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Sample records for k-25 gaseous diffusion

  1. K-25 Gaseous Diffusion Process Building | Department of Energy

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    » Signature Facilities » K-25 Gaseous Diffusion Process Building K-25 Gaseous Diffusion Process Building K-25 Gaseous Diffusion Process Building New! K-25 Virtual Museum The K-25 plant, located on the southwestern end of the Oak Ridge reservation, used the gaseous diffusion method to separate uranium-235 from uranium-238. Based on the well-known principle that molecules of a lighter isotope would pass through a porous barrier more readily than molecules of a heavier one, gaseous diffusion

  2. Energy Department Completes K-25 Gaseous Diffusion Building Demolition |

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Department of Energy Completes K-25 Gaseous Diffusion Building Demolition Energy Department Completes K-25 Gaseous Diffusion Building Demolition December 19, 2013 - 12:00pm Addthis K-25 Demolition - Oak Ridge 2013 K-25 Demolition - Oak Ridge 2013 Media Contacts Ben Williams, DOE, (865) 574-4912 Wayne McKinney, UCOR, (865) 576-6284 Oak Ridge, Tenn. - Today, the Department of Energy announced that its contractor URS|CH2M Oak Ridge, LLC, or UCOR, has completed demolition of the K-25 gaseous

  3. K-25 Gaseous Diffusion Process Building | Department of Energy

    Broader source: Energy.gov (indexed) [DOE]

    other two being electromagnetic separation and liquid thermal diffusion. The S-50 liquid thermal diffusion plant, using convection to separate the isotopes in thousands of tall...

  4. Lessons-Learned from D and D Activities at the Five Gaseous Diffusion Buildings (K-25, K- 27, K-29, K-31 and K-33) East Tennessee Technology Park, Oak Ridge, TN - 13574

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Kopotic, James D.; Ferri, Mark S.; Buttram, Claude

    2013-07-01

    The East Tennessee Technology Park (ETTP) is the site of five former gaseous diffusion plant (GDP) process buildings that were used to enrich uranium from 1945 to 1985. The process equipment in the original two buildings (K-25 and K-27) was used for the production of highly enriched uranium (HEU), while that in the three later buildings (K-29, K-31 and K-33) produced low enriched uranium (LEU). Equipment was contaminated primarily with uranium and to a lesser extent technetium (Tc). Decommissioning of the GDP process buildings has presented several unique challenges and produced many lessons-learned. Among these is the importance of good, up-front characterization in developing the best demolition approach. Also, chemical cleaning of process gas equipment and piping (PGE) prior to shutdown should be considered to minimize the amount of hold-up material that must be removed by demolition crews. Another lesson learned is to maintain shutdown buildings in a dry state to minimize structural degradation which can significantly complicate characterization, deactivation and demolition efforts. Perhaps the most important lesson learned is that decommissioning GDP process buildings is first and foremost a waste logistics challenge. Innovative solutions are required to effectively manage the sheer volume of waste generated from decontamination and demolition (D and D) of these enormous facilities. Finally, close coordination with Security is mandatory to effectively manage Special Nuclear Material (SNM) and classified equipment issues. (authors)

  5. Portsmouth Gaseous Diffusion Plant

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    The current mission at the Portsmouth Gaseous Diffusion Plant is to effectively implement EM responsibilities, obligations and activities to accomplish environmental remediation actions in compliance with regulatory milestones and agreements; disposition legacy and newly generated waste; implement Cold Shutdown requirements; disposition of depleted uranium hexafluoride cylinders; and perform Decontamination and Decommissioning.

  6. Microsoft Word - k-25 cover

    Office of Environmental Management (EM)

    K-25 Building Decontamination and Decommissioning Project DOE/IG-0854 July 2011 Department of Energy Washington, DC 20585 July 13, 2011 MEMORANDUM FOR THE SECRETARY FROM: Gregory H. Friedman Inspector General SUBJECT: INFORMATION: Audit Report on "The Department of Energy's K-25 Building Decontamination and Decommissioning Project" BACKGROUND The East Tennessee Technology Park (ETTP), formerly the Oak Ridge Gaseous Diffusion Plant, began operation during World War II as part of the

  7. Independent Oversight Review, Portsmouth Gaseous Diffusion Plant...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    January 2013 Independent Oversight Review, Portsmouth Gaseous Diffusion Plant - January 2013 January 2013 Review of the Portsmouth Gaseous Diffusion Plant Work Planning and Control...

  8. Independent Oversight Review, Portsmouth Gaseous Diffusion Plant -

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    November 2013 | Department of Energy Portsmouth Gaseous Diffusion Plant - November 2013 Independent Oversight Review, Portsmouth Gaseous Diffusion Plant - November 2013 November 5, 2013 Review of Preparedness for Severe Natural Phenomena Events at the Portsmouth Gaseous Diffusion Plant This report documents the results of an independent oversight review of the preparedness of the DOE Portsmouth/Paducah Project Office, contractors at the DOE Portsmouth Gaseous Diffusion Plant, and selected

  9. DOE Releases Request for Information for Paducah Gaseous Diffusion...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Information for Paducah Gaseous Diffusion Plant Deactivation & Remediation Services DOE Releases Request for Information for Paducah Gaseous Diffusion Plant Deactivation &...

  10. Independent Oversight Review, Portsmouth Gaseous Diffusion Plant...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    April 2013 Independent Oversight Review, Portsmouth Gaseous Diffusion Plant - April 2013 April 2013 Review of the Integrated Safety Management System Phase I Verification Review at ...

  11. Paducah Gaseous Diffusion Plant Final Environmental Assessment...

    Broader source: Energy.gov (indexed) [DOE]

    Point of contact for more information: Robert Smith, Department of Energy-Paducah PDF icon Paducah Gaseous Diffusion Plant Final Environmental Assessment for Potential Land and ...

  12. Independent Oversight Review, Portsmouth Gaseous Diffusion Plant...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Plant - November 2013 Independent Oversight Review, Portsmouth Gaseous Diffusion Plant - November 2013 November 5, 2013 Review of Preparedness for Severe Natural Phenomena Events...

  13. K-25 demolition project receives American Nuclear Society award |

    Energy Savers [EERE]

    Department of Energy demolition project receives American Nuclear Society award K-25 demolition project receives American Nuclear Society award May 27, 2014 - 12:00pm Addthis The American Nuclear Society will recognize the K-25 demolition project at its summer meeting in June. The American Nuclear Society will recognize the K-25 demolition project at its summer meeting in June. Oak Ridge, Tenn. - The successful demolition of a former gaseous diffusion facility has been honored by the

  14. EA-1927: Paducah Gaseous Diffusion Plant Potential Land and Facilities...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    27: Paducah Gaseous Diffusion Plant Potential Land and Facilities Transfers; McCracken County, Kentucky EA-1927: Paducah Gaseous Diffusion Plant Potential Land and Facilities...

  15. Deactivation Project Begins at Paducah Gaseous Diffusion Plant...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Begins at Paducah Gaseous Diffusion Plant Deactivation Project Begins at Paducah Gaseous Diffusion Plant October 21, 2014 - 5:00pm Addthis EM Paducah site lead Jennifer Woodard...

  16. Manhattan Project: Working K-25 into the Mix, 1943-1944

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    K-25 Gaseous Diffusion Plant, Oak Ridge WORKING K-25 INTO THE MIX (Oak Ridge: Clinton, 1943-1944) Events > The Uranium Path to the Bomb, 1942-1944 Y-12: Design, 1942-1943 Y-12: Construction, 1943 Y-12: Operation, 1943-1944 Working K-25 into the Mix, 1943-1944 The Navy and Thermal Diffusion, 1944 In 1941 and 1942, gaseous diffusion had been considered by many as the most promising method of enriching uranium. The British in the influential 1941 MAUD Report had advocated the use of gaseous

  17. DOE - Office of Legacy Management -- Paducah Gaseous Diffusion Plant - KY

    Office of Legacy Management (LM)

    01 Paducah Gaseous Diffusion Plant - KY 01 FUSRAP Considered Sites Site: Paducah Gaseous Diffusion Plant (KY.01 ) Designated Name: Alternate Name: Location: Evaluation Year: Site Operations: Site Disposition: Radioactive Materials Handled: Primary Radioactive Materials Handled: Radiological Survey(s): Site Status: Also see http://www.oakridge.doe.gov/factsheets/paducgdp.htm Documents Related to Paducah Gaseous Diffusion Plant

  18. Independent Activity Report, Portsmouth Gaseous Diffusion Plant - August

    Office of Environmental Management (EM)

    2011 | Department of Energy Portsmouth Gaseous Diffusion Plant - August 2011 Independent Activity Report, Portsmouth Gaseous Diffusion Plant - August 2011 August 2011 Orientation Visit to the Portsmouth Gaseous Diffusion Plant [HIAR-PORTS-2011-08-03] This Independent Activity Report documents an operational awareness activity conducted by Office of Health, Safety and Security's (HSS) Office of Safety and Emergency Management Evaluations August 1-3, 2011, at the Department of Energy's (DOE)

  19. School science project 'demystifies' Portsmouth Gaseous Diffusion Plant

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Site | Department of Energy School science project 'demystifies' Portsmouth Gaseous Diffusion Plant Site School science project 'demystifies' Portsmouth Gaseous Diffusion Plant Site June 2, 2015 - 10:40am Addthis (Left) An example of a cover of a recent Student Summary of an Annual Site Environmental Report for the Portsmouth Gaseous Diffusion Plant Site. (Right) DOE Portsmouth Site Lead Joel Bradburne recently visited Western High School to recognize the students who participated in the

  20. Paducah Gaseous Diffusion Plant - GW OU Northwest Plume | Department of

    Office of Environmental Management (EM)

    Energy Gaseous Diffusion Plant - GW OU Northwest Plume Paducah Gaseous Diffusion Plant - GW OU Northwest Plume January 1, 2014 - 12:00pm Addthis US Department of Energy Groundwater Database Groundwater Master Report InstallationName, State: Paducah Gaseous Diffusion Plant, KY Responsible DOE Office: Office of Environmental Management Plume Name: GW OU Northwest Plume Remediation Contractor: LATA Environmental Services of Kentucky, LLC PBS Number: PA-0040 Report Last Updated: 2014

  1. DOE Seeks Proposals for Portsmouth Gaseous Diffusion Plant Technical

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Services Contract | Department of Energy Portsmouth Gaseous Diffusion Plant Technical Services Contract DOE Seeks Proposals for Portsmouth Gaseous Diffusion Plant Technical Services Contract June 19, 2012 - 12:00pm Addthis Media Contact Bill Taylor bill.taylor@srs.gov 803-952-8564 Cincinnati - The Department of Energy today issued a Draft Request for Proposals (RFP) for an Environmental Technical Services acquisition at the Portsmouth Gaseous Diffusion Plant near Piketon, Ohio. The draft RFP

  2. Non-Destructive Analysis Calibration Standards for Gaseous Diffusion Plant

    Energy Savers [EERE]

    (GDP) Decommissioning | Department of Energy Non-Destructive Analysis Calibration Standards for Gaseous Diffusion Plant (GDP) Decommissioning Non-Destructive Analysis Calibration Standards for Gaseous Diffusion Plant (GDP) Decommissioning The decommissioning of Gaseous Diffusion Plant facilities requires accurate, non-destructive assay (NDA) of residual enriched uranium in facility components for safeguards and nuclear criticality safety purposes. Current practices used to perform NDA

  3. DOE Issues Final Request for Proposal for Portsmouth Gaseous Diffusion

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Plant Support Services | Department of Energy Portsmouth Gaseous Diffusion Plant Support Services DOE Issues Final Request for Proposal for Portsmouth Gaseous Diffusion Plant Support Services December 9, 2014 - 3:37pm Addthis Media Contact Lynette Chafin, 513-246-0461, Lynette.Chafin@emcbc.doe.gov Cincinnati -- The U.S. Department of Energy today issued a Final Request for Proposal (RFP), for the continued performance of infrastructure support services at the Portsmouth Gaseous Diffusion

  4. Paducah Gaseous Diffusion Plant Transition | Department of Energy

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Gaseous Diffusion Plant Transition Paducah Gaseous Diffusion Plant Transition GDP Shutdown Paducah site_map-USEC_lease.jpg The Energy Policy Act of 1992 transferred operational responsibility for the site's uranium enrichment operations to the United States Enrichment Corporation (USEC), originally a government corporation that became a publicly held company in 1998. USEC assumed responsibility for enrichment operations at the Paducah Gaseous Diffusion Plant (GDP) and leased property from DOE.

  5. DOE - Office of Legacy Management -- Portsmouth Gaseous Diffusion Plant -

    Office of Legacy Management (LM)

    026 Portsmouth Gaseous Diffusion Plant - 026 FUSRAP Considered Sites Site: Portsmouth Gaseous Diffusion Plant (026 ) Designated Name: Alternate Name: Location: Evaluation Year: Site Operations: Site Disposition: Radioactive Materials Handled: Primary Radioactive Materials Handled: Radiological Survey(s): Site Status: The Portsmouth Gaseous Diffusion Plant (PGDP) is located in south central Ohio, approximately 20 miles north of Portsmouth, Ohio and 70 miles south of Columbus, Ohio.

  6. DOE Seeks Deactivation Contractor for Paducah Gaseous Diffusion Plant |

    Office of Environmental Management (EM)

    Department of Energy DOE Seeks Deactivation Contractor for Paducah Gaseous Diffusion Plant DOE Seeks Deactivation Contractor for Paducah Gaseous Diffusion Plant August 9, 2013 - 5:30pm Addthis Media Contact Bill Taylor, 803-952-8564 bill.taylor@srs.gov Cincinnati - The U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) today issued a Request for Task Proposal (RTP) for deactivation activities at the Paducah Gaseous Diffusion Plant (GDP) in Paducah, Kentucky. These services are required so that DOE can address

  7. DOE Seeks Quotes for Paducah Gaseous Diffusion Plant Environmental

    Office of Environmental Management (EM)

    Technical Services | Department of Energy Quotes for Paducah Gaseous Diffusion Plant Environmental Technical Services DOE Seeks Quotes for Paducah Gaseous Diffusion Plant Environmental Technical Services August 13, 2012 - 12:00pm Addthis Media Contact Bill Taylor Bill.Taylor@srs.gov 803-952-8564 Cincinnati- The Department of Energy (DOE) today issued a Request for Quotation (RFQ) for an Environmental Technical Services acquisition at the Paducah Gaseous Diffusion Plant (GDP) for the

  8. EA-1927: Paducah Gaseous Diffusion Plant Potential Land and Facilities

    Office of Environmental Management (EM)

    Transfers; McCracken County, Kentucky | Department of Energy 27: Paducah Gaseous Diffusion Plant Potential Land and Facilities Transfers; McCracken County, Kentucky EA-1927: Paducah Gaseous Diffusion Plant Potential Land and Facilities Transfers; McCracken County, Kentucky SUMMARY DOE's Portsmouth/Paducah Project Office prepared an EA that assesses the potential environmental impacts of the proposed transfer of land and facilities at the Paducah Gaseous Diffusion Plant from DOE to other

  9. Paducah Gaseous Diffusion Plant Draft Paducah Environmental Assessment...

    Broader source: Energy.gov (indexed) [DOE]

    Draft Environmental Assessment (EA) for Potential Land and Facilities Transfers at the Paducah Gaseous Diffusion Plant in McCracken County, Kentucky. DOE is inviting comments on...

  10. DOE Issues Final Request for Proposal for Paducah Gaseous Diffusion...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    security; Environment, safety, health and quality (ESH&Q) program; and Training services. ... Addthis Related Articles DOE Seeks Small Businesses for Portsmouth Gaseous Diffusion Plant ...

  11. Demolition of K-31 gaseous diffusion building begins

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    OREM begins demolition of the K-31 Building at Oak Ridge’s East Tennessee Technology Park (ETTP), marking the removal of the fourth of five gaseous diffusion buildings at the former uranium enrichment site.

  12. Paducah Gaseous Diffusion Plant - GW OU Northeast Plume | Department...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    No Sulfates Present? No Isotope Name Concentration (pCil) Regulatory Driver Cleanup ... Gaseous Diffusion Plant. CONTAMINANTS: 78 pCiL Tc-99 is the max observed Tc-99 level ...

  13. DOE Releases Request for Information for Paducah Gaseous Diffusion Plant

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Deactivation & Remediation Services | Department of Energy Releases Request for Information for Paducah Gaseous Diffusion Plant Deactivation & Remediation Services DOE Releases Request for Information for Paducah Gaseous Diffusion Plant Deactivation & Remediation Services September 2, 2015 - 3:00pm Addthis Media Contact Lynette Chafin, 513-246-0461, Lynette.Chafin@emcbc.doe.gov Cincinnati -- The U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) today issued a Request for Information (RFI) seeking

  14. Senior DOE Officials Visit Paducah Gaseous Diffusion Plant Site |

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Department of Energy Senior DOE Officials Visit Paducah Gaseous Diffusion Plant Site Senior DOE Officials Visit Paducah Gaseous Diffusion Plant Site April 29, 2015 - 12:00pm Addthis EM Paducah site lead Jennifer Woodard discusses electrical resistance heating as part of the trichloroethene remediation at the C-400 groundwater contamination source with David Klaus, DOE Deputy Under Secretary for Management and Performance (right). EM Paducah site lead Jennifer Woodard discusses electrical

  15. DOE Awards Contract for Paducah Gaseous Diffusion Plant Infrastructure

    Energy Savers [EERE]

    Support Services | Department of Energy Paducah Gaseous Diffusion Plant Infrastructure Support Services DOE Awards Contract for Paducah Gaseous Diffusion Plant Infrastructure Support Services June 17, 2015 - 5:45pm Addthis Media Contact: Lynette Chafin, 513-246-0461, Lynette.Chafin@emcbc.doe.gov Cincinnati -- The U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) today announced the award of a contract to Swift & Staley, Inc. of Kevil, Kentucky, for the performance of infrastructure support services at the

  16. DOE Awards Contract for Portsmouth Gaseous Diffusion Plant Infrastructure

    Energy Savers [EERE]

    Support Services | Department of Energy Portsmouth Gaseous Diffusion Plant Infrastructure Support Services DOE Awards Contract for Portsmouth Gaseous Diffusion Plant Infrastructure Support Services January 15, 2016 - 12:00pm Addthis Media Contact Lynette Chafin, 513-246-0461 Lynette.Chafin@emcbc.doe.gov Cincinnati -- The U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) today announced the award of a contract to Portsmouth Mission Alliance, LLC of Idaho Falls, Idaho, for the performance of infrastructure

  17. Orientation Visit to the Portsmouth Gaseous Diffusion Plant

    Office of Environmental Management (EM)

    HSS Independent Activity Report - Rev. 0 Report Number: HIAR-PORTS-2011-08-03 Site: Portsmouth Gaseous Diffusion Plant Subject: Office of Enforcement and Oversight's Office of Safety and Emergency Management Evaluations Activity Report for the Orientation Visit to the Portsmouth Gaseous Diffusion Plant Dates of Activity : 08/01/2011 - 08/03/2011 Report Preparer: Joseph P. Drago Activity Description/Purpose: The U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office of Enforcement and Oversight, within the

  18. Paducah Gaseous Diffusion Plant - GW OU Southwest Plume | Department of

    Energy Savers [EERE]

    Energy Southwest Plume Paducah Gaseous Diffusion Plant - GW OU Southwest Plume January 1, 2014 - 12:00pm Addthis US Department of Energy Groundwater Database Groundwater Master Report InstallationName, State: Paducah Gaseous Diffusion Plant, KY Responsible DOE Office: Office of Environmental Management Plume Name: GW OW Southwest Plume Remediation Contractor: LATA Environmental Services of Kentucky, LLC PBS Number: PA-0040 Report Last Updated: 2014 Contaminants Halogenated VOCs/SVOCs

  19. DOE Seeks Small Businesses for Portsmouth Gaseous Diffusion Plant

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Infrastructure Support Services | Department of Energy Seeks Small Businesses for Portsmouth Gaseous Diffusion Plant Infrastructure Support Services DOE Seeks Small Businesses for Portsmouth Gaseous Diffusion Plant Infrastructure Support Services July 2, 2014 - 12:00pm Addthis Media Contact Bill Taylor, 803-952-8564, bill.taylor@srs.gov Cincinnati -- The U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) today issued a Draft Request for Proposal (RFP) seeking eligible small businesses under North American

  20. Independent Oversight Review, Portsmouth Gaseous Diffusion Plant - April

    Office of Environmental Management (EM)

    2013 | Department of Energy April 2013 Independent Oversight Review, Portsmouth Gaseous Diffusion Plant - April 2013 April 2013 Review of the Integrated Safety Management System Phase I Verification Review at the Portsmouth Gaseous Diffusion Plant The Office of Enforcement and Oversight (Independent Oversight), within the Office of Health, Safety and Security (HSS), conducted an independent review of the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Portsmouth/Paducah Project Office (PPPO). The objective

  1. Independent Oversight Review, Portsmouth Gaseous Diffusion Plant - January

    Office of Environmental Management (EM)

    2013 | Department of Energy January 2013 Independent Oversight Review, Portsmouth Gaseous Diffusion Plant - January 2013 January 2013 Review of the Portsmouth Gaseous Diffusion Plant Work Planning and Control Activities Prior to Work Execution The Office of Enforcement and Oversight (Independent Oversight), within the Office of Health, Safety and Security (HSS), conducted a shadowing oversight activity of the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Portsmouth/Paducah Project Office (PPPO) oversight

  2. DOE Seeks Small Businesses for Paducah Gaseous Diffusion Plant

    Office of Environmental Management (EM)

    Infrastructure Support Services | Department of Energy Seeks Small Businesses for Paducah Gaseous Diffusion Plant Infrastructure Support Services DOE Seeks Small Businesses for Paducah Gaseous Diffusion Plant Infrastructure Support Services June 10, 2014 - 12:00pm Addthis Media Contact Bill Taylor, 803-952-8564 bill.taylor@srs.gov Cincinnati -- The U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) today issued a Draft Request for Proposal (RFP) seeking eligible small businesses under North American Industry

  3. Portsmouth Gaseous Diffusion Plant- Quadrant I Groundwater Investigative (5-Unit) Area Plume

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    Groundwater Database Report - Portsmouth Gaseous Diffusion Plant - Quadrant I Groundwater Investigative (5-Unit) Area Plume

  4. Demolition Begins at K-25's Last Section Standing | Department of Energy

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Begins at K-25's Last Section Standing Demolition Begins at K-25's Last Section Standing September 27, 2013 - 12:00pm Addthis Oak Ridge, Tenn. - Demolition work began today at the last section standing of the K-25 building at the East Tennessee Technology Park (ETTP). Workers began tearing down the final six units of the mile-long Manhattan Project-era gaseous diffusion building that once was the largest building under one roof in the world. The original building was in the shape of a U. The

  5. K-25 East Wing Demolition Project Wraps Up, North End Work Next |

    Energy Savers [EERE]

    Department of Energy East Wing Demolition Project Wraps Up, North End Work Next K-25 East Wing Demolition Project Wraps Up, North End Work Next September 14, 2012 - 12:00pm Addthis Oak Ridge, Tenn. - Oak Ridge's EM contractor URS | CH2M Oak Ridge LLC (UCOR) has completed demolition activities on the K-25 Building's east wing and is moving on to demolishing the north end. The K-25 Building, located at East Tennessee Technology Park (ETTP), was a former gaseous diffusion facility built as part

  6. The K-25 Story | Department of Energy

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    The K-25 Story The K-25 Story Addthis Description The K-25 Story

  7. Energy Department Selects Deactivation Contractor for Paducah Gaseous Diffusion Plant

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    LEXINGTON, Ky. The U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) today awarded a Task Order under the Nationwide Environmental Management ID/IQ Unrestricted Contract to Fluor Federal Services, Inc. for deactivation activities at the Paducah Gaseous Diffusion Plant (GDP) in Paducah, Kentucky, which is currently leased to the United States Enrichment Corporation (USEC).

  8. Paducah Gaseous Diffusion Plant environmental report for 1992

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Horak, C.M.

    1993-09-01

    This two-part report, Paducah Gaseous Diffusion Plant Environmental Report for 1992, is published annually. It reflects the results of an environmental monitoring program designed to quantify potential increases in the concentration of contaminants and potential doses to the resident human population. The Paducah Gaseous Diffusion Plant (PGDP) overall goal for environmental management is to protect the environment and PGDP`s neighbors and to maintain full compliance with all current regulations. The current environmental strategy is to identify any deficiencies and to develop a system to resolve them. The long-range goal of environmental management is to minimize the source of pollutants, reduce the generation of waste, and minimize hazardous waste by substitution of materials.

  9. Paducah Gaseous Diffusion Plant Environmental report for 1990

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Counce-Brown, D.

    1991-09-01

    This two-part report, Paducah Gaseous Diffusion Plant Site Environmental Report for 1990, is published annually. It reflects the results of a comprehensive, year-round program to monitor the impact of operations at Paducah Gaseous Diffusion Plant (PGDP) on the area's groundwater and surface waters, soil, air quality, vegetation, and wildlife. In addition, an assessment of the effect of PGDP effluents on the resident human population is made. PGDP's overall goal for environmental management is to protect the environment and PGDP's neighbors and to maintain full compliance with all current regulations. The current environmental strategy is to identify any deficiencies and to develop a system to resolve them. The long-range goal of environmental management is to minimize the source of pollutants, to reduce the formation of waste, and to minimize hazardous waste by substitution of materials.

  10. K-25 D and D Challenges - 12170

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Eidam, Greg [Bechtel National, Inc. (United States)

    2012-07-01

    Decontamination and decommissioning (D and D) of the K-25 former gaseous diffusion plant provides lessons learned applicable to other D and D projects in the DOE Complex. The 175,000- square-meter, 1.6-kilometer-long building is contaminated with highly enriched uranium (HEU), Tc-99, trace quantities of other fission products, asbestos, PCBs, and other hazardous wastes. Safety challenges include deteriorated electrical systems, significant structural degradation, and criticality and exposure risks. The project completely revised the D and D approach after a worker fell through an operating floor and was seriously injured. For protection from deteriorated building conditions, the project reduced the number of workers in the facility, limited their hours in the building, and installed nets and barriers to protect them from falls through weakened floors and from falling material. The new plan involved removing high-risk components, removing motors and compressors, and demolishing the building from the outside with heavy equipment with most of the piping and components inside the building during demolition. The team provided temporary electrical power; reconfigured the criticality alarm system; upgraded security; performed sampling and analysis to locate and characterize HEU deposits and Tc-99; and, to establish 'criticality incredible' conditions, conducted a nondestructive assay program and injected foam into equipment and piping as a contamination fixative. (authors)

  11. Paducah Gaseous Diffusion Plant Annual Site Environmental Report for 1993

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Not Available

    1994-10-01

    The purpose of this document is to summarize effluent monitoring and environmental surveillance results and compliance with environmental laws, regulations, and orders at the Paducah Gaseous Diffusion Plant (PGDP). Environmental monitoring at PGDP consists of two major activities: effluent monitoring and environmental surveillance. Effluent monitoring is direct measurement or the collection and analysis of samples of liquid and gaseous discharges to the environment. Environmental surveillance is direct measurement or the collection and analysis of samples of air, water, soil, foodstuff, biota, and other media. Environmental monitoring is performed to characterize and quantify contaminants, assess radiation exposures of members of the public, demonstrate compliance with applicable standards and permit requirements, and detect and assess the effects (if any) on the local environment. Multiple samples are collected throughout the year and are analyzed for radioactivity, chemical content, and various physical attributes.

  12. Portsmouth Gaseous Diffusion Plant Environmental report for 1990

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Counce-Brown, D.

    1991-09-01

    This calendar year 1990 annual report on environmental surveillance of the US Department of Energy's (DOE's) Portsmouth Gaseous Diffusion Plant (PORTS) and its environs consists of two parts: the summary, discussion, and conclusions (Part 1) and the data presentation (Part 2). The objectives of this report are as follows: report 1990 monitoring data for the installation and its environs that may have been affected by operations on the plant site, provide reasonably detailed information about the plant site and plant operations, provide detailed information on input and assumptions used in all calculations, provide trend analyses (when appropriate) to indicate increases and decreases in environmental impact, and provide general information on plant quality assurance.

  13. DOE Issues Final Request for Proposal for Paducah Gaseous Diffusion Plant

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Support Services | Department of Energy Paducah Gaseous Diffusion Plant Support Services DOE Issues Final Request for Proposal for Paducah Gaseous Diffusion Plant Support Services October 6, 2014 - 4:13pm Addthis Media Contact Bill Taylor, 803-952-8564, bill.taylor@srs.gov Cincinnati -- The U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) today issued a Final Request for Proposal (RFP), for the performance of infrastructure support services at the Paducah Gaseous Diffusion Plant (PGDP), Paducah, Kentucky. A

  14. DOE - Office of Legacy Management -- Oak Ridge Gaseous Diffusion Plant - TN

    Office of Legacy Management (LM)

    02 Oak Ridge Gaseous Diffusion Plant - TN 02 FUSRAP Considered Sites Site: Oak Ridge Gaseous Diffusion Plant (TN.02 ) Designated Name: Alternate Name: Location: Evaluation Year: Site Operations: Site Disposition: Radioactive Materials Handled: Primary Radioactive Materials Handled: Radiological Survey(s): Site Status: Also see http://www.mbe.doe.gov/me70/manhattan/come_through.htm Documents Related to Oak Ridge Gaseous Diffusion Plant

  15. Voluntary Protection Program Onsite Review, Infrastructure Support Contract Paducah Gaseous Diffusion Plant- May 2013

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE)

    Evaluation to determine whether Infrastructure Support Contract Paducah Gaseous Diffusion Plant is continuing to perform at a level deserving DOE-VPP Star recognition.

  16. Voluntary Protection Program Onsite Review, Infrastructure Support Contract Paducah Gaseous Diffusion Plant- March 2012

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    Evaluation to determine whether the Infrastructure Support Contract Paducah Gaseous Diffusion Plant is continuing to perform at a level deserving DOE-VPP Star recognition.

  17. Portsmouth Gaseous Diffusion Plant annual site environmental report for 1993

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Horak, C.M.

    1994-11-01

    This calendar year (CY) 1993 annual report on environmental monitoring of the US Department of Energy`s (DOE`s) Portsmouth Gaseous Diffusion Plant (Portsmouth) and its environs consists of three separate documents: a summary pamphlet for the general public; a more detail discussion and of compliance status, data, and environmental impacts (this document); and a volume of detailed data that is available on request. The objectives of this report are to report compliance status during 1993; provide information about the plant site and plant operations; report 1993 monitoring data for the installation and its environs that may have been affected by operations on the plant site; document information on input and assumptions used in calculations; provide trend analyses (where appropriate) to indicate increases and decreases in environmental impact, and provide general information on quality assurance for the environmental monitoring program.

  18. Paducah Gaseous Diffusion Plant environmental report for 1989

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Turner, J.W. )

    1990-10-01

    This two-part environmental report is published annually. It reflects the results of a comprehensive, year-round program to monitor the impact of operations at Paducah Gaseous Diffusion Plant (PGDP) on the area's groundwater and surface waters, soil, air quality, vegetation, and wildlife. In addition, an assessment of the effect of PGDP effluents on the resident human population is made. PGDP's overall goal for environmental management is to protect the environment and PGDP's neighbors and to maintain full compliance with all current regulations. The current environmental strategy is to identify any deficiencies and to develop a system to resolve them. The long-range goal of environmental management is to minimize the source of pollutants, to reduce the formation of waste, and to minimize hazardous waste by substitution of materials. 36 refs.

  19. Seismic issues at the Paducah Gaseous Diffusion Plant

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Fricke, K.E. )

    1989-11-01

    A seismic expert workshop was held at the Paducah Gaseous Diffusion Plant (PGDP) on March 13--15, 1989. the PGDP is operated by Martin Marietta Energy Systems, Inc. for the United States Department of Energy (DOE). During the last twenty years the design criteria for natural phenomenon hazards has steadily become more demanding at all of the DOE Oak Ridge Operations (ORO) sites. The purpose of the two-day workshop was to review the seismic vulnerability issues of the PGDP facilities. Participants to the workshop included recognized experts in the fields of seismic engineering, seismology and geosciences, and probabilistic analysis, along with engineers and other personnel from Energy Systems. A complete list of the workshop participants is included in the front of this report. 29 refs.

  20. EA-1927: Conveyance of Land and Facilities at the Paducah Gaseous Diffusion

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Plant for Economic Development Purposes, Paducah, Kentucky | Department of Energy EA-1927: Conveyance of Land and Facilities at the Paducah Gaseous Diffusion Plant for Economic Development Purposes, Paducah, Kentucky EA-1927: Conveyance of Land and Facilities at the Paducah Gaseous Diffusion Plant for Economic Development Purposes, Paducah, Kentucky SUMMARY DOE's Portsmouth/Paducah Project Office has prepared a Draft EA for potential land and facilities transfers at the Paducah Gaseous

  1. Portsmouth Gaseous Diffusion Plant environmental report for 1989

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Turner, J.W. )

    1990-10-01

    This calendar year 1989 annual report on environmental surveillance of the US Department of Energy's (DOE) Portsmouth Gaseous Diffusion Plant (PORTS) and its environs consists of two parts: the Summary, Discussion, and Conclusions (Part 1) and the Data Presentation (Part 2). The objectives of this report are the following: report 1989 monitoring data for the installation and its environs that may have been affected by operations on the plant site, provide reasonably detailed information about the plant site and plant operations, provide detailed information on input and assumptions used in all calculations, provide trend analyses (where appropriate) to indicate increases and decreases in environmental impact, and provide general information on plant quality assurance. Routine monitoring and sampling for radiation, radioactive materials, and chemical substances on and off the DOE site are used to document compliance with appropriate standards, to identify trends, to provide information for the public, and to contribute to general environmental knowledge. The surveillance program assists in fulfilling the DOE policy of protecting the public, employees, and environment from harm that could be caused by its activities and reducing negative environmental impacts to the greatest degree practicable. Environmental-monitoring information complements data on specific releases, trends, and summaries. 26 refs.

  2. Innovative Decontamination Technology for Use in Gaseous Diffusion Plant Decommissioning

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Peters, M.J.; Norton, C.J.; Fraikor, G.B.; Potter, G.L.; Chang, K.C.

    2006-07-01

    The results of bench scale tests demonstrated that TechXtract{sup R} RadPro{sup TM} technology (hereinafter referred to as RadPro{sup R}) can provide 100% coverage of complex mockup gaseous diffusion plant (GDP) equipment and can decontaminate uranium (U) deposits with 98% to 99.99% efficiency. Deployment tests demonstrated RadPro{sup R} can be applied as foam, mist/fog, or steam, and fully cover the internal surfaces of complex mockup equipment, including large piping. Decontamination tests demonstrated that two formulations of RadPro{sup R}, one with neutron attenuators and one without neutron attenuators, could remove up to 99.99% of uranyl fluoride deposits, one of the most difficult to remove deposits in GDP equipment. These results were supplemented by results from previous tests conducted in 1994 that showed RadPro{sup R} could remove >97% of U and Tc-99 contamination from actual GDP components. Operational use of RadPro{sup R} at other DOE and commercial facilities also support these data. (authors)

  3. Bioavailability study for the Paducah Gaseous Diffusion Plant

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Phipps, T.L.; Kszos, L.A.

    1996-08-01

    The overall purpose of this plan is to assess the bioavailability of metals in the continuous and intermittent outfalls. The results may be used to determine alternative metal limits that more appropriately measure the portion of metal present necessary for toxicity to aquatic life. These limits must remain protective of in-stream aquatic life; thus, the highest concentration of metal in the water will be determined concurrently with an assessment of acute or chronic toxicity on laboratory tests. Using the method developed by the Kentucky Division of Water (KDOW), biomonitoring results and chemical data will be used to recommend alternative metal limits for the outfalls of concern. The data will be used to meet the objectives of the study: (1) evaluate the toxicity of continuous outfalls and intermittent outfalls at Paducah Gaseous Diffusion Plant; (2) determine the mean ratio of dissolved to Total Recoverable metal for Cd, Cr, Cu, Pb, Ni, and Zn in the continuous and intermittent outfalls; (3) determine whether the concentration of total recoverable metal discharged causes toxicity to fathead minnows and /or Ceriodaphnia; and (4) determine alternative metal limits for each metal of concern (Cd, Cr, Cu, Pb, Ni, and Zn).

  4. Paducah Gaseous Diffusion Plant Northwest Plume interceptor system evaluation

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Laase, A.D.; Clausen, J.L.

    1998-07-01

    The Paducah Gaseous Diffusion Plant (PGDP) recently installed an interceptor system consisting of four wells, evenly divided between two well fields, to contain the Northwest Plume. As stated in the Northwest Plume Record of Decision (ROD), groundwater will be pumped at a rate to reduce further contamination and initiate control of the northwest contaminant plume. The objective of this evaluation was to determine the optimum (minimal) well field pumping rates required for plume hotspot containment. Plume hotspot, as defined in the Northwest Plume ROD and throughout this report, is that portion of the plume with trichloroethene (TCE) concentrations greater than 1,000 {micro}g/L. An existing 3-dimensional groundwater model was modified and used to perform capture zone analyses of the north and south interceptor system well fields. Model results suggest that the plume hotspot is not contained at the system design pumping rate of 100 gallons per minute (gal/min) per well field. Rather, the modeling determined that north and south well field pumping rates of 400 and 150 gal/min, respectively, are necessary for plume hotspot containment. The difference between the design and optimal pumping rates required for containment can be attributed to the discovery of a highly transmissive zone in the vicinity of the two well fields.

  5. DOE Seeks Small Businesses for Portsmouth Gaseous Diffusion Plant...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    and security; environment, safety, health and quality (ESH&Q) program; and training ... Addthis Related Articles DOE Issues Final Request for Proposal for Paducah Gaseous ...

  6. DOE Seeks Small Businesses for Paducah Gaseous Diffusion Plant...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    and security; environment, safety, health and quality (ESH&Q) program; and training ... Addthis Related Articles DOE Issues Final Request for Proposal for Paducah Gaseous ...

  7. DOE completes demolition of K-31 gaseous diffusion building | Department of

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Energy completes demolition of K-31 gaseous diffusion building DOE completes demolition of K-31 gaseous diffusion building June 26, 2015 - 1:31pm Addthis Workers take down the last section of the K-31 Building. Workers take down the last section of the K-31 Building. OAK RIDGE, Tenn. - Demolition of the K-31 Building at Oak Ridge's East Tennessee Technology Park (ETTP) was completed today, marking the removal of the fourth of five gaseous diffusion buildings at the former uranium enrichment

  8. Portsmouth Gaseous Diffusion Plant Director's Final Findings and Orders, October 4, 1995

    Office of Environmental Management (EM)

    Gaseous Diffusion Plant Director's Final Findings and Orders, October 4, 1995 BEFORE THE OHIO ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY In the Matter Of: United States Department of Energy : Director's Final Portsmouth Gaseous Diffusion Plant : Findings and Orders P.O. Box 700 : Piketon, Ohio 45661-0700 : Respondent It is hereby agreed by and among the parties hereto as follows: Table of Contents I. Jurisdiction II. Parties Bound III. Definitions IV. Findings of Fact V. Orders VI. Limitations of

  9. EA-1856: Conveyance of Land and Facilities at the Portsmouth Gaseous Diffusion Plant for Economic Development Purposes, Piketon, Ohio

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    This EA will evaluate the environmental impacts of conveyance of land and facilities at the Portsmouth Gaseous Diffusion Plant, in Piketon, Ohio, for economic development purposes.

  10. Summary - Proposed On-Site Disposal Facility (OSDF) at the Paducah Gaseous Diffusion Plant

    Office of Environmental Management (EM)

    Paducah, KY EM Project: On-Site Disposal Facility ETR Report Date: August 2008 ETR-16 United States Department of Energy Office of Environmental Management (DOE-EM) External Technical Review of the Proposed On-Site Disposal Facility(OSDF) at the Paducah Gaseous Diffusion Plant Why DOE-EM Did This Review The Paducah Gaseous Diffusion Plant (PGDP) is an active uranium enrichment facility that was placed on the National Priorities List. DOE is required to remediate the PGDP in accordance with the

  11. U.S., Ohio Approve Portsmouth Gaseous Diffusion Plant Site D&D Plans |

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Department of Energy U.S., Ohio Approve Portsmouth Gaseous Diffusion Plant Site D&D Plans U.S., Ohio Approve Portsmouth Gaseous Diffusion Plant Site D&D Plans July 30, 2015 - 3:00pm Addthis The Portsmouth Site’s large process buildings and other facilities are shown here. The Portsmouth Site's large process buildings and other facilities are shown here. PIKETON, Ohio - The Ohio Environmental Protection Agency (Ohio EPA) and DOE have agreed to a plan to demolish the massive,

  12. D&D of the French High Enrichment Gaseous Diffusion Plant

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    BEHAR, Christophe; GUIBERTEAU, Philippe; DUPERRET, Bernard; TAUZIN, Claude

    2003-02-27

    This paper describes the D&D program that is being implemented at France's High Enrichment Gaseous Diffusion Plant, which was designed to supply France's Military with Highly Enriched Uranium. This plant was definitively shut down in June 1996, following French President Jacques Chirac's decision to end production of Highly Enriched Uranium and dismantle the corresponding facilities.

  13. Energy Department Extends Contract for Cleanup of Portsmouth Gaseous Diffusion Plant

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    LEXINGTON, Ky. – The U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) today announced that it has exercised its option to extend the contract for decontamination and decommissioning (D&D) of the Portsmouth Gaseous Diffusion Plant for a period of 30 months beyond the current expiration date of March 28, 2016.

  14. Enterprise Assessments Review of Radioactive Waste Management at the Portsmouth Gaseous Diffusion Plant … December 2015

    Office of Environmental Management (EM)

    Radioactive Waste Management at the Portsmouth Gaseous Diffusion Plant December 2015 Office of Nuclear Safety and Environmental Assessments Office of Environment, Safety and Health Assessments Office of Enterprise Assessments U.S. Department of Energy i Table of Contents Acronyms ...................................................................................................................................................... ii Executive Summary

  15. Real Time Demonstration Project XRF Performance Evaluation Report for Paducah Gaseous Diffusion Plant AOC 492

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Johnson, Robert L

    2008-04-03

    This activity was undertaken to demonstrate the applicability of market-available XRF instruments to quantify metal concentrations relative to background and risk-based action and no action levels in Paducah Gaseous Diffusion Plant (PGDP) soils. As such, the analysis below demonstrates the capabilities of the instruments relative to soil characterization applications at the PGDP.

  16. Environmental Restoration Site-Specific Plan for the Portsmouth Gaseous Diffusion Plant, FY 93

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Not Available

    1993-01-15

    The purpose of this Site-Specific Plan (SSP) is to describe past, present, and future activities undertaken to implement Environmental Restoration and Waste Management goals at the Portsmouth Gaseous Diffusion Plant (PORTS). The SSP is presented in sections emphasizing Environmental Restoration description of activities, resources, and milestones.

  17. In situ carbonyl extraction of Ni from gaseous diffusion cells

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Visnapuu, A. [USBM Salt Lake Research Center, Salt Lake City, UT (United States); Hollenberg, G.W. [Battelle Pacific Northwest Lab., Richland, WA (United States); Bundy, R.D. [Battelle Memorial Institute, Oak Ridge, TN (United States)

    1995-12-31

    This paper discusses the use of carbonyl processing technology for recovery of nickel from uranium isotope separation diffusion cells, and potential applications to recover nickel, iron, chromium, cobalt, and other carbonyl forming metals from nuclear waste while reducing the volume of the high level residue for more economic disposal. Nickel powder was carbonylated under static and dynamic conditions using only carbon monoxide to determine if the nickel powder would react rapidly enough to require no promoter. Nickel to Ni(CO){sub 4} conversion was realized in all cases and nickel metal was vapor deposited in the thermal decomposer, but the conversion rates in all cases the reaction were too slow for practical recovery. Addition of hydrogen sulfide gas as a promoter increased the conversion rate more than 500-fold over conversion with no promoter. Test summaries are provided in the paper; results indicate that promoter activated carbonylation is a viable approach for recovery of nickel from uranium isotope diffusion cells.

  18. Long-range global warming impact of gaseous diffusion plant operation

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Trowbridge, L.D.

    1992-09-01

    The DOE gaseous diffusion plant complex makes extensive use of CFC-114 as a primary coolant. As this material is on the Montreal Protocol list of materials scheduled for production curtailment, a substitute must be found. In addition to physical cooling properties, the gaseous diffusion application imposes the unique requirement of chemical inertness to fluorinating agents. This has narrowed the selection of a near-term substitute to two fully fluorinated material, FC-318 and FC-3110, which are likely to be strong, long-lived greenhouse gases. In this document, calculations are presented showing, for a number of plausible scenarios of diffusion plant operation and coolant replacement strategy, the future course of coolant use, greenhouse gas emissions (including coolant and power-related indirect CO{sub 2} emissions), and the consequent global temperature impacts of these scenarios.

  19. Natural phenomena hazards evaluation of equipment and piping of Gaseous Diffusion Plant Uranium Enrichment Facility

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Singhal, M.K.; Kincaid, J.H.; Hammond, C.R.; Stockdale, B.I.; Walls, J.C.; Brock, W.R.; Denton, D.R.

    1995-12-31

    In support of the Gaseous Diffusion Plant Safety Analysis Report Upgrade program (GDP SARUP), a natural phenomena hazards evaluation was performed for the main process equipment and piping in the uranium enrichment buildings at Paducah and Portsmouth gaseous diffusion plants. In order to reduce the cost of rigorous analyses, the evaluation methodology utilized a graded approach based on an experience data base collected by SQUG/EPRI that contains information on the performance of industrial equipment and piping during past earthquakes. This method consisted of a screening walkthrough of the facility in combination with the use of engineering judgment and simple calculations. By using these screenings combined with evaluations that contain decreasing conservatism, reductions in the time and cost of the analyses were significant. A team of experienced seismic engineers who were trained in the use of the DOE SQUG/EPRI Walkdown Screening Material was essential to the success of this natural phenomena hazards evaluation.

  20. Environmental Restoration Site-Specific Plan for the Paducah Gaseous Diffusion Plant, FY 93

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Not Available

    1993-01-15

    This report provides an overview of the major Environmental Restoration (ER) concerns at Paducah Gaseous Diffusion Plant (PGDP). The identified solid waste management units at PGDP are listed. In the Department of Energy (DOE) Five Year Plan development process, one or more waste management units are addressed in a series of activity data sheets (ADSs) which identify planned scope, schedule, and cost objectives that are representative of the current state of planned technical development for individual or multiple sites.

  1. EA-0767: Construction and Experiment of an Industrial Solid Waste Landfill at Portsmouth Gaseous Diffusion Plant, Piketon, Ohio

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    This EA evaluates the environmental impacts of a proposal to construct and operate a solid waste landfill within the boundary at the U.S. Department of Energy's Portsmouth Gaseous Diffusion plant...

  2. Site-specific earthquake response analysis for Paducah Gaseous Diffusion Plant, Paducah, Kentucky. Final report

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Sykora, D.W.; Davis, J.J.

    1993-08-01

    The Paducah Gaseous Diffusion Plant (PGDP), owned by the US Department of Energy (DOE) and operated under contract by Martin Marietta Energy systems, Inc., is located southwest of Paducah, Kentucky. An aerial photograph and an oblique sketch of the plant are shown in Figures 1 and 2, respectively. The fenced portion of the plant consists of 748 acres. This plant was constructed in the 1950`s and is one of only two gaseous diffusion plants in operation in the United States; the other is located near Portsmouth, Ohio. The facilities at PGDP are currently being evaluated for safety in response to natural seismic hazards. Design and evaluation guidelines to evaluate the effects of earthquakes and other natural hazards on DOE facilities follow probabilistic hazard models that have been outlined by Kennedy et al. (1990). Criteria also established by Kennedy et al. (1990) classify diffusion plants as ``moderate hazard`` facilities. The US Army Engineer Waterways Experiment Station (WES) was tasked to calculate the site response using site-specific design earthquake records developed by others and the results of previous geotechnical investigations. In all, six earthquake records at three hazard levels and four individual and one average soil columns were used.

  3. Proposed On-Site Disposal Facility (OSDF) at the Paducah Gaseous Diffusion Plant

    Office of Environmental Management (EM)

    i TABLE OF CONTENTS 1. INTRODUCTION 1 2. LINE OF INQUIRY NO. 1 - Future Uses of the Subtitle D Landfill 2 3. LINE OF INQUIRY NO. 2 - OSDF Siting in a Brownfield Area 3 4. LINE OF INQUIRY NO. 3 - Seismic Issues 4 5. LINE OF INQUIRY NO. 4 - Post-Closure Public Use of the OSDF 5 6. LINE OF INQUIRY NO. 5 - Public Communication Plan 7 7. LINE OF INQUIRY NO. 6 - Baseline Schedule 8 8. RECOMMENDATIONS 8 9. ACKNOWLEDGEMENT 10 10. REFERENCES 10 APPENDIX 11 1 1. INTRODUCTION The Paducah Gaseous Diffusion

  4. Proposed On-Site Waste Disposal Facility (OSWDF) at the Portsmouth Gaseous Diffusion Plant

    Office of Environmental Management (EM)

    OH EM Project: On-Site Disposal Facility ETR Report Date: February 2008 ETR-12 United States Department of Energy Office of Environmental Management (DOE-EM) External Technical Review of the Proposed On-Site Waste Disposal Facility (OSWDF) at the Portsmouth Gaseous Diffusion Plant Why DOE-EM Did This Review The On-Site Waste Disposal Facility (OSWDF) is proposed for long-term containment of contaminated materials from the planned Decontamination and Decommissioning (D&D) activities at the

  5. Paducah Gaseous Diffusion Plant Final Environmental Assessment for Potential Land and Facilities Transfers

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    DOE evaluated the potential conveyance (lease, easement, and/or title transfer) of real property that may be determined to be excessed, underutilized or unneeded at the Paducah Gaseous Diffusion Plant (PGDP). After appropriate agency reviews, DOE could transfer PGDP real property to one or more entities for a range of economic development and/or recreational uses. DOE’s potential action is designed to reduce the footprint of the site and the cost for maintenance of the site, providing opportunities for beneficial reuse. DOE prepared this Draft Environmental Assessment (EA) to analyze the potential environmental consequences associated with potential land and facilities transfers.

  6. Construction and operation of an industrial solid waste landfill at Portsmouth Gaseous Diffusion Plant, Piketon, Ohio

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    1995-10-01

    The US Department of Energy (DOE), Office of Waste Management, proposes to construct and operate a solid waste landfill within the boundary of the Portsmouth Gaseous Diffusion Plant (PORTS), Piketon, Ohio. The purpose of the proposed action is to provide PORTS with additional landfill capacity for non-hazardous and asbestos wastes. The proposed action is needed to support continued operation of PORTS, which generates non-hazardous wastes on a daily basis and asbestos wastes intermittently. Three alternatives are evaluated in this environmental assessment (EA): the proposed action (construction and operation of the X-737 landfill), no-action, and offsite shipment of industrial solid wastes for disposal.

  7. Paducah Gaseous Diffusion Plant Draft Paducah Environmental Assessment for Potential Land and Facilities Transfers

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    DOE is evaluating the potential conveyance (lease, easement, and/or title transfer) of real property that may be determined to be excessed, underutilized or unneeded at the Paducah Gaseous Diffusion Plant (PGDP). After appropriate agency reviews, DOE could transfer PGDP real property to one or more entities for a range of economic development and/or recreational uses. DOEs potential action is designed to reduce the footprint of the site and the cost for maintenance of the site, providing opportunities for beneficial reuse. DOE prepared this Draft Environmental Assessment (EA) to analyze the potential environmental consequences associated with potential land and facilities transfers.

