Sample records for keosauqua municipal light

  1. Keosauqua Municipal Light & Pwr | Open Energy Information

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Google Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Office of InspectorConcentrating Solar Powerstories on climateJuno Beach, Florida:Kenyon Municipal Utilities Jump

  2. Reading Municipal Light Department- Business Lighting Rebate Program

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    Reading Municipal Light Department (RMLD) offers incentives for non-residential customers to install energy efficient lights and sensors in existing facilities. In addition to rebates for the...

  3. Concord Municipal Light Plant- Solar Rebate Program

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    Concord Municipal Light Plant (CMLP) offers rebates to customers who install solar photovoltaic (PV) systems that are designed to offset the customer's electrical needs. Systems must be owned by...

  4. RECIPIENT:Hull Municipal Light Plant STATE: MA PROJECT TITLE...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    :: Page 1 01 :L RECIPIENT:Hull Municipal Light Plant STATE: MA PROJECT TITLE: Hull Offshore Wind Research and Development Funding Opportunity Announcement Number Procurement...

  5. Municipal Solid-State Street Lighting Consortium Kickoff Webcast

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    This May 6, 2010 webcast served as the first official meeting of the new DOE Municipal Solid-State Street Lighting Consortium. Ed Smalley of Seattle City Light and Bruce Kinzey of Pacific Northwest...

  6. Concord Municipal Light Plant- Commercial Energy Efficiency Rebate Program

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    Concord Municipal Light Plant (CMLP) offers rebates to commercial customers for a variety of appliances, ETS heating systems, general lighting upgrades, CFL bulbs, and exit sign retrofit kits. A...

  7. FirstEnergy (Potomac Edison)- Municipal and Street Lighting Program (Maryland)

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    FirstEnergy offers several incentives for non-residential and municipal customers to upgrade traffic signals, pedestrian signals, street lights to more efficient fixtures. The Municipal Lighting...

  8. Reading Municipal Light Department- Business Energy Efficiency Rebate Program

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    Reading Municipal Light Department (RMLD) offers energy efficiency incentives to eligible commercial and industrial customers. Rebates of up to $50,000 are available to customers who wish to reduce...

  9. Taunton Municipal Lighting Plant- Residential PV Rebate Program

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    Customers of Taunton Municipal Lighting Plant (TMLP) may be eligible for $2.00/watt rebate on solar photovoltaic (PV) installations. The minimum system size eligible for this rebate is 1 kilowatt ...

  10. Reading Municipal Light Department- Residential Renewable Energy Rebates

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    Reading Municipal Light Department (RMLD) offers rebates of $1.00/watt for solar photovoltaic and small wind installations for residential customers. A $0.25/watt adder is available for using local...

  11. Reading Municipal Light Department- Residential ENERGY STAR Appliance Rebate Program

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    Reading Municipal Light Department (RMLD) offers rebates to residential customers who install Energy Star appliances in eligible homes. The offer is limited to one rebate per appliance or a maximum...

  12. Municipal Consortium LED Street Lighting Workshop Presentations...

    Broader source: Energy.gov (indexed) [DOE]

    A Rational View of LM-79 Reports, IES Files, and Product Variation Gary Steinberg, GE Lighting Solutions Solid-State Street Lighting: Calculating Light Loss Factors Dana Beckwith,...

  13. Municipal Consortium LED Street Lighting Workshop Presentations...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    National Association of Energy Services Companies Calculating Light Loss Factors for Solid-State Lighting Systems Chad Stalker, Philips Lumileds Lighting Intro to MSSLC's...

  14. Municipal Consortium LED Street Lighting Workshop Presentations...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Controls Norma Isahakian, City of Los Angeles Bureau of Street Lighting San Jose's "Smart" LED Streetlights: Controlled Amy Olay, City of San Jose Adaptive Lighting Controls...

  15. Anchorage Municipal Light and Power | Open Energy Information

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Google Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Office of InspectorConcentrating SolarElectricEnergyCT Biomass Facility Jump to:OperationsAnchorage Municipal Light and

  16. DOE Municipal Solid-State Street Lighting Consortium

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    The DOE Municipal Solid-State Street Lighting Consortium shares technical information and experiences related to LED street and area lighting demonstrations and serves as an objective resource for evaluating new products on the market intended for those applications. Cities, power providers, and others who invest in street and area lighting are invited to join the Consortium and share their experiences. The goal is to build a repository of valuable field experience and data that will significantly accelerate the learning curve for buying and implementing high-quality, energy-efficient LED lighting. Consortium members are part of an international knowledge base and peer group, receive updates on Consortium tools and resources, receive the Consortium E-Newsletter, and help steer the work of the Consortium by participating on a committee. Learn more about the Consortium.

  17. Cape Light Compact- Commercial, Industrial and Municipal Buildings Energy Efficiency Rebate Program

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    Through a multi-member partnership, Cape Light Compact (CLC) and Masssave offer a variety of financial incentives for commercial, industrial, and municipal facilities. Custom rebate options are...

  18. Text-Alternative Version: Municipal Solid-State Street Lighting Consortium Retrofit Financial Analysis Tool Webcast

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    Below is the text-alternative version of the "Municipal Solid-State Street Lighting Consortium Retrofit Financial Analysis Tool" webcast, held April 3, 2012.

  19. Text-Alternative Version: Municipal Solid-State Street Lighting Consortium Kickoff

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    Below is the text-alternative version of the Municipal Solid-State Street Lighting Consortium Kickoff webcast, held May 6, 2010.

  20. Taunton Municipal Lighting Plant- Residential and Non-Profit Weatherization Program (Massachusetts)

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    Taunton Municipal Lighting Plant (TMLP) offers the 'House N Home' Thermal Rebate Program which provides financial incentives to residential and non-Profit customers for making buildings more energy...

  1. Webcast: Municipal Solid-State Street Lighting Consortium Retrofit Financial Analysis Tool

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    This April 3, 2012 webcast presented information about the Retrofit Financial Analysis Tool developed by DOE"s Municipal Solid-State Street Lighting Consortium. Doug Elliott of Pacific Northwest...

  2. MidAmerican Energy (Electric) - Municipal Solid-State Lighting...

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    must be an Iowa electric governmental customer of MidAmerican Energy Company. Light-emitting diode and induction types of solid state lighting (SSL) qualify under this program....

  3. The Municipal Solid-State Street Lighting Consortium Public Outdoor Lighting Inventory: Phase I: Survey Results

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Kinzey, Bruce R.; Smalley, Edward; Haefer, R.

    2014-09-30T23:59:59.000Z

    This document presents the results of a voluntary web-based inventory survey of public street and area lighting across the U.S. undertaken during the latter half of 2013.This survey attempts to access information about the national inventory in a “bottoms-up” manner, going directly to owners and operators. Adding to previous “top down” estimates, it is intended to improve understanding of the role of public outdoor lighting in national energy use.

  4. North Branch Municipal Water and Light- Residential Energy Efficiency Rebate Program

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    Southern Minnesota Municipal Power Agency ([http://www.smmpa.com SMMPA]) is a joint-action agency which generates and sells reliable electricity at wholesale to its eighteen non-profit, municipally...

  5. North Branch Municipal Water and Light- Commercial and Industrial Energy Efficiency Rebate Program

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    Southern Minnesota Municipal Power Agency ([http://www.smmpa.com SMMPA]) is a joint-action agency which generates and sells reliable electricity at wholesale to its eighteen non-profit,...

  6. Demonstration of Alternative Fuel, Light and Heavy Duty Vehicles in State and Municipal Vehicle Fleets

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Kennedy, John H.; Polubiatko, Peter; Tucchio, Michael A.

    2002-02-06T23:59:59.000Z

    This project involved the purchase of two Compressed Natural Gas School Buses and two electric Ford Rangers to demonstrate their viability in a municipal setting. Operational and maintenance data were collected for analysis. In addition, an educational component was undertaken with middle school children. The children observed and calculated how electric vehicles could minimize pollutants through comparison to conventionally powered vehicles.

  7. Municipal Consortium LED Street Lighting Workshop: April 19–20, Los Angeles, CA

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    Workshop Location: The Sheraton Los Angeles Downtown Hotel, 711 Hope Street, Los Angeles, CA 90017City Partner: City of Los Angeles Bureau of Street LightingCost: $175

  8. MidAmerican Energy (Electric) – Municipal Solid-State Lighting Grant Program

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    MidAmerican Energy offers grants to munipalities which implement solid-state roadway street lighting upgrades. Grants of up to $5,000 are available to participating entities who install eligible...

  9. Denton Municipal Electric- Standard Offer Rebate Program

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    Within the GreenSense program, Denton Municipal Electric's Standard Offer Program provides rebates to large commercial and industrial customers for lighting retrofits, HVAC upgrades and motor...

  10. Anoka Municipal Utility- Commercial Energy Efficiency Rebate Program

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    Anoka Municipal Utility (AMU) offers the Commercial and Industrial Lighting and Motor Rebate Program for commercial and industrial customers who install high efficiency lighting, motors, and...

  11. Anoka Municipal Utility- Residential Energy Efficiency Rebate Program

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    Anoka Municipal Utilities (AMU) offers incentives for residential customers to install energy-efficient appliances and light bulbs in eligible homes. Rebates are available for Energy Star qualified...

  12. Lassen Municipal Utility District- Residential Energy Efficiency Rebate Program

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    Lassen Municipal Utility District (LMUD) offers an incentive for residential customers who purchase and install efficient lighting, HVAC equipment and ENERGY STAR rated appliances for eligible...

  13. River Falls Municipal Utilities- Business Energy Efficiency Rebate Program (Wisconsin)

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    River Falls Municipal Utility (RFMU) offers a variety of rebates to business customers for implementing energy efficient equipment upgrades. Rebates are available for commercial lighting, central...

  14. February 19, 2013 Webinar: Exploring How Municipal Utilities...

    Broader source: Energy.gov (indexed) [DOE]

    Projects This webinar was held February 19, 2013, and provided information on Concord Light, the municipal electric utility serving Concord, Massachusetts, and their solar...

  15. Marshall Municipal Utilities- Commercial Energy Efficiency Rebate Program

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    Marshall Municipal Utilities offers incentives to commercial customers which help cover the installation costs of energy efficient lighting, heating and cooling equipment, motors, variable...

  16. Municipal waste processing apparatus

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Mayberry, J.L.

    1988-04-13T23:59:59.000Z

    This invention relates to apparatus for processing municipal waste, and more particularly to vibrating mesh screen conveyor systems for removing grit, glass, and other noncombustible materials from dry municipal waste. Municipal waste must be properly processed and disposed of so that it does not create health risks to the community. Generally, municipal waste, which may be collected in garbage trucks, dumpsters, or the like, is deposited in processing areas such as landfills. Land and environmental controls imposed on landfill operators by governmental bodies have increased in recent years, however, making landfill disposal of solid waste materials more expensive. 6 figs.

  17. Municipal Utility Districts (Texas)

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    Municipal Utility Districts, regulated by the Texas Commission on Environmental Quality, may be created for the following purposes: (1) the control, storage, preservation, and distribution of its...

  18. Photovoltaics for municipal planners

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Not Available

    1993-04-01T23:59:59.000Z

    This booklet is intended for city and county government personnel, as well as community organizations, who deal with supplying, regulating, or recommending electric power resources. Specifically, this document deals with photovoltaic (PV) power, or power from solar cells, which is currently the most cost-effective energy source for electricity requirements that are relatively small, located in isolated areas, or difficult to serve with conventional technology. Recently, PV has been documented to be more cost-effective than conventional alternatives (such as line extensions or engine generators) in dozens of applications within the service territories of electric, gas, and communications utilities. Here, we document numerous cost-effective urban applications, chosen by planners and utilities because they were the most cost-effective option or because they were appropriate for environmental or logistical reasons. These applications occur within various municipal departments, including utility, parks and recreation, traffic engineering, transportation, and planning, and they include lighting applications, communications equipment, corrosion protection, irrigation control equipment, remote monitoring, and even portable power supplies for emergency situations.

  19. PSNH- Municipal Smart Start Program

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    Public Service of New Hampshire (PSNH), an electric utility, offers the Smart Start Program to Municipal customers. This program assists municipalities in reducing energy consumption and electric...

  20. February 19, 2013 Webinar: Exploring How Municipal Utilities Fund Solar Energy Projects

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    This webinar was held February 19, 2013, and provided information on Concord Light, the municipal electric utility serving Concord, Massachusetts, and their solar photovoltaic (PV) rebate program....

  1. Municipal Energy Reduction Fund

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    In March 2010, the New Hampshire Community Development Finance Authority (CDFA) launched a revolving loan program to encourage the state’s municipal governments to invest in energy efficiency and...

  2. Marblehead Municipal Light Department- Solar Rebate Program

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    Interested customers must contact Marblehead directly to apply and confirm incentive availability before starting any projects. This incentive may change or be canceled at any time.

  3. Hull Municipal Light Plant | Open Energy Information

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Google Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Office of InspectorConcentrating Solar Power BasicsGermany: EnergyPowerInformationHomer Electric|SouthPCo Jump

  4. Municipal Solid-State Street Lighting Consortium

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Google Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Delicious RankCombustion | Department ofT ib l L d F S i DOEToward a Peaceful NuclearBatteriesMaterials-Los

  5. Thurmont Municipal Light Co | Open Energy Information

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Google Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data CenterFranconia, Virginia:FAQ < RAPID Jump to:Seadov Pty LtdSteen,Ltd Jump JumpAl., 1978) |Thrall, Texas:

  6. Municipal Energy Plan Program (Ontario, Canada)

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    Ontario is supporting local energy planning by introducing the Municipal Energy Plan (MEP) program. The MEP program is designed to help municipalities better understand their local energy needs ...

  7. Massachusetts Municipal Commercial Industrial Incentive Program

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    Certain municipal utilities in Massachusetts, in cooperation with Massachusetts Municipal Wholesale Electric Company ([http://www.mmwec.org/ MMWEC]), have begun offering energy efficiency...

  8. Illinois Municipal Electric Agency- Electric Efficiency Program

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    The Illinois Municipal Electric Agency (IMEA) offers rebates to member municipal utilities* (those who purchase wholesale electric service from IMEA) and retail customers for energy efficiency...

  9. Municipal Support of Projects (Iowa)

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    Municipalities may choose to support projects, such as those which will generate electricity through the use of a renewable energy source, by tax-exempt bond financing; easements for roads, water...

  10. Recirculation of municipal landfill leachate

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Pinkowski, Brian Jude

    2012-06-07T23:59:59.000Z

    RECIRCULATION OF MUNICIPAL LANDFILL LEACHATE A Thesis by BRIAN JUDE PINKO4ISKI Submitted to the Graduate College of Texas A&M University in partial fulfillment of the requirements for the degree of MASTER OF SCIENCE May 1987 Major Subject...: Civil Engineering RECIRCULATION OF MUNICIPAL LANDFILL LEACHATE A Thesis by BRIAN JUDE PINKOWSKI Approved as to style and content by: Charles P. Giammona (Chair of Committee) Roy . Harm, (Member) Kirk W. Brown (Member) Donald A. Maxwel...

  11. Hudson Light and Power- Photovoltaic Incentive Program (Massachusetts)

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    Starting in 2011, Hudson Light and Power Department, the municipal utility for the Town of Hudson, started offering a limited number of photovoltaic rebates for residential, commercial, industrial,...

  12. LED Lighting Retrofit

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Shaw-Meadow, N.

    2011-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    ? Municipal Street Lighting Consortium ? American Public Power Association (APPA) ? Demonstration in Energy Efficiency Development (DEED) ? Source of funding and database of completed LED roadway projects 6 Rules of the Road ESL-KT-11-11-57 CATEE 2011..., 2011 ? 9 Solar-Assisted LED Case Study LaQuinta Hotel, Cedar Park, Texas ? Utilizes 18 - ActiveLED Solar-Assisted Parking Lot Lights ? Utilizes ?power management? to extend battery life while handling light output ? Reduces load which reduces PV...

  13. Municipal performance: does mayoral quality matter?

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Avellaneda, Claudia Nancy

    2009-05-15T23:59:59.000Z

    -demographic factors, I suggest that the greatest influence on municipal performance comes from having qualified managers. Specifically, I argue that that mayoral qualifications influence municipal performance. By qualifications I mean mayors’ human capital, that is...

  14. Municipal Solid Waste in The United States

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Barlaz, Morton A.

    2011 Facts and Figures Municipal Solid Waste in The United States #12;United States Environmental Protection Agency Office of Solid Waste (5306P) EPA530-R-13-001 May 2013 www.epa.gov #12;MUNICIPAL SOLID WASTE IN THE UNITED STATES: 2011 FACTS AND FIGURES Table of Contents Chapter Page MUNICIPAL SOLID WASTE

  15. Advanced Characterisation of Municipal Solid Waste Ashes

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Advanced Characterisation of Municipal Solid Waste Ashes Preparatory thesis Randi Skytte Pedersen is to investigate Municipal Solid Waste (MSW) ashes with respect to particle sizes, structures and composition with characterisation of Municipal Solid Waste (MSW) ashes from the Danish power plant M°abjergværket, Holstebro. MSW

  16. Lassen Municipal Utility District- PV Rebate Program

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    Lassen Municipal Utility District (LMUD) is providing incentives for its customers to purchase solar electric photovoltaic (PV) systems. Rebate levels will decrease annually over the life of the...

  17. Municipal Solid Waste Resources and Technologies

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    This page provides a brief overview of municipal solid waste energy resources and technologies supplemented by specific information to apply waste to energy within the Federal sector.

  18. Draft Transcript on Municipal PV Systems

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    Webinar on navigating the legal, tax, and finance issues associated with the installation of Municipal PV Systems. The following agenda was developed based on Pat Boylston's experience assisting municipalities with their PV projects and the requests for information that the Solar America City technical team leads have received from many of the 25 Solar America Cities since the April 2008 meeting in Tucson.

  19. Oklahoma Municipal Power Authority- Commercial and Industrial Energy Efficiency Program

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    The Oklahoma Municipal Power Authority (OMPA) offers the Demand and Energy Efficiency Program (DEEP) to eligible commercial, industrial, and municipal government customers served by OMPA. This...

  20. Municipal Solid Waste (MSW) to Liquid Fuels Synthesis, Volume...

    Office of Environmental Management (EM)

    1: Availability of Feedstock and Technology Municipal Solid Waste (MSW) to Liquid Fuels Synthesis, Volume 1: Availability of Feedstock and Technology Municipal solid waste (MSW) is...

  1. Silicon Valley Power and Oklahoma Municipal Power Authority Win...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Silicon Valley Power and Oklahoma Municipal Power Authority Win 2014 Public Power Wind Awards Silicon Valley Power and Oklahoma Municipal Power Authority Win 2014 Public Power Wind...

  2. State Clean Energy Policies Analysis: State, Utility, and Municipal...

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    State, Utility, and Municipal Loan Programs Jump to: navigation, search Name State Clean Energy Policies Analysis: State, Utility, and Municipal Loan Programs AgencyCompany...

  3. Design Case Summary: Production of Mixed Alcohols from Municipal...

    Office of Environmental Management (EM)

    Design Case Summary: Production of Mixed Alcohols from Municipal Solid Waste via Gasification Design Case Summary: Production of Mixed Alcohols from Municipal Solid Waste via...

  4. Municipal Waste Planning, Recycling and Waste Reduction Act (Pennsylvania)

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    This act provides for planning for the processing and disposal of municipal waste; requires counties to submit plans for municipal waste management systems within their boundaries; authorizes...

  5. Municipal Bond - Power Purchase Agreement Model Continues to...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Municipal Bond - Power Purchase Agreement Model Continues to Provide Low-Cost Solar Energy Municipal Bond - Power Purchase Agreement Model Continues to Provide Low-Cost Solar...

  6. Member Case Studies: LED Street Lighting Programs in Algona (IA), Asheville (NC), and Boston (MA)

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    This May 8, 2013 webcast featured presentations from DOE Municipal Solid-State Street Lighting Consortium member cities about their experiences with LED street lighting. Presenters John Bilsten of...

  7. Marblehead Municipal Light Department Smart Grid Project | Open Energy

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Google Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home5b9fcbce19 No revision hasInformation Earth's Heat JumpIncMAKGalway Bay(HeldManhattan, Kansas: EnergyNoTwo-MeterHot

  8. Anchorage Municipal Light and Power (Alaska) EIA Revenue and Sales -

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Google Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home5b9fcbce19 NoPublic Utilities Address: 160 East 300Algoil JumpAltergyExperiments | OpenThe Tomoves Active|Information

  9. Anchorage Municipal Light and Power (Alaska) EIA Revenue and Sales -

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Google Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home5b9fcbce19 NoPublic Utilities Address: 160 East 300Algoil JumpAltergyExperiments | OpenThe Tomoves

  10. Anchorage Municipal Light and Power (Alaska) EIA Revenue and Sales -

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Google Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home5b9fcbce19 NoPublic Utilities Address: 160 East 300Algoil JumpAltergyExperiments | OpenThe TomovesFebruary 2009 | Open Energy

  11. Anchorage Municipal Light and Power (Alaska) EIA Revenue and Sales -

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Google Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home5b9fcbce19 NoPublic Utilities Address: 160 East 300Algoil JumpAltergyExperiments | OpenThe TomovesFebruary 2009 | Open

  12. Anchorage Municipal Light and Power (Alaska) EIA Revenue and Sales -

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Google Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home5b9fcbce19 NoPublic Utilities Address: 160 East 300Algoil JumpAltergyExperiments | OpenThe TomovesFebruary 2009 | OpenJanuary

  13. Anchorage Municipal Light and Power (Alaska) EIA Revenue and Sales -

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Google Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home5b9fcbce19 NoPublic Utilities Address: 160 East 300Algoil JumpAltergyExperiments | OpenThe TomovesFebruary 2009 |

  14. Anchorage Municipal Light and Power (Alaska) EIA Revenue and Sales -

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Google Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home5b9fcbce19 NoPublic Utilities Address: 160 East 300Algoil JumpAltergyExperiments | OpenThe TomovesFebruary 2009 |October 2008 |

  15. Anchorage Municipal Light and Power (Alaska) EIA Revenue and Sales -

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Google Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home5b9fcbce19 NoPublic Utilities Address: 160 East 300Algoil JumpAltergyExperiments | OpenThe TomovesFebruary 2009 |October 2008

  16. Municipal Consortium LED Street Lighting Workshop Presentations and

    Broader source: Energy.gov (indexed) [DOE]

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE:1 First Use of Energy for All Purposes (Fuel and Nonfuel),Feet) Year Jan Feb Mar Apr May Jun Jul(Summary) "ofEarly Careerlumens_placard-green.eps MoreWSRC-STI-2007-00250 Rev.Tech Brief answers:This pageLow-Cost

  17. Municipal Consortium LED Street Lighting Workshop Presentations and

    Broader source: Energy.gov (indexed) [DOE]

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE:1 First Use of Energy for All Purposes (Fuel and Nonfuel),Feet) Year Jan Feb Mar Apr May Jun Jul(Summary) "ofEarly Careerlumens_placard-green.eps MoreWSRC-STI-2007-00250 Rev.Tech Brief answers:This

  18. Municipal Consortium LED Street Lighting Workshop Presentations and

    Broader source: Energy.gov (indexed) [DOE]

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE:1 First Use of Energy for All Purposes (Fuel and Nonfuel),Feet) Year Jan Feb Mar Apr May Jun Jul(Summary) "ofEarly Careerlumens_placard-green.eps MoreWSRC-STI-2007-00250 Rev.Tech Brief answers:ThisMaterials-Los Angeles,

  19. River Falls Municipal Utilities- Distributed Solar Tariff

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    River Falls Municipal Utilities (RFMU), a member of WPPI Energy, offers a special energy purchase rate to its customers that generate electricity using solar photovoltaic (PV) systems. The special...

  20. Experimental analysis of municipal solid waste samples

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Mendoza Sanchez, Itza

    2002-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    EXPERIMENTAL ANALYSIS OF MUNICIPAL SOLID WASTE SAMPLES A Thesis by ITZA MENDOZA SANCHEZ Submitted to the Office of Graduate Studies of Texas ASM University tn partial fulfillment of the requirements for the degree of MASTER OF SCIENCE May... 2002 Major Subject: Civil Engmeering EXPERIMENTAL ANALYSIS OF MUNICIPAL SOLID WASTE SAMPLES A Thesis by ITZA MENDOZA SANCHEZ Submitted to the Office of Graduate Studies of Texas A&M Umversity in partial fulfillment of the requirements...

  1. The Potential of Cellulosic Ethanol Production from Municipal Solid Waste: A Technical and Economic Evaluation

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Shi, Jian; Ebrik, Mirvat; Yang, Bin; Wyman, Charles E.

    2009-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    1996 19950414. Municipal solid waste processing facility andconversion of municipal-solid-waste to ethanol. Biotechnol.Bioconversion of municipal solid waste to glucose for bio-

  2. Saint Peter Municipal Utilities- Residential Energy Efficiency Rebate Program

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    Southern Minnesota Municipal Power Agency ([http://www.smmpa.com SMMPA]) is a joint-action agency which generates and sells reliable electricity at wholesale to its eighteen non-profit, municipally...

  3. Mora Municipal Utilities- Residential Energy Efficiency Rebate Program

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    Southern Minnesota Municipal Power Agency ([http://www.smmpa.com SMMPA]) is a joint-action agency which generates and sells reliable electricity at wholesale to its eighteen non-profit, municipally...

  4. Georgia: Data Center and Historic Municipal Building Go Green...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Municipal Building Go Green Georgia: Data Center and Historic Municipal Building Go Green August 21, 2013 - 9:45am Addthis Data centers can consume 100 to 200 times more...

  5. Federal, Municipal, Universities and Other ESPC Case Studies...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    of various federal, municipal, and university case Energy Savings Performance Contracting implementation case studies. Author: National Association of Energy Service...

  6. Department of Environmental Engineering Leaching from Municipal Solid Waste

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Department of Environmental Engineering Leaching from Municipal Solid Waste Incineration Residues Ji í Hyk s #12;#12;Leaching from Municipal Solid Waste Incineration Residues Ji í Hyks Ph.D. Thesis Municipal Solid Waste Incineration Residues Cover: Torben Dolin & Julie Camilla Middleton Printed by: Vester

  7. Improved Economic Performance Municipal Solid Waste Combustion Plants

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Van den Hof, Paul

    Improved Economic Performance of Municipal Solid Waste Combustion Plants by Model Based Combustion Control #12;#12;Improved Economic Performance of Municipal Solid Waste Combustion Plants by Model Based-of-the-art and challenges in the operation of MSWC plants . . . 1 1.1.1 The aims of municipal solid waste combustion

  8. Nonlinear Model Predictive Control of Municipal Solid Waste Combustion Plants

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Van den Hof, Paul

    Nonlinear Model Predictive Control of Municipal Solid Waste Combustion Plants M. Leskens , R.h.Bosgra@tudelft.nl, p.m.j.vandenhof@tudelft.nl Keywords : nonlinear model predictive control, municipal solid waste combus- tion Abstract : Combustion of municipal solid waste (MSW; = household waste) is used to reduce

  9. QUALITY OF COMPOSTS FROM MUNICIPAL BIODEGRADABLE WASTE

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Paris-Sud XI, Université de

    QUALITY OF COMPOSTS FROM MUNICIPAL BIODEGRADABLE WASTE OF DIFFERENT ORIGINS I. ZDANEVITCH AND O countries. One of the outputs of this treatment is a compost prepared from the organic matter of the waste the total MSW in the plant. Unlike in Germany or Austria, where only the compost from selective collection

  10. OVERVIEW OF MUNICIPAL AND INDUSTRIAL LAND APPLICATION

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Balser, Teri C.

    BE "RIGHT IN YOUR BACKYARD" Variety of municipal and industrial wastes Inexpensive supply of plant - Heavy metals, organic compounds, pathogens - Nutrient loading (N and P) - Nitrate leaching or P loss Beneficially re-use nutrients and/or organic material Protect the quality of the soil, and surface water

  11. Essays on Municipal Public Finance in Brazil

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Gardner, Rachel Elizabeth

    2013-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    of Revenue Generation Infrastructure IV-2SLS Coefficient onIV-2SLS estimates indicate a null relationship between transfers and per capita revenue generation.IV-2SLS fixed effects estimates without municipality fixed effects seem to indicate 0.2 cent increase in local revenue generation

  12. 25 Cologne Municipal Museum 30 Museum Ludwig

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Iosup, Alexandru

    TAXI TAXI TAXI TAXI TAXI TAXI TAXI TAXI TAXI H H TAXI Museums 25 Cologne Municipal Museum 30 Museum Ludwig 33 EL-DE Haus NS-Documentation Centre 34 Roman-Germanic Museum 36 Applied Arts and Crafts Museum 48 Käthe-Kollwitz Museum 52 Wallraf-Richartz-Museum 54 Museum of East-Asian Art 56 Schnütgen Museum

  13. Energy utilization: municipal waste incineration. Final report

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    LaBeck, M.F.

    1981-03-27T23:59:59.000Z

    An assessment is made of the technical and economical feasibility of converting municipal waste into useful and useable energy. The concept presented involves retrofitting an existing municipal incinerator with the systems and equipment necessary to produce process steam and electric power. The concept is economically attractive since the cost of necessary waste heat recovery equipment is usually a comparatively small percentage of the cost of the original incinerator installation. Technical data obtained from presently operating incinerators designed specifically for generating energy, documents the technical feasibility and stipulates certain design constraints. The investigation includes a cost summary; description of process and facilities; conceptual design; economic analysis; derivation of costs; itemized estimated costs; design and construction schedule; and some drawings.

  14. Piedmont Municipal Power Agny | Open Energy Information

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Google Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Office of InspectorConcentrating Solar Powerstories onFocusOskiPhilips Color Kinetics Jump to:Piedmont Municipal Power

  15. Texas Municipal Power Agency | Open Energy Information

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Google Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Office of InspectorConcentrating SolarElectric Coop, Inc Place:Innovation & SolutionsKentucky)Municipal Power

  16. Kenyon Municipal Utilities | Open Energy Information

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Google Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Office of InspectorConcentrating Solar Powerstories on climateJuno Beach, Florida:Kenyon Municipal Utilities Jump to:

  17. Mohawk Municipal Comm | Open Energy Information

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Google Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Office of InspectorConcentrating Solar Powerstories onFocus Area EnergyMohawk Municipal Comm Jump to: navigation,

  18. Municipal Electric Authority | Open Energy Information

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Google Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Office of InspectorConcentrating Solar Powerstories onFocus Area EnergyMohawkaccrediation of NIE) JumpMunicipal

  19. Trenton Municipal Utilities | Open Energy Information

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Google Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Office of InspectorConcentrating SolarElectric Coop, IncTipmontInformation WaynesvilleTracy,LtdTrenton Municipal

  20. Using the Street and Parking Facility Lighting Retrofit Financial Analysis Tool

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    This August 22, 2013 webinar provided a guided walk-through of the Street and Parking Facility Lighting Retrofit Financial Analysis Tool. Developed by a partnership of the DOE Municipal Solid-State...

  1. Hercules Municipal Utility- Residential Energy Efficiency Rebate Program

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    Hercules Municipal Utility provides financial incentives for its residential members to increase the energy efficiency of participating homes. Rebates are offered for a variety of home appliances...

  2. Oklahoma Municipal Power Authority- WISE Energy Efficiency Loan Program

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    The Oklahoma Municipal Power Authority (OMPA) offers loans for a variety of measures and equipment through its WISE Loan Program. This program encourages residential and commercial customers to...

  3. Mansfield Municipal Electric Department- Residential Energy Efficiency Rebate Program

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    Mansfield Municipal Electric Department encourages energy efficiency through the ENERGY STAR Appliance Rebate Incentive Program. Cash rebates are offered for ENERGY STAR central air conditioners,...

  4. Northern Municipal Power Agency- Residential Energy Efficiency Rebate Program (Minnesota)

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    Northern Municipal Power Agency, in association with the Minnkota Power Cooperative, Inc., offers a variety of rebates for the purchase of qualifying energy efficient equipment. Rebates are...

  5. Northern Municipal Power Agency- Commercial Energy Efficiency Rebate Program (Minnesota)

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    Northern Municipal Power Agency, in collaboration with Minnkota Power Cooperative, Inc., offers rebates for non-residential customers to improve the energy efficiency of eligible facilities....

  6. Business Case for CNG in Municipal Fleets (Presentation)

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Johnson, C.

    2010-07-27T23:59:59.000Z

    Presentation about compressed natural gas in municipal fleets, assessing investment profitability, the VICE model, base-case scenarios, and pressing questions for fleet owners.

  7. River Falls Municipal Utilities- Energy Star Appliance Rebates

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    River Falls Municipal Utility (RFMU), in conjuction with the Wisconsin Focus on Energy program, offers a variety of rebates to residential electric customers for upgrading to energy efficient...

  8. Elk River Municipal Utilities- Residential Energy Efficiency Rebate Program

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    [http://www.elkriverutilities.com/index.php Elk River Municipal Utilities] provides rebates to their residential electric customers who purchase and install Energy Star rated appliances and HVAC...

  9. Elk River Municipal Utilities- Commercial Energy Efficiency Rebate Program

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    Elk River Municipal Utilities offers a variety of rebates to commercial, industrial, and agricultural customers for the installation of specific energy efficient equipment. Rebates are available...

  10. Donation of municipal open space in Texas

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Buzzingham, Donald

    1978-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Donors - City Size . 39 47 51 Figure 4 ? Open Space Donations Restrictions - City Size CHAPTER I INTRODUCTION Statement of the Problem As reported by the 1970 Census of Populati on, 73. 5 percent of all Americans now live in urban areas occupying... by the Playground and Recreation Association (1929) surveyed 956 municipalities which reported 3, 158 do- nated parks and playgrounds constituting 69, 716. 71 acres. When this donated acreage is compared with total park acre- age of 248, 627. 2 acres as reported...

