC) produced from by-product sulfur in Kazakhstan. This thermoplastic binder material forms a durable waste form with low leaching properties and is compatible with a wide range of waste types. Several hundred kilograms of Kazakhstan sulfur were shipped to the U.S. and converted to SPC (by reaction with 5 wt% organic modifiers) for use in this study. A phosphogypsum sand waste generated in Kazakhstan during the purification of phosphate fertilizer was selected for treatment. Waste loading of 40 wt% were easily achieved. Waste form performance testing included compressive strength, water immersion, and Accelerated Leach Testing. 14 refs., 7 figs., 6 tabs.

  4. DOUBLE TRACKS Test Site interim corrective action plan

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    1996-06-01

    The DOUBLE TRACKS site is located on Range 71 north of the Nellis Air Force Range, northwest of the Nevada Test Site (NTS). DOUBLE TRACKS was the first of four experiments that constituted Operation ROLLER COASTER. On May 15, 1963, weapons-grade plutonium and depleted uranium were dispersed using 54 kilograms of trinitrotoluene (TNT) explosive. The explosion occurred in the open, 0.3 m above the steel plate. No fission yield was detected from the test, and the total amount of plutonium deposited on the ground surface was estimated to be between 980 and 1,600 grams. The test device was composed primarily of uranium-238 and plutonium-239. The mass ratio of uranium to plutonium was 4.35. The objective of the corrective action is to reduce the potential risk to human health and the environment and to demonstrate technically viable and cost-effective excavation, transportation, and disposal. To achieve these objectives, Bechtel Nevada (BN) will remove soil with a total transuranic activity greater then 200 pCI/g, containerize the soil in ``supersacks,`` transport the filled ``supersacks`` to the NTS, and dispose of them in the Area 3 Radioactive Waste Management Site. During this interim corrective action, BN will also conduct a limited demonstration of an alternative method for excavation of radioactive near-surface soil contamination.

  5. Plutonium Detection with Straw Neutron Detectors

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Mukhopadhyay, Sanjoy; Maurer, Richard; Guss, Paul

    2014-03-27

    A kilogram of weapons grade plutonium gives off about 56,000 neutrons per second of which 55,000 neutrons come from spontaneous fission of 240Pu (~6% by weight of the total plutonium). Actually, all even numbered isotopes (238Pu, 240Pu, and 242Pu) produce copious spontaneous fission neutrons. These neutrons induce fission in the surrounding fissile 239Pu with an approximate multiplication of a factor of ~1.9. This multiplication depends on the shape of the fissile materials and the surrounding material. These neutrons (typically of energy 2 MeV and air scattering mean free path >100 meters) can be detected 100 meters away from the source by vehicle-portable neutron detectors. [1] In our current studies on neutron detection techniques, without using 3He gas proportional counters, we designed and developed a portable high-efficiency neutron multiplicity counter using 10B-coated thin tubes called straws. The detector was designed to perform like commercially available fission meters (manufactured by Ortec Corp.) except instead of using 3He gas as a neutron conversion material, we used a thin coating of 10B.

  6. Metal Hydrides for High-Temperature Power Generation

    DOE Public Access Gateway for Energy & Science Beta (PAGES Beta)

    Ronnebro, Ewa; Whyatt, Greg A.; Powell, Michael R.; Westman, Matthew P.; Zheng, Feng; Fang, Zhigang Zak

    2015-08-10

    Metal hydrides can be utilized for hydrogen storage and for thermal energy storage (TES) applications. By using TES with solar technologies, heat can be stored from sun energy to be used later which enables continuous power generation. We are developing a TES technology based on a dual-bed metal hydride system, which has a high-temperature (HT) metal hydride operating reversibly at 600-800°C to generate heat as well as a low-temperature (LT) hydride near room temperature that is used for hydrogen storage during sun hours until there is a need to produce electricity, such as during night time, a cloudy day, ormore » during peak hours. We proceeded from selecting a high-energy density, low-cost HT-hydride based on performance characterization on gram size samples, to scale-up to kilogram quantities and design, fabrication and testing of a 1.5kWh, 200kWh/m3 bench-scale TES prototype based on a HT-bed of titanium hydride and a hydrogen gas storage instead of a LT-hydride. COMSOL Multiphysics was used to make performance predictions for cylindrical hydride beds with varying diameters and thermal conductivities. Based on experimental and modeling results, a bench-scale prototype was designed and fabricated and we successfully showed feasibility to meet or exceed all performance targets.« less

  7. Evaluation of Metal Halide, Plasma, and LED Lighting Technologies for a Hydrogen Fuel Cell Mobile Light (H 2 LT)

    DOE Public Access Gateway for Energy & Science Beta (PAGES Beta)

    Miller, L. B.; Donohoe, S. P.; Jones, M. H.; White, W. A.; Klebanoff, L. E.; Velinsky, S. A.

    2015-04-22

    This article reports on the testing and comparison of a prototype hydrogen fuel cell light tower (H2LT) and a conventional diesel-powered metal halide light trailer for use in road maintenance and construction activities. The prototype was originally outfitted with plasma lights and then with light-emitting diode (LED) luminaires. Light output and distribution, lighting energy efficiency (i.e., efficacy), power source thermal efficiency, and fuel costs are compared. The metal halide luminaires have 2.2 and 3.1 times more light output than the plasma and LED luminaires, respectively, but they require more power/lumen to provide that output. The LED luminaires have 1.6 timesmore » better light efficacy than either the metal halide or plasma luminaires. The light uniformity ratios produced by the plasma and LED towers are acceptable. The fuel cell thermal efficiency at the power required to operate the plasma lights is 48%, significantly higher than the diesel generator efficiency of 23% when operating the metal halide lights. Due to the increased efficiency of the fuel cell and the LED lighting, the fuel cost per lumen-hour of the H2LT is 62% of the metal halide diesel light tower assuming a kilogram of hydrogen is twice the cost of a gallon of diesel fuel.« less

  8. Radiation dosimetry at the BNL High Flux Beam Reactor

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Holden, N.E.; Hu, J.P.; Reciniello, R.N.

