Sample records for keywords atmospheric water

  1. atmospheric water transport: Topics by E-print Network

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Stenzel, Oliver J 2009-01-01 2 Atmospheric Water Vapor Transport and the Water Balance of North America: Part I CiteSeer Summary: The atmospheric water vapor flux divergence and...

  2. Enter Keyword(s) Today's Ecology Top

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Enter Keyword(s) Today's Ecology Top News OMG's Business Ecology Initiative BEI Reaches 250 Member Advertisement Ecology Topics Botany Climate Research Ecology Environment Environmental Microbiology Environmental Monitoring Environmental Research Fisheries Research Marine Biology Meteorology Molecular Ecology

  3. Integrated Water, Atmosphere, Ecosystems, Education and Research Program

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    I-WATER Integrated Water, Atmosphere, Ecosystems, Education and Research Program #12;I-WATER Funding ¤ I-WATER is funded by the National Science Foundation IGERT program ¤ IGERT is NSF's Integrative of the Provost, Office of the Vice President for Research #12;I-WATER: Organizing Concept Water management

  4. Apparent Temperature Dependence on Localized Atmospheric Water Vapor

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Salvaggio, Carl

    Apparent Temperature Dependence on Localized Atmospheric Water Vapor Matthew Montanaroa, Carl temperature of the target if not properly accounted for. The temperature error is defined as the difference between the target leaving apparent temperature and observed apparent temperature. The effects

  5. Habitability of waterworlds: runaway greenhouses, atmospheric expansion and multiple climate states of pure water atmospheres

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Goldblatt, Colin

    2015-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    There are four different stable climate states for pure water atmospheres, as might exist on so-called "waterworlds". I map these as a function of solar constant for planets ranging in size from Mars size to 10 Earth-mass. The states are: globally ice covered (Tsnet absorption of sunlight. Across the range of planet sizes, I account for the atmospheres expanding to high altitudes as they warm. The emitting and absorbing surfaces (optical depth of unity) move to high altitude, making their area larger than the planet surfa...

  6. Water vapour in the atmosphere of a transiting extrasolar planet

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Giovanna Tinetti; Alfred Vidal-Madjar; Mao-Chang Liang; Jean-Philippe Beaulieu; Yuk Yung; Sean Carey; Robert J. Barber; Jonathan Tennyson; Ignasi Ribas; Nicole Allard; Gilda E. Ballester; David K. Sing; Franck Selsis

    2007-07-20T23:59:59.000Z

    Water is predicted to be among, if not the most abundant molecular species after hydrogen in the atmospheres of close-in extrasolar giant planets (hot-Jupiters) Several attempts have been made to detect water on an exoplanet, but have failed to find compelling evidence for it or led to claims that should be taken with caution. Here we report an analysis of recent observations of the hot-Jupiter HD189733b taken during the transit, where the planet passed in front of its parent star. We find that absorption by water vapour is the most likely cause of the wavelength-dependent variations in the effective radius of the planet at the infrared wavelengths 3.6, 5.8 and 8 microns. The larger effective radius observed at visible wavelengths may be due to either star variability or the presence of clouds/hazes. We explain the most recent thermal infrared observations of the planet during secondary transit behind the star, reporting a non-detection of water on HD189733b, as being a consequence of the nearly isothermal vertical profile of the planet.s atmosphere. Our results show that water is detectable on extrasolar planets using the primary transit technique and that the infrared should be a better wavelength region than the visible, for such searches.

  7. Atmospheric cloud water contains a diverse bacterial community

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Kourtev, P. S.; Hill, Kimberly A.; Shepson, Paul B.; Konopka, Allan

    2011-06-15T23:59:59.000Z

    Atmospheric cloud water contains an active microbial community which can impact climate, human health and ecosystem processes in terrestrial and aquatic systems. Most studies on the composition of microbial communities in clouds have been performed with orographic clouds that are typically in direct contact with the ground. We collected water samples from cumulus clouds above the upper U.S. Midwest. The cloud water was analyzed for the diversity of bacterial phylotypes by denaturing gradient gel electrophoresis (DGGE) and sequencing of 16S rRNA gene amplicons. DGGE analyses of bacterial communities detected 17e21 bands per sample. Sequencing confirmed the presence of a diverse bacterial community; sequences from seven bacterial phyla were retrieved. Cloud water bacterial communities appeared to be dominated by members of the cyanobacteria, proteobacteria, actinobacteria and firmicutes.

  8. FORMATION OF ORGANIC MOLECULES AND WATER IN WARM DISK ATMOSPHERES

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Najita, Joan R. [National Optical Astronomy Observatory, 950 N. Cherry Avenue, Tucson, AZ 85719 (United States); Adamkovics, Mate; Glassgold, Alfred E. [Astronomy Department, University of California, Berkeley, CA 94720 (United States)

    2011-12-20T23:59:59.000Z

    Observations from Spitzer and ground-based infrared spectroscopy reveal significant diversity in the molecular emission from the inner few AU of T Tauri disks. We explore theoretically the possible origin of this diversity by expanding on our earlier thermal-chemical model of disk atmospheres. We consider how variations in grain settling, X-ray irradiation, accretion-related mechanical heating, and the oxygen-to-carbon ratio can affect the thermal and chemical properties of the atmosphere at 0.25-40 AU. We find that these model parameters can account for many properties of the detected molecular emission. The column density of the warm (200-2000 K) molecular atmosphere is sensitive to grain settling and the efficiency of accretion-related heating, which may account, at least in part, for the large range in molecular emission fluxes that have been observed. The dependence of the atmospheric properties on the model parameters may also help to explain trends that have been reported in the literature between molecular emission strength and mid-infrared color, stellar accretion rate, and disk mass. We discuss whether some of the differences between our model results and the observations (e.g., for water) indicate a role for vertical transport and freezeout in the disk midplane. We also discuss how planetesimal formation in the outer disk (beyond the snowline) may imprint a chemical signature on the inner few AU of the disk and speculate on possible observational tracers of this process.

  9. Balance of atmospheric water vapor over the Gulf of Mexico

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Hughes, Ralph Morgan

    1967-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    / / / / I / o. i + B CAP C BBJ V S TPA PZA EHA Fig. 5. Vertical distribution of the average water-vapor flux normal to the perimeter of the Gulf of Nexico during Oct-Kov-Dec 1959. Plus values are inflow in kgm/sec-mb-. m. -o-I Pi C4 I / ~-o, i...BALANCE OF ATMOSPHERIC HATER VAPOR OVER THE GULF OF MEXICO A Thesis By RALPH MORGAN HUGHES Captain, USAF Submitted to the Graduate College of the Texas A&M University in partial fulf-'llment of the rec;uirements for the degree of MASTER...

  10. MATERIALS ENGINEERING KEYWORDS: beryllium, stainless

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Abdou, Mohamed

    MATERIALS ENGINEERING KEYWORDS: beryllium, stainless steel, heat conductance EXPERIMENTAL SURFACES SUBJECTED TO NONUNIFORM THERMAL DEFORMATIONS ROBERT DEAN ABELSON and MOHAMED A. ABDOU* University of California, Los Angeles Mechanical and Aerospace Engineering Department 43-133 Engineering IV, Box 951597

  11. Atmosphere-Water Interaction of Chloroform, Toluene, and MTBE in Small Perennial Urban Streams

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Atmosphere-Water Interaction of Chloroform, Toluene, and MTBE in Small Perennial Urban Streams-butyl ether (MTBE) are frequently detected VOCs in the atmosphere, surface water, and ground water in urban not be the predominant source of chloroform and toluene in the two urban streams. In contrast, MTBE may be coming from

  12. Modeling the Exchanges of Energy, Water, and Carbon Between Continents and the Atmosphere

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Collett Jr., Jeffrey L.

    , for example, increasing atmospheric carbon dioxide. Until the early 1980s, global atmospheric generalModeling the Exchanges of Energy, Water, and Carbon Between Continents and the Atmosphere P. J varying data of land surface properties were assembled from ecological and geo- graphical surveys

  13. THERMAL HYDRAULICS KEYWORDS: neutron activation,

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Pázsit, Imre

    measurements of pro- duced heat. This is also true for power reactors, especially pressurized water reactors determination of the feedwater flow. The ca- lorimetric measurement of the total power is also used to normalize for deter- mining both gross power and nuclear parameters. Flow measurements can be based on intrusive meth

  14. atmospheric precipitable water: Topics by E-print Network

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Websites Summary: a crucial role in Earth's energy and water cycles through absorbing solar and infrared radiation, releasing latent heat, transporting water, and forming...

  15. Keyword Search and Oblivious Pseudorandom Functions

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Singh, Jaswinder Pal

    interest. Keywords: Secure keyword search, oblivious pseudorandom functions, private information retrieval, secure two-party protocols, privacy-preserving protocols 1 Introduction Keyword search (KS and receive the records associated with these keywords. A natural question in the area of secure computation

  16. 2015 Pearson Education, Inc. Chapter 7 Water and Atmospheric Moisture

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Pan, Feifei

    Education, Inc. Where did Earth's Water Come From? · Earth's water originated from icy comets and hydrogen pipes · Damaging vehicle's engine · Sinking ships #12;© 2015 Pearson Education, Inc. Iceberg King George, Inc. Three States of Water (H2O) H O H + + Hydrogen bond Negatively charged at O side Positively

  17. Water and Climate 2. Circulation of ocean and atmosphere; climate

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    to high latitude and part of that thermal energy is FW: latent heat Gill Atmosphere-Ocean Dynamics integrated vertically (annual mean) ERA40 Atlas ECMWF HIGH: ICTZ, monsoon regions, Amazon.... convergent March 2005 from satellite radiometer AMSR-E. Ranges up to 6.5 cm FW in tropics #12;#12;Relative humidity

  18. atmospheric water vapor: Topics by E-print Network

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    greenhouse gas, contributing to approximately two-thirds of the Earth's greenhouse effect Mitchell, 1989; IntergovernmentalA meta-analysis of water vapor...

  19. Keyword Search and Oblivious Pseudorandom Functions

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Ishai, Yuval

    , as a corollary, give improved constructions of OPRFs that may be of inde­ pendent interest. Keywords: Secure keyword search, oblivious pseudorandom functions, private information retrieval, secure two the records associated with these keywords. A natural question in the area of secure computation is the design

  20. Atmosphere and Ocean: Water (drought topic begins at slide 26)

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Eon rate F=5.2 x 1014 m3/year...16 Sverdrups stock of water in the air: M= 1Etude 20 to 30 north and south. The Earth s rotaEon takes this pa

  1. atmospheric water demand: Topics by E-print Network

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    of Public Water Demand in the United States Texas A&M University - TxSpace Summary: -run demand response is not shown to be statistically significant. The quasidifference price...

  2. Ch.7 Water and Atmospheric Moisture Learning Objective One

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Pan, Feifei

    's water originated from icy comets and hydrogen-oxygen-laden debris. Outgassing is a process by which formation Breaking roads Breaking pipes Damaging vehicle's engine Sinking ships #12;Iceberg King H +_ + _ Hydrogen bond Negatively charged at O side Positively charged at H side #12;Three States

  3. Effects of atmospheric deposition of energy-related pollutants on water quality: a review and assessment

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Davis, M.J.

    1981-05-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The effects on surface-water quality of atmospheric pollutants that are generated during energy production are reviewed and evaluated. Atmospheric inputs from such sources to the aquatic environment may include trace elements, organic compounds, radionuclides, and acids. Combustion is the largest energy-related source of trace-element emissions to the atmosphere. This report reviews the nature of these emissions from coal-fired power plants and discusses their terrestrial and aquatic effects following deposition. Several simple models for lakes and streams are developed and are applied to assess the potential for adverse effects on surface-water quality of trace-element emissions from coal combustion. The probability of acute impacts on the aquatic environment appears to be low; however, more subtle, chronic effects are possible. The character of acid precipitation is reviewed, with emphasis on aquatic effects, and the nature of existing or potential effects on water quality, aquatic biota, and water supply is considered. The response of the aquatic environment to acid precipitation depends on the type of soils and bedrock in a watershed and the chemical characteristics of the water bodies in question. Methods for identifying regions sensitive to acid inputs are reviewed. The observed impact of acid precipitation ranges from no effects to elimination of fish populations. Coal-fired power plants and various stages of the nuclear fuel cycle release radionuclides to the atmosphere. Radioactive releases to the atmosphere from these sources and the possible aquatic effects of such releases are examined. For the nuclear fuel cycle, the major releases are from reactors and reprocessing. Although aquatic effects of atmospheric releases have not been fully quantified, there seems little reason for concern for man or aquatic biota.

  4. A Study of Atmospheric Deposition of Air Toxics to the Waters of Puget Sound

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Aguirre, Danielle

    2009-06-09T23:59:59.000Z

    , Washington, it is vital to determine what the impacts of such growth have had on air and water quality and if greater needs in regulation are needed to curtail emissions. A bi-weekly deposition study of atmospheric particulate matter at seven sites around...

  5. investigating the source, transport, and isotope fractionation of water vapor in the atmospheric boundary layer

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Minnesota, University of

    investigating the source, transport, and isotope fractionation of water vapor in the atmospheric-portable mixing ratio generator and Rayleigh distillation device, Agricultural and Forest Meteorology, 150, 1607 ratio generator. Incom- ing dry air passes through a molecular sieve and then a stainless steel frit (a

  6. Mercury in the Atmosphere, Snow and Melt Water Ponds in the North

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Jacob, Daniel J.

    . Introduction Compared to most heavy metals, mercury behaves excepMercury in the Atmosphere, Snow and Melt Water Ponds in the North Atlantic Ocean during Arctic dominant species, with a northern hemispheric back- ground concentration of 1.7 ng/m3 (3). Under these same

  7. Regional terrestrial water storage change and evapotranspiration from terrestrial and atmospheric water balance computations

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Yeh, Pat J.-F.; Famiglietti, J. S

    2008-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    is derived as the residual of precipitation and water vaporThe largest mean water budget residual calculated from theresidual between the two large terms in the combined water

  8. Materials, methods and devices to detect and quantify water vapor concentrations in an atmosphere

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Allendorf, Mark D; Robinson, Alex L

    2014-12-09T23:59:59.000Z

    We have demonstrated that a surface acoustic wave (SAW) sensor coated with a nanoporous framework material (NFM) film can perform ultrasensitive water vapor detection at concentrations in air from 0.05 to 12,000 ppmv at 1 atmosphere pressure. The method is extendable to other MEMS-based sensors, such as microcantilevers, or to quartz crystal microbalance sensors. We identify a specific NFM that provides high sensitivity and selectivity to water vapor. However, our approach is generalizable to detection of other species using NFM to provide sensitivity and selectivity.

  9. FISSION REACTORS KEYWORDS: core-barrel vibra-

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Demazière, Christophe

    FISSION REACTORS KEYWORDS: core-barrel vibra- tions, in-core neutron noise, shell- mode vibrations CALCULATION OF THE NEUTRON NOISE INDUCED BY SHELL-MODE CORE-BARREL VIBRATIONS IN A 1-D, TWO-GROUP, TWO-REGION SLAB REACTOR MODEL CARL SUNDE,* CHRISTOPHE DEMAZI�RE, and IMRE PÁZSIT Chalmers University of Technology

  10. Multi-Keyword Sponsored Search Peerapong Dhangwatnotai

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Sandholm, Tuomas W.

    keywords when we discuss search advertising with multiple search terms. When a user enters a search term search engines' mechanism for allocating im- pressions generated from different search terms. This mech- anism is equivalent to running an independent GSP auc- tion for each search term only when the number

  11. REACTOR SAFETY KEYWORDS: best estimate plus

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Hoppe, Fred M.

    REACTOR SAFETY KEYWORDS: best estimate plus uncertainty analysis, epistemic error and aleatory phe- nomena that underlie the safety analyses. The use of BE codes within the reactor technology in advance and that result from a variety of operating conditions or states. These arise because the reactor

  12. HEGIS CLASSIFICATIONS (THIS DOCUMENT IS KEYWORD SEARCHABLE

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Segraves, Kari A.

    HEGIS CLASSIFICATIONS (THIS DOCUMENT IS KEYWORD SEARCHABLE USING THE "FIND" TOOL IN YOUR ADOBE, research projects, etc. having to do with the production of food and management of natural fiber, plant, forest, and wildlife resources. 0101 Agriculture, general 0102 Agronomy (field crops, crop management

  13. Leaf water potential in Pinus taeda L. as related to fluctuating soil water and atmospheric conditions

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Ellison, Stanley Lee

    1969-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    growing on Bienville loamy fine sand near Rusk, Texas. The average available water storage capacity was 9. 50 inches in the 8-foot profile. Siruiltaneous measurements of leaf water potential and environmental variables were made weekly at two hour... pressure 2 deficit, temperature, and wind (R 0. 78). A regression equation relating total daily water stress to only vapor pressure deficit and soil water content in the 0- to 4-foot soil layer was also signifi- 2= cant (R = 0. 76). The total daily...

  14. Meteorological Tables for Determination of Precipitable Water, Temperatures and Pressures Aloft for a Saturated Pseudoadiabatic Atmosphere -- in the Metric System

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Eihle, W. O.; Powers, R. J.; Clark, R.A.

    TR-16 1968 Meteorological Tables for Determination of Precipitable Water, Temperatures and Pressures Aloft for a Saturated Pseudoadiabatic Atmosphere?in the Metric System W.O. Eihle R.J. Powers R.A. Clark...

  15. GIS keyword | OpenEI Community

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page onYou are now leaving Energy.gov You are now leaving Energy.gov You are being directedAnnualPropertyd8c-a9ae-f8521cbb8489InformationFrenchtown, NewG2 EnergyGIS keyword Home >

  16. On the theory of water level variations in lakes and seas induced by atmospheric disturbances

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Sparger, Carter Reece

    1953-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    , Boundary Conditions: u. (o. q, t) = u- C~, gt) = ~ (W, - K, t) = 0 au. 8u [ Q ? (y-g t) = -+ ? (w, o, t) = ? ? ~ Wpl~ %+ R eQ? x~v Initial Conditions; u. (e?q, o) = q (W, o) = 0 Solution: The expressions %q = co+ 'La ~ exp Q~ J ?= ?in Iy z(g ??p... ~ = constant) ~Q ~ ~ b~ at o~ a+ + \\ 0 a at C. F || I. 11* tl*o ~Co 0o1 Ilsed: In general, the response of a given body of homo- geneous water to atmospheric pressure grad1ents and winds depends on the eddy viscos1ty of the weter, the Coriolis force...

  17. Correlations of atmospheric water ice and dust in the Martian Polar regions

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Brown, Adrian J; Scargle, Jeffrey D

    2015-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    We report on the interannual variability of the atmospheric ice/dust cycle in the Martian polar regions for Mars Years 28-30. We used CRISM emission phase function measurements to derive atmospheric dust optical depths and data from the MARCI instrument to derive atmospheric water ice optical depths. We have used autocorrelation and cross correlation functions in order to quantify the degree to which dust and ice are correlated throughout both polar regions during Mars Years 28-29. We find that in the south polar region, dust has the tendency to "self clear", demonstrated by negative autocorrelation around the central peak. This does not occur in the north polar region. In the south polar region, dust and ice are temporally and spatially anti correlated. In the north polar region, this relationship is reversed, however temporal correlation of northern dust and ice clouds is weak - 6 times weaker than the anticorrelation in the south polar region. Our latitudinal autocorrelation functions allow us to put avera...

  18. Rapid automatic keyword extraction for information retrieval and analysis

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Rose, Stuart J (Richland, WA); Cowley,; Wendy E (Richland, WA); Crow, Vernon L (Richland, WA); Cramer, Nicholas O (Richland, WA)

    2012-03-06T23:59:59.000Z

    Methods and systems for rapid automatic keyword extraction for information retrieval and analysis. Embodiments can include parsing words in an individual document by delimiters, stop words, or both in order to identify candidate keywords. Word scores for each word within the candidate keywords are then calculated based on a function of co-occurrence degree, co-occurrence frequency, or both. Based on a function of the word scores for words within the candidate keyword, a keyword score is calculated for each of the candidate keywords. A portion of the candidate keywords are then extracted as keywords based, at least in part, on the candidate keywords having the highest keyword scores.

  19. Simultaneous Detection of Water, Methane and Carbon Monoxide in the Atmosphere of Exoplanet HR8799b

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Barman, Travis S; Macintosh, Bruce; Marois, Christian

    2015-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Absorption lines from water, methane and carbon monoxide are detected in the atmosphere of exoplanet HR8799b. A medium-resolution spectrum presented here shows well-resolved and easily identified spectral features from all three molecules across the K band. The majority of the lines are produced by CO and H2O, but several lines clearly belong to CH4. Comparisons between these data and atmosphere models covering a range of temperatures and gravities yield log mole fractions of H2O between -3.09 and -3.91, CO between -3.30 and -3.72 and CH4 between -5.06 and -5.85. More precise mole fractions are obtained for each temperature and gravity studied. A reanalysis of H-band data, previously obtained at similar spectral resolution, results in a nearly identical water abundance as determined from the K-band spectrum. The methane abundance is shown to be sensitive to vertical mixing and indicates an eddy diffusion coefficient in the range of 10^6 to 10^8 cm^2 s^-1, comparable to mixing in the deep troposphere of Jupite...

  20. The effects of post-condensation exchange on the isotopic composition of water in1 the atmosphere2

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Field, Robert

    of the water vapor and the amount of previous2 rainfall from the air mass as the dominant controls on the isotopic composition of3 atmospheric moisture. These formed the basis of the Rayleigh distillation model4 16 O, causing the progressive8 isotopic depletion of the air mass at it loses moisture. In its most

  1. Cheap Artificial AB-Mountains, Extraction of Water and Energy from Atmosphere and Change of Regional Climate

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Bolonkin, Alexander

    2008-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Author suggests and researches a new revolutionary method for changing the climates of entire countries or portions thereof, obtaining huge amounts of cheap water and energy from the atmosphere. In this paper is presented the idea of cheap artificial inflatable mountains, which may cardinally change the climate of a large region or country. Additional benefits: The potential of tapping large amounts of fresh water and energy. The mountains are inflatable semi-cylindrical constructions from thin film (gas bags) having heights of up to 3 - 5 km. They are located perpendicular to the main wind direction. Encountering these artificial mountains, humid air (wind) rises to crest altitude, is cooled and produces rain (or rain clouds). Many natural mountains are sources of rivers, and other forms of water and power production - and artificial mountains may provide these services for entire nations in the future. The film of these gasbags is supported at altitude by small additional atmospheric overpressure and may be...

  2. Global energy and water balance: Characteristics from finite-volume atmospheric model of the IAP/LASG (FAMIL1)

    DOE Public Access Gateway for Energy & Science Beta (PAGES Beta)

    Zhou, Linjiong; Bao, Qing; Liu, Yimin; Wu, Guoxiong; Wang, Wei-Chyung; Wang, Xiaocong; He, Bian; Yu, Haiyang; Li, Jiandong

    2015-03-01T23:59:59.000Z

    This paper documents version 1 of the Finite-volume Atmospheric Model of the IAP/LASG (FAMIL1), which has a flexible horizontal resolution up to a quarter of 1°. The model, currently running on the ‘‘Tianhe 1A’’ supercomputer, is the atmospheric component of the third-generation Flexible Global Ocean-Atmosphere-Land climate System model (FGOALS3) which will participate in the Coupled Model Intercomparison Project Phase 6 (CMIP6). In addition to describing the dynamical core and physical parameterizations of FAMIL1, this paper describes the simulated characteristics of energy and water balances and compares them with observational/reanalysis data. The comparisons indicate that the model simulates well the seasonalmore »and geographical distributions of radiative fluxes at the top of the atmosphere and at the surface, as well as the surface latent and sensible heat fluxes. A major weakness in the energy balance is identified in the regions where extensive and persistent marine stratocumulus is present. Analysis of the global water balance also indicates realistic seasonal and geographical distributions with the global annual mean of evaporation minus precipitation being approximately 10?? mm d?¹. We also examine the connections between the global energy and water balance and discuss the possible link between the two within the context of the findings from the reanalysis data. Finally, the model biases as well as possible solutions are discussed.« less

  3. Distributed Information Retrieval using Keyword Auctions Djoerd Hiemstra

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Hiemstra, Djoerd

    , and proposes solutions based on keyword auctions. 1 Introduction After the burst of the dot-com bubble

  4. Method and apparatus for simulating atmospheric absorption of solar energy due to water vapor and CO{sub 2}

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Sopori, B.L.

    1995-06-20T23:59:59.000Z

    A method and apparatus for improving the accuracy of the simulation of sunlight reaching the earth`s surface includes a relatively small heated chamber having an optical inlet and an optical outlet, the chamber having a cavity that can be filled with a heated stream of CO{sub 2} and water vapor. A simulated beam comprising infrared and near infrared light can be directed through the chamber cavity containing the CO{sub 2} and water vapor, whereby the spectral characteristics of the beam are altered so that the output beam from the chamber contains wavelength bands that accurately replicate atmospheric absorption of solar energy due to atmospheric CO{sub 2} and moisture. 8 figs.

  5. Water Structure at Aqueous Solution Surfaces of Atmospherically Relevant Dimethyl Sulfoxide and Methanesulfonic Acid Revealed by Phase-Sensitive Sum Frequency

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Water Structure at Aqueous Solution Surfaces of Atmospherically Relevant Dimethyl Sulfoxide States ReceiVed: August 26, 2010; ReVised Manuscript ReceiVed: October 9, 2010 Interfacial water. Through isotopic dilution, we probed bulk water hydrogen bonding strength using the vibrational frequency

  6. Reactions Between Water Soluble Organic Acids and Nitrates in Atmospheric Aerosols: Recycling of Nitric Acid and Formation of Organic Salts

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Wang, Bingbing; Laskin, Alexander

    2014-03-25T23:59:59.000Z

    Atmospheric particles often include a complex mixture of nitrate and secondary organic materials accumulated within the same individual particles. Nitrate as an important inorganic component can be chemically formed in the atmosphere. For instance, formation of sodium nitrate (NaNO3) and calcium nitrate Ca(NO3)2 when nitrogen oxide and nitric acid (HNO3) species react with sea salt and calcite, respectively. Organic acids contribute a significant fraction of photochemically formed secondary organics that can condense on the preexisting nitrate-containing particles. Here, we present a systematic microanalysis study on chemical composition of laboratory generated particles composed of water soluble organic acids and nitrates (i.e. NaNO3 and Ca(NO3)2) investigated using computer controlled scanning electron microscopy with energy dispersive analysis of X-rays (CCSEM/EDX) and Fourier transform infrared micro-spectroscopy (micro-FTIR). The results show that water-soluble organic acids can react with nitrates releasing gaseous HNO3 during dehydration process. These reactions are attributed to acid displacement of nitrate with weak organic acids driven by the evaporation of HNO3 into gas phase due to its relatively high volatility. The reactions result in significant nitrate depletion and formation of organic salts in mixed organic acids/nitrate particles that in turn may affect their physical and chemical properties relevant to atmospheric environment and climate. Airborne nitrate concentrations are estimated by thermodynamic calculations corresponding to various nitrate depletions in selected organic acids of atmospheric relevance. The results indicate a potential mechanism of HNO3 recycling, which may further affect concentrations of gas- and aerosol-phase species in the atmosphere and the heterogeneous reaction chemistry between them.

  7. A STUDY ON LEGIONELLA PNEUMOPHILA, WATER CHEMISTRY, AND ATMOSPHERIC CONDITIONS IN COOLING TOWERS AT THE SAVANNAH RIVER SITE

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Smith, C.; Brigmon, R.

    2009-10-20T23:59:59.000Z

    Legionnaires disease is a pneumonia caused by the inhalation of the bacterium Legionella pneumophila. The majority of illnesses have been associated with cooling towers since these devices can harbor and disseminate the bacterium in the aerosolized mist generated by these systems. Historically, Savannah River Site (SRS) cooling towers have had occurrences of elevated levels of Legionella in all seasons of the year and in patterns that are difficult to predict. Since elevated Legionella in cooling tower water are a potential health concern a question has been raised as to the best control methodology. In this work we analyze available chemical, biological, and atmospheric data to determine the best method or key parameter for control. The SRS 4Q Industrial Hygiene Manual, 4Q-1203, 1 - G Cooling Tower Operation and the SRNL Legionella Sampling Program, states that 'Participation in the SRNL Legionella Sampling Program is MANDATORY for all operating cooling towers'. The resulting reports include L. pneumophila concentration information in cells/L. L. pneumophila concentrations >10{sup 7} cells/L are considered elevated and unsafe so action must be taken to reduce these densities. These remedial actions typically include increase biocide addition or 'shocking'. Sometimes additional actions are required if the problem persists including increase tower maintenance (e.g. cleaning). Evaluation of 14 SRS cooling towers, seven water quality parameters, and five Legionella serogroups over a three-plus year time frame demonstrated that cooling tower water Legionella densities varied widely though out this time period. In fact there was no one common consistent significant variable across all towers. The significant factors that did show up most frequently were related to suspended particulates, conductivity, pH, and dissolved oxygen, not chlorine or bromine as might be expected. Analyses of atmospheric data showed that there were more frequent significant elevated Legionella concentrations when the dew point temperature was high--a summertime occurrence. However, analysis of the three years of Legionella monitoring data of the 14 different SRS Cooling Towers demonstrated that elevated concentrations are observed at all temperatures and seasons. The objective of this study is to evaluate the ecology of L. pneumophila including serogroups and population densities, chemical, and atmospheric data, on cooling towers at SRS to determine whether relationships exist among water chemistry, and atmospheric conditions. The goal is to more fully understand the conditions which inhibit or encourage L. pneumophila growth and supply this data and associated recommendations to SRS Cooling Tower personnel for improved management of operation. Hopefully this information could then be used to help control L. pneumophila growth more effectively in SRS cooling tower water.

  8. Cheap Artificial AB-Mountains, Extraction of Water and Energy from Atmosphere and Change of Regional Climate

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Alexander Bolonkin

    2008-05-11T23:59:59.000Z

    Author suggests and researches a new revolutionary method for changing the climates of entire countries or portions thereof, obtaining huge amounts of cheap water and energy from the atmosphere. In this paper is presented the idea of cheap artificial inflatable mountains, which may cardinally change the climate of a large region or country. Additional benefits: The potential of tapping large amounts of fresh water and energy. The mountains are inflatable semi-cylindrical constructions from thin film (gas bags) having heights of up to 3 - 5 km. They are located perpendicular to the main wind direction. Encountering these artificial mountains, humid air (wind) rises to crest altitude, is cooled and produces rain (or rain clouds). Many natural mountains are sources of rivers, and other forms of water and power production - and artificial mountains may provide these services for entire nations in the future. The film of these gasbags is supported at altitude by small additional atmospheric overpressure and may be connected to the ground by thin cables. The author has shown (in previous works about the AB-Dome) that this closed AB-Dome allows full control of the weather inside the Dome (the day is always fine, the rain is only at night, no strong winds) and influence to given region. This is a realistic and cheap method of economical irrigation, getting energy and virtual weather control on Earth at the current time.

  9. Decadal Variability in the Formation of the North Pacific Subtropical Mode Water: Oceanic versus Atmospheric Control

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Qiu, Bo

    , during which time high regional eddy variability infuses high-PV KE water into the recirculation gyre

  10. Competition between Atmospherically Relevant Fatty Acid Monolayers at the Air/Water Laura F. Voss, Christopher M. Hadad,* and Heather C. Allen*

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Competition between Atmospherically Relevant Fatty Acid Monolayers at the Air/Water Interface Laura F. Voss, Christopher M. Hadad,* and Heather C. Allen* Department of Chemistry, The Ohio State Uni Competition and oxidation of fatty acids spread at the air/water interface were investigated using surface

  11. The hydrological cycle tirelessly distributes water between land, ocean, atmosphere and cryosphere. Stefan Hagemann and his colleagues at the Max Planck Institute for Meteorology

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    substance across the globe, but they also carry along thermal energy in the process ­ albeit hidden into liquid water or freezes to form ice. Conversely, energy input is necessary for ice to melt or sublimeThe hydrological cycle tirelessly distributes water between land, ocean, atmosphere and cryosphere

  12. Coupling Terrestrial and Atmospheric Water Dynamics to Improve Prediction in a Changing Environment

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Lyon, Steve W.; Dominguez, Francina; Gochis, David J.; Brunsell, Nathaniel A.; Castro, Christopher; Chow, Fotini K.; Fan, Ying; Fuka, Daniel; Hong, Yang; Kucera, Paul A.; Nesbitt, Stephen W.; Salzmann, Nadine; Schmidli, Juerg; Snyder, Peter K.; Teuling, Adriaam J.; Twine, Tracy E.; Levis, Samuel; Lundquist, Jessica D.; Salvucci, Guido D.; Sealy, Andrea M.; Walter, M. Todd

    2008-09-01T23:59:59.000Z

    considered. This scale specificity complicates and often precludes “fully generalized” approaches to Earth-systems models and may alias observation strategies. There is an obvious trade-off between simple and complex modeling approaches for representing... research subfields, but it is their coupling that has the potential to dramatically change our modeling capabilities. Efforts such as the Earth System Modeling Framework (ESMF) or the Weather Research and Forecasting (WRF) mesoscale atmospheric model...