  11. Oklahoma Municipal Power Auth | Open Energy Information

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Google Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data CenterFranconia, Virginia: Energy ResourcesLoading map...(UtilityCounty, Michigan: Energy ResourcesCo JumpElectric Co JumpMunicipal Power

  12. Dublin Municipal Electric Util | Open Energy Information

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Google Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home5b9fcbce19 NoPublic Utilities Address:011-DNA Jump to:52c8ff988c1DeringDolgeville,Massachusetts:DraxProject JumpDublin Municipal

  13. Northern Municipal Power Agency | Open Energy Information

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Google Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Office of InspectorConcentrating Solar Powerstories onFocus AreaDataBusPFAN) |Agny Jump to: navigation,Municipal Power

  14. Willmar Municipal Utilities | Open Energy Information

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Google Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Office of InspectorConcentrating SolarElectric Coop,SaveWhiskey Flats Geothermal Area Jump to:CoopWillmar Municipal

  15. American Municipal Power | Open Energy Information

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Google Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home5b9fcbce19 NoPublic Utilities Address: 160 East 300Algoil JumpAltergy SystemsAmerican Energy Systems IncMunicipal Power Place:

  16. Florida Municipal Power Agency | Open Energy Information

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Google Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home5b9fcbce19 NoPublicIDAPowerPlantSitingConstruction.pdfNotify98.pdf JumpFlix Solar Jump to:Consortium Jump to:Municipal Power

  17. Tipton Municipal Electric Util | Open Energy Information

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Google Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data CenterFranconia, Virginia:FAQ < RAPID Jump to:Seadov Pty LtdSteen,Ltd Jump JumpAl., 1978)TillmanMunicipal Electric Util Jump to:

  18. Municipal solid waste disposal in Portugal

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Magrinho, Alexandre [Mechanical Engineering Department, Escola Superior de Tecnologia de Setubal, Campus IPS, Estefanilha, Setubal (Portugal); Didelet, Filipe [Mechanical Engineering Department, Escola Superior de Tecnologia de Setubal, Campus IPS, Estefanilha, Setubal (Portugal); Semiao, Viriato [Mechanical Engineering Department, Instituto Superior Tecnico, Av. Rovisco Pais, 1049-001 Lisbon (Portugal)]. E-mail: ViriatoSemiao@ist.utl.pt

    2006-07-01T23:59:59.000Z

    In recent years municipal solid waste (MSW) disposal has been one of the most important environmental problems for all of the Portuguese regions. The basic principles of MSW management in Portugal are: (1) prevention or reduction, (2) reuse, (3) recovery (e.g., recycling, incineration with heat recovery), and (4) polluter-pay principle. A brief history of legislative trends in waste management is provided herein as background for current waste management and recycling activities. The paper also presents and discusses the municipal solid waste management in Portugal and is based primarily on a national inquiry carried out in 2003 and directed to the MSW management entities. Additionally, the MSW responsibility and management structure in Portugal is presented, together with the present situation of production, collection, recycling, treatment and elimination of MSW. Results showed that 96% of MSW was collected mixed (4% was separately collected) and that 68% was disposed of in landfill, 21% was incinerated at waste-to-energy plants, 8% was treated at organic waste recovery plants and 3% was delivered to sorting. The average generation rate of MSW was 1.32 kg/capita/day.

  19. Characterization of flue gas residues from municipal solid waste combustors

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Forestier, L.L. [CRPG-CNRS, Vandoeuvre-les-Nancy (France)] [CRPG-CNRS, Vandoeuvre-les-Nancy (France); [ENSG, Vandoeuvre-les-Nancy (France); Libourel, G. [CRPG-CNRS, Vandoeuvre-les-Nancy (France)] [CRPG-CNRS, Vandoeuvre-les-Nancy (France); [Univ. H. Poincare, Vandoeuvre-les-Nancy (France)

    1998-08-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Solid residues recovered from treatment of flue gas resulting from the combustion of municipal solid waste (MSW) are of particular concern because of ever-increasing worldwide production rates and their concentrations of potentially hazardous transition elements and heavy metals. Three main residue types have been studied in this study: electrostatic precipitator ashes, wet filter cakes, and semidry scrubber residues. Using a large number of residues from two French MSW combustion (MSWC) facilities, the aim of this work is to determine their chemistry and mineralogy in order to shed light on their potential toxicity. The authors find that pollutant concentrations are dependent not only on the composition of MSW but also on the size of particles and flue gas treatment process. Using a procedure based on leaching, grain-size, density, and magnetic separations, the authors present a detailed description of the mineralogy of MSWC solid residues. These residues consist of a very heterogeneous assemblage of glasses, metals, and other crystals in which polluting elements are distributed. The results of this characterization will therefore help to contribute to the development of adequate waste management strategies.

  20. Challenges of Handling Storm Water Runoff Through Municipal Sewer Systems

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Illinois at Urbana-Champaign, University of

    cleaned and retained as a Best Management Practice (BMP). Receives only non-industrial storm water on storm water are leading municipalities to change permitting practices. As a result, facilitiesChallenges of Handling Storm Water Runoff Through Municipal Sewer Systems A South Carolina Case

  1. THERMODYNAMIC STUDY OF HEAVY METALS BEHAVIOUR DURING MUNICIPAL WASTE INCINERATION

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Boyer, Edmond

    , heat and mass transfer, drying, pyrolysis, combustion of pyrolysis gases, combustion and gasificationTHERMODYNAMIC STUDY OF HEAVY METALS BEHAVIOUR DURING MUNICIPAL WASTE INCINERATION Y. ME´ NARD, A Me´tallurgie (LSG2M) Nancy, France T he incineration of municipal solid waste (MSW) contributes

  2. Aluminum Reactions and Problems in Municipal Solid Waste Landfills

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Aluminum Reactions and Problems in Municipal Solid Waste Landfills G. Vincent Calder, Ph.D.1 ; and Timothy D. Stark, Ph.D., P.E., F.ASCE2 Abstract: Aluminum enters municipal solid waste MSW landfills from untreated raw curbside trash MSW , industrial waste, and aluminum production wastes variously called dross

  3. Biogas From Municipal WWTPs: Fuel Cells Viewed as a Value Proposition...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    From Municipal WWTPs: Fuel Cells Viewed as a Value Proposition Biogas From Municipal WWTPs: Fuel Cells Viewed as a Value Proposition Presentation about the value proposition for...

  4. E-Print Network 3.0 - art municipal waste Sample Search Results

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Combustion of Municipal Solid Waste," Second Conference... on Municipal, Hazardous and Coal ... Source: Columbia University, Department of Earth and Environmental Engineering,...

  5. Predicting on-site environmental impacts of municipal engineering works

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Gangolells, Marta, E-mail: marta.gangolells@upc.edu; Casals, Miquel, E-mail: miquel.casals@upc.edu; Forcada, Núria, E-mail: nuria.forcada@upc.edu; Macarulla, Marcel, E-mail: marcel.macarulla@upc.edu

    2014-01-15T23:59:59.000Z

    The research findings fill a gap in the body of knowledge by presenting an effective way to evaluate the significance of on-site environmental impacts of municipal engineering works prior to the construction stage. First, 42 on-site environmental impacts of municipal engineering works were identified by means of a process-oriented approach. Then, 46 indicators and their corresponding significance limits were determined on the basis of a statistical analysis of 25 new-build and remodelling municipal engineering projects. In order to ensure the objectivity of the assessment process, direct and indirect indicators were always based on quantitative data from the municipal engineering project documents. Finally, two case studies were analysed and found to illustrate the practical use of the proposed model. The model highlights the significant environmental impacts of a particular municipal engineering project prior to the construction stage. Consequently, preventive actions can be planned and implemented during on-site activities. The results of the model also allow a comparison of proposed municipal engineering projects and alternatives with respect to the overall on-site environmental impact and the absolute importance of a particular environmental aspect. These findings are useful within the framework of the environmental impact assessment process, as they help to improve the identification and evaluation of on-site environmental aspects of municipal engineering works. The findings may also be of use to construction companies that are willing to implement an environmental management system or simply wish to improve on-site environmental performance in municipal engineering projects. -- Highlights: • We present a model to predict the environmental impacts of municipal engineering works. • It highlights significant on-site environmental impacts prior to the construction stage. • Findings are useful within the environmental impact assessment process. • They also help contractors to implement environmental management systems.

  6. Commercial Lighting

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    Commercial lighting accounts for more than 20 percent of total commercial building energy use. The Energy Department works to reduce lighting energy use through research and deployment.

  7. Willmar Municipal Utilities- Residential Energy Efficiency Rebate Program

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    Willmar Municipal Utilities offer rebates on Energy Star rated appliances and air conditioners and Marathon water heaters. In addition to these rebates, WMU also offers a Load Sharing Program. ...

  8. Denton Municipal Electric- GreenSense Energy Efficiency Rebate Program

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    Denton Municipal Electric pays residential and small commercial customers to reduce energy demand and consumption in order to reduce the utility bills of DME customers, reduce peak load, reduce...

  9. Oklahoma Municipal Power Authority- WISE Energy Efficiency Rebate Program

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    The Oklahoma Municipal Power Authority (OMPA) offers rebates on a variety of HVAC equipment through its WISE Rebate program. This program encourages residential customers and builders to upgrade to...

  10. Mandatory Green Power Option for Large Municipal Utilities

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    Municipal electric utilities serving more than 40,000 customers in Colorado must offer an optional green-power program that allows retail customers the choice of supporting emerging renewable...

  11. Denton Municipal Electric- GreenSense Solar Rebate Program

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    Denton Municipal Electric offers rebates to its electric customers for the installation of solar PV and solar water heating systems. The solar rebates are designed for residential and small...

  12. City of Greensburg- Green Building Requirement for New Municipal Buildings

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    In the aftermath of a May 2007 tornado that destroyed 95% of the city, the Greensburg City Council passed an ordinance requiring that all newly constructed or renovated municipally owned facilities...

  13. New York City- Green Building Requirements for Municipal Buildings

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    In 2005 New York City passed a law (Local Law No. 86) making a variety of green building and energy efficiency requirements for municipal buildings and other projects funded with money from the...

  14. City of Dallas- Green Building Requirements for Municipal Buildings

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    In 2003 the Dallas City Council passed a resolution requiring that all new municipal buildings larger than 10,000 square feet be constructed to meet LEED Silver Certification standards. In 2006...

  15. City of Houston- Green Building Requirements for New Municipal Structures

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    In June 2004 the Houston City Council passed a resolution requiring adherence to the Leadership in Energy and Environmental Design (LEED) guidelines in the construction or renovation of municipal...

  16. Energy Smart- Residential Energy Efficiency Rebate Program (20 Municipalities)

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    Franklin Energy Services has partnered with the Michigan Public Power Agency (MPPA), which is made up of 20 municipal utilities, to offer the Energy Smart Residential Energy Efficiency Rebate...

  17. Marshall Municipal Utilities- Residential Energy Efficiency Rebate Program

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    [http://www.marshallutilities.com/index.php Marshall Municipal Utilities (MMU)] offers a variety of incentives for its residential customers to install energy-efficient equipment in their homes. ...

  18. River Falls Municipal Utilities- Renewable Energy Finance Program

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    River Falls Municipal Utilities (RFMU) offers loans of $2,500 - $50,000 to its residential customers for the installation of photovoltaic (PV), solar thermal, geothermal, wind electric systems. The...

  19. Mora Municipal Utilities- Commercial and Industrial Energy Efficiency Rebate Program

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    Southern Minnesota Municipal Power Agency ([http://www.smmpa.com SMMPA]) is a joint-action agency which generates and sells reliable electricity at wholesale to its eighteen non-profit,...

  20. Municipal wireless mesh networks as a competitive broadband delivery platform

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Hassan-Ali, Mudhafar

    2007-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Recently there has been a growing interest in deploying Wireless Mesh Networks by municipalities. This interest stems from the desire to provide broadband connectivity to users lacking access to broadband alternatives. The ...

  1. Marshall Municipal Utilities- Solar Thermal Water Heater Rebate Program

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    Marshall Municipal Utilities (MMU) offers residential customers rebates for installing a ENERGY STAR Solar Thermal Water Heater. Rebates are based on the size of the system; MMU offers $20 per...

  2. Application of Municipal Sewage Sludge to Forest and Degraded Land

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    D.H. Marx, C. R. Berry, and P. P. Kormanik

    1995-09-30T23:59:59.000Z

    The paper summarizes research done over a decade at the Savannah River Site and elsewhere in the South evaluating the benefits of land application of municipal wastes. Studies have demonstrated that degraded lands, ranging from borrow pits to mine spoils can be successfully revegetated using a mixture of composed municipal sewage sludge and other amendments. The studies have demonstrated a practical approach to land application and restoration.

  3. GHG emission factors developed for the recycling and composting of municipal waste in South African municipalities

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Friedrich, Elena, E-mail: Friedriche@ukzn.ac.za; Trois, Cristina

    2013-11-15T23:59:59.000Z

    Highlights: • GHG emission factors for local recycling of municipal waste are presented. • GHG emission factors for two composting technologies for garden waste are included. • Local GHG emission factors were compared to international ones and discussed. • Uncertainties and limitations are presented and areas for new research highlighted. - Abstract: GHG (greenhouse gas) emission factors for waste management are increasingly used, but such factors are very scarce for developing countries. This paper shows how such factors have been developed for the recycling of glass, metals (Al and Fe), plastics and paper from municipal solid waste, as well as for the composting of garden refuse in South Africa. The emission factors developed for the different recyclables in the country show savings varying from ?290 kg CO{sub 2} e (glass) to ?19 111 kg CO{sub 2} e (metals – Al) per tonne of recyclable. They also show that there is variability, with energy intensive materials like metals having higher GHG savings in South Africa as compared to other countries. This underlines the interrelation of the waste management system of a country/region with other systems, in particular with energy generation, which in South Africa, is heavily reliant on coal. This study also shows that composting of garden waste is a net GHG emitter, releasing 172 and 186 kg CO{sub 2} e per tonne of wet garden waste for aerated dome composting and turned windrow composting, respectively. The paper concludes that these emission factors are facilitating GHG emissions modelling for waste management in South Africa and enabling local municipalities to identify best practice in this regard.

  4. Municipal solid waste effective stress analysis

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Shariatmadari, Nader, E-mail: shariatmadari@iust.ac.i [Dept. of Civil Engineering, Iran University of Science and Technology, Narmak, 16846-13114 Teharn (Iran, Islamic Republic of); Machado, Sandro Lemos, E-mail: smachado@ufba.b [Dept. of Materials Science and Technology, Federal University of Bahia, 02 Aristides Novis St., 40210-630 Salvador-BA (Brazil); Noorzad, Ali, E-mail: noorzad@pwut.ac.i [Faculty of Water Engineering, Power and Water University of Technology, Tehranpars, 1719-16765 Tehran (Iran, Islamic Republic of); Karimpour-Fard, Mehran, E-mail: karimpour_mehran@iust.ac.i [Dept. of Civil Engineering, Iran University of Science and Technology, Narmak, 16846-13114 Teharn (Iran, Islamic Republic of)

    2009-12-15T23:59:59.000Z

    The mechanical behavior of municipal solid waste (MSW) has attracted the attention of many researchers in the field of geo-environmental engineering in recent years and several aspects of waste mechanical response under loading have been elucidated. However, the mechanical response of MSW materials under undrained conditions has not been described in detail to date. The knowledge of this aspect of the MSW mechanical response is very important in cases involving MSW with high water contents, seismic ground motion and in regions where landfills are built with poor operation conditions. This paper presents the results obtained from 26 large triaxial tests performed both in drained and undrained conditions. The results were analyzed taking into account the waste particles compressibility and the deformation anisotropy of the waste samples. The waste particles compressibility was used to modify the Terzaghi effective stress equation, using the Skempton (1961) proposition. It is shown that the use of the modified effective stress equation led to much more compatible shear strength values when comparing Consolidated-Drained (CD) and Consolidated-Undrained (CU), results, explaining the high shear strength values obtained in CU triaxial tests, even when the pore pressure is almost equal to the confining stress.

  5. Mercury emissions from municipal solid waste combustors

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Not Available

    1993-05-01T23:59:59.000Z

    This report examines emissions of mercury (Hg) from municipal solid waste (MSW) combustion in the United States (US). It is projected that total annual nationwide MSW combustor emissions of mercury could decrease from about 97 tonnes (1989 baseline uncontrolled emissions) to less than about 4 tonnes in the year 2000. This represents approximately a 95 percent reduction in the amount of mercury emitted from combusted MSW compared to the 1989 mercury emissions baseline. The likelihood that routinely achievable mercury emissions removal efficiencies of about 80 percent or more can be assured; it is estimated that MSW combustors in the US could prove to be a comparatively minor source of mercury emissions after about 1995. This forecast assumes that diligent measures to control mercury emissions, such as via use of supplemental control technologies (e.g., carbon adsorption), are generally employed at that time. However, no present consensus was found that such emissions control measures can be implemented industry-wide in the US within this time frame. Although the availability of technology is apparently not a limiting factor, practical implementation of necessary control technology may be limited by administrative constraints and other considerations (e.g., planning, budgeting, regulatory compliance requirements, etc.). These projections assume that: (a) about 80 percent mercury emissions reduction control efficiency is achieved with air pollution control equipment likely to be employed by that time; (b) most cylinder-shaped mercury-zinc (CSMZ) batteries used in hospital applications can be prevented from being disposed into the MSW stream or are replaced with alternative batteries that do not contain mercury; and (c) either the amount of mercury used in fluorescent lamps is decreased to an industry-wide average of about 27 milligrams of mercury per lamp or extensive diversion from the MSW stream of fluorescent lamps that contain mercury is accomplished.

  6. Conversion of municipal solid waste to hydrogen

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Richardson, J.H.; Rogers, R.S.; Thorsness, C.B. [and others

    1995-04-01T23:59:59.000Z

    LLNL and Texaco are cooperatively developing a physical and chemical treatment method for the conversion of municipal solid waste (MSW) to hydrogen via the steps of hydrothermal pretreatment, gasification and purification. LLNL`s focus has been on hydrothermal pretreatment of MSW in order to prepare a slurry of suitable viscosity and heating value to allow efficient and economical gasification and hydrogen production. The project has evolved along 3 parallel paths: laboratory scale experiments, pilot scale processing, and process modeling. Initial laboratory-scale MSW treatment results (e.g., viscosity, slurry solids content) over a range of temperatures and times with newspaper and plastics will be presented. Viscosity measurements have been correlated with results obtained at MRL. A hydrothermal treatment pilot facility has been rented from Texaco and is being reconfigured at LLNL; the status of that facility and plans for initial runs will be described. Several different operational scenarios have been modeled. Steady state processes have been modeled with ASPEN PLUS; consideration of steam injection in a batch mode was handled using continuous process modules. A transient model derived from a general purpose packed bed model is being developed which can examine the aspects of steam heating inside the hydrothermal reactor vessel. These models have been applied to pilot and commercial scale scenarios as a function of MSW input parameters and have been used to outline initial overall economic trends. Part of the modeling, an overview of the MSW gasification process and the modeling of the MSW as a process material, was completed by a DOE SERS (Science and Engineering Research Semester) student. The ultimate programmatic goal is the technical demonstration of the gasification of MSW to hydrogen at the laboratory and pilot scale and the economic analysis of the commercial feasibility of such a process.

  7. Smart Lighting Controller!! Smart lighting!

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Anderson, Betty Lise

    1! Smart Lighting Controller!! #12;2! Smart lighting! No need to spend energy lighting the room if://blogs.stthomas.edu/realestate/2011/01/24/residential-real-estate-professionals-how-do-you- develop feedback! There is a connection between the output and the input! Therefore forces inputs to same voltage

  8. Commercial Lighting and LED Lighting Incentives

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    Incentives for energy efficient commercial lighting equipment as well as commercial LED lighting equipment are available to businesses under the Efficiency Vermont Lighting and LED Lighting...

  9. Does it have to be so complicated? : municipal renewable energy projects in Massachusetts

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Riberio, Lori A. (Lori Ann)

    2006-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    This thesis examines municipal implementation of renewable energy projects in Massachusetts. It explores projects that have been planned and completed, drivers for municipal adoption of renewable energy, the implementation ...

  10. Feasibility of Municipal Water Mains as Heat Sink for Residential Air-Conditioning

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Vliet, G. C.

    1994-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    It has been proposed that municipal water mains be used as the heat sink or the heat source for air-conditioning or heating, respectively. This paper addresses the extent of thermal contamination associated with the use of municipal water...

  11. Lighting Renovations

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    When undertaking a lighting renovation in a Federal building, daylighting is the primary renewable energy opportunity. Photovoltaics (PV) also present an excellent opportunity. While this guide...

  12. Cerenkov Light

    ScienceCinema (OSTI)

    Slifer, Karl

    2014-05-22T23:59:59.000Z

    The bright blue glow from nuclear reactors is Cerenkov light. Karl Slifer describes how nuclear physicists can use this phenomenon to study the nucleus of the atom.

  13. Cerenkov Light

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Slifer, Karl

    2013-06-13T23:59:59.000Z

    The bright blue glow from nuclear reactors is Cerenkov light. Karl Slifer describes how nuclear physicists can use this phenomenon to study the nucleus of the atom.

  14. THESIS FOR THE DEGREE OF LICENTIATE OF PHILOSOPHY Mathematical Models in Municipal Solid Waste Management

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Patriksson, Michael

    THESIS FOR THE DEGREE OF LICENTIATE OF PHILOSOPHY Mathematical Models in Municipal Solid Waste¨oteborg University G¨oteborg, Sweden February 15, 2007 #12;Mathematical Models in Municipal Solid Waste Michael K waste planners in decisions concerning the overall management of solid waste in a municipality

  15. Environmental Audit of Municipal Solid Waste T. V. Ramachandra Shruthi Bachamanda

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Columbia University

    1 Environmental Audit of Municipal Solid Waste Management T. V. Ramachandra Shruthi Bachamanda Abstract The management of municipal solid waste has become an acute problem due to enhanced economic to handle this problem in a safe and hygienic manner. In this regard, Municipal Solid Waste Management (MSWM

  16. The Municipal Solid Waste Landfill as a Source of Montreal Protocol-restricted Halocarbons in the

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    The Municipal Solid Waste Landfill as a Source of Montreal Protocol-restricted Halocarbons of Geophysics #12;2 #12;The Municipal Solid Waste Landfill as a Source of Montreal Protocol municipal solid waste (MSW) landfills. With several hundred MSW landfills in both the US and UK, estimating

  17. Heavy metals in composted municipal solid wastes for

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Blouin-Demers, Gabriel

    Heavy metals in composted municipal solid wastes for amendment of agricultural soils/ Métaux lourds dans le compost de déchets municipaux pour application agricole Valérie Duchesneau, #4634809 EVS4904 métaux lourds des compostes de déchets municipaux? http://www.ecometiers.com/fiche/images/43.jpg La

  18. Municipal solid waste characteristics and management in Allahabad, India

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Columbia University

    by political, legal, socio-cultural, environmental and economic factors, as well as available resources on a suitable management plan (Shimura et al., 2001). More than 90% of MSW in India is directly disposedMunicipal solid waste characteristics and management in Allahabad, India Mufeed Sharholy a , Kafeel

  19. BERNAL and RESTREPO Key issues for decentralization in municipal

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Boyer, Edmond

    BERNAL and RESTREPO Key issues for decentralization in municipal wastewater treatment Diana Paola, the inadequate management and disposal of wastewater and the implementation of sophisticated treatment systems is the decentralisation in wastewater treatment. In this article, it is proposed an overview of the state of the art

  20. Advance Refundings of Municipal Bonds Columbia Business School

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Sadeh, Norman M.

    Advance Refundings of Municipal Bonds Andrew Ang Columbia Business School and NBER Richard C. Green of Vineer Bhansali, Trevor Harris, Tal Heppenstall, Andrew Kalotay, Kemp Lewis, Paul Luhmann, Matt of colleagues, especially Jennifer Carpenter, Dan Li, Norman Sch¨urhoff, and Chester Spatt, along with seminar

  1. Aluminum Waste Reaction Indicators in a Municipal Solid Waste Landfill

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Aluminum Waste Reaction Indicators in a Municipal Solid Waste Landfill Timothy D. Stark, F.ASCE1 landfills may contain aluminum from residential and commercial solid waste, industrial waste, and aluminum pro- duction wastes. Some aluminum-bearing waste materials, particularly aluminum production wastes

  2. Treated wastewater discharged from municipal wastewater treatment plants (WWTPs) contains

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Fay, Noah

    Treated wastewater discharged from municipal wastewater treatment plants (WWTPs) contains to provide rapid, field-ready, inexpen- sive testing of these chemicals in wastewater is also needed estrogenic chemicals, and 2) develop sensor technology for the rapid measure- ment in wastewater of two key

  3. A municipal guide to least cost utility planning

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Not Available

    1992-03-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The recent track record of ``traditional`` electricity planning, which entails selection of supply side resources to meet forecasted demand, has not been good. There are numerous examples of utilities incorrectly forecasting demand and over-building generating capacity while others underestimated growth and have had to cut demand and find alternate power sources to avoid outages. A potential solution to this problem is the continuing development of Least Cost Utility Plannning (LCUP). Regulatory commissions, consumer advocates and utilities are increasingly relying an LCUP as the most responsible way to avoid construction of new capacity and alleviate anticipated shortages caused by cancellation of construction projects, load growth, or natural replacement of aging capacity. The purpose of this report is to provide municipalities a starting point for evaluating their servicing utilities or states` least cost plan. This was accomplished by: Identifying key issues in LCUP; reviewing examples of the collaborative and classic approaches to LCUP in Illinois, California, New York State and Michigan; cataloging municipal authorities and strategies which can influence or support LCUP activities. Results of the project indicate that through a basic understanding of LCUP processes and issues, municipalities will be in a better position to influence plans or, if necessary, intervene in regulatory proceedings where plans are adopted. Constraints to municipal involvement in LCUP include statutory limitations, resource constraints, and a lack of knowledge of indirect authorities that support the LCUP process.

  4. Data summary of municipal solid waste management alternatives

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Not Available

    1992-10-01T23:59:59.000Z

    This appendix contains the numerically indexed bibliography for the complete group of reports on municipal solid waste management alternatives. The list references information on the following topics: mass burn technologies, RDF technologies, fluidized bed combustion, pyrolysis and gasification of MSW, materials recovery- recycling technologies, sanitary landfills, composting and anaerobic digestion of MSW.

  5. Data summary of municipal solid waste management alternatives

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Not Available

    1992-10-01T23:59:59.000Z

    This appendix contains the alphabetically indexed bibliography for the complete group of reports on municipal waste management alternatives. The references are listed for each of the following topics: mass burn technologies, RDF technologies, fluidized-bed combustion, pyrolysis and gasification of MSW, materials recovery- recycling technologies, sanitary landfills, composting, and anaerobic digestion of MSW.

  6. Data summary of municipal solid waste management alternatives

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Not Available

    1992-10-01T23:59:59.000Z

    This appendix contains background information, technical descriptions, economic data, mass and energy balances, and information on environmental releases for the refuse derived fuels (RDF) option in municipal solid waste management alternatives. Demonstration programs at St. Louis, Missouri; Franklin, Ohio; and Delaware are discussed. Information on pellet production and cofiring with coal is also presented.

  7. Configurable Process Models: Experiences from a Municipality Case Study

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    van der Aalst, Wil

    Configurable Process Models: Experiences from a Municipality Case Study Florian Gottschalk1 , Teun.larosa@qut.edu.au Abstract. Configurable process models integrate different variants of a business process into a single model. Through configuration users of such models can then combine the variants to derive a process

  8. Development of risk assessment methodology for municipal sludge incineration

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Not Available

    1990-10-01T23:59:59.000Z

    This is one of a series of reports that present methodologies for assessing the potential risks to humans or other organisms from the disposal or reuse of municipal sludge. The sludge management practices addressed by the series include land application practices, distribution and marketing programs, landfilling, surface disposal, incineration and ocean disposal. In particular, these reports provide methods for evaluating potential health and environmental risks from toxic chemicals that may be present in sludge. The document addresses risks from chemicals associated with incineration of municipal sludge. These proposed risk assessment procedures are designed as tools to assist in the development of regulations for sludge management practices. The procedures are structured to allow calculation of technical criteria for sludge disposal/reuse options based on the potential for adverse health or environmental impacts. The criteria may address management practices (such as site design or process control specifications), limits on sludge disposal rates or limits on toxic chemical concentrations in the sludge.

  9. Municipal Waste Combustion (New Mexico) | Department of Energy

    Energy Savers [EERE]

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Google Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Delicious RankCombustion |EnergyonSupport0.pdf5 OPAM SEMIANNUAL REPORTMAMayCrossColoradoMotionMunicipal Waste

  10. About the DOE Municipal Solid-State Street Lighting Consortium | Department

    Broader source: Energy.gov (indexed) [DOE]

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE:1 First Use of Energy for All Purposes (Fuel and Nonfuel),Feet) Year Jan Feb Mar Apr May Jun Jul(Summary) "ofEarly Career Scientists' ResearchThe Office ofReporting (Connecticut) | Department ofproject fromOpen data

  11. Anchorage Municipal Light and Power (Alaska) EIA Revenue and Sales - April

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Google Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home5b9fcbce19 NoPublic Utilities Address: 160 East 300Algoil JumpAltergyExperiments | OpenThe TomovesFebruary 2009 |October

  12. Anchorage Municipal Light and Power (Alaska) EIA Revenue and Sales - August

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Google Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home5b9fcbce19 NoPublic Utilities Address: 160 East 300Algoil JumpAltergyExperiments | OpenThe TomovesFebruary 2009 |October2008 |

  13. Anchorage Municipal Light and Power (Alaska) EIA Revenue and Sales - July

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Google Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home5b9fcbce19 NoPublic Utilities Address: 160 East 300Algoil JumpAltergyExperiments | OpenThe TomovesFebruary 2009 |October2008

  14. Anchorage Municipal Light and Power (Alaska) EIA Revenue and Sales - June

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Google Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home5b9fcbce19 NoPublic Utilities Address: 160 East 300Algoil JumpAltergyExperiments | OpenThe TomovesFebruary 2009 |October20082008

  15. Anchorage Municipal Light and Power (Alaska) EIA Revenue and Sales - March

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Google Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home5b9fcbce19 NoPublic Utilities Address: 160 East 300Algoil JumpAltergyExperiments | OpenThe TomovesFebruary 2009

  16. Anchorage Municipal Light and Power (Alaska) EIA Revenue and Sales - March

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Google Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home5b9fcbce19 NoPublic Utilities Address: 160 East 300Algoil JumpAltergyExperiments | OpenThe TomovesFebruary 20092009 | Open

  17. Anchorage Municipal Light and Power (Alaska) EIA Revenue and Sales - May

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Google Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home5b9fcbce19 NoPublic Utilities Address: 160 East 300Algoil JumpAltergyExperiments | OpenThe TomovesFebruary 20092009 | Open2008 |

  18. MidAmerican Energy (Electric) - Municipal Solid-State Lighting Grant

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Google Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data CenterFranconia, Virginia: Energy Resources Jump to:46 -Energieprojekte GmbH Jump to:Michigan: EnergyChina FinalMicrostaqWest EnergyProgram

  19. Frequently Asked Questions About the Municipal Solid-State Street Lighting

    Broader source: Energy.gov (indexed) [DOE]

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE:1 First Use of Energy for All Purposes (Fuel and Nonfuel),Feet) Year Jan Feb Mar Apr May Jun Jul(Summary) "ofEarly Career Scientists'Montana.ProgramJulie A.Energy Significant2.AccomplishmentsConsortium | Department

  20. Energy Recovery from Municipal Solid WasteEnergy Recovery from Municipal Solid Waste WASTE TO ENERGY PLANT AT VIJAYAWADAWASTE TO ENERGY PLANT AT VIJAYAWADA

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Columbia University

    Energy Recovery from Municipal Solid WasteEnergy Recovery from Municipal Solid Waste WASTE TO ENERGY PLANT AT VIJAYAWADAWASTE TO ENERGY PLANT AT VIJAYAWADA #12;UNIQUE PROCESSUNIQUE PROCESS DEVELOPED PRIMARY SIZE REDUCTION Stones / Inert Soil Enricher COARSE FLUFF SORTING Large stone, Tyres etc. HOT AIR

  1. Taiwan`s experience with municipal waste recycling

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Lee, C.H. [Da-Yeh Univ., Chang-Hwa (Taiwan, Province of China)

    1998-12-31T23:59:59.000Z

    Currently, each person on the average produces 1.15 kg of the municipal waste per day and a total of 9 million metric tons were generated annually in Taiwan. The disposal of such a huge amount of waste presents tremendous challenge for the island due to the scarcity of landfills and incineration facilities available locally. EPA of Taiwan, R.O.C. thus takes an active role in promoting waste recycling to reduce the garbage produced in municipalities. In order to efficiently utilize the government`s human and financial resources used in recycling, started from January 31, 1989, EPA has mandated the producer responsibility recycling program for several designated post-consumer products such as PET, PVC bottles, scrap tires, scrap motor vehicles, etc. Producer responsibility recycling program specifies that the manufacturers, importers and sellers of these designated products have the responsibility to retrieve their products and recycle them properly. Several negative effects have been encountered while the implementation of this producer responsibility recycling program in Taiwan which resulted in a modification of this recycling program recently. This paper presents the encountered experiences on the implementation of municipal waste recycling program in Taiwan.

  2. Blazing the energy trail: The Municipal Energy Management Program

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Not Available

    1994-12-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The Urban Consortium Energy Task Force pioneers energy and environmental solutions for US cities and counties. When local officials participate in the task force, they open the door to many resources for their communities. The US is entering a period of renewed interest in energy management. Improvements in municipal energy management allow communities to free up energy operating funds to meet other needs. These improvements can even keep energy dollars in the community through the purchase of services and products used to save energy. With this idea in mind, the US Department of Energy Municipal Energy Management Program has funded more than 250 projects that demonstrate innovative energy technologies and management tools in cities and counties through the Urban Consortium Energy Task Force (UCETF). UCETF helps the US Department of Energy foster municipal energy management through networks with cities and urbanized counties and through links with three national associations of local governments. UCETF provides funding for projects that demonstrate innovative and realistic technologies, strategies, and methods that help urban America become more energy efficient and environmentally responsible. The task force provides technical support to local jurisdictions selected for projects. UCETF also shares information about successful energy management projects with cities and counties throughout the country via technical reports and project papers. The descriptions included here capsulize a sample of UCETF`s demonstration projects around the country.