  8. Replacement of chlorofluorocarbons (CFCs) at the DOE gaseous diffusion plants: An assessment of global impacts

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Socolof, M.L.; Saylor, R.E.; McCold, L.N.

    1994-06-01

    The US Department of Energy (DOE) formerly operated two gaseous diffusion plants (GDPs) for enriching uranium and maintained a third shutdown GDP. These plants maintain a large inventory of dichlorotetrafluorethane (CFC-114), a cholorofluorocarbon (CFC), as a coolant. The paper evaluates the global impacts of four alternatives to modify GDP coolant system operations for a three-year period beginning in 1996. Interim modification of GDP coolant system operations has the potential to reduce stratospheric ozone depletion from GDP coolant releases while a permanent solution is studied.

  9. The Blend Down Monitoring System Demonstration at the Paducah Gaseous Diffusion Plant

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Benton, J.; Close, D.; Johnson, W., Jr.; Kerr, P.; March-Leuba, J.; Mastal, E.; Moss, C.; Powell, D.; Sumner, J.; Uckan, T.; Vines, R.; Wright, P.D.

    1999-07-25

    Agreements between the governments of the US and the Russian Federation for the US purchase of low enriched uranium (LEU) derived from highly enriched uranium (HEU) from dismantled Russian nuclear weapons calls for the establishment of transparency measures to provide confidence that nuclear nonproliferation goals are being met. To meet these transparency goals, the agreements call for the installation of nonintrusive US instruments to monitor the down blending of HEU to LEU. The Blend Down Monitoring System (BDMS) has been jointly developed by the Los Alamos National Laboratory (LANL) and the Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL) to continuously monitor {sup 235}U enrichments and mass flow rates at Russian blending facilities. Prior to its installation in Russian facilities, the BDMS was installed and operated in a UF{sub 6} flow loop in the Paducah Gaseous Diffusion Plant simulating flow and enrichment conditions expected in a typical down-blending facility. A Russian delegation to the US witnessed the equipment demonstration in June, 1998. To conduct the demonstration in the Paducah Gaseous Diffusion Plant (PGDP), the BDMS was required to meet stringent Nuclear Regulatory Commission licensing, safety and operational requirements. The Paducah demonstration was an important milestone in achieving the operational certification for the BDMS use in Russian facilities.

  10. Project plan for the background soils project for the Paducah Gaseous Diffusion Plant, Paducah, Kentucky

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    1995-09-01

    The Background Soils Project for the Paducah Gaseous Diffusion Plant (BSPP) will determine the background concentration levels of selected naturally occurring metals, other inorganics, and radionuclides in soils from uncontaminated areas in proximity to the Paducah Gaseous Diffusion Plant (PGDP) in Paducah, Kentucky. The data will be used for comparison with characterization and compliance data for soils, with significant differences being indicative of contamination. All data collected as part of this project will be in addition to other background databases established for the PGDP. The BSPP will address the variability of surface and near-surface concentration levels with respect to (1) soil taxonomical types (series) and (2) soil sampling depths within a specific soil profile. The BSPP will also address the variability of concentration levels in deeper geologic formations by collecting samples of geologic materials. The BSPP will establish a database, with recommendations on how to use the data for contaminated site assessment, and provide data to estimate the potential human and health and ecological risk associated with background level concentrations of potentially hazardous constituents. BSPP data will be used or applied as follows.

  11. Reassessment of liquefaction potential and estimation of earthquake- induced settlements at Paducah Gaseous Diffusion Plant, Paducah, Kentucky. Final report

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Sykora, D.W.; Yule, D.E.

    1996-04-01

    This report documents a reassessment of liquefaction potential and estimation of earthquake-induced settlements for the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE), Paducah Gaseous Diffusion Plant (PGDP), located southwest of Paducah, KY. The U.S. Army Engineer Waterways Experiment Station (WES) was authorized to conduct this study from FY91 to FY94 by the DOE, Oak Ridge Operations (ORO), Oak Ridge, TN, through Inter- Agency Agreement (IAG) No. DE-AI05-91OR21971. The study was conducted under the Gaseous Diffusion Plant Safety Analysis Report (GDP SAR) Program.

  12. A probabilistic safety analysis of UF{sub 6} handling at the Portsmouth Gaseous Diffusion Plant

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Boyd, G.J.; Lewis, S.R.; Summitt, R.L.

    1991-12-31

    A probabilistic safety study of UF{sub 6} handling activities at the Portsmouth Gaseous Diffusion Plant has recently been completed. The analysis provides a unique perspective on the safety of UF{sub 6} handling activities. The estimated release frequencies provide an understanding of current risks, and the examination of individual contributors yields a ranking of important plant features and operations. Aside from the probabilistic results, however, there is an even more important benefit derived from a systematic modeling of all operations. The integrated approach employed in the analysis allows the interrelationships among the equipment and the required operations to be explored in depth. This paper summarizes the methods used in the study and provides an overview of some of the technical insights that were obtained. Specific areas of possible improvement in operations are described.

  13. Study of technetium uptake in vegetation in the vicinity of the Portsmouth Gaseous Diffusion Plant

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Acox, T.A.

    1982-01-01

    Technetium-99 was measured in vegetation and soil collected on and near the Portsmouth Gaseous Diffusion Plant to obtain an estimate of the soil-to-vegetation concentration factors. The concentration factors appear to be lognormally distributed with a geometric mean of 3.4 (Bq/kg dry wt. tissue per Bq/kg dry wt. soil) and a geometric standard deviation of 4.7. A dose commitment was calculated using a hypothetical 3.7 x 10/sup 10/ Bq Tc-99/year release and the actual CY-1981 concentration release of Tc-99. The radiological significance of Tc-99 in the terrestial food chain is substantially less than previously believed.

  14. Report on the biological monitoring program at Paducah Gaseous Diffusion Plant December 1990 to November 1992

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Kszos, L.A.

    1994-03-01

    On September 23, 1987, the Commonwealth of Kentucky Natural Resources and Environmental Protection Cabinet issued an Agreed Order that required the development of a Biological Monitoring Program (BMP) for the Paducah Gaseous Diffusion Plant (PGDP). Beginning in fall 1991, the Environmental Sciences Division (ESD) at Oak Ridge National Lab (ORNL) added data collection and report preparation to its responsibilities for the PGDP BMP. The BMP has been continued because it has proven to be extremely valuable in identifying those effluents with the potential for adversely affecting instream fauna, assessing the ecological health of receiving streams, guiding plans for remediation, and protecting human health. In September 1992, a renewed permit was issued which requires toxicity monitoring of continuous and intermittent outfalls on a quarterly basis. The BMP for PGDP consists of three major tasks: (1) effluent and ambient toxicity monitoring, (2) bioaccumulation studies, and (3) ecological surveys of stream communities. This report includes ESD/ORNL activities occurring from December 1990 to November 1992.

  15. Paducah Gaseous Diffusion Plant Annual Site Environmental Report summary for 1993

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Not Available

    1994-11-01

    This report contains summaries of the environmental programs at Paducah Gaseous Diffusion Plant, environmental monitoring and the results, and the impact of operations on the environment and the public for 1993. The environmental monitoring program at Paducah includes effluent monitoring and environmental surveillance. Effluent monitoring is measurement of releases as they occur. Contaminants are released through either airborne emissions or liquids discharged from the plant. These releases occur as part of normal site operations, such as cooling water discharged from the uranium enrichment cascade operations or airborne releases from ventilation systems. In the event of system failure, this monitoring provides timely warning so that corrective action can be taken before releases reach an unsafe level. Environmental surveillance tracks the dispersion of materials into the environment after they have been released. This involves the collection of samples from various media, such as water, soil, vegetation, and food crops, and the analysis of these samples for certain radionuclides, chemicals, and metals.

  16. Seismically-induced soil amplification at the DOE Paducah Gaseous Diffusion Plant site

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Sykora, D.W.; Haynes, M.E. . Geotechnical Lab.); Brock, W.R.; Hunt, R.J.; Shaffer, K.E. )

    1991-01-01

    A site-specific earthquake site response (soil amplification) study is being conducted for the Department of Energy (DOE), Paducah Gaseous Diffusion Plant (PGDP). This study is pursuant to an upgraded Final Safety Analysis Report in accordance with requirements specified by DOE. The seismic hazard at PGDP is dominated by the New Madrid Seismic Zone. Site-specific synthetic earthquake records developed by others were applied independently to four soil columns with heights above baserock of about 325 ft. The results for the 1000-year earthquake event indicate that the site period is between 1.0 and 1.5 sec. Incident shear waves are amplified at periods of motion greater than 0.15 sec. The peak free-field horizontal acceleration, occurring at very low periods, is 0.28 g. 13 refs., 13 figs.

  17. Local drainage analyses of the Paducah and Portsmouth Gaseous Diffusion Plants during an extreme storm

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Johnson, R.O.; Wang, J.C.; Lee, D.W.

    1993-11-01

    Local drainage analyses have been performed for the Paducah and Portsmouth Gaseous Diffusion Plants during an extreme storm having an approximate 10,000-yr recurrence interval. This review discusses the methods utilized to accomplish the analyses in accordance with US Department of Energy (DOE) design and evaluation guidelines, and summarizes trends, results, generalizations, and uncertainties applicable to other DOE facilities. Results indicate that some culverts may be undersized, and that the storm sewer system cannot drain the influx of precipitation from the base of buildings. Roofs have not been designed to sustain ponding when the primary drainage system is clogged. Some underground tunnels, building entrances, and ground level air intakes may require waterproofing.

  18. Portsmouth Gaseous Diffusion Plant Annual Site Environmental Report summary for 1993

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Not Available

    1994-11-01

    This report contains summaries of the environmental programs at Paducah Gaseous Diffusion Plant, environmental monitoring and the results, and the impact of operations on the environment and the public for 1993. The environmental monitoring program at Paducah includes effluent monitoring and environmental surveillance. Effluent monitoring is measurement of releases as they occur. Contaminants are released through either airborne emissions or liquids discharged from the plant. These releases occur as part of normal site operations, such as cooling water discharged from the uranium enrichment cascade operations or airborne releases from ventilation systems. In the event of system failure, this monitoring provides timely warning so that corrective action can be taken before releases reach an unsafe level. Environmental surveillance tracks the dispersion of materials into the environment after they have been released. This involves the collection of samples from various media, such as water, soil, vegetation, and food crops, and the analysis of these samples for certain radionuclides, chemicals, and metals.

  19. Review of the Portsmouth Gaseous Diffusion Plant Integrated Safety Management System Phase I Verification Review, April 2013

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Independent Oversight Review of the Portsmouth Gaseous Diffusion Plant Integrated Safety Management System Phase I Verification Review April 2013 Office of Safety and Emergency Management Evaluations Office of Enforcement and Oversight Office of Health, Safety and Security U.S. Department of Energy Table of Contents 1.0 Purpose ................................................................................................................................................. 1 2.0

  20. Replacement of chlorofluorocarbons at the DOE gaseous diffusion plants: An assessment of global impacts

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Socolof, M.L.; McCold, L.N.; Saylor, R.E.

    1997-01-01

    Three gaseous diffusion plants (GDPs) for enriching uranium maintain a large inventory of chlorofluorocarbon-114 (CFC-114) as a coolant. To address the continued use of CFC-114, an ozone-depleting substance, the US Department of Energy (DOE) considered introducing perfluorocarbons (PFCs) by the end of 1995. These PFCs would not contribute to stratospheric ozone depletion but would be larger contributors to global warming than would CFC-114. The paper reports the results of an assessment of the global impacts of four alternatives for modifying GDP coolant system operations over a three-year period beginning in 1996. The overall contribution of GDP coolant releases to impacts on ozone depletion and global warming were quantified by parameters referred to as ozone-depletion impact and global-warming impact. The analysis showed that these parameters could be used as surrogates for predicting global impacts to all resources and could provide a framework for assessing environmental impacts of a permanent coolant replacement, eliminating the need for subsequent resource-specific analyses.

  1. Environmental Survey preliminary report, Oak Ridge Gaseous Diffusion Plant, Oak Ridge, Tennessee

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Not Available

    1989-02-01

    This report presents the preliminary findings from the first phase of the Environmental Survey of the US Department of Energy's (DOE) Oak Ridge Gaseous Diffusion Plant (ORGDP) conducted March 14 through 25, 1988. The Survey is being conducted by an interdisciplinary team of environmental specialists, led and managed by the Office of Environment, Safety and Health's Office of Environmental Audit. Individual team components are being supplied by a private contractor. The objective of the Survey is to identify environmental risk associated with ORGDP. The Survey covers all environmental media and all areas of environmental regulation. It is being performed in accordance with the DOE Environmental Survey Manual. This phase of the Survey involves the review of existing site environmental data, observations of the operations carried on at ORGDP, and interviews with site personnel. The Survey team developed a Sampling and Analysis Plan to assist in further assessing certain of the environmental problems identified during is on-site activities. The Sampling and Analysis Plan will be executed by Idaho National Engineering Laboratory (INEL). When completed, the results will be incorporated into the ORGDP Survey findings for in inclusion into the Environmental Survey Summary Report. 120 refs., 41 figs., 74 tabs.

  2. Paducah Gaseous Diffusion Plant proposed pilot pump-and-treat project. Final report

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Bodenstein, G.W.; Bonczek, R.R.; Early, T.O.; Huff, D.D.; Jones, K.S.; Nickelson, M.D.; Rightmire, C.T.

    1994-01-01

    On March 23, 1992, R.C. Sleeman of the Department of Energy, Oak Ridge Operations Office requested that a Groundwater Corrective Actions Team be assembled to evaluate the technical merit of and the need to implement a proposed groundwater pump-and-treat demonstration project for the Northwest contaminant plume at the Paducah Gaseous Diffusion Plant. In addition to other suggestions, the Team recommended that further characterization data be obtained for the plume. In the Fall of 1993 additional, temporary well points were installed so that groundwater samples from the shallow groundwater system and the Regional Gravel Aquifer (RGA) could be obtained to provide a three-dimensional view of groundwater contamination in the region of the plume. The results indicate that pure-phase DNAPL (trichloroethylene [TCE]) probably are present in the source area of the plume and extend in depth to the base of the RGA. Because the DNAPL likely will represent a source of a dissolved phase plume for decades it is essential that source containment take place. The Team recommends that although effective hydraulic containment can be achieved, other alternatives should be considered. For example, recent advances in emplacing low permeability barrier walls to depths of 100 to 150 ft make it possible to consider encirclement of the source of the Northwest plume.

  3. Report on the biological monitoring program at Paducah Gaseous Diffusion Plant December 1993 to December 1994

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Kszos, L.A.

    1996-05-01

    On September 24, 1987, the Commonwealth of Kentucky Natural Resources and Environmental Protection Cabinet issued an Agreed Order that required the development of a Biological Monitoring Program (BMP) for the Paducah Gaseous Diffusion Plant (PGDP). The PGDP BMP was implemented in 1987 by the University of Kentucky. Research staff of the Environmental Sciences Division (ESD) at Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL) served as reviewers and advisers to the University of Kentucky. Beginning in fall 1991, ESD added data collection and report preparation to its responsibilities for the PGDP BMP. The goals of BMP are to (1) demonstrate that the effluent limitations established for PGDP protect and maintain the use of Little Bayou and Big Bayou creeks for growth and propagation of fish and other aquatic life, (2) characterize potential environmental impacts, (3) document the effects of pollution abatement facilities on stream biota, and (4) recommend any program improvements that would increase effluent treatability. In September 1992, a renewed Kentucky Pollutant Discharge Elimination System (KPDES) permit was issued to PGDP. The BMP for PGDP consists of three major tasks: (1) effluent and ambient toxicity monitoring, (2) bioaccumulation studies, and (3) ecological surveys of stream communities (i.e., benthic macroinvertebrates and fish). This report includes ESD activities occurring from December 1993 to December 1994, although activities conducted outside this time period are included as appropriate.

  4. Determination of operating limits for radionuclides for a proposed landfill at Paducah Gaseous Diffusion Plant

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Wang, J.C.; Lee, D.W.; Ketelle, R.H.; Lee, R.R.; Kocher, D.C.

    1994-05-24

    The operating limits for radionuclides in sanitary and industrial wastes were determined for a proposed landfill at the Paducah Gaseous Diffusion Plant (PGDP), Kentucky. These limits, which may be very small but nonzero, are not mandated by law or regulation but are needed for rational operation. The approach was based on analyses of the potential contamination of groundwater at the plant boundary and the potential exposure to radioactivity of an intruder at the landfill after closure. The groundwater analysis includes (1) a source model describing the disposal of waste and the release of radionuclides from waste to the groundwater, (2) site-specific groundwater flow and contaminant transport calculations, and (3) calculations of operating limits from the dose limit and conversion factors. The intruder analysis includes pathways through ingestion of contaminated vegetables and soil, external exposure to contaminated soil, and inhalation of suspended activity from contaminated soil particles. In both analyses, a limit on annual effective dose equivalent of 4 mrem (0.04 mSv) was adopted. The intended application of the results is to refine the radiological monitoring standards employed by the PGDP Health Physics personnel to determine what constitutes radioactive wastes, with concurrence of the Commonwealth of Kentucky.

  5. Operating limit study for the proposed solid waste landfill at Paducah Gaseous Diffusion Plant

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Lee, D.W.; Wang, J.C.; Kocher, D.C.

    1995-06-01

    A proposed solid waste landfill at Paducah Gaseous Diffusion Plant (PGDP) would accept wastes generated during normal operations that are identified as non-radioactive. These wastes may include small amounts of radioactive material from incidental contamination during plant operations. A site-specific analysis of the new solid waste landfill is presented to determine a proposed operating limit that will allow for waste disposal operations to occur such that protection of public health and the environment from the presence of incidentally contaminated waste materials can be assured. Performance objectives for disposal were defined from existing regulatory guidance to establish reasonable dose limits for protection of public health and the environment. Waste concentration limits were determined consistent with these performance objectives for the protection of off-site individuals and inadvertent intruders who might be directly exposed to disposed wastes. Exposures of off-site individuals were estimated using a conservative, site-specific model of the groundwater transport of contamination from the wastes. Direct intrusion was analyzed using an agricultural homesteader scenario. The most limiting concentrations from direct intrusion or groundwater transport were used to establish the concentration limits for radionuclides likely to be present in PGDP wastes.

  6. Recommendation 167: Historic Preservation of the K-25 Building

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    The OSSAB Recommendation to DOE on Historic Preservation of the K-25 Building at East Tennessee Technology Park.

  7. K-25: Historic Preservation Agreement | Department of Energy

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    K-25: Historic Preservation Agreement K-25: Historic Preservation Agreement Addthis Description In a ceremony attended by representatives of federal, state, and local historic preservation groups, the U.S. Department of Energy announced the formal completion of an agreement that will preserve the historic contributions of Oak Ridge's K-25 site to the World War II Manhattan Project. In this video, Oak Ridge Historian Bill Wilcox explores the contributions the K-25 project gave to our country and

  8. Uranium hexafluoride packaging tiedown systems overview at Portsmouth Gaseous Diffusion Plant, Piketon, Ohio

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Becker, D.L.; Lindquist, M.R.

    1993-03-01

    The Portsmouth Gaseous Diffusion Plant (PORTS) in Piketon, Ohio operated by Martin Marietta Energy Systems, Inc., through the US Department of Energy-Oak Ridge Operations Office (DOE-ORO) for the US Department of Energy Headquarters, Office of Nuclear Energy. The PORTS conducts those operations that are necessary for the production, packaging, and shipment of enriched uranium hexafluoride (UF[sub 6]). Uranium hexafluoride enriched greater than 1.0 wt percent [sup 235]U shall be packaged in accordance with the US Department of Transportation (DOT) regulations of Title 49 CFR Parts 173 (Reference 1) and 178 (Reference 2), or in US Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC) or US Department of Energy (DOE) certified package designs. Concerns have been expressed regarding the various tiedown methods and condition of the trailers being used by some shippers/carriers for international transport of the UF[sub 6] cylinders/overpacks (Reference 3). Because of the concerns about international shipments, the US Department of Energy-Headquarters (DOE-HQ) Office of Nuclear Energy, through DOE-HQ Transportation Management Division, requested Westinghouse Hanford Company (Westinghouse Hanford) to review UF[sub 6] packaging tiedown and shipping practices used by PORTS, and where possible and appropriate, provide recommendations for enhancing these practices. Consequently, a tram of two individuals from Westinghouse Hanford visited PORTS on March 5 and 6, 1990, for the purpose of conducting this review. The paper provides a brief discussion of the review activities and a summary of the resulting findings and recommendations. A detailed reporting of the review is documented in Reference 4.

  9. Uranium hexafluoride packaging tiedown systems overview at Portsmouth Gaseous Diffusion Plant, Piketon, Ohio

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Becker, D.L.; Lindquist, M.R.

    1993-03-01

    The Portsmouth Gaseous Diffusion Plant (PORTS) in Piketon, Ohio operated by Martin Marietta Energy Systems, Inc., through the US Department of Energy-Oak Ridge Operations Office (DOE-ORO) for the US Department of Energy Headquarters, Office of Nuclear Energy. The PORTS conducts those operations that are necessary for the production, packaging, and shipment of enriched uranium hexafluoride (UF{sub 6}). Uranium hexafluoride enriched greater than 1.0 wt percent {sup 235}U shall be packaged in accordance with the US Department of Transportation (DOT) regulations of Title 49 CFR Parts 173 (Reference 1) and 178 (Reference 2), or in US Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC) or US Department of Energy (DOE) certified package designs. Concerns have been expressed regarding the various tiedown methods and condition of the trailers being used by some shippers/carriers for international transport of the UF{sub 6} cylinders/overpacks (Reference 3). Because of the concerns about international shipments, the US Department of Energy-Headquarters (DOE-HQ) Office of Nuclear Energy, through DOE-HQ Transportation Management Division, requested Westinghouse Hanford Company (Westinghouse Hanford) to review UF{sub 6} packaging tiedown and shipping practices used by PORTS, and where possible and appropriate, provide recommendations for enhancing these practices. Consequently, a tram of two individuals from Westinghouse Hanford visited PORTS on March 5 and 6, 1990, for the purpose of conducting this review. The paper provides a brief discussion of the review activities and a summary of the resulting findings and recommendations. A detailed reporting of the review is documented in Reference 4.

  10. Uranium hexafluoride packaging tiedown systems overview at Portsmouth Gaseous Diffusion Plant, Piketon, Ohio. Revision 1

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Becker, D.L.; Green, D.J.; Lindquist, M.R.

    1993-07-01

    The Portsmouth Gaseous Diffusion Plant (PORTS) in Piketon, Ohio, is operated by Martin Marietta Energy Systems, Inc., through the US Department of Energy-Oak Ridge Operations Office (DOE-ORO) for the US Department of Energy-Headquarters, Office of Nuclear Energy. The PORTS conducts those operations that are necessary for the production, packaging, and shipment of uranium hexafluoride (UF{sub 6}). Uranium hexafluoride enriched uranium than 1.0 wt percent {sup 235}U shall be packaged in accordance with the US Department of Transportation (DOT) regulations of Title 49 CFR Parts 173 (Reference 1) and 178 (Reference 2), or in US Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC) or US Department of Energy (DOE) certified package designs. Concerns have been expressed regarding the various tiedown methods and condition of the trailers being used by some shippers/carriers for international transport of the UF{sub 6} cylinders/overpacks. Because of the concerns about international shipments, the US Department of Energy-Headquarters (DOE-HQ) Office of Nuclear Energy, through DOE-HQ Transportation Management Division, requested Westinghouse Hanford Company (Westinghouse Hanford) to review UF{sub 6} packaging tiedown and shipping practices used by PORTS, and where possible and appropriate, provide recommendations for enhancing these practices. Consequently, a team of two individuals from Westinghouse Hanford visited PORTS on March 5 and 6, 1990, for the purpose of conducting this review. The paper provides a brief discussion of the review activities and a summary of the resulting findings and recommendations. A detailed reporting of the is documented in Reference 4.

  11. Proposed sale of radioactively contaminated nickel ingots located at the Paducah Gaseous Diffusion Plant, Paducah, Kentucky

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    1995-10-01

    The U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) proposes to sell 8,500 radioactively contaminated nickel ingots (9.350 short tons), currently in open storage at the Paducah Gaseous Diffusion Plant (PGDP), to Scientific Ecology Group, Inc. (SEG) for decontamination and resale on the international market. SEG would take ownership of the ingots when they are loaded for transport by truck to its facility in Oak Ridge, Tennessee. SEG would receive approximately 200 short tons per month over approximately 48 months (an average of 180 ingots per month). The nickel decontamination process specified in SEG`s technical proposal is considered the best available technology and has been demonstrated in prototype at SEG. The resultant metal for resale would have contamination levels between 0.3 and 20 becquerel per gram (Bq/g). The health hazards associated with release of the decontaminated nickel are minimal. The activity concentration of the end product would be further reduced when the nickel is combined with other metals to make stainless steel. Low-level radioactive waste from the SEG decontamination process, estimated to be approximately 382 m{sup 3} (12,730 ft), would be shipped to a licensed commercial or DOE disposal facility. If the waste were packaged in 0.23 m{sup 3}-(7.5 ft{sup 3}-) capacity drums, approximately 1,500 to 1,900 drums would be transported over the 48-month contract period. Impacts from the construction of decontamination facilities and the selected site are minimal.

  12. Inorganic soil and groundwater chemistry near Paducah Gaseous Diffusion Plant, Paducah, Kentucky

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Moore, G.K.

    1995-03-01

    Near-surface soils, boreholes, and sediments near the Paducah Gaseous Diffusion Plant (PGDP) were sampled in 1989-91 as were monitoring wells, TVA wells, and privately-owned wells. Most wells were sampled two or three times. The resulting chemical analyses have been published in previous reports and have been previously described (CH2M HILL 1991, 1992; Clausen et al. 1992). The two reports by CH2M HILL are controversial, however, because, the concentrations of some constituents were reported to exceed background levels or drinking water standards and because both on-site (within the perimeter fence at PGDP) and off-site pollution was reported to have occurred. The groundwater samples upon which these interpretations were based may not be representative, however. The CH2M HILL findings are discussed in the report. The purpose of this report is to characterize the inorganic chemistry of groundwater and soils near PGDP, using data from the CH2M HILL reports (1991, 1992), and to determine whether or not any contamination has occurred. The scope is limited to analysis and interpretation of data in the CH2M HILL reports because previous interpretations of these data may not be valid, because samples were collected in a relatively short period of time at several hundred locations, and because the chemical analyses are nearly complete. Recent water samples from the same wells were not considered because the characterization of inorganic chemistry for groundwater and soil requirements only one representative sample and an accurate analysis from each location.

  13. Ground penetrating radar surveys over an alluvial DNAPL site, Paducah Gaseous Diffusion Plant, Kentucky

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Carpenter, P.J. |; Doll, W.E.; Phillips, B.E.

    1994-09-01

    Ground penetrating radar (GPR) surveys were used to map shallow sands and gravels which are DNAPL migration pathways at the Paducah Gaseous Diffusion Plant in western Kentucky. The sands and gravels occur as paleochannel deposits, at depths of 17-25 ft, embedded in Pleistocene lacustrine clays. More than 30 GPR profiles were completed over the Drop Test Area (DTA) to map the top and base of the paleochannel deposits, and to assess their lateral continuity. A bistatic radar system was used with antenna frequencies of 25 and 50 MHz. An average velocity of 0.25 ft/ns for silty and clayey materials above the paleochannel deposits was established from radar walkaway tests, profiles over culverts of known depth, and comparison of radar sections with borings. In the south portion of the DTA, strong reflections corresponded to the water table at approximately 9-10 ft, the top of the paleochannel deposits at approximately 18 ft, and to gravel horizons within these deposits. The base of these deposits was not visible on the radar sections. Depth estimates for the top of the paleochannel deposits (from 50 records) were accurate to within 2 ft across the southern portion of the DTA. Continuity of these sands and gravels could not be assessed due to interference from air-wave reflections and lateral changes in signal penetration depth. However, the sands and gravels appear to extend across the entire southern portion of the DTA, at depths as shallow as 17 ft. Ringing, air-wave reflections and diffractions from powerlines, vehicles, well casings, and metal equipment severly degraded GPR profiles in the northern portion of the DTA; depths computed from reflection times (where visible) were accurate to within 4 ft in this area. The paleochannel deposits are deeper to the north and northeast where DNAPL has apparently pooled (DNAPL was not directly imaged by the GPR, however). Existing hydrogeological models of the DTA will be revised.

  14. All K-25 project work wraps up | Department of Energy

    Energy Savers [EERE]

    All K-25 project work wraps up All K-25 project work wraps up June 26, 2014 - 12:00pm Addthis An aerial photo of K-25's footprint after the project was completed. An aerial photo of K-25's footprint after the project was completed. Oak Ridge, Tenn. - Demolition of the K-25 Building at East Tennessee Technology Park ended late last year, but that was not the end of the project. Many other tasks had to be accomplished before the project could be officially declared complete. The U.S. Department of

  15. Community celebrates K-25 historic preservation agreement | Department of

    Office of Environmental Management (EM)

    Energy Community celebrates K-25 historic preservation agreement Community celebrates K-25 historic preservation agreement August 10, 2012 - 12:00pm Addthis Oak Ridge, TN - In a ceremony attended by representatives of federal, state, and local historic preservation groups, the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) announced the formal completion of an agreement that will preserve the historic contributions of Oak Ridge's K-25 site to the World War II Manhattan Project. Mark Whitney, the DOE's new

  16. Health risk from earthquake caused releases of UF{sub 6} at the Paducah Gaseous Diffusion Plant

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Brown, N.W; Lu, S.; Chen, J.C.; Roehnelt, R.; Lombardi, D.

    1998-05-01

    The health risk to the public and workers from potential exposure to the toxic materials from earthquake caused releases of uranium hexafluoride from the Paducah gaseous Diffusion Plant are evaluated. The results of the study show that the health risk from earthquake caused releases is small, and probably less than risks associated with the transportation of hydrogen fluoride and other similar chemicals used by industry. The probability of more than 30 people experiencing health consequences (injuries) from earthquake damage is less than 4xlO{sup 4}/yr.

  17. Recommendation 196: Alternatives to Memorialize the K-25 Building

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    The ORSSAB Recommends to DOE Alternatives to Memorialize the K-25 Building at East Tennessee Technology Park and Manhattan Project Exhibits in Oak Ridge, Tennessee.

  18. APPLICATION OF THE LASAGNA{trademark} SOIL REMEDIATION TECHNOLOGY AT THE DOE PADUCAH GASEOUS DIFFUSION PLANT

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Swift, Barry D.; Tarantino, Joseph J., P. E.

    2003-02-27

    The Paducah Gaseous Diffusion Plant (PGDP), owned by the Department of Energy (DOE), has been enriching uranium since the early 1950s. The enrichment process involves electrical and mechanical components that require periodic cleaning. The primary cleaning agent was trichloroethene (TCE) until the late 1980s. Historical documentation indicates that a mixture of TCE and dry ice were used at PGDP for testing the integrity of steel cylinders, which stored depleted uranium. TCE and dry ice were contained in a below-ground pit and used during the integrity testing. TCE seeped from the pit and contaminated the surrounding soil. The Lasagna{trademark} technology was identified in the Record of Decision (ROD) as the selected alternative for remediation of the cylinder testing site. A public-private consortium formed in 1992 (including DOE, the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency, and the Kentucky Department for Environmental Protection, Monsanto, DuPont, and General Electric) developed the Lasagna{trademark} technology. This innovative technology employs electrokinetics to remediate soil contaminated with organics and is especially suited to sites with low permeability soils. This technology uses direct current to move water through the soil faster and more uniformly than hydraulic methods. Electrokinetics moves contaminants in soil pore water through treatment zones comprised of iron filings, where the contaminants are decomposed to basic chemical compounds such as ethane. After three years of development in the laboratory, the consortium field tested the Lasagna{trademark} process in several phases. CDM installed and operated Phase I, the trial installation and field test of a 150-square-foot area selected for a 120-day run in 1995. Approximately 98 percent of the TCE was removed. CDM then installed and operated the next phase (IIa), a year-long test on a 600-square-foot site. Completed in July 1997, this test removed 75 percent of the total volume of TCE down to a depth of 45 feet. TCE in the test sites. Based on the successful field tests (Phases I and IIa), the ROD was prepared and the Lasagna{trademark} alternative was selected for remediation of TCE contaminated soils at the cylinder testing site Solid Waste Management Unit 91(SWMU 91). Bechtel Jacobs Company LLC contracted CDM to construct and operate a full-scale Lasagna{trademark} remediation system at the site (Phase IIb). Construction began in August 1999 and the operational phase was initiated in December 1999. The Lasagna{trademark} system was operated for two years and reduced the average concentration of TCE in SWMU 91 soil from 84 ppm to less than 5.6 ppm. Verification sampling was conducted during May, 2002. Results of the verification sampling indicated the average concentration of TCE in SWMU 91 soil was 0.38 ppm with a high concentration of 4.5 ppm.

  19. Gamma radiological surveys of the Oak Ridge Reservation, Paducah Gaseous Diffusion Plant, and Portsmouth Gaseous Diffusion Plant, 1990-1993, and overview of data processing and analysis by the Environmental Restoration Remote Sensing Program, Fiscal Year 1995

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Smyre, J.L.; Moll, B.W.; King, A.L.

    1996-06-01

    Three gamma radiological surveys have been conducted under auspices of the ER Remote Sensing Program: (1) Oak Ridge Reservation (ORR) (1992), (2) Clinch River (1992), and (3) Portsmouth Gaseous Diffusion Plant (PORTS) (1993). In addition, the Remote Sensing Program has acquired the results of earlier surveys at Paducah Gaseous Diffusion Plant (PGDP) (1990) and PORTS (1990). These radiological surveys provide data for characterization and long-term monitoring of U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) contamination areas since many of the radioactive materials processed or handled on the ORR, PGDP, and PORTS are direct gamma radiation emitters or have gamma emitting daughter radionuclides. High resolution airborne gamma radiation surveys require a helicopter outfitted with one or two detector pods, a computer-based data acquisition system, and an accurate navigational positioning system for relating collected data to ground location. Sensors measure the ground-level gamma energy spectrum in the 38 to 3,026 KeV range. Analysis can provide gamma emission strength in counts per second for either gross or total man-made gamma emissions. Gross count gamma radiation includes natural background radiation from terrestrial sources (radionuclides present in small amounts in the earth`s soil and bedrock), from radon gas, and from cosmic rays from outer space as well as radiation from man-made radionuclides. Man-made count gamma data include only the portion of the gross count that can be directly attributed to gamma rays from man-made radionuclides. Interpretation of the gamma energy spectra can make possible the determination of which specific radioisotopes contribute to the observed man-made gamma radiation, either as direct or as indirect (i.e., daughter) gamma energy from specific radionuclides (e.g., cesium-137, cobalt-60, uranium-238).

  20. In-Situ Measurements of Low Enrichment Uranium Holdup Process Gas Piping at K-25 - Paper for Waste Management Symposia 2010 East Tennessee Technology Park Oak Ridge, Tennessee

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Rasmussen B.

    2010-01-01

    This document is the final version of a paper submitted to the Waste Management Symposia, Phoenix, 2010, abstract BJC/OR-3280. The primary document from which this paper was condensed is In-Situ Measurement of Low Enrichment Uranium Holdup in Process Gas Piping at K-25 Using NaI/HMS4 Gamma Detection Systems, BJC/OR-3355. This work explores the sufficiency and limitations of the Holdup Measurement System 4 (HJVIS4) software algorithms applied to measurements of low enriched uranium holdup in gaseous diffusion process gas piping. HMS4 has been used extensively during the decommissioning and demolition project of the K-25 building for U-235 holdup quantification. The HMS4 software is an integral part of one of the primary nondestructive assay (NDA) systems which was successfully tested and qualified for holdup deposit quantification in the process gas piping of the K-25 building. The initial qualification focused on the measurement of highly enriched UO{sub 2}F{sub 2} deposits. The purpose of this work was to determine if that qualification could be extended to include the quantification of holdup in UO{sub 2}F{sub 2} deposits of lower enrichment. Sample field data are presented to provide evidence in support of the theoretical foundation. The HMS4 algorithms were investigated in detail and found to sufficiently compensate for UO{sub 2}F{sub 2} source self-attenuation effects, over the range of expected enrichment (4-40%), in the North and East Wings of the K-25 building. The limitations of the HMS4 algorithms were explored for a described set of conditions with respect to area source measurements of low enriched UO{sub 2}F{sub 2} deposits when used in conjunction with a 1 inch by 1/2 inch sodium iodide (NaI) scintillation detector. The theoretical limitations of HMS4, based on the expected conditions in the process gas system of the K-25 building, are related back to the required data quality objectives (DQO) for the NBA measurement system established for the K-25 demolition project. The combined review of the HMS software algorithms and supporting field measurements lead to the conclusion that the majority of process gas pipe measurements are adequately corrected for source self-attenuation using HMS4. While there will be instances where the UO{sub 2}F{sub 2} holdup mass presents an infinitely thick deposit to the NaI-HMS4 system these situations are expected to be infrequent. This work confirms that the HMS4 system can quantify UO{sub 2}F{sub 2} holdup, in its current configuration (deposition, enrichment, and geometry), below the DQO levels for the K-25 building decommissioning and demolition project. For an area measurement of process gas pipe in the K-25 building, if an infinitely thick UO{sub 2}F{sub 2} deposit is identified in the range of enrichment of {approx}4-40%, the holdup quantity exceeds the corresponding DQO established for the K-25 building demolition project.

  1. An interim report to the manager of the Paducah Gaseous Diffusion Plant from the Paducah Environmental Advisory Committee

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Jackson, G.D.

    1987-10-01

    The Paducah Environmental Advisory Committee was formed as: (1) an outgrowth of other Environmental Advisory Committees already in existence at Oak Ridge and other Martin Marietta Energy Systems plants; (2) a result of public concern following significant nuclear incidents at Bhopal and Chernobyl; (3) a result of the new direction and commitment of the management of the Paducah Gaseous Diffusion Plant following contract acquisition by Martin Marietta Energy Systems; and (4) a means of reducing and/or preventing local and/or public concern regarding the activities of and potential risks created by PGDP. This report discusses the following issues and concerns of the Committee arrived at through a series of meetings: (1) groundwater monitoring; (2) long-range tails storage; C-404, scrap yrads, and PCB and TCE cleanup; nuclear criticality plan and alarm systems; documentation of historical data regarding hazardous waste burial grounds; dosimeter badges; and asbestos handling and removal.

  2. Dispersion of UO{sub 2}F{sub 2} aerosol and HF vapor in the operating floor during winter ventilation at the Paducah Gaseous Diffusion Plant

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Kim, S.H.; Chen, N.C.J.; Taleyarkhan, R.P.; Keith, K.D.; Schmidt, R.W.; Carter, J.C.

    1996-12-30

    The gaseous diffusion process is currently employed at two plants in the US: the Paducah Gaseous Diffusion Plant and the Portsmouth Gaseous Diffusion Plant. As part of a facility-wide safety evaluation, a postulated design basis accident involving large line-rupture induced releases of uranium hexafluoride (UF{sub 6}) into the process building of a gaseous diffusion plant (GDP) is evaluated. When UF{sub 6} is released into the atmosphere, it undergoes an exothermic chemical reaction with moisture (H{sub 2}O) in the air to form vaporized hydrogen fluoride (HF) and aerosolized uranyl fluoride (UO{sub 2}F{sub 2}). These reactants disperse in the process building and transport through the building ventilation system. The ventilation system draws outside air into the process building, distributes it evenly throughout the building, and discharges it to the atmosphere at an elevated temperature. Since air is recirculated from the cell floor area to the operating floor, issues concerning in-building worker safety and evacuation need to be addressed. Therefore, the objective of this study is to evaluate the transport of HF vapor and UO{sub 2}F{sub 2} aerosols throughout the operating floor area following B-line break accident in the cell floor area.

  3. Oak Ridge K-25 Site Technology Logic Diagram

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Fellows, R.L.

    1993-02-26

    The Oak Ridge K-25 Technology Logic Diagram (TLD), a decision support tool for the K-25 Site, was developed to provide a planning document that relates envirorunental restoration and waste management problems at the Oak Ridge K-25 Site to potential technologies that can remediate these problems. The TLD technique identifies the research necessary to develop these technologies to a state that allows for technology transfer and application to waste management, remedial action, and decontamination and decommissioning activities. The TLD consists of four separate volumes-Vol. 1, Vol. 2, Vol. 3A, and Vol. 3B. Volume 1 provides introductory and overview information about the TLD. This volume, Volume 2, contains logic diagrams with an index. Volume 3 has been divided into two separate volumes to facilitate handling and use.

  4. K-25 West Wing Demolition Completed | Department of Energy

    Energy Savers [EERE]

    West Wing Demolition Completed K-25 West Wing Demolition Completed January 28, 2010 - 12:00pm Addthis OAK RIDGE, Tenn. - Thirteen months after demolition began, the final unit of the K-25 Building West Wing was taken down on January 20. Demolition of the 844,000 square foot structure began on December 16, 2008. A significant amount of debris remains to be size-reduced and shipped to the Environmental Management Waste Management Facility (EMWMF) in Oak Ridge, but demolition of the wing is

  5. Prediction of external corrosion for steel cylinders at the Paducah Gaseous Diffusion Plant: Application of an empirical method

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Lyon, B.F.

    1996-02-01

    During the summer of 1995, ultrasonic wall thickness data were collected for 100 steel cylinders containing depleted uranium (DU) hexafluoride located at Paducah Gaseous Diffusion Plant (PGDP) in Paducah, Kentucky. The cylinders were selected for measurement to assess the condition of the more vulnerable portion of the cylinder inventory at PGDP. The purpose of this report is to apply the method used in Lyon to estimate the effects of corrosion for larger unsampled populations as a function of time. The scope of this report is limited and is not intended to represent the final analyses of available data. Future efforts will include continuing analyses of available data to investigate defensible deviations from the conservative assumptions made to date. For each cylinder population considered, two basic types of analyses were conducted: (1) estimates were made of the number of cylinders as a function of time that will have a minimum wall thickness of either 0 mils (1 mil = 0.00 1 in.) or 250 mils and (2) the current minimum wall thickness distributions across cylinders were estimated for each cylinder population considered. Additional analyses were also performed investigating comparisons of the results for F and G yards with the results presented in Lyon (1995).

  6. DOE/EA-1927, Paducah Gaseous Diffusion Plant Final Environmental Assessment for Potential Land and Facilities Transfers, McCracken County, Kentucky

    Office of Environmental Management (EM)

    Paducah Gaseous Diffusion Plant Final Environmental Assessment for Potential Land and Facilities Transfers, McCracken County, Kentucky U.S. Department of Energy Portsmouth/Paducah Project Office December 2015 DOE/EA-1927 ACRONYMS AND ABBREVIATIONS CEQ Council on Environmental Quality CERCLA Comprehensive Environmental Response, Compensation, and Liability Act of 1980 CFR Code of Federal Regulations dBA A-weighted decibel DOE U.S. Department of Energy DUF 6 depleted uranium hexafluoride EA

  7. Environmental site description for a Uranium Atomic Vapor Laser Isotope Separation (U-AVLIS) production plant at the Portsmouth Gaseous Diffusion Plant site

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Marmer, G.J.; Dunn, C.P.; Filley, T.H.; Moeller, K.L.; Pfingston, J.M.; Policastro, A.J.; Cleland, J.H.

    1991-09-01

    Uranium enrichment in the United States has utilized a diffusion process to preferentially enrich the U-235 isotope in the uranium product. In the 1970s, the US Department of Energy (DOE) began investigating more efficient and cost-effective enrichment technologies. In January 1990, the Secretary of Energy approved a plan for the demonstration and deployment of the Uranium Atomic Vapor Laser isotope Separation (U-AVLIS) technology with the near-term goal to provide the necessary information to make a deployment decision by November 1992. Initial facility operation is anticipated for 1999. A programmatic document for use in screening DOE sites to locate a U-AVLIS production plant was developed and implemented in two parts. The first part consisted of a series of screening analyses, based on exclusionary and other criteria, that identified a reasonable number of candidate sites. The final evaluation, which included sensitivity studies, identified the Oak Ridge Gaseous Diffusion Plant (ORGDP) site, the Paducah Gaseous Diffusion Plant (PGDP) site, and the Portsmouth Gaseous Diffusion Plant (PORTS) site as having significant advantages over the other sites considered. This environmental site description (ESD) provides a detailed description of the PORTS site and vicinity suitable for use in an environmental impact statement (EIS). This report is based on existing literature, data collected at the site, and information collected by Argonne National Laboratory (ANL) staff during site visits. The organization of the ESD is as follows. Topics addressed in Sec. 2 include a general site description and the disciplines of geology, water resources, biotic resources, air resources, noise, cultural resources, land use. Socioeconomics, and waste management. Identification of any additional data that would be required for an EIS is presented in Sec. 3.

  8. Oak Ridge Finds Ways to Remove K-25 Faster, Cheaper | Department of Energy

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Finds Ways to Remove K-25 Faster, Cheaper Oak Ridge Finds Ways to Remove K-25 Faster, Cheaper February 1, 2012 - 12:00pm Addthis Oak Ridge Finds Ways to Remove K-25 Faster, Cheaper Oak Ridge Finds Ways to Remove K-25 Faster, Cheaper Oak Ridge Finds Ways to Remove K-25 Faster, Cheaper Oak Ridge Finds Ways to Remove K-25 Faster, Cheaper OAK RIDGE, Tenn. - K-25, once the world's largest building under one roof, reflects less of its former title every day. Due to the partnership between the U.S

  9. Oak Ridge EM Program Completes K-25 North End Demolition | Department of

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Energy EM Program Completes K-25 North End Demolition Oak Ridge EM Program Completes K-25 North End Demolition January 23, 2013 - 12:00pm Addthis Employees with the K-25 demolition team gather for a photo following the completion of demolition of the north end of the K-25 Building today. Employees with the K-25 demolition team gather for a photo following the completion of demolition of the north end of the K-25 Building today. A view of the north end of the K-25 Building moments before it

  10. TECHNICAL EVALUATION OF TEMPORAL GROUNDWATER MONITORING VARIABILITY IN MW66 AND NEARBY WELLS, PADUCAH GASEOUS DIFFUSION PLANT

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Looney, B.; Eddy-Dilek, C.

    2012-08-28

    Evaluation of disposal records, soil data, and spatial/temporal groundwater data from the Paducah Gaseous Diffusion Plant (PGDP) Solid Waste Management Unit (SWMU) 7 indicate that the peak contaminant concentrations measured in monitoring well (MW) 66 result from the influence of the regional PGDP NW Plume, and does not support the presence of significant vertical transport from local contaminant sources in SWMU 7. This updated evaluation supports the 2006 conceptualization which suggested the high and low concentrations in MW66 represent different flow conditions (i.e., local versus regional influences). Incorporation of the additional lines of evidence from data collected since 2006 provide the basis to link high contaminant concentrations in MW66 (peaks) to the regional 'Northwest Plume' and to the upgradient source, specifically, the C400 Building Area. The conceptual model was further refined to demonstrate that groundwater and the various contaminant plumes respond to complex site conditions in predictable ways. This type of conceptualization bounds the expected system behavior and supports development of environmental cleanup strategies, providing a basis to support decisions even if it is not feasible to completely characterize all of the 'complexities' present in the system. We recommend that the site carefully consider the potential impacts to groundwater and contaminant plume migration as they plan and implement onsite production operations, remediation efforts, and reconfiguration activities. For example, this conceptual model suggests that rerouting drainage water, constructing ponds or basin, reconfiguring cooling water systems, capping sites, decommissioning buildings, fixing (or not fixing) water leaks, and other similar actions will potentially have a 'direct' impact on the groundwater contaminant plumes. Our conclusion that the peak concentrations in MW66 are linked to the regional PGDP NW Plume does not imply that there TCE is not present in SWMU 7. The available soil and groundwater data indicate that the some of the waste disposed in this facility contacted and/or were contaminated by TCE. In our assessment, the relatively small amount of TCE associated with SWMU 7 is not contributing detectable TCE to the groundwater and does not represent a significant threat to the environment, particularly in an area where remediation and/or management of TCE in the NW plume will be required for an extended timeframe. If determined to be necessary by the PGDP team and regulators, additional TCE characterization or cleanup activities could be performed. Consistent with the limited quantity of TCE in SWMU 7, we identify a range of low cost approaches for such activities (e.g., soil gas surveys for characterization or SVE for remediation). We hope that this information is useful to the Paducah team and to their regulators and stakeholders to develop a robust environmental management path to address the groundwater and soil contamination associated with the burial ground areas.

  11. Environmental Management Waste Management Facility Proxy Waste Lot Profile 6.999 for Building K-25 West Wing, East Tennessee Technology Park, Oak Ridge, Tennessee

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Rigsby V.P.

    2009-02-12

    In 1989, the Oak Ridge Reservation (ORR), which includes the East Tennessee Technology Park (ETTP), was placed on the Comprehensive Environmental Response, Compensation, and Liability Act of 1980 (CERCLA) National Priorities List. The Federal Facility Agreement (FFA) (DOE 1992), effective January 1, 1992, now governs environmental restoration activities conducted under CERCLA at the ORR. Following signing of the FFA, U.S. Department of Energy (DOE), U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA), and the state of Tennessee signed the Oak Ridge Accelerated Cleanup Plan Agreement on June 18, 2002. The purpose of this agreement is to define a streamlined decision-making process to facilitate the accelerated implementation of cleanup, resolve ORR milestone issues, and establish future actions necessary to complete the accelerated cleanup plan by the end of fiscal year 2008. While the FFA continues to serve as the overall regulatory framework for remediation, the Accelerated Cleanup Plan Agreement supplements existing requirements to streamline the decision-making process. Decontamination and decommissioning (D&D) activities of Bldg. K-25, the original gaseous diffusion facility, is being conducted by Bechtel Jacobs Company LLC (BJC) on behalf of the DOE. The planned CERCLA action covering disposal of building structure and remaining components from the K-25 building is scheduled as a non-time-critical CERCLA action as part of DOE's continuous risk reduction strategy for ETTP. The K-25 building is proposed for D&D because of its poor physical condition and the expense of surveillance and maintenance activities. The K-25/K-27 D&D Project proposes to dispose of the commingled waste listed below from the K-25 west side building structure and remaining components and process gas equipment and piping at the Environmental Management Waste Management Facility (EMWMF) under waste disposal proxy lot (WPXL) 6.999: (1) Building structure (e.g. concrete floors [excluding basement slab], roofing, structural steel supports, interior walls, and exterior walls) and support system components including the recirculation cooling water (RCW); electrical; communication; fire protection; ventilation; process coolant; process lube oil; utilities such as steam, water and drain lines; (2) Process Piping; (3) Seal Exhaust Headers; (4) Seal Exhaust Traps; (5) Process Valves; (6) Differential Blind Multipliers (DBM)/Partial Blind Multipliers (PBM); and (7) Aftercoolers (also known as Intercell coolers). Converters and compressors while components of the process gas system, are not included in this commingled waste lot. On January 6, 2009, a meeting was held with EPA, TDEC, DOE and the team for the sole purpose of finalizing the objectives, format, and content of WPXL 6.999. The objective of WPXL 6.999 was to provide a crosswalk to the building structure and the PGE components profiles. This was accomplished by providing tables with references to the specific section of the individual profiles for each of the WLs. There are two building profiles and eight PGE profiles. All of the waste identified in the individual profiles will be commingled, shipped, and disposed exclusively under WPXL 6.999. The individual profiles were provided to the EPA and Tennessee Department of Environment and Conservation (TDEC) for information purposes only. This summary WPXL 6.999 will be submitted to EPA, TDEC, and DOE for review and approval. The format agreed upon by the regulators and DOE form the basis for WPXL 6.999. The agreed format is found on pages v and vi of the CONTENTS section of this profile. The disposal of this waste will be executed in accordance with the Action Memorandum for the Decontamination and Decommissioning of the K-25 and K-27 Buildings, East Tennessee Technology Park, Oak Ridge, Tennessee (DOE 2002), Removal Action Work Plan for the K-25 and K-27 Buildings, Process Equipment Removal and Demolition, K-25/K-27 Project, East Tennessee Technology Park, Oak Ridge, Tennessee (DOE 2008a); Waste Handling Plan for Demolition of the K-25 and K-27 Bui

  12. Department of Energy Begins Demolition on K-25's East Wing -...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Begins Demolition on K-25's East Wing - Moves closer to completing Oak Ridge's largest cleanup project Department of Energy Begins Demolition on K-25's East Wing - Moves closer to...