  13. Models of the atmospheric water vapor budget for the Texas HIPLEX area: by Steven Francis Williams.

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Williams, Steven Francis

    1979-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    co:erage cf. convective activ' ty, Thus, the em&unt of convection seems to be more important than the type oz pr"se. . ce of convective activi!y. An increased tran:port of water vapor near ti e surface is -hown to be an important factor... of watc-. z vapor tnrough each later, l boundary shown in Fig. 1 can be comput d by substituting Eqs. (16) ? (19), reaper tively, into Eq. (14) . Th ' net transport of water vapor 'nt the volume through la+eral oouccdaries or t?:e net horizontal tran:;port...

  14. Authorized Private Keyword Search over Encrypted Data in Cloud Computing

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Hou, Y. Thomas

    Authorized Private Keyword Search over Encrypted Data in Cloud Computing Ming Li, Shucheng Yu, Ning,ncao,wjlou}@ece.wpi.edu Dept. of CS, University of Arkansas at Little Rock, email: sxyu1@ualr.edu Abstract--In cloud computing In recent years, cloud computing is gaining much mo- mentum in the IT industry. Especially, we have seen

  15. Fuzzy Keyword Search over Encrypted Data in Cloud Computing

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Hou, Y. Thomas

    Fuzzy Keyword Search over Encrypted Data in Cloud Computing Jin Li, Qian Wang, Cong Wang, Ning Cao}@ece.wpi.edu Abstract--As Cloud Computing becomes prevalent, more and more sensitive information are being centralized in Cloud Computing as it greatly affects system usability, rendering user searching experiences very

  16. Indexing and Keyword Search to Ease Navigation in Lecture Videos

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Subhlok, Jaspal

    Indexing and Keyword Search to Ease Navigation in Lecture Videos Tayfun Tuna, Jaspal Subhlok@uh.edu, shah@cs.uh.edu Abstract----Lecture videos have been commonly used to supplement in-class teaching and for distance learning. Videos recorded during in-class teaching and made accessible online are a versatile

  17. Terrestrial Planet Atmospheres. The Moon's Sodium Atmosphere

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Walter, Frederick M.

    ;Origins of Atmospheres · Outgassing ­ Volcanoes expel water, CO2, N2, H2S, SO2 removed by the Fme convecFon reaches deserts #12;Water and Ice Clouds #12;H2SO4

  18. Property:OpenEI/Tool/Keyword | Open Energy Information

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page onYou are now leaving Energy.gov You are now leaving Energy.gov You are being directedAnnualProperty Edit with form History Facebook icon Twitter iconNumOfPlants Jump to:Tool/Keyword Jump

  19. Atmospheric bromine flux from the coastal Abu Dhabi sabkhat: A ground-water mass-balance investigation

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    (not brine) surface was based on direct MAX-DOAS atmospheric measurements above Salar de Uyuni, Bolivia

  20. The watershed depositon tool : a tool for incorporating atmospheric deposition in water-quality analyses {sup 1}.

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Schwede, D. B.; Dennis, R. L.; Bitz, M. A.; Decision and Information Sciences; NOAA; EPA

    2009-08-01T23:59:59.000Z

    A tool for providing the linkage between air and water-quality modeling needed for determining the Total Maximum Daily Load (TMDL) and for analyzing related nonpoint-source impacts on watersheds has been developed. Using gridded output of atmospheric deposition from the Community Multiscale Air Quality (CMAQ) model, the Watershed Deposition Tool (WDT) calculates average per unit area and total deposition to selected watersheds and subwatersheds. CMAQ estimates the wet and dry deposition for all of its gaseous and particulate chemical species, including ozone, sulfur species, nitrogen species, secondary organic aerosols, and hazardous air pollutants at grid scale sizes ranging from 4 to 36 km. An overview of the CMAQ model is provided. The somewhat specialized format of the CMAQ files is not easily imported into standard spatial analysis tools. The WDT provides a graphical user interface that allows users to visualize CMAQ gridded data and perform further analyses on selected watersheds or simply convert CMAQ gridded data to a shapefile for use in other programs. Shapefiles for the 8-digit (cataloging unit) hydrologic unit code polygons for the United States are provided with the WDT; however, other user-supplied closed polygons may be used. An example application of the WDT for assessing the contributions of different source categories to deposition estimates, the contributions of wet and dry deposition to total deposition, and the potential reductions in total nitrogen deposition to the Albemarle-Pamlico basin stemming from future air emissions reductions is used to illustrate the WDT capabilities.

  1. A Detection of Water in the Transmission Spectrum of the Hot Jupiter WASP-12b and Implications for its Atmospheric Composition

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Kreidberg, Laura; Bean, Jacob L; Stevenson, Kevin B; Desert, Jean-Michel; Madhusudhan, Nikku; Fortney, Jonathan J; Barstow, Joanna K; Henry, Gregory W; Williamson, Michael; Showman, Adam P

    2015-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Detailed characterization of exoplanets has begun to yield measurements of their atmospheric properties that constrain the planets' origins and evolution. For example, past observations of the dayside emission spectrum of the hot Jupiter WASP-12b indicated that its atmosphere has a high carbon-to-oxygen ratio (C/O $>$ 1), suggesting it had a different formation pathway than is commonly assumed for giant planets. Here we report a precise near-infrared transmission spectrum for WASP-12b based on six transit observations with the Hubble Space Telescope/Wide Field Camera 3. We bin the data in 13 spectrophotometric light curves from 0.84 - 1.67 $\\mu$m and measure the transit depths to a median precision of 51 ppm. We retrieve the atmospheric properties using the transmission spectrum and find strong evidence for water absorption (7$\\sigma$ confidence). This detection marks the first high-confidence, spectroscopic identification of a molecule in the atmosphere of WASP-12b. The retrieved 1$\\sigma$ water volume mixin...

  2. Turn-key Raman lidar for profiling atmospheric water vapor, clouds, and aerosols at the US Southern Great Plains Climate Study Site

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Goldsmith, J.E.M.; Blair, F.H.; Bisson, S.E.

    1997-12-31T23:59:59.000Z

    There are clearly identified scientific requirements for continuous profiling of atmospheric water vapor at the Department of Energy, Atmospheric Radiation Measurement program, Southern Great Plains CART (Cloud and Radiation Testbed) site in northern Oklahoma. Research conducted at several laboratories has demonstrated the suitability of Raman lidar for providing measurements that are an excellent match to those requirements. We have developed and installed a ruggedized Raman lidar system that resides permanently at the CART site, and that is computer automated to eliminate the requirements for operator interaction. In addition to the design goal of profiling water vapor through most of the troposphere during nighttime and through the boundary layer during daytime, the lidar provides quantitative characterizations of aerosols and clouds, including depolarization measurements for particle phase studies.

  3. IUPAC critical evaluation of the rotationalvibrational spectra of water vapor. Part I--Energy levels and transition wavenumbers

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Chance, Kelly

    Keywords: Water vapor Transition wavenumbers Atmospheric physics Energy levels MARVEL Information systemIUPAC critical evaluation of the rotational­vibrational spectra of water vapor. Part I--Energy levels and transition wavenumbers for H2 17 O and H2 18 O Jonathan Tennyson a,Ã, Peter F. Bernath b

  4. Water in the West

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Fahlund, Andrew; Choy, Min L. Janny; Szeptycki, Leon

    2014-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    faced with the imperative that water is vital to all life onChoy* and Leon Szeptycki Water in the West Keywords: climategreen infrastructure; water; water-energy; water governance;

  5. Atmospheric Thermodynamics Composition

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Russell, Lynn

    1 Atmospheric Thermodynamics Ch1 Composition Ch2 Laws Ch3 Transfers Ch12 EnergyBalance Ch4 Water Ch Sciences: Atmospheric Thermodynamics Instructor: Lynn Russell, NH343 http #12;2 Review from Ch. 1 · Thermodynamic quantities · Composition · Pressure · Density · Temperature

  6. Ch4. Atmosphere and Surface Energy Balances

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Pan, Feifei

    ;Energy Pathways #12;Solar radiation transfer in the atmosphere Solar radiation Reflection Atmosphere or performing any work. #12;Solar radiation transfer in the atmosphere Solar radiation Reflection Transmission or water. #12;Solar radiation transfer in the atmosphere Solar radiation Reflection Transmission Atmosphere

  7. Retrieval of Cloud Ice Water Content Profiles from Advanced Microwave Sounding Unit-B Brightness Temperatures Near the Atmospheric Radiation Measurement Southern Great Plains Site

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Seo, E-K.; Liu, G.

    2005-03-18T23:59:59.000Z

    One of the Atmospheric Radiation Measurement (ARM) Program important goals is to develop and test radiation and cloud parameterizations of climate models using single column modeling (SCMs) (Randall et al. 1996). As forcing terms, SCMs need advection tendency of cloud condensates besides the tendencies of temperature, moisture and momentum. To compute the tendency terms of cloud condensates, 3D distribution of cloud condensates over a scale much larger than the climate model's grid scale is needed. Since they can cover a large area within a short time period, satellite measurements are useful utilities to provide advection tendency of cloud condensates for SCMs. However, so far, most satellite retrieval algorithms only retrieve vertically integrated quantities, for example, in the case of cloud ice, ice water path (IWP). To fulfill the requirement of 3D ice water content field for computing ice water advection, in this study, we develop an ice water content profile retrieval algorithm by combining the vertical distribution characteristics obtained from long-term surface radar observations and satellite high-frequency microwave observations that cover a large area. The algorithm is based on the Bayesian theorem using a priori database derived from analyzing cloud radar observations at the Southern Great Plains (SGP) site. The end product of the algorithm is a 3D ice water content covering 10{sup o} x 10{sup o} surrounding the SGP site during the passage of the satellite. This 3D ice water content, together with wind field analysis, can be used to compute the advection tendency of ice water for SCMs.

  8. Efficient and Secure Ranked Multi-Keyword Search on Encrypted Cloud Data

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Yanikoglu, Berrin

    Efficient and Secure Ranked Multi-Keyword Search on Encrypted Cloud Data Cengiz Ã?rencik Faculty and reveal information about sensitive search terms. A related protocol, Private Information Retrieval (PIR-preserving ranked keyword search scheme based on PIR that allows multi-keyword queries with rank- ing capability

  9. IMPROVING MULTI-LATTICE ALIGNMENT BASED SPOKEN KEYWORD SPOTTING Hui Lin, Alex Stupakov and Jeff Bilmes

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Noble, William Stafford

    , such as when- ever it is inconvenient, unsafe, or impossible for the user to enter a search query using and the utterance being searched is beneficial for spoken keyword spotting. In this paper, we introduce several im- prove the performance of spoken keyword spotting. Index Terms-- Spoken keyword spotting, lattice

  10. The interaction of radio frequency electromagnetic fields with atmospheric water droplets and application to aircraft ice prevention

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Hansman, Robert John

    1982-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    In this work the physics of advanced microwave anti-icing systems, which pre-heat impinging supercooled water droplets prior to impact, is studied by means of a computer simulation and is found to be feasible. In order to ...

  11. Ecosystem-Atmosphere Exchange of Carbon, Water and Energy over a Mixed Deciduous Forest in the Midwest

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Danilo Dragoni; Hans Peter Schmid; C.S.B. Grimmond; J.C. Randolph; J.R. White

    2012-12-17T23:59:59.000Z

    During the project period we continued to conduct long-term (multi-year) measurements, analysis, and modeling of energy and mass exchange in and over a deciduous forest in the Midwestern United States, to enhance the understanding of soil-vegetation-atmosphere exchange of carbon. At the time when this report was prepared, results from nine years of measurements (1998 - 2006) of above canopy CO2 and energy fluxes at the AmeriFlux site in the Morgan-Monroe State Forest, Indiana, USA (see Table 1), were available on the Fluxnet database, and the hourly CO2 fluxes for 2007 are presented here (see Figure 1). The annual sequestration of atmospheric carbon by the forest is determined to be between 240 and 420 g C m-2 a-1 for the first ten years. These estimates are based on eddy covariance measurements above the forest, with a gap-filling scheme based on soil temperature and photosynthetically active radiation. Data gaps result from missing data or measurements that were rejected in qua)lity control (e.g., during calm nights). Complementary measurements of ecological variables (i.e. inventory method), provided an alternative method to quantify net carbon uptake by the forest, partition carbon allocation in each ecosystem components, and reduce uncertainty on annual net ecosystem productivity (NEP). Biometric datasets are available on the Fluxnext database since 1998 (with the exclusion of 2006). Analysis for year 2007 is under completion.

  12. atmospheric sampling program: Topics by E-print Network

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Integrated Water, Atmosphere, Ecosystems, Education and Research Program 12;I-WATER Funding I-WATER is funded by the National Science Foundation IGERT program IGERT is...

  13. Effect of atmospheric water vapor on modification of stable isotopes in near-surface snow on ice sheets

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Walden, Von P.

    in the near-surface snow of East Antarctica. The processes of forced ventilation, pore-space diffusion to forced ventilation for several annual cycles. Postdepositional modification during the Last Glacial. Introduction [2] Stable isotopes of water in polar snow and ice have long been regarded as proxies for local

  14. The influence of midlatitude and tropical overturning circulation on the isotopic composition of atmospheric water vapor and

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Noone, David

    coordinates. In this depiction, poleward transport of air and water vapor is non-diffusive, in a way for an open distillation. Model experiments that simulate a wide range of circulation strengths show to the polar region exceeds the rate at which surface sources replenish the poleward moving air stream. Across

  15. Oval BA (and the Great Red Spot) extend down to a supersolar water cloud layer in Jupiter's atmosphere

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Marcus, Philip S.

    Oval BA (and the Great Red Spot) extend down to a supersolar water cloud layer in Jupiter in Jupiter's troposphere, with stable layers near cloud bases [4,6,7]. We use these two results to determine horizontal band in Fig. 2 shows that vortex- model derived static stability (white bars) is consistent

  16. 2012-2013 Keywords: Routing and spectrum allocation (RSA), flexible optical networks

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Varvarigo, Emmanouel "Manos"

    , "Conserving Transmission Power in Wireless Ad Hoc Networks" #12;), flexible optical networks WDM (FWDM) . (RSA) (RWA). FWDM Matlab. 2: Keywords: Routing and spectrum allocation (RSA), flexible optical networks

  17. KEYWORDS: geospatial clustering, web service, Web GIS, spatial data mining, clustering 1 INTRODUCTION

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    1 KEYWORDS: geospatial clustering, web service, Web GIS, spatial data mining, clustering 1 in disease surveillance, spatial epidemiology, population genetics, landscape ecology, crime analysis

  18. Smart Marketing or Bait & Switch? Competitors' Brands as Keywords in Online Advertising

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Jansen, James

    keyword advertising works as follows. When a searcher enters a query into a search engine, all or part College, PA 16803, USA jjansen@acm.org ABSTRACT The business models of major Internet search engines depend on online advertising, primarily in the form of search engine keyword advertising. In recent years

  19. Observational Studies of Atmospheric Aerosols over Bozeman, Montana, Using a Two-Color Lidar, a Water Vapor DIAL, a Solar Radiometer,

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Shaw, Joseph A.

    Observational Studies of Atmospheric Aerosols over Bozeman, Montana, Using a Two-Color Lidar form 24 June 2010) ABSTRACT Coordinated observational data of atmospheric aerosols were collected over-based nephelometer. The optical properties and spatial distribution of the atmospheric aerosols were inferred from

  20. ELSEVIER AtmosphericResearch 38 (1995) 207-235 ATMOSPHERIC

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Moelders, Nicole

    ELSEVIER AtmosphericResearch 38 (1995) 207-235 ATMOSPHERIC RESEARCH On the parameterization of ice and water substance mixing ratio fields were only strongly altered by turning off the ice phase of these schemes includes ice processes. But in mid- latitudes and also in tropics the ice phase is an important

  1. Atmospheric optical calibration system

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Hulstrom, Roland L. (Bloomfield, CO); Cannon, Theodore W. (Golden, CO)

    1988-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    An atmospheric optical calibration system is provided to compare actual atmospheric optical conditions to standard atmospheric optical conditions on the basis of aerosol optical depth, relative air mass, and diffuse horizontal skylight to global horizontal photon flux ratio. An indicator can show the extent to which the actual conditions vary from standard conditions. Aerosol scattering and absorption properties, diffuse horizontal skylight to global horizontal photon flux ratio, and precipitable water vapor determined on a real-time basis for optical and pressure measurements are also used to generate a computer spectral model and for correcting actual performance response of a photovoltaic device to standard atmospheric optical condition response on a real-time basis as the device is being tested in actual outdoor conditions.

  2. Atmospheric optical calibration system

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Hulstrom, R.L.; Cannon, T.W.

    1988-10-25T23:59:59.000Z

    An atmospheric optical calibration system is provided to compare actual atmospheric optical conditions to standard atmospheric optical conditions on the basis of aerosol optical depth, relative air mass, and diffuse horizontal skylight to global horizontal photon flux ratio. An indicator can show the extent to which the actual conditions vary from standard conditions. Aerosol scattering and absorption properties, diffuse horizontal skylight to global horizontal photon flux ratio, and precipitable water vapor determined on a real-time basis for optical and pressure measurements are also used to generate a computer spectral model and for correcting actual performance response of a photovoltaic device to standard atmospheric optical condition response on a real-time basis as the device is being tested in actual outdoor conditions. 7 figs.

  3. Atmospheric Neutrinos

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Thomas K. Gaisser

    2006-12-11T23:59:59.000Z

    This paper is a brief overview of the theory and experimental data of atmospheric neutrino production at the fiftieth anniversary of the experimental discovery of neutrinos.

  4. Differential atmospheric tritium sampler

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Griesbach, O.A.; Stencel, J.R.

    1987-10-02T23:59:59.000Z

    An atmospheric tritium sampler is provided which uses a carrier gas comprised of hydrogen gas and a diluting gas, mixed in a nonexplosive concentration. Sample air and carrier gas are drawn into and mixed in a manifold. A regulator meters the carrier gas flow to the manifold. The air sample/carrier gas mixture is pulled through a first moisture trap which adsorbs water from the air sample. The moisture then passes through a combustion chamber where hydrogen gas in the form of H/sub 2/ or HT is combusted into water. The manufactured water is transported by the air stream to a second moisture trap where it is adsorbed. The air is then discharged back into the atmosphere by means of a pump.

  5. Differential atmospheric tritium sampler

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Griesbach, Otto A. (Langhorne, PA); Stencel, Joseph R. (Skillman, NJ)

    1990-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    An atmospheric tritium sampler is provided which uses a carrier gas comprised of hydrogen gas and a diluting gas, mixed in a nonexplosive concentration. Sample air and carrier gas are drawn into and mixed in a manifold. A regulator meters the carrier gas flow to the manifold. The air sample/carrier gas mixture is pulled through a first moisture trap which adsorbs water from the air sample. The mixture then passes through a combustion chamber where hydrogen gas in the form of H.sub.2 or HT is combusted into water. The manufactured water is transported by the air stream to a second moisture trap where it is adsorbed. The air is then discharged back into the atmosphere by means of a pump.

  6. Exploiting Parallelism to Accelerate Keyword Search On Deep-web Sources

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Agrawal, Gagan

    Exploiting Parallelism to Accelerate Keyword Search On Deep-web Sources Tantan Liu Fan Wang Gagan,wangfa,agrawal}@cse.ohio-state.edu Abstract. Increasingly, biological data is being shared over the deep web. Many biological queries can only that exploits parallelization for accelerating search over multiple deep web data sources. An interactive, two

  7. An algorithm for recognising the exterior square of a matrix Keywords: matrix, exterior square, algorithm

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Greenhill, Catherine

    vector space, with respect to a canonical basis, is called the exterior square of X. Note that all vectorAn algorithm for recognising the exterior square of a matrix Keywords: matrix, exterior square the exterior square of a matrix. The approach involves manipulation of the equations which relate the entries

  8. Salt marsh geomorphology: Physical and ecological effects on landform Keywords: salt marsh geomorphology; AGU Chapman Conference

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Fagherazzi, Sergio

    Editorial Salt marsh geomorphology: Physical and ecological effects on landform Keywords: salt marsh geomorphology; AGU Chapman Conference Evidence that the three-dimensional structure of salt marsh, and the ratio of marsh edge:marsh interior have all been shown to affect the distribution and density of salt

  9. Spoken Keyword Spotting via Multi-Lattice Alignment Hui Lin, Alex Stupakov and Jeff Bilmes

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Bilmes, Jeff

    , or impossible for the user to enter a search query using a standard keyboard. For example, speech queries and a second phone lattice repre- senting a long utterance needing to be searched. We implement this joint representation. Index Terms: speech lattice, keyword spotting, graphical mod- els, lattice alignment 1

  10. Computer-Assisted Keyword and Document Set Discovery from Unstructured Text

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    . 2 Reframing the Statistical Problem Define a reference set, R, as a set of documents, each of which keywords in ad hoc ways, given the lack of formal statistical methods to help. Paradoxically, this often language to evade authorities, seek political advantage, or express creativity; generic web searching; e

  11. Privacy-Preserving Keyword Search Over Encrypted Data in Cloud Computing

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Hou, Y. Thomas

    Privacy-Preserving Keyword Search Over Encrypted Data in Cloud Computing Wenhai Sun, Wenjing Lou, Y computing era, because many believe that sensitive data has to be encrypted before outsourcing to the cloud@mail.xidian.edu.cn S. Jajodia et al. (eds.), Secure Cloud Computing, DOI 10.1007/978-1-4614-9278-8__9, © Springer

  12. Historical Doses from Tritiated Water and Tritiated Hydrogen Gas Released to the Atmosphere from Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory (LLNL). Part 6. Summary

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Peterson, S

    2007-09-05T23:59:59.000Z

    Throughout fifty-three years of operations, an estimated 792,000 Ci (29,300 TBq) of tritium have been released to the atmosphere at the Livermore site of Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory (LLNL); about 75% was tritium gas (HT) primarily from the accidental releases of 1965 and 1970. Routine emissions contributed slightly more than 100,000 Ci (3,700 TBq) HT and about 75,000 Ci (2,800 TBq) tritiated water vapor (HTO) to the total. A Tritium Dose Reconstruction was undertaken to estimate both the annual doses to the public for each year of LLNL operations and the doses from the few accidental releases. Some of the dose calculations were new, and the others could be compared with those calculated by LLNL. Annual doses (means and 95% confidence intervals) to the potentially most exposed member of the public were calculated for all years using the same model and the same assumptions. Predicted tritium concentrations in air were compared with observed mean annual concentrations at one location from 1973 onwards. Doses predicted from annual emissions were compared with those reported in the past by LLNL. The highest annual mean dose predicted from routine emissions was 34 {micro}Sv (3.4 mrem) in 1957; its upper confidence limit, based on very conservative assumptions about the speciation of the release, was 370 {micro}Sv (37 mrem). The upper confidence limits for most annual doses were well below the current regulatory limit of 100 {micro}Sv (10 mrem) for dose to the public from release to the atmosphere; the few doses that exceeded this were well below the regulatory limits of the time. Lacking the hourly meteorological data needed to calculate doses from historical accidental releases, ingestion/inhalation dose ratios were derived from a time-dependent accident consequence model that accounts for the complex behavior of tritium in the environment. Ratios were modified to account for only those foods growing at the time of the releases. The highest dose from an accidental release was calculated for a release of about 1,500 Ci HTO that occurred in October 1954. The likely dose for this release was probably less than 360 {micro}Sv (36 mrem), but, because of many unknowns (e.g., release-specific meteorological and accidental conditions) and conservative assumptions, the uncertainty was very high. As a result, the upper confidence limit on the predictions, considered a dose that could not have been exceeded, was estimated to be 2 mSv (200 mrem). The next highest dose, from the 1970 accidental release of about 290,000 Ci (10,700 TBq) HT when wind speed and wind direction were known, was one-third as great. Doses from LLNL accidental releases were well below regulatory reporting limits. All doses, from both routine and accidental releases, were far below the level (3.6 mSv [360 mrem] per year) at which adverse health effects have been documented in the literature.

  13. Heterogeneous ice nucleation and water uptake by field-collected...

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    ice nucleation and water uptake by field-collected atmospheric particles below 273 K. Heterogeneous ice nucleation and water uptake by field-collected atmospheric particles below...

  14. Radar range measurements in the atmosphere.

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Doerry, Armin Walter

    2013-02-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The earth's atmosphere affects the velocity of propagation of microwave signals. This imparts a range error to radar range measurements that assume the typical simplistic model for propagation velocity. This range error is a function of atmospheric constituents, such as water vapor, as well as the geometry of the radar data collection, notably altitude and range. Models are presented for calculating atmospheric effects on radar range measurements, and compared against more elaborate atmospheric models.

  15. Model-Based Testing with a General Purpose Keyword-Driven Test Automation Tuomas Pajunen, Tommi Takala, and Mika Katara

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Memon, Atif M.

    . The tests are built as sequences of keywords, and keywords are automatically translated into concrete lowModel-Based Testing with a General Purpose Keyword-Driven Test Automation Framework Tuomas Pajunen mika.katara@tut.fi Abstract--Model-based testing (MBT) is a relatively new approach to software testing

  16. Atmospheric Aerosols Workshop | EMSL

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Atmospheric Aerosols Workshop Atmospheric Aerosols Workshop EMSL Science Theme Advisory Panel Workshop - Atmospheric Aerosol Chemistry, Climate Change, and Air Quality. Baer DR, BJ...

  17. Atmospheric Aerosol Systems | EMSL

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Science Themes Atmospheric Aerosol Systems Overview Atmospheric Aerosol Systems Biosystem Dynamics & Design Energy Materials & Processes Terrestrial & Subsurface Ecosystems...

  18. Influence of Atmospheric Pressure and Water Table Fluctuations on Gas Phase Flow and Transport of Volatile Organic Compounds (VOCs) in Unsaturated Zones

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    You, Kehua

    2013-04-19T23:59:59.000Z

    Understanding the gas phase flow and transport of volatile organic compounds (VOCs) in unsaturated zones is indispensable to develop effective environmental remediation strategies, to create precautions for fresh water protection, and to provide...

  19. atmospheric observatory uao: Topics by E-print Network

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    of a 1 kiloton heavy water Cherenkov detector able to detect and reconstruct high-energy muons created from cosmic ray showers and atmospheric neutrino interactions. By...

  20. Disciplines Atmosphere

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Laurini, Robert

    Ultraviolet X-Rays Gamma-Rays Visible Red Orange Yellow Green Blue Violet 0,7 µm 0,4 µm Waves #12;Satellites of pollution (air, water, etc.) · etc. #12;http://www.sbg.ac.at/geo/idrisi/gis_environmental_modeling/sf_papers/brendan_mackey/mackey_paper.html #12;Contents · 1 ­ Data acquisition · 2 ­ Environmental data modelling · 3 ­ Continuous data · 4 ­ XML

  1. Abstract. Harvesting condensed atmospheric vapour as dew water can be an alternative or complementary potable water resource in specific arid or insular areas. Such radiation-cooled condensing devices use

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    BUILDING - A USTAR INNOVATION CENTER Estimated New Space: USTAR - 200,000 NSF Estimated Completion Date, and coordination of site design with North Chilled Water Plant design. The 5,940 NSF Chilled Water Plant processes across all of campus. The existing distribution system is over 30 years old. Corrosion from ground

  2. 3708 IEEE TRANSACTIONS ON GEOSCIENCE AND REMOTE SENSING, VOL. 47, NO. 11, NOVEMBER 2009 Retrieval of Atmospheric Water Vapor Density With

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Reising, Steven C.

    3708 IEEE TRANSACTIONS ON GEOSCIENCE AND REMOTE SENSING, VOL. 47, NO. 11, NOVEMBER 2009 Retrieval, remote sensing, water vapor. Manuscript received November 1, 2008; revised May 2, 2009 and August 8, 2009 the latent heat of vaporization is a principal mechanism for the transport of energy from the equatorial

  3. Feasibility of using nanoporous materials in water harvesting

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Chow, Brian Justin

    2010-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    its importance for water extraction. 1. Carbon Nanotubes AFor the purposes of water extraction from the atmosphere,interest in the field of water extraction and isolation from

  4. Feasibility of using nanoporous materials in water harvesting

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Chow, Brian Justin

    2010-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Possible Role in Water Harvesting Experiment: AtmosphericNANOPOROUS MATERIALS IN WATER HARVESTING A thesis submittedNANOPOROUS MATERIALS IN WATER HARVESTING by Brian Justin

  5. Physics Potential of Future Atmospheric Neutrino Searches

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Thomas Schwetz

    2008-12-12T23:59:59.000Z

    The potential of future high statistics atmospheric neutrino experiments is considered, having in mind currently discussed huge detectors of various technologies (water Cerekov, magnetized iron, liquid Argon). I focus on the possibility to use atmospheric data to determine the octant of $\\theta_{23}$ and the neutrino mass hierarchy. The sensitivity to the $\\theta_{23}$-octant of atmospheric neutrinos is competitive (or even superior) to long-baseline experiments. I discuss the ideal properties of a fictitious atmospheric neutrino detector to determine the neutrino mass hierarchy.

  6. INTRODUCTIONTOTHE SOLAR ATMOSPHERE

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    ? #12;WHAT ISTHE SOLAR ATMOSPHERE? #12;#12;1-D MODEL ATMOSPHERE · Averaged over space and time · GoodINTRODUCTIONTOTHE SOLAR ATMOSPHERE D. Shaun Bloomfield Trinity College Dublin #12;OUTLINE · What is the solar atmosphere? · How is the solar atmosphere observed? · What structures exist and how do they evolve

  7. ANNOUNCEMENT Project Atmospheric Brown Cloud (ABC) 2006 TRAINING SCHOOL

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Cohen, Ronald C.

    composition, radiative effects and transport of atmospheric aerosols and related atmospheric pollutanANNOUNCEMENT Project Atmospheric Brown Cloud (ABC) 2006 TRAINING SCHOOL Project ABC Science consequences of the haze involve regional and global climate change, impacts on ecosystem, the water cycle

  8. Oscillations of solar atmosphere neutrinos

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    G. L. Fogli; E. Lisi; A. Mirizzi; D. Montanino; P. D. Serpico

    2006-11-10T23:59:59.000Z

    The Sun is a source of high energy neutrinos (E > 10 GeV) produced by cosmic ray interactions in the solar atmosphere. We study the impact of three-flavor oscillations (in vacuum and in matter) on solar atmosphere neutrinos, and calculate their observable fluxes at Earth, as well as their event rates in a kilometer-scale detector in water or ice. We find that peculiar three-flavor oscillation effects in matter, which can occur in the energy range probed by solar atmosphere neutrinos, are significantly suppressed by averaging over the production region and over the neutrino and antineutrino components. In particular, we find that the relation between the neutrino fluxes at the Sun and at the Earth can be approximately expressed in terms of phase-averaged ``vacuum'' oscillations, dominated by a single mixing parameter (the angle theta_23).

  9. Investigating Water

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Howard Jr., Ronald A.

    2002-01-02T23:59:59.000Z

    substances. It covers most of the earth?s surface, sometimes to a depth of more than a mile. It exists as a colorless gas in the atmosphere. It caps the poles with ice and occurs in the snows of winter. Liquid water fills brooks, streams, rivers, lakes, ponds...