  3. Light Computing

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Gordon Chalmers

    2006-10-13T23:59:59.000Z

    A configuration of light pulses is generated, together with emitters and receptors, that allows computing. The computing is extraordinarily high in number of flops per second, exceeding the capability of a quantum computer for a given size and coherence region. The emitters and receptors are based on the quantum diode, which can emit and detect individual photons with high accuracy.

  4. Removal of nitrogen and phosphorus from reject water of municipal wastewater treatment plant.

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Guo, Chenghong

    2011-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    ??Reject water, the liquid fraction produced after dewatering of anaerobically digested activated sludge on a municipal wastewater treatment plant (MWWTP), contains from 750 to 1500… (more)

  5. Community Renewable Energy Success Stories Webinar: Exploring How Municipal Utilities Fund Solar Energy Projects (text version)

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE)

    Below is the text version of the webinar titled "Exploring How Municipal Utilities Fund Solar Energy Projects," originally presented on February 19, 2013.

  6. Labor-Management Cooperation on Teaching and Learning Cleveland Municipal School District

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Peace, Nancy E.

    2003-06-27T23:59:59.000Z

    The Cleveland Municipal School District and the Cleveland Teachers Union have established a collaborative relationship that has enabled them to work jointly on a ...

  7. Standards for Municipal Small Wind Regulations and Small Wind Model Wind Ordinance

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    In July 2008, New Hampshire enacted legislation designed to prevent municipalities from adopting ordinances or regulations that place unreasonable limits or hinder the performance of wind energy...

  8. American Municipal Power (Public Electric Utilities)- Commercial Efficiency Smart Program (Ohio)

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    Efficiency Smart™ provides energy efficiency incentives and technical assistance to the American Municipal Power, Inc (AMP) network of public power communities. The Efficiency Smart service...

  9. American Municipal Power (Public Electric Utilities)- Residential Efficiency Smart Program (Ohio)

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    Efficiency Smart ™ provides energy efficiency incentives to the American Municipal Power, Inc (AMP) network of public power communities. Efficiency Smart assists residential, commercial , and...

  10. E-Print Network 3.0 - akwapim south municipality Sample Search...

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    and Ecology 2 Vineyard Boulevard Vineyard Boulevard Summary: - Kalanimoku basement, enter off Punchbowl F - Municipal building off of South Beretania G - Lot behind bus... stop...

  11. An Economic Assessment of Market-Based Approaches to Regulating the Municipal Solid Waste Stream

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Menell, Peter S.

    2004-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Rates for Municipal Solid Waste: Implementation Experience,RCRA) and the Hazardous and Solid Waste Amendments of 1984,by the EPA, states, and solid waste organizations throughout

  12. EPA RE-Powering America's Lands: Kansas City Municipal Farm Site...

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    EPA RE-Powering America's Lands: Kansas City Municipal Farm Site -- Biomass Power Analysis Re-direct Destination: Through the RE-Powering America's Land initiative, the economic...

  13. E-Print Network 3.0 - anaerobically digested municipal Sample...

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    This publication provides a general overview of anaero- Summary: . Scrubbing the biogas with iron-impregnated wood chips has been used in anaerobic digesters in municipal......

  14. Comprehensive Municipal Solid Waste Management, Resource Recovery, and Conservation Act (Texas)

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    This Act encourages the establishment of regional waste management facilities and the cooperation of local waste management entities in order to streamline the management of municipal solid waste...

  15. Data summary of municipal solid waste management alternatives

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Not Available

    1992-10-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Composting of municipal solid waste (MSW) is experiencing a dramatic resurgence in the US. Several factors are driving this interest in composting including landfill closures, resistance to siting of new landfills and combustion facilities, public support for recycling, and, in general, the overall costs of waste disposal. Starting with only one demonstration project operating in 1980, the total number of projects in the US has increased to sixteen by July 1991. There are approximately 100 projects in some form of planning or development. One reason some communities are sekniing composting as a waste management option is that sewage sludge and MSW can be co-composted thereby recycling a major portion of the overall municipal waste stream. In 1991, five of the operating facilities have incorporated sludge, with a number of new plants also developing systems with this capability. Generic composting technologies are described followed by a comprehensive discussion of operating facilities. Information is presented on the type of processing system, capital and operating costs, and the status of compost markets. A discussion is also included on the operational problems and challenges faced by composting facility developers and operators. Also presented are facility energy usage and a discussion of the energy implications from the use of compost as a soil and fertilizer replacement. A discussion of cost sensitivity shows how facility costs are impacted by waste handling procedures, regulations, reject disposal, and finance charges. The status of, and potential for, integrating composting into the overall waste management strategy is also discussed, including composting's contribution to municipal recycling goals, and the status of public acceptance of the technology. Finally information and research needs are summarized.

  16. A legislator`s guide to municipal solid waste management

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Starkey, D.; Hill, K.

    1996-08-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The purpose of this guide is to allow individual state legislators to gain a better understanding of municipal solid waste (MSW) management issues in general, and examine the applicability of these concerns to their state. This guide incorporates a discussion of MSW management issues and a comprehensive overview of the components of an integrated solid waste management system. Major MSW topics discussed include current management issues affecting states, federal activities, and state laws and local activities. Solid waste characteristics and management approaches are also detailed.

  17. Stuart Municipal Utilities Wind Farm | Open Energy Information

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Google Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home5b9fcbce19 No revisionEnvReviewNonInvasiveExplorationUT-g GrantAtlas (PACAOpen EnergyInsulated PanelStuart Municipal Utilities

  18. Iowa Association of Municipal Utilities | Open Energy Information

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Google Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home5b9fcbce19 No revision hasInformation Earth's Heat JumpInc Place: EdenOverview Of TheIntevacAssociation of Municipal

  19. Lighting Inventory Lighting Theatre and Drama

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Indiana University

    Lighting Inventory Lighting Theatre and Drama Description Totals R.Halls Wells- Metz Light ERS ETC SourceFour 25 25 50 degree ERS Strand Lighting 64 14 24 12 14 36 degree ERS ETC Source Four 15 15 36 degree ERS Strand Lighting 124 60 58 2 4 26 degree ERS ETC SourceFour 2 2 26 degree ERS Strand

  20. GHG emission factors developed for the collection, transport and landfilling of municipal waste in South African municipalities

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Friedrich, Elena, E-mail: Friedriche@ukzn.ac.za [CRECHE Centre for Research in Environmental, Coastal and Hydrological Engineering, School of Engineering, Civil Engineering Programme, University of KwaZulu-Natal, Howard College Campus, Durban (South Africa); Trois, Cristina [CRECHE Centre for Research in Environmental, Coastal and Hydrological Engineering, School of Engineering, Civil Engineering Programme, University of KwaZulu-Natal, Howard College Campus, Durban (South Africa)

    2013-04-15T23:59:59.000Z

    Highlights: ? An average GHG emission factor for the collection and transport of municipal solid waste in South Africa is calculated. ? A range of GHG emission factors for different types of landfills (including dumps) in South Africa are calculated. ? These factors are compared internationally and their implications for South Africa and developing countries are discussed . ? Areas for new research are highlighted. - Abstract: Greenhouse gas (GHG) emission factors are used with increased frequency for the accounting and reporting of GHG from waste management. However, these factors have been calculated for developed countries of the Northern Hemisphere and are lacking for developing countries. This paper shows how such factors have been developed for the collection, transport and landfilling of municipal waste in South Africa. As such it presents a model on how international results and methodology can be adapted and used to calculate country-specific GHG emission factors from waste. For the collection and transport of municipal waste in South Africa, the average diesel consumption is around 5 dm{sup 3} (litres) per tonne of wet waste and the associated GHG emissions are about 15 kg CO{sub 2} equivalents (CO{sub 2} e). Depending on the type of landfill, the GHG emissions from the landfilling of waste have been calculated to range from ?145 to 1016 kg CO{sub 2} e per tonne of wet waste, when taking into account carbon storage, and from 441 to 2532 kg CO{sub 2} e per tonne of wet waste, when carbon storage is left out. The highest emission factor per unit of wet waste is for landfill sites without landfill gas collection and these are the dominant waste disposal facilities in South Africa. However, cash strapped municipalities in Africa and the developing world will not be able to significantly upgrade these sites and reduce their GHG burdens if there is no equivalent replacement of the Clean Development Mechanism (CDM) resulting from the Kyoto agreement. Other low cost avenues need to be investigated to suit local conditions, in particular landfill covers which enhance methane oxidation.

  1. Data summary of municipal solid waste management alternatives

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Not Available

    1992-10-01T23:59:59.000Z

    This appendix provides information on fluidized-bed combustion (FBC) technology as it has been applied to municipal waste combustion (MWC). A review of the literature was conducted to determine: (1) to what extent FBC technology has been applied to MWC, in terms of number and size of units was well as technology configuration; (2) the operating history of facilities employing FBC technology; and (3) the cost of these facilities as compared to conventional MSW installations. Where available in the literature, data on operating and performance characteristics are presented. Tabular comparisons of facility operating/cost data and emissions data have been complied and are presented. The literature review shows that FBC technology shows considerable promise in terms of providing improvements over conventional technology in areas such as NOx and acid gas control, and ash leachability. In addition, the most likely configuration to be applied to the first large scale FBC dedicated to municipal solid waste (MSW) will employ circulating bed (CFB) technology. Projected capital costs for the Robbins, Illinois 1600 ton per day CFB-based waste-to-energy facility are competitive with conventional systems, in the range of $125,000 per ton per day of MSW receiving capacity.

  2. Municipal solid waste management in Rasht City, Iran

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Alavi Moghadam, M.R. [Department of Civil and Environmental Engineering, Amirkabir University of Technology, Tehran (Iran, Islamic Republic of)], E-mail: alavi@aut.ac.ir; Mokhtarani, N. [Jahesh Kimia Company, No. 26, Sadeghi St., Azadi Avenue, Tehran (Iran, Islamic Republic of)], E-mail: mokhtarani@jaheshkimia.com; Mokhtarani, B. [Chemistry and Chemical Engineering Research Center, P.O. Box 14335-186 Tehran (Iran, Islamic Republic of)], E-mail: mokhtaranib@ccerci.ac.ir

    2009-01-15T23:59:59.000Z

    Pollution and health risks generated by improper solid waste management are important issues concerning environmental management in developing countries. In most cities, the use of open dumps is common for the disposal of wastes, resulting in soil and water resource contamination by leachate in addition to odors and fires. Solid waste management infrastructure and services in developing countries are far from achieving basic standards in terms of hygiene and efficient collection and disposal. This paper presents an overview of current municipal solid waste management in Rasht city, Gilan Province, Iran, and provides recommendations for system improvement. The collected data of different MSW functional elements were based on data from questionnaires, visual observations of the authors, available reports and several interviews and meetings with responsible persons. Due to an increase in population and changes in lifestyle, the quantity and quality of MSW in Rasht city has changed. Lack of resources, infrastructure, suitable planning, leadership, and public awareness are the main challenges of MSW management of Rasht city. However, the present situation of solid waste management in this city, which generates more than 400 tons/d, has been improved since the establishment of an organization responsible only for solid waste management. Source separation of wastes and construction of a composting plant are the two main activities of the Rasht Municipality in recent years.

  3. Co-firing coal and municipal solid waste

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Demirbas, A. [Sila Science, Trabzon (Turkey)

    2008-07-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The aim of this study was to experimentally investigate how different the organic fraction of municipal solid waste (OFMSW) or municipal solid waste (MSW) utilizing strategies affects the gas emission in simple fluidized bed combustion (FBC) of biomass. In this study, ground OFMSW and pulverized coal (PC) were used for co-firing tests. The tests were carried out in a bench-scale bubbling FBC. Coal and bio-waste fuels are quite different in composition. Ash composition of the bio-waste fuels is fundamentally different from ash composition of the coal. Chlorine (Cl) in the MSW may affect operation by corrosion. Ash deposits reduce heat transfer and also may result in severe corrosion at high temperatures. Nitrogen (N) and carbon ) assessments can play an important role in a strategy to control carbon dioxide (CO{sub 2}) and nitrogen oxide (NOx) emissions while raising revenue. Regulations such as subsidies for oil, liquid petroleum gas (LPG) for natural gas powered vehicles, and renewables, especially biomass lines, to reduce emissions may be more cost-effective than assessments. Research and development (RD) resources are driven by energy policy goals and can change the competitiveness of renewables, especially solid waste. The future supply of co-firing depends on energy prices and technical progress, both of which are driven by energy policy priorities.

  4. Light Source

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE:1 First Use of Energy for All Purposes (Fuel and Nonfuel),Feet) Year Jan Feb Mar Apr MayAtmospheric Optical Depth7-1D: VegetationEquipment Surfaces and Interfaces Sample6, 2011 LawrenceEfeedstocks and the climateLife a Light

  5. Light' Darkness

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE:1 First Use of Energy for All Purposes (Fuel and Nonfuel),Feet) Year Jan Feb Mar Apr MayAtmospheric Optical Depth7-1D: VegetationEquipment Surfaces and Interfaces Sample6, 2011 LawrenceEfeedstocks and the climateLifeLight to

  6. Residential Lighting

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE:1 First Use of Energy for All Purposes (Fuel and Nonfuel),Feet) Year Jan Feb Mar Apr MayAtmosphericNuclear Security Administration the1 -the Mid-Infrared atEffectquestionnairesU.S. EnergyEnergy EfficiencyLighting

  7. ORIGINAL ARTICLE Shear strength of municipal solid waste for stability analyses

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    ORIGINAL ARTICLE Shear strength of municipal solid waste for stability analyses Timothy D. Stark � solid waste (MSW) using the back analysis of failed waste slopes as well as field and laboratory test analyses. Keywords Municipal solid waste Á Shear strength Á Slope stability Á Landfill Introduction

  8. Sepiolite as an Alternative Liner Material in Municipal Solid Waste Landfills

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Aydilek, Ahmet

    Sepiolite as an Alternative Liner Material in Municipal Solid Waste Landfills Yucel Guney1 ; Savas in municipal solid waste landfills. However, natural clays may not always provide good contaminant sorption in solid waste landfills. DOI: 10.1061/ ASCE 1090-0241 2008 134:8 1166 CE Database subject headings

  9. Dechlorination ability of municipal waste incineration fly ash for polychlorinated phenols

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Cirkva, Vladimir

    Dechlorination ability of municipal waste incineration fly ash for polychlorinated phenols Leona incineration fly ash at 200 °C under nitrogen atmosphere. Thermodynamic calculations have been carried out ash produced by municipal waste incineration (MWI) have clearly demonstrated that MWI fly ash can

  10. MULTIPLE-SCALE DYNAMIC LEACHING OF A MUNICIPAL SOLID WASTE INCINERATION ASH

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Paris-Sud XI, Université de

    1 MULTIPLE-SCALE DYNAMIC LEACHING OF A MUNICIPAL SOLID WASTE INCINERATION ASH Waste Management (in source such as municipal solid waste (MSW) incineration ash, requires a knowledge of the so is proposed. Key words: Leaching, Waste, Incineration ash, Chromium, L/S ratio, Modelling. hal-00656672

  11. Seepage Test Loss Results The Main Canal Valley Municipal Utility District No. 2

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Leigh, E.; Fipps, G.

    TR-326 2008 Seepage Test Loss Results The Main Canal Valley Municipal Utility District No. 2 Eric Leigh Texas AgriLife Extension Associate, Biological and Agricultural Engineering, College Station Guy... Fipps Texas AgriLife Extension Professor and Extension Agricultural Engineer, Biological and Agricultural Engineering, College Station January 21, 2004 SEEPAGE LOSS TEST RESULTS THE MAIN CANAL VALLEY MUNICIPAL UTILITY DISTRICT...

  12. The role of cemeteries in the development of municipal and national military parks: the cemetery-park connection

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    White, Carlton J

    1995-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    This thesis examines how cemeteries, both municipal and military, have developed in America based on internal and external influences and the role that they have played in the development of municipal and national military parks, respectively...

  13. The Effects of Recharge, Agricultural Pumping and Municipal Pumping on Springflow and Pumping Lifts Within the Edwards Aquifer

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    McCarl, Bruce A.

    The Effects of Recharge, Agricultural Pumping and Municipal Pumping on Springflow and Pumping Lifts . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 16 The Effects of Recharge and Pumping Over Time . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 16 The Effects of Agricultural Pumping, Municipal Pumping and Recharge on Comal Springflow

  14. Arnold Schwarzenegger LIGHTING RESEARCH PROGRAM

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    and Connie Buchan with Sacramento Municipal Utility District (SMUD). Element 4 Lead: John Kesselring for Energy Efficiency; Eric Stubee, SAIC; Don Frey and Judie Porter, Architectural Energy

  15. Light Water Reactor Sustainability

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    3 Light Water Reactor Sustainability Program ACCOMPLISHMENTS REPORT 2013 Accomplishments Report | Light Water Reactor Sustainability 2 T he mission of the Light Water Reactor...

  16. Light Water Reactor Sustainability

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    4 Light Water Reactor Sustainability ACCOMPLISHMENTS REPORT 2014 Accomplishments Report | Light Water Reactor Sustainability 2 T he mission of the Light Water Reactor...

  17. International Best Practices for Pre-Processing and Co-Processing Municipal Solid Waste and Sewage Sludge in the Cement Industry

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Hasanbeigi, Ali

    2013-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Co-processing Municipal Solid Waste and Sewage Sludge in theno date. “Integrated Solid Waste Management. ” Presentationincineration of Municipal Solid Waste in Cement Industry. :

  18. Study of the impacts of regulations affecting the acceptance of Integrated Community Energy Systems: public utility, energy facility siting and municipal franchising regulatory programs in Ohio. Preliminary background report

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Feurer, D A; Weaver, C L; Gallagher, K C; Hejna, D; Rielley, K J

    1980-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The Public Utilities Commission (PUCO) is a body created by the Ohio State legislature to administer the provisions of the Ohio Public Utilities Act. It is composed of three commissioners appointed by the governor with the advice and consent of the senate. Once appointed, a commissioner serves for a six-year period. The PUCO is vested with the power and jurisdiction to supervise and regulate public utilities and railroads... . The term public utility includes every corporation, company, co-partnership, person or association, their lessees, trustees, or receivers, as defined in the Ohio Code. Among the various services enumerated in the Code under the definition of public utility are an electric light company; a gas company; a pipeline company transporting gas, oil or coal; a waterworks company; a heating or cooling company. The power to regulate public utilities is shared by the PUCO and municipal governments. The municipal regulatory authority is derived from the Ohio Constitution, statutory provisions, and municipal franchising authority. Public utility regulatory statutes, energy facility siting programs, and municipal franchising authority are examined to identify how they may impact on the ability of an organization, whether or not it be a regulated utility, to construct and operate an ICES.

  19. Control of air pollution emissions from municipal waste combustors

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Kolgroe, J.D. [Environmental Protection Agency, Research Triangle Park, NC (United States). National Risk Management Research Lab.; Licata, A. [Licata Energy and Environmental Consultants, Inc., Yonkers, NY (United States)

    1996-09-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The November 1990 Clear Air Act Amendments (CAAAs) directed EPA to establish municipal waste combustor (MWC) emissions limits for particulate matter, opacity, hydrogen chloride, sulfur dioxide, nitrogen oxides, carbon monoxide, dioxins, dibenzofurans, cadmium, lead, and mercury. Revised MWC air pollution regulations were subsequently proposed by EPA on September 20, 1994, and promulgated on December 19, 1995. The MWC emission limits were based on the application of maximum achievable control technology (MACT). This paper provides a brief overview of MWC technologies, a summary of EPA`s revised air pollution rules for MWCs, a review of current knowledge concerning formation and control of polychlorinated dibenzo-p-dioxins and polychlorinated dibenzofurans, and a discussion of the behavior and control of mercury in MWC flue gases. 56 refs., 11 figs., 3 tabs.

  20. Cleaning of municipal-waste incinerator flue gas in Europe

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Brna, T.G.; Ellison, W.; Jorgensen, C.

    1988-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    This paper gives an overview of a substantial ongoing air-pollution-control program in West Germany, as it relates to emission of acid gases and other pollutants from municipal-refuse incineration. It details emission regulations, control means used, and technical advancements accomplished and foreseen. It gives results and the approximate effectiveness of various controls in reducing acid gas, trace organic, trace heavy metal, and particulate-matter emissions. Available data indicate that lime spray dryer/electrostatic precipitator (ESP) and spray-dryer/fabric-filter systems can attain 70-90% acid-gas removal and 97% or more control of dioxins and furans, while limiting mercury emissions to about 0.01-0.07 mg/N-cu m (dry). In comparison, some wet-scrubber systems can attain 90-plus % acid-gas removal with substantial removal of NOx and comparable control of dioxins and furans, while possibly providing consistently lower mercury emissions.

  1. Process modeling of hydrogen production from municipal solid waste

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Thorsness, C.B.

    1995-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The ASPEN PLUS commercial simulation software has been used to develop a process model for a conceptual process to convert municipal solid waste (MSW) to hydrogen. The process consists of hydrothermal treatment of the MSW in water to create a slurry suitable as feedstock for an oxygen blown Texaco gasifier. A method of reducing the complicated MSW feed material to a manageable set of components is outlined along with a framework for modeling the stoichiometric changes associated with the hydrothermal treatment process. Model results indicate that 0.672 kmol/s of hydrogen can be produced from the processing of 30 kg/s (2600 tonne/day) of raw MSW. A number of variations on the basic processing parameters are explored and indicate that there is a clear incentive to reduce the inert fraction in the processed slurry feed and that cofeeding a low value heavy oil may be economically attractive.

  2. Municipal solid waste combustion: Fuel testing and characterization

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Bushnell, D.J.; Canova, J.H.; Dadkhah-Nikoo, A.

    1990-10-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The objective of this study is to screen and characterize potential biomass fuels from waste streams. This will be accomplished by determining the types of pollutants produced while burning selected municipal waste, i.e., commercial mixed waste paper residential (curbside) mixed waste paper, and refuse derived fuel. These materials will be fired alone and in combination with wood, equal parts by weight. The data from these experiments could be utilized to size pollution control equipment required to meet emission standards. This document provides detailed descriptions of the testing methods and evaluation procedures used in the combustion testing and characterization project. The fuel samples will be examined thoroughly from the raw form to the exhaust emissions produced during the combustion test of a densified sample.

  3. Sustainable Office Lighting Options

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Massachusetts at Amherst, University of

    Sustainable Office Lighting Options Task Lighting: Task lighting is a localized method of lighting a workspace so that additional, unnecessary lighting is eliminated, decreasing energy usage and costs. Illumination levels in the targeted work areas are higher with task lighting than with the ambient levels

  4. Briquette comprising caking coal and municipal solid waste

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Schulz, H.W.

    1980-09-30T23:59:59.000Z

    Briquettes of specified geometry and composition are produced to serve as feed material or ''burden'' in a moving-burden gasifier for the production of a synthesis or fuel gas from organic solid waste materials and coal, including especially, the so-called ''caking'' coals, as in the process of copending application number 675,918. The briquettes are formed from a well-blended mixture of shredded organic solid wastes, including especially, municipal solid waste (Msw) or biomass, and crushed caking coal, including coal fines. A binder material may or may not be required, depending on the coal/msw ratio and the compaction pressure employed. The briquettes may be extruded, stamped, or pressed, employing compaction pressures in excess of 1000 psi, and preferably in the range of 2000 to 10,000 psi. The briquettes may be circular, polygonal, or irregular in cross-section; they may be solid, or concentrically perforated to form a hollow cylinder or polygon; they may be formed into saddles, pillows or doughnuts. The ratio of caking coal to shredded municipal solid waste is controlled so that each part of the predominantly cellulosic organic solid waste will be blended with 0.5 to 3.0 parts of crushed coal. Suitable binder materials include dewatered sewage slude (Dss), ''black liquor'' rich in lignin derivatives, black strap molasses, waste oil, and starch. The binder concentration is preferably in the range of 2 to 6 percent. If coals high in sulfur content are to be processed, at least a stoichiometric equivalent of dolomite may be included in the briquette formulation to eliminate a major fraction of the sulfur with the slag.

  5. The Ninth Annual DOE Solid-State Lighting Market Development Workshop

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    Nearly 200 lighting leaders from across North America gathered in Detroit from November 12–13, 2014, for the ninth annual Solid-State Lighting (SSL) Market Development Workshop, hosted by DOE. The diverse audience spanned the spectrum of SSL stakeholders, representing industry, government, efficiency organizations, utilities, municipalities, designers, specifiers, retailers, and distributors. The workshop’s purpose was to create a forum for airing issues and questions regarding today’s solid-state lighting products, and identifying strategies that will speed market adoption.

  6. Lighting Options for Homes.

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Baker, W.S.

    1991-04-01T23:59:59.000Z

    This report covers many aspects of various lighting options for homes. Types of light sources described include natural light, artificial light, incandescent lamps, fluorescent lamps, and high intensity discharge lamps. A light source selection guide gives the physical characteristics of these, design considerations, and common applications. Color, strategies for efficient lighting, and types of lighting are discussed. There is one section giving tips for various situations in specific rooms. Rooms and types of fixtures are shown on a matrix with watts saved by using the recommended type lighting for that room and room location. A major emphasis of this report is saving energy by utilizing the most suitable, recommended lighting option. (BN)

  7. Mobile lighting apparatus

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Roe, George Michael; Klebanoff, Leonard Elliott; Rea, Gerald W; Drake, Robert A; Johnson, Terry A; Wingert, Steven John; Damberger, Thomas A; Skradski, Thomas J; Radley, Christopher James; Oros, James M; Schuttinger, Paul G; Grupp, David J; Prey, Stephen Carl

    2013-05-14T23:59:59.000Z

    A mobile lighting apparatus includes a portable frame such as a moveable trailer or skid having a light tower thereon. The light tower is moveable from a stowed position to a deployed position. A hydrogen-powered fuel cell is located on the portable frame to provide electrical power to an array of the energy efficient lights located on the light tower.

  8. RELATING TO LOCAL GOVERNMENT; ENACTING THE RENEWABLE ENERGY FINANCING DISTRICT ACT; AUTHORIZING MUNICIPALITIES AND

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Kammen, Daniel M.

    TO LOCAL GOVERNMENT; ENACTING THE RENEWABLE ENERGY FINANCING DISTRICT ACT; AUTHORIZING MUNICIPALITIES to encourage the development of distributed generation renewable energy sources and the installation. the creation and administration of renewable energy financing districts to facilitate the development

  9. Urban growth pattern and sustainable development: a comparative study of municipalities in the Seoul Metropolitan Region

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Paek, Seunggeun

    2006-10-30T23:59:59.000Z

    The main purpose of this study was to obtain a better understanding of the impact of urban growth and change on sustainability based on a comparative study of municipalities comprising Gyeonggi Province within the Seoul Metropolitan Region, Korea...

  10. River Falls Municipal Utilities- Non-Profit Energy Efficiency Rebate Program (Wisconsin)

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    River Falls Municipal Utility (RFMU) provides matching rebates to non-profit customers who participate and receive rebates through the Focus On Energy program. Incentives are available on a range...

  11. Municipal District Heating and Cooling Co-generation System Feasibility Research

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Zhang, W.; Guan, W.; Pan, Y.; Ding, G.; Song, X.; Zhang, Y.; Li, Y.; Wei, H.; He, Y.

    2006-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    In summer absorption refrigerating machines provide cold water using excess heat from municipal thermoelectric power plant through district heating pipelines, which reduces peak electric load from electricity networks in summer. The paper simulates...

  12. DE LA RUE AU PALAIS MUNICIPAL. LA GESTION DES CONFLITS SOCIAUX

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Boyer, Edmond

    #12;DE LA RUE AU PALAIS MUNICIPAL. LA GESTION DES CONFLITS SOCIAUX PAR LE PARTI DE LA RÉVOLUTION parti politique3 . Pour cette raison, le cas du Parti de la Révolution démocratique (PRD), au Mexique

  13. NEP.o. DETEmIINATION RECIPIENT:Oklahoma Municipal Power Authority

    Broader source: Energy.gov (indexed) [DOE]

    OFENERG. EERE PROJECT :VI ANAGE:VIENT ('EN rER NEP.o. DETEmIINATION RECIPIENT:Oklahoma Municipal Power Authority PROJECT TITLE: OKLAHOMA SEP ARRA - OMPA Large System Rebate...

  14. The role of SCADA in developing a lean enterprise for municipal wastewater operations

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Prutz, Stanley J

    2005-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Central to optimizing a wastewater system's operations is the collection of alarm and operational data from various remote locations throughout a municipality, hence the basic need for supervisory control and data acquisition ...

  15. Development of infrastructure asset management software solutions for municipalities in South Africa

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    von Holdt, Christopher James

    2009-05-15T23:59:59.000Z

    This Record of Study presents the development of infrastructure asset management software solutions for municipalities in South Africa. The study was performed within a multidisciplinary engineering consulting company in South Africa...

  16. Local action for the global environment : municipal government participation in a voluntary climate protection program

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Ravin, Amelia L., 1977-

    2004-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The Cities for Climate ProtectionTM (CCP) campaign is a voluntary environmental program for municipalities, which is increasingly being applied around the world by local governments taking action on climate change. This ...

  17. Energy Smart- Commercial and Industrial Energy Efficiency Rebate Program (20 Municipalities)

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    Franklin Energy Services has partnered with the Michigan Public Power Agency (MPPA), which is made up of 20 municipal utilities, to offer the Energy Smart Commercial and Industrial Energy...

  18. Saint Peter Municipal Utilities- Commercial and Industrial Energy Efficiency Rebate Program

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    Southern Minnesota Municipal Power Agency ([http://www.smmpa.com SMMPA]) is a joint-action agency which generates and sells reliable electricity at wholesale to its eighteen non-profit,...

  19. Solute transport under steady and transient conditions in biodegraded municipal solid waste

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Bendz, David; Singh, Vijay P.

    , Sweden Vijay P. Singh Department of Civil and Environmental Engineering, Louisiana State University, Baton Rouge Abstract. The transport of a conservative tracer (lithium) in a large (3.5 m 3) undisturbed municipal solid waste sample has been...

  20. Exploring How Municipal Utilities Fund Solar Energy Projects Webinar

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    This free webinar presented by the DOE Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy will take place on February 19, 2013, from 1-2:15 p.m. MST. It will provide information on Concord Light, the...

  1. An Evaluation of the Perceived Effectiveness of the Municipal Forester Institute on its Participants

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Kirk, Melanie Rena'

    2011-02-22T23:59:59.000Z

    AN EVALUATION OF THE PERCEIVED EFFECTIVENESS OF THE MUNICIPAL FORESTER INSTITUTE ON ITS PARTICIPANTS A Dissertation by MELANIE RENA? KIRK Submitted to the Office of Graduate Studies of Texas A&M University in partial... fulfillment of the requirements for the degree of DOCTOR OF PHILOSOPHY December 2009 Major Subject: Agricultural Leadership, Education, and Communications AN EVALUATION OF THE PERCEIVED EFFECTIVENESS OF THE MUNICIPAL FORESTER INSTITUTE...

  2. Acute and chronic toxicity of municipal landfill leachate as determined with bioassays and chemical analysis

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Schrab, Gregory Ernst

    1990-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    municipal landfill leachates were determined to have mean estimated cumulative cancer risks on the same order of magnitude (10 4) as leachates from co-disposal and hazardous waste landfills. The use of a battery of acute and chronic toxicity bioassays..., chemical analysis, and an estimated cancer risk calculation resulted in data providing evidence that municipal solid waste landfill leachates are as acutely and chronically toxic as co-disposal and hazardous waste landfill leachates. ACKNOWLEDGEMENTS...

  3. The importance of public relations to municipal parks and recreation departments in the State of Texas

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Hildebrandt, William Jon Edward

    2012-06-07T23:59:59.000Z

    THE IMPORTANCE OF PUBLIC RELATIONS TO MUNICIPAL PARKS AND RECREATION DEPARTMENTS IN THE STATE OF TEXAS A Thesis by WILLIAM JON EDWARD HILDEBRANDT Submitted to the Graduate College of Texas A&M University in partial fulfillment... of the requirement for the degree of MASTER OF SCIENCE August 1982 Major Subjects Recreation and Resources Development THE IMPORTANCE OF PUBLIC RELATIONS TO MUNICIPAL PARKS AND RECREATION DEPARTMENTS IN THE STATE OF TEXAS A Thesis by WILLIAM JON EDWARD...

  4. Economies of size in municipal water treatment technologies: Texas lower Rio Grande Valley

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Boyer, Christopher Neil

    2008-10-10T23:59:59.000Z

    ECONOMIES OF SIZE IN MUNICIPAL WATER TREATMENT TECHNOLOGIES: TEXAS LOWER RIO GRANDE VALLEY A Thesis by CHRISTOPHER NEIL BOYER Submitted to the Office of Graduate Studies of Texas A&M University in partial fulfillment of the requirements... for the degree of MASTER OF SCIENCE August 2008 Major Subject: Agricultural Economics ECONOMIES OF SIZE IN MUNICIPAL WATER TREATMENT TECHNOLOGIES: TEXAS LOWER RIO GRANDE VALLEY A Thesis by CHRISTOPHER NEIL BOYER Submitted to the Office of Graduate Studies...

  5. Integrating Enhanced Building Operations into Municipal Sustainability Programming: A Report from NYC

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Bobker, M.