    1998-02-01

    The HFBR is a heavy water, D{sub 2}O, cooled and moderated reactor with twenty-eight fuel elements containing a maximum of 9.8 kilograms of {sup 235}U. The core is 53 cm high and 48 cm in diameter and has an active volume of 97 liters. The HFBR, which was designed to operate at forty mega-watts, 40 NW, was upgraded to operate at 60 NW. Since 1991, it has operated at 30 MW. In a normal 30 MW operating cycle the HFBR operates 24 hours a day for thirty days, with a six to fourteen day shutdown period for refueling and maintenance work. While most reactors attempts to minimize the escape of neutrons from the core, the HFBR`s D{sub 2}O design allows the thermal neutron flux to peak in the reflector region and maximizes the number of thermal neutrons available to nine horizontal external beams, H-1 to H-9. The HFBR neutron dosimetry effort described here compares measured and calculated energy dependent neutron and gamma ray flux densities and/or dose rates at horizontal beam lines and vertical irradiation thimbles.

  9. Overview of advanced technologies for stabilization of {sup 238}Pu-contaminated waste

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Ramsey, K.B.; Foltyn, E.M.; Heslop, J.M.

    1998-02-01

    This paper presents an overview of potential technologies for stabilization of {sup 238}Pu-contaminated waste. Los Alamos National Laboratory (LANL) has processed {sup 238}PuO{sub 2} fuel into heat sources for space and terrestrial uses for the past several decades. The 88-year half-life of {sup 238}Pu and thermal power of approximately 0.6 watts/gram make this isotope ideal for missions requiring many years of dependable service in inaccessible locations. However, the same characteristic which makes {sup 238}Pu attractive for heat source applications, the high Curie content (17 Ci/gram versus 0.06 Ci/gram for 239{sup Pu}), makes disposal of {sup 238}Pu-contaminated waste difficult. Specifically, the thermal load limit on drums destined for transport to the Waste Isolation Pilot Plant (WIPP), 0.23 gram per drum for combustible waste, is impossible to meet for nearly all {sup 238}Pu-contaminated glovebox waste. Use of advanced waste treatment technologies including Molten Salt Oxidation (MSO) and aqueous chemical separation will eliminate the combustible matrix from {sup 238}Pu-contaminated waste and recover kilogram quantities of {sup 238}PuO{sub 2} from the waste stream. A conceptual design of these advanced waste treatment technologies will be presented.

  10. Modeling the Physical and Biochemical Influence of Ocean Thermal Energy Conversion Plant Discharges into their Adjacent Waters

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    PAT GRANDELLI, P.E.; GREG ROCHELEAU; JOHN HAMRICK, Ph.D.; MATT CHURCH, Ph.D.; BRIAN POWELL, Ph.D.

    2012-09-29

    This paper describes the modeling work by Makai Ocean Engineering, Inc. to simulate the biochemical effects of of the nutrient-enhanced seawater plumes that are discharged by one or several 100 megawatt OTEC plants. The modeling is needed to properly design OTEC plants that can operate sustainably with acceptably low biological impact. In order to quantify the effect of discharge configuration and phytoplankton response, Makai Ocean Engineering implemented a biological and physical model for the waters surrounding O`ahu, Hawai`i, using the EPA-approved Environmental Fluid Dynamics Code (EFDC). Each EFDC grid cell was approximately 1 square kilometer by 20 meters deep, and used a time step of three hours. The biological model was set up to simulate the biochemical response for three classes of organisms: Picoplankton (< 2 um) such as prochlorococccus, nanoplankton (2-20 um), and microplankton (> 20 um) e.g., diatoms. The dynamic biological phytoplankton model was calibrated using chemical and biological data collected for the Hawaii Ocean Time Series (HOTS) project. Peer review of the biological modeling was performed. The physical oceanography model uses boundary conditions from a surrounding Hawai'i Regional Ocean Model, (ROM) operated by the University of Hawai`i and the National Atmospheric and Oceanic Administration. The ROM provided tides, basin scale circulation, mesoscale variability, and atmospheric forcing into the edges of the EFDC computational domain. This model is the most accurate and sophisticated Hawai'ian Regional Ocean Model presently available, assimilating real-time oceanographic observations, as well as model calibration based upon temperature, current and salinity data collected during 2010 near the simulated OTEC site. The ROM program manager peer-reviewed Makai's implementation of the ROM output into our EFDC model. The supporting oceanographic data was collected for a Naval Facilities Engineering Command / Makai project. Results: The model was run for a 100 MW OTEC Plant consisting of four separate ducts, discharging a total combined flow rate of 420 m3/s of warm water and 320 m3/s of cold water in a mixed discharge at 70 meters deep. Each duct was assumed to have a discharge port diameter of 10.5m producing a downward discharge velocity of about 2.18 m/s. The natural system, as measured in the HOTS program, has an average concentration of 10-15 mgC/m3. To calibrate the biological model, we first ran the model with no OTEC plant and varied biological parameters until the simulated data was a good match to the HOTS observations. This modeling showed that phytoplankton concentration were patchy and highly dynamic. The patchiness was a good match with the data variability observed within the HOTS data sets. We then ran the model with simulated OTEC intake and discharge flows and associated nutrients. Directly under the OTEC plant, the near-field plume has an average terminal depth of 172 meters, with a volumetric dilution of 13:1. The average terminal plume temperature was 19.8oC. Nitrate concentrations are 1 to 2 umol/kg above ambient. The advecting plume then further dilutes to less than 1 umol/kg above ambient within a few kilometers downstream, while remaining at depth. Because this terminal near-field plume is well below the 1% light limited depths (~120m), no immediate biological utilization of the nutrients occurs. As the nitrate is advected and dispersed downstream, a fraction of the deep ocean nutrients (< 0.5 umol/kg perturbation) mix upward where they are utilized by the ambient phytoplankton population. This occurs approximately twenty-five kilometers downstream from the plant at 110 - 70 meters depth. For pico-phytoplankton, modeling results indicate that this nutrient perturbation causes a phytoplankton perturbation of approximately 1 mgC/m3 (~10% of average ambient concentrations) that covers an area 10x5 km in size at the 70 to 90m depth. Thus, the perturbations are well within the natural variability of the system, generally corresponding to a 10 to 15% increase above the average pico-phytoplankton biomass. This perturbation exhibits a meandering horizontal plume trajectory and spatial extent, but remains similar in magnitude (generally 1-2 mgC/m3). The diatom perturbations become more noticeable after three weeks of the simulation period, when the nearshore diatom population trends towards a greater concentration of 1 to 3 mgC/m3 . Relative to the background concentrations, this increased response is a fraction of the ambient, with perturbations remaining within fluctuations of the existing system. The perturbations were quantified by post-processing each time-step of model simulations without OTEC plants, with identical simulations that included OTEC plumes. Without this post processing, the 10-25% perturbations were obscured by the larger dynamic variations naturally caused by ocean circulation.