  10. Land and Atmospheric Science GRAD STUDENT HANDBOOK

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Minnesota, University of

    , transport, and fate of pollutants in soil, air, and water; improving and protecting land, air, and water, Policy and Management Agricultural Industries and Marketing The Department occupies the entire Soil are predominantly occupied by Soil Morphology and Genesis, Environmental Biophysics, and Atmospheric Sciences, plus

  11. 2015 Pearson Education, Inc. Chapter 4 Atmosphere and Surface Energy

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Pan, Feifei

    surface versus rough surface · Light color surface versus dark color surface · Albedo of water surface energy through the atmosphere or water. Solar radiation transfer in the atmosphere #12;© 2015 Pearson of radiation by molecules of matter and its conversion from one form of energy to another. Solar radiation

  12. Historical Doses from Tritiated Water and Tritiated Hydrogen Gas Released to the Atmosphere from Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory (LLNL). Part 5. Accidental Releases

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Peterson, S

    2007-08-15T23:59:59.000Z

    Over the course of fifty-three years, LLNL had six acute releases of tritiated hydrogen gas (HT) and one acute release of tritiated water vapor (HTO) that were too large relative to the annual releases to be included as part of the annual releases from normal operations detailed in Parts 3 and 4 of the Tritium Dose Reconstruction (TDR). Sandia National Laboratories/California (SNL/CA) had one such release of HT and one of HTO. Doses to the maximally exposed individual (MEI) for these accidents have been modeled using an equation derived from the time-dependent tritium model, UFOTRI, and parameter values based on expert judgment. All of these acute releases are described in this report. Doses that could not have been exceeded from the large HT releases of 1965 and 1970 were calculated to be 43 {micro}Sv (4.3 mrem) and 120 {micro}Sv (12 mrem) to an adult, respectively. Two published sets of dose predictions for the accidental HT release in 1970 are compared with the dose predictions of this TDR. The highest predicted dose was for an acute release of HTO in 1954. For this release, the dose that could not have been exceeded was estimated to have been 2 mSv (200 mrem), although, because of the high uncertainty about the predictions, the likely dose may have been as low as 360 {micro}Sv (36 mrem) or less. The estimated maximum exposures from the accidental releases were such that no adverse health effects would be expected. Appendix A lists all accidents and large routine puff releases that have occurred at LLNL and SNL/CA between 1953 and 2005. Appendix B describes the processes unique to tritium that must be modeled after an acute release, some of the time-dependent tritium models being used today, and the results of tests of these models.

  13. Distributed and Parallel Databases An Efficient Privacy-Preserving Multi-Keyword Search over Encrypted Cloud Data with

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Yanikoglu, Berrin

    -Preserving Multi-Keyword Search over Encrypted Cloud Data with Ranking Article Type: SI: Secure and Privacy. Provided that the security and randomization parameters are appropriately chosen, both search terms security and privacy requirements that essentially disallow linking queries featuring identical search

  14. Version: 6/16/98 Keywords: wavy surface flow, finite element, longwave analysis, weakly-nonlinear analysis

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    McCready, Mark J.

    Version: 6/16/98 Keywords: wavy surface flow, finite element, longwave analysis, weakly and drag are found, from finite element calculations, to increase as amplitude to approximately the third wavelength problem is solved numerically with a finite element formulation providing qualitative trends

  15. On Adaptive Mesh Refinement for Atmospheric Pollution Models

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Sandu, Adrian

    On Adaptive Mesh Refinement for Atmospheric Pollution Models Emil M. Constantinescu and Adrian res- olution system for modeling regional air pollution based on the chemical transport model STEM. Keywords: Air Pollution Modeling, Adaptive Mesh Refinement. 1 Introduction Inadequate grid resolution can

  16. Atmospheric Trace Gases from the Carbon Dioxide Information Analysis Center (CDIAC)

    DOE Data Explorer [Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)]

    CDIAC products are indexed and searchable through a customized interface powered by ORNL's Mercury search engine. Products include numeric data packages, publications, trend data, atlases, models, etc. and can be searched for by subject area, keywords, authors, product numbers, time periods, collection sites, spatial references, etc. Some of the collections may also be included in the CDIAC publication, Trends Online: A Compendium of Global Change Data. Most data sets, many with numerous data files, are free to download from CDIAC's ftp area. The collections under the CDIAC heading of Atmospheric Trace Gases include: Atmospheric Carbon Dioxide, Atmospheric Methane, Atmospheric Carbon Monoxide, Atmospheric Hydrogen, Isotopes in Greenhouse Gases, Radionuclides, Aerosols, and Other Trace Gases.

  17. Atmospheric Transport of Radionuclides

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Crawford, T.V.

    2003-03-03T23:59:59.000Z

    The purpose of atmospheric transport and diffusion calculations is to provide estimates of concentration and surface deposition from routine and accidental releases of pollutants to the atmosphere. This paper discusses this topic.

  18. How atmospheric ice forms | EMSL

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    atmospheric ice forms How atmospheric ice forms Released: September 08, 2014 New insights into atmospheric ice formation could improve climate models This study advances our...

  19. Atmospheric Pressure Reactor System | EMSL

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Atmospheric Pressure Reactor System Atmospheric Pressure Reactor System The atmospheric pressure reactor system is designed for testing the efficiency of various catalysts for the...

  20. Climate Sciences: Atmospheric Thermodynamics

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Russell, Lynn

    1 Climate Sciences: Atmospheric Thermodynamics Instructor: Lynn Russell, NH343 http://aerosol.ucsd.edu/courses.html Text: Curry & Webster Atmospheric Thermodynamics Ch1 Composition Ch2 Laws Ch3 Transfers Ch12 Energy Climate Sciences: Atmospheric Thermodynamics Instructor: Lynn Russell, NH343 http

  1. Selection of Native Wetland Plants for Water Treatment of Urban Runoff

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Rejmankova, Eliska; Bayer, David E

    1995-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    UC Davis KEYWORDS: Wetlands, Water Treatment, Urban Runoff,of Native Wetland Plants for Water Treatment of UrbanValley Wetlands Biomass Response to Heavy Metal Treatment

  2. Georgia Water Resources Institute Annual Technical Report

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Energy Commission, California Department of Water Resources, National Oceanic and Atmospheric.S. Environmental Protection Agency. Finally, GWRI has significant international involvement in China, Africa) Integrated Forecast and Reservoir Management (INFORM) for Northern California, Phase II: Operational

  3. Reactions Between Water Soluble Organic Acids and Nitrates in...

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Between Water Soluble Organic Acids and Nitrates in Atmospheric Aerosols: Recycling of Nitric Acid and Formation of Reactions Between Water Soluble Organic Acids and Nitrates in...

  4. 0-7803-XXXX-X/06/$20.00 2009 IEEE 25th IEEE SEMI-THERM Symposium Sub-Atmospheric Pressure Pool Boiling of Water on a Screen-Laminate Enhanced Surface

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Wirtz, Richard A.

    structures having wide ranging porosity and pore size. When deployed as a surface enhancement in a boiling pool-boiling experiments at one atmosphere and sub-atmospheric pressure assess the utility of fine factor of lamination [dimensionless] CHF = critical heat flux [W/cm2 ] Dh = pore hydraulic diameter [µm

  5. Can we learn something more on oscillations from atmospheric neutrinos?

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Thomas Schwetz

    2006-10-04T23:59:59.000Z

    We show that for long-baseline experiments using a Mt water Cerenkov detector atmospheric neutrino data provide a powerful method to resolve parameter degeneracies. In particular, the combination of long-baseline and atmospheric data increases significantly the sensitivity to the neutrino mass hierarchy and the octant of $\\theta_{23}$. Furthermore, we discuss the possibility to use $\\mu$-like atmospheric neutrino data from a big magnetized iron calorimeter to determine the neutrino mass hierarchy.

  6. NETL SOFC: Atmospheric Pressure Systems

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative1 First Use of Energy for All Purposes (Fuel and Nonfuel), 2002; Level: National5Saleshttp://www.fnal.gov/directorate/nalcal/nalcal02_07_05_files/nalcal.gif Directorate -AdvancedMIRTBD525AdaptingWaterTerryAtmospheric

  7. On detecting biospheres from thermodynamic disequilibrium in planetary atmospheres

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Krissansen-Totton, Joshua; Catling, David C

    2015-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Atmospheric chemical disequilibrium has been proposed as a method for detecting extraterrestrial biospheres from exoplanet observations. Chemical disequilibrium is potentially a generalized biosignature since it makes no assumptions about particular biogenic gases or metabolisms. Here, we present the first rigorous calculations of the thermodynamic chemical disequilibrium in the atmospheres of Solar System planets, in which we quantify the difference in Gibbs free energy of an observed atmosphere compared to that of all the atmospheric gases reacted to equilibrium. The purely gas phase disequilibrium in Earth's atmosphere, as measured by this available Gibbs free energy, is not unusual by Solar System standards and smaller than that of Mars. However, Earth's atmosphere is in contact with a surface ocean, which means that gases can react with water, and so a multiphase calculation that includes aqueous species is required. We find that the disequilibrium in Earth's atmosphere-ocean system (in joules per mole o...

  8. Atmosphere and Ocean: Earth's Heat Engine: GFD Lab notes

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Atmosphere and Ocean: Earth's Heat Engine: GFD Lab notes 18 May 2012 UW Hon220c Energy' of water vapor, CO2 and cloud, makes us much warmer than a Marsian (almost no atmosphere. -550C average 2002 clouds, snow, ice, deserts are bright absorbing areas are dark

  9. AUTOMATED UNDERWAY OCEANIC AND ATMOSPHERIC MEASUREMENTS FROM Shawn R. Smith

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Sprintall, Janet

    AUTOMATED UNDERWAY OCEANIC AND ATMOSPHERIC MEASUREMENTS FROM SHIPS Shawn R. Smith (1) , Mark A 32306-2840, USA, Emails: smith@coaps.fsu.edu, mbourassa@coaps.fsu.edu (2) CSIRO Land and Water, PO Box

  10. Earth is warm because of "greenhouse gases" in atmosphere

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Callender, Craig

    " properties of carbon dioxide, water. #12;Early 20th century, scientists realized that if CO2 content changed "Calculation shows that doubling or tripling the amount of the carbon dioxide in the atmosphere increases

  11. REMOVAL PROCESSES OF VOLCANIC ASH PARTICLES FROM THE ATMOSPHERE Gregg J.S. Bluth and William I. Rose, Michigan Technological University

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Bluth, Gregg

    . Rose, Michigan Technological University INTRODUCTION The use of satellite techniques provides valuable and liquids) -the atmosphere (water/ice, dust, sea salt, gases) -products from volcano-atmosphere reactions with coating of water or ice; parti

  12. EMSL - Atmospheric Aerosol Systems

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    scienceatmospheric The Atmospheric Aerosol Systems Science Theme focuses on understanding the chemistry, physics and molecular-scale dynamics of aerosols for model...

  13. Atmospheric Neutrino Fluxes

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Thomas K. Gaisser

    2005-02-18T23:59:59.000Z

    Starting with an historical review, I summarize the status of calculations of the flux of atmospheric neutrinos and how they compare to measurements.

  14. Critical review of water based radiant cooling system design methods

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Feng, Jingjuan Dove; Bauman, Fred; Schiavon, Stefano

    2014-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Embedded Radiant Heating and Cooling Systems, InternationalWATER BASED RADIANT COOLING SYSTEM DESIGN METHODS Jingjuan (Keywords: Radiant Cooling System, Design Approach,

  15. Atmospheric rivers as Lagrangian coherent structures

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Garaboa, Daniel; Huhn, Florian; Perez-Muñuzuri, Vicente

    2015-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    We show that filamentous Atmospheric Rivers (ARs) over the Northern Atlantic Ocean are closely linked to attracting Lagrangian Coherent Structures (LCSs) in the large scale wind field. LCSs represent lines of attraction in the evolving flow with a significant impact on all passive tracers. Using Finite-Time Lyapunov Exponents (FTLE), we extract LCSs from a two-dimensional flow derived from water vapor flux of atmospheric reanalysis data and compare them to the three-dimensional LCS obtained from the wind flow. We correlate the typical filamentous water vapor patterns of ARs with LCSs and find that LCSs bound the filaments on the back side. Passive advective transport of water vapor from tropical latitudes is potentially possible.

  16. Atmospheric Dynamics II Instructor

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    AT602 Atmospheric Dynamics II 2 credits Instructor: David W. J. Thompson davet: An Introduction to Dynamic Meteorology, 5th Edition, Academic Press (recommended) · Marshall, J., and Plumb, R. A., 2008: Atmosphere, Ocean, and Climate Dynamics: An Introductory Text, Academic Press. · Vallis, G. K

  17. Water adsorption on SrTiO3(001): II. Water, water, everywhere A.E. Becerra-Toledo a,

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Marks, Laurence D.

    Water adsorption on SrTiO3(001): II. Water, water, everywhere A.E. Becerra-Toledo a, , J January 2012 Available online 17 January 2012 Keywords: Strontium titanate Density functional theory Water adsorption Surface reconstruction X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy Oxide surfaces The role of water

  18. Water insecurity in 3 dimensions: An anthropological perspective on water and women's psychosocial distress in Ethiopia

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Rheingans, Richard

    Water insecurity in 3 dimensions: An anthropological perspective on water and women's psychosocial, Rollins School of Public Health, 1518 Clifton Road, Atlanta, GA 30022, USA b Center for Global Safe Water f o Article history: Available online 20 April 2012 Keywords: Water insecurity Gender Psychosocial

  19. Water Quality and Hydrologic Performance of a Porous Asphalt Pavement as a Storm-Water

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    examined the functionality of a porous pavement storm-water management system in coastal New Hampshire headings: Stormwater management; Runoff; Porous media; Pavements; Cold regions; Best Management Practice; Water quality; Water treatment. Author keywords: Storm-water management; Runoff; Porous pavements; Cold

  20. arbon dioxide (CO2 atmosphere has increased by

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    responsive to rising atmospheric CO2 concentration than C3 species. In the southwestern United States substrate for photosynthetic energy acquisition by life, the process of using light energy to combine CO2 surface and scale up to affect the landscape water balance. Thus, through its impacts on plant water use

  1. Atmospheric Science: An introductory survey 1. Introduction to the atmosphere

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Folkins, Ian

    Sound Convergence Zone #12;Terrain effects #12;Von Karman vortex streets #12;Atmosphere in Earth system

  2. Letter of Intent: The Atmospheric Neutrino Neutron Interaction Experiment (ANNIE)

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Anghel, I; Bergevin, M; Blanco, C; Catano-Mur, E; Di Lodovico, F; Elagin, A; Frisch, H; Griskevich, J; Hill, R; Jocher, G; Katori, T; Krennrich, F; Learned, J; Malek, M; Northrop, R; Pilcher, C; Ramberg, E; Repond, J; Sacco, R; Sanchez, M C; Smy, M; Sobel, H; Svoboda, R; Usman, S M; Vagins, M; Varner, G; Wagner, R; Weinstein, A; Wetstein, M; Winslow, L; Xia, L; Yeh, M

    2015-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Neutron tagging in Gadolinium-doped water may play a significant role in reducing backgrounds from atmospheric neutrinos in next generation proton-decay searches using megaton-scale Water Cherenkov detectors. Similar techniques might also be useful in the detection of supernova neutrinos. Accurate determination of neutron tagging efficiencies will require a detailed understanding of the number of neutrons produced by neutrino interactions in water as a function of momentum transferred. We propose the Atmospheric Neutrino Neutron Interaction Experiment (ANNIE), designed to measure the neutron yield of atmospheric neutrino interactions in gadolinium-doped water. An innovative aspect of the ANNIE design is the use of precision timing to localize interaction vertices in the small fiducial volume of the detector. We propose to achieve this by using early production of LAPPDs (Large Area Picosecond Photodetectors). This experiment will be a first application of these devices demonstrating their feasibility for Wate...

  3. Impacts of interruption of the Agulhas leakage on the tropical Atlantic in coupled ocean-atmosphere simulations

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Drijfhout, Sybren

    in Climate Dynamics October 2009 #12;2 ABSTRACT In this paper we use a coupled ocean-atmosphere model Indian ocean water temperature (cold) and salinity (fresh) anomalies of southern ocean origin propagate the closure of the "warm water path" in favor of the "cold water path". As part of the atmospheric response

  4. Influence of clouds and diffuse radiation on ecosystem-atmosphere CO 2 and CO 18 O exchanges

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    2009-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    cover, radiation, meteorological and water isotope data tohere, radiation, cloud property, and aerosol data wereData were obtained from the Atmospheric Radiation

  5. Revue. Volume X n x/anne, pages 1 X Safety of atmospheric storage tanks during

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Paris-Sud XI, Université de

    . KEYWORDS: domino effect, blast, impact, atmospheric tank, reliability, sensitivity analysis. MOTS Cedex jean-luc.hanus@ensi-bourges.fr ABSTRACT. The occurrence of a chain reaction from blast simple mechanical models to facilitate quick effective assessment of risk analysis, the results of which

  6. Soil Biology & Biochemistry 40 (2008) 978985 Belowground nematode herbivores are resistant to elevated atmospheric

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Wall, Diana

    of Biology, Colorado State University, Fort Collins, CO 80523, USA c Department of Global Ecology, Carnegie of belowground grassland herbivores have rarely been investigated. Here, we report the response of a range are resistant to rising atmospheric CO2 concentrations. r 2007 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved. Keywords

  7. Dynamics of Atmospheres

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Read, Peter L.

    transfer ­ Solar heating of surface, and atmosphere via dust absorption ­ Infrared CO2 band cooling (especially around 667 cm-1) ­ nonLTE near-infrared heating of CO2 and nonLTE cooling effects above ~60-80 km. Baroclinic waves, scales, heat and momentum transport, seasonal occurrence. Qualitative treatment

  8. Laboratory for Atmospheric and

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Mojzsis, Stephen J.

    . Along with this growth came a new building on campus and a new name: the Laboratory for Atmospheric of the Sun to the outermost fringes of the solar system. With LASP's continuing operations role in the planet traditional and stable approach based on federal agency funding of research grant

  9. SIO 217a Atmospheric and Climate Sciences I: Atmospheric Thermodynamics

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Russell, Lynn

    SIO 217a Atmospheric and Climate Sciences I: Atmospheric Thermodynamics Course Syllabus and Lecture Schedule Instructor: Lynn Russell, 343 NH, 534-4852, lmrussell@ucsd.edu Text: Thermodynamics of Atmospheres of Thermodynamics (Work, Heat, First Law, Second Law, Heat Capacity, Adiabatic Processes) 5-Oct F Hurricane Example

  10. Modeling the atmospheric inputs of MTBE to groundwater systems

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Pankow, J.F.; Johnson, R.L. [Oregon Graduate Inst., Portland, OR (United States). Dept. of Environmental Science and Engineering; Thomson, N.R. [Univ. of Waterloo, Ontario (Canada). Dept. of Civil Engineering

    1995-12-31T23:59:59.000Z

    A numerical transport model was used to calculate the movement of methyl-t-butyl ether (MTBE) and several other volatile organic compounds (VOCs) from the atmosphere downward through the unsaturated zone and into shallow groundwater. Simulations were carried out for periods as long as 10 years to investigate whether a gaseous atmospheric MTBE source at typical ambient concentrations could account for the presence of MTBE in shallow groundwater at the types of low ug/L levels that have been found during the National Water Quality Assessment Program currently being conducted by the US Geological Survey. The simulations indicate that downward movement of MTBE to shallow groundwater will be very slow when there is no net downward movement of water through the vadose zone. For example, for a vadose zone composed of fine sand, and assuming tens of cm of infiltration, then only a few years will be required for water at a water table that is 5.0 m below ground surface to attain MTBE levels that correspond to saturation with respect to the atmospheric source gaseous concentration. An on/off atmospheric source, as might occur in the seasonal use of MTBE, will lead to concentrations in shallow groundwater that correspond to saturation with the time-averaging atmospheric source concentration.

  11. Water Resources Water Quality and Water Treatment

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Sohoni, Milind

    Water Resources TD 603 Lecture 1: Water Quality and Water Treatment CTARA Indian Institute of Technology, Bombay 2nd November, 2011 #12;OVERVIEW Water Quality WATER TREATMENT PLANTS WATER TREATMENT PLANTS WATER TREATMENT PLANTS WATER TRE OVERVIEW OF THE LECTURE 1. Water Distribution Schemes Hand Pump

  12. REVIEW ARTICLE Impacts of calcium water treatment residue

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Ma, Lena

    REVIEW ARTICLE Impacts of calcium water treatment residue on the soil-water-plant system in citrus of calcium water treatment residue (Ca-WTR) for stabilizing Cu in soil and its subsequent influence on Cu. Keywords Calcium water treatment residue . Citrus production . Copper contamination . Soil pH . Remediation

  13. atlantic surface water: Topics by E-print Network

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Mediterranean Sea, respectively, with hits to genomes Winter, Christian 45 The effect of cold climate upon North Atlantic Deep Water formation in a simple ocean-atmosphere model...

  14. amazon state waters: Topics by E-print Network

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    about a quarter of all global biodiversity. It acts as one of the major flywheels of global climate, transpiring water and generating clouds, affecting atmospheric circulation...

  15. Pluto's Atmosphere Does Not Collapse

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Olkin, C B; Borncamp, D; Pickles, A; Sicardy, B; Assafin, M; Bianco, F B; Buie, M W; de Oliveira, A Dias; Gillon, M; French, R G; Gomes, A Ramos; Jehin, E; Morales, N; Opitom, C; Ortiz, J L; Maury, A; Norbury, M; Ribas, F B; Smith, R; Wasserman, L H; Young, E F; Zacharias, M; Zacharias, N

    2013-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Combining stellar occultation observations probing Pluto's atmosphere from 1988 to 2013 and models of energy balance between Pluto's surface and atmosphere, we conclude that Pluto's atmosphere does not collapse at any point in its 248-year orbit. The occultation results show an increasing atmospheric pressure with time in the current epoch, a trend present only in models with a high thermal inertia and a permanent N2 ice cap at Pluto's north rotational pole.

  16. Title: Subspace Clustering of Microarray Data based on Domain Transformation Keywords: gene expression, subspace clustering, inverted index, gene-gene rela-

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    McLeod, Dennis

    of Southern California, Los Angeles, USA #12;Subspace Clustering of Microarray Data based on DomainTitle: Subspace Clustering of Microarray Data based on Domain Transformation Keywords: gene framework that supports the identi- fication of useful knowledge based on data clustering. With the recent

  17. Maxim > App Notes > BATTERY MANAGEMENT INTERFACE CIRCUITS Keywords: USB, USB Charger, Li+ USB charger, Lithium Ion USB charger, NiMH USB charger, USB battery

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Allen, Jont

    charger, Lithium Ion USB charger, NiMH USB charger, USB battery charger, charging batteries from USB, and cabling. An overview of nickel metal hydride (NiMH) and lithium battery technologies, charging methodsMaxim > App Notes > BATTERY MANAGEMENT INTERFACE CIRCUITS Keywords: USB, USB Charger, Li+ USB

  18. Extraction of Freshwater and Energy from Atmosphere

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Alexander Bolonkin

    2007-04-19T23:59:59.000Z

    Author offers and researches a new, cheap method for the extraction of freshwater from the Earth atmosphere. The suggected method is fundamentally dictinct from all existing methods that extract freshwater from air. All other industrial methods extract water from a saline water source (in most cases from seawater). This new method may be used at any point in the Earth except Polar Zones. It does not require long-distance freshwater transportation. If seawater is not utilized for increasing its productivity, this inexpensive new method is very environment-friendly. The author method has two working versions: (1) the first variant the warm (hot) atmospheric air is lifted by the inflatable tube in a high altitude and atmospheric steam is condenced into freswater: (2) in the second version, the warm air is pumped 20-30 meters under the sea-surface. In the first version, wind and solar heating of air are used for causing air flow. In version (2) wind and propeller are used for causing air movment. The first method does not need energy, the second needs a small amount. Moreover, in variant (1) the freshwater has a high pressure (>30 or more atm.) and can be used for production of energy such as electricity and in that way the freshwater cost is lower. For increasing the productivity the seawater is injected into air and solar air heater may be used. The solar air heater produces a huge amount of electricity as a very powerful electricity generation plant. The offered electricity installation in 100 - 200 times cheaper than any common electric plant of equivalent output. Key words: Extraction freshwater, method of getting freshwater, receiving energy from atmosphere, powerful renewal electric plant.

  19. Atmospheric pressure cold plasma as an antifungal therapy

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Sun Peng; Wu Haiyan [College of Engineering, Peking University, Beijing 100871 (China); Sun Yi; Liu Wei; Li Ruoyu [Department of Dermatology and Venereology, Peking Univ. 1st Hospital and Research Center for Medical Mycology, Peking Univ., Beijing 100034 (China); Zhu Weidong; Lopez, Jose L. [Department of Applied Science and Technology and Center for Microplasma Science and Technology, Saint Peter's College, Jersey City, New Jersey 07306 (United States); Zhang Jue; Fang Jing [College of Engineering, Peking University, Beijing 100871 (China); Academy for Advanced Interdisciplinary Studies, Peking University, Beijing 100871 (China)

    2011-01-10T23:59:59.000Z

    A microhollow cathode based, direct-current, atmospheric pressure, He/O{sub 2} (2%) cold plasma microjet was used to inactive antifungal resistants Candida albicans, Candida krusei, and Candida glabrata in air and in water. Effective inactivation (>90%) was achieved in 10 min in air and 1 min in water. Antifungal susceptibility tests showed drastic reduction of the minimum inhibitory concentration after plasma treatment. The inactivation was attributed to the reactive oxygen species generated in plasma or in water. Hydroxyl and singlet molecular oxygen radicals were detected in plasma-water system by electron spin resonance spectroscopy. This approach proposed a promising clinical dermatology therapy.

  20. Degradation of La{sub 0.6}Sr{sub 0.4}Fe{sub 0.8}Co{sub 0.2}O{sub 3{minus}{delta}} in carbon dioxide and water atmospheres

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Benson, S.J.; Waller, D.; Kilner, J.A. [Imperial Coll. of Science, Technology and Medicine, London (United Kingdom). Dept. of Materials] [Imperial Coll. of Science, Technology and Medicine, London (United Kingdom). Dept. of Materials

    1999-04-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The mixed ionic-electronic conductor La{sub 0.6}Sr{sub 0.4}Co{sub 0.2}Fe{sub 0.8}O{sub 3{minus}{delta}} (LSCF) is a candidate for use as the membrane material in the pressure-driven air separator. However the long-term stability of these materials is a major concern for the commercial realization of these devices. In an attempt to assess the stability of the material under realistic operating conditions for such a system, samples of LSCF were exposed to atmospheres of H{sub 2}O/CO{sub 2}/O{sub 2} at 750 C. Degradation of the material was studied using Raman spectroscopy and X-ray diffraction. Oxygen isotope exchange combined with secondary ion mass spectrometry was used to observe the effect of the presence of CO{sub 2} and H{sub 2}O on the oxygen diffusivity and surface exchange. It was observed that oxygen surface exchange was actually enhanced in the presence of CO{sub 2} and H{sub 2}O, during the duration of the study, although the oxygen diffusivity remained the same. The presence of volatile chromia species was found to significantly increase the rate of degradation of the ceramic.

  1. ASCE CONFERENCE PROCEEDINGS World Water Congress 2005

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    for the ice pack and boundary conditions of ice-water existence. It simultaneously finds ice temperatures, pack size, and heat transferred between ice pack and both the atmosphere and the water. Since measured-parameter Great Lakes continuous evaporation model solves for each day's over-water and over-ice surface fluxes

  2. ARM - Atmospheric Heat Budget

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative1 First Use of Energy for All Purposes (Fuel and Nonfuel), 2002; Level: National5Sales for4,645 3,625 1,006 492 742EnergyOnItemResearchSOLICITATIONIMODI FICATION OFMaterialsAnnual Reports27,ListAtmospheric Heat

  3. ARM - Atmospheric Pressure

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative1 First Use of Energy for All Purposes (Fuel and Nonfuel), 2002; Level: National5Sales for4,645 3,625 1,006 492 742EnergyOnItemResearchSOLICITATIONIMODI FICATION OFMaterialsAnnual Reports27,ListAtmospheric

  4. Atmospheric PSF Interpolation

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative1 First Use of Energy for All Purposes (Fuel and Nonfuel), 2002; Level: National5Sales for4,645 3,625 1,006 492 742EnergyOnItem Not Found Item Not Found The itemAIR SEPARATION BYAbrasion andArticle)Atmospheric

  5. atlantic deep water: Topics by E-print Network

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    atmosphere. It is found that North Atlantic Deep Water formation is favored by a warm climate, while cold climates are more likely to produce Southern Ocean deep water or...

  6. The Atmospheric Signatures of Super-Earths: How to Distinguish Between Hydrogen-Rich and Hydrogen-Poor Atmospheres

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    E. Miller-Ricci; D. Sasselov; S. Seager

    2008-08-13T23:59:59.000Z

    Extrasolar super-Earths (1-10 M$_{\\earth}$) are likely to exist with a wide range of atmospheres. Some super-Earths may be able to retain massive hydrogen-rich atmospheres. Others might never accumulate hydrogen or experience significant escape of lightweight elements, resulting in atmospheres more like those of the terrestrial planets in our Solar System. We examine how an observer could differentiate between hydrogen-rich and hydrogen-poor atmospheres by modeling super-Earth emission and transmission spectra, and we find that discrimination is possible by observing the transmission spectrum alone. An Earth-like atmosphere, composed of mostly heavy elements and molecules, will have a very weak transmission signal due to its small atmospheric scale height (since the scale height is inversely proportional to molecular weight). On the other hand, a large hydrogen-rich atmosphere reveals a relatively large transmission signal. The super Earth emission spectrum can additionally contrain the atmospheric composition and temperature structure. Super-Earths with massive hydrogen atmospheres will reveal strong spectral features due to water, whereas those that have lost most of their hydrogen (and have no liquid ocean) will be marked by CO$_2$ features and a lack of H$_2$O. We apply our study specifically to the low-mass planet orbiting an M star, Gl 581c ($M sin i$ = 5 M$_{\\earth}$), although our conclusions are relevant for super-Earths in general. The ability to distinguish hydrogen-rich atmospheres might be essential for interpreting mass and radius observations of planets in the transition between rocky super-Earths and Neptune-like planets.

  7. Programming with Keywords Greg Little

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    aware of tend to be pretty obvious and mechanical manipulations of ideas coughed up from my subconscious

  8. THERMAL HYDRAULICS KEYWORDS: thermal hydraulics,

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Smith, Barton L.

    -fluid modeling of nuclear reactor systems. Thermal-hydraulic analysis codes such as RELAP5-3D ~Ref. 1! and FLICA regions of the system. In fact, the CFD code FLUENT has previously been coupled to RELAP5-3D ~Refs. 3

  9. keyword | OpenEI Community

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page onYou are now leaving Energy.gov You are now leaving Energy.gov You are being directedAnnualProperty Edit withTianlinPapersWindey Wind Home Rmckeel's Homeguidance

  10. OpenEI Community - keyword

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page onYou are now leaving Energy.gov You are now leaving Energy.gov You are beingZealand Jump to: navigation, searchOfRoseConcernsCompany Oil and GasOff<div/0 en The Energybegun!

  11. atmospheres thin atmospheres: Topics by E-print Network

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    to optical depth perturbations. In Earth-type atmospheres sustained planetary greenhouse effect with a stable ground surface temperature can only exist at a particular...

  12. 2015 Pearson Education, Inc. Chapter 3 Earth's Modern Atmosphere

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Pan, Feifei

    contact with high energy solar radiation · Thermopause is at 480km · High temperature, but not "hot--composition, temperature, and function. · List and describe the components of the modern atmosphere, giving their relative%), and others (1%). · Variable Gases: Water Vapor (H2O) (0 to 4%), CO2 (0.038%). · 4Less: Odorless, Colorless

  13. 1. Introduction The atmospheric greenhouse effect is the basic mechanism

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    1. Introduction The atmospheric greenhouse effect is the basic mechanism whereby absorbed solar system of the Earth is endowed with a moderately strong greenhouse effect that is characterized by non CO2. There is a strong feedback contribution to the greenhouse effect by water vapor and clouds

  14. OceanAtmosphere Interactions on Interannual to Decadal

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Vuille, Mathias

    , and the land surface and the biosphere. Ocean­atmosphere interac- tions include exchanges of energy (i.e., radia- tive transfer and heat fluxes), momentum (i.e., wind stress), water (i.e., precipitation temperature shows high power at all time scales. This variation in behavior is the funda- mental cause of many

  15. Full three flavor oscillation analysis of atmospheric neutrino data observed in Super-Kamiokande

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Tokyo, University of

    Full three flavor oscillation analysis of atmospheric neutrino data observed in Super-Kamiokande angles 12, 23, 13, and one CP phase parameter (cp), by the atmospheric neutrino data observed in Super-Kamiokande. The Super-Kamiokande, a 50 kt water Cherenkov detector, started taking data in 1996 and has been observed

  16. Atmospheric Moisture Transports from Ocean to Land and Global Energy Flows in Reanalyses

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Fasullo, John

    Atmospheric Moisture Transports from Ocean to Land and Global Energy Flows in Reanalyses KEVIN E energy and hydrological cycles from eight current atmospheric reanalyses and their depiction of changes over time. A brief evaluation of the water and energy cycles in the latest version of the NCAR climate

  17. Analogies of Ocean/Atmosphere Rotating Fluid Dynamics with Gyroscopes: Teaching Opportunities

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Haine, Thomas W. N.

    The dynamics of the rotating shallow-water (RSW) system include geostrophic f low and inertial oscillation. These classes of motion are ubiquitous in the ocean and atmosphere. They are often surprising to people at first ...