  13. Commemorating the Historical Contributions of the K-25 Site in Tennessee |

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Department of Energy Commemorating the Historical Contributions of the K-25 Site in Tennessee Commemorating the Historical Contributions of the K-25 Site in Tennessee September 21, 2012 - 10:14am Addthis The 44-acre K-25 superstructure made significant historical contributions during its years of operation. | Photo credit Oak Ridge Office photographer Lynn Freeny. The 44-acre K-25 superstructure made significant historical contributions during its years of operation. | Photo credit Oak Ridge

  14. Proposed On-Site Disposal Facility (OSDF) at the Paducah Gaseous...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Disposal Facility (OSDF) at the Paducah Gaseous Diffusion Plant Proposed On-Site Disposal Facility (OSDF) at the Paducah Gaseous Diffusion Plant Full Document and Summary Versions...

  15. Final load of debris shipped from K-25 Building demolition project |

    Energy Savers [EERE]

    Department of Energy Final load of debris shipped from K-25 Building demolition project Final load of debris shipped from K-25 Building demolition project March 11, 2014 - 3:00pm Addthis The last shipment of debris from the K-25 demolition project leaves the East Tennessee Technology Park. The last shipment of debris from the K-25 demolition project leaves the East Tennessee Technology Park. On March 11, The final truckload of debris from the K-25 Building demolition project was shipped from

  16. Oak Ridge Commemorates Past, Moves Forward with Cleanup of Historic K-25

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Site | Department of Energy Commemorates Past, Moves Forward with Cleanup of Historic K-25 Site Oak Ridge Commemorates Past, Moves Forward with Cleanup of Historic K-25 Site August 1, 2012 - 12:00pm Addthis Workers near completion of the non-technetium area of K-25’s east wing (left). Oak Ridge anticipates beginning demolition on the North Tower (right) by October. Workers near completion of the non-technetium area of K-25's east wing (left). Oak Ridge anticipates beginning demolition

  17. Demolition begins on K-25's North End | Department of Energy

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Demolition begins on K-25's North End Demolition begins on K-25's North End October 24, 2012 - 12:00pm Addthis Oak Ridge, Tenn. - Oak Ridge's EM contractor URS | CH2M Oak Ridge, LLC (UCOR) started demolition on the north end of the K-25 Building today, signifying the next major step toward completing demolition of the Manhattan Project-era building. The K-25 Building, located at the East Tennessee Technology Park (ETTP), was composed of three major sections-the east and west wings and the north

  18. Field evaluation of a horizontal well recirculation system for groundwater treatment: Field demonstration at X-701B Portsmouth Gaseous Diffusion Plant, Piketon, Ohio

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Korte, N.; Muck, M.; Kearl, P.; Siegrist, R.; Schlosser, R.; Zutman, J.; Houk, T.

    1998-08-01

    This report describes the field-scale demonstration performed as part of the project, In Situ Treatment of Mixed Contaminants in Groundwater. This project was a 3{1/2} year effort comprised of laboratory work performed at Oak Ridge National Laboratory and fieldwork performed at the US Department of Energy (DOE) Portsmouth Gaseous Diffusion Plant (PORTS). The overall goal of the project was to evaluate in situ treatment of groundwater using horizontal recirculation coupled with treatment modules. Specifically, horizontal recirculation was tested because of its application to thin, interbedded aquifer zones. Mixed contaminants were targeted because of their prominence at DOE sites and because they cannot be treated with conventional methods. The project involved several research elements, including treatment process evaluation, hydrodynamic flow and transport modeling, pilot testing at an uncontaminated site, and full-scale testing at a contaminated site. This report presents the results of the work at the contaminated site, X-701B at PORTS. Groundwater contamination at X-701B consists of trichloroethene (TCE) (concentrations up to 1800 mg/L) and technetium-998 (Tc{sup 99}) (activities up to 926 pCi/L).

  19. Thermal discharges from Paducah Gaseous Diffusion Plant outfalls: Impacts on stream temperatures and fauna of Little Bayou and Big Bayou Creeks

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Roy, W.K.; Ryon, M.G.; Hinzman, R.L.

    1996-03-01

    The development of a biological monitoring plan for the receiving streams of the Paducah Gaseous Diffusion Plant (PGDP) began in the late 1980s, because of an Agreed Order (AO) issued in September 1987 by the Kentucky Division of Water (KDOW). Five years later, in September 1992, more stringent effluent limitations were imposed upon the PGDP operations when the KDOW reissued Kentucky Pollutant Discharge Elimination System permit No. KY 0004049. This action prompted the US Department of Energy (DOE) to request a stay of certain limits contained in the permit. An AO is being negotiated between KDOW, the US Enrichment Corporation (USEC), and DOE that will require that several studies be conducted, including this stream temperature evaluation study, in an effort to establish permit limitations. All issues associated with this AO have been resolved, and the AO is currently being signed by all parties involved. The proposed effluent temperature limit is 89 F (31.7 C) as a mean monthly temperature. In the interim, temperatures are not to exceed 95 F (35 C) as a monthly mean or 100 F (37.8 C) as a daily maximum. This study includes detailed monitoring of instream temperatures, benthic macroinvertebrate communities, fish communities, and a laboratory study of thermal tolerances.

  20. Applicable or relevant and appropriate requirements (ARARs) for remedial actions at the Paducah Gaseous Diffusion Plant: A compendium of environmental laws and guidance

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Etnier, E.L.; Eaton, L.A. )

    1992-03-01

    Section 121 of the Comprehensive Environmental Response, Compensation, and Liability Act (CERCLA) of 1980 specifies that remedial actions for cleanup of hazardous substances found at sites placed on the National Priorities List (NPL) by the US Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) must comply with applicable or relevant and appropriate requirements (ARARs) or standards under federal and state environmental laws. To date, the US Department of Energy (DOE) Paducah Gaseous Diffusion Plant (PGDP) has not been on the NPL. Although DOE and EPA have entered into an Administrative Consent Order (ACO), the prime regulatory authority for cleanup at PGDP will be the Resource Conservation and Recovery Act (RCRA). This report supplies a preliminary list of available federal and state ARARs that might be considered for remedial response at PGDP in the event that the plant becomes included on the NPL or the ACO is modified to include CERCLA cleanup. A description of the terms applicable'' and relevant and appropriate'' is provided, as well as definitions of chemical-, location-, and action-specific ARARS. ARARs promulgated by the federal government and by the state of Kentucky are listed in tables. In addition, the major provisions of RCRA, the Safe Drinking Water Act, the Clean Water Act, the Clean Air Act, and other acts, as they apply to hazardous and radioactive waste cleanup, are discussed.

  1. Applicable or relevant and appropriate requirements (ARARs) for remedial actions at the Paducah Gaseous Diffusion Plant: A compendium of environmental laws and guidance. Environmental Restoration Program

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Etnier, E.L.; Eaton, L.A.

    1992-03-01

    Section 121 of the Comprehensive Environmental Response, Compensation, and Liability Act (CERCLA) of 1980 specifies that remedial actions for cleanup of hazardous substances found at sites placed on the National Priorities List (NPL) by the US Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) must comply with applicable or relevant and appropriate requirements (ARARs) or standards under federal and state environmental laws. To date, the US Department of Energy (DOE) Paducah Gaseous Diffusion Plant (PGDP) has not been on the NPL. Although DOE and EPA have entered into an Administrative Consent Order (ACO), the prime regulatory authority for cleanup at PGDP will be the Resource Conservation and Recovery Act (RCRA). This report supplies a preliminary list of available federal and state ARARs that might be considered for remedial response at PGDP in the event that the plant becomes included on the NPL or the ACO is modified to include CERCLA cleanup. A description of the terms ``applicable`` and ``relevant and appropriate`` is provided, as well as definitions of chemical-, location-, and action-specific ARARS. ARARs promulgated by the federal government and by the state of Kentucky are listed in tables. In addition, the major provisions of RCRA, the Safe Drinking Water Act, the Clean Water Act, the Clean Air Act, and other acts, as they apply to hazardous and radioactive waste cleanup, are discussed.

  2. Application of the electromagnetic borehole flowmeter and evaluation of previous pumping tests at Paducah Gaseous Diffusion Plant. Final report, June 15, 1992--August 31, 1992

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Young, S.C.; Julian, S.C.; Neton, M.J.

    1993-01-01

    Multi-well pumping tests have been concluded at wells MW79, MW108, and PW1 at the Paducah Gaseous Diffusion Plant (PGDP) to determine the hydraulic properties of the Regional Gravel Aquifer (RGA). Soil cores suggest that the RGA consists of a thin sandy facies (2 to 6 feet) at the top of a thicker (> 10 feet) gravelly facies. Previous analyses have not considered any permeability contrast between the two facies. To assess the accuracy of this assumption, TVA personnel conducted borehole flowmeter tests at wells MW108 and PW1. Well MW79 could not be tested. The high K sand unit is probably 10 times more permeable than comparable zone in the gravelly portion of the RGA. Previous analyses of the three multi-well aquifer tests do not use the same conceptual aquifer model. Data analysis for one pumping test assumed that leakance was significant. Data analysis for another pumping test assumed that a geologic boundary was significant. By collectively analyzing all three tests with the borehole flowmeter results, the inconsistency among the three pumping tests can be explained. Disparity exists because each pumping test had a different placement of observation wells relative to the high K zone delineating by flowmeter testing.

  3. Thermal Discharges from Paducah Gaseous Diffusion Plant Outfalls: Impacts on Stream Temperatures and Fauna of Little Bayou and Big Bayou Creeks

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Roy, W.K.

    1999-01-01

    The development of a biological monitoring plan for the receiving streams of the Paducah Gaseous Diffusion Plant (PGDP) began in the late 1980s, because of an Agreed Order (AO) issued in September 1987 by the Kentucky Division of Water (KDOW). Five years later, in September 1992, more stringent effluent limitations were imposed upon the PGDP operations when the KDOW reissued Kentucky Pollutant Discharge Elimination System permit No. KY 0004049. This action prompted the US Department of Energy (DOE) to request a stay of certain limits contained in the permit. An AO is being negotiated between KDOW, the United States Enrichment Corporation (USEC), and DOE that will require that several studies be conducted, including this stream temperature evaluation study, in an effort to establish permit limitations. All issues associated with this AO have been resolved, and the AO is currently being signed by all parties involved. The proposed effluent temperature limit is 89 F (31.7C) as a mean monthly temperature. In the interim, temperatures are not to exceed 95 F (35 C) as a monthly mean or 100 F (37.8 C) as a daily maximum. This study includes detailed monitoring of instream temperatures, benthic macroinvertebrate communities, fish communities, and a laboratory study of thermal tolerances.

  4. High-Risk Components Removed from K-25's Tc-99 Area | Department of

    Office of Environmental Management (EM)

    Energy High-Risk Components Removed from K-25's Tc-99 Area High-Risk Components Removed from K-25's Tc-99 Area November 6, 2012 - 12:00pm Addthis Oak Ridge, Tenn. - Oak Ridge's EM contractor URS | CH2M Oak Ridge, LLC (UCOR) has removed one of the highest risk components remaining in the East Tennessee Technology Park's (ETTP) K-25 building, with the successful crane removal of five components known as NaF traps. The NaF traps contain a material that was used to absorb uranium from the

  5. DOE Begins Demoltion on K-25's East Wing | Department of Energy

    Office of Environmental Management (EM)

    Begins Demoltion on K-25's East Wing DOE Begins Demoltion on K-25's East Wing July 21, 2011 - 12:00pm Addthis OAK RIDGE, Tenn. - Earlier today, the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) began the demolition of Building K-25's east wing. The former uranium enrichment facility, located at the East Tennessee Technology Park (ETTP), was once the world's largest building under one roof, covering more than 44 acres. The project is one of DOE's highest Environmental Management (EM) priorities in Oak Ridge

  6. 1993 annual report of hazardous waste activities for the Oak Ridge K-25 site

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Not Available

    1994-02-01

    This report is a detailed listing of all of the Hazardous Waste activities occurring at Martin Marietta`s K-25 site. Contained herein are hazardous waste notification forms, waste stream reports, generator fee forms and various TSDR reports.

  7. Assessment of the influences of groundwater colloids on the migration of technetium-99 at the Paducah Gaseous Diffusion Plant Site in Paducah, Kentucky

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Gu, B.; McDonald, J.A.; McCarthy, J.F.; Clausen, J.L.

    1994-07-01

    This short report summarizes the influences of groundwater colloids on the migration/transport of {sup 99}Tc at the Paducah Gaseous Diffusion Plant (PGDP) site in Paducah, Kentucky. Limited data suggest that inorganic colloidal materials (e.g., aluminosilicate clay minerals) may not play a significant role in the retention and transport of Tc. Studies by size fractionation reveal that both Tc and natural organic matter (NOM) are largely present in the <3K fraction. The role of NOM on Tc retention and transport is not conclusive on the basis of this study. However, a literature review suggests that Tc is very likely associated with the groundwater organics. The presence of the organic matter could have increased the solubility and cotransport of Tc at the PGDP site. Further studies, applying such techniques as gel chromatography, size exclusion, and spectroscopy, may be useful to determine the association of organic matter with Tc. If Tc is associated with groundwater organics, appropriate protocols for removal of organic matter associated with Tc may be developed. Time and resources were limited so this study is not comprehensive with respect to the role of mobile organic and inorganic colloidal materials on Tc transport in subsurface soils. The redox conditions (DO) of groundwaters reported may not represent the true groundwater conditions, which could have influenced the association and dissociation of Tc with groundwater colloidal materials. Because Tc concentrations in the groundwater (on the order of nCi/L) at the PGDP site is much lower than the solubility of reduced Tc (IV) (on the order of {approximately}10{sup {minus}8} mol/L or parts per billion), regardless of the redox conditions, Tc will stay in solution phase as TC(IV) or Tc(VII). The mechanisms of adsorption/association vs precipitation must be understood under reduced and low Tc conditions so that strategic plans for remediation of Tc contaminated soils and groundwaters can be developed.

  8. Portsmouth Needs Assessment

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    Needs Assessment for former Oak Ridge K-25, Paducah, and Portsmouth Gaseous Diffusion Plant production workers.

  9. Paducah Needs Assessment

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    Needs Assessment for former Oak Ridge K-25, Paducah, and Portsmouth Gaseous Diffusion Plant production workers.

  10. Dose Modeling Evaluations and Technical Support Document For the Authorized Limits Request for the DOE-Owned Property Outside the Limited Area, Paducah Gaseous Diffusion Plant Paducah, Kentucky

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Boerner, A. J.; Maldonado, D. G.; Hansen, Tom

    2012-09-01

    Environmental assessments and remediation activities are being conducted by the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) at the Paducah Gaseous Diffusion Plant (PGDP), Paducah, Kentucky. The Oak Ridge Institute for Science and Education (ORISE), a DOE prime contractor, was contracted by the DOE Portsmouth/Paducah Project Office (DOE-PPPO) to conduct radiation dose modeling analyses and derive single radionuclide soil guidelines (soil guidelines) in support of the derivation of Authorized Limits (ALs) for 'DOE-Owned Property Outside the Limited Area' ('Property') at the PGDP. The ORISE evaluation specifically included the area identified by DOE restricted area postings (public use access restrictions) and areas licensed by DOE to the West Kentucky Wildlife Management Area (WKWMA). The licensed areas are available without restriction to the general public for a variety of (primarily) recreational uses. Relevant receptors impacting current and reasonably anticipated future use activities were evaluated. In support of soil guideline derivation, a Conceptual Site Model (CSM) was developed. The CSM listed radiation and contamination sources, release mechanisms, transport media, representative exposure pathways from residual radioactivity, and a total of three receptors (under present and future use scenarios). Plausible receptors included a Resident Farmer, Recreational User, and Wildlife Worker. single radionuclide soil guidelines (outputs specified by the software modeling code) were generated for three receptors and thirteen targeted radionuclides. These soil guidelines were based on satisfying the project dose constraints. For comparison, soil guidelines applicable to the basic radiation public dose limit of 100 mrem/yr were generated. Single radionuclide soil guidelines from the most limiting (restrictive) receptor based on a target dose constraint of 25 mrem/yr were then rounded and identified as the derived soil guidelines. An additional evaluation using the derived soil guidelines as inputs into the code was also performed to determine the maximum (peak) dose for all receptors. This report contains the technical basis in support of the DOE?s derivation of ALs for the 'Property.' A complete description of the methodology, including an assessment of the input parameters, model inputs, and results is provided in this report. This report also provides initial recommendations on applying the derived soil guidelines.

  11. ENZYME ACTIVITY PROBE AND GEOCHEMICAL ASSESSMENT FOR POTENTIAL AEROBIC COMETABOLISM OF TRICHLOROETHENE IN GROUNDWATER OF THE NORTHWEST PLUME, PADUCAH GASEOUS DIFFUSION PLANT, KENTUCKY

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Looney, B; M. Hope Lee, M; S. K. Hampson, S

    2008-06-27

    The overarching objective of the Paducah Gaseous Diffusion Plant (PGDP) enzyme activity probe (EAP) effort is to determine if aerobic cometabolism is contributing to the attenuation of trichloroethene (TCE) and other chlorinated solvents in the contaminated groundwater beneath PGDP. The site-specific objective for the EAP assessment is to identify if key metabolic pathways are present and expressed in the microbial community--namely the pathways that are responsible for degradation of methane and aromatic (e.g. toluene, benzene, phenol) substrates. The enzymes produced to degrade methane and aromatic compounds also break down TCE through a process known as cometabolism. EAPs directly measure if methane and/or aromatic enzyme production pathways are operating and, for the aromatic pathways, provide an estimate of the number of active organisms in the sampled groundwater. This study in the groundwater plumes at PGDP is a major part of a larger scientific effort being conducted by Interstate Technology and Regulatory Council (ITRC), U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office of Environmental Management (EM), Savannah River National Laboratory (SRNL), and North Wind Inc. in which EAPs are being applied to contaminated groundwater from diverse hydrogeologic and plume settings throughout the U.S. to help standardize their application as well as their interpretation. While EAP data provide key information to support the site specific objective for PGDP, several additional lines of evidence are being evaluated to increase confidence in the determination of the occurrence of biodegradation and the rate and sustainability of aerobic cometabolism. These complementary efforts include: (1) Examination of plume flowpaths and comparison of TCE behavior to 'conservative' tracers in the plume (e.g., {sup 99}Tc); (2) Evaluation of geochemical conditions throughout the plume; and (3) Evaluation of stable isotopes in the contaminants and their daughter products throughout the plume. If the multiple lines of evidence support the occurrence of cometabolism and the potential for the process to contribute to temporal and spatial attenuation of TCE in PGDP groundwater, then a follow-up enzyme probe microcosm study to better estimate biological degradation rate(s) is warranted.

  12. A TECHNICAL ASSESSMENT OF THE CURRENT WATER POLICY BOUNDARY AT U.S. DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY, PADUCAH GASEOUS DIFFUSION PLANT, PADUCAH, KENTUCKY

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    2012-12-13

    In 1988, groundwater contaminated with trichloroethene (TCE) and technetium-99 (Tc-99) was identified in samples collected from residential water wells withdrawing groundwater from the Regional Gravel Aquifer (RGA) north of the Paducah Gaseous Diffusion Plant (PGDP) facility. In response, the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) provided temporary drinking water supplies to approximately 100 potentially affected residents by initially supplying bottled water, water tanks, and water-treatment systems, and then by extending municipal water lines, all at no cost, to those persons whose wells could be affected by contaminated groundwater. The Water Policy boundary was established in 1993. In the Policy, DOE agreed to pay the reasonable monthly cost of water for homes and businesses and, in exchange, many of the land owners signed license agreements committing to cease using the groundwater via rural water wells. In 2012, DOE requested that Oak Ridge Associated Universities (ORAU), managing contractor of Oak Ridge Institute for Science and Education (ORISE), provide an independent assessment of the quality and quantity of the existing groundwater monitoring data and determine if there is sufficient information to support a modification to the boundary of the current Water Policy. As a result of the assessment, ORAU concludes that sufficient groundwater monitoring data exists to determine that a shrinkage and/or shift of the plume(s) responsible for the initial development of this policy has occurred. Specifically, there is compelling evidence that the TCE plume is undergoing shrinkage due to natural attenuation and associated degradation. The plume shrinkage (and migration) has also been augmented in local areas where large volumes of groundwater were recovered by pump-and treat remedial systems along the eastern and western boundaries of the Northwest Plume, and in other areas where pump-and-treat systems have been deployed by DOE to remove source contaminants. The available evidence supports adjusting the western and northwestern Water Policy boundary. Based on the historical and modeled hydrogeological data reflecting past flow and plume attenuation, along with associated plume migration toward the northeast, the establishment of a new boundary along the westernmost margin of the earliest indication of the TCE plume is proposed and justified on hydrogeological grounds. Approximately 30% of the original area would remain within the adjusted Water Policy area west and northwest of the PGDP facility. This modification would release about 70% of the area, although individual properties would overlap the new boundary.

  13. Oak Ridge K-25 Site Technology Logic Diagram. Volume 2, Technology Logic Diagrams

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Fellows, R.L.

    1993-02-26

    The Oak Ridge K-25 Technology Logic Diagram (TLD), a decision support tool for the K-25 Site, was developed to provide a planning document that relates envirorunental restoration and waste management problems at the Oak Ridge K-25 Site to potential technologies that can remediate these problems. The TLD technique identifies the research necessary to develop these technologies to a state that allows for technology transfer and application to waste management, remedial action, and decontamination and decommissioning activities. The TLD consists of four separate volumes-Vol. 1, Vol. 2, Vol. 3A, and Vol. 3B. Volume 1 provides introductory and overview information about the TLD. This volume, Volume 2, contains logic diagrams with an index. Volume 3 has been divided into two separate volumes to facilitate handling and use.

  14. Biological Monitoring and Abatement Program for the Oak Ridge K-25 Site

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Kszos, L.A.; Adams, S.M.; Ashwood, T.L.; Blaylock, B.G.; Greeley, M.S.; Loar, J.M.; Peterson, M.J.; Ryon, M.G.; Smith, J.G.; Southworth, G.R.; Hinzman, R.L.; Shoemaker, B.A.

    1993-04-01

    A proposed Biological Monitoring and Abatement Program (BMAP) for the Oak Ridge K-25 Site was prepared in December 1992 as required by the renewed National Pollutant Discharge Elimination System permit that was issued on October 1, 1992. The proposed BMAP is based on results of biological monitoring conducted from 1986 to 1992 and discussions held on November 12, 1992, between staff of Martin Marietta Energy Systems, Inc. (Oak Ridge National Laboratory and the K-25 Site), and the Tennessee Department of Environment and Conservation, Department of Energy Oversight Division. The proposed BMAP consists of four tasks that reflect different but complementary approaches to evaluating the effects of K-25 Site effluents on the ecological integrity of Mitchell Branch, Poplar Creek, and the Poplar Creek embayment of the Clinch River. These tasks include (1) ambient toxicity monitoring, (2) bioaccumulation monitoring, (3) assessment of fish health, and (4) instream monitoring of biological communities. This overall BMAP plan combines established protocols with current biological monitoring techniques to assess environmental compliance and quantify ecological recovery. The BMAP will also determine whether the effluent limits established for the K-25 Site protect the designated use of the receiving streams (Mitchell Branch, Poplar Creek, and Clinch River) for growth and propagation of fish and other aquatic life. Results obtained from this biological monitoring program will also be used to document the ecological effects (and effectiveness) of remedial actions.

  15. Process for producing enriched uranium having a {sup 235}U content of at least 4 wt. % via combination of a gaseous diffusion process and an atomic vapor laser isotope separation process to eliminate uranium hexafluoride tails storage

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Horton, J.A.; Hayden, H.W. Jr.

    1995-05-30

    An uranium enrichment process capable of producing an enriched uranium, having a {sup 235}U content greater than about 4 wt. %, is disclosed which will consume less energy and produce metallic uranium tails having a lower {sup 235}U content than the tails normally produced in a gaseous diffusion separation process and, therefore, eliminate UF{sub 6} tails storage and sharply reduce fluorine use. The uranium enrichment process comprises feeding metallic uranium into an atomic vapor laser isotope separation process to produce an enriched metallic uranium isotopic mixture having a {sup 235} U content of at least about 2 wt. % and a metallic uranium residue containing from about 0.1 wt. % to about 0.2 wt. % {sup 235} U; fluorinating this enriched metallic uranium isotopic mixture to form UF{sub 6}; processing the resultant isotopic mixture of UF{sub 6} in a gaseous diffusion process to produce a final enriched uranium product having a {sup 235}U content of at least 4 wt. %, and up to 93.5 wt. % or higher, of the total uranium content of the product, and a low {sup 235}U content UF{sub 6} having a {sup 235}U content of about 0.71 wt. % of the total uranium content of the low {sup 235}U content UF{sub 6}; and converting this low {sup 235}U content UF{sub 6} to metallic uranium for recycle to the atomic vapor laser isotope separation process. 4 figs.

  16. Process for producing enriched uranium having a .sup.235 U content of at least 4 wt. % via combination of a gaseous diffusion process and an atomic vapor laser isotope separation process to eliminate uranium hexafluoride tails storage

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Horton, James A. (Livermore, CA); Hayden, Jr., Howard W. (Oakridge, TN)

    1995-01-01

    An uranium enrichment process capable of producing an enriched uranium, having a .sup.235 U content greater than about 4 wt. %, is disclosed which will consume less energy and produce metallic uranium tails having a lower .sup.235 U content than the tails normally produced in a gaseous diffusion separation process and, therefore, eliminate UF.sub.6 tails storage and sharply reduce fluorine use. The uranium enrichment process comprises feeding metallic uranium into an atomic vapor laser isotope separation process to produce an enriched metallic uranium isotopic mixture having a .sup.235 U content of at least about 2 wt. % and a metallic uranium residue containing from about 0.1 wt. % to about 0.2 wt. % .sup.235 U; fluorinating this enriched metallic uranium isotopic mixture to form UF.sub.6 ; processing the resultant isotopic mixture of UF.sub.6 in a gaseous diffusion process to produce a final enriched uranium product having a .sup.235 U content of at least 4 wt. %, and up to 93.5 wt. % or higher, of the total uranium content of the product, and a low .sup.235 U content UF.sub.6 having a .sup.235 U content of about 0.71 wt. % of the total uranium content of the low .sup.235 U content UF.sub.6 ; and converting this low .sup.235 U content UF.sub.6 to metallic uranium for recycle to the atomic vapor laser isotope separation process.

  17. Heritage Tourism and Y-12, K-25 and X-10 history

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Heritage Tourism and Y-12, K-25 and X-10 history Heritage Tourism is a current buzzword that seems to be catching on across the nation. Places like the World War II museum and even places as small as the Casey Jones Museum are making economic headway for their cities and communities promoting the idea of historical designations. A Heritage Tourism study was recently completed for the Oak Ridge Convention and Visitor's Bureau by Akins Crisp Public Strategies where such approaches as designating

  18. Impact of NDA Uncertainites on NCS at the K-25 Site

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Kevin Kimball , Ian Gauld

    2008-05-29

    The K-25 Building at the East Tennessee Technology Park is relying on the use of Non-Destructive Assay (NDA) methods for characterizing hold-up materials in process equipment. The characterization data is used for many purposes including mass estimates for nuclear criticality safety (NCS) and waste disposition. This paper addresses the sensitivity of certain parameters in the NDA process to overall mass measurement results.

  19. Pollution prevention opportunity assessment for the K-25 Site Steam Plant -- Level 3

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    1995-09-01

    A Level 3 pollution prevention opportunity assessment (PPOA) was performed for the K-1501 Steam Plant at the K-25 Site. The primary objective was to identify and evaluate pollution prevention (P2) options to reduce the quantities of each waste stream generated by the Steam Plant. For each of the waste streams, P2 options were evaluated to first reduce the quantity of waste generated and second to recycle the waste. This report provides a process description of the facility; identification, evaluation, and recommendations of P2 options; an implementation schedule with funding sources; and conclusions. Largely for economic reasons, only 3 of the 14 P2 options are being recommended for implementation. All are source reduction options. When implemented, these three options are estimated to reduce the annual generation of waste by 658,412 kg and will result in a cost savings of approximately $29,232/year for the K-25 Site. The recommended options are to: install a flue gas return System in Boiler 7; reduce steam loss from traps; and increase lapse time between rinses. The four boilers currently in operation at the Steam Plant use natural gas or fuel oil as fuel sources.

  20. Environmental site description for a Uranium Atomic Vapor Laser Isotope Separation (U-AVLIS) production plant at the Paducah Gaseous Diffusion Plant site

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Marmer, G.J.; Dunn, C.P.; Moeller, K.L.; Pfingston, J.M.; Policastro, A.J.; Yuen, C.R.; Cleland, J.H.

    1991-09-01

    Uranium enrichment in the United States has utilized a diffusion process to preferentially enrich the U-235 isotope in the uranium product. The U-AVLIS process is based on electrostatic extraction of photoionized U-235 atoms from an atomic vapor stream created by electron-beam vaporization of uranium metal alloy. The U-235 atoms are ionized when precisely tuned laser light -- of appropriate power, spectral, and temporal characteristics -- illuminates the uranium vapor and selectively photoionizes the U-235 isotope. A programmatic document for use in screening DOE site to locate a U-AVLIS production plant was developed and implemented in two parts. The first part consisted of a series of screening analyses, based on exclusionary and other criteria, that identified a reasonable number of candidate sites. These sites were subjected to a more rigorous and detailed comparative analysis for the purpose of developing a short list of reasonable alternative sites for later environmental examination. This environmental site description (ESD) provides a detailed description of the PGDP site and vicinity suitable for use in an environmental impact statement (EIS). The report is based on existing literature, data collected at the site, and information collected by Argonne National Laboratory (ANL) staff during a site visit. 65 refs., 15 tabs.

  1. AEC and changes at Y-12, K-25, and X-10

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Y-12 was operating all its calutrons and improving their efficiency all along. The S-50 Thermal Diffusion Plant, built in 90 days in 1944, ran all 21 racks from March 1945 until...

  2. Refurbishment of uranium hexafluoride cylinder storage yards C-745-K, L, M, N, and P and construction of a new uranium hexafluoride cylinder storage yard (C-745-T) at the Paducah Gaseous Diffusion Plant, Paducah, Kentucky

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    1996-07-01

    The Paducah Gaseous Diffusion Plant (PGDP) is a uranium enrichment facility owned by the US Department of Energy (DOE). A residual of the uranium enrichment process is depleted uranium hexafluoride (UF6). Depleted UF6, a solid at ambient temperature, is stored in 32,200 steel cylinders that hold a maximum of 14 tons each. Storage conditions are suboptimal and have resulted in accelerated corrosion of cylinders, increasing the potential for a release of hazardous substances. Consequently, the DOE is proposing refurbishment of certain existing yards and construction of a new storage yard. This environmental assessment (EA) evaluates the impacts of the proposed action and no action and considers alternate sites for the proposed new storage yard. The proposed action includes (1) renovating five existing cylinder yards; (2) constructing a new UF6 storage yard; handling and onsite transport of cylinders among existing yards to accommodate construction; and (4) after refurbishment and construction, restacking of cylinders to meet spacing and inspection requirements. Based on the results of the analysis reported in the EA, DOE has determined that the proposed action is not a major Federal action that would significantly affect the quality of the human environment within the context of the National Environmental Policy Act of 1969. Therefore, DOE is issuing a Finding of No Significant Impact. Additionally, it is reported in this EA that the loss of less than one acre of wetlands at the proposed project site would not be a significant adverse impact.

  3. Evaluation of natural attenuation processes for trichloroethylene and technetium-99 in the Northeast and Northwest plumes at the Paducah Gaseous Diffusion Plant, Paducah, Kentucky

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Clausen, J.L.; Sturchio, N.C.; Heraty, L.J.; Huang, L.; Abrajano,T.

    1997-11-25

    NA processes such as biodegradation, sorption, dilution dispersion, advection, and possibly sorption and diffusion are occurring in the Northeast and Northwest plumes. However, the overall biological attenuation rate for TCE within the plumes is not sufficiently rapid to utilize as remedial option. The mobility and toxicity of {sup 99}Tc is not being reduced by attenuating processes within the Northwest Plume. The current EPA position is that NA is not a viable remedial approach unless destructive processes are present or processes are active which reduce the toxicity and mobility of a contaminant. Therefore, active remediation of the dissolved phase plumes will be necessary to reduce contaminant concentrations before an NA approach could be justified at PGDP for either plume. Possible treatment methods for the reduction of dissolved phase concentrations within the plumes are pump-and-treat bioaugmentation, biostimulation, or multiple reactive barriers. Another possibility is the use of a regulatory instrument such as an Alternate Concentration Limit (ACL) petition. Biodegradation of TCE is occurring in both plumes and several hypothesis are possible to explain the apparent conflicts with some of the geochemical data. The first hypothesis is active intrinsic bioremediation is negligible or so slow to be nonmeasurable. In this scenario, the D.O., chloride, TCE, and isotopic results are indicative of past microbiological reactions. It is surmised in this scenario, that when the initial TCE release occurred, sufficient energy sources were available for microorganisms to drive aerobic reduction of TCE, but these energy sources were rapidly depleted. The initial degraded TCE has since migrated to downgradient locations. In the second scenario, TCE anaerobic degradation occurs in organic-rich micro-environments within a generally aerobic aquifer. TCE maybe strongly absorbed to organic-rich materials in the aquifer matrix and degraded by local Immunities of microbes, perhaps even under anaerobic conditions. Chloride, generated by degradation in such microenvironment is released rapidly into the water, as is CO{sub 2}, from respiration of the microorganisms. TCE and its organic degradation products are retained on the aquifer matrix by sorption, and released more slowly into the groundwater. In this process, chloride produced from the microbial reaction may become separated in the plume from the residual TCE. This may explain why the chloride isotope ratio and dissolved TCE do not correlate with the DIC isotope ratio. The relationship between the {delta}{sup 37}Cl values of TCE and dissolved inorganic chloride is consistent with what would be expected from the degradation of TCE, but is complicated by the elevated levels of background chloride, presumably due to agriculture practice, and complex behavior of TCE in the aquifer.

  4. INDEPENDENT TECHNICAL REVIEW OF THE FOCUSED FEASIBILITY STUDY AND PROPOSED PLAN FOR DESIGNATED SOLID WASTE MANAGEMENT UNITS CONTRIBUTING TO THE SOUTHWEST GROUNDWATER PLUME AT THE PADUCAH GASEOUS DIFFUSION PLANT

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Looney, B.; Eddy-Dilek, C.; Amidon, M.; Rossabi, J.; Stewart, L.

    2011-05-31

    The U. S. Department of Energy (DOE) is currently developing a Proposed Plan (PP) for remediation of designated sources of chlorinated solvents that contribute contamination to the Southwest (SW) Groundwater Plume at the Paducah Gaseous Diffusion Plant (PGDP), in Paducah, KY. The principal contaminants in the SW Plume are trichloroethene (TCE) and other volatile organic compounds (VOCs); these industrial solvents were used and disposed in various facilities and locations at PGDP. In the SW plume area, residual TCE sources are primarily in the fine-grained sediments of the Upper Continental Recharge System (UCRS), a partially saturated zone that delivers contaminants downward into the coarse-grained Regional Gravel Aquifer (RGA). The RGA serves as the significant lateral groundwater transport pathway for the plume. In the SW Plume area, the four main contributing TCE source units are: (1) Solid Waste Management Unit (SWMU) 1 / Oil Landfarm; (2) C-720 Building TCE Northeast Spill Site (SWMU 211A); (3) C-720 Building TCE Southeast Spill Site (SWMU 211B); and (4) C-747 Contaminated Burial Yard (SWMU 4). The PP presents the Preferred Alternatives for remediation of VOCs in the UCRS at the Oil Landfarm and the C-720 Building spill sites. The basis for the PP is documented in a Focused Feasibility Study (FFS) (DOE, 2011) and a Site Investigation Report (SI) (DOE, 2007). The SW plume is currently within the boundaries of PGDP (i.e., does not extend off-site). Nonetheless, reasonable mitigation of the multiple contaminant sources contributing to the SW plume is one of the necessary components identified in the PGDP End State Vision (DOE, 2005). Because of the importance of the proposed actions DOE assembled an Independent Technical Review (ITR) team to provide input and assistance in finalizing the PP.

  5. Portsmouth Gaseous Diffusion Plant Director's Final Findings...

    Office of Environmental Management (EM)

    established for a three year rolling period consisting of the current federal fiscal year plus two additional federal fiscal years. * Non-enforceable target dates will be...

  6. Independent Activity Report, Portsmouth Gaseous Diffusion Plant...

    Office of Environmental Management (EM)

    HIAR-PORTS-2011-08-03 This Independent Activity Report documents an operational awareness activity conducted by Office of Health, Safety and Security's (HSS) Office of Safety...

  7. School science project 'demystifies' Portsmouth Gaseous Diffusion...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Students from teacher Roger Holbrook's environmental science class took the site's most recent ASER report, reworded it with help from English teacher Ruth Davis' class, and added ...

  8. Department of Energy Begins Demolition on K-25's East Wing- Moves closer to completing Oak Ridge’s largest cleanup project

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    OAK RIDGE, Tenn. - Earlier today, the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) began the demolition of Building K-25’s east wing.

  9. GASEOUS DISPOSAL PROCESS

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Ryan, R.F.; Thomasson, F.R.; Hicks, J.H.

    1963-01-22

    A method is described of removing gaseous radioactive Xe and Kr from water containing O. The method consists in stripping the gases from the water stream by means of H flowing countercurrently to the stream. The gases are then heated in a deoxo bed to remove O. The carrier gas is next cooled and passed over a charcoal adsorbent bed maintained at a temperature of about --280 deg F to remove the Xe and Kr. (AEC)

  10. NGPL Production, Gaseous Equivalent

    Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update (EIA)

    NGPL Production, Gaseous Equivalent Period: Monthly Annual Download Series History Download Series History Definitions, Sources & Notes Definitions, Sources & Notes Show Data By: Data Series Area Jul-15 Aug-15 Sep-15 Oct-15 Nov-15 Dec-15 View History U.S. 145,534 147,972 144,086 152,538 148,859 150,870 1973-2015

  11. Particulate and Gaseous Emissions

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    and Gaseous Emissions - Sandia Energy Energy Search Icon Sandia Home Locations Contact Us Employee Locator Energy & Climate Secure & Sustainable Energy Future Stationary Power Energy Conversion Efficiency Solar Energy Wind Energy Water Power Supercritical CO2 Geothermal Natural Gas Safety, Security & Resilience of the Energy Infrastructure Energy Storage Nuclear Power & Engineering Grid Modernization Battery Testing Nuclear Fuel Cycle Defense Waste Management Programs Advanced

  12. Fiber Bulk Gaseous Carriers

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Don Baldwin, Director of Product Development FIBER BULK GASEOUS CARRIERS 26 February 2014, NREL, Golden, CO * Lightweight composite cylinders for the storage and transportation of gas under pressure ̵ Compressed natural gas ̵ Compressed hydrogen gas * Vehicle fuel cylinders ̵ Passenger cars ̵ Buses and ̵ Heavy-duty vehicles * Transport and storage cylinders ̵ Bulk hauling trailers and modules ̵ Ground storage systems HEXAGON COMPOSITES HIGH PRESSURE PRODUCTS * Figures with

  13. Pollution prevention opportunity assessment for the K-25 Site Toxic Substances Control Act Incinerator Operations, Level III

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    1995-09-01

    A Level III pollution prevention opportunity assessment (PPOA) was performed for the Oak Ridge K-25 Site Toxic Substances Control Act (TSCA) Incinerator to evaluate pollution prevention (P2) options for various waste streams: The main objective of this study was to identify and evaluate options to reduce the quantities of each waste stream generated by the TSCA Incinerator operations to realize significant environmental and/or economic benefits from P2. For each of the waste streams, P2 options were evaluated following the US Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) hierarchy to (1) reduce the quantity of waste generated, (2) recycle the waste, and/or (3) use alternate waste treatment or segregation methods. This report provides process descriptions, identification and evaluation of P2 options, and final recommendations.

  14. Y-12's first Open House-September 2-3, 1967, part 2

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    site, K-25 was assigned to the Gaseous Diffusion Plant, and S-50 was assigned to the Thermal Diffusion Plant. The only designation that might have some connection may be K-25....

  15. Manhattan Project: The Navy and Thermal Diffusion, 1944

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    Diffusion columns, S-50 Thermal Diffusion Plant, Oak Ridge, 1945. THE NAVY AND THERMAL DIFFUSION (Oak Ridge: Clinton, 1944) Events > The Uranium Path to the Bomb, 1942-1944 Y-12: Design, 1942-1943 Y-12: Construction, 1943 Y-12: Operation, 1943-1944 Working K-25 into the Mix, 1943-1944 The Navy and Thermal Diffusion, 1944 As problems with both Y-12 and K-25 reached crisis proportions in spring and summer 1944, the Manhattan Project received help from an unexpected source: the United States

  16. System Description for the K-25/K-27 D&D Project Polyurethane Foam Delivery System, East Tennessee Technology Park, Oak Ridge, Tennessee

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Boris, G.

    2008-02-21

    The Foam Delivery System used in the decontamination and decommissioning (D&D) project for the K-25/K-27 Buildings at the East Tennessee Technology Park (ETTP) is comprised of a trailer-mounted Gusmer{reg_sign} H20/35 Pro-TEC Proportioning Unit and the associated equipment to convey electrical power, air, and foam component material to the unit. This high-pressure, plural-component polyurethane foam pouring system will be used to fill process gas and non-process equipment/piping (PGE/P) within the K-25/K-27 Buildings with polyurethane foam to immobilize contaminants prior to removal. The system creates foam by mixing isocyanate and polyol resin (Resin) component materials. Currently, the project plans to utilize up to six foaming units simultaneously during peak foaming activities. Also included in this system description are the foam component material storage containers that will be used for storage of the component material drums in a staging area outside of the K-25/K-27 Buildings. The Foam Delivery System and foam component material storage enclosures (i.e., Foaming Component Protective Enclosures) used to store polymeric methylene diphenyl diisocyanate (PMDI) component material are identified as Safety Significant (SS) Structures, Systems and Components (SSC) in the Documented Safety Analysis (DSA) for the project, Documented Safety Analysis for the K-25 and K-27 Facilities at the East Tennessee Technology Park, Oak Ridge, Tennessee, DSA-ET-K-25/K-27-0001.

  17. Gaseous Hydrogen Delivery | Department of Energy

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Delivery Gaseous Hydrogen Delivery Gaseous hydrogen is most commonly delivered either by trucks or through pipelines. Because gaseous hydrogen is typically produced at relatively low pressures (20-30 bar), it must be compressed prior to transport. Learn more about gaseous hydrogen compression. Trucks that haul gaseous hydrogen are called tube trailers. Gaseous hydrogen is compressed to pressures of 180 bar (~2,600 psig) or higher into long cylinders which are stacked on the trailer that the

  18. Fuel Cells and Renewable Gaseous Fuels

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Cell Technologies Office | 1 7142015 Fuel Cells and Renewable Gaseous Fuels Bioenergy 2015: Renewable Gaseous Fuels Breakout Session Sarah Studer, PhD ORISE Fellow Fuel Cell...

  19. Gaseous-fuel engine technology

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    1995-12-31

    This publication contains three distinct groups of papers covering gaseous-fuel injection and control, gaseous-fuel engine projects, and gaseous-fuel engine/vehicle applications. Contents include: ultra rapid natural gas port injection; a CNG specific fuel injector using latching solenoid technology; development of an electronically-controlled natural gas-fueled John Deere PowerTech 8.1L engine; adapting a Geo Metro to run on natural gas using fuel-injection technology; behavior of a closed loop controlled air valve type mixer on a natural gas fueled engine under transient operation; and a turbocharged lean-burn 4.3 liter natural gas engine.

  20. Type A Accident Investigation Board Report on the February 13, 1997, Welding/Cutting Fatality at the K-33 Building, K-25 Site, Oak Ridge, Tennessee

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    On February 13, 1997, at approximately 11:10 a.m., a welder (referred to as “the Welder”) using a cutting torch at the K-33 Building, Oak Ridge K-25 Site, Oak Ridge Reservation, was fatally burned after being totally engulfed in flames when his anti-contamination coveralls and blue general-purpose coveralls burned.

  1. The Promise of Renewable Gaseous Fuels

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    Breakout Session 3-C: Renewable Gaseous FuelsThe Promise of Renewable Gaseous FuelsJeffrey Reed, Director of Business Strategy and Development, Southern California Gas Company/San Diego Gas &...

  2. Photon detectors with gaseous amplification

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Va`vra, J.

    1996-08-01

    Gaseous photon detectors, including very large 4{pi}-devices such as those incorporated in SLD and DELPHI, are finally delivering physics after many years of hard work. Photon detectors are among the most difficult devices used in physics experiments, because they must achieve high efficiency for photon transport and for the detection of single photoelectrons. Among detector builders, there is hardly anybody who did not make mistakes in this area, and who does not have a healthy respect for the problems involved. This point is stressed in this paper, and it is suggested that only a very small operating phase space is available for running gaseous photon detectors in a very large system with good efficiency and few problems. In this paper the authors discuss what was done correctly or incorrectly in first generation photon detectors, and what would be their recommendations for second generation detectors. 56 refs., 11 figs.

  3. Orientation Visit to the Portsmouth Gaseous Diffusion Plant

    Office of Environmental Management (EM)

    for Oversight with detailed tours of the nuclear facilities. These facilities were: X-333 Process Building, X-342A Feed Vaporization and Fluorine Generation Building, X-344A...

  4. DOE Awards Contract for Paducah Gaseous Diffusion Plant Infrastructure...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    The primarily firm-fixed-price nature of the contract will allow DOE to hold the contractor accountable for meeting the contract requirements. Infrastructure support services to be ...

  5. Community Visions for the Paducah Gaseous Diffusion Plant Site

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Ormsbee, Lindell e; Kipp, James A

    2011-09-01

    This report focuses on assessing community preferences for the future use of the PGDP site, given the site's pending closure by US DOE. The project approach fostered interaction and engagement with the public based on lessons learned at other complex DOE environmental cleanup sites and upon the integration of a number of principles and approaches to public engagement from the Project Team's local, state, regional and international public engagement experience. The results of the study provide the community with a record of the diversity of values and preferences related to the environmental cleanup and future use of the site.

  6. Federal Facility Agreement for the Paducah Gaseous Diffusion...

    Office of Environmental Management (EM)

    are addressed to achieve comprehensive remediation of the site. * Establish a procedural framework and schedule for developing, implementing, and monitoring response...

  7. Paducah Gaseous Diffusion Plant Compliance Order, September 10, 1997

    Office of Environmental Management (EM)

  8. Breached cylinder incident at the Portsmouth gaseous diffusion plant

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Boelens, R.A.

    1991-12-31

    On June 16, 1990, during an inspection of valves on partially depleted product storage cylinders, a 14-ton partially depleted product cylinder was discovered breached. The cylinder had been placed in long-term storage in 1977 on the top row of Portsmouth`s (two rows high) storage area. The breach was observed when an inspector noticed a pile of green material along side of the cylinder. The breach was estimated to be approximately 8- inches wide and 16-inches long, and ran under the first stiffening ring of the cylinder. During the continuing inspection of the storage area, a second 14-ton product cylinder was discovered breached. This cylinder was stacked on the bottom row in the storage area in 1986. This breach was also located adjacent to a stiffening ring. This paper will discuss the contributing factors of the breaching of the cylinders, the immediate response, subsequent actions in support of the investigation, and corrective actions.

  9. Portsmouth Gaseous Diffusion Plant - Quadrant I Groundwater Investigat...

    Office of Environmental Management (EM)

    by Lead Regulator? Yes Regulatory Decision Document Status? Decision Document in Place Lead Regulatory Agency: State Date Approved: March 2001 Regulatory Driver: RCRA Regulatory...

  10. Detector for flow abnormalities in gaseous diffusion plant compressors

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Smith, S.F.; Castleberry, K.N.

    1998-06-16

    A detector detects a flow abnormality in a plant compressor which outputs a motor current signal. The detector includes a demodulator/lowpass filter demodulating and filtering the motor current signal producing a demodulated signal, and first, second, third and fourth bandpass filters connected to the demodulator/lowpass filter, and filtering the demodulated signal in accordance with first, second, third and fourth bandpass frequencies generating first, second, third and fourth filtered signals having first, second, third and fourth amplitudes. The detector also includes first, second, third and fourth amplitude detectors connected to the first, second, third and fourth bandpass filters respectively, and detecting the first, second, third and fourth amplitudes, and first and second adders connected to the first and fourth amplitude detectors and the second and third amplitude detectors respectively, and adding the first and fourth amplitudes and the second and third amplitudes respectively generating first and second added signals. Finally, the detector includes a comparator, connected to the first and second adders, and comparing the first and second added signals and detecting the abnormal condition in the plant compressor when the second added signal exceeds the first added signal by a predetermined value. 6 figs.

  11. Review of the Portsmouth Gaseous Diffusion Plant Work Planning...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    ... Pre-job briefing for Converter Sampling 25-5-2 Stage 12 at X-326 * Pre-job briefing for Overhead Crane Preventive Maintenance * Pre-job briefing for Wise Construction Pre-job B-2

  12. Non-Destructive Analysis Calibration Standards for Gaseous Diffusion...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Current practices used to perform NDA measurements frequently have poorly defined uncertainties due to multiple factors. Working reference material (WRM) standards and container-sp...

  13. DOE Awards Contract for Portsmouth Gaseous Diffusion Plant Infrastruct...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Cincinnati -- The U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) today announced the award of a contract to Portsmouth Mission Alliance, LLC of Idaho Falls, Idaho, for the performance of ...

  14. DOE/EA-1927, Paducah Gaseous Diffusion Plant Final Environmental...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    ... various species of small mammals, reptiles, and birds ... affected by retreating Pleistocene glaciers, which ... known to have occurred in North America (Figure 3-5). ...

  15. EM Begins Demolishing K-31 Gaseous Diffusion Building | Department...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    pollution prevention efforts, such as filling interior and exterior storm drains. ... demolition is scheduled to start in fall 2015. Under DOE's reindustrialization ...

  16. Review of the Portsmouth Gaseous Diffusion Plant Integrated Safety...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    ... Independent Oversight noted that the FBP ISMS description includes the three key safety culture focus areas - leadership, employeeworker engagement, and organizational learning - ...

  17. Paducah Gaseous Diffusion Plant Compliance Order, September 10...

    Office of Environmental Management (EM)

    approved STP and determine whether compliance dates should be modified. * Delay in performance shall be excused and no civil penalty assessed when performance is prevented or...

  18. Hydrogen and Gaseous Fuel Safety and Toxicity

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Lee C. Cadwallader; J. Sephen Herring

    2007-06-01

    Non-traditional motor fuels are receiving increased attention and use. This paper examines the safety of three alternative gaseous fuels plus gasoline and the advantages and disadvantages of each. The gaseous fuels are hydrogen, methane (natural gas), and propane. Qualitatively, the overall risks of the four fuels should be close. Gasoline is the most toxic. For small leaks, hydrogen has the highest ignition probability and the gaseous fuels have the highest risk of a burning jet or cloud.