  11. Preliminary design for a 20 TeV Collider in a deep tunnel at Fermilab

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Not Available

    1985-01-12

    The Reference Design Study for a 20 TeV Collider demonstrated the technical and cost feasibility of a 20 TeV superconducting collider facility. Based on magnets of 3T, 5T, and 6.5T the Main Ring of the Collider would have a circumference of 164 km, 113 km, or 90 km. There would be six collision regions, of which four would be developed intially. The 5T and 6.5T rings would have twelve major refrigeration stations, while the 3T design would have 24 major refrigeration stations.

  12. arm_stm_2008_borg_cirrus_poster.ppt

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Cirrus Cloud Characterization with Raman Lidar Measurements at Southern Great Plains Lori Borg, David Turner, Robert Holz, David Tobin, Bob Knuteson, Leslie Moy, Daniel DeSlover, Ed Eloranta, Hank Revercomb (PI) Altitude [km] Radar + Lidar Heating Rate [deg/day] Altitude [km] Radar Heating Rate [deg/day] Altitude [km] MMCR Radar Reflectivity [dBZ] (color) with Lidar Boundaries (black) SGP Cirrus Case Study: 11/08/2005 18:00UTC - 11/11/2005 12:00 UTC Lori Borg, lori.borg@ssec.wisc.edu

  13. Identifying clouds over the Pierre Auger Observatory using infrared satellite data

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Abreu, Pedro; et al.,

    2013-12-01

    We describe a new method of identifying night-time clouds over the Pierre Auger Observatory using infrared data from the Imager instruments on the GOES-12 and GOES-13 satellites. We compare cloud identifications resulting from our method to those obtained by the Central Laser Facility of the Auger Observatory. Using our new method we can now develop cloud probability maps for the 3000 km^2 of the Pierre Auger Observatory twice per hour with a spatial resolution of ~2.4 km by ~5.5 km. Our method could also be applied to monitor cloud cover for other ground-based observatories and for space-based observatories.

  14. Microsoft PowerPoint - 10_OGREN_ARM_AWG_IAP_200703.ppt [Compatibility Mode]

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    In-situ Aerosol Profiling (IAP) * Objectives - obtain aerosol climatology aloft - determine relevance of surface climatology to vertical column * Measurements Li ht b ti tt i d - Light absorption, scattering, and hemispheric backscattering - RH-dependence of scattering - Temperature and RH Cessna 172XP 3/2000 - 6/2005 Temperature and RH - Flask samples for trace gases (CO 2 ) * Flights - 9 levels 0 5-3 7 km asl (172XP) - 9 levels, 0.5-3.7 km asl (172XP) - 12 levels, 0.5-4.6 km asl (206) -

  15. Office of Nuclear Energy Knowledge Management Program Situational Analysis Report

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Kimberlyn C. Mousseau

    2011-12-01

    Knowledge management (KM) has been a high priority for the Department of Energy (DOE) Office of Nuclear Energy (NE) for the past several years. NE Programs are moving toward well-established knowledge management practices and a formal knowledge management program has been established. Knowledge management is being practiced to some level within each of the NE programs. Although it continues to evolve as NE programs evolve, a formal strategic plan that guides the implementation of KM has been developed. Despite the acceptance of KM within DOE NE, more work is necessary before the NE KM program can be considered fully successful. Per Dr. David J. Skyrme[1], an organization typically moves through the following evolutionary phases: (1) Ad-hoc - KM is being practiced to some level in some parts of the organization; (2) Formal - KM is established as a formal project or program; (3) Expanding - the use of KM as a discipline grows in practice across different parts of the organization; (4) Cohesive - there is a degree of coordination of KM; (5) Integrated - there are formal standards and approaches that give every individual access to most organizational knowledge through common interfaces; and (6) Embedded - KM is part-and-parcel of everyday tasks; it blends seamlessly into the background. According to the evolutionary phases, the NE KM program is operating at the two lower levels, Ad-hoc and Formal. Although KM is being practiced to some level, it is not being practiced in a consistent manner across the NE programs. To be fully successful, more emphasis must be placed on establishing KM standards and processes for collecting, organizing, sharing and accessing NE knowledge. Existing knowledge needs to be prioritized and gathered on a routine basis, its existence formally recorded in a knowledge inventory. Governance to ensure the quality of the knowledge being used must also be considered. For easy retrieval, knowledge must be organized according to a taxonomy that mimics nuclear energy programs. Technologies need to be established to make accessing the knowledge easier for the user. Finally, knowledge needs to be used as part of a well defined work process.