  18. AUTOMATED UNDERWAY OCEANIC AND ATMOSPHERIC MEASUREMENTS FROM Shawn R. Smith (1)

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    AUTOMATED UNDERWAY OCEANIC AND ATMOSPHERIC MEASUREMENTS FROM SHIPS Shawn R. Smith (1) , Mark A 32306-2840, USA, Emails: smith@coaps.fsu.edu, mbourassa@coaps.fsu.edu (2) CSIRO Land and Water, PO Box

  19. Sandia National Laboratories: atmospheric chemistry

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    and atmospheric chemistry that is expected to benefit auto and engine manufacturers, oil and gas utilities, and other industries that employ combustion models. A paper...

  20. ATMOSPHERIC ELSEVIER AtmosphericResearch 44 (1997) 231-241

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Reading, University of

    ATMOSPHERIC RESEARCH ELSEVIER AtmosphericResearch 44 (1997) 231-241 Error analysis of backscatter;accepted 14 February 1997 Abstract Ice sphere backscatter has been calculated using both Mie theory as a reasonable approximation for rv 1997 Elsevier Science B.V. 1. Introduction Cirrus clouds play

  1. Atmosphere Sciences Instrumentation Lab

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Delene, David J.

    dimensional wind field. #12;Mass Flow Controller Tim Logan · Mass Flow Controller regulates the flow of air frequency, using a combination reflecting-refracting imaging system · Worked with the PCASP, doing. Additional heat is removed due to vaporization of liquid water when in cloud. Difference in energy

  2. Water footprint assessment of crop production in Shaanxi, China

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Vellekoop, Michel

    #12;i Water footprint assessment of crop production in Shaanxi, China Bachelor Thesis Civil, Yangling, China Keywords: Agricultural crops, water footprint, Shaanxi province, CROPWAT #12;ii #12;iii ABSTRACT The water footprint, introduced by professor A.Y. Hoekstra, is an indicator of freshwater use

  3. Applications of nanotechnology in water and wastewater treatment

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Alvarez, Pedro J.

    Applications of nanotechnology in water and wastewater treatment Xiaolei Qu, Pedro J.J. Alvarez Accepted 11 September 2012 Available online 26 March 2013 Keywords: Nanotechnology Nanomaterials Water. Nanotechnology holds great potential in advancing water and wastewater treatment to improve treatment efficiency

  4. Space Science : Atmosphere Greenhouse Effect

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Johnson, Robert E.

    Space Science : Atmosphere Greenhouse Effect Part-5a Solar + Earth Spectrum IR Absorbers Grey Atmosphere Greenhouse Effect #12;Radiation: Solar and Earth Surface B"(T) Planck Ideal Emission Integrate at the carbon cycle #12;However, #12;Greenhouse Effect is Complex #12;PLANETARY ENERGY BALANCE G+W fig 3-5

  5. MODELLING RADIATIVELY ACTIVE WATER-ICE CLOUDS: IMPACT ON THE THERMAL STRUCTURE AND WATER CYCLE.

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Madeleine, Jean-Baptiste

    MODELLING RADIATIVELY ACTIVE WATER-ICE CLOUDS: IMPACT ON THE THERMAL STRUCTURE AND WATER CYCLE. J. The essential role of water-ice clouds in shaping the thermal structure of the martian atmosphere has been long presumed [1] but neglected in GCMs because of the lack of observations and difficulty to predict

  6. Effects of rootstocks on grapevine water use

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Nord, Julie Michele

    1992-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    grafted on rootstocks which have been selected for their resistance to disease, parasites and drought. Field studies have shown that some rootstocks are more resistant to drought than others, but these observations are more qualitative than quantitative.... An understanding of how water moves through the soil-plant-atmosphere continuum is important for efficient water use. Water use in three grapevine rootstocks was measured using the heat balance method under well watered (WW) and two drought (DR1 and DR2) cycles...

  7. Liquid chromatographic determination of water

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Fortier, N.E.; Fritz, J.S.

    1990-11-13T23:59:59.000Z

    A sensitive method for the determination of water in the presence of common interferences is presented. The detection system is based on the effect of water on the equilibrium which results from the reaction aryl aldehydes, such as cinnamaldehyde and methanol in the eluent to form cinnamaldehyde dimethylacetal, plus water. This equilibrium is shifted in a catalytic atmosphere of a hydrogen ion form past column reactor. The extent of the shift and the resulting change in absorbance are proportional to the amount of water present. 1 fig.

  8. Modeling Atmospheric Aerosols V. Rao Kotamarthi

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Modeling Atmospheric Aerosols V. Rao Kotamarthi and Yan Feng Climate Research Section Environmental Science Division Argonne National Laboratory #12;Outline Atmospheric Aerosols and gas phase heterogeneous reactions Regional Scales and Atmospheric Aerosols Regional Scale Aerosols: Ganges Valley Aerosol

  9. Thermodynamic analysis and experimental study of the effect of atmospheric pressure on the ice point

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Harvey, A. H. [Thermophysical Properties Division National Institute of Standards and Technology, Boulder, Colorado (United States)] [Thermophysical Properties Division National Institute of Standards and Technology, Boulder, Colorado (United States); McLinden, M. O. [Thermophysical Properties Division, National Institute of Standards and Technology, Boulder, Colorado (United States)] [Thermophysical Properties Division, National Institute of Standards and Technology, Boulder, Colorado (United States); Tew, W. L. [Sensor Science Division National Institute of Standards and Technology, Gaithersburg, Maryland (United States)] [Sensor Science Division National Institute of Standards and Technology, Gaithersburg, Maryland (United States)

    2013-09-11T23:59:59.000Z

    We present a detailed thermodynamic analysis of the temperature of the ice point as a function of atmospheric pressure. This analysis makes use of accurate international standards for the properties of water and ice, and of available high-accuracy data for the Henry's constants of atmospheric gases in liquid water. The result is an ice point of 273.150 019(5) K at standard atmospheric pressure, with higher ice-point temperatures (varying nearly linearly with pressure) at lower pressures. The effect of varying ambient CO{sub 2} concentration is analyzed and found to be significant in comparison to other uncertainties in the model. The thermodynamic analysis is compared with experimental measurements of the temperature difference between the ice point and the triple point of water performed at elevations ranging from 145 m to 4302 m, with atmospheric pressures from 101 kPa to 60 kPa.

  10. Water Quality

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Water Quality Water Quality We protect water quality through stormwater control measures and an extensive network of monitoring wells and stations encompassing groundwater, surface...

  11. Fragmentation Energetics of Clusters Relevant to Atmospheric...

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    of Clusters Relevant to Atmospheric New Particle Formation. Fragmentation Energetics of Clusters Relevant to Atmospheric New Particle Formation. Abstract: The exact mechanisms by...

  12. Environmental Chemistry II (Atmospheric Chemistry)

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Dibble, Theodore

    SYLLABUS FOR Environmental Chemistry II (Atmospheric Chemistry) FCH 511 Fall 2013 Theodore S/explaining the trends in J as a function of altitude and solar zenith angle. The second involves analyzing real

  13. THE MARTIAN ATMOSPHERIC BOUNDARY LAYER

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Spiga, Aymeric

    THE MARTIAN ATMOSPHERIC BOUNDARY LAYER A. Petrosyan,1 B. Galperin,2 S. E. Larsen,3 S. R. Lewis,4 A [Haberle et al., 1993a; Larsen et al., 2002; Hinson et al., 2008]. At night, convection is inhibited

  14. Information content and reliability of TOVS estimates of precipitable water

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Yin, Min

    1994-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    of water vapor in the atmosphere has been accomplished by satellite sensors in both the infrared (IR) and microwave spectral regions. The radiance will be high if either the atmospheric temperature is high or the water vapor content is low. Among... hours apart. On board each satellite are channels of High Resolution Infrared Radiation Sounder (HIRS2), Microwave Sounding Unit (MSU) and Stratospheric Sounding Unit (SSU). Two infrared channels are essentially sensitive to water vapor. PW derived...

  15. Atmospheric Sciences Program summaries of research in FY 1993

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Not Available

    1993-11-01T23:59:59.000Z

    This document describes the activities and products of the Atmospheric Science Program of the Environmental Sciences Division, Office of Health and Environmental Research, Office of Energy Research, in FY 1993. Each description contains the project`s title; three-year funding history; the contract period over which the funding applies; the name(s) of the principal investigator(s); the institution(s) conducting the projects; and the project`s objectives, products, approach, and results to date. Project descriptions are categorized within the report according to program areas: atmospheric chemistry, atmospheric dynamics, and support operations. Within these categories, the descriptions are ordered alphabetically by principal investigator. Each program area is preceded by a brief text that defines the program area, states its goals and objectives, lists principal research questions, and identifies program managers. Appendixes provide the addresses and telephone numbers of the principal investigators and define the acronyms used. This document has been indexed to aid the reader in locating research topics, participants, and research institutions in the text and the project descriptions. Comprehensive subject, principal investigator, and institution indexes are provided at the end of the text for this purpose. The comprehensive subject index includes keywords from the introduction and chapter texts in addition to those from the project descriptions.

  16. Atmospheric science and power production

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Randerson, D. (ed.)

    1984-07-01T23:59:59.000Z

    This is the third in a series of scientific publications sponsored by the US Atomic Energy Commission and the two later organizations, the US Energy Research and Development Adminstration, and the US Department of Energy. The first book, Meteorology and Atomic Energy, was published in 1955; the second, in 1968. The present volume is designed to update and to expand upon many of the important concepts presented previously. However, the present edition draws heavily on recent contributions made by atmospheric science to the analysis of air quality and on results originating from research conducted and completed in the 1970s. Special emphasis is placed on how atmospheric science can contribute to solving problems relating to the fate of combustion products released into the atmosphere. The framework of this book is built around the concept of air-quality modeling. Fundamentals are addressed first to equip the reader with basic background information and to focus on available meteorological instrumentation and to emphasize the importance of data management procedures. Atmospheric physics and field experiments are described in detail to provide an overview of atmospheric boundary layer processes, of how air flows around obstacles, and of the mechanism of plume rise. Atmospheric chemistry and removal processes are also detailed to provide fundamental knowledge on how gases and particulate matter can be transformed while in the atmosphere and how they can be removed from the atmosphere. The book closes with a review of how air-quality models are being applied to solve a wide variety of problems. Separate analytics have been prepared for each chapter.

  17. Laser Atmospheric Studies with VERITAS

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    C. M. Hui; for the VERITAS collaboration

    2007-09-25T23:59:59.000Z

    As a calibrated laser pulse propagates through the atmosphere, the amount of Rayleigh-scattered light arriving at the VERITAS telescopes can be calculated precisely. This technique was originally developed for the absolute calibration of ultra-high-energy cosmic-ray fluorescence telescopes but is also applicable to imaging atmospheric Cherenkov telescopes (IACTs). In this paper, we present two nights of laser data taken with the laser at various distances away from the VERITAS telescopes and compare it to Rayleigh scattering simulations.

  18. Thermodynamics of atmospheric circulation on hot Jupiters

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    J. Goodman

    2008-10-07T23:59:59.000Z

    Atmospheric circulation on tidally-locked exoplanets is driven by the absorption and reradiation of heat from the host star. They are natural heat engines, converting heat into mechanical energy. A steady state is possible only if there is a mechanism to dissipate mechanical energy, or if the redistribution of heat is so effective that the Carnot efficiency is driven to zero. Simulations based on primitive, equivalent-barotropic, or shallow-water equations without explicit provision for dissipation of kinetic energy and for recovery of that energy as heat, violate energy conservation. More seriously perhaps, neglect of physical sources of drag may overestimate wind speeds and rates of advection of heat from the day to the night side.

  19. Effect of furnace atmosphere on E-glass foaming

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Kim, Dong-Sang; Dutton, Bryan C.; Hrma, Pavel R.; Pilon, Laurent

    2006-12-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The effect of furnace atmosphere on E-glass foaming generated in crucible has been studied with a specific goal to understand the impact of increased water content on foaming in oxy-fired furnaces. E-glass foams were generated in a fused-quartz crucible located in a quartz window furnace equipped with video recording. The present study showed that humidity in the furnace atmosphere destabilizes foam, while other gases have little effect on foam stability. This study suggests that the higher foaming in oxy-fired furnace compared to air-fired is caused by the effect of water on early sulfate decomposition, promoting more efficient refining gas generation from sulfate (known as “dilution effect”).

  20. atmospheric water cycle: Topics by E-print Network

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Geosciences Websites Summary: is decided. Three orbital cycles combine to modulate the North- ern Hemisphere solar heating. The axisWHAT CAUSED THE GLACIALINTERGLACIAL...

  1. ATS 351, Spring 2010 Water in the Atmosphere 55 points

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Rutledge, Steven

    , will increase the relative humidity. q RH = a ctual vap or pressure saturation vapo r pressu re x10 0% e) (5

  2. Gulf of Mexico cloud observations and the atmospheric water budget

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Banks, Richard Wesley

    1963-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    x '3 + 0. 75 . ?. , 3 ~ 0. /3 I 0. 40 X4 24. 85 0. 5959 0. 3551 24. 67 0. 6038 0. 3645 24. 29 24. 52 23. 14 O. el93 0. 383e 0. 6099 0. 3/20 0. 6641 0. 4410 22. 97 22. 75 22. 86 O. e'00 0. 6778 0. 6739 0. 4489 0. 4595 0. 4541 29... 12. 63 12. r 5 0. 9091 0. 9335 n, 93&7 0, 8264 0. 6345 0, 8'3'39 24. 38 0. 6194 0. 3836 24. 60 0. 6099 0. 3720 23. 19 0. 6648 0. 4439 23. 04 0. 6702 0. 4492 22. 82 0. 6780 0. 4596 22. 94 0. 6740 0. 4543 IABLE 7. (continued7 ?JLTIPLE...

  3. atmospheric water vapour: Topics by E-print Network

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    transmission spectrum. We used two different ESO spectrographs to take penumbra and umbra high-resolution spectra from 3100 to 10400AA. A change in moisture above the...

  4. Diurnal to annual variations in the atmospheric water cycle

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Ruane, Alexander C.

    2007-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    2004 SFM power spectra at Darwin, Australia, of (a) surfacepower spectra for example variables at ARM SGP.83 Figure 3.4 As in Figure 3.2, but for Darrwin, Australia ..

  5. Proton reduction by molecular catalysts in water under demanding atmospheres

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Wakerley, David W.; Gross, Manuela A.; Reisner, Erwin

    2014-11-10T23:59:59.000Z

    to clean and storable energy.1 This process could generate H2 fuel, or a gas mixture of H2 and CO, known as syngas, which can be used to produce long-chain hydrocarbons or methanol.2 Proton reduction catalysts are an integral part of either system and have... have therefore been labelled as NiP and CoP, respectively. Christian Doppler Laboratory for Sustainable SynGas Chemistry, Department of Chemistry, University of Cambridge, Lensfield Road, Cambridge CB2 1EW, UK. E-mail: reisner@ch.cam.ac.uk † Electronic...

  6. EXAMINING THE SPECTROSCOPY OF WATER VAPOR IN THE ATMOSPHERE

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Petta, Jason

    Used to prove stable flow in C.O. Data Comparison and Analysis Linear Fit Within 3% error #12 and Analysis Plot VCSEL M.R. against Standard Calibrate According to Linear Fit Use Beers Law³ and Ideal Gas Designing Components for the Circuit Insert into steel, airtight container Record Spectra Data Comparison

  7. Cumulant expansions for atmospheric flows

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Ait-Chaalal, Farid; Meyer, Bettina; Marston, J B

    2015-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The equations governing atmospheric flows are nonlinear, and consequently the hierarchy of cumulant equations is not closed. But because atmospheric flows are inhomogeneous and anisotropic, the nonlinearity may manifests itself only weakly through interactions of mean fields with disturbances such as thermals or eddies. In such situations, truncations of the hierarchy of cumulant equations hold promise as a closure strategy. We review how truncations at second order can be used to model and elucidate the dynamics of turbulent atmospheric flows. Two examples are considered. First, we study the growth of a dry convective boundary layer, which is heated from below, leading to turbulent upward energy transport and growth of the boundary layer. We demonstrate that a quasilinear truncation of the equations of motion, in which interactions of disturbances among each other are neglected but interactions with mean fields are taken into account, can successfully capture the growth of the convective boundary layer. Seco...

  8. Water and terrorism Peter H. Gleick

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    and wastewater treatment plants dot our urban and rural landscape. What is less clear, however, is how. Keywords: Biological warfare; Chemical warfare; Distribution systems; Eco-terrorism; Environmental reliable safe water supplies and to remove and treat wastewater. This infrastructure is vital for human

  9. Turbid water Clear water

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Jaffe, Jules

    : The submersible laser bathymetric (LBath) optical system is capable of simultaneously providing visual images- dynamical wing. This underwater package is pulled through the water by a single towed cable with fiber optic special high energy density optical fibers. A remote Pentium based PC also at the surface is used

  10. Evaporative system for water and beverage refrigeration in hot countries

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Evaporative system for water and beverage refrigeration in hot countries A Saleh1 and MA Al-Nimr2 1 Abstract: The present study proposes an evaporative refrigerating system used to keep water or other are found to be consistent with the available literature data. Keywords: evaporative refrigeration, heat

  11. Water Intoxication

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Lingampalli, Nithya

    2013-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    2008, May 14). Too much water raises seizure risk in babies.id=4844 9. Schoenly, Lorry. “Water Intoxication and Inmates:article/246650- overview>. 13. Water intoxication alert. (

  12. Modeling Infinite Dilution and Fickian Diffusion Coefficients of Carbon Dioxide in Water

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Firoozabadi, Abbas

    Modeling Infinite Dilution and Fickian Diffusion Coefficients of Carbon Dioxide in Water J. Wambui infinite dilution diffusion coefficients for carbon dioxide and water mixtures. The model takes, carbon dioxide, classical thermodynamics Introduction The increase in atmospheric concentrations of CO2

  13. CO oxidation trends on Pt-group metals from ultrahigh vacuum to near atmospheric pressures: A combined in situ PM-IRAS and reaction kinetics study

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Goodman, Wayne

    CO oxidation trends on Pt-group metals from ultrahigh vacuum to near atmospheric pressures Accepted for publication 14 October 2008 Available online 5 November 2008 Keywords: Pt-group metals CO a c t The CO oxidation reaction on Pt-group metals (Pt, Rh, and Pd) has been investigated at low (610À

  14. Water Quality

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    of desalination research. The primary technological method of generating additional water supplies is through desalination and enhanced water reuse and recycling technologies....

  15. Water Efficiency

    Energy Savers [EERE]

    Water Efficiency Hosted by: FEDERAL UTILITY PARTNERSHIP WORKING GROUP SEMINAR November 5-6, 2014 Cape Canaveral, Florida WATER EFFICIENCY Federal Utility Partnership Working Group...

  16. HEATING THE ATMOSPHERE ABOVE SUNSPOTS

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Rucklidge, Alastair

    become fragmented and twisted, and where they generate the necessary energy to heat the solar coronaHEATING THE ATMOSPHERE ABOVE SUNSPOTS David Alexander and Neal E. Hurlburt Lockheed Martin Solar, University of Cambridge, Cambridge, CB3 9EW, UK Abstract We present our results of a hybrid model of sunspots

  17. Space Science: Atmosphere Thermal Structure

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Johnson, Robert E.

    Space Science: Atmosphere Part -2 Thermal Structure Review tropospheres Absorption of Radiation Adiabatic Lapse Rate ~ 9 K/km Slightly smaller than our estimate Pressure ~3000ft under ocean surface thickness (positive up) is the solar zenith angle Fs is the solar energy flux at frequency (when

  18. Preliminary calculations on direct heating of a containment atmosphere by airborne core debris

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Pilch, M.; Tarbell, W.W.

    1986-07-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Direct heating of the containment atmosphere by airborne core debris may be a significant source of containment pressurization in those accident sequences where the primary system is still at high pressure when the RPV fails. Vigorous blowdown of the primary system may result in nearly complete relocation of core debris out of the reactor cavity and possibly into the containment atmosphere where the liberation of thermal and chemical energy can directly heat the atmosphere. Rate independent and rate dependent models are developed and exercised parametrically to quantify the possible magnitude and rate of containment pressurization from direct heating. The possible mitigative effects of airborne water and subcompartment heating are also investigated.

  19. THE EFFECTS OF SNOWLINES ON C/O IN PLANETARY ATMOSPHERES

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Oeberg, Karin I.; Murray-Clay, Ruth [Harvard-Smithsonian Center for Astrophysics, 60 Garden Street, Cambridge, MA 02138 (United States); Bergin, Edwin A., E-mail: koberg@cfa.harvard.edu [Department of Astronomy, University of Michigan, Ann Arbor, MI 48109 (United States)

    2011-12-10T23:59:59.000Z

    The C/O ratio is predicted to regulate the atmospheric chemistry in hot Jupiters. Recent observations suggest that some exoplanets, e.g., Wasp 12-b, have atmospheric C/O ratios substantially different from the solar value of 0.54. In this Letter, we present a mechanism that can produce such atmospheric deviations from the stellar C/O ratio. In protoplanetary disks, different snowlines of oxygen- and carbon-rich ices, especially water and carbon monoxide, will result in systematic variations in the C/O ratio both in the gas and in the condensed phases. In particular, between the H{sub 2}O and CO snowlines most oxygen is present in icy grains-the building blocks of planetary cores in the core accretion model-while most carbon remains in the gas phase. This region is coincidental with the giant-planet-forming zone for a range of observed protoplanetary disks. Based on standard core accretion models of planet formation, gas giants that sweep up most of their atmospheres from disk gas outside of the water snowline will have a C/O {approx} 1, while atmospheres significantly contaminated by evaporating planetesimals will have a stellar or substellar C/O when formed at the same disk radius. The overall metallicity will also depend on the atmosphere formation mechanism, and exoplanetary atmospheric compositions may therefore provide constraints on where and how a specific planet formed.

  20. Gravity Recovery and Climate Experiment (GRACE) detection of water storage changes in the Three Gorges Reservoir of China and comparison with in situ measurements

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Wang, Xianwei; de Linage, Caroline; Famiglietti, James; Zender, Charles S

    2011-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    GRACE and a land-atmosphere water balance, Geophys. Res.2008), Analysis of terrestrial water storage changes fromGRACE and GLDAS, Water Resour. Res. , 44, W02433, doi:

  1. 8th World Wide Workshop for Young Environmental Scientists WWW-YES-2008: Urban waters: resource or risks? 13-16 May 2008

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Boyer, Edmond

    consequence of water lack is unhealthy. Water-borne diseases caused by pathogen agents appear in this city so endemic. Keywords lack, pathogens, quality, water borne disease, water supply, well INTRODUCTION8th World Wide Workshop for Young Environmental Scientists WWW-YES-2008: Urban waters: resource

  2. ELSEVIER Atmospheric Research 39 (1995) 91-111 ATMOSPHERIC

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Moelders, Nicole

    cloud cover parameterization schemes established in a 3-D-chemical transport model. In the standard at cloud base for fair weather clouds. In the second cloud cover parameterization scheme predictions of liquid water content and ice content in combination with values of water and ice content derived from

  3. Sulfuryl fluoride in the global atmosphere

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Muhle, J.

    The first calibrated high-frequency, high-precision, in situ atmospheric and archived air measurements of the fumigant sulfuryl fluoride (SO[subscript 2]F[subscript 2]) have been made as part of the Advanced Global Atmospheric ...

  4. ATMOSPHERIC SCIENCE LETTERS Atmos. Sci. Let. (2012)

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Gerber, Edwin

    2012-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    ATMOSPHERIC SCIENCE LETTERS Atmos. Sci. Let. (2012) Published online in Wiley Online Library using National Centers for Environmental Prediction/National Center for Atmospheric Research (NCEP) concentrations and sea- surface temperatures (SSTs). These integrations enable the relative role of ozone

  5. Water availability at farm household level a case study in the Nyando district in South-Western Kenya

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Water availability at farm household level ­ a case study in the Nyando district in South of Crop Production Ecology Uppsala 2011 Swedish University of Agricultural Sciences #12;2 Water: Women collecting water in a well, Onjiko, Kenya. Photo: Erika Näslund Keywords: Water availability

  6. Water Heaters and Hot Water Distribution Systems

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Lutz, Jim

    2012-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    the temperature of the residual water encountered by theof hot water and the residual water might occur: (1) thehot water might drive the residual water through the piping

  7. Water Heaters and Hot Water Distribution Systems

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Lutz, Jim

    2012-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Transportation Water Heaters and Hot Water DistributionLaboratory). 2008. Water Heaters and Hot Water Distributionfor instantaneous gas water heaters; and pressure loss

  8. 1997 Atmospheric Chemistry Colloquium for Emerging Senior Scientists

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Paul H. Wine

    1998-11-23T23:59:59.000Z

    DOE's Atmospheric Chemistry Program is providing partial funding for the Atmospheric Chemistry Colloquium for Emerging Senior Scientists (ACCESS) and FY 1997 Gordon Research Conference in Atmospheric Chemistry

  9. atmospheric nitrogen fluorescence: Topics by E-print Network

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Websites Summary: Greenhouse Effect and Atmospheric Warming Atmosphere absorbs heat energy A real greenhouse traps heatCh4. Atmosphere and Surface Energy Balances...

  10. atmospheric energy redistribution: Topics by E-print Network

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    16 Ch4. Atmosphere and Surface Energy Balances Geosciences Websites Summary: Greenhouse Effect and Atmospheric Warming Atmosphere absorbs heat energy A real greenhouse traps...

  11. atmospheric pressure surface: Topics by E-print Network

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    K. 27 Ch4. Atmosphere and Surface Energy Balances Geosciences Websites Summary: Greenhouse Effect and Atmospheric Warming Atmosphere absorbs heat energy A real greenhouse traps...

  12. Proof of the Atmospheric Greenhouse Effect

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Smith, Arthur P

    2008-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    A recently advanced argument against the atmospheric greenhouse effect is refuted. A planet without an infrared absorbing atmosphere is mathematically constrained to have an average temperature less than or equal to the effective radiating temperature. Observed parameters for Earth prove that without infrared absorption by the atmosphere, the average temperature of Earth's surface would be at least 33 K lower than what is observed.

  13. Atmospheric Lifetime of Fossil Fuel Carbon Dioxide

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Scherer, Norbert F.

    Atmospheric Lifetime of Fossil Fuel Carbon Dioxide David Archer,1 Michael Eby,2 Victor Brovkin,3 released from combustion of fossil fuels equilibrates among the various carbon reservoirs of the atmosphere literature on the atmospheric lifetime of fossil fuel CO2 and its impact on climate, and we present initial

  14. A coupled isotope tracer method to characterize input water to lakes

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Edwards, Thomas W.D.

    of input waters after accounting for the effects of secondary evaporative isotopic enrichment. As shownA coupled isotope tracer method to characterize input water to lakes Yi Yi a,*, Bronwyn E. Brock in revised form 7 November 2007; accepted 9 November 2007 KEYWORDS Water isotope tracers; Isotope hydrology

  15. Application of conservative residual distribution schemes to the solution of the shallow water equations on

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Abgrall, Rémi

    Application of conservative residual distribution schemes to the solution of the shallow water. Keywords: Conservative schemes; Residual distribution; Shallow water equations; Lake at rest solution solution of the shallow water equations on unstructured grids. We focus on flows over wet areas

  16. Water adsorption on stepped ZnO surfaces from MD simulation David Raymand a

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Goddard III, William A.

    Water adsorption on stepped ZnO surfaces from MD simulation David Raymand a , Adri C.T. van Duin b Keywords: Zinc oxide Water Solid­gas interfaces Construction and use of effective interatomic interactions force-field for use in molecular dynamics simulations of the ZnO­ water system. The force

  17. Water distribution across the mantle transition zone and its implications for global material circulation

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Frontiers Water distribution across the mantle transition zone and its implications for global Available online 13 December 2010 Editor: R.W. Carlson Keywords: water hydrogen seismology electrical conductivity partial melting Various methods for inferring the water distribution in Earth's mantle

  18. Corrosion of Zirconium-based Fuel Cladding Alloys in Supercritical Water. Y.H. Jeong1

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Motta, Arthur T.

    Corrosion of Zirconium-based Fuel Cladding Alloys in Supercritical Water. Y.H. Jeong1 , J.Y. Park1, University Park, PA 16802, USA. Keywords: Zirconium alloys, corrosion, supercritical water Abstract Corrosion to evaluate the potential use of Zr alloy cladding in the supercritical water reactor (SCWR). Corrosion tests

  19. SMART WATER GRID INTERNATIONAL CONFERENCE 2013 12-14 November 2013, Incheon, Republic of Korea

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Julien, Pierre Y.

    SMART WATER GRID INTERNATIONAL CONFERENCE 2013 12-14 November 2013, Incheon, Republic of Korea SMART WATER GRIDS AND NETWORK VULNERABILITY Pierre Y. Julien1 and Olga A. Martyusheva2 1 Professor, Colorado State University, Fort Collins, CO 80521-1372, USA Keywords: Energy Conservation; Smart Water Grid

  20. Neogene overflow of Northern Component Water at the Greenland-Scotland Ridge

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Samworth, Richard

    Neogene overflow of Northern Component Water at the Greenland-Scotland Ridge H. R. Poore Department counterpart Northern Component Water (NCW), across the Greenland-Scotland Ridge (GSR) is thought to have,280 words, 12 figures, 3 tables. Keywords: Northern Component Water; Greenland-Scotland Ridge; Iceland

  1. Relaxation Approximations to Shallow Water and Pollutant Transport Department of Sciences, Division of Mathematics,

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Katsaounis, Theodoros D.

    1 Relaxation Approximations to Shallow Water and Pollutant Transport Equations A.I. Delis solution of shallow water flows and the transport and diffusion of pollutant in such flows. By first can be considered as an alternative to classical finite difference methods. Keywords--Shallow water

  2. Electrochemical investigations of stable cavitation from bubbles generated during reduction of water

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Deymier, Pierre

    Electrochemical investigations of stable cavitation from bubbles generated during reduction April 2014 Keywords: Megasonic cleaning Stable cavitation Microstreaming Hydrogen bubbles Water on wafers without affect- ing the transient cavitation responsible for feature damage. Ã? 2014 Elsevier B

  3. Atmospheric-pressure plasma jet

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Selwyn, Gary S. (Los Alamos, NM)

    1999-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Atmospheric-pressure plasma jet. A .gamma.-mode, resonant-cavity plasma discharge that can be operated at atmospheric pressure and near room temperature using 13.56 MHz rf power is described. Unlike plasma torches, the discharge produces a gas-phase effluent no hotter than 250.degree. C. at an applied power of about 300 W, and shows distinct non-thermal characteristics. In the simplest design, two concentric cylindrical electrodes are employed to generate a plasma in the annular region therebetween. A "jet" of long-lived metastable and reactive species that are capable of rapidly cleaning or etching metals and other materials is generated which extends up to 8 in. beyond the open end of the electrodes. Films and coatings may also be removed by these species. Arcing is prevented in the apparatus by using gas mixtures containing He, which limits ionization, by using high flow velocities, and by properly shaping the rf-powered electrode. Because of the atmospheric pressure operation, no ions survive for a sufficiently long distance beyond the active plasma discharge to bombard a workpiece, unlike low-pressure plasma sources and conventional plasma processing methods.

  4. An Infrared Spectral Library for Atmospheric Environmental Monitoring...

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    An Infrared Spectral Library for Atmospheric Environmental Monitoring. An Infrared Spectral Library for Atmospheric Environmental Monitoring. Abstract: Infrared (IR) spectroscopy...

  5. atmospheric research community: Topics by E-print Network

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    University Corporation for Atmospheric Research Geosciences Websites Summary: University Corporation for Atmospheric Research CIGNA DENTAL PREFERRED PROVIDER INSURANCE EFFECTIVE...

  6. Steam atmosphere drying exhaust steam recompression system

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Becker, F.E.; Smolensky, L.A.; Doyle, E.F.; DiBella, F.A.

    1994-03-08T23:59:59.000Z

    This invention relates to a heated steam atmosphere drying system comprising dryer in combination with an exhaust recompression system which is extremely energy efficient and eliminates dangers known to air dryers. The system uses superheated steam as the drying medium, which recirculates through the system where its heat of evaporation and heat of compression is recovered, thereby providing a constant source of heat to the drying chamber. The dryer has inlets whereby feedstock and superheated steam are fed therein. High heat transfer and drying rates are achieved by intimate contact of the superheated steam with the particles being dried. The dryer comprises a vessel which enables the feedstock and steam to enter and recirculate together. When the feedstock becomes dry it will exit the dryer with the steam and become separated from the steam through the use of a curvilinear louver separator (CLS). The CLS enables removal of fine and ultrafine particles from the dryer. Water vapor separated from the particles in the CLS as superheated steam, may then be recovered and recirculated as steam through the use of a compressor to either directly or indirectly heat the dryer, and a heat exchanger or a heater to directly provide heat to the dryer. This system not only provides a very efficient heat transfer system but results in a minimum carry-over of ultrafine particles thereby eliminating any explosive hazard. 17 figures.