  19. Gaseous Hydrogen Compression | Department of Energy

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    » Gaseous Hydrogen Compression Gaseous Hydrogen Compression Hydrogen is typically produced at relatively low pressures (20-30 bar) and must be compressed prior to transport. Most compressors used today for gaseous hydrogen compression are either positive displacement compressors or centrifugal compressors. Positive displacement compressors can be reciprocating or rotary. Reciprocating compressors use a motor with a linear drive to move a piston or a diaphragm back and forth. This motion

  20. Process for exchanging hydrogen isotopes between gaseous hydrogen and water

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Hindin, Saul G.; Roberts, George W.

    1980-08-12

    A process for exchanging isotopes of hydrogen, particularly tritium, between gaseous hydrogen and water is provided whereby gaseous hydrogen depeleted in tritium and liquid or gaseous water containing tritium are reacted in the presence of a metallic catalyst.

  1. Combination free electron and gaseous laser

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Brau, Charles A. (Los Alamos, NM); Rockwood, Stephen D. (Los Alamos, NM); Stein, William E. (Los Alamos, NM)

    1980-01-01

    A multiple laser having one or more gaseous laser stages and one or more free electron stages. Each of the free electron laser stages is sequentially pumped by a microwave linear accelerator. Subsequently, the electron beam is directed through a gaseous laser, in the preferred embodiment, and in an alternative embodiment, through a microwave accelerator to lower the energy level of the electron beam to pump one or more gaseous lasers. The combination laser provides high pulse repetition frequencies, on the order of 1 kHz or greater, high power capability, high efficiency, and tunability in the synchronous production of multiple beams of coherent optical radiation.

  2. Beta 3 at Y-12

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    235 for Little Boy. The feed material from first the Alpha calutrons, next the S-50 Thermal Diffusion Plant and finally the output of the K-25 Gaseous Diffusion Plant was...

  3. Process for removing metal carbonyls from gaseous streams

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Heyd, R.L.; Pignet, T.P.

    1988-04-26

    A process for removing metal carbonyl contaminates from a gaseous stream is described containing such contaminates and which is free from sulfur contaminates, which process comprises contacting the gaseous stream with a zinc sulfide absorbent to thereby remove metal carbonyl contaminates from the gaseous stream, and separating the gaseous stream from the zinc sulfide absorbent.

  4. Gaseous insulators for high voltage electrical equipment

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Christophorou, Loucas G. (Oak Ridge, TN); James, David R. (Knoxville, TN); Pace, Marshall O. (Knoxville, TN); Pai, Robert Y. (Concord, TN)

    1981-01-01

    Gaseous insulators comprise compounds having high attachment cross sections for electrons having energies in the 0-1.3 electron volt range. Multi-component gaseous insulators comprise compounds and mixtures having overall high electron attachment cross sections in the 0-1.3 electron volt range and moderating gases having high cross sections for inelastic interactions with electrons of energies 1-4 electron volts. Suitable electron attachment components include hexafluorobutyne, perfluorobutene-2, perfluorocyclobutane, perfluorodimethylcyclobutane, perfluorocyclohexene, perfluoromethylcyclohexane, hexafluorobutadiene, perfluoroheptene-1 and hexafluoroazomethane. Suitable moderating gases include N.sub.2, CO, CO.sub.2 and H.sub.2. The gaseous insulating mixture can also contain SF.sub.6, perfluoropropane and perfluorobenzene.

  5. First gaseous boronization during pulsed discharge cleaning

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    gaseous boronization during pulsed discharge cleaning J. Ko ⇑ , D.J. Den Hartog, J.A. Goetz, P.J. Weix, S.T. Limbach Department of Physics, University of Wisconsin, Madison, WI, USA a r t i c l e i n f o Article history: Received 28 December 2011 Accepted 26 July 2012 Available online 21 August 2012 a b s t r a c t The first successful gaseous boronization during a pulsed discharge is reported. Sublimation of o-carbo- rane (C 2 B 10 H 12 ) combined with pulsed discharge plasmas with a

  6. Methods and systems for deacidizing gaseous mixtures

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Hu, Liang

    2010-05-18

    An improved process for deacidizing a gaseous mixture using phase enhanced gas-liquid absorption is described. The process utilizes a multiphasic absorbent that absorbs an acid gas at increased rate and leads to reduced overall energy costs for the deacidizing operation.

  7. Gas-Phase Diffusion in Porous Media: Comparison of Models Stephen...

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    This model applies the kinetic theory of gases to the gaseous components and the porous ... In the case of pure ordinary diffusion (no advection), the ADM reduces to For a binary ...

  8. Hierarchical diffusion

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Bachas, C.P.

    1988-02-01

    We review the solution and properties of the diffusion equation in a hierarchical or ultrametric space. 11 refs.

  9. Fuel Cells and Renewable Gaseous Fuels | Department of Energy

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Fuel Cells and Renewable Gaseous Fuels Fuel Cells and Renewable Gaseous Fuels Breakout Session 3-C: Renewable Gaseous Fuels Fuel Cells and Renewable Gaseous Fuels Sarah Studer, ORISE Fellow-Fuel Cell Technologies Office, U.S. Department of Energy PDF icon studer_bioenergy_2015.pdf More Documents & Publications U.S Department of Energy Fuel Cell Technologies Office Overview: 2015 Smithsonian Science Education Academies for Teachers Novel Sorbent to Clean Biogas for Fuel Cell Combined Heat and

  10. Gaseous modification of MCrAlY coatings

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Vance, Steven J. (Orlando, FL); Goedjen, John G. (Oviedo, FL); Sabol, Stephen M. (Orlando, FL); Sloan, Kelly M. (Longwood, FL)

    2000-01-01

    The present invention generally describes methods for modifying MCrAlY coatings by using gaseous carburization, gaseous nitriding or gaseous carbonitriding. The modified MCrAlY coatings are useful in thermal barrier coating systems, which may be used in gas turbine engines.

  11. Gas mixture for diffuse-discharge switch

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Christophorou, Loucas G. (Oak Ridge, TN); Carter, James G. (Knoxville, TN); Hunter, Scott R. (Oak Ridge, TN)

    1984-01-01

    Gaseous medium in a diffuse-discharge switch of a high-energy pulse generator is formed of argon combined with a compound selected from the group consisting of CF.sub.4, C.sub.2 F.sub.6, C.sub.3 F.sub.8, n-C.sub.4 F.sub.10, WF.sub.6, (CF.sub.3).sub.2 S and (CF.sub.3).sub.2 O.

  12. Gas mixture for diffuse-discharge switch

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Christophorou, L.G.; Carter, J.G.; Hunter, S.R.

    1982-08-31

    Gaseous medium in a diffuse-discharge switch of a high-energy pulse generator is formed of argon combined with a compound selected from the group consisting of CF/sub 4/, C/sub 2/F/sub 6/, C/sub 3/F/sub 8/, n-C/sub 4/F/sub 10/, WF/sub 6/, (CF/sub 3/)/sub 2/S and (CF/sub 3/)/sub 2/O.

  13. Apparatus for recovering gaseous hydrocarbons from hydrocarbon-containing

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    solid hydrates (Patent) | SciTech Connect Apparatus for recovering gaseous hydrocarbons from hydrocarbon-containing solid hydrates Citation Details In-Document Search Title: Apparatus for recovering gaseous hydrocarbons from hydrocarbon-containing solid hydrates A method and apparatus are provided for producing gaseous hydrocarbons from formations comprising solid hydrocarbon hydrates located under either a body of land or a body of water. The vast natural resources of such hydrocarbon

  14. DOE Issues Final Request for Proposal for Portsmouth Gaseous...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    and security; environment, safety, health and quality program; and training services. ... Addthis Related Articles DOE Issues Final Request for Proposal for Paducah Gaseous ...

  15. Property:PotentialBiopowerGaseousGeneration | Open Energy Information

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    Megawatthour Gigawatt hours - 0.000001 GWh, Gigawatt hour, Gigawatthour Joules - 3600000 J, Joules, joules Pages using the property "PotentialBiopowerGaseousGeneration" Showing 25...

  16. 2011 GASEOUS IONS GORDON RESEARCH CONFERENCE

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Scott Anderson

    2011-03-04

    The Gaseous Ions: Structures, Energetics and Reactions Gordon Research Conference will focus on ions and their interactions with molecules, surfaces, electrons, and light. The conference will cover theory and experiments, and systems ranging from molecular to biological to clusters to materials. The meeting goal continues to be bringing together scientists interested in fundamentals, with those applying fundamental phenomena to a wide range of practical problems. Each of the ten conference sessions will focus on a topic within this spectrum, and there will also be poster sessions for contributed papers, with sufficient space and time to allow all participants to present their latest results. To encourage active participation by young investigators, about ten of the poster abstracts will be selected for 15 minute 'hot topic' talks during the conference sessions. Hot topic selection will be done about a month before the meeting. Funds should be available to offset the participation cost for young investigators.

  17. Combustion characteristics of alternative gaseous fuels

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Park, O.; Veloo, Peter S.; Liu, N.; Egolfopoulos, Fokion N.

    2011-01-01

    Fundamental flame properties of mixtures of air with hydrogen, carbon monoxide, and C{sub 1}C{sub 4} saturated hydrocarbons were studied both experimentally and numerically. The fuel mixtures were chosen in order to simulate alternative gaseous fuels and to gain insight into potential kinetic couplings during the oxidation of fuel mixtures. The studies included the use of the counterflow configuration for the determination of laminar flame speeds, as well as extinction and ignition limits of premixed flames. The experiments were modeled using the USC Mech II kinetic model. It was determined that when hydrocarbons are added to hydrogen flames as additives, flame ignition, propagation, and extinction are affected in a counterintuitive manner. More specifically, it was found that by substituting methane by propane or n-butane in hydrogen flames, the reactivity of the mixture is reduced both under pre-ignition and vigorous burning conditions. This behavior stems from the fact that propane and n-butane produce higher amounts of methyl radicals that can readily recombine with atomic hydrogen and reduce thus the rate of the H + O{sub 2} ? O + OH branching reaction. The kinetic model predicts closely the experimental data for flame propagation and extinction for various fuel mixtures and pressures, and for various amounts of carbon dioxide in the fuel blend. On the other hand, it underpredicts, in general, the ignition temperatures.

  18. Growth of graphene films from non-gaseous carbon sources

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Tour, James; Sun, Zhengzong; Yan, Zheng; Ruan, Gedeng; Peng, Zhiwei

    2015-08-04

    In various embodiments, the present disclosure provides methods of forming graphene films by: (1) depositing a non-gaseous carbon source onto a catalyst surface; (2) exposing the non-gaseous carbon source to at least one gas with a flow rate; and (3) initiating the conversion of the non-gaseous carbon source to the graphene film, where the thickness of the graphene film is controllable by the gas flow rate. Additional embodiments of the present disclosure pertain to graphene films made in accordance with the methods of the present disclosure.

  19. Method for removing acid gases from a gaseous stream

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Gorin, Everett (San Rafael, CA); Zielke, Clyde W. (McMurray, PA)

    1981-01-01

    In a process for hydrocracking a heavy aromatic polynuclear carbonaceous feedstock containing reactive alkaline constituents to produce liquid hydrocarbon fuels boiling below about 475.degree. C. at atmospheric pressure by contacting the feedstock with hydrogen in the presence of a molten metal halide catalyst, thereafter separating a gaseous stream containing hydrogen, at least a portion of the hydrocarbon fuels and acid gases from the molten metal halide and regenerating the molten metal halide, thereby producing a purified molten metal halide stream for recycle to the hydrocracking zone, an improvement comprising; contacting the gaseous acid gas, hydrogen and hydrocarbon fuels-containing stream with the feedstock containing reactive alkaline constituents to remove acid gases from the acid gas containing stream. Optionally at least a portion of the hydrocarbon fuels are separated from gaseous stream containing hydrogen, hydrocarbon fuels and acid gases prior to contacting the gaseous stream with the feedstock.

  20. Lessons Learned from Practical Field Experience with High Pressure Gaseous

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Fuels | Department of Energy Practical Field Experience with High Pressure Gaseous Fuels Lessons Learned from Practical Field Experience with High Pressure Gaseous Fuels Presentation given by Douglas Horne of the Clean Vehicle Energy Foundation at the CNG and Hydrogen Lessons Learned Workshop on December 10, 2009 PDF icon cng_h2_workshop_7_horne.pdf More Documents & Publications High Pressure Fuel Storage Cylinders Periodic Inspection and End of Life Issues Workshop Notes from

  1. Characterization of the Installed Costs of Prime Movers Using Gaseous

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Opportunity Fuels, September 2007 | Department of Energy Installed Costs of Prime Movers Using Gaseous Opportunity Fuels, September 2007 Characterization of the Installed Costs of Prime Movers Using Gaseous Opportunity Fuels, September 2007 Supplementary costs are often involved with the installation of power generating equipment utilizing opportunity fuels. In particular, landfill gas (LFG) and anaerobic digester gas (ADG) require many additional considerations when compared with natural

  2. Reliability study: raw and make-up water system, Portsmouth Gaseous Diffusion Plant

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Peterman, S.M.; Wiehle, W.E.; Walder, A.; Houk, T.C.; West, R.M.

    1981-09-01

    A reliability study for determining the ability of the raw and make-up water system to provide reliable and adequate service through the year 2000 has been completed. This study includes an evaluation of the well fields, X-608 Raw Water Pump House, X-605 Booster Station Complex, X-611 Water Treatment Complex, and the associated piping. The raw and make-up water system is in good overall condition, but to maintain this condition, the reliability study team made the following recommendations: (1) increase well field capacity; (2) replace certain speed reducers at X-611; (3) repair deteriorated poles, crossarms, and accessories on F-2 and W-1 feeders; (4) stabilize the landslide in vicinity of the 48 in. raw water main; and (5) initiate further investigation, testing, or engineering studies to correct deficiencies in the supervisory control system between well fields, pump house, and X-611, determine if the 2400 volt underground cables to X-608A wells should be replaced.

  3. Portsmouth Gaseous Diffusion Plant Director's Final Findings and Orders, February 24, 1998

    Office of Environmental Management (EM)

  4. Portsmouth Gaseous Diffusion Plant Director's Final Findings and Orders, February 24, 1998 Summary

    Office of Environmental Management (EM)

    DUF 6 and LiOH) State Ohio Agreement Type Director's Final Findings and Orders Legal Driver(s) RCRA Scope Summary Establish Compliance Orders and schedules regarding the LiOH Storage Plan/LiOH removal, and the DUF 6 Management Plan. Parties DOE; Ohio Environmental Protection Agency; Lockheed Martin Energy Systems, Inc. Date 2/24/1998 SCOPE * Establish Compliance Orders and schedules regarding the LiOH Storage Plan/LiOH removal, and the DUF 6 Management Plan. * Exempt Respondents from 1) the

  5. Portsmouth Gaseous Diffusion Plant Director's Final Findings and Orders, March 18, 1999

    Office of Environmental Management (EM)

  6. Portsmouth Gaseous Diffusion Plant Director's Final Findings and Orders, March 18, 1999 Summary

    Office of Environmental Management (EM)

    Integrated Units) State Ohio Agreement Type Federal Facility Agreement Legal Driver(s) Ohio EPA Scope Summary Integrating the PORTS on-site closure work required by various sources in order to avoid duplication of effort, and efficiently perform sitewide ground water monitoring and surveillance and maintenance activities Parties DOE; Bechtel Jacobs Company LLC; State of Ohio Environmental Protection Agency Date 3/18/1999 SCOPE * Integrate the on-site closure work required for specific units to

  7. Replacement of chlorofluorocarbons (CFCs) at the DOE Gaseous Diffusion Plants: An assessment of global impacts

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Socolof, M.L.; Saylor, R.E.; McCold, L.N.

    1994-12-31

    The US Department of Energy (DOE) operates two uranium enrichment plants. Together, the two plants maintain an inventory of approximately 14 million pounds of a chlorofluorocarbon (CFC), dichlorote-trafluoroethane (CFC-114) as a coolant. Annual operational CFC-114 losses total over 500,000 pounds. In February, 1992, President Bush announced that the US would terminate manufacture and importation of Class 1 ozone depleting substances (including CFC-114) by the end of 1995. To comply with this requirement DOE has considered introducing a replacement coolant by the end of 1995. Two perfluorocarbons (PFCs) - namely, octofluoro-cyclobutane and decafluorobutane - are presently the only known coolants that could meet safety requirements. They would not contribute to stratospheric ozone depletion but contribute to global warming. The paper describes an analysis of the potential global impacts of the proposed replacement of CFC-114 with a PFC. A problem with analyses of global warming and ozone depletion impacts is that even large sources of compounds that contribute to these effects contribute only very small fractions of the total effect. The authors take the position that significant effects to global warming and ozone depletion have already occurred, and that any additional contribution to these effects are contributions to cumulatively significant adverse effects on the environment. The paper describes four alternatives and the extent to which each would contribute to global warming and ozone depletion.

  8. Report on the Biological Monitoring Program at Paducah Gaseous Diffusion Plant, January--December 1995

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Kszos, L.A.

    1996-04-01

    The BMP for PGDP consists of three major tasks: (1) effluent and ambient toxicity monitoring, (2) bioaccumulation studies, and (3) ecological surveys of stream communities (benthic macroinvertebrates, fish). This report focuses on ESD activities occurring from Jan. 1995 to Dec. 1995, although activities conducted outside this period are included as appropriate.

  9. Using Artificial Neural Networks to Forecast Trichloroethylene Concentrations at the Paducah Gaseous Diffusion Plant

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Kopp, Joshua D

    2007-05-01

    To determine the future extent of the TCE contamination plume at PGDP, a groundwater and solute transport model has been developed by the Department of Energy (DOE). The model used to perform these calculations is MODFLOWT which is an enhanced groundwater transport model developed by the United States Geological Survey (USGS). MODFLOWT models groundwater movement as well as the transport of species that are subject to adsorption and decay by using a finite difference method (Duffield et al 2001). A significant limitation of MODFLOWT is that it requires large amounts of data. This data can be difficult and expensive to obtain. MODFLOWT also requires excessive computational time to perform one simulation. It is desirable to have a model that can predict the spatial extent of the contaminant plume without as much required data and that does not require excessive computational times. The purpose of this study is to develop and alternative model to MODFLOWT that can produce similar results for possible use in a companion management model. The alternative model used in this study is an artificial neural network (ANN).

  10. Final environmental impact assessment of the Paducah Gaseous Diffusion Plant site, Paducah, Kentucky

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Not Available

    1982-08-01

    This document considers: the need for uranium enrichment facilities; site location; plant description; and describes the power generating facilities in light of its existing environment. The impacts from continuing operations are compared with alternatives of shutdown, relocation, and alternative power systems. (PSB)

  11. Evaluation of the proposed pilot groundwater pump and treat demonstration for the Paducah Gaseous Diffusion Plant

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Bodenstein, G.W.; Bonczek, R.R.; Early, T.O.; Hale, T.B.; Huff, D.D.; Nickelson, M.D.; Rightmire, C.T.

    1992-11-01

    This report contains the evaluation and recommendations of a Groundwater Corrective Actions Review Team. The primary goal is to evaluate the technical merit of and the need to implement a proposed groundwater pump-and-treat demonstration project for the Northwest contaminant plume at Paducah, Kentucky. A key distinction recognized by the review team is that the proposed project is intended to be a full-scale hydraulic containment of contaminants migrating from the sources of the plume, not plume remediation. The key questions incorporated into this plan are whether (1) dense, nonaqueous-phase liquids (DNAPLS) are present in the Regional Gravel Aquifer (RGA) at the source of the plume and (2) [sup 99]Tc removal must be included as part of any groundwater treatment process. The first question cannot be answered until the contaminant sources are better defined; the second question requires further risk assessment and/or a policy decision by DOE. Technical evaluation by the review team suggests that the recommended course of action be to modify the proposed work plan to include accurate identification of the sources of contaminants and vertical distribution of contaminants within the Northwest plume before a decision is made on the preferred source-control option. If DNAPLs are not present in the RGA, removal or containment of the sources is recommended. If DNAPLs are present, then hydraulic containment will be required. Finally, the review team recognizes that it is necessary to initiate a more comprehensive analysis of sitewide remediation needs to create links between action taken for the Northwest plume and action taken for other contamination sites at PGPD.

  12. Process for removing carbonyl sulfide from gaseous streams

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Tellis, C.

    1981-11-10

    This invention relates to a process for reducing the carbonyl sulfide content of a gaseous stream which has a concentration of carbonyl sulfide of from at least 1 to about 100 parts per million, by volume, which comprises providing an absorbent bed wherein the absorbent comprises zinc oxide and contains no more than 5%, by weight, of an oxide of an alkli or alkaline earth metal, and contacting said process stream with said adsorbent bed at a temperature of from about ambient to 250/sup 0/ C. For a period of time sufficient to remove at least 90% of the carbonyl sulfide content of said gaseous stream.

  13. Development of Compact Gaseous Sensors with Internal Reference for

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Monitoring O2 and NOx in Combustion Environments | Department of Energy Compact Gaseous Sensors with Internal Reference for Monitoring O2 and NOx in Combustion Environments Development of Compact Gaseous Sensors with Internal Reference for Monitoring O2 and NOx in Combustion Environments Compact sensors have been developed to allow for real-time monitoring of O2 and NOx during combustion. PDF icon deer08_singh.pdf More Documents & Publications Compact Electrochemical Bi-functional NOx/O2

  14. Electrochemical cell apparatus having an integrated reformer-mixer nozzle-mixer diffuser

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Shockling, L.A.

    1991-09-10

    An electrochemical apparatus is made having a generator section containing electrochemical cells, a fresh gaseous feed fuel inlet, a gaseous feed oxidant inlet, and at least one hot gaseous spent fuel recirculation channel, where the spent fuel recirculation channel, passes from the generator chamber to combine with the fresh feed fuel inlet to form a reformable mixture, where a reforming chamber contains an outer portion containing reforming material, an inner portion preferably containing a mixer nozzle and a mixer-diffuser, and a middle portion for receiving spent fuel, where the mixer nozzle and mixer-diffuser are preferably both within the reforming chamber and substantially exterior to the main portion of the apparatus, where the reformable mixture flows up and then backward before contacting the reforming material, and the mixer nozzle can operate below 400 C. 1 figure.

  15. Electrochemical cell apparatus having an integrated reformer-mixer nozzle-mixer diffuser

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Shockling, Larry A. (Plum Borough, PA)

    1991-01-01

    An electrochemical apparatus (10) is made having a generator section (22) containing electrochemical cells (16), a fresh gaseous feed fuel inlet (28), a gaseous feed oxidant inlet (30), and at least one hot gaseous spent fuel recirculation channel (46), where the spent fuel recirculation channel (46), passes from the generator chamber (22) to combine with the fresh feed fuel inlet (28) to form a reformable mixture, where a reforming chamber (54) contains an outer portion containing reforming material (56), an inner portion preferably containing a mixer nozzle (50) and a mixer-diffuser (52), and a middle portion (64) for receiving spent fuel, where the mixer nozzle (50) and mixer-diffuser (52) are preferably both within the reforming chamber (54) and substantially exterior to the main portion of the apparatus, where the reformable mixture flows up and then backward before contacting the reforming material (56), and the mixer nozzle (50) can operate below 400.degree. C.

  16. Pulsating catalytic combustion of gaseous fuels

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Gal-Ed, R.

    1988-01-01

    This study investigated the feasibility of operating catalytic combustors under pulsating conditions and the circumstances under which acoustic pulsations increase the combustion efficiencies and output of catalytic combustors. An experimental catalytic combustor was developed, and a theoretical model of acoustic motions in non-isothermal, low match number, duct flow was used to predict the acoustic behavior of the combustor. The effects of pulsations were determined by comparing temperature and species concentration data measured during operation with pulsations at different frequencies and pressure amplitudes to similar data measured during non-pulsating combustion. Experiments conducted with lean mixtures of methane or propane with air revealed that acoustic pulsations affected the temperature distribution along the combustor at flow Reynolds numbers less than 17,500. Excitation of pulsations during methane combustion caused shifts in the location of the combustion, and sometimes the onset of extinction of gas phase reactions. This occurred when several catalyst segments were located in the combustion section between an upstream pressure node and a downstream velocity node, defined here as an in phase location. Propane mixtures were used to investigate possible improvements in combustor's performance. Burning propane mixtures on a single catalyst segment at an in phase location showed that the excitation of acoustic pulsations increased the combustion efficiency by 10 to 50%. The changes in the operation of catalytic combustors caused by acoustic waves are explained by acoustic streaming. When the catalyst surfaces are at an in phase location, rotational flows caused by acoustic streaming enhance the reactants and products diffusion rate to and from the catalyst surfaces, respectively, improving combustion efficiency.

  17. Parallel flow diffusion battery

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Yeh, H.C.; Cheng, Y.S.

    1984-01-01

    A parallel flow diffusion battery for determining the mass distribution of an aerosol has a plurality of diffusion cells mounted in parallel to an aerosol stream, each diffusion cell including a stack of mesh wire screens of different density.

  18. Parallel flow diffusion battery

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Yeh, Hsu-Chi (Albuquerque, NM); Cheng, Yung-Sung (Albuquerque, NM)

    1984-08-07

    A parallel flow diffusion battery for determining the mass distribution of an aerosol has a plurality of diffusion cells mounted in parallel to an aerosol stream, each diffusion cell including a stack of mesh wire screens of different density.

  19. Atmospheric escape by magnetically driven wind from gaseous planets

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Tanaka, Yuki A.; Suzuki, Takeru K.; Inutsuka, Shu-ichiro

    2014-09-01

    We calculate the mass loss driven by magnetohydrodynamic (MHD) waves from hot Jupiters by using MHD simulations in one-dimensional flux tubes. If a gaseous planet has a magnetic field, MHD waves are excited by turbulence at the surface, dissipate in the upper atmosphere, and drive gas outflows. Our calculation shows that mass-loss rates are comparable to the observed mass-loss rates of hot Jupiters; therefore, it is suggested that gas flow driven by MHD waves can play an important role in the mass loss from gaseous planets. The mass-loss rate varies dramatically with the radius and mass of a planet: a gaseous planet with a small mass but an inflated radius produces a very large mass-loss rate. We also derive an analytical expression for the dependence of mass-loss rate on planet radius and mass that is in good agreement with the numerical calculation. The mass-loss rate also depends on the amplitude of the velocity dispersion at the surface of a planet. Thus, we expect to infer the condition of the surface and the internal structure of a gaseous planet from future observations of mass-loss rate from various exoplanets.

  20. Methods for deacidizing gaseous mixtures by phase enhanced absorption

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Hu, Liang

    2012-11-27

    An improved process for deacidizing a gaseous mixture using phase enhanced gas-liquid absorption is described. The process utilizes a multiphasic absorbent that absorbs an acid gas at increased rate and leads to reduced overall energy costs for the deacidizing operation.

  1. Method of producing gaseous products using a downflow reactor

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Cortright, Randy D; Rozmiarek, Robert T; Hornemann, Charles C

    2014-09-16

    Reactor systems and methods are provided for the catalytic conversion of liquid feedstocks to synthesis gases and other noncondensable gaseous products. The reactor systems include a heat exchange reactor configured to allow the liquid feedstock and gas product to flow concurrently in a downflow direction. The reactor systems and methods are particularly useful for producing hydrogen and light hydrocarbons from biomass-derived oxygenated hydrocarbons using aqueous phase reforming. The generated gases may find used as a fuel source for energy generation via PEM fuel cells, solid-oxide fuel cells, internal combustion engines, or gas turbine gensets, or used in other chemical processes to produce additional products. The gaseous products may also be collected for later use or distribution.

  2. Process and composition for drying of gaseous hydrogen halides

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Tom, Glenn M. (New Milford, CT); Brown, Duncan W. (Wilton, CT)

    1989-08-01

    A process for drying a gaseous hydrogen halide of the formula HX, wherein X is selected from the group consisting of bromine, chlorine, fluorine, and iodine, to remove water impurity therefrom, comprising: contacting the water impurity-containing gaseous hydrogen halide with a scavenger including a support having associated therewith one or more members of the group consisting of: (a) an active scavenging moiety selected from one or more members of the group consisting of: (i) metal halide compounds dispersed in the support, of the formula MX.sub.y ; and (ii) metal halide pendant functional groups of the formula -MX.sub.y-1 covalently bonded to the support, wherein M is a y-valent metal, and y is an integer whose value is from 1 to 3; (b) corresponding partially or fully alkylated compounds and/or pendant functional groups, of the metal halide compounds and/or pendant functional groups of (a); wherein the alkylated compounds and/or pendant functional groups, when present, are reactive with the gaseous hydrogen halide to form the corresponding halide compounds and/or pendant functional groups of (a); and M being selected such that the heat of formation, .DELTA.H.sub.f of its hydrated halide, MX.sub.y.(H.sub.2 O).sub.n, is governed by the relationship: .DELTA.H.sub.f .gtoreq.n.times.10.1 kilocalories/mole of such hydrated halide compound wherein n is the number of water molecules bound to the metal halide in the metal halide hydrate. Also disclosed is an appertaining scavenger composition and a contacting apparatus wherein the scavenger is deployed in a bed for contacting with the water impurity-containing gaseous hydrogen halide.

  3. Method and apparatus for analyzing particle-containing gaseous suspensions

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Solomon, Peter R.; Carangelo, Robert M.; Best, Philip E.

    1987-01-01

    The method and apparatus permit analyses, by optical means, of properties of gaseous suspensions of particles, by measuring radiation that is emitted, transmitted or scattered by the particles. Determinations of composition, size, temperature and spectral emittance can be performed either in-situ or by sampling, and Fourier-transform infrared spectrometric techniques are most effectively used. Apparatus specifically adapted for performing radiation scattering analyses, and for collecting radiation from different sources, are provided.

  4. Method and apparatus for analyzing particle-containing gaseous suspensions

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Solomon, P.R.; Carangelo, R.M.; Best, P.E.

    1987-03-24

    The method and apparatus permit analyses, by optical means, of properties of gaseous suspensions of particles, by measuring radiation that is emitted, transmitted or scattered by the particles. Determinations of composition, size, temperature and spectral emittance can be performed either in-situ or by sampling, and Fourier-transform infrared spectrometric techniques are most effectively used. Apparatus specifically adapted for performing radiation scattering analyses, and for collecting radiation from different sources, are provided. 51 figs.

  5. Onsite Gaseous Centrifuge Enrichment Plant UF6 Cylinder Destructive Analysis

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Anheier, Norman C.; Cannon, Bret D.; Qiao, Hong; Carter, Jennifer C.; McNamara, Bruce K.; O'Hara, Matthew J.; Phillips, Jon R.; Curtis, Michael M.

    2012-07-17

    The IAEA safeguards approach for gaseous centrifuge enrichment plants (GCEPs) includes measurements of gross, partial, and bias defects in a statistical sampling plan. These safeguard methods consist principally of mass and enrichment nondestructive assay (NDA) verification. Destructive assay (DA) samples are collected from a limited number of cylinders for high precision offsite mass spectrometer analysis. DA is typically used to quantify bias defects in the GCEP material balance. Under current safeguards measures, the operator collects a DA sample from a sample tap following homogenization. The sample is collected in a small UF6 sample bottle, then sealed and shipped under IAEA chain of custody to an offsite analytical laboratory. Current practice is expensive and resource intensive. We propose a new and novel approach for performing onsite gaseous UF6 DA analysis that provides rapid and accurate assessment of enrichment bias defects. DA samples are collected using a custom sampling device attached to a conventional sample tap. A few micrograms of gaseous UF6 is chemically adsorbed onto a sampling coupon in a matter of minutes. The collected DA sample is then analyzed onsite using Laser Ablation Absorption Ratio Spectrometry-Destructive Assay (LAARS-DA). DA results are determined in a matter of minutes at sufficient accuracy to support reliable bias defect conclusions, while greatly reducing DA sample volume, analysis time, and cost.

  6. Microfabricated diffusion source

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Oborny, Michael C. (Albuquerque, NM); Frye-Mason, Gregory C. (Cedar Crest, NM); Manginell, Ronald P. (Albuquerque, NM)

    2008-07-15

    A microfabricated diffusion source to provide for a controlled diffusion rate of a vapor comprises a porous reservoir formed in a substrate that can be filled with a liquid, a headspace cavity for evaporation of the vapor therein, a diffusion channel to provide a controlled diffusion of the vapor, and an outlet to release the vapor into a gas stream. The microfabricated diffusion source can provide a calibration standard for a microanalytical system. The microanalytical system with an integral diffusion source can be fabricated with microelectromechanical systems technologies.

  7. Pattern recognition techniques to reduce backgrounds in the search for the {sup 136}Xe double beta decay with gaseous TPCs

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Iguaz, F. J.; Cebrin, S.; Dafni, T.; Gmez, H.; Herrera, D. C.; Irastorza, I. G.; Luzon, G.; Segui, L.; Tomas, A. [Laboratorio de Fsica Nuclear y Astropartculas, Universidad de Zaragoza (Spain)] [Laboratorio de Fsica Nuclear y Astropartculas, Universidad de Zaragoza (Spain)

    2013-08-08

    The observation of the neutrinoless double beta decay may provide essential information on the nature of neutrinos. Among the current experimental approaches, a high pressure gaseous TPC is an attractive option for the search of double beta decay due to its good energy resolution and the detailed topological information of each event. We present in this talk a detailed study of the ionization topology of the {sup 136}Xe double beta decay events in a High Pressure Xenon TPC, as well as that of the typical competing backgrounds. We define some observables based on graph theory concepts to develop automated discrimination algorithms. Our criteria are able to reduce the background level by about three orders of magnitude in the region of interest of the {sup 136}Xe Q{sub ??} for a signal acceptance of 40%. This result provides a quantitative assessment of the benefit of topological information offered by gaseous TPCs for double beta decay search, and proves that it is a promising feature in view of future experiments in the field. Possible ideas for further improvement in the discrimination algorithms and the dependency of these results with the gas diffusion and readout granularity will be also discussed.

  8. Process for obtaining gaseous streams rich in ethene

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Cabral, J.A.; Coutinho, P.H.

    1981-02-17

    This invention relates to the production of ethene with a highly profitable yield by means of fluidized bed catalytic cracking of a mixture containing 0.13 to 50 parts by weight of ethanol to 100 parts by weight of hydrocarbons blend at a temperature between 430/sup 0/C and 550/sup 0/C., and pressure between 0 and 5.0kg/cm2 ga in such way that the final gaseous product resulting therefrom has an ethene content between 18.8% and 64% by volume.

  9. Theoretical solution of the minimum charge problem for gaseous detonations

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Ostensen, R.W.

    1990-12-01

    A theoretical model was developed for the minimum charge to trigger a gaseous detonation in spherical geometry as a generalization of the Zeldovich model. Careful comparisons were made between the theoretical predictions and experimental data on the minimum charge to trigger detonations in propane-air mixtures. The predictions are an order of magnitude too high, and there is no apparent resolution to the discrepancy. A dynamic model, which takes into account the experimentally observed oscillations in the detonation zone, may be necessary for reliable predictions. 27 refs., 9 figs.

  10. Magnetic roller gas gate employing transonic sweep gas flow to isolate regions of differing gaseous composition or pressure

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Doehler, Joachim (Union Lake, MI)

    1994-12-20

    Disclosed herein is an improved gas gate for interconnecting regions of differing gaseous composition and/or pressure. The gas gate includes a narrow, elongated passageway through which substrate material is adapted to move between said regions and inlet means for introducing a flow of non-contaminating sweep gas into a central portion of said passageway. The gas gate is characterized in that the height of the passageway and the flow rate of the sweep gas therethrough provides for transonic flow of the sweep gas between the inlet means and at least one of the two interconnected regions, thereby effectively isolating one region, characterized by one composition and pressure, from another region, having a differing composition and/or pressure, by decreasing the mean-free-path length between collisions of diffusing species within the transonic flow region. The gas gate preferably includes a manifold at the juncture point where the gas inlet means and the passageway interconnect.

  11. Low energy consumption method for separating gaseous mixtures and in particular for medium purity oxygen production

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Jujasz, Albert J. (North Olmsted, OH); Burkhart, James A. (Olmsted Falls, OH); Greenberg, Ralph (New York, NY)

    1988-01-01

    A method for the separation of gaseous mixtures such as air and for producing medium purity oxygen, comprising compressing the gaseous mixture in a first compressor to about 3.9-4.1 atmospheres pressure, passing said compressed gaseous mixture in heat exchange relationship with sub-ambient temperature gaseous nitrogen, dividing the cooled, pressurized gaseous mixture into first and second streams, introducing the first stream into the high pressure chamber of a double rectification column, separating the gaseous mixture in the rectification column into a liquid oxygen-enriched stream and a gaseous nitrogen stream and supplying the gaseous nitrogen stream for cooling the compressed gaseous mixture, removing the liquid oxygen-enriched stream from the low pressure chamber of the rectification column and pumping the liquid, oxygen-enriched steam to a predetermined pressure, cooling the second stream, condensing the cooled second stream and evaporating the oxygen-enriched stream in an evaporator-condenser, delivering the condensed second stream to the high pressure chamber of the rectification column, and heating the oxygen-enriched stream and blending the oxygen-enriched stream with a compressed blend-air stream to the desired oxygen concentration.

  12. Regenerable sorbent and method for removing hydrogen sulfide from hot gaseous mixtures

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Farrior, Jr., William L. (Morgantown, WV)

    1978-01-01

    Hydrogen sulfide is effectively removed from hot gaseous mixtures useful for industrial purposes by employing a solid absorbent consisting of silica-supported iron oxide in pellet form.

  13. TREATMENT OF GASEOUS EFFLUENTS ISSUED FROM RECYCLING A REVIEW OF THE CURRENT PRACTICES AND PROSPECTIVE IMPROVEMENTS

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Patricia Paviet-Hartmann; William Kerlin; Steven Bakhtiar

    2010-11-01

    The objectives of gaseous waste management for the recycling of nuclear used fuel is to reduce by best practical means (ALARA) and below regulatory limits, the quantity of activity discharged to the environment. The industrial PUREX process recovers the fissile material U(VI) and Pu(IV) to re-use them for the fabrication of new fuel elements e.g. recycling plutonium as a Mixed Oxide (MOX) fuel or recycling uranium for new enrichment for Pressurized Water Reactor (PWR). Meanwhile the separation of the waste (activation and fission product) is performed as a function of their pollution in order to store and avoid any potential danger and release towards the biosphere. Raffinate, that remains after the extraction step and which contains mostly all fission products and minor actinides is vitrified, the glass package being stored temporarily at the recycling plant site. Hulls and end pieces coming from PWR recycled fuel are compacted by means of a press leading to a volume reduced to 1/5th of initial volume. An organic waste treatment step will recycle the solvent, mainly tri-butyl phosphate (TBP) and some of its hydrolysis and radiolytic degradation products such as dibutyl phosphate (HDPB) and monobutyl phosphate (H2MBP). Although most scientific and technological development work focused on high level waste streams, a considerable effort is still under way in the area of intermediate and low level waste management. Current industrial practices for the treatment of gaseous effluents focusing essentially on Iodine-129 and Krypton-85 will be reviewed along with the development of novel technologies to extract, condition, and store these fission products. As an example, the current industrial practice is to discharge Kr-85, a radioactive gas, entirely to the atmosphere after dilution, but for the large recycling facilities envisioned in the near future, several techniques such as 1) cryogenic distillation and selective absorption in solvents, 2) adsorption on activated charcoal, 3) selective sorption on chemical modified zeolites, or 4) diffusion through membranes with selective permeability are potential technologies to retain the gas.

  14. Cosmology with matter diffusion

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Calogero, Simone; Velten, Hermano E-mail: velten@cce.ufes.br

    2013-11-01

    We construct a viable cosmological model based on velocity diffusion of matter particles. In order to ensure the conservation of the total energy-momentum tensor in the presence of diffusion, we include a cosmological scalar field ? which we identify with the dark energy component of the universe. The model is characterized by only one new degree of freedom, the diffusion parameter ?. The standard ?CDM model can be recovered by setting ? = 0. If diffusion takes place (? > 0) the dynamics of the matter and of the dark energy fields are coupled. We argue that the existence of a diffusion mechanism in the universe may serve as a theoretical motivation for interacting models. We constrain the background dynamics of the diffusion model with Supernovae, H(z) and BAO data. We also perform a perturbative analysis of this model in order to understand structure formation in the universe. We calculate the impact of diffusion both on the CMB spectrum, with particular attention to the integrated Sachs-Wolfe signal, and on the matter power spectrum P(k). The latter analysis places strong constraints on the magnitude of the diffusion mechanism but does not rule out the model.

  15. Hydrogen diffusion in Lead Zirconate Titanate and Barium Titanate

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Alvine, Kyle J.; Vijayakumar, M.; Bowden, Mark E.; Schemer-Kohrn, Alan L.; Pitman, Stan G.

    2012-08-28

    Hydrogen is a potential clean-burning, next-generation fuel for vehicle and stationary power. Unfortunately, hydrogen is also well known to have serious materials compatibility issues in metals, polymers, and ceramics. Piezoelectric actuator materials proposed for low-cost, high efficiency high-pressure hydrogen internal combustion engines (HICE) are known to degrade rapidly in hydrogen. This limits their potential use and poses challenges for HICE. Hydrogen-induced degradation of piezoelectrics is also an issue for low-pressure hydrogen passivation in ferroelectric random access memory. Currently, there is a lack of data in the literature on hydrogen species diffusion in piezoelectrics in the temperature range appropriate for the HICE as charged via a gaseous route. We present 1HNMR quantification of the local hydrogen species diffusion within lead zirconate titanate and barium titanate on samples charged by exposure to high-pressure gaseous hydrogen ?32?MPa. Results are discussed in context of theoretically predicted interstitial hydrogen lattice sites and aqueous charging experiments from existing literature.

  16. Nodal Diffusion & Transport Theory

    Energy Science and Technology Software Center (OSTI)

    1992-02-19

    DIF3D solves multigroup diffusion theory eigenvalue, adjoint, fixed source, and criticality (concentration, buckling, and dimension search) problems in 1, 2, and 3-space dimensions for orthogonal (rectangular or cylindrical), triangular, and hexagonal geometries. Anisotropic diffusion theory coefficients are permitted. Flux and power density maps by mesh cell and regionwise balance integrals are provided. Although primarily designed for fast reactor problems, upscattering and internal black boundary conditions are also treated.

  17. Photoelectron spectroscopy of wet and gaseous samples through graphene membranes

    DOE Public Access Gateway for Energy & Science Beta (PAGES Beta)

    Kraus, Jrgen; Reichelt, Robert; Gnther, Sebastian; Gregoratti, Luca; Amati, Matteo; Kiskinova, Maya; Yulaev, Alexander; Vlassiouk, Ivan V.; Kolmakov, Andrei

    2014-09-21

    Photoelectron spectroscopy (PES) and microscopy are highly important for exploring morphologically and chemically complex liquidgas, solidliquid and solidgas interfaces under realistic conditions, but the very small electron mean free path inside dense media imposes serious experimental challenges. Currently, near ambient pressure PES is conducted using dexterously designed electron energy analyzers coupled with differentially pumped electron lenses which make it possible to conduct PES measurements at a few hPa. This report proposes an alternative ambient pressure approach that can be applied to a broad class of samples and be implemented in conventional PES instruments. It uses ultrathin electron transparent but molecularmoreimpermeable membranes to isolate the high pressure sample environment from the high vacuum PES detection system. We show that the separating graphene membrane windows are both mechanically robust and sufficiently transparent for electrons in a wide energy range to allow soft X-ray PES of liquid and gaseous water. The performed proof-of-principle experiments confirm the possibility to probe vacuum-incompatible toxic or reactive samples placed inside such hermetic, gas flow or fluidic environmental cells.less

  18. Effect of gaseous inhibitors on PCDD/F formation

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Ruokojaervi, P.H.; Halonen, I.A.; Tuppurainen, K.A.; Tarhanen, J.; Ruuskanen, J.

    1998-10-15

    Emissions of polychlorinated dibenzo-p-dioxins (PCDDs) and dibenzofurans (PCDFs) from municipal waste incineration are currently a subject of considerable public concern because of their extreme toxicity. PCDD/F formation in incineration processes is being studied widely, but studies on inhibition are quite sparse, especially in a pilot-plant scale. In this work, the effect of four gaseous inhibitors (sulfur dioxide, ammonia, dimethylamine, and methyl mercaptan) on PCDD/PCDF formation in the combustion of liquid fuel was studied using a pilot-scale plant. The inhibitors were injected into the flue gas stream after the first economizer at a temperature of 670 C and just before the second economizer at 410 C. Both the chlorophenol and PCDD and PCDF concentrations decreased when inhibitors were added. Particle-phase PCDD/F concentrations in particular decreased by up to 98%. The results suggest that the formation of PCDD/Fs is hindered in the particle phase at the early stages of the PCDD/F formation chain, probably even before precursors such as chlorophenols have been formed.

  19. Application of Gaseous Sphere Injection Method for Modeling Under-expanded H2 Injection

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Whitesides, R; Hessel, R P; Flowers, D L; Aceves, S M

    2010-12-03

    A methodology for modeling gaseous injection has been refined and applied to recent experimental data from the literature. This approach uses a discrete phase analogy to handle gaseous injection, allowing for addition of gaseous injection to a CFD grid without needing to resolve the injector nozzle. This paper focuses on model testing to provide the basis for simulation of hydrogen direct injected internal combustion engines. The model has been updated to be more applicable to full engine simulations, and shows good agreement with experiments for jet penetration and time-dependent axial mass fraction, while available radial mass fraction data is less well predicted.

  20. Voluntary Protection Program Onsite Review, Swift and Staley Team, Infrastructure Support Contract, Paducah Gaseous Diffusion Plant- December 2014

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    Annual Merit Review of Swift and Staley Team (SST) for continued participation in the Department of Energy Voluntary Protection Program.

  1. Process for recovering uranium from waste hydrocarbon oils containing the same. [Uranium contaminated lubricating oils from gaseous diffusion compressors

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Conrad, M.C.; Getz, P.A.; Hickman, J.E.; Payne, L.D.

    1982-06-29

    The invention is a process for the recovery of uranium from uranium-bearing hydrocarbon oils containing carboxylic acid as a degradation product. In one aspect, the invention comprises providing an emulsion of water and the oil, heating the same to a temperature effecting conversion of the emulsion to an organic phase and to an acidic aqueous phase containing uranium carboxylate, and recovering the uranium from the aqueous phase. The process is effective, simple and comparatively inexpensive. It avoids the use of toxic reagents and the formation of undesirable intermediates.

  2. Final report. Paducah Gaseous Diffusion Plant PCB sediment survey: Big Bayou Creek and Little Bayou Creek, Paducah, Kentucky

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    1996-12-01

    Laboratory analysis of collected samples along drainage features at PGDP. Report documents levels of PCB contamination and considers locations of contamination and known releases to theorize probable sources to further investigate.

  3. Environmental assessment for the construction and operation of waste storage facilities at the Paducah Gaseous Diffusion Plant, Paducah, Kentucky

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    1994-06-01

    DOE is proposing to construct and operate 3 waste storage facilities (one 42,000 ft{sup 2} waste storage facility for RCRA waste, one 42,000 ft{sup 2} waste storage facility for toxic waste (TSCA), and one 200,000 ft{sup 2} mixed (hazardous/radioactive) waste storage facility) at Paducah. This environmental assessment compares impacts of this proposed action with those of continuing present practices aof of using alternative locations. It is found that the construction, operation, and ultimate closure of the proposed waste storage facilities would not significantly affect the quality of the human environment within the meaning of NEPA; therefore an environmental impact statement is not required.

  4. Evaluation of the proposed pilot groundwater pump and treat demonstration for the Paducah Gaseous Diffusion Plant. Environmental Restoration Program

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Bodenstein, G.W.; Bonczek, R.R.; Early, T.O.; Hale, T.B.; Huff, D.D.; Nickelson, M.D.; Rightmire, C.T.

    1992-11-01

    This report contains the evaluation and recommendations of a Groundwater Corrective Actions Review Team. The primary goal is to evaluate the technical merit of and the need to implement a proposed groundwater pump-and-treat demonstration project for the Northwest contaminant plume at Paducah, Kentucky. A key distinction recognized by the review team is that the proposed project is intended to be a full-scale hydraulic containment of contaminants migrating from the sources of the plume, not plume remediation. The key questions incorporated into this plan are whether (1) dense, nonaqueous-phase liquids (DNAPLS) are present in the Regional Gravel Aquifer (RGA) at the source of the plume and (2) {sup 99}Tc removal must be included as part of any groundwater treatment process. The first question cannot be answered until the contaminant sources are better defined; the second question requires further risk assessment and/or a policy decision by DOE. Technical evaluation by the review team suggests that the recommended course of action be to modify the proposed work plan to include accurate identification of the sources of contaminants and vertical distribution of contaminants within the Northwest plume before a decision is made on the preferred source-control option. If DNAPLs are not present in the RGA, removal or containment of the sources is recommended. If DNAPLs are present, then hydraulic containment will be required. Finally, the review team recognizes that it is necessary to initiate a more comprehensive analysis of sitewide remediation needs to create links between action taken for the Northwest plume and action taken for other contamination sites at PGPD.

  5. Sensitivity Analysis on the Half-Life of Trichloroethylene and the Distribution Coefficient at the Paducah Gaseous Diffusion Plant

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Kopp, Joshua D

    2007-06-01

    To determine the future extent of the TCE contamination plume at PGDP, a groundwater and solute transport model has been developed by the Department of Energy (DOE). The model used to perform these calculations is MODFLOWT which is an enhanced groundwater transport model developed by the United States Geological Survey (USGS). MODFLOWT models groundwater movement as well as the transport of species that are subject to adsorption and decay by using a finite difference method (Duffield et al 2001). A significant limitation of MODFLOWT is that it requires large amounts of data. This data can be difficult and expensive to obtain. MODFLOWT also requires excessive computational time to perform one simulation. It is desirable to have a model that can predict the spatial extent of the contaminant plume without as much required data and that does not require excessive computational times. The purpose of this study is to develop and alternative model to MODFLOWT that can produce similar results for possible use in a companion management model. The alternative model used in this study is an artificial neural network (ANN).

  6. Method for selectively removing fluorine and fluorine-containing contaminants from gaseous UF.sub.6

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Jones, Robert L. (Paducah, KY); Otey, Milton G. (Melber, KY); Perkins, Roy W. (Mayfield, KY)

    1982-01-01

    This invention is a method for effecting preferential removal and immobilization of certain gaseous contaminants from gaseous UF.sub.6. The contaminants include fluorine and fluorides which are more reactive with CaCO.sub.3 than is UF.sub.6. The method comprises contacting the contaminant-carrying UF.sub.6 with particulate CaCO.sub.3 at a temperature effecting reaction of the contaminant and the CaCO.sub.3.

  7. Stellar and gaseous nuclear disks observed in nearby (U)LIRGs (Journal

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    Article) | SciTech Connect Stellar and gaseous nuclear disks observed in nearby (U)LIRGs Citation Details In-Document Search Title: Stellar and gaseous nuclear disks observed in nearby (U)LIRGs We present near-infrared integral field spectroscopy of the central kiloparsec of 17 nearby luminous and ultra-luminous infrared galaxies undergoing major mergers. These observations were taken with OSIRIS assisted by the Keck I and II Adaptive Optics systems, providing spatial resolutions of a few

  8. Diffusion Bonding Characterization

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Diffusion Bonding Characterization - Sandia Energy Energy Search Icon Sandia Home Locations Contact Us Employee Locator Energy & Climate Secure & Sustainable Energy Future Stationary Power Energy Conversion Efficiency Solar Energy Wind Energy Water Power Supercritical CO2 Geothermal Natural Gas Safety, Security & Resilience of the Energy Infrastructure Energy Storage Nuclear Power & Engineering Grid Modernization Battery Testing Nuclear Fuel Cycle Defense Waste Management

  9. Stratified charge combustion system and method for gaseous fuel internal combustion engines

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Rhoades, W.A. Jr.