  16. GrndWaterFlow.book

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    0 8.3 Flow Model Sensitivity to Steady-State Temperature Distribution 8.3.1 Introduction The Pahute Mesa CAU flow model spans an area 50 by 53 km with elevations between 3.5 km bmsl to 1.5 km amsl. Within the domain, there are three volcanic caldera complexes and extensive extra-caldera zones as well. Temperatures are not the same everywhere in this model domain. In the flow model, spatial variations in temperature are set by specifying a steady-state, 3-D temperature distribution. The FEHM code

  17. Anaerobic digestion of autoclaved and untreated food waste

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Tampio, Elina; Ervasti, Satu; Paavola, Teija; Heaven, Sonia; Banks, Charles; Rintala, Jukka

    2014-02-15

    Highlights: Autoclaving decreased the formation of NH4-N and H{sub 2}S during food waste digestion. Stable digestion was achieved with untreated and autoclaved FW at OLR 6 kg VS/m{sup 3}day. Use of acclimated inoculum allowed very rapid increases in OLR. Highest CH{sub 4} yields were observed at OLR 3 kg VS/m{sup 3}day with untreated FW. Autoclaved FW produced highest CH{sub 4} yields during OLR 4 kgVS/m{sup 3}day. - Abstract: Anaerobic digestion of autoclaved (160 C, 6.2 bar) and untreated source segregated food waste (FW) was compared over 473 days in semi-continuously fed mesophilic reactors with trace elements supplementation, at organic loading rates (OLRs) of 2, 3, 4 and 6 kg volatile solids (VS)/m{sup 3} d. Methane yields at all OLR were 510% higher for untreated FW (maximum 0.483 0.013 m{sup 3} CH{sub 4}/kg VS at 3 kg VS/m{sup 3} d) than autoclaved FW (maximum 0.439 0.020 m{sup 3} CH{sub 4}/kg VS at 4 kg VS/m{sup 3} d). The residual methane potential of both digestates at all OLRs was less than 0.110 m{sup 3} CH{sub 4}/kg VS, indicating efficient methanation in all cases. Use of acclimated inoculum allowed very rapid increases in OLR. Reactors fed on autoclaved FW showed lower ammonium and hydrogen sulphide concentrations, probably due to reduced protein hydrolysis as a result of formation of Maillard compounds. In the current study this reduced biodegradability appears to outweigh any benefit due to thermal hydrolysis of ligno-cellulosic components.

  18. The following data/assumptions will better address the LLW differences between t

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    data/assumptions will better address the LLW differences between the LEU option and the LEU/Th option of Alternative 1. 1. There is 397 kg fissile ( 233 U and 235 U) in the HTGR fuel. 2. Based on past experience of LLW to Nevada National Security Site, it is expected that the maximum quantity of fissile in a Type B shipping container (CASTOR cask) will be restricted to 1 kg. To protect a 1 kg maximum, it is assumed that 900 grams would be the maximum in a CASTOR cask. Therefore, from a fissile

  19. Biogas production from anaerobic digestion of Spirulina maxima algal biomass

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Rejean Samson; Anh LeDuy

    1982-08-01

    Spirulina maxima algal biomass could be used as the sole nutrient for the production of biogas by anaerobic digestion process. It is relatively simple to adapt the municipal sewage sludge to this new substrate. The adapted sludge is very stable. Under nonoptimal conditions, the methane yield and productivity obtained were 0.26 m/sup 3//(kg VS added day) and 0.26 m/sup 3//(kg VS added day), respectively, with the semicontinuous, daily fed, anaerobic digestion having loading rate of 0.97 kg VS/(m/sup 3/ day), retention time of 33 days and temperature of 30/sup 0/C.

  20. Late Cenozoic volcanism, geochronology, and structure of the...

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    rocks that were erupted during two periods, as defined by K-Ar dating: (1) 4.0--2.5 m.y., approx.31 km3 of basalt, rhyodacite, dacite, andesite, and rhyolite, in descending...

  1. Conference Proceedings

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Stacy Baker (505) 663-5233 Email Conference Proceedings Taylor, S.G., Farinholt, K.M., Park, G., Farrar, C.R., "Impedance-based Wireless Sensor Node for SHM, Sensor Diagnostics,...

  2. Clouds, aerosol, and precipitation in the Marine Boundary Layer...

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    Approximately half of all clouds contained precipitation detectable as radar echoes below the cloud base. Radar and satellite observations show that clouds with tops from 1-11 km ...

  3. Technically Recoverable Shale Oil and Shale Gas Resources:

    Annual Energy Outlook [U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA)]

    ... of the Paran Basin, although Amerisur Energy has discussed the shale potential of the ... Showing Flat-lying but Moderately Faulted Devonian Shale (Green) at Depths of 2 to 3 km. ...

  4. Younger Dryas Boundary (YDB) impact : physical and statistical...

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    comet. To maximize blast and thermal damage, a 4-km comet would have to break into tens of thousands fragments of this size and spread out over the entire continent, but that ...

  5. Surface Indicators of Geothermal Activity at Salt Wells, Nevada...

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    of geothermal fluids. An example is provided by the Salt Wells geothermal system in Churchill County, Nevada, USA, where surface features define a 9-km-long area that matches the...

  6. Present State of the Hydrothermal System in Long Valley Caldera...

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    laterally from west to east at depths less than 1 km within and around the resurgent dome. Maximum measured temperatures within these zones are near 170C but estimates from...

  7. Rio Grande Rift Geothermal Region | Open Energy Information

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    less than 100 km2. The three major basins (from northernmost to southernmost) are the San Luis, Espanola, and Albuquerque basins. Further south, a network of smaller basins run...

  8. File:SWERA-212.pdf | Open Energy Information

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    Solar: monthly global horizontal (GHI) GIS data at 10km resolution for Central America from NREL Size of this preview: 776 600 pixels. Full resolution (1,650 1,275...

  9. DUNE

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    600 m downstream of the Fermilab beamline, and a 40,000 metric ton cryogenic liquid argon detector deployed deep underground at Sanford Lab, located 800 miles (1,300 km)...

  10. Southern Basin and Range Geothermal Region | Open Energy Information

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    faults form the western edge of the Sierra Madre Occidental plateau in northeastern Sonora. These faults and associated half-grabens extend over a distance of more than 300 km...

  11. Slide 1

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    network (300 km) 2 would sample more systems and better capture the large-scale forcing signal. * This proposed larger network makes use 4 ARM sounding sites and the operational...

  12. Status of the PRISM FFAG Design for the Next Generation Muon...

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    Authors: Pasternak J. ; Witte H. ; Jenner, L.J. ; Kurup, A. ; Alekou, A. ; Aslaninejad, M. ; Chudzinski, R. ; Shi, Y. ; Uchida, Y. ; Muratori, B. ; Smith, S.L. ; Hock, K.M. ; ...