  7. Steam atmosphere drying exhaust steam recompression system

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Becker, Frederick E. (Reading, MA); Smolensky, Leo A. (Concord, MA); Doyle, Edward F. (Dedham, MA); DiBella, Francis A. (Roslindale, MA)

    1994-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    This invention relates to a heated steam atmosphere drying system comprising dryer in combination with an exhaust recompression system which is extremely energy efficient and eliminates dangers known to air dryers. The system uses superheated steam as the drying medium, which recirculated through the system where its heat of evaporation and heat of compression is recovered, thereby providing a constant source of heat to the drying chamber. The dryer has inlets whereby feedstock and superheated steam are fed therein. High heat transfer and drying rates are achieved by intimate contact of the superheated steam with the particles being dried The dryer comprises a vessel which enables the feedstock and steam to enter recirculate together. When the feedstock becomes dry it will exit the dryer with the steam and become separated from the steam through the use of a curvilinear louver separator (CLS). The CLS enables removal of fine and ultrafine particles from the dryer. Water vapor separated from the particles in the CLS as superheated steam, may then be recovered and recirculated as steam through the use of a compressor to either directly or indirectly heat the dryer, and a heat exchanger or a heater to directly provide heat to the dryer. This system not only provides a very efficient heat transfer system but results in a minimum carry-over of ultrafine particles thereby eliminating any explosive hazard.

  8. Marketing water 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Wythe, Kathy

    2008-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    tx H2O | pg. 16 W ith rapid population growth and the memory of the worst drought in 50 years, cities and groups are promoting programs that educate their constituents about water quality, water conservation, and landscape management. Many... ] Many cities are promoting landscape management and water conservation practices with their citizens. This garden demonstrates the EARTH- KIND principles of environmentally tolerant, low water use ornamentals. tx H2O | pg. 18 and no adverse runoff...

  9. Pulse atmospheric fluidized bed combustion

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Not Available

    1989-03-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The overall objective of the program is the development of a pulsed atmospheric fluidized-bed combustion (PAFBC) technology to burn coal and to provide heat and steam to commercial, institutional, and small industrial applications at a reasonable price in an environmentally acceptable manner. During this reporting period, a total of eight shakedown and debugging coal combustion tests were performed in the AFBC. A start-up procedure was established, system improvements implemented, and preliminary material and heat balances made based on these tests. The pulse combustor for the AFBC system was fabricated and installed and a series of tests was conducted on the system. 17 figs., 5 tabs.

  10. The DOE Water Cycle Pilot Study

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Miller, N.L.; King, A.W.; Miller, M.A.; Springer, E.P.; Wesely, M.L.; Bashford, K.E.; Conrad, M.E.; Costigan, K.; Foster, P.N.; Gibbs, H.K.; Jin, J.; Klazura, J.; Lesht, B.M.; Machavaram, M.V.; Pan, F.; Song, J.; Troyan, D.; Washington-Allen, R.A.

    2003-09-20T23:59:59.000Z

    A Department of Energy (DOE) multi-laboratory Water Cycle Pilot Study (WCPS) investigated components of the local water budget at the Walnut River Watershed in Kansas to study the relative importance of various processes and to determine the feasibility of observational water budget closure. An extensive database of local meteorological time series and land surface characteristics was compiled. Numerical simulations of water budget components were generated and, to the extent possible, validated for three nested domains within the Southern Great Plains; the DOE Atmospheric Radiation Measurement/Cloud Atmospheric Radiation Testbed (ARM/CART), the Walnut River Watershed (WRW), and the Whitewater Watershed (WW), Kansas A 2-month Intensive Observation Period (IOP) was conducted to gather detailed observations relevant to specific details of the water budget, including fine-scale precipitation, streamflow, and soil moisture measurements not made routinely by other programs. Event and season al water isotope (delta 18O, delta D) sampling in rainwater, streams, soils, lakes, and wells provided a means of tracing sources and sinks within and external to the WW, WRW, and the ARM/CART domains. The WCPS measured changes in leaf area index for several vegetation types, deep groundwater variations at two wells, and meteorological variables at a number of sites in the WRW. Additional activities of the WCPS include code development toward a regional climate model with water isotope processes, soil moisture transect measurements, and water level measurements in ground water wells.

  11. The Tropical Atmospheric El Nio Signal in Satellite Precipitation Data and a Global Climate Model

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    ) ABSTRACT Aspects of the tropical atmospheric response to El Niño related to the global energy and water and the Advanced Micro- wave Scanning Radiometer-E and simulations from the Goddard Institute for Space Studies are highly correlated, but anomalies in stratiform­convective rainfall partitioning in the two datasets

  12. WRF/Chem Simulations Over Fairbanks, AK Atmospheric Stability and Energy Correlation

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Moelders, Nicole

    1 WRF/Chem Simulations Over Fairbanks, AK Atmospheric Stability and Energy Correlation Analysis deposition. #12;3 The interactions and cycles of energy, water and trace gas components are also simulated, Alaska, that is characteristic of the Tanana valley; Specifically, Turbulent Kinetic Energy (TKE

  13. Atmosphere 2014, 5, 370-398; doi:10.3390/atmos5020370 ISSN 2073-4433

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Chaboureau, Jean-Pierre

    of the most responsive to climate change (e.g., [1,2]). On the one hand, water availability is of great based on 265 Mediterranean stations have shown that the Central­Western Mediterranean faced a change.mdpi.com/journal/atmosphere Article Patterns of Precipitation and Convection Occurrence over the Mediterranean Basin Derived from

  14. The Hamiltonian Particle-Mesh (HPM) method for numerical modeling of atmospheric flows.

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Kim, Guebuem

    The Hamiltonian Particle-Mesh (HPM) method for numerical modeling of atmospheric flows. Seoleun Shin 15. Feb. 2011 Abstract The Hamiltonian Particle-Mesh (HPM) method is an interesting alternative have developed schemes based on the HPM method for the shallow-water equations on the sphere, nonhydro

  15. UNL WATER CENTER WATER CURRENT

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Nebraska-Lincoln, University of

    ................ Sidney Area Deals with Drought 6................ Water and Electricity Are Inseparable 10's East Campus. "Consolidating administration,faculty and staff and facilities is costeffectiveandper or commercial products constitute endorsement by the U.S. Government. WATER CURRENT Water Center University

  16. Water Conservation and Water Use Efficiency (Wisconsin)

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    Wisconsin has several statutes that promote water conservation and controlled water use, and this legislation establishes mandatory and voluntary programs in water conservation and water use...

  17. Arnold Schwarzenegger WATER HEATERS AND HOT WATER

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Arnold Schwarzenegger Governor WATER HEATERS AND HOT WATER DISTRIBUTION SYSTEMS: Lutz J.D. (Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory). 2008. Water Heaters and Hot Water Distribution

  18. Further observations of a decreasing atmospheric CO2 uptake capacity in the Canada Basin (Arctic Ocean) due to sea ice loss

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Boyer, Edmond

    decayed ice cover, we found surprisingly high pCO2sw (~290­320 matm), considering that surface waterFurther observations of a decreasing atmospheric CO2 uptake capacity in the Canada Basin (Arctic as an atmospheric CO2 sink under the summertime ice-free conditions expected in the near future. Beneath a heavily

  19. Water Resources Research Center Annual Technical Report

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    : "Sustainable Oil and Grease Removal from Stormwater Runoff Hotspots using Bioretention" and "Atmospheric Maximum Daily Load (TMDL) Program to Reduce Nonpoint Source Pollution to Meet the States Water Quality/Computer Data Management, 9 Non-Point Source Pollution Measurement and Control, 10 Nutrients, 11 Remote Sensing

  20. 8, 16351671, 2008 Validation of water

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Paris-Sud XI, Université de

    dataset obtained by the Airborne Mi- crowave Stratospheric Observing System AMSOS, a passive microwave's atmosphere and contributes the largest to the green- house effect due to strong absorption in the troposphere of knowledge about this key parameter is evident. A very common technique to measure water vapour is by passive

  1. 6, 80698095, 2006 Water vapor in Asian

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Paris-Sud XI, Université de

    of Sciences, Beijing, China 2 National Center for Atmospheric Research, Boulder, CO, USA Received: 23 May 2006 vapor from European Center for Medium-Range Weather20 Forecasts (ECMWF) analyses. 1 Introduction Upper Tropospheric Water Vapor (UTWV) is a key greenhouse gas which exerts a major influence on the energy balance

  2. Ground Water Ground Sky Sky Water Vegetation Ground Vegetation Water

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Chen, Tsuhan

    Bear Snow Vegetation RhinoWater Vegetation Ground Water Ground Sky Sky Rhino Water Vegetation Ground Vegetation Water Rhino Water Vegetation Ground Rhino Water Rhino Water Ground Ground Vegetation Water Rhino Vegetation Rhino Vegetation Ground Rhino Vegetation Ground Sky Rhino Vegetation Ground Sky

  3. Global Climate Modeling of the Martian water cycle with improved microphysics and radiatively active water ice clouds

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Navarro, Thomas; Forget, François; Spiga, Aymeric; Millour, Ehouarn; Montmessin, Franck

    2013-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Radiative effects of water ice clouds have noteworthy consequences on the Martian atmosphere, its thermal structure and circulation. Accordingly, the inclusion of such effects in the LMD Mars Global Climate Model (GCM) greatly modifies the simulated Martian water cycle. The intent of this paper is to address the impact of radiatively active clouds on atmospheric water vapor and ice in the GCM and improve its representation. We propose a new enhanced modeling of the water cycle, consisting of detailed cloud microphysics with dynamic condensation nuclei and a better implementation of perennial surface water ice. This physical modeling is based on tunable parameters. This new version of the GCM is compared to the Thermal Emission Spectrometer observations of the water cycle. Satisfying results are reached for both vapor and cloud opacities. However, simulations yield a lack of water vapor in the tropics after Ls=180{\\deg} which is persistent in simulations compared to observations, as a consequence of aphelion c...

  4. Atmospheric neutrino flux at INO site

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Honda, Morihiro [Institute for Cosmic Ray Research, University of Tokyo, 5-1-5 Kashiwa-no-ha, Kashiwa, Chiba 277-8582 (Japan)

    2011-11-23T23:59:59.000Z

    To illustrate the calculation of the atmospheric neutrino flux, we briefly explain our calculation scheme and important components, such as primary cosmic ray spectra, interaction model, and geomagnetic model. Then, we calculate the atmospheric neutrino flux at INO site in our calculation scheme. We compare the calculated atmospheric neutrino fluxes predicted at INO with those at other major neutrino detector sites, especially that at SK site.

  5. Toxicity of atmospheric aerosols on marine phytoplankton

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    2009-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    metals added from these aerosols to the bioassay incubationsreleased to seawater from the aerosol filters after Author4605 CHEMISTRY Atmospheric aerosol deposition CHEMISTRY

  6. Urban Atmospheres captures a unique, synergistic moment

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Paulos, Eric

    Urban Atmospheres captures a unique, synergistic moment ­ expanding urban populations, rapid EDITORS Eric Paulos Intel Research eric@paulos.net Tom Jenkins Royal College of Art thomas

  7. Characterizing orbit uncertainty due to atmospheric uncertainty

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Wilkins, Matthew Paul

    2000-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    is implemented to model errors in the atmospheric density model. This study shows that the Kalman filter computes a believable and more realistic covariance....

  8. Atmospheric Radiation Measurement Climate Research Facility ...

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    improving our understanding of how clouds and atmospheric moisture interact with solar radiation and the effects of these interactions on climate. Photo courtesy Argonne National...

  9. Super-Kamiokande atmospheric neutrino results

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Toshiyuki Toshito; the Super-Kamiokande collaboration

    2001-05-14T23:59:59.000Z

    We present atmospheric neutrino results from a 79 kiloton year (1289 days) exposure of the Super-Kamiokande detector. Our data are well explained by $\

  10. atmospheres: Topics by E-print Network

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    to optical depth perturbations. In Earth-type atmospheres sustained planetary greenhouse effect with a stable ground surface temperature can only exist at a particular...

  11. atmosphere: Topics by E-print Network

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    to optical depth perturbations. In Earth-type atmospheres sustained planetary greenhouse effect with a stable ground surface temperature can only exist at a particular...

  12. atmospherics: Topics by E-print Network

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    to optical depth perturbations. In Earth-type atmospheres sustained planetary greenhouse effect with a stable ground surface temperature can only exist at a particular...

  13. Response of global soil consumption of atmospheric methane to changes in atmospheric climate and nitrogen deposition

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Zhuang, Qianlai

    Soil consumption of atmospheric methane plays an important secondary role in regulating the atmospheric CH4 budget, next to the dominant loss mechanism involving reaction with the hydroxyl radical (OH). Here we used a ...

  14. KEYWORDS: H-pile, group effect, press-in method, deep foundation ABSTRACT: A novel foundation system comprising steel H-piles is described. Using the press-in

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Bolton, Malcolm

    KEYWORDS: H-pile, group effect, press-in method, deep foundation ABSTRACT: A novel foundation system comprising steel H-piles is described. Using the press-in method, continuous walls of H-piles can force of the individual piles. This construction tech- nique represents an efficient foundation solution

  15. ISOLATION AND UTILIZATION OF ACETYL-CoA CARBOXYLASE FROM OIL PALM (Elaeis guineensis) MESOCARP Keywords: acetyl-CoA carboxylase, gene isolation, biotin carboxylase, biodegradable plastics, oil palm.

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Sinskey, Anthony J.

    ISOLATION AND UTILIZATION OF ACETYL-CoA CARBOXYLASE FROM OIL PALM (Elaeis guineensis) MESOCARP 97 Keywords: acetyl-CoA carboxylase, gene isolation, biotin carboxylase, biodegradable plastics, oil palm; Accepted: 7 November 2007. ISOLATION AND UTILIZATION OF ACETYL-CoA CARBOXYLASE FROM OIL PALM (Elaeis

  16. Computerized Waters

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Wythe, Kathy

    2006-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    - ing 2002?2005 and documented in TWRI?s Technical Report 284 released in January 2006, include: ? Capabilities for short-term reliability analyses based on current storage conditions (Or what is the likelihood of meeting water needs in the near... System Reference Manual. TWRI Technical Report 255, Second Edition, April 2005. ? Water Rights Analysis Package Modeling System Users Manual. TWRI Technical Report 256, Second Edition, April 2005. ? Fundamentals of Water Availability Modeling...

  17. Parallization of Stellar Atmosphere Codes

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    P. Hoeflich

    2002-09-19T23:59:59.000Z

    Parallel computing has turned out to be the enabling technology to solve complex physical systems. However, the transition from shared memory, vector computers to massively parallel, distributed memory systems and, recently, to hybrid systems poses new challenges to the scientist. We want to present a cook-book (with a very strong, personal bias) based on our experience with parallization of our existing codes. Some of the general tools and communication libraries are discussed. Our approach includes a mixture of algorithm, domain and physical module based parallization. The advantages, scalability and limitations of each are discussed at some examples. We want show that it becomes easier to write parallel code with increasing complexity of the physical problem making stellar atmosphere codes beyond the classical assumptions very suitable.

  18. Limits to the lunar atmosphere

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Morgan, T.H. (National Aeronautics and Space Administration, Washington, D.C. (USA)); Shemansky, D.E. (Univ. of Arizona, Tucson (USA))

    1991-02-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The presence of sodium and potassium on the Moon implies that other more abundant species should be present. Volatile molecules like H{sub 2}O are significantly more abundant than sodium in any of the proposed external atmospheric sources. Source mechanisms which derive atoms from the surface should favor abundant elements in the regolith. It is therefore puzzling that the Apollo ultraviolet spectrometer experiment set limits on the density of oxygen of N{sub O} < 5 {times} 10{sup 2} cm{sup {minus}3}, and that the Apollo Lunar Atmospheric Composition Experiment data imply N{sub O} < 50 cm{sup {minus}3} above the subsolar point. These limits are surprisingly small relative to the measured value for sodium. A simple consideration of sources and sinks predicts significantly greater densities of oxygen. It is possible but doubtful that the Apollo measurements occur ed during an epoch in which source rates were small. A preferential loss process for oxygen on the darkside of the Moon is considered in which ionization by electron capture in surface collisions leads to escape through acceleration in the local electric field. Cold trapping in permanently shadowed regions as a net sink is considered and discounted, but the episodic nature of cometary insertion may allow formation of ice layers which act as a stablized source of OH. On the basis of an assumed meteoroid impact source, the authors predict a possible emission brightness of {approximately} 50 R in the OH(A {minus} X)(0,0) band above the lunar bright limb. A very uncertain small comet source of H{sub 2}O could raise this value by more than two orders of magnitude.

  19. Water Quality

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    which can lead to public health problems. * MtBE (Methyl tert Butyl Ether), a gasoline additive, has begun to contaminate ground water supplies. * Similarly, perchlorate has...

  20. Steam atmosphere drying concepts using steam exhaust recompression

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    DiBella, F.A. (TECOGEN, Inc., Waltham, MA (United States))

    1992-08-01T23:59:59.000Z

    In the US industrial drying accounts for approximately 1.5 quads of energy use per year. Annual industrial dryer expenditures are estimated to be in the $500 million range. Industrial drying is a significant energy and monetary expense. For the thermal drying processes in which water is removed via evaporation from the feedstock, attempts have been made to reduce the consumption of energy using exhaust waste heat recovery techniques, improved dryer designs, or even the deployment of advanced mechanical dewatering techniques. Despite these efforts, it is obvious that a large amount of thermal energy is often still lost if the latent heat of evaporation from the evaporated water cannot be recovered and/or in some way be utilized as direct heat input into the dryer. Tecogen Inc. is conducting research and development on an industrial drying concept. That utilizes a directly or indirectly superheated steam cycle atmosphere with exhaust steam recompression to recover the latent heat in the exhaust that would otherwise be lost. This approach has the potential to save 55 percent of the energy required by a conventional air dryer. Other advantages to the industrial dryer user include: A 35-percent reduction in the yearly cost per kg[sub evap] to dry wet feedstock, Reduced airborne emissions, Reduced dry dust fire/explosion risks, Hot product not exposed to oxygen thus, the product quality is enhanced, Constant rate drying in steam atmosphere, Reduced dryer size and cost, Reduced dryer heat losses due to lower dryer inlet temperatures. Tecogen has projected that the steam atmosphere drying system is most suitable as a replacement technology for state-of-the-art spray, flash, and fluidized bed drying systems. Such systems are utilized in the food and kindred products; rubber products; chemical and allied products; stone, clay, and glass; textiles; and pulp and paper industrial sectors.

  1. Steam atmosphere drying concepts using steam exhaust recompression

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    DiBella, F.A. [TECOGEN, Inc., Waltham, MA (United States)

    1992-08-01T23:59:59.000Z

    In the US industrial drying accounts for approximately 1.5 quads of energy use per year. Annual industrial dryer expenditures are estimated to be in the $500 million range. Industrial drying is a significant energy and monetary expense. For the thermal drying processes in which water is removed via evaporation from the feedstock, attempts have been made to reduce the consumption of energy using exhaust waste heat recovery techniques, improved dryer designs, or even the deployment of advanced mechanical dewatering techniques. Despite these efforts, it is obvious that a large amount of thermal energy is often still lost if the latent heat of evaporation from the evaporated water cannot be recovered and/or in some way be utilized as direct heat input into the dryer. Tecogen Inc. is conducting research and development on an industrial drying concept. That utilizes a directly or indirectly superheated steam cycle atmosphere with exhaust steam recompression to recover the latent heat in the exhaust that would otherwise be lost. This approach has the potential to save 55 percent of the energy required by a conventional air dryer. Other advantages to the industrial dryer user include: A 35-percent reduction in the yearly cost per kg{sub evap} to dry wet feedstock, Reduced airborne emissions, Reduced dry dust fire/explosion risks, Hot product not exposed to oxygen thus, the product quality is enhanced, Constant rate drying in steam atmosphere, Reduced dryer size and cost, Reduced dryer heat losses due to lower dryer inlet temperatures. Tecogen has projected that the steam atmosphere drying system is most suitable as a replacement technology for state-of-the-art spray, flash, and fluidized bed drying systems. Such systems are utilized in the food and kindred products; rubber products; chemical and allied products; stone, clay, and glass; textiles; and pulp and paper industrial sectors.

  2. Structure andhydrogeochemicalfunctioningof a sparkling natural mineral1 water system determined usinga multidisciplinary approach: a case study2

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Boyer, Edmond

    rootedhydraulically independent permeable structures that arefed by deep CO2-rich crustal20 fluids.The non sites.27 28 Keywords:thermal conditions, CO2, fractured rock, natural mineral water, France29 30 NOTE(Clemente and Villadolid-Abrigo 1993; Lachassagne et al. 2009).42 Sparklingnaturalmineral water systems comprise water, CO2

  3. Modeling Oxygen and Water Flows in Peat Substrate with Root Uptakes R. Naasz, J.-C. Michel and S. Charpentier

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Paris-Sud XI, Université de

    191 Modeling Oxygen and Water Flows in Peat Substrate with Root Uptakes R. Naasz, J.-C. Michel to Horticulture Angers France Keywords: peat, simulation, substrate-plant system, water and oxygen availability, we first precisely characterized all transfer properties of a peat substrate (water retention

  4. Role of ocean-atmosphere interactions in tropical cooling during the last glacial maximum

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Bush, A.B.G. [Univ. of Alberta, Edmonton (Canada)] [Univ. of Alberta, Edmonton (Canada); Philander, S.G.H. [Princeton Univ., NJ (United States)] [Princeton Univ., NJ (United States)

    1998-02-27T23:59:59.000Z

    A simulation with a coupled atmosphere-ocean general circulation model configured for the Last Glacial Maximum delivered a tropical climate that is much cooler than that produced by atmosphere-only models. The main reason is a decrease in tropical sea surface temperatures, up to 6{degree}C in the western tropical Pacific, which occurs because of two processes. The trade winds induce equatorial upwelling and zonal advection of cold water that further intensify the trade winds, and an exchange of water occurs between the tropical and extratropical Pacific in which the poleward surface flow is balanced by equatorward flow of cold water in the thermocline. Simulated tropical temperature depressions are of the same magnitude as those that have been proposed from recent proxy data. 25 refs., 4 figs.

  5. Doctoral Programs Atmospheric, Oceanic & Space Sciences

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Eustice, Ryan

    University of Michigan Space Research Building 2455 Hayward Street Ann Arbor, MI 48109-2143 aoss Katherine E. White, Ann Arbor ©The Regents of the University of Michigan Research areas Atmospheric Science Atmospheric Dynamics Climate, Climate Modeling & Climate Change Clouds & Precipitation Paleoclimate, Ice

  6. Human effects on the global atmosphere

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Johnston, H.S.

    1984-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    This review considers whether human activities can significantly change important functions of the global atmosphere by altering the amount or distribution of certain trace species. It deals with three specific topics: stratopheric ozone, the role of species other than carbon dioxide on the greenhouse effect, and certain recently recognized atmospheric consequences of a large scale nuclear war. 64 references, 10 figures, 2 tables.

  7. ATMOSPHERIC SCIENCE LETTERS Atmos. Sci. Let. (2013)

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Lee, Sukyoung

    2013-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    ATMOSPHERIC SCIENCE LETTERS Atmos. Sci. Let. (2013) Published online in Wiley Online Library Sciences, Seoul National University, Seoul, South Korea *Correspondence to: C. Yoo, Center for Atmosphere). A number of studies have shown that the MJO plays an important role in modulating the extratropical cir

  8. ATOMIC IONIZATION AND OPACITIES IN PULSAR ATMOSPHERES

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    ATOMIC IONIZATION AND OPACITIES IN PULSAR ATMOSPHERES Hydrogen Atmospheres J. VENTURA Physics.g. Pavlov et al., 1995; Zavlin et al., 1995, 1996; #12; 2 J. VENTURA ET AL. Rajagopal and Romani, 1996 the past three years. As is well known (Canuto and Ventura, 1977; Ruder et al., 1994), the external strong

  9. Terrestrial Water Storage

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Rodell, M; Chambers, D P; Famiglietti, Jay

    2013-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    properties. • Atmospheric Composition: aerosols and their precursors. • Ocean Surface: carbon dioxide,

  10. SEARCH The Oregonian Enter Keyword(s) FIND A BUSINESS Enter Keyword More From The Oregonian | Subscribe To The Oregonian

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    McGraw, Kevin J.

    plotted, threatens Yakima crops Agriculture losses from climate change in Washington's Yakima Valley could and Washington State University extrapolated the effects of warming to the region by applying data from bad droughts going back 80 years. The computer projections indicate as much as a 70 percent reduction

  11. Atmospheric neutrino flux calculation using the NRLMSISE00 atmospheric model

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Honda, M; Kajita, T; Kasahara, K; Midorikawa, S

    2015-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    In this paper, we extend the calculation of the atmospheric neutrino flux~\\cite{hkkm2004,hkkms2006,hkkm2011} to the sites in polar and tropical regions. In our earliest full 3D-calculation~\\cite{hkkm2004}, we used DPMJET-III~\\cite{dpm} for the hadronic interaction model above 5~GeV, and NUCRIN~\\cite{nucrin} below 5~GeV. We modified DPMJET-III as in Ref.~\\cite{hkkms2006} to reproduce the experimental muon spectra better, mainly using the data observed by BESS group~\\cite{BESSTeVpHemu}. In a recent work~\\cite{hkkm2011}, we introduced JAM interaction model for the low energy hadronic interactions. JAM is a nuclear interaction model developed with PHITS (Particle and Heavy-Ion Transport code System)~\\cite{phits}. In Ref.~\\cite{hkkm2011}, we could reproduce the observed muon flux at the low energies at balloon altitude with DPMJET-III above 32 GeV and JAM below that better than the combination of DPMJET-III above 5~GeV and NUCRIN below that. Besides the interaction model, we have also improved the calculation sche...

  12. Atmospheric sampling glow discharge ionization source

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    McLuckey, S.A.; Glish, G.L.

    1989-07-18T23:59:59.000Z

    An atmospheric sampling glow discharge ionization source that can be used in combination with an analytical instrument which operates at high vacuum, such as a mass spectrometer. The atmospheric sampling glow discharge ionization source comprises a chamber with at least one pair of electrodes disposed therein, an inlet for a gaseous sample to be analyzed and an outlet communicating with an analyzer which operates at subatmospheric pressure. The ionization chamber is maintained at a pressure below atmospheric pressure, and a voltage difference is applied across the electrodes to induce a glow discharge between the electrodes, so that molecules passing through the inlet are ionized by the glow discharge and directed into the analyzer. The ionization source accepts the sample under atmospheric pressure conditions and processes it directly into the high vacuum instrument, bridging the pressure gap and drawing off unwanted atmospheric gases. The invention also includes a method for analyzing a gaseous sample using the glow discharge ionization source described above. 3 figs.

  13. SEARCH FOR RAYLEIGH SCATTERING IN THE ATMOSPHERE OF GJ1214b

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    De Mooij, E. J. W.; Jayawardhana, R. [Department of Astronomy and Astrophysics, University of Toronto, 50 St. George Street, Toronto, ON M5S 3H4 (Canada); Brogi, M.; Snellen, I. A. G.; Hoekstra, H.; Otten, G. P. P. L.; Bekkers, D. H.; Haffert, S. Y.; Van Houdt, J. J. [Leiden Observatory, Leiden University, Postbus 9513, 2300-RA, Leiden (Netherlands); De Kok, R. J. [SRON Netherlands Institute for Space Research, Sorbonnelaan 2, 3584-CA, Utrecht (Netherlands); Croll, B., E-mail: demooij@astro.utoronto.ca [Kavli Institute for Astrophysics and Space Research, Massachusetts Institute of Technology, Cambridge, MA 02139 (United States)

    2013-07-10T23:59:59.000Z

    We investigate the atmosphere of GJ1214b, a transiting super-Earth planet with a low mean density, by measuring its transit depth as a function of wavelength in the blue optical portion of the spectrum. It is thought that this planet is either a mini-Neptune, consisting of a rocky core with a thick, hydrogen-rich atmosphere, or a planet with a composition dominated by water. Most observations favor a water-dominated atmosphere with a small scale-height, however, some observations indicate that GJ1214b could have an extended atmosphere with a cloud layer muting the molecular features. In an atmosphere with a large scale-height, Rayleigh scattering at blue wavelengths is likely to cause a measurable increase in the apparent size of the planet toward the blue. We observed the transit of GJ1214b in the B band with the FOcal Reducing Spectrograph at the Very Large Telescope and in the g band with both ACAM on the William Herschel Telescope (WHT) and the Wide Field Camera at the Isaac Newton Telescope (INT). We find a planet-to-star radius ratio in the B band of 0.1162 {+-} 0.0017, and in the g band 0.1180 {+-} 0.0009 and 0.1174 {+-} 0.0017 for the WHT and INT observations, respectively. These optical data do not show significant deviations from previous measurements at longer wavelengths. In fact, a flat transmission spectrum across all wavelengths best describes the combined observations. When atmospheric models are considered, a small scale-height water-dominated model fits the data best.

  14. Simulation of Aerosol Behavior in a Saturated Atmosphere With the CONTAIN Code

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Kljenak, Ivo; Mavko, Borut [Jozef Stefan Institute, Jamova cesta 39, 1000 Ljubljana (Slovenia)

    2002-07-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Experiments on aerosol behavior in an atmosphere containing saturated vapor, which were performed in the KAEVER experimental facility and proposed for the OECD International Standard Problem No. 44, were simulated with the CONTAIN thermal-hydraulic computer code. The purpose of the work was to assess the capability of the CONTAIN code to model aerosol condensation and deposition in a containment of a light-water-reactor nuclear power plant at severe accident conditions. Results of dry and wet aerosol concentrations in the test vessel atmosphere are presented and analyzed. (authors)

  15. Nonclassical Shallow Water Flows Carina M. Edwards1

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Howison, Sam

    discontinuities in shallow water flows with large Froude number F. On a horizontal base, the paradigm problem is a small `tube' of fluid bounding the flow. The delta-shock conditions for this flow are derived and solved of the layer impact on a horizontal base. Keywords: delta-shock, jet impact, hypercritical flow 1 Introduction

  16. Phase separation of acetonitrile-water mixture in protein purification

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Gu, Tingyue

    Phase separation of acetonitrile-water mixture in protein purification Tingyue Gu, Yesong Gu The removal of acetonitrile (ACN)from reversed-phase high performance liquid chromatography (RP- HPLC the majority of ACN after RP-HPLC. Keywords. purification; chromatography; acetonitrile; protein; human growth

  17. FISSION REACTORS KEYWORDS: high-temperature

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Yildiz, Bilge

    that is directly cou- pled to an advanced gas-cooled reactor (AGR) is pro- posed in this paper. The system features conversion system, and the progress in the electrolysis cell materials field can help the econom- ical by a supercritical CO2 ~SCO2! power conversion system that is directly coupled to an advanced gas-cooled reactor

  18. TRITIUM SYSTEMS KEYWORDS: tritium fuel cycle, re-

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Abdou, Mohamed

    FUSION REACTORS WILLIAM KUAN and MOHAMED A. ABDOU* University of California at Los Angeles, School in detail by Abdou et al.1 The value Lr is the required tritium breeding ratio ~TBR!, and La a simplified first-order linear system model, which made use of mean tritium residence times*E-mail: abdou

  19. Inky : Internet keywords with user feedback

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Chou, Victoria H. (Victoria Hsiao-tsung)

    2008-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The web today is accessed primarily through graphical user interfaces although some of its functionality can be more efficiently invoked through a command line interface. This thesis presents Inky, a sloppy command line ...

  20. Keywords Matrix Factorizations and Updates, Block Structured ...

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    2010-08-11T23:59:59.000Z

    Aug 11, 2010 ... T i Di ?ggT = Ai ?DT i Di ?ddT = VT i Vi ?ddT. (72) with a vector d = 1 ?n. (DT i v?