    2007-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    . 2 The GHG Inventory showed over 75% of energy use to be attributable to buildings. PlaNYC2030 sets a reduction target of 30% of 2005 consumption. However, when taking projected urban growth into account, the reduction target is actually over.... Municipalities, large and small, have become a focal area for Greenhouse Gas (GHG) reduction commitments. Guided most often by the International Council of Local Environmental Initiatives (ICLEI), numerous municipalities have conducted GHG inventories...

  6. Use of Municipal Assistance Programs to Advance the Adoption of Solar Technologies (Note: Real One)

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    This report serves as a tool for municipalities and organizations that are exploring programs to facilitate the installation of solar energy technologies at the local level. The report discusses programs being implemented in Berkeley, San Francisco, and Madison. Program design considerations, lessons learned from program administrators, and recommendations to consider when designing a municipal assistance program are included, but no program design is prescribed. Recommendations should be customized to serve the needs of a specific market.

  7. EK101 Engineering Light Smart Lighting

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Bifano, Thomas

    EK101 Engineering Light Smart Lighting Homework for 9/10 1. Make an estimate (using if the patent is granted.) 3. What is a lumen? A lux? How are the two related? How would you use a lux meter, (Lux, Lumens/m2) Luminous Flux: Perceivable light power from a source, (Lumens) Use the lux meter

  8. Specific light in sculpture

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Powell, John William

    1989-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Specific light is defined as light from artificial or altered natural sources. The use and manipulation of light in three dimensional sculptural work is discussed in an historic and contemporary context. The author's work ...

  9. Data summary of municipal solid waste management alternatives

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Not Available

    1992-10-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The enthusiasm for and commitment to recycling of municipal solid wastes is based on several intuitive benefits: Conservation of landfill capacity; Conservation of non-renewable natural resources and energy sources; Minimization of the perceived potential environmental impacts of MSW combustion and landfilling; Minimization of disposal costs, both directly and through material resale credits. In this discussion, recycling'' refers to materials recovered from the waste stream. It excludes scrap materials that are recovered and reused during industrial manufacturing processes and prompt industrial scrap. Materials recycling is an integral part of several solid waste management options. For example, in the preparation of refuse-derived fuel (RDF), ferrous metals are typically removed from the waste stream both before and after shredding. Similarly, composting facilities, often include processes for recovering inert recyclable materials such as ferrous and nonferrous metals, glass, Plastics, and paper. While these two technologies have as their primary objectives the production of RDF and compost, respectively, the demonstrated recovery of recyclables emphasizes the inherent compatibility of recycling with these MSW management strategies. This appendix discusses several technology options with regard to separating recyclables at the source of generation, the methods available for collecting and transporting these materials to a MRF, the market requirements for post-consumer recycled materials, and the process unit operations. Mixed waste MRFs associated with mass bum plants are also presented.

  10. Economic analysis of municipal wastewater utilization for thermoelectric power production

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Safari, I.; Walker, M.; Abbasian, J.; Arastoopour, H.; Hsieh, M-K.; Theregowda, R.; Dzombak, D.; Miller, D.

    2011-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The thermoelectric power industry in the U.S. uses a large amount of freshwater. The large water demand is increasingly a problem, especially for new power plant development, as availability of freshwater for new uses diminishes in the United States. Reusing non-traditional water sources, such as treated municipal wastewater, provides one option to mitigate freshwater usage in the thermoelectric power industry. The amount of freshwater withdrawal that can be displaced with non-traditional water sources at a particular location requires evaluation of the water management and treatment requirements, considering the quality and abundance of the non-traditional water sources. This paper presents the development of an integrated costing model to assess the impact of degraded water treatment, as well as the implications of increased tube scaling in the main condenser. The model developed herein is used to perform case studies of various treatment, condenser cleaning and condenser configurations to provide insight into the ramifications of degraded water use in the cooling loops of thermoelectric power plants. Further, this paper lays the groundwork for the integration of relationships between degraded water quality, scaling characteristics and volatile emission within a recirculating cooling loop model.

  11. Landfarming of municipal sewage sludge at Oak Ridge, Tennessee

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Tischler, M.L.; Pergler, C.; Wilson, M.; Mabry, D.; Stephenson, M.

    1995-12-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The City of Oak Ridge, Tennessee, has been applying municipal sanitary sludge to 9 sites comprising 90 ha on the US Department of Energy (DOE) Oak Ridge Reservation (ORR) since 1983. Approximately 13,000,000 L are applied annually by spraying sludge (2 to 3% solids) under pressure from a tanker. Under an ongoing monitoring program, both the sludge and the soil in the application areas are analyzed for organic, inorganic, and radioactive parameters on a regular basis. Organic pollutants are analyzed in sludge on a semiannual basis and in the soil application areas on an annual basis. Inorganic parameters are analyzed daily (e.g., pH, total solids) or monthly (e.g., nitrogen, manganese) in sludge and annually in soil in application areas. Radionuclides (Co-60, Cs-137, I-131, Be-7, K-40, Ra-228, U-235, U-238) are scanned daily during application by the sewage treatment plant and analyzed weekly in composite sludge samples and annually in soil. Additionally, data on radioactive body burden for maximally exposed workers who apply the sludge show no detectable exposures. This monitoring program is comprehensive and is one of the few in the United States that analyzes radionuclides. Results from the monitoring program show heavy metals and radionuclides are not accumulating to levels in the soil application areas.

  12. Hydrogen production by gasification of municipal solid waste

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Rogers, R. III

    1994-05-20T23:59:59.000Z

    As fossil fuel reserves run lower and lower, and as their continued widespread use leads toward numerous environmental problems, the need for clean and sustainable energy alternatives becomes ever clearer. Hydrogen fuel holds promise as such as energy source, as it burns cleanly and can be extracted from a number of renewable materials such as municipal solid waste (MSW), which can be considered largely renewable because of its high content of paper and biomass-derived products. A computer model is being developed using ASPEN Plus flow sheeting software to simulate a process which produces hydrogen gas from MSW; the model will later be used in studying the economics of this process and is based on an actual Texaco coal gasification plant design. This paper gives an overview of the complete MSW gasification process, and describes in detail the way in which MSW is modeled by the computer as a process material. In addition, details of the gasifier unit model are described; in this unit modified MSW reacts under pressure with oxygen and steam to form a mixture of gases which include hydrogen.

  13. LCA comparison of container systems in municipal solid waste management

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Rives, Jesus, E-mail: Jesus.Rives@uab.ca [SosteniPrA (UAB-IRTA), Institute of Environmental Science and Technology (ICTA), Universitat Autonoma de Barcelona - UAB, 08193 Bellaterra, Barcelona (Spain); Rieradevall, Joan; Gabarrell, Xavier [SosteniPrA (UAB-IRTA), Institute of Environmental Science and Technology (ICTA), Universitat Autonoma de Barcelona - UAB, 08193 Bellaterra, Barcelona (Spain); Department of Chemical Engineering, Universitat Autonoma de Barcelona - UAB, 08193 Bellaterra, Barcelona (Spain)

    2010-06-15T23:59:59.000Z

    The planning and design of integrated municipal solid waste management (MSWM) systems requires accurate environmental impact evaluation of the systems and their components. This research assessed, quantified and compared the environmental impact of the first stage of the most used MSW container systems. The comparison was based on factors such as the volume of the containers, from small bins of 60-80 l to containers of 2400 l, and on the manufactured materials, steel and high-density polyethylene (HDPE). Also, some parameters such as frequency of collections, waste generation, filling percentage and waste container contents, were established to obtain comparable systems. The methodological framework of the analysis was the life cycle assessment (LCA), and the impact assessment method was based on CML 2 baseline 2000. Results indicated that, for the same volume, the collection systems that use HDPE waste containers had more of an impact than those using steel waste containers, in terms of abiotic depletion, global warming, ozone layer depletion, acidification, eutrophication, photochemical oxidation, human toxicity and terrestrial ecotoxicity. Besides, the collection systems using small HDPE bins (60 l or 80 l) had most impact while systems using big steel containers (2400 l) had less impact. Subsequent sensitivity analysis about the parameters established demonstrated that they could change the ultimate environmental impact of each waste container collection system, but that the comparative relationship between systems was similar.

  14. Utilization of municipal wastewater for cooling in thermoelectric power plants

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Safari, Iman; Walker, Michael E.; Hsieh, Ming-Kai; Dzombak, David A.; Liu, Wenshi; Vidic, Radisav D.; Miller, David C.; Abbasian, Javad

    2013-09-01T23:59:59.000Z

    A process simulation model has been developed using Aspen Plus(R) with the OLI (OLI System, Inc.) water chemistry model to predict water quality in the recirculating cooling loop utilizing secondary- and tertiary-treated municipal wastewater as the source of makeup water. Simulation results were compared with pilot-scale experimental data on makeup water alkalinity, loop pH, and ammonia evaporation. The effects of various parameters including makeup water quality, salt formation, NH{sub 3} and CO{sub 2} evaporation mass transfer coefficients, heat load, and operating temperatures were investigated. The results indicate that, although the simulation model can capture the general trends in the loop pH, experimental data on the rates of salt precipitation in the system are needed for more accurate prediction of the loop pH. It was also found that stripping of ammonia and carbon dioxide in the cooling tower can influence the cooling loop pH significantly. The effects of the NH{sub 3} mass transfer coefficient on cooling loop pH appear to be more significant at lower values (e.g., k{sub NH3}< 4×10{sup -3} m/s) when the makeup water alkalinity is low (e.g., <90 mg/L as CaCO{sub 3}). The effect of the CO{sub 2} mass transfer coefficient was found to be significant only at lower alkalinity values (e.g., k{sub CO2}<4×10{{sup -6} m/s).

  15. Waste utilization as an energy source: Municipal wastes. (Latest citations from the NTIS bibliographic database). Published Search

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Not Available

    1994-05-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The bibliography contains citations concerning the utilization of municipal wastes as an energy source. Articles discuss energy derived from incineration/combustion, refuse-derived fuels, co-firing municipal waste and standard fuels, landfill gas production, sewage combustion, and other waste-to-energy technologies. Citations address economics and efficiencies of various schemes to utilize municipal waste products as energy sources. (Contains a minimum of 130 citations and includes a subject term index and title list.)

  16. The critical natural capital of the Buffalo City Municipality, South Africa : harnessing local action for biodiversity conservation.

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Hagen, Brett

    2011-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    ??Globally, ecosystems provide services of almost twice the value of global gross national product (Costanza et al., 2006). The Buffalo City Municipality (BCM), South Africa… (more)

  17. Is Dilution The Solution To Pollution? Municipal Sewerage Systems In Late Nineteenth Century San Francisco And London

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Smith, Brooke Ray

    2007-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    the concept of biological treatment of wastewater, whichwastewater treatment planning. Contrasting Paradigms: Biologicalbiological treatment, incorporating ecological, social, and economic benefits into municipal wastewater

  18. Lighting and Daylight Harvesting

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Bos, J.

    2011-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    exposing us to the latest products and technologies. Daylight Harvesting A system of controlling the direction and the quantity of light both natural and artificial within a given space. This implies: Control of fenestration in terms of size..., transmission and direction. Control of reflected light within a space. Control of electric light in terms of delivery and amount Daylight harvesting systems are typically designed to maintain a minimum recommended light level. This light level...

  19. Scenarios of Global Municipal Water-Use Demand Projections over the 21st Century

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Hejazi, Mohamad I.; Edmonds, James A.; Chaturvedi, Vaibhav; Davies, Evan; Eom, Jiyong

    2013-03-06T23:59:59.000Z

    This paper establishes three future projections of global municipal water use to the end of the 21st century: A reference business-as usual (BAU) scenario, a High Technological Improvement (High Tech) scenario and a Low Technological Improvement (Low Tech) scenario. A global municipal water demand model is constructed using global water use statistics at the country-scale, calibrated to the base year of 2005, and simulated to the end of the 21st century. Since the constructed water demand model hinges on socioeconomic variables (population, income), water price, and end-use technology and efficiency improvement rates, projections of those input variables are adopted to characterize the uncertainty in future water demand estimates. The water demand model is linked to the Global Change Assessment Model (GCAM), a global change integrated assessment model. Under the reference scenario, the global total water withdrawal increases from 466 km3/year in 2005 to 941 km3/year in 2100,while withdrawals in the high and low tech scenarios are 321 km3/ year and 2000 km3/ year, respectively. This wide range (321-2000 km3/ year) indicates the level of uncertainty associated with such projections. The simulated global municipal demand projections are most sensitive to population and income projections, then to end-use technology and efficiency projections, and finally to water price. Thus, using water price alone as a policy measure to reduce municipal water use may substantiate the share of municipal water price of people’s annual incomes.

  20. Municipal solid waste management: A bibliography of US Department of Energy contractor report through 1994

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    None

    1995-09-01T23:59:59.000Z

    U.S. Department of Energy contractors continue to conduct research targeting the productive and responsible use of the more than 516,000 metric tons (567,000 tons) of municipal solid waste (MSW) that is generated each day in the United States. It is becoming more and more prudent to improve current methods of MSW management and to continue to search for additional cost-effective, energy-efficient means to manage our MSW resource. This bibliography provides information about technical reports on energy from municipal waste that were prepared under grants or contracts from the US DOE. The reports listed focus on energy from municipal waste technologies and energy conservation in wastewater treatment.

  1. Medium term municipal solid waste generation prediction by autoregressive integrated moving average

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Younes, Mohammad K.; Nopiah, Z. M.; Basri, Noor Ezlin A.; Basri, Hassan [Department of Civil and Structural Engineering, Faculty of Engineering and Built Environment, Universiti Kebangsaan Malaysia, 43600 Bangi, Selangor (Malaysia)

    2014-09-12T23:59:59.000Z

    Generally, solid waste handling and management are performed by municipality or local authority. In most of developing countries, local authorities suffer from serious solid waste management (SWM) problems and insufficient data and strategic planning. Thus it is important to develop robust solid waste generation forecasting model. It helps to proper manage the generated solid waste and to develop future plan based on relatively accurate figures. In Malaysia, solid waste generation rate increases rapidly due to the population growth and new consumption trends that characterize the modern life style. This paper aims to develop monthly solid waste forecasting model using Autoregressive Integrated Moving Average (ARIMA), such model is applicable even though there is lack of data and will help the municipality properly establish the annual service plan. The results show that ARIMA (6,1,0) model predicts monthly municipal solid waste generation with root mean square error equals to 0.0952 and the model forecast residuals are within accepted 95% confident interval.

  2. Study of the impacts of regulations affecting the acceptance of Integrated Community Energy Systems: public utility, energy facility siting and municipal franchising regulatory programs in South Carolina. Preliminary background report

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Feurer, D A; Weaver, C L; Gallagher, K C; Hejna, D; Rielley, K J

    1980-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Pursuant to constitutional South Carolina mandate the General Assembly has created the Public Service Commission. The Commission is composed of seven members elected to four year terms by the General Assembly. One commissioner is elected from each of seven districts corresponding to the congressional districts as they existed as of January 1, 1930. The commissioners elect one of their members as chairman. The South Carolina statutes contain separate chapters dealing with the regulation of public utilities and electric utilities. Public utility includes the furnishing of gas or heat (other than by means of electricity) to the public. While the Commission is granted general supervisory and regulatory powers over public utilities and electric utilities, total governments retain some control over electrical utilities. All municipality's have the power to grant exclusive franchises to such utilities for the furnishing of light to the municipality and its inhabitants. Public utility regulatory statutes, energy facility siting programs, and municipal franchising authority are examined to identify how they may impact on the ability of an organization, whether or not it be a regulated utility, to construct and operate an ICES.

  3. Superfund record of decision (EPA Region 2): Dover Municipal Well 4, Morris County, Dover, NJ. (First remedial action), September 1992

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Not Available

    1992-09-30T23:59:59.000Z

    The Dover Municipal Well 4 (DMW-4) site is located within the 500-year floodplain of the Rockaway River, in the Town of Dover, Morris County, New Jersey. Surrounding land use is mixed residential and commercial/light industrial. In 1980, sampling and analysis of ground water from DMW-4 identified the presence of VOCs-specifically, chlorinated solvents-above federal and state drinking water standards. Subsequently, DMW-4 was voluntarily removed from service by the Town, and standby Well 3 was activated as a potable water production well. The sources of VOC contamination have been traced to the Howmet Turbine Components Corporation (Dover Casting Division) and the New Jersey Natural Gas Company, both of which are under state administrative consent orders to remediate their individual properties. The ROD addresses remediation of the contaminated ground water in the shallow, intermediate, and deep aquifers at the DMW-4 site, as OU1. The primary contaminants of concern affecting the ground water are VOCs, including benzene, PCE and TCE, and, metals including lead. The selected remedial action for this site includes onsite pumping and treatment of contaminated ground water from both the intermediate and deep aquifers using air stripping to remove VOCs; discharging the treated water offsite to the public water supply system to be used for potable water, with reinjection of surplus quantities.

  4. Before the tap runs dry: Municipal water users urged to conserve to help declining supplies

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Wythe, Kathy

    2013-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    2 txH2O Fall 2013 Story by Kathy Wythe Photo from Crestock.com. BEFORE THE TAP RUNS DRY Municipal water users urged to conserve to help declining supplies Fall 2013 txH2O 3 The future of water in Texas consists of ?what ifs.? What...? scenarios don?t have to happen. If there is anything positive about the state?s continuing drought, it is that it has motivated legislators, state agencies and local municipalities to take action. Many agree that something has to be done. And...

  5. EPA RE-Powering America's Lands: Kansas City Municipal Farm Site -- Biomass Power Analysis

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Hunsberger, R.; Mosey, G.

    2015-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Through the RE-Powering America's Land initiative, the economic and technical feasibility of utilizing biomass at the Kansas City, Missouri, Municipal Farm site, a group of City-owned properties, is explored. The study that none of the technologies we reviewed--biomass heat, power and CHP--are economically viable options for the Municipal Farms site. However, if the site were to be developed around a future central biomass heating or CHP facility, biomass could be a good option for the site.

  6. Sustainable Management of Carbon, Nutrients, and Agrichemicals through Cycling of Bioresources fom Bioenergy and Livestock Production and Municipalities

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Bioenergy and Livestock Production and Municipalities Bioenergy and livestock industries and municipalities offer bioresources for sustained crop productivity and environmental quality. In the emerging bioenergy and a potential source of carbon· credits for bioenergy systems. Incorporation of the char by-product in soil can

  7. Development of a purpose built landfill system for the control of methane emissions from municipal solid waste

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Columbia University

    solid waste Sudhakar Yedla*, Jyoti K. Parikh Indira Gandhi Institute of Development Research, Vaidya (PBLF) has been proposed for the control of methane emissions from municipal solid waste (MSW Generation of municipal solid waste (MSW) increases with socio-economic development. In developing coun

  8. Generation!and!Disposition!of!Municipal!Solid!Waste! (MSW)!in!the!United!States!A!National!Survey!

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Columbia University

    ! 1! ! Generation!and!Disposition!of!Municipal!Solid!Waste! (MSW on Municipal Solid Waste (MSW) Generation and Disposition in the U.S., in collaboration with Ms. Nora Goldstein was not carried out in 2012 and in 2013 EEC and BioCycle agreed that the 2013 Survey of Waste Generation

  9. Kyler Nelson Light Timer

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Kachroo, Pushkin

    designated by the user, the Arduino board will dim the light to save energy. The user designates the time instance, the light is dimmed using pulse width modulation (PWM) in the Arduino's pin number 11

  10. AIRPORT LIGHTING Session Highlights

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Minnesota, University of

    AIRPORT LIGHTING Session Highlights In May 2002, the Airport Technical Assistance Program, also known as AirTAP, sponsored three airport-lighting training sessions at different locations in Minnesota information on airport lighting and navigational aid equipment selection, funding, maintenance, and operation

  11. Advanced Demand Responsive Lighting

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Advanced Demand Responsive Lighting Host: Francis Rubinstein Demand Response Research Center demand responsive lighting systems ­ Importance of dimming ­ New wireless controls technologies · Advanced Demand Responsive Lighting (commenced March 2007) #12;Objectives · Provide up-to-date information

  12. Municipal Aggregation and Retail Competition in the Ohio Energy Sector

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Littlechild, Stephen C

    & Electric (CG&E), now Duke Energy (Ohio) 0.7m Dayton Power and Light (DP&L) 0.5m. There are also 25 rural electric companies (or co-ops), serving nearly 0.4m customers.15 Senate Bill 3, signed into law in 1999, provided for the market to open... energy efficiency affiliate of FES), Independent, Eagle Energy and Buckeye Energy Brokers Inc (an electricity generation and transmission co-op owned by the 25 rural electricity co-ops). 24 By far the most active supplier at present is FirstEnergy...

  13. Light emitting device comprising phosphorescent materials for white light generation

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Thompson, Mark E.; Dapkus, P. Daniel

    2014-07-22T23:59:59.000Z

    The present invention relates to phosphors for energy downconversion of high energy light to generate a broadband light spectrum, which emit light of different emission wavelengths.

  14. Light Duty Combustion Research: Advanced Light-Duty Combustion...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Combustion Research: Advanced Light-Duty Combustion Experiments Light Duty Combustion Research: Advanced Light-Duty Combustion Experiments 2009 DOE Hydrogen Program and Vehicle...

  15. Photonic crystal light source

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Fleming, James G. (Albuquerque, NM); Lin, Shawn-Yu (Albuquerque, NM); Bur, James A. (Corrales, NM)

    2004-07-27T23:59:59.000Z

    A light source is provided by a photonic crystal having an enhanced photonic density-of-states over a band of frequencies and wherein at least one of the dielectric materials of the photonic crystal has a complex dielectric constant, thereby producing enhanced light emission at the band of frequencies when the photonic crystal is heated. The dielectric material can be a metal, such as tungsten. The spectral properties of the light source can be easily tuned by modification of the photonic crystal structure and materials. The photonic crystal light source can be heated electrically or other heating means. The light source can further include additional photonic crystals that exhibit enhanced light emission at a different band of frequencies to provide for color mixing. The photonic crystal light source may have applications in optical telecommunications, information displays, energy conversion, sensors, and other optical applications.

  16. ANNUAL REPORT General Permit for the Discharger of Storm Water from Small Municipal Separate

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    California at Santa Cruz, University of

    . These activities and structural improvements are referred to as Best Management Practices (BMPs). BMPs9/14/11 1 ANNUAL REPORT General Permit for the Discharger of Storm Water from Small Municipal. Permittee (Agency Name): University of California Santa Cruz 2. Contact Person: _Courtney Trask, Storm Water

  17. ANNUAL REPORT General Permit for the Discharger of Storm Water from Small Municipal Separate

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    California at Santa Cruz, University of

    . These activities and structural improvements are referred to as Best Management Practices (BMPs). BMPs9/14/10 1 ANNUAL REPORT General Permit for the Discharger of Storm Water from Small Municipal. Permittee (Agency Name): University of California Santa Cruz 2. Contact Person: _Courtney Trask, Storm Water

  18. ANNUAL REPORT General Permit for the Discharger of Storm Water from Small Municipal Separate

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    California at Santa Cruz, University of

    , 2013 to June 30, 2014 (Year 5) The University of California at Santa Cruz's Storm Water Management improvements are referred to as Best Management Practices (BMPs). BMPs will be updated as appropriate1 ANNUAL REPORT General Permit for the Discharger of Storm Water from Small Municipal Separate

  19. Micro-scale anaerobic digestion of point source components of organic fraction of municipal solid waste

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Columbia University

    Micro-scale anaerobic digestion of point source components of organic fraction of municipal solid the inlet of a function- ing plug-flow biogas fermentor. These were removed at periodic intervals cab- bage waste, banana peels, and orange peels fermented rapidly both in a plug-flow biogas reactor

  20. Modeling Integrated Decisions for a Municipal Water System with Recourse and Uncertainties

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Pasternack, Gregory B.

    for a municipal water system to cost-effectively accommodate a distribution of water shortages. Alternative robust in action costs, life spans, water volumes gained or saved, shortage levels, and shortage probabilities make water shortages pressing or impending realities for Amman, Jordan and many other urban water

  1. 2014 ENERGY AND ECONOMIC VALUE OF MUNICIPAL SOLID WASTE (MSW), INCLUDING NON-RECYCLED PLASTICS (NRP),

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Columbia University

    -to-energy (WTE) plants, 0.27 million tons (0.7%) were used as alternative fuel in cement production, and 32 Earth Engineering Center (EEC) Report to the American Chemistry Council (ACC) which was based on U.S. 2008 data and quantified the energy and economic value of municipal solid wastes (MSW) and non

  2. Municipal solid waste management: A bibliography of US Department of Energy contractor reports through 1993

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Shepherd, P.

    1994-07-01T23:59:59.000Z

    US Department of Energy contractors continue to conduct research targeting the productive and responsible use of the more than 536,000 tons of municipal solid waste (MSW) that is generated each day in the United States. It is becoming more and more prudent to improve current methods of MSW management and to continue to search for additional cost-effective, energy-efficient means to manage our MSW resource. This bibliography is an updated version of Municipal Waste to Energy: An Annotated Bibliography of US Department of Energy Contractor Reports, by Caroline Brooks, published in 1987. Like its predecessor, this bibliography provides information about technical reports on energy from municipal waste that were prepared under grants or contracts from the US Department of Energy. The reports listed focus on energy from municipal waste technologies and energy conservation in wastewater treatment. The bibliography contains three indexes -- an author index, a subject index, and a title index. The reports are listed alphabetically in the subject areas and may appear under more than one subject. All of the reports cited in the original MSW bibliography are also included in this update. The number of copies of each report originally published varied according to anticipated public demand. However, all reports are available in either microfiche or hard copy form and may be ordered from the National Technical Information Service (NTIS), US Department of Commerce, Springfield, VA 22161. Explicit information on ordering reports is included in Appendix A.

  3. Project Profile: The Sacramento Municipal Utility District Consumnes Power Plant Solar Augmentation Project

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    The Sacramento Municipal Utility District (SMUD), under the Concentrating Solar Power (CSP) Heat Integration for Baseload Renewable Energy Development (HIBRED) program, is demonstrating a hybrid CSP solar energy system that takes advantage of an existing electrical generator for its power block and transmission interconnection.

  4. IJEP 8 ( 1 ) : 51-54 Municipal Solid Waste Recycle -An Economic Proposition for a

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Columbia University

    IJEP 8 ( 1 ) : 51-54 Municipal Solid Waste Recycle - An Economic Proposition for a Developing the disposal problem in an environmentally acceptable manner is, DO doubt, an economic proposition features of the pyrolysis process in particular. Suitability of the waste recycle techniques in the context

  5. Municipal Solid Waste as an Energy Source by Roller-Grate Incineration

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Karnoski, P. J.

    1979-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The Grumman/VKW (Duesseldorf) Roller-Grate System was developed specifically to mass-burn municipal solid wastes achieving efficient combustion by a rolling and mixing action of the fuel bed, and independent control of primary air and roller speed...

  6. Composition of Municipal Solid Waste-Need for Thermal Treatment in the present Indian context

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Columbia University

    Composition of Municipal Solid Waste- Need for Thermal Treatment in the present Indian context of an eternally inherent low heating value on the other. Current status of Solid Waste Management The MSW Rules front in India17 . None of the major metros have any projects of significant scale of Solid Waste

  7. INTRODUCTION Yard wastes currently represent about 15% of the total municipal solid waste collected in

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Ma, Lena

    INTRODUCTION Yard wastes currently represent about 15% of the total municipal solid waste collected: Collect representative and typical yard trash samples throughout Florida; Characterize the wastes these wastes. WORK ACCOMPLISHED Visited two compost and mulch processing facilities in Gainesville on 10

  8. Sudhakar Yedla* and Sarika Kansal Economic insight into municipal solid waste

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Columbia University

    Sudhakar Yedla* and Sarika Kansal Economic insight into municipal solid waste management in Mumbai: a critical analysis 511 " Economic insight into solid waste management Conventional MSW management fails metropolitan city in India, presents the most critical solid waste management system in India. The present

  9. Constructed Wetlands and Waste Stabilization Ponds for municipal wastewater treatment in France: comparison of

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Paris-Sud XI, Université de

    13 Constructed Wetlands and Waste Stabilization Ponds for municipal wastewater treatment in France In France, vertical flow constructed wetlands and waste stabilisation ponds are both extensive treatment processes well adapted to small rural communities mainly because they are easy to operate

  10. Three-dimensional deformation and strain induced by municipal pumping, part 1: Analysis of field data

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Tingley, Joseph V.

    a Department of Geosciences Virginia Tech 4044 Derring Hall Blacksburg, VA 24061, USA b Olver Incorporated 1116 June 2005 Abstract A 62-day controlled aquifer test was performed at the site of a new municipal well from the pumped well and a nearby observation well. The purpose of the investigation was to quantify

  11. Data summary of municipal solid waste management alternatives. Volume 11, Alphabetically indexed bibliography

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    none,

    1992-10-01T23:59:59.000Z

    This appendix contains the alphabetically indexed bibliography for the complete group of reports on municipal waste management alternatives. The references are listed for each of the following topics: mass burn technologies, RDF technologies, fluidized-bed combustion, pyrolysis and gasification of MSW, materials recovery- recycling technologies, sanitary landfills, composting, and anaerobic digestion of MSW.

  12. Data summary of municipal solid waste management alternatives. Volume 12, Numerically indexed bibliography

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    none,

    1992-10-01T23:59:59.000Z

    This appendix contains the numerically indexed bibliography for the complete group of reports on municipal solid waste management alternatives. The list references information on the following topics: mass burn technologies, RDF technologies, fluidized bed combustion, pyrolysis and gasification of MSW, materials recovery- recycling technologies, sanitary landfills, composting and anaerobic digestion of MSW.

  13. Data summary of municipal solid waste management alternatives. Volume 4, Appendix B: RDF technologies

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    none,

    1992-10-01T23:59:59.000Z

    This appendix contains background information, technical descriptions, economic data, mass and energy balances, and information on environmental releases for the refuse derived fuels (RDF) option in municipal solid waste management alternatives. Demonstration programs at St. Louis, Missouri; Franklin, Ohio; and Delaware are discussed. Information on pellet production and cofiring with coal is also presented.

  14. Toward a Low-CarMunicipal Financing for Energy Efficiency and Solar Power

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Kammen, Daniel M.

    Toward a Low-CarMunicipal Financing for Energy Efficiency and Solar Power By Merrian C. Fuller of the Inter- governmental Panel on Climate Change (IPCC). Thus far much of the effort has been focused, such as improving energy efficiency and add- ing solar photovoltaics (PV) and solar thermal systems to buildings

  15. Sustainable Tourism Indicators: Pilot Estimation for the Municipality of Hersonissos, Crete.

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Zaferatos, Nicholas C.

    Sustainable Tourism Indicators: Pilot Estimation for the Municipality of Hersonissos, Crete. Yianna@iacm.forth.gr Abstract The topic of the present research is the pilot estimation of sustainable tourism indicators of economic activity. In tourism, the concept of sustainability has been initially established as a notion

  16. Light extraction from organic light-emitting diodes for lighting applications by sand-blasting

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Light extraction from organic light-emitting diodes for lighting applications by sand@ust.hk Abstract: Light extraction from organic light-emitting diodes (OLEDs) by scattering the light is one of the effective methods for large-area lighting applications. In this paper, we present a very simple and cost

  17. SMART LIGHTING SYSTEMS ULTIMATE LIGHTING The Smart Lighting

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Linhardt, Robert J.

    Integration (Holistic Integrated Design) · Sensors as important as LEDs · Interconnected systems (human, building, grid) · Artistic Design Freedom · Lighting is Health, Entertainment, Information and Illumination Cost at any brightness · Chip level integrated electronics THE ERC RESEARCH COVERS THE ENTIRE SUPPLY

  18. Arnold Schwarzenegger LIGHTING RESEARCH PROGRAM

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Project Summaries ELEMENT 2: ADVANCE LIGHTING TECHNOLOGIES PROJECT 2.1 LIGHT EMITTING DIODE (LED light emitting diodes (LED) technology for general lighting applications by developing a task lamp

  19. New Light Sources for Tomorrow's Lighting Designs

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Krailo, D. A.

    , pioneered for headlam~for the automotive industry, has led to the development of halo en capsule lamps for general lighting. The original90-watt family PAR 38 lamps using tungsten halogen capsules produces the sa amount of useful light in the beam as a I... quartz PAR lamps with similar benefi . Each of these tungsten halogen capsule PAR wattages are av ilable in narrow spot, spot, and flood beam patterns. The most recent developments in the PAR halogen psule family include two entirely new lamp designs...

  20. National Synchrotron Light Source

    ScienceCinema (OSTI)

    BNL

    2009-09-01T23:59:59.000Z

    A tour of Brookhaven's National Synchrotron Light Source (NSLS), hosted by Associate Laboratory Director for Light Sources, Stephen Dierker. The NSLS is one of the world's most widely used scientific research facilities, hosting more than 2,500 guest researchers each year. The NSLS provides intense beams of infrared, ultraviolet, and x-ray light for basic and applied research in physics, chemistry, medicine, geophysics, environmental, and materials sciences.

  1. High efficiency incandescent lighting

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Bermel, Peter; Ilic, Ognjen; Chan, Walker R.; Musabeyoglu, Ahmet; Cukierman, Aviv Ruben; Harradon, Michael Robert; Celanovic, Ivan; Soljacic, Marin

    2014-09-02T23:59:59.000Z

    Incandescent lighting structure. The structure includes a thermal emitter that can, but does not have to, include a first photonic crystal on its surface to tailor thermal emission coupled to, in a high-view-factor geometry, a second photonic filter selected to reflect infrared radiation back to the emitter while passing visible light. This structure is highly efficient as compared to standard incandescent light bulbs.

  2. Total Light Management

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    Presentation covers total light management, and is given at the Spring 2010 Federal Utility Partnership Working Group (FUPWG) meeting in Providence, Rhode Island.

  3. Lighting Technology Panel

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    Presentation covers the Lighting Technology Panel for the Federal Utility Partnership Working Group (FUPWG) meeting, held on November 18-19, 2009. 