  13. Aeromagnetic Survey At Chena Geothermal Area (Kolker, 2008) ...

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    Phase I) Notes Fugro, Inc. performed an airborne geophysical survey using the DIGHEM (Digital Helicopter ElectroMagnetics) aircraft over a 937 km2 survey grid. Total field, nT...

  14. Audit Report: IG-0444 | Department of Energy

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    More Documents & Publications Audit Report: IG-0444 Deactivation & Decommissioning Knowledge Management Information Tool (D&D KM-IT) Above on the left is K-25, at Oak Ridge before ...

  15. EIS-0285: Transmission System Vegetation Management Program

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    Bonneville Power Administration (Bonneville) is responsible for maintaining a network of 24,000 kilometers (km) or 15,000 miles (mi.) of electric transmission lines and 350 substations. This...

  16. Limiting Factors for Convective Cloud Top Height in the Tropics

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    characteristics for all mid-level and deep convective cases during the Nauru-99 IOP. JD-HH (GMT) (nearest sounding) ARSCL Cloud-Top Height (m) LNB (m) Entrainment Rate (%km)...

  17. File:SWERA-202.pdf | Open Energy Information

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    File File history File usage Solar: monthly and annual average global horizontal (GHI) GIS data at 40km resolution for Sri Lanka from NREL Size of this preview: 776 600...

  18. File:SWERA-253.pdf | Open Energy Information

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    File File history File usage Solar: monthly and annual average global horizontal (GHI) GIS data at 40km resolution for Nepal from NREL Size of this preview: 776 600 pixels....

  19. ARM - Publications: Science Team Meeting Documents: Deployment...

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    approximately 1km apart. The instrument transmitter includes two arrays of nearIR LEDs which emit light in a 125-Hz pulsed mode. The receiver measures the temporal...

  20. The Owens Valley Fault Zone Eastern California and Surface Faulting...

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    it steps 3 km to the left and continues northwest across Crater Mountain and through Big Pine. The fault has an overall strike of 340 and dip of 8015 ENE. Surface...

  1. An Overview of Industry-Military Cooperation in the Development...

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    (<2 km), very hot (200 - 328C) resource. Given the present rate of production and reservoir projections based on historical data, it is anticipated that the field will be...

  2. An overview of industry-military cooperation in the development...

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    (<2 km), very hot (200 - 328C) resource. Given the present rate of production and reservoir projections based on historical data, it is anticipated that the field will be...

  3. Brady Hot Springs Geothermal Area | Open Energy Information

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    The Brady's geothermal field, in the hot spring mountains of northwestern Nevada, has a reservoir temperature of 180-193C at 1- 2 km depth and supports a combined dual flash...

  4. Micro-Earthquake At Coso Geothermal Area (2000) | Open Energy...

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    5 km. It was calculate that there are 375 good quality mini-array beamed receiver functions for teleseismic events. References Gilbert, H.J.; Wilson, C.K. ; Jones, C.H.;...

  5. File:SWERA-213.pdf | Open Energy Information

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    File usage Solar: annual average direct normal (DNI) GIS data at 10km resolution for Cuba from SUNY Size of this preview: 776 600 pixels. Full resolution (1,650 1,275...

  6. File:SWERA-159.pdf | Open Energy Information

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    File usage Solar: monthly average global horizontal (GHI) map at 40km resolution for Cuba from NREL Size of this preview: 776 600 pixels. Full resolution (1,650 1,275...

  7. File:SWERA-155.pdf | Open Energy Information

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    File history File usage Solar: monthly average latitude tilt map at 40km resolution for Cuba from NREL Size of this preview: 776 600 pixels. Full resolution (1,650 1,275...

  8. File:SWERA-214.pdf | Open Energy Information

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    usage Solar: annual average global horizontal (GHI) GIS data at 10km resolution for Cuba from SUNY Size of this preview: 776 600 pixels. Full resolution (1,650 1,275...

  9. Microsoft PowerPoint - TWPICE Weather Overview.ppt

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Oct 1. 850 hPa westerlies Mean OLR in 1000*1000 km area Centred on Darwin DAWEX Emerald SCOUTACTIVE TWPICE Weather Overview * 13 January - 2 February 2006 Monsoon across...

  10. ARM - Publications: Science Team Meeting Documents

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Meeting Fair-weather cumuli are fundamental in regulating the vertical structure of water vapor and entropy in the lowest 2 km of the Earths atmosphere over vast areas of the...

  11. [S IV] IN THE NGC 5253 SUPERNEBULA: IONIZED GAS KINEMATICS AT HIGH RESOLUTION

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Beck, Sara C.; Lacy, John H.; Turner, Jean L.; Kruger, Andrew; Richter, Matt; Crosthwaite, Lucian P.

    2012-08-10

    The nearby dwarf starburst galaxy NGC 5253 hosts a deeply embedded radio-infrared supernebula excited by thousands of O stars. We have observed this source in the 10.5 {mu}m line of S{sup +3} at 3.8 km s{sup -1} spectral and 1.''4 spatial resolution, using the high-resolution spectrometer TEXES on the IRTF. The line profile cannot be fit well by a single Gaussian. The best simple fit describes the gas with two Gaussians, one near the galactic velocity with FWHM 33.6 km s{sup -1} and another of similar strength and FWHM 94 km s{sup -1} centered {approx}20 km s{sup -1} to the blue. This suggests a model for the supernebula in which gas flows toward us out of the molecular cloud, as in a 'blister' or 'champagne flow' or in the H II regions modelled by Zhu.

  12. kmh | The Ames Laboratory

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    ... Ultrafast Bulk Diffusion of AlHx in High-Entropy Dehydrogenation Intermediates of NaAlH4. ... D.; Tringides, M.; Ho, K.M. Strain effect on the adsorption, diffusion, and ...

  13. Search for: All records | DOE PAGES

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    ... Part I: Methodology and evaluation Li, Zhijin ; Vogelmann, Andrew M. ; Feng, Sha ; Liu, ... within the Weather Research and Forecasting model at a cloud-resolving resolution of 2 km. ...

  14. Search for: All records | DOE PAGES

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    Part I: Methodology and evaluation Li, Zhijin ; Vogelmann, Andrew M. ; Feng, Sha ; Liu, ... within the Weather Research and Forecasting model at a cloud-resolving resolution of 2 km. ...