  1. Keyword query interpretation over structured data

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Nejdl, Wolfgang

    Write TID AID PID Paper TID Cite TID PID1 V = {Author, Write, Paper, Cite} E = {Author.TID -> Write.AID, Paper.TID -> Write.PID, Paper.TID -> Cite.PID1, Paper.TID -> Cite.PID2} Primary keys: Author.TID, Write.TID. Paper.TID, Cite.TID Text attributes: Author.Name, Paper.Title 7 PID TID Title PID1 PID2 Elena Demidova

  2. The Market for Keywords and Ran Spiegler

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Levit, Anna

    match" function determines the probability with which a firm will enter the consumer's search pool outcome. We provide necessary and sufficient conditions, in terms of the underlying search cost of their wants and their actual wants. Consumers consult a search engine by entering a query, which is typically

  3. Index des mots-cls Keywords index

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Boyer, Edmond

    , 445 circum-Mediterranean firs, 823 climate, 439 climate change, 823 climate gradient, 1 climatic maximal light driven electron flow, 163 mechanical property, 317 mechanical strength, 129 Mediterranean

  4. Water vapor and the dynamics of climate changes

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Schneider, Tapio; Levine, Xavier

    2009-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Water vapor is not only Earth's dominant greenhouse gas. Through the release of latent heat when it condenses, it also plays an active role in dynamic processes that shape the global circulation of the atmosphere and thus climate. Here we present an overview of how latent heat release affects atmosphere dynamics in a broad range of climates, ranging from extremely cold to extremely warm. Contrary to widely held beliefs, atmospheric circulation statistics can change non-monotonically with global-mean surface temperature, in part because of dynamic effects of water vapor. For example, the strengths of the tropical Hadley circulation and of zonally asymmetric tropical circulations, as well as the kinetic energy of extratropical baroclinic eddies, can be lower than they presently are both in much warmer climates and in much colder climates. We discuss how latent heat release is implicated in such circulation changes, particularly through its effect on the atmospheric static stability, and we illustrate the circul...

  5. Water Environment Federation. National TMDL Science and Policy Conference. Phoenix, AZ. November 13 16, 2002.

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Pitt, Robert E.

    Water Environment Federation. National TMDL Science and Policy Conference. Phoenix, AZ. November 13 ­ 16, 2002. AVAILABILITY OF ATMOSPHERICALLY DEPOSITED MERCURY TO RUNOFF AND RECEIVING WATERS Mark C to receiving waters; such estimates are overly conservative, and do not reflect the complex nature of mercury

  6. The Upper Atmosphere of HD17156b

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    T. T. Koskinen; A. D. Aylward; S. Miller

    2008-11-28T23:59:59.000Z

    HD17156b is a newly-found transiting extrasolar giant planet (EGP) that orbits its G-type host star in a highly eccentric orbit (e~0.67) with an orbital semi-major axis of 0.16 AU. Its period, 21.2 Earth days, is the longest among the known transiting planets. The atmosphere of the planet undergoes a 27-fold variation in stellar irradiation during each orbit, making it an interesting subject for atmospheric modelling. We have used a three-dimensional model of the upper atmosphere and ionosphere for extrasolar gas giants in order to simulate the progress of HD17156b along its eccentric orbit. Here we present the results of these simulations and discuss the stability, circulation, and composition in its upper atmosphere. Contrary to the well-known transiting planet HD209458b, we find that the atmosphere of HD17156b is unlikely to escape hydrodynamically at any point along the orbit, even if the upper atmosphere is almost entirely composed of atomic hydrogen and H+, and infrared cooling by H3+ ions is negligible. The nature of the upper atmosphere is sensitive to to the composition of the thermosphere, and in particular to the mixing ratio of H2, as the availability of H2 regulates radiative cooling. In light of different simulations we make specific predictions about the thermosphere-ionosphere system of HD17156b that can potentially be verified by observations.

  7. Mass spectrometric approaches for chemical characterisation of atmospheric aerosols: critical

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Nizkorodov, Sergey

    Mass spectrometric approaches for chemical characterisation of atmospheric aerosols: critical. Atmospheric aerosols have profound effects on the environment through several physicochemical processes on the respiratory and cardiovascular systems. Understanding aerosol atmospheric chemistry and its environmental

  8. Measurements of water uptake and transport properties in anion-exchange membranes

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Zhao, Tianshou

    the cost of the fuel cell systems. Although promising, conventional liquid electrolyte- based alkaline fuel Keywords: Direct ethanol fuel cells Anion-exchange membrane Water uptake Water diffusivity Mass. All rights reserved. 1. Introduction Alkaline fuel cells allow the use of non-platinum (Pt) catalysts

  9. Author's personal copy Energy and water balance of two contrasting loblolly pine plantations on the

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Noormets, Asko

    Author's personal copy Energy and water balance of two contrasting loblolly pine plantations are more interested in water and carbon balances, quantifying forest energy balance offers insights to how Accepted 9 September 2009 Keywords: Energy balance Evapotranspiration Forest albedo Forest hydrology

  10. Comparison of thorium-based fuels with different fissile components in existing boiling water reactors

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Demazière, Christophe

    Comparison of thorium-based fuels with different fissile components in existing boiling water, SE-412 96 Göteborg, Sweden Keywords: Thorium BWR Neutronics a b s t r a c t With the aim of investigating the technical feasibility of fuelling a conventional BWR (Boiling Water Reactor) with thorium

  11. A Model for Predicting Daily Peak Visitation and Implications for Recreation Management and Water Quality: Evidence

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    carrying capacity. Keywords Visitation model Á Recreation management Á Water quality Á River visitation ÁA Model for Predicting Daily Peak Visitation and Implications for Recreation Management and Water Quality: Evidence from Two Rivers in Puerto Rico Luis E. Santiago � Armando Gonzalez-Caban � John Loomis

  12. Kinematics of extreme waves in deep water John Grue*, Didier Clamond, Morten Huseby, Atle Jensen

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Clamond, Didier

    Kinematics of extreme waves in deep water John Grue*, Didier Clamond, Morten Huseby, Atle Jensen in the mean water level. q 2004 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved. Keywords: Wave kinematics; Extreme waves; PIV 1. Introduction Enhanced evidence and description of the kinematics during steep wave events

  13. Heat transfer through a water spray curtain under the effect of a strong radiative source

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Paris-Sud XI, Université de

    Heat transfer through a water spray curtain under the effect of a strong radiative source P. Boulet - mail Pascal.Boulet@lemta.uhp-nancy.fr Keywords : heat transfer, radiative transfer, vaporization, convection, water spray Abstract Heat transfer inside a participating medium, made of droplets flowing in gas

  14. Author's personal copy Inherent and apparent optical properties of the complex estuarine waters of

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Meyers, Steven D.

    Author's personal copy Inherent and apparent optical properties of the complex estuarine waters management strategy used by the Tampa Bay Estuary Program since the 1990s led to improved water clarity 30 September 2012 Available online 22 October 2012 Keywords: inherent optical properties apparent

  15. AGGLOMERATION OF GAS HYDRATE IN A WATER-IN-OIL EMULSION: EXPERIMENTAL AND MODELING STUDIES

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Paris-Sud XI, Université de

    AGGLOMERATION OF GAS HYDRATE IN A WATER-IN-OIL EMULSION: EXPERIMENTAL AND MODELING STUDIES Ana of gas hydrates in water-in-oil emulsion is investigated at the laboratory pilot scale on a flow loop and a spread of the Chord Length Distribution (CLD) to larger chord length. Keywords: gas hydrates, flow loop

  16. Water Resources Policy & Economics

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Buehrer, R. Michael

    Water Resources Policy & Economics FOR 4984 Selected Course Topics · Appropriative and riparian water institutions · Incentives for conservation · Water rights for in-stream environmental use · Surface water-groundwater management · Water quality regulations · Water markets · Economic and policy

  17. Water Privatisation 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Zölls, Elisa

    2011-08-17T23:59:59.000Z

    This dissertation deals with the policy issues of large-scale, urban water privatisation projects in the face of uncertainty and variability. The main objective is to evaluate whether a single policy approach, namely privatisation associated...

  18. Atmospheric science encompasses meteorology and climatology, as well as fields such as atmospheric chemistry and remote sensing.Atmospheric

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Oceanography and Meteorology Building.The Doppler weather radar on the roof of the building is a campus Mobile Atmospheric Research and Teaching Radar (SMART-R).This radar is used in national and international

  19. EXTENSION WATER SUMMIT PRIORITY: WATER QUALITY

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Kane, Andrew S.

    EXTENSION WATER SUMMIT PRIORITY: WATER QUALITY Leadership Team Subcommittee: Mark Clark Karl Havens BJ Jarvis Kelly Morgan Ramesh Reddy #12;Water Quality ­ Situation (resources) Florida has extensive

  20. Water Heaters and Hot Water Distribution Systems

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Lutz, Jim

    2012-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    efficient gas water heating appliance to market; a plan toefficient gas water heating appliance to market; and to planefficient gas water heating appliance to market; and 3) to

  1. Water Heaters and Hot Water Distribution Systems

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Lutz, Jim

    2012-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    24 Figure 7. Comparison of Daily Water Heater28 Figure 8. Monitored Field Efficiency of Tankless Water28 Figure 9. Monitored Lab Efficiency of Tankless Water

  2. Water Heaters and Hot Water Distribution Systems

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Lutz, Jim

    2012-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    step in developing a realistic degradation term for tankless water heatersstep (water draw event) in the simulation. Instantaneous Gas Water Heater

  3. Pulsed atmospheric fluidized bed combustion

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Not Available

    1989-11-01T23:59:59.000Z

    In order to verify the technical feasibility of the MTCI Pulsed Atmospheric Fluidized Bed Combustor technology, a laboratory-scale system was designed, built and tested. Important aspects of the operational and performance parameters of the system were established experimentally. A considerable amount of the effort was invested in the initial task of constructing an AFBC that would represent a reasonable baseline against which the performance of the PAFBC could be compared. A summary comparison of the performance and emissions data from the MTCI 2 ft {times} 2 ft facility (AFBC and PAFBC modes) with those from conventional BFBC (taller freeboard and recycle operation) and circulating fluidized bed combustion (CFBC) units is given in Table ES-1. The comparison is for typical high-volatile bituminous coals and sorbents of average reactivity. The values indicated for BFBC and CFBC were based on published information. The AFBC unit that was designed to act as a baseline for the comparison was indeed representative of the larger units even at the smaller scale for which it was designed. The PAFBC mode exhibited superior performance in relation to the AFBC mode. The higher combustion efficiency translates into reduced coal consumption and lower system operating cost; the improvement in sulfur capture implies less sorbent requirement and waste generation and in turn lower operating cost; lower NO{sub x} and CO emissions mean ease of site permitting; and greater steam-generation rate translates into less heat exchange surface area and reduced capital cost. Also, the PAFBC performance generally surpasses those of conventional BFBC, is comparable to CFBC in combustion and NO{sub x} emissions, and is better than CFBC in sulfur capture and CO emissions even at the scaled-down size used for the experimental feasibility tests.

  4. atmospheric pressure ionization: Topics by E-print Network

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    for Atmospheric Pressure, in Vivo, and Imaging Mass. For example, atmospheric pressure infrared MALDI (AP IR-MALDI), capable of producing ions from small ionization (DESI),5...

  5. atmospheric carbon emissions: Topics by E-print Network

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    oxide (N2O) 13 Paris-Sud XI, Universit de 13 Atmospheric Lifetime of Fossil Fuel Carbon Dioxide Geosciences Websites Summary: Atmospheric Lifetime of Fossil Fuel Carbon...

  6. atmospheric oxygenation recorded: Topics by E-print Network

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    cores may contain high quality records of atmospheric deposition. The qualitative Short, Daniel 3 Bistability of atmospheric oxygen and the Great Oxidation Geosciences Websites...

  7. atmospheric optical turbulence: Topics by E-print Network

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Next Page Last Page Topic Index 1 Atmospheric Turbulence and its Influence on Adaptive Optics Physics Websites Summary: Atmospheric Turbulence and its Influence on Adaptive Optics...

  8. atmospheric ion measurements: Topics by E-print Network

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    the Atmospheric CERN Preprints Summary: We report the first observation in a high energy neutrino telescope of cascades induced by atmospheric electron neutrinos and by...

  9. Comparative Analysis of Urban Atmospheric Aerosol by Particle...

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Analysis of Urban Atmospheric Aerosol by Particle-Induced X-ray Emission (PIXE), Proton Elastic Scattering Analysis Comparative Analysis of Urban Atmospheric Aerosol by...

  10. Atmospheric Solids Analysis Probe Mass Spectrometry: A New Approach...

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Atmospheric Solids Analysis Probe Mass Spectrometry: A New Approach for Airborne Particle Analysis. Atmospheric Solids Analysis Probe Mass Spectrometry: A New Approach for Airborne...

  11. A Volcanologist'S Review Of Atmospheric Hazards Of Volcanic Activity...

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    atmospheric hazards caused by explosive volcanic activity. The hazard posed by fine silicate ash with long residence time in the atmosphere is probably much less serious than...

  12. Diesel and Gasoline Engine Emissions: Characterization of Atmosphere...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Characterization of Atmosphere Composition and Health Responses to Inhaled Emissions Diesel and Gasoline Engine Emissions: Characterization of Atmosphere Composition and Health...

  13. Fehner and Gosling, Atmospheric Nuclear Weapons Testing, 1951...

    Energy Savers [EERE]

    Atmospheric Nuclear Weapons Testing, 1951-1963. Battlefield of the Cold War: The Nevada Test Site, Volume I Fehner and Gosling, Atmospheric Nuclear Weapons Testing, 1951-1963....

  14. atmospheric global electric: Topics by E-print Network

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    global atmospheric iron cycle, and combustion this paper. Key Words aerosol deposition, climate change, deserts Abstract Atmospheric inputs of iron sources of iron are...

  15. atmospheric dispersion coefficient: Topics by E-print Network

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    the earth surface. In general, the atmospheric motion is driven by the intense solar energy arriving at the equator 3 A GIS-based atmospheric dispersion model Computer...

  16. atmospheric dispersion calculations: Topics by E-print Network

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    the earth surface. In general, the atmospheric motion is driven by the intense solar energy arriving at the equator 4 A GIS-based atmospheric dispersion model Computer...

  17. atmospheric dispersion experiment: Topics by E-print Network

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    the earth surface. In general, the atmospheric motion is driven by the intense solar energy arriving at the equator 2 A GIS-based atmospheric dispersion model Computer...

  18. atmospheric climate model: Topics by E-print Network

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Curry & Webster Atmospheric Thermodynamics Ch1 Composition Ch2 Laws Ch3 Transfers Ch12 Energy Russell, Lynn 10 Climate Sciences: Atmospheric Thermodynamics Environmental...

  19. atmosphere box model: Topics by E-print Network

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    GloveBoxes Glove boxes allow the user to perform operations in an atmosphere 8 University Corporation for Atmospheric Research PO Box 3000 Boulder, Colorado 80307 Geosciences...

  20. Oxygen detected in atmosphere of Saturn's moon Dione

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Oxygen detected in atmosphere of Saturn's moon Dione Oxygen detected in atmosphere of Saturn's moon Dione Scientists and an international research team have announced discovery of...

  1. atmospheric modeling system: Topics by E-print Network

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    14 Causes and implications of persistent atmospheric carbon dioxide biases in Earth System Models University of California eScholarship Repository Summary: Atmosphere and Ocean...

  2. atmospheric co2 content: Topics by E-print Network

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Of Physics Version 4 Gerlich and Ralf D. Tscheuschner Abstract The atmospheric greenhouse effect, an idea that many authors Of The Atmospheric CO2 Greenhouse Effects . . . 3...

  3. atmospheric chemistry simulations: Topics by E-print Network

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Environmental Sciences and Ecology Websites Summary: , nitrogen and oxygen The Greenhouse Effect Atmospheric Aerosols Atmospheric chemical kinetics including and oral reports to...

  4. atmospheric sciences exposure: Topics by E-print Network

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    annual reviews of faculty performance in accordance 8 Space Science : Atmosphere Greenhouse Effect Physics Websites Summary: Space Science : Atmosphere Greenhouse Effect Part-5a...

  5. atmospheric chemistry project: Topics by E-print Network

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Environmental Sciences and Ecology Websites Summary: , nitrogen and oxygen The Greenhouse Effect Atmospheric Aerosols Atmospheric chemical kinetics including and oral reports to...

  6. atmospheric co2 concentrations: Topics by E-print Network

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Of Physics Version 4 Gerlich and Ralf D. Tscheuschner Abstract The atmospheric greenhouse effect, an idea that many authors Of The Atmospheric CO2 Greenhouse Effects . . . 3...

  7. atmospheric co2 concentration: Topics by E-print Network

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Of Physics Version 4 Gerlich and Ralf D. Tscheuschner Abstract The atmospheric greenhouse effect, an idea that many authors Of The Atmospheric CO2 Greenhouse Effects . . . 3...

  8. atmospheric co2 laser: Topics by E-print Network

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Of Physics Version 4 Gerlich and Ralf D. Tscheuschner Abstract The atmospheric greenhouse effect, an idea that many authors Of The Atmospheric CO2 Greenhouse Effects . . . 3...

  9. atmospheric loading effects: Topics by E-print Network

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    large solar proton Paris-Sud XI, Universit de 7 Space Science : Atmosphere Greenhouse Effect Physics Websites Summary: Space Science : Atmosphere Greenhouse Effect Part-5a...

  10. atmospheric chemistry programme: Topics by E-print Network

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Environmental Sciences and Ecology Websites Summary: , nitrogen and oxygen The Greenhouse Effect Atmospheric Aerosols Atmospheric chemical kinetics including and oral reports to...

  11. atmospheric co2 measurements: Topics by E-print Network

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Of Physics Version 4 Gerlich and Ralf D. Tscheuschner Abstract The atmospheric greenhouse effect, an idea that many authors Of The Atmospheric CO2 Greenhouse Effects . . . 3...

  12. atmospheric co2 variations: Topics by E-print Network

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Of Physics Version 4 Gerlich and Ralf D. Tscheuschner Abstract The atmospheric greenhouse effect, an idea that many authors Of The Atmospheric CO2 Greenhouse Effects . . . 3...

  13. atmospheric chemistry experiment: Topics by E-print Network

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Environmental Sciences and Ecology Websites Summary: , nitrogen and oxygen The Greenhouse Effect Atmospheric Aerosols Atmospheric chemical kinetics including and oral reports to...

  14. atmospheric science people: Topics by E-print Network

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    annual reviews of faculty performance in accordance 9 Space Science : Atmosphere Greenhouse Effect Physics Websites Summary: Space Science : Atmosphere Greenhouse Effect Part-5a...

  15. atmospheric chemistry: Topics by E-print Network

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Environmental Sciences and Ecology Websites Summary: , nitrogen and oxygen The Greenhouse Effect Atmospheric Aerosols Atmospheric chemical kinetics including and oral reports to...

  16. atmospheric sciences: Topics by E-print Network

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    annual reviews of faculty performance in accordance 8 Space Science : Atmosphere Greenhouse Effect Physics Websites Summary: Space Science : Atmosphere Greenhouse Effect Part-5a...

  17. atmospheric co2 mixing: Topics by E-print Network

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Of Physics Version 4 Gerlich and Ralf D. Tscheuschner Abstract The atmospheric greenhouse effect, an idea that many authors Of The Atmospheric CO2 Greenhouse Effects . . . 3...

  18. atmospheric aerosols basic: Topics by E-print Network

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    of atmospheric aerosol. Aplin, KL 2012-01-01 13 1. Introduction The atmospheric greenhouse effect is the basic mechanism Environmental Sciences and Ecology Websites Summary: 1....

  19. atmospheric deposition microbial: Topics by E-print Network

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Mercury in the Global Atmosphere: Chemistry, deposition, and land-atmosphere interactions Environmental Management and Restoration Websites Summary: Mercury in the Global...

  20. atmospheric deposition nutrient: Topics by E-print Network

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Mercury in the Global Atmosphere: Chemistry, deposition, and land-atmosphere interactions Environmental Management and Restoration Websites Summary: Mercury in the Global...

  1. Visualizing Storms from NCAR's Atmosphere Model at NERSC

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Atmosphere Model Visualizing Storms from NCAR's Atmosphere Model CCSM-sprabhat.png Global warming will likely change the statistics of tropical cyclones and hurricanes. In this...

  2. Adaptive control for Mars atmospheric flight

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Restrepo, Carolina Isabel

    2009-05-15T23:59:59.000Z

    landing accuracy requirements for a manned space vehicle make it necessary to ?y a controlled entry trajectory rather than a more robust ballistic entry trajectory used for some robotic missions. The large variations in Mars atmospheric properties make a...

  3. Composition and Reactions of Atmospheric Aerosol Particles

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    large portion of the microscopic particles floating in the air originate from incomplete combustion of coal and oil and from dust storms. Once in the atmosphere, they can have...

  4. HYPERsensarium : an archive of atmospheric conditions

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Shaw, Kelly E. (Kelly Evelyn)

    2013-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    HYPERsensarium proposes a tangible interface of atmospheres for public experience through an archive of historical and projected weathers. While architecture's purpose has long been to act as the technical boundary between ...

  5. The porous atmosphere of eta Carinae

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Nir J. Shaviv

    2000-02-09T23:59:59.000Z

    We analyze the wind generated by the great 20 year long super-Eddington outburst of eta-Carinae. We show that using classical stellar atmospheres and winds theory, it is impossible to construct a consistent wind model in which a sufficiently small amount of mass, like the one observed, is shed. One expects the super-Eddington luminosity to drive a thick wind with a mass loss rate substantially higher than the observed one. The easiest way to resolve the inconsistency is if we alleviate the implicit notion that atmospheres are homogeneous. An inhomogeneous atmosphere, or "porous", allows more radiation to escape while exerting a smaller average force. Consequently, such an atmosphere yields a considerably lower mass loss rate for the same total luminosity. Moreover, all the applications of the Eddington Luminosity as a strict luminosity limit should be revised, or at least reanalyzed carefully.

  6. Space Science: Atmospheres Evolution of planets

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Johnson, Robert E.

    ;Atmospheres / Evolution Heat Sources Compressional Energy Trapped Radioactive Material Tidal Interactions, same A) the surface temperature,Tg, increases. WOW! Simple #12;Temperature vs. time in an Early Epoch

  7. MIDDLE ATMOSPHERE DYNAMICS AT707 (3 credits)

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    ., Holton, J. R., Leovy, C. B., Academic Press, 489 pp. · Atmospheric and Oceanic Fluid Dynamics, 2006 Review Articles: · Haynes, P. H., 2005: Stratospheric Dynamics. Annu. Rev. Fluid Mech., 37, 263­ 293

  8. Water Rights: Surface Water (Indiana)

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    The Indiana Department of Natural Resources regulates the use and diversion of surface waters. An entity that creates additional stream volumes by releases from impoundments built and financed by...

  9. Life in the Solar System Assume we need energy, liquid water, and organic materials.

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Shirley, Yancy

    ;Small rocky bodies are unlikely to host life: too hot or cold for water, no protective atmosphere so too. #12;Venus is hot (molten lead can exist on its surface!), high pressure (90 atmospheres), toxic, no sunlight, high temperature. Not much chance of life there. Gas Giants #12;The moons of the giant planets

  10. Lookup tables to compute high energy cosmic ray induced atmospheric ionization and changes in atmospheric chemistry

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Dimitra Atri; Adrian L. Melott; Brian C. Thomas

    2010-05-03T23:59:59.000Z

    A variety of events such as gamma-ray bursts and supernovae may expose the Earth to an increased flux of high-energy cosmic rays, with potentially important effects on the biosphere. Existing atmospheric chemistry software does not have the capability of incorporating the effects of substantial cosmic ray flux above 10 GeV . An atmospheric code, the NASA-Goddard Space Flight Center two-dimensional (latitude, altitude) time-dependent atmospheric model (NGSFC), is used to study atmospheric chemistry changes. Using CORSIKA, we have created tables that can be used to compute high energy cosmic ray (10 GeV - 1 PeV) induced atmospheric ionization and also, with the use of the NGSFC code, can be used to simulate the resulting atmospheric chemistry changes. We discuss the tables, their uses, weaknesses, and strengths.

  11. Air Activation Following an Atmospheric Explosion

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Lowrey, Justin D.; McIntyre, Justin I.; Prichard, Andrew W.; Gesh, Christopher J.

    2013-03-13T23:59:59.000Z

    In addition to thermal radiation and fission products, nuclear explosions result in a very high flux of unfissioned neutrons. Within an atmospheric nuclear explosion, these neutrons can activate the various elemental components of natural air, potentially adding to the radioactive signature of the event as a whole. The goal of this work is to make an order-of-magnitude estimate of the total amount of air activation products that can result from an atmospheric nuclear explosion.

  12. Trace analysis of atmospheric organic bases

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Clark, Dwayne C.

    1984-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    chromatographic fractions for NS analyses ( 121) and its use as a thin layer chromatography (TLC) adsorbent ( 122). The National Institute of Occupational Safety and Health (NIOSH) recommends its use in the analysis of many industrial vapors ( 113 - 120... analysis of atmospheric organic bases were investigated; the study included (1) the analysis of submarine charcoal filter bed samples for nitrogen bases and (2) the use of metallic tetraphenylporphines (TPP) as specific adsorbents for atmospheric...

  13. Quantum light in the turbulent atmosphere

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    A. A. Semenov; W. Vogel

    2009-08-12T23:59:59.000Z

    Nonclassical properties of light propagating through the turbulent atmosphere are studied. We demonstrate by numerical simulation that the probability distribution of the transmission coefficient, which characterizes the effects of the atmosphere on the quantum state of light, can be reconstructed by homodyne detection. Nonclassical photon-statistics and, more generally, nonclassical Glauber-Sudarshan functions appear to be more robust against turbulence for weak light fields rather than for bright ones.

  14. Atmospheric State, Cloud Microphysics and Radiative Flux

    DOE Data Explorer [Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)]

    Mace, Gerald

    Atmospheric thermodynamics, cloud properties, radiative fluxes and radiative heating rates for the ARM Southern Great Plains (SGP) site. The data represent a characterization of the physical state of the atmospheric column compiled on a five-minute temporal and 90m vertical grid. Sources for this information include raw measurements, cloud property and radiative retrievals, retrievals and derived variables from other third-party sources, and radiative calculations using the derived quantities.

  15. Arnold Schwarzenegger WATER HEATERS AND HOT WATER

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Arnold Schwarzenegger Governor WATER HEATERS AND HOT WATER DISTRIBUTION SYSTEMS;#12;Appendices Appendix A. Multifamily Water Heating Construction Practices, Pricing and Availability Survey Report Appendix B. Multifamily Water Heating Controls Performance Field Report Appendix C. Pipe

  16. Estimation of land surface water and energy balance flux components and closure relation using conditional sampling

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Farhadi, Leila

    2012-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Models of terrestrial water and energy balance include numerical treatment of heat and moisture diffusion in the soil-vegetation-atmosphere continuum. These two diffusion and exchange processes are linked only at a few ...

  17. Geothermal heating enhances atmospheric asymmetries on synchronously rotating planets

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Haqq-Misra, Jacob

    2014-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Earth-like planets within the liquid water habitable zone of M type stars may evolve into synchronous rotators. On these planets, the sub-stellar hemisphere experiences perpetual daylight while the opposing anti-stellar hemisphere experiences perpetual darkness. Because the night-side hemisphere has no direct source of energy, the air over this side of the planet is prone to freeze out and deposit on the surface, which could result in atmospheric collapse. However, general circulation models (GCMs) have shown that atmospheric dynamics can counteract this problem and provide sufficient energy transport to the anti-stellar side. Here we use an idealized GCM to consider the impact of geothermal heating on the habitability of synchronously rotating planets. Geothermal heating may be expected due to tidal interactions with the host star, and the effects of geothermal heating provide additional habitable surface area and may help to induce melting of ice on the anti-stellar hemisphere. We also explore the persisten...

  18. Water Quality

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative1 First Use of Energy for All Purposes (Fuel and Nonfuel), 2002; Level:Energy: Grid Integration Redefining What'sis Taking Over OurThe Iron SpinPrincetonUsing Maps1DOE AwardsDNitrateEnergyNews WaterWater

  19. Agglomeration of sorbent and ash carry-over for use in atmospheric fluidized-bed combustors

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Rohargi, N.D.T.

    1983-04-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Agglomeration of elutriated sorbent, ash and char from a fluidized-bed boiler, with spent bed overflow material and water, has been identified as a potentially attractive technique for reducing sorbent consumption in atmospheric fluidized-bed combustors. The agglomerated products are returned to the combustor to improve the calcium utilization of the sorbent and to complete the combustion of elutriated carbon material. In this experimental programme, agglomerates were collected during test runs on the 1.8 m x 1.8 m fluidized-bed combustor. Agglomerate characteristics, such as handling strength, sulfur capture activity carbon utilization and resistance to attrition, were determined as functions of agglomeration processing variables. These variables include feed composition, feed particle size, amount of water addition, curing time, and curing atmosphere or drying conditions. Ca/S feed ratio requirements for a commercial AFBC that uses the agglomeration process were projected on the basis of the Westinghouse model for fluidized-bed desulphurization.

  20. PROBING NEAR-SURFACE ATMOSPHERIC TURBULENCE WITH LIDAR MEASUREMENTS AND HIGH-RESOLUTION HYDRODYNAMIC MODELS

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    J. KAO; D. COOPER; ET AL

    2000-11-01T23:59:59.000Z

    As lidar technology is able to provide fast data collection at a resolution of meters in an atmospheric volume, it is imperative to promote a modeling counterpart of the lidar capability. This paper describes an integrated capability based on data from a scanning water vapor lidar and a high-resolution hydrodynamic model (HIGRAD) equipped with a visualization routine (VIEWER) that simulates the lidar scanning. The purpose is to better understand the spatial and temporal representativeness of the lidar measurements and, in turn, to extend their utility in studying turbulence fields in the atmospheric boundary layer. Raman lidar water vapor data collected over the Pacific warm pool and the simulations with the HIGRAD code are used for identifying the underlying physics and potential aliasing effects of spatially resolved lidar measurements. This capability also helps improve the trade-off between spatial-temporal resolution and coverage of the lidar measurements.

  1. New nonlinear mechanisms of midlatitude atmospheric low-frequency variability

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    and Atmospheric Research Utrecht, Utrecht University, Princetonplein 5, 3584 CC Utrecht, The Netherlands Abstract

  2. Effect of temperature on the release of intentionally and non-intentionally added substances from polyethylene terephthalate (PET) bottles into water

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Short, Daniel

    polyethylene terephthalate (PET) bottles into water: Chemical analysis and potential toxicity Cristina Bach a January 2013 Keywords: PET-bottled water By-products Chemical mixtures Cyto-genotoxicity Endocrine on the release of PET-bottle con- stituents into water and to assess the potential health hazard using in vitro

  3. Water Quality

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    n n g g : : M i i d d d d l l e e R R i i o o G G r r a a n n d d e e Middle Rio Grande Water Assembly Mid Region Council of Governments Sandia National Laboratories Utton...

  4. Grabbing water

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    P. M. Reis; J. Hure; S. Jung; J. W. M. Bush; C. Clanet

    2012-07-16T23:59:59.000Z

    We introduce a novel technique for grabbing water with a flexible solid. This new passive pipetting mechanism was inspired by floating flowers and relies purely on the coupling of the elasticity of thin plates and the hydrodynamic forces at the liquid interface. Developing a theoretical model has enabled us to design petal-shaped objects with maximum grabbing capacity.

  5. Multibubble plasma production and solvent decomposition in water by slot-excited microwave discharge

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Ishijima, T.; Hotta, H.; Sugai, H.; Sato, M. [Plasma Nanotechnology Research Center, Nagoya University, Furo-cho, Chikusa-ku, Nagoya 464-8603 (Japan); Honda Electronics Corporation, 20 Oyamazuka, Oiwa-cho, Toyohashi 441-3193 (Japan)

    2007-09-17T23:59:59.000Z

    Intense microwaves are injected from a slot antenna into water partly filling a metal vessel. When the vessel is evacuated to saturated vapor pressure ({approx}5x10{sup 3} Pa) of water, microwave breakdown gives rise to plasmas in many bubbles in the boiling water. Gas bubbling technique enables production of multibubble plasmas in water even at atmospheric pressure. Optical emissions from the exited species are investigated to identify radical species in water. In order to demonstrate application to purification of polluted water, methylene blue and trichlorethylene solution in 8 l water were observed to rapidly decrease with multibubble plasma treatment.

  6. A regional climate model study of how biomass burning aerosol impacts land-atmosphere interactions over the Amazon

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Chin, Mian

    wind divergence in the southern Amazon and anomalous wind convergence over the equatorial western radiation, consequently changing the surface energy and water fluxes, the atmospheric thermo- dynamic, Rainfall, and Climate (LBA-SMOCC), Smoke/Sulfates, Clouds and Radiation-Brazil (SCAR-B), ground based

  7. Contrasting wetland CH4 emission responses to simulated glacial atmospheric CO2 in temperate bogs and fens

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Gauci, Vincent

    Contrasting wetland CH4 emission responses to simulated glacial atmospheric CO2 in temperate bogs, glacial, Last Glacial Maximum (LGM), methane (CH4), peatland, wetland. Summary · Wetlands were the largest (n = 8 per treatment) and measured gaseous CH4 flux, pore water dissolved CH4 and volatile fatty acid

  8. Clean Water Act Section 401 Water Quality Certification: A Water...

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    Clean Water Act Section 401 Water Quality Certification: A Water Quality Protection Tool for States and Tribes Jump to: navigation, search OpenEI Reference LibraryAdd to library...