    1986-03-11

    This patent describes a stratified charge combustion system for use in a gaseous fuel internal combustion engine. This system consists of: (a) a combustion chamber; (b) an ignition; (c) a gaseous fuel injection valve assembly in communication with the combustion chamber and in spaced relationship from the ignition source with a portion of the inside surfaces extending between the fuel injection valve assembly and the ignition source. The fuel valve assembly defines an entry port for the entrance of gaseous fuel, the entry port is recessed outside of a fixed inside surface. (d) means for pressuring the gaseous fuel prior to injection; and (e) a curved transitional surface extending from the entry port toward the portion of the inside surfaces extending between the fuel injection valve assembly and the ignition source. The curved transitional surface curves away from the direction of the entry port. The curved transitional surface has a curvature for the particular direction and configuration of the entry port. The particular configuration of the portion of the inside surfaces extends between the injection valve assembly and the ignition source. The particular arrangment of the fuel injection valve assembly in the combustion chamber, and for the particular pressure of the gaseous fuel is to produce the Coanda Effect in the injected gaseous fuel flow after it passes through the entry port and follows the curved transitional surface under the Coanda Effect. As the curved transitional surface curves away from the direction of the entry port, a flow is produced of the gaseous fuel that clings to and follows the particular configuration of the inside surfaces to the ignition source.

  10. Photocatalytic degradation of gaseous toluene over TiO{sub 2}-SiO{sub 2} composite nanotubes synthesized by sol-gel with template technique

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Zou, Xuejun [State Key Laboratory of Fine Chemical and Key Laboratory of Industrial Ecology and Environmental Engineering, School of Environmental Sciences and Technology, Dalian University of Technology, Dalian, 116024 (China)] [State Key Laboratory of Fine Chemical and Key Laboratory of Industrial Ecology and Environmental Engineering, School of Environmental Sciences and Technology, Dalian University of Technology, Dalian, 116024 (China); Li, Xinyong, E-mail: xyli@dlut.edu.cn [State Key Laboratory of Fine Chemical and Key Laboratory of Industrial Ecology and Environmental Engineering, School of Environmental Sciences and Technology, Dalian University of Technology, Dalian, 116024 (China) [State Key Laboratory of Fine Chemical and Key Laboratory of Industrial Ecology and Environmental Engineering, School of Environmental Sciences and Technology, Dalian University of Technology, Dalian, 116024 (China); Department of Chemical Engineering, Curtin University, Perth, WA 6845 (Australia); Qu, Zhenping; Zhao, Qidong; Shi, Yong; Chen, Yongying [State Key Laboratory of Fine Chemical and Key Laboratory of Industrial Ecology and Environmental Engineering, School of Environmental Sciences and Technology, Dalian University of Technology, Dalian, 116024 (China)] [State Key Laboratory of Fine Chemical and Key Laboratory of Industrial Ecology and Environmental Engineering, School of Environmental Sciences and Technology, Dalian University of Technology, Dalian, 116024 (China); Tade, Moses [Department of Chemical Engineering, Curtin University, Perth, WA 6845 (Australia)] [Department of Chemical Engineering, Curtin University, Perth, WA 6845 (Australia); Liu, Shaomin, E-mail: shaomin.liu@curtin.edu.au [Department of Chemical Engineering, Curtin University, Perth, WA 6845 (Australia)] [Department of Chemical Engineering, Curtin University, Perth, WA 6845 (Australia)

    2012-02-15

    Graphical abstract: TiO{sub 2}-SiO{sub 2} nanotubes (b) were fabricated by sol-gel method using ZnO nanowires (a) as template. Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer A simple method to prepare TiO{sub 2}-SiO{sub 2} nanotubes for photocatalytic toluene removal. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer The TiO{sub 2}-SiO{sub 2} nanotubes have a small blue shift and higher absorption intensity. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer The TiO{sub 2}-SiO{sub 2} nanotubes have an enhanced photoactivity in degrading gaseous toluene. -- Abstract: TiO{sub 2}-SiO{sub 2} composite nanotubes were successfully synthesized by a facile sol-gel technique utilizing ZnO nanowires as template. The nanotubes were well characterized by transmission electron microscopy, X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy, X-ray diffraction, Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy, N{sub 2} adsorption-desorption analysis and UV-vis diffuse reflectance spectroscopy. The nanotubular TiO{sub 2}-SiO{sub 2} composite photocatalysts showed diameter of 300-325 nm, fine mesoporous structure and high specific surface area. The results indicated that the degradation efficiency of gaseous toluene could get 65% after 4 h reaction using the TiO{sub 2}-SiO{sub 2} composite as the photocatalyst under UV light illumination, which was higher than that of P25.

  11. Oak Ridge National Lebroatory Liquid&Gaseous Waste Treatment System Strategic Plan

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Van Hoesen, S.D.

    2003-09-09

    Excellence in Laboratory operations is one of the three key goals of the Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL) Agenda. That goal will be met through comprehensive upgrades of facilities and operational approaches over the next few years. Many of ORNL's physical facilities, including the liquid and gaseous waste collection and treatment systems, are quite old, and are reaching the end of their safe operating life. The condition of research facilities and supporting infrastructure, including the waste handling facilities, is a key environmental, safety and health (ES&H) concern. The existing infrastructure will add considerably to the overhead costs of research due to increased maintenance and operating costs as these facilities continue to age. The Liquid Gaseous Waste Treatment System (LGWTS) Reengineering Project is a UT-Battelle, LLC (UT-B) Operations Improvement Program (OIP) project that was undertaken to develop a plan for upgrading the ORNL liquid and gaseous waste systems to support ORNL's research mission.

  12. Diffusion in silicon isotope heterostructures

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Silvestri, Hughes Howland

    2004-05-14

    The simultaneous diffusion of Si and the dopants B, P, and As has been studied by the use of a multilayer structure of isotopically enriched Si. This structure, consisting of 5 pairs of 120 nm thick natural Si and {sup 28}Si enriched layers, enables the observation of {sup 30}Si self-diffusion from the natural layers into the {sup 28}Si enriched layers, as well as dopant diffusion from an implanted source in an amorphous Si cap layer, via Secondary Ion Mass Spectrometry (SIMS). The dopant diffusion created regions of the multilayer structure that were extrinsic at the diffusion temperatures. In these regions, the Fermi level shift due to the extrinsic condition altered the concentration and charge state of the native defects involved in the diffusion process, which affected the dopant and self-diffusion. The simultaneously recorded diffusion profiles enabled the modeling of the coupled dopant and self-diffusion. From the modeling of the simultaneous diffusion, the dopant diffusion mechanisms, the native defect charge states, and the self- and dopant diffusion coefficients can be determined. This information is necessary to enhance the physical modeling of dopant diffusion in Si. It is of particular interest to the modeling of future electronic Si devices, where the nanometer-scale features have created the need for precise physical models of atomic diffusion in Si. The modeling of the experimental profiles of simultaneous diffusion of B and Si under p-type extrinsic conditions revealed that both species are mediated by neutral and singly, positively charged Si self-interstitials. The diffusion of As and Si under extrinsic n-type conditions yielded a model consisting of the interstitialcy and vacancy mechanisms of diffusion via singly negatively charged self-interstitials and neutral vacancies. The simultaneous diffusion of P and Si has been modeled on the basis of neutral and singly negatively charged self-interstitials and neutral and singly positively charged P species. Additionally, the temperature dependence of the diffusion coefficient of Si in Ge was measured over the temperature range of 550 C to 900 C using a buried Si layer in an epitaxially grown Ge layer.

  13. Diffusion-flame burning of fuel-vapor pockets in air

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Fendell, F.E.; Bush, W.B.; Mitchell, J.A.; Fink, S.F. IV . Center for Propulsion Technology and Fluid Mechanics)

    1994-08-01

    The authors examine analytically, with numerical assistance, the unsteady, diffusively limited burnup of initially unmixed fuel vapor and gaseous oxidizer. They study three simple spherical geometries: (1) an initially uniform sphere of fuel vapor immersed in an unbounded expanse of oxidizer; (2) a variant on case 1 in which only a finite concentric annulus of enveloping oxidizer is available for the burning of the initially uniform sphere of fuel vapor; and (3) an impervious sphere, consisting initially of one uniform hemisphere of fuel vapor and one uniform hemisphere of oxidizer. Of particular interest is the time interval for the exhaustion of the lean reactant, as a function of the fuel-to-oxidizer stoichiometry and the sphere radius. The motivation for these studies is to ascertain the fate of inhomogeneous blobs that arise as a consequence of imperfect fuel/air mixing, e.g., in the context of a supersonic combustor. In such a context, an inhomogeneous blob of gaseous mixture, idealized to have the geometry of a sphere, is examined as a Lagrangian element, as it is convected downstream, without slip, by the surrounding gaseous flow. The longest time for diffusional burnup, for the spherically enclosed geometries, arises for the case in which the fuel vapor and oxidizer are present in stoichiometric proportion.

  14. Diffuse Shortwave Intensive Observation Period

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    1 Diffuse Shortwave Intensive Observation Period The Diffuse Shortwave IOP ran from September 23 to October 12, 2001. During this IOP, Joe Michalsky (The State University of New York-Albany) and Tom Stoffel (National Renewable Energy Laboratory) deployed approximately 15 radiometers of various designs and manufacturers on the SGP Radiometer Calibration Facility. The purpose was to compare the accuracy of the radiometers for diffuse shortwave measurements. The Scripps Institution of Oceanography

  15. Light diffusing fiber optic chamber

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Maitland, Duncan J. (Lafayette, CA)

    2002-01-01

    A light diffusion system for transmitting light to a target area. The light is transmitted in a direction from a proximal end to a distal end by an optical fiber. A diffusing chamber is operatively connected to the optical fiber for transmitting the light from the proximal end to the distal end and transmitting said light to said target area. A plug is operatively connected to the diffusing chamber for increasing the light that is transmitted to the target area.

  16. METHOD FOR REMOVAL OF LIGHT ISOTOPE PRODUCT FROM LIQUID THERMAL DIFFUSION UNITS

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Hoffman, J.D.; Ballou, J.K.

    1957-11-19

    A method and apparatus are described for removing the lighter isotope of a gaseous-liquid product from a number of diffusion columns of a liquid thermal diffusion system in two stages by the use of freeze valves. The subject liquid flows from the diffusion columns into a heated sloping capsule where the liquid is vaporized by the action of steam in a heated jacket surrounding the capsule. When the capsule is filled the gas flows into a collector. Flow between the various stages is controlled by freeze valves which are opened and closed by the passage of gas and cool water respectively through coils surrounding portions of the pipes through which the process liquid is passed. The use of the dual stage remover-collector and the freeze valves is an improvement on the thermal diffusion separation process whereby the fraction containing the lighter isotope many be removed from the tops of the diffusion columns without intercolumn flow, or prior stage flow while the contents of the capsule is removed to the final receiver.

  17. Multiscale simulation of xenon diffusion and grain boundary segregation in UO₂

    DOE Public Access Gateway for Energy & Science Beta (PAGES Beta)

    Andersson, David A.; Tonks, Michael R.; Casillas, Luis; Vyas, Shyam; Nerikar, Pankaj; Uberuaga, Blas P.; Stanek, Christopher R.

    2015-07-01

    In light water reactor fuel, gaseous fission products segregate to grain boundaries, resulting in the nucleation and growth of large intergranular fission gas bubbles. The segregation rate is controlled by diffusion of fission gas atoms through the grains and interaction with the boundaries. Based on the mechanisms established from earlier density functional theory (DFT) and empirical potential calculations, diffusion models for xenon (Xe), uranium (U) vacancies and U interstitials in UO₂ have been derived for both intrinsic (no irradiation) and irradiation conditions. Segregation of Xe to grain boundaries is described by combining the bulk diffusion model with a model formore » the interaction between Xe atoms and three different grain boundaries in UO₂ (Σ5 tilt, Σ5 twist and a high angle random boundary), as derived from atomistic calculations. The present model does not attempt to capture nucleation or growth of fission gas bubbles at the grain boundaries. The point defect and Xe diffusion and segregation models are implemented in the MARMOT phase field code, which is used to calculate effective Xe and U diffusivities as well as to simulate Xe redistribution for a few simple microstructures.« less

  18. Fractional diffusion on bounded domains

    DOE Public Access Gateway for Energy & Science Beta (PAGES Beta)

    Defterli, Ozlem; D'Elia, Marta; Du, Qiang; Gunzburger, Max Donald; Lehoucq, Richard B.; Meerschaert, Mark M.

    2015-03-13

    We found that the mathematically correct specification of a fractional differential equation on a bounded domain requires specification of appropriate boundary conditions, or their fractional analogue. In this paper we discuss the application of nonlocal diffusion theory to specify well-posed fractional diffusion equations on bounded domains.

  19. Portable vapor diffusion coefficient meter

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Ho, Clifford K.

    2007-06-12

    An apparatus for measuring the effective vapor diffusion coefficient of a test vapor diffusing through a sample of porous media contained within a test chamber. A chemical sensor measures the time-varying concentration of vapor that has diffused a known distance through the porous media. A data processor contained within the apparatus compares the measured sensor data with analytical predictions of the response curve based on the transient diffusion equation using Fick's Law, iterating on the choice of an effective vapor diffusion coefficient until the difference between the predicted and measured curves is minimized. Optionally, a purge fluid can forced through the porous media, permitting the apparatus to also measure a gas-phase permeability. The apparatus can be made lightweight, self-powered, and portable for use in the field.

  20. Simulation of xenon, uranium vacancy and interstitial diffusion and grain boundary segregation in UO2

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Andersson, Anders D.; Tonks, Michael R.; Casillas, Luis; Nerikar, Pankaj; Vyas, Shyam; Uberuaga, Blas P.; Stanek, Christopher R.

    2014-10-31

    In light water reactor fuel, gaseous fission products segregate to grain boundaries, resulting in the nucleation and growth of large intergranular fission gas bubbles. Based on the mechanisms established from density functional theory (DFT) and empirical potential calculations 1, continuum models for diffusion of xenon (Xe), uranium (U) vacancies and U interstitials in UO2 have been derived for both intrinsic conditions and under irradiation. Segregation of Xe to grain boundaries is described by combining the bulk diffusion model with a model for the interaction between Xe atoms and three different grain boundaries in UO2 ( ?5 tilt, ?5 twist and a high angle random boundary),as derived from atomistic calculations. All models are implemented in the MARMOT phase field code, which is used to calculate effective Xe and U diffusivities as well as redistribution for a few simple microstructures.

  1. Energy and materials flows in the production of liquid and gaseous oxygen

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Shen, S.; Wolsky, A.M.

    1980-08-01

    Liquid and gaseous oxygen is produced in an energy-intensive air separation processo that also generates nitrogen. More than 65% of the cost of oxygen is attributable to energy costs. Energy use and materials flows are analyzed for various air separation methods. Effective approaches to energy and material conservation in air separation plants include efficient removal of contaminants (carbon dioxide and water), centralization of air products user-industries so that large air separation plants are cost-effective and the energy use in transportation is minimized, and increased production of nitrogen. Air separation plants can produce more than three times more nitrogen than oxygen, but present markets demand, at most, only 1.5 times more. Full utlization of liquid and gaseous nitrogen should be encouraged, so that the wasted separation energy is minimized. There are potential markets for nitrogen in, for example, cryogenic separation of metallic and plastic wastes, cryogenic particle size reduction, and production of ammonia for fertilizer.

  2. Process and system for removing sulfur from sulfur-containing gaseous streams

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Basu, Arunabha; Meyer, Howard S.; Lynn, Scott; Leppin, Dennis; Wangerow, James R.

    2012-08-14

    A multi-stage UCSRP process and system for removal of sulfur from a gaseous stream in which the gaseous stream, which contains a first amount of H.sub.2S, is provided to a first stage UCSRP reactor vessel operating in an excess SO.sub.2 mode at a first amount of SO.sub.2, producing an effluent gas having a reduced amount of SO.sub.2, and in which the effluent gas is provided to a second stage UCSRP reactor vessel operating in an excess H.sub.2S mode, producing a product gas having an amount of H.sub.2S less than said first amount of H.sub.2S.

  3. Pressure Relief Devices for High-Pressure Gaseous Storage Systems: Applicability to Hydrogen Technology

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Pressure Relief Devices for High-Pressure Gaseous Storage Systems: Applicability to Hydrogen Technology A. Kostival, C. Rivkin, W. Buttner, and R. Burgess National Renewable Energy Laboratory Technical Report NREL/TP-5400-60175 November 2013 NREL is a national laboratory of the U.S. Department of Energy Office of Energy Efficiency & Renewable Energy Operated by the Alliance for Sustainable Energy, LLC This report is available at no cost from the National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL) at

  4. Method and apparatus for the selective separation of gaseous coal gasification products by pressure swing adsorption

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Ghate, M.R.; Yang, R.T.

    1985-10-03

    Bulk separation of the gaseous components of multi-component gases provided by the gasification of coal including hydrogen, carbon monoxide, methane, and acid gases (carbon dioxide plus hydrogen sulfide) are selectively adsorbed by a pressure swing adsorption technique using activated carbon zeolite or a combination thereof as the adsorbent. By charging a column containing the adsorbent with a gas mixture and pressurizing the column to a pressure sufficient to cause the adsorption of the gases and then reducing the partial pressure of the contents of the column, the gases are selectively and sequentially desorbed. Hydrogen, the least absorbable gas of the gaseous mixture, is the first gas to be desorbed and is removed from the column in a co-current direction followed by the carbon monoxide, hydrogen and methane. With the pressure in the column reduced to about atmospheric pressure the column is evacuated in a countercurrent direction to remove the acid gases from the column. The present invention is particularly advantageous as a producer of high purity hydrogen from gaseous products of coal gasification and as an acid gas scrubber. 2 figs., 2 tabs.

  5. Method and apparatus for the selective separation of gaseous coal gasification products by pressure swing adsorption

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Ghate, Madhav R. (Morgantown, WV); Yang, Ralph T. (Williamsville, NY)

    1987-01-01

    Bulk separation of the gaseous components of multi-component gases provided by the gasification of coal including hydrogen, carbon monoxide, methane, and acid gases (carbon dioxide plus hydrogen sulfide) are selectively adsorbed by a pressure swing adsorption technique using activated carbon, zeolite or a combination thereof as the adsorbent. By charging a column containing the adsorbent with a gas mixture and pressurizing the column to a pressure sufficient to cause the adsorption of the gases and then reducing the partial pressure of the contents of the column, the gases are selectively and sequentially desorbed. Hydrogen, the least absorbable gas of the gaseous mixture, is the first gas to be desorbed and is removed from the column in a co-current direction followed by the carbon monoxide, hydrogen and methane. With the pressure in the column reduced to about atmospheric pressure the column is evacuated in a countercurrent direction to remove the acid gases from the column. The present invention is particularly advantageous as a producer of high parity hydrogen from gaseous products of coal gasification and as an acid gas scrubber.

  6. Laser acceleration of protons using multi-ion plasma gaseous targets

    DOE Public Access Gateway for Energy & Science Beta (PAGES Beta)

    Liu, Tung -Chang; Shao, Xi; Liu, Chuan -Sheng; Eliasson, Bengt; W. T. Hill, III; Wang, Jyhpyng; Chen, Shih -Hung

    2015-02-01

    We present a theoretical and numerical study of a novel acceleration scheme by applying a combination of laser radiation pressure and shielded Coulomb repulsion in laser acceleration of protons in multi-species gaseous targets. By using a circularly polarized CO₂ laser pulse with a wavelength of 10 μm—much greater than that of a Ti: Sapphire laser—the critical density is significantly reduced, and a high-pressure gaseous target can be used to achieve an overdense plasma. This gives us a larger degree of freedom in selecting the target compounds or mixtures, as well as their density and thickness profiles. By impinging such amore » laser beam on a carbon–hydrogen target, the gaseous target is first compressed and accelerated by radiation pressure until the electron layer disrupts, after which the protons are further accelerated by the electron-shielded carbon ion layer. An 80 MeV quasi-monoenergetic proton beam can be generated using a half-sine shaped laser beam with a peak power of 70 TW and a pulse duration of 150 wave periods.« less

  7. Diffuser for augmenting a wind turbine

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Foreman, Kenneth M.; Gilbert, Barry L.

    1984-01-01

    A diffuser for augmenting a wind turbine having means for energizing the boundary layer at several locations along the diffuser walls is improved by the addition of a short collar extending radially outward from the outlet of the diffuser.

  8. Luminescent Concentration of Diffuse Light

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Luminescent Concentration of Diffuse Light Achieving 30X Concentration Work w as p erformed a t L BL a nd U IUC Bronstein, N .D.; Y ao, Y .; X u, L .; O 'Brien, E .; P owers, A...

  9. MICROSTRUCTURE AND MECHANICAL PROPERTY PERFORMANCE OF COMMERCIAL GRADE API PIPELINE STEELS IN HIGH PRESSURE GASEOUS HYDROGEN

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Stalheim, Mr. Douglas; Boggess, Todd; San Marchi, Chris; Jansto, Steven; Somerday, Dr. B; Muralidharan, Govindarajan; Sofronis, Prof. Petros

    2010-01-01

    The continued growth of the world s developing countries has placed an ever increasing demand on traditional fossil fuel energy sources. This development has lead to increasing research and development of alternative energy sources. Hydrogen gas is one of the potential alternative energy sources under development. Currently the most economical method of transporting large quantities of hydrogen gas is through steel pipelines. It is well known that hydrogen embrittlement has the potential to degrade steel s mechanical properties when hydrogen migrates into the steel matrix. Consequently, the current pipeline infrastructure used in hydrogen transport is typically operated in a conservative fashion. This operational practice is not conducive to economical movement of significant volumes of hydrogen gas as an alternative to fossil fuels. The degradation of the mechanical properties of steels in hydrogen service is known to depend on the microstructure of the steel. Understanding the levels of mechanical property degradation of a given microstructure when exposed to hydrogen gas under pressure can be used to evaluate the suitability of the existing pipeline infrastructure for hydrogen service and guide alloy and microstructure design for new hydrogen pipeline infrastructure. To this end, the 2 Copyright 2010 by ASME microstructures of relevant steels and their mechanical properties in relevant gaseous hydrogen environments must be fully characterized to establish suitability for transporting hydrogen. A project to evaluate four commercially available pipeline steels alloy/microstructure performance in the presences of gaseous hydrogen has been funded by the US Department of Energy along with the private sector. The microstructures of four pipeline steels were characterized and then tensile testing was conducted in gaseous hydrogen and helium at pressures of 800, 1600 and 3000 psi. Based on measurements of reduction of area, two of the four steels that performed the best across the pressure range were selected for evaluation of fracture and fatigue performance in gaseous hydrogen at 800 and 3000 psi. This paper will describe the work performed on four commercially available pipeline steels in the presence of gaseous hydrogen at pressures relevant for transport in pipelines. Microstructures and mechanical property performances will be compared. In addition, recommendations for future work related to gaining a better understanding of steel pipeline performance in hydrogen service will be discussed.

  10. STAR FORMATION IN THE EXTENDED GASEOUS DISK OF THE ISOLATED GALAXY CIG 96

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Espada, D.; Sabater, J.; Verdes-Montenegro, L.; Sulentic, J.; Munoz-Mateos, J. C.; Gil de Paz, A.; Verley, S.; Leon, S.

    2011-07-20

    We study the Kennicutt-Schmidt star formation law and efficiency in the gaseous disk of the isolated galaxy CIG 96 (NGC 864), with special emphasis on its unusually large atomic gas (H I) disk (r{sub Hmathsci}/r{sub 25} = 3.5, r{sub 25} = 1.'85). We present deep Galaxy Evolution Explorer near- and far-UV observations, used as a recent star formation tracer, and we compare them with new, high-resolution (16''or 1.6 kpc) Very Large Array H I observations. The UV and H I maps show good spatial correlation outside the inner 1', where the H I phase dominates over H{sub 2}. Star-forming regions in the extended gaseous disk are mainly located along the enhanced H I emission within two (relatively) symmetric, giant gaseous spiral arm-like features, which emulate an H I pseudo-ring at r {approx_equal} 3'. Inside this structure, two smaller gaseous spiral arms extend from the northeast and southwest of the optical disk and connect to the previously mentioned H I pseudo-ring. Interestingly, we find that the (atomic) Kennicutt-Schmidt power-law index systematically decreases with radius, from N {approx_equal} 3.0 {+-} 0.3 in the inner disk (0.'8-1.'7) to N = 1.6 {+-} 0.5 in the outskirts of the gaseous disk (3.'3-4.'2). Although the star formation efficiency (SFE), the star formation rate per unit of gas, decreases with radius where the H I component dominates as is common in galaxies, we find that there is a break of the correlation at r = 1.5r{sub 25}. At radii 1.5r{sub 25} < r < 3.5r{sub 25}, mostly within the H I pseudo-ring structure, regions exist whose SFE remains nearly constant, SFE {approx_equal} 10{sup -11} yr{sup -1}. We discuss possible mechanisms that might be triggering the star formation in the outskirts of this galaxy, and we suggest that the constant SFE for such large radii (r > 2r{sub 25}) and at such low surface densities might be a common characteristic in extended UV disk galaxies.

  11. Gas separation process using membranes with permeate sweep to remove CO.sub.2 from gaseous fuel combustion exhaust

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Wijmans Johannes G. (Menlo Park, CA); Merkel, Timothy C. (Menlo Park, CA); Baker, Richard W. (Palo Alto, CA)

    2012-05-15

    A gas separation process for treating exhaust gases from the combustion of gaseous fuels, and gaseous fuel combustion processes including such gas separation. The invention involves routing a first portion of the exhaust stream to a carbon dioxide capture step, while simultaneously flowing a second portion of the exhaust gas stream across the feed side of a membrane, flowing a sweep gas stream, usually air, across the permeate side, then passing the permeate/sweep gas back to the combustor.

  12. Boron diffusion in silicon devices

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Rohatgi, Ajeet (Atlanta, GA); Kim, Dong Seop (Atlanta, GA); Nakayashiki, Kenta (Smyrna, GA); Rounsaville, Brian (Stockbridge, GA)

    2010-09-07

    Disclosed are various embodiments that include a process, an arrangement, and an apparatus for boron diffusion in a wafer. In one representative embodiment, a process is provided in which a boric oxide solution is applied to a surface of the wafer. Thereafter, the wafer is subjected to a fast heat ramp-up associated with a first heating cycle that results in a release of an amount of boron for diffusion into the wafer.

  13. THREE-DIMENSIONAL LAGRANGIAN TURBULENT DIFFUSION OF DUST GRAINS IN A PROTOPLANETARY DISK: METHOD AND FIRST APPLICATIONS

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Charnoz, Sebastien; Aleon, Jerome

    2011-08-10

    In order to understand how the chemical and isotopic compositions of dust grains in a gaseous turbulent protoplanetary disk are altered during their journey in the disk, it is important to determine their individual trajectories. We study here the dust-diffusive transport using Lagrangian numerical simulations using the popular 'turbulent diffusion' formalism. However, it is naturally expressed in an Eulerian form, which does not allow the trajectories of individual particles to be studied. We present a simple stochastic and physically justified procedure for modeling turbulent diffusion in a Lagrangian form that overcomes these difficulties. We show that a net diffusive flux F of the dust appears and that it is proportional to the gas density ({rho}) gradient and the dust diffusion coefficient D{sub d}: (F = D{sub d} /{rho} x grad({rho})). It induces an inward transport of dust in the disk's midplane, while favoring outward transport in the disk's upper layers. We present tests and applications comparing dust diffusion in the midplane and upper layers as well as sample trajectories of particles with different sizes. We also discuss potential applications for cosmochemistry and smoothed particle hydrodynamic codes.

  14. Mechanistic study of the isotopic-exchange reaction between gaseous hydrogen and palladium hydride powder

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Outka, D.A.; Foltz, G.W. (Sandia National Labs., Livermore, CA (USA))

    1991-07-01

    A detailed mechanism for the isotopic-exchange reaction between gaseous hydrogen and solid palladium hydride is developed which extends previous model for this reaction by specifically including surface reactions. The modeling indicates that there are two surface-related processes that contribute to the overall rate of exchange: the desorption of hydrogen from the surface and the exchange between surface hydrogen and bulk hydrogen. This conclusion is based upon measurements examining the effect of small concentrations of carbon monoxide were helpful in elucidating the mechanism. Carbon monoxide reversibly inhibits certain steps in the exchange; this slows the overall rate of exchange and changes the distribution of products from the reactor.

  15. Liquefied Gaseous Fuels Safety and Environmental Control Assessment Program: second status report

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    1980-10-01

    This document is arranged in three volumes and reports on progress in the Liquefied Gaseous Fuels (LGF) Safety and Environmental Control Assessment Program made in fiscal Year (FY)-1979 and early FY-1980. Volume 3 contains reports from 6 government contractors on LPG, anhydrous ammonia, and hydrogen energy systems. Report subjects include: simultaneous boiling and spreading of liquefied petroleum gas (LPG) on water; LPG safety research; state-of-the-art of release prevention and control technology in the LPG industry; ammonia: an introductory assessment of safety and environmental control information; ammonia as a fuel, and hydrogen safety and environmental control assessment.

  16. Measurement of the electron antineutrino mass from the beta spectrum of gaseous tritium

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Knapp, D.A.

    1986-12-01

    A measurement has been made of the mass of the electron antineutrino using the beta spectrum from a source of gaseous molecular tritium, and an upper limit of 36 eV/c/sup 2/ has been set on this mass. This measurement is the first upper limit on neutrino mass that does not rely on assumptions about the atomic configuration after the beta decay, and it has significantly smaller systematic errors associated with it than do previous measurements. 130 refs., 83 figs., 8 tabs.

  17. 2013 GASEOUS IONS GORDON RESEARCH CONFERENCE, FEBRUARY 24 - MARCH 1, 2013

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Williams, Evan

    2013-03-01

    The Gaseous Ions: Structures, Energetics and Reactions Gordon Research Conference will focus on ions and their interactions with molecules, surfaces, electrons, and light. The long-standing goal of our community is to develop new strategies for capturing complex molecular architectures as gas phase ions where they can be isolated, characterized and manipulated with great sensitivity. Emergent areas of interest include catalytic mechanisms, cryogenic processing of ions extracted from solution, ion fragmentation mechanisms, and new methods for ion formation and structural characterization. The conference will cover theoretical and experimental advances on systems ranging from model studies at the molecular scale to preparation of nanomaterials and characterization of large biological molecules.

  18. High-temperature sorbent method for removal of sulfur containing gases from gaseous mixtures

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Young, John E.; Jalan, Vinod M.

    1984-01-01

    A copper oxide-zinc oxide mixture is used as a sorbent for removing hydrogen sulfide and other sulfur containing gases at high temperatures from a gaseous fuel mixture. This high-temperature sorbent is especially useful for preparing fuel gases for high temperature fuel cells. The copper oxide is initially reduced in a preconditioning step to elemental copper and is present in a highly dispersed state throughout the zinc oxide which serves as a support as well as adding to the sulfur sorption capacity. The spent sorbent is regenerated by high-temperature treatment with an air fuel, air steam mixture followed by hydrogen reduction to remove and recover the sulfur.

  19. High-temperature sorbent method for removal of sulfur containing gases from gaseous mixtures

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Young, J.E.; Jalan, V.M.

    1984-06-19

    A copper oxide-zinc oxide mixture is used as a sorbent for removing hydrogen sulfide and other sulfur containing gases at high temperatures from a gaseous fuel mixture. This high-temperature sorbent is especially useful for preparing fuel gases for high temperature fuel cells. The copper oxide is initially reduced in a preconditioning step to elemental copper and is present in a highly dispersed state throughout the zinc oxide which serves as a support as well as adding to the sulfur sorption capacity. The spent sorbent is regenerated by high-temperature treatment with an air fuel, air steam mixture followed by hydrogen reduction to remove and recover the sulfur.

  20. High-temperature sorbent method for removal of sulfur-containing gases from gaseous mixtures

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Young, J.E.; Jalan, V.M.

    1982-07-07

    A copper oxide-zinc oxide mixture is used as a sorbent for removing hydrogen sulfide and other sulfur containing gases at high temperatures from a gaseous fuel mixture. This high-temperature sorbent is especially useful for preparing fuel gases for high temperature fuel cells. The copper oxide is initially reduced in a preconditioning step to elemental copper and is present in a highly dispersed state throughout the zinc oxide which serves as a support as well as adding to the sulfur sorbtion capacity. The spent sorbent is regenerated by high-temperature treatment with an air fuel, air steam mixture followed by hydrogen reduction to remove and recover the sulfur.

  1. Diffusive mixing and Tsallis entropy

    DOE Public Access Gateway for Energy & Science Beta (PAGES Beta)

    O'Malley, Daniel; Vesselinov, Velimir V.; Cushman, John H.

    2015-04-29

    Brownian motion, the classical diffusive process, maximizes the Boltzmann-Gibbs entropy. The Tsallis q-entropy, which is non-additive, was developed as an alternative to the classical entropy for systems which are non-ergodic. A generalization of Brownian motion is provided that maximizes the Tsallis entropy rather than the Boltzmann-Gibbs entropy. This process is driven by a Brownian measure with a random diffusion coefficient. In addition, the distribution of this coefficient is derived as a function of q for 1 < q < 3. Applications to transport in porous media are considered.

  2. Cleanup Progress Report - 2015 | Department of Energy

    Energy Savers [EERE]

    5 Cleanup Progress Report - 2015 Read about EM's accomplishments across the Oak Ridge Reservation in 2015. Some of the stories include: East Tennessee Technology Park K-31 Building demolition completed K-27 Building demolition will eliminate final ETTP gaseous diffusion facility K-1037 demo prep begins K-25 historic preservation efforts progress Reindustrialization Program continues land reuse efforts Oak Ridge National Laboratory Components removed from Oak Ridge Research Reactor Prep work

  3. Audit Report: DOE/IG-0854 | Department of Energy

    Energy Savers [EERE]

    4 Audit Report: DOE/IG-0854 July 13, 2011 The Department of Energy's K-25 Building Decontamination and Decommissioning Project The East Tennessee Technology Park (ETTP), formerly the Oak Ridge Gaseous Diffusion Plant, began operation during World War II as part of the Manhattan Project. As the Department of Energy's missions changed, operations at the Plant ceased and the Department began a massive environmental remediation effort with completion anticipated in 2016. In 2001, the Department

  4. Liquefied Gaseous Fuels Safety and Environmental Control Assessment Program: second status report

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Not Available

    1980-10-01

    The Assistant Secretary for Environment has responsibility for identifying, characterizing, and ameliorating the environmental, health, and safety issues and public concerns associated with commercial operation of specific energy systems. The need for developing a safety and environmental control assessment for liquefied gaseous fuels was identified by the Environmental and Safety Engineering Division as a result of discussions with various governmental, industry, and academic persons having expertise with respect to the particular materials involved: liquefied natural gas, liquefied petroleum gas, hydrogen, and anhydrous ammonia. This document is arranged in three volumes and reports on progress in the Liquefied Gaseous Fuels (LGF) Safety and Environmental Control Assessment Program made in Fiscal Year (FY)-1979 and early FY-1980. Volume 1 (Executive Summary) describes the background, purpose and organization of the LGF Program and contains summaries of the 25 reports presented in Volumes 2 and 3. Annotated bibliographies on Liquefied Natural Gas (LNG) Safety and Environmental Control Research and on Fire Safety and Hazards of Liquefied Petroleum Gas (LPG) are included in Volume 1.

  5. Method and system for low-NO.sub.x dual-fuel combustion of liquid and/or gaseous fuels

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Gard, Vincent; Chojnacki, Dennis A; Rabovitser, Ioseph K

    2014-12-02

    A method and apparatus for combustion in which a pressurized preheated liquid fuel is atomized and a portion thereof flash vaporized, creating a mixture of fuel vapor and liquid droplets. The mixture is mixed with primary combustion oxidant, producing a fuel/primary oxidant mixture which is then injected into a primary combustion chamber in which the fuel/primary oxidant mixture is partially combusted, producing a secondary gaseous fuel containing hydrogen and carbon oxides. The secondary gaseous fuel is mixed with a secondary combustion oxidant and injected into the second combustion chamber wherein complete combustion of the secondary gaseous fuel is carried out. The resulting second stage flue gas containing very low amounts of NO.sub.x is then vented from the second combustion chamber.

  6. Environmental site description for a Uranium Atomic Vapor Laser Isotope Separation (U-AVLIS) production plant at the Oak Ridge Gaseous Diffusion Plant Site

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Not Available

    1991-09-01

    In January 1990, the Secretary of Energy approved a plan for the demonstration and deployment of the Uranium Atomic Vapor Laser Isotope Separation (U-AVLIS) technology, with the near-term goal to provide the necessary information to make a deployment decision by November 1992. The U-AVLIS process is based on electrostatic extraction of photoionized U-235 atoms from an atomic vapor stream created by electron-beam vaporization of uranium metal alloy. A programmatic document for use in screening DOE sites to locate the U-AVLIS production plant was developed and implemented in two parts (Wolsko et al. 1991). The first part consisted of a series of screening analyses, based on exclusionary and other criteria, that identified a reasonable number of candidate sites. These sites were then subjected to a more rigorous and detailed comparative analysis for the purpose of developing a short list of reasonable alternative sites for later environmental examination. This environmental site description (ESD) provides a detailed description of the ORGDP site and vicinity suitable for use in an environmental impact statement (EIS). The report is based on existing literature, data collected at the site, and information collected by Argonne National Laboratory (ANL) staff during a site visit. The organization of the ESD is as follows. Topics addressed in Sec. 2 include a general site description and the disciplines of geology, water resources, biotic resources, air resources, noise, cultural resources, land use, socioeconomics, and waste management. Identification of any additional data that would be required for an EIS is presented in Sec. 3. Following the site description and additional data requirements, Sec. 4 provides a short, qualitative assessment of potential environmental issues. 37 refs., 20 figs., 18 tabs.

  7. Type B Accident Investigation Board Report on the September 15, 1997, Drum Explosion at Building C-746-Q, Paducah Gaseous Diffusion Plant, Paducah, Kentucky

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    This report is an independent product of the Type B Accident Investigation Board (Board) appointed by James C. Hall, Manager, Oak Ridge Operations.

  8. Dose Modeling Evaluations and Technical Support Document for the Authorized Limits Request for the C-746-U Landfill at the Paducah Gaseous Diffusion Plant, Paducah, Kentucky

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Boerner, A. J.; Maldonado, D. G.

    2012-06-01

    This report contains the technical basis in support of the DOE?s derivation of Authorized Limits (ALs) for the DOE Paducah C-746-U Landfill. A complete description of the methodology, including an assessment of the input parameters, model inputs, and results is provided in this report. This report also provides initial recommendations on applying the derived soil guidelines. The ORISE-derived soil guidelines are specifically applicable to the Landfill at the end of its operational life. A suggested 'upper bound' multiple of the derived soil guidelines for individual shipments is provided.

  9. Pipe diffusion at dislocations in UO2

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    of pipe diffusion to the overall O 2 and U 4+ diffusion is also discussed. 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved. 1. Introduction During its lifetime in-pile nuclear fuel...

  10. Liquefied gaseous fuels safety and environmental control assessment program: third status report

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Not Available

    1982-03-01

    This Status Report contains contributions from all contractors currently participating in the DOE Liquefied Gaseous Fuels (LG) Safety and Environmental Control Assessment Program and is presented in two principal sections. Section I is an Executive Summary of work done by all program participants. Section II is a presentation of fourteen individual reports (A through N) on specific LGF Program activities. The emphasis of Section II is on research conducted by Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory (Reports A through M). Report N, an annotated bibliography of literature related to LNG safety and environmental control, was prepared by Pacific Northwest Laboratory (PNL) as part of its LGF Safety Studies Project. Other organizations who contributed to this Status Report are Aerojet Energy Conversion Company; Applied Technology Corporation; Arthur D. Little, Incorporated; C/sub v/ International, Incorporated; Institute of Gas Technology; and Massachusetts Institute of Technology. Separate abstracts have been prepared for Reports A through N for inclusion in the Energy Data Base.

  11. Composition, apparatus, and process, for sorption of gaseous compounds of group II-VII elements

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Tom, Glenn M. (New Milford, CT); McManus, James V. (Danbury, CT); Luxon, Bruce A. (Stamford, CT)

    1991-08-06

    Scavenger compositions are disclosed, which have utility for effecting the sorptive removal of hazardous gases containing Group II-VII elements of the Periodic Table, such as are widely encountered in the manufacture of semiconducting materials and semiconductor devices. Gas sorption processes including the contacting of Group II-VII gaseous compounds with such scavenger compositions are likewise disclosed, together with critical space velocity contacting conditions pertaining thereto. Further described are gas contacting apparatus, including mesh structures which may be deployed in gas contacting vessels containing such scavenger compositions, to prevent solids from being introduced to or discharged from the contacting vessel in the gas stream undergoing treatment. A reticulate heat transfer structure also is disclosed, for dampening localized exothermic reaction fronts when gas mixtures comprising Group II-VII constituents are contacted with the scavenger compositions in bulk sorption contacting vessels according to the invention.

  12. Apparatus and method for operating internal combustion engines from variable mixtures of gaseous fuels

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Heffel, James W.; Scott, Paul B.

    2003-09-02

    An apparatus and method for utilizing any arbitrary mixture ratio of multiple fuel gases having differing combustion characteristics, such as natural gas and hydrogen gas, within an internal combustion engine. The gaseous fuel composition ratio is first sensed, such as by thermal conductivity, infrared signature, sound propagation speed, or equivalent mixture differentiation mechanisms and combinations thereof which are utilized as input(s) to a "multiple map" engine control module which modulates selected operating parameters of the engine, such as fuel injection and ignition timing, in response to the proportions of fuel gases available so that the engine operates correctly and at high efficiency irrespective of the gas mixture ratio being utilized. As a result, an engine configured according to the teachings of the present invention may be fueled from at least two different fuel sources without admixing constraints.

  13. Liquefied Gaseous Fuels Safety and Environmental Control Assessment Program: second status report

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    1980-10-01

    Volume 2 consists of 19 reports describing technical effort performed by Government Contractors in the area of LNG Safety and Environmental Control. Report topics are: simulation of LNG vapor spread and dispersion by finite element methods; modeling of negatively buoyant vapor cloud dispersion; effect of humidity on the energy budget of a liquefied natural gas (LNG) vapor cloud; LNG fire and explosion phenomena research evaluation; modeling of laminar flames in mixtures of vaporized liquefied natural gas (LNG) and air; chemical kinetics in LNG detonations; effects of cellular structure on the behavior of gaseous detonation waves under transient conditions; computer simulation of combustion and fluid dynamics in two and three dimensions; LNG release prevention and control; the feasibility of methods and systems for reducing LNG tanker fire hazards; safety assessment of gelled LNG; and a four band differential radiometer for monitoring LNG vapors.

  14. Method and apparatus for removal of gaseous, liquid and particulate contaminants from molten metals

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Hobson, David O. (Oak Ridge, TN); Alexeff, Igor (Oak Ridge, TN); Sikka, Vinod K. (Clinton, TN)

    1988-01-01

    Method and apparatus for removal of nonelectrically-conducting gaseous, liquid, and particulate contaminants from molten metal compositions by applying a force thereto. The force (commonly referred to as the Lorentz Force) exerted by simultaneous application of an electric field and a magnetic field on a molten conductor causes an increase, in the same direction as the force, in the apparent specific gravity thereof, but does not affect the nonconducting materials. This difference in apparent densities cause the nonconducting materials to "float" in the opposite direction from the Lorentz Force at a rapid rate. Means are further provided for removal of the contaminants and prevention of stirring due to rotational forces generated by the applied fields.

  15. Method and apparatus for removal of gaseous, liquid and particulate contaminants from molten metals

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Hobson, D.O.; Alexeff, I.; Sikka, V.K.

    1987-08-10

    Method and apparatus for removal of nonelectrically-conducting gaseous, liquid, and particulate contaminants from molten metal compositions by applying a force thereto. The force (commonly referred to as the Lorentz Force) exerted by simultaneous application of an electric field and a magnetic field on a molten conductor causes an increase, in the same direction as the force, in the apparent specific gravity thereof, but does not affect the nonconducting materials. This difference in apparent densities cause the nonconducting materials to ''float'' in the opposite direction from the Lorentz Force at a rapid rate. Means are further provided for removal of the contaminants and prevention of stirring due to rotational forces generated by the applied fields. 6 figs.

  16. Apparatus for recovering gaseous hydrocarbons from hydrocarbon-containing solid hydrates

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Elliott, Guy R. B. (Los Alamos, NM); Barraclough, Bruce L. (Santa Fe, NM); Vanderborgh, Nicholas E. (Los Alamos, NM)

    1984-01-01

    A method and apparatus are provided for producing gaseous hydrocarbons from formations comprising solid hydrocarbon hydrates located under either a body of land or a body of water. The vast natural resources of such hydrocarbon hydrates can thus now be economically mined. Relatively warm brine or water is brought down from an elevation above that of the hydrates through a portion of the apparatus and passes in contact with the hydrates, thus melting them. The liquid then continues up another portion of the apparatus, carrying entrained hydrocarbon vapors in the form of bubbles, which can easily be separated from the liquid. After a short startup procedure, the process and apparatus are substantially self-powered.

  17. Apparatus and method for operating internal combustion engines from variable mixtures of gaseous fuels

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Heffel, James W. (Lake Matthews, CA); Scott, Paul B. (Northridge, CA); Park, Chan Seung (Yorba Linda, CA)

    2011-11-01

    An apparatus and method for utilizing any arbitrary mixture ratio of multiple fuel gases having differing combustion characteristics, such as natural gas and hydrogen gas, within an internal combustion engine. The gaseous fuel composition ratio is first sensed, such as by thermal conductivity, infrared signature, sound propagation speed, or equivalent mixture differentiation mechanisms and combinations thereof which are utilized as input(s) to a "multiple map" engine control module which modulates selected operating parameters of the engine, such as fuel injection and ignition timing, in response to the proportions of fuel gases available so that the engine operates correctly and at high efficiency irrespective of the gas mixture ratio being utilized. As a result, an engine configured according to the teachings of the present invention may be fueled from at least two different fuel sources without admixing constraints.

  18. Engine gaseous, aerosol precursor and particulate at simulated flight altitude conditions. Technical memo

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Wey, C.C.

    1998-10-01

    The overall objective of the NASA Atmospheric Effects of Aviation Project (AEAP) is to develop scientific bases for assessing atmospheric impacts of the exhaust emissions by both current and future fleets of subsonic and supersonic aircraft. Among the six primary elements of the AEAP is Emissions Characterization. The objective of the Emission Characterization effort is to determine the exhaust emission constituents and concentrations at the engine exit plane. The specific objective of this engine test is to obtain a database of gaseous and particulate emissions as a function of fuel sulfur and engine operating conditions. The database of the particulate emission properties is to be used as a comparative baseline with subsequent flight measurement. The engine used in this test was a Pratt and Whitney F100-200E turbofan engine. Aviation fuel (Jet A) with a range of fuel sulfur was used. Low and high sulfur values are limited by commercially available fuels and by fuel specification limits of 0.3% by weight. Test matrix was set by parametrically varying the combustor inlet temperature (T3) between idle and maximum power setting at simulated SLS and up to five other altitudes for each fuel. Four diagnostic systems, extractive and non-intrusive, were assembled for the gaseous and particulate emissions characterization measurements study. NASA extractive system includes smoke meter and analyzers for measurement of CO, CO{sub 2}, NO, NOx, O{sub 2}, total unburnt hydrocarbons (THC), and SO{sub 2}. Particulate emissions were characterized by University of Missouri-Rolla Mobile Aerosol Sampling System.

  19. Selective Gaseous Extraction: Research, Development and Training for Isotope Production, Final Technical Report

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Bertch, Timothy C,

    2014-03-31

    General Atomics and the University of Missouri Research Reactor (MURR) completed research and development of selective gaseous extraction of fission products from irradiated fuel, which included training and education of MURR students. The process used porous fuel and after irradiation flowed product gases through the fuel to selectively removed desired fission products with the primary goal of demonstrating the removal of rhodium 105. High removal rates for the ruthenium/rhodium (Ru/Rh), tellurium/iodine (Te/I) and molybdenum/technetium (Mo/Tc) series were demonstrated. The success of this research provides for the reuse of the target for further production, significantly reducing the production of actinide wastes relative to processes that dissolve the target. This effort was conducted under DOE funding (DE-SC0007772). General Atomics objective of the project was to conduct R&D on alternative methods to produce a number of radioactive isotopes currently needed for medical and industry applications to include rhodium-105 and other useful isotopes. Selective gaseous extraction was shown to be effective at removing radioisotopes of the ruthenium/rhodium, tellurium/iodine and molybdenum/technetium decay chains while having trace to no quantities of other fission products or actinides. This adds a new, credible method to the area of certain commercial isotope production beyond current techniques, while providing significant potential reduction of process wastes. Waste reduction, along with reduced processing time/cost provides for superior economic feasibility which may allow domestic production under full cost recovery practices. This provides the potential for improved access to domestically produced isotopes for medical diagnostics and treatment at reduced cost, providing for the public good.

  20. MODEL OF DIFFUSERS / PERMEATORS FOR HYDROGEN PROCESSING

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Hang, T; William Jacobs, W

    2007-08-27

    Palladium-silver (Pd-Ag) diffusers are mainstays of hydrogen processing. Diffusers separate hydrogen from inert species such as nitrogen, argon or helium. The tubing becomes permeable to hydrogen when heated to more than 250 C and a differential pressure is created across the membrane. The hydrogen diffuses better at higher temperatures. Experimental or experiential results have been the basis for determining or predicting a diffuser's performance. However, the process can be mathematically modeled, and comparison to experimental or other operating data can be utilized to improve the fit of the model. A reliable model-based diffuser system design is the goal which will have impacts on tritium and hydrogen processing. A computer model has been developed to solve the differential equations for diffusion given the operating boundary conditions. The model was compared to operating data for a low pressure diffuser system. The modeling approach and the results are presented in this paper.

  1. Laser activated diffuse discharge switch

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Christophorou, Loucas G. (Oak Ridge, TN); Hunter, Scott R. (Oak Ridge, TN)

    1988-01-01

    The invention is a gas mixture for a diffuse discharge switch which is capable of changing from a conducting state to an insulating state in the presence of electrons upon the introduction of laser light. The mixture is composed of a buffer gas such as nitrogen or argon and an electron attaching gas such as C.sub.6 H.sub.5 SH, C.sub.6 H.sub.5 SCH.sub.3, CH.sub.3 CHO and CF.sub.3 CHO wherein the electron attachment is brought on by indirect excitation of molecules to long-lived states by exposure to laser light.

  2. An asixymmetric diffusion experiment for the determination of diffusion and sorption coefficients of rock samples

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Takeda, M.; Hiratsuka, T.; Ito, K.; Finsterle, S.