  4. Comparing Light Bulbs

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    In this exercise, students will use a light to demonstrate the difference between being energy-efficient and energy-wasteful, and learn what energy efficiency means.

  5. Solid-State Lighting

    Broader source: Energy.gov (indexed) [DOE]

    research and design. Quality LED luminaires require program designed to successfully move solid-state lighting precise design of several components -LED arrays, electronic into the...

  6. OpenGL Lighting 13. OpenGL Lighting

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    McDowell, Perry

    OpenGL Lighting 13. OpenGL Lighting · Overview of Lighting in OpenGL In order for lighting to have an effect in OpenGL, two things are required: A light An object to be lit Lights can be set to any color determine how they reflect the light which hits them. The color(s) of an object is determined

  7. Light intensity compressor

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Rushford, Michael C. (Livermore, CA)

    1990-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    In a system for recording images having vastly differing light intensities over the face of the image, a light intensity compressor is provided that utilizes the properties of twisted nematic liquid crystals to compress the image intensity. A photoconductor or photodiode material that is responsive to the wavelength of radiation being recorded is placed adjacent a layer of twisted nematic liquid crystal material. An electric potential applied to a pair of electrodes that are disposed outside of the liquid crystal/photoconductor arrangement to provide an electric field in the vicinity of the liquid crystal material. The electrodes are substantially transparent to the form of radiation being recorded. A pair of crossed polarizers are provided on opposite sides of the liquid crystal. The front polarizer linearly polarizes the light, while the back polarizer cooperates with the front polarizer and the liquid crystal material to compress the intensity of a viewed scene. Light incident upon the intensity compressor activates the photoconductor in proportion to the intensity of the light, thereby varying the field applied to the liquid crystal. The increased field causes the liquid crystal to have less of a twisting effect on the incident linearly polarized light, which will cause an increased percentage of the light to be absorbed by the back polarizer. The intensity of an image may be compressed by forming an image on the light intensity compressor.

  8. Splayed mirror light pipes

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Swift, P.D. [School of Physical Sciences, Dublin City University, Dublin 9 (Ireland)

    2010-02-15T23:59:59.000Z

    An expression is given for the transmission of the rectangular-section mirror light pipe. The expression is used to model throughputs for simulated solar conditions over a calender year. It is found that the splaying of a mirror light pipe results in a significant increase in throughputs particularly in winter months. (author)

  9. Explosively pumped laser light

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Piltch, Martin S. (Los Alamos, NM); Michelotti, Roy A. (Los Alamos, NM)

    1991-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    A single shot laser pumped by detonation of an explosive in a shell casing. The shock wave from detonation of the explosive causes a rare gas to luminesce. The high intensity light from the gas enters a lasing medium, which thereafter outputs a pulse of laser light to disable optical sensors and personnel.

  10. Reducing home lighting expenses

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Aimone, M.A.

    1981-02-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Ways to reduce lighting expenses are summarized. These include: turning off lights when not in use; keeping fixtures and lamps clean; replacing lamps with more efficient types; using three-way bulbs; use of daylighting; buying fewer lamps and reducing lamp wattage; consider repainting rooms; replacing recessed fixtures with tracklighting; and using efficient lamps for outdoor use. (MCW)

  11. An evaluation of the social meanings of the boundary park: implications for municipal planning and race relations

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Aguirre, Carlos Agustin

    2012-06-07T23:59:59.000Z

    This thesis examines the boundary park hypothesis, which posits that municipal governments tend not to distribute resources to maintain or upgrade parks that separate two distinct racial groups in a geographic area. It examines the effects of socio...

  12. portation and Greenhouse Gas (MUNTAG) model is a macroscopic, highly aggregate model that works at the municipal level and solely

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Illinois at Chicago, University of

    identifies the following four sectors: buildings; trans- portation and land use; energy supply; and municipal GHG inventory. This work is part of a project to write a guide called Getting to Car- bon Neutral

  13. Development of risk-assessment methodology for municipal-sludge landfilling. Final report

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Not Available

    1989-08-01T23:59:59.000Z

    This is one of a series of reports that present methodologies for assessing the potential risks to humans or other organisms from the disposal or reuse of municipal sludge. The sludge management practices addressed by this series include land application practices, distribution and marketing programs, landfilling, incineration and ocean disposal. These reports provide methods for evaluating potential health and environmental risks from toxic chemicals that may be present in sludge. The document addresses risks from chemicals associated with landfilling of municipal sludge. These proposed risk assessment procedures are designed as tools to assist in the development of regulations for sludge management practices. The criteria may address management practices (such as site design or process control specifications), limits on sludge disposal rates or limits on toxic chemical concentrations in the sludge.

  14. Chemical analysis of distribution and marketing (D and M) municipal sludges

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Coleman, W.E. (Environmental Protection Agency, Cincinnati, OH (USA)); Baird, R.; Gabrielian, S.M. (County Sanitation Districts of Los Angeles County, Whittier, CA (USA))

    1988-09-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The land application of municipal wastewater treatment sludges is widely practiced both as an economic treatment or disposal method and to provide an economic soil nutrient amendment for agricultural use. Recent studies have shown that municipal sewage sludge effluents derived from both domestic and industrial wastewater elicited mutagenic activity as determined by the Ames test. Biological treatment processes remove some degradable organic chemicals but many persistent chemicals remain in the sludge and are hence applied to soils. This study was conducted to determine the occurrence of chemicals in D and M sludges to provide a data base of priority pollutant trace metals and organics from sludges produced at facilities in 26 cities across the US. In addition to priority pollutant analysis, efforts were made to characterize non-target organic chemicals that predominated in sample extracts from each city using GC/MS. A total of 67 composite samples were analyzed. This paper discusses the results of chemical analyses of the sludge products.

  15. VIRTUAL LIGHT: DIGITALLY-GENERATED LIGHTING FOR VIDEO CONFERENCING APPLICATIONS

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Fisher, Kathleen

    VIRTUAL LIGHT: DIGITALLY-GENERATED LIGHTING FOR VIDEO CONFERENCING APPLICATIONS Andrea Basso method to improve the lighting conditions of a real scene or video sequence. In particular we concentrate on modifying real light sources intensities and inserting virtual lights into a real scene viewed from a fixed

  16. Lighting affects appearance LightSource emits photons

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Jacobs, David

    1 Lighting affects appearance #12;2 LightSource emits photons Photons travel in a straight line). And then some reach the eye/camera. #12;3 Reflectance Model how objects reflect light. Model light sources Algorithms for computing Shading: computing intensities within polygons Determine what light strikes what

  17. Development of a Web-based Emissions Reduction Calculator for Retrofits to Municipal Water Supply and Waste Water Facilities

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Baltazar-Cervantes, J. C.; Liu, Z.; Gilman, D.; Haberl, J. S.; Culp, C.

    2005-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    DEVELOPMENT OF A WEB-BASED EMISSIONS REDUCTION CALCULATOR FOR RETROFITS TO MUNICIPAL WATER SUPPLY AND WASTE WATER FACILITIES Juan-Carlos Baltazar Research Associate Zi Liu, Ph.D. Research Engineer Don R. Gilman, P.E. Senior Software... and used to calculate the electricity savings from potential retrofits to municipal water supply and waste water facilities. The methodology integrates the ASHRAE Inverse Model Toolkit (IMT) 1 used for weather normalization, a peak...

  18. Economies of Size in Municipal Water-Treatment Technologies: A Texas Lower Rio Grande Valley Case Study

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Boyer, Christopher N.; Rister, M. Edward; Rogers, Callie S.; Sturdivant, Allen W.; Lacewell, Ronald D.; Browning, Charles Jr.; Elium III, James R.; Seawright, Emily K.

    COLLEGE OF AGRICULTURE AND LIFE SCIENCES TR-367 2010 Economies of Size in Municipal Water-Treatment Technologies: A Texas Lower Rio Grande Valley Case Study By: Christopher N. Boyer1, M. Edward Rister2... Resources Institute Technical Report No. 367 Texas A&M University System College Station, Texas 77843-2118 July 2010 Economies of Size in Municipal Water-Treatment Technologies: A Texas Lower Rio Grande Valley Case Study July 2010 Texas Water...

  19. A comparison of employment trends for industrial and municipal recreation directors in six metroplex areas of Texas

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Haecker, Iris Sue

    1988-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    A COMPARISON OF EMPLOYMENT TRENDS FOR INDUSTRIAL AND MUNICIPAL RECREATION DIRECTORS IN SIX METROPLEX AREAS OF TEXAS A Thesis by IRIS SUE HAECKER Submitted to the Graduate College of Texas A&M University in partial fulfillment... of the requirements for the degree of MASTER OF SCIENCE August 19BR Major Subject: Recreation and Resources Development 19BB IRIS SUE HAECKER A COMPARISON OF EMPLOYMENT TRENDS FOR INDUSTRIAL AND MUNICIPAL RECREATION DIRECTORS IN SIX METROPLEX AREAS OF TEXAS...

  20. District heating from electric-generating plants and municipal incinerators: local planner's assessment guide

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Pferdehirt, W.; Kron, N. Jr.

    1980-11-01T23:59:59.000Z

    This guide is designed to aid local government planners in the preliminary evaluation of the feasibility of district heating using heat recovered from electric generating plants and municipal incinerators. System feasibility is indicated by: (1) the existence of an adequate supply of nearby waste heat, (2) the presence of a sufficiently dense and large thermal load, and (3) a favorable cost comparison with conventional heating methods. 34 references.

  1. Municipal Solid Waste (MSW) to Liquid Fuels Synthesis, Volume 1: Availability of Feedstock and Technology

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Valkenburt, Corinne; Walton, Christie W.; Thompson, Becky L.; Gerber, Mark A.; Jones, Susanne B.; Stevens, Don J.

    2008-12-01T23:59:59.000Z

    This report investigated the potential of using municipal solid waste (MSW) to make synthesis gas (syngas) suitable for production of liquid fuels. Issues examined include: • MSW physical and chemical properties affecting its suitability as a gasifier feedstock and for liquid fuels synthesis • expected process scale required for favorable economics • the availability of MSW in quantities sufficient to meet process scale requirements • the state-of-the-art of MSW gasification technology.

  2. Esthetically Designed Municipal PV System Maximizes Energy Production and Revenue Return

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    In late 2008, the City of Sebastopol, CA installed a unique 42 kW grid-interactive photovoltaic (PV) system to provide electricity for pumps of the Sebastopol municipal water system. The resulting innovative Sun Dragon PV system, located in a public park, includes design elements that provide optimized electrical performance and revenue generation for the energy produced while also presenting an artistic and unique appearance to park visitors.

  3. Barnett Shale Municipal Oil and Gas Ordinance Dynamics: A Spatial Perspective

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Murphy, Trey Daniel-Aaron

    2013-09-27T23:59:59.000Z

    criticisms of shale gas wells is the environmental impact, not the least of which is watershed and aquifer degradation due to the usage of fracking fluids (Mantell 2011) that contain known carcinogens including benzene, toluene, and formaldehyde (Rahm 2011... residents concerned that drilling — or more precisely, the injection of spent fracking fluids deep underground — is jeopardizing the underlying geologic stability of the Barnett Shale (Malewitz 2014a). Municipal responses to impacts In an effort to allay...

  4. Critical review of size-reduction and separation equipment used on municipal solid waste

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Chin, Billy Show-Ming

    1975-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    municipal refuse for further processing as incineration, pyrolysis or biodegradation. Combinations of separation and size-reduction steps often are referred to as "front-end" systems because this is the first step in the overall con- version process... refuse for further processing by incineration, pyrolysis or biodegradation methods in the conversion and recovery of energy products and resources. Because of this first position in the overall conversion system, such com- binations of separation...

  5. Combustion of municipal solid wastes with oil shale in a circulating fluidized bed. Final report

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    NONE

    1996-06-30T23:59:59.000Z

    The problem addressed by our invention is that of municipal solid waste utilization. The dimensions of the problem can be visualized by the common comparison that the average individual in America creates in five years time an amount of solid waste equivalent in weight to the Statue of Liberty. The combustible portion of the more than 11 billion tons of solid waste (including municipal solid waste) produced in the United States each year, if converted into useful energy, could provide 32 quads per year of badly needed domestic energy, or more than one-third of our annual energy consumption. Conversion efficiency and many other factors make such a production level unrealistic, but it is clear that we are dealing with a very significant potential resource. This report describes research pertaining to the co-combustion of oil shale with solid municipal wastes in a circulating fluidized bed. The oil shale adds significant fuel content and also constituents that can possible produce a useful cementitious ash.

  6. Waste collection systems for recyclables: An environmental and economic assessment for the municipality of Aarhus (Denmark)

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Larsen, A.W., E-mail: awl@env.dtu.d [Department of Environmental Engineering, Technical University of Denmark, Miljoevej, Building 113, DK-2800 Kongens Lyngby (Denmark); Merrild, H.; Moller, J.; Christensen, T.H. [Department of Environmental Engineering, Technical University of Denmark, Miljoevej, Building 113, DK-2800 Kongens Lyngby (Denmark)

    2010-05-15T23:59:59.000Z

    Recycling of paper and glass from household waste is an integrated part of waste management in Denmark, however, increased recycling is a legislative target. The questions are: how much more can the recycling rate be increased through improvements of collection schemes when organisational and technical limitations are respected, and what will the environmental and economic consequences be? This was investigated in a case study of a municipal waste management system. Five scenarios with alternative collection systems for recyclables (paper, glass, metal and plastic packaging) were assessed by means of a life cycle assessment and an assessment of the municipality's costs. Kerbside collection would provide the highest recycling rate, 31% compared to 25% in the baseline scenario, but bring schemes with drop-off containers would also be a reasonable solution. Collection of recyclables at recycling centres was not recommendable because the recycling rate would decrease to 20%. In general, the results showed that enhancing recycling and avoiding incineration was recommendable because the environmental performance was improved in several impact categories. The municipal costs for collection and treatment of waste were reduced with increasing recycling, mainly because the high cost for incineration was avoided. However, solutions for mitigation of air pollution caused by increased collection and transport should be sought.

  7. Green Light Pulse Oximeter

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Scharf, John Edward (Oldsmar, FL)

    1998-11-03T23:59:59.000Z

    A reflectance pulse oximeter that determines oxygen saturation of hemoglobin using two sources of electromagnetic radiation in the green optical region, which provides the maximum reflectance pulsation spectrum. The use of green light allows placement of an oximetry probe at central body sites (e.g., wrist, thigh, abdomen, forehead, scalp, and back). Preferably, the two green light sources alternately emit light at 560 nm and 577 nm, respectively, which gives the biggest difference in hemoglobin extinction coefficients between deoxyhemoglobin, RHb, and oxyhemoglobin, HbO.sub.2.

  8. White light velocity interferometer

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Erskine, David J. (Oakland, CA)

    1997-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The invention is a technique that allows the use of broadband and incoherent illumination. Although denoted white light velocimetry, this principle can be applied to any wave phenomenon. For the first time, powerful, compact or inexpensive sources can be used for remote target velocimetry. These include flash and arc lamps, light from detonations, pulsed lasers, chirped frequency lasers, and lasers operating simultaneously in several wavelengths. The technique is demonstrated with white light from an incandescent source to measure a target moving at 16 m/s.

  9. White light velocity interferometer

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Erskine, D.J.

    1997-06-24T23:59:59.000Z

    The invention is a technique that allows the use of broadband and incoherent illumination. Although denoted white light velocimetry, this principle can be applied to any wave phenomenon. For the first time, powerful, compact or inexpensive sources can be used for remote target velocimetry. These include flash and arc lamps, light from detonations, pulsed lasers, chirped frequency lasers, and lasers operating simultaneously in several wavelengths. The technique is demonstrated with white light from an incandescent source to measure a target moving at 16 m/s. 41 figs.

  10. White light velocity interferometer

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Erskine, David J. (Oakland, CA)

    1999-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The invention is a technique that allows the use of broadband and incoherent illumination. Although denoted white light velocimetry, this principle can be applied to any wave phenomenon. For the first time, powerful, compact or inexpensive sources can be used for remote target velocimetry. These include flash and arc lamps, light from detonations, pulsed lasers, chirped frequency lasers, and lasers operating simultaneously in several wavelengths. The technique is demonstrated with white light from an incandescent source to measure a target moving at 16 m/s.

  11. White light velocity interferometer

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Erskine, D.J.

    1999-06-08T23:59:59.000Z

    The invention is a technique that allows the use of broadband and incoherent illumination. Although denoted white light velocimetry, this principle can be applied to any wave phenomenon. For the first time, powerful, compact or inexpensive sources can be used for remote target velocimetry. These include flash and arc lamps, light from detonations, pulsed lasers, chirped frequency lasers, and lasers operating simultaneously in several wavelengths. The technique is demonstrated with white light from an incandescent source to measure a target moving at 16 m/s. 41 figs.

  12. Lakeview Light and Power- Commercial Lighting Rebate Program

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    Lakeview Light and Power offers a commercial lighting rebate program. Rebates apply to the installation of energy efficient lighting retrofits in non-residential buildings. The rebate program is...

  13. Light Vector Mesons

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Alexander Milov

    2008-12-21T23:59:59.000Z

    This article reviews the current status of experimental results obtained in the measurement of light vector mesons produced in proton-proton and heavy ion collisions at different energies. The review is focused on two phenomena related to the light vector mesons; the modification of the spectral shape in search of Chiral symmetry restoration and suppression of the meson production in heavy ion collisions. The experimental results show that the spectral shape of light vector mesons are modified compared to the parameters measured in vacuum. The nature and the magnitude of the modification depends on the energy density of the media in which they are produced. The suppression patterns of light vector mesons are different from the measurements of other mesons and baryons. The mechanisms responsible for the suppression of the mesons are not yet understood. Systematic comparison of existing experimental results points to the missing data which may help to resolve the problem.

  14. National Synchrotron Light Source

    ScienceCinema (OSTI)

    None

    2010-01-08T23:59:59.000Z

    A tour of Brookhaven's National Synchrotron Light Source (NSLS). The NSLS is one of the world's most widely used scientific research facilities, hosting more than 2,500 guest researchers each year. The NSLS provides intense beams of infrared, ultraviole

  15. Efficient Light Sources Today

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Hart, A. L.

    1982-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    This paper reviews new lamp and lighting technology in terms of application and economic impact. Included are the latest advances in High Intensity Discharge systems, energy saving fluorescent lamps and ballasts, and the new state of the art high...

  16. Natural lighting and skylights

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Evans, Benjamin Hampton

    1961-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    outlined herein, the feasibility of using scale models for studying skylights is also an established fact. The method of analysis by models can be a valuable tool to any designer who is concerned about day-lighting....

  17. Types of Lighting in Commercial Buildings - Lighting Characteristics

    Annual Energy Outlook 2013 [U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA)]

    of a light source's accuracy in rendering different colors when compared to a reference light source. The highest attainable CRI is 100. Lamps with CRIs above 70 are...

  18. Columbia Water and Light- HVAC and Lighting Efficiency Rebates

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    Columbia Water and Light (CWL) offers rebates to its commercial and industrial customers for the purchase of high efficiency HVAC installations and efficient lighting. Incentives for certain...

  19. Induction Lighting: An Old Lighting Technology Made New Again...

    Broader source: Energy.gov (indexed) [DOE]

    around the same time that his rival, Thomas Edison, was working to improve the incandescent light bulb. In the early 1990s, several major lighting manufacturers introduced...

  20. Peninsula Light Company- Commercial Efficient Lighting Rebate Program

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    Peninsula Light Company (PLC) offers a rebate program for commercial customers who wish to upgrade to energy efficient lighting. Participating customers must be served by PLC commercial service....

  1. Solid state lighting component

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Yuan, Thomas; Keller, Bernd; Ibbetson, James; Tarsa, Eric; Negley, Gerald

    2010-10-26T23:59:59.000Z

    An LED component comprising an array of LED chips mounted on a planar surface of a submount with the LED chips capable of emitting light in response to an electrical signal. The LED chips comprise respective groups emitting at different colors of light, with each of the groups interconnected in a series circuit. A lens is included over the LED chips. Other embodiments can comprise thermal spreading structures included integral to the submount and arranged to dissipate heat from the LED chips.

  2. Solid state lighting component

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Keller, Bernd; Ibbetson, James; Tarsa, Eric; Negley, Gerald; Yuan, Thomas

    2012-07-10T23:59:59.000Z

    An LED component comprising an array of LED chips mounted on a planar surface of a submount with the LED chips capable of emitting light in response to an electrical signal. The LED chips comprise respective groups emitting at different colors of light, with each of the groups interconnected in a series circuit. A lens is included over the LED chips. Other embodiments can comprise thermal spreading structures included integral to the submount and arranged to dissipate heat from the LED chips.

  3. Light and Energy -Daylight measurements

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Light and Energy - Daylight measurements #12;Light and Energy - Daylight measurements Authors: Jens;3 Title Light and Energy Subtitle Daylight measurements Authors Jens Christoffersen, Ásta Logadóttir ........................................................................................................ 5 Daylight quantity

  4. Energy Conservation in Industrial Lighting

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Meharg, E.

    1979-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    In order to reduce energy use in lighting Union Carbide recently issued drastically reduced new lighting level standards. A computerized lighting cost program was also developed. Using this program a number of additional energy saving techniques...

  5. Lighting and the Bottom Line

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Christensen, M.

    1981-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    A discussion of the cost of light and how it relates to the cost of people. The new Illuminating Engineering Society recommended method of determining lighting levels will be explained. Also several ways of providing good lighting to increase...

  6. Light diffusing fiber optic chamber

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Maitland, Duncan J. (Lafayette, CA)

    2002-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    A light diffusion system for transmitting light to a target area. The light is transmitted in a direction from a proximal end to a distal end by an optical fiber. A diffusing chamber is operatively connected to the optical fiber for transmitting the light from the proximal end to the distal end and transmitting said light to said target area. A plug is operatively connected to the diffusing chamber for increasing the light that is transmitted to the target area.

  7. July 18, 2012 Using QECBs for Street Lighting Upgrades

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    lighting technologies (e.g. light-emitting diodes, induction lighting) can reduce street light energy

  8. Efficiency Maine Residential Lighting Program

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    Efficiency Maine's Residential Lighting Program works directly with retailers and manufacturers to encourage residential customers to purchase energy-efficient lighting. Rebate amounts average $1...

  9. Lighting affects appearance LightSource emits photons

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Jacobs, David

    1 Lighting affects appearance #12;2 LightSource emits photons Photons travel in a straight line). And then some reach the eye/camera. #12;3 Basic fact: Light is linear Double intensity of sources, double photons reaching eye. Turn on two lights, and photons reaching eye are same as sum of number when each

  10. ECE 466: LED Lighting Systems -Incandescent lightings rise and

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Schumacher, Russ

    versus cost - Power Electronic Drives for CFL and LED light sources to achieve dimmable operation - Basic electric AC and DC circuits at Sophomore level or equivalents Absolutes Lighting System Requirements index as a metric of a light source - Power Electronic Energy sources driving light sources in a compact

  11. Lighting and Surfaces 11.1 Introduction to Lighting

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Boyd, John P.

    -object-at-a-time. "Intrinsic" light is the light emitted by the object itself, such as the glow from a TV screen, a light-emitting diode, or a star. "Ambient" light is an illumination that seems to come from all sides. In the real

  12. International Best Practices for Pre-Processing and Co-Processing Municipal Solid Waste and Sewage Sludge in the Cement Industry

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Hasanbeigi, Ali

    2013-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Studies (IPTS). 1999. “The Incineration of Waste in Europe:Seemann, A. 2007. “Co-incineration of Municipal Solid Wastefacilities Composting Incineration Uncontrolled landfill

  13. Sandia National Laboratories: White Light Creation Architectures

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    TechnologiesWhite Light Creation Architectures White Light Creation Architectures Overview of SSL White Light Creation Architectures The entire spectral range of visible light can...

  14. Pupillary efficient lighting system

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Berman, Samuel M. (San Francisco, CA); Jewett, Don L. (Mill Valley, CA)

    1991-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    A lighting system having at least two independent lighting subsystems each with a different ratio of scotopic illumination to photopic illumination. The radiant energy in the visible region of the spectrum of the lighting subsystems can be adjusted relative to each other so that the total scotopic illumination of the combined system and the total photopic illumination of the combined system can be varied independently. The dilation or contraction of the pupil of an eye is controlled by the level of scotopic illumination and because the scotopic and photopic illumination can be separately controlled, the system allows the pupil size to be varied independently of the level of photopic illumination. Hence, the vision process can be improved for a given level of photopic illumination.

  15. Light harvesting arrays

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Lindsey, Jonathan S. (Raleigh, NC)

    2002-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    A light harvesting array useful for the manufacture of devices such as solar cells comprises: (a) a first substrate comprising a first electrode; and (b) a layer of light harvesting rods electrically coupled to the first electrode, each of the light harvesting rods comprising a polymer of Formula I: X.sup.1.paren open-st.X.sup.m+1).sub.m (I) wherein m is at least 1, and may be from two, three or four to 20 or more; X.sup.1 is a charge separation group (and preferably a porphyrinic macrocycle, which may be one ligand of a double-decker sandwich compound) having an excited-state of energy equal to or lower than that of X.sup.2, and X.sup.2 through X.sup.m+1 are chromophores (and again are preferably porphyrinic macrocycles).

  16. Light emitting ceramic device

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Valentine, Paul; Edwards, Doreen D.; Walker, Jr., William John; Slack, Lyle H.; Brown, Wayne Douglas; Osborne, Cathy; Norton, Michael; Begley, Richard

    2010-05-18T23:59:59.000Z

    A light-emitting ceramic based panel, hereafter termed "electroceramescent" panel, is herein claimed. The electroceramescent panel is formed on a substrate providing mechanical support as well as serving as the base electrode for the device. One or more semiconductive ceramic layers directly overlay the substrate, and electrical conductivity and ionic diffusion are controlled. Light emitting regions overlay the semiconductive ceramic layers, and said regions consist sequentially of a layer of a ceramic insulation layer and an electroluminescent layer, comprised of doped phosphors or the equivalent. One or more conductive top electrode layers having optically transmissive areas overlay the light emitting regions, and a multi-layered top barrier cover comprising one or more optically transmissive non-combustible insulation layers overlay said top electrode regions.

  17. Electric Light and Power Rules (North Carolina)

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    These rules shall apply to any person, firm, or corporation (except municipalities, or agents thereof) which is now or may hereafter become engaged as a public utility in the business of furnishing...

  18. Radioluminescent lighting technology

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Not Available

    1990-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The glow-in-the-dark stereotype that characterizes the popular image of nuclear materials is not accidental. When the French scientist, Henri Becquerel, first discovered radioactivity in 1896, he was interested in luminescence. Radioluminescence, the production of light from a mixture of energetic and passive materials, is probably the oldest practical application of the unstable nucleus. Tritium-based radioluminescent lighting, in spite of the biologically favorable character of the gaseous tritium isotope, was included in the general tightening of environmental and safety regulations. Tritium light manufacturers would have to meet two fundamental conditions: (1) The benefit clearly outweighed the risk, to the extent that even the perceived risk of a skeptical public would be overcome. (2) The need was significant enough that the customer/user would be willing and able to afford the cost of regulation that was imposed both in the manufacture, use and eventual disposal of nuclear materials. In 1981, researchers at Oak Ridge National Laboratory were investigating larger radioluminescent applications using byproduct nuclear material such as krypton-85, as well as tritium. By 1982, it appeared that large source, (100 Curies or more) tritium gas tube, lights might be useful for marking runways and drop zones for military operations and perhaps even special civilian aviation applications. The successful development of this idea depended on making the light bright enough and demonstrating that large gas tube sources could be used and maintained safely in the environment. This successful DOE program is now in the process of being completed and closed-out. Working closely with the tritium light industry, State governments and other Federal agencies, the basic program goals have been achieved. This is a detailed report of what they have learned, proven, and discovered. 91 refs., 29 figs., 5 tabs. (JF)

  19. Data summary of municipal solid waste management alternatives. Volume 3, Appendix A: Mass burn technologies

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    none,

    1992-10-01T23:59:59.000Z

    This appendix on Mass Burn Technologies is the first in a series designed to identify, describe and assess the suitability of several currently or potentially available generic technologies for the management of municipal solid waste (MSW). These appendices, which cover eight core thermoconversion, bioconversion and recycling technologies, reflect public domain information gathered from many sources. Representative sources include: professional journal articles, conference proceedings, selected municipality solid waste management plans and subscription technology data bases. The information presented is intended to serve as background information that will facilitate the preparation of the technoeconomic and life cycle mass, energy and environmental analyses that are being developed for each of the technologies. Mass burn has been and continues to be the predominant technology in Europe for the management of MSW. In the United States, the majority of the existing waste-to-energy projects utilize this technology and nearly 90 percent of all currently planned facilities have selected mass burn systems. Mass burning generally refers to the direct feeding and combustion of municipal solid waste in a furnace without any significant waste preprocessing. The only materials typically removed from the waste stream prior to combustion are large bulky objects and potentially hazardous or undesirable wastes. The technology has evolved over the last 100 or so years from simple incineration to the most highly developed and commercially proven process available for both reducing the volume of MSW and for recovering energy in the forms of steam and electricity. In general, mass burn plants are considered to operate reliably with high availability.

  20. Alternative approaches for better municipal solid waste management in Mumbai, India

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Rathi, Sarika [International Research Institute for Climate Prediction, Earth Institute, Columbia University, 61 Rt. 9W, Monell, Palisades, NY 10964 (United States)]. E-mail: sarika@iri.columbia.edu

    2006-07-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Waste is an unavoidable by product of human activities. Economic development, urbanization and improving living standards in cities, have led to an increase in the quantity and complexity of generated waste. Rapid growth of population and industrialization degrades the urban environment and places serious stress on natural resources, which undermines equitable and sustainable development. Inefficient management and disposal of solid waste is an obvious cause of degradation of the environment in most cities of the developing world. Municipal corporations of the developing countries are not able to handle increasing quantities of waste, which results in uncollected waste on roads and in other public places. There is a need to work towards a sustainable waste management system, which requires environmental, institutional, financial, economic and social sustainability. This study explores alternative approaches to municipal solid waste (MSW) management and estimates the cost of waste management in Mumbai, India. Two alternatives considered in the paper are community participation and public private partnership in waste management. Data for the present study are from various non-governmental organizations (NGOs) and from the private sector involved in waste management in Mumbai. Mathematical models are used to estimate the cost per ton of waste management for both of the alternatives, which are compared with the cost of waste management by Municipal Corporation of Greater Mumbai (MCGM). It is found that the cost per ton of waste management is Rs. 1518 (US$35) with community participation; Rs. 1797 (US$41) with public private partnership (PPP); and Rs. 1908 (US$44) when only MCGM handles the waste. Hence, community participation in waste management is the least cost option and there is a strong case for comprehensively involving community participation in waste management.

  1. MANDATORY MEASURES INDOOR LIGHTING CONTROLS

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    California at Davis, University of

    MANDATORY MEASURES INDOOR LIGHTING CONTROLS (Reference: Sub-Chapter 4, Section 130.1) #12;SECTION 4 MANDATORY LIGHTING CONTROLS 1. 130.1 (a) Area Controls: Manual controls that control lighting in each area separately 2. 130.1 (b) Multi-level Controls: Allow occupants to choose the appropriate light level for each

  2. MANDATORY MEASURES INDOOR LIGHTING CONTROLS

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    California at Davis, University of

    MANDATORY MEASURES INDOOR LIGHTING CONTROLS (Reference: Sub-Chapter 4, Section 130.1) #12;SECTION 3 MANDATORY LIGHTING CONTROLS 1. 130.1 (a) Area Controls: Manual controls that control lighting in each area separately 2. 130.1 (b) Multi-level Controls: "Dimmability." Allow occupants to choose the appropriate light

  3. LIGHTING 101 1. Common terminology

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    California at Davis, University of

    SECTION 3 LIGHTING 101 1. Common terminology 2. Sources & luminaires 3. Controls #12;SECTION 3SECTION 3 DISCUSSION: COMMON LIGHTING TERMINOLOGY 1. What are the definitions of the following lighting terms? 2. Do you use these terms in professional practice? 3. What other lighting terminology do you use

  4. MANDATORY MEASURES INDOOR LIGHTING CONTROLS

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    California at Davis, University of

    MANDATORY MEASURES INDOOR LIGHTING CONTROLS (Reference: Sub-Chapter 4, Section 130.1) #12;SECTION 5 MANDATORY LIGHTING CONTROLS 1. Area Controls: Manual controls that control lighting in each area separately 2. Multi-level Controls: Allow occupants to choose the appropriate light level for each area 3. Shut

  5. LIGHTING 101 1. Common terminology

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    California at Davis, University of

    LIGHTING 101 1. Common terminology 2. Sources and luminaires 3. Controls #12;SECTION 2 DISCUSSION: COMMON LIGHTING TERMINOLOGY 1. What are the definitions of the following lighting terms? 2. Do you use these terms in professional practice? 3. What other lighting terminology do you use on the job? SLIDE 14

  6. Extreme Ultraviolet Light Chris Cosio

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Hart, Gus

    Prospectus Extreme Ultraviolet Light Chris Cosio #12;The field of extreme ultraviolet light (XUV to the way XUV interacts with object, XUV properties are difficult to observe. Extreme ultraviolet light is absorbed by all objects it comes in contact with. Furthermore, extreme ultraviolet light also has low

  7. Process-design manual: Land application of municipal sludge. Final report

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Not Available

    1983-10-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The manual presents a rational procedure for the design of municipal-sludge land-application systems. The utilization of sludge in agriculture, forestry, the reclamation of disturbed and marginal lands, and dedicated high-rate surface disposal practices are discussed in detail, with design concepts and criteria presented where available. A two-phased planning approach to site identification, evaluation, and selection along with information on field investigations are also presented. The manual includes examples of each land-application option and case studies of sludge utilization in agriculture and for reclamation of disturbed mining lands.