  9. Effect of transpiration rate on internal plant resistance to water flow

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Hailey, James Lester

    1971-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    models for liquid water flow in plants. because it enables one to estimate leaf water potential from known or estimated transpiration rates. The predicted leaf water potential can be used for scheduling irrigation ~ The leaf diffusion resistance... OF LITERATURE Soil Resistance Internal Plant Resistance Ohm's Law Analogy Mathematical Models of Water Transport in the Soil-Plant- Atmosphere System . ~ Poiseuille's Law . ~ ~ ~ ~ Leaf Diffusion and Aerodynamic Resistances ~ Conclusions of Literature...

  10. Land and Atmospheric Science GRAD STUDENT HANDBOOK

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Minnesota, University of

    and managed ecosystems the sources, transport, and fate of pollutants in soil, air, and water: Environmental Sciences, Policy and Management Agricultural Industries and Marketing The Department occupies. The Department of Soil, Water, and Climate created this graduate program in 2009

  11. UNL WATER CENTER WATER CURRENT

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Nebraska-Lincoln, University of

    ........SPECIAL BUREAU OF RECLAMATION CENTENNIAL COVERAGE 14..............Water News Briefs 15 Keyes, Commissioner of Reclamation, U.S. Bureau of Reclamation. Several con- vention topics will focus afternoon NWRA board of director's meeting. Plains farmers survey their land in western Nebraska, probably

  12. Magnetized Atmospheres around Accreting Neutron Stars

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    S. Zane; R. Turolla; A. Treves

    2000-02-01T23:59:59.000Z

    We present a detailed investigation of atmospheres around accreting neutron stars with high magnetic field ($B\\gtrsim 10^{12}$ G) and low luminosity ($L\\lesssim 10^{33}$ erg/s). We compute the atmospheric structure, intensity and emergent spectrum for a plane-parallel, pure hydrogen medium by solving the transfer equations for the normal modes coupled to the hydrostatic and energy balance equations. The hard tail found in previous investigations for accreting, non-magnetic neutron stars with comparable luminosity is suppressed and the X-ray spectrum, although still harder than a blackbody at the star effective temperature, is nearly planckian in shape. Spectra from accreting atmospheres, both with high and low fields, are found to exhibit a significant excess at optical wavelengths above the Rayleigh-Jeans tail of the X-ray continuum.

  13. Atmospheric Pressure Plasma Process And Applications

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Peter C. Kong; Myrtle

    2006-09-01T23:59:59.000Z

    This paper provides a general discussion of atmospheric-pressure plasma generation, processes, and applications. There are two distinct categories of atmospheric-pressure plasmas: thermal and nonthermal. Thermal atmospheric-pressure plasmas include those produced in high intensity arcs, plasma torches, or in high intensity, high frequency discharges. Although nonthermal plasmas are at room temperatures, they are extremely effective in producing activated species, e.g., free radicals and excited state atoms. Thus, both thermal and nonthermal atmosphericpressure plasmas are finding applications in a wide variety of industrial processes, e.g. waste destruction, material recovery, extractive metallurgy, powder synthesis, and energy conversion. A brief discussion of recent plasma technology research and development activities at the Idaho National Laboratory is included.

  14. Super Kamiokande results: atmospheric and solar neutrinos

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    M. Ishitsuka; for the Super-Kamiokande Collaboration

    2004-06-28T23:59:59.000Z

    Atmospheric neutrino and solar neutrino data from the first phase of Super-Kamiokande (SK-I) are presented. The observed data are used to study atmospheric and solar neutrino oscillations. Zenith angle distributions from various atmospheric neutrino data samples are used to estimate the neutrino oscillation parameter region. In addition, a new result of the $L/E$ measurement is presented. A dip in the $L/E$ distribution was observed in the data, as predicted from the sinusoidal flavor transition probability of neutrino oscillation. The energy spectrum and the time variation such as day/night and seasonal differences of solar neutrino flux are measured in Super-Kamiokande. The neutrino oscillation parameters are strongly constrained from those measurements.

  15. A Community Atmosphere Model with Superparameterized Clouds

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Randall, David; Branson, Mark; Wang, Minghuai; Ghan, Steven J.; Craig, Cheryl; Gettelman, A.; Edwards, Jim

    2013-06-18T23:59:59.000Z

    In 1999, National Center for Atmospheric Research (NCAR) scientists Wojciech Grabowski and Piotr Smolarkiewicz created a "multiscale" atmospheric model in which the physical processes associated with clouds were represented by running a simple high-resolution model within each grid column of a lowresolution global model. In idealized experiments, they found that the multiscale model produced promising simulations of organized tropical convection, which other models had struggled to produce. Inspired by their results, Colorado State University (CSU) scientists Marat Khairoutdinov and David Randall created a multiscale version of the Community Atmosphere Model (CAM). They removed the cloud parameterizations of the CAM, and replaced them with Khairoutdinov's high-resolution cloud model. They dubbed the embedded cloud model a "super-parameterization," and the modified CAM is now called the "SP-CAM." Over the next several years, many scientists, from many institutions, have explored the ability of the SP-CAM to simulate tropical weather systems, the day-night changes of precipitation, the Asian and African monsoons, and a number of other climate processes. Cristiana Stan of the Center for Ocean-Land-Atmosphere Interactions found that the SP-CAM gives improved results when coupled to an ocean model, and follow-on studies have explored the SP-CAM's utility when used as the atmospheric component of the Community Earth System Model. Much of this research has been performed under the auspices of the Center for Multiscale Modeling of Atmospheric Processes, a National Science Foundation (NSF) Science and Technology Center for which the lead institution is CSU.

  16. Cleaner, Safer Water through Water Safety Plans

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    occur globally every year due to a lack of clean water, inadequate sanitation, and improper hygiene (1CS232615A Cleaner, Safer Water through Water Safety Plans National Center for Environmental Health (NCEH) Global Water, Sanitation, and Hygiene Team's Water Safety Plan Assistance 1.5 million deaths

  17. Ground water provides drinking water, irrigation for

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Saldin, Dilano

    Ground water provides drinking water, irrigation for crops and water for indus- tries. It is also connected to surface waters, and maintains the flow of rivers and streams and the level of wetlands- tion of those along Lake Michigan, most communi- ties, farms and industries still rely on ground water

  18. Measuring Atmospheric Neutrino Oscillations with Neutrino Telescopes

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Ivone F. M. Albuquerque; George F. Smoot

    2001-03-28T23:59:59.000Z

    Neutrino telescopes with large detection volumes can demonstrate that the current indications of neutrino oscillation are correct or if a better description can be achieved with non-standard alternatives. Observations of contained muons produced by atmospheric neutrinos can better constrain the allowed region for oscillations or determine the relevant parameters of non-standard models. We analyze the possibility of neutrino telescopes measuring atmospheric neutrino oscillations. We suggest adjustments to improve this potential. An addition of four densely-instrumented strings to the AMANDA II detector makes observations feasible. Such a configuration is competitive with current and proposed experiments.

  19. Controlled atmosphere for fabrication of cermet electrodes

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Ray, S.P.; Woods, R.W.

    1998-08-11T23:59:59.000Z

    A process is disclosed for making an inert electrode composite wherein a metal oxide and a metal are reacted in a gaseous atmosphere at an elevated temperature of at least about 750 C. The metal oxide is at least one of the nickel, iron, tin, zinc and zirconium oxides and the metal is copper, silver, a mixture of copper and silver or a copper-silver alloy. The gaseous atmosphere has an oxygen content that is controlled at about 5--3000 ppm in order to obtain a desired composition in the resulting composite. 2 figs.

  20. Controlled atmosphere for fabrication of cermet electrodes

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Ray, Siba P. (Murrysville, PA); Woods, Robert W. (New Kensington, PA)

    1998-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    A process for making an inert electrode composite wherein a metal oxide and a metal are reacted in a gaseous atmosphere at an elevated temperature of at least about 750.degree. C. The metal oxide is at least one of the nickel, iron, tin, zinc and zirconium oxides and the metal is copper, silver, a mixture of copper and silver or a copper-silver alloy. The gaseous atmosphere has an oxygen content that is controlled at about 5-3000 ppm in order to obtain a desired composition in the resulting composite.

  1. Total water storage dynamics in response to climate variability and extremes: Inference from long-term terrestrial gravity

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Troch, Peter

    Total water storage dynamics in response to climate variability and extremes: Inference from long; published 27 April 2012. [1] Terrestrial water storage is a basic element of the hydrological cycle and a key state variable for land surface-atmosphere interaction. However, measuring water storage

  2. Journal of Power Sources 164 (2007) 189195 Modeling water transport in liquid feed direct methanol fuel cells

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    2007-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Journal of Power Sources 164 (2007) 189­195 Modeling water transport in liquid feed direct methanol management in direct methanol fuel cells (DMFCs) is very critical and complicated because of many interacting rights reserved. Keywords: Direct methanol fuel cell; Water transport; Mathematical modeling; Three

  3. Journal of Power Sources 171 (2007) 268274 Effect of cathode gas diffusion layer on water transport and

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Zhao, Tianshou

    2007-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    transport and cell performance in direct methanol fuel cells C. Xua, T.S. Zhaoa,, Y.L. Heb a Department methanol fuel cells (DMFCs) is not only to attain better cell performance, but also to achieve better water performance. © 2007 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved. Keywords: Direct methanol fuel cells; Water crossover

  4. Energy recovery in SUDS towards smart water grids: A case study Helena M. Ramos a,n

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Diggavi, Suhas

    Energy recovery in SUDS towards smart water grids: A case study Helena M. Ramos a,n , Charlotte and energy nexus for sustainable operation towards future smart cities. a r t i c l e i n f o Article history: Received 9 January 2013 Accepted 2 August 2013 Keywords: Energy recovery SUDS Smart water grids. a b s t r

  5. Comments on Jacobson et al.'s proposal for a wind, water, and solar energy future for New York State

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Jaramillo, Paulina

    Forum Comments on Jacobson et al.'s proposal for a wind, water, and solar energy future for New April 2013 Accepted 2 May 2013 Keywords: Energy systems Renewable integration Global warming a b s t r of the energy demands in New York State with wind, solar, and water resources. In this forum we suggest

  6. Water Permits (Louisiana)

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    The Water Permits Division authorizes permits administered under the Water Quality Regulations. Louisiana's Water Quality Regulations require permits for the discharge of pollutants from any point...

  7. Sandia National Laboratories: Water

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Water Sandia Team Attends World Water Week in Stockholm On December 12, 2014, in Climate, Energy, Global Climate & Energy, Modeling, Modeling & Analysis, News, News & Events, Water...

  8. Water Management Act (Massachusetts)

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    This Act regulates and registers water withdrawals in the Commonwealth of Massachusetts to enable effective planning and management of water use and conservation. The Act establishes a Water...

  9. Efficient Water Use & Management

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Water Use Goal 4: Efficient Water Use & Management Aware of the arid climate of northern New Mexico, water reduction and conservation remains a primary concern at LANL. Energy...

  10. Microlensing Effects in Atmospheres of Substars

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    L. A. Berdina; A. A. Minakov

    2007-12-10T23:59:59.000Z

    The purpose of the present work is the study of focusing properties of atmospheres of substars that is necessary for adequate interpreting of observational data and for solving the inverse problem consisting in recovery parameters of 'microlenses' (substars) and sources (quasars). Amplification factor for a quasar image as projected onto the field of microlenses-substars was computed for optical and radio wavelengths.

  11. CHARACTERIZATION OF CLOUDS IN TITAN'S TROPICAL ATMOSPHERE

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Griffith, Caitlin A.; Penteado, Paulo [Department of Planetary Sciences, University of Arizona, Tucson, AZ 85719 (United States); Rodriguez, Sebastien [Laboratoire AIM, Universite Paris 7/CNRS/CEA-Saclay, DSM/IRFU/SAp (France); Le Mouelic, Stephane [Laboratoire de Planetologie et Geodynamique, CNRS, UMR-6112, Universite de Nantes, 44000 Nantes (France); Baines, Kevin H.; Buratti, Bonnie; Sotin, Christophe [Jet Propulsion Laboratory, Pasadena, CA 91109 (United States); Clark, Roger [U.S. Geological Survey, Denver, CO 80225 (United States); Nicholson, Phil [Department of Astronomy, Cornell University, Ithaca, NY (United States); Jaumann, Ralf [Institute of Planetary Exploration, Deutsche Zentrum, fuer Luft- und Raumfahrt (Germany)

    2009-09-10T23:59:59.000Z

    Images of Titan's clouds, possible over the past 10 years, indicate primarily discrete convective methane clouds near the south and north poles and an immense stratiform cloud, likely composed of ethane, around the north pole. Here we present spectral images from Cassini's Visual Mapping Infrared Spectrometer that reveal the increasing presence of clouds in Titan's tropical atmosphere. Radiative transfer analyses indicate similarities between summer polar and tropical methane clouds. Like their southern counterparts, tropical clouds consist of particles exceeding 5 {mu}m. They display discrete structures suggestive of convective cumuli. They prevail at a specific latitude band between 8 deg. - 20 deg. S, indicative of a circulation origin and the beginning of a circulation turnover. Yet, unlike the high latitude clouds that often reach 45 km altitude, these discrete tropical clouds, so far, remain capped to altitudes below 26 km. Such low convective clouds are consistent with the highly stable atmospheric conditions measured at the Huygens landing site. Their characteristics suggest that Titan's tropical atmosphere has a dry climate unlike the south polar atmosphere, and despite the numerous washes that carve the tropical landscape.

  12. Atmospheric dispersion in mountain valleys and basins

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Allwine, K.J.

    1992-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The primary goal of the research is to further characterize and understand dispersion in valley and basin atmospheres. A secondary, and related goal, is to identify and understand the dominant physical processes governing this dispersion. This has been accomplished through a review of the current literature, and analyses of recently collected data from two field experiments. This work should contribute to an improved understanding of material transport in the atmospheric boundary layer. It was found that dispersion in a freely draining valley (Brush Creek valley, CO) atmosphere is much greater than in an enclosed basin (Roanoke, VA) atmosphere primarily because of the greater wind speeds moving past the release point and the greater turbulence levels. The development of a cold air pool in the Roanoke basin is the dominant process governing nighttime dispersion in the basin, while the nighttime dispersion in the Brush Creek valley is dominated by turbulent diffusion and plume confinement between the valley sidewalls. The interaction between valley flows and above ridgetops flows is investigated. A ventilation rate'' of material transport between the valley and above ridgetop flows is determined. This is important in regional air pollution modeling and global climate modeling. A simple model of dispersion in valleys, applicable through a diurnal cycle, is proposed.

  13. Atmospheric dispersion in mountain valleys and basins

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Allwine, K.J.

    1992-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The primary goal of the research is to further characterize and understand dispersion in valley and basin atmospheres. A secondary, and related goal, is to identify and understand the dominant physical processes governing this dispersion. This has been accomplished through a review of the current literature, and analyses of recently collected data from two field experiments. This work should contribute to an improved understanding of material transport in the atmospheric boundary layer. It was found that dispersion in a freely draining valley (Brush Creek valley, CO) atmosphere is much greater than in an enclosed basin (Roanoke, VA) atmosphere primarily because of the greater wind speeds moving past the release point and the greater turbulence levels. The development of a cold air pool in the Roanoke basin is the dominant process governing nighttime dispersion in the basin, while the nighttime dispersion in the Brush Creek valley is dominated by turbulent diffusion and plume confinement between the valley sidewalls. The interaction between valley flows and above ridgetops flows is investigated. A ``ventilation rate`` of material transport between the valley and above ridgetop flows is determined. This is important in regional air pollution modeling and global climate modeling. A simple model of dispersion in valleys, applicable through a diurnal cycle, is proposed.

  14. Air Resources Laboratory Atmospheric Tracer Technology

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    The continuous (near real time) sulfur hexafluoride (SF6 ) analyzers are portable systems that make measurements of atmospheric SF6 concentrations with a response time of just under one second. The rapid response time in Gaussian plume transport and dispersion models. The SF6 analyzers include a computer controlled calibration

  15. 1999 Gordon Research Conference on Atmospheric Chemistry

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Storm, C.

    2000-08-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The Gordon Research Conference (GRC) on Atmospheric Chemistry was held at Salve Regina University in Newport, Rhode Island, June 13-18, 1999. The conference was well attended with 151 participants. The attendees represented the spectrum of endeavor in this field coming from academia, industry, and government laboratories, both US and foreign scientists, senior researchers, young investigators, and students.

  16. Ocean Atmosphere Sea Ice Soil User's Guide

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    OASIS3 Ocean Atmosphere Sea Ice Soil User's Guide oasis3 prism 2­2, June 2004 Sophie Valcke 1 to realize a coupled simulation with OASIS3. The aim of OASIS3 is to provide a flexible and user friendly. OASIS3 synchronizes the exchanges of coupling fields between the models being coupled, and performs 2D

  17. Ocean Atmosphere Sea Ice Soil User's Guide

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    OASIS3 Ocean Atmosphere Sea Ice Soil User's Guide oasis3 prism 2­3, August 2004 Sophie Valcke 1 to realize a coupled simulation with OASIS3. The aim of OASIS3 is to provide a flexible and user friendly. OASIS3 synchronizes the exchanges of coupling fields between the models being coupled, and performs 2D

  18. Ocean Atmosphere Sea Ice Soil User's Guide

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    OASIS 2.0 Ocean Atmosphere Sea Ice Soil User's Guide and Reference Manual November 1995 Laurent for the straightforward use of OASIS 2.0. As far as we know, it is the best way to use it! The aim of OASIS is to provide been particularly emphasized in the OASIS design. The use of OASIS does not change the way the models

  19. Analysis methods for Atmospheric Cerenkov Telescopes

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Mathieu de Naurois

    2006-07-12T23:59:59.000Z

    Three different analysis techniques for Atmospheric Imaging System are presented. The classical Hillas parameters based technique is shown to be robust and efficient, but more elaborate techniques can improve the sensitivity of the analysis. A comparison of the different analysis techniques shows that they use different information for gamma-hadron separation, and that it is possible to combine their qualities.

  20. Ch.6 Atmospheric and Oceanic Circulations

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Pan, Feifei

    ;Learning Objective Four: Driving forces of wind #12;Driving Forces within the Atmosphere Gravity. #12;Pressure gradient determines wind speed #12; The Coriolis force is an effect of Earth's rotation direction due to the pressure gradient force alone #12;Geostrophic Wind Pressure gradient force + Coriolis

  1. Exploring the Deep... Ocean-Atmosphere

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Wright, Dawn Jeannine

    Climate oscillations 97 #12;Storing energy To understand how solar radiation affects large-scale processes), and biosphere (living organisms) that are driven by solar energy. The ocean and the atmosphere have the greatest on the others. To fully understand the dynamics of our climate, we must examine the global energy balance

  2. Atmospheric Data Package for the Composite Analysis

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Napier, Bruce A.; Ramsdell, James V.

    2005-09-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The purpose of this data package is to summarize our conceptual understanding of atmospheric transport and deposition, describe how this understanding will be simplified for numerical simulation as part of the Composite Analysis (i.e., implementation model), and finally to provide the input parameters needed for the simulations.

  3. The mean molecular mass of Titan's atmosphere

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Withers, Paul

    , Mars, Mars #12;Science Questions · Mean molecular mass (µ) -> Chemical composition · How did Titan form? · Current reservoirs of volatiles · Ethane/methane puddles/ocean · Thermal structure of atmosphere #12, delicate, etc ­ T/p sensors are simple, cheap, reliable · Is it possible to know µ based on simple

  4. Characterizing Titan's Upper Atmosphere Using the Titan

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Johnson, Robert E.

    methane chemical losses. INMS Data T-GITM Bell et al. [2010b] #12;Constraints on Escape · Parameter Sweep-Thermosphere Model (GITM) · 3-D, non-hydrostatic, altitude-based atmospheric model ­ Compressible Navier (TVD) MUSCL Scheme. ­ Block-based Massively Parallel Framework ­ Updating with 4th order Runge

  5. MIDDLE ATMOSPHERE DYNAMICS ATS 708 (3 credits)

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Academic Integrity Policy as found in the General Catalog (http://www.catalog.colostate.edu/FrontPDF/1, 1987, Andrews, Holton, Leovy, Academic Press. · Atmospheric and Oceanic Fluid Dynamics, 2006, Vallis Articles (alphabetically): · Baldwin et al., 2001: The quasi-biennial oscillation. Rev. Geophys., 39, 1979

  6. THE LOWER SOLAR ATMOSPHERE ROBERT J. RUTTEN

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Rutten, Rob

    THE LOWER SOLAR ATMOSPHERE ROBERT J. RUTTEN Sterrekundig Instituut, Postbus 80 000, NL­3508 TA, Utrecht, The Netherlands Abstract. This "rapporteur" report discusses the solar photosphere and low does not seem to jeopardize precise determination of solar abundances in classical fashion. It is still

  7. Connectivity To Atmospheric Release Advisory Capability

    Broader source: Directives, Delegations, and Requirements [Office of Management (MA)]

    2001-02-26T23:59:59.000Z

    To establish DOE and NNSA connectivity to Atmospheric Release Advisory Capability (ARAC) for sites and facilities that have the potential for releasing hazardous materials sufficient to generate certain emergency declarations and to promote efficient use of resources for consequence assessment activities at DOE sites, facilities, operations, and activities in planning for and responding to emergency events. No cancellations.

  8. Propagation of strangelets in the Earth's atmosphere

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Fei Wu; Ren-Xin Xu; Bo-Qiang Ma

    2007-02-13T23:59:59.000Z

    A new model for the description of the behaviour of strangelets in the Earth's atmosphere is presented. Strangelet fission induced by collision with air nuclei is included. It is shown that strangelets with certain parameters of initial mass and energy may reach depths near sea level, which can be examined by ground-based experiments.

  9. JournalofGeophysicalResearch: Atmospheres RESEARCH ARTICLE

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Folkins, Ian

    convection to start from more levels · Simple modification of convective parameterization Correspondence to of the Community Atmosphere Model (CAM4), we show that the overall accuracy in the diurnal simulation of convective rise to diurnal cycles in cloud amount [May et al., 2012] and relative humidity [Soden, 2000] which

  10. Surface Science in the Richmond Lab: Vapor/Water Studies

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Richmond, Geraldine L.

    Surface Science in the Richmond Lab: Vapor/Water Studies Many of the Earth's important atmospheric recovery, and emulsion stabilization. We are studying the behavior of species at the carbon tetrachloride.2 3100300029002800 pH~ 2 pH~ 4.5 pH ~ 5.5 Wavenumbers / cm-1 SFGAmp/arb.units COOH COOH COOH Emulsion Studies

  11. Drinking Water Standards

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Dozier, Monty; McFarland, Mark L.

    2006-04-26T23:59:59.000Z

    This publication explains the federal safety standards for drinking water provided by public water supply systems. It discusses the legal requirements for public water supplies, the maximum level allowed for contaminants in the water...

  12. Calculation of atmospheric neutrino flux using the interaction model calibrated with atmospheric muon data

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Honda, M.; Kajita, T.; Kasahara, K.; Midorikawa, S.; Sanuki, T

    2007-02-15T23:59:59.000Z

    Using the 'modified DPMJET-III' model explained in the previous paper [T. Sanuki et al., preceding Article, Phys. Rev. D 75, 043005 (2007).], we calculate the atmospheric neutrino flux. The calculation scheme is almost the same as HKKM04 [M. Honda, T. Kajita, K. Kasahara, and S. Midorikawa, Phys. Rev. D 70, 043008 (2004).], but the usage of the 'virtual detector' is improved to reduce the error due to it. Then we study the uncertainty of the calculated atmospheric neutrino flux summarizing the uncertainties of individual components of the simulation. The uncertainty of K-production in the interaction model is estimated using other interaction models: FLUKA'97 and FRITIOF 7.02, and modifying them so that they also reproduce the atmospheric muon flux data correctly. The uncertainties of the flux ratio and zenith angle dependence of the atmospheric neutrino flux are also studied.

  13. ARM: Microwave Radiometer data (MWR Profiles - QME), water vapor, temp, cloud liquid water, precip water retrievals

    DOE Data Explorer [Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)]

    Cadeddu, Maria

    Microwave Radiometer data (MWR Profiles - QME), water vapor, temp, cloud liquid water, precip water retrievals

  14. Simultaneous gas-chromatographic determination of four toxic gases generally present in combustion atmospheres. Final report

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Endecott, B.R.; Sanders, D.C.; Chaturvedi, A.K.

    1994-09-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Measurement of combustion gases produced by burning aircraft cabin materials poses a continuing limitation for smoke toxicity research. Since toxic effects of gases depend on both their concentrations and duration of exposures, frequent atmosphere sampling is necessary to define the concentration-time curve. A gas chromatographic method was developed for the simultaneous analyses of carbon monoxide (CO), hydrogen sulfide (H2S), sulfur dioxide (SO2), and hydrogen cyanide (HCN). The method utilized an MTI M200 dual-column gas chromatograph (GC) equipped with 4-m molecular sieve-5A and 8-m PoraPlot-U capillary columns and two low-volume, high-sensitivity thermal conductivity detectors. Detectability (ppm)/retention times (seconds) for the gases were: CO (100/28); H2S (50/26); SO2 (125/76); HCN (60/108). The method was effective for determining these gases in mixtures and in the combustion atmospheres generated by burning wool (CO, HCN, and H2S) and modacrylic (CO and HCN) fabrics. Common atmospheric gaseous or combustion products (oxygen, carbon dioxide, nitrogen, water vapor, and other volatiles) did not interfere with the analyses. However, filtration of the combustion atmospheres was necessary to prevent restriction of the GC sampling inlet by smoke particulates. The speed, sensitivity, and selectivity of this method make it suitable for smoke toxicity research and for evaluating performance of passenger protective breathing equipment.

  15. Water Footprint | Argonne National Laboratory

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Footprint Blue water represents water withdrawn from surface water and groundwater for feedstock irrigation and refinery processing. Blue water represents water withdrawn from...

  16. A modelling approach to carbon, water and energy feedbacks and interactions across the

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    ) Advanced Very High Resolution Radiometer BOREAS - (the) BOReal Ecosystem-Atmosphere Study C - Carbon CABi A modelling approach to carbon, water and energy feedbacks and interactions across the land partitioning of energy, the evapotranspiration of water and if the land-surface is a sink or a source of CO2

  17. Satellite Microwave remote sensing of contrasting surface water inundation changes within the ArcticBoreal Region

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Montana, University of

    -atmosphere water, energy and carbon (CO2, CH4) fluxes, and potential feedbacks to climate change. Here we report fractional open water (Fw) cover from the Advanced Microwave Scanning Radiometer for EOS (AMSR-E). The AMSR ) of regions above 49°N (Brown et al., 1998). Although permafrost is widespread at high latitudes due to low

  18. Water Vapor and Mechanical Work: A Comparison of Carnot and Steam Cycles OLIVIER PAULUIS

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Pauluis, Olivier M.

    Water Vapor and Mechanical Work: A Comparison of Carnot and Steam Cycles OLIVIER PAULUIS Center in the atmosphere is discussed here by comparing two idealized heat engines: the Carnot cycle and the steam cycle. A steam cycle transports water from a warm moist source to a colder dryer sink. It acts as a heat engine

  19. EAS/CEE 6795 Atmospheric Aerosols Fall 2011

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Weber, Rodney

    EAS/CEE 6795 Atmospheric Aerosols Fall 2011 Mon Wed Fri ­ 11 concepts of aerosol physics with applications to atmospheric aerosols. Text Book: Hinds, Aerosol Technology: Properties, behavior and measurement of airborne particles

  20. iDirector with Alex Laskin: Atmospheric aerosols | EMSL

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Alex Laskin: Atmospheric aerosols iDirector with Alex Laskin: Atmospheric aerosols Released: September 03, 2014 iDirector with Alex Laskin iDirector interview with EMSL scientist...

  1. Planetary, Atmospheric, and Environmental Applications of Physics Frank Mills

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Chen, Ying

    Planetary, Atmospheric, and Environmental Applications of Physics Frank Mills Atomic and Molecular solar energy production Evaluating, forecasting, and managing suburb-scale distributed solar electricity production My research applies physics to a range of problems in planetary, atmospheric, and environmental

  2. CollegeofEarth,Ocean, andAtmosphericSciences

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Kurapov, Alexander

    Chemistry for Environmental Sciences 490 Environmental Conservation & Sustainability 577 Environmental, and Atmospheric Sciences Environmental Sciences Earth Sciences Geology Option Geography Option Earth Systems Sciences or Environmental Sciences** The new College of Earth Ocean and Atmospheric Sciences (CEOAS) has

  3. Electrical apparatus for explosive gas atmospheres, Part 0: General introduction 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    IEC Technical Committee

    1971-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    This Recommendation has been prepared by IEC Technical Committee No. 31, Electrical Apparatus for Explosive Atmospheres; It forms one of a series of publications dealing with electrical apparatus for use in explosive gas atmospheres. This particular...

  4. atmospheric radon-222 concentration: Topics by E-print Network

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    data on the atmospheric concentration of carbon dioxide and on the magnitude of fossil-fuel combustion between the trends in fossil-fuel burning and the trends in atmospheric...

  5. Mesoscale coupled ocean-atmosphere feedbacks in boundary current systems

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Putrasahan, Dian Ariyani

    2012-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Isolating Mesoscale Coupled Ocean-Atmosphere in the KuroshioSST coupler . . . . Chapter 3 Mesoscale Ocean-Atmosphere4.2 Impact of Mesoscale SST on Precipitation Chapter 4 vi

  6. A Temperature and Abundance Retrieval Method for Exoplanet Atmospheres

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Madhusudhan, Nikku

    We present a new method to retrieve molecular abundances and temperature profiles from exoplanet atmosphere photometry and spectroscopy. We run millions of one-dimensional (1D) atmosphere models in order to cover the large ...

  7. Land-atmosphere interaction and radiative-convective equilibrium

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Cronin, Timothy (Timothy Wallace)

    2014-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    I present work on several topics related to land-atmosphere interaction and radiative-convective equilibrium: the first two research chapters invoke ideas related to land-atmosphere interaction to better understand ...

  8. Trends and inferred emissions of atmospheric high molecular weight perfluorocarbons

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Ivy, Diane Jean

    2012-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Atmospheric observations and atmospheric observation-based global emission estimates are presented for the five high molecular weight perfluorocarbons (PFCs): decafluorobutane (C 4 F 1 0 ), dodecafluoropentane (C5 F1 2 ), ...

  9. Effects of atmospheric parameters on radon measurements using alpha-track detectors

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Zhao, C.; Zhuo, W., E-mail: whzhuo@fudan.edu.cn; Fan, D.; Yi, Y.; Chen, B. [Institute of Radiation Medicine, Fudan University, 2094 Xietu Road, Shanghai 200032 (China)] [Institute of Radiation Medicine, Fudan University, 2094 Xietu Road, Shanghai 200032 (China)

    2014-02-15T23:59:59.000Z

    The calibration factors of alpha-track radon detectors (ATDs) are essential for accurate determination of indoor radon concentrations. In this paper, the effects of atmospheric parameters on the calibration factors were theoretically studied and partially testified. Based on the atmospheric thermodynamics theory and detection characteristics of the allyl diglycol carbonate (CR-39), the calibration factors for 5 types of ATDs were calculated through Monte Carlo simulations under different atmospheric conditions. Simulation results showed that the calibration factor increased by up to 31% for the ATDs with a decrease of air pressure by 35.5 kPa (equivalent to an altitude increase of 3500 m), and it also increased by up to 12% with a temperature increase from 5?°C to 35?°C, but it was hardly affected by the relative humidity unless the water-vapor condensation occurs inside the detectors. Furthermore, it was also found that the effects on calibration factors also depended on the dimensions of ATDs. It indicated that variations of the calibration factor with air pressure and temperature should be considered for an accurate radon measurement with a large dimensional ATD, and water-vapor condensation inside the detector should be avoided in field measurements.

  10. Stability of stainless-steel nanoparticle and water mixtures

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Song, You Young; Bhadeshia, H. K. D. H.; Suh, Dong-Woo

    2014-11-28T23:59:59.000Z

    of such mixtures, especially for heavy metallic particles. For 0.017 wt% stainless steel-distilled water nanoparticle-fluid, the thermal conductivity increases by 8.3 % at the optimal stability condition of pH 11. Keywords: Stainless steel, Nanofluid, Stability... of larger particle density related to metallic particles, metallic nanoparticle-fluids have been studied much less than oxides or nanotube dispersions. An important characteristic of a nanoparticle-fluid mixture or nanofluid is its stability with respect...