  15. Overview | Savannah River National Environmental Park

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Park Overview The Savannah River Site is an 803-km2 Department of Energy (DOE) facility ... of South Carolina, near Aiken, SC. The site is bordered on one side by the Savannah River. ...

  16. Step-out Well At Blue Mountain Geothermal Area (Melosh, Et Al...

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    stepout well was drilled 1.2 km to the west of the main well field in order to test permeability for a potential injection well and to explore for deep up flow in the range front...

  17. Step-Out Drilling Results at Blue Mountain, Nevada | Open Energy...

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    targets based on a detailed structural model at Blue Mt. Nevada have led to high permeability entries in a well offset 1.2 km west of the developing field at Blue...

  18. ARM - Publications: Science Team Meeting Documents

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    relation between the infrared absorption coefficient sa (km-1) and the temperature of cirrus clouds. The parameterizations sa 0.3963 + 6.175x10-3 T + 2.882x10-5T2 for ambient ...

  19. Cuttings Analysis At Coso Geothermal Area (2005) | Open Energy...

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    on the East Flank is dominated by diorite and granodiorite. References Kovac, K.M.; Moore, J.N.; Lutz, S.J. (1 January 2005) GEOLOGIC FRAMEWORK OF THE EAST FLANK, COSO...

  20. GEOLOGY AND MINERAL PARAGENESIS STUDY WITHIN THE COSO-EGS PROJECT...

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    the inclusions could be related to the modern geothermal system. Authors Kovac, K.M.; Moore, J.; McCulloch, J.; Ekart and D. Published PROCEEDINGS, Twenty-Ninth Workshop on...

  1. GEOLOGIC FRAMEWORK OF THE EAST FLANK, COSO GEOTHERMAL FIELD:...

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    relationships imply the system is currently being reheated... Authors Kovac, K.M.; Moore, J.N.; Lutz and S.J. Published PROCEEDINGS, Thirtieth Workshop on Geothermal Reservoir...

  2. Section 56

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Aerosol optical properties based on LOWTRAN 7 Surface optical properties derived from 5S model 47 vertical layers from 0 to 100 km with 400-m resolution within clouds 50 x 80...

  3. Section 5

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Introduction Deep convection can occur with convective units on the order of a few kilometers or at large-scale units with cloud sizes on the order of over 100 km in diameter...

  4. Search for: All records | SciTech Connect

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    ... (2) spectra (2) tcap (2) water vapor (2) absorption (1) ... along with calibration, engineering flight test, and ... Changes in the above-aircraft AOD across 3-km-deep spirals ...

  5. A Global Cloud Resolving Model Goals

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    And so on, until we reach our target resolution... Some grids of interest Level of recursion Number of grid columns Distance between grid columns, km 9 2,621,442 15.64 10...

  6. A Deep Dive into the Subsea Environment | GE Global Research

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    bellow 1000 km 621+ miles depth, never actually left the subs they were in). Subsea oil exploration started at very shallow depths and rapidly has grown to astonishing water...

  7. Geology of Injection Well 46A-19RD in the Coso Enhanced Geothermal...

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    altered. This fault zone is a prime target for stimulation. Authors Kovac, K.M.; Moore, J.N.; Rose, P.E.; McCulloch and J. Published Geothermal Resource Council Transactions...

  8. Electrical Resistivity At Kilauea East Rift Geothermal Area ...

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    and extending down to about 2 km below sea level. References G. V. KELLER, C. K. SKOKAN, J. J. SKOKAN, J. DANIELS, J. P. KAUAHIKAUA, D. P. KLEIN, C. J. ZABLOCKI (1977) Geoelectric...

  9. File:SWERA-203.pdf | Open Energy Information

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    search File File history File usage Solar: monthly and annual average latitude tilt GIS data at 40km for Sri Lanka from NREL Size of this preview: 776 600 pixels. Full...

  10. File:SWERA-254.pdf | Open Energy Information

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    to: navigation, search File File history File usage Solar: monthly and annual latitude tilt horizontal GIS data at 40km resolution for Nepal from NREL Size of this preview: 776 ...

  11. File:SWERA-248.pdf | Open Energy Information

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    8.pdf Jump to: navigation, search File File history File usage Solar: monthly latitude tilt GIS data at 40km resolution for Bangladesh from NREL Size of this preview: 776 600...

  12. SANDXX-XXXX

    National Nuclear Security Administration (NNSA)

    ... Example Usage: * * TADMOR AND GUR PARAMETERIZATION FOR DISTANCE RANGE 0.5 TO 5.0 KM * AS TAKEN FROM ATMOSPHERIC MOTION AND AIR POLLUTION (DOBBINS 1979). * * P-G CLASS: A B C D E F ...

  13. 1

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    be affected by surface features up to 5 km away (Ricchiazzi and Gautier 1998). Data Processing ASD radiance was measured for a white reference (Spectralon) before and after each...

  14. A Method for Estimating Undiscovered Geothermal Resources in...

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    areas based on the presence of drill-holes, wells, and depth to the water table. The "density of occurrence" (number of geothermal systems per km2) is calculated, taking into...

  15. File:East China Map Reference.pdf | Open Energy Information

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    pixels, file size: 640 KB, MIME type: applicationpdf) Reference map for wind power density maps at 50 m above ground and 1km resolution for eastern China from NREL Description...

  16. Micro-Earthquake At Coso Geothermal Area (1992-1997) | Open Energy...

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    processed. From the delay time of split shear waves, it was estimated that the crack density in the most active geothermal reservoir area (above 3 km depth) ranges between 0.030...

  17. Title

    National Nuclear Security Administration (NNSA)

    20km i i i i t Fig. 14, Approximate location of boundary between Ash Meadows ground-water basin and Pahute Mesa ground.-water system, Nevada Test Site. -46- point out, however,...

  18. Telluric Survey At Clear Lake Area (Skokan, 1993) | Open Energy...

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    through use of a controlled source transient electromagnetic survey (Keller and Jacobson, 1983 ). A grounded-wire source of 1.1 km in length was energized with a current of...