    2011-02-01

    Diffusion anisotropy is a critical property in predicting migration of substances in sedimentary formations with very low permeability. The diffusion anisotropy of sedimentary rocks has been evaluated mainly from laboratory diffusion experiments, in which the directional diffusivities are separately estimated by through-diffusion experiments using different rock samples, or concurrently by in-diffusion experiments in which only the tracer profile in a rock block is measured. To estimate the diffusion anisotropy from a single rock sample, this study proposes an axisymmetric diffusion test, in which tracer diffuses between a cylindrical rock sample and a surrounding solution reservoir. The tracer diffusion between the sample and reservoir can be monitored from the reservoir tracer concentrations, and the tracer profile could also be obtained after dismantling the sample. Semi-analytical solutions are derived for tracer concentrations in both the reservoir and sample, accounting for an anisotropic diffusion tensor of rank two as well as the dilution effects from sampling and replacement of reservoir solution. The transient and steady-state analyses were examined experimentally and numerically for different experimental configurations, but without the need for tracer profiling. These experimental configurations are tested for in- and out-diffusion experiments using Koetoi and Wakkanai mudstones and Shirahama sandstone, and are scrutinized by a numerical approach to identify favorable conditions for parameter estimation. The analysis reveals the difficulty in estimating diffusion anisotropy; test configurations are proposed for enhanced identifiability of diffusion anisotropy. Moreover, it is demonstrated that the axisymmetric diffusion test is efficient in obtaining the sorption parameter from both steady-state and transient data, and in determining the effective diffusion coefficient if isotropic diffusion is assumed. Moreover, measuring reservoir concentrations in an axisymmetric diffusion experiment coupled with tracer profiling may be a promising approach to estimate of diffusion anisotropy of sedimentary rocks.

  3. Photocatalytic degradation of gaseous toluene over hollow spindle-like ?-Fe{sub 2}O{sub 3} loaded with Ag

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Li, Hong [State Key Laboratory of Fine Chemical, Key Laboratory of Industrial Ecology and Environmental Engineering (MOE), School of Environmental Science and Technology, Dalian University of Technology, Dalian 116024 (China) [State Key Laboratory of Fine Chemical, Key Laboratory of Industrial Ecology and Environmental Engineering (MOE), School of Environmental Science and Technology, Dalian University of Technology, Dalian 116024 (China); Department of Basic, Dalian Naval Academy, Dalian 116018 (China); Zhao, Qidong [State Key Laboratory of Fine Chemical, Key Laboratory of Industrial Ecology and Environmental Engineering (MOE), School of Environmental Science and Technology, Dalian University of Technology, Dalian 116024 (China)] [State Key Laboratory of Fine Chemical, Key Laboratory of Industrial Ecology and Environmental Engineering (MOE), School of Environmental Science and Technology, Dalian University of Technology, Dalian 116024 (China); Li, Xinyong, E-mail: xyli@dlut.edu.cn [State Key Laboratory of Fine Chemical, Key Laboratory of Industrial Ecology and Environmental Engineering (MOE), School of Environmental Science and Technology, Dalian University of Technology, Dalian 116024 (China) [State Key Laboratory of Fine Chemical, Key Laboratory of Industrial Ecology and Environmental Engineering (MOE), School of Environmental Science and Technology, Dalian University of Technology, Dalian 116024 (China); Department of Chemical Engineering, Curtin University, Perth, WA 6845 (Australia); Shi, Yong [State Key Laboratory of Fine Chemical, Key Laboratory of Industrial Ecology and Environmental Engineering (MOE), School of Environmental Science and Technology, Dalian University of Technology, Dalian 116024 (China)] [State Key Laboratory of Fine Chemical, Key Laboratory of Industrial Ecology and Environmental Engineering (MOE), School of Environmental Science and Technology, Dalian University of Technology, Dalian 116024 (China); Zhu, Zhengru [Research Center of Hydrology and Engineering, Academy of City and Environment, Liaoning Normal University, Dalian 116029 (China)] [Research Center of Hydrology and Engineering, Academy of City and Environment, Liaoning Normal University, Dalian 116029 (China); Tade, Moses [Department of Chemical Engineering, Curtin University, Perth, WA 6845 (Australia)] [Department of Chemical Engineering, Curtin University, Perth, WA 6845 (Australia); Liu, Shaomin, E-mail: shaomin.liu@curtin.edu.au [Department of Chemical Engineering, Curtin University, Perth, WA 6845 (Australia)] [Department of Chemical Engineering, Curtin University, Perth, WA 6845 (Australia)

    2012-06-15

    Highlights: ? Hollow ?-Fe{sub 2}O{sub 3} spindle-shaped microparticles were prepared for Ag support. ? The hollow ?-Fe{sub 2}O{sub 3} and Ag/?-Fe{sub 2}O{sub 3} materials were used to degrade gaseous toluene. ? Complete degradation of toluene occurred on the Ag/?-Fe{sub 2}O{sub 3} surface. -- Abstract: In this work, hollow spindle-like ?-Fe{sub 2}O{sub 3} nanoparticles were synthesized by a hydrothermal route. The Ag/?-Fe{sub 2}O{sub 3} catalyst was prepared based on the spindle-shaped ?-Fe{sub 2}O{sub 3} with CTAB as the surfactant, which showed excellent photoelectric property and photocatalytic activity. The structural properties of these samples were systematically investigated by X-ray powder diffraction, scanning electronic microscopy, transmission electronic microscopy, energy-dispersive X-ray spectra, and UVVis diffuse reflectance spectroscopy techniques. The photo-induced charge separation in the samples was demonstrated by surface photovoltage measurement. The photocatalytic performances of the Ag/?-Fe{sub 2}O{sub 3} and ?-Fe{sub 2}O{sub 3} samples were comparatively studied in the degradation of toluene under xenon lamp irradiation by in situ FTIR spectroscopy. Benzaldehyde and benzoic acid species could be observed on the ?-Fe{sub 2}O{sub 3} surface rather than Ag/?-Fe{sub 2}O{sub 3} surface. The results indicate that the Ag/?-Fe{sub 2}O{sub 3} sample exhibited higher photocatalytic efficiency.

  4. Transport diffusion of liquid water and methanol through membranes...

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    DIFFUSION; MEMBRANES; METHANOL; TRANSPORT; WATER; GOLD; SURFACES; COMPUTER CALCULATIONS DIFFUSION; WATER; METHANOL; GOLD; MEMBRANES; SURFACES; COMPUTER CALCULATIONS Word Cloud ...

  5. Diffusion Welding of Alloys for Molten Salt Service - Status Report

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Denis Clark; Ronald Mizia; Piyush Sabharwall

    2012-09-01

    The present work is concerned with heat exchanger development for molten salt service, including the proposed molten salt reactor (MSR), a homogeneous reactor in which the fuel is dissolved in a circulating fluid of molten salt. It is an outgrowth of recent work done under the Next Generation Nuclear Plant (NGNP) program; what the two reactor systems have in common is an inherently safe nuclear plant with a high outlet temperature that is useful for process heat as well as more conventional generation The NGNP program was tasked with investigating the application of a new generation of nuclear power plants to a variety of energy needs. One baseline reactor design for this program is a high temperature, gas-cooled reactor (HTGR), which provides many options for energy use. These might include the conventional Rankine cycle (steam turbine) generation of electricity, but also other methods: for example, Brayton cycle (gas turbine) electrical generation, and the direct use of the high temperatures characteristic of HTGR output for process heat in the chemical industry. Such process heat is currently generated by burning fossil fuels, and is a major contributor to the carbon footprint of the chemical and petrochemical industries. The HTGR, based on graphite fuel elements, can produce very high output temperatures; ideally, temperatures of 900 C or even greater, which has significant energy advantages. Such temperatures are, of course, at the frontiers of materials limitations, at the upper end of the performance envelope of the metallic materials for which robust construction codes exist, and within the realm of ceramic materials, the fabrication and joining of which, on the scale of large energy systems, are at an earlier stage of development. A considerable amount of work was done in the diffusion welding of materials of interest for HTGR service with alloys such as 617 and 800H. The MSR output temperature is also materials limited, and is projected at about 700 C. (RR E) A different set of alloys, such as Alloy N and 242, are needed to handle molten salts at this temperature. The diffusion welding development work described here builds on techniques developed during the NGNP work, as applied to these alloys. There is also the matter of dissimilar metal welding, since alloys suitable for salt service are generally not suited for service in gaseous oxidizing environments, and vice versa, and welding is required for the Class I boundaries in these systems, as identified in the relevant ASME codes.

  6. Diffusion Welding of Alloys for Molten Salt Service - Status Report

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Denis Clark; Ronald Mizia

    2012-05-01

    The present work is concerned with heat exchanger development for molten salt service, including the proposed molten salt reactor (MSR), a homogeneous reactor in which the fuel is dissolved in a circulating fluid of molten salt. It is an outgrowth of recent work done under the Next Generation Nuclear Plant (NGNP) program; what the two reactor systems have in common is an inherently safe nuclear plant with a high outlet temperature that is useful for process heat as well as more conventional generation The NGNP program was tasked with investigating the application of a new generation of nuclear power plants to a variety of energy needs. One baseline reactor design for this program is a high temperature, gas-cooled reactor (HTGR), which provides many options for energy use. These might include the conventional Rankine cycle (steam turbine) generation of electricity, but also other methods: for example, Brayton cycle (gas turbine) electrical generation, and the direct use of the high temperatures characteristic of HTGR output for process heat in the chemical industry. Such process heat is currently generated by burning fossil fuels, and is a major contributor to the carbon footprint of the chemical and petrochemical industries. The HTGR, based on graphite fuel elements, can produce very high output temperatures; ideally, temperatures of 900 C or even greater, which has significant energy advantages. Such temperatures are, of course, at the frontiers of materials limitations, at the upper end of the performance envelope of the metallic materials for which robust construction codes exist, and within the realm of ceramic materials, the fabrication and joining of which, on the scale of large energy systems, are at an earlier stage of development. A considerable amount of work was done in the diffusion welding of materials of interest for HTGR service with alloys such as 617 and 800H. The MSR output temperature is also materials limited, and is projected at about 700 C. (RR E) A different set of alloys, such as Alloy N and 242, are needed to handle molten salts at this temperature. The diffusion welding development work described here builds on techniques developed during the NGNP work, as applied to these alloys. There is also the matter of dissimilar metal welding, since alloys suitable for salt service are generally not suited for service in gaseous oxidizing environments, and vice versa, and welding is required for the Class I boundaries in these systems, as identified in the relevant ASME codes.

  7. Experience with Palladium Diffusers in Tritium Processing

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Motyka, T.; Clark, E.A.; Dauchess, D.A.; Heung, L.K.; Rabum, R.L.

    1995-01-27

    Hydrogen isotopes are separated from other gases by permeation through palladium and palladium-silver alloy diffusers in the Tritium Facilities at the US Department of Energy Savannah River Site (SRS). Diffusers have provided effective service for almost forty years. This paper is an overview of the operational experience with the various diffuser types that have been employed at SRS. Alternative technologies being developed at SRS for purifying hydrogen isotopes are also discussed.

  8. Modeling of temporal behavior of isotopic exchange between gaseous hydrogen and palladium hydride power

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Melius, C F; Foltz, G W

    1987-01-01

    A parametric rate-equation model is described which depicts the time dependent behavior of the isotopic exchange process occurring between the solid and gas phases in gaseous hydrogen (deuterium) flows through packed-powder palladium deuteride (hydride) beds. The exchange mechanism is assumed to be rate-limited by processes taking place on the surface of the powder. The fundamental kinetic parameter of the model is the isotopic exchange probability, p, which is the probability that an isotopic exchange event occurs during a collision of a gas phase atom with the surface. Isotope effects between the gas and solid phases are explicitly included in terms of the isotope separation factor, ..cap alpha... Results of the model are compared with recent experimental measurements of isotope exchange in the ..beta..-phase hydrogen/palladium system and, using a literature value of ..cap alpha.. = 2.4, a good description of the experimental data is obtained for p approx. 10/sup -7/. In view of the importance of the isotope effects in the hydrogen/palladium system and the range of ..cap alpha.. values reported for the ..beta..-phase in the literature, the sensitivity of the model results to a variation in the value of ..cap alpha.. is examined.

  9. Activities to support the liquefied gaseous fuels spill test facility program. Final report

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Sheesley, D.; King, S.B.; Routh, T.

    1997-03-01

    Approximately a hundred years ago the petrochemical industry was in its infancy, while the chemical industry was already well established. Today, both of these industries, which are almost indistinguishable, are a substantial part of the makeup of the U.S. economy and the lifestyle we enjoy. It is difficult to identify a single segment of our daily lives that isn`t affected by these industries and the products or services they make available for our use. Their survival and continued function in a competitive world market are necessary to maintain our current standard of living. The occurrence of accidents in these industries has two obvious effects: (1) the loss of product during the accident and future productivity because of loss of a portion of a facility or transport medium, and (2) the potential loss of life or injury to individuals, whether workers, emergency responders, or members of the general public. A great deal of work has been conducted at the Liquefied Gaseous Fuels Spill test Facility (LGFSTF) on hazardous spills. WRI has conducted accident investigations as well as provided information on the research results via the internet and bibliographies.

  10. Statistics for the Relative Detectability of Chemicals in Weak Gaseous Plumes in LWIR Hyperspectral Imagery

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Metoyer, Candace N.; Walsh, Stephen J.; Tardiff, Mark F.; Chilton, Lawrence

    2008-10-30

    The detection and identification of weak gaseous plumes using thermal imaging data is complicated by many factors. These include variability due to atmosphere, ground and plume temperature, and background clutter. This paper presents an analysis of one formulation of the physics-based model that describes the at-sensor observed radiance. The motivating question for the analyses performed in this paper is as follows. Given a set of backgrounds, is there a way to predict the background over which the probability of detecting a given chemical will be the highest? Two statistics were developed to address this question. These statistics incorporate data from the long-wave infrared band to predict the background over which chemical detectability will be the highest. These statistics can be computed prior to data collection. As a preliminary exploration into the predictive ability of these statistics, analyses were performed on synthetic hyperspectral images. Each image contained one chemical (either carbon tetrachloride or ammonia) spread across six distinct background types. The statistics were used to generate predictions for the background ranks. Then, the predicted ranks were compared to the empirical ranks obtained from the analyses of the synthetic images. For the simplified images under consideration, the predicted and empirical ranks showed a promising amount of agreement. One statistic accurately predicted the best and worst background for detection in all of the images. Future work may include explorations of more complicated plume ingredients, background types, and noise structures.

  11. Safeguards Verification Measurements using Laser Ablation, Absorbance Ratio Spectrometry in Gaseous Centrifuge Enrichment Plants

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Anheier, Norman C.; Cannon, Bret D.; Kulkarni, Gourihar R.; Munley, John T.; Nelson, Danny A.; Qiao, Hong; Phillips, Jon R.

    2012-07-17

    Laser Ablation Absorbance Ratio Spectrometry (LAARS) is a new verification measurement technology under development at the US Department of Energy (DOE) Pacific Northwest National Laboratory (PNNL). LAARS uses three lasers to ablate and then measure the relative isotopic abundance of uranium compounds. An ablation laser is tightly focused on uranium-bearing solids, producing a small atomic uranium vapor plume. Two collinear wavelength-tuned spectrometry lasers transit through the plume and the absorbance of U-235 and U-238 isotopes are measured to determine U-235 enrichment. The measurement is independent of chemical form and degree of dilution with nuisance dust and other materials. LAARS has high relative precision and detection limits approaching the femtogram range for U-235. The sample is scanned and assayed point-by-point at rates reaching 1 million measurements/hour, enabling LAARS to detect and analyze uranium in trace samples. The spectrometer is assembled using primarily commercially available components and features a compact design and automated analysis.Two specific gaseous centrifuge enrichment plant (GCEP) applications of the spectrometer are currently under development: 1) LAARS-Environmental Sampling (ES), which collects and analyzes aerosol particles for GCEP misuse detection and 2) LAARS-Destructive Assay (DA), which enables onsite enrichment DA sample collection and analysis for protracted diversion detection. The two applications propose game-changing technological advances in GCEP safeguards verification.

  12. Uranium isotope exchange between gaseous UF{sub 6} and solid UF{sub 5}

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Yato, Yumio; Kishimoto, Yoichiro; Sasao, Nobuyuki; Suto, Osamu; Funasaka, Hideyuki

    1996-08-01

    Based on a collision model, a new rate equation is derived for uranium isotope exchange between gaseous UF{sub 6} and solid UF{sub 5} by considering the number of UF{sub 5} molecules on the solid surface to be dependent on time. The reaction parameters included in the equation are determined from the experimental data and compared with the previous ones. A remarkable agreement is found between the particle sizes of UF{sub 5} estimated from the reaction parameter and from the direct observation with an electron microscope. The rate equation given in this work fully satisfies the related mass conservation and furthermore includes explicitly the terms related to the UF{sub 6} density and the mean size of UF{sub 5} particles, both of which are considered to cause an important effect on the reaction. This remarkable feature facilitates the simulation studies on this reaction under various conditions. The long term behavior of a simulated exchange reaction is studied under the condition considered to be close to that in a recovery zone of the MLIS process. The result indicates that the reaction is virtually limited to the solid surface under this conditions and thus the depletion of {sup 235}UF{sub 5} concentration averaged over the whole UF{sub 5} particles is not significant even after 200 h of the exchange reaction.

  13. 2-D Multi-Group Diffusion Program

    Energy Science and Technology Software Center (OSTI)

    1992-07-21

    The multigroup, two-dimensional neutron diffusion equations are solved in x-y, r-z, or r-theta geometry.

  14. Permeation, Diffusion, Solubility Measurements: Results and Issues...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Permeation, Diffusion, Solubility Measurements: Results and Issues Research Objectives: To understand the hydrogen transport behavior Under conditions relevant to hydrogen delivery ...

  15. Diffuse Irradiance Study Planned for October

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    and radiometers installed at the SGP CART site near Lamont, Oklahoma. The instruments measuring diffuse solar radiation have black sphere-shaped shades to keep direct sunlight from...

  16. Vapor Barriers or Vapor Diffusion Retarders

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    In most U.S. climates, vapor diffusion retarders can help prevent moisture problems, increase energy efficiency, and improve comfort in homes.

  17. Finite-difference schemes for anisotropic diffusion

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Es, Bram van; Koren, Barry; Blank, Hugo J. de

    2014-09-01

    In fusion plasmas diffusion tensors are extremely anisotropic due to the high temperature and large magnetic field strength. This causes diffusion, heat conduction, and viscous momentum loss, to effectively be aligned with the magnetic field lines. This alignment leads to different values for the respective diffusive coefficients in the magnetic field direction and in the perpendicular direction, to the extent that heat diffusion coefficients can be up to 10{sup 12} times larger in the parallel direction than in the perpendicular direction. This anisotropy puts stringent requirements on the numerical methods used to approximate the MHD-equations since any misalignment of the grid may cause the perpendicular diffusion to be polluted by the numerical error in approximating the parallel diffusion. Currently the common approach is to apply magnetic field-aligned coordinates, an approach that automatically takes care of the directionality of the diffusive coefficients. This approach runs into problems at x-points and at points where there is magnetic re-connection, since this causes local non-alignment. It is therefore useful to consider numerical schemes that are tolerant to the misalignment of the grid with the magnetic field lines, both to improve existing methods and to help open the possibility of applying regular non-aligned grids. To investigate this, in this paper several discretization schemes are developed and applied to the anisotropic heat diffusion equation on a non-aligned grid.

  18. Diffusion Databases for ICME | Department of Energy

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    ICME Diffusion Databases for ICME 2011 DOE Hydrogen and Fuel Cells Program, and Vehicle Technologies Program Annual Merit Review and Peer Evaluation PDF icon lm036_warren_2011_o.pdf More Documents & Publications Diffusion Databases for Mg-ICME Vehicle Technologies Office: 2010 Lightweight Materials R&D Annual Progress Report Low-Cost Direct Bonded Aluminum (DBA) Substrates

  19. Solid-state diffusion in amorphous zirconolite

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Yang, C.; Dove, M. T.; Trachenko, K.; Zarkadoula, E.; Todorov, I. T.; Geisler, T.; Brazhkin, V. V.

    2014-11-14

    We discuss how structural disorder and amorphization affect solid-state diffusion, and consider zirconolite as a currently important case study. By performing extensive molecular dynamics simulations, we disentangle the effects of amorphization and density, and show that a profound increase of solid-state diffusion takes place as a result of amorphization. Importantly, this can take place at the same density as in the crystal, representing an interesting general insight regarding solid-state diffusion. We find that decreasing the density in the amorphous system increases pre-factors of diffusion constants, but does not change the activation energy in the density range considered. We also find that atomic species in zirconolite are affected differently by amorphization and density change. Our microscopic insights are relevant for understanding how solid-state diffusion changes due to disorder and for building predictive models of operation of materials to be used to encapsulate nuclear waste.

  20. Department of Energy Begins Demolition on K-25's East Wing -...

    Office of Environmental Management (EM)

    Oak Ridge's largest cleanup project July 21, 2011 - 12:00pm Addthis Media Contact Ben Williams http:www.oakridge.doe.gov 865-576-0885 OAK RIDGE, Tenn. - Earlier today, the U.S....

  1. BINARIES MIGRATING IN A GASEOUS DISK: WHERE ARE THE GALACTIC CENTER BINARIES?

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Baruteau, C.; Lin, D. N. C.; Cuadra, J. E-mail: lin@ucolick.org

    2011-01-01

    The massive stars in the Galactic center inner arcsecond share analogous properties with the so-called Hot Jupiters. Most of these young stars have highly eccentric orbits and were probably not formed in situ. It has been proposed that these stars acquired their current orbits from the tidal disruption of compact massive binaries scattered toward the proximity of the central supermassive black hole. Assuming a binary star formed in a thin gaseous disk beyond 0.1 pc from the central object, we investigate the relevance of disk-satellite interactions to harden the binding energy of the binary, and to drive its inward migration. A massive, equal-mass binary star is found to become more tightly wound as it migrates inward toward the central black hole. The migration timescale is very similar to that of a single-star satellite of the same mass. The binary's hardening is caused by the formation of spiral tails lagging the stars inside the binary's Hill radius. We show that the hardening timescale is mostly determined by the mass of gas inside the binary's Hill radius and that it is much shorter than the migration timescale. We discuss some implications of the binary's hardening process. When the more massive (primary) components of close binaries eject most their mass through supernova explosion, their secondary stars may attain a range of eccentricities and inclinations. Such processes may provide an alternative unified scenario for the origin of the kinematic properties of the central cluster and S-stars in the Galactic center as well as the high-velocity stars in the Galactic halo.

  2. TIME-DEPENDENT PHOTOIONIZATION OF GASEOUS NEBULAE: THE PURE HYDROGEN CASE

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Garcia, J.; Elhoussieny, E. E.; Bautista, M. A.; Kallman, T. R. E-mail: manuel.bautista@wmich.edu E-mail: timothy.r.kallman@nasa.gov

    2013-09-20

    We study the problem of time-dependent photoionization of low density gaseous nebulae subjected to sudden changes in the intensity of ionizing radiation. To this end, we write a computer code that solves the full time-dependent energy balance, ionization balance, and radiation transfer equations in a self-consistent fashion for a simplified pure hydrogen case. It is shown that changes in the ionizing radiation yield ionization/thermal fronts that propagate through the cloud, but the propagation times and response times to such fronts vary widely and nonlinearly from the illuminated face of the cloud to the ionization front (IF). IF/thermal fronts are often supersonic, and in slabs initially in pressure equilibrium such fronts yield large pressure imbalances that are likely to produce important dynamical effects in the cloud. Further, we studied the case of periodic variations in the ionizing flux. It is found that the physical conditions of the plasma have complex behaviors that differ from any steady-state solution. Moreover, even the time average of ionization and temperature is different from any steady-state case. This time average is characterized by overionization and a broader IF with respect to the steady-state solution for a mean value of the radiation flux. Around the time average of physical conditions there is a large dispersion in instantaneous conditions, particularly across the IF, which increases with the period of radiation flux variations. Moreover, the variations in physical conditions are asynchronous along the slab due to the combination of nonlinear propagation times for thermal fronts/IFs and equilibration times.

  3. Modifying woody plants for efficient conversion to liquid and gaseous fuels

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Dinus, R.J.; Dimmel, D.R.; Feirer, R.P.; Johnson, M.A.; Malcolm, E.W. )

    1990-07-01

    The Short Rotation Woody Crop Program (SRWCP), Department of Energy, is developing woody plant species as sources of renewable energy. Much progress has been made in identifying useful species, and testing site adaptability, stand densities, coppicing abilities, rotation lengths, and harvesting systems. Conventional plant breeding and intensive cultural practices have been used to increase above-ground biomass yields. Given these and foreseeable accomplishments, program leaders are now shifting attention to prospects for altering biomass physical and chemical characteristics, and to ways for improving the efficiency with which biomass can be converted to gaseous and liquid fuels. This report provides a review and synthesis of literature concerning the quantity and quality of such characteristics and constituents, and opportunities for manipulating them via conventional selection and breeding and/or molecular biology. Species now used by SRWCP are emphasized, with supporting information drawn from others as needed. Little information was found on silver maple (Acer saccharinum), but general comparisons (Isenberg 1981) suggest composition and behavior similar to those of the other species. Where possible, conclusions concerning means for and feasibility of manipulation are given, along with expected impacts on conversion efficiency. Information is also provided on relationships to other traits, genotype X environment interactions, and potential trade-offs or limitations. Biomass productivity per se is not addressed, except in terms of effects that may by caused by changes in constituent quality and/or quantity. Such effects are noted to the extent they are known or can be estimated. Likely impacts of changes, however effected, on suitability or other uses, e.g., pulp and paper manufacture, are notes. 311 refs., 4 figs., 9 tabs.

  4. Method for selectively removing fluorine and fluorine-containing contaminants from gaseous UF/sub 6/. [ClF/sub 3/

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Jones, R.L.; Otey, M.G.; Perkins, R.W.

    1980-11-24

    This invention is a method for effecting preferential removal and immobilization of certain gaseous contaminants from gaseous UF/sub 6/. The contaminants include fluorine and fluorides which are more reactive with CaCO/sub 3/ than is UF/sub 6/. The method comprises contacting the contaminant-carrying UF/sub 6/ with particulate CaCO/sub 3/ at a temperature effecting reaction of the contaminant and the CaCO/sub 3/.

  5. SATURATED TORQUE FORMULA FOR PLANETARY MIGRATION IN VISCOUS DISKS WITH THERMAL DIFFUSION: RECIPE FOR PROTOPLANET POPULATION SYNTHESIS

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Masset, F. S. [Instituto de Ciencias Fisicas, Universidad Nacional Autonoma de Mexico (UNAM), Apdo. Postal 48-3, 62251-Cuernavaca, Morelos (Mexico); Casoli, J., E-mail: masset@fis.unam.m, E-mail: jules.casoli@cea.f, E-mail: masset@fis.unam.m [Laboratoire AIM, CEA/DSM, CNRS, Universite Paris Diderot, Irfu/Service d'Astrophysique, Bat. 709, CEA/Saclay, 91191 Gif-sur-Yvette (France)

    2010-11-10

    We provide torque formulae for low-mass planets undergoing type I migration in gaseous disks. These torque formulae put special emphasis on the horseshoe drag, which is prone to saturation: the asymptotic value reached by the horseshoe drag depends on a balance between coorbital dynamics (which tends to cancel out or saturate the torque) and diffusive processes (which tend to restore the unperturbed disk profiles, thereby desaturating the torque). We entertain the question of this asymptotic value and derive torque formulae that give the total torque as a function of the disk's viscosity and thermal diffusivity. The horseshoe drag features two components: one that scales with the vortensity gradient and another that scales with the entropy gradient and constitutes the most promising candidate for halting inward type I migration. Our analysis, which is complemented by numerical simulations, recovers characteristics already noted by numericists, namely, that the viscous timescale across the horseshoe region must be shorter than the libration time in order to avoid saturation and that, provided this condition is satisfied, the entropy-related part of the horseshoe drag remains large if the thermal timescale is shorter than the libration time. Side results include a study of the Lindblad torque as a function of thermal diffusivity and a contribution to the corotation torque arising from vortensity viscously created at the contact discontinuities that appear at the horseshoe separatrices. For the convenience of the reader mostly interested in the torque formulae, Section 8 is self-contained.

  6. Manhattan Project: Y-12: Design, 1942-1943

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    Ernest Lawrence slumps in his chair from fatigue in front of a cyclotron control panel while conducting calutron-related experiments, Berkeley, 1943. Y-12: DESIGN (Oak Ridge: Clinton, 1942-1943) Events > The Uranium Path to the Bomb, 1942-1944 Y-12: Design, 1942-1943 Y-12: Construction, 1943 Y-12: Operation, 1943-1944 Working K-25 into the Mix, 1943-1944 The Navy and Thermal Diffusion, 1944 Although the Lewis Report had placed gaseous diffusion ahead of the electromagnetic approach, many were

  7. Little known heroes of the nuclear age

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    age The story of S-50, the thermal diffusion plant located adjacent to the world's largest steam powered electrical generating plant at the time, is often overlooked in the history of Oak Ridge. Many fail to realize the contribution of S-50. This plant fed slightly enriched uranium into the K-25 gaseous diffusion process and ultimately the Y-12 Beta calutrons, shortening the war by approximately three weeks. There were three well-known sites in Oak Ridge, the Y-12 electromagnetic separation

  8. Little known heroes of the nuclear age, part 2

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    2 Arnold Kramish, mentioned in part one of this series, was a private in the Special Engineer Detachment in 1944 and he was stationed at the Clinton Engineer Works. In August 1944, he volunteered along with nine other enlisted men to participate in an unknown secret effort at the U.S. Navy shipyard in South Philadelphia, Pennsylvania. He would become one of the first people injured in the Manhattan Project. The S-50 Thermal Diffusion Plant was being constructed at the K-25 Gaseous Diffusion

  9. The AN neutron transport by nodal diffusion

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Barbarino, A.; Tomatis, D.

    2013-07-01

    The two group diffusion model combined to a nodal approach in space is the preferred scheme for the industrial simulation of nuclear water reactors. The main selling point is the speed of computation, allowing a large number of parametric studies. Anyway, the drawbacks of the underlying diffusion equation may arise with highly heterogeneous interfaces, often encountered in modern UO{sub 2} and MO{sub x} fuel loading patterns, and boron less controlled systems. This paper aims at showing how the simplified AN transport model, equivalent to the well known SPN, can be implemented in standard diffusion codes with minor modifications. Some numerical results are illustrated. (authors)

  10. Diffusion and transport coefficients in synthetic opals

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Sofo, J. O.; Mahan, G. D.; Department of Physics and Astronomy, The University of Tennessee, Knoxville, Tennessee 37996-1200

    2000-07-15

    Opals are structures composed of close-packed spheres in the size range of nano to micrometers. They are sintered to create small necks at the points of contact. We have solved the diffusion problem in such structures. The relation between the diffusion coefficient and the thermal and electrical conductivity is used to estimate the transport coefficients of opal structures as a function of the neck size and the mean free path of the carriers. The theory presented is also applicable to the diffusion problem in other periodic structures. (c) 2000 The American Physical Society.

  11. Safeguards Verification Measurements using Laser Ablation, Absorbance Ratio Spectrometry in Gaseous Centrifuge Enrichment Plants

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Anheier, Norman C.; Cannon, Bret D.; Qiao, Hong; Phillips, Jon R.

    2012-07-01

    Laser Ablation Absorbance Ratio Spectrometry (LAARS) is a new verification measurement technology under development at the US Department of Energys (DOE) Pacific Northwest National Laboratory (PNNL). LAARS uses three lasers to ablate and then measure the relative isotopic abundance of uranium compounds. An ablation laser is tightly focused on uranium-bearing solids producing a small plume containing uranium atoms. Two collinear wavelength-tuned spectrometry lasers transit through the plume and the absorbance of U-235 and U-238 isotopes are measured to determine U-235 enrichment. The measurement has high relative precision and detection limits approaching the femtogram range for uranium. It is independent of chemical form and degree of dilution with nuisance dust and other materials. High speed sample scanning and pinpoint characterization allow measurements on millions of particles/hour to detect and analyze the enrichment of trace uranium in samples. The spectrometer is assembled using commercially available components at comparatively low cost, and features a compact and low power design. Future designs can be engineered for reliable, autonomous deployment within an industrial plant environment. Two specific applications of the spectrometer are under development: 1) automated unattended aerosol sampling and analysis and 2) on-site small sample destructive assay measurement. The two applications propose game-changing technological advances in gaseous centrifuge enrichment plant (GCEP) safeguards verification. The aerosol measurement instrument, LAARS-environmental sampling (ES), collects aerosol particles from the plant environment in a purpose-built rotating drum impactor and then uses LAARS-ES to quickly scan the surface of the impactor to measure the enrichments of the captured particles. The current approach to plant misuse detection involves swipe sampling and offsite analysis. Though this approach is very robust it generally requires several months to obtain results from a given sample collection. The destructive assay instrument, LAARS-destructive assay (DA), uses a simple purpose-built fixture with a sampling planchet to collect adsorbed UF6 gas from a cylinder valve or from a process line tap or pigtail. A portable LAARS-DA instrument scans the microgram quantity of uranium collected on the planchet and the assay of the uranium is measured to ~0.15% relative precision. Currently, destructive assay samples for bias defect measurements are collected in small sample cylinders for offsite mass spectrometry measurement.

  12. Design of an Unattended Environmental Aerosol Sampling and Analysis System for Gaseous Centrifuge Enrichment Plants

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Anheier, Norman C.; Munley, John T.; Alexander, M. L.

    2011-07-19

    The resources of the IAEA continue to be challenged by the rapid, worldwide expansion of nuclear energy production. Gaseous centrifuge enrichment plants (GCEPs) represent an especially formidable dilemma to the application of safeguard measures, as the size and enrichment capacity of GCEPs continue to escalate. During the early part of the 1990's, the IAEA began to lay the foundation to strengthen and make cost-effective its future safeguard regime. Measures under Part II of 'Programme 93+2' specifically sanctioned access to nuclear fuel production facilities and environmental sampling by IAEA inspectors. Today, the Additional Protocol grants inspection and environmental sample collection authority to IAEA inspectors at GCEPs during announced and low frequency unannounced (LFUA) inspections. During inspections, IAEA inspectors collect environmental swipe samples that are then shipped offsite to an analytical laboratory for enrichment assay. This approach has proven to be an effective deterrence to GCEP misuse, but this method has never achieved the timeliness of detection goals set forth by IAEA. Furthermore it is questionable whether the IAEA will have the resources to even maintain pace with the expansive production capacity of the modern GCEP, let alone improve the timeliness in reaching current safeguards conclusions. New safeguards propositions, outside of familiar mainstream safeguard measures, may therefore be required that counteract the changing landscape of nuclear energy fuel production. A new concept is proposed that offers rapid, cost effective GCEP misuse detection, without increasing LFUA inspection access or introducing intrusive access demands on GCEP operations. Our approach is based on continuous onsite aerosol collection and laser enrichment analysis. This approach mitigates many of the constraints imposed by the LFUA protocol, reduces the demand for onsite sample collection and offsite analysis, and overcomes current limitations associated with the in-facility misuse detection devices. Onsite environmental sample collection offers the ability to collect fleeting uranium hexafluoride emissions before they are lost to the ventilation system or before they disperse throughout the facility, to become deposited onto surfaces that are contaminated with background and historical production material. Onsite aerosol sample collection, combined with enrichment analysis, provides the unique ability to quickly detect stepwise enrichment level changes within the facility, leading to a significant strengthening of facility misuse deterence. We report in this paper our study of several GCEP environmental sample release scenarios and simulation results of a newly designed aerosol collection and particle capture system that is fully integrated with the Laser Ablation, Absorbance Ratio Spectrometry (LAARS) uranium particle enrichment analysis instrument that was developed at the Pacific Northwest National Laboratory.

  13. Gaseous fission product management for molten salt reactors and vented fuel systems

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Messenger, S. J.; Forsberg, C.; Massie, M.

    2012-07-01

    Fission gas disposal is one of the unresolved difficulties for Molten Salt Reactors (MSRs) and advanced reactors with vented fuel systems. As these systems operate, they produce many radioactive isotopes of xenon and krypton (e.g. {sup 135}Xe t{sub 1/2} = 9.14 hours and {sup 85}Kr t{sub 1/2}= 10.73 years). Removing these gases proves vital to the success of such reactor designs for two reasons. First, the gases act as large neutron sinks which decrease reactivity and must be counterbalanced by increasing fuel loading. Second, for MSRs, inert fission product gases naturally separate quickly from high temperature salts, thus creating high vapor pressure which poses safety concerns. For advanced reactors with solid vented fuel, the gases are allowed to escape into an off-gas system and thus must be managed. Because of time delays in transport of fission product gases in vented fuel systems, some of the shorter-lived radionuclides will decay away thereby reducing the fission gas source term relative to an MSR. To calculate the fission gas source term of a typical molten salt reactor, we modeled a 1000 MWe graphite moderated thorium MSR similar to that detailed in Mathieu et al. [1]. The fuel salt used in these calculations was LiF (78 mole percent) - (HN)F 4 (22 mole percent) with a heavy nuclide composition of 3.86% {sup 233}U and 96.14% {sup 232}Th by mass. Before we can remove the fission product gases produced by this reactor configuration, we must first develop an appropriate storage mechanism. The gases could be stored in pressurized containers but then one must be concerned about bottle failure. Methods to trap noble gases in matrices are expensive and complex. Alternatively, there are direct storage/disposal options: direct injection into the Earth or injecting a grout-based product into the Earth. Advances in drilling technologies, hydro fracture technologies, and methods for the sequestration of carbon dioxide from fossil fuel plants are creating new options for disposal of fission gas wastes. In each option, lithostatic pressure, a kilometer or more underground, eliminates the pressure driving force for noble gas release and dissolves any untrapped gas in deep groundwater or into incorporated solid waste forms. The options, challenges, and potential for these methods to dispose of gaseous fission products are described. With this research, we hope to help both MSRs and other advanced reactors come one step closer to commercialization. (authors)

  14. Diffusion In Confinement: Kinetic Simulations of Self- and

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Collective-Diffusion Behavior of Adsorbed Gases | Center for Gas SeparationsRelevant to Clean Energy Technologies | Blandine Jerome Diffusion In Confinement: Kinetic Simulations of Self- and Collective-Diffusion Behavior of Adsorbed Gases

  15. Review of enhanced vapor diffusion in porous media

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Webb, S.W.; Ho, C.K.

    1998-08-01

    Vapor diffusion in porous media in the presence of its own liquid has often been treated similar to gas diffusion. The gas diffusion rate in porous media is much lower than in free space due to the presence of the porous medium and any liquid present. However, enhanced vapor diffusion has also been postulated such that the diffusion rate may approach free-space values. Existing data and models for enhanced vapor diffusion, including those in TOUGH2, are reviewed in this paper.

  16. ARM - Measurement - Shortwave spectral diffuse downwelling irradiance

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    diffuse downwelling irradiance ARM Data Discovery Browse Data Comments? We would love to hear from you! Send us a note below or call us at 1-888-ARM-DATA. Send Measurement : Shortwave spectral diffuse downwelling irradiance The rate at which spectrally resolved radiant energy at wavelengths shorter than approximately 4 {mu}m, that has been scattered in the atmosphere at least once, passes through a horizontal unit area in a downward direction. Categories Radiometric Instruments The above

  17. Method of preparing and utilizing a catalyst system for an oxidation process on a gaseous hydrocarbon stream

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Berry, David A; Shekhawat, Dushyant; Smith, Mark; Haynes, Daniel

    2013-07-16

    The disclosure relates to a method of utilizing a catalyst system for an oxidation process on a gaseous hydrocarbon stream with a mitigation of carbon accumulation. The system is comprised of a catalytically active phase deposited onto an oxygen conducting phase, with or without supplemental support. The catalytically active phase has a specified crystal structure where at least one catalytically active metal is a cation within the crystal structure and coordinated with oxygen atoms within the crystal structure. The catalyst system employs an optimum coverage ratio for a given set of oxidation conditions, based on a specified hydrocarbon conversion and a carbon deposition limit. Specific embodiments of the catalyst system are disclosed.

  18. Generalizing the self-healing diffusion Monte Carlo approach...

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    Generalizing the self-healing diffusion Monte Carlo approach to finite temperature: A path ... Title: Generalizing the self-healing diffusion Monte Carlo approach to finite temperature: ...

  19. Low cost fuel cell diffusion layer configured for optimized anode...

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    Patent: Low cost fuel cell diffusion layer configured for optimized anode water management Citation Details In-Document Search Title: Low cost fuel cell diffusion layer configured...

  20. Big Data Projects on Solar Technology Evolution and Diffusion...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Soft Costs Big Data Projects on Solar Technology Evolution and Diffusion: Kickoff Meeting Big Data Projects on Solar Technology Evolution and Diffusion: Kickoff Meeting Graphic ...

  1. Continuum modeling of diffusion and dispersion in dense granular...

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    Continuum modeling of diffusion and dispersion in dense granular flows Citation Details In-Document Search Title: Continuum modeling of diffusion and dispersion in dense granular...

  2. Diffusion releases through one and two finite planar zones from...

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    Diffusion releases through one and two finite planar zones from a nuclear waste package Citation Details In-Document Search Title: Diffusion releases through one and two finite...

  3. Diffusion releases through one and two finite planar zones from...

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    Technical Report: Diffusion releases through one and two finite planar zones from a nuclear waste package Citation Details In-Document Search Title: Diffusion releases through one...

  4. The Radiochemical Analysis of Gaseous Samples (RAGS) apparatus for nuclear diagnostics at the National Ignition Facility (invited)

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Shaughnessy, D. A.; Velsko, C. A.; Jedlovec, D. R.; Yeamans, C. B.; Moody, K. J.; Tereshatov, E.; Stoeffl, W.; Riddle, A.

    2012-10-15

    The Radiochemical Analysis of Gaseous Samples (RAGS) diagnostic apparatus was recently installed at the National Ignition Facility (NIF). Following a NIF shot, RAGS is used to pump the gas load from the NIF chamber for purification and isolation of the noble gases. After collection, the activated gaseous species are counted via gamma spectroscopy for measurement of the capsule areal density and fuel-ablator mix. Collection efficiency was determined by injecting a known amount of {sup 135}Xe into the NIF chamber, which was then collected with RAGS. Commissioning was performed with an exploding pusher capsule filled with isotopically enriched {sup 124}Xe and {sup 126}Xe added to the DT gas fill. Activated xenon species were recovered post-shot and counted via gamma spectroscopy. Results from the collection and commissioning tests are presented. The performance of RAGS allows us to establish a noble gas collection method for measurement of noble gas species produced via neutron and charged particle reactions in a NIF capsule.

  5. Laser utilizing a gaseous lasing medium and method for operating the same

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Zerr, B.A.

    1983-10-18

    The invention relates to an improvement in gas lasers and a method of operating the same. In one aspect, the invention is an improved method for operating a high-power gas laser. The improvement comprises introducing the gas lasing medium tangentially to the laser tube at a pressure establishing a forced vortex in the tube. The vortex defines an axially extending core region characterized by a low pressure and temperature relative to the gas inlet and the exterior of the vortex. An electrical discharge is established in the core region to initiate lasing of the gas. The gas discharge from the tube is passed through a diffuser. As in conventional gas lasers, firing results in a very abrupt increase in gas temperature and in severe disruption of the gas. However, the gas vortex, almost immediately restores the gas to its prefiring condition. That is, almost all of the waste heat is transferred radially to the laser wall, and the original gas-flow pattern is restored. As a result, the power output of the laser is increased significantly, and the laser firing repetition rate is markedly increased.

  6. Laser utilizing a gaseous lasing medium and method for operating the same

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Zerr, Bruce A. (Harriman, TN)

    1986-01-01

    The invention relates to an improvement in gas lasers and a method of operating the same. In one aspect, the invention is an improved method for operating a high-power gas laser. The improvement comprises introducing the gas lasing medium tangentially to the laser tube at a pressure establishing a forced vortex in the tube. The vortex defines an axially extending core region characterized by a low pressure and temperature relative to the gas inlet and the exterior of the vortex. An electrical discharge is established in the core region to initiate lasing of the gas. The gas discharge from the tube is passed through a diffuser. As in conventional gas lasers, firing results in a very abrupt increase in gas temperature and in severe disruption of the gas. However, the gas vortex almost immediately restores the gas to its pre-firing condition. That is, almost all of the waste heat is transferred radially to the laser wall, and the original gas-flow pattern is restored. As a result, the power output of the laser is increased significantly, and the laser firing repetition rate is markedly increased.

  7. Analytical solutions to matrix diffusion problems

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Keklinen, Pekka

    2014-10-06

    We report an analytical method to solve in a few cases of practical interest the equations which have traditionally been proposed for the matrix diffusion problem. In matrix diffusion, elements dissolved in ground water can penetrate the porous rock surronuding the advective flow paths. In the context of radioactive waste repositories this phenomenon provides a mechanism by which the area of rock surface in contact with advecting elements is greatly enhanced, and can thus be an important delay mechanism. The cases solved are relevant for laboratory as well for in situ experiments. Solutions are given as integral representations well suited for easy numerical solution.

  8. Self- and zinc diffusion in gallium antimonide

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Nicols, Samuel Piers

    2002-03-26

    The technological age has in large part been driven by the applications of semiconductors, and most notably by silicon. Our lives have been thoroughly changed by devices using the broad range of semiconductor technology developed over the past forty years. Much of the technological development has its foundation in research carried out on the different semiconductors whose properties can be exploited to make transistors, lasers, and many other devices. While the technological focus has largely been on silicon, many other semiconductor systems have applications in industry and offer formidable academic challenges. Diffusion studies belong to the most basic studies in semiconductors, important from both an application as well as research standpoint. Diffusion processes govern the junctions formed for device applications. As the device dimensions are decreased and the dopant concentrations increased, keeping pace with Moore's Law, a deeper understanding of diffusion is necessary to establish and maintain the sharp dopant profiles engineered for optimal device performance. From an academic viewpoint, diffusion in semiconductors allows for the study of point defects. Very few techniques exist which allow for the extraction of as much information of their properties. This study focuses on diffusion in the semiconductor gallium antimonide (GaSb). As will become clear, this compound semiconductor proves to be a powerful one for investigating both self- and foreign atom diffusion. While the results have direct applications for work on GaSb devices, the results should also be taken in the broader context of III-V semiconductors. Results here can be compared and contrasted to results in systems such as GaAs and even GaN, indicating trends within this common group of semiconductors. The results also have direct importance for ternary and quaternary semiconductor systems used in devices such as high speed InP/GaAsSb/InP double heterojunction bipolar transistors (DHBT) [Dvorak, (2001)]. Many of the findings which will be reported here were previously published in three journal articles. Hartmut Bracht was the lead author on two articles on self-diffusion studies in GaSb [Bracht, (2001), (2000)], while this report's author was the lead author on Zn diffusion results [Nicols, (2001)]. Much of the information contained herein can be found in those articles, but a more detailed treatment is presented here.

  9. ARM - Measurement - Shortwave broadband diffuse downwelling irradiance

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    diffuse downwelling irradiance ARM Data Discovery Browse Data Comments? We would love to hear from you! Send us a note below or call us at 1-888-ARM-DATA. Send Measurement : Shortwave broadband diffuse downwelling irradiance All of the solar radiation, across the wavelength range of 0.4 and 4 {mu}m, coming directly from the sky except for solar radiation coming directly from the sun and the circumsolar irradiance within approximately three degrees of the sun. Categories Radiometric Instruments

  10. Efficient photocatalytic degradation of gaseous formaldehyde by the TiO{sub 2}/tourmaline composites

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Zhang, Gaoke Qin, Xi

    2013-10-15

    Graphical abstract: - Highlights: The TiO{sub 2}/tourmaline composites were prepared by a solgel method. The composites exhibited excellent photocatalytic activity and good stability. The physicochemical property of tourmaline may be favor for the degradation of HCHO. The mixed-phase of anatase and rutile TiO{sub 2} may be favor for the degradation of HCHO. - Abstract: The TiO{sub 2} supported tourmaline composites were prepared by a solgel method and used as a photocatalyst for the degradation of formaldehyde (HCHO). The composites were characterized by X-ray diffraction (XRD), scanning electron microscopy (SEM), high-resolution transmission electron microscopy (HRTEM), N{sub 2} adsorptiondesorption, Fourier transform infrared (FT-IR) spectroscopy and UVvis diffuse reflectance spectroscopy (UVvis DRS). The results indicate that the mixed-phase of anatase and rutile exists in the TiO{sub 2}/tourmaline composites. The specific surface area of the TiO{sub 2}/tourmaline composites is much higher than that of the pure TiO{sub 2}. The TiO{sub 2}/tourmaline composites exhibited excellent photocatalytic activity for the degradation of HCHO, which was 6 times higher than that of the pure TiO{sub 2}. Moreover, the excellent photocatalytic activity of the composites was fully maintained after five photocatalytic cycles, which may be attributed to the physicochemical property of tourmaline and the mixed-phase of anatase and rutile in the TiO{sub 2}/tourmaline composites.

  11. One-dimensional numerical fluid dynamics model of the spreading of liquefied gaseous fuel (LGF) on water

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Stein, W.; Ermak, D.L.

    1980-11-04

    A computer model has been developed to simulate the spreading of an evaporating liquefied gaseous fuel that has been spilled on the surface of a denser liquid. This would correspond, for example, to the spreading of liquefied natural gas spilled onto water. The model is based on the one-dimensional, time-dependent equations of conservation of mass and momentum, with the assumption that the pool of liquid fuel spreads in a radially symmetric manner. It includes the effects of vaporization, shear at the fuel-liquid interface, and buoyancy due to the density difference between the fuel and the liquid onto which it is spilled. Both instantaneous and continuous spills of finite volume are treated. The height and spreading velocity of the pool of spilled fuel are calculated as functions of time and radius by numerically solving the conservation equations with a finite difference method. Output of the calculations is presented in both tabular and graphical form.

  12. One-dimensional numerical fluid dynamics model of the spreading of liquefied gaseous fuel (LGF) on water

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Stein, W.; Ermak, D.L.

    1981-01-01

    A computer model has been developed to simulate the spreading of an evaporating liquefied gaseous fuel that has been spilled on the surface of a denser liquid. This would correspond, for example, to the spreading of liquefied natural gas spilled onto water. The model is based on the one-dimensional, time-dependent equations of conservation of mass and momentum, with the assumption that the pool of liquid fuel spreads in a radially symmetric manner. It includes the effects of vaporization, shear at the fuel-liquid interface, and buoyancy due to the density difference between the fuel and the liquid onto which it is spilled. Both instantaneous and continuous spills of finite volume are treated. The height and spreading velocity of the pool of spilled fuel are calculated as functions of time and radius by numerically solving the conservation equations with a finite difference method.Output of the calculations is presented in both tabular and graphical form.

  13. Apparatus and method for generating continuous wave 16. mu. m laser radiation using gaseous CF/sub 4/

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Telle, J.M.

    1984-05-01

    Apparatus and method for generating continuous wave 16 ..mu..m laser radiation using gaseous CF/sub 4/. Laser radiation at 16 ..mu..m has been observed in a cooled static cell containing low pressure CF/sub 4/ optically pumped by an approximately 3 W output power c-w CO/sub 2/ laser. The laser cavity employed was a multiple-pass off-axis-path two spherical mirror ring resonator. Unidirectional CF/sub 4/ laser output power at 615 cm/sup -1/ exceeded 2 mW. Computer calculations indicate that for modest pump powers of about 40 W, approximately 1 W of emitted laser radiation at 16 ..mu..m might be obtained.

  14. Solves the Multigroup Neutron Diffusion Equation

    Energy Science and Technology Software Center (OSTI)

    1995-06-23

    GNOMER is a program which solves the multigroup neutron diffusion equation in 1D, 2D and 3D cartesian geometry. The program is designed to calculate the global core power distributions (with thermohydraulic feedbacks), as well as power distribution and homogenized cross sections over a fuel assembly.