  8. Energy optimization of water and wastewater management for municipal and industrial applications conference

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Not Available

    1980-08-01T23:59:59.000Z

    These proceedings document the presentations given at the Energy Optimization of Water and Wastewater Management for Municipal and Industrial Applications, Conference, sponsored by the Department of Energy (DOE). The conference was organized and coordinated by Argonne National Laboratory. The conference focused on energy use on conservation in water and wastewater. The General Session also reflects DOE's commitment to the support and development of waste and wastewater systems that are environmentally acceptable. The conference proceedings are divided into two volumes. Volume 1 contains the General Session and Sessions 1 to 5. Volume 2 covers Sessions 6 to 12. Separate abstracts are prepared for each item within the scope of the Energy Data Base.

  9. Assessment of municipal solid waste for energy production in the western United States

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Goodman, B.J.; Texeira, R.H.

    1990-08-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Municipal solid waste (MSW) represents both a significant problem and an abundant resource for the production of energy. The residential, institutional, and industrial sectors of this country generate about 250 million tons of MSW each year. In this report, the authors have compiled data on the status of MSW in the 13-state western region, including economic and environmental issues. The report is designed to assist the members of the Western Regional Biomass Energy Program Ad Hoc Resource Committee in determining the potential for using MSW to produce energy in the region. 51 refs., 7 figs., 18 tabs.

  10. Windows and lighting program

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Not Available

    1990-06-01T23:59:59.000Z

    More than 30% of all energy use in buildings is attributable to two sources: windows and lighting. Together they account for annual consumer energy expenditures of more than $50 billion. Each affects not only energy use by other major building systems, but also comfort and productivity -- factors that influence building economics far more than does direct energy consumption alone. Windows play a unique role in the building envelope, physically separating the conditioned space from the world outside without sacrificing vital visual contact. Throughout the indoor environment, lighting systems facilitate a variety of tasks associated with a wide range of visual requirements while defining the luminous qualities of the indoor environment. Windows and lighting are thus essential components of any comprehensive building science program. Despite important achievements in reducing building energy consumption over the past decade, significant additional savings are still possible. These will come from two complementary strategies: (1) improve building designs so that they effectively apply existing technologies and extend the market penetration of these technologies; and (2) develop advanced technologies that increase the savings potential of each application. Both the Windows and Daylighting Group and the Lighting System Research Group have made substantial contributions in each of these areas, and continue to do so through the ongoing research summarized here. 23 refs., 16 figs.

  11. Radioluminescent polymer lights

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Jensen, G.A.; Nelson, D.A.; Molton, P.M.

    1990-09-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The preparation of radioluminescent light sources where the tritium is located on the aryl-ring in a polymer has been demonstrated with deuterium/tritium substitution. This report discusses tests, results, and future applications of radioluminescent polymers. 10 refs. (FI)

  12. Sweetness and light 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Craig, Katie

    2014-07-03T23:59:59.000Z

    1. Sweetness and Light. A novel. Judi lives in a nice, clean house with her seventeen year old stepson, who won’t talk to her in anything but monosyllables. His father, Nelson, and she are struggling to relate to each ...

  13. LED traffic lights: New technology signals major energy savings

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Houghton, D.

    1994-12-31T23:59:59.000Z

    Using light-emitting diode technology to replace incandescent lamps in traffic signals promises energy savings upwards of 60 percent for each of the estimated quarter of a million controlled intersections in the United States. LED units use only 9 to 25 watts instead of the 67 to 150 watts used by each incandescent lamp. Though their first cost is relatively high, energy savings result in paybacks of 1 to 5 years. LED retrofit kits are available for red signal disks and arrows, and installations in several states have proven successful, although minor improvements are addressing concerns about varying light output and controller circuitry. Retrofitting green lamps is not yet feasible, because color standards of the Institute of Traffic Engineers cannot be met with existing LED technology. Yellow lamps have such low duty factors (they`re on only 3 percent of the time) that retrofitting with LED signals is not cost-effective. LEDs last much longer than incandescents, allowing municipalities to not only reduce their electricity bills, but to save on maintenance costs as well. As further incentive, some utilities are beginning to implement rebate programs for LED traffic signal retrofits. Full approval of LED units is still awaited from the Institute of Traffic Engineers (ITE), the standard-setting body for traffic safety devices. Local and state governments ultimately decide what specifications to require for traffic lights, and the growing body of successful field experience with LEDs appears to be raising their comfort level with the technology. The California Department of Transportation is developing an LED traffic light specification, and two California utilities, Southern California Edison and Pacific Gas and Electric, have provided rebates for some pilot installations.

  14. Environmental assessment of garden waste management in the Municipality of Aarhus, Denmark

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Boldrin, Alessio, E-mail: aleb@env.dtu.dk [Department of Environmental Engineering, Technical University of Denmark, Kongens Lyngby (Denmark); Andersen, Jacob K.; Christensen, Thomas H. [Department of Environmental Engineering, Technical University of Denmark, Kongens Lyngby (Denmark)

    2011-07-15T23:59:59.000Z

    An environmental assessment of six scenarios for handling of garden waste in the Municipality of Aarhus (Denmark) was performed from a life cycle perspective by means of the LCA-model EASEWASTE. In the first (baseline) scenario, the current garden waste management system based on windrow composting was assessed, while in the other five scenarios alternative solutions including incineration and home composting of fractions of the garden waste were evaluated. The environmental profile (normalised to Person Equivalent, PE) of the current garden waste management in Aarhus is in the order of -6 to 8 mPE Mg{sup -1} ww for the non-toxic categories and up to 100 mPE Mg{sup -1} ww for the toxic categories. The potential impacts on non-toxic categories are much smaller than what is found for other fractions of municipal solid waste. Incineration (up to 35% of the garden waste) and home composting (up to 18% of the garden waste) seem from an environmental point of view suitable for diverting waste away from the composting facility in order to increase its capacity. In particular the incineration of woody parts of the garden waste improved the environmental profile of the garden waste management significantly.

  15. Water-related environmental control requirements at municipal solid waste-to-energy conversion facilities

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Young, J C; Johnson, L D

    1980-09-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Water use and waste water production, water pollution control technology requirements, and water-related limitations to their design and commercialization are identified at municipal solid waste-to-energy conversion systems. In Part I, a summary of conclusions and recommendations provides concise statements of findings relative to water management and waste water treatment of each of four municipal solid waste-to-energy conversion categories investigated. These include: mass burning, with direct production of steam for use as a supplemental energy source; mechanical processing to produce a refuse-derived fuel (RDF) for co-firing in gas, coal or oil-fired power plants; pyrolysis for production of a burnable oil or gas; and biological conversion of organic wastes to methane. Part II contains a brief description of each waste-to-energy facility visited during the subject survey showing points of water use and wastewater production. One or more facilities of each type were selected for sampling of waste waters and follow-up tests to determine requirements for water-related environmental controls. A comprehensive summary of the results are presented. (MCW)

  16. Data summary of municipal solid waste management alternatives. Volume 5, Appendix C, Fluidized-bed combustion

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    none,

    1992-10-01T23:59:59.000Z

    This appendix provides information on fluidized-bed combustion (FBC) technology as it has been applied to municipal waste combustion (MWC). A review of the literature was conducted to determine: (1) to what extent FBC technology has been applied to MWC, in terms of number and size of units was well as technology configuration; (2) the operating history of facilities employing FBC technology; and (3) the cost of these facilities as compared to conventional MSW installations. Where available in the literature, data on operating and performance characteristics are presented. Tabular comparisons of facility operating/cost data and emissions data have been complied and are presented. The literature review shows that FBC technology shows considerable promise in terms of providing improvements over conventional technology in areas such as NOx and acid gas control, and ash leachability. In addition, the most likely configuration to be applied to the first large scale FBC dedicated to municipal solid waste (MSW) will employ circulating bed (CFB) technology. Projected capital costs for the Robbins, Illinois 1600 ton per day CFB-based waste-to-energy facility are competitive with conventional systems, in the range of $125,000 per ton per day of MSW receiving capacity.

  17. A historical perspective of Global Warming Potential from Municipal Solid Waste Management

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Habib, Komal, E-mail: koh@kbm.sdu.dk [Institute of Chemical Engineering, Biotechnology and Environmental Technology, University of Southern Denmark, Niels Bohr’s Alle 1, 5230 Odense M (Denmark); Schmidt, Jannick H.; Christensen, Per [Department of Development and Planning, Aalborg University, Fibigerstraede 13, DK-9220 Aalborg OE (Denmark)

    2013-09-15T23:59:59.000Z

    Highlights: • Five scenarios are compared based on different waste management systems from 1970 to 2010. • Technology development for incineration and vehicular exhaust system throughout the time period is considered. • Compared scenarios show continuous improvement regarding environmental performance of waste management system. • Energy and material recovery from waste account for significant savings of Global Warming Potential (GWP) today. • Technology development for incineration has played key role in lowering the GWP during past five decades. - Abstract: The Municipal Solid Waste Management (MSWM) sector has developed considerably during the past century, paving the way for maximum resource (materials and energy) recovery and minimising environmental impacts such as global warming associated with it. The current study is assessing the historical development of MSWM in the municipality of Aalborg, Denmark throughout the period of 1970 to 2010, and its implications regarding Global Warming Potential (GWP{sub 100}), using the Life Cycle Assessment (LCA) approach. Historical data regarding MSW composition, and different treatment technologies such as incineration, recycling and composting has been used in order to perform the analysis. The LCA results show a continuous improvement in environmental performance of MSWM from 1970 to 2010 mainly due to the changes in treatment options, improved efficiency of various treatment technologies and increasing focus on recycling, resulting in a shift from net emission of 618 kg CO{sub 2}-eq. tonne{sup ?1} to net saving of 670 kg CO{sub 2}-eq. tonne{sup ?1} of MSWM.

  18. Energy implications of the thermal recovery of biodegradable municipal waste materials in the United Kingdom

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Burnley, Stephen, E-mail: s.j.burnley@open.ac.uk [Open University, Walton Hall, Milton Keynes MK7 6AA (United Kingdom); Phillips, Rhiannon, E-mail: rhiannon.jones@environment-agency.gov.uk [Strategy Unit, Welsh Assembly Government, Ty Cambria, 29 Newport Road, Cardiff CF24 0TP (United Kingdom); Coleman, Terry, E-mail: terry.coleman@erm.com [Environmental Resources Management Ltd, Eaton House, Wallbrook Court, North Hinksey Lane, Oxford OX2 0QS (United Kingdom); Rampling, Terence, E-mail: twa.rampling@hotmail.com [7 Thurlow Close, Old Town Stevenage, Herts SG1 4SD (United Kingdom)

    2011-09-15T23:59:59.000Z

    Highlights: > Energy balances were calculated for the thermal treatment of biodegradable wastes. > For wood and RDF, combustion in dedicated facilities was the best option. > For paper, garden and food wastes and mixed waste incineration was the best option. > For low moisture paper, gasification provided the optimum solution. - Abstract: Waste management policies and legislation in many developed countries call for a reduction in the quantity of biodegradable waste landfilled. Anaerobic digestion, combustion and gasification are options for managing biodegradable waste while generating renewable energy. However, very little research has been carried to establish the overall energy balance of the collection, preparation and energy recovery processes for different types of wastes. Without this information, it is impossible to determine the optimum method for managing a particular waste to recover renewable energy. In this study, energy balances were carried out for the thermal processing of food waste, garden waste, wood, waste paper and the non-recyclable fraction of municipal waste. For all of these wastes, combustion in dedicated facilities or incineration with the municipal waste stream was the most energy-advantageous option. However, we identified a lack of reliable information on the energy consumed in collecting individual wastes and preparing the wastes for thermal processing. There was also little reliable information on the performance and efficiency of anaerobic digestion and gasification facilities for waste.

  19. Prospects for pyrolysis technologies in managing municipal, industrial, and DOE cleanup wastes

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Reaven, S.J. [State Univ. of New York, Stony Brook, NY (United States)

    1994-12-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Pyrolysis converts portions of municipal solid wastes, hazardous wastes, and special wastes such as tires, medical wastes, and even old landfills into solid carbon and a liquid or gaseous hydrocarbon stream. Pyrolysis heats a carbonaceous waste stream typically to 290--900 C in the absence of oxygen, and reduces the volume of waste by 90% and its weight by 75%. The solid carbon char has existing markets as an ingredient in many manufactured goods, and as an adsorbent or filter to sequester certain hazardous wastes. Pyrolytic gases may be burned as fuel by utilities, or liquefied for use as chemical feedstocks, or low-pollution motor vehicle fuels and fuel additives. This report analyzes the potential applications of pyrolysis in the Long Island region and evaluates for the four most promising pyrolytic systems their technological and commercial readiness, their applicability to regional waste management needs, and their conformity with DOE requirements for environmental restoration and waste management. This summary characterizes their engineering performance, environmental effects, costs, product applications, and markets. Because it can effectively treat those wastes that are inadequately addressed by current systems, pyrolysis can play an important complementing role in the region`s existing waste management strategy. Its role could be even more significant if the region moves away from existing commitments to incineration and MSW composting. Either way, Long Island could become the center for a pyrolysis-based recovery services industry serving global markets in municipal solid waste treatment and hazardous waste cleanup. 162 refs.

  20. Municipal solid waste management challenges in developing countries - Kenyan case study

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Henry, Rotich K. [College of Environment and Resources, Jilin University, Changchun 130026 (China); Zhao Yongsheng [College of Environment and Resources, Jilin University, Changchun 130026 (China)]. E-mail: zhaoyongsheng@jlu.edu.cn; Dong Jun [College of Environment and Resources, Jilin University, Changchun 130026 (China)

    2006-07-01T23:59:59.000Z

    This paper provides an overview of the state of municipal solid waste management (MSWM) by local authorities in Kenya as a case study of a low-income developing country. Approaches of possible solutions that can be undertaken to improve municipal solid waste (MSW) services are discussed. Poor economic growth (1.1% in 1993) has resulted in an increase in the poverty level which presently stands at 56%. Migration from the rural areas to the urban areas has resulted in unplanned settlements in suburban areas accommodating about 60% of the urban population on only 5% urban land area. Political interference also hampers smooth running of local authorities. Vulnerability of pollution of surface and groundwater is high because local authorities rarely considered environmental impact in siting MSW disposal sites. Illegal dumping of MSW on the river banks or on the roadside poses environmental and economic threats on nearby properties. Poor servicing of MSW collection vehicles, poor state of infrastructure and the lack of adequate funding militate against optimization of MSW disposal service. The rural economy needs to be improved if rural-urban migration is to be managed. Involvement of stakeholders is important to achieve any meaningful and sustainable MSWM. The role of the informal sector through community-based organizations (CBOs), Non-Governmental Organizations (NGOs) and the private sector in offering solutions towards improvement of MSWM also is explored.

  1. Preozonation of primary-treated municipal wastewater for reuse in biofuel feedstock generation

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Mondala, Andro H.; Hernandez, Rafael; French, William Todd; Estevez, L. Antonio; Meckes, Mark; Trillo, Marlene; Hall, Jacqueline

    2011-12-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The results of a laboratory scale investigation on ozone pretreatment of primary-treated municipal wastewater for potential reuse in fermentation processes for the production of biofuels and bio-based feedstock chemicals were presented. Semi-batch preozonation with 3.0% (w/w) ozone at 1 L min -1 resulted into a considerable inactivation of the indigenous heterotrophic bacteria in the wastewater with less than 0.0002% comprising the ozone-resistant fraction of the microbial population. The disinfection process was modeled using first-order inactivation kinetics with a rate constant of 4.39 Ã?Â?Ã?Â? 10 -3 s -1. Chemical oxygen demand (COD) levels were reduced by 30% in 1-h experiments. COD depletion was also modeled using a pseudo-first-order kinetics at a rate constant of 9.50 Ã?Â?Ã?Â? 10 -5 s -1. Biological oxygen demand (BOD 5) values were reduced by 60% up to 20 min of ozonation followed by a plateau and some slight increases attributed to partial oxidation of recalcitrant materials. Ozone also had no substantial effect on the concentration of ammonium and phosphate ions, which are essential for microbial growth and metabolism. Preliminary tests indicated that oleaginous microorganisms could be cultivated in the ozonated wastewater, resulting in relatively higher cell densities than in raw wastewater and comparable results with autoclave-sterilized wastewater. This process could potentially produce significant quantities of oil for biofuel production from municipal wastewater streams.

  2. A multi-level biological approach to evaluate impacts of a major municipal effluent in wild St. Lawrence River yellow perch

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Bernatchez, Louis

    . Yellow perch were sampled upstream of a major municipal wastewater treatment plant (WWTP) and 4 km and 10A multi-level biological approach to evaluate impacts of a major municipal effluent in wild St 3P8, Canada H I G H L I G H T S · A multi-level biological approach was used to evaluate impacts

  3. Nonequilibrium lighting plasmas

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Dakin, J.T. (GE Lighting, Nela Park, Cleveland, OH (US))

    1991-12-01T23:59:59.000Z

    In this paper the science of a variety of devices employing nonequilibrium lighting plasmas is reviewed. The devices include the fluorescent lamp, the low-pressure sodium lamp, the neon sign, ultraviolet lamps, glow indicators, and a variety of devices used by spectroscopists, such as the hollow cathode light source. The plasma conditions in representative commercial devices are described. Recent research on the electron gas, the role of heavy particles, spatial and temporal inhomogeneities, and new electrodeless excitation schemes is reviewed. Areas of future activity are expected to be in new applications of high-frequency electronics to commercial devices, new laser-based diagnostics of plasma conditions, and more sophisticated models requiring more reliable and extensive rate coefficient data.

  4. Light cone matrix product

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Hastings, Matthew B [Los Alamos National Laboratory

    2009-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    We show how to combine the light-cone and matrix product algorithms to simulate quantum systems far from equilibrium for long times. For the case of the XXZ spin chain at {Delta} = 0.5, we simulate to a time of {approx} 22.5. While part of the long simulation time is due to the use of the light-cone method, we also describe a modification of the infinite time-evolving bond decimation algorithm with improved numerical stability, and we describe how to incorporate symmetry into this algorithm. While statistical sampling error means that we are not yet able to make a definite statement, the behavior of the simulation at long times indicates the appearance of either 'revivals' in the order parameter as predicted by Hastings and Levitov (e-print arXiv:0806.4283) or of a distinct shoulder in the decay of the order parameter.

  5. OLEDS FOR GENERAL LIGHTING

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Anil Duggal; Don Foust; Chris Heller; Bill Nealon; Larry Turner; Joe Shiang; Nick Baynes; Tim Butler; Nalin Patel

    2004-02-29T23:59:59.000Z

    The goal of this program was to reduce the long term technical risks that were keeping the lighting industry from embracing and developing organic light-emitting diode (OLED) technology for general illumination. The specific goal was to develop OLEDs for lighting to the point where it was possible to demonstrate a large area white light panel with brightness and light quality comparable to a fluorescence source and with an efficacy comparable to that of an incandescent source. it was recognized that achieving this would require significant advances in three area: (1) the improvement of white light quality for illumination, (2) the improvement of OLED energy efficiency at high brightness, and (3) the development of cost-effective large area fabrication techniques. The program was organized such that, each year, a ''deliverable'' device would be fabricated which demonstrated progress in one or more of the three critical research areas. In the first year (2001), effort concentrated on developing an OLED capable of generating high illumination-quality white light. Ultimately, a down-conversion method where a blue OLED was coupled with various down-conversion layers was chosen. Various color and scattering models were developed to aid in material development and device optimization. The first year utilized this approach to deliver a 1 inch x 1 inch OLED with higher illumination-quality than available fluorescent sources. A picture of this device is shown and performance metrics are listed. To their knowledge, this was the first demonstration of true illumination-quality light from an OLED. During the second year, effort concentrated on developing a scalable approach to large area devices. A novel device architecture consisting of dividing the device area into smaller elements that are monolithically connected in series was developed. In the course of this development, it was realized that, in addition to being scalable, this approach made the device tolerant to the most common OLED defect--electrical shorts. This architecture enabled the fabrication of a 6 inch x 6 inch OLED deliverable for 2002. A picture of this deliverable is shown and the performance metrics are listed. At the time, this was the highest efficiency, highest lumen output illumination-quality OLED in existence. The third year effort concentrated on improving the fabrication yield of the 6 inch x 6 inch devices and improving the underlying blue device efficiency. An efficiency breakthrough was achieved through the invention of a new device structure such that now 15 lumen per watt devices could be fabricated. A 2 feet x 2 feet OLED panel consisting of sixteen 6 inch x 6 inch high efficiency devices tiled together was then fabricated. Pictures of this panel are shown with performance metrics listed. This panel met all project objectives and was the final deliverable for the project. It is now the highest efficiency, highest lumen output, illumination-quality OLED in existence.

  6. Fusion pumped light source

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Pappas, Daniel S. (Los Alamos, NM)

    1989-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Apparatus is provided for generating energy in the form of light radiation. A fusion reactor is provided for generating a long, or continuous, pulse of high-energy neutrons. The neutron flux is coupled directly with the lasing medium. The lasing medium includes a first component selected from Group O of the periodic table of the elements and having a high inelastic scattering cross section. Gamma radiation from the inelastic scattering reactions interacts with the first component to excite the first component, which decays by photon emission at a first output wavelength. The first output wavelength may be shifted to a second output wavelength using a second liquid component responsive to the first output wavelength. The light outputs may be converted to a coherent laser output by incorporating conventional optics adjacent the laser medium.

  7. Turbo-Charged Lighting Design

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Clark, W. H. II

    TURBO-CHARGED LIGHTING DESIGN William H. Clark II Design Engineer O'Connell Robertson & Assoc Austin/ Texas ABSTRACT The task of the lighting designer has become very complex, involving thousands of choices for fixture types and hundreds...

  8. Faster than Light Quantum Communication

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    A. Y. Shiekh

    2008-04-05T23:59:59.000Z

    Faster than light communication might be possible using the collapse of the quantum wave-function without any accompanying paradoxes.

  9. Webinar: Fuel Cell Mobile Lighting

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    Video recording of the Fuel Cell Technologies Office webinar, Fuel Cell Mobile Lighting, originally presented on November 13, 2012.

  10. Photodetector with enhanced light absorption

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Kane, James (Lawrenceville, NJ)

    1985-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    A photodetector including a light transmissive electrically conducting layer having a textured surface with a semiconductor body thereon. This layer traps incident light thereby enhancing the absorption of light by the semiconductor body. A photodetector comprising a textured light transmissive electrically conducting layer of SnO.sub.2 and a body of hydrogenated amorphous silicon has a conversion efficiency about fifty percent greater than that of comparative cells. The invention also includes a method of fabricating the photodetector of the invention.

  11. Report No. PA 14 of 2008 Compliance to rules governing municipal solid, bio-medical and plastic

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Columbia University

    -medical and plastic waste Objective 5: Whether effective compliance to rules/laws regulating municipal solid waste, bio-medical waste and plastic waste was taking place in the state. The United Nations Conference of 2008 54 · The Recycled Plastics Manufacture and Usage Rules were notified in 1999 with an amendment

  12. Municipal Solid Waste Landfills The following Oklahoma landfills currently accept dead livestock. As each facility has different guidelines and

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Balasundaram, Balabhaskar "Baski"

    Municipal Solid Waste Landfills The following Oklahoma landfills currently accept dead livestock-581-3468 Garfield City of Enid Landfill 580-249-4917 Garvin Foster Waste Disposal Landfill 405-238-2012 Jackson City-436-1403 Call ahead, may limit qty. Pottawatomie Absolute Waste Solutions 405-598-3893 Call ahead Seminole

  13. Physical-chemical characterization of sludge and granular materials from a vertical flow constructed wetland for municipal wastewater treatment

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Boyer, Edmond

    constructed wetland for municipal wastewater treatment B. Kim1,2 , M. Gautier*1 , P. Michel2 and R. Gourdon1 1, Society of design and production engineering for wastewater purification, 5 Allée Alban Vistel, F-69110 Wetlands (VFCW) is well developed in France and other countries for the treatment of wastewaters from small

  14. Generation!and!Disposition!of!Municipal!Solid!Waste! (MSW)!in!the!United!States!A!National!Survey!

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    ! 1! ! Generation!and!Disposition!of!Municipal!Solid!Waste! (MSW Waste (MSW) Generation and Disposition in the U.S., in collaboration with Ms. Nora Goldstein of Bio in 2012 and in 2013 EEC and BioCycle agreed that the 2013 Survey of Waste Generation and Disposition

  15. MANDATORY MEASURES OUTDOOR LIGHTING CONTROLS

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    California at Davis, University of

    MANDATORY MEASURES OUTDOOR LIGHTING CONTROLS (Reference: Sub-Chapter 4, Section 130.2) #12;SECTION level of each multi-tier garage. · General lighting must have occupant sensing controls with at least one control step between 20% and 50% of design lighting power · No more than 500 watts of rated

  16. MANDATORY MEASURES OUTDOOR LIGHTING CONTROLS

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    California at Davis, University of

    MANDATORY MEASURES OUTDOOR LIGHTING CONTROLS (Reference: Sub-Chapter 4, Section 130.2) #12;SECTION 5 Additions and Alterations Any alteration that increases the connected lighting load must meet all No measures required OUTDOOR LIGHTING11/20/2014 #12;SECTION 5 BACKLIGHT, UPLIGHT, AND GLARE (BUG) RATINGS

  17. MANDATORY MEASURES OUTDOOR LIGHTING CONTROLS

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    California at Davis, University of

    MANDATORY MEASURES OUTDOOR LIGHTING CONTROLS (Reference: Sub-Chapter 4, Section 130.2) #12;SECTION performance in relation to lighting trespass, sky glow, and high angle brightness. This is necessary in order to reduce light pollution, which has a negative effect on wildlife and the surrounding environments

  18. Arnold Schwarzenegger, LIGHTING RESEARCH PROGRAM

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    ;#12;Prepared By: Lighting Research Center Andrew Bierman, Project Lead Troy, New York 12180 Managed ByArnold Schwarzenegger, Governor LIGHTING RESEARCH PROGRAM PROJECT 3.2 ENERGY EFFICIENT LOAD- SHEDDING LIGHTING TECHNOLOGY Prepared For: California Energy Commission Public Interest Energy Research

  19. STATE OF CALIFORNIA RESIDENTIAL LIGHTING

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    STATE OF CALIFORNIA RESIDENTIAL LIGHTING CEC-CF-6R-LTG-01 (Revised 08/09) CALIFORNIA ENERGY COMMISSION INSTALLATION CERTIFICATE CF-6R-LTG-01 Residential Lighting (Page 1 of 6) Site Address: Enforcement Agency: Permit Number: 2008 Residential Compliance Forms August 2009 1. Kitchen Lighting Does project

  20. Guide for revegetation of mined land in Eastern United States using municipal sludge

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Sopper, W.E.; Seaker, E.M.

    1983-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The use of municipal sewage sludge to reclaim and revegetate land disturbed by mining activity could deal with two major problems (the 60% of land still unreclaimed and the increasing problem of finding landfills for sewage sludge disposal). An alternative to using sludge as an agricultural fertilizer (and possibly introducing heavy metals into the food chain) is to reclaim marginal and disturbed lands. Guidelines for metal loadings in sludge application for reclamation suggest following those developed for agricultural applications. Regulations to date only cover cadmium, but the guidelines include lead, zinc, curium, and niobium. Other regulations cover permit applications, public participation, site investigations, constraints based on the sludge characteristics, and the selection and management of vegetations. A monitoring program is necessary to assure compliance. The appendix identifies appropriate plants for revegetation. 97 references, 12 figures, 12 tables.

  1. Use of Municipal Sewage Sludge for Improvement of Forest Sites in the Southeast

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Charles R. Berry

    1987-09-01T23:59:59.000Z

    In eight field experiments dried municipal sewage sludge was applied to forest sites before planting of seedlings. In all cases, tree growth was faster on sludge-amended plots than on plots that received fertilizer and lime or no amendment. In all studies, concentrations of total nitrogen in the soil were higher on sludge plots than on control or fertilizer plots, even on good forest sites. In seven of the eight studies, concentrations of phosphorus also were higher on sludge plots than on control or fertilizer plots. Nitrogen and phosphorus tended to be higher in foliage from trees growing on sludge plots. Deep subsoiling was beneficial regardless of soil amendment. Where weeds were plentiful at the outset, they became serious competitors on plots receiving sludge.

  2. State Clean Energy Policies Analysis: State, Utility, and Municipal Loan Programs

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Lantz, E.

    2010-05-01T23:59:59.000Z

    High initial costs can impede the deployment of clean energy technologies. Financing can reduce these costs. And, state, municipal, and utility-sponsored loan programs have emerged to fill the gap between clean energy technology financing needs and private sector lending. In general, public loan programs are more favorable to clean energy technologies than are those offered by traditional lending institutions; however, public loan programs address only the high up-front costs of clean energy systems, and the technology installed under these loan programs rarely supports clean energy production at levels that have a notable impact on the broader energy sector. This report discusses ways to increase the impact of these loan programs and suggests related policy design considerations.

  3. Municipal solid waste energy conversion study on Guam and American Samoa

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Not Available

    1984-03-31T23:59:59.000Z

    In the Pacific Islands of Guam and Tutuila in American Samoa, conversion of municipal solid waste to useable energy forms - principally electricity but possibly steam - may hold promise for reducing economic dependence on imported petroleum. A secondary benefit may be derived from reduction of solid waste landfill requirements. At the preliminary planning stage, waste-to-energy facilities producing electricity appear technically and environmentally feasible. Economically, the projects appear marginal but could be viable under specific conditions related to capital costs, revenue from garbage collection and revenue from the sale of the energy generated. Grant funding for the projects would considerably enhance the economic viability of the proposed facilities. The projects appear sufficiently viable to proceed to the detailed planning stage. Such projects are not viable for the islands now emerging from the US Trust Territory of the Pacific Islands.

  4. Evaluation of gasification and novel thermal processes for the treatment of municipal solid waste

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Niessen, W.R.; Marks, C.H.; Sommerlad, R.E. [Camp Dresser and McKee, Inc., Cambridge, MA (United States)] [Camp Dresser and McKee, Inc., Cambridge, MA (United States)

    1996-08-01T23:59:59.000Z

    This report identifies seven developers whose gasification technologies can be used to treat the organic constituents of municipal solid waste: Energy Products of Idaho; TPS Termiska Processor AB; Proler International Corporation; Thermoselect Inc.; Battelle; Pedco Incorporated; and ThermoChem, Incorporated. Their processes recover heat directly, produce a fuel product, or produce a feedstock for chemical processes. The technologies are on the brink of commercial availability. This report evaluates, for each technology, several kinds of issues. Technical considerations were material balance, energy balance, plant thermal efficiency, and effect of feedstock contaminants. Environmental considerations were the regulatory context, and such things as composition, mass rate, and treatability of pollutants. Business issues were related to likelihood of commercialization. Finally, cost and economic issues such as capital and operating costs, and the refuse-derived fuel preparation and energy conversion costs, were considered. The final section of the report reviews and summarizes the information gathered during the study.

  5. Pedestrian Friendly Outdoor Lighting

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Miller, Naomi J.; Koltai, Rita; McGowan, Terry

    2013-12-31T23:59:59.000Z

    This GATEWAY report discusses the problems of pedestrian lighting that occur with all technologies with a focus on the unique optical options and opportunities offered by LEDs through the findings from two pedestrian-focused projects, one at Stanford University in California, and one at the Chautauqua Institution in upstate New York. Incorporating user feedback this report reviews the tradeoffs that must be weighed among visual comfort, color, visibility, efficacy and other factors to stimulate discussion among specifiers, users, energy specialists, and in industry in hopes that new approaches, metrics, and standards can be developed to support pedestrian-focused communities, while reducing energy use.

  6. Advances in Lighting

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Tumber, A. J.

    1981-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    colour rendition. The quartz-halogen incandescent lam s operate at higher temperatures, and have a somewhat higher efficacy, but they are rarely used except for special applicati ns. 3-2 High Intensity Discharge Lamps. Mercury is the grandfather... of the H.I.D. lamps. Its blue-green light, has been used almost exclusively for streetlighti and, often with colour-improving phospho it is still being used in industrial and commercial applications. Reactor-type ballasted mercury lamps can now...

  7. Lights, Conformational Change... Action!

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE:1 First Use of Energy for All Purposes (Fuel and Nonfuel),Feet) Year Jan Feb Mar Apr MayAtmospheric Optical Depth7-1D: VegetationEquipment Surfaces and Interfaces Sample6, 2011 LawrenceEfeedstocksHomesLighting the

  8. Lighting | Open Energy Information

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Google Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Office of InspectorConcentrating Solar Powerstories on climateJuno Beach,October,Lighthouse Solar Jump to:Lighting Jump

  9. Intervention strategies for energy efficient municipal buildings: Influencing energy decisions throughout buildings` lifetimes

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    NONE

    1993-12-31T23:59:59.000Z

    The current energy-related decisionmaking processes that take place during the lifetimes of municipal buildings in San Francisco do not reflect our ideal picture of energy efficiency as a part of staff awareness and standard practice. Two key problems that undermine the success of energy efficiency programs are lost opportunities and incomplete actions. These problems can be caused by technology-related issues, but often the causes are institutional barriers (organizational or procedural {open_quotes}people problems{close_quotes}). Energy efficient decisions are not being made because of a lack of awareness or policy mandate, or because financial resources are not available to decisionmakers. The Bureau of Energy Conservation (BEC) is working to solve such problems in the City & County of San Francisco through the Intervention Strategies project. In the first phase of the project, using the framework of the building lifetime, we learned how energy efficiency in San Francisco municipal buildings can be influenced through delivering services to support decisionmakers; at key points in the process of funding, designing, constructing and maintaining them. The second phase of the project involved choosing and implementing five pilot projects. Through staff interviews, we learned how decisions that impact energy use are made at various levels. We compiled information about city staff and their needs, and resources available to meet those needs. We then designed actions to deliver appropriate services to staff at these key access points. BEC implemented five pilot projects corresponding to various stages in the building`s lifetime. These were: Bond Guidelines, Energy Efficient Design Practices, Commissioning, Motor Efficiency, and Facilities Condition Monitoring Program.