  19. Comoros: Energy Resources | Open Energy Information

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    Country Profile Name Comoros Population 798,000 GDP 655,000,000 Energy Consumption 0.00 Quadrillion Btu 2-letter ISO code KM 3-letter ISO code COM Numeric ISO...

  20. The Snake River Geothermal Drilling Project - Innovative Approaches...

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    (gravity and magnetics), compilation of existing well data, and the construction of three dimension structure sections. Phase 2 will comprise two intermediate depth (1.5-1.6 km)...

  1. Micro-Earthquake At Coso Geothermal Area (1996) | Open Energy...

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    at 0.5 to 1.2 km in depth below Devil's Kitchen, Nicol Prospects, and Coso Hot Springs. A vertical, low Q ( 36 in contrast with surrounding rock of 80) region is interpreted as...

  2. Attenuation structure of Coso geothermal area, California, from...

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    at 0.5 to 1.2 km in depth below Devil's Kitchen, Nicol Prospects, and Coso Hot Springs. A vertical, low Q ( 36 in contrast with surrounding rock of 80) region is interpreted as...

  3. The Iron Spin Transition in the Earth's Lower Mantle

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    670 and 2900 km below the surface) consists mainly of magnesium-rich (Mg,Fe)SiO3 perovskite, magnesium-rich magnesiowstite, and CaSiO3 perovskite in a mass ratio 64:31:5,...

  4. Piggyback Tectonics- Long-Term Growth Of Kilauea On The South...

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    (15-40,000 km3); lava-thickness accumulation rates appear to have remained nearly constant during edifice growth, as effusion rates increased from 25 106 m3yr at end of...

  5. China has 6,000-mile pipeline system

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Ming, S.

    1983-08-01

    A dramatic change has taken place in China's oil transport system, with pipelines replacing tank-cars as the most important means of transport for crude oil and petroleum products. According to Petroleum Ministry officials, the volume of crude oil carried by China's pipeline system increased from 23.2 percent in 1971 to 65.6 percent in 1981, while the volume delivered by tank-cars declined from 61.11 percent to 8.4 percent. The remainder was transported by tankers. China's 9,700 km (6,000-mile) pipeline network includes 5,600 km (3,500 miles) designed to carry crude oil and more than 600 km (375 miles) for petroleum products, plus 3,400 km (2,100 miles), mostly in Sichuan province, for natural gas.

  6. File:INL-geothermal-rdl-07-21-05-us-002.pdf | Open Energy Information

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    search File File history File usage Estimated geothermal temperature at 4 km with sediment thickness Size of this preview: 800 518 pixels. Full resolution (5,100 3,300...

  7. File:INL-geothermal-rdl-07-21-05-us-005.pdf | Open Energy Information

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    search File File history File usage Estimated geothermal temperature at 10 km with sediment thickness Size of this preview: 800 518 pixels. Full resolution (5,100 3,300...

  8. File:INL-geothermal-rdl-07-21-05-us-004.pdf | Open Energy Information

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    search File File history File usage Estimated geothermal temperature at 6 km with sediment thickness Size of this preview: 800 518 pixels. Full resolution (5,100 3,300...

  9. File:INL-geothermal-rdl-07-21-05-us-001.pdf | Open Energy Information

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    search File File history File usage Estimated geothermal temperature at 3 km with sediment thickness Size of this preview: 800 518 pixels. Full resolution (5,100 3,300...

  10. Slide 1

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    9 10 11 12 observed reflectivity, Z e (dBZ) height AGL (km) MMCR general mode 1-May-2007 black lines - 10:00 UTC blue lines - 12:00 UTC KVNX Estimations in the ice phase above the...

  11. ChemCam is having a blast on Mars

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    planet, the rover will move to various locations within the Gale Crater to test different types of rock. One reason the location was selected was the 5 km (3 mile) mound of...

  12. Lab researchers develop models to analyze mixing in the ocean

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    scales of less than 100 km and timescales on the order of a month. Mesoscale ocean eddies are currents which flow in a roughly circular motion around the center of the eddy. ...

  13. Wear Measurement of Highly Cross-linked UHMWPE using a 7Be Tracer...

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    The pins were tested for wear in a six-station pin-on-flat appara- tus for up to 7.1 million cycles (178 km). A Germanium gamma detector was employed to determine activity loss of ...

  14. Studies of Emissions and Atmospheric Composition, Clouds, and...

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    The project required three aircraft to accomplish these goals. The NASA DC-8 provided observations from near the surface to 12 km, while the NASA ER-2 provided high-altitude ...

  15. Energy Department Releases New Land-Based/Offshore Wind Resource...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    It shows the predicted mean annual wind speeds at 80-m height produced from AWS Truepower's data at a spatial resolution of 2.5 km and interpolated to a finer scale. Read more ...

  16. Limite Marinha A Estrutura de Pesquisa Climtica do Programa...

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    de cerca de 1 a 2 km. Num ambiente marinho, as nuvens da camada limite filtram o sol passivamente mas tambm funcionam como sistemas inter- activos que influenciam e...

  17. ARM - Instrument - mmcr

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    This radar will also report radar reflectivity (dBZ) of the atmosphere up to 20 km. The radar possesses a doppler capability that will allow the measurement of cloud constituent...

  18. Mineral Deformation at Earth's Core-Mantle Boundary

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    (except for its liquid-iron outer core), this convection causes deformation of solid rocks by plastic flow. At the core-mantle boundary (CMB), 2900 km deep, seismologists have...

  19. Search for Acoustic Signals from Ultra-High Energy Neutrinos...

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    Search for Acoustic Signals from Ultra-High Energy Neutrinos in 1500 Km3 of Sea Water Citation Details In-Document Search Title: Search for Acoustic Signals from Ultra-High Energy...

  20. The Two-Column Aerosol Project: Phase I - Overview and Impact...

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    km, within two atmospheric columns; one located near the coast of North America (over Cape Cod, MA) and a second over the Atlantic Ocean several hundred kilometers from the coast. ...

  1. Low-altitude aeromagnetic survey of a portion of the Coso Hot...

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    (927 line-km) was completed over a portion of the Coso Hot Springs KGRA in September 1977. The survey has defined a pronounced magnetic low that could help delineate the...