  15. Detection of illicit HEU production in gaseous centrifuge enrichment plants using neutron counting techniques on product cylinders

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Freeman, Corey R; Geist, William H

    2010-01-01

    Innovative and novel safeguards approaches are needed for nuclear energy to meet global energy needs without the threat of nuclear weapons proliferation. Part of these efforts will include creating verification techniques that can monitor uranium enrichment facilities for illicit production of highly-enriched uranium (HEU). Passive nondestructive assay (NDA) techniques will be critical in preventing illicit HEU production because NDA offers the possibility of continuous and unattended monitoring capabilities with limited impact on facility operations. Gaseous centrifuge enrichment plants (GCEP) are commonly used to produce low-enriched uranium (LEU) for reactor fuel. In a GCEP, gaseous UF{sub 6} spins at high velocities in centrifuges to separate the molecules containing {sup 238}U from those containing the lighter {sup 235}U. Unfortunately, the process for creating LEU is inherently the same as HEU, creating a proliferation concern. Insuring that GCEPs are producing declared enrichments poses many difficult challenges. In a GCEP, large cascade halls operating thousands of centrifuges work together to enrich the uranium which makes effective monitoring of the cascade hall economically prohibitive and invasive to plant operations. However, the enriched uranium exiting the cascade hall fills product cylinders where the UF{sub 6} gas sublimes and condenses for easier storage and transportation. These product cylinders hold large quantities of enriched uranium, offering a strong signal for NDA measurement. Neutrons have a large penetrability through materials making their use advantageous compared to gamma techniques where the signal is easily attenuated. One proposed technique for detecting HEU production in a GCEP is using neutron coincidence counting at the product cylinder take off stations. This paper discusses findings from Monte Carlo N-Particle eXtended (MCNPX) code simulations that examine the feasibility of such a detector.

  16. Molecular Modeling of Diffusion on a Crystalline PETN Surface

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Lin, P; Khare, R; Gee, R H; Weeks, B L

    2007-07-13

    Surface diffusion on a PETN crystal was investigated by treating the surface diffusion as an activated process in the formalism of transition state theory. In particular, surface diffusion on the (110) and (101) facets, as well as diffusion between these facets, were considered. We successfully obtained the potential energy barriers required for PETN surface diffusion. Our results show that the (110) surface is more thermally active than the (101) surface and PETN molecules mainly diffuses from the (110) to (101) facet. These results are in good agreement with experimental observations and previous simulations.

  17. Technology needs for environmental restoration remedial action

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Watson, J.S.

    1992-11-01

    This report summarizes the current view of the most important technology needs for the US Department of Energy (DOE) facilities operated by Martin Marietta Energy Systems, Inc. These facilities are the Oak Ridge National Laboratory, the Oak Ridge K-25 Site, the Oak Ridge Y-12 Plant, the Paducah Gaseous Diffusion Plant, and the Portsmouth Gaseous Diffusion Plant. The sources of information used in this assessment were a survey of selected representatives of the Environmental Restoration (ER) programs at each facility, results from a questionnaire distributed by Geotech CWM, Inc., for DOE, and associated discussions with individuals from each facility. This is not a final assessment, but a brief look at an ongoing assessment; the needs will change as the plans for restoration change and, it is hoped, as some technical problems are solved through successful development programs.

  18. Switchover software reliability estimate for Paducah Freezer/Sublimer computer systems

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Flanagan, D.M.; Davis, J.N.

    1993-04-01

    K-25 Engineering Division purchased a series of redundant computer systems and developed software for the purpose of providing continuous process monitoring and control for the Freezer/Sublimer equipment in the gaseous diffusion process at the Paducah Gaseous Diffusion Plant. The application software is loaded on two central processing units (CPU) so that in the event of a failure of the primary unit, the processing can switch to the backup unit and continue processing without error. It is the purpose of this document to demonstrate the reliability of this system with respect to its ability to switch properly between redundant CPU. The total reliability estimation problem -- which considers the computer hardware, the operating system software, and the application software -- has been reduced to one that considers only the application software directly involved in the switchover process. Estimates are provided for software reliability and the testing coverage. Software and hardware reliability models and reliability growth models are considered in addition to Bayesian approaches.

  19. Technology needs for environmental restoration remedial action. Environmental Restoration Program

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Watson, J.S.

    1992-11-01

    This report summarizes the current view of the most important technology needs for the US Department of Energy (DOE) facilities operated by Martin Marietta Energy Systems, Inc. These facilities are the Oak Ridge National Laboratory, the Oak Ridge K-25 Site, the Oak Ridge Y-12 Plant, the Paducah Gaseous Diffusion Plant, and the Portsmouth Gaseous Diffusion Plant. The sources of information used in this assessment were a survey of selected representatives of the Environmental Restoration (ER) programs at each facility, results from a questionnaire distributed by Geotech CWM, Inc., for DOE, and associated discussions with individuals from each facility. This is not a final assessment, but a brief look at an ongoing assessment; the needs will change as the plans for restoration change and, it is hoped, as some technical problems are solved through successful development programs.

  20. TSD capacity model interface with waste reduction planning in the Environmental Restoration Program

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Phifer, B.E. Jr.; Grumski, J.T.

    1991-01-01

    This report provides a picture of how the integration of waste generation forecasting with treatment, storage, and disposal (TSD) capacity modeling interfaces with waste reduction planning in the Environmental Restoration Program. Background information is given for the major activities at the seven Martin Marietta Energy Systems, Inc., sites: (1) Oak Ridge National Laboratory; (2) Oak Ridge Y-12 Plant; (3) Oak Ridge K-25 Site; (4) Paducah Gaseous Diffusion Plant; (5) Portsmouth Gaseous Diffusion Plant; (6) Oak Ridge Associated Universities; and (7) the off-site contaminated areas near DOE facilities. A perspective is provided for strategies to achieve waste reduction, how waste generation forecasts rates were developed, and how those forecasted waste generation rates will be used in TSD capacity modeling. The generation forecasting in combination with TSD modeling allows development of quantifiable goals and subsequent waste reduction. 2 figs.

  1. Phase 1. Screening guidelines to determine the structures exempt from Executive Order 12941

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    1995-09-01

    This report presents data regarding the guidelines for determining structures that are exempt from executive order 12941. Executive order 12941 was enacted to assure seismic safety of existing federally owned or leased buildings. This reports considered only the minimum amount of information. This information varied from building to building and from site to site. The scope of the guidelines is to cover all five DOE sites that fall under the DOE Oak Ridge Operations and are operated by LMES. These facilities are the ORNL, Y-12 Plant, K-25 Site all at Oak Ridge, Tennessee; the Paducah Gaseous Diffusion Plant, Paducah, Kentucky; and the Portsmouth Gaseous Diffusion Plant, Portsmouth, Ohio. Off site facilities, owned or leased, that are occupied by LMES are also included.

  2. Fractionation of soil gases by diffusion of water vapor, gravitational settling, and thermal diffusion

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Severinghaus, J.P.; Bender, M.L. [Univ. of Rhode Island, RI (United States)] [Univ. of Rhode Island, RI (United States); Keeling, R.F. [Scripps Institution of Oceanography, LaJolla, CA (United States)] [Scripps Institution of Oceanography, LaJolla, CA (United States); Broecker, W.S. [Lamont-Doherty Earth Observatory, Palisades, NY (United States)] [Lamont-Doherty Earth Observatory, Palisades, NY (United States)

    1996-03-01

    Air sampled from the moist unsaturated zone in a sand dune exhibits depletion in the heavy isotopes of N{sub 2} and O{sub 2}. We propose that the depletion is caused by a diffusive flux of water vapor out of the dune, which sweeps out the other gases, forcing them to diffuse back into the dune. The heavy isotopes of N{sub 2} and O{sub 2} diffuse back more slowly, resulting in a steady-state depletion of the heavy isotopesin the dune interior. We predict the effect`s magnitude with molecular diffusion theory and reproduce it in a laboratory simulation, finding good agreement between field, theory, and lab. The magnitude of the effect is governed by the ratio of the binary diffusivities against water vapor of a pair of gases, and increases {approximately} linearly with the difference between the water vapor mole fraction of the site and the advectively mixed reservoir with which it is in diffusive contact (in most cases the atmosphere). 32 refs., 1 fig., 3 tabs.

  3. State protection under collective damping and diffusion

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Ponte, M. A. de [Instituto de Fisica de Sao Carlos, Universidade de Sao Paulo, Caixa Postal 369, 13560-590 Sao Carlos, SP (Brazil); Departamento de Fisica, Universidade Regional do Cariri, 63010-970 Juazeiro do Norte, CE (Brazil); Mizrahi, S. S. [Departamento de Fisica, Universidade Federal de Sao Carlos, 13565-905 Sao Carlos, SP (Brazil); Moussa, M. H. Y. [Instituto de Fisica de Sao Carlos, Universidade de Sao Paulo, Caixa Postal 369, 13560-590 Sao Carlos, SP (Brazil)

    2011-07-15

    In this paper we provide a recipe for state protection in a network of oscillators under collective damping and diffusion. Our strategy is to manipulate the network topology, i.e., the way the oscillators are coupled together, the strength of their couplings, and their natural frequencies, in order to create a relaxation-diffusion-free channel. This protected channel defines a decoherence-free subspace (DFS) for nonzero-temperature reservoirs. Our development also furnishes an alternative approach to build up DFSs that offers two advantages over the conventional method: it enables the derivation of all the network-protected states at once, and also reveals, through the network normal modes, the mechanism behind the emergence of these protected domains.

  4. Diffusion barriers in modified air brazes

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Weil, Kenneth Scott; Hardy, John S; Kim, Jin Yong; Choi, Jung-Pyung

    2013-04-23

    A method for joining two ceramic parts, or a ceramic part and a metal part, and the joint formed thereby. The method provides two or more parts, a braze consisting of a mixture of copper oxide and silver, a diffusion barrier, and then heats the braze for a time and at a temperature sufficient to form the braze into a bond holding the two or more parts together. The diffusion barrier is an oxidizable metal that forms either a homogeneous component of the braze, a heterogeneous component of the braze, a separate layer bordering the braze, or combinations thereof. The oxidizable metal is selected from the group Al, Mg, Cr, Si, Ni, Co, Mn, Ti, Zr, Hf, Pt, Pd, Au, lanthanides, and combinations thereof.

  5. Diffusion barriers in modified air brazes

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Weil, Kenneth Scott; Hardy, John S.; Kim, Jin Yong; Choi, Jung-Pyung

    2010-04-06

    A method for joining two ceramic parts, or a ceramic part and a metal part, and the joint formed thereby. The method provides two or more parts, a braze consisting of a mixture of copper oxide and silver, a diffusion barrier, and then heats the braze for a time and at a temperature sufficient to form the braze into a bond holding the two or more parts together. The diffusion barrier is an oxidizable metal that forms either a homogeneous component of the braze, a heterogeneous component of the braze, a separate layer bordering the braze, or combinations thereof. The oxidizable metal is selected from the group Al, Mg, Cr, Si, Ni, Co, Mn, Ti, Zr, Hf, Pt, Pd, Au, lanthanides, and combinations thereof.

  6. Methodology and apparatus for diffuse photon mimaging

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Feng, Shechao C.; Zeng, Fanan; Zhao, Hui-Lin

    1997-12-09

    Non-invasive near infrared optical medical imaging devices for both hematoma detection in the brain and early tumor detection in the breast is achieved using image reconstruction which allows a mapping of the position dependent contrast diffusive propagation constants, which are related to the optical absorption coefficient and scattering coefficient in the tissue, at near infrared wavelengths. Spatial resolutions in the range of 5 mm for adult brain sizes and breast sizes can be achieved. The image reconstruction utilizes WKB approximation on most probable diffusion paths which has as lowest order approximation the straight line-of-sight between the plurality of sources and the plurality of detectors. The WKB approximation yields a set of linear equations in which the contrast optical absorption coefficients are the unknowns and for which signals can be generated to produce a pixel map of the contrast optical resolution of the scanned tissue.

  7. Methodology and apparatus for diffuse photon imaging

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Feng, S.C.; Zeng, F.; Zhao, H.L.

    1997-12-09

    Non-invasive near infrared optical medical imaging devices for both hematoma detection in the brain and early tumor detection in the breast is achieved using image reconstruction which allows a mapping of the position dependent contrast diffusive propagation constants, which are related to the optical absorption coefficient and scattering coefficient in the tissue, at near infrared wavelengths. Spatial resolutions in the range of 5 mm for adult brain sizes and breast sizes can be achieved. The image reconstruction utilizes WKB approximation on most probable diffusion paths which has as lowest order approximation the straight line-of-sight between the plurality of sources and the plurality of detectors. The WKB approximation yields a set of linear equations in which the contrast optical absorption coefficients are the unknowns and for which signals can be generated to produce a pixel map of the contrast optical resolution of the scanned tissue. 58 figs.

  8. Role of carbon surface diffusion and strain on the epitaxial...

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    Role of carbon surface diffusion and strain on the epitaxial growth of graphene on SiC(0001). Citation Details In-Document Search Title: Role of carbon surface diffusion and strain...

  9. Distributed Energy Resources Market Diffusion Model

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Maribu, Karl Magnus; Firestone, Ryan; Marnay, Chris; Siddiqui,Afzal S.

    2006-06-16

    Distributed generation (DG) technologies, such as gas-fired reciprocating engines and microturbines, have been found to be economically beneficial in meeting commercial-sector electrical, heating, and cooling loads. Even though the electric-only efficiency of DG is lower than that offered by traditional central stations, combined heat and power (CHP) applications using recovered heat can make the overall system energy efficiency of distributed energy resources (DER) greater. From a policy perspective, however, it would be useful to have good estimates of penetration rates of DER under various economic and regulatory scenarios. In order to examine the extent to which DER systems may be adopted at a national level, we model the diffusion of DER in the US commercial building sector under different technical research and technology outreach scenarios. In this context, technology market diffusion is assumed to depend on the system's economic attractiveness and the developer's knowledge about the technology. The latter can be spread both by word-of-mouth and by public outreach programs. To account for regional differences in energy markets and climates, as well as the economic potential for different building types, optimal DER systems are found for several building types and regions. Technology diffusion is then predicted via two scenarios: a baseline scenario and a program scenario, in which more research improves DER performance and stronger technology outreach programs increase DER knowledge. The results depict a large and diverse market where both optimal installed capacity and profitability vary significantly across regions and building types. According to the technology diffusion model, the West region will take the lead in DER installations mainly due to high electricity prices, followed by a later adoption in the Northeast and Midwest regions. Since the DER market is in an early stage, both technology research and outreach programs have the potential to increase DER adoption, and thus, shift building energy consumption to a more efficient alternative.

  10. Diffuse-dynamic multiparameter diffractometry: A review

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Molodkin, V. B. Shpak, A. P.; Kovalchuk, M. V.; Nosik, V. L.; Machulin, V. F.

    2010-12-15

    The results reported at the Conference on Application of X-Rays, Synchrotron Radiation, Neutrons, and Electrons in Nano-, Bio-, Information-, and Cognitive Technologies (RSNE-NBIC 2009) are briefly reviewed. This review is based on a cycle of studies [1-6] where a new method for studying the structure of real crystals-diffuse-dynamic multiparameter diffractometry (DDMD)-was proposed and substantiated.

  11. Glass Membrane For Controlled Diffusion Of Gases

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Shelby, James E. (Alfred Station, NY); Kenyon, Brian E. (Pittsburgh, PA)

    2001-05-15

    A glass structure for controlled permeability of gases includes a glass vessel. The glass vessel has walls and a hollow center for receiving a gas. The glass vessel contains a metal oxide dopant formed with at least one metal selected from the group consisting of transition metals and rare earth metals for controlling diffusion of the gas through the walls of the glass vessel. The vessel releases the gas through its walls upon exposure to a radiation source.

  12. The Digital Road to Scientific Knowledge Diffusion

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    Digital Road to Scientific Knowledge Diffusion A Faster, Better Way to Scientific Progress? By David E. Wojick, Walter L. Warnick, Bonnie C. Carroll, and June Crowe Introduction With the United States federal government spending over $130 billion annually for research and development, ways to increase the productivity of that research can have a significant return on investment. It is well known that all scientific advancement is based on work that has come before. Isaac Newton expressed this

  13. Comparison of Diffuse Shortwave Irradiance Measurements

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Diffuse Shortwave Irradiance Measurements J. J. Michalsky and J. Schlemmer Atmospheric Sciences Research Center State University of New York Albany, New York B. C. Bush, S. Leitner, D. Marsden, and F. P. J. Valero Scripps Institution of Oceanography University of California, San Diego La Jolla, California R. Dolce and A. Los Kipp & Zonen, Inc. Bohemia, New York and Delft The Netherlands E. G. Dutton Climate Monitoring and Diagnostics Laboratory National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration

  14. ARM - Measurement - Shortwave narrowband diffuse downwelling irradiance

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    downwelling irradiance ARM Data Discovery Browse Data Comments? We would love to hear from you! Send us a note below or call us at 1-888-ARM-DATA. Send Measurement : Shortwave narrowband diffuse downwelling irradiance The rate at which radiant energy in narrow bands of wavelengths shorter than approximately 4 {mu}m, that has been scattered in the atmosphere at least once, passes through a horizontal unit area in a downward direction. Categories Radiometric Instruments The above measurement is

  15. ARM - Measurement - Shortwave narrowband diffuse upwelling irradiance

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    upwelling irradiance ARM Data Discovery Browse Data Comments? We would love to hear from you! Send us a note below or call us at 1-888-ARM-DATA. Send Measurement : Shortwave narrowband diffuse upwelling irradiance The rate at which radiant energy in narrow bands of wavelengths shorter than approximately 4 {mu}m, that has been scattered in the atmosphere at least once, passes through a horizontal unit area in an upward direction. Categories Radiometric Instruments The above measurement is

  16. Diffusion Processes Satisfying a Conservation Law Constraint

    DOE Public Access Gateway for Energy & Science Beta (PAGES Beta)

    Bakosi, J.; Ristorcelli, J. R.

    2014-03-04

    We investigate coupled stochastic differential equations governing N non-negative continuous random variables that satisfy a conservation principle. In various fields a conservation law requires that a set of fluctuating variables be non-negative and (if appropriately normalized) sum to one. As a result, any stochastic differential equation model to be realizable must not produce events outside of the allowed sample space. We develop a set of constraints on the drift and diffusion terms of such stochastic models to ensure that both the non-negativity and the unit-sum conservation law constraint are satisfied as the variables evolve in time. We investigate the consequencesmore » of the developed constraints on the Fokker-Planck equation, the associated system of stochastic differential equations, and the evolution equations of the first four moments of the probability density function. We show that random variables, satisfying a conservation law constraint, represented by stochastic diffusion processes, must have diffusion terms that are coupled and nonlinear. The set of constraints developed enables the development of statistical representations of fluctuating variables satisfying a conservation law. We exemplify the results with the bivariate beta process and the multivariate Wright-Fisher, Dirichlet, and Lochner’s generalized Dirichlet processes.« less

  17. Y-12's first Open House - September 2-3, 1967, part 1

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    1 The first weekend in September in 1967, Labor Day, was a record setting weekend for the Y-12 Plant, The Oak Ridge National Laboratory, The K-25 Gaseous Diffusion Plant, The Agricultural Research Laboratory, Oak Ridge Associated Universities and for Oak Ridge. Thousands of people visited the government facilities in Oak Ridge for the first time and were provided "open house" experiences in many other locations in Oak Ridge. On September 5, 1967, The Oak Ridger published the following:

  18. A brief overview of some historical details of the city of Oak Ridge, part 1

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    1 Over the past few weeks, as a result of requests to provide input to documentary films being created, I have been focused on some elements of the history of Oak Ridge government facilities from a summary standpoint. This resulted in a series of articles that featured a brief summary of the history of Oak Ridge with the focus on the Oak Ridge National Laboratory, Oak Ridge Associated Universities, K-25 Gaseous Diffusion Plant (now East Tennessee Technology Park) and the Y-12 National Security

  19. Highest Risk Components Safely Removed From K-27 | Department of Energy

    Energy Savers [EERE]

    Highest Risk Components Safely Removed From K-27 Highest Risk Components Safely Removed From K-27 February 26, 2013 - 12:00pm Addthis Oak Ridge, Tenn. - Oak Ridge's EM contractor URS | CH2M Oak Ridge, LLC (UCOR) has removed the highest risk components remaining in the East Tennessee Technology Park's (ETTP) K-27 building, with the successful crane removal of six components known as NaF traps. The K-27 building is sister to the mile-long K-25 gaseous diffusion process building, which is now

  20. Martin Marietta Energy Systems, Inc., Groundwater Program Management Plan

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Early, T.O.

    1994-05-01

    The purpose of the Martin Marietta Energy Systems, Inc., (Energy Systems) Groundwater Program Management Plan is to define the function, organizational structure (including associated matrix organizations), interfaces, roles and responsibilities, authority, and relationship to the Department of Energy for the Energy Systems Groundwater Program Office (GWPO). GWPO is charged with the responsibility of coordinating all components of the groundwater program for Energy Systems. This mandate includes activities at the three Oak Ridge facilities [Oak Ridge National Laboratory, the Oak Ridge Y-12 Plant, and the Oak Ridge K-25 Site], as well as the Paducah and Portsmouth Gaseous Diffusion Plants.

  1. Unsteady behavior of locally strained diffusion flames affected by curvature and preferential diffusion

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Yoshida, Kenji; Takagi, Toshimi

    1999-07-01

    Experimental and numerical studies are made of transient H{sub 2}/N{sub 2}--air counterflow diffusion flames unsteadily strained by an impinging micro jet. Two-dimensional temperature measurements by laser Rayleigh scattering method and numerical computations taking into account detailed chemical kinetics are conducted paying attention to transient local extinction and reignition in relation to the unsteadiness, flame curvature and preferential diffusion effects. The results are as follows. (1) Transient local flame extinction is observed where the micro jet impinges. But, the transient flame can survive instantaneously in spite of quite high stretch rate where the steady flame cannot exist. (2) Reignition is observed after the local extinction due to the micro air jet impingement. The temperature after reignition becomes significantly higher than that of the original flame. This high temperature is induced by the concentration of H{sub 2} species due to the preferential diffusion in relation to the concave curvature. The predicted behaviors of the local transient extinction and reignition are well confirmed by the experiments. (3) The reignition is induced after the formation of combustible premixed gas mixture and the consequent flame propagation. (4) The reignition is hardly observed after the extinction by micro fuel jet impingement. This is due to the dilution of H{sub 2} species induced by the preferential diffusion in relation to the convex curvature. (5) The maximum flame temperature cannot be rationalized by the stretch rate but changes widely depending on the unsteadiness and the flame curvature in relation with preferential diffusion.

  2. Pilot-scale treatability testing -- Recycle, reuse, and disposal of materials from decontamination and decommissioning activities: Soda blasting demonstration

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    1995-08-01

    The US Department of Energy (DOE) is in the process of defining the nature and magnitude of decontamination and decommissioning (D and D) obligations at its sites. With disposal costs rising and available storage facilities decreasing, DOE is exploring and implementing new waste minimizing D and D techniques. Technology demonstrations are being conducted by LMES at a DOE gaseous diffusion processing plant, the K-25 Site, in Oak Ridge, Tennessee. The gaseous diffusion process employed at Oak Ridge separated uranium-235 from uranium ore for use in atomic weapons and commercial reactors. These activities contaminated concrete and other surfaces within the plant with uranium, technetium, and other constituents. The objective of current K-25 D and D research is to make available cost-effective and energy-efficient techniques to advance remediation and waste management methods at the K-25 Site and other DOE sites. To support this objective, O`Brien and Gere tested a decontamination system on K-25 Site concrete and steel surfaces contaminated with radioactive and hazardous waste. A scouring system has been developed that removes fixed hazardous and radioactive surface contamination and minimizes residual waste. This system utilizes an abrasive sodium bicarbonate medium that is projected at contaminated surfaces. It mechanically removes surface contamination while leaving the surface intact. Blasting residuals are captured and dissolved in water and treated using physical/chemical processes. Pilot-scale testing of this soda blasting system and bench and pilot-scale treatment of the generated residuals were conducted from December 1993 to September 1994.

  3. Oxygen diffusion of anodic surface oxide film on titanium studied by Auger electron spectroscopy. [Oxygen diffusivity

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Wang, P.S.; Wittberg, T.N.; Keil, R.G.

    1982-01-01

    TiO/sub 2/ films of about 1000 A were grown onto titanium foils anodically under galvanostatic conditions at 20 mA/cm/sup 2/ in saturated aqueous solutions of ammonium tetraborate. The samples were then aged at 450, 500, and 550/sup 0/C, and oxygen diffusion was observed by Auger electron spectroscopy (AES) profilings. The oxygen diffusivities were calculated by Fick's Second Law, using the Boltzmann-Matano solution, to be 9.4 x 10/sup -17/, 2.6 x 10/sup -16/, and 1.2 x 10/sup -15/ cm/sup 2//sec at 450, 500, and 550/sup 0/C, respectively. The diffusivities obtained by this method were also compared with those obtained using an exact solution to Fick's Second Law. The activation energy was calculated to be 30 kcal/mole.

  4. Effect of long duration UV irradiation on diamondlike carbon surfaces in the presence of a hydrocarbon gaseous atmosphere

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Riedo, A.; Wahlstroem, P.; Scheer, J. A.; Wurz, P.; Tulej, M.

    2010-12-01

    Measurements of the effect of long duration UV irradiation (up to 2905 min) of flight quality diamondlike carbon charge state conversion surfaces for application in space research in the presence of a hydrocarbon atmosphere were done. An isopropanol atmosphere was used for simulating the hydrocarbon gaseous environment for an instrument on a satellite in space. Charge state conversion surfaces are used in neutral particle sensing instruments where neutral atoms have to be ionized prior to the analysis. A narrow-band (126{+-}5 nm) discharge lamp and a broad-band deuterium lamp (112-370 nm) were used as sources of UV radiation. The UV irradiation of a surface results in the desorption of some volatiles present on the surface and the decomposition of others. Desorption of volatiles, mostly water, is observed for both UV sources. The decomposition of the hydrocarbons and the subsequent build-up of a hydrocarbonaceous layer is only observed for the broad-band UV lamp, which is more representative for the space environment. Unfortunately, the hydrocarbonaceous layer cannot be removed thermally, i.e., it is permanent, and causes a degradation of the performance of the charge state conversion surfaces. With the present measurements we can quantify the UV influence at which the degradation of the conversion surfaces becomes noticeable.

  5. Resolving and measuring diffusion in complex interfaces: Exploring new capabilities

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Alam, Todd M.

    2015-09-01

    This exploratory LDRD targeted the use of a new high resolution spectroscopic diffusion capabilities developed at Sandia to resolve transport processes at interfaces in heterogeneous polymer materials. In particular, the combination of high resolution magic angle spinning (HRMAS) nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) spectroscopy with pulsed field gradient (PFG) diffusion experiments were used to directly explore interface diffusion within heterogeneous polymer composites, including measuring diffusion for individual chemical species in multi-component mixtures. Several different types of heterogeneous polymer systems were studied using these HRMAS NMR diffusion capabilities to probe the resolution limitations, determine the spatial length scales involved, and explore the general applicability to specific heterogeneous systems. The investigations pursued included a) the direct measurement of the diffusion for poly(dimethyl siloxane) polymer (PDMS) on nano-porous materials, b) measurement of penetrant diffusion in additive manufactures (3D printed) processed PDMS composites, and c) the measurement of diffusion in swollen polymers/penetrant mixtures within nano-confined aluminum oxide membranes. The NMR diffusion results obtained were encouraging and allowed for an improved understanding of diffusion and transport processes at the molecular level, while at the same time demonstrating that the spatial heterogeneity that can be resolved using HRMAS NMR PFG diffusion experiment must be larger than ~?m length scales, expect for polymer transport within nanoporous carbons where additional chemical resolution improves the resolvable heterogeneous length scale to hundreds of nm.

  6. Mathematical model and calculation algorithm of micro and meso levels of separation process of gaseous mixtures in molecular sieves

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Umarova, Zhanat; Botayeva, Saule; Yegenova, Aliya; Usenova, Aisaule

    2015-05-15

    In the given article, the main thermodynamic aspects of the issue of modeling diffusion transfer in molecular sieves have been formulated. Dissipation function is used as a basic notion. The differential equation, connecting volume flow with the change of the concentration of catchable component has been derived. As a result, the expression for changing the concentration of the catchable component and the coefficient of membrane detecting has been received. As well, the system approach to describing the process of gases separation in ultra porous membranes has been realized and micro and meso-levels of mathematical modeling have been distinguished. The non-ideality of the shared system is primarily taken into consideration at the micro-level and the departure from the diffusion law of Fick has been taken into account. The calculation method of selectivity considering fractal structure of membranes has been developed at the meso level. The calculation algorithm and its software implementation have been suggested.

  7. Distributed Wind Diffusion Model Overview (Presentation)

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Preus, R.; Drury, E.; Sigrin, B.; Gleason, M.

    2014-07-01

    Distributed wind market demand is driven by current and future wind price and performance, along with several non-price market factors like financing terms, retail electricity rates and rate structures, future wind incentives, and others. We developed a new distributed wind technology diffusion model for the contiguous United States that combines hourly wind speed data at 200m resolution with high resolution electricity load data for various consumer segments (e.g., residential, commercial, industrial), electricity rates and rate structures for utility service territories, incentive data, and high resolution tree cover. The model first calculates the economics of distributed wind at high spatial resolution for each market segment, and then uses a Bass diffusion framework to estimate the evolution of market demand over time. The model provides a fundamental new tool for characterizing how distributed wind market potential could be impacted by a range of future conditions, such as electricity price escalations, improvements in wind generator performance and installed cost, and new financing structures. This paper describes model methodology and presents sample results for distributed wind market potential in the contiguous U.S. through 2050.

  8. Commercial Building Partnerships Replication and Diffusion

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Antonopoulos, Chrissi A.; Dillon, Heather E.; Baechler, Michael C.

    2013-09-16

    This study presents findings from survey and interview data investigating replication efforts of Commercial Building Partnership (CBP) partners that worked directly with the Pacific Northwest National Laboratory (PNNL). PNNL partnered directly with 12 organizations on new and retrofit construction projects, which represented approximately 28 percent of the entire U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) CBP program. Through a feedback survey mechanism, along with personal interviews, PNNL gathered quantitative and qualitative data relating to replication efforts by each organization. These data were analyzed to provide insight into two primary research areas: 1) CBP partners’ replication efforts of technologies and approaches used in the CBP project to the rest of the organization’s building portfolio (including replication verification), and, 2) the market potential for technology diffusion into the total U.S. commercial building stock, as a direct result of the CBP program. The first area of this research focused specifically on replication efforts underway or planned by each CBP program participant. Factors that impact replication include motivation, organizational structure and objectives firms have for implementation of energy efficient technologies. Comparing these factors between different CBP partners revealed patterns in motivation for constructing energy efficient buildings, along with better insight into market trends for green building practices. The second area of this research develops a diffusion of innovations model to analyze potential broad market impacts of the CBP program on the commercial building industry in the United States.

  9. Proposed On-Site Waste Disposal Facility (OSWDF) at the Portsmouth...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Waste Disposal Facility (OSWDF) at the Portsmouth Gaseous Diffusion Plant Proposed On-Site Waste Disposal Facility (OSWDF) at the Portsmouth Gaseous Diffusion Plant Full Document...

  10. Energy Department Selects Deactivation Contractor for Paducah...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Deactivation Contractor for Paducah Gaseous Diffusion Plant Energy Department Selects Deactivation Contractor for Paducah Gaseous Diffusion Plant July 22, 2014 - 5:48pm Addthis...

  11. Paducah | Department of Energy

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Paducah Paducah Portsmouth Gaseous Diffusion Plant | November 2009 Aerial View Portsmouth Gaseous Diffusion Plant | November 2009 Aerial View DOE missions at Paducah includes...

  12. K-311-1/K-310-3 Purge Cascade Process Description, Oak Ridge Environmental Management Accelerated Cleanup Project, Oak Ridge, Tennessee

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Shoemaker J.E.

    2009-05-13

    K-311-1 was constructed along with the rest of the K-25 Building in the 1943-1945 timeframe. K-311-1 was equipped with Size 3 converters and Size 38 Allis Chalmers{trademark} single-stage centrifugal compressors driven by 3600 rpm electric motors, and the unit operated as the 'bottom' unit flow-wise in K-25. The depleted flow from the bottom stage in K-311-1 passed through booster compressors and flowed to the K-601 Building where the depleted or 'tails' material was removed. In 1948, after the K-27 Building was completed, the decision was made to operate K-27 and K-25 in series rather than operate the two buildings as separate entities. To facilitate this operation, concrete bases were poured and two sets of booster compressors were installed in the extreme West end of the K-311-1 cell floor. These compressors were enclosed in heated housings and consisted of Size 38 compressors. One pair was to boost the 'B' flow between K-25 and K-27, and one pair was to boost the 'A' flow between the buildings. Each station operated with one compressor on-stream and the other in standby. (Reference 9) Each station also was equipped with a Size 2 after-cooler located in the discharge stream downstream of the junction of the onstream and standby compressors. Additional gaseous diffusion capacity was added at Oak Ridge as K-29, K-31, and K-33 were constructed and placed in service in the early 1950s. As a result of the additional process equipment added by these buildings, in-leakage of light gases to the cascade including light gases introduced into the cascade as a result of purging operations threatened to exceed the capacity of the existing K-312 Purge Cascade facilities in the K-25 Building. As a result, in 1954 K-311-1 was converted to a side purge cascade to remove light gases from the process gas stream as the stream entered K-25 from K-27. Low molecular weight gas in-leakage in K-33, K-31, K-29, and K-27 was removed by the K-311-1 Side Purge Facility and a relatively pure stream of UF6 then passed from K-311-1 into the upstream cells in K-25. In-leakage of light gases in the K-25 Building continued to be removed by the K-312 Purge Facilities. K-311-1 operated as a Side Purge Cascade from 1954 until the K-25 Building was shut down in 1964; at that time K-311-1 became the Oak Ridge Gaseous Diffusion Plant (ORGDP) Top (and only) Purge Cascade. The adjacent K-310-3 Unit was operated along with K-311-1 as the top purge cascade and K-310-2 was also operated at times to supplement cells in the K311-1/K-310-3 Purge Cascade. K-311-1 was shut down on February 14, 1977, after the newer, larger capacity K-402-9 Purge Cascade was placed in operation. K-310-3 continued to operate until the K-402-8 Coolant Removal Unit was placed in service, and K-310-3 was shut down on March 14, 1978. Since the K-311-1 and K-310-3 units continued to operate after K-25 shutdown, removal of equipment such as valves and piping for other projects did not occur in this area. As a result, these two units have not been exposed to atmospheric wet air over the years as much of the remainder of K-25 has been exposed. Any deposits or residual gases contained in K-311-1 or K-310-3 are not likely to be fully hydrolyzed.

  13. Unattended Monitoring of HEU Production in Gaseous Centrifuge Enrichment Plants using Automated Aerosol Collection and Laser-based Enrichment Assay

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Anheier, Norman C.; Bushaw, Bruce A.

    2010-08-11

    Nuclear power is enjoying rapid growth as government energy policies and public demand shift toward low carbon energy production. Pivotal to the global nuclear power renaissance is the development and deployment of robust safeguards instrumentation that allows the limited resources of the IAEA to keep pace with the expansion of the nuclear fuel cycle. Undeclared production of highly enriched uranium (HEU) remains a primary proliferation concern for modern gaseous centrifuge enrichment plants (GCEPs), due to their massive separative work unit (SWU) processing power and comparably short cascade equilibrium timescale. The Pacific Northwest National Laboratory is developing an unattended safeguards instrument, combining continuous aerosol particulate collection with uranium isotope assay, to provide timely detection of HEU production within a GCEP. This approach is based on laser vaporization of aerosol particulates, followed by laser spectroscopy to characterize the uranium enrichment level. Our prior investigation demonstrated single-shot detection sensitivity approaching the femtogram range and relative isotope ratio uncertainty better than 10% using gadolinium as a surrogate for uranium. In this paper we present measurement results on standard samples containing traces of depleted, natural, and low enriched uranium, as well as measurements on aerodynamic size uranium particles mixed in background materials (e.g., dust, minerals, soils). Improvements and optimizations in the detection electronics, signal timing, calibration, and laser alignment have lead to significant improvements in detection sensitivity and enrichment accuracy, contributing to an overall reduction in the false alarm probability. The sample substrate media was also found to play a significant role in facilitating laser-induced vaporization and the production of energetic plasma conditions, resulting in ablation optimization and further improvements in the isotope abundance sensitivity.

  14. Photo-oxidation of gaseous ethanol on photocatalyst prepared by acid leaching of titanium oxide/hydroxyapatite composite

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Ono, Y.; Rachi, T.; Yokouchi, M.; Kamimoto, Y.; Nakajima, A.; Okada, K.

    2013-06-01

    Highlights: ? Photocatalyst powder was prepared by acid leaching of TiO{sub 2}/apatite composite. ? The photocatalytic activity was evaluated from in situ FT-IR study using ethanol. ? Apatite in the composite had positive effect for the photo-oxidation of ethanol. ? The enhanced oxidation rate was explained by the difference in deactivation rate. - Abstract: Highly active photocatalysts were synthesized by leaching of heat-treated titanium dioxide (TiO{sub 2})/hydroxyapatite (HAp) powder with hydrochloric acid at 0.25, 0.50, 0.75 mol/l, and their photocatalytic activities were evaluated from in situ Fourier transform infrared (FT-IR) study of photo-oxidation of gaseous ethanol. By changing the acid concentration, the TiO{sub 2}/HAp composite had different atomic ratios of Ca/Ti (0.02.8) and P/Ti (0.32.1). It was found that phosphate group remained on the surface of TiO{sub 2} particle even in the sample treated with concentrated acid (0.75 mol/l). These acid-treated samples showed higher rates for ethanol photo-oxidation than the commercial TiO{sub 2} powder, Degussa P25. The highest rate was obtained in the TiO{sub 2}/HAp composite treated with the dilute (0.25 mol/l) acid in spite of its low content of TiO{sub 2} photocatalyst. This enhanced photocatalytic activity was attributed to the result that the deactivation with repeated injections of ethanol gas was suppressed in the TiO{sub 2}/HAp composites compared with the TiO{sub 2} powders.

  15. Overview of SIMS-Based Experimental Studies of Tracer Diffusion in Solids and Application to Mg Self-Diffusion

    DOE Public Access Gateway for Energy & Science Beta (PAGES Beta)

    Kulkarni, Nagraj S; Warmack, Robert J Bruce; Radhakrishnan, Balasubramaniam; HunterJr., Jerry; Sohn, Yong Ho; Coffey, Kevin; Murch, Prof. Graeme; Belova, Irina

    2014-01-01

    Tracer diffusivities provide the most fundamental information on diffusion in materials and are the foundation of robust diffusion databases. Compared to traditional radiotracer techniques that utilize radioactive isotopes, the secondary ion mass spectrometry (SIMS) based thin-film technique for tracer diffusion is based on the use of enriched stable isotopes that can be accurately profiled using SIMS. Experimental procedures & techniques that are utilized for the measurement of tracer diffusion coefficients are presented for pure magnesium, which presents some unique challenges due to the ease of oxidation. The development of a modified Shewmon-Rhines diffusion capsule for annealing Mg and an ultra-highmore » vacuum (UHV) system for sputter deposition of Mg isotopes are discussed. Optimized conditions for accurate SIMS depth profiling in polycrystalline Mg are provided. An automated procedure for the correction of heat-up and cool-down times during tracer diffusion annealing is discussed. The non-linear fitting of a SIMS depth profile data using the thin film Gaussian solution to obtain the tracer diffusivity along with the background tracer concentration and tracer film thickness is discussed. An Arrhenius fit of the Mg self-diffusion data obtained using the low-temperature SIMS measurements from this study and the high-temperature radiotracer measurements of Shewmon and Rhines (1954) was found to be a good representation of both types of diffusion data that cover a broad range of temperatures between 250 - 627 C (523 900 K).« less

  16. Fracture-Flow-Enhanced Solute Diffusion into Fractured Rock

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Wu, Yu-Shu; Ye, Ming; Sudicky, E.A.

    2007-12-15

    We propose a new conceptual model of fracture-flow-enhanced matrix diffusion, which correlates with fracture-flow velocity, i.e., matrix diffusion enhancement induced by rapid fluid flow within fractures. According to the boundary-layer or film theory, fracture flow enhanced matrix diffusion may dominate mass-transfer processes at fracture-matrix interfaces, because rapid flow along fractures results in large velocity and concentration gradients at and near fracture-matrix interfaces, enhancing matrix diffusion at matrix surfaces. In this paper, we present a new formulation of the conceptual model for enhanced fracture-matrix diffusion, and its implementation is discussed using existing analytical solutions and numerical models. In addition, we use the enhanced matrix diffusion concept to analyze laboratory experimental results from nonreactive and reactive tracer breakthrough tests, in an effort to validate the new conceptual model.

  17. Diffusion of n-type dopants in germanium

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Chroneos, A.; Bracht, H.

    2014-03-15

    Germanium is being actively considered by the semiconductor community as a mainstream material for nanoelectronic applications. Germanium has advantageous materials properties; however, its dopant-defect interactions are less understood as compared to the mainstream material, silicon. The understanding of self- and dopant diffusion is essential to form well defined doped regions. Although p-type dopants such as boron exhibit limited diffusion, n-type dopants such as phosphorous, arsenic, and antimony diffuse quickly via vacancy-mediated diffusion mechanisms. In the present review, we mainly focus on the impact of intrinsic defects on the diffusion mechanisms of donor atoms and point defect engineering strategies to restrain donor atom diffusion and to enhance their electrical activation.

  18. Narrow groove welding gas diffuser assembly and welding torch

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Rooney, Stephen J. (East Berne, NY)

    2001-01-01

    A diffuser assembly is provided for narrow groove welding using an automatic gas tungsten arc welding torch. The diffuser assembly includes a manifold adapted for adjustable mounting on the welding torch which is received in a central opening in the manifold. Laterally extending manifold sections communicate with a shield gas inlet such that shield gas supplied to the inlet passes to gas passages of the manifold sections. First and second tapered diffusers are respectively connected to the manifold sections in fluid communication with the gas passages thereof. The diffusers extend downwardly along the torch electrode on opposite sides thereof so as to release shield gas along the length of the electrode and at the distal tip of the electrode. The diffusers are of a transverse width which is on the order of the thickness of the electrode so that the diffusers can, in use, be inserted into a narrow welding groove before and after the electrode in the direction of the weld operation.

  19. Estimating emissions of 20 VOCs. 2: Diffused aeration (Journal Article) |

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    SciTech Connect Estimating emissions of 20 VOCs. 2: Diffused aeration Citation Details In-Document Search Title: Estimating emissions of 20 VOCs. 2: Diffused aeration A relationship developed in a companion paper to estimate emissions from surface-aerated reactors that accounts for both gas- and liquid-phase mass-transfer resistances is extended to reactors with diffused-aeration systems. The method accurately predicts the observed stripping rate of 20 volatile organic compounds (VOCs) with

  20. Diffusion in confinement: kinetic simulations of self- and collective

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    diffusion behavior of adsorbed gases | Center for Gas SeparationsRelevant to Clean Energy Technologies | Blandine Jerome confinement: kinetic simulations of self- and collective diffusion behavior of adsorbed gases Previous Next List M. K. F. Abouelnasr and B. Smit, PCCP 14 (33), 11600 (2012) DOI: 10.1039/C2CP41147D abo121 Abstract The self- and collective-diffusion behaviors of adsorbed methane, helium, and isobutane in zeolite frameworks LTA, MFI, AFI, and SAS were examined at various

  1. Control of light diffusion in a disordered photonic waveguide

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Sarma, Raktim; Cao, Hui; Golubev, Timofey; Yamilov, Alexey

    2014-07-28

    We control the diffusion of light in a disordered photonic waveguide by modulating the waveguide geometry. In a single waveguide of varying cross-section, the diffusion coefficient changes spatially in two dimensions due to localization effects. The intensity distribution inside the waveguide agrees with the prediction of the self-consistent theory of localization. Our work shows that wave diffusion can be efficiently manipulated without modifying the structural disorder.

  2. Spectral Components Analysis of Diffuse Emission Processes (Journal

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    Article) | SciTech Connect Journal Article: Spectral Components Analysis of Diffuse Emission Processes Citation Details In-Document Search Title: Spectral Components Analysis of Diffuse Emission Processes We develop a novel method to separate the components of a diffuse emission process based on an association with the energy spectra. Most of the existing methods use some information about the spatial distribution of components, e.g., closeness to an external template, independence of

  3. Transport diffusion of liquid water and methanol through membranes (Journal

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    Article) | SciTech Connect Transport diffusion of liquid water and methanol through membranes Citation Details In-Document Search Title: Transport diffusion of liquid water and methanol through membranes The authors carried out dual-control-volume grand canonical molecular dynamics simulations of the transport diffusion of liquid water and methanol to vacuum under a fixed chemical potential gradient through a slit pore consisting of Au(111) surfaces covered by -CH{sub 3} and -OH terminated

  4. FUNDING OPPORTUNITY ANNOUNCEMENT: SOLAR ENERGY EVOLUTION AND DIFFUSION

    Energy Savers [EERE]

    STUDIES II - STATE ENERGY STRATEGIES (SEEDSII-SES) | Department of Energy FUNDING OPPORTUNITY ANNOUNCEMENT: SOLAR ENERGY EVOLUTION AND DIFFUSION STUDIES II - STATE ENERGY STRATEGIES (SEEDSII-SES) FUNDING OPPORTUNITY ANNOUNCEMENT: SOLAR ENERGY EVOLUTION AND DIFFUSION STUDIES II - STATE ENERGY STRATEGIES (SEEDSII-SES) FUNDING OPPORTUNITY ANNOUNCEMENT: SOLAR ENERGY EVOLUTION AND DIFFUSION STUDIES II - STATE ENERGY STRATEGIES (SEEDSII-SES) FUNDING OPPORTUNITY ANNOUNCEMENT: SOLAR ENERGY EVOLUTION

  5. Solar Energy Evolution and Diffusion Studies | Department of Energy

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Evolution and Diffusion Studies Solar Energy Evolution and Diffusion Studies Graphic of a map with pinpoints and a photo of a house with solar panels on the roof. Through the Solar Energy Evolution and Diffusion Studies, or SEEDS, program, seven projects are investigating strategies to accelerate the pace of change for solar energy technologies as they are developed and deployed. The projects integrate the use of cutting-edge analytical and computational tools with real-world market data and

  6. HILO: Quasi Diffusion Accelerated Monte Carlo on Hybrid Architectures

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    fidelity simulation of a diverse range of kinetic systems. Available for thumbnail of Feynman Center (505) 665-9090 Email HILO: Quasi Diffusion Accelerated Monte Carlo on Hybrid...

  7. X-ray Diffuse Scattering Measurements of Nucleation Dynamics...

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    X-ray Diffuse Scattering Measurements of Nucleation Dynamics at Femtosecond Resolution Real-time measurement and control of the non-equilibrium properties of materials represents ...

  8. Uranium and Strontium Batch Sorption and Diffusion Kinetics into...

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Uranium and Strontium Batch Sorption and Diffusion Kinetics into Mesoporous Silica Friday, February 27, 2015 Figure 1 Figure 1. Transmission electron microscopy images of (A)...

  9. Covariant functional diffusion equation for Polyakov's bosonic string

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Botelho, L. C. L.

    1989-07-15

    I write a covariant functional diffusion equation for Polyakov's bosonic string with the string's world-sheet area playing the role of proper time.

  10. An Instrument Design Concept for Measuring Solar Diffuse Irradiance

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    An Instrument Design Concept for Measuring Solar Diffuse Irradiance Rutledge, Charles NASA Langley Research Center Schuster, Greg NASA Langley Research Center Category: Instruments...

  11. Experiments on a ceramic electrolysis cell and a palladium diffuser...

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    on a ceramic electrolysis cell and a palladium diffuser at the tritium systems test assembly Citation Details In-Document Search Title: Experiments on a ceramic...

  12. Diffusion coefficient of three-dimensional Yukawa liquids

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Dzhumagulova, K. N.; Ramazanov, T. S.; Masheeva, R. U.

    2013-11-15

    The purpose of this work is an investigation of the diffusion coefficient of the dust component in complex plasma. The computer simulation of the Yukawa liquids was made on the basis of the Langevin equation, which takes into account the influence of buffer plasma on the dust particles dynamics. The GreenKubo relation was used to calculate the diffusion coefficient. Calculations of the diffusion coefficient for a wide range of the system parameters were performed. Using obtained numerical data, we constructed the interpolation formula for the diffusion coefficient. We also show that the interpolation formula correctly describes experimental data obtained under microgravity conditions.

  13. Vapor Barriers or Vapor Diffusion Retarders | Department of Energy

    Broader source: Energy.gov (indexed) [DOE]

    called "structural" vapor diffusion retarders. Materials such as rigid foam insulation, reinforced plastics, aluminum, and stainless steel are relatively resistant to...

  14. Strain effect on the adsorption, diffusion, and molecular dissociation...

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    Strain effect on the adsorption, diffusion, and molecular dissociation of hydrogen on Mg (0001) surface Citation Details In-Document Search Title: Strain effect on the adsorption,...

  15. Low cost fuel cell diffusion layer configured for optimized anode...

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    for optimized anode water management Citation Details In-Document Search Title: Low cost fuel cell diffusion layer configured for optimized anode water management A fuel cell ...

  16. FLAMMABLE GAS DIFFUSION THROUGH SINGLE SHELL TANK (SST) DOMES

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    MEACHAM, J.E.

    2003-11-10

    This report quantified potential hydrogen diffusion through Hanford Site Single-Shell tank (SST) domes if the SSTs were hypothetically sealed airtight. Results showed that diffusion would keep headspace flammable gas concentrations below the lower flammability limit in the 241-AX and 241-SX SST. The purpose of this document is to quantify the amount of hydrogen that could diffuse through the domes of the SSTs if they were hypothetically sealed airtight. Diffusion is assumed to be the only mechanism available to reduce flammable gas concentrations. The scope of this report is limited to the 149 SSTs.

  17. Continuous Flow Diffusion Chamber Measurements of IN Concentration

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Flow Diffusion Chamber (CFDC) Measurements of IN Concentration Concentrations of Ice-Nucleating Aerosol (IN) as a function of Temperature and %Supersaturation Sarah Brooks and...

  18. Adsorption and diffusion of Ru adatoms on Ru(0001)-supported...

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    Accepted Manuscript: Adsorption and diffusion of Ru adatoms on Ru(0001)-supported graphene: Large-scale first-principles calculations This content will become publicly available on...

  19. Lithium Ion Solvation and Diffusion in Bulk Organic Electrolytes...

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    Lithium Ion Solvation and Diffusion in Bulk Organic Electrolytes from First Principles and Classical Reactive Molecular Dynamics Citation Details In-Document Search Title: Lithium...

  20. Lithium Ion Solvation and Diffusion in Bulk Organic Electrolytes...

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    Conference: Lithium Ion Solvation and Diffusion in Bulk Organic Electrolytes from First Principles Molecular Dynamics Citation Details In-Document Search Title: Lithium Ion...

  1. Optical processing furnace with quartz muffle and diffuser plate

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Sopori, Bhushan L. (Denver, CO)

    1995-01-01

    An optical furnace for annealing a process wafer comprising a source of optical energy, a quartz muffle having a door to hold the wafer for processing, and a quartz diffuser plate to diffuse the light impinging on the quartz muffle; a feedback system with a light sensor located in the door or wall of the muffle is also provided for controlling the source of optical energy. The quartz for the diffuser plate is surface etched (to give the quartz diffusive qualities) in the furnace during a high intensity burn-in process.