  10. Review of municipal sludge use as a soil amendment on disturbed lands

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Brandt, C.A.; Hendrickson, P.L.

    1990-08-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The US Department of Energy is examining options of improving soil conditions at Hanford reclamation sites. One promising technology is the incorporation of municipal sewage sludge into the soil profile. This report reviews the potential benefits and adverse consequences of sludge use in land reclamation. Land reclamation comprises those activities instigated to return a mechanically disturbed site to some later successional state. Besides the introduction of suitable plant species to disturbed lands, reclamation generally requires measures to enhance long-term soil nutrient content, moisture retention or drainage, and mitigation of toxic effects from metals and pH. One of the more effective means of remediating adverse soil characteristics is the application of complex organic manures such as municipal sewage sludge. Sewage sludges contain complete macro- and micronutrients necessary to sustain plant growth. The application of sewage sludge may reestablish microbial activity in sterile soils. Physical properties, such as water-holding capacity and percentage water-stable aggregates, also improve with the addition of sewage sludge. Sludge applications may also increase the rate of degradation of some hydrocarbon pollutants in soils. Potential adverse impacts associated with the application of sewage sludge to land include negative public perception of human waste products; concerns regarding pathogen buildup and spread in the soils, plants, and water; entrance and accumulation of heavy metals in the food chain; salt accumulation in the soil and ground water; leaching of nitrates into ground water; and accumulation of other potentially toxic substances, such as boron and synthetic hydrocarbons, in the soil, plants, and food chain. 56 refs., 10 tabs.

  11. Ecological Consequences of Artificial Night Lighting

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Piselli, Kathy

    2006-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    of Artificial Night Lighting Catherine Rich and Travisof artificial night lighting. This book provides editedage of modern urban lighting was ushered in. Coincidentally,

  12. LIGHTING CONTROLS: SURVEY OF MARKET POTENTIAL

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Verderber, R.R.

    2010-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    REFERENCES Task Report to Lighting Systems Research,Berkeley Laboratory, "Lighting Control System Market1980). Task Report to Lighting Systems Research, Lawrence

  13. Demand Responsive Lighting: A Scoping Study

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Rubinstein, Francis; Kiliccote, Sila

    2007-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    3 3.0 Previous Experience with Demand Responsive Lighting11 4.3. Prevalence of Lighting13 4.4. Impact of Title 24 on Lighting

  14. Sandia National Laboratories: Light Creation Materials

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    TechnologiesLight Creation Materials Light Creation Materials Overview of SSL Light Creation Materials Different families of inorganic semiconductor materials can...

  15. Photon echo studies of photosynthetic light harvesting

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Read, Elizabeth L.; Lee, Hohjai; Fleming, Graham R.

    2009-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    of the B800-B820 light-harvesting complex. Proc Natl Acadphotosynthetic light harvesting Elizabeth L. Read Æ Hohjaitransfer events in light harvesting. Here, we outline the

  16. Sandia National Laboratories: Light Creation Materials

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    EFRCOverviewLight Creation Materials Light Creation Materials Overview of SSL Light Creation Materials Different families of inorganic semiconductor materials can contribute to...

  17. Energy Savings Estimates of Light Emitting Diodes in Niche Lighting...

    Office of Environmental Management (EM)

    in Niche Lighting Applications Prepared for: Building Technologies Program Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy U.S. Department of Energy Prepared by: Navigant...

  18. Light modulating device

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Rauh, R. David (Newton, MA); Goldner, Ronald B. (Lexington, MA)

    1989-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    In a device for transmitting light, means for controlling the transmissivity of the device, including a ceramic, reversibly electrochromic, crystalline element having a highly reflective state when injected with electrons and charge compensating ions and a highly transmissive state when the electrons and ions are removed, the crystalline element being characterized as having a reflectivity of at least 50% in the reflective state and not greater than 10% in the transmissive state, and means for modulating the crystalline element between the reflective and transmissive states by injecting ions into the crystalline element in response to an applied electrical current of a first polarity and removing the ions in response to an applied electrical current of a second polarity.

  19. Light modulating device

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Rauh, R.D.; Goldner, R.B.

    1989-12-26T23:59:59.000Z

    In a device for transmitting light, means for controlling the transmissivity of the device, including a ceramic, reversibly electrochromic, crystalline element having a highly reflective state when injected with electrons and charge compensating ions and a highly transmissive state when the electrons and ions are removed, the crystalline element being characterized as having a reflectivity of at least 50% in the reflective state and not greater than 10% in the transmissive state, and means for modulating the crystalline element between the reflective and transmissive states by injecting ions into the crystalline element in response to an applied electrical current of a first polarity and removing the ions in response to an applied electrical current of a second polarity are disclosed. 1 fig.

  20. Energy and lighting

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Berman, S.

    1985-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Advances in research for new types of lighting with increased efficacies (lumens/watt) are discussed in the following areas: (1) high-frequency, solid-state ballasts, (2) isotopic enhancement of mercury isotopes, (3) magnetic augmentation, (4) electrodeless, ultra-high frequency, (5) tuned phosphors, (6) two-photon phosphors, (7) heat mirrors, and (3) advanced control circuits to take advantage of daylight and occupancy. As of 1985, improvements in efficacy have been accomplished on an economic basis to save energy for (1) high-frequency ballasts (25%), (2) isotopic enhancement (5%), and (8) advanced control circuits (up to 50%). Most of these advances depend on a deeper understanding of the weakly ionized plasma as a radiating and diffusing medium. 3 figures, 4 tables.

  1. Cost effective lighting

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Morse, O.; Verderber, R.

    1987-07-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Long-life replacement lamps for the incandescent lamp have been evaluated with regard to their cost effectiveness. The replacements include the use of energy buttons that extend lamp life as well as an adaptive fluorescent circline lamp that will fit into existing incandescent lamp sockets. The initial, operating, and replacement costs for one million lumen-hours are determined for each lamp system. We find the most important lighting cost component is the operating cost. Using lamps that are less efficient or devices that cause lamps to operate less efficiently are not cost-effective. The adaptive fluorescent circline lamp, even at an initial cost of $15.00, is the most cost effective source of illumination compared to the incandescent lamp and lamp systems examined. 3 refs., 6 tabs.

  2. Posters | Posters --721 Exploring lighting cultures

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Boyer, Edmond

    Posters | Posters -- 721 Exploring lighting cultures Beyond light and emotions Vincent LAGANIER 1 , Jasmine van der POL 2 1. Lighting Applications Services (LiAS), Philips Lighting, France vincent.laganier@philips.com 2

  3. Creative and Constructive Play with Light

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    children identify objects with these properties. Predict what materials light will pass through. Use paint and mixing light. Mixing paint creates a muddy brown or black. Mixing light creates white light

  4. Co-gasification of municipal solid waste and material recovery in a large-scale gasification and melting system

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Tanigaki, Nobuhiro, E-mail: tanigaki.nobuhiro@nsc-eng.co.jp [Nippon Steel Engineering Co., Ltd. (Head Office), Osaki Center Building 1-5-1, Osaki, Shinagawa-ku, Tokyo 141-8604 (Japan); Manako, Kazutaka [Nippon Steel Engineering Co., Ltd., 46-59, Nakabaru, Tobata-ku, Kitakyushu, Fukuoka 804-8505 (Japan); Osada, Morihiro [Nippon Steel Engineering Co., Ltd. (Head Office), Osaki Center Building 1-5-1, Osaki, Shinagawa-ku, Tokyo 141-8604 (Japan)

    2012-04-15T23:59:59.000Z

    Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer This study evaluates the effects of co-gasification of MSW with MSW bottom ash. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer No significant difference between MSW treatment with and without MSW bottom ash. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer PCDD/DFs yields are significantly low because of the high carbon conversion ratio. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Slag quality is significantly stable and slag contains few hazardous heavy metals. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer The final landfill amount is reduced and materials are recovered by DMS process. - Abstract: This study evaluates the effects of co-gasification of municipal solid waste with and without the municipal solid waste bottom ash using two large-scale commercial operation plants. From the viewpoint of operation data, there is no significant difference between municipal solid waste treatment with and without the bottom ash. The carbon conversion ratios are as high as 91.7% and 95.3%, respectively and this leads to significantly low PCDD/DFs yields via complete syngas combustion. The gross power generation efficiencies are 18.9% with the bottom ash and 23.0% without municipal solid waste bottom ash, respectively. The effects of the equivalence ratio are also evaluated. With the equivalence ratio increasing, carbon monoxide concentration is decreased, and carbon dioxide and the syngas temperature (top gas temperature) are increased. The carbon conversion ratio is also increased. These tendencies are seen in both modes. Co-gasification using the gasification and melting system (Direct Melting System) has a possibility to recover materials effectively. More than 90% of chlorine is distributed in fly ash. Low-boiling-point heavy metals, such as lead and zinc, are distributed in fly ash at rates of 95.2% and 92.0%, respectively. Most of high-boiling-point heavy metals, such as iron and copper, are distributed in metal. It is also clarified that slag is stable and contains few harmful heavy metals such as lead. Compared with the conventional waste management framework, 85% of the final landfill amount reduction is achieved by co-gasification of municipal solid waste with bottom ash and incombustible residues. These results indicate that the combined production of slag with co-gasification of municipal solid waste with the bottom ash constitutes an ideal approach to environmental conservation and resource recycling.

  5. Embodied Energy and Off-Grid Lighting

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Alstone, Peter

    2012-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    as a point of comparison with LED lighting product embodieda fairer comparison between off- grid LED lighting and other

  6. Overcoming Common Pitfalls: Energy Efficient Lighting Projects...

    Broader source: Energy.gov (indexed) [DOE]

    Overcoming Common Pitfalls: Energy Efficient Lighting Projects Overcoming Common Pitfalls: Energy Efficient Lighting Projects Transcript Presentation More Documents & Publications...

  7. Automatic Mechetronic Wheel Light Device

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Khan, Mohammed John Fitzgerald (Silver Spring, MD)

    2004-09-14T23:59:59.000Z

    A wheel lighting device for illuminating a wheel of a vehicle to increase safety and enhance aesthetics. The device produces the appearance of a "ring of light" on a vehicle's wheels as the vehicle moves. The "ring of light" can automatically change in color and/or brightness according to a vehicle's speed, acceleration, jerk, selection of transmission gears, and/or engine speed. The device provides auxiliary indicator lights by producing light in conjunction with a vehicle's turn signals, hazard lights, alarm systems, and etc. The device comprises a combination of mechanical and electronic components and can be placed on the outer or inner surface of a wheel or made integral to a wheel or wheel cover. The device can be configured for all vehicle types, and is electrically powered by a vehicle's electrical system and/or battery.

  8. Utility lighting summit proves illuminating

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Utility-lighting-summit-proves-illuminating Sign In About | Careers | Contact | Investors | bpa.gov Search News & Us Expand News & Us Projects & Initiatives Expand Projects...

  9. Photonic crystal light emitting diode.

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Leirset, Erlend

    2010-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    ?? This master's thesis describe electromagnetic simulations of a gallium antimonide (GaSb) light emitting diode, LED. A problem for such devices is that most of… (more)

  10. Linac Coherent Light Source Overview

    ScienceCinema (OSTI)

    None

    2013-05-29T23:59:59.000Z

    Take an animated tour of the Linac Coherent Light Source (LCLS). Follow the laser pulse from the injector gun all the way through to the Far Experimental Hall.

  11. Light Water Reactor Sustainability Newsletter

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    and nuclear waste disposal. Dr. Corradini has extensive research experience in the phenomenology of beyond design basis Meet the New LWRS Program Pathway Lead accidents in light...

  12. LED Lighting Off the Grid

    Energy Savers [EERE]

    D. & Kammen, D. M. Decentralized energy systems for clean electricity access. Nature Climate Change accepted, in press, (2015). Off-Grid Status Quo : Fuel Based Lighting...

  13. Pedestrian-Friendly Nighttime Lighting

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    This November 19, 2013 webinar presented issues and considerations related to pedestrian-friendly nighttime lighting, such as color rendering, safety, and adaptation. When it comes to outdoor...

  14. Light Water Reactor Sustainability Newsletter

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    hydraulics software RELAP-7 (which is under development in the Light Water Reactor Sustainability LWRS Program). A novel interaction between the probabilistic part (i.e., RAVEN)...

  15. Light Water Reactor Sustainability Newsletter

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    30-35, August 2012. Clayton, D. A. and M. S. Hileman, 2012, Light Water Reactor Sustainability Non-Destructive Evaluation for Concrete Research and Development Roadmap, ORNLTM-...

  16. Linac Coherent Light Source Overview

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    Take an animated tour of the Linac Coherent Light Source (LCLS). Follow the laser pulse from the injector gun all the way through to the Far Experimental Hall.

  17. Lighting with Paint FABIO PELLACINI

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Pellacini, Fabio

    Lighting with Paint FABIO PELLACINI Dartmouth College and FRANK BATTAGLIA, R. KEITH MORLEY, animation, rendering, optimization, painting ACM Reference Format: Pellacini, F., Battaglia, F., Morley, R

  18. Book review Light Scattering Reviews 4: Single Light Scattering and

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    -monograph on the use of space-time Green functions in the description of the diffusive radiation transport in active equation of the radiative transfer theory in the classical style of the ``Soviet'' school of radiativeBook review Light Scattering Reviews 4: Single Light Scattering and Radiative Transfer, A

  19. EK101 Engineering Light Project: Evaluate Residential Lighting

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Bifano, Thomas

    for residential lighting (LED, Compact Fluorescent, Incandescent). Develop a plan of experiments to be conducted, CF, and Incandescent bulbs for the past ten years. (try the wayback time machine if other sources fail). Discuss the key challenges associated with a transition from incandescent lighting

  20. Nittany Lights Landscape Lighting Sept. 28-30, 2012

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Nittany Lights ­ Landscape Lighting Workshop Sept. 28-30, 2012 Penn State Campus - University Park with a lecture at the Palmer Art Museum to be provided by internationally known architectural/landscape artist get a chance to think beyond budgets, maintenance, codes, etc and get back to the fun creative side

  1. Combined Municipal Solid Waste and biomass system optimization for district energy applications

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Rentizelas, Athanasios A., E-mail: arent@central.ntua.gr; Tolis, Athanasios I., E-mail: atol@central.ntua.gr; Tatsiopoulos, Ilias P., E-mail: itat@central.ntua.gr

    2014-01-15T23:59:59.000Z

    Highlights: • Combined energy conversion of MSW and agricultural residue biomass is examined. • The model optimizes the financial yield of the investment. • Several system specifications are optimally defined by the optimization model. • The application to a case study in Greece shows positive financial yield. • The investment is mostly sensitive on the interest rate, the investment cost and the heating oil price. - Abstract: Municipal Solid Waste (MSW) disposal has been a controversial issue in many countries over the past years, due to disagreement among the various stakeholders on the waste management policies and technologies to be adopted. One of the ways of treating/disposing MSW is energy recovery, as waste is considered to contain a considerable amount of bio-waste and therefore can lead to renewable energy production. The overall efficiency can be very high in the cases of co-generation or tri-generation. In this paper a model is presented, aiming to support decision makers in issues relating to Municipal Solid Waste energy recovery. The idea of using more fuel sources, including MSW and agricultural residue biomass that may exist in a rural area, is explored. The model aims at optimizing the system specifications, such as the capacity of the base-load Waste-to-Energy facility, the capacity of the peak-load biomass boiler and the location of the facility. Furthermore, it defines the quantity of each potential fuel source that should be used annually, in order to maximize the financial yield of the investment. The results of an energy tri-generation case study application at a rural area of Greece, using mixed MSW and biomass, indicate positive financial yield of investment. In addition, a sensitivity analysis is performed on the effect of the most important parameters of the model on the optimum solution, pinpointing the parameters of interest rate, investment cost and heating oil price, as those requiring the attention of the decision makers. Finally, the sensitivity analysis is enhanced by a stochastic analysis to determine the effect of the volatility of parameters on the robustness of the model and the solution obtained.

  2. Financial sustainability in municipal solid waste management – Costs and revenues in Bahir Dar, Ethiopia

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Lohri, Christian Riuji, E-mail: christian.lohri@eawag.ch; Camenzind, Ephraim Joseph, E-mail: ephraimcamenzind@hotmail.com; Zurbrügg, Christian, E-mail: christian.zurbruegg@eawag.ch

    2014-02-15T23:59:59.000Z

    Highlights: • Cost-revenue analysis over 2 years revealed insufficient cost-recovery. • Expenses for motorized secondary collection increased by 82% over two years. • Low fee collection rate and reliance on only one revenue stream are problematic. • Different options for cost reduction and enhanced revenue streams are recommended. • Good public–private alliance is crucial to plan and implement improvement measures. - Abstract: Providing good solid waste management (SWM) services while also ensuring financial sustainability of the system continues to be a major challenge in cities of developing countries. Bahir Dar in northwestern Ethiopia outsourced municipal waste services to a private waste company in 2008. While this institutional change has led to substantial improvement in the cleanliness of the city, its financial sustainability remains unclear. Is the private company able to generate sufficient revenues from their activities to offset the costs and generate some profit? This paper presents a cost-revenue analysis, based on data from July 2009 to June 2011. The analysis reveals that overall costs in Bahir Dar’s SWM system increased significantly during this period, mainly due to rising costs related to waste transportation. On the other hand, there is only one major revenue stream in place: the waste collection fee from households, commercial enterprises and institutions. As the efficiency of fee collection from households is only around 50%, the total amount of revenues are not sufficient to cover the running costs. This results in a substantial yearly deficit. The results of the research therefore show that a more detailed cost structure and cost-revenue analysis of this waste management service is important with appropriate measures, either by the privates sector itself or with the support of the local authorities, in order to enhance cost efficiency and balance the cost-revenues towards cost recovery. Delays in mitigating the evident financial deficit could else endanger the public-private partnership (PPP) and lead to failure of this setup in the medium to long term, thus also endangering the now existing improved and currently reliable service. We present four options on how financial sustainability of the SWM system in Bahir Dar might be enhanced: (i) improved fee collection efficiency by linking the fees of solid waste collection to water supply; (ii) increasing the value chain by sales of organic waste recycling products; (iii) diversifying revenue streams and financing mechanisms (polluter-pays-, cross-subsidy- and business-principles); and (iv) cost reduction and improved cost-effectiveness. We argue that in a PPP setup such as in Bahir Dar, a strong alliance between the municipality and private enterprise is important so that appropriate solutions for improved financial sustainability of a SWM system can be sought and implemented.

  3. Light-by-Light Scattering Effect in Light-Cone Supergraphs

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Renata Kallosh; Pierre Ramond

    2010-06-24T23:59:59.000Z

    We give a relatively simple explanation of the light-cone supergraph prediction for the UV properties of the maximally supersymmetric theories. It is based on the existence of a dynamical supersymmetry which is not manifest in the light-cone supergraphs. It suggests that N=4 supersymmetric Yang-Mills theory is UV finite and N=8 supergravity is UV finite at least until 7 loops whereas the $n$-point amplitudes have no UV divergences at least until $L=n+3$. Here we show that this prediction can be deduced from the properties of light-cone supergraphs analogous to the light-by-light scattering effect in QED. A technical aspect of the argument relies on the observation that the dynamical supersymmetry action is, in fact, a compensating field-dependent gauge transformation required for the retaining the light-cone gauge condition $A_+=0$.

  4. Municipal water-based heat pump heating and/or cooling systems: Findings and recommendations. Final report

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Bloomquist, R.G. [Washington, State Univ., Pullman, WA (United States); Wegman, S. [South Dakota Utilities Commission (United States)

    1998-04-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The purpose of the present work was to determine if existing heat pump systems based on municipal water systems meet existing water quality standards, to analyze water that has passed through a heat pump or heat exchanger to determine if corrosion products can be detected, to determine residual chlorine levels in municipal waters on the inlet as well as the outlet side of such installations, to analyses for bacterial contaminants and/or regrowth due to the presence of a heat pump or heat exchanger, to develop and suggest criteria for system design and construction, to provide recommendations and specifications for material and fluid selection, and to develop model rules and regulations for the installation, operation, and monitoring of new and existing systems. In addition, the Washington State University (WSU) has evaluated availability of computer models that would allow for water system mapping, water quality modeling and system operation.

  5. Data summary of municipal solid waste management alternatives. Volume 6, Appendix D, Pyrolysis and gasification of MSW

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    none,

    1992-10-01T23:59:59.000Z

    This Appendix summarizes information available in the open literature describing the technology and operating experierice of pyrolysis technology as applied to the management of municipal solid waste (MSW). The literature search, which emphasized the time frame of greatest activity in MSW pyrolysis (i.e., the mid-1960s to the mid-1980s), focused on the scale of application, material feedstock, technical limitations and economic considerations. Smaller scale facilities, either laboratory/research scale (< I TPD) or process development/pilot scale plants (1-20 TPD) for municipal waste and related materials (agricultural, forest residues, industrial wastes, etc.), are mentioned in the literature (275, 495). However, such data are sparse, dated, and often have limited applicability to MSW in general, and for design scale-up in particular. Therefore, greatest emphasis was placed on identifying demonstration scale (20--150 TPD) will commercial seals (> 150 TPD) studies which could be expected to provide economic, environmental, and energy data that can be scaled with possibly less risk. While the promise of pyrolysis of MSW lies in its ability to transform municipal waste into gaseous and liquid chemicals and fuel products, the major limitation is the unproven technical and economic feasibility of a large scale facility.

  6. The multiple market-exposure of waste management companies: A case study of two Swedish municipally owned companies

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Corvellec, Herve, E-mail: herve.corvellec@ism.lu.se [Department of Service Management, Lund University, Campus Helsingborg, PO Box 882, SE-251 08 Helsingborg (Sweden); Bramryd, Torleif [Department of Environmental Strategy, Lund University, Campus Helsingborg, PO Box 882, SE-251 08 Helsingborg (Sweden)

    2012-09-15T23:59:59.000Z

    Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Swedish municipally owned waste management companies are active on political, material, technical, and commercial markets. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer These markets differ in kind and their demands follow different logics. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer These markets affect the public service, processing, and marketing of Swedish waste management. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Articulating these markets is a strategic challenge for Swedish municipally owned waste management. - Abstract: This paper describes how the business model of two leading Swedish municipally owned solid waste management companies exposes them to four different but related markets: a political market in which their legitimacy as an organization is determined; a waste-as-material market that determines their access to waste as a process input; a technical market in which these companies choose what waste processing technique to use; and a commercial market in which they market their products. Each of these markets has a logic of its own. Managing these logics and articulating the interrelationships between these markets is a key strategic challenge for these companies.

  7. Valuation of a Municipal Wastewater Plant Expansion: An Application to a High Growth Resort Area in Canada

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Yuri Lawryshyn; Sebastian Jaimungal

    The municipal water and wastewater sector is considered to be the most capital intensive industrial sector. Naturally, any methodology that has the potential to improve capital allocation decision making, has the potential to make a positive financial contribution to this sector. Most managers are aware of the power of calculating the Net Present Value (NPV) of an investment decision using Discounted Cash Flows (DCF). The problem with DCF based NPV analysis is that the inherent value of future project options is not modeled. In this study, we consider a small resort-based municipality faced the question of how big to make their new wastewater treatment facility to meet the expanding demand of 10 % growth in the number of new residential connections to the wastewater treatment infrastructure. Since a significant number of new dwellings are second “weekend ” homes, the planners felt strongly that growth rates were tied to the strength of the market index. Here we set the model framework for considering optimal plant size based on correlation assumptions of municipal growth to the market index. The model takes on the form of an Asian option. The results show that the greater the (assumed) correlation, the smaller the required plant size. Penalty costs associated with not building a large enough plant are hedged in the market. This paper sets that basis for future analysis of staged plant expansion analysis.

  8. Lighting and Dark Sky Regulations

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Rosemond, Amy Daum

    .........................................................................................................2 C. Cherokee County, Georgia's Outdoor Lighting and Road Glare Ordinance visited Apr. 0, 2008) (providing links to ordinances throughout the United States). 2 See, e.g. Cherokee Protection Ordinance (Dec. , 200). 5 See, e.g. Model Lighting Section for Zoning Ordinances and Cherokee

  9. Quantum Coherence in Photosynthetic Light

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Fleming, Graham R.

    the following: How do light-harvesting systems deliver such high efficiency in the presence of disordered:333­61 First published online as a Review in Advance on December 13, 2011 The Annual Review of Condensed Matter quantum efficiency of photosynthetic light harvesting. Further, this speculation has led to much effort

  10. Integrated municipal solid waste treatment using a grate furnace incinerator: The Indaver case

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Vandecasteele, C. [Department of Chemical Engineering, Katholieke Universiteit Leuven, De Croylaan 46, 3001 Leuven (Belgium)], E-mail: carlo.vandecasteele@cit.kuleuven.be; Wauters, G. [Indaver, Dijle 17a, 2800 Mechelen (Belgium); Arickx, S. [Department of Chemical Engineering, Katholieke Universiteit Leuven, De Croylaan 46, 3001 Leuven (Belgium); Jaspers, M. [Indaver, Dijle 17a, 2800 Mechelen (Belgium); Van Gerven, T. [Department of Chemical Engineering, Katholieke Universiteit Leuven, De Croylaan 46, 3001 Leuven (Belgium)

    2007-07-01T23:59:59.000Z

    An integrated installation for treatment of municipal solid waste and comparable waste from industrial origin is described. It consists of three grate furnace lines with flue gas treatment by half-wet scrubbing followed by wet scrubbing, and an installation for wet treatment of bottom ash. It is demonstrated that this integrated installation combines high recovery of energy (40.8% net) with high materials recovery. The following fractions were obtained after wet treatment of the bottom ash: ferrous metals, non-ferrous metals, three granulate fractions with different particle sizes, and sludge. The ferrous and non-ferrous metal fractions can both be recycled as high quality raw materials; the two larger particle size particle fractions can be applied as secondary raw materials in building applications; the sand fraction can be used for applications on a landfill; and the sludge is landfilled. For all components of interest, emissions to air are below the limit values. The integrated grate furnace installation is characterised by zero wastewater discharge and high occupational safety. Moreover, with the considered installation, major pollutants, such as PCDD/PCDF, Hg and iodine-136 are to a large extent removed from the environment and concentrated in a small residual waste stream (flue gas cleaning residue), which can be landfilled after stabilisation.

  11. The impact of municipal solid waste treatment methods on greenhouse gas emissions in Lahore, Pakistan

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Batool, Syeda Adila [Department of Space Science, Punjab University, Lahore 54600 (Pakistan)], E-mail: aadila_batool@yahoo.com; Chuadhry, Muhammad Nawaz [College of Earth and Environmental Sciences, University of the Punjab, Lahore (Pakistan)], E-mail: muhammadnawazchaudhry@yahoo.com

    2009-01-15T23:59:59.000Z

    The contribution of existing municipal solid waste management to emission of greenhouse gases and the alternative scenarios to reduce emissions were analyzed for Data Ganj Bukhsh Town (DGBT) in Lahore, Pakistan using the life cycle assessment methodology. DGBT has a population of 1,624,169 people living in 232,024 dwellings. Total waste generated is 500,000 tons per year with an average per capita rate of 0.84 kg per day. Alternative scenarios were developed and evaluated according to the environmental, economic, and social atmosphere of the study area. Solid waste management options considered include the collection and transportation of waste, collection of recyclables with single and mixed material bank container systems (SMBCS, MMBCS), material recovery facilities (MRF), composting, biogasification and landfilling. A life cycle inventory (LCI) of the six scenarios along with the baseline scenario was completed; this helped to quantify the CO{sub 2} equivalents, emitted and avoided, for energy consumption, production, fuel consumption, and methane (CH{sub 4}) emissions. LCI results showed that the contribution of the baseline scenario to the global warming potential as CO{sub 2} equivalents was a maximum of 838,116 tons. The sixth scenario had a maximum reduction of GHG emissions in terms of CO{sub 2} equivalents of -33,773 tons, but the most workable scenario for the current situation in the study area is scenario 5. It saves 25% in CO{sub 2} equivalents compared to the baseline scenario.

  12. Effects of unseeded areas on species richness of coal mines reclaimed with municipal biosolids

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Halofsky, J.E.; McCormick, L.H. [Penn State University, University Park, PA (United States). School for Forest Resources

    2005-12-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Land application of municipal biosolids on coal mine spoils can benefit vegetation establishment in mine reclamation. However, the application of biosolids leads to domination by early-successional species, such as grasses, and low establishment of woody and volunteer species, thus reducing potential for forestry as a postmining land use. In this experiment, tree seedlings were planted in strips (0.6-, 1-, and 4-m wide) that were not seeded with grasses, and the effects of unseeded strip width on seedling growth and species richness were assessed. Planted seedling mortality was high; therefore, the effect of unseeded strip width on seedling growth could not be determined. However, it was found that natural plant invasion and species richness were highest in the 4-m unseeded strips. The practice of leaving 4-m-wide unseeded strips in mine reclamation with biosolids in the eastern United States, along with the improvement of tree seedling planting practices and planting stock, would help promote a more species-rich plant community that could be utilized for forestry or a variety of other postmining land uses.

  13. Application of municipal sludge (biosolids) for agricultural purposes and groundwater nitrate concentrations

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Welby, C.W. (North Carolina State Univ., Raleigh, NC (United States). Dept. of Marine, Earth and Atmospheric Sciences)

    1993-03-01T23:59:59.000Z

    One of the more popular means of handling sewage sludge from municipalities is its application to agricultural lands. A variety of crops are grown with the expectation that plants will utilize the nitrogen. However, a complex scenario allows some of the nitrate to move below root depth and eventually to the water table at depths of up to 30 ft. The City of Raleigh, NC injects sewage sludge ( residuals'', biosolids'') into soils derived largely from the Rolesville Granite in an area of typical rolling Piedmont topography. A 1975 background study of part of the site demonstrated differences in groundwater quality between areas farmed over a period of years and areas dominated by second-growth pine and harwood forests. Groundwater quality data collected semiannually between 1982 and 1988 show gradual buildup of nitrate in some fields; in others groundwater quality apparently remains unaffected by nitrate from the sludge. Monitoring well placement may play a role in these differences. Minimum time from the sludge application to an increase in groundwater nitrate is from 9 to 12 months. An ongoing study of a 12-acre field which lay fallow for a number of years prior to sludge application in 1990 demonstrates that some nitrate does move downward fairly rapidly, its movement being recorded in both the saprolite and groundwater. Comparison of nitrate content of groundwater from monitoring wells at a nearby dairy farm shows that normal agricultural practices may also increase the nitrate content of the shallow groundwater.

  14. Wind Energy Applications for Municipal Water Services: Opportunities, Situation Analyses, and Case Studies; Preprint

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Flowers, L.; Miner-Nordstrom, L.

    2006-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    As communities grow, greater demands are placed on water supplies, wastewater services, and the electricity needed to power the growing water services infrastructure. Water is also a critical resource for thermoelectric power plants. Future population growth in the United States is therefore expected to heighten competition for water resources. Many parts of the United States with increasing water stresses also have significant wind energy resources. Wind power is the fastest-growing electric generation source in the United States and is decreasing in cost to be competitive with thermoelectric generation. Wind energy can offer communities in water-stressed areas the option of economically meeting increasing energy needs without increasing demands on valuable water resources. Wind energy can also provide targeted energy production to serve critical local water-system needs. The research presented in this report describes a systematic assessment of the potential for wind power to support water utility operation, with the objective to identify promising technical applications and water utility case study opportunities. The first section describes the current situation that municipal providers face with respect to energy and water. The second section describes the progress that wind technologies have made in recent years to become a cost-effective electricity source. The third section describes the analysis employed to assess potential for wind power in support of water service providers, as well as two case studies. The report concludes with results and recommendations.

  15. COMPARISON BETWEEN FRESH AND AGED MUNICIPAL SOLID WASTES AND THEIR RECYCLING METHODS IN CHINA

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    G. Zhou; D. Chen; W. Cui

    2007-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    SUMMARY: Fresh municipal solid wastes (MSW) and aged MSW including MSW from landfills and dumpsite have been characterized and compared by their components, moisture content and lower heat value (LHV) in order to recycle and dispose them properly. Firstly the characterizing experiments were performed and the results showed that generally the fresh MSW are of high moisture contents and their LHV is below 6500kJ/kg; and when 40 % of plastics were separated, their LHV is less than 5000kJ/kg. Combustibles in aged MSW were easily to be separated and their LHV is higher than 11000kJ/kg as just separated. Analysis of aged MSW of different years ’ old showed that as MSW became older the moisture and paper contents decreased. No leachate produced from aged MSW during the analysis and separation process. For both fresh MSW and aged MSW the main contributor to LHV is plastics. Secondly a simple separating system consisting of a roller screen and a winnower is used to separate plastics from fresh MSW and aged MSW, and the quality of plastics were compared by their physical parameters after made into pellets; the results showed that plastics from fresh MSW can be recycled as raw material for secondary product; while plastics separated from aged MSW are of lower quality and only suitable to be recycled as fuel material. Finally different recycling methods were suggested for fresh and aged MSWs based on their characteristics. 1.