  2. Belgium: Energy Resources | Open Energy Information

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    the existing buildings in Belgium, the potential roof surface that can be used to install solar panel equals around 250 km.Wind EnergyOver the last decade, onshore wind capacity...

  3. Gamma ray bursts and extreme energy cosmic rays

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Scarsi, Livio

    1998-06-15

    Extreme Energy Cosmic Ray particles (EECR) with E>10{sup 20} eV arriving on Earth with very low flux ({approx}1 particle/Km{sup 2}-1000yr) require for their investigation very large detecting areas, exceeding values of 1000 km{sup 2} sr. Projects with these dimensions are now being proposed: Ground Arrays ('Auger' with 2x3500 km{sup 2} sr) or exploiting the Earth Atmosphere as seen from space ('AIR WATCH' and OWL,'' with effective area reaching 1 million km{sup 2} sr). In this last case, by using as a target the 10{sup 13} tons of air viewed, also the high energy neutrino flux can be investigated conveniently. Gamma Rays Bursts are suggested as a possible source for EECR and the associated High Energy neutrino flux.

  4. ARM - PI Product - Merged MMCR-WSR88D Reflectivities at SGP

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    resolution 90 meters. (2) WSR88D: The WSR-88D radar used located at Vance Air Force Base, OK (KVNX), approximately 59.3 km west of the SGP MMCR. WSR-88D level 2 data were ...

  5. Guinea-Bissau: Energy Resources | Open Energy Information

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    0 Area(km) Class 3-7 Wind at 50m 116 1990 NREL Solar Potential 93,662,158 MWhyear 132 2008 NREL Coal Reserves Unavailable Million Short Tons NA 2008 EIA Natural Gas...

  6. Evolution of a Mineralized Geothermal System, Valles Caldera...

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    Journal Article: Evolution of a Mineralized Geothermal System, Valles Caldera, New Mexico Abstract The 20-km-diam Valles caldera formed at 1.13 Ma and had continuous...

  7. Aster Watches The World'S Volcanoes- A New Paradigm For Volcanological...

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    The spatial resolutions are 15 mpixel in the visible, 30 mpixel in the near-IR, and 90 mpixel at thermal wavelengths, and the swath width is 60 km. ASTER instrument...

  8. DRAFT Microwave Radiometer Profiler Handbook

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    a DOE grant, which will provide continuous measurements of the vertical distributions of temperature, water vapor, and cloud liquid water from the ground up to 10 km for all...

  9. Elevated carbon dioxide flux at the Dixie Valley geothermal field...

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    site near the Stillwater Fault to 0.1 t dayy1 from a 0.01-km2 location of steaming ground on the valley floor. Anomalous CO2 flux is positively correlated with shallow...

  10. Microsoft Word - cuba-document_de-dh.doc

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    the years 1993 and 1994. The information had more detail from the ground to 1 km above ground than the ADP data for the same site. The data provided in the report proved to be...

  11. Datasets - OpenEI Datasets

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    License Info DISCLAIMER NOTICE This GIS data was developed by the National Renewable Energy Laboratory... ZIP Wind: wind power density maps at 50m above ground and 1km...

  12. I I

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    K.M. Barker Petrolite ABSTRACT One of the common oil-field ... Even though hot oiling or hot watering is usually the first ... Southwest Petroleum Short Course, Lubbock TX, (1984) April ...

  13. 915-MHz Radar Wind Profiler (915RWP) Handbook

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Coulter, R

    2005-01-01

    The 915 MHz radar wind profiler/radio acoustic sounding system (RWP/RASS) measures wind profiles and backscattered signal strength between (nominally) 0.1 km and 5 km and virtual temperature profiles between 0.1 km and 2.5 km. It operates by transmitting electromagnetic energy into the atmosphere and measuring the strength and frequency of backscattered energy. Virtual temperatures are recovered by transmitting an acoustic signal vertically and measuring the electromagnetic energy scattered from the acoustic wavefront. Because the propagation speed of the acoustic wave is proportional to the square root of the virtual temperature of the air, the virtual temperature can be recovered by measuring the Doppler shift of the scattered electromagnetic wave.

  14. Gillard Hot Springs Geothermal Area | Open Energy Information

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    110C383.15 K 230 F 689.67 R 1 USGS Estimated Reservoir Volume: 2 km 1 USGS Mean Capacity: 12 MW 1 Click "Edit With Form" above to add content History and...

  15. Boiling Springs Geothermal Area | Open Energy Information

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    100C373.15 K 212 F 671.67 R 1 USGS Estimated Reservoir Volume: 1 km 1 USGS Mean Capacity: 6 MW 1 Click "Edit With Form" above to add content History and...

  16. Fales Hot Springs Geothermal Area | Open Energy Information

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    100C373.15 K 212 F 671.67 R 1 USGS Estimated Reservoir Volume: 1 km 1 USGS Mean Capacity: 3 MW 1 Click "Edit With Form" above to add content History and...

  17. Sespe Hot Springs Geothermal Area | Open Energy Information

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    120C393.15 K 248 F 707.67 R 1 USGS Estimated Reservoir Volume: 2 km 1 USGS Mean Capacity: 11 MW 1 Click "Edit With Form" above to add content History and...

  18. Little Melozitna Geothermal Area | Open Energy Information

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    88C361.15 K 190.4 F 650.07 R 1 USGS Estimated Reservoir Volume: 1 km 1 USGS Mean Capacity: 4 MW 1 Click "Edit With Form" above to add content History and...

  19. Mt Signal Geothermal Area | Open Energy Information

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    135C408.15 K 275 F 734.67 R 1 USGS Estimated Reservoir Volume: 3 km 1 USGS Mean Capacity: 15 MW 1 Click "Edit With Form" above to add content History and...

  20. Roystone Hot Springs Geothermal Area | Open Energy Information

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    90C363.15 K 194 F 653.67 R 1 USGS Estimated Reservoir Volume: 1 km 1 USGS Mean Capacity: 5 MW 1 Click "Edit With Form" above to add content History and...