  2. Low cost fuel cell diffusion layer configured for optimized anode water management

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Owejan, Jon P; Nicotera, Paul D; Mench, Matthew M; Evans, Robert E

    2013-08-27

    A fuel cell comprises a cathode gas diffusion layer, a cathode catalyst layer, an anode gas diffusion layer, an anode catalyst layer and an electrolyte. The diffusion resistance of the anode gas diffusion layer when operated with anode fuel is higher than the diffusion resistance of the cathode gas diffusion layer. The anode gas diffusion layer may comprise filler particles having in-plane platelet geometries and be made of lower cost materials and manufacturing processes than currently available commercial carbon fiber substrates. The diffusion resistance difference between the anode gas diffusion layer and the cathode gas diffusion layer may allow for passive water balance control.

  3. EA-1599: Disposition of Radioactively Contaminated Nickel Located at the East Tennessee Technology Park, Oak Ridge, Tennessee, and the Paducah Gaseous Diffusion Plant, Paducah, Kentucky, for Controlled Radiological Applications

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    This EA was being prepared to evaluate potential environmental impacts of a proposal to dispose of nickel scrap that is volumetrically contaminated with radioactive materials and that DOE recovered from equipment it had used in uranium enrichment. This EA is on hold.

  4. Finding of No Significant Impact for Environmental Assessment on the Implementation of the Authorized Limits Process for Waste Acceptance at the C-746-U Landfill Paducah Gaseous Diffusion Plant Paducah, Kentucky

    Office of Environmental Management (EM)

  5. Gaseous leak detector

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Juravic, Jr., Frank E. (Aurora, IL)

    1988-01-01

    In a short path length mass-spectrometer type of helium leak detector wherein the helium trace gas is ionized, accelerated and deflected onto a particle counter, an arrangement is provided for converting the detector to neon leak detection. The magnetic field of the deflection system is lowered so as to bring the non linear fringe area of the magnetic field across the ion path, thereby increasing the amount of deflection of the heavier neon ions.

  6. Improved gaseous leak detector

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Juravic, F.E. Jr.

    1983-10-06

    In a short path length mass-spectrometer type of helium leak detector wherein the helium trace gas is ionized, accelerated and deflected onto a particle counter, an arrangement is provided for converting the detector to neon leak detection. The magnetic field of the deflection system is lowered so as to bring the nonlinear fringe area of the magnetic field across the ion path, thereby increasing the amount of deflection of the heavier neon ions.

  7. NGPL Production, Gaseous Equivalent

    Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update (EIA)

    Monthly Annual Download Series History Download Series History Definitions, Sources & Notes Definitions, Sources & Notes Show Data By: Data Series Area 2010 2011 2012 2013 2014 2015 View History U.S. 1,066,366 1,134,473 1,250,012 1,356,709 1,608,148 1,717,894 1930-2015 Alabama 19,059 17,271 7,133 7,675 7,044 1969-2014 Alabama Onshore-Alabama 3,132 3,323 2012-2014 Alabama Offshore-Alabama 3,978 3,721 2012-2014 Alaska 20,835 21,554 21,470 20,679 18,434 1969-2014 Alaska Onshore 18,434

  8. NGPL Production, Gaseous Equivalent

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    Monthly Annual Download Series History Download Series History Definitions, Sources & Notes Definitions, Sources & Notes Show Data By: Data Series Area 2010 2011 2012 2013 2014 2015 View History U.S. 1,066,366 1,134,473 1,250,012 1,356,709 1,608,148 1,717,894 1930-2015 Alabama 19,059 17,271 7,133 7,675 7,044 1969-2014 Alabama Onshore-Alabama 3,132 3,323 2012-2014 Alabama Offshore-Alabama 3,978 3,721 2012-2014 Alaska 20,835 21,554 21,470 20,679 18,434 1969-2014 Alaska Onshore 18,434

  9. Safetygram Gaseous Hydrogen

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    Hydrogen is a colorless, odorless, tasteless, highly flammable gas. It is also the lightestweight gas. Since hydrogen is noncorrosive, special materials of construction are not usually required. The American Society of Mechanical Engineers (ASME) code and the American National Standards Institute (ANSI) Pressure Piping code specify vessel and piping design requirements for the pressures and temperatures involved. Applicable Dangerous Goods regulations specify requirements for vessels used for transportation.

  10. Uranium and cesium diffusion in fuel cladding of electrogenerating channel

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Vasilev, I. V. Ivanov, A. S.; Churin, V. A.

    2014-12-15

    The results of reactor tests of a carbonitride fuel in a single-crystal cladding from a molybdenum-based alloy can be used in substantiating the operational reliability of fuels in developing a project of a megawatt space nuclear power plant. The results of experimental studies of uranium and cesium penetration into the single-crystal cladding of fuel elements with a carbonitride fuel are interpreted. Those fuel elements passed nuclear power tests in the Ya-82 pilot plant for 8300 h at a temperature of about 1500C. It is shown that the diffusion coefficients for uranium diffusion into the cladding are virtually coincident with the diffusion coefficients measured earlier for uranium diffusion into polycrystalline molybdenum. It is found that the penetration of uranium into the cladding is likely to occur only in the case of a direct contact between the cladding and fuel. The experimentally observed nonmonotonic uranium-concentration profiles are explained in terms of predominant uranium diffusion along grain boundaries. It is shown that a substantially nonmonotonic behavior observed in our experiment for the uranium-concentration profile may be explained by the presence of a polycrystalline structure of the cladding in the surface region from its inner side. The diffusion coefficient is estimated for the grain-boundary diffusion of uranium. The diffusion coefficients for cesium are estimated on the basis of experimental data obtained in the present study.

  11. Office of Environmental Management Uranium Enrichment Decontamination and Decommissioning Fund financial statements, September 30, 1995 and 1994

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    1996-02-21

    The Energy Policy Act of 1992 (Act) requires the Department of Energy to retain ownership and responsibility for the costs of environmental cleanup resulting from the Government`s operation of the three gaseous diffusion facilities located at the K-25 site in Oak Ridge, Tennessee; Paducah, Kentucky; and Portsmouth, Ohio. The Act transferred the uranium enrichment enterprise to the United States Enrichment Corporation (USEC) as of July 1, 1993, and established the Uranium Enrichment Decontamination and Decommissioning Fund (D&D Fund) to: Pay for the costs of decontamination and decommissioning at the diffusion facilities; pay the annual costs for remedial action at the diffusion facilities to the extent that the amount in the Fund is sufficient; and reimburse uranium/thorium licensees for the costs of decontamination, decommissioning, reclamation, and other remedial actions which are incident to sales to the Government.

  12. Prediction of External Corrosion for Steel Cylinders - 1998 Report

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Lyon, B.F.

    1998-01-01

    The United States Department of Energy (DOE) currently manages the UF, Cylinder Project. The project was formed to maintain and safely manage depleted uranium hexafluoride (UF{sub 6}) stored in approximately 50,000 carbon steel cylinders. The cylinders located at three DOE sites: the K-25 site at Oak Ridge, Tennessee (K-25); the Paducah Gaseous Diffusion Plant in Paducah, Kentucky (PGDP), and the Portsmouth Gaseous Diffusion Plant (PORTS) in Portsmouth, Ohio. The System Requirements Document (SRD) (LMES 1997a) delineates the requirements of the project. The appropriate actions needed to fulfill these requirements are then specified within the System Engineering Management Plan (SEMP) (LMES 1997b). The report presented herein documents activities that in whole or in part satisfy specific requirements and actions stated in the UF{sub 6} Cylinder Project SRD and SEMP with respect to forecasting cylinder conditions. The wall thickness projections made in this report are based on the assumption that the corrosion trends noted will continue. Some activities planned may substantially reduce the rate of corrosion, in which case the results presented here are conservative. The results presented here are intended to supercede and enlarge the scope of those presented previously (Lyon 1995,1996, 1997). In particular, projections are made for thin-walled cylinders (nominal initial thickness 312.5 mils) and thick-walled cylinders (nominal initial thickness 625 mils). In addition, a preliminary analysis is conducted for the minimum thickness at the head/skirt interface for skirted cylinders.

  13. Mechanisms of Stochastic Diffusion of Energetic Ions in Spherical Tori

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Ya.I. Kolesnichenko; R.B. White; Yu.V. Yakovenko

    2001-01-18

    Stochastic diffusion of the energetic ions in spherical tori is considered. The following issues are addressed: (I) Goldston-White-Boozer diffusion in a rippled field; (ii) cyclotron-resonance-induced diffusion caused by the ripple; (iii) effects of non-conservation of the magnetic moment in an axisymmetric field. It is found that the stochastic diffusion in spherical tori with a weak magnetic field has a number of peculiarities in comparison with conventional tokamaks; in particular, it is characterized by an increased role of mechanisms associated with non-conservation of the particle magnetic moment. It is concluded that in current experiments on National Spherical Torus eXperiment (NSTX) the stochastic diffusion does not have a considerable influence on the confinement of energetic ions.

  14. SRS history and experience with palladium diffusers. Revision 1

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Clark, E.A.; Dauchess, D.A.; Heung, L.K.; Rabun, R.L.; Motyka, T.

    1995-08-11

    The Savannah River Site (SRS) has processed tritium in support of national defense programs since 1955. Palladium diffusers have been used extensively for separating hydrogen isotopes from inert gases (such as argon, helium, and nitrogen). In almost forty years of service, the design of the diffuser has been steadily improving. Several diffuser designs from different manufacturers have been evaluated at SRS. The operating experience gained from these designs together with failure analyses performed on failed units have led to several recommendations for improved diffuser designs and operating methods. This experience gained at SRS and the following recommendations form the basis of this report. Even though palladium diffuser technology has proven to be reliable, SRS has examined several alternative technologies over the past several years. This report will also review some of these promising alternatives.

  15. Radon diffusion through multilayer earthen covers: models and simulations

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Mayer, D.W.; Oster, C.A.; Nelson, R.W.; Gee, G.W.

    1981-09-01

    A capability to model and analyze the fundamental interactions that influence the diffusion of radon gas through uranium mill tailings and cover systems has been investigated. The purpose of this study is to develop the theoretical basis for modeling radon diffusion and to develop an understanding of the fundamental interactions that influence radon diffusion. This study develops the theoretical basis for modeling radon diffusion in one, two and three dimensions. The theory has been incorporated into three computer models that are used to analyze several tailings and cover configurations. This report contains a discussion of the theoretical basis for modeling radon diffusion, a discussion of the computer models used to analyze uranium mill tailings and multilayered cover systems, and presents the results that have been obtained.

  16. Grain boundary and triple junction diffusion in nanocrystalline copper

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Wegner, M. Leuthold, J.; Peterlechner, M.; Divinski, S. V.; Song, X.; Wilde, G.

    2014-09-07

    Grain boundary and triple junction diffusion in nanocrystalline Cu samples with grain sizes, ?d?, of ?35 and ?44?nm produced by spark plasma sintering were investigated by the radiotracer method using the {sup 63}Ni isotope. The measured diffusivities, D{sub eff}, are comparable with those determined previously for Ni grain boundary diffusion in well-annealed, high purity, coarse grained, polycrystalline copper, substantiating the absence of a grain size effect on the kinetic properties of grain boundaries in a nanocrystalline material at grain sizes d???35?nm. Simultaneously, the analysis predicts that if triple junction diffusion of Ni in Cu is enhanced with respect to the corresponding grain boundary diffusion rate, it is still less than 500?D{sub gb} within the temperature interval from 420?K to 470?K.

  17. Cell Simulation Package for Reactions and Diffusion

    Energy Science and Technology Software Center (OSTI)

    2005-04-01

    ChemCell is a simulation package designed for modeling signalling, regulatory, and metabolic pathways in biological cells. It reads input flies that describe the geomeby of the cell and positions of particles that represent proteins, protein complexes, and other bio-molecules. It also reads in lists of reactions and associated rates and other boundary condition information. ChemCell then models the reaction and diffusion of these particles within the cellular geometry as they interact overtime. It produces statisticalmore » information about the state of the cell, as well as snapshots of the reaction network. We anticipate ChemCell will be useful to researchers who wish to perform spatio-temporal modeling of cellular processes and who wish to develop new models or algorithms to add to the code. Thus ChemCell is also designed to be easy to modify and extend. The ChemCell package includes auxiliary codes for setting up problems and analyzing output.« less

  18. DIFFUSIVE SHOCK ACCELERATION SIMULATIONS OF RADIO RELICS

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Kang, Hyesung; Ryu, Dongsu; Jones, T. W. E-mail: ryu@canopus.cnu.ac.kr

    2012-09-01

    Recent radio observations have identified a class of structures, so-called radio relics, in clusters of galaxies. The radio emission from these sources is interpreted as synchrotron radiation from GeV electrons gyrating in {mu}G-level magnetic fields. Radio relics, located mostly in the outskirts of clusters, seem to associate with shock waves, especially those developed during mergers. In fact, they seem to be good structures to identify and probe such shocks in intracluster media (ICMs), provided we understand the electron acceleration and re-acceleration at those shocks. In this paper, we describe time-dependent simulations for diffusive shock acceleration at weak shocks that are expected to be found in ICMs. Freshly injected as well as pre-existing populations of cosmic-ray (CR) electrons are considered, and energy losses via synchrotron and inverse Compton are included. We then compare the synchrotron flux and spectral distributions estimated from the simulations with those in two well-observed radio relics in CIZA J2242.8+5301 and ZwCl0008.8+5215. Considering that CR electron injection is expected to be rather inefficient at weak shocks with Mach number M {approx}< a few, the existence of radio relics could indicate the pre-existing population of low-energy CR electrons in ICMs. The implication of our results on the merger shock scenario of radio relics is discussed.

  19. Thick diffusion limit boundary layer test problems

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Bailey, T. S.; Warsa, J. S.; Chang, J. H.; Adams, M. L.

    2013-07-01

    We develop two simple test problems that quantify the behavior of computational transport solutions in the presence of boundary layers that are not resolved by the spatial grid. In particular we study the quantitative effects of 'contamination' terms that, according to previous asymptotic analyses, may have a detrimental effect on the solutions obtained by both discontinuous finite element (DFEM) and characteristic-method (CM) spatial discretizations, at least for boundary layers caused by azimuthally asymmetric incident intensities. Few numerical results have illustrated the effects of this contamination, and none have quantified it to our knowledge. Our test problems use leading-order analytic solutions that should be equal to zero in the problem interior, which means the observed interior solution is the error introduced by the contamination terms. Results from DFEM solutions demonstrate that the contamination terms can cause error propagation into the problem interior for both orthogonal and non-orthogonal grids, and that this error is much worse for non-orthogonal grids. This behavior is consistent with the predictions of previous analyses. We conclude that these boundary layer test problems and their variants are useful tools for the study of errors that are introduced by unresolved boundary layers in diffusive transport problems. (authors)

  20. Irreversible reactions and diffusive escape: Stationary properties

    DOE Public Access Gateway for Energy & Science Beta (PAGES Beta)

    Krapivsky, Paul L.; Ben-Naim, Eli

    2015-05-01

    We study three basic diffusion-controlled reaction processes—annihilation, coalescence, and aggregation. We examine the evolution starting with the most natural inhomogeneous initial configuration where a half-line is uniformly filled by particles, while the complementary half-line is empty. We show that the total number of particles that infiltrate the initially empty half-line is finite and has a stationary distribution. We determine the evolution of the average density from which we derive the average total number N of particles in the initially empty half-line; e.g. for annihilationmore » $$\\langle N\\rangle = \\frac{3}{16}+\\frac{1}{4\\π}$$ . For the coalescence process, we devise a procedure that in principle allows one to compute P(N), the probability to find exactly N particles in the initially empty half-line; we complete the calculations in the first non-trivial case (N = 1). As a by-product we derive the distance distribution between the two leading particles.« less

  1. System and process for capture of H.sub.2S from gaseous process streams and process for regeneration of the capture agent

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Heldenbrant, David J; Koech, Phillip K; Rainbolt, James E; Bearden, Mark D; Zheng, Feng

    2014-02-18

    A system and process are disclosed for selective removal and recovery of H.sub.2S from a gaseous volume, e.g., from natural gas. Anhydrous organic, sorbents chemically capture H.sub.2S gas to form hydrosulfide salts. Regeneration of the capture solvent involves addition of an anti-solvent that releases the captured H.sub.2S gas from the capture sorbent. The capture sorbent and anti-solvent are reactivated for reuse, e.g., by simple distillation.

  2. KUGEL: a thermal, hydraulic, fuel performance, and gaseous fission product release code for pebble bed reactor core analysis

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Shamasundar, B.I.; Fehrenbach, M.E.

    1981-05-01

    The KUGEL computer code is designed to perform thermal/hydraulic analysis and coated-fuel particle performance calculations for axisymmetric pebble bed reactor (PBR) cores. This computer code was developed as part of a Department of Energy (DOE)-funded study designed to verify the published core performance data on PBRs. The KUGEL code is designed to interface directly with the 2DB code, a two-dimensional neutron diffusion code, to obtain distributions of thermal power, fission rate, fuel burnup, and fast neutron fluence, which are needed for thermal/hydraulic and fuel performance calculations. The code is variably dimensioned so that problem size can be easily varied. An interpolation routine allows variable mesh size to be used between the 2DB output and the two-dimensional thermal/hydraulic calculations.

  3. FTIR study of the photocatalytic degradation of gaseous benzene over UV-irradiated TiO{sub 2} nanoballs synthesized by hydrothermal treatment in alkaline solution

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Zhu, Zhengru [Key Laboratory of Industrial Ecology and Environmental Engineering and State Key Laboratory of Fine Chemical, School of Environmental Sciences and Technology, Dalian University of Technology, Dalian 116024 (China)] [Key Laboratory of Industrial Ecology and Environmental Engineering and State Key Laboratory of Fine Chemical, School of Environmental Sciences and Technology, Dalian University of Technology, Dalian 116024 (China); Li, Xinyong, E-mail: xyli@dlut.edu.cn [Key Laboratory of Industrial Ecology and Environmental Engineering and State Key Laboratory of Fine Chemical, School of Environmental Sciences and Technology, Dalian University of Technology, Dalian 116024 (China)] [Key Laboratory of Industrial Ecology and Environmental Engineering and State Key Laboratory of Fine Chemical, School of Environmental Sciences and Technology, Dalian University of Technology, Dalian 116024 (China); Zhao, Qidong; Qu, Zhenping; Hou, Yang; Zhao, Ling [Key Laboratory of Industrial Ecology and Environmental Engineering and State Key Laboratory of Fine Chemical, School of Environmental Sciences and Technology, Dalian University of Technology, Dalian 116024 (China)] [Key Laboratory of Industrial Ecology and Environmental Engineering and State Key Laboratory of Fine Chemical, School of Environmental Sciences and Technology, Dalian University of Technology, Dalian 116024 (China); Liu, Shaomin [Department of Chemical Engineering, Curtin University of Technology, Perth, WA 6845 (Australia)] [Department of Chemical Engineering, Curtin University of Technology, Perth, WA 6845 (Australia); Chen, Guohua [Department of Chemical and Biomolecular Engineering, The Hong Kong University of Science and Technology, Clear Water Bay, Kowloon (Hong Kong)] [Department of Chemical and Biomolecular Engineering, The Hong Kong University of Science and Technology, Clear Water Bay, Kowloon (Hong Kong)

    2010-12-15

    In this study, photocatalysts of TiO{sub 2} nanoballs were obtained via a hydrothermal treating of commercial P25 in alkaline solution, and then characterized with SEM, XRD, BET and surface photovoltage spectroscopy techniques. The UV-assisted photodegradation of gaseous benzene over P25 and the prepared TiO{sub 2} nanoballs was monitored by an in situ infrared technique. The results demonstrated that the prepared TiO{sub 2} nanoballs in anatase form were more active than commercial P25 in photocatalytic oxidation of gaseous benzene. The promoted activity of the hydrothermal-treated TiO{sub 2} is attributed to the increasing specific surface area and larger band gap induced by the reduced crystallite size. The spectra of FTIR indicated that weakly adsorbed phenol was formed as the reaction progress. Hydroxyl groups on the surface of TiO{sub 2} nanoballs are able to react with photo-produced phenol, which is then retained on the catalyst surface leading to the progressive deactivation of the catalyst in the gas-solid system.

  4. Experimental Investigation of Radio-Turbulence Induced Diffusion -- Final Report

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Spitz, H. B.; Usman, S.

    2005-07-07

    The outcome of this research project suggests that the transport of radon in water is significantly greater than that predicted solely by molecular diffusion. The original study was related to the long term storage of {sup 226}Ra-bearing sand at the DOE Fernald site and determining whether a barrier of water covering the sand would be effective in reducing the emanation of {sup 222}Rn from the sand. Initial observations before this study found the transport of radon in water to be greater than that predicted solely by molecular diffusion. Fick's law on diffusion was used to model the transport of radon in water including the impact associated with radioactive decay. Initial measurements suggested that the deposition of energy in water associated with the radioactive decay process influences diffusion and enhances transport of radon. A multi-region, one-dimensional, steady-state transport model was used to analyze the movement of radon through a sequential column of air, water and air. An effective diffusion coefficient was determined by varying the thickness of the water column and measuring the time for transport of {sup 222}Rn through of the water barrier. A one-region, one-dimensional transient diffusion equation was developed to investigate the build up of radon at the end of the water column to the time when a steady-state, equilibrium condition was achieved. This build up with time is characteristic of the transport rate of radon in water and established the basis for estimating the effective diffusion coefficient for {sup 222}Rn in water. Several experiments were conducted using different types and physical arrangements of water barriers to examine how radon transport is influenced by the water barrier. Results of our measurements confirm our theoretical analyses which suggest that convective forces other than pure molecular diffusion impact the transport of {sup 222}Rn through the water barrier. An effective diffusion coefficient is defined that includes effects of molecular diffusion and convection to describe the transport of radon in water. The effective diffusion coefficients measured in these experiments are 6.8 x 10{sup -4} {+-} 28% and 3.5 x 10{sup -4} {+-} 34% cm{sup 2} sec{sup -1} for the steady-state and transient diffusion conditions, respectively. Water barriers ranging in thickness from 30-50 cm reduce the amount of radon released from the radium-bearing source material by a factor of 0.3-0.1, respectively.

  5. Diffusion on (110) Surface of Molecular Crystal Pentaerythritol Tetranitrate

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Wang, J; Golfinopoulos, T; Gee, R H; Huang, H

    2007-01-25

    Using classical molecular dynamics simulations, we investigate the diffusion mechanisms of admolecules on the (110) surface of molecular crystal pentaerythritol tetranitrate. Our results show that (1) admolecules are stable at off lattice sites, (2) admolecules diffuse along close-packed [1{bar 1}1] and [{bar 1}11] directions, and (3) admolecules detach from the surface at 350K and above. Based on the number of diffusion jumps as a function of temperature, we estimate the jump frequency to be v=1.14 x 10{sup 12} e{sup -0.08eV/kT} per second.

  6. Effects of multi-component diffusion and heat release on laminar diffusion flame liftoff

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Li, Zhiliang; Chen, Ruey-Hung [Department of Mechanical, Materials and Aerospace Engineering, University of Central Florida, Orlando, FL 32816-2450 (United States); Phuoc, Tran X. [National Energy Technology Laboratory, Department of Energy, P.O. Box 10940, MS 84-340, Pittsburgh, PA 15261 (United States)

    2010-08-15

    Numerical simulations were conducted of the liftoff and stabilization phenomena of laminar jet diffusion flames of inert-diluted C{sub 3}H{sub 8} and CH{sub 4} fuels. Both non-reacting and reacting jets were investigated, including multi-component diffusivities and heat release effects (buoyancy and gas expansion). The role of Schmidt number for non-reacting jets was investigated, with no conclusive Schmidt number criterion for liftoff previously arrived at in similarity solutions. The cold-flow simulation for He-diluted CH{sub 4} fuel does not predict flame liftoff; however, adding heat release reaction lead to the prediction of liftoff, which is consistent with experimental observations. Including reaction was also found to improve liftoff height prediction for C{sub 3}H{sub 8} flames, with the flame base location differing from that in the similarity solution - the intersection of the stoichiometric and iso-velocity (equal to 1-D flame speed) is not necessary for flame stabilization (and thus liftoff). Possible mechanisms other than that proposed for similarity solution may better help to explain the stabilization and liftoff phenomena. (author)

  7. Low cost fuel cell diffusion layer configured for optimized anode water

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    management (Patent) | SciTech Connect Patent: Low cost fuel cell diffusion layer configured for optimized anode water management Citation Details In-Document Search Title: Low cost fuel cell diffusion layer configured for optimized anode water management A fuel cell comprises a cathode gas diffusion layer, a cathode catalyst layer, an anode gas diffusion layer, an anode catalyst layer and an electrolyte. The diffusion resistance of the anode gas diffusion layer when operated with anode fuel

  8. Thermodynamic properties and diffusion of water + methane binary mixtures

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Shvab, I.; Sadus, Richard J.

    2014-03-14

    Thermodynamic and diffusion properties of water + methane mixtures in a single liquid phase are studied using NVT molecular dynamics. An extensive comparison is reported for the thermal pressure coefficient, compressibilities, expansion coefficients, heat capacities, Joule-Thomson coefficient, zero frequency speed of sound, and diffusion coefficient at methane concentrations up to 15% in the temperature range of 298650 K. The simulations reveal a complex concentration dependence of the thermodynamic properties of water + methane mixtures. The compressibilities, heat capacities, and diffusion coefficients decrease with increasing methane concentration, whereas values of the thermal expansion coefficients and speed of sound increase. Increasing methane concentration considerably retards the self-diffusion of both water and methane in the mixture. These effects are caused by changes in hydrogen bond network, solvation shell structure, and dynamics of water molecules induced by the solvation of methane at constant volume conditions.

  9. Metallic diffusion process and improved article produced thereby

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Morrow, M. Stanley; Schechter, Donald E.; Grant, Harley A.

    2003-04-29

    A uniquely surface-modified metallic part is provided by the utilization of microwave energy to promote diffusion of desired metals into the surface of the formed metallic part.

  10. Pre-plated reactive diffusion-bonded battery electrode plaques

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Maskalick, Nicholas J. (Pittsburgh, PA)

    1984-01-01

    A high strength, metallic fiber battery plaque is made using reactive diffusion bonding techniques, where a substantial amount of the fibers are bonded together by an iron-nickel alloy.

  11. EA-0767: Final Environmental Assessment

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    Construction and Experiment of an Industrial Solid Waste Landfill at Portsmouth Gaseous Diffusion Plant

  12. Producing microchannels using graduated diffusion bonding of a stack of

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    precision machined foils or sheets (laminates) to make a micro-channel reactor - Energy Innovation Portal Advanced Materials Advanced Materials Find More Like This Return to Search Producing microchannels using graduated diffusion bonding of a stack of precision machined foils or sheets (laminates) to make a micro-channel reactor A novel multi-step process for the diffusion bonding of laminates National Energy Technology Laboratory Contact NETL About This Technology Publications: PDF

  13. On Correction of Diffuse Radiation Measured by MFRSR

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    On Correction of Diffuse Radiation Measured by MFRSR T. B. Zhuravleva Institute of Atmospheric Optics, SB RAS Tomsk, Russia M. A. Sviridenkov and P. P. Anikin A. M. Obukhov Institute of Atmospheric Physics, RAS Moscow, Russia Introduction The multi-filter rotated shadowband radiometer (MFRSR) provides spectral direct, diffuse, and total horizontal solar irradiance measurements. Because the MFRSR's receiver has a non-Lambertian response, for a correct interpretation of measured radiation an

  14. Gas Diffusion Electrodes and Methods for Fabricating and Testing Same -

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Energy Innovation Portal Hydrogen and Fuel Cell Hydrogen and Fuel Cell Find More Like This Return to Search Gas Diffusion Electrodes and Methods for Fabricating and Testing Same Brookhaven National Laboratory Contact BNL About This Technology Publications: PDF Document Publication Fabricating and Measuring Low-Platinum Content HOR/HER Gas Diffusion Electrodes (89 KB) Technology Marketing Summary A typical membrane electrode assembly (MEA) consists of five distinct layers: A polymer

  15. Gas Diffusion Electrodes for Fuel Cells - Energy Innovation Portal

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Vehicles and Fuels Vehicles and Fuels Hydrogen and Fuel Cell Hydrogen and Fuel Cell Advanced Materials Advanced Materials Find More Like This Return to Search Gas Diffusion Electrodes for Fuel Cells Sandia National Laboratories Contact SNL About This Technology Publications: PDF Document Publication Market Sheet (778 KB) Technology Marketing SummaryA unique gas diffusion electrode technique resulting in little to no leftover methanol, therefore increasing the overall effectiveness and

  16. Continuum modeling of diffusion and dispersion in dense granular flows

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    (Conference) | SciTech Connect Continuum modeling of diffusion and dispersion in dense granular flows Citation Details In-Document Search Title: Continuum modeling of diffusion and dispersion in dense granular flows Authors: Christov, Ivan C [1] ; Stone, Howard A [2] + Show Author Affiliations Los Alamos National Laboratory [Los Alamos National Laboratory Mechanical & Aerospace Engineering, Princeton University [Mechanical & Aerospace Engineering, Princeton University Publication

  17. First-principles studies on vacancy-modified interstitial diffusion

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    mechanism of oxygen in nickel, associated with large-scale atomic simulation techniques (Journal Article) | SciTech Connect First-principles studies on vacancy-modified interstitial diffusion mechanism of oxygen in nickel, associated with large-scale atomic simulation techniques Citation Details In-Document Search Title: First-principles studies on vacancy-modified interstitial diffusion mechanism of oxygen in nickel, associated with large-scale atomic simulation techniques Authors: Fang, H

  18. Optical processing furnace with quartz muffle and diffuser plate

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Sopori, B.L.

    1996-11-19

    An optical furnace for annealing a process wafer is disclosed comprising a source of optical energy, a quartz muffle having a door to hold the wafer for processing, and a quartz diffuser plate to diffuse the light impinging on the quartz muffle; a feedback system with a light sensor located in the wall of the muffle is also provided for controlling the source of optical energy. 5 figs.

  19. Investigating the Validity of the Knudsen Prescription for Diffusivities in

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    a Mesoporous Covalent Organic Framework | Center for Gas SeparationsRelevant to Clean Energy Technologies | Blandine Jerome Validity of the Knudsen Prescription for Diffusivities in a Mesoporous Covalent Organic Framework Previous Next List Rajamani Krishna and Jasper M. van Baten, Ind. Eng. Chem. Res., 2011, 50 (11), pp 7083-7087 DOI: 10.1021/ie200277z Figure Abstract: Molecular dynamics (MD) simulations were performed to determine the self-diffusivity (Di,self) and the Maxwell-Stefan

  20. Diffusion in porous crystalline materials | Center for Gas

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    SeparationsRelevant to Clean Energy Technologies | Blandine Jerome porous crystalline materials Previous Next List Rajamani Krishna, Chem. Soc. Rev., 2012,41, 3099-3118 DOI: 10.1039/C2CS15284C Graphical abstract: Diffusion in porous crystalline materials Abstract: The design and development of many separation and catalytic process technologies require a proper quantitative description of diffusion of mixtures of guest molecules within porous crystalline materials. This tutorial review

  1. Diffusion Databases for Mg-ICME | Department of Energy

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Mg-ICME Diffusion Databases for Mg-ICME 2012 DOE Hydrogen and Fuel Cells Program and Vehicle Technologies Program Annual Merit Review and Peer Evaluation Meeting PDF icon lm036_kulkarni_2012_o.pdf More Documents & Publications Diffusion Databases for ICME Vehicle Technologies Office: 2010 Lightweight Materials R&D Annual Progress Report Low-Cost Magnesium Sheet Production using the Twin Roll Casting Process and Asymmetric Rolling

  2. Adsorption and diffusion in zeolites: the pitfall of isotypic crystal

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    structures | Center for Gas SeparationsRelevant to Clean Energy Technologies | Blandine Jerome Adsorption and diffusion in zeolites: the pitfall of isotypic crystal structures Previous Next List Nils E.R. Zimmermann, Maciej Haranczyk, Manju Sharma, Bei Liu, Berend Smit & Frerich J. Keil, Molecular Simulations, 37, 986-989 (2011) DOI: 10.1080/08927022.2011.562502 Abstract: The influence of isotypic crystal structures on adsorption and diffusion of methane in all-silica LTA, SAS and ITE

  3. Spatially Resolved Ionic Diffusion and Electrochemical Reactions in Solids:

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    | Department of Energy Spatially Resolved Ionic Diffusion and Electrochemical Reactions in Solids: Spatially Resolved Ionic Diffusion and Electrochemical Reactions in Solids: 2012 DOE Hydrogen and Fuel Cells Program and Vehicle Technologies Program Annual Merit Review and Peer Evaluation Meeting PDF icon es153_balke_2012_p.pdf More Documents & Publications track 3: enhanced geothermal systems (EGS) | geothermal 2015 peer review Overview of Computer-Aided Engineering of Batteries (CAEBAT)

  4. Gas-Phase Diffusion in Porous Media: Comparison of Models Stephen...

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    ... diffusion of diffusion (mole fraction gradient) and Knudsen helium and argon across ... DGM are shown in Figure 7. Water vapor flows from the hot (right) end, where ...

  5. Explosion bomb measurements of ethanol-air laminar gaseous flame characteristics at pressures up to 1.4 MPa

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Bradley, D.; Lawes, M.; Mansour, M.S. [School of Mechanical Engineering, University of Leeds, Leeds LS2 9JT (United Kingdom)

    2009-07-15

    The principal burning characteristics of a laminar flame comprise the fuel vapour pressure, the laminar burning velocity, ignition delay times, Markstein numbers for strain rate and curvature, the stretch rates for the onset of flame instabilities and of flame extinction for different mixtures. With the exception of ignition delay times, measurements of these are reported and discussed for ethanol-air mixtures. The measurements were in a spherical explosion bomb, with central ignition, in the regime of a developed stable, flame between that of an under or over-driven ignition and that of an unstable flame. Pressures ranged from 0.1 to 1.4 MPa, temperatures from 300 to 393 K, and equivalence ratios were between 0.7 and 1.5. It was important to ensure the relatively large volume of ethanol in rich mixtures at high pressures was fully evaporated. The maximum pressure for the measurements was the highest compatible with the maximum safe working pressure of the bomb. Many of the flames soon became unstable, due to Darrieus-Landau and thermo-diffusive instabilities. This effect increased with pressure and the flame wrinkling arising from the instabilities enhanced the flame speed. Both the critical Peclet number and the, more rational, associated critical Karlovitz stretch factor were evaluated at the onset of the instability. With increasing pressure, the onset of flame instability occurred earlier. The measured values of burning velocity are expressed in terms of their variations with temperature and pressure, and these are compared with those obtained by other researchers. Some comparisons are made with the corresponding properties for iso-octane-air mixtures. (author)

  6. Proceedings of waste stream minimization and utilization innovative concepts: An experimental technology exchange. Volume 2, Industrial liquid waste processing, industrial gaseous waste processing

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Lee, V.E. [ed.; Watts, R.L.

    1993-04-01

    This two-volume proceedings summarize the results of fifteen innovations that were funded through the US Department of Energy`s Innovative Concept Program. The fifteen innovations were presented at the sixth Innovative Concepts Fair, held in Austin, Texas, on April 22--23, 1993. The concepts in this year`s fair address innovations that can substantially reduce or use waste streams. Each paper describes the need for the proposed concept, the concept being proposed, and the concept`s economics and market potential, key experimental results, and future development needs. The papers are divided into two volumes: Volume 1 addresses innovations for industrial solid waste processing and municipal waste reduction/recycling, and Volume 2 addresses industrial liquid waste processing and industrial gaseous waste processing. Individual reports are indexed separately.

  7. Probe into Gaseous Pollution and Assessment of Air Quality Benefit under Sector Dependent Emission Control Strategies over Megacities in Yangtze River Delta, China

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Dong, Xinyi; Gao, Yang; Fu, Joshua S.; Li, Juan; Huang, Kan; Zhuang, G.; Zhou, Ying

    2013-11-01

    On February 29th 2012, China published its new National Ambient Air Quality Standard (CH-NAAQS) aiming at revising the standards and measurements for both gaseous pollutants including ozone (O3), nitrogen dioxide (NO2), and sulfur dioxide (SO2), and also particle pollutants including PM10 and PM2.5. In order to understand the air pollution status regarding this new standard, the integrated MM5/CMAQ modeling system was applied over Yangtze River Delta (YRD) within this study to examine the criteria gaseous pollutants listed in the new CH-NAAQS. Sensitivity simulations were also conducted to assess the responses of gaseous pollutants under 8 different sector-dependent emission reduction scenarios in order to evaluate the potential control strategies. 2006 was selected as the simulation year in order to review the air quality condition at the beginning of Chinas 11th Five-Year-Plan (FYP, from 2006 to 2010), and also compared with air quality status in 2010 as the end of 11th FYP to probe into the effectiveness of the national emission control efforts. Base case simulation showed distinct seasonal variation for gaseous pollutants: SO2, and NO2 were found to have higher surface concentrations in winter while O3 was found to have higher concentrations in spring and summer than other seasons. According to the analyses focused on 3 megacities within YRD, Shanghai, Nanjing, and Hangzhou, we found different air quality conditions among the cities: NO2 was the primary pollutant that having the largest number of days exceeding the CH-NAAQS daily standard (80 ?g/m3) in Shanghai (59 days) and Nanjing (27 days); SO2 was the primary pollutant with maximum number of days exceeding daily air quality standard (150 ?g/m3) in Hangzhou (28 days), while O3 exceeding the daily maximum 8-hour standard (160 ?g/m3) for relatively fewer days in all the three cities (9 days in Shanghai, 14 days in Nanjing, and 11 days in Hangzhou). Simulation results from predefined potential applicable emission control scenarios suggested significant air quality improvements from emission reduction: 90% of SO2 emission removed from power plant in YRD would be able to reduce more than 85% of SO2 pollution, 85% NOx emission reduction from power plant would reduce more than 60% of NO2 pollution, in terms of reducing the number of days exceeding daily air quality standard. NOx emission reduction from transportation and industry were also found to effectively reduce NO2 pollution but less efficient than emission control from power plants. We also found that multi-pollutants emission control including both NOx and VOC would be a better strategy than independent NOx control over YRD which is Chinas 12th Five-Year-Plan (from 2011 to 2015), because O3 pollution would be increased as a side effect of NOx control and counteract NO2 pollution reduction benefit.

  8. Integrated modeling of CO2 storage and leakage scenarios including transitions between super- and sub-critical conditions, and phase change between liquid and gaseous CO2

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Pruess, K.

    2011-05-15

    Storage of CO{sub 2} in saline aquifers is intended to be at supercritical pressure and temperature conditions, but CO{sub 2} leaking from a geologic storage reservoir and migrating toward the land surface (through faults, fractures, or improperly abandoned wells) would reach subcritical conditions at depths shallower than 500-750 m. At these and shallower depths, subcritical CO{sub 2} can form two-phase mixtures of liquid and gaseous CO{sub 2}, with significant latent heat effects during boiling and condensation. Additional strongly non-isothermal effects can arise from decompression of gas-like subcritical CO{sub 2}, the so-called Joule-Thomson effect. Integrated modeling of CO{sub 2} storage and leakage requires the ability to model non-isothermal flows of brine and CO{sub 2} at conditions that range from supercritical to subcritical, including three-phase flow of aqueous phase, and both liquid and gaseous CO{sub 2}. In this paper, we describe and demonstrate comprehensive simulation capabilities that can cope with all possible phase conditions in brine-CO{sub 2} systems. Our model formulation includes: (1) an accurate description of thermophysical properties of aqueous and CO{sub 2}-rich phases as functions of temperature, pressure, salinity and CO{sub 2} content, including the mutual dissolution of CO{sub 2} and H{sub 2}O; (2) transitions between super- and subcritical conditions, including phase change between liquid and gaseous CO{sub 2}; (3) one-, two-, and three-phase flow of brine-CO{sub 2} mixtures, including heat flow; (4) non-isothermal effects associated with phase change, mutual dissolution of CO{sub 2} and water, and (de-) compression effects; and (5) the effects of dissolved NaCl, and the possibility of precipitating solid halite, with associated porosity and permeability change. Applications to specific leakage scenarios demonstrate that the peculiar thermophysical properties of CO{sub 2} provide a potential for positive as well as negative feedbacks on leakage rates, with a combination of self-enhancing and self-limiting effects. Lower viscosity and density of CO{sub 2} as compared to aqueous fluids provides a potential for self-enhancing effects during leakage, while strong cooling effects from liquid CO{sub 2} boiling into gas, and from expansion of gas rising towards the land surface, act to self-limit discharges. Strong interference between fluid phases under three-phase conditions (aqueous - liquid CO{sub 2} - gaseous CO{sub 2}) also tends to reduce CO{sub 2} fluxes. Feedback on different space and time scales can induce non-monotonic behavior of CO{sub 2} flow rates.

  9. Basic Studies of Non-Diffusive Transport in Plasmas

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Morales, George J.; Maggs, James E.

    2014-10-25

    The project expanded and developed mathematical descriptions, and corresponding numerical modeling, of non-diffusive transport to incorporate new perspectives derived from basic transport experiments performed in the LAPD device at UCLA, and at fusion devices throughout the world. By non-diffusive it is meant that the transport of fundamental macroscopic parameters of a system, such as temperature and density, does not follow the standard diffusive behavior predicted by a classical Fokker-Planck equation. The appearance of non-diffusive behavior is often related to underlying microscopic processes that cause the value of a system parameter, at one spatial position, to be linked to distant events, i.e., non-locality. In the LAPD experiments the underlying process was traced to large amplitude, coherent drift-waves that give rise to chaotic trajectories. Significant advances were made in this project. The results have lead to a new perspective about the fundamentals of edge transport in magnetically confined plasmas; the insight has important consequences for worldwide studies in fusion devices. Progress was also made in advancing the mathematical techniques used to describe fractional diffusion.

  10. Test Program for High Efficiency Gas Turbine Exhaust Diffuser

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Norris, Thomas R.

    2009-12-31

    This research relates to improving the efficiency of flow in a turbine exhaust, and thus, that of the turbine and power plant. The Phase I SBIR project demonstrated the technical viability of strutlets to control stalls on a model diffuser strut. Strutlets are a novel flow-improving vane concept intended to improve the efficiency of flow in turbine exhausts. Strutlets can help reduce turbine back pressure, and incrementally improve turbine efficiency, increase power, and reduce greenhouse gas emmission. The long-term goal is a 0.5 percent improvement of each item, averaged over the US gas turbine fleet. The strutlets were tested in a physical scale model of a gas turbine exhaust diffuser. The test flow passage is a straight, annular diffuser with three sets of struts. At the end of Phase 1, the ability of strutlets to keep flow attached to struts was demonstrated, but the strutlet drag was too high for a net efficiency advantage. An independently sponsored followup project did develop a highly-modified low-drag strutlet. In combination with other flow improving vanes, complicance to the stated goals was demonstrated for for simple cycle power plants, and to most of the goals for combined cycle power plants using this particular exhaust geometry. Importantly, low frequency diffuser noise was reduced by 5 dB or more, compared to the baseline. Appolicability to other diffuser geometries is yet to be demonstrated.

  11. Anomalous diffusion of field lines and charged particles in Arnold-Beltrami-Childress force-free magnetic fields

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Ram, Abhay K.; Dasgupta, Brahmananda; Krishnamurthy, V.; Mitra, Dhrubaditya

    2014-07-15

    The cosmic magnetic fields in regions of low plasma pressure and large currents, such as in interstellar space and gaseous nebulae, are force-free in the sense that the Lorentz force vanishes. The three-dimensional Arnold-Beltrami-Childress (ABC) field is an example of a force-free, helical magnetic field. In fluid dynamics, ABC flows are steady state solutions of the Euler equation. The ABC magnetic field lines exhibit a complex and varied structure that is a mix of regular and chaotic trajectories in phase space. The characteristic features of field line trajectories are illustrated through the phase space distribution of finite-distance and asymptotic-distance Lyapunov exponents. In regions of chaotic trajectories, an ensemble-averaged variance of the distance between field lines reveals anomalous diffusion—in fact, superdiffusion—of the field lines. The motion of charged particles in the force-free ABC magnetic fields is different from the flow of passive scalars in ABC flows. The particles do not necessarily follow the field lines and display a variety of dynamical behavior depending on their energy, and their initial pitch-angle. There is an overlap, in space, of the regions in which the field lines and the particle orbits are chaotic. The time evolution of an ensemble of particles, in such regions, can be divided into three categories. For short times, the motion of the particles is essentially ballistic; the ensemble-averaged, mean square displacement is approximately proportional to t{sup 2}, where t is the time of evolution. The intermediate time region is defined by a decay of the velocity autocorrelation function—this being a measure of the time after which the collective dynamics is independent of the initial conditions. For longer times, the particles undergo superdiffusion—the mean square displacement is proportional to t{sup α}, where α > 1, and is weakly dependent on the energy of the particles. These super-diffusive characteristics, both of magnetic field lines and of particles moving in these fields, strongly suggest that theories of transport in three-dimensional chaotic magnetic fields need a shift from the usual paradigm of quasilinear diffusion.

  12. ARM: SIRS: derived, correction of downwelling shortwave diffuse hemispheric measurements using Dutton and full algorithm

    DOE Data Explorer [Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)]

    Laura Riihimaki

    1997-03-21

    SIRS: derived, correction of downwelling shortwave diffuse hemispheric measurements using Dutton and full algorithm

  13. Integral approximations to classical diffusion and smoothed particle hydrodynamics

    DOE Public Access Gateway for Energy & Science Beta (PAGES Beta)

    Du, Qiang; Lehoucq, R. B.; Tartakovsky, A. M.

    2014-12-31

    The contribution of the paper is the approximation of a classical diffusion operator by an integral equation with a volume constraint. A particular focus is on classical diffusion problems associated with Neumann boundary conditions. By exploiting this approximation, we can also approximate other quantities such as the flux out of a domain. Our analysis of the model equation on the continuum level is closely related to the recent work on nonlocal diffusion and peridynamic mechanics. In particular, we elucidate the role of a volumetric constraint as an approximation to a classical Neumann boundary condition in the presence of physical boundary.more » The volume-constrained integral equation then provides the basis for accurate and robust discretization methods. As a result, an immediate application is to the understanding and improvement of the Smoothed Particle Hydrodynamics (SPH) method.« less

  14. Characterization and modeling of thermal diffusion and aggregation in nanofluids.

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Gharagozloo, Patricia E.; Goodson, Kenneth E.

    2010-05-01

    Fluids with higher thermal conductivities are sought for fluidic cooling systems in applications including microprocessors and high-power lasers. By adding high thermal conductivity nanoscale metal and metal oxide particles to a fluid the thermal conductivity of the fluid is enhanced. While particle aggregates play a central role in recent models for the thermal conductivity of nanofluids, the effect of particle diffusion in a temperature field on the aggregation and transport has yet to be studied in depth. The present work separates the effects of particle aggregation and diffusion using parallel plate experiments, infrared microscopy, light scattering, Monte Carlo simulations, and rate equations for particle and heat transport in a well dispersed nanofluid. Experimental data show non-uniform temporal increases in thermal conductivity above effective medium theory and can be well described through simulation of the combination of particle aggregation and diffusion. The simulation shows large concentration distributions due to thermal diffusion causing variations in aggregation, thermal conductivity and viscosity. Static light scattering shows aggregates form more quickly at higher concentrations and temperatures, which explains the increased enhancement with temperature reported by other research groups. The permanent aggregates in the nanofluid are found to have a fractal dimension of 2.4 and the aggregate formations that grow over time are found to have a fractal dimension of 1.8, which is consistent with diffusion limited aggregation. Calculations show as aggregates grow the viscosity increases at a faster rate than thermal conductivity making the highly aggregated nanofluids unfavorable, especially at the low fractal dimension of 1.8. An optimum nanoparticle diameter for these particular fluid properties is calculated to be 130 nm to optimize the fluid stability by reducing settling, thermal diffusion and aggregation.

  15. Observation of Large Photoacoustic Signal Phase Changes During a Diffusion

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    Process (Journal Article) | SciTech Connect Journal Article: Observation of Large Photoacoustic Signal Phase Changes During a Diffusion Process Citation Details In-Document Search Title: Observation of Large Photoacoustic Signal Phase Changes During a Diffusion Process No abstract prepared. Authors: Stanley J. Bajic ; Roger W. Jones ; Jones F. McClelland Publication Date: 2005-09-01 OSTI Identifier: 884839 Report Number(s): IS-J 7054 Journal ID: ISSN 0003-7028; APSPA4; TRN: US200616%%59 DOE

  16. Influence of adsorption on the diffusion selectivity for mixture permeation

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    across mesoporous membranes | Center for Gas SeparationsRelevant to Clean Energy Technologies | Blandine Jerome Influence of adsorption on the diffusion selectivity for mixture permeation across mesoporous membranes Previous Next List Rajamani Krishna, Jasper M. van Baten, J. Membr. Sci., 369, 545-549 (2011) DOI: 10.1016/j.memsci.2010.12.042 Abstract: Molecular dynamics (MD) simulations were carried out to determine the self-diffusivities, D1,self, and D2,self for a variety of binary

  17. A molecular dynamics investigation of the diffusion characteristics of

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    cavity-type zeolites with 8-ring windows | Center for Gas SeparationsRelevant to Clean Energy Technologies | Blandine Jerome diffusion characteristics of cavity-type zeolites with 8-ring windows Previous Next List Rajamani Krishna, Jasper M. van Baten, Microporous Mesoporous Mater., 137, 83-91 (2011) DOI: 10.1016/j.micromeso.2010.08.026 Full-size image (36 K) Abstract: Molecular dynamics (MD) simulations are used to investigate the diffusion characteristics in DDR, CHA, LTA, ITQ-29, and TSC

  18. Effects of surface diffusion on high temperature selective emitters

    DOE Public Access Gateway for Energy & Science Beta (PAGES Beta)

    Peykov, Daniel; Yeng, Yi Xiang; Celanovic, Ivan; Joannopoulos, John D.; Schuh, Christopher A.

    2015-01-01

    Using morphological and optical simulations of 1D tantalum photonic crystals at 1200K, surface diffusion was determined to gradually reduce the efficiency of selective emitters. This was attributed to shifting resonance peaks and declining emissivity caused by changes to the cavity dimensions and the aperture width. Decreasing the structures curvature through larger periods and smaller cavity widths, as well as generating smoother transitions in curvature through the introduction of rounded cavities, was found to alleviate this degradation. An optimized structure, that shows both high efficiency selective emissivity and resistance to surface diffusion, was presented.

  19. Search for: All records | SciTech Connect

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    Diffusion Plant (K-25), Oak Ridge, TN (United States) Oak Ridge Institute for Science and Education (ORISE), Oak Ridge, TN (United States) Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL), Oak...

  20. Application of Perona Malik anisotropic diffusion on digital radiographic image

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Halim, Suhaila Abd; Razak, Rohayu Abdul; Ibrahim, Arsmah; Manurung, Yupiter HP

    2014-07-10

    Perona Malik Anisotropic Diffusion (PMAD) is a very useful and efficient denoising technique if the parameters are properly selected. Overestimating the parameters may cause oversmoothed and underestimating it may leave unfiltered noise. This makes the selection of parameters a crucial process. In this paper the PMAD model is solved using a finite difference scheme The discretized model is evaluated using different diffusion coefficient of exponential and quadratic on defective radiographic images in terms of quality and efficiency. In the application of the PMAD model on image data, a set of defective radiographic images of welding is used as input data. Peak Signal to Noise Ratio (PSNR), Structural Similarity Measure (SSIM) and temporal time are used to evaluate the performance of the model. The implementation of the experiment has been carried out using MATLAB R2009a. In terms of quality, results show that the Quadratic Diffusion Coefficient Function (QDCF) provides better results compared with the Exponential Diffusion Coefficient Function (EDCF). In conclusion, the denoising effect using PMAD model based on finite difference scheme shows able to improve image quality by removing noise in the defective radiographic image.