  11. atmosphere research launch: Topics by E-print Network

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    14 research staff and postdoctoral scientists More than 5M per, climate change, radar meteorology, tropical meteorology Atmospheric Chemistry - fundamental...

  12. atmospheric sciences program: Topics by E-print Network

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Certification for Atmospheric Sciences Undergraduate Students The Computational Science and Engineering certificate program is designed to provide ATMS under- graduate...

  13. antioxidant impacting atmospheric: Topics by E-print Network

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    impacts on marine biogeochemistry Zender, Charles 13 Impacts of herbaceous bioenergy crops on atmospheric volatile organic composition and potential consequences...

  14. The Seasonal Cycle of Atmospheric Heating and Temperature AARON DONOHOE

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Battisti, David

    The Seasonal Cycle of Atmospheric Heating and Temperature AARON DONOHOE Massachusetts Institute of Technology, Cambridge, Massachusetts DAVID S. BATTISTI Department of Atmospheric Sciences, University) ABSTRACT The seasonal cycle of the heating of the atmosphere is divided into a component due to direct

  15. Falsification Of The Atmospheric CO2 Greenhouse Effects

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Learned, John

    Falsification Of The Atmospheric CO2 Greenhouse Effects Within The Frame Of Physics Version 4 Gerlich and Ralf D. Tscheuschner Abstract The atmospheric greenhouse effect, an idea that many authors Of The Atmospheric CO2 Greenhouse Effects . . . 3 Contents Abstract 2 1 Introduction 6 1.1 Problem background

  16. School of Earth and Atmospheric Sciences Georgia Institute of Technology

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Weber, Rodney

    School of Earth and Atmospheric Sciences Georgia Institute of Technology Strategic Plan March 1 opportunities. Vision The vision of the School of Earth and Atmospheric Sciences is: To lead in innovative research and educate the future leaders in earth and atmospheric sciences for the 21st century, within

  17. Atmospheric perturbations of large-scale nuclear war

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Malone, R.C.

    1985-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Computer simulation of the injection into the atmosphere of a large quantity of smoke following a nuclear war are described. The focus is on what might happen to the smoke after it enters the atmosphere and what changes, or perturbations, could be induced in the atmospheric structure and circulation by the pressure of a large quantity of smoke. 4 refs., 7 figs. (ACR)

  18. Soil Water and Temperature System (SWATS) Handbook

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Bond, D

    2005-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The soil water and temperature system (SWATS) provides vertical profiles of soil temperature, soil-water potential, and soil moisture as a function of depth below the ground surface at hourly intervals. The temperature profiles are measured directly by in situ sensors at the Central Facility and many of the extended facilities of the SGP climate research site. The soil-water potential and soil moisture profiles are derived from measurements of soil temperature rise in response to small inputs of heat. Atmospheric scientists use the data in climate models to determine boundary conditions and to estimate the surface energy flux. The data are also useful to hydrologists, soil scientists, and agricultural scientists for determining the state of the soil.

  19. Performance of the STACEE Atmospheric Cherenkov Telescope

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    STACEE Collaboration; D. A. Williams; D. Bhattacharya; L. M. Boone; M. C. Chantell; Z. Conner; C. E. Covault; M. Dragovan; P. Fortin; D. Gingrich; D. T. Gregorich; D. S. Hanna; G. Mohanty; R. Mukherjee; R. A. Ong; S. Oser; K. Ragan; R. A. Scalzo; D. R. Schuette; C. G. Theoret; T. O. Tumer; F. Vincent; J. A. Zweerink

    2000-10-17T23:59:59.000Z

    The Solar Tower Atmospheric Cherenkov Effect Experiment (STACEE) is located at the National Solar Thermal Test Facility of Sandia National Laboratories in Albuquerque, New Mexico, USA. The field of solar tracking mirrors (heliostats) around a central receiver tower is used to direct Cherenkov light from atmospheric showers onto secondary mirrors on the tower, which in turn image the light onto cameras of photomultiplier tubes. The STACEE Collaboration has previously reported a detection of the Crab Nebula with approximately 7 standard deviation significance, using 32 heliostats (STACEE-32). This result demonstrates both the viability of the technique and the suitability of the site. We are in the process of completing an upgrade to 48 heliostats (STACEE-48) en route to an eventual configuration using 64 heliostats (STACEE-64) in early 2001. In this paper, we summarize the results obtained on the sensitivity of STACEE-32 and our expectations for STACEE-48 and STACEE-64.

  20. Performance of the STACEE Atmospheric Cherenkov Telescope

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Williams, D A; Boone, L M; Chantell, M C; Conner, Z; Covault, C E; Dragovan, M; Fortin, P; Gingrich, D M; Gregorich, D T; Hanna, D S; Mohanty, G B; Mukherjee, R; Ong, R A; Oser, S M; Ragan, K; Scalzo, R A; Schütte, D R; Theoret, C G; Tümer, T O; Vincent, F; Zweerink, J A

    2000-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The Solar Tower Atmospheric Cherenkov Effect Experiment (STACEE) is located at the National Solar Thermal Test Facility of Sandia National Laboratories in Albuquerque, New Mexico, USA. The field of solar tracking mirrors (heliostats) around a central receiver tower is used to direct Cherenkov light from atmospheric showers onto secondary mirrors on the tower, which in turn image the light onto cameras of photomultiplier tubes. The STACEE Collaboration has previously reported a detection of the Crab Nebula with approximately 7 standard deviation significance, using 32 heliostats (STACEE-32). This result demonstrates both the viability of the technique and the suitability of the site. We are in the process of completing an upgrade to 48 heliostats (STACEE-48) en route to an eventual configuration using 64 heliostats (STACEE-64) in early 2001. In this paper, we summarize the results obtained on the sensitivity of STACEE-32 and our expectations for STACEE-48 and STACEE-64.

  1. Improved detection of atmospheric turbulence with SLODAR

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Michael Goodwin; Charles Jenkins; Andrew Lambert

    2007-06-19T23:59:59.000Z

    We discuss several improvements in the detection of atmospheric turbulence using SLOpe Detection And Ranging (SLODAR). Frequently, SLODAR observations have shown strong ground-layer turbulence, which is beneficial to adaptive optics. We show that current methods which neglect atmospheric propagation effects can underestimate the strength of high altitude turbulence by up to ~ 30%. We show that mirror and dome seeing turbulence can be a significant fraction of measured ground-layer turbulence, some cases up to ~ 50%. We also demonstrate a novel technique to improve the nominal height resolution, by a factor of 3, called Generalized SLODAR. This can be applied when sampling high-altitude turbulence, where the nominal height resolution is the poorest, or for resolving details in the important ground-layer.

  2. Pulsed atmospheric fluidized bed combustor apparatus

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Mansour, Momtaz N. (Columbia, MD)

    1993-10-26T23:59:59.000Z

    A pulsed atmospheric fluidized bed reactor system is disclosed and claimed along with a process for utilization of same for the combustion of, e.g. high sulfur content coal. The system affords a economical, ecologically acceptable alternative to oil and gas fired combustors. The apparatus may also be employed for endothermic reaction, combustion of waste products, e.g., organic and medical waste, drying materials, heating air, calcining and the like.

  3. Geochemistry of Surface-Atmosphere Interactions on

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Withers, Paul

    state of the surface? #12;Carbonates on Venus ¥ CaCO3+SiO2 = CaSiO3+CO2(g) ¥ Psurface = Pbuffer. ¥ S in lower atmosphere is kinetically controlled ¥ CaCO3 + SO2 = CaSO4 + CO removes SO2 , deposits CaSO4 ¥ Fe rates ¥ Need more data, new spacecraft instruments #12;Handy Minerals ¥ SiO2 Quartz ¥ CaCO3 Calcite ¥ Ca

  4. Atmospheric Neutrinos at Super-Kamiokande

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    K. Scholberg; for the Super-Kamiokande Collaboration

    1999-05-11T23:59:59.000Z

    In 1998, the Super-Kamiokande announced evidence for the observation of neutrino oscillations based on measurements of the atmospheric neutrino flux. This paper presents the updated results for fully and partially-contained events with 736 days of data, as well as upward-going muon results and a global analysis. Preliminary interpretations of the results in terms of various two-flavor oscillation hypotheses are presented.

  5. ATMOSPHERIC CO2 A GLOBAL LIMITING RESOURCE

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Schwartz, Stephen E.

    Carbondioxideatmosphericburden,PgC Land use Fossil CO2 from land use emissions ­ not fossil fuel combustion ­ was the dominant CO2 Comparison of CO2 mixing ratio from fossil fuel combustion and land use changes 400 380 360 340 cores 0 0.2 0.4 0.6 0.8 1.0 1.2 1.4 1.6 Forcing,Wm -2 #12;ATMOSPHERIC CO2 EMISSIONS Time series 1700

  6. Clustering of Aerosols in Atmospheric Turbulent Flow

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    T. Elperin; N. Kleeorin; M. A. Liberman; V. L'vov; I. Rogachevskii

    2007-02-15T23:59:59.000Z

    A mechanism of formation of small-scale inhomogeneities in spatial distributions of aerosols and droplets associated with clustering instability in the atmospheric turbulent flow is discussed. The particle clustering is a consequence of a spontaneous breakdown of their homogeneous space distribution due to the clustering instability, and is caused by a combined effect of the particle inertia and a finite correlation time of the turbulent velocity field. In this paper a theoretical approach proposed in Phys. Rev. E 66, 036302 (2002) is further developed and applied to investigate the mechanisms of formation of small-scale aerosol inhomogeneities in the atmospheric turbulent flow. The theory of the particle clustering instability is extended to the case when the particle Stokes time is larger than the Kolmogorov time scale, but is much smaller than the correlation time at the integral scale of turbulence. We determined the criterion of the clustering instability for the Stokes number larger than 1. We discussed applications of the analyzed effects to the dynamics of aerosols and droplets in the atmospheric turbulent flow.

  7. Large area atmospheric-pressure plasma jet

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Selwyn, Gary S. (Los Alamos, NM); Henins, Ivars (Los Alamos, NM); Babayan, Steve E. (Huntington Beach, CA); Hicks, Robert F. (Los Angeles, CA)

    2001-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Large area atmospheric-pressure plasma jet. A plasma discharge that can be operated at atmospheric pressure and near room temperature using 13.56 MHz rf power is described. Unlike plasma torches, the discharge produces a gas-phase effluent no hotter than 250.degree. C. at an applied power of about 300 W, and shows distinct non-thermal characteristics. In the simplest design, two planar, parallel electrodes are employed to generate a plasma in the volume therebetween. A "jet" of long-lived metastable and reactive species that are capable of rapidly cleaning or etching metals and other materials is generated which extends up to 8 in. beyond the open end of the electrodes. Films and coatings may also be removed by these species. Arcing is prevented in the apparatus by using gas mixtures containing He, which limits ionization, by using high flow velocities, and by properly spacing the rf-powered electrode. Because of the atmospheric pressure operation, there is a negligible density of ions surviving for a sufficiently long distance beyond the active plasma discharge to bombard a workpiece, unlike the situation for low-pressure plasma sources and conventional plasma processing methods.

  8. A Numerical Study of Methods for Moist Atmospheric Flows: Compressible Equations

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Duarte, Max; Balakrishnan, Kaushik; Bell, John B; Romps, David M

    2013-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    We investigate different numerical techniques for evolving moist atmospheric flows within a fully compressible framework. In the standard numerical approach, the choice of variables is motivated by those that remain invariant in dry adiabatic flow, phase transitions are treated as an external energy source, and the physically-irrelevant fast acoustic modes are decoupled during the numerical integration. For the purposes of this study, we consider the compressible Euler equations in terms of the primitive thermodynamic variables, namely density, momentum, and total energy of moist air, without any special numerical treatment of the fast acoustic dynamics. This allows us to incorporate consistent moist thermodynamic properties throughout the numerical solution, and to thoroughly investigate both the standard two-step splitting approach for moist atmospheric flows as well as a fully coupled technique based on the use of variables that are conserved in moist flows, i.e. total energy of moist air and total water c...

  9. Atmospheric pressure spatial atomic layer deposition web coating with in situ monitoring of film thickness

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Yersak, Alexander S.; Lee, Yung C. [Department of Mechanical Engineering, University of Colorado at Boulder, 1045 Regent Drive, 422 UCB, Boulder, Colorado 80309-0422 (United States); Spencer, Joseph A.; Groner, Markus D., E-mail: mgroner@aldnanosolutions.com [ALD NanoSolutions, Inc., 580 Burbank Street, Unit 100, Broomfield, Colorado 80020 (United States)

    2014-01-15T23:59:59.000Z

    Spectral reflectometry was implemented as a method for in situ thickness monitoring in a spatial atomic layer deposition (ALD) system. Al{sub 2}O{sub 3} films were grown on a moving polymer web substrate at 100?°C using an atmospheric pressure ALD web coating system, with film growth of 0.11–0.13?nm/cycle. The modular coating head design and the in situ monitoring allowed for the characterization and optimization of the trimethylaluminum and water precursor exposures, purge flows, and web speed. A thickness uniformity of ±2% was achieved across the web. ALD cycle times as low as 76?ms were demonstrated with a web speed of 1?m/s and a vertical gap height of 0.5?mm. This atmospheric pressure ALD system with in situ process control demonstrates the feasibility of low-cost, high throughput roll-to-roll ALD.

  10. Plant Response and Environmental Data from the Oldfield Community Climate and Atmospheric Manipulation (OCCAM) Project

    DOE Data Explorer [Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)]

    The Oldfield Community Climate and Atmospheric Manipulation (OCCAM) project is a joint effort of ORNL and the University of Tennessee to investigate community and ecosystem response to global change, specifically looking at the interactive effects of atmospheric carbon dioxide, surface temperatures, and soil moisture. The plants studied for their response to warming temperatures, elevated carbon dioxide, and altered water availability include C3 and C4 grasses, forbs, and legumes. These plants are typical of an old-field ecosystem that establishes itself on unused agricultural land. The results of the research focus on species abundance, production, phenology, and what is going on chemically below ground. Data are currently available from 2003 through July, 2008.

  11. Atmospheric transmission model for a solar beam propagating between a heliostat and a receiver

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Pitman, C.L.; Vant-Hull, L.L.

    1982-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Formulae are presented that provide estimates of the transmittance for a solar beam propagating between a heliostat and a central receiver. These formulae are wavelength independent, functional fits to the tabulated data of Vittitoe and Biggs, which in turn are from numerical integrations of spectral transmittance data calculated with the aid of the computer code LOWTRAN 3. The formulae allow for interpolation and extrapolation, and they have a form characteristic of atmospheric transmission models. The transmittance model contains five explicit physical variables (the site elevation H, the atmospheric water vapor density rho, the scattering coefficient ..beta.., the tower height h, and the slant range R) and three implicit variables (the season of the year, the climatic region, and the site elevation H) because rho and ..beta.. are dependent on these three variables.

  12. Atmospheric parameters, spectral indexes and their relation to CPV spectral performance

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Núñez, Rubén, E-mail: ruben.nunez@ies-def.upm.es; Antón, Ignacio, E-mail: ruben.nunez@ies-def.upm.es; Askins, Steve, E-mail: ruben.nunez@ies-def.upm.es; Sala, Gabriel, E-mail: ruben.nunez@ies-def.upm.es [Instituto de Energía Solar - Universidad Politécnica de Madrid, Instituto de Energía Solar, ETSI Telecomunicación, Ciudad Universitaria 28040 Madrid (Spain)

    2014-09-26T23:59:59.000Z

    Air Mass and atmosphere components (basically aerosol (AOD) and precipitable water (PW)) define the absorption of the sunlight that arrive to Earth. Radiative models such as SMARTS or MODTRAN use these parameters to generate an equivalent spectrum. However, complex and expensive instruments (as AERONET network devices) are needed to obtain AOD and PW. On the other hand, the use of isotype cells is a convenient way to characterize spectrally a place for CPV considering that they provide the photocurrent of the different internal subcells individually. Crossing data from AERONET station and a Tri-band Spectroheliometer, a model that correlates Spectral Mismatch Ratios and atmospheric parameters is proposed. Considering the amount of stations of AERONET network, this model may be used to estimate the spectral influence on energy performance of CPV systems close to all the stations worldwide.

  13. Tropospheric water vapor and climate sensitivity

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Schneider, E.K.; Kirtman, B.P.; Lindzen, R.S. [Center for Ocean-Land-Atmosphere Studies, Calverton, MD (United States)] [Center for Ocean-Land-Atmosphere Studies, Calverton, MD (United States)

    1999-06-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Estimates are made of the effect of changes in tropospheric water vapor on the climate sensitivity to doubled carbon dioxide (CO{sub 2}) using a coarse resolution atmospheric general circulation model coupled to a slab mixed layer ocean. The sensitivity of the model to doubled CO{sub 2} is found as the difference between the equilibrium responses for control and doubled CO{sub 2} cases. Clouds are specified to isolate the water vapor feedback. Experiments in which the water vapor distribution is specified rather than internally calculated are used to find the contribution of water vapor in various layers and latitude belts to the sensitivity. The contribution of water vapor in layers of equal mass to the climate sensitivity varies by about a factor of 2 with height, with the largest contribution coming from layers between 450 and 750 mb, and the smallest from layers above 230 mb. The positive feedback on the global mean surface temperature response to doubled CO{sub 2} from water vapor above 750 mb is about 2.6 times as large as that from water vapor below 750 mb. The feedback on global mean surface temperature due to water vapor in the extratropical free troposphere is about 50% larger than the feedback due to the lower-latitude free troposphere water vapor. Several important sources of nonlinearity of the radiative heating rates were identified in the process of constructing the specified cloud and water vapor fields. These are (1) the interaction of clouds and solar radiation, which produces much more reflection of solar radiation for time mean clouds than for the instantaneous clouds; (2) the correlation of clouds and water vapor, which produces less downward longwave radiation at the ground for correlated clouds and water vapor than when these fields are independent; and (3) the interaction of water vapor with long wave radiation, which produces less downward longwave radiation at the ground of the average over instantaneous water vapor distributions than of the time mean water vapor distribution.

  14. Atmospheric Radiation Measurement Program Science Plan

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Ackerman, T

    2004-10-31T23:59:59.000Z

    The Atmospheric Radiation Measurement (ARM) Program has matured into one of the key programs in the U.S. Climate Change Science Program. The ARM Program has achieved considerable scientific success in a broad range of activities, including site and instrument development, atmospheric radiative transfer, aerosol science, determination of cloud properties, cloud modeling, and cloud parameterization testing and development. The focus of ARM science has naturally shifted during the last few years to an increasing emphasis on modeling and parameterization studies to take advantage of the long time series of data now available. During the next 5 years, the principal focus of the ARM science program will be to: Maintain the data record at the fixed ARM sites for at least the next five years. Improve significantly our understanding of and ability to parameterize the 3-D cloud-radiation problem at scales from the local atmospheric column to the global climate model (GCM) grid square. Continue developing techniques to retrieve the properties of all clouds, with a special focus on ice clouds and mixed-phase clouds. Develop a focused research effort on the indirect aerosol problem that spans observations, physical models, and climate model parameterizations. Implement and evaluate an operational methodology to calculate broad-band heating rates in the atmospheric columns at the ARM sites. Develop and implement methodologies to use ARM data more effectively to test atmospheric models, both at the cloud-resolving model scale and the GCM scale. Use these methodologies to diagnose cloud parameterization performance and then refine these parameterizations to improve the accuracy of climate model simulations. In addition, the ARM Program is actively developing a new ARM Mobile Facility (AMF) that will be available for short deployments (several months to a year or more) in climatically important regions. The AMF will have much of the same instrumentation as the remote facilities at ARM's Tropical Western Pacific and the North Slope of Alaska sites. Over time, this new facility will extend ARM science to a much broader range of conditions for model testing.

  15. Representative Atmospheric Plume Development for Elevated Releases

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Eslinger, Paul W.; Lowrey, Justin D.; McIntyre, Justin I.; Miley, Harry S.; Prichard, Andrew W.

    2014-03-03T23:59:59.000Z

    An atmospheric explosion of a low-yield nuclear device will produce a large number of radioactive isotopes, some of which can be measured with airborne detection systems. However, properly equipped aircraft may not arrive in the region where an explosion occurred for a number of hours after the event. Atmospheric conditions will have caused the radioactive plume to move and diffuse before the aircraft arrives. The science behind predicting atmospheric plume movement has advanced enough that the location of the maximum concentrations in the plume can be determined reasonably accurately in real time, or near real time. Given the assumption that an aircraft can follow a plume, this study addresses the amount of atmospheric dilution expected to occur in a representative plume as a function of time past the release event. The approach models atmospheric transport of hypothetical releases from a single location for every day in a year using the publically available HYSPLIT code. The effective dilution factors for the point of maximum concentration in an elevated plume based on a release of a non-decaying, non-depositing tracer can vary by orders of magnitude depending on the day of the release, even for the same number of hours after the release event. However, the median of the dilution factors based on releases for 365 consecutive days at one site follows a power law relationship in time, as shown in Figure S-1. The relationship is good enough to provide a general rule of thumb for estimating typical future dilution factors in a plume starting at the same point. However, the coefficients of the power law function may vary for different release point locations. Radioactive decay causes the effective dilution factors to decrease more quickly with the time past the release event than the dilution factors based on a non-decaying tracer. An analytical expression for the dilution factors of isotopes with different half-lives can be developed given the power law expression for the non-decaying tracer. If the power-law equation for the median dilution factor, Df, based on a non-decaying tracer has the general form Df=a?×t?^(-b) for time t after the release event, then the equation has the form Df=e^(-?t)×a×t^(-b) for a radioactive isotope, where ? is the decay constant for the isotope.

  16. Photochemistry in Terrestrial Exoplanet Atmospheres II: H2S and SO2 Photochemistry in Anoxic Atmospheres

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Hu, Renyu; Bains, William

    2013-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Sulfur gases are common components in the volcanic and biological emission on Earth, and are expected to be important input gases for atmospheres on terrestrial exoplanets. We study the atmospheric composition and the spectra of terrestrial exoplanets with sulfur compounds (i.e., H2S and SO2) emitted from their surfaces. We use a comprehensive one-dimensional photochemistry model and radiative transfer model to investigate the sulfur chemistry in atmospheres ranging from reducing to oxidizing. The most important finding is that both H2S and SO2 are chemically short-lived in virtually all types of atmospheres on terrestrial exoplanets, based on models of H2, N2, and CO2 atmospheres. This implies that direct detection of surface sulfur emission is unlikely, as their surface emission rates need to be extremely high (>1000 times Earth's volcanic sulfur emission) for these gases to build up to a detectable level. We also find that sulfur compounds emitted from the surface lead to photochemical formation of element...

  17. Untangling the Chemical Evolution of Titan's Atmosphere and Surface -- From Homogeneous to Heterogeneous Chemistry

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Kaiser, Ralf I.; Maksyutenko, Pavlo; Ennis, Courtney; Zhang, Fangtong; Gu, Xibin; Krishtal, Sergey P.; Mebel, Alexander M.; Kostko, Oleg; Ahmed, Musahid

    2010-03-16T23:59:59.000Z

    The arrival of the Cassini-Huygens probe at Saturn's moon Titan - the only Solar System body besides Earth and Venus with a solid surface and a thick atmosphere with a pressure of 1.4 atm at surface level - in 2004 opened up a new chapter in the history of Solar System exploration. The mission revealed Titan as a world with striking Earth-like landscapes involving hydrocarbon lakes and seas as well as sand dunes and lava-like features interspersed with craters and icy mountains of hitherto unknown chemical composition. The discovery of a dynamic atmosphere and active weather system illustrates further the similarities between Titan and Earth. The aerosol-based haze layers, which give Titan its orange-brownish color, are not only Titan's most prominent optically visible features, but also play a crucial role in determining Titan's thermal structure and chemistry. These smog-like haze layers are thought to be very similar to those that were present in Earth's atmosphere before life developed more than 3.8 billion years ago, absorbing the destructive ultraviolet radiation from the Sun, thus acting as 'prebiotic ozone' to preserve astrobiologically important molecules on Titan. Compared to Earth, Titan's low surface temperature of 94 K and the absence of liquid water preclude the evolution of biological chemistry as we know it. Exactly because of these low temperatures, Titan provides us with a unique prebiotic 'atmospheric laboratory' yielding vital clues - at the frozen stage - on the likely chemical composition of the atmosphere of the primitive Earth. However, the underlying chemical processes, which initiate the haze formation from simple molecules, have been not understood well to date.

  18. Water Research 36 (2002) 11811192 Accuracy analysis of a respirometer for activated sludge

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    2002-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Water Research 36 (2002) 1181­1192 Accuracy analysis of a respirometer for activated sludge dynamic transfer, pH, and the influence of sludge condition on ``start-up'' behaviour. It is shown to what extent Elsevier Science Ltd. All rights reserved. Keywords: Respirometry; Oxygen uptake rate; Activated sludge

  19. Structure and water permeability of fully hydrated diphytanoylPC Stephanie Tristram-Naglea,

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Nagle, John F.

    2010 Keywords: Lipid bilayer structure Volume measurements X-ray scattering Neutron scattering Water-ray scattering from oriented samples, and X-ray and neutron scattering from unilamellar vesicles at T = 30 C. We analysis of neutron and X-ray scattering data. Biophys. J. 95, 2356­2367); this is substantially larger

  20. Economic evaluation of Mectizan distribution H. R. Waters, J. A. Rehwinkel and G. Burnham

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Scharfstein, Daniel

    Economic evaluation of Mectizan distribution H. R. Waters, J. A. Rehwinkel and G. Burnham of a reduced transmission of the parasite. Economic evaluations of the Onchocerciasis Control Program (OPC into the foreseeable future. keywords economic evaluation, cost-effectiveness analysis, cost-benefit analysis, Mectizan

  1. Improving water desalination by hydraulically coupling an osmotic microbial fuel cell with a microbial desalination cell

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Improving water desalination by hydraulically coupling an osmotic microbial fuel cell Keywords: Forward osmosis Ion exchange membrane Microbial fuel cell Microbial desalination cell Wastewater fuel cell (OsMFC) containing a forward-osmosis (FO) membrane was hydraulically coupled with a microbial

  2. Water Research 39 (2005) 942952 Electricity generation from cysteine in a microbial fuel cell

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    2005-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Water Research 39 (2005) 942­952 Electricity generation from cysteine in a microbial fuel cell Abstract In a microbial fuel cell (MFC), power can be generated from the oxidation of organic matter. Keywords: Bacteria; Biofuel cell; Microbial fuel cell; Electricity; Power output; Shewanella; Fuel cell 1

  3. Probing water transport in polymer electrolyte fuel cells with neutron radiography

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Mench, Matthew M.

    and Fuel Cell Dynamics and Diagnostics Laboratory, The Pennsylvania State University, USA b ResearchProbing water transport in polymer electrolyte fuel cells with neutron radiography Kyu Taek Cho a Available online 5 February 2009 Keywords: Polymer electrolyte fuel cell Gas purge Neutron radiography Heavy

  4. Simulation of Heat Exchange Phenomena and Water Regime in Green Roof Substrates

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Paris-Sud XI, Université de

    187 Simulation of Heat Exchange Phenomena and Water Regime in Green Roof Substrates S. Charpentier UR EPHor Agrocampus-Ouest Centre d'Angers 2, rue Le Nôtre, F49045 Angers France Keywords: green roof roofs increases in Western European and North American cities. It is estimated that 12% of all flat

  5. Water Basins Civil Engineering

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Provancher, William

    Water Basins Civil Engineering Objective · Connect the study of water, water cycle, and ecosystems with engineering · Discuss how human impacts can effect our water basins, and how engineers lessen these impacts: · The basic concepts of water basins are why they are important · To use a topographic map · To delineate

  6. Grains, Water Introduction

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Wirosoetisno, Djoko

    Grains, Water & Wet Sand Onno Bokhove Introduction Dry Granular Chute Flows: Cantilever Water Waves: Bores Near the Shore Surf Induced Sand Dynamics Discussion Dry Granular Flows, Water Waves & Surf, Water & Wet Sand Onno Bokhove Introduction Dry Granular Chute Flows: Cantilever Water Waves: Bores Near

  7. Arkansas Water Resources Center

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Soerens, Thomas

    Chapter 14 Water Pollution #12;Factory-style hog farms in North Carolina Each pig produces, September 1999. #12;Hogs killed by flooding #12; Water pollution Common water pollutants Treating water pollution Wastewater treatment and renovation Learning Objectives #12; Water pollution refers

  8. KNOW YOUR WATER a consumer's guide to water sources, quality,

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Wong, Pak Kin

    of common minerals and contaminants found in Arizona water sources. · Adescriptionofdrinkingwaterregulations...............................................15 2. Properties of Water 2.1 Minerals in Water...............................................23 2.2 Contaminants in Water......................................27 3. Water Quality and Regulations 3.1 Major Water

  9. Water Usage Law, Major Water Users (Missouri)

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    Any water user with the capability to withdraw or divert 100,000 gallons or more per day from any stream, river, lake, well, spring or other water source must register and file for a permit for...

  10. Water Heaters and Hot Water Distribution Systems

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Lutz, Jim

    2012-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    heat loss testing; part load performance curves for instantaneous gas water heaters; and pressure loss calculationsheat loss testing; part load performance curves for instantaneous gas water heaters; and pressure loss calculations

  11. Mesoscale coupled ocean-atmosphere interaction

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Seo, Hyodae

    2007-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    surface currents on wind stress, heat flux, and wind powerflux components (wind stress, heat flux and fresh-waterWest Coast Surface Heat Fluxes, Wind Stress, and Wind Stress

  12. Mesoscale Coupled Ocean-Atmosphere Interaction

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Seo, Hyodae

    2007-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    surface currents on wind stress, heat flux, and wind powerflux components (wind stress, heat flux and fresh-waterWest Coast Surface Heat Fluxes, Wind Stress, and Wind Stress

  13. 9th World Wide Workshop for Young Environmental Scientists WWW-YES-Brazil-2009: Urban waters: resource or risks? 26-30 October 2009

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Paris-Sud XI, Université de

    director plans. Keywords Management; decision support systems; sustainable development; geopolitics; social9th World Wide Workshop for Young Environmental Scientists WWW-YES-Brazil-2009: Urban waters: resource or risks? 26-30 October 2009 Brazilian Regulatory Process: including groundwater in urban water

  14. WATER RESOURCES ,'JEBRASKA WATER RESOURCES RESEARCH INSTITUTE

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Nebraska-Lincoln, University of

    of transportation, urban blight, agricultural practices, land use, etc. Water resources problems often result fromWATER RESOURCES ,'JEBRASKA WATER RESOURCES RESEARCH INSTITUTE 212 AGRICULTURAL ENGINEERING BUILDING formulate sound policy without a good deal of knowledge not presently available. Without adequate models

  15. Household Water Quality Home Water Quality Problems

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Liskiewicz, Maciej

    Household Water Quality Home Water Quality Problems­ Causes and Treatments Blake Ross, Extension impurities can be corrected if they are a nuisance. Before beginning any treatment plan, have water tested select the most effective and economical treatment method. www.ext.vt.edu Produced by Communications

  16. WATER RESOURCES NEBRASKA WATER RESOURCES RESEARCH INSTITUTE

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Nebraska-Lincoln, University of

    current pricing policies and legal structures. In analyzing energy-water relationships, wasteful may be obscured by others such as energy, environment, and quality of life, but in the long run of water to all major social issues is finally driven home. The energy crisis is a case in point. Water

  17. Water Use Permitting (Wisconsin)

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    Withdrawers in the Great Lakes Basin who withdraw water in quantities that average 100,000 gallons per day or more in any 30-day period are required to get a water use permit. Two types of water...

  18. Reduction of Water Consumption

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Adler, J.

    Cooling systems using water evaporation to dissipate waste heat, will require one pound of water per 1,000 Btu. To reduce water consumption, a combination of "DRY" and "WET" cooling elements is the only practical answer. This paper reviews...

  19. Water Rights (Texas)

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    The Texas Commission on Environmental Quality regulates the water rights for the state of Texas. Water and state water may be appropriated, stored, or diverted in the state of Texas for beneficial...

  20. Drinking Water Problems: Radionuclides 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Lesikar, Bruce J.; Melton, Rebecca; Hare, Michael; Hopkins, Janie; Dozier, Monty

    2006-08-04T23:59:59.000Z

    Radionuclides in drinking water can cause serious health problems for people. This publication explains what the sources of radionuclides in water are, where high levels have been found in Texas, how they affect health and how to treat water...