  16. A comparison of municipal solid waste management in Berlin and Singapore

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Zhang Dongqing, E-mail: dqzhang@ntu.edu.s [DHI-NTU Centre, Nanyang Environment and Water Research Institute, Nanyang Technological University, 50 Nanyang Avenue, Singapore 639798 (Singapore); Keat, Tan Soon [Maritime Research Centre, School of Civil and Environmental Engineering, Nanyang Technological University, 50 Nanyang Avenue, Singapore 639798 (Singapore); Gersberg, Richard M. [Graduate School of Public Health, San Diego State University, Hardy Tower 119, 5500 Campanile, San Diego CA 92182-4162 (United States)

    2010-05-15T23:59:59.000Z

    A comparative analysis of municipal solid waste management (MSWM) in Singapore and Berlin was carried out in order to identify its current status, and highlight the prevailing conditions of MSWM. An overview of the various aspects of MSWM in these two cities is provided, with emphasis on comparing the legal, technical, and managerial aspects of MSW. Collection systems and recycling practiced with respect to the involvement of the government and the private sector, are also presented. Over last two decades, the city of Berlin has made impressive progress with respect to its waste management. The amounts of waste have declined significantly, and at the same time the proportion that could be recovered and recycled has increased. In contrast, although Singapore's recycling rate has been increasing over the past few years, rapid economic and population growth as well as change in consumption patterns in this city-state has caused waste generation to continue to increase. Landfilling of MSW plays minor role in both cities, one due to geography (Singapore) and the other due to legislative prohibition (Berlin). Consequently, both in Singapore and Berlin, waste is increasingly being used as a valuable resource and great efforts have been made for the development of incineration technology and energy recovery, as well as climate protection.

  17. Energy recovery and cogeneration from an existing municipal incinerator: Phase IIA progress report on final design

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Not Available

    1982-02-01T23:59:59.000Z

    A feasibility study was prepared on energy recovery and cogeneration from and existing municipal incinerator in Wayne County, Michigan. The mechanical, electrical, structural, and instruments an controls equipment designs were established in sufficient depth to arrive at a construction cost estimate. The designs are described. All of the flue gas generated from each incinerator is directed into a waste heat boiler that will generate steam. A waste heat boiler will be provided for each of the three incinerators. Steam from these waste heat boilers will supply energy to two turbine-generators, which, in turn, will supply auxiliary power to the incinerator plant; the balance of the power will be sold to Detroit Edison Company (DEC). Exhaust steam from each turbine will be directed into a surface condenser operating under vacuum. The water to be supplied to each condenser will be recirculated water that has been cooled by means of a cooling tower. Other cooling water that could be subjected to oil contamination will be supplied from a separate recirculating water system. The water in this system will be cooled by an evaporative condenser. The main steam, boiler feedwater, and condensate systems will be similar to those used in central power stations. Flow diagrams for all systems, together with heat balances, electrical one-line diagrams, and plant layouts, are included in the Appendix. Also included in the Appendix are instruments and controls logic diagrams. (MCW)

  18. Data summary of municipal solid waste management alternatives. Volume 10, Appendix H: Anaerobic digestion of MSW

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    none,

    1992-10-01T23:59:59.000Z

    While municipal solid waste (MSW) thermoconversion and recycling technologies have been described in Appendices A through E, this appendix addresses the role of bioconversion technologies in handling the organic fraction in MSW and sewage sludge. Much of the organic matter in MSW, consisting mainly of paper, food waste, and yard waste, has potential for conversion, along with sewage sludge, through biochemical processes to methane and carbon dioxide providing a measurable, renewable energy resource potential. The gas produced may be treated for removal of carbon dioxide and water, leaving pipeline quality gas. The process also has the potential for producing a stabilized solid product that may be suitable as a fuel for combustion or used as a compost fertilizer. Anaerobic digestion can occur naturally in an uncontrolled environment such as a landfill, or it can occur in a controlled environment such as a confined vessel. Landfill gas production is discussed in Appendix F. This appendix provides information on the anaerobic digestion process as it has been applied to produce methane from the organic fraction of MSW in enclosed, controlled reactors.

  19. Life cycle assessment of four municipal solid waste management scenarios in China

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Hong Jinglan, E-mail: hongjing@sdu.edu.c [School of Environmental Science and Engineering, Shandong University, Jinan 250100 (China); Li Xiangzhi [Department of Pathology, University of Michigan, 1301 Catherine, Ann Arbor, MI 48109 (United States); Zhaojie Cui [School of Environmental Science and Engineering, Shandong University, Jinan 250100 (China)

    2010-11-15T23:59:59.000Z

    A life cycle assessment was carried out to estimate the environmental impact of municipal solid waste. Four scenarios mostly used in China were compared to assess the influence of various technologies on environment: (1) landfill, (2) incineration, (3) composting plus landfill, and (4) composting plus incineration. In all scenarios, the technologies significantly contribute to global warming and increase the adverse impact of non-carcinogens on the environment. The technologies played only a small role in the impact of carcinogens, respiratory inorganics, terrestrial ecotoxicity, and non-renewable energy. Similarly, the influence of the technologies on the way other elements affect the environment was ignorable. Specifically, the direct emissions from the operation processes involved played an important role in most scenarios except for incineration, while potential impact generated from transport, infrastructure and energy consumption were quite small. In addition, in the global warming category, highest potential impact was observed in landfill because of the direct methane gas emissions. Electricity recovery from methane gas was the key factor for reducing the potential impact of global warming. Therefore, increasing the use of methane gas to recover electricity is highly recommended to reduce the adverse impact of landfills on the environment.

  20. A direct steam heat option for hydrothermal treatment of municipal solid waste

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Thorsness, C.B.

    1995-04-12T23:59:59.000Z

    A conceptual process for producing a gasifiable slurry from raw municipal solid waste (MSW) using direct steam heating is outlined. The process is based on the hydrothermal decomposition of the organic matter in the MSW, which requires the MSW to be heated to 300-350{degrees}C in the presence of water. A process model is developed and it is shown, based on preliminary estimates of the hydrothermal reaction stoichiometry, that a process using multiple pressure vessels, which allows recovery of waste heat, results in a process capable of producing a product slurry having a 40 wt % solids content with no waste water emissions. Results for a variety of process options and process parameters are presented. It is shown that the addition of auxiliary feedstock to the gasifier, along with the MSW derived slurry, results in more efficient gasification. It is estimated that 2.6 kmol/s of hydrogen can be produced from 30 kg/s (2600 tonne/day) of MSW and 16 kg/s of heavy oil. Without the additional feedstock, heavy oil in this case, only 0.49 kmol/s of hydrogen would be produced.

  1. Light beam frequency comb generator

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Priatko, Gordon J. (Cupertino, CA); Kaskey, Jeffrey A. (Livermore, CA)

    1992-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    A light beam frequency comb generator uses an acousto-optic modulator to generate a plurality of light beams with frequencies which are uniformly separated and possess common noise and drift characteristics. A well collimated monochromatic input light beam is passed through this modulator to produce a set of both frequency shifted and unshifted optical beams. An optical system directs one or more frequency shifted beams along a path which is parallel to the path of the input light beam such that the frequency shifted beams are made incident on the modulator proximate to but separated from the point of incidence of the input light beam. After the beam is thus returned to and passed through the modulator repeatedly, a plurality of mutually parallel beams are generated which are frequency-shifted different numbers of times and possess common noise and drift characteristics.

  2. OLED lighting devices having multi element light extraction and luminescence conversion layer

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Krummacher, Benjamin Claus (Regensburg, DE); Antoniadis, Homer (Mountain View, CA)

    2010-11-16T23:59:59.000Z

    An apparatus such as a light source has a multi element light extraction and luminescence conversion layer disposed over a transparent layer of the light source and on the exterior of said light source. The multi-element light extraction and luminescence conversion layer includes a plurality of light extraction elements and a plurality of luminescence conversion elements. The light extraction elements diffuses the light from the light source while luminescence conversion elements absorbs a first spectrum of light from said light source and emits a second spectrum of light.

  3. Using QECBs for Street Lighting Upgrades: Lighting the Way to...

    Broader source: Energy.gov (indexed) [DOE]

    Summarizes how the City of San Diego leveraged 13.1 million in qualified energy conservation bonds to increase the size of a street lighting upgrade project. Author: Lawrence...

  4. Inorganic volumetric light source excited by ultraviolet light

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Reed, S.; Walko, R.J.; Ashley, C.S.; Brinker, C.J.

    1994-04-26T23:59:59.000Z

    The invention relates to a composition for the volumetric generation of radiation. The composition comprises a porous substrate loaded with a component capable of emitting radiation upon interaction with an exciting radiation. Preferably, the composition is an aerogel substrate loaded with a component, e.g., a phosphor, capable of interacting with exciting radiation of a first energy, e.g., ultraviolet light, to produce radiation of a second energy, e.g., visible light. 4 figures.

  5. Inorganic volumetric light source excited by ultraviolet light

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Reed, Scott (Albuquerue, NM); Walko, Robert J. (Albuquerue, NM); Ashley, Carol S. (Albuquerue, NM); Brinker, C. Jeffrey (Albuquerue, NM)

    1994-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The invention relates to a composition for the volumetric generation of radiation. The composition comprises a porous substrate loaded with a component capable of emitting radiation upon interaction with an exciting radiation. Preferably, the composition is an aerogel substrate loaded with a component, e.g., a phosphor, capable of interacting with exciting radiation of a first energy, e.g., ultraviolet light, to produce radiation of a second energy, e.g., visible light.

  6. Saturable absorption and 'slow light'

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Adrian C Selden

    2006-03-25T23:59:59.000Z

    Quantitative evaluation of some recent 'slow light' experiments based on coherent population oscillations (CPO) shows that they can be more simply interpreted as saturable absorption phenomena. Therefore they do not provide an unambiguous demonstration of 'slow light'. Indeed a limiting condition on the spectral bandwidth is not generally satisfied, such that the requirements for burning a narrow spectral hole in the homogeneously broadened absorption line are not met. Some definitive tests of 'slow light' phenomena are suggested, derived from analysis of phase shift and pulse delay for a saturable absorber

  7. 46th Street Pilot Street Lighting Project

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Minnesota, University of

    Street to 48th Street) as standard high-pressure sodium (HPS) lighting comparison corridor #12;The over time #12;Initial Lighting Comparison #12;Lighting Project Location #12;Street Light Layout 3046th Street Pilot Street Lighting Project A Joint Venture: Hennepin County & City of Minneapolis

  8. Projection screen having reduced ambient light scattering

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Sweatt, William C. (Albuquerque, NM)

    2010-05-11T23:59:59.000Z

    An apparatus and method for improving the contrast between incident projected light and ambient light reflected from a projection screen are described. The efficiency of the projection screen for reflection of the projected light remains high, while permitting the projection screen to be utilized in a brightly lighted room. Light power requirements from the projection system utilized may be reduced.

  9. Residential Lighting: Title 24 and Technology Update

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    California at Davis, University of

    Residential Lighting: Title 24 and Technology Update Best practices in lighting design to comply;INTRODUCTION Course Topics Part 1: Technology Overview · Common lighting terminology · Residential lighting residential lighting regulation · Design examples to reach or exceed code Part 5: Compliance Process · Step

  10. Nutrient leaching following land application of aerobically digested municipal sewage sludge in a northern hardwood forest

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Medalie, L.; Bowden, W.B.; Smith, C.T. [Univ. of New Hampshire, Durham, NH (United States)

    1994-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Concentrations of selected cations and anions were determined in soil solutions from a forested site in southern New Hampshire during the first growing season after surface application of an aerobically digested, limed, liquid municipal sludge. Sludge was applied in June 1989 at 0, 3.3, 6.9, and 14.5 Mg ha{sup -1}, which corresponded to 199, 396, and 740 kg N ha{sup -1} as total Kjeldahl N (TKN). Porous, suction-cup lysimeters were used to sample soil solutions below the rooting zone ({approximately}60 cm) within subplots designed to include (untrenched) or exclude (trenched) uptake by vegetation. Following sludge application, measured solute concentrations remained low until September 1989, when NO{sub 3}, Cl, Ca, Mg, Na, and K in trenched subplots increased simultaneously to maximum values in October or November 1989, just before the soil froze for the winter. Nitrate was the dominant anion in soil solutions from trenched subplots and averaged in excess of 0.71 mmol L{sup -1} (10 mg L{sup -1} NO{sub 3}-N) at all loading rates. Highest concentrations of NO{sub 3} occurred on subplots with the highest sludge application rates. In the entrenched areas, NO{sub 3} concentrations rarely exceeded 0.001 mmol L{sup -1}; Cl increased in treated areas and was the dominant anion by the end of the season. Soil solution NH{sub 4}, PO{sub 4}, SO{sub 4} K, and pH did not change significantly for any sludge application rate. Comparison of results from trenched and untrenched areas suggests that, at application rates of up to 14.5 Mg ha{sup -1 }(799 kg TKN ha{sup -1}), a combination of physical, chemical, and biological factors (most likely plant uptake) limited the movement of sludge or sludge-derived constituents from the sites of application. 37 refs., 8 figs., 3 tabs.

  11. RD & D priorities for energy production and resource conservation from municipal solid waste

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Not Available

    1992-08-01T23:59:59.000Z

    This report identifies research, development, and demonstration (RD&D) needs and priorities associated with municipal solid waste (MSW) management technologies that conserve or produce energy or resources. The changing character of MSW waste management and the public`s heightened awareness of its real and perceived benefits and costs creates opportunities for RD&D in MSW technologies. Increased recycling, for example, creates new opportunities for energy, chemicals, and materials recovery. New technologies to control and monitor emissions from MSW combustion facilities are available for further improvement or application. Furthermore, emerging waste-to-energy technologies may offer environmental, economic, and other advantages. Given these developments, DOE identified a need to assess the RD&D needs and pdodties and carefully target RD&D efforts to help solve the carbon`s waste management problem and further the National Energy Strategy. This report presents such an assessment. It identifies and Documents RD&D needs and priorities in the broad area of MSW resource . recovery, focusing on efforts to make MSW management technologies commercially viable or to improve their commercial deployment over a 5 to l0 year period. Panels of technical experts identifies 279 RD&D needs in 12 technology areas, ranking about one-fifth of these needs as priorities. A ``Peer Review Group`` identified mass-burn combustion, ``systems studies,`` landfill gas, and ash utilization and disposal as high priority areas for RD&D based on cost and the impacts of further RD&D. The results of this assessment are intended to provide guidance to DOE concerning possible future RD&D projects.

  12. Modeling and comparative assessment of municipal solid waste gasification for energy production

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Arafat, Hassan A., E-mail: harafat@masdar.ac.ae; Jijakli, Kenan

    2013-08-15T23:59:59.000Z

    Highlights: • Study developed a methodology for the evaluation of gasification for MSW treatment. • Study was conducted comparatively for USA, UAE, and Thailand. • Study applies a thermodynamic model (Gibbs free energy minimization) using the Gasify software. • The energy efficiency of the process and the compatibility with different waste streams was studied. - Abstract: Gasification is the thermochemical conversion of organic feedstocks mainly into combustible syngas (CO and H{sub 2}) along with other constituents. It has been widely used to convert coal into gaseous energy carriers but only has been recently looked at as a process for producing energy from biomass. This study explores the potential of gasification for energy production and treatment of municipal solid waste (MSW). It relies on adapting the theory governing the chemistry and kinetics of the gasification process to the use of MSW as a feedstock to the process. It also relies on an equilibrium kinetics and thermodynamics solver tool (Gasify®) in the process of modeling gasification of MSW. The effect of process temperature variation on gasifying MSW was explored and the results were compared to incineration as an alternative to gasification of MSW. Also, the assessment was performed comparatively for gasification of MSW in the United Arab Emirates, USA, and Thailand, presenting a spectrum of socioeconomic settings with varying MSW compositions in order to explore the effect of MSW composition variance on the products of gasification. All in all, this study provides an insight into the potential of gasification for the treatment of MSW and as a waste to energy alternative to incineration.

  13. Next Generation Light Source Workshops

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Next Generation Light Source Workshops A series of workshops will be held in late August with the goal of refining the scientific drivers for the facility and translating the...

  14. Flexible liquid core light guide with focusing and light shaping attachments

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Kross, B.J.; Majewski, S.; Zorn, C.J.; Majewski, L.A.

    1997-11-04T23:59:59.000Z

    A liquid light guide system for ultraviolet light is disclosed that has a light shaping arrangement for the emitted light, a stable liquid core and sheath and reliable and effective end closures. 12 figs.

  15. EECBG Success Story: Lighting Retrofit Improving Visibility,...

    Broader source: Energy.gov (indexed) [DOE]

    New LED lighting fixtures (right) emit a whiter light than existing high-pressure sodium cobra head streetlights (left) and don't spill light onto nearby houses. | Photos courtesy...

  16. Office Lighting: Title 24 & Technology Update

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    California at Davis, University of

    Office Lighting: Title 24 & Technology Update Kelly Cunningham Outreach Director kcunning@ucdavis.edu California Lighting Technology Center, UC Davis RESEARCH . INNOVATION . PARTNERSHIP Supporting compliance apply the Title 24 Building Energy Efficiency Standards code requirements specific to lighting

  17. Embodied Energy and Off-Grid Lighting

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Alstone, Peter

    2012-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Self-reported Impacts of LED Lighting Technology Comparedto Fuel-based Lighting on Night Market Business Prosperity28, no. 4, pp. 533-546. Lighting Africa (prepared by Dalberg

  18. Beyond the Replacement Paradigm: Smart Lighting

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Salama, Khaled

    Switches · Smart Building & Grid Interfaces · Efficient full spectrum LEDs without droop · Versatile, low - Visible Light Communications Integration of smart fixtures, networked sensors and control systemsBeyond the Replacement Paradigm: Smart Lighting Robert F. Karlicek, Jr. Director, Smart Lighting

  19. Lumental : web-based tunable lighting control

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Hall, Harrison King

    2012-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Dynamically adjusting the light spectrum of spectrum-tunable light fixtures promises significant energy savings over binary or incremental dimming control. To enable this level of controllability, lighting must evolve from ...

  20. Novel phosphors for solid state lighting

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Furman, Joshua D

    2010-11-16T23:59:59.000Z

    Solid state white light emitting diode lighting devices outperform conventional light sources in terms of lifetime, durability, and lumens per watt. However, the capital contribution is still to high to encourage widespread adoption. Furthermore...

  1. Lighting and GeometryLighting and Geometry Prof. Michael Misha Kazhdan

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Fröhlich, Peter

    Lighting and GeometryLighting and Geometry Prof. Michael Misha Kazhdan misha· The viewer · The lights N Viewer · The lights · The geometry · The surface properties N L2 V Viewer L1Outline · Surface Properties (Review) · Lighting· Lighting · Geometry· Geometry #12;Surface Properties (Review

  2. Oscillating light wall above a sunspot light bridge

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Yang, Shuhong; Jiang, Fayu; Xiang, Yongyuan

    2015-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    With the high tempo-spatial \\emph{Interface Region Imaging Spectrograph} 1330 {\\AA} images, we find that many bright structures are rooted in the light bridge of NOAA 12192, forming a \\emph{light wall}. The light wall is brighter than the surrounding areas, and the wall top is much brighter than the wall body. The New Vacuum Solar Telescope H$\\alpha$ and the \\emph{Solar Dynamics Observatory} 171 {\\AA} and 131 {\\AA} images are also used to study the light wall properties. In 1330 {\\AA}, 171 {\\AA}, and 131 {\\AA}, the top of the wall has a higher emission, while in the H$\\alpha$ line, the wall top emission is very low. The wall body corresponds to bright areas in 1330 {\\AA} and dark areas in the other lines. The top of the light wall moves upward and downward successively, performing oscillations in height. The deprojected mean height, amplitude, oscillation velocity, and the dominant period are determined to be 3.6 Mm, 0.9 Mm, 15.4 km s$^{-1}$, and 3.9 min, respectively. We interpret the oscillations of the lig...

  3. Science, Optics and You: Light and Colors

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    opticstutorialsindex.html INTRODUCTION LIGHT AND COLORS MODULE m4 SCIENCE, OPTICS & YOU GUIDEBOOK - 62 - SCIENCE, OPTICS & YOU GUIDEBOOK - 63 - m4: Light &...

  4. Scientists produce transparent, light-harvesting material

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Transparent, light-harvesting material Scientists produce transparent, light-harvesting material The material could be used in development of transparent solar panels. November 3,...

  5. LIGHT WATER REACTOR SUSTAINABILITY PROGRAM: INTRODUCTION

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    LIGHT WATER REACTOR SUSTAINABILITY PROGRAM: INTRODUCTION The Light Water Reactor Sustainability (LWRS) Program is the primary programmatic activity that addresses Objective 1...

  6. OTEC- Commercial Lighting Retrofit Rebate Program

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    The Oregon Trail Electric Consumers Cooperative (OTEC) offers a commercial lighting retrofit program that provides rebates for commercial businesses that change existing lighting to more energy...

  7. Quantification of greenhouse gas emissions from waste management processes for municipalities - A comparative review focusing on Africa

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Friedrich, Elena, E-mail: Friedriche@ukzn.ac.za [CRECHE Centre for Research in Environmental, Coastal and Hydrological Engineering, School of Civil Engineering, Surveying and Construction, University of KwaZulu-Natal, Howard College Campus, Durban (South Africa); Trois, Cristina [CRECHE Centre for Research in Environmental, Coastal and Hydrological Engineering, School of Civil Engineering, Surveying and Construction, University of KwaZulu-Natal, Howard College Campus, Durban (South Africa)

    2011-07-15T23:59:59.000Z

    The amount of greenhouse gases (GHG) emitted due to waste management in the cities of developing countries is predicted to rise considerably in the near future; however, these countries have a series of problems in accounting and reporting these gases. Some of these problems are related to the status quo of waste management in the developing world and some to the lack of a coherent framework for accounting and reporting of greenhouse gases from waste at municipal level. This review summarizes and compares GHG emissions from individual waste management processes which make up a municipal waste management system, with an emphasis on developing countries and, in particular, Africa. It should be seen as a first step towards developing a more holistic GHG accounting model for municipalities. The comparison between these emissions from developed and developing countries at process level, reveals that there is agreement on the magnitude of the emissions expected from each process (generation of waste, collection and transport, disposal and recycling). The highest GHG savings are achieved through recycling, and these savings would be even higher in developing countries which rely on coal for energy production (e.g. South Africa, India and China) and where non-motorized collection and transport is used. The highest emissions are due to the methane released by dumpsites and landfills, and these emissions are predicted to increase significantly, unless more of the methane is captured and either flared or used for energy generation. The clean development mechanism (CDM) projects implemented in the developing world have made some progress in this field; however, African countries lag behind.

  8. Responding to Terrorist Incidents in Your Community: Flammable-Liquid Fire Fighting Techniques for Municipal and Rural Firefighters

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Denise Baclawski

    2010-03-08T23:59:59.000Z

    The University of Nevada, Reno Fire Science Academy (FSA) applied for grant funding to develop and deliver programs for municipal, rural, and volunteer firefighters. The FSA specializes in preparing responders for a variety of emergency events, including flammable liquid fires resulting from accidents, intentional acts, or natural disasters. Live fire training on full scale burnable props is the hallmark of FSA training, allowing responders to practice critical skills in a realistic, yet safe environment. Unfortunately, flammable liquid live fire training is often not accessible to municipal, rural, or volunteer firefighters due to limited department training budgets, even though most department personnel will be exposed to flammable liquid fire incidents during the course of their careers. In response to this training need, the FSA developed a course during the first year of the grant (Year One), Responding to Terrorist Incidents in Your Community: Flammable-Liquid Fire Fighting Techniques for Municipal and Rural Firefighters. During the three years of the grant, a total of 2,029 emergency responders received this training. In Year Three, two new courses, a train-the-trainer for Responding to Terrorist Incidents in Your Community and Management of Large-Scale Disasters for Public Officials were developed and pilot tested during the Real-World Disaster Management Conference held at the FSA in June of 2007. Two research projects were conducted during Years Two and Three. The first, conducted over a two year period, evaluated student surveys regarding the value of the flammable liquids training received. The second was a needs assessment conducted for rural Nevada. Both projects provided important feedback and a basis for curricula development and improvements.

  9. THE LUMINA PROJECT http://light.lbl.gov

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Jacobson, Arne

    components for the LED lights. #12;2 Introduction Solid-state lighting based on light emitting diode (LED

  10. Combustion of municipal solid wastes with oil shale in a circulating fluidized bed. Quarterly report, quarter ending December 31, 1995

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    NONE

    1996-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The objective of this project is to demonstrate that cocombustion of municipal solid waste and oil shale can reduce emissions of gaseous pollutants (SO{sub 2} and HCl) to acceptable levels. Tests in 6- and 15-inch units showed that the oil shale absorbs acid gas pollutants and produces an ash which could be, at the least, disposed of in a normal landfill. Further analysis of the results are underway to estimate scale-up to commercial size. Additional work will be done to evaluate the cementitious properties of oil shale ash.

  11. Types of Lighting in Commercial Buildings - Lighting Types

    Annual Energy Outlook 2013 [U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA)]

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE:1 First Use of Energy for All Purposes (Fuel and Nonfuel),Feet) Year Jan Feb Mar Apr May Jun Jul(Summary) " ,"ClickPipelinesProved ReservesFeet)per Thousand28 198 18 Q 10 14.0 12.2 1.1 QPDF LightingLighting

  12. LED Provides Effective and Efficient Parking Area Lighting at...

    Broader source: Energy.gov (indexed) [DOE]

    White Light Options for Parking Area Lighting Demonstration Assessment of Light Emitting Diode (LED) Street Lighting, Final Report Guide to FEMP-Designated Parking Lot...

  13. Demonstration Assessment of Light-Emitting Diode (LED) Freezer...

    Broader source: Energy.gov (indexed) [DOE]

    Demonstration Assessment of Light-Emitting Diode (LED) Freezer Case Lighting Demonstration Assessment of Light-Emitting Diode (LED) Freezer Case Lighting This document is a report...

  14. Demonstration Assessment of Light Emitting Diode (LED) Street...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Demonstration Assessment of Light Emitting Diode (LED) Street Lighting, Final Report Demonstration Assessment of Light Emitting Diode (LED) Street Lighting, Final Report This...

  15. Recovery of solid fuel from municipal solid waste by hydrothermal treatment using subcritical water

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Hwang, In-Hee, E-mail: hwang@eng.hokudai.ac.jp [Laboratory of Solid Waste Disposal Engineering, Faculty of Engineering, Hokkaido University, Kita 13 Nishi 8, Kita-ku, Sapporo 060 8628 (Japan); Aoyama, Hiroya; Matsuto, Toshihiko; Nakagishi, Tatsuhiro; Matsuo, Takayuki [Laboratory of Solid Waste Disposal Engineering, Faculty of Engineering, Hokkaido University, Kita 13 Nishi 8, Kita-ku, Sapporo 060 8628 (Japan)

    2012-03-15T23:59:59.000Z

    Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Hydrothermal treatment using subcritical water was studied to recover solid fuel from MSW. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer More than 75% of carbon in MSW was recovered as char. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Heating value of char was comparable to that of brown coal and lignite. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Polyvinyl chloride was decomposed at 295 Degree-Sign C and 8 MPa and was removed by washing. - Abstract: Hydrothermal treatments using subcritical water (HTSW) such as that at 234 Degree-Sign C and 3 MPa (LT condition) and 295 Degree-Sign C and 8 MPa (HT condition) were investigated to recover solid fuel from municipal solid waste (MSW). Printing paper, dog food (DF), wooden chopsticks, and mixed plastic film and sheets of polyethylene, polypropylene, and polystyrene were prepared as model MSW components, in which polyvinylchloride (PVC) powder and sodium chloride were used to simulate Cl sources. While more than 75% of carbon in paper, DF, and wood was recovered as char under both LT and HT conditions, plastics did not degrade under either LT or HT conditions. The heating value (HV) of obtained char was 13,886-27,544 kJ/kg and was comparable to that of brown coal and lignite. Higher formation of fixed carbon and greater oxygen dissociation during HTSW were thought to improve the HV of char. Cl atoms added as PVC powder and sodium chloride to raw material remained in char after HTSW. However, most Cl originating from PVC was found to converse into soluble Cl compounds during HTSW under the HT condition and could be removed by washing. From these results, the merit of HTSW as a method of recovering solid fuel from MSW is considered to produce char with minimal carbon loss without a drying process prior to HTSW. In addition, Cl originating from PVC decomposes into soluble Cl compound under the HT condition. The combination of HTSW under the HT condition and char washing might improve the quality of char as alternative fuel.

  16. Toxicity mitigation and solidification of municipal solid waste incinerator fly ash using alkaline activated coal ash

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Ivan Diaz-Loya, E. [Alternative Cementitious Binders Laboratory (ACBL), Department of Civil Engineering, Louisiana Tech University, Ruston, LA 71272 (United States); Allouche, Erez N., E-mail: allouche@latech.edu [Alternative Cementitious Binders Laboratory (ACBL), Department of Civil Engineering, Louisiana Tech University, Ruston, LA 71272 (United States); Eklund, Sven; Joshi, Anupam R. [Department of Chemistry, Louisiana Tech University, Ruston, LA 71272 (United States); Kupwade-Patil, Kunal [Alternative Cementitious Binders Laboratory (ACBL), Department of Civil Engineering, Louisiana Tech University, Ruston, LA 71272 (United States)

    2012-08-15T23:59:59.000Z

    Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Incinerator fly ash (IFA) is added to an alkali activated coal fly ash (CFA) matrix. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Means of stabilizing the incinerator ash for use in construction applications. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Concrete made from IFA, CFA and IFA-CFA mixes was chemically characterized. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Environmentally friendly solution to IFA disposal by reducing its toxicity levels. - Abstract: Municipal solid waste (MSW) incineration is a common and effective practice to reduce the volume of solid waste in urban areas. However, the byproduct of this process is a fly ash (IFA), which contains large quantities of toxic contaminants. The purpose of this research study was to analyze the chemical, physical and mechanical behaviors resulting from the gradual introduction of IFA to an alkaline activated coal fly ash (CFA) matrix, as a mean of stabilizing the incinerator ash for use in industrial construction applications, where human exposure potential is limited. IFA and CFA were analyzed via X-ray fluorescence (XRF), X-ray diffraction (XRD) and Inductive coupled plasma (ICP) to obtain a full chemical analysis of the samples, its crystallographic characteristics and a detailed count of the eight heavy metals contemplated in US Title 40 of the Code of Federal Regulations (40 CFR). The particle size distribution of IFA and CFA was also recorded. EPA's Toxicity Characteristic Leaching Procedure (TCLP) was followed to monitor the leachability of the contaminants before and after the activation. Also images obtained via Scanning Electron Microscopy (SEM), before and after the activation, are presented. Concrete made from IFA, CFA and IFA-CFA mixes was subjected to a full mechanical characterization; tests include compressive strength, flexural strength, elastic modulus, Poisson's ratio and setting time. The leachable heavy metal contents (except for Se) were below the maximum allowable limits and in many cases even below the reporting limit. The leachable Chromium was reduced from 0.153 down to 0.0045 mg/L, Arsenic from 0.256 down to 0.132 mg/L, Selenium from 1.05 down to 0.29 mg/L, Silver from 0.011 down to .001 mg/L, Barium from 2.06 down to 0.314 mg/L and Mercury from 0.007 down to 0.001 mg/L. Although the leachable Cd exhibited an increase from 0.49 up to 0.805 mg/L and Pd from 0.002 up to 0.029 mg/L, these were well below the maximum limits of 1.00 and 5.00 mg/L, respectively.

  17. Electromagnetic reactions on light nuclei

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Sonia Bacca; Saori Pastore

    2014-07-13T23:59:59.000Z

    Electromagnetic reactions on light nuclei are fundamental to advance our understanding of nuclear structure and dynamics. The perturbative nature of the electromagnetic probes allows to clearly connect measured cross sections with the calculated structure properties of nuclear targets. We present an overview on recent theoretical ab-initio calculations of electron-scattering and photonuclear reactions involving light nuclei. We encompass both the conventional approach and the novel theoretical framework provided by chiral effective field theories. Because both strong and electromagnetic interactions are involved in the processes under study, comparison with available experimental data provides stringent constraints on both many-body nuclear Hamiltonians and electromagnetic currents. We discuss what we have learned from studies on electromagnetic observables of light nuclei, starting from the deuteron and reaching up to nuclear systems with mass number A=16.

  18. Enrichment of light hydrocarbon mixture

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Yang; Dali (Los Alamos, NM); Devlin, David (Santa Fe, NM); Barbero, Robert S. (Santa Cruz, NM); Carrera, Martin E. (Naperville, IL); Colling, Craig W. (Warrenville, IL)

    2010-08-10T23:59:59.000Z

    Light hydrocarbon enrichment is accomplished using a vertically oriented distillation column having a plurality of vertically oriented, nonselective micro/mesoporous hollow fibers. Vapor having, for example, both propylene and propane is sent upward through the distillation column in between the hollow fibers. Vapor exits neat the top of the column and is condensed to form a liquid phase that is directed back downward through the lumen of the hollow fibers. As vapor continues to ascend and liquid continues to countercurrently descend, the liquid at the bottom of the column becomes enriched in a higher boiling point, light hydrocarbon (propane, for example) and the vapor at the top becomes enriched in a lower boiling point light hydrocarbon (propylene, for example). The hollow fiber becomes wetted with liquid during the process.

  19. Enrichment of light hydrocarbon mixture

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Yang, Dali (Los Alamos, NM); Devlin, David (Santa Fe, NM); Barbero, Robert S. (Santa Cruz, NM); Carrera, Martin E. (Naperville, IL); Colling, Craig W. (Warrenville, IL)

    2011-11-29T23:59:59.000Z

    Light hydrocarbon enrichment is accomplished using a vertically oriented distillation column having a plurality of vertically oriented, nonselective micro/mesoporous hollow fibers. Vapor having, for example, both propylene and propane is sent upward through the distillation column in between the hollow fibers. Vapor exits neat the top of the column and is condensed to form a liquid phase that is directed back downward through the lumen of the hollow fibers. As vapor continues to ascend and liquid continues to countercurrently descend, the liquid at the bottom of the column becomes enriched in a higher boiling point, light hydrocarbon (propane, for example) and the vapor at the top becomes enriched in a lower boiling point light hydrocarbon (propylene, for example). The hollow fiber becomes wetted with liquid during the process.

  20. Monitored lighting energy savings from dimmable lighting controls in

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    , product, or process disclosed, or represents that its use would not infringe privately owned rights. Reference herein to any specific commercial product, process, or service by its trade name, trademark 94720, USA Abstract Digital addressable, dimmable lighting controls were introduced to